WorldWideScience

Sample records for nonrenewable resource supply

  1. The supply of non-renewable resources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Daubanes, Julien Xavier; Lasserre, Pierre

    that the substitution effect always dominates: A price increase at some point in space and time causes NRR supply to decrease at all other points. This new but orthodox supply setting extends to NRRs the partial equilibrium analysis of demand and supply policies. Thereby, it provides a generalization of many results......There exists no formal treatment of non-renewable resource (NRR) supply, systematically deriving quantity as function of price. We establish instantaneous restricted (fixed reserves) and unrestricted NRR supply functions. The supply of a NRR at any date and location not only depends on the local...... contemporary price of the resource but also on prices at all other dates and locations. Besides the usual law of supply, which characterizes the own-price effect, cross-price effects have their own law. They can be decomposed into a substitution effect and a stock compensation effect. We show...

  2. Migrant labor supply in a booming non-renewable resource economy: Cure and transmission mechanism for de-industrialization?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nulle, Grant Mark

    This paper challenges the determinism that booming resource economies suffer from de-industrialization, the "Dutch Disease". For several decades, economists have attempted to explain how a sudden surge in mineral and energy extraction affects an economy's output and employment from an aggregate and sectoral perspective. Economic theory shows that a "boom" in mineral and energy production is welfare enhancing to the economy experiencing it. However, the phenomenon also induces inter-sectoral adjustments among non-renewable resource (NRR), traditional traded, and non-traded industries that tend to crowd out traditional export sectors such as agriculture and manufacturing. In turn, this paper asks two fundamental questions: 1) Can the inter-sectoral adjustments wrought by a boom in NRR production be mitigated in the resource-abundant economy experiencing it; 2) Can the inter-sectoral adjustments be exported to a neighboring non-resource economy by movements in migrant labor supply? The theoretical model and empirical estimation approach presented in this paper introduces an endogenous migrant labor supply response to booms in NRR output to test the extent traditional tradable sectors shrink in the NRR-abundant economy during the boom and if such effects are exported to a neighboring jurisdiction. Using data at the U.S. county level, the empirical results show that booming economies experience positive and statistically significant rates of real income and traded sector job growth during the boom, attributable to the influx of migrant labor. By contrast, little evidence is found that non-booming counties adjacent to the booming counties experience declines in income or job growth because of labor supply outflows. Instead, the results suggest the larger the number of potential "donor" counties that can supply labor to the booming economies, the more likely the transmission of booming economy effects, namely evidence of de-industrialization, is diffused across all of the

  3. Technology adoption in nonrenewable resource management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cunha-e-Sa, Maria A.; Balcao Reis, Ana; Roseta-Palma, Catarina

    2009-01-01

    Technological change has played an important role in models of nonrenewable resource management, since its presence mitigates the depletion effect on extraction costs over time. We formalize the problem of a competitive nonrenewable resource extracting firm faced with the possibility of technology adoption. Based on a quadratic extraction cost function, our results show that the expected net benefits from adoption increase both with the size of the resource stock and with prices. A boundary that separates the region where expected net benefits are positive from the one where they are negative is derived. (author)

  4. Growth and non-renewable resources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Groth, Christian; Schou, Poul

    2007-01-01

    , interest income taxes and investment subsidies can no longer affect the long-run growth rate, whereas resource tax instruments are decisive for growth. The results stand out both against observations in the literature from the 1970's on non-renewable resources and taxation-observations which were not based...

  5. On ad valorem taxation of nonrenewable resource production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rowse, John

    1997-01-01

    Taxing a nonrenewable resource typically shifts production through time, compresses the economically recoverable resource base and shrinks social welfare. But by how much? In this paper a computational model of natural gas use, representing numerous demand and supply features believed important for shaping efficient intertemporal allocations, is utilized to answer this question under different ad valorem royalty taxes on wellhead production. Proportionate social welfare losses from fixed royalties up to 30% are found to be small and the excess burden stands at less than 6.5% for a 30% royalty. This result replicates findings of several earlier studies and points to a general conclusion

  6. A New-Growth Perspective on Non-Renewable Resources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Groth, Christian

    This article reviews issues related to the incorporation of non-renewable resources in the theory of economic growth and development. As an offshoot of the new growth theory of the last two decades a series of contributions have studied endogenous technical change in relation to resource scarcity...

  7. Exploration can cause falling non-renewable resource prices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boyce, John R.

    2003-01-01

    This note shows that when marginal exploration costs are increasing in the rate of exploration that it is possible to observe non-renewable resource prices falling over a portion of the extraction profile. Thus, while the model of Pindyck (J. Polit. Econ. 86 (1978) 841) was based on an incorrect specification of the aggregate extraction cost function, its general conclusion that exploration can cause falling non-renewable resource prices is upheld. This result is in contrast to Mendelsohn and Swierzbinski (Int. Econ. Rev. 30 (1989) 175), who assumed that marginal extraction costs were constant

  8. Short run effects of bleaker prospects for oligopolistic producers of a non-renewable resource

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grimsrud, Kristine; Rosendahl, Knut Einar; Storroesten, Halvor Briseid; Tsygankova, Marina

    2013-01-15

    In a non-renewable resource market with imperfect competition, the resource owners' supply is governed both by current demand and by the resource rent. New information regarding future market conditions will typically affect the resource rent and hence current supply. Bleaker prospects will tend to accelerate extraction. We show, however, that for resource owners with substantial resource stocks, a more pessimistic outlook may in fact slow down early extraction. The explanation is that for players with extensive resource stocks, the resource rent is limited and supply is more driven by current market considerations. As players with less resources accelerate their supply, it may be optimal for the large resource owners to cut back on their supply. We illustrate this in the case of the European gas market, finding that the shale gas revolution may lead to an accelerated supply by most gas producers, but a postponement of Russian gas extraction.(Author)

  9. Technoeconomic aspects of nonrenewable energy resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, A.M.

    1989-01-01

    Taking into account an increasing energy demand in the developing countries and aiming to facilitate integrated national energy planning, the author performs assessment of the potential energy supply sources with due consideration of their entire fuel chain and evaluates the related technologies with respect to their investment requirements, operational costs, environmental impacts, etc. 23 refs, 8 tabs

  10. Meta-analysis of non-renewable energy resource estimates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dale, Michael

    2012-01-01

    This paper offers a review of estimates of ultimately recoverable resources (URR) of non-renewable energy sources: coal, conventional and unconventional oil, conventional and unconventional gas, and uranium for nuclear fission. There is a large range in the estimates of many of the energy sources, even those that have been utilized for a long time and, as such, should be well understood. If it is assumed that the estimates for each resource are normally distributed, then the total value of ultimately recoverable fossil and fissile energy resources is 70,592 EJ. If, on the other hand, the best fitting distribution from each of the resource estimate populations is used, a the total value is 50,702 EJ, a factor of around 30% smaller. - Highlights: ► Brief introduction to categorization of resources. ► Collated over 380 estimates of ultimately recoverable global resources for all non-renewable energy sources. ► Extensive statistical analysis and distribution fitting conducted. ► Cross-energy source comparison of resource magnitudes.

  11. World nonrenewable conventional energy resources as of December 31, 1982

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parent, J.D.

    1984-01-01

    Energy analysts present year-end 1982 estimates for world proved reserves, remaining recoverable resources, annual production rates, and cumulative production of the non-renewable convectional energy resources: coal, natural gas, crude oil, natural gas liquids, bitumens, shale oil, and uranium oxide. Life indices for world fossil fuels are also given for several annual growth rates. The world's proved and currently recoverable natural gas reserves amount to 2649-3250 trillion CF; the estimated total remaining recoverable is 6693-7462 TCF. In 1982, 54 TCF of gas was produced for a cumulative production of 1320 TCF (not counting vented or flared gas)

  12. Optimum commodity taxation with a non-renewable resource

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Daubanes, Julien Xavier; Lasserre, Pierre

    2017-01-01

    We examine optimum commodity taxation (OCT), including the taxation of non-renewable resources (NRRs), by a government that needs to rely on commodity taxes to raise revenues. NRRs should be taxed at higher rates than otherwise-identical conventional commodities, according to an augmented, dynamic...... formulas can directly be used to indicate how Pigovian taxation of carbon NRRs should be increased in the presence of public-revenue needs, as illustrated in a numerical example. We show that NRR substitutes and complements should receive a particular tax treatment. Finally, in a NRR-importing economy...

  13. Comment: The Economics of Interdependent Renewable and Non-renewable Resources revisited.

    OpenAIRE

    Viktoria Kahui; Claire W. Armstrong

    2009-01-01

    This work expands upon Swallow's theoretical analysis of interactions between renewable and non-renewable resources. In this comment the interaction is such that the renewable resource prefers the non-renewable environment, as opposed to SwallowÕs (op cit) case of the non-renewable environment being essential to the renewable resource. We find that this difference strongly affects the results, and makes the resources change from being complements to being substitutes, i.e. in the essential ca...

  14. On price taking behavior in a nonrenewable resource cartel-fringe game

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Withagen, C.A.A.M.; Benchekroun, H.

    2012-01-01

    We consider a nonrenewable resource game with one cartel and a set of fringe members. We show that (i) the outcomes of the closed-loop and the open-loop nonrenewable resource game with the fringe members as price takers (the cartel-fringe game à la Salant, 1976) coincide and (ii) when the number of

  15. Economic and environmental effects under resource scarcity and substitution between renewable and non-renewable resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, Susana; Soares, Isabel; Afonso, Oscar

    2013-01-01

    We build a general equilibrium model with renewable (non-polluting) and non-renewable (polluting) resources to analyze the interaction and compatibility between economic growth and a cleaner environment. The study is in two phases: (i) resource extraction/production costs are constant; (ii) resource producers invest in knowledge to reduce extraction/production costs, endogenizing technical change. With constant costs, there is a permanent trade-off between economic growth and a cleaner environment. With endogenous technical change, it is possible to harmonize more output and less emissions by replacing non-renewable resources for renewable ones. We also conduct a sensitivity analysis to explore three specific policy actions. With constant costs, the best policy action is the imposition of a higher renewable resources standard, while with endogenous technical change, under certain conditions, all policy interventions may benefit both the economy and the environment. - Highlights: ► Our general equilibrium model includes renewable and non-renewable resources. ► Under constant resource production costs emissions grow at the same rate as output. ► Resource producers can invest in knowledge to reduce production costs. ► Under decreasing costs, lower emissions are compatible with stable output growth. ► Empirical results differ under constant costs and under endogenous technical change

  16. Taxation of non-renewable resources: Appendix A to Canada's resources and the national interest

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1975-11-01

    This report includes all revisions made in legislation and other developments up to May 1976 at both the Federal and provincial level that affect the taxation of the nonrenewable resource industries. The report is divided into four sections. Section I is a brief summary of the principal conclusions; Section II presents recent developments in the Taxation of Mining, Oil, and Gas in Canada; Section III provides estimated Federal and provincial government revenues from nonrenewable resources during the six years 1970/71 to 1975/76; and Section IV analyzes briefly the various methods used by governments to obtain additional revenues and the likely effect of these methods on the future development of the industry. (MCW)

  17. Dynamic taxation of non-renewable natural resources under asymmetric information about reserves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osmundsen, P.

    1998-01-01

    A study was conducted in which a model was developed for the effective tax collection of non-renewable natural resources, subject to private information about reserves. Most governments are faced with the problem that resource exploitation companies possess private information about the size of reserves. Often governments do not know if a company's high costs are due to low reserves or to strategic cost reporting. This model was designed to solve that problem. It was shown that the specific cost characteristics of extracting non-renewable natural resource make it desirable to reduce both the extent and the pace of extraction. This conclusion was reached using both a two-period model and a time terminal endogenized model. Although this paper referred specifically to petroleum, the model applies for all types of non-renewable natural resources. 21 refs

  18. A Multi-mode RCPSP with Stochastic Nonrenewable Resource Consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Muller, Laurent Flindt

    Many processes within production scheduling and project management involve the scheduling of a number of activities, each activity having a certain duration and requiring a certain amount of limited resources. The duration and resource requirements of activities are com- monly the result...

  19. Vulnerability and fragility risk indices for non-renewable resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Anne E; Steele, Nicholas; Tobin, Benjamin W

    2018-06-02

    Protected areas are tasked with mitigating impacts to a wide range of invaluable resources. These resources are often subject to a variety of potential natural and anthropogenic impacts that require monitoring efforts and management actions to minimize the degradation of these resources. However, due to insufficient funding and staff, managers often have to prioritize efforts, leaving some resources at higher risk to impact. Attempts to address this issue have resulted in numerous qualitative and semi-quantitative frameworks for prioritization based on resource vulnerability. Here, we add to those methods by modifying an internationally standardized vulnerability framework, quantify both resource vulnerability, susceptibility to human disturbance, and fragility, susceptibility to natural disturbance. This modified framework quantifies impacts through a six-step process: identifying the resource and management objectives, identifying exposure and sensitivity indicators, define scoring criteria for each indicator, collect and compile data, calculate indices, and prioritize sites for mitigations. We applied this methodology to two resource types in Grand Canyon National Park (GRCA): caves and fossil sites. Three hundred sixty-five cave sites and 127 fossil sites in GRCA were used for this analysis. The majority of cave and fossil sites scored moderate to low vulnerability (0-6 out of 10 points) and moderate to low fragility for fossils. The percentage of sites that fell in the high-priority range was 5.5% for fossils and 21.9% for caves. These results are consistent with the known state of these resources and the results present a tool for managers to utilize to prioritize monitoring and management needs.

  20. Three essays on the exploration for non-renewable resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sadorsky, P.A.

    1990-06-01

    A new additional motive for exploration activity is proposed in the first essay. When exploration occurs before the resource is extracted, there is an incentive to use exploration activity as a strategic instrument to capture market share and inflict capital losses on rivals. This provides an incentive for governments to use strategic taxation to capture greater rents from the imperfectly competitive world output markets. Analytic expressions for the optimal domestic extraction tax and exploration subsidy are presented. In the second essay, Canadian data are used to estimate a multiple-output translog exploration cost function. A new definition of depletion is introduced and its estimated coefficient is found to be statistically significant. Monte Carlo integration techniques were applied to ensure the estimated cost function satisfies concavity and monotonicity. The fitted cost function parameters are then used to estimate the marginal cost of oil and gas exploration. These estimates are used, along with estimates of exploration rents, to measure resource scarcity. In the third essay, Canadian data are used to estimate a stochastic and dynamic model of oil exploration and extraction in Alberta. The main determinants of current period extraction are one period lagged extraction and one period expected extraction. The main determinants of current period exploration are one period lagged cumulative exploration and a relative price variable. 150 refs., 13 figs., 19 tabs

  1. Science requirements for free-flying imaging radar (FIREX) experiment for sea ice, renewable resources, nonrenewable resources and oceanography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carsey, F.

    1982-01-01

    A future bilateral SAR program was studied. The requirements supporting a SAR mission posed by science and operations in sea-ice-covered waters, oceanography, renewable resources, and nonrenewable resources are addressed. The instrument, mission, and program parameters were discussed. Research investigations supporting a SAR flight and the subsequent overall mission requirements and tradeoffs are summarized.

  2. Strategic Uncertainty in Markets for Nonrenewable Resources: A Level-k Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingmar Vierhaus

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Existing models of nonrenewable resources assume that sophisticated agents compete with other sophisticated agents. This study instead uses a level-k approach to examine cases where the focal agent is uncertain about the strategy of his opponent or predicts that the opponent will act in a nonsophisticated manner. Level-0 players are randomized uniformly across all possible actions, and level-k players best respond to the action of player k-1. We study a dynamic nonrenewable resource game with a large number of actions. We are able to solve for the level-1 strategy by reducing the averaging problem to an optimization problem against a single action. We show that lower levels of strategic reasoning are close to the Walras and collusive benchmark, whereas higher level strategies converge to the Nash-Hotelling equilibrium. These results are then fitted to experimental data, suggesting that the level of sophistication of participants increased over the course of the experiment.

  3. On the dynamics of non-renewable resources. A mathematical model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alliney, S.; Alvoni, E.

    2001-01-01

    A mathematical model is presented for the consumption dynamics of non-renewable resources; the underlying assumption is that the most relevant factor is given by the evolution of technology. Then, the consumption as a function of time is governed by a non-linear differential equation,whose parameters can be estimated using the historical record. Some meaningful cases are worked out in detail, namely the coal consumption in UK and the world oil consumption [it

  4. Geologic utility of improved orbital measurement capabilities in reference to non-renewable resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, H.; Marsh, S.

    1982-01-01

    Spectral and spatial characteristics necessary for future orbital remote sensing systems are defined. The conclusions are based on the past decade of experience in exploring for non-renewable resources with reference to data from ground, aircraft, and orbital systems. Two principle areas of investigation are used in the discussion: a structural interpretation in a basin area for hydrocarbon exploration, and a discrimination of altered areas in the Cuprite district in Nevada.

  5. Accounting for the income of non-renewable resources - Four essays on new theoretical approaches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wei, Taoyuan

    2009-01-15

    Non-renewable resources are widely extracted and used in today's global economy. On the one hand, the use of these resources generates huge cash flows that can be used for current consumption. On the other hand, the extraction of these resources implies less wealth of these natural resources in the future. To compensate for this wealth decrease, we have to accumulate other kinds of real wealth, like man-made capital, human capital, and renewable resources. The wealth accumulation can be achieved by activities of investments. Reasonable financial support for the investments should come from cash flows related to non-renewable resources. Hence, cash flows related to non-renewable resources should be divided for two basic purposes: current consumption and savings to support activities of investments. The trade-off between current consumption and savings invokes a fundamental question: how much of the cash flows can we use for current consumption without impoverishing the future? Following the literature line from Hicks (1946, Chapter 14) via Samuelson (1961) to Sefton and Weale (2006), in the first essay of this dissertation, Geir Asheim and I develop a theory of sectoral income. The theory can be applied to estimate income at a sectoral level. By this notion of sectoral income, we can answer the fundamental question concerning the division of the cash flows generated by non-renewable resources into consumption and savings. In particular, by applying the new theory in this dissertation, I provide a new method for estimating real income generated by non-renewable resources. The new method has at least two advantages when compared with the wealth-based method, which is a commonly applied method in practical resource accounting. By the wealth-based method, sectoral income is associated with the interest on the sector's wealth, where the wealth is estimated as the present value of cash flows generated from the sector (see, e.g., Aslaksen et al., 1990, and Brekke

  6. On the global economic potentials and marginal costs of non-renewable resources and the price of energy commodities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mercure, Jean-François; Salas, Pablo

    2013-01-01

    A model is presented in this work for simulating endogenously the evolution of the marginal costs of production of energy carriers from non-renewable resources, their consumption, depletion pathways and timescales. Such marginal costs can be used to simulate the long term average price formation of energy commodities. Drawing on previous work where a global database of energy resource economic potentials was constructed, this work uses cost distributions of non-renewable resources in order to evaluate global flows of energy commodities. A mathematical framework is given to calculate endogenous flows of energy resources given an exogenous commodity price path. This framework can be used in reverse in order to calculate an endogenous marginal cost of production of energy carriers given an exogenous carrier demand. Using rigid price inelastic assumptions independent of the economy, these two approaches generate limiting scenarios that depict extreme use of natural resources. This is useful to characterise the current state and possible uses of remaining non-renewable resources such as fossil fuels and natural uranium. The theory is however designed for use within economic or technology models that allow technology substitutions. In this work, it is implemented in the global power sector model FTT:Power. Policy implications are given. - Highlights: • Theoretical model to forecast marginal costs of non-renewable resources. • Tracks the consumption and costs of non-renewable resources. • For use in economic or technology models

  7. A test of the theory of nonrenewable resources. Controlling for exploration and market power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malischek, Raimund; Tode, Christian; Koeln Univ.

    2015-01-01

    Despite the central role of the Hotelling model within the theory of nonrenewable resources, tests of the model are rarely found. If existent, these tests tend to ignore two key features, namely market power and exploration. We therefore suggest an extension of the basic Hotelling framework to incorporate exploration activity and market power and propose an implicit price behavior test of the model to indicate whether firms undergo inter-temporal optimization. When applied to a newly constructed data set for the uranium mining industry, the null hypothesis of the firm optimizing inter-temporally is rejected in all settings. However, parameter estimates of the model still yield valuable information on cost structure, resource scarcity and market power. Our results suggest that the shadow price of the resource in situ is comparably small and may be overshadowed by market power, which may serve as an explanation for the firm failing to optimize inter-temporally.

  8. A test of the theory of nonrenewable resources. Controlling for exploration and market power

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malischek, Raimund [Koeln Univ. (Germany). Inst. of Energy Economics; Tode, Christian [Koeln Univ. (Germany). Inst. of Energy Economics; Koeln Univ. (Germany). Dept. of Economics

    2015-05-15

    Despite the central role of the Hotelling model within the theory of nonrenewable resources, tests of the model are rarely found. If existent, these tests tend to ignore two key features, namely market power and exploration. We therefore suggest an extension of the basic Hotelling framework to incorporate exploration activity and market power and propose an implicit price behavior test of the model to indicate whether firms undergo inter-temporal optimization. When applied to a newly constructed data set for the uranium mining industry, the null hypothesis of the firm optimizing inter-temporally is rejected in all settings. However, parameter estimates of the model still yield valuable information on cost structure, resource scarcity and market power. Our results suggest that the shadow price of the resource in situ is comparably small and may be overshadowed by market power, which may serve as an explanation for the firm failing to optimize inter-temporally.

  9. Mass and energy-capital conservation equations to study the price evolution of non-renewable energy resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gori, F.

    2006-01-01

    Mass conservation equation of non-renewable resources is employed to study the resources remaining in the reservoir according to the extraction policy. The energy conservation equation is transformed into an energy-capital conservation equation. The Hotelling rule is shown to be a special case of the general energy-capital conservation equation when the mass flow rate of extracted resources is equal to unity. Mass and energy-capital conservation equations are then coupled and solved together. It is investigated the price evolution of extracted resources. The conclusion of the Hotelling rule for non-extracted resources, i.e. an exponential increase of the price of non-renewable resources at the rate of current interest, is then generalized. A new parameter, called 'Price Increase Factor', PIF, is introduced as the difference between the current interest rate of capital and the mass flow rate of extraction of non-renewable resources. The price of extracted resources can increase exponentially only if PIF is greater than zero or if the mass flow rate of extraction is lower than the current interest rate of capital. The price is constant if PIF is zero or if the mass flow rate of extraction is equal to the current interest rate. The price is decreasing with time if PIF is smaller than zero or if the mass flow rate of extraction is higher than the current interest rate. (author)

  10. Invention, innovation and R and D behaviours in non-renewable resource markets: the case of petroleum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poudou, J.Ch.

    1996-12-01

    This work tries to show how the neo-Hotellinian analysis can be reconsidered through the R and D and technological innovation prism. It tries to appreciate how the R and D efforts, the incitation to innovate and the innovation timing phenomena modify the basic r% rule and allow to explain some of the conventionalized facts observed on non-renewable resource markets, and in particular on the crude-oil market. Methodologically talking, this work follows the mining paradigm built by H. Hotelling and L. Gray, i.e. a neo-classical logic of the agents and of the market. This choice corresponds to a wish to carry out a theoretical analysis instead of a pragmatic one of the relations between natural resource sectors and technological innovation. This study is organized around a separation between the decision problems of companies and the market strategy problems. (J.S.)

  11. Depletion of the non-renewable natural exergy resources as a measure of the ecological cost

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szargut, Jan; Ziebik, Andrzej; Stanek, Wojciech

    2002-01-01

    The cumulative consumption of non-renewable exergy connected with the fabrication of particular products has been termed as their ecological cost. System of linear input-output equations determining the ecological costs have been formulated. The cogeneration processes have been considered using the principle of the avoided costs of fabrication of the products substituted by the by-products of the considered process. The ecological cost determined in a regional scope takes into account the ecological cost of the imported raw materials and semi-finished products. These quantities have been substituted by the economically equivalent export of own products. The deleterious effect of the rejection of waste products to the environment has been approximately determined by means of the monetary indices of harmfulness of waste products. It has been proved, that the ecological cost of human work cannot be introduced into the set of input-output equations. Exemplary calculations have been made for the products connected with the blast-furnace process. The influence of the injection of auxiliary fuels into the blast furnace on the ecological cost of pig iron has been analyzed too. (Author)

  12. Uranium resources and supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cameron, J.

    1973-01-01

    The future supply of uranium has to be considered against a background of forecasts of uranium demand over the next decades which show increases of a spectacular nature. It is not necessary to detail these forecasts, they are well known. A world survey by the Joint NEA/IAEA Working Party on 'Uranium Resources, Production and Demand', completed this summer, indicates that from a present production level of just over 19,000 tonnes uranium per year, the demand will rise to the equivalent of an annual production requirement of 50,000 tonnes uranium by 1980, 100,000 by 1985 and 180,000 by 1990. Few, if any, mineral production industries have been called upon to plan for a near tenfold increase in production in a space of about 15 years as these forecasts imply. This might possibly mean that, perhaps, ten times the present number of uranium mines will have to be planned and engineered by 1990

  13. Planning for a soft landing : non-renewable resource development and community infrastructure in the Northwest Territories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-02-01

    This paper provided a high-level overview of research related to the boom and bust cycle of resource-based economic development and community infrastructure in the north, particularly in the Northwest Territories. The paper focused on what is known and on knowledge gaps that needed to be filled in each of 3 theme areas for an experts workshop on northern communities. The themes that were discussed at the workshop and in this paper were: the connections between non-renewable resources development and community infrastructure in the north; planning for resource development; and strategies for moving ahead and putting ideas into practice. The paper discussed the objectives of the research and discussed findings under each of the 3 themes. Topics discussed included: changes in the infrastructure mix; infrastructure and climate change; infrastructure financing; uncertainty; knowledge; planning tools; stakeholder participation; and measuring and monitoring planning implementation. Data availability was also discussed along with funding mechanisms, technological innovations and community capacity building. It was concluded that strategies for dealing with the boom-induced infrastructure challenges facing communities in the Northwest Territories should focus on making more creative use of available funding; promoting technical innovation; and improving maintenance capacity at the community level. 62 refs

  14. Optimising the extraction rate of a non-durable non-renewable resource in a monopolistic market: a mathematical programming approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corominas, Albert; Fossas, Enric

    2015-01-01

    We assume a monopolistic market for a non-durable non-renewable resource such as crude oil, phosphates or fossil water. Stating the problem of obtaining optimal policies on extraction and pricing of the resource as a non-linear program allows general conclusions to be drawn under diverse assumptions about the demand curve, discount rates and length of the planning horizon. We compare the results with some common beliefs about the pace of exhaustion of this kind of resources.

  15. Taxation of a nonrenewable but quasi-infinite energy resource: a two-period framework

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanf, C.H.; Thampapillai, D.J.

    1992-01-01

    This paper deals with the formation of a resource extraction tax for a resource that is finite yet relatively abundant in its availability. The basis for the formulation is the higher extraction cost imposed on future generations as a result of present extraction. The optimal size of the tax is determined by the trade-off between present losses and future gains. (author)

  16. Funds from non-renewable energy resources: Policy lessons from Alaska and Alberta

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baena, César; Sévi, Benoît; Warrack, Allan

    2012-01-01

    We document the use of energy natural resource funds in Alaska and Alberta and analyze theirs characteristics for further implementation in resource-rich countries. Such funds allow dealing theoretically with intergenerational equity issues, corruption, and more general institutional problems. The performance of both funds is very different, depending on the management and composition choices but some policy lessons can be drawn from these two examples. Importantly, the role of a public dividend policy is highlighted as a way to bypass corrupted institutions and to enhance quality of life for poorest people. We also emphasize the need to deal with inflation to make the fund sustainable. - Highlights: ► We document the optimal intergenerational energy resource management using funds. ► We use Alaskan and Albertan experiences to provide policy lessons for future implementation of such funds. ► We emphasize the role of a public dividend policy

  17. Using non-renewable resources to promote economic development: The case of stock-dependent extraction cost

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jefferson, R.W.

    1991-01-01

    Various policies for using a newly discovered deposit of a non-renewable resource to promote local economic development are considered. A model of optimal extraction, in which cost depends on both current output and remaining stock levels is constructed. The model is simplified by the assumptions that prices are exogenous and that extraction cost is linear homogeneous in current output and remaining stock. Both pure depletion and combined extraction and exploration models are considered. The models are solved using the dynamic programming algorithm. The effects of taxes on profit and gross revenue are analyzed both algebraically and through numerical simulations. The conditions under which a tax on profit does not distort production are specified. The welfare costs of tax-induced distortions in extraction and exploration are discussed using simulation results. The effects on production of future prices being stochastic are discussed, and it is shown that a firm which re-optimizes each period on the basis of new information concerning that period's price will choose to restrict output below that which would have been optimal if the expected price could be forecast with certainty

  18. A Depletion Protocol for Non-Renewable Natural Resources: Australia as an Example

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartlett, Albert A.

    2006-01-01

    This paper examines the implications of statements by Australia's Minister of Resources that Australia's exports of coal are growing rapidly and that Australia's coal will last '110 years at current rates of production.' If one assumes that coal production P(t), follows a Gaussian curve (similar to a Hubbert curve) one can construct a family of Gaussian curves showing possible future paths of P(t) which are consistent with the cited '110 years.' Each curve reaches a maximum after which P(t) declines toward zero. Knowledge of the present value of dP/dt allows one member of the family to be identified as the most probable future path of P(t). Families of curves and tabular data are presented for resource quantities that would last 50, 100 and 200 years 'at current rates of production.' If, instead, Australia's P(t) follows a declining exponential curve (exp(-kt)) with k = (1/110) per year, the stated quantity of coal will allow production to continue forever, with P(t) declining with a half life of 76 y. This and more rapidly declining exponential paths are the only paths that can be said to be sustainable. The envelope of the family of Gaussian curves divides the (P, t) plane into 'allowed' and 'forbidden' areas. The declining exponential curve divides the 'allowed' area into an upper area that is 'terminal' and a lower area that is 'sustainable.' These facts, coupled with Australia's expectations of rapid growth of its population, suggest that Australia's present resource policies are 'anti-sustainable' and that the people of Australia need to rethink their present policy of rapidly exporting their fossil fuels

  19. Using discrete-time mathematical programming to optimise the extraction rate of a durable non-renewable resource with a single primary supplier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albert Corominas

    Full Text Available A non-linear discrete-time mathematical program model is proposed to determining the optimal extraction policy for a single primary supplier of a durable non-renewable resource, such as gemstones or some metals. Karush, Kuhn and Tucker conditions allow obtaining analytic solutions and general properties of them in some specific settings. Moreover, provided that the objective function (i.e., the discounted value of the incomes throughout the planning horizon is concave, the model can be easily solved, even using standard commercial solver. However, the analysis of the solutions obtained for different assumptions of the values of the parameters show that the optimal extraction policies and the corresponding prices do not exhibit a general shape. Keywords: Durable non-renewable resources, Single primary supplier, Non-linear programming

  20. Balancing supply and demand resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sinha, J.; Saleeby, R.G.

    1990-01-01

    This article deals with using demand-side management (DSM) resources as an effective means of balancing supply and demand as a part of least-cost planning. The authors present a more sophisticated application of the load forecast adjustment method that reduces the number of DSM programs that need to be evaluated and provides blocks large enough to eliminate resolution problems in production costing models

  1. Price regulation and international resource supply

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siebert, H

    1982-03-01

    Price regulation is an instrument between two diverging aims: The demand for low resource prices motivated by the principle of equal distribution in our day, and the desire for economical management of resources as a responsibility we have to future generations. The present publication investigates how price regulation influences intertemporal supply of resources. For the assumed cases constant resource price, constant admissible increase in resource price, expected release of resource price and deregulation of a price held constant for a period of time mathematical models are developmed.

  2. Mass and energy-capital conservation equations to study the price evolution of non-renewable energy resources. Part II-Extension to resources sold to the market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gori, F.

    2006-01-01

    The time evolution of the price of resources sold to the market and of the price difference, between sold and extracted resources, is investigated in case of no accumulation of the resources; i.e. when the resources are extracted and sold to the market at the same mass flow rate. The price evolution of sold resources varies with time according to the relation between the price increase factor, PIF, of sold and extracted resources. The price evolutions of sold resources and price difference are investigated according to the relation between extraction rate and interest rate of extracted and sold resources. The price of sold resources and the price difference increase with time if the PIF of sold resources is greater than the PIF of extracted resources and the initial price is greater than the critical price of sold resources, which depends on the initial price of extracted resources and the interest rate of non-extracted and extracted resources. The price of sold resources and the price difference decrease with time if the PIF of sold resources is greater than the PIF of extracted resources and the initial price is smaller than the critical price of sold resources. The other cases are discussed extensively in the paper. (author)

  3. Resources and future supply of oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kjaerstad, Jan; Johnsson, Filip

    2009-01-01

    This paper examines global oil resources and the future global oil supply/demand balance. The paper builds upon several comprehensive databases designed during the work and considerable efforts have been made to review what must be considered the most reliable data. Global oil resources have been investigated on three levels; country, company and field levels. Although no decisive conclusions or quantitative assessments can be made with respect to the global oil resource base, remaining resources appear to be sufficient to meet demand up to 2030 as projected in the 2006 (and 2007) world energy outlook by the IEA. Significant resources have already been discovered beyond proven reserves, many prospective regions remain to be fully explored and there are vast volumes of recoverable unconventional oil. However, it is also concluded that global supply of oil probably will continue to be tight, both in the medium term as well as in the long term mainly as a consequence of above-ground factors such as investment constraints, geopolitical tensions, limited access to reserves and mature super-giant fields. Production of unconventional oil and synthetic fuels is not believed to significantly alter this situation. Although an increasing number of recent reports have indicated an imminent or 'soon to come' peak in global oil supply, it has not been found that any of these reports have contributed with any new information on oil resources or oil supply ability. Nevertheless, there is a distinct possibility that global oil production may peak or plateau in a relatively near future, not caused by limited resources but because too many factors over long time constrain investments into exploration and production. The lack of transparency within the oil industry obviously prevents any accurate analysis of future production and supply ability. Moreover, our ability to analyse the sector will become more difficult in the future as oil increasingly will have to be sourced from

  4. Non-renewal of contracts

    CERN Multimedia

    Association du personnel

    2007-01-01

    A new illegal practice is appearing in certain sectors of the Organization: the non-renewal of renewable three-year limited-duration (LD) contracts, despite a more than satisfactory performance and an obvious commitment to the Organization.

  5. Assessment of uranium resources and supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-04-01

    Uranium as nuclear fuel is an important energy resource, which generates about one-sixth of the world's total electricity generated in 1989. The current nuclear electricity generating capacity of 318 GW(e) is expected to grow by over 38% to 440 GW(e) in the year 2005. The world's uranium requirements are expected to increase similarly from about 52,000 t U in 1989 to over 70,000 t U in 2005. Beyond this time the uranium requirements are projected to reach over 80,000 t U in 2030. It was the objective of the Technical Committee Meeting on Assessment of Uranium Resources and Supply, organized by the IAEA and held in Vienna, between 29 August - 1 September 1989, to attract specialists in this field and to provide a forum for the presentation of reports on the methodologies and actual projects carried out in the different countries. Of special interest was the participation of specialists from some countries which did not or only occasionally co-operate with the IAEA in the projects related to the assessment of uranium resources and supply. A separate abstract was prepared for each of the 19 papers. Refs, figs and tabs

  6. Integrated resource planning in Danish electricity supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    Integrated Resource Planning in Danish Electricity Supply is a development project run by a cooperation of Danish electric power companies. It takes environmental issues, such as energy conservation, into consideration in addition to the European Union's proposal for a directive on the introduction of competition within the common energy market. The concept of integrated resource planning is described as a tool that can be used for a total cost minimization of the activities on the supply side and the demand side, this concept is further elucidated. It is explained that there must be an economic balance between the efforts on both sides and that this will ensure a total cost minimization. Preconditions, related for example to socio-economics, and procedures (step-by-step planning), functional barriers, a definition of roles and international influence and dialogue are also discussed. Satisfaction is expressed for this method of integrated resource planning, yet uncertainty as to the future structure of the free electricity market implies a cautious implementation. (AB)

  7. Uranium resources and supply - demand to 2030

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vance, R.

    2010-01-01

    Recent fluctuations in the market price for uranium have resulted in more activity in this sector over the past few years than in the preceding 20 years. Amidst this background, uranium demand is increasing. Construction of nuclear reactors is proceeding in some countries, ambitious expansion plans have been announced in others and the development of nuclear power programs to meet electricity demand and minimize greenhouse emissions in a cost effective manner is under consideration in many others. This paper reviews projections of nuclear growth and uranium demand and assesses the challenges faced by the uranium mining sector in meeting rising demand. Since the mid-1960 s, an international expert committee (the 'Uranium Group') formed by the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency and the International Atomic Energy Agency has published biennially comprehensive updates on global uranium resources, production and demand (the 'Red Book'). The most recent in this series, based on 2007 data and published in June 2008, includes a supply/demand projection to 2030. However, much has changed since the data were collected for this projection and an assessment of these changes and their impact on uranium production is included in this presentation. It is concluded that world identified uranium resources (5.45 million t U recoverable at costs up to US$130/kg U, or US$50/lb U 3 O 8 ) are adequate to meet projected future high case nuclear power requirements. However, recent financial market turmoil and lower uranium prices, the opaque nature of the uranium market itself, increased regulatory requirements, a scarcity of the required specialized labour and the fluctuating costs of raw materials makes the process of turning uranium resources in the ground into yellowcake in the can increasingly more challenging, particularly for new entrants. Considerable investment and expertise will be required to bring about the substantial increase in mine production required to meet future demand

  8. Model analyses for sustainable energy supply under CO2 restrictions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuhashi, Ryuji; Ishitani, Hisashi.

    1995-01-01

    This paper aims at clarifying key points for realizing sustainable energy supply under restrictions on CO 2 emissions. For this purpose, possibility of solar breeding system is investigated as a key technology for the sustainable energy supply. The authors describe their mathematical model simulating global energy supply and demand in ultra-long term. Depletion of non-renewable resources and constraints on CO 2 emissions are taken into consideration in the model. Computed results have shown that present energy system based on non-renewable resources shifts to a system based on renewable resources in the ultra-long term with appropriate incentives

  9. Edaiila area of interest non-renewable resource assessment (phase 1) Great Bear Lake area, Northwest Territories Parts of NTS 86 K, 86 L, 86 M, 86 N and 96 I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gebert, J.S.; Jackson, J.E.; O' Neil, C.E. [AMEC Americas Ltd., Calgary, AB (Canada). Earth and Environment Division

    2007-07-01

    The Edaiila study area of interest is located in the Deline District of the Sahtu Settlement area in the Northwest Territories. It lies in the Proterozoic Bear geologic province of the Canadian Shield. The area is currently covered by prospecting claims and is likely undergoing exploration for uranium, precious metals, base metals and diamonds. This document presented a Phase 1 non-renewable resource assessment (NRA) of the area that was completed as part of the Northwest Territories Protect Area Strategy (PAS). It presented compiled historical information, provided a preliminary resource assessment and made recommendations for further Phase 2 studies. This region is within the continuous permafrost zone and is characterized by a high subarctic climate. The study area straddles the tree line and contains vegetation typical of taiga and tundra regions. The bedrock covering the flat to gently rolling topography is covered by undulating glacial drift, raised beaches and outwash deposits. About 25 per cent of the area is covered by wetlands. The Bear province is subdivided into two major domains, the Wopmay orogen and the Coppermine homocline. In the eastern portion of the study area, basement rocks are part of the Great Bear magmatic zone and are locally exposed in the Fault River area. Although basement rocks in the western portion of the study area are not exposed, they are assumed to be composed of the Hottah terrane. 86 refs., 14 tabs., 7 figs., 4 appendices.

  10. Community resiliency through recovery resource supply chain planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franklin, Charlotte; Todt, Kiersten

    2014-01-01

    Information in this paper is the result of recommendations and remedies developed at 'Local Supply Chain Capacity in a Crisis Summit Exercise' held in Arlington, VA on 30th-31st January,2013. At the event, which was funded through the Regional Catastrophic Preparedness Grant Program, national private sector and not-for-profit essential resource provider experts in sectors such as transportation, communication systems, energy/power, financial resources, medical supplies and other vital supplies, together with emergency managers, discussed best practices, major challenges and exchanged remedy recommendations.

  11. Optimal Allocation of Water Resources Based on Water Supply Security

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianhua Wang

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Under the combined impacts of climate change and human activities, a series of water issues, such as water shortages, have arisen all over the world. According to current studies in Science and Nature, water security has become a frontier critical topic. Water supply security (WSS, which is the state of water resources and their capacity and their capacity to meet the demand of water users by water supply systems, is an important part of water security. Currently, WSS is affected by the amount of water resources, water supply projects, water quality and water management. Water shortages have also led to water supply insecurity. WSS is now evaluated based on the balance of the supply and demand under a single water resources condition without considering the dynamics of the varying conditions of water resources each year. This paper developed an optimal allocation model for water resources that can realize the optimal allocation of regional water resources and comprehensively evaluate WSS. The objective of this model is to minimize the duration of water shortages in the long term, as characterized by the Water Supply Security Index (WSSI, which is the assessment value of WSS, a larger WSSI value indicates better results. In addition, the simulation results of the model can determine the change process and dynamic evolution of the WSS. Quanzhou, a city in China with serious water shortage problems, was selected as a case study. The allocation results of the current year and target year of planning demonstrated that the level of regional comprehensive WSS was significantly influenced by the capacity of water supply projects and the conditions of the natural water resources. The varying conditions of the water resources allocation results in the same year demonstrated that the allocation results and WSSI were significantly affected by reductions in precipitation, decreases in the water yield coefficient, and changes in the underlying surface.

  12. Applying a Dynamic Resource Supply Model in a Smart Grid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaiyu Wan

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Dynamic resource supply is a complex issue to resolve in a cyber-physical system (CPS. In our previous work, a resource model called the dynamic resource supply model (DRSM has been proposed to handle resources specification, management and allocation in CPS. In this paper, we are integrating the DRSM with service-oriented architecture and applying it to a smart grid (SG, one of the most complex CPS examples. We give the detailed design of the SG for electricity charging request and electricity allocation between plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEV and DRSM through the Android system. In the design, we explain a mechanism for electricity consumption with data collection and re-allocation through ZigBee network. In this design, we verify the correctness of this resource model for expected electricity allocation.

  13. Supply chain strategies in an era of natural resource scarcity

    OpenAIRE

    Kalaitzi, Dimitra; Matopoulos, Aristides; Bourlakis, Michael; Tate, Wendy

    2018-01-01

    Purpose – The primary objective of this research is to explore the implications of natural resource scarcity for companies’ supply chain strategies. Design/methodology/approach – Drawing on resource dependence theory, a conceptual model is developed and validated through the means of exploratory research. The empirical work includes the assessment of qualitative data collected via 22 interviews representing 6 large multinational companies from the manufacturing sector. Findings – When the res...

  14. Increasing biomass resource availability through supply chain analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Welfle, Andrew; Gilbert, Paul; Thornley, Patricia

    2014-01-01

    Increased inclusion of biomass in energy strategies all over the world means that greater mobilisation of biomass resources will be required to meet demand. Strategies of many EU countries assume the future use of non-EU sourced biomass. An increasing number of studies call for the UK to consider alternative options, principally to better utilise indigenous resources. This research identifies the indigenous biomass resources that demonstrate the greatest promise for the UK bioenergy sector and evaluates the extent that different supply chain drivers influence resource availability. The analysis finds that the UK's resources with greatest primary bioenergy potential are household wastes (>115 TWh by 2050), energy crops (>100 TWh by 2050) and agricultural residues (>80 TWh by 2050). The availability of biomass waste resources was found to demonstrate great promise for the bioenergy sector, although are highly susceptible to influences, most notably by the focus of adopted waste management strategies. Biomass residue resources were found to be the resource category least susceptible to influence, with relatively high near-term availability that is forecast to increase – therefore representing a potentially robust resource for the bioenergy sector. The near-term availability of UK energy crops was found to be much less significant compared to other resource categories. Energy crops represent long-term potential for the bioenergy sector, although achieving higher limits of availability will be dependent on the successful management of key influencing drivers. The research highlights that the availability of indigenous resources is largely influenced by a few key drivers, this contradicting areas of consensus of current UK bioenergy policy. - Highlights: • As global biomass demand increases, focus is placed indigenous resources. • A Biomass Resource Model is applied to analyse UK biomass supply chain dynamics. • Biomass availability is best increased

  15. Estimating uranium resources and production. A guide to future supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, D.M.; Haeussermann, W.

    1983-01-01

    Nuclear power can only continue to grow if sufficient fuel, uranium, is available. Concern has been expressed that, in the not too distant future, the supply of uranium may be inadequate to meet reactor development. This will not be the case. Uranium production capability, actual and planned, is the main indicator of short- and medium-term supply. However, for the longer term, uranium resource estimates and projections of the possible rate of production from the resource base are important. Once an estimate has been made of the resources contained in a deposit, several factors influence the decision to produce the uranium and also the rates at which the uranium can be produced. The effect of these factors, which include uranium market trends and ever increasing lead times from discovery to production, must be taken into account when making projections of future production capability and before comparing these with forecasts of future uranium requirements. The uranium resource base has developed over the last two decades mainly in response to dramatically changing projections of natural uranium requirements. A study of this development and the changes in production, together with the most recent data, shows that in the short- and medium-term, production from already discovered resources should be sufficient to cover any likely reactor requirements. Studies such as those undertaken during the International Uranium Resources Evaluation Project, and others which project future discovery rates and production, are supported by past experience in resource development in showing that uranium supply could continue to meet demand until well into the next century. The uranium supply potential has lessened the need for the early large-scale global introduction of the breeder reactor

  16. Mackenzie Gas Project : gas resource and supply study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harris, D.G.; Braaten, K.M.

    2004-01-01

    A study was conducted to assess the future gas supply for the Mackenzie Gas Project. The economically recoverable gas resources and deliverability in the region were assessed in order to support construction of the Mackenzie Valley pipeline and the associated gathering system. This supply study was based on a 25 year timeframe for resource development. Production forecasts were also prepared for 50 years following the date of the study. Natural gas forecasts for the general area to be served by the proposed pipeline were also presented. This report includes an introduction to the final gas resource and supply study as well as the regional geology relating to discovered and undiscovered resources. The following regions were included in the study area: onshore Mackenzie Delta including the Niglintgak, Parsons Lake and Taglu anchor fields; central Mackenzie Valley region extending from the Mackenzie Delta south to 63 degrees latitude; northern portion of the Yukon Territory; and, portions of the offshore Mackenzie Delta region limited to a water depth of 30 metres. Forecasts and economic analyses were prepared for the following 3 scenarios: contingent onshore resources only; contingent and prospective onshore resources; and, contingent and prospective onshore and offshore resources. Sensitivity forecasts were prepared for a fully expanded pipeline capacity of 1.8 bcf/day with an equal capacity gathering system. In addition, the National Energy Board estimates of resources for the 3 anchor field were used in place of the operator's estimates. A geological review was included for the plays in the study area. 15 refs., 43 tabs., 38 figs

  17. Future Oil and Gas Resources of the World: A Coming Supply Crisis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahlbrandt, T. S.

    2002-05-01

    estimates. While petroleum resources in the world appear to be significant, certain countries such as the U.S. may run into import deficits particularly oil imports from Mexico and natural gas from Canada. The new assessment has been used as the reference supply case in energy supply models by the International Energy Agency and the Energy Information Agency of the Department of Energy. Climate energy modeling groups such as Stanford, Massachusetts Institute of Technology and others have also used the estimates in global climate models. Many of these models using the USGS estimates, converge on potential oil shortfalls in 2036-2040. A transition to increased use of natural gas is expected, but gas in turn may experience similar supply concerns in the 2050-2060 time frame. A coal bridge-to-the-future model as well a realistic view of non-renewable resources in the future will be discussed. Non-conventional oil and gas are quite common in the petroleum provinces of the world and represent a significant resource yet to be fully studied and developed. Seventeen non-conventional AU, including coal-bed methane, basin-center gas, continuous oil, and gas hydrate occurrences, have been preliminarily identified for future assessment. Initial efforts to assess heavy oil deposits and other non-conventional oil and gas deposits are also underway. Digital products from the World Energy Project may be downloaded at (http://energy.cr.usgs.gov/energy/WorldEnergy/WEnergy.html).

  18. Climate policy and the intertemporal supply of fossil resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beermann, Christian

    2015-01-01

    This thesis was written by Christian Beermann while he was a research assistant at the Center for Economic Studies (CES) at the University of Munich. It was completed in December 2014 and accepted as a doctoral thesis by the Department of Economics at the University of Munich in May 2015. The thesis analyses the intertemporal supply reaction of the fossil resource supply side to demand-reducing climate policies while explicitly taking into account the global warming problem. The interaction between a climate coalition that can either be global or incomplete, comprising only a subset of the world's countries in the latter case, and a representative competitive resource supplier is analysed in a Stackelberg differential game in which the coalition leads.

  19. Climate policy and the intertemporal supply of fossil resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beermann, Christian

    2015-05-13

    This thesis was written by Christian Beermann while he was a research assistant at the Center for Economic Studies (CES) at the University of Munich. It was completed in December 2014 and accepted as a doctoral thesis by the Department of Economics at the University of Munich in May 2015. The thesis analyses the intertemporal supply reaction of the fossil resource supply side to demand-reducing climate policies while explicitly taking into account the global warming problem. The interaction between a climate coalition that can either be global or incomplete, comprising only a subset of the world's countries in the latter case, and a representative competitive resource supplier is analysed in a Stackelberg differential game in which the coalition leads.

  20. Committee on renewable resources for industrial materials (Corrim)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert W. Meyer; Carol B. Ovens

    1976-01-01

    In recent years major emphasis has been placed on nonrenewable resources in relation to potential national problems that may arise from possible changes in materials supply or utilization. Renewable resources, however, have received disproportionately small attention in spite of their current importance as industrial raw materials and their potential for the future. In...

  1. Rare resource supply crisis and solution technology for semiconductor manufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukuda, Hitomi; Hu, Sophia; Yoo, Youngsun; Takahisa, Kenji; Enami, Tatsuo

    2016-03-01

    There are growing concerns over future environmental impact and earth resource shortage throughout the world and in many industries. Our semiconductor industry is not excluded. "Green" has become an important topic as production volume become larger and more powerful. Especially, the rare gases are widely used in semiconductor manufacturing because of its inertness and extreme chemical stability. One major component of an Excimer laser system is Neon. It is used as a buffer gas for Argon (Ar) and Krypton (Kr) gases used in deep ultraviolet (DUV) lithography laser systems. Since Neon gas accounting for more than 96% of the laser gas mixture, a fairly large amount of neon gas is consumed to run these DUV lasers. However, due to country's instability both in politics and economics in Ukraine, the main producer of neon gas today, supply reduction has become an issue and is causing increasing concern. This concern is not only based on price increases, but has escalated to the point of supply shortages in 2015. This poses a critical situation for the semiconductor industry, which represents the leading consumer of neon gas in the world. Helium is another noble gas used for Excimer laser operation. It is used as a purge gas for optical component modules to prevent from being damaged by active gases and impurities. Helium has been used in various industries, including for medical equipment, linear motor cars, and semiconductors, and is indispensable for modern life. But consumption of helium in manufacturing has been increased dramatically, and its unstable supply and price rise has been a serious issue today. In this article, recent global supply issue of rare resources, especially Neon gas and Helium gas, and its solution technology to support semiconductor industry will be discussed.

  2. Legal Update--The Term Contract Nonrenewal Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Stephen B.; Davenport, Linda L.

    1982-01-01

    The Term Contract Nonrenewal Act, passed by the Texas Legislature in August 1981, provides term contract teachers with the option of a due process hearing before nonrenewal. Specific aspects of this act, dealing with teacher evaluation, notice of nonrenewal, hearings, and decisions and appeals, are reveiwed. (CJ)

  3. Waste-wood resource supply assessment. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-08-01

    The report documents and analyzes the availability and supply of wood waste in New York State to determine the type and amount currently generated to estimate its potential future use as a fuel. Detailed, current information is included on the availability, quantity and price of wood waste. Topics include wood waste markets; the harvesting and supply infrastructure; current and project prices; competing markets; environmental impacts of harvesting, processing and burning wood waste for fuel; and factors affecting long-term availability and supply. New York State's waste wood resource was evaluated to complete the Energy Authority's recent investigation of the potential role of wood in producing electric power. In 1989 approximately 11.8 million tons of wood waste were generated in New York State. More than 8 million tons or 68 percent, were disposed of by municipal solid waste and construction and demolition debris facilities. Just under 3.8 million tons or 32 percent, were reused and/or recycled. More than 25.7 million tons of wood waste could be available annually for fuel. Of the amount, more than 17.2 million tons per year, or 67 percent, could be produced by silvicultural activities that improve the health and productivity of forests

  4. Econophysics of a ranked demand and supply resource allocation problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priel, Avner; Tamir, Boaz

    2018-01-01

    We present a two sided resource allocation problem, between demands and supplies, where both parties are ranked. For example, in Big Data problems where a set of different computational tasks is divided between a set of computers each with its own resources, or between employees and employers where both parties are ranked, the employees by their fitness and the employers by their package benefits. The allocation process can be viewed as a repeated game where in each iteration the strategy is decided by a meta-rule, based on the ranks of both parties and the results of the previous games. We show the existence of a phase transition between an absorbing state, where all demands are satisfied, and an active one where part of the demands are always left unsatisfied. The phase transition is governed by the ratio between supplies and demand. In a job allocation problem we find positive correlation between the rank of the workers and the rank of the factories; higher rank workers are usually allocated to higher ranked factories. These all suggest global emergent properties stemming from local variables. To demonstrate the global versus local relations, we introduce a local inertial force that increases the rank of employees in proportion to their persistence time in the same factory. We show that such a local force induces non trivial global effects, mostly to benefit the lower ranked employees.

  5. Working group report on water resources, supply and demand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marta, T.J.

    1990-01-01

    A summary is presented of the issues discussed, and the conclusions and recommendations of a working group on water resources, supply and demand. The issues were grouped into the categories of detecting climatic change and water impacts, simulating potential impacts, and responding to potential impacts. The workshop groups achieved consensus on the following points: the physics of global warming and climatic change have been satifactorily proven; there appears to be some evidence of climatic change and a signal could soon be detected; policy decisions and strategic plans for climatic change and its potential impacts are needed immediately; and targets and priorities for decison making should be identified and addressed immediately. Three top-priority issues are the identification of indicators for the detection of climatic change impacts on hydrology, determining response to climate-related change, and evaluation of design criteria. Better information on regional climate and hydrology under conditions of global warming is needed before design criteria could be altered

  6. New information on world uranium resource, production, supply and demand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Jianguo; Meng Jin

    2006-01-01

    New information on world uranium resource, production, supply and demand is introduced. Up to now, explored uranium resources at production cost < USD 40/kg U has 2523257 t uranium; production cost < USD 80/kg U has 5911514 t uranium; production cost < USD130/kg U has 11280488 t uranium; and cost range unassigned has 3102000 t uranium. At moment, the demand uranium of each year is about 67000 t U. After 2020, world uranium demand will rise well above 100000 t per annum with sharp revival of nuclear power plants. With three kinds of economic growth the cumulative requirement of the uranium in low demand case, middle demand case and high demand case from 2000 to 2050 is 3390000, 5394100 and 7577300 t respectively. In the world market uranium price rises from 20 years lowest 18.2 USD/kg U to 75.4 USD/kg U. In 2003, global uranium product is about 35385 t U, and 2004, global uranium product is about 40475 t U. In 2004's world uranium production underground mining, open pit, in situ, by product, and combination account for 39%, 27%, 19%, 11% and 4% respectively. (authors)

  7. Remote Area Power Supply (RAPS) load and resource profiles.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giles, Lauren (Energetics, Inc., Washington, DC); Skolnik, Edward G. (Energetics, Inc., Washington, DC); Marchionini, Brian (Energetics, Inc., Washington, DC); Fall, Ndeye K. (Energetics, Inc., Washington, DC)

    2007-07-01

    In 1997, an international team interested in the development of Remote Area Power Supply (RAPS) systems for rural electrification projects around the world was organized by the International Lead Zinc Research Organization (ILZRO) with the support of Sandia National Laboratories (SNL). The team focused on defining load and resource profiles for RAPS systems. They identified single family homes, small communities, and villages as candidates for RAPS applications, and defined several different size/power requirements for each. Based on renewable energy and resource data, the team devised a ''strawman'' series of load profiles. A RAPS system typically consists of a renewable and/or conventional generator, power conversion equipment, and a battery. The purpose of this report is to present data and information on insolation levels and load requirements for ''typical'' homes, small communities, and larger villages around the world in order to facilitate the development of robust design practices for RAPS systems, and especially for the storage battery component. These systems could have significant impact on areas of the world that would otherwise not be served by conventional electrical grids.

  8. An exploratory study of governance in the intra-firm Human Resources supply chain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Farndale, E.; Paauwe, J.; Boselie, J.P.P.E.F.

    2010-01-01

    The human resource management (HRM) literature has paid insufficient attention to supply chain management (SCM) when exploring the architecture of human resources (HR). Drawing on an SCM perspective, this study develops our understanding of (1) the intra-firm HR supply chain, and (2) how this HR

  9. Teacher Contract Non-Renewal: What Matters to Principals?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nixon, Andy; Packard, Abbot; Dam, Margaret

    2016-01-01

    This quantitative study investigated the relationship between teacher dispositions, subject content knowledge, pedagogical content knowledge, and reasons that school principals recommend non-renewal of teachers' contracts. Nearly 2,000 school principals in 13 states completed an emailed survey. In deciding whether to non-renew a teacher contract,…

  10. Nonrenewable energy cost of corn-ethanol in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Q.; Chen, G.Q.

    2012-01-01

    Nonrenewable energy cost is accounted for the believed renewable biofuel of corn-ethanol in China. By a process-based energy analysis, nonrenewable energy cost in the corn-ethanol production process incorporating agricultural crop production, industrial conversion and wastewater treatment is conservatively estimated as 1.70 times that of the ethanol energy produced, corresponding to a negative energy return in contrast to the positive ones previously reported. Nonrenewable energy cost associated with wastewater treatment usually ignored in previous researches is shown important in the energy balance. Denoting the heavy nonrenewability of the produced corn-ethanol, the calculated nonrenewable energy cost would rise to 3.64 folds when part of the nonrenewable energy cost associated with water consumption, transportation and environmental remediation is included. Due to the coal dominated nonrenewable energy structure in China, corn-ethanol processes in China are mostly a conversion of coal to ethanol. Validations and discussions are also presented to reveal policy implications against corn based ethanol as an alternative energy in long term energy security planning. - Highlights: ► Nonrenewable energy (NE) cost is conservatively accounted for corn-ethanol in China. ► Corn cultivation, ethanol conversion and wastewater treatment are included. ► NE cost is estimated as 1.70 times that of the ethanol energy produced. ► Corn-ethanol processes in China are mostly a conversion of coal to ethanol.

  11. The natural resources supply indexes study of the pig breeding scale in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leng, Bi-Bin; Zhang, Qi-Zhen; Ji, Xue-Qiang; Xu, Yue-Feng

    2017-08-01

    For the pollution problem of the pig breeding scale, we took three indexes as evaluation criterion, including arable land per capita, the water resource per capita and per capita share of grain. Then SPSS was used to synthesized the natural resources supply indexes of the pig breeding scale. The results show that with the fast development of technology and the steadily rising of grain production, the natural resources supply indexes of the pig breeding scale are raising constantly.

  12. Ethical framework for resource allocation during a drug supply shortage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Jennifer L; Bean, Sally; Chidwick, Paula; Godkin, Dianne; Sibbald, Robert W; Wagner, Frank

    2012-01-01

    Drug supply shortages are common in health systems due to manufacturing and other delays. Frequently, shortages are successfully addressed through conservation and redistribution efforts, with limited impact on patient care. However, when Sandoz Canada Inc. announced in February 2012 that it was reducing production of a number of generic injectable drugs at its Quebec facility, the scope and magnitude of the drug supply shortage were unprecedented in Canada. The potential for an extreme scarcity of some drugs raised ethical concerns about patient care, including the need to limit access to some health services. In this article, the authors describe the development and implementation of an ethical framework to promote equitable access to drugs and healthcare services in the context of a drug supply shortage within and across health systems.

  13. Mud Bugs: Supply, Demand, and Natural Resources in Louisiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagel, Paul

    2010-01-01

    Louisiana's land, coast, and inland waterways are home to many natural resources such as seafood, petroleum, natural gas, and timber--and freshwater crawfish, or "mudbugs" as the locals like to call them. These natural resources are vital to Louisiana's economy. The author describes a unit of study on economics in which a teacher taught…

  14. Modelling inter-supply chain competition with resource limitation and demand disruption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhaobo; Teng, Chunxian; Zhang, Ding; Sun, Jiayi

    2016-05-01

    This paper proposes a comprehensive model for studying supply chain versus supply chain competition with resource limitation and demand disruption. We assume that there are supply chains with heterogeneous supply network structures that compete at multiple demand markets. Each supply chain is comprised of internal and external firms. The internal firms are coordinated in production and distribution and share some common but limited resources within the supply chain, whereas the external firms are independent and do not share the internal resources. The supply chain managers strive to develop optimal strategies in terms of production level and resource allocation in maximising their profit while facing competition at the end market. The Cournot-Nash equilibrium of this inter-supply chain competition is formulated as a variational inequality problem. We further study the case when there is demand disruption in the plan-execution phase. In such a case, the managers need to revise their planned strategy in order to maximise their profit with the new demand under disruption and minimise the cost of change. We present a bi-criteria decision-making model for supply chain managers and develop the optimal conditions in equilibrium, which again can be formulated by another variational inequality problem. Numerical examples are presented for illustrative purpose.

  15. Mineral supply for sustainable development requires resource governance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Saleem H.; Giurco, Damien; Arndt, Nicholas; Nickless, Edmund; Brown, Graham; Demetriades, Alecos; Durrheim, Ray; Enriquez, Maria Amélia; Kinnaird, Judith; Littleboy, Anna; Meinert, Lawrence D.; Oberhänsli, Roland; Salem, Janet; Schodde, Richard; Schneider, Gabi; Vidal, Olivier; Yakovleva, Natalia

    2017-01-01

    Successful delivery of the United Nations sustainable development goals and implementation of the Paris Agreement requires technologies that utilize a wide range of minerals in vast quantities. Metal recycling and technological change will contribute to sustaining supply, but mining must continue and grow for the foreseeable future to ensure that such minerals remain available to industry. New links are needed between existing institutional frameworks to oversee responsible sourcing of minerals, trajectories for mineral exploration, environmental practices, and consumer awareness of the effects of consumption. Here we present, through analysis of a comprehensive set of data and demand forecasts, an interdisciplinary perspective on how best to ensure ecologically viable continuity of global mineral supply over the coming decades.

  16. Cost of supplying energy from New Zealand resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Norman, Robert G.

    1977-10-15

    The kinds of costs which face the community when a power project is promoted are broadly discussed. Sometimes, costs such as social, economic, and environmental impacts do not appear often in budgetary form. The growth of public participation is discussed. Components (investigation costs, development costs, distribution costs, social costs, environmental costs, etc.) which contribute to the cost of energy production and supply are examined in some detail.

  17. EVOLUTION OF THE DEMAND AND SUPPLY IN ENERGY RESOURCES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvestru MAXIMILIAN

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Economic, social and political development of human society in recent decades put to the fore the issue of natural resources available to the earth; scientists are asking ever more seriously the question to what extent these resources can support the economic development in the future, can provide food and survival of a growing population and will be able to contribute to the eradication of underdevelopment. The emphasis of major events – the population explosion, the trend of depletion of natural resources, environmental deterioration, underdevelopment etc. – was and it is still discussed with increasing responsibility by specialists, being drafted a large number of forecasts for a variable duration perspective. The trend of depletion of natural resources is another phenomenon of the contemporary world and that will become, certainly, even more pronounced in the near future. Harnessing the increasing exhaustible natural resources with low reserves and a slow recovery of renewable resources raises acutely the issue regarding the conservation of these resources. In recent decades, there is a tendency to waste energy and raw materials in the society. There are produced goods without an absolute utility, being imposed artificially by advertising or fashion swings and many products are designed in such a way that it takes little to compel the buyer to replace them. The "consumption" civilization is characterized as a "society that throws" the population of developed countries (18% of world population dispelling waste form 20 to 25% of the material production of the world. Excessive consumption of raw materials and fuel was favoured by their relatively low prices, maintained under the pressure of interests of transnational companies, prices that disfavoured, however, the developing countries. Consequently, consumption of raw materials and fuel turned to the easily accessible resources that have been heavily exploited, partially abandoning some

  18. The flow of financial resources : An inevitable part of supply chain design activities

    OpenAIRE

    Hofmann, Erik

    2007-01-01

    Supply chain managers do not only face the challenge of designing material and information flows. They also need to arrange the flow of financial resources. The financial side of supply chain design comprises all the economic aspects that result from collaborative concepts and applications. This paper provides an introduction into the field of cash flow organization in supply chains by presenting a collaborative payment model and its common instruments.

  19. Strategic Enterprise Resource Planning for Global Supply Chain Competitiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nageswararao, A. V.; Sahu, Dasarathi; Mohan, V. Krishna

    2011-01-01

    Strategic Enterprise Resource planning (SERP) systems are networked and integrated information mechanisms which are developed to achieve competitive advantage for organizations operating in global scale. It plays a vital role in Integrating various stake holders and channel partners involved in day to day operations. In the present Globalized…

  20. Sustainable development of water resources, water supply and environmental sanitation.

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Austin, LM

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available and be capable of destroying or isolating pathogens. A need exists for documentary evidence to support various claims about different storage periods for ensuring pathogen die-off and safe handling of biosolids (Peasy 2000). Handling of faecal material... in Water and Environmental Health, Task no. 324. [Online] http://www/lboro.ac.uk/well/resources/well-studies/full-reports-pdf/task0324.pdf WHO (2001). Water quality, guidelines, standards and health: Assessment of risk and risk management for water...

  1. Energy security of supply and oil shale resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elkarmi, F.

    1994-01-01

    Jordan must utilize its huge oil shale deposits in order to increase domestic security of energy supply and benefit financially. Utilization processes will require large scale financial expenditures, beyond Jordan's means. Therefore, the BOT scheme seems to be the perfects solution. Since oil shale retorting technology will produce oil which can be traded to generate valuable foreign exchange revenues, it is more advantageous than direct burning technology which produces electricity limited to local consumption regardless of economics. Under the BOT scheme, the incentive, for the foreign sponsor is to return his investment via quantities of oil; for Jordan the aim is to meet local energy demand and acquire the plant infrastructure in the long term. Recent events in the more traditional oil fields of the region make such a project in Jordan more attractive. (author) 3 tabs. 2 figs

  2. Analysis of Aluminum Resource Supply Structure and Guarantee Degree in China Based on Sustainable Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaoli Liu

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Aluminum is a strategic mineral resource, and China’s aluminum production and consumption is fairly large. However, its supply guarantee is uncertain because of a high dependency on external raw materials. This uncertainty may expand, so finding a way to reduce the uncertainty of aluminum resource supply is especially important. This paper applies the SFA method to analyze the aluminum flows in mainland China from 1996 to 2014, and establishes a supply structure model to measure its supply guarantee degree. The results claim that: (1 China’s aluminum production can satisfy demand and even create a surplus; (2 Domestic self-productive primary and secondary aluminum increased at an annual rate of 12% and 24%; (3 The proportion of self-productive secondary aluminum in the supply structure increased from 7.7% in 1996 to 12.8% in 2014, while that of primary aluminum decreased from 79.6% to 42.8%; (4 The total supply guarantee degree decreased from 87.3% to 55.6% in this period. These results provide a feasible way to solve this plight: the proportion of secondary aluminum in the supply structure should be enhanced, and an efficient aluminum resource recycling system needs to be established as soon as possible to ensure its sustainable supply.

  3. Interplay between r- and K-strategists leads to phytoplankton underyielding under pulsed resource supply.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papanikolopoulou, Lydia A; Smeti, Evangelia; Roelke, Daniel L; Dimitrakopoulos, Panayiotis G; Kokkoris, Giorgos D; Danielidis, Daniel B; Spatharis, Sofie

    2018-03-01

    Fluctuations in nutrient ratios over seasonal scales in aquatic ecosystems can result in overyielding, a condition arising when complementary life-history traits of coexisting phytoplankton species enables more complete use of resources. However, when nutrient concentrations fluctuate under short-period pulsed resource supply, the role of complementarity is less understood. We explore this using the framework of Resource Saturation Limitation Theory (r-strategists vs. K-strategists) to interpret findings from laboratory experiments. For these experiments, we isolated dominant species from a natural assemblage, stabilized to a state of coexistence in the laboratory and determined life-history traits for each species, important to categorize its competition strategy. Then, using monocultures we determined maximum biomass density under pulsed resource supply. These same conditions of resource supply were used with polycultures comprised of combinations of the isolated species. Our focal species were consistent of either r- or K-strategies and the biomass production achieved in monocultures depended on their efficiency to convert resources to biomass. For these species, the K-strategists were less efficient resource users. This affected biomass production in polycultures, which were characteristic of underyielding. In polycultures, K-strategists sequestered more resources than the r-strategists. This likely occurred because the intermittent periods of nutrient limitation that would have occurred just prior to the next nutrient supply pulse would have favored the K-strategists, leading to overall less efficient use of resources by the polyculture. This study provides evidence that fluctuation in resource concentrations resulting from pulsed resource supplies in aquatic ecosystems can result in phytoplankton assemblages' underyielding.

  4. Advancing Resource Efficiency in the Supply Chain - Observations and Opportunities for Action

    Science.gov (United States)

    This document provides U.S. EPA’s perspectives on the discussions at the G7 Alliance on Resource Efficiency U.S.-hosted Workshop on the Use of Life Cycle Concepts in Supply Chain Management to Achieve Resource Efficiency that was held March 22-23, 2016.

  5. Fair sharing of resources in a supply network with constraints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Rui; Buzna, Lubos; Just, Wolfram; Helbing, Dirk; Arrowsmith, David K.

    2012-04-01

    This paper investigates the effect of network topology on the fair allocation of network resources among a set of agents, an all-important issue for the efficiency of transportation networks all around us. We analyze a generic mechanism that distributes network capacity fairly among existing flow demands. The problem can be solved by semianalytical methods on a nearest-neighbor graph with one source and sink pair, when transport occurs over shortest paths. For this setup, we uncover a broad range of patterns of intersecting shortest paths as a function of the distance between the source and the sink. When the number of intersections is the maximum and the distance between the source and the sink is large, we find that a fair allocation implies a decrease of at least 50% from the maximum throughput. We also find that the histogram of the flow allocations assigned to the agents decays as a power law with exponent -1. Our semianalytical framework suggests possible explanations for the well-known reduction of the throughput in fair allocations. It also suggests that the combination of network topology and routing rules can lead to highly uneven (but fair) distributions of resources, a remark of caution to network designers.

  6. Nonregenerative natural resources in a sustainable system of energy supply.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradshaw, Alex M; Hamacher, Thomas

    2012-03-12

    Following the lead of the European Union in introducing binding measures to promote the use of regenerative energy forms, it is not unreasonable to assume that the global demand for combustible raw materials for energy generation will be reduced considerably in the second half of this century. This will not only have a favourable effect on the CO(2) concentration in the atmosphere, but will also help preserve fossil fuels-important as raw materials in the chemical industry-for future generations. Nevertheless, associated with the concomitant massive shift to regenerative energy forms, there will be a strong demand for other exhaustible raw materials, in particular metals, some of which are already regarded as scarce. After reviewing the debate on mineral depletion between "cornucopians" and "pessimists", we discuss the meaning of mineral "scarcity", particularly in the geochemical sense, and mineral "exhaustion". The expected drastic increase in demand for mineral resources caused by demographic and societal pressures, that is, due to the increase in in-use stock, is emphasised. Whilst not discussing the issue of "strong" versus "weak" sustainability in detail, we conclude that regenerative energy systems-like nearly all resource-consuming systems in our society-do not necessarily satisfy generally accepted sustainability criteria. In this regard, we discuss some current examples, namely, lithium and cobalt for batteries, rare earth-based permanent magnets for wind turbines, cadmium and tellurium for solar cells and copper for electrical power distribution. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. Present state and problems of the measures for securing stable supply of uranium resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoneda, Fumishige

    1982-01-01

    The long-term stable supply of uranium resources must be secured in order to accelerate the development and utilization of nuclear power in Japan. All uranium required in Japan is imported from foreign countries, and depends on small number of suppliers. On the use of uranium, various restrictions have been imposed by bilateral agreements from the viewpoint of nuclear non-proliferation policy. At present, the demand-supply relation in uranium market is not stringent, but in the latter half of 1980s, it is feared that it will be stringent. The prospect of the demand and supply of uranium resources, the state of securing uranium resources, the present policy on uranium resources, the necessity of establishing the new policy, and the active promotion of uranium resource measures are described. The measures to be taken are the promotion of exploration and development of mines, the participation in the management of such foreign projects, the promotion of diversifying the supply sources, the establishment of the structure to accept uranium resources, the promotion of the storage of uranium, and the rearrangement of general coordination and promotion functions for uranium resource procurement. (Kako, I.)

  8. Project Galaxy - Sustianable Resource Supply and Environmental Implications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Downing, Mark [ORNL; Wimmer, Robert [Toyota Motor Corp.

    2012-03-01

    Understanding what it takes to move from a corn-based liquid fuels industry to one that is cellulosic-based requires a complex transition over time. This transition implies, among other things, a shift from annual cropping systems considered under United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) policy as commodity crops, to perennial lignocellulosic crops that are herbaceous and wood-based. Because of changes in land use as well as biomass and other crop supplies, land-based environmental amenities such as water quality, soil health and tilth, air quality, and animal and avian species populations and their diversity change also. Environmental effects are measured as magnitudes (how much they are impacted), and direction of the impact (either positive or negative). By developing a series of quantitative and qualitative metrics, the larger issue of defining relative sustainability may be addressed, and this can be done at a finer detail of regional (scale) and environmental amenity-specific impacts. Although much literature exists about research relevant to specific environmental variables, there is no published, documented, nor research literature on direct application of environmental over-compliance with regards a 'biorefinery.' Our three goals were to (1) understand and quantify bioenergy sustainability and some key environmental effects in a generic set of examples; (2) explain the effort and means to define and quantify specific qualitative environmental measures, and to determine a way to understand changes in these measures over time and what their implications might be; and (3) use these outcomes to evaluate potential sites in any geographic area. This would permit assessment of candidate locations, combined with an understanding of co-production of fuels, chemicals, and electric power, to interpret sustainability measures and the relationship between environmental sustainability and economic sustainability. The process of determining environmental

  9. Developing and sustaining human resources in the health supply chain in Ethiopia: barriers and enablers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kälvemark Sporrong, Sofia; Traulsen, Janine M; Damene Kabtimer, Woynabeba; Mekasha Habtegiorgis, Bitsatab; Teshome Gebregeorgise, Dawit; Essah, Nana Am; Khan, Sara A; Brown, Andrew N

    2016-01-01

    The health supply chain is often the weakest link in achieving the health-related Millennium Development Goals and universal health coverage, requiring trained professionals who are often unavailable. In Ethiopia there have been recent developments in the area of health supply chain management. The aim of this study was to explore the current status of the development of human resources in health supply chain management in Ethiopia and to identify important factors affecting this development. A series of face-to-face interviews with key stakeholders was carried out in 2014. The interviews were conducted using a semi-structured interview guide. The interview guide comprised 51 questions. A qualitative analysis of transcripts was made. A total of 25 interviews were conducted. Three themes were identified: General changes: recognition, commitment and resources, Education and training, and Barriers and enablers. Results confirm the development of human resources in health supply chain management in many areas. However, several problems were identified including lack of coordination, partly due to the large number of stakeholders; reported high staff mobility; and a lack of overall strategy regarding the job/career structures necessary for maintaining human resources. Rural areas have a particular set of problems, including in transportation of goods and personnel, attracting and keeping personnel, and in communication and access to information. Ethiopia is on the way to developing a nationwide viable system for health supply chain management. However, there are still challenges. Short-term challenges include the importance of highlighting strategies and programs for human resources in health supply chain management. In the long term, commitments to financial support must be obtained. A strategy is needed for the further development and sustainability of human resources in the health supply chain in Ethiopia.

  10. Climate policy and nonrenewable resources : The green paradox and beyond

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pittel, Karen; van der Ploeg, Rick; Withagen, Cees

    2014-01-01

    Recent developments suggest that well-intended climate policies–including carbon taxes and subsidies for renewable energy – might not accomplish what policy makers intend. Hans-Werner Sinn has described a "green paradox," arguing that these policies could hasten global warming by encouraging owners

  11. About economy of fuel and energy resources in the hot water supply system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rotov, P. V.; Sivukhin, A. A.; Zhukov, D. A.; Zhukova, A. V.

    2017-11-01

    The assessment of the power efficiency realized in the current of heat supply system of technology of regulation of loading of the hot water supply system, considering unevenness consumption of hot water is executed. For the purpose of definition the applicability boundary of realized technology comparative analysis of indicators of the effectiveness of its work within the possible range of the parameters of regulations. Developed a software application “The calculation of the total economy of fuel and energy resources in the hot water supply system when you change of the parameters of regulations”, which allows on the basis of multivariate calculations analyses of their results, to choose the optimum mode of operation heat supply system and to assess the effectiveness of load regulation in the hot water supply system.

  12. Natural biotic resources in LCA: Towards an impact assessment model for sustainable supply chain management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crenna, Eleonora; Sozzo, Sara; Sala, Serenella

    2018-01-20

    Natural resources, biotic and abiotic, are fundamental from both the ecological and socio-economic point of view, being at the basis of life-support. However, since the demand for finite resources continues to increase, the sustainability of current production and consumption patterns is questioned both in developed and developing countries. A transition towards an economy based on biotic renewable resources (bio-economy) is considered necessary in order to support a steady provision of resources, representing an alternative to an economy based on fossil and abiotic resources. However, to ensure a sustainable use of biotic resources, there is the need of properly accounting for their use along supply chains as well as defining a robust and comprehensive impact assessment model. Since so far naturally occurring biotic resources have gained little attention in impact assessment methods, such as life cycle assessment, the aim of this study is to enable the inclusion of biotic resources in the assessment of products and supply chains. This paper puts forward a framework for biotic resources assessment, including: i) the definition of system boundaries between ecosphere and technosphere, namely between naturally occurring and man-made biotic resources; ii) a list of naturally occurring biotic resources which have a commercial value, as basis for building life cycle inventories (NOBR, e.g. wild animals, plants etc); iii) an impact pathway to identify potential impacts on both resource provision and ecosystem quality; iv) a renewability-based indicator (NOBRri) for the impact assessment of naturally occurring biotic resources, including a list of associated characterization factors. The study, building on a solid review of literature and of available statistical data, highlights and discusses the critical aspects and paradoxes related to biotic resource inclusion in LCA: from the system boundaries definition up to the resource characterization.

  13. Determinants of Renewable Energy Resources and Their Relationship Between Economic Growth: The Case of Developing Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Serkan Çınar; Mine Yılmazer

    2015-01-01

    Literature on the relationship between energy consumption and economic growth is based on two different approaches that are supply-side and demand-side. The impact of renewable and non-renewable energy consumption on economic growth is investigated with traditional production function on supply-side approach. The relationship between renewable energy consumption, economic growth, CO2 and energy prices is analyzed on demand-side approach. In this study, the impact of renewable resources on eco...

  14. Braille Literacy: Resources for Instruction, Writing Equipment, and Supplies. NLS Reference Circulars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peaco, Freddie L., Comp.

    2004-01-01

    This reference circular lists instructional materials, supplies, and equipment currently available for learning braille, and cites sources about braille literacy. The resources given are intended to assist sighted individuals who are interested in learning braille or want to transcribe print materials into braille; instructors who teach braille;…

  15. Determining the Supply of Material Resources for High-Rise Construction: Scenario Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minnullina, Anna; Vasiliev, Vladimir

    2018-03-01

    This article presents a multi-criteria approach to determining the supply of material resources for high-rise construction under certain and uncertain conditions, which enables integrating a number of existing models into a fairly compact generalised economic and mathematical model developed for two extreme scenarios.

  16. The Timber Resource Inventory Model (TRIM): a projection model for timber supply and policy analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    P.L. Tedder; R.N. La Mont; J.C. Kincaid

    1987-01-01

    TRIM (Timber Resource Inventory Model) is a yield table projection system developed for timber supply projections and policy analysis. TRIM simulates timber growth, inventories, management and area changes, and removals over the projection period. Programs in the TRIM system, card-by-card descriptions of required inputs, table formats, and sample results are presented...

  17. Role of supply chain management in the wise use of wood resources

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Role of supply chain management in the wise use of wood resources. ... of inputs, while ensuring the health of a company in tough international competition, ... show why SCM has emerged as an important field in wood procurement and finally ...

  18. A Potential Approach for Low Flow Selection in Water Resource Supply and Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ying Ouyang

    2012-01-01

    Low flow selections are essential to water resource management, water supply planning, and watershed ecosystem restoration. In this study, a new approach, namely the frequent-low (FL) approach (or frequent-low index), was developed based on the minimum frequent-low flow or level used in minimum flows and/or levels program in northeast Florida, USA. This FL approach was...

  19. Resource-efficient supply chains: a research framework, literature review and research agenda

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Matopoulos, A.; Barros, A.C.; Vorst, van der J.G.A.J.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose – The study aims to define a research agenda for creating resource-efficient supply chains (RESCs) by identifying and analysing their key characteristics as well as future research opportunities. Design/methodology/approach – We follow a systematic review method to analyse the literature and

  20. Selection of spatial scale for assessing impacts of groundwater-based water supply on freshwater resources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hybel, Anne-Marie; Godskesen, Berit; Rygaard, Martin

    2015-01-01

    used in this study: the Withdrawal-To-Availability ratio (WTA) and the Water Stress Index (WSI). Results were calculated for three groundwater based Danish urban water supplies (Esbjerg, Aarhus, and Copenhagen). The assessment was carried out at three spatial levels: (1) the groundwater body level, (2......) the river basin level, and (3) the regional level. The assessments showed that Copenhagen's water supply had the highest impact on the freshwater resource per cubic meter of water abstracted, with a WSI of 1.75 at Level 1. The WSI values were 1.64 for Aarhus's and 0.81 for Esbjerg's water supply. Spatial......Indicators of the impact on freshwater resources are becoming increasingly important in the evaluation of urban water systems. To reveal the importance of spatial resolution, we investigated how the choice of catchment scale influenced the freshwater impact assessment. Two different indicators were...

  1. Developing and sustaining human resources in the health supply chain in Ethiopia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kälvemark Sporrong, Sofia; Traulsen, Janine M; Damene Kabtimer, Woynabeba

    2016-01-01

    management. The aim of this study was to explore the current status of the development of human resources in health supply chain management in Ethiopia and to identify important factors affecting this development. METHODS: A series of face-to-face interviews with key stakeholders was carried out in 2014...... and training, and Barriers and enablers. Results confirm the development of human resources in health supply chain management in many areas. However, several problems were identified including lack of coordination, partly due to the large number of stakeholders; reported high staff mobility; and a lack...... of overall strategy regarding the job/career structures necessary for maintaining human resources. Rural areas have a particular set of problems, including in transportation of goods and personnel, attracting and keeping personnel, and in communication and access to information. CONCLUSIONS: Ethiopia...

  2. Optimization Analysis of Supply Chain Resource Allocation in Customized Online Shopping Service Mode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianming Yao

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available For an online-shopping company, whether it can provide its customers with customized service is the key to enhance its customers’ experience value and its own competence. A good customized service requires effective integration and reasonable allocation of the company’s supply chain resources running in the background. Based on the analysis of the allocation of supply chain resources in the customized online shopping service mode and its operational characteristics, this paper puts forward an optimization model for the resource allocation and builds an improved ant algorithm to solve it. Finally, the effectiveness and feasibility of the optimization method and algorithm are demonstrated by a numerical simulation. This paper finds that the special online shopping environments lead to many dynamic and uncertain characters of the service demands. Different customized service patterns and their combination patterns should match with different supply chain resource allocations. The optimization model not only reflects the required service cost and delivery time in the objective function, but also considers the service scale effect optimization and the relations of integration benefits and risks. The improved ant algorithm has obvious advantages in flexibly balancing the multiobjective optimizations, adjusting the convergence speed, and adjusting the operation parameters.

  3. Food supply reliance on groundwater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalin, Carole; Puma, Michael; Wada, Yoshihide; Kastner, Thomas

    2016-04-01

    Water resources, essential to sustain human life, livelihoods and ecosystems, are under increasing pressure from population growth, socio-economic development and global climate change. As the largest freshwater resource on Earth, groundwater is key for human development and food security. Yet, excessive abstraction of groundwater for irrigation, driven by an increasing demand for food in recent decades, is leading to fast exhaustion of groundwater reserves in major agricultural areas of the world. Some of the highest depletion rates are observed in Pakistan, India, California Central Valley and the North China Plain aquifers. In addition, the growing economy and population of several countries, such as India and China, makes prospects of future available water and food worrisome. In this context, it is becoming particularly challenging to sustainably feed the world population, without exhausting our water resources. Besides, food production and consumption across the globe have become increasingly interconnected, with many areas' agricultural production destined to remote consumers. In this globalisation era, trade is crucial to the world's food system. As a transfer of water-intensive goods, across regions with varying levels of water productivity, food trade can save significant volumes of water resources globally. This situation makes it essential to address the issue of groundwater overuse for global food supply, accounting for international food trade. To do so, we quantify the current, global use of non-renewable groundwater for major crops, accounting for various water productivity and trade flows. This will highlight areas requiring quickest attention, exposing major exporters and importers of non-renewable groundwater, and thus help explore solutions to improve the sustainability of global food supply.

  4. The case for conserving oil resources: the fundamentals of supply and demand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reynolds, D.B.

    2000-01-01

    This article summarises the evidence for an oil price shock and argues that oil producers, both OPEC and non-OPEC, need to cut back oil production more, in order to conserve oil for the future and to avert sudden extreme movements in oil prices in the next five-to-ten years. Four physical fundamentals determine long-run changes in oil prices: supply, demand, technology and substitutes. We show that supply, technology and substitutes are limited and demand is growing strongly. As demand pushes against supply, prices will rise rapidly. It would be better to conserve oil now, in order to have a smoother transition to higher-priced oil in the future. In addition, oil is such a valuable resource for the worlds economies in general, that we should conserve it for future generations. The world, in its haste for economic growth, should support OPEC conservation efforts. (author)

  5. Exergy Analysis of the Supply of Energy and Material Resources in the Swedish Society

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mei Gong

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Exergy is applied to the Swedish energy supply system for the period 1970–2013. Exergy flow diagrams for the systems of electricity and district heating as well as for the total supply system of energy and material resources for 2012 are presented. The share of renewable use has increased in both electricity and district heat production. The resource use is discussed in four sectors: residential and service, transportation, industry and agriculture. The resource use is also analyzed with respect to exergy efficiency and renewable share. The total exergy input of energy and material resources amounts to about 2700 PJ of which about 530 PJ was used for final consumption in 2012. The results are also compared with similar studies. Even though the share of renewable resource use has increased from 42% in 1980 to 47% in 2012, poor efficiency is still occurring in transportation, space heating, and food production. A strong dependence on fossil and nuclear fuels also implies a serious lack of sustainability. A more exergy efficient technology and a higher renewable energy share are needed in order to become a more sustainable society.

  6. Energy consumption in the food supply system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kamp, Andreas; Østergård, Hanne; Hauggaard-Nielsen, Henrik

    2016-01-01

    Historically, productivity gains have been possible by the application of energy intensive technologies. In the future, new technologies and practices based on energy from renewable resources are central for the development of our food supply system and they will contribute in two different ways....... As the energy sector increasingly bases energy supply on renewable sources, the energy requirements of the food sector will automatically substitute renewable energy for non-renewable energy in all stages of food supply. In principle, the food sector does not need to change if renewable energy is sufficient...... and available as the energy carriers that we are used to today. We may think of this as passive adaptation. A passive adaptation strategy may support a development towards the image ‘high input – high output’. The food sector, however, may also actively adapt to a future without fossil fuels and change...

  7. The inter-relationships between urban dynamics and water resource and supply based on multitemporal analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldea, Alexandru; Aldea, Mihaela

    2016-08-01

    The growth and concentration of population, housing and industry in urban and suburban areas in the continuous evolution of a city over time causes complex social, economic, and physical challenges. The population and its relationship with the use and development of the land and water is a critical issue of urban growth, and since ancient times land, water and man were directly involved in the human populations' survival. Nevertheless the current potential of study over this relationship between urban growth, water supply, drainage and water resources conditions becomes more and more attractive due to the possibility to make use of the broader variety of information sources and technologies readily available in recent years, with emphasis on the open data and on the big data as primary sources. In this regard we present some new possibilities of analyses over the demographics, land use/land cover and water supply and conservation based on a study over a Romanian region of development (Bucharest-Ilfov). As urban development usually outgrows the existing water supply systems, the resolution consists in drilling new and deeper wells, building new water distribution pipelines, building longer aqueducts and larger reservoirs, or finding new sources and constructing completely new water supply systems, water supplies may evolve this way from a result into a cause and driver of urban growth. The evolution trends of the studied area was estimated based on the open satellite time-series imagery and remote sensing techniques by land use/land cover extraction and the identification of the changes in urbanization. The survey is mainly focused on the expansion of the water network in terms of areal, total length and number of connections correlated with the amount of water produced, consumed and lost within a supply zone. Some urban human activities including the industrial ones alter water resource by pollution, over pumping of groundwater, construction of dams and reservoirs

  8. The Impact of Information System-Enabled Supply Chain Process Integration on Business Performance: A Resource-Based Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Morteza Ghobakhloo; Sai Hong Tang; Mohammad Sadegh Sabouri; Norzima Zulkifli

    2014-01-01

    This paper seeks to develop and test a model to examine the relationships between, technical aspects of IS resources (IS alignment, IS resources technical quality, IS advancement), supply chain process integration, and firm performance. A questionnaire-based survey was conducted to collect data from 227 supply chain, logistics, or procurement/purchasing managers of leading manufacturing and retail organizations. Drawing on resources-based view of the firm, and through extending the concept of...

  9. Resource Supply Overrides Temperature as a Controlling Factor of Marine Phytoplankton Growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marañón, Emilio; Cermeño, Pedro; Huete-Ortega, María; López-Sandoval, Daffne C.; Mouriño-Carballido, Beatriz; Rodríguez-Ramos, Tamara

    2014-01-01

    The universal temperature dependence of metabolic rates has been used to predict how ocean biology will respond to ocean warming. Determining the temperature sensitivity of phytoplankton metabolism and growth is of special importance because this group of organisms is responsible for nearly half of global primary production, sustains most marine food webs, and contributes to regulate the exchange of CO2 between the ocean and the atmosphere. Phytoplankton growth rates increase with temperature under optimal growth conditions in the laboratory, but it is unclear whether the same degree of temperature dependence exists in nature, where resources are often limiting. Here we use concurrent measurements of phytoplankton biomass and carbon fixation rates in polar, temperate and tropical regions to determine the role of temperature and resource supply in controlling the large-scale variability of in situ metabolic rates. We identify a biogeographic pattern in phytoplankton metabolic rates, which increase from the oligotrophic subtropical gyres to temperate regions and then coastal waters. Variability in phytoplankton growth is driven by changes in resource supply and appears to be independent of seawater temperature. The lack of temperature sensitivity of realized phytoplankton growth is consistent with the limited applicability of Arrhenius enzymatic kinetics when substrate concentrations are low. Our results suggest that, due to widespread resource limitation in the ocean, the direct effect of sea surface warming upon phytoplankton growth and productivity may be smaller than anticipated. PMID:24921945

  10. Selection of spatial scale for assessing impacts of groundwater-based water supply on freshwater resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hybel, A-M; Godskesen, B; Rygaard, M

    2015-09-01

    Indicators of the impact on freshwater resources are becoming increasingly important in the evaluation of urban water systems. To reveal the importance of spatial resolution, we investigated how the choice of catchment scale influenced the freshwater impact assessment. Two different indicators were used in this study: the Withdrawal-To-Availability ratio (WTA) and the Water Stress Index (WSI). Results were calculated for three groundwater based Danish urban water supplies (Esbjerg, Aarhus, and Copenhagen). The assessment was carried out at three spatial levels: (1) the groundwater body level, (2) the river basin level, and (3) the regional level. The assessments showed that Copenhagen's water supply had the highest impact on the freshwater resource per cubic meter of water abstracted, with a WSI of 1.75 at Level 1. The WSI values were 1.64 for Aarhus's and 0.81 for Esbjerg's water supply. Spatial resolution was identified as a major factor determining the outcome of the impact assessment. For the three case studies, WTA and WSI were 27%-583% higher at Level 1 than impacts calculated for the regional scale. The results highlight that freshwater impact assessments based on regional data, rather than sub-river basin data, may dramatically underestimate the actual impact on the water resource. Furthermore, this study discusses the strengths and shortcomings of the applied indicator approaches. A sensitivity analysis demonstrates that although WSI has the highest environmental relevance, it also has the highest uncertainty, as it requires estimations of non-measurable environmental water requirements. Hence, the development of a methodology to obtain more site-specific and relevant estimations of environmental water requirements should be prioritized. Finally, the demarcation of the groundwater resource in aquifers remains a challenge for establishing a consistent method for benchmarking freshwater impacts caused by groundwater abstraction. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier

  11. The people factor: An analysis of the human resources landscape for immunization supply chain management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasonde, Musonda; Steele, Pamela

    2017-04-19

    Human resources is the backbone of any system and the key enabler for all other functions to effectively perform. This is no different with the Immunization Supply Chain, more so in todays' complex operating environment with the increasing strain caused by new vaccines and expanding immunization programmes (Source: WHO, UNICEF). In order to drive the change that is required for sustainability and continuous improvement, every immunization supply chain needs an effective leader. A dedicated and competent immunization supply chain leader with adequate numbers of skilled, accountable, motivated and empowered personnel at all levels of the health system to overcome existing and emerging immunization supply chain (ISC) challenges. Without an effective supply chain leader supported by capable and motivated staff, none of the interventions designed to strengthen the supply chain can be effective or sustainable (Source: Gavi Alliance SC Strategy 2014). This landscape analysis was preceded by an HR Evidence Review (March 2014) and has served to inform global partner strategies and country activities, as well as highlight where most support is required. The study also aimed to define the status quo in order to create some form of baseline against which to measure the impact of interventions related to HR going forward. The analysis was comprised of a comprehensive desk review, a survey of 40 respondents from 32 countries and consultations with ISC practitioners in several forums. The findings highlight key areas that should inform the pillars of a HR capacity development plan. At the same time, it revealed that there are some positive examples of where countries are actively addressing some of the issues identified and putting in place mechanisms and structures to optimize the SC function. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  12. Sustainability Analysis of the Water Resources and Supply of the Vieux Fort Region of Saint Lucia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coles, D.; Johnson, B.; Morgan, F.

    2005-05-01

    In the Vieux Fort region of the Caribbean island of St. Lucia, water needs are becoming acute. The water supply shortfalls during the dry season will continue to grow as population and development increase, unless action is taken. Actions to address the problem should include measures to optimize the present water delivery system and the development of a new supply, through new intakes, groundwater, or reservoir construction. An investigation into the potential for groundwater resources using electrical resistivity soundings indicated a likely pervasive, shallow aquitard of clay materials below the water table; the shallowness of this aquitard virtually precludes the existence of productive perched aquifers. Consequently, a model of Grande Riviere du Vieux Fort (Big Vieux Fort River) seasonal surface-water flow was developed, based on a digital elevation model and rainfall data, allowing us to analyze the possible productivity of any new intakes placed along the river. A specific site downstream of the present intake was recommended for potential development. Recommendations were given for short, medium and long-term development of the resources and supply of the Vieux Fort region of southern St. Lucia.

  13. Renewable Substitutability Index: Maximizing Renewable Resource Use in Buildings

    OpenAIRE

    Srinivasan, Ravi; Campbell, Daniel; Wang, Wei

    2015-01-01

    In order to achieve a material and energy balance in buildings that is sustainable in the long run, there is an urgent need to assess the renewable and non-renewable resources used in the manufacturing process and to progressively replace non-renewable resources with renewables. Such progressive disinvestment in the non-renewable resources that may be substituted with renewable resources is referred to as “Renewable Substitutability” and if implemented, this process will lead to a paradigm sh...

  14. An integrated study of earth resources in the State of California using remote sensing techniques. [supply, demand, and impact of California water resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colwell, R. N.; Burgy, R. H.; Algazi, V. R.; Draeger, W. C.; Estes, J. E.; Bowden, L. W. (Principal Investigator)

    1974-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. The supply, demand, and impact relationships of California's water resources as exemplified by the Feather River project and other aspects of the California Water Plan are discussed.

  15. Simulation modelling of central order processing system under resource sharing strategy in demand-driven garment supply chains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, K.; Thomassey, S.; Zeng, X.

    2017-10-01

    In this paper we proposed a central order processing system under resource sharing strategy for demand-driven garment supply chains to increase supply chain performances. We examined this system by using simulation technology. Simulation results showed that significant improvement in various performance indicators was obtained in new collaborative model with proposed system.

  16. Impact of human resources on wine supply chain flexibility, quality, and economic performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. L. García-Alcaraz

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This article assesses the impact of human resources skills on production quality, flexibility, and economic performance of La Rioja’s wine supply chain. These four elements were integrated as latent variables composed of 15 observed variables and associated through six hypotheses. Data were gathered from 64 wineries located in La Rioja, Spain, and hypotheses were validated in a structural equation model using WarpPLS v.5 software. Results indicate that human resources skills have a positive direct impact on SC flexibility and quality, but not on economic performance; however, these variables are indirectly associated through SC quality and SC flexibility.

  17. The Spanish Food Industry on Global Supply Chains and Its Impact on Water Resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa Duarte

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The study of the impact of economic activities on natural resources through global supply chains is increasingly demanded in the context of the growing globalization of economies and product fragmentation. Taking Spain as a case study and a sector with significant economic and environmental impacts, the agri-food industry, the objective of this work is two-fold. First, we estimate the associated water impact, both from the production and consumption perspectives, paying special attention to the water embodied in production exchanges among countries and sectors. To that aim, we use an environmentally-extended multiregional input-output model (MRIO. Second, we assess the main driving factors behind changes in direct and embodied water consumption between the years 1995 and 2009 by means of a structural decomposition analysis. The MRIO model provides a comprehensive estimate of the economic linkages among regions and economic sectors and, therefore, allows calculating the environmental impacts over international value chains. The results indicate that the food industry exerts large impacts on global water resources, particularly given the remarkable interactions with the domestic and foreign agricultural sectors, These growing linkages show how consumption patterns, and, therefore, lifestyles, involve large environmental impacts through the whole and global supply chains.

  18. Secure energy supply in 2025: Indonesia's need for an energy policy strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mujiyanto, Sugeng; Tiess, Günter

    2013-01-01

    Indonesia as an emerging country with one of the fastest growing economies requires sufficient supply with energy for national development. Domestic energy production cannot satisfy the domestic demand, and the deficiency necessitates growing imports. The present energy mix consists of 96% from non-renewable sources, i.e. fossil fuels, less than 4% from renewables. Government Regulation 5/2006 aims at increasing the proportion of renewable sources to 17%. Two scenarios for the energy situation in 2025 have been elaborated and are discussed. An overall energy policy strategy and regulatory framework covering non-renewable and renewable resources are crucial for securing energy demand. - Highlights: • Indonesia aims at 17% renewable energy in energy mix 2025. • Population growth exceeds increase of energy production. • Investment incentives for new technologies, exploration and efficient production are necessary. • Clear and comprehensive energy policy strategy and regulatory framework are crucial

  19. Beryllium—A critical mineral commodity—Resources, production, and supply chain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lederer, Graham W.; Foley, Nora K.; Jaskula, Brian W.; Ayuso, Robert A.

    2016-11-14

    Beryllium is a lightweight metallic element used in a wide variety of specialty and industrial applications. As a function of its unique chemical and physical properties, such as a high stiffness-to-weight ratio, resistance to temperature extremes, and high thermal conductivity, beryllium cannot be easily replaced by substitute materials in applications where combinations of these properties make it the material of choice. Because the number of beryllium producers is limited and the use of substitute materials in specific defense-related applications that are vital to national security is inadequate, several studies have categorized beryllium as a critical and strategic material. This categorization has led to the United States Government recommending that beryllium be stockpiled for use in the event of a national emergency. As of December 31, 2015, the National Defense Stockpile inventory of hot-pressed beryllium metal powder, structured beryllium metal powder, and vacuum-cast beryllium metal totaled 78 metric tons (t).The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Mineral Resources Program supports research on the occurrence, quality, quantity, and availability of mineral resources vital to the economy and national security. The USGS, through its National Minerals Information Center (NMIC), collects, analyzes, and disseminates information on more than 90 nonfuel mineral commodities from more than 180 countries. This fact sheet provides information on the production, consumption, supply chain, geology, and resource availability of beryllium in a global context.

  20. Non-renewable water use on the globe and its implication to sea level change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oki, T.; Pokhrel, Y. N.; Hanasaki, N.; Koirala, S.; Kanae, S.

    2012-12-01

    The real hydrological cycles on the Earth are not natural anymore. Global hydrological model simulations of the water cycle and available water resources should have an ability to consider the effects of human interventions on hydrological cycles. Anthropogenic activity modules, such as reservoir operation, crop growth and water demand in croplands, and environmental flows, were incorporated into a land surface model to form a new model, MAT-HI. Total terrestrial water storages (TWS) in large river basins were estimated using the new model by off-line simulation, and compared with the TWS observed by GRACE for 2002-2007. MAT-HI was further coupled with a module representing the ground water level fluctuations, and consists a new land surface scheme HiGW-MAT (Human Intervention and Ground Water coupled MATSIRO). HiGW-MAT is also associated with a scheme tracing the origin and flow path with the consideration on the sources of water withdrawal from stream flow, medium-size reservoirs and nonrenewable groundwater in addition to precipitation to croplands which enabled the assessment of the origin of water producing major crops. Areas highly dependent on nonrenewable groundwater are detected in the Pakistan, Bangladesh, Western part of India, north and western parts of China, some regions in the Arabian Peninsula, and the western part of the United States through Mexico. Cumulative nonrenewable groundwater withdrawals estimated by the model are corresponding fairly well with the country statistics of total groundwater withdrawals. Ground water table depletions in large aquifers in US estimated by HiGW-MAT were compared with in-situ observational data, and the correspondences are very good. Mean global exploitation of ground water for 2000 estimated by HiGW-MAT is 360 km3/y as an excess of ground water withdrawal over natural recharge into aquifer. This unsustainable groundwater use, together with artificial reservoir water impoundment, climate-driven changes in

  1. Lost food, wasted resources: global food supply chain losses and their impacts on freshwater, cropland, and fertiliser use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kummu, M; de Moel, H; Porkka, M; Siebert, S; Varis, O; Ward, P J

    2012-11-01

    Reducing food losses and waste is considered to be one of the most promising measures to improve food security in the coming decades. Food losses also affect our use of resources, such as freshwater, cropland, and fertilisers. In this paper we estimate the global food supply losses due to lost and wasted food crops, and the resources used to produce them. We also quantify the potential food supply and resource savings that could be made by reducing food losses and waste. We used publically available global databases to conduct the study at the country level. We found that around one quarter of the produced food supply (614 kcal/cap/day) is lost within the food supply chain (FSC). The production of these lost and wasted food crops accounts for 24% of total freshwater resources used in food crop production (27 m(3)/cap/yr), 23% of total global cropland area (31 × 10(-3)ha/cap/yr), and 23% of total global fertiliser use (4.3 kg/cap/yr). The per capita use of resources for food losses is largest in North Africa & West-Central Asia (freshwater and cropland) and North America & Oceania (fertilisers). The smallest per capita use of resources for food losses is found in Sub-Saharan Africa (freshwater and fertilisers) and in Industrialised Asia (cropland). Relative to total food production, the smallest food supply and resource losses occur in South & Southeast Asia. If the lowest loss and waste percentages achieved in any region in each step of the FSC could be reached globally, food supply losses could be halved. By doing this, there would be enough food for approximately one billion extra people. Reducing the food losses and waste would thus be an important step towards increased food security, and would also increase the efficiency of resource use in food production. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Must producers earn a resource rent?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Austvik, Ole Gunnar

    2003-01-01

    In petroleum producing countries it has been a prevailing opinion that a resource rent should be earned by petroleum producers due to the commodities' non-renewable nature. An important element in this logic is that the supply of oil and natural gas is limited to relatively few places in the world. As the resources are exploited, the remaining reserves are reduced. What is extracted today cannot be extracted tomorrow. Rationing of the scarce resource takes place through pricing mechanisms. Due to the scarcity the consumers must pay a higher price than the marginal production costs, so that the amounts supplied and demanded become equal. Most producers of oil and gas and not just the ones that produce the cheapest, have therefore until now earned an economic rent

  3. Determining optimum levels of DSM [demand-side management] as a supply-side resource

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giles, S.H.; Mitchell, E.D.

    1990-01-01

    San Diego Gas and Electric Company (SDGE) recommends the evaluation of demand-side management as a supply-side resource. The advantages of concurrent economic analysis of DSM options with other traditional sources represents a significant improvement over analysis either before or after the development of a resource plan. The evaluation of utility-sponsored DSM programs that provide system benefits that include deferment of capacity additions and improvements in more efficient system operation should be evaluated side-by-side with traditional resources that provide similar benefits. The utility decision to either provide capital costs to construct a power plant or make demand payments for a power purchase is directly analogous to the decision to provide funding for a DSM program that would defer these same investments. Both types of decision represent utility control over investment decisions that allow the utility to provide reliable, low-cost power to its customers. SDGE has also had experience with using generation expansion scenarios to test different levels of pre-selected packages of DSM programs, attempting to evaluate the total costs of system expansion for each of the different packages. This method was fraught with problems, and the best information that could be gained was if the selection of DSM packages happened to bracket a lower cost scenario, when it could reasonably be assumed that both smaller and larger levels of DSM were not as cost effective as the intermediate level. However, in many cases the selection of DSM programs did not produce this result and the important question of whether individual DSM programs were worthwhile when evaluated individually, or whether the lowest cost scenario would be improved with more or less DSM, could not be answered

  4. Resource limits and conversion efficiency with implications for climate change and California's energy supply

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croft, Gregory Donald

    There are two commonly-used approaches to modeling the future supply of mineral resources. One is to estimate reserves and compare the result to extraction rates, and the other is to project from historical time series of extraction rates. Perceptions of abundant oil supplies in the Middle East and abundant coal supplies in the United States are based on the former approach. In both of these cases, an approach based on historical production series results in a much smaller resource estimate than aggregate reserve numbers. This difference is not systematic; natural gas production in the United States shows a strong increasing trend even though modest reserve estimates have resulted in three decades of worry about the gas supply. The implication of a future decline in Middle East oil production is that the market for transportation fuels is facing major changes, and that alternative fuels should be analyzed in this light. Because the U.S. holds very large coal reserves, synthesizing liquid hydrocarbons from coal has been suggested as an alternative fuel supply. To assess the potential of this process, one has to look at both the resource base and the net efficiency. The three states with the largest coal production declines in the 1996 to 2006 period are among the top 5 coal reserve holders, suggesting that gross coal reserves are a poor indicator of future production. Of the three categories of coal reserves reported by the U.S. Energy Information Administration, reserves at existing mines is the narrowest category and is approximately the equivalent of proved developed oil reserves. By this measure, Wyoming has the largest coal reserves in the U.S., and it accounted for all of U.S. coal production growth over the 1996 to 2006 time period. In Chapter 2, multi-cycle Hubbert curve analysis of historical data of coal production from 1850 to 2007 demonstrates that U.S. anthracite and bituminous coal are past their production peak. This result contradicts estimates based

  5. Analysis of Water Resources Supply and Demand and Security of Water Resources Development in Irrigation Regions of the Middle Reaches of the Heihe River Basin, Northwest China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JI Xi-bin; KANG Er-si; CHEN Ren-sheng; ZHAO Wen-zhi; XIAO Sheng-chun; JIN Bo-wen

    2006-01-01

    Based on the data for meteorology, hydrology, soil, planting, vegetation, and socio-economic development of the irrigation region in the middle reaches of the Heihe River basin, Northwest China, the model of balance of water supply and demand in the region was established, and the security of water resource was assessed, from which the results that the effects of unified management of water resources in the Heihe River basin between Gansu Province and Inner Mongolia on regional hydrology are significant with a decrease in water supply diverted from Heihe River and an increase in groundwater extracted. In addition, it was found that the groundwater level has been steadily decreasing due to over pumping and decrease in recharges. In present year (2003), the volume of potential groundwater in the irrigation districts is far small because of the groundwater overdraft; even in the particular regions, there is no availability of groundwater resources for use. By 2003, water supply is not sufficient to meet the water demand in the different irrigation districts, the sustainable development and utilization of water resources are not secured, and the water supply crisis occurs in Pingchuan irrigation district. Achieving water security for the sustainable development of society, agriculture, economy, industry, and livelihoods while maintaining or improving the abilities of the management and planning of water resources, determining of the reasonable percentage between water supply and groundwater utilization and water saving in agricultural irrigation are taken into account. If this does not occur, it is feared that the present performance of water development and planning may further aggravate the problem of scarcities of water resources and further damage the fragile ecological system.

  6. Renewable and nonrenewable energy consumption, real GDP and CO2 emissions nexus: a structural VAR approach in Pakistan

    OpenAIRE

    Muhammad, Shahbaz Shabbir; Muhammad, Zeshan; Muhammad, Shahbaz

    2011-01-01

    Any rise in real GDP crafts higher energy demand in Pakistan. This short-term rising energy requirement is fulfilled with the help of nonrenewable and renewable energy consumption, but nonrenewable energy consumption adds more in it. The rise in nonrenewable energy consumption lifts real GDP up in short-run. Forecast error variance decomposition illustrates nonrenewable energy consumption alone passes 87% variation in the CO2 emissions. This verifies fossil fuels are accountable for environme...

  7. Benefits of greenhouse gas mitigation on the supply, management, and use of water resources in the United States

    OpenAIRE

    Strzepek, Kenneth; Neumann, J.; SMith, J.; Martinich, J.; Boehlert, B.; Hejazi, M.; Henderson, J.; Wobus, C.; Jones, R.; Calvin, K.; Johnson, D.; Monier, Erwan; Strzepek, J.; Yoon, J.-H.

    2013-01-01

    Climate change impacts on water resources in the United States are likely to be far-reaching and substantial because the water is integral to climate, and the water sector spans many parts of the economy. This paper estimates impacts and damages from five water resource-related models addressing runoff, drought risk, economics of water supply/demand, water stress, and flooding damages. The models differ in the water system assessed, spatial scale, and unit of assessment, but together provide ...

  8. An Extended Petri-Net Based Approach for Supply Chain Process Enactment in Resource-Centric Web Service Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaodong; Zhang, Xiaoyu; Cai, Hongming; Xu, Boyi

    Enacting a supply-chain process involves variant partners and different IT systems. REST receives increasing attention for distributed systems with loosely coupled resources. Nevertheless, resource model incompatibilities and conflicts prevent effective process modeling and deployment in resource-centric Web service environment. In this paper, a Petri-net based framework for supply-chain process integration is proposed. A resource meta-model is constructed to represent the basic information of resources. Then based on resource meta-model, XML schemas and documents are derived, which represent resources and their states in Petri-net. Thereafter, XML-net, a high level Petri-net, is employed for modeling control and data flow of process. From process model in XML-net, RESTful services and choreography descriptions are deduced. Therefore, unified resource representation and RESTful services description are proposed for cross-system integration in a more effective way. A case study is given to illustrate the approach and the desirable features of the approach are discussed.

  9. Massive post-fire flowering events in a tropical mountain region of Brazil: high episodic supply of floral resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abel Augusto Conceição

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The species Vellozia sincorana L.B.Sm. & Ayensu is key to biodiversity conservation in the tropical mountain region of Brazil. The massive post-fire flowering of this endemic species provides a large, episodic supply of floral resources, mostly nectar, to animals.

  10. A methodology for handling exploration risk and constructing supply curves for oil and gas plays when resources are stacked

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dallaire, S.M.

    1994-01-01

    The use of project economics to estimate full-cycle supply prices for undiscovered oil and gas resources is a straightforward exercise for those regions where oil and gas plays are not vertically superimposed on one another, ie. are not stacked. Exploration risk is incorporated into such an analysis by using a simple two-outcome decision tree model to include the costs of dry and abandoned wells. The decision tree model can be expanded to include multiple targets or discoveries, but this expansion requires additional drilling statistics and resource assessment data. A methodology is suggested to include exploration risk in the preparation of supply curves when stacked resources are expected and little or no information on uphole resources is available. In this method, all exploration costs for wells drilled to targets in the play being evaluated are assigned to that play, rather than prorated among the multiple targets or discoveries. Undiscovered pools are assumed to either bear all exploration costs (full cycle discoveries) or no exploration costs (half cycle discoveries). The weighted full- and half-cycle supply price is shown to be a more realistic estimate of the supply price of undiscovered pools in a play when stacked resources exist. The statistics required for this methodology are minimal, and resource estimates for prospects in other zones are not required. The equation relating the average pool finding cost to the discovery record is applicable to different scenarios regarding the presence of shallower and deeper resources. The equation derived for the two-outcome decision tree model is shown to be a special case of the general expression. 5 refs., 7 figs

  11. Factors that May Lead on the Non-renewal of Certified Organic Product According to Organic Producers in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andréa Rossi Scalco

    Full Text Available Abstract: The regulatory process of the organic sector in Brazil began in 1999 and has gone through several changes, culminating in the Decree-Law of December 2007, which established rules for the production and trading of organic products in Brazil. In such Decree, the certification has become a compulsory requirement for production and trading of such products, whose rules governing their obtaining follow rigorous controls standards. As the certification process of organic products is recent and there is a lack of studies carried on this subject, this study will contribute to fill the existing gap in the international literature, mainly national about this topic, once that aimed to identify factors that influence the possibility of non-renewal of organic production certificate, according to the perception of certified producers in Brazil. Through this effort, this research should contribute to wider adherence and maintenance of the producer in the certified system or, at least, proposals for further works. A total of 200 producers from several Brazilian states participated in this study, and data analysis was performed using descriptive statistics and, later, exploratory factor analysis. The results achieved holds that the determining factors to the non-renewal of the certificate involve variables related to transactions among operators, organization of the supply chain and to the regulations. Furthermore, to overcome the challenges imposed to rural producers, one of the proposals is for greater effective actions from representative industry entities of the sector in aspects that are related to the certification process.

  12. Part I. Alternative fuel-cycle and deployment strategies: their influence on long-term energy supply and resource usage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Till, C.E.; Chang, Y.I.; Rudolph, R.R.

    1980-01-01

    This report examines the implications of alternative fast breeder fuel cycles and deployment strategies on long-term energy supply and uranium resource utilization. An international-aggregate treatment for nuclear energy demand and resource base assumptions was adopted where specific assumptions were necessary for system analyses, but the primary emphasis was placed on understanding the general relationships between energy demand, uranium resource and breeder deployment option. The fast breeder deployment options studied include the reference Pu/U cycle as well as alternative cycles with varying degrees of thorium utilization

  13. Modeling and forecasting the supply of oil and gas: a survey of existing approaches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walls, M.A.

    1992-01-01

    This paper surveys the literature on empirical oil and gas supply modeling. The models fall into two broad categories: geologic/engineering and econometric. Two types of geologic/engineering models are surveyed - play analysis, or simulation models and discovery process models. A third category of supply models, 'hybrids', which contain features of both econometric and discovery process models are also discussed. Particular attention is paid to whether or not the models have linkages between a dynamic model of producer optimizing behaviour and the factors governing supply of the resource; whether or not expectations of future prices, costs, and other stochastic variables are incorporated; whether the physical characteristics of non-renewable resources are captured; and how well the models perform. The paper concludes that the best path for future research efforts is a hybrid approach where the econometric component is derived from a stochastic dynamic optimization model of exploration behaviour. 51 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab

  14. Renewable Substitutability Index: Maximizing Renewable Resource Use in Buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    In order to achieve a material and energy balance in buildings that is sustainable in the long run, there is an urgent need to assess the renewable and non-renewable resources used in the manufacturing process and to progressively replace non-renewable resources with renewables. ...

  15. Future European gas supply in the resource triangle of the Former Soviet Union, the Middle East and Northern Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Remme, Uwe; Blesl, Markus; Fahl, Ulrich

    2008-01-01

    A steady increase of natural gas demand can be observed in Europe over the last decades. Due to the European obligation to reduce greenhouse gas emissions in the framework of the Kyoto Protocol, the trend toward natural gas is expected to continue in the future. The increased consumption is faced by comparably low indigenous gas resources within Europe, so that the dependency of Europe on gas imports from abroad will rise in the future. In addition to the existing supply sources Russia and Algeria, gas resources from the Middle East and the Caspian and the Central Asian regions may be supply options to cover Europe's gas demand in the future. Against this background, possible natural gas supply options as well as the transport infrastructure to and within Europe are discussed regarding their technical capacity and their costs. With the help of a cost-minimization model of the European gas supply system, the gas flows and the infrastructure capacity development up to the year 2030 are analyzed. In a sensitivity analysis, the impacts of demand variations on the choice of supply sources are studied. (author)

  16. A potential approach for low flow selection in water resource supply and management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouyang, Ying

    2012-08-01

    SummaryLow flow selections are essential to water resource management, water supply planning, and watershed ecosystem restoration. In this study, a new approach, namely the frequent-low (FL) approach (or frequent-low index), was developed based on the minimum frequent-low flow or level used in minimum flows and/or levels program in northeast Florida, USA. This FL approach was then compared to the conventional 7Q10 approach for low flow selections prior to its applications, using the USGS flow data from the freshwater environment (Big Sunflower River, Mississippi) as well as from the estuarine environment (St. Johns River, Florida). Unlike the FL approach that is associated with the biological and ecological impacts, the 7Q10 approach could lead to the selections of extremely low flows (e.g., near-zero flows) that may hinder its use for establishing criteria to prevent streams from significant harm to biological and ecological communities. Additionally, the 7Q10 approach could not be used when the period of data records is less than 10 years by definition while this may not the case for the FL approach. Results from both approaches showed that the low flows from the Big Sunflower River and the St. Johns River decreased as time elapsed, demonstrating that these two rivers have become drier during the last several decades with a potential of salted water intrusion to the St. Johns River. Results from the FL approach further revealed that the recurrence probability of low flow increased while the recurrence interval of low flow decreased as time elapsed in both rivers, indicating that low flows occurred more frequent in these rivers as time elapsed. This report suggests that the FL approach, developed in this study, is a useful alternative for low flow selections in addition to the 7Q10 approach.

  17. Role of Non-Renewable and Renewable Energy for Sustainable Electricity Generation in Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Hussain Ali Bekhet; Nor Hamisham Harun

    2016-01-01

    The main objective of this paper is to give a comprehensive review of non-renewable energy and renewable energy utilization in Malaysia, including hydropower, solar photovoltaic, biomass and biogas technologies. Malaysia mainly depends on non-renewable energy (natural gas, coal and crude oil) for electricity generation. Therefore, this paper provides a comprehensive review of the energy sector and discusses diversification of electricity generation as a strategy for providing sustainable ener...

  18. Integration of carbon capture and sequestration and renewable resource technologies for sustainable energy supply in the transportation sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Minsoo; Won, Wangyun; Kim, Jiyong

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Integration of carbon capture and sequestration and renewable resource technologies. • A new superstructure-based optimization model to identify the energy supply system. • Model validation via application study of the future transportation sector in Korea. - Abstract: In this study, a new design for a sustainable energy system was developed by integrating two technology frameworks: the renewable resource-based energy supply and the conventional (fossil fuel) resource-based energy production coupled with carbon capture and sequestration. To achieve this goal, a new superstructure-based optimization model was proposed using mixed-integer linear programming to identify the optimal combination of these technologies that minimizes the total daily cost, subject to various practical and logical constraints. The performance of the proposed model was validated via an application study of the future transportation sector in Korea. By considering six different scenarios that combined varying crude oil/natural gas prices and environmental regulation options, the optimal configuration of the energy supply system was identified, and the major cost drivers and their sensitivities were analyzed. It was shown that conventional resource-based energy production was preferred if crude oil and natural gas prices were low, even though environmental regulation was considered. Environmental regulation caused an increase in the total daily cost by an average of 26.4%, mainly due to CO_2 capture cost.

  19. Leveraging Human Resource Development Expertise to Improve Supply Chain Managers' Skills and Competencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellinger, Alexander E.; Ellinger, Andrea D.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: There is an ongoing shortage of talented supply chain managers with the necessary skills and business-related competencies to manage increasingly complex and strategically important supply chain processes. The purpose of this paper is to propose that organizations can create and maintain competitive advantage by leveraging the expertise…

  20. The carbon footprint and non-renewable energy demand of algae-derived biodiesel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azadi, Pooya; Brownbridge, George; Mosbach, Sebastian; Smallbone, Andrew; Bhave, Amit; Inderwildi, Oliver; Kraft, Markus

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Global sensitivity analysis is performed to determine the environmental impact of algal biodiesel. • GHG emission of algal biodiesel ranges from 40 to 125 g e-CO 2 /MJ. • Biodiesel from dried algae may prove sustainable if a low carbon solution e.g. solar drying is used. - Abstract: We determine the environmental impact of different biodiesel production strategies from algae feedstock in terms of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and non-renewable energy consumption, we then benchmark the results against those of conventional and synthetic diesel obtained from fossil resources. The algae cultivation in open pond raceways and the transesterification process for the conversion of algae oil into biodiesel constitute the common elements among all considered scenarios. Anaerobic digestion and hydrothermal gasification are considered for the conversion of the residues from the wet oil extraction route; while integrated gasification–heat and power generation and gasification–Fischer–Tropsch processes are considered for the conversion of the residues from the dry oil extraction route. The GHG emissions per unit energy of the biodiesel are calculated as follows: 41 g e-CO 2 /MJ b for hydrothermal gasification, 86 g e-CO 2 /MJ b for anaerobic digestion, 109 g e-CO 2 /MJ b for gasification–power generation, and 124 g e-CO 2 /MJ b for gasification–Fischer–Tropsch. As expected, non-renewable energy consumptions are closely correlated to the GHG values. Also, using the High Dimensional Model Representation (HDMR) method, a global sensitivity analysis over the entire space of input parameters is performed to rank them with respect to their influence on key sustainability metrics. Considering reasonable ranges over which each parameter can vary, the most influential input parameters for the wet extraction route include extractor energy demand and methane yield generated from anaerobic digestion or hydrothermal gasification of the oil extracted

  1. Workshop Summary Proceedings Document: G7 Alliance on Resource Efficiency: U.S.-hosted Workshop on the Use of Life Cycle Concepts in Supply Chain Management to Achieve Resource Efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    This proceedings document summarizes prepared remarks, presentations and discussions from the G7 Alliance on Resource Efficiency: U.S.-hosted Workshop on the Use of Life Cycle Concepts in Supply Chain Management to Achieve Resource Efficiency.

  2. Green Supply Chain Collaboration for Fashionable Consumer Electronics Products under Third-Party Power Intervention—A Resource Dependence Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Jiuh-Biing Sheu

    2014-01-01

    Under third-party power intervention (TPPI), which increases uncertainty in task environments, complex channel power interplays and restructuring are indispensable among green supply chain members as they move toward sustainable collaborative relationships for increased viability and competitive advantage. From the resource dependence perspective, this work presents a novel conceptual model to investigate the influence of political and social power on channel power restructuring and induced ...

  3. Sustainable development and the exploitation of mineral and energy resources: a review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wellmer, F.-W.; Becker-Platen, J. D.

    2002-04-01

    Natural resources, e.g., metals, industrial minerals, water, and soil, are the essential basis for our economy and well-being. We have to know where these raw materials come from and how they are mined. Sustainable development requires the maintenance, rational use and enhancement of natural resources, as well as a balanced consideration of ecology, economy and social justice. Four general rules concerning the implementation of sustainable development for renewable and non-renewable resources are discussed. Examples of the consumption of selected materials from historical times to the present day are presented, as well as of regional distribution, usage (in contrast to consumption), lifetimes of resources, the supply-and-demand cycle, recycling and substitution in modern times. To fulfill the requirement of sustainable development, the efficiency with which resources are utilized has to be improved. The learning process, often driven by financial rewards, leads from one technology to a better one, thus increasing the efficiency of the use of a resource or commodity. Examples of learning curves are discussed. Industrial countries have to transfer their advanced technologies to developing countries in order to avoid undesirable development in the mining industry and use of natural resources in those regions. The use of the best available technology by the mining industry, taking into account economic considerations, and the necessity to establish environmental guidelines are essential if environmental impact of the production of non-renewable resources is to be minimized. Far more critical than the production of non-renewable resources under the aspect of sustainable development and the capacity of the pollutant sinks of the Earth is the element of natural attenuation with regard to the resources soil and water.

  4. Wind as a utility-grade supply resource: A planning framework for the Pacific Northwest

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, M.S.; Litchfield, J.

    1993-12-01

    Many areas throughout the United States possess favorable wind resources that, as yet, remain undeveloped. This paper provides valuable information on the type of information developers can provide, utility interpretation of the information in regard to electric energy and capacity attributes, and wind resource characteristics of interest to utilities. The paper also reviews key utility planning contexts within which prospective wind resources may be evaluated

  5. A strategy to improve skills in pharmaceutical supply management in East Africa: the regional technical resource collaboration for pharmaceutical management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minzi Omary

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background International initiatives such as the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria, the President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief and the President's Malaria Initiative have significantly increased availability and access to medicines in some parts of the developing world. Despite this, however, skills remain limited on quantifying needs for medications and ordering, receiving and storing medications appropriately; recording medications inventories accurately; distributing medications for use appropriately; and advising patients on how to use medications appropriately. The Regional Technical Resource Collaboration for Pharmaceutical Management (RTRC has been established to help address the problem of skills shortage in pharmaceutical management in East Africa. Methods The initiative brings together academic institutions from four East African countries to participate in skills-building activities in pharmaceutical supply management. The initiative targeted the institutions' ability to conduct assessments of pharmaceutical supply management systems and to develop and implement effective skills-building programmes for pharmaceutical supply chain management. Results Over a two-year period, the RTRC succeeded in conducting assessments of pharmaceutical supply management systems and practices in Kenya, Rwanda, Tanzania and Uganda. In 2006, the RTRC participated in a materials-development workshop in Kampala, Uganda, and contributed to the development of comprehensive HIV/AIDS pharmaceutical management training materials; these materials are now widely available in all four countries. In Tanzania and Uganda the RTRC has been involved with the training of health care workers in HIV/AIDS pharmaceutical management. In Kenya, Tanzania and Uganda the RTRC has been conducting operations research to find solutions to their countries' skills-shortage problems. Some of the interventions tested include applying and evaluating the

  6. Securing renewable resource supplies for changing market demands in a bio-based economy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dam, van J.E.G.; Klerk-Engels, de B.; Struik, P.C.; Rabbinge, R.

    2005-01-01

    Establishment of a bio-based economy has been recognised as one of the key issues for sustainable development For future developments renewable resources will play a key role as CO2 neutral raw material for sustainable industrial production to curb depletion of fossil resources. Options to fully

  7. Combination of drainage, water supply and environmental protection as well as rational distribution of water resource in Zhengzhou mining district

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Q.; Li, D.; Di, Z.Q.; Miao, Y.; Zhao, S.Q.; Guo, Q.W. [CUMT, Beijing (China). Resource Exploitation Engineering College

    2005-10-01

    The geological condition of coalfield is much complex in China. With increasing in mining depth and drainage amount, the contradiction of drainage, water supply and environmental protection is becoming more and more serious. However, the contradiction can be solved by the scientific management of optimizing combination of drainage, water supply and environmental protection. The Philip multiple objectives simplex method used in this article has searched for a possible solution at the first step, and then it goes on searching to find out whether there is a weight number that can lead the solution to the biggest. It can reduce the randomness and difficulty of traditional weight method which determine the weight number artificially. Some beneficial coefficients are vague and the number is larger in the model of water resource dispatch. So the vague layer analysis method can consider these vague factors fully, combining the qualitative and quantitative analysis together. Especially, this method can quantify the experiential judgement of policy decider, and it will turn to be more suitable if the structure of objective factors is complex or the necessary data are absent. In the paper, the two methods above are used to solve the plans of drainage, water supply and optimizing distribution of water resource in the Zhengzhou mining district.

  8. Gen2 RFID-Based System Framework for Resource Circulation in Closed-Loop Supply Chains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young-woo Kim

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Product recycling has become a mandatory activity under extended producer responsibility. Therefore, it is important to operate a closed-loop supply chain that integrates sourcing, production, delivery, and recycling to achieve not only environmental sustainability, but also economic benefits. However, this goal is affected by chronic problems caused by uncertainties relating to the return timing, quantity, and quality of returned items. Many studies proved that information visibility could solve these problems. In this context, a system framework for closed-loop supply chain management is proposed that gathers real-time information within a supply chain and product lifecycle by using the Internet-of-Things, including radio frequency identification (RFID. Specifically, the most recent Gen2 RFID protocol, which provides new features to create new positive effects, is considered. Additionally, an information system is designed, including RFID tag encoding, which supports the operation of the proposed system. Finally, the lifecycle benefits are examined, such as counterfeit prevention, real-time monitoring and maintenance in the middle-of-life phase, and reverse process streamlining. The ultimate aim is to design a system that facilitates the profitable and environmentally friendly operation of the closed-loop supply chain.

  9. Green Supply Chain Collaboration for Fashionable Consumer Electronics Products under Third-Party Power Intervention—A Resource Dependence Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiuh-Biing Sheu

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Under third-party power intervention (TPPI, which increases uncertainty in task environments, complex channel power interplays and restructuring are indispensable among green supply chain members as they move toward sustainable collaborative relationships for increased viability and competitive advantage. From the resource dependence perspective, this work presents a novel conceptual model to investigate the influence of political and social power on channel power restructuring and induced green supply chain collaboration in brander-retailer bidirectional green supply chains of fashionable consumer electronics products (FCEPs. An FCEP refers to the consumer electronics product (e.g., personal computers, mobile phones, computer notebooks, and game consoles with the features of a well-known brand associated, a short product lifecycle, timely and fashionable design fit for market trends, and quick responsiveness to the variations of market demands. The proposed model is tested empirically using questionnaire data obtained from retailers in the FCEP brander-retailer distribution channels. Analytical results reveal that as an extension of political and social power, TPPI positively affects the reciprocal interdependence of dyadic members and reduces power asymmetry, thereby enhancing the collaborative relationship of dyadic members and leading to improved green supply chain performance. Therein, reciprocal interdependence underlying collaborative relationship is the key to reducing the external environmental uncertainties in the TPPI context.

  10. Are more resources always the answer? A supply and demand analysis for public health services in Brazilian municipalities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiana Rocha

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to determine whether it is necessary to increase available resources to local governments or if better use of these funds is sufficient. The paper contributes to the literature by looking both at the supply and demand for public health services. If the demand is estimated correctly, one can compare its expected value to actual health expenditures. Even if actual expenditures are lower than the estimated demand, it is not certain that additional spending is necessary. If the efficiency scores (supply side indicate that local governments can simply “save” resources to make up for the difference, then it is possible to reduce (or bring to zero new resources only by requiring local governments to efficiently manage their expenditures. Since municipalities in Brazil are very heterogeneous, we estimate their efficiency using the metafrontier approach (O’Donnell et al., 2008, while we estimate the demand through an equation derived from the median voter theorem model. Using 2010 data, we find evidence that efficient management of spending is sufficient to meet excess demand for goods and services in the health sector.

  11. Competing through operations and supply: The role of classic and extended resource-based advantage

    OpenAIRE

    Lewis, Michael; Brandon-Jones, Alistair; Slack, Nigel; Howard, Mickey

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The paper seeks to analyze the evolution of competitive advantage using both "classic" and "extended" resource-based theory (RBT). The aim is to examine the different ways in which "classic" and "extended" resource-based advantage develops and how they might combine to create long-term advantage. Design/methodology/approach: A single case study method is used to examine the process by which competitive advantage has accumulated over a 50-year period at Food Services Group Inc., a hig...

  12. Estimation of countries’ interdependence in plant genetic resources provisioning national food supplies and production systems

    OpenAIRE

    Khoury, C.K.; Achicanoy, H.A.; Bjorkman, A.D.; Navarro-Racines, C.; Guarino, L.; Flores-Palacios, X.; Engels, J.M.M.; Wiersema, J.H.; Dempewolf, H.; Ramirez-Villegas, J.; Castaneda-Alvarez, N.P.; Fowler, C.; Jarvis, A.; Rieseberg, L.H.; Struik, P.C.

    2015-01-01

    The Contracting Parties of the International Treaty recognize that plant genetic resources for food and agriculture are a common concern of all countries, in that all countries depend largely on plant genetic resources for food and agriculture that originated elsewhere. Nearly 20 years ago, an initial research on interdependence mong countries on crop diversity provided information helpful for countries to establish the Treaty, and in particular its Multilateral System of Access and Benefit-s...

  13. Supply-cost curves for geographically distributed renewable-energy resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Izquierdo, Salvador; Dopazo, Cesar; Fueyo, Norberto

    2010-01-01

    The supply-cost curves of renewable-energy sources are an essential tool to synthesize and analyze large-scale energy-policy scenarios, both in the short and long terms. Here, we suggest and test a parametrization of such curves that allows their representation for modeling purposes with a minimal set of information. In essence, an economic potential is defined based on the mode of the marginal supply-cost curves; and, using this definition, a normalized log-normal distribution function is used to model these curves. The feasibility of this proposal is assessed with data from a GIS-based analysis of solar, wind and biomass technologies in Spain. The best agreement is achieved for solar energy.

  14. Timber resources of New England and New York with reference to pulpwood supplies

    Science.gov (United States)

    V. L. Harper

    1947-01-01

    Pulp and paper is the most important of the wood-using industries of the Northeast. In value of product, value added by manufacture, and number of persons employed, it exceeds any other, but like all the others it is having increasing difficulties in procurement of timber supplies. Many of the pulp and paper mills have reached the stage where they are running out of...

  15. Energy supply. Resources - technologies - perspectives. [in German]. Energieversorgung. Ressourcen - Technologien - Perspektiven

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grathwohl, M

    1978-01-01

    After an outline of the general relationship between primary energy carriers and international economics, the energy potential of the individual energy carriers is investigated from an international point of view. In accordance with the survey character of this book, conventional and nuclear energy-conversion techniques are dealt with as far as they can be realized in energy-supply systems. A further major chapter deals with environmental and safety problems connected with different energy conversion processes.

  16. Integrated Water Resource Management and Energy Requirements for Water Supply in the Copiapó River Basin, Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Suárez

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Population and industry growth in dry climates are fully tied to significant increase in water and energy demands. Because water affects many economic, social and environmental aspects, an interdisciplinary approach is needed to solve current and future water scarcity problems, and to minimize energy requirements in water production. Such a task requires integrated water modeling tools able to couple surface water and groundwater, which allow for managing complex basins where multiple stakeholders and water users face an intense competition for limited freshwater resources. This work develops an integrated water resource management model to investigate the water-energy nexus in reducing water stress in the Copiapó River basin, an arid, highly vulnerable basin in northern Chile. The model was utilized to characterize groundwater and surface water resources, and water demand and uses. Different management scenarios were evaluated to estimate future resource availability, and compared in terms of energy requirements and costs for desalinating seawater to eliminate the corresponding water deficit. Results show a basin facing a very complex future unless measures are adopted. When a 30% uniform reduction of water consumption is achieved, 70 GWh over the next 30 years are required to provide the energy needed to increase the available water through seawater desalination. In arid basins, this energy could be supplied by solar energy, thus addressing water shortage problems through integrated water resource management combined with new technologies of water production driven by renewable energy sources.

  17. MNE SPECIFIC FACTORS OF CORPORATE CAPITAL STRUCTURE: COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS IN TERMS OF FINANCIAL RESOURCES DEMAND AND SUPPLY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergiy Tsyganov

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates corporate capital structure of multinational enterprises. Its core subject is focused on corporate capital structure defining factors that are specific for MNE rather than for domestic corporations. Substantial part of scientific literature concentrates on country specific and firm specific factors of corporate capital structure with most research devoted to domestic corporations. The main goal of our paper is to discover among plenty of corporate capital structure factors those that are specific for MNE and to develop a new approach for analyzing these factors in terms of financial resources demand and supply. There are some corporate capital structure factors that influence directly and some that have indirect influence while there is also another set of factors having both direct and indirect influence on indebtedness. Different theoretical and empirical research confirm different directions. Methodology of our study is based on analysis of two fundamental market driving forces that are demand and supply. Their influence on corporate capital structure is of a primary origin and that is why the suggested approach is to our mind theoretically significant and practically important. Demand factors imply that a corporation creates demand for financial resources and its capital structure is defined internally. Supply factors imply an external capital structure since it is created by external investors’ supply of financial resources. On empirical level, we use the primary data of corporate financial statements to analyze the leverage of MNE based in different countries and representing different industries. The key results of our study show that the main MNE specific factors of capital structure include such demand factors as multinationality level, assets tangibility and political risk. The first two are firm specific factors that can influence corporate capital structure either directly or indirectly according to

  18. Resource use in a low-input organic vegetable food supply system in UK - a case study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergård, Hanne; Markussen, Mads V.; Kulak, Michal

    Until now the demand for food has been met by the use of abundant and cheap fossil fuels; however, we need to reconsider our modes of production to avoid a global environmental crisis. Food production systems should increasingly rely on renewable inputs and increase their stability by reducing...... dependency on external inputs. We apply the emergy approach to evaluate resource use efficiency of a food supply system in the UK. The main questions for this study were how much the system contributes to society by taking advantage of local renewable flows, and how much it depends on input from society....

  19. Country-scale phosphorus balancing as a base for resources conservation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Seyhan, D.

    2009-01-01

    In order to effectively conserve the non-renewable resource phosphorus (P), flows and stocks of P must be known at national, regional and global scales. P is a key non-renewable resource because its use as fertilizer cannot be substituted posing a constraint on the global food production in the

  20. Find-rate methodology and resource base estimates of the Hydrocarbon Supply Model (1990 update). Topical report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woods, T.

    1991-02-01

    The Hydrocarbon Supply Model is used to develop long-term trends in Lower-48 gas production and costs. The model utilizes historical find-rate patterns to predict the discovery rate and size distribution of future oil and gas field discoveries. The report documents the methodologies used to quantify historical oil and gas field find-rates and to project those discovery patterns for future drilling. It also explains the theoretical foundations for the find-rate approach. The new field and reserve growth resource base is documented and compared to other published estimates. The report has six sections. Section 1 provides background information and an overview of the model. Sections 2, 3, and 4 describe the theoretical foundations of the model, the databases, and specific techniques used. Section 5 presents the new field resource base by region and depth. Section 6 documents the reserve growth model components

  1. MDESRAP: a model for understanding the dynamics of electricity supply, resources and pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qudrat-Ullah, H.

    2005-01-01

    The inherent dynamic complexity of the energy policy design problem makes the conventional 'closed-form' solution impossible. This paper contributes a dynamic simulation model as a possible solution. The model captures the dynamics of underlying sectors of electricity demand, investment, capital, resource, production, environment and costs and pricing. The existing feedback loops, nonlinearity and time-lag characteristics present in the real world electricity systems are incorporated in the model. The model is calibrated to Pakistan's case data. How the model has been used in policy assessments and the design of the alternative energy policies subject to various environmental and resource constraints is also discussed. (author)

  2. Critical mineral resources of the United States—Economic and environmental geology and prospects for future supply

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulz, Klaus J.; DeYoung,, John H.; Seal, Robert R.; Bradley, Dwight C.

    2017-12-19

    SummaryMineral commodities are vital for economic growth, improving the quality of life, providing for national defense, and the overall functioning of modern society. Minerals are being used in larger quantities than ever before and in an increasingly diverse range of applications. With the increasing demand for a considerably more diverse suite of mineral commodities has come renewed recognition that competition and conflict over mineral resources can pose significant risks to the manufacturing industries that depend on them. In addition, production of many mineral commodities has become concentrated in relatively few countries (for example, tungsten, rare-earth elements, and antimony in China; niobium in Brazil; and platinum-group elements in South Africa and Russia), thus increasing the risk for supply disruption owing to political, social, or other factors. At the same time, an increasing awareness of and sensitivity to potential environmental and health issues caused by the mining and processing of many mineral commodities may place additional restrictions on mineral supplies. These factors have led a number of Governments, including the Government of the United States, to attempt to identify those mineral commodities that are viewed as most “critical” to the national economy and (or) security if supplies should be curtailed.This book presents resource and geologic information on the following 23 mineral commodities currently among those viewed as important to the national economy and national security of the United States: antimony (Sb), barite (barium, Ba), beryllium (Be), cobalt (Co), fluorite or fluorspar (fluorine, F), gallium (Ga), germanium (Ge), graphite (carbon, C), hafnium (Hf), indium (In), lithium (Li), manganese (Mn), niobium (Nb), platinum-group elements (PGE), rare-earth elements (REE), rhenium (Re), selenium (Se), tantalum (Ta), tellurium (Te), tin (Sn), titanium (Ti), vanadium (V), and zirconium (Zr). For a number of these commodities

  3. GM`s PICOS initiative on resource conservation and pollution prevention: Greening the supply chain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pritchett, T. [General Motors Corp., Detroit, MI (United States)

    1997-12-31

    This paper is comprised of reprints of several related articles from business publications. The first article, on supply-side economics, describes efforts by General Motors to cut costs by encouraging suppliers to reduce the environmental impacts of their products. The PICOS{trademark} program of General Motors helps industrial identify and implement energy efficiency and pollution prevention projects that lower operating costs while reducing emissions linked to global climate change. The second article also describes the program, focusing on aspects of global competition.

  4. Disturbance-mediated competition between perennial plants along a resource supply gradient

    Science.gov (United States)

    J. Stephen. Brewer

    2011-01-01

    Traditional views of ecological disturbance emphasize the role that physical disturbances play in reducing competition between populations and maintaining species coexistence. I present an alternative view that employs a simple Lotka–Volterra model to demonstrate how disturbance resistance, disturbance resilience and resource storage can increase competition between...

  5. Production Resource Management in the Industrialised House-Building Supply Chain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Lennartsson

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Industrialised house-building suppliers must learn to see how the lack of resource management disrupt the synchronisation of their production processes both upstream (e.g. capability to forecast material consumption and downstream (e.g. order delivery Just-in-Time. In contrast to focus on workflow as is more common in construction, Systematic Production Analysis (SPA is a tool capable of providing a more robust production process in terms of better resource characterisation and predictability. A roadmap model, composed of six steps, has been developed for simple introduction of SPA. The model is a straightforward way of classifying the production system in terms of impacting resource and parameters attributing to production loss (scrap or downtime. The applicability of SPA is analysed through a pilot case study at a patio door manufacturer. Two main response parameters emerged related to scrap; surface and dimension errors of the work piece material (wood. An objective function was formulated to reduce the scrap without increasing the total cost of the work piece material. It was suggested that the case company evaluates Engineering Wood Products (EWP leading to a more robust production process (less scrap, but in turn increasing the initial cost of the work piece material. Other potential measures are purchasing new processing tools, investing in new machinery or educating workers which all, directly or indirectly, lead to reduced scrap. Consequently, proper management of production resources will improve their predictability and in turn improve production control.

  6. Climate and water resource change impacts and adaptation potential for US power supply

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miara, Ariel; Macknick, Jordan E.; Vörösmarty, Charles J.; Tidwell, Vincent C.; Newmark, Robin; Fekete, Balazs

    2017-11-01

    Power plants that require cooling currently (2015) provide 85% of electricity generation in the United States. These facilities need large volumes of water and sufficiently cool temperatures for optimal operations, and projected climate conditions may lower their potential power output and affect reliability. We evaluate the performance of 1,080 thermoelectric plants across the contiguous US under future climates (2035-2064) and their collective performance at 19 North American Electric Reliability Corporation (NERC) sub-regions. Joint consideration of engineering interactions with climate, hydrology and environmental regulations reveals the region-specific performance of energy systems and the need for regional energy security and climate-water adaptation strategies. Despite climate-water constraints on individual plants, the current power supply infrastructure shows potential for adaptation to future climates by capitalizing on the size of regional power systems, grid configuration and improvements in thermal efficiencies. Without placing climate-water impacts on individual plants in a broader power systems context, vulnerability assessments that aim to support adaptation and resilience strategies misgauge the extent to which regional energy systems are vulnerable. Climate-water impacts can lower thermoelectric reserve margins, a measure of systems-level reliability, highlighting the need to integrate climate-water constraints on thermoelectric power supply into energy planning, risk assessments, and system reliability management.

  7. Evaluation the concentration of mercury, zinc, arsenic, lead and cobalt in the Ilam city water supply network and resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Reza Yazdanbakhsh

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: The presence of heavy metals in water resources above threshold levels can be toxic and carcinogenic for consumers. This study determined the concentrations of heavy metals in the drinking water distribution network and resources of the city of Ilam in Iran. Methods: In this cross-sectional study from 6 sources of water supply and also, different parts of the water supply system of Ilam city, samples were collected based on standard sampling methods. The samples were tested with a BRAIC atomic absorption spectrophotometer. The data was analyzed using nonparametric Mann-Whitney test. Results: The concentration of zinc in all water sources of the city of Ilam was higher than WHO guidelines and Iranian standard 1053. Contamination by cobalt, arsenic and lead from Ilam dam, Pich-e Ashoori well and Haft Cheshmeh well was higher than national and international standards. The amount of cobalt and mercury at Ilam dam was significantly different from the levels at other sources (P < 0.05. Conclusion: The use of pesticides in the agricultural sector, contamination of water by human waste and aged and worn water pipes are the likely sources of the increased concentrations of heavy metals, especially lead and arsenic. Because there is a cumulative effect from these metals, appropriate measures are necessary by the relevant agencies to address this problem.

  8. Linguistic confusion in economics: utility, causality, product differentiation, and the supply of natural resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, J L

    1982-01-01

    Lack of careful attention to the language used in the discussion of economic concepts has resulted in considerable confusion and error. 2 frequent sources of confusion include tautology and the absence of operational definitions of concepts. This paper outlines a more effective scientific practice through reference to 2 economic examples: 1) the concept of utility, where it is demonstrated that choice of an operational definition of the concept facilitates interpersonal comparisons; and 2) causality, where a multidimensional operational definition is needed to discriminate among the various meanings of the term in theoretical, empirical, and policy contexts. The paper further discusses the example of natural resource scarcity, where application of the term "finite" reveals that there is no empirical evidence of physical limits to growth in the use of resources. A more appropriate measure of scarcity is the economic concept of price.

  9. Geothermal energy in the western United States and Hawaii: Resources and projected electricity generation supplies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-09-01

    Geothermal energy comes from the internal heat of the Earth, and has been continuously exploited for the production of electricity in the United States since 1960. Currently, geothermal power is one of the ready-to-use baseload electricity generating technologies that is competing in the western United States with fossil fuel, nuclear and hydroelectric generation technologies to provide utilities and their customers with a reliable and economic source of electric power. Furthermore, the development of domestic geothermal resources, as an alternative to fossil fuel combustion technologies, has a number of associated environmental benefits. This report serves two functions. First, it provides a description of geothermal technology and a progress report on the commercial status of geothermal electric power generation. Second, it addresses the question of how much electricity might be competitively produced from the geothermal resource base. 19 figs., 15 tabs

  10. Prediction on Human Resource Supply/Demand in Nuclear Industry Using Markov Chains Model and Job Coefficient

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwon, Hyuk; Min, Byung Joo; Lee, Eui Jin; You, Byung Hoon [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    2006-07-01

    According to the recent report by the OECD/NEA, there is a large imbalance between supply and demand of human resource in nuclear field. In the U.S., according to survey of Nuclear Engineering Department Heads Organization (NEDHO), 174 graduates in B.S or M.S degree were fed to nuclear industry in year 2004. Meanwhile, the total amount of demand in nuclear industry was about 642 engineers, which was approximately three times of the supply. In case of other developed western nations, the OECD/NEA report stated that the level of imbalance is similar to that of the U.S. However, nations having nuclear power development programs such as Korea, Japan and France seem to be in a different environment of supply and demand from that of the U.S. In this study, the difference of manpower status between the U.S and Korea has been investigated and the nuclear manpower required for the future in Korea is predicted. To investigate the factors making difference between the U.S. and NPP developing countries including Korea, a quantitative manpower planning model, Markov chains model, is applied. Since the Markov chains model has the strength of analyzing an inflow or push structure, the model fits the system governed by the inflow of manpower. A macroscopic status of manpower demand on nuclear industry is calculated up to 2015 using the Job coefficient (JC) and GDP, which are derived from the Survey for Roadmap of Electric Power Industry Manpower Planning. Furthermore, the total numbers of required manpower and supplied manpower up to 2030 were predicted by JC and Markov Chains model, respectively. Whereas the employee status of nuclear industries has been annually investigated by KAIF since 1995, the following data from the 10{sup th} survey and nuclear energy yearbooks from 1998 to 2005 are applied; (a) the status of the manpower demand of industry, (b) number of students entering, graduating and getting job in nuclear engineering.

  11. Prediction on Human Resource Supply/Demand in Nuclear Industry Using Markov Chains Model and Job Coefficient

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwon, Hyuk; Min, Byung Joo; Lee, Eui Jin; You, Byung Hoon

    2006-01-01

    According to the recent report by the OECD/NEA, there is a large imbalance between supply and demand of human resource in nuclear field. In the U.S., according to survey of Nuclear Engineering Department Heads Organization (NEDHO), 174 graduates in B.S or M.S degree were fed to nuclear industry in year 2004. Meanwhile, the total amount of demand in nuclear industry was about 642 engineers, which was approximately three times of the supply. In case of other developed western nations, the OECD/NEA report stated that the level of imbalance is similar to that of the U.S. However, nations having nuclear power development programs such as Korea, Japan and France seem to be in a different environment of supply and demand from that of the U.S. In this study, the difference of manpower status between the U.S and Korea has been investigated and the nuclear manpower required for the future in Korea is predicted. To investigate the factors making difference between the U.S. and NPP developing countries including Korea, a quantitative manpower planning model, Markov chains model, is applied. Since the Markov chains model has the strength of analyzing an inflow or push structure, the model fits the system governed by the inflow of manpower. A macroscopic status of manpower demand on nuclear industry is calculated up to 2015 using the Job coefficient (JC) and GDP, which are derived from the Survey for Roadmap of Electric Power Industry Manpower Planning. Furthermore, the total numbers of required manpower and supplied manpower up to 2030 were predicted by JC and Markov Chains model, respectively. Whereas the employee status of nuclear industries has been annually investigated by KAIF since 1995, the following data from the 10 th survey and nuclear energy yearbooks from 1998 to 2005 are applied; (a) the status of the manpower demand of industry, (b) number of students entering, graduating and getting job in nuclear engineering

  12. Biofuel impacts on world food supply: use of fossil fuel, land and water resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pimentel, D.; Marklein, A.; Toth, M. A.; Karpoff, M.; Paul, G. S.; McCormack, R.; Kyriazis, J.; Krueger, T.

    2008-01-01

    The rapidly growing world population and rising consumption of biofuels are increasing demand for both food and biofuels. This exaggerates both food and fuel shortages. Using food crops such as corn grain to produce ethanol raises major nutritional and ethical concerns. Nearly 60% of humans in the world are currently malnourished, so the need for grains and other basic foods is critical. Growing crops for fuel squanders land, water and energy resources vital for the production of food for human consumption. Using corn for ethanol increases the price of U.S. beef, chicken, pork, eggs, breads, cereals, and milk more than 10% to 30%. (author)

  13. Tombs, tunnels, and terraces a cultural resources survey of a former ammunition supply point in Okinawa, Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verhaaren, B. T.; Levenson, J. B.; Komine, G.

    2000-02-09

    U.S. forces serving at military bases on foreign soil are obligated to act as good stewards of the cultural and natural resources under their control. However, cultural resources management presents special challenges at U.S. bases in other countries where cultural properties laws differ in emphasis and detail from those in the United States and issues of land ownership and occupancy are not always clear. Where status of forces agreements (SOFAs) exist, environmental governing standards bridge the gap between U.S. and host nation cultural priorities. In Japan, the Department of Defense Japan Environmental Governing Standards (JEGS) fill this function. Under Criteria 12-4.2 and 12-4.3 of the JEGS, U.S. Forces Japan commit themselves to inventory and protect cultural properties found on the lands they control or use. Cultural properties include archaeological sites, tombs, historic buildings, and shrines. Natural monuments, such as landscape features or plant and animal species, may also be designated as cultural properties. As part of this commitment, in February 1999 a cultural resources inventory was conducted in Area 1, part of Kadena Air Base (AB), Okinawa, Japan. Area 1, the former U.S. army Ammunition Supply Point 1, is currently used primarily for training exercises and recreational paint ball.

  14. Re-engineering the urban drainage system for resource recovery and protection of drinking water supplies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gumbo, B

    2000-01-01

    The Harare metropolis in Zimbabwe, extending upstream from Manyame Dam in the Upper Manyame River Basin, consists of the City of Harare and its satellite towns: Chitungwiza, Norton, Epworth and Ruwa. The existing urban drainage system is typically a single-use-mixing system: water is used and discharged to "waste", excreta are flushed to sewers and eventually, after "treatment", the effluent is discharged to a drinking water supply source. Polluted urban storm water is evacuated as fast as possible. This system not only ignores the substantial value in "waste" materials, but it also exports problems to downstream communities and to vulnerable fresh-water sources. The question is how can the harare metropolis urban drainage system, which is complex and has evolved over time, be rearranged to achieve sustainability (i.e. water conservation, pollution prevention at source, protection of the vulnerable drinking water sources and recovery of valuable materials)? This paper reviews current concepts regarding the future development of the urban drainage system in line with the new vision of "Sustainable Cities of the Future". The Harare Metropolis in Zimbabwe is taken as a case, and philosophical options for re-engineering the drainage system are discussed.

  15. State planning policy 2/07: protection of extractive resources results in certainty of materials supply

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-09-15

    Extractive resources are primary source materials used for building infrastructure such as roads, ports, airports, bridges, railways, factories, hospitals, schools and homes. The Policy seeks to protect those essential and finite construction materials for future and existing extraction purposes. Population increases in south-east Queensland the upgrading of rail and port facilities to export coal and other minerals will form a major part in the expansion of extractive industry. Over $4 billion has been committed by the Government and industry to coal infrastructure developments such as upgrades at RG Tanna, Barney Point and the proposed Wiggins Island coal terminals at Gladstone, the Dalryample Bay and Hay Point terminals near Mackay and the Abbot Point coal terminal near Bower. The new Bauhinia regional railway will service the Rolleston coal mines.

  16. World energy resources, demand and supply of energy, and the prospects for the fast breeder reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haefele, W.

    1978-01-01

    In the past it was taken for granted that the prime role of fast breeder reactors was to complement light water reactors, mainly because of their similar and compatible fuel cycles. In particular, the plutonium converted in LWRs is most intelligently disposed of and used in FBRs. Evaluation of the time horizon of such reactor strategies generally extended only to the year 2000. It is important to realize, however, that the salient task in the breeder field after 2000 - besides electricity generation - will be to substitute for conventional ''cheap'' oil. Electricity today makes up only 10% to 12% of the total secondary energy, while liquids essentially command up to about 50%. Thus the future application of the FBR technology will have to be geared more to the production of a liquid secondary energy carrier than to electricity. A new yardstick for all these considerations is the strongly rising energy prices. They may double, for example, leading to an oil price of US 24/bbl. Under these circumstances it is prudent to generalize the scope for future fast breeders. The key element of such a new fast breeder strategy would be the production of hydrogen by electrolysis or thermolysis or a combination of both. For example, methanol synthesized from hydrogen and residual fossil fuels would thus become economically attractive. The FBR breeding gain, on the other hand, would be used for the continued supply of LWRs generating electricity. The paper identifies order-of-magnitude considerations most important for such a fast breeder application against a global energy demand scenario for the year 2030. (author)

  17. Evaluation of resource allocation and supply-demand balance in clinical practice with high-cost technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otsubo, Tetsuya; Imanaka, Yuichi; Lee, Jason; Hayashida, Kenshi

    2011-12-01

    Japan has one of the highest numbers of high-cost medical devices installed relative to its population. While evaluations of the distribution of these devices traditionally involve simple population-based assessments, an indicator that includes the demand of these devices would more accurately reflect the situation. The purpose of this study was to develop an indicator of the supply-demand balance of such devices, using examples of magnetic resonance imaging scanners (MRI) and extracorporeal shockwave lithotripters (ESWL), and to investigate the relationship between this indicator, personnel distribution statuses and operating statuses at the prefectural level. Using data from nation-wide surveys and claims data from 16 hospitals, we developed an indicator based on the ratio of the supplied number of device units to the number of device units in demand for MRI and ESWL. The latter value was based on patient volume and utilization proportion. Correlation analyses were conducted between the supply-demand balances of these devices, personal distribution and operating statuses. Comparisons between our indicator and conventional population-based indicators revealed that 15% and 30% of prefectures were at risk of underestimating the availability of MRI and ESWL, respectively. The numbers of specialist personnel/device units showed significant, negative correlations with our indicators in both devices. Utilization-based analyses of health care resource placement and utilization status provide a more accurate indication than simple population-based assessments, and can assist decision makers in reviewing gaps between health policy and management. Such an indicator therefore has the potential to be a tool in helping to improve the efficiency of the allocation and placement of such devices. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  18. The precarious supply of physical therapists across Canada: exploring national trends in health human resources (1991 to 2005

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricketts Thomas C

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Health Human Resource (HHR ratios are one measure of workforce supply, and are often expressed as a ratio in the number of health professionals to a sub-set of the population. In this study, we explore national trends in HHR among physical therapists (PTs across Canada. Methods National population data were combined with provincial databases of registered physical therapists in order to estimate the HHR ratio in 2005, and to establish trends between 1991 and 2005. Results The national HHR ratio was 4.3 PTs per 10,000 population in 1991, which increased to 5.0 by 2000. In 2005, the HHR ratios varied widely across jurisdictions; however, we estimate that the national average dropped to 4.8 PTs per 10,000. Although the trend in HHR between 1991 and 2005 suggests positive growth of 11.6%, we have found negative growth of 4.0% in the latter 5-years of this study period. Conclusion Demand for rehabilitation services is projected to escalate in the next decade. Identifying benchmarks or targets regarding the optimal number of PTs, along with other health professionals working within inter professional teams, is necessary to establish a stable supply of health providers to meet the emerging rehabilitation and mobility needs of an aging and increasingly complex Canadian population.

  19. Perspectives for a global energy supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krafft, P.

    1987-01-01

    The economic development of the industrial world and the population explosion in the Third World will lead to a further increase in world energy consumption. Up to the year 2020 a doubling of today's consumption must be reckoned with. Further increases may be necessary in order to raise the per capita consumption of the population in the Third World. In order to meet this increasing demand it is necessary to consider all available energy sources. The nonrenewable energy sources oil, coal, gas and uranium will have to carry a greater proportion than the current 80 %. The resources suffice for that. However many obstacles must be surmounted in order to secure an essentially increasing energy production. Shortage symptoms with oil are to be expected within a foreseeable space of time. Only coal and nuclear energy can close the gap. In order to avert adverse effects on the climate, CO 2 emissions must be controlled. This can best be achieved by promoting water power, solar energy and nuclear energy as the principal sources. The postulates of the Swiss energy policy 'saving', 'substitution', 'research' and 'provision' seek to guarantee the energy supply. The promotion of hydro, solar and nuclear power must be added. The postulate of a withdrawal from nuclear energy is untenable considering its worldwide development. It would retard Switzerland in its pursuit of supply security and a better environment. 6 figs

  20. Life cycle greenhouse gases and non-renewable energy benefits of kraft black liquor recovery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaudreault, Caroline; Malmberg, Barry; Upton, Brad; Miner, Reid

    2012-01-01

    The life cycle greenhouse gas (GHG) and fossil fuel benefits of black liquor recovery are analyzed. These benefits are due to the production of energy that can be used in the pulping process or sold, and the recovery of the pulping chemicals that would otherwise need to be produced from other resources. The fossil GHG emissions and non-renewable energy consumption of using black liquor in the kraft recovery system are approximately 90% lower than those for a comparable fossil fuel-based system. Across all scenarios, the systems relying on black liquor solids achieve a median reduction of approximately 140 kg CO 2 eq./GJ of energy produced, compared to the systems relying on fossil fuels to provide the same energy and pulping chemical production functions. The benefits attributable to the recovery of pulping chemicals vary from 44% to 75% of the total benefit. Applied to the total production of kraft pulp in the U.S., the avoided emissions are equivalent to the total Scopes 1 and 2 emissions from the entire U.S. forest products industry. These results do not depend on the accounting method for biogenic carbon (because biogenic CO 2 emissions are the same for the systems compared) and the results are valid across a range of assumptions about the displaced fossil fuel, the GHG-intensity of the electricity grid, the fossil fuels used in the lime kiln, and the level of cogeneration at pulp and paper mills. The benefits occur without affecting the amount of wood harvested or the amount of chemical pulp produced. -- Highlights: ► Black liquor, a by-product of kraft pulping, represents about half of the energy used in the paper industry. ► The greenhouse gases (GHG) benefits of black liquor recovery compared to an equivalent fossil fuel system were analyzed. ► The GHG emissions of the black liquor system are approximately 90% lower than those for the fossil fuel system. ► The benefits from the recovery of the chemicals vary from 44% to 75% of the total benefit.

  1. Sustainable synthesis gas from biomass. A bridge to a sustainable supply of energy and resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Den Uil, H.; Van Ree, R.; Van der Drift, A.; Boerrigter, H.

    2004-04-01

    Synthesis gas is currently primarily used in the (petro)chemical industry and for the production of liquid fuels. Smaller amounts are being used for electricity and synthetic natural gas (=SNG) production. Finite fossil resources, the dependence on political instable regimes and the Kyoto-protocol are drivers for the attention for renewable synthesis gas. In this report the market for, production of, use of and economy of renewable synthesis gas are analysed. Current synthesis gas use is limited to about 3% of the Dutch primary energy consumption; worldwide this is about 2%. Driven by the targets for renewable energy and the wide range of possible uses, the market for renewable synthesis gas has a large potential. When using synthesis gas for the production of SNG, electricity, liquid fuels and chemicals, the Dutch market for renewable synthesis gas can be 150 PJ in 2010, doubling about every decade to 1500 PJ in 2040. SNG and electricity, together about 80%. To reach these market volumes, import of biomass will be required due to the limited availability of local biomass resources in the Netherlands. The specifications for synthesis gas are dependent on the application. For (petro)chemical use and the production of liquid fuels high H2 and CO concentrations are required, for SNG and electricity production high CH4 concentrations are preferred. Due to the different specifications the names synthesis gas and product gas are used in this study. The name synthesis gas is claimed for a large number of gasification processes under development. But only for a number of processes this claim is justified. The gasification temperature determines the type of gas produced. At high temperatures, above 1300C, synthesis gas is produced, at low temperatures, 700-1000C, so-called product gas is being produced. Entrained-flow gasification is the only possibility for large-scale synthesis gas production in one step. For this process the particle size of the feed has to be small

  2. A Low-Pressure Oxygen Storage System for Oxygen Supply in Low-Resource Settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rassool, Roger P; Sobott, Bryn A; Peake, David J; Mutetire, Bagayana S; Moschovis, Peter P; Black, Jim Fp

    2017-12-01

    Widespread access to medical oxygen would reduce global pneumonia mortality. Oxygen concentrators are one proposed solution, but they have limitations, in particular vulnerability to electricity fluctuations and failure during blackouts. The low-pressure oxygen storage system addresses these limitations in low-resource settings. This study reports testing of the system in Melbourne, Australia, and nonclinical field testing in Mbarara, Uganda. The system included a power-conditioning unit, a standard oxygen concentrator, and an oxygen store. In Melbourne, pressure and flows were monitored during cycles of filling/emptying, with forced voltage fluctuations. The bladders were tested by increasing pressure until they ruptured. In Mbarara, the system was tested by accelerated cycles of filling/emptying and then run on grid power for 30 d. The low-pressure oxygen storage system performed well, including sustaining a pressure approximately twice the standard working pressure before rupture of the outer bag. Flow of 1.2 L/min was continuously maintained to a simulated patient during 30 d on grid power, despite power failures totaling 2.9% of the total time, with durations of 1-176 min (mean 36.2, median 18.5). The low-pressure oxygen storage system was robust and durable, with accelerated testing equivalent to at least 2 y of operation revealing no visible signs of imminent failure. Despite power cuts, the system continuously provided oxygen, equivalent to the treatment of one child, for 30 d under typical power conditions for sub-Saharan Africa. The low-pressure oxygen storage system is ready for clinical field trials. Copyright © 2017 by Daedalus Enterprises.

  3. The Supply of Judicial Labour: Optimising a Scarce Resource in Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian Opeskin

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Developed societies generate a multitude of controversies between their members, which need to be resolved fairly if society is to function well. Judicial officers play a central role in that process by hearing and determining disputes according to law, but they are costly and their long tenure entrenches labour market rigidities. This is an inconvenience for modern governments, as they attempt to keep the wheels of justice turning, while facing budgetary constraints that drive them to seek ever greater cost-efficiencies. This article surveys the ways in which governments in Australia have sought to optimise the judicial labour force by creating a more flexible and cost-effective supply. The system of justice that has evolved in response to these developments is a complex one, with many complementary parts. There is no unique solution to the question of how many judicial officers society needs to quell disputes because this goal can be achieved in different ways. But great care needs to be taken to ensure that government action to find flexible sources of labour to meet the demand for judicial dispute resolution does not come at too high a price in terms of respect for the rule of law. Las sociedades desarrolladas generan multitud de polémicas entre sus miembros, y éstas deben ser solucionadas de forma justa para que la sociedad funcione bien. Los agentes judiciales desempeñan un papel esencial en ese proceso, dado que atienden y solucionan disputas de acuerdo con el derecho, pero son agentes costosos y sus largas permanencias en el puesto perpetúan la rigidez del mercado laboral. Ello es un inconveniente para los gobernantes actuales, que intentan asegurar que el ejercicio de la justicia siga su curso, al tiempo que se enfrentan a limitaciones presupuestarias que los empujan a buscar una eficiencia en relación a los costes cada vez mayor. Este artículo estudia las maneras en las que los gobiernos de Australia han procurado optimizar la

  4. A GIS-based methodology for highlighting fuelwood supply/demand imbalances at the local level: A case study for Central Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghilardi, Adrian; Guerrero, Gabriela; Masera, Omar

    2009-01-01

    When fuelwood is harvested at a rate exceeding natural growth and inefficient conversion technologies are used, negative environmental and socio-economic impacts, such as fuelwood shortages, natural forests degradation and net GHG emissions arise. In this study, we argue that analyzing fuelwood supply/demand spatial patterns require multi-scale approaches to effectively bridge the gap between national results with local situations. The proposed methodology is expected to help 1) focusing resources and actions on local critical situations, starting from national wide analyses and 2) estimating, within statistically robust confidence bounds, the proportion of non-renewable harvested fuelwood. Starting from a previous work, we selected a county-based fuelwood hot spot in the Central Highlands of Mexico, identified from a national wide assessment, and developed a grid-based model in order to identify single localities that face concomitant conditions of high fuelwood consumption and insufficient fuelwood resources. By means of a multi-criteria analysis (MCA), twenty localities, out of a total of 90, were identified as critical in terms of six indicators related to fuelwood use and availability of fuelwood resources. Fuelwood supply/demand balances varied among localities from -16.2 ± 2.5 Gg y -1 to 4.4 ± 2.6 Gg y -1 , while fractions of non-renewable fuelwood varied from 0 to 96%. These results support the idea that balances and non-renewable fuelwood fractions (mandatory inputs for Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) cookstoves projects) must be calculated on a locality by locality basis if gross under or over-estimations want to be avoided in the final carbon accounting. (author)

  5. An outlook of Malaysian energy, oil palm industry and its utilization of wastes as useful resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sulaiman, F.; Abdullah, N.; Gerhauser, H.; Shariff, A.

    2011-01-01

    Malaysia has an abundance of energy resources, both renewable and non-renewable. The largest non-renewable energy resource found in Malaysia is oil, and second, is natural gas, primarily liquefied natural gas. The production and consumption of oil, gas and coal in Malaysia are given in this paper. The energy demand and supply by source are also shown in relation to the country's fuel diversification policy. In order to reduce the overall dependence on a single source of energy, efforts were undertaken to encourage the utilization of renewable resources. Forest residue and oil palm biomass are found to be potentially of highest energy value and considered as the main renewable energy option for Malaysia. Palm oil and related products represent the second largest export of Malaysia. The total oil palm planted area in Malaysia has increased significantly in recent years. This paper gives a detailed representation of oil palm planted and produced together with its yield from the year 1976 onwards. The large amounts of available forest and palm oil residues resulting from the harvest can be utilized for energy generation and other by-products in a manner that also addresses environmental concerns related to current waste disposal methods. -- Highlights: →Palm oil and related products represent the second largest export of Malaysia. →Malaysia has an abundance of energy resources, both renewable and non-renewable. →Forest and oil palm residues are the main renewable energy option for Malaysia. →Efforts were undertaken to encourage the utilization of renewable resources.

  6. CO2 Mineralization and Utilization using Steel Slag for Establishing a Waste-to-Resource Supply Chain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Shu-Yuan; Chung, Tai-Chun; Ho, Chang-Ching; Hou, Chin-Jen; Chen, Yi-Hung; Chiang, Pen-Chi

    2017-12-08

    Both steelmaking via an electric arc furnace and manufacturing of portland cement are energy-intensive and resource-exploiting processes, with great amounts of carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) emission and alkaline solid waste generation. In fact, most CO 2 capture and storage technologies are currently too expensive to be widely applied in industries. Moreover, proper stabilization prior to utilization of electric arc furnace slag are still challenging due to its high alkalinity, heavy metal leaching potentials and volume instability. Here we deploy an integrated approach to mineralizing flue gas CO 2 using electric arc furnace slag while utilizing the reacted product as supplementary cementitious materials to establish a waste-to-resource supply chain toward a circular economy. We found that the flue gas CO 2 was rapidly mineralized into calcite precipitates using electric arc furnace slag. The carbonated slag can be successfully utilized as green construction materials in blended cement mortar. By this modulus, the global CO 2 reduction potential using iron and steel slags was estimated to be ~138 million tons per year.

  7. Remote sensing for non-renewable resources - Satellite and airborne multiband scanners for mineral exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goetz, Alexander F. H.

    1986-01-01

    The application of remote sensing techniques to mineral exploration involves the use of both spatial (morphological) as well as spectral information. This paper is directed toward a discussion of the uses of spectral image information and emphasizes the newest airborne and spaceborne sensor developments involving imaging spectrometers.

  8. Applications of remote sensing to geobotanical prospecting for non-renewable resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birnie, R. W.

    1982-01-01

    Airborne sensors used in the remote detection of geobotanical anomalies are able to locate mineral deposits. Geobotanical stress is manifested in increased visible spectrum reflectance due to a decrease in chlorophyll content which induces chlorosis. The effectiveness of this method is, however, restricted to soils in which plant root structures are embedded in bedrock-derived soils to a depth sufficient for the production of heavy metal stress. It is noted that Landsat remote sensors are inherently better suited to the detection of overall plant density or biomass changes relating to zones of mineralization.

  9. The environmental Kuznets curve, economic growth, renewable and non-renewable energy, and trade in Tunisia

    OpenAIRE

    Ben Jebli, Mehdi; Ben Youssef, Slim

    2013-01-01

    We use the autoregressive distributed lag (ARDL) bounds testing approach for cointegration with structural breaks and the vector error correction model (VECM) Granger causality approach in order to investigate relationships between per capita CO2 emissions, GDP, renewable and non-renewable energy consumption and international trade (exports or imports) for Tunisia during the period 1980-2009. We show the existence of a short-run unidirectional causality running from trade, GDP, CO2 emission a...

  10. The impacts of non-renewable and renewable energy on CO2 emissions in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulut, Umit

    2017-06-01

    As a result of great increases in CO 2 emissions in the last few decades, many papers have examined the relationship between renewable energy and CO 2 emissions in the energy economics literature, because as a clean energy source, renewable energy can reduce CO 2 emissions and solve environmental problems stemming from increases in CO 2 emissions. When one analyses these papers, he/she will observe that they employ fixed parameter estimation methods, and time-varying effects of non-renewable and renewable energy consumption/production on greenhouse gas emissions are ignored. In order to fulfil this gap in the literature, this paper examines the effects of non-renewable and renewable energy on CO 2 emissions in Turkey over the period 1970-2013 by employing fixed parameter and time-varying parameter estimation methods. Estimation methods reveal that CO 2 emissions are positively related to non-renewable energy and renewable energy in Turkey. Since policy makers expect renewable energy to decrease CO 2 emissions, this paper argues that renewable energy is not able to satisfy the expectations of policy makers though fewer CO 2 emissions arise through production of electricity using renewable sources. In conclusion, the paper argues that policy makers should implement long-term energy policies in Turkey.

  11. Exploring the effects of telehealth on medical human resources supply: a qualitative case study in remote regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duplantie Julie

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The availability of medical human resource supply is a growing concern for rural and remote communities in many countries. In the last decade, various telehealth experiences in Canada have highlighted the potential impact of this technology on professional practice. The purpose of this study was to explore physicians' and managers' perceptions regarding the potential of telehealth to support recruitment and retention of physicians in remote and rural regions. Methods A case study in Eastern Quebec was performed to explore this complex phenomenon. The analytical framework was based on two literature reviews and a Delphi study. Data were collected from semi-structured interviews with 41 physicians and 22 managers. Transcripts were produced and interview content was coded independently by two judges and validated by an expert panel. Results Interviews have highlighted the potential impact of telehealth on several factors influencing the recruitment and retention of physicians in rural and remote regions. The potential effects of telehealth on physicians' choice of practice location could be seen at the professional, organizational, educational and individual levels. For instance, telehealth could improve work satisfaction by allowing a regional on-call duty system and a better follow-up of patients. However, there are also certain limits related to telehealth, such as the fear that it would eventually replace all continuing medical education activities and onsite specialists in remoteregions. Conclusion Telehealth is likely to have an impact on several factors related to medical workforce supply in remote and rural regions. However, the expected benefits will materialize if and only if this technology is properly integrated into organizations as a support to professional practice.

  12. Identifying Pathways toward Sustainable Electricity Supply and Demand Using an Integrated Resource Strategic Planning Model for Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alabbas, Nabeel H.

    Despite holding 16% of proved oil reserves in the world, Saudi Arabia might be on an unsustainable path to become a net oil importer by the 2030s. Decades of domestic energy subsidies accompanied by a high population growth rate have encouraged inefficient production and high domestic consumption of fossil fuel energy, which has resulted in environmental degradation, and significant social and economic consequences. In addition, the government's dependence on oil as a main source of revenue (89%) to finance its development programs cannot be sustained due to oil's exhaustible nature and rapidly increasing domestic consumption. The electricity and water sectors consume more energy than other sectors. The literature review revealed that electricity use in Saudi Arabia is following an unsustainable path (7-8% annual growth over the last decade). The water sector is another major energy consumer due to an unprecedented demand for water in the Kingdom (18% of world's total desalinated water output with per capita consumption is twice the world average). Multiple entities have been involved in fragmented planning activities on the supply-side as well as to a certain extent on the demand-side; moreover, comprehensive integrated resource strategic plans have been lacking at the national level. This dissertation established an integrated resource strategic planning (IRSP) model for Saudi Arabia's electricity and water sectors. The IRSP can clearly determine the Kingdom's future vision of its utility sector, including goals, policies, programs, and an execution timetable, taking into consideration economic, environmental and social benefits. Also, a weather-based hybrid end-use econometric demand forecasting model was developed to project electricity demand until 2040. The analytical economic efficiency and technical assessments reveal that Saudi Arabia can supply almost 75% of its electricity from renewable energy sources with a significant achievable potential for saving

  13. Renewable and non-renewable energy consumption and economic growth: Evidence from MENA Net Oil Exporting Countries.

    OpenAIRE

    Kahia, Montassar; Ben Aissa, Mohamed Safouane

    2014-01-01

    This study investigate the relationship between renewable and non-renewable energy consumption and economic growth in a sample of 13 MENA Net Oil Exporting Countries covering the period 1980–2012 within a multivariate panel framework. The Pedroni (1999, 2004), Kao (1999) as well as the Westerlund (2007) panel cointegration tests indicate that there is a long-run equilibrium relationship between real GDP, renewable energy consumption, non-renewable energy consumption, real gross fixed capital ...

  14. Renewable and non-renewable energy consumption and economic growth: Evidence from MENA Net Oil Importing Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Kahia, Montassar; Ben Aissa, Mohamed Safouane

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we use panel cointegration techniques to explore the relationship between renewable and non-renewable energy consumption and economic growth in a sample of 11 MENA Net Oil Importing Countries covering the period 1980–2012. The Pedroni (1999, 2004), Kao(1999) as well as Westerlund(2007) panel cointegration tests indicate that there is a long-run equilibrium relationship between real GDP, renewable energy consumption, non-renewable energy consumption, real gross fixed capital for...

  15. Water supply facility damage and water resource operation at disaster base hospitals in miyagi prefecture in the wake of the Great East Japan Earthquake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumura, Takashi; Osaki, Shizuka; Kudo, Daisuke; Furukawa, Hajime; Nakagawa, Atsuhiro; Abe, Yoshiko; Yamanouchi, Satoshi; Egawa, Shinichi; Tominaga, Teiji; Kushimoto, Shigeki

    2015-04-01

    The aim of this study was to shed light on damage to water supply facilities and the state of water resource operation at disaster base hospitals in Miyagi Prefecture (Japan) in the wake of the Great East Japan Earthquake (2011), in order to identify issues concerning the operational continuity of hospitals in the event of a disaster. In addition to interview and written questionnaire surveys to 14 disaster base hospitals in Miyagi Prefecture, a number of key elements relating to the damage done to water supply facilities and the operation of water resources were identified from the chronological record of events following the Great East Japan Earthquake. Nine of the 14 hospitals experienced cuts to their water supplies, with a median value of three days (range=one to 20 days) for service recovery time. The hospitals that could utilize well water during the time that water supply was interrupted were able to obtain water in quantities similar to their normal volumes. Hospitals that could not use well water during the period of interruption, and hospitals whose water supply facilities were damaged, experienced significant disruption to dialysis, sterilization equipment, meal services, sanitation, and outpatient care services, though the extent of disruption varied considerably among hospitals. None of the hospitals had determined the amount of water used for different purposes during normal service or formulated a plan for allocation of limited water in the event of a disaster. The present survey showed that it is possible to minimize the disruption and reduction of hospital functions in the event of a disaster by proper maintenance of water supply facilities and by ensuring alternative water resources, such as well water. It is also clear that it is desirable to conclude water supply agreements and formulate strategic water allocation plans in preparation for the eventuality of a long-term interruption to water services.

  16. An Empirical Study on the Driving Path of Optimizing the Resources Allocation of Foreign Trade Enterprises from the Perspective of Energy Supply-side Reform

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Yu-cong; Yi, Lu-xia

    2017-11-01

    From the perspective of energy supply-side reform, this paper, by conducting an empirical study on foreign trade enterprises, conducts a research on the cross-role effect of optimizing the resources allocation and enhancing the energy efficiency. Methodologically, this paper creatively introduces the HILE's probabilistic structured property into Granger causality test analysis, forming an HILE-Granger (H-G) model, so as to empirically estimate both the short-term and long-term causal relationship effects between the energy efficiency and resources allocation. Conclusion is drawn that optimization of resources allocation is positively proportional with the energy efficiency enhancement. This paper is to provide a decision-making reference for the supply side reform strategy of foreign trade enterprises under the background of green energy economy.

  17. Chemical, physical, and radiological quality of selected public water supplies in Florida, January-May 1979. Water-resources investigations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franks, B.J.; Irwin, G.A.

    1980-01-01

    Most public water supplies sampled in Florida meet the National Interim Primary and Proposed Secondary Drinking Water Regulations. This conclusion is based on a water quality reconnaissance of 131 raw and treated public supplies throughout the State during the period January through May 1979. In a few public supplies, primary drinking water regulation maximum contaminant levels were exceeded for mercury, turbidity, and gross alpha particle activity. Secondary drinking water regulations were also occasionally exceeded in some public supplies for such parameters as chloride, pH, color, dissolved solids, iron, and manganese

  18. Proper utilization of solar energy in Bangladesh: effect on the environment, food supply and the standard of living

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Islam, S.; Huda, A.-U.

    1999-01-01

    The only really sustainable form of energy is solar energy. The densely populated tropical countries can do very well from this completely sustainable energy source without any novel technologies. Most of the commercial energy used worldwide is supplied by using non-renewable resources. Environmental damage - global warming, ozone hole, noise, chemical and radioactive waste - is due to high energy use. Environmental deterioration is a direct consequence of wealth generated and sustained by extremely cheap fossil fuel. The price of fossil fuel does not include the cost for the deterioration of the environment. We show in this paper that even a densely populated country like Bangladesh can attain a high standard of living by a proper utilization of solar energy. We suggest that poor tropical countries should mobilize their resources to develop solar technology. (author)

  19. Proper utilization of solar energy in Bangladesh: effect on the environment, food supply and the standard of living

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Islam, S.; Huda, A.-U. [University of Dhaka (Bangladesh). Physics Dept.

    1999-06-01

    The only really sustainable form of energy is solar energy. The densely populated tropical countries can do very well from this completely sustainable energy source without any novel technologies. Most of the commercial energy used worldwide is supplied by using non-renewable resources. Environmental damage - global warming, ozone hole, noise, chemical and radioactive waste - is due to high energy use. Environmental deterioration is a direct consequence of wealth generated and sustained by extremely cheap fossil fuel. The price of fossil fuel does not include the cost for the deterioration of the environment. We show in this paper that even a densely populated country like Bangladesh can attain a high standard of living by a proper utilization of solar energy. We suggest that poor tropical countries should mobilize their resources to develop solar technology. (author)

  20. Innovative biofibers from renewable resources

    CERN Document Server

    Reddy, Narendra

    2015-01-01

    This book will be a one-stop-shop for readers seeking information on biofibers that are sustainable and environmentally friendly and those that can replace the non-renewable synthetic polymer based fibers. Emphasis will be on fibers that are derived from agricultural byproducts and coproducts without the need for additional natural resources.

  1. Exploring Tradeoffs in Demand-Side and Supply-Side Management of Urban Water Resources Using Agent-Based Modeling and Evolutionary Computation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lufthansa Kanta

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Urban water supply systems may be managed through supply-side and demand-side strategies, which focus on water source expansion and demand reductions, respectively. Supply-side strategies bear infrastructure and energy costs, while demand-side strategies bear costs of implementation and inconvenience to consumers. To evaluate the performance of demand-side strategies, the participation and water use adaptations of consumers should be simulated. In this study, a Complex Adaptive Systems (CAS framework is developed to simulate consumer agents that change their consumption to affect the withdrawal from the water supply system, which, in turn influences operational policies and long-term resource planning. Agent-based models are encoded to represent consumers and a policy maker agent and are coupled with water resources system simulation models. The CAS framework is coupled with an evolutionary computation-based multi-objective methodology to explore tradeoffs in cost, inconvenience to consumers, and environmental impacts for both supply-side and demand-side strategies. Decisions are identified to specify storage levels in a reservoir that trigger: (1 increases in the volume of water pumped through inter-basin transfers from an external reservoir; and (2 drought stages, which restrict the volume of water that is allowed for residential outdoor uses. The proposed methodology is demonstrated for Arlington, Texas, water supply system to identify non-dominated strategies for an historic drought decade. Results demonstrate that pumping costs associated with maximizing environmental reliability exceed pumping costs associated with minimizing restrictions on consumer water use.

  2. Foreign Direct Investment and Energy Supply in the Middle East and North Africa: A Correlational Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elghali, Siddig

    Middle East and North Africa countries have been criticized for failing to utilize foreign direct investment energy resources efficiently. The changing of energy resources environment of the past decades with its growing emphasis on the importance of imminent energy supply challenges require strategists to consider different types of energy resources investment to improve energy supply. One type of energy investment will show effectiveness and efficiency in utilizing foreign direct investment in exposing RE, fossil fuels, natural gas, and reducing CO2 emissions. The purpose of this quantitative correlational study was to utilize foreign direct investment to predict total primary energy supply in the Middle East and North Africa region between 1971 and 2013. The study was conducted using a sample size of 43 years of energy supply resources and foreign direct investment from 1971 to 2013, which includes all of the years for which FDI is available. RE potential may equip Middle East and North Africa countries with sustainable and clean electricity for centuries to come, as non-renewable energy resources may not meet the demands globally and domestically or environmentally. As demands for fossil fuels grow, carbon emissions will increase. RE may be a better option of CO 2 emissions sequestration and will increase electricity to rural areas without government subsidies and complex decision-making policies. RE infrastructure will reduce water desalinization costs, cooling systems, and be useful in heating. Establishing concentrated solar power may be useful for the region cooperation, negotiations, and integration to share this energy. The alternative sought to fossil fuels was nuclear power. However, nuclear power depends on depleting, non-renewable uranium resources. The cost of uranium will increase if widely used and the presence of a nuclear plant in an unstable region is unsafe. Thus, renewable energy as a long-term option is efficient. A nonlinear regression

  3. Complementarity and substitution of renewable energy in target year energy supply-mix plannin–in the case of Taiwan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Hsiao-Fan; Sung, Meng-Ping; Hsu, Hsin-Wei

    2016-01-01

    Renewable energies are eco-friendly and sustainable. However, their development faces two critical issues: the uncontrollable generation variability, and the high levelized cost. These two issues impede the development of renewables substitution for a government from lacking of clearly argument of how to promote renewables substitution, and what is the role of traditional generation resources should play to back up the renewable energies in a target year. This study aims to depict the possibility of the concerned topic from the aspects of economy, security, and environment, taking a top–down viewpoint of policy-making to address an energy supply problem, and proposes an Energy Supply-Mix Model by considering the complimentary and substitution possibilities between renewable and non-renewable energies, and also among the renewable energies. The solution provides an overall assessment of three aspects under the conditions of supply and demand balance, desired generation percentage of renewable energies, and also ensure no shortage in peak-hour demand. Parametric analysis on the carbon tax is particularly conducted for policy making reference. This study takes Taiwan as a case and performs the scenario analysis according to the recent energy policies. The results have shown that the proposed model can effectively support a decision body for policy formulation. - Highlights: • Discuss renewable and non-renewable energy substitution. • Discuss the complementary among renewable energies. • The MOLP model achieves goals of economy, environment, energy supply-mix. • Scenario and sensitivity analyses are for policy support. • Case of Taiwan supports the applicability and validity.

  4. Identifying the hotspots of non-renewable water use using HiGW-MAT: A new land surface model coupled with human interventions and ground water reservoir

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oki, T.; Pokhrel, Y. N.; Yeh, P. J.; Koirala, S.; Kanae, S.; Hanasaki, N.

    2011-12-01

    The real hydrological cycles on the Earth are not natural anymore. Global hydrological model simulations of the water cycle and available water resources should have an ability to consider the effects of human interventions on hydrological cycles. Anthropogenic activity modules (Hanasaki et al., 2008), such as reservoir operation, crop growth and water demand in crop lands, and environmental flows, were incorporated into a land surface model called MATSIRO (Takata et al., 2003), to form a new model, MAT-HI (Pokhrel et al., 2011). Total terrestrial water storages (TWS) in large river basins were estimated using the new model by off-line simulation, and compared with the TWS observed by GRACE for 2002-2007. The results showed MAT-HI has an advantage estimating TWS particularly in arid river basins compared with H08 (Hanasaki et al., 2008). MAT-HI was further coupled with a module representing the ground water level fluctuations (Yeh et al., 2005), and consists a new land surface scheme HiGW-MAT (Human Intervention and Ground Water coupled MATSIRO). HiGW-MAT is also associated with a scheme tracing the origin and flow path with the consideration on the sources of water withdrawal from stream flow, medium-size reservoirs and nonrenewable groundwater in addition to precipitation to croplands enabled the assessment of the origin of water producing major crops as Hanasaki et al. (2010). Areas highly dependent on nonrenewable groundwater are detected in the Pakistan, Bangladesh, western part of India, north and western parts of China, some regions in the Arabian Peninsula and the western part of the United States through Mexico. Cumulative nonrenewable groundwater withdrawals estimated by the model are corresponding fairly well with the country statistics of total groundwater withdrawals. Ground water table depletions in large aquifers in US estimated by HiGW-MAT were compared with in-situ observational data, and the correspondences are very good. Mean global exploitation

  5. A risk-based framework to assess long-term effects of policy and water supply changes on water resources systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassanzadeh, Elmira; Elshorbagy, Amin; Wheater, Howard; Gober, Patricia

    2015-04-01

    Climate uncertainty can affect water resources availability and management decisions. Sustainable water resources management therefore requires evaluation of policy and management decisions under a wide range of possible future water supply conditions. This study proposes a risk-based framework to integrate water supply uncertainty into a forward-looking decision making context. To apply this framework, a stochastic reconstruction scheme is used to generate a large ensemble of flow series. For the Rocky Mountain basins considered here, two key characteristics of the annual hydrograph are its annual flow volume and the timing of the seasonal flood peak. These are perturbed to represent natural randomness and potential changes due to future climate. 30-year series of perturbed flows are used as input to the SWAMP model - an integrated water resources model that simulates regional water supply-demand system and estimates economic productivity of water and other sustainability indicators, including system vulnerability and resilience. The simulation results are used to construct 2D-maps of net revenue of a particular water sector; e.g., hydropower, or for all sectors combined. Each map cell represents a risk scenario of net revenue based on a particular annual flow volume, timing of the peak flow, and 200 stochastic realizations of flow series. This framework is demonstrated for a water resources system in the Saskatchewan River Basin (SaskRB) in Saskatchewan, Canada. Critical historical drought sequences, derived from tree-ring reconstructions of several hundred years of annual river flows, are used to evaluate the system's performance (net revenue risk) under extremely low flow conditions and also to locate them on the previously produced 2D risk maps. This simulation and analysis framework is repeated under various reservoir operation strategies (e.g., maximizing flood protection or maximizing water supply security); development proposals, such as irrigation

  6. Uranium supply/demand projections to 2030 in the OECD/NEA-IAEA ''Red Book''. Nuclear growth projections, global uranium exploration, uranium resources, uranium production and production capacity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vance, Robert

    2009-01-01

    World demand for electricity is expected to continue to grow rapidly over the next several decades to meet the needs of an increasing population and economic growth. The recognition by many governments that nuclear power can produce competitively priced, base load electricity that is essentially free of greenhouse gas emissions, combined with the role that nuclear can play in enhancing security of energy supplies, has increased the prospects for growth in nuclear generating capacity. Since the mid-1960s, with the co-operation of their member countries and states, the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) and the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) have jointly prepared periodic updates (currently every 2 years) on world uranium resources, production and demand. These updates have been published by the OECD/NEA in what is commonly known as the ''Red Book''. The 2007 edition replaces the 2005 edition and reflects information current as of 1 st January 2007. Uranium 2007: Resources, Production and Demand presents, in addition to updated resource figures, the results of a recent review of world uranium market fundamentals and provides a statistical profile of the world uranium industry. It contains official data provided by 40 countries (and one Country Report prepared by the IAEA Secretariat) on uranium exploration, resources, production and reactor-related requirements. Projections of nuclear generating capacity and reactor-related uranium requirements to 2030 as well as a discussion of long-term uranium supply and demand issues are also presented. (orig.)

  7. Changes and events in uranium deposit development, exploration, resources, production and the world supply-demand relationship. Proceedings of a technical committee meeting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-09-01

    This report consists of the proceedings of the Technical Committee Meeting on Recent Changes and Events in Uranium Deposit Development, Exploration, Resources, Production and the World Supply/Demand Relationship, held in co-operation with the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency (OECD/NEA) in Kiev, Ukraine, from 22 to 26 May 1995. Some of the information from this meeting was also used in preparation of the 1995 edition of ''Uranium - Resources, Production and Demand'' a joint report by the OECD/NEA and the IAEA. At the Beginning of 1995 there were 432 nuclear power plants in operation with a combined electricity generating capacity of 340 GW(e). This represents nearly a 100% increase over the last decade. In 1995 over 2228 TW·h of electricity were generated, equivalent to about 17% of the world's total electricity. To achieve this, about 61,000 t U were required as nuclear fuel. For about a decade and a half uranium production and related activities have been decreasing because of declining uranium prices. For many participants in the nuclear industry there has been little interest in uranium supply because of the oversupplied market condition. The declining production led to the development of a supply and demand balance were production is currently meeting a little over 50% of reactor requirements and the excess inventory is being rapidly drawn down. This very unstable relationship has resulted in great uncertainty about the future supply or uranium. One of the objectives of this Technical Committee meeting was to bring together specialists in the field of uranium supply and demand to collect information on new developments. This helps provide a better understanding of the current situation, as well as providing information to plan for the future. Refs, figs, tabs

  8. Chemical, physical, and radiological quality of selected public water supplies in Florida, November 1977-February 1978. Water-resources investigations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Irwin, G.A.; Hull, R.W.

    1979-04-01

    Virtually all treated public water supplies sampled in Florida meet the National Interim Primary and Proposed Secondary Drinking Water Regulations. These findings are based on a water-quality reconnaissance of 129 treated public supplies throughout the State during the period November 1977 through February 1978. While primary drinking water regulation exceedences were infrequent, lead, selenium, and gross alpha radioactivity in a very few water supplies were above established maximum contaminant levels. Additionally, the secondary drinking water regulation parameters--dissolved solids, chloride, sulfate, iron, color, and pH--were occasionally detected in excess of the proposed Federal regulations. The secondary regulations, however, pertain mainly to the aesthetic quality of drinking water and not directly to public health aspects

  9. Energy and Resources: A plan is outlined according to which solar and wind energy would supply Denmark's needs by the year 2050.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sørensen, B

    1975-07-25

    Two possible futures for the industrial world may be distinguished: (i) Large amounts of low-cost energy become available and the more energy-intensive methods for extracting resources from lowergrade deposits continue to sustain industrial expansion until either the environmental impact becomes unacceptable or ultimate limits, such as climate disruptions, put an end to such growth. (ii) The cost of nonrenewable energy resources continue to rise, but a fixed amount of energy from continuous sources may be utilized at constant cost. In this case a lower production level may be set by the amount of energy that is available from renewable sources, and society may thus have to be reshaped with energy economization in focus. If it is possible to choose between these two alternatives, the choice should be based on a discussion of the pros and cons of each one, and in particular on the desirability of having to process an increasing fraction of the earth's crust in search of raw materials in order to maintain growth as long as possible. However, the availability, of the first option is far from certain and it thus seems reasonable to plan for the second alternative. I have tried to propose such a plan for a small, homogeneous geographical region, namely Denmark. The ceiling on the consumption of energy from continuous sources is chosen in accordance with the criterion of not having to convert a major part of the land area to energy-collecting systems. The proposed annual average energy consumption of 19 gigawatts by the year 2050 corresponds to solar energy collecting panels (in use only 50 percent of the time) with an area of roughly 180 square kilometers and a windmill swept area of about 150 square kilometers. These (vertical) areas constitute less than 1 percent of the total land area. The selection of solar or wind energy for different applications has been based on known technology and may be subject to adjustments. The project has been shown to be economically

  10. Longer-term domestic supply problems for nonrenewable materials with special emphasis on energy-related applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goeller, H.E.

    1980-01-01

    An examination is made on how materials are used in present and future energy production and use. Problem areas which are discussed include by-products production, import limitations, substitution and recycle, accelerated use, synthesis, and the adequacy of the data bases availability

  11. Do alien plant species profit more from high resource supply than natives? : A trait-based analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ordonez, Alejandro; Olff, Han

    Aim Previous studies comparing conditions of high- versus low-resource environments have pointed at differences in key traits that would allow aliens to perform better than natives under high-resource conditions. We generalize and test the robustness of this idea by exploring how trait

  12. Resource use in a low-input organic vegetable food supply system in UK - a case study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergård, Hanne; Markussen, Mads V.; Kulak, Michal

    2014-01-01

    The sustainability of a small-scale low-input organic vegetable farm in United Kingdom with high crop diversity and a related box scheme food supply system was assessed by emergy evaluation, an environmental accounting method based on the direct and indirect use of solar equivalent joules. The main...

  13. The Examining of Prospective Teachers? Views about Renewable and Non-Renewable Energy Sources: A Case Study of Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasiloglu, Mehmet Akif

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study is to determine prospective teachers? views about renewable and non-renewable energy sources. To collect data, a questionnaire with 5 open-ended questions was conveyed to 463 prospective teachers selected from Agri Ibrahim Cecen University. The results showed that almost three fourths of the prospective teachers tend to…

  14. Recent developments in uranium resources and supply. Proceedings of a technical committee meeting held in Vienna, 24-28 May 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-09-01

    In recent years substantial uncertainties regarding uranium supply have made it very difficult for both uranium producers and users to plan for the future. In 1992 uranium production met only about 63 percent of reactor requirements. This resulted in a very unstable supply/demand balance where inventory drawdown (supplemented by minor amounts of reprocessing) filled the 20,960 tonne shortfall. The IAEA convened this Technical Committee meeting to take advantage of the new opportunities to collect and analyse information related to the future supply and demand balance and to help reduce uncertainties regarding the relationship. The meeting was effective in bringing together experts from all regions to share, exchange and disseminate information regarding uranium related activities. This meeting on Recent Developments in Uranium Resources and Supply was held in Vienna from 24 to 26 May 1993. It was attended by 47 participants from 23 countries. Twenty-one papers were presented. Contributions from China, the Czech Republic, India, Kazakhstan, Mongolia, Romania and the Russian Federation represent new information in this field. Refs, figs and tabs.

  15. Risk assessment and adaptive runoff utilization in water resource system considering the complex relationship among water supply, electricity generation and environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, J.; Zeng, X.; Mo, L.; Chen, L.; Jiang, Z.; Feng, Z.; Yuan, L.; He, Z.

    2017-12-01

    Generally, the adaptive utilization and regulation of runoff in the source region of China's southwest rivers is classified as a typical multi-objective collaborative optimization problem. There are grim competitions and incidence relation in the subsystems of water supply, electricity generation and environment, which leads to a series of complex problems represented by hydrological process variation, blocked electricity output and water environment risk. Mathematically, the difficulties of multi-objective collaborative optimization focus on the description of reciprocal relationships and the establishment of evolving model of adaptive systems. Thus, based on the theory of complex systems science, this project tries to carry out the research from the following aspects: the changing trend of coupled water resource, the covariant factor and driving mechanism, the dynamic evolution law of mutual feedback dynamic process in the supply-generation-environment coupled system, the environmental response and influence mechanism of coupled mutual feedback water resource system, the relationship between leading risk factor and multiple risk based on evolutionary stability and dynamic balance, the transfer mechanism of multiple risk response with the variation of the leading risk factor, the multidimensional coupled feedback system of multiple risk assessment index system and optimized decision theory. Based on the above-mentioned research results, the dynamic method balancing the efficiency of multiple objectives in the coupled feedback system and optimized regulation model of water resources is proposed, and the adaptive scheduling mode considering the internal characteristics and external response of coupled mutual feedback system of water resource is established. In this way, the project can make a contribution to the optimal scheduling theory and methodology of water resource management under uncertainty in the source region of Southwest River.

  16. A Retrospective Analysis on the Occurrence of Arsenic in Ground-Water Resources of the United States and Limitations in Drinking-Water-Supply Characterizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Focazio, Michael J.; Welch, Alan H.; Watkins, Sharon A.; Helsel, Dennis R.; Horn, Marilee A.

    2000-01-01

    The Safe Drinking Water Act, as amended in 1996, requires the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) to review current drinking-water standards for arsenic, propose a maximum contaminant level for arsenic by January 1, 2000, and issue a final regulation by January, 2001. Quantification of the national occurrence of targeted ranges in arsenic concentration in ground water used for public drinking-water supplies is an important component of USEPA's regulatory process. Data from the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) National Water Information System (NWIS) were used in a retrospective analysis of arsenic in the ground-water resources of the United States. The analysis augments other existing sources of data on the occurrence of arsenic collected in ground water at public water-supply systems.The USGS, through its District offices and national programs, has been compiling data for many years on arsenic concentrations collected from wells used for public water supply, research, agriculture, industry, and domestic water supply throughout the United States. These data have been collected for a variety of purposes ranging from simple descriptions of the occurrence of arsenic in local or regional ground-water resources to detailed studies on arsenic geochemistry associated with contamination sites. A total of 18,864 sample locations were selected from the USGS NWIS data base regardless of well type, of which 2,262 were taken from public water-supply sources. Samples with non-potable water (dissolved-solids concentration greater than 2,000 milligrams per liter and water temperature greater than 50o Celsius) were not selected for the retrospective analysis and other criteria for selection included the amount and type of ancillary data available for each sample. The 1,528 counties with sufficient data included 76 percent of all large public water-supply systems (serving more than 10,000 people) and 61 percent of all small public water-supply systems (serving more than 1

  17. The transboundary non-renewable Nubian Aquifer System of Chad, Egypt, Libya and Sudan: classical groundwater questions and parsimonious hydrogeologic analysis and modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voss, Clifford I.; Soliman, Safaa M.

    2014-03-01

    Parsimonious groundwater modeling provides insight into hydrogeologic functioning of the Nubian Aquifer System (NAS), the world's largest non-renewable groundwater system (belonging to Chad, Egypt, Libya, and Sudan). Classical groundwater-resource issues exist (magnitude and lateral extent of drawdown near pumping centers) with joint international management questions regarding transboundary drawdown. Much of NAS is thick, containing a large volume of high-quality groundwater, but receives insignificant recharge, so water-resource availability is time-limited. Informative aquifer data are lacking regarding large-scale response, providing only local-scale information near pumps. Proxy data provide primary underpinning for understanding regional response: Holocene water-table decline from the previous pluvial period, after thousands of years, results in current oasis/sabkha locations where the water table still intersects the ground. Depletion is found to be controlled by two regional parameters, hydraulic diffusivity and vertical anisotropy of permeability. Secondary data that provide insight are drawdowns near pumps and isotope-groundwater ages (million-year-old groundwaters in Egypt). The resultant strong simply structured three-dimensional model representation captures the essence of NAS regional groundwater-flow behavior. Model forecasts inform resource management that transboundary drawdown will likely be minimal—a nonissue—whereas drawdown within pumping centers may become excessive, requiring alternative extraction schemes; correspondingly, significant water-table drawdown may occur in pumping centers co-located with oases, causing oasis loss and environmental impacts.

  18. Relationships demand-supply of water and the rate of water shortage as tools for evaluating water resources in Colombia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dominguez Calle, Efrain Antonio; Gonzalo Rivera, Hebert; Vanegas, Sarmiento Raquel; Moreno, Pedro

    2008-01-01

    This paper shows updated results about Colombian water resources and their requirements by the economic sectors. Water demand water availability relationship is used as a pressure index on water resources. This relationship is expressed through the water scarcity index, which applies constraints over water availability; due to the runoff temporal variability and to the low levels of water during the dry season each year and for each geographic region to characterize average and low runoff years. Different water availability scenarios were building. One for modal runoff values and another for 95 percents for 2025 also were prepared. To the results call our attention to problems caused by the concentration of high density settlements and the presence of economics sectors in regions with low water availability. The infrastructure lag for management of a scarce high variable and over pressured resources emerges as a key factor to avoid a looming crisis in the process of water management

  19. Promotion of renewable energy supply in Nigeria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ekechukwu, O.V.

    1999-01-01

    The paper discusses the utilization of the various non-renewable energy resources and the associated environmental problems deriving from the different stages and uses of these resources. Some of the most important of these problems are loss of vegetation and environmental pollution. The need for a conscious shift to the exploitation of renewable energy sources are highlighted and a presentation of renewable energy resources of Nigeria is made. A review of national efforts in the development and utilization of renewable energy sources in Nigeria and the achievements so far are presented

  20. Promotion of renewable energy supply in Nigeria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ekechukwu, O V [National Centre for Energy Research and Development, University of Nigeria, Nsukka (Nigeria)

    1999-07-01

    The paper discusses the utilization of the various non-renewable energy resources and the associated environmental problems deriving from the different stages and uses of these resources. Some of the most important of these problems are loss of vegetation and environmental pollution. The need for a conscious shift to the exploitation of renewable energy sources are highlighted and a presentation of renewable energy resources of Nigeria is made. A review of national efforts in the development and utilization of renewable energy sources in Nigeria and the achievements so far are presented.

  1. Consequences of supply and demand management options for integrated water resources management in the Jabotabek- Citarum region, Indonesia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hengsdijk, H.; Krogt, van der W.; Verhaeghe, R.J.; Bindraban, P.S.

    2006-01-01

    In peri-urban areas competition among domestic, municipal, industrial and agriculture water use is strong and calls for identification of alternatives to bridge the widening gap between required and available water resources. In this study, the RIver BAsin SIMulation (RIBASIM) model is applied to

  2. Uncertainty propagation in life cycle assessment of biodiesel versus diesel: global warming and non-renewable energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Jinglan

    2012-06-01

    Uncertainty information is essential for the proper use of life cycle assessment and environmental assessments in decision making. To investigate the uncertainties of biodiesel and determine the level of confidence in the assertion that biodiesel is more environmentally friendly than diesel, an explicit analytical approach based on the Taylor series expansion for lognormal distribution was applied in the present study. A biodiesel case study demonstrates the probability that biodiesel has a lower global warming and non-renewable energy score than diesel, that is 92.3% and 93.1%, respectively. The results indicate the level of confidence in the assertion that biodiesel is more environmentally friendly than diesel based on the global warming and non-renewable energy scores. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Canada's resources and the national interest

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1977-01-01

    This is the main report of the task force on the broad subjects of taxation of nonrenewable resources, a survey of oil and gas reserves, a survey of other mineral resources, and the development of an oil and gas energy plan for Canada. Individual reports on the subjects above were issued as separate appendices to this main report. The preliminary draft of the report was published in early 1976. The introductory chapter surveys the critical choices and their costs for Canada, followed by chapters on Canadian resources; availability of private resource capital investments and returns; the tax position of the nonrenewable resource industry; and Federal-provincial conflicts over resource revenue and jurisdiction. It is concluded that the future is likely to yield only possibly adequate returns after massive commitments of capital and the acceptance of large risks by all concerned; further, that a climate of cooperation between government and industry is needed. (MCW)

  4. Analysis of renewable and nonrenewable energy consumption, real GDP and CO2 emissions: A structural VAR approach in Romania

    OpenAIRE

    Shahbaz, Muhammad; Zeshan, Muhammad; Tiwari, Aviral Kumar

    2011-01-01

    Impulse responses of our structural VAR portray a positive correlation between the real GDP of Romania and energy consumption. The present study employs the annual data covering the period 1980-2008, and brings to light the factors playing important role in satisfying the energy requirements, its economic and social implications. Any short-run rise in energy requirements is contented with the help of nonrenewable energy consumption, for renewable energy is not so common in Romania. In additio...

  5. The Environmental Kuznets Curve: The Role of Renewable and Non-Renewable Energy Consumption and Trade Openness

    OpenAIRE

    Ben Jebli, Mehdi; Ben Youssef, Slim; Ozturk, Ilhan

    2013-01-01

    We use panel cointegration techniques to investigate the causal relationship between CO2 emissions, renewable and non-renewable energy consumption, and trade openness in three different models for a panel of twenty five OECD countries over the period 1980-2009. Also the validity of the Environmental Kuznets Curve (EKC) hypothesis has been tested for these countries. Short-run Granger causality tests show the existence of a unidirectional causality running from the square of per capita output ...

  6. Non-renewable and renewable energy consumption and CO2 emissions in OECD countries: A comparative analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shafiei, Sahar; Salim, Ruhul A.

    2014-01-01

    This paper attempts to explore the determinants of CO 2 emissions using the STIRPAT model and data from 1980 to 2011 for OECD countries. The empirical results show that non-renewable energy consumption increases CO 2 emissions, whereas renewable energy consumption decreases CO 2 emissions. Further, the results support the existence of an environmental Kuznets curve between urbanisation and CO 2 emissions, implying that at higher levels of urbanisation, the environmental impact decreases. Therefore, the overall evidence suggests that policy makers should focus on urban planning as well as clean energy development to make substantial contributions to both reducing non-renewable energy use and mitigating climate change. - Highlights: • Examine the relationship between disaggregated energy consumption and CO 2 emission. • The STIRPAT econometric model is used for empirical analysis. • Investigate the popular environmental Kuznets curve (EKC) hypothesis between urbanisation and CO 2 emissions. • Non-renewable energy consumption increases CO 2 emissions whereas renewable energy consumption decreases CO 2 emissions. • There is evidence of the existence of an environmental Kuznets curve between urbanisation and CO 2 emissions

  7. A Multi-Objective Input–Output Linear Model for Water Supply, Economic Growth and Environmental Planning in Resource-Based Cities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenlan Ke

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Water resource and environment capacity have become two of the most important restrictions for sustainable development in resource-based cities whose leading industries are the exploitation and processing of resources. Taking Ordos in China as an example, this article constructs an integrated model combining a multi-objective optimization model with input–output analysis to achieve the tradeoffs between economic growth, water utilization and environmental protection. This dynamic model includes socioeconomic, water supply–demand, water quality control, air quality control, energy consumption control and integrated policy sub-models. These six sub-models interact with each other. After simulation, this article proposes efficient solutions on industrial restructuring by maximizing the Gross Regional Product of Ordos from 394.3 in 2012 to 785.1 billion RMB in 2025 with a growth rate of 6.4% annually; and presents a water supply plan by maximizing the proportion of reclaimed water from 2% to 6.3% through sewage treatment technology selection and introduction, and effective water allocation. Meanwhile, the environmental impacts are all in line with the planning targets. This study illustrates that the integrated modeling is generic and can be applied to any region suffering uncoordinated development issues and can serve as a pre-evaluation approach for conducting early warning research to offer suggestions for government decision-making.

  8. FUNCIONALIDADES DE SISTEMAS DE PLANIFICACIÓN DE RECURSOS EMPRESARIALES PARA CADENAS DE SUMINISTRO / FUNCTIONALITIES OF ENTERPRISE RESOURCE PLANNING SYSTEMS FOR SUPPLY CHAIN INTEGRATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dania Pérez-Armayor

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available En la actualidad los sistemas de planificación de recursos empresariales, además de facilitar las relaciones y la eficiencia intra-empresarial, incluyen elementos para viabilizar la colaboración entre empresas, como respuesta a la necesidad de las organizaciones de agruparse en cadenas de suministro. En consecuencia, el Ministerio de la Informática y las Comunicaciones, junto a otras organizaciones cubanas, están proyectando el desarrollo de un sistema de planificación de recursos empresariales desarrollado en el país (Sistema Cedrux, incluyendo funcionalidades que soporten la integración de cadenas de suministro. Este trabajo se centra en el análisis de funcionalidades que debe poseer el Sistema Cedrux para facilitar una gestión de la cadena de suministro exitosa. Para complementar este análisis fueron realizadas búsquedas bibliográficas y entrevistas a personal participante en el desarrollo de Cedrux. Como resultado se propone la configuración de los módulos acorde al rol de la empresa en la cadena, incluyendo módulos de gestión de cadenas de suministroAbstractNowadays, enterprise resource planning systems (ERP systems, in addition to help improving the relations and the intra-enterprise efficiency, include elements that facilitate inter-enterprise cooperation in response to the need for organizations to come together in supply chains. As a consequence, the Ministry of Informatics and Communications, along with other Cuban organizations, are planning the development of an ERP system developed in Cuba (named Cedrux system, which includes functionalities that support the integration of supply chains. This paper aims to analyze the functionalities that Cedrux should have in order to support a successful supply chain management. Bibliographic searches and interviews to Cedrux developers were conducted, in order to complement this analysis. As a result is suggested the inclusion of modules for supply chain management and the

  9. Life-cycle global warming and non-renewable energy consumption impacts of ammonia fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Are, Kristian Ray Angelo; Razon, Luis; Tan, Raymond Girard

    2015-01-01

    The use of ammonia (NH 3 ) as transportation fuel had been a recent topics of research interest. NH 3 has fuel properties that are better than those of other alternative fuels, such as it high energy density and simpler storage. However, it has a low flame speed and would require to be mixed with a secondary fuel forming a dual fuel system. Moreover, current industrial methods of NH 3 production are major global warming potential (GWP) and non-renewable energy consumption (NREC) impact contributors. This study assessed the life-cycle GWP and NREC of using different NH 3 -secondary fuel mixtures. Four fuel mixtures were considered, wherein NH 3 is mixed with gasoline, diesel, hydrogen or dimethyl ether (DME). Also, our processes of NH 3 production were considered: steam reforming (SR), partial oxidation (PO), which are industrial methods and two biomass-based (alternative) processes wherein cereal straw (Salix) and cyanobacteria (Anabaena ATCC 33047) are used feedstocks. Contribution, sensitivity, and uncertainty analyses (via Monte Carlo simulation) were conducted for life-cycle interpretation. Dominance matrix tool was also employed to aid in drawing conclusions. The study concludes that the environmental impacts of NH 3 fuel are dependent on (i) NH 3 production methods and (ii) type of NH 3 fuel mixture. NH 3 -diesel fuel mixtures have lower GWP compared to pure diesel, while NH 3 -gasoline fuel mixture have higher GWP compared to pure gasoline. Because of large uncertainty of the NREC pure gasoline and pure diesel, no firm conclusion can be made about the NREC ammonia-diesel and ammonia-gasoline. If fuel mixture types are compared, NH 3 -H 2 mixtures have the lowest GWP and NREC among the four, though this would entail designing new engines. Over-all, it is shown that fuel systems involving biomass-based NH 3 have lower environmental impacts as compared to conventionally-produced NH 3 counterparts. (author)

  10. Generic Schemes for Single-Molecule Kinetics. 3: Self-Consistent Pathway Solutions for Nonrenewal Processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piephoff, D Evan; Cao, Jianshu

    2018-04-23

    We recently developed a pathway analysis framework (paper 1) for describing single-molecule kinetics for renewal (i.e., memoryless) processes based on the decomposition of a kinetic scheme into generic structures. In our approach, waiting time distribution functions corresponding to such structures are expressed in terms of self-consistent pathway solutions and concatenated to form measurable probability distribution functions (PDFs), affording a simple way to decompose and recombine a network. Here, we extend this framework to nonrenewal processes, which involve correlations between events, and employ it to formulate waiting time PDFs, including the first-passage time PDF, for a general kinetic network model. Our technique does not require the assumption of Poissonian kinetics, permitting a more general kinetic description than the usual rate approach, with minimal topological restrictiveness. To demonstrate the usefulness of this technique, we provide explicit calculations for our general model, which we adapt to two generic schemes for single-enzyme turnover with conformational interconversion. For each generic scheme, wherein the intermediate state(s) need not undergo Poissonian decay, the functional dependence of the mean first-passage time on the concentration of an external substrate is analyzed. When conformational detailed balance is satisfied, the enzyme turnover rate (related to the mean first-passage time) reduces to the celebrated Michaelis-Menten functional form, consistent with our previous work involving a similar scheme with all rate processes, thereby establishing further generality to this intriguing result. Our framework affords a general and intuitive approach for evaluating measurable waiting time PDFs and their moments, making it a potentially useful kinetic tool for a wide variety of single-molecule processes.

  11. Wood supply : what bioenergy resources are available as harvest residue and non-merchantable wood in New Brunswick?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forgrave, K.

    2005-01-01

    This paper examines resources available for bioenergy production in New Brunswick. An estimate of New Brunswick harvest levels, based on New Brunswick Forest Products Association web site figures was presented. Private wood lots harvest levels were also provided, with all estimates based on volume per year. Market conditions were discussed, with an emphasis on the dictates of price and availability for private wood lot owners. Market conditions and unused volume statistics were discussed. Various forest management options include the use of veneer, saw log, stud wood and pulp wood. Details of bioenergy percentages and potential were presented and general silviculture issues were discussed. It was concluded that many of the trade-offs of bioenergy involve placing more demands on forests, and that purchase prices will increasingly dictate volumes obtained from private wood lots. tabs, figs

  12. Operations management in automotive industries from industrial strategies to production resources management, through the industrialization process and supply chain to pursue value creation

    CERN Document Server

    Gobetto, Marco

    2014-01-01

    This book has proved its worth over the years as a text for courses in Production Management at the Faculty of Automotive Engineering in Turin, Italy, but deserves a wider audience as it presents a compendium of basics on Industrial Management, since it covers all major topics required. It treats all subjects from product development and “make or buy”-decision strategies to the manufacturing systems setting and management through analysis of the main resources needed in production and finally exploring the supply chain management and the procurement techniques. The very last chapter recapitulates the previous ones by analysing key management indicators to pursue the value creation that is the real purpose of every industrial enterprise. As an appendix, a specific chapter is dedicated to the basics of production management where all main relevant definitions, techniques and criteria are treated, including some numerical examples, in order to provide an adequate foundation for understanding the other chapte...

  13. Sustainable prevention of resource conflicts. Conflict risks for access and use of raw materials (report 1); Rohstoffkonflikte nachhaltig vermeiden. Konfliktrisiken bei Zugang und Nutzung von Rohstoffen (Teilbericht 1)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taenzler, Dennis; Westerkamp, Meike [Adelphi Research, Berlin (Germany); Supersberger, Nikolaus; Ritthoff, Michael; Bleischwitz, Raimund [Wuppertal Institut fuer Klima, Umwelt, Energie GmbH, Wuppertal (Germany)

    2011-04-15

    Inequalities of resources ownership and the consequences of the exploitation of non-renewable resources have always caused violent conflicts of varying intensity. The resulting interdependence between conflicts on the one hand and resources on the other hand - discussed here under the term of conflict-resources nexus - is complex and requires a detailed theoretical and conceptional assessment. The risks of conflict vary as a function of the constellations of actors and the existing political, economic and social boundary conditions. These risks are often globally linked and reflect the flow of resources between consumer countries, transit countries, and producer countries. Conflicts in producer countries may endanger the supply of raw materials to consumer countries. Whether the raw material is an energetic resource like natural gas, petroleum, or coal, or a non-energetic resource like coltane or copper: There are many who demand that Germany should adapt to stronger competition and shorter supply and should also be aware of the possibility of conflicts about raw materials. This part-report of the project 'Sustainable Prevention of Resource Conflicts' presents important theoretical and conceptional considerations on the risk of conflict in the raw materials sector. On this basis, further reports will present case studies, scenarios, and preventive strategies. (orig./RHM)

  14. Present and future water resources supply and demand in the Central Andes of Peru: a comprehensive review with focus on the Cordillera Vilcanota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drenkhan, Fabian; Huggel, Christian; Salzmann, Nadine; Giráldez, Claudia; Suarez, Wilson; Rohrer, Mario; Molina, Edwin; Montoya, Nilton; Miñan, Fiorella

    2014-05-01

    Glaciers have been an important element of Andean societies and livelihoods as direct freshwater supply for agriculture irrigation, hydropower generation and mining activities. Peru's mainly remotely living population in the Central Andes has to cope with a strong seasonal variation of precipitations and river runoff interannually superimposed by El Niño impacts. Direct glacier and lake water discharge thus constitute a vital continuous water supply and represent a regulating buffer as far as hydrological variability is concerned. This crucial buffer effect is gradually altered by accelerated glacier retreat which leads most likely to an increase of annual river runoff variability. Furthermore, a near-future crossing of the 'peak water' is expected, from where on prior enhanced streamflow decreases and levels out towards a new still unknown minimum discharge. Consequently, a sustainable future water supply especially during low-level runoff dry season might not be guaranteed whereas Peru's water demand increases significantly. Here we present a comprehensive review, the current conditions and perspectives for water resources in the Cusco area with focus on the Vilcanota River, Cordillera Vilcanota, Southern Peru. With 279 km2 the Cordillera Vilcanota represents the second largest glacierized mountain range of the tropics worldwide. Especially as of the second half of the 1980s, it has been strongly affected by massive ice loss with around 30% glacier area decline until present. Furthermore, glacier vanishing triggers the formation of new lakes and increase of lake levels and therefore constitutes determining hazardous drivers for mass movements related to deglaciation effects. The Vilcanota River still lacks more profound hydrological studies. It is likely that its peak water has already been or might be crossed in near-future. This has strong implications for the still at 0.9% (2.2%) annually growing population of the Cusco department (Cusco city). People mostly

  15. [The status quo and future prospects of emergency medical service systems in Japan in view of the tight supply-demand situation for medical resources].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aruga, Tohru

    2016-02-01

    Considering the tight supply-demand situation for medical resources contributing to emergency medical service(EMS) systems at present and in the future in Japan, the author has explained the present states and future prospects of EMS systems in our country. EMS in remote places in this country is now consisting of the concentration of limited human resources, and is therefore suggestive of the EMS systems in the future, because we will have to deal with the possible exhaustion of EMS in our superannuated society progressing now and in the future. And also EMS systems will have to be maintained in the future with concerted efforts of all the medical staffs. The transferring the medical doctors' tasks to those of nurses and other staffs, that is to say the task shifting has just authorized by recent laws, and so the task shifting will be useful in the future EMS systems performed by all kinds of medical workers, in whom general physicians will be included as they are to be distributed throughout this country in the future.

  16. The effect of natural resources on a sustainable development policy: The approach of non-sustainable externalities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schilling, Markus; Chiang Lichun

    2011-01-01

    The debate about the importance of non-renewable resources for economic development between optimists and pessimists shows that the extensive depletion of non-renewable resources, particularly oil, along with a higher level of consumption could have a significant impact on the economic development of future generations. Based on this debate, this paper proposes criteria under which the depletion of non-renewable resources would create excess costs for future generations. Therefore, this paper aims to answer the question 'What will be the impact of the depletion of non-renewable resources on sustainable economic development?' Accordingly, a sustainable development policy appears feasible by minimizing non-sustainable externalities which derive from future externalities that weigh the benefits from a previous employment of natural resources. The research based on qualitative analysis clarifies the reasons for and the extents of taking sustainability into account as well as points to difficulties of implementing policies to time the transition towards a sustainable economic development. Finally, the research shows the implications of this approach for environmental degradation, the depletion of non-renewable resources and energy production. - Research Highlights: →Economic development will more or less smoothly switch to the use of renewable substitutes. →The transition towards a sustainable use of resources may inherit costs for future generations. →Non-sustainable externalities show the future costs of excessive resource depletion. →The approach aims to take the long-term global effects of resource substitution into account.

  17. Options for new Swiss energy supply strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gantner, U.; Hirschberg, S.; Jakob, M.

    1999-01-01

    Ecologically neutral, cost efficient, without supply shortages, independent from foreign countries, risk- and waste-free - that is the image of an ideal future energy supply. But even if considerable ecological and economical improvements of various energy supply options can be achieved, the next generation of heat and power plants with the associated up- and down-stream parts of energy chains, will not comply with all such idealistic requirements. As research in the framework of the GaBE Project on 'Comprehensive Assessment of Energy Systems' has shown, among the reasons for this are the limited medium term potential of renewable energy sources, and the necessity to employ primarily non-renewable energy carriers for the emerging more efficient energy conversion processes. (author)

  18. Environmental aspects of ethanol derived from no-tilled corn grain: nonrenewable energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Seungdo; Dale, Bruce E.

    2005-01-01

    Nonrenewable energy consumption and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions associated with ethanol (a liquid fuel) derived from corn grain produced in selected counties in Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Michigan, Minnesota, Ohio, and Wisconsin are presented. Corn is cultivated under no-tillage practice (without plowing). The system boundaries include corn production, ethanol production, and the end use of ethanol as a fuel in a midsize passenger car. The environmental burdens in multi-output biorefinery processes (e.g., corn dry milling and wet milling) are allocated to the ethanol product and its various coproducts by the system expansion allocation approach. The nonrenewable energy requirement for producing 1 kg of ethanol is approximately 13.4-21.5 MJ (based on lower heating value), depending on corn milling technologies employed. Thus, the net energy value of ethanol is positive; the energy consumed in ethanol production is less than the energy content of the ethanol (26.8 MJ kg -1 ). In the GHG emissions analysis, nitrous oxide (N 2 O) emissions from soil and soil organic carbon levels under corn cultivation in each county are estimated by the DAYCENT model. Carbon sequestration rates range from 377 to 681 kg C ha -1 year -1 and N 2 O emissions from soil are 0.5-2.8 kg N ha -1 year -1 under no-till conditions. The GHG emissions assigned to 1 kg of ethanol are 260-922 g CO 2 eq. under no-tillage. Using ethanol (E85) fuel in a midsize passenger vehicle can reduce GHG emissions by 41-61% km -1 driven, compared to gasoline-fueled vehicles. Using ethanol as a vehicle fuel, therefore, has the potential to reduce nonrenewable energy consumption and GHG emissions

  19. Renewable and non-renewable exergy costs and CO2 emissions in the production of fuels for Brazilian transportation sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flórez-Orrego, Daniel; Silva, Julio A.M. da; Velásquez, Héctor; Oliveira, Silvio de

    2015-01-01

    An exergy and environmental comparison between the fuel production routes for Brazilian transportation sector, including fossil fuels (natural gas, oil-derived products and hydrogen), biofuels (ethanol and biodiesel) and electricity is performed, and the percentage distribution of exergy destruction in the different units of the processing plants is characterized. An exergoeconomy methodology is developed and applied to properly allocate the renewable and non-renewable exergy costs and CO 2 emission cost among the different products of multiproduct plants. Since Brazilian electricity is consumed in the upstream processing stages of the fuels used in the generation thereof, an iterative calculation is used. The electricity mix comprises thermal (coal, natural gas and oil-fired), nuclear, wind and hydroelectric power plants, as well as bagasse-fired mills, which, besides exporting surplus electricity, also produce sugar and bioethanol. Oil and natural gas-derived fuels production and biodiesel fatty acid methyl-esters (FAME) derived from palm oil are also analyzed. It was found that in spite of the highest total unit exergy costs correspond to the production of biofuels and electricity, the ratio between the renewable to non-renewable invested exergy (cR/cNR) for those fuels is 2.69 for biodiesel, 4.39 for electricity, and 15.96 for ethanol, whereas for fossil fuels is almost negligible. - Highlights: • Total and non-renewable exergy costs of Brazilian transportation fuels are evaluated. • Specific CO 2 emissions in the production of Brazilian transportation fuels are determined. • Representative production routes for fossil fuels, biofuels and electricity are reviewed. • Exergoeconomy is used to distribute costs and emissions in multiproduct processes

  20. Determinants of CO2 emissions in the MERCOSUR: the role of economic growth, and renewable and non-renewable energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza, Emerson Santana; Freire, Fátima de Souza; Pires, Josimar

    2018-05-13

    The main objective of this study was to analyze the impact of energy consumption (divided into renewable and non-renewable sources) and income on CO 2 emissions within the environmental Kuznets curve (EKC) model for the Southern Common Market (MERCOSUR). To do so, the annual panel data collected during the 1990-2014 periods was used. The CO 2 variable, representing carbon dioxide emissions in metric tons per capita, was used as a proxy for the emission of pollutants. The annual data were obtained from the World Bank (World Development Indicators). The sample consisted of the five MERCOSUR member countries: Argentina, Brazil, Paraguay, Uruguay, and Venezuela, comprising a period of 25 consecutive years. The results showed that energy consumption from renewable sources had a negative impact on CO 2 emissions, while the energy consumption from non-renewable sources had a positive impact. The positive impact of economic development on CO 2 emissions was also seen. In addition, this study supports the validity of the EKC hypothesis for the MERCOSUR because GDP (real output) leads to environmental degradation while GDP 2 reduces the level of gas emissions.

  1. Nonrenewable Energy Cost and Greenhouse Gas Emissions of a “Pig-Biogas-Fish” System in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qing Yang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to assess the energy savings and emission reductions of the present rural biogas system in China. The life cycle assessment (LCA method is used to analyze a “pig-biogas-fish” system in Jingzhou, Hubei Province, China. The nonrenewable energy cost and the greenhouse gas (GHG emissions of the system, including the pigsty, the biogas digester, and the fishpond, are taken into account. The border definition is standardized because of the utilization of the database in this paper. The results indicate that the nonrenewable energy consumption intensity of the “pig-biogas-fish” system is 0.60 MJ/MJ and the equivalent CO2 emission intensity is 0.05 kg CO2-eq/MJ. Compared with the conventional animal husbandry system, the “pig-biogas-fish” system shows high renewability and GHG reduction benefit, which indicates that the system is a scientific and environmentally friendly chain combining energy and ecology.

  2. Uranium supply and demand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spriggs, M J

    1976-01-01

    Papers were presented on the pattern of uranium production in South Africa; Australian uranium--will it ever become available; North American uranium resources, policies, prospects, and pricing; economic and political environment of the uranium mining industry; alternative sources of uranium supply; whither North American demand for uranium; and uranium demand and security of supply--a consumer's point of view. (LK)

  3. The land of black gold, corruption, poverty and sabotage: Overcoming the Niger Delta’s problems through the establishment of a Nigerian Non-Renewable Revenue Special Fund (NNRSF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian Gonzalez

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Through statistics published by the Shell Petroleum Development Company (SPDC, the paper explores why oilfield sabotage from 2009 to 2015 remains a problem in the Niger Delta, despite the 2009 amnesty programme. It explains why some of these incidents are a direct result of the failure to implement socio-economic development in successive state agencies due to corruption, a consequence of the natural resource curse. The article then explores why and how a Nigerian Non-Renewable Revenue Special Fund overseen by the United Nations Development Programme should be established which would not only manage a portion of oil revenue funds from the Niger Delta but also initiate valid social and economic projects in order to help reduce the prevalence of sabotage and instability in the region.

  4. Analysis of Pooled FIA and Remote Sensing Data for Fiber Supply Assessment at the Warnell School of Forest Resources at the University of Georgia - Other Studies and Effective Information Dissemination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chris J. Cieszewski; Michael Zasada; Tripp Lowe; Bruce Borders; Mike Clutter; Richard F. Daniels; Robert I. Elle; Robert Izlar; Jarek Zawadzki

    2005-01-01

    We provide here a short description of the origin, current work, and future outlook of the Fiber Supply Assessment program at the D.B. Warnell School of Forest Resources, University of Georgia, whose work includes various analyses of FIA data. Since 1997, the program has intended to assist the implementation of the new Southern Annual Forest Inventory System through...

  5. From "farm to fork" strawberry system: current realities and potential innovative scenarios from life cycle assessment of non-renewable energy use and green house gas emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girgenti, Vincenzo; Peano, Cristiana; Baudino, Claudio; Tecco, Nadia

    2014-03-01

    In this study, we analysed the environmental profile of the strawberry industry in Northern Italy. The analysis was conducted using two scenarios as reference systems: strawberry crops grown in unheated plastic tunnels using currently existing cultivation techniques, post-harvest management practices and consumption patterns (scenario 1) and the same strawberry cultivation chain in which some of the materials used were replaced with bio-based materials (scenario 2). In numerous studies, biodegradable polymers have been shown to be environmentally friendly, thus potentially reducing environmental impacts. These materials can be recycled into carbon dioxide and water through composting. Many materials, such as Mater-BI® and PLA®, are also derived from renewable resources. The methodology chosen for the environmental analysis was a life cycle assessment (LCA) based on a consequential approach developed to assess a product's overall environmental impact from the production system to its usage and disposal. In the field stage, a traditional mulching film (non-biodegradable) could be replaced with a biodegradable product. This change would result in waste production of 0 kg/ha for the bio-based product compared to 260 kg/ha of waste for polyethylene (PE). In the post-harvest stage, the issue addressed was the use and disposal of packaging materials. The innovative scenario evaluated herein pertains to the use of new packaging materials that increase the shelf life of strawberries, thereby decreasing product losses while increasing waste management efficiency at the level of a distribution platform and/or sales outlet. In the event of product deterioration or non-sale of the product, the packaging and its contents could be collected together as organic waste without any additional processes because the packaging is compostable according to EN13432. Scenario 2 would achieve reductions of 20% in the global warming potential and non-renewable energy impact categories

  6. FY 1984 report on the results of the verification test on the methanol conversion for oil-fired power plant. Survey of the potential quantity supplied of overseas resource (Survey of the potential quantity supplied of methanol); 1984 nendo sekiyu karyoku hatsudensho metanoru tenkan tou jissho shiken kaigai shigen kyokyu kano ryo chosa (Metanoru kyokyu kano ryo chosa) seika hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1985-03-01

    Based on the results of the survey of the potential quantity supplied of overseas resource which was made from FY 1981 to FY 1983, the paper predicted the world methanol supply plan, changes in the oil situation, economical efficiency of methanol and the competitive power with petroleum products, etc., and studied the time of potential supply, areas of potential supply and supply potential of power generation use methanol during the period toward 2000. In case the comparatively low crude oil price is predicted due to the energy supply/demand (Scenario A), the supply potential of power generation use methanol in four projects on methanol production taken up as trial calculation example is considered very low. Even in case the comparatively high crude oil price is predicted (Scenario C), it is in 1989 that the methanol market price becomes equivalent in heat quantity to the crude oil price. It is difficult to expect the potential before 1989. In case of the intermediate case between Scenario A and Scenario C (Scenario B), it is in 1993 that the methanol price becomes equivalent in heat quantity to the crude oil price. It is difficult to expect the potential before 1993. (NEDO)

  7. Canada's crude oil resources : crude oil in our daily lives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bott, R.

    2001-10-01

    Created in 1975, the Petroleum Communication Foundation is a not-for-profit organization. The objective of the Foundation is to inform Canadians about the petroleum industry in Canada. It produces educational, fact-based publications and programs, employing a multi-stakeholder review process. The first section of this publication is devoted to crude oil and the benefits that are derived from it. It begins by providing a brief definition of crude oil, then moves to the many uses in our daily lives and the environmental impacts like air pollution, spills, and footprint on the land from exploration and production activities. Section 2 details the many uses of crude oil and identifies the major oil producing regions of Canada. A quick mention is made of non-conventional sources of crude oil. The search for crude oil is the topic of section 3 of the document, providing an overview of the exploration activities, the access rights that must be obtained before gaining access to the resource. The drilling of oil is discussed in section 4. Section 5 deals with issues pertaining to reservoirs within rocks, while section 6 covers the feeding of the refineries, discussing topics from the movement of oil to market to the refining of the crude oil, and the pricing issues. In section 7, the uncertain future is examined with a view of balancing the supply and demand, as crude oil is a non-renewable resource. Supplementary information is provided concerning additional publications published by various organizations and agencies. figs

  8. Sustainable Supply Chain Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bals, Lydia; Tate, Wendy

    A significant conceptual and practical challenge is how to integrate triple bottom line (TBL; including economic, social and environmental) sustainability into global supply chains. Although this integration is necessary to slow down global resource depletion, understanding is limited of how...... to implement TBL goals across the supply chain. In supply chain design, the classic economic perspective still dominates, although the idea of the TBL is more widely disseminated. The purpose of this research is to add to the sustainable supply chain management literature (SSCM) research agenda...... by incorporating the physical chain, and the (information and financial) support chains into supply chain design. This manuscript tackles issues of what the chains are designed for and how they are designed structurally. Four sustainable businesses are used as illustrative case examples of innovative supply chain...

  9. Canada's resources and the national interest: summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1977-01-01

    This booklet is a summary of a report prepared by an Independent Task Force on the critical policy choices facing Canada with respect to the development of its mining and petroleum resources. The main report of the Task Force (NP-22249) is accompanied by four major research studies, published as Appendices to the main report, and covering the broad subjects of the taxation of non-renewable resources, a survey of our oil and gas resources, a survey of our other mineral resources, and a possible plan for the development of our oil and gas reserves in the coming decade.

  10. Conceptual adsorption system of cooling and heating supplied by solar energy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Turski Michał

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the possibility of reducing the demand for nonrenewable primary energy for buildings using a new conceptual adsorption system of cooling and heating supplied by solar energy. Moreover, the aim of this study is to shorten the payback time of investment in the standard adsorption cooling system through its integration with the heating system. Research has been carried out for an energy-efficient medium-sized single-family building with a floor area of 140 m2 and a heat load of 4.2 kW and cold load of 4.41 kW. It has been shown that the use of an adsorption system of cooling and heating supplied by solar energy decreased the demand for nonrenewable primary energy by about 66% compared to the standard building that meets the current requirements.

  11. The role of geoethics in the framework of a sustainable development of georesources supply

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buttinelli, Mauro; Barba, Salvatore; Di Capua, Giuseppe; Peppoloni, Silvia

    2015-04-01

    Geoethics consists of the researches and reflections on those values upon which are based the appropriate practices concerning human activities interesting Geosphere. Since Geoethics deals with ethical, social and cultural implications of geological research, it also reflects the opportunity for any researcher to become more conscious of the social role and responsibilities in conducting activities related to the environmental management and geo-resources exploitation. In this context Geoethics would also represent a concrete tool to sensitize and influence the awareness of society opening questions on the reliability and sustainability of the technological options presently proposed as a way to answer the huge global energy demand. Aim of this note is to generally discuss the role of geoscientists in the framework of the development of a sustainable energy supply chain related to georesources exploitation, in terms of making ethical choices during each phase of the process, from the research of potential sources of energy to their feasible and reliable exploitation. Since the beginning of energetic revolution, the well established energy supply chain technological models often force the research community to approach such system unconsciously accepting it, or conversely refusing it at all. We would point out that make geoethical choices for georesources supply purposes should not be to prejudicially counteract the whole supply system, but rather to base the research activity on a solid background scheme of perspectives, principles and criteria which could make the people aware of the improvements and drawbacks of their work. This basically means to avoid the overexploitation of non-renewable resources, to fairly develop more efficient technological and green procedures abating the local and/or the diffuse pollution, or consciously and carelessly expose vulnerable elements like humans and infrastructures to natural and artificial geological hazards. This process

  12. Technical and economic viability of electric power plants on the basis of renewable energy resources regarding hierarchical structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balzannikov Mikhail

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with power stations working on the basis of non-renewable energy resources and finite resources which will inevitably come to depletion in the future. These installations produce considerable negative impact on the environment, including air pollution. It is noted that considerable amounts of emissions of harmful substances accounts for the share of small thermal installations which aren’t always considered in calculations of pollution. The author specifies that emission reduction of harmful substances should be achieved due to wider use of environmentally friendly renewable energy resources. It is recommended to use hierarchical structure with the priority of ecological and social conditions of the region for technical and economic viability of consumers’ power supply systems and installations, based on renewable energy resources use. At the same time the author suggests considering federal, regional and object levels of viability. It is recommended to consider the main stages of lifecycle of an object for object level: designing, construction, operation, reconstruction of an object and its preservation. The author shows the example of calculation of power plant efficiency, based on renewable energy resources during its reconstruction, followed by power generation increase.

  13. Resource use efficiency and renewability. Assessment of low-input agricultural production using eMergy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wright, Christina; Østergård, Hanne

    2014-01-01

    by reducing dependency on external input. We apply the emergy approach to evaluate resource use efficiency of twolow-input innovative farms while distinguishing between use of renewable and non-renewable resources aswell as local and global origin of resources. This study is a part of the SOLIBAM (www.......solibam.eu) projectfunded by the European commission under the Seventh Framework Programme.We apply an approach where we include efficiency in resource use to produce food energy joules soldwhile distinguishing between use of renewable and non-renewable resources as well as on-site, local andnon-local resources. Result...... shows that the large farm (75 ha) had an input of renewable resources of 32%while the small (6 ha) had a renewable fraction of 26%. The latter is based on assuming that the firewoodused is 50% renewable. If this percentage is increased to 100% then both farms have a renewable fractionof resource use...

  14. Energy economics and supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1977-01-01

    This section of the book, Part I, consists of four chapters (1--4). Chapter 1, Energy and the Economic Future, covers the following subjects: general economics of energy; predicting energy demand; a model of energy and the economy; and interpretations. Chapter 2, Uranium and Fossil Fuel Supplies, covers the following subjects: uranium resources; oil and gas supplies; coal resources. Chapter 3, Economics of Nuclear Power, covers information on sources of uncertainty; cost of nuclear power; cost of coal-generated electricity. Chapter 4, Alternative Energy Sources, sums information on solar energy, geothermal energy, fusion power, conservation, and transmission

  15. Sustainable prevention of resource conflicts. Raw materials supply and demand (Report 2); Rohstoffkonflikte nachhaltig vermeiden. Rohstoffe zwischen Angebot und Nachfrage (Teilbericht 2)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taenzler, Dennis; Westerkamp, Meike [Adelphi Research, Berlin (Germany); Supersberger, Nikolaus; Ritthoff, Michael; Bleischwitz, Raimund [Wuppertal Institut (Germany)

    2011-04-15

    The demand for both energetic and non-energetic raw materials has been increasing continuously during the past few decades. Especially during the last few years, the threat of structural shortages of supply or availability came into focus. The discussion is highly controversial, especially in the case of petroleum. This sub-report presents an analysis of the supply situation of energetic and non-energetic raw materials, i.e. petroleum, coal and nuclear fuels on the one hand as well as iron and steel, chromium, nickel, cobalt, aluminium, magnesium, copper, platinum and platinum metals, industrial minerals, boron salts, phosphate, zirconium and zirconium oxide on the other hand. It is important to discuss also regional availability patterns in order to arrive at a regional picture of potential supply risks and resulting conflicts over raw materials as this is the best way to assess the danger of impending conflicts. (orig.)

  16. Development of a multi-criteria assessment model for ranking of renewable and non-renewable transportation fuel vehicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Safaei Mohamadabadi, H.; Tichkowsky, G.; Kumar, A.

    2009-01-01

    Several factors, including economical, environmental, and social factors, are involved in selection of the best fuel-based vehicles for road transportation. This leads to a multi-criteria selection problem for multi-alternatives. In this study, a multi-criteria assessment model was developed to rank different road transportation fuel-based vehicles (both renewable and non-renewable) using a method called Preference Ranking Organization Method for Enrichment and Evaluations (PROMETHEE). This method combines qualitative and quantitative criteria to rank various alternatives. In this study, vehicles based on gasoline, gasoline-electric (hybrid), E85 ethanol, diesel, B100 biodiesel, and compressed natural gas (CNG) were considered as alternatives. These alternatives were ranked based on five criteria: vehicle cost, fuel cost, distance between refueling stations, number of vehicle options available to the consumer, and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions per unit distance traveled. In addition, sensitivity analyses were performed to study the impact of changes in various parameters on final ranking. Two base cases and several alternative scenarios were evaluated. In the base case scenario with higher weight on economical parameters, gasoline-based vehicle was ranked higher than other vehicles. In the base case scenario with higher weight on environmental parameters, hybrid vehicle was ranked first followed by biodiesel-based vehicle

  17. Development of a multi-criteria assessment model for ranking of renewable and non-renewable transportation fuel vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Safaei Mohamadabadi, H.; Tichkowsky, G.; Kumar, A. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta (Canada)

    2009-01-15

    Several factors, including economical, environmental, and social factors, are involved in selection of the best fuel-based vehicles for road transportation. This leads to a multi-criteria selection problem for multi-alternatives. In this study, a multi-criteria assessment model was developed to rank different road transportation fuel-based vehicles (both renewable and non-renewable) using a method called Preference Ranking Organization Method for Enrichment and Evaluations (PROMETHEE). This method combines qualitative and quantitative criteria to rank various alternatives. In this study, vehicles based on gasoline, gasoline-electric (hybrid), E85 ethanol, diesel, B100 biodiesel, and compressed natural gas (CNG) were considered as alternatives. These alternatives were ranked based on five criteria: vehicle cost, fuel cost, distance between refueling stations, number of vehicle options available to the consumer, and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions per unit distance traveled. In addition, sensitivity analyses were performed to study the impact of changes in various parameters on final ranking. Two base cases and several alternative scenarios were evaluated. In the base case scenario with higher weight on economical parameters, gasoline-based vehicle was ranked higher than other vehicles. In the base case scenario with higher weight on environmental parameters, hybrid vehicle was ranked first followed by biodiesel-based vehicle. (author)

  18. Multiunit water resource systems management by decomposition, optimization and emulated evolution : a case study of seven water supply reservoirs in Tunisia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Milutin, D.

    1998-01-01

    Being one of the essential elements of almost any water resource system, reservoirs are indispensable in our struggle to harness, utilize and manage natural water resources. Consequently, the derivation of appropriate reservoir operating strategies draws significant attention in water

  19. Constraining Glacial Runoff Contributions to Water Resources in the Cordillera Real, Bolivia using Environmental Tracers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guido, Z.; McIntosh, J. C.; Papuga, S. A.

    2013-12-01

    Warming temperatures in recent decades have contributed to substantial reductions in glaciers in many mountain regions around the globe, including the South American Andes. Melting of these glaciers taps water resources accumulated in past climates, and the diminishing ice marks a decrease in a nonrenewable water source that begs the question: how will future water supplies be impacted by climate change. Water resource management and climate adaptation efforts can be informed by knowledge of the extent to which glaciers contribute to seasonal streamflows, but remote locations and scant monitoring often limit this quantification. In Bolivia, more than two million people draw water from watersheds fed, in part, by glaciers. The amount to which these glaciers contribute to the water supply, however, is not well constrained. We apply elemental and isotopic tracers in an end-member mixing model to quantify glacial runoff contributions to local water supplies. We present oxygen and deuterium isotopes and major anion concentrations (sulfate and chloride) of shallow groundwater, streams, reservoirs, small arroyos, and glacial runoff. Isotopic and anion mixing models suggest between 45-67% of the water measured in high altitude streams originated from within the glacial footprint during the 2011 wet season, while glacial runoff contributed about 42-53% of the water in reservoirs in the 2012 dry season. Data also show that shallow groundwater is connected to glacial-fed streams. Any future decrease in glacial runoff may contribute to a reduction in surface water supplies and lower groundwater levels downstream, perhaps below the depth of hand-dug wells common in rural communities.

  20. Renewable Substitutability Index: Maximizing Renewable Resource Use in Buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravi S. Srinivasan

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available In order to achieve a material and energy balance in buildings that is sustainable in the long run, there is an urgent need to assess the renewable and non-renewable resources used in the manufacturing process and to progressively replace non-renewable resources with renewables. Such progressive disinvestment in the non-renewable resources that may be substituted with renewable resources is referred to as “Renewable Substitutability” and if implemented, this process will lead to a paradigm shift in the way building materials are manufactured. This paper discusses the development of a Renewable Substitutability Index (RSI that is designed to maximize the use of renewable resources in a building and quantifies the substitution process using solar emergy (i.e., the solar equivalent joules required for any item. The RSI of a building or a building component, i.e., floor or wall systems, etc., is the ratio of the renewable resources used during construction, including replacement and maintenance, to the building’s maximum renewable emergy potential. RSI values range between 0 and 1.0. A higher RSI achieves a low-energy building strategy promoting a higher order of sustainability by optimizing the use of renewables over a building’s lifetime from formation-extraction-manufacturing to maintenance, operation, demolition, and recycle.

  1. 18 CFR 801.6 - Water supply.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Water supply. 801.6... POLICIES § 801.6 Water supply. (a) The Susquehanna River Basin is rich in water resources. With proper... forth in the comprehensive plan. (c) The Commission shall study the basin's water supply needs, the...

  2. Decision-Making for Supply Chain Integration Supply Chain Integration

    CERN Document Server

    Lettice, Fiona; Durowoju, Olatunde

    2012-01-01

    Effective supply chain integration, and the tight co-ordination it creates, is an essential pre-requisite for successful supply chain management.  Decision-Making for Supply Chain Integration is a practical reference on recent research in the area of supply chain integration focusing on distributed decision-making problems. Recent applications of various decision-making tools for integrating supply chains are covered including chapters focusing on: •Supplier selection, pricing strategy and inventory decisions in multi-level supply chains, •RFID-enabled distributed decision-making, •Operational risk issues and time-critical decision-making for sensitive logistics nodes, Modelling end to end processes to improve supply chain integration, and •Integrated systems to improve service delivery and optimize resource use. Decision-Making for Supply Chain Integration provides an insight into the tools and methodologies of this field with support from real-life case studies demonstrating successful application ...

  3. Does FDI influence renewable energy consumption? An analysis of sectoral FDI impact on renewable and non-renewable industrial energy consumption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doytch, Nadia; Narayan, Seema

    2016-01-01

    This study examines the link between foreign direct investment (FDI) and energy demand. FDI is a source of financing that allows businesses to grow. At the same time, FDI can be a source of innovation that promotes energy efficiency. Existing evidence on the impact of aggregate FDI inflows on energy consumption is scarce and inconclusive. In the current study, we disaggregate FDI inflows into mining, manufacturing, total services, and financial services components and examine the impact of these FDI flows on renewable – and non-renewable industrial energy – sources for 74 countries for the period 1985–2012. We employ a Blundell–Bond dynamic panel estimator to control for endogeneity and omitted variable biases in our panels. The results point broadly to an energy consumption-reducing effect with respect to non-renewable sources of energy and an energy consumption-augmenting effects with respect to renewable energy. We find that these effects vary in magnitude and significance by sectoral FDI. - Highlights: • FDI generally discourages the use of unclean energy. • Economic growth promotes non-renewable energy consumption. • Service FDI save energy and encourage the switch to renewable energy. • Mining FDI to low and lower middle-income panels save energy. • These results are mainly consistent with the FDI halo effect.

  4. The influence of renewable and non-renewable energy consumption and real income on CO2 emissions in the USA: evidence from structural break tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dogan, Eyup; Ozturk, Ilhan

    2017-04-01

    The objective of this study is to explore the influence of the real income (GDP), renewable energy consumption and non-renewable energy consumption on carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) emissions for the United States of America (USA) in the environmental Kuznets curve (EKC) model for the period 1980-2014. The Zivot-Andrews unit root test with a structural break and the Clemente-Montanes-Reyes unit root test with a structural break report that the analyzed variables become stationary at first-differences. The Gregory-Hansen cointegration test with a structural break and the bounds testing for cointegration in the presence of a structural break show CO 2 emissions, the real income, the quadratic real income, renewable and non-renewable energy consumption are cointegrated. The long-run estimates obtained from the ARDL model indicate that increases in renewable energy consumption mitigate environmental degradation whereas increases in non-renewable energy consumption contribute to CO 2 emissions. In addition, the EKC hypothesis is not valid for the USA. Since we use time-series econometric approaches that account for structural break in the data, findings of this study are robust, reliable and accurate. The US government is advised to put more weights on renewable sources in energy mix, to support and encourage the use and adoption of renewable energy and clean technologies, and to increase the public awareness of renewable energy for lower levels of emissions.

  5. Tapping Into an Ancient Source. Isotope Hydrology Techniques to Help Manage Water Resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kidambi, Misha

    2011-01-01

    The Water Resources Program at the IAEA uses a powerful tool, isotope hydrology, that aids in coping with water scarcity. IAEA scientists are convinced that if we understand how to manage water efficiently, there will be sufficient renewable and non-renewable water sources for meet global needs

  6. Impacts of Groundwater Constraints on Saudi Arabia's Low-Carbon Electricity Supply Strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parkinson, Simon C; Djilali, Ned; Krey, Volker; Fricko, Oliver; Johnson, Nils; Khan, Zarrar; Sedraoui, Khaled; Almasoud, Abdulrahman H

    2016-02-16

    Balancing groundwater depletion, socioeconomic development and food security in Saudi Arabia will require policy that promotes expansion of unconventional freshwater supply options, such as wastewater recycling and desalination. As these processes consume more electricity than conventional freshwater supply technologies, Saudi Arabia's electricity system is vulnerable to groundwater conservation policy. This paper examines strategies for adapting to long-term groundwater constraints in Saudi Arabia's freshwater and electricity supply sectors with an integrated modeling framework. The approach combines electricity and freshwater supply planning models across provinces to provide an improved representation of coupled infrastructure systems. The tool is applied to study the interaction between policy aimed at a complete phase-out of nonrenewable groundwater extraction and concurrent policy aimed at achieving deep reductions in electricity sector carbon emissions. We find that transitioning away from nonrenewable groundwater use by the year 2050 could increase electricity demand by more than 40% relative to 2010 conditions, and require investments similar to strategies aimed at transitioning away from fossil fuels in the electricity sector. Higher electricity demands under groundwater constraints reduce flexibility of supply side options in the electricity sector to limit carbon emissions, making it more expensive to fulfill climate sustainability objectives. The results of this analysis underscore the importance of integrated long-term planning approaches for Saudi Arabia's electricity and freshwater supply systems.

  7. IMPROVING ENERGY EFFICIENCY AND REDUCING COSTS IN THE DRINKING WATER SUPPLY INDUSTRY: An ENERGY STAR Resource Guide for Energy and Plant Managers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melody, Moya; Dunham Whitehead, Camilla; Brown, Richard

    2010-09-30

    As American drinking water agencies face higher production costs, demand, and energy prices, they seek opportunities to reduce costs without negatively affecting the quality of the water they deliver. This guide describes resources for cost-effectively improving the energy efficiency of U.S. public drinking water facilities. The guide (1) describes areas of opportunity for improving energy efficiency in drinking water facilities; (2) provides detailed descriptions of resources to consult for each area of opportunity; (3) offers supplementary suggestions and information for the area; and (4) presents illustrative case studies, including analysis of cost-effectiveness.

  8. Sustainable electric energy supply by decentralized alternative energy technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zahedi, A., E-mail: Ahmad.Zahedi@jcu.edu.au [James Cook University, Queensland (Australia). School of Engineering and Physical Sciences

    2010-07-01

    The most available and affordable sources of energy in today's economic structure are fossil fuels, namely, oil, gas, and coal. Fossil fuels are non-renewable, have limited reserves, and have serious environmental problems associated with their use. Coal and nuclear energy are used in central and bulky power stations to produce electricity, and then this electricity is delivered to customers via expensive transmission lines and distribution systems. Delivering electric power via transmission and distribution lines to the electricity users is associated with high electric power losses. These power losses are costly burdens on power suppliers and users. One of the advantages of decentralized generation (DG) is that DG is capable of minimizing power losses because electric power is generated at the demand site. The world is facing two major energy-related issues, short term and long term. These issues are (i) not having enough and secure supplies of energy at affordable prices and (ii) environmental damages caused by consuming too much energy in an unsustainable way. A significant amount of the current world energy comes from limited resources, which when used, cannot be replaced. Hence the energy production and consumption do not seem to be sustainable, and also carries the threat of severe and irreversible damages to the environment including climate change.The price of energy is increasing and there are no evidences suggesting that this trend will reverse. To compensate for this price increase we need to develop and use high energy efficient technologies and focusing on energy technologies using renewable sources with less energy conversion chains, such as solar and wind. The world has the potential to expand its capacity of clean, renewable, and sustainable energy to offset a significant amount of greenhouse gas emissions from conventional power use. The increasing utilization of alternative sources such as hydro, biomass, geothermal, ocean energy, solar and

  9. The resource curse: Analysis of the applicability to the large-scale export of electricity from renewable resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eisgruber, Lasse

    2013-01-01

    The “resource curse” has been analyzed extensively in the context of non-renewable resources such as oil and gas. More recently commentators have expressed concerns that also renewable electricity exports can have adverse economic impacts on exporting countries. My paper analyzes to what extent the resource curse applies in the case of large-scale renewable electricity exports. I develop a “comprehensive model” that integrates previous works and provides a consolidated view of how non-renewable resource abundance impacts economic growth. Deploying this model I analyze through case studies on Laos, Mongolia, and the MENA region to what extent exporters of renewable electricity run into the danger of the resource curse. I find that renewable electricity exports avoid some disadvantages of non-renewable resource exports including (i) shocks after resource depletion; (ii) macroeconomic fluctuations; and (iii) competition for a fixed amount of resources. Nevertheless, renewable electricity exports bear some of the same risks as conventional resource exports including (i) crowding-out of the manufacturing sector; (ii) incentives for corruption; and (iii) reduced government accountability. I conclude with recommendations for managing such risks. - Highlights: ► Study analyzes whether the resource curse applies to renewable electricity export. ► I develop a “comprehensive model of the resource curse” and use cases for the analysis. ► Renewable electricity export avoids some disadvantages compared to other resources. ► Renewable electricity bears some of the same risks as conventional resources. ► Study concludes with recommendations for managing such risks

  10. Shoot growth, root growth and resource capture under limiting water and N supply for two cultivars of lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kerbiriou, P.J.; Stomph, T.J.; Putten, van der P.E.L.; Lammerts Van Bueren, E.; Struik, P.C.

    2013-01-01

    Background and aims - To improve vegetable crops adapted to low input and variable resource availability, better understanding is needed of root system functioning, including nitrogen and water capture. Methods - This study quantified shoot and root development and patterns of water and nitrate

  11. Assessment of electricity demand-supply in health facilities in resource-constrained settings : optimization and evaluation of energy systems for a case in Rwanda

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Palacios, S.G.

    2015-01-01

    In health facilities in resource-constrained settings, a lack of access to sustainable and reliable electricity can result on a sub-optimal delivery of healthcare services, as they do not have lighting for medical procedures and power to run essential equipment and devices to treat their patients.

  12. Strategic Supply

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Alexander, Kelly; Cole, Heather; Cural, Ahmet; Daugherty, Darryl; Howard, Russell; Keane, Thomas; Louie, K. Y; McNeely, Rosa; Mordente, Patrick; Petrillo, Robert

    2006-01-01

    ...; but rather, as an enabler across all industries. Therefore, this industry study looked at Strategic Supply as an integrated process performed by industries to obtain comparative and competitive advantage in the global marketplace...

  13. Strategic Supply

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Alexander, Kelly; Cole, Heather; Cural, Ahmet; Daugherty, Darryl; Howard, Russell; Keane, Thomas; Louie, K. Y; McNeely, Rosa; Mordente, Patrick; Petrillo, Robert

    2006-01-01

    .... The Council of Supply Chain Management Professionals (CSCMP) has defined SCM as,"...encompassing the planning and management of all activities involved in sourcing and procurement, conversion, and all Logistics Management activities...

  14. Water supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peterson, F.L.

    1986-01-01

    Options and methodologies for the development of fresh water supplies on Bikini Atoll are much the same as those practiced in the rest of the Marshall Islands and for that matter, most atolls in the central Pacific Ocean Basin. That is, rainfall distribution on Bikini produces a distinct wet season, lasting from about May through November, with the remaining months being generally dry. As a result, fresh water from surface catchments tends to be plentiful during the wet season? but is usually scarce during the dry months, and alternative sources such as groundwater must be utilized during this time. On Bikini the problems of fresh water supply are somewhat more difficult than for most Marshall Island atolls because rainfall is only about half the Marshall Island's average. Tus water supply is a critical factor limiting the carrying capacity of Bikini Atoll. To address this problem BARC has undertaken a study of the Bikini Atoll water supply. Te primary objectives of this work are to determine: (1) alternatives available for fresh water supply, 2 the amounts, location and quality of available supplies and 3 optimal development methods. The study planned for one's year duration, has been underway only since the summer of 1985 and is thus not yet fully completed. However, work done to date, which is presented in this report of preliminary findings, provides a reasonably accurate picture of Bikini's fresh water supplies and the various options available for their development. The work remaining to be completed will mainly add refinements to the water supply picture presented in the sections to follow

  15. Vancouver Island gas supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Des Brisay, C.

    2005-01-01

    Terasen Gas is pursuing alternatives for the supply of additional natural gas capacity to Vancouver Island. Its subsidiary, Terasen Gas (Vancouver Island) Inc. (TGVI), is responding to the need for delivery of increased gas supply and, is supporting plans for new gas-fired power generation on Vancouver Island. TGVI's proposal for new natural gas capacity involves a combination of compression and pipeline loops as well as the addition of a storage facility for liquefied natural gas (LNG) at Mt. Hayes to help manage price volatility. This presentation outlined the objectives and components of the resource planning process, including demand forecast scenarios and the preferred infrastructure options. tabs., figs

  16. Geothermal energy in the western United States and Hawaii: Resources and projected electricity generation supplies. [Contains glossary and address list of geothermal project developers and owners

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-09-01

    Geothermal energy comes from the internal heat of the Earth, and has been continuously exploited for the production of electricity in the United States since 1960. Currently, geothermal power is one of the ready-to-use baseload electricity generating technologies that is competing in the western United States with fossil fuel, nuclear and hydroelectric generation technologies to provide utilities and their customers with a reliable and economic source of electric power. Furthermore, the development of domestic geothermal resources, as an alternative to fossil fuel combustion technologies, has a number of associated environmental benefits. This report serves two functions. First, it provides a description of geothermal technology and a progress report on the commercial status of geothermal electric power generation. Second, it addresses the question of how much electricity might be competitively produced from the geothermal resource base. 19 figs., 15 tabs.

  17. Resource revenues report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    Preliminary forecasts of resource revenues that may be forthcoming with the lifting of the moratorium on the west coast of British Columbia were presented. The forecasts are based on the development scenarios of one natural gas project in the Hecate Strait, and one oil project in the Queen Charlotte Sound. Both projects were assessed in an effort to demonstrate some of the potential resource revenues and public benefits that may be possible from offshore development in the province. Resource revenues provide the return-on-investments to the resource developer and public benefits in the form of taxes, royalties, lease payments and related fees to all levels of governments. Much of the revenues generated from the British Columbia offshore oil and gas development will accrue as income taxes. A public energy trust offers a way to transform non-renewable resource revenues into a renewable source of wealth for citizens of the province. The report presents estimates of project investment, pipeline capacity limitation, operating costs for offshore platforms, and earnings. It was estimated that about $2.0 billion in public benefits would be generated from combined project revenues of $6.9 billion. Information was obtained from offshore leaseholders as well as pipeline and engineering companies. refs., tabs., figs

  18. A new hammer to crack an old nut: interspecific competitive resource capture by plants is regulated by nutrient supply, not climate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trinder, Clare J; Brooker, Rob W; Davidson, Hazel; Robinson, David

    2012-01-01

    Although rarely acknowledged, our understanding of how competition is modulated by environmental drivers is severely hampered by our dependence on indirect measurements of outcomes, rather than the process of competition. To overcome this, we made direct measurements of plant competition for soil nitrogen (N). Using isotope pool-dilution, we examined the interactive effects of soil resource limitation and climatic severity between two common grassland species. Pool-dilution estimates the uptake of total N over a defined time period, rather than simply the uptake of ¹⁵N label, as used in most other tracer experiments. Competitive uptake of N was determined by its available form (NO₃⁻ or NH₄⁺). Soil N availability had a greater effect than the climatic conditions (location) under which plants grew. The results did not entirely support either of the main current theories relating the role of competition to environmental conditions. We found no evidence for Tilman's theory that competition for soil nutrients is stronger at low, compared with high nutrient levels and partial support for Grime's theory that competition for soil nutrients is greater under potentially more productive conditions. These results provide novel insights by demonstrating the dynamic nature of plant resource competition.

  19. A new hammer to crack an old nut: interspecific competitive resource capture by plants is regulated by nutrient supply, not climate.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clare J Trinder

    Full Text Available Although rarely acknowledged, our understanding of how competition is modulated by environmental drivers is severely hampered by our dependence on indirect measurements of outcomes, rather than the process of competition. To overcome this, we made direct measurements of plant competition for soil nitrogen (N. Using isotope pool-dilution, we examined the interactive effects of soil resource limitation and climatic severity between two common grassland species. Pool-dilution estimates the uptake of total N over a defined time period, rather than simply the uptake of ¹⁵N label, as used in most other tracer experiments. Competitive uptake of N was determined by its available form (NO₃⁻ or NH₄⁺. Soil N availability had a greater effect than the climatic conditions (location under which plants grew. The results did not entirely support either of the main current theories relating the role of competition to environmental conditions. We found no evidence for Tilman's theory that competition for soil nutrients is stronger at low, compared with high nutrient levels and partial support for Grime's theory that competition for soil nutrients is greater under potentially more productive conditions. These results provide novel insights by demonstrating the dynamic nature of plant resource competition.

  20. Energy supply in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weidou Ni; Niendak Sze

    1995-01-01

    Coal is the main primary energy source in China. How to use coal cleanly and efficiently is the extremely important problem in China. Energy conservation and technology innovation are the key measures for mitigation of the pressure of energy supply. Import of energy (petroleum, LNG and high calorific coal) is inevitable. China has quite abundant energy resources, but the energy resource per capita is rather low. Because of the structure of industry and backwardness of technology, the energy consumption per unit GNP is also very low

  1. Exploration Supply Chain Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    The Exploration Supply Chain Simulation project was chartered by the NASA Exploration Systems Mission Directorate to develop a software tool, with proper data, to quantitatively analyze supply chains for future program planning. This tool is a discrete-event simulation that uses the basic supply chain concepts of planning, sourcing, making, delivering, and returning. This supply chain perspective is combined with other discrete or continuous simulation factors. Discrete resource events (such as launch or delivery reviews) are represented as organizational functional units. Continuous resources (such as civil service or contractor program functions) are defined as enabling functional units. Concepts of fixed and variable costs are included in the model to allow the discrete events to interact with cost calculations. The definition file is intrinsic to the model, but a blank start can be initiated at any time. The current definition file is an Orion Ares I crew launch vehicle. Parameters stretch from Kennedy Space Center across and into other program entities (Michaud Assembly Facility, Aliant Techsystems, Stennis Space Center, Johnson Space Center, etc.) though these will only gain detail as the file continues to evolve. The Orion Ares I file definition in the tool continues to evolve, and analysis from this tool is expected in 2008. This is the first application of such business-driven modeling to a NASA/government-- aerospace contractor endeavor.

  2. Bio-based economy in the Netherlands. Macro-economic outline of a large-scale introduction of green resources in the Dutch energy supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van der Hoeven, D.

    2009-03-01

    The Bio-based Raw Materials Platform (PGG), part of the Energy Transition in The Netherlands, commissioned the Agricultural Economics Research Institute (LEI) and the Copernicus Institute of Utrecht University to conduct research on the macro-economic impact of large scale deployment of biomass for energy and materials in the Netherlands. Two model approaches were applied based on a consistent set of scenario assumptions: a bottom-up study including technoeconomic projections of fossil and bio-based conversion technologies and a topdown study including macro-economic modelling of (global) trade of biomass and fossil resources. The results of the top-down and bottom-up modelling work are reported separately. This is the public version of studies [nl

  3. The Global Resource Nexus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ridder, M. de; Duijne, F. van; Jong, S. de; Jones, J.; Luit, E. van; Bekkers, F.F.; Auping, W.

    2014-01-01

    Supply and demand of resources are connected in a complex way. This interconnectivity has been framed as the global resource nexus and can conceivebly include all types of resources. This study focus on the nexus of five essential natural resources: land, food, energy, water and minerals. Together

  4. Integrated Modeling of Crop Growth and Water Resource Management to Project Climate Change Impacts on Crop Production and Irrigation Water Supply and Demand in African Nations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dale, A. L.; Boehlert, B.; Reisenauer, M.; Strzepek, K. M.; Solomon, S.

    2017-12-01

    Climate change poses substantial risks to African agriculture. These risks are exacerbated by concurrent risks to water resources, with water demand for irrigation comprising 80 to 90% of water withdrawals across the continent. Process-based crop growth models are able to estimate both crop demand for irrigation water and crop yields, and are therefore well-suited to analyses of climate change impacts at the food-water nexus. Unfortunately, impact assessments based on these models generally focus on either yields or water demand, rarely both. For this work, we coupled a crop model to a water resource management model in order to predict national trends in the impact of climate change on crop production, irrigation water demand, and the availability of water for irrigation across Africa. The crop model FAO AquaCrop-OS was run at 2ox2o resolution for 17 different climate futures from the CMIP5 archive, nine for Representative Concentration Pathway (RCP) 4.5 and eight for RCP8.5. Percent changes in annual rainfed and irrigated crop production and temporal shifts in monthly irrigation water demand were estimated for the years 2030, 2050, 2070, and 2090 for maize, sorghum, rice, wheat, cotton, sugarcane, fruits & vegetables, roots & tubers, and legumes & soybeans. AquaCrop was then coupled to a water management model (WEAP) in order to project changes in the ability of seven major river basins (the Congo, Niger, Nile, Senegal, Upper Orange, Volta, and Zambezi) to meet irrigation water demand out to 2050 in both average and dry years in the face of both climate change and irrigation expansion. Spatial and temporal trends were identified and interpreted through the lens of potential risk management strategies. Uncertainty in model estimates is reported and discussed.

  5. Co-digestion of rice straw and cow dung to supply cooking fuel and fertilizers in rural India: Impact on human health, resource flows and climate change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sfez, Sophie; De Meester, Steven; Dewulf, Jo

    2017-12-31

    Anaerobic digestion of cow dung with new feedstock such as crop residues to increase the biogas potential is an option to help overcoming several issues faced by India. Anaerobic digestion provides biogas that can replace biomass cooking fuels and reduce indoor air pollution. It also provides digestate, a fertilizer that can contribute to compensate nutrient shortage on agricultural land. Moreover, it avoids the burning of rice straw in the fields which contributes to air pollution in India and climate change globally. Not only the technical and economical feasibility but also the environmental sustainability of such systems needs to be assessed. The potential effects of implementing community digesters co-digesting cow dung and rice straw on carbon and nutrients flows, human health, resource efficiency and climate change are analyzed by conducting a Substance Flow Analysis and a Life Cycle Assessment. The implementation of the technology is considered at the level of the state of Chhattisgarh. Implementing this scenario reduces the dependency of the rural community to nitrogen and phosphorus from synthetic fertilizers only by 0.1 and 1.6%, respectively, but the dependency of farmers to potassium from synthetic fertilizers by 31%. The prospective scenario returns more organic carbon to agricultural land and thus has a potential positive effect on soil quality. The implementation of the prospective scenario can reduce the health impact of the local population by 48%, increase the resource efficiency of the system by 60% and lower the impact on climate change by 13%. This study highlights the large potential of anaerobic digestion to overcome the aforementioned issues faced by India. It demonstrates the need to couple local and global assessments and to conduct analyses at the substance level to assess the sustainability of such systems. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Including alternative resources in state renewable portfolio standards: Current design and implementation experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heeter, Jenny; Bird, Lori

    2013-01-01

    As of October 2012, 29 states, the District of Columbia, and Puerto Rico have instituted a renewable portfolio standard (RPS). Each state policy is unique, varying in percentage targets, timetables, and eligible resources. Increasingly, new RPS polices have included alternative resources. Alternative resources have included energy efficiency, thermal resources, and, to a lesser extent, non-renewables. This paper examines state experience with implementing renewable portfolio standards that include energy efficiency, thermal resources, and non-renewable energy and explores compliance experience, costs, and how states evaluate, measure, and verify energy efficiency and convert thermal energy. It aims to gain insights from the experience of states for possible federal clean energy policy as well as to share experience and lessons for state RPS implementation. - Highlights: • Increasingly, new RPS policies have included alternative resources. • Nearly all states provide a separate tier or cap on the quantity of eligible alternative resources. • Where allowed, non-renewables and energy efficiency are being heavily utilized

  7. Will the Needs-Based Planning of Health Human Resources Currently Undertaken in Several Countries Lead to Excess Supply and Inefficiency?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basu, Kisalaya; Pak, Maxwell

    2016-01-01

    Recently, the emphasis on health human resources (HHR) planning has shifted away from a utilization-based approach toward a needs-based one in which planning is based on the projected health needs of the population. However, needs-based models that are currently in use rely on a definition of 'needs' that include only the medical circumstances of individuals and not personal preferences or other socio-economic factors. We examine whether planning based on such a narrow definition will maximize social welfare. We show that, in a publicly funded healthcare system, if the planner seeks to meet the aggregate need without taking utilization into consideration, then oversupply of HHR is likely because 'needs' do not necessarily translate into 'usage.' Our result suggests that HHR planning should track the healthcare system as access gradually improves because, even if health care is fully accessible, individuals may not fully utilize it to the degree prescribed by their medical circumstances. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. Organization and scaling in water supply networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Likwan; Karney, Bryan W.

    2017-12-01

    Public water supply is one of the society's most vital resources and most costly infrastructures. Traditional concepts of these networks capture their engineering identity as isolated, deterministic hydraulic units, but overlook their physics identity as related entities in a probabilistic, geographic ensemble, characterized by size organization and property scaling. Although discoveries of allometric scaling in natural supply networks (organisms and rivers) raised the prospect for similar findings in anthropogenic supplies, so far such a finding has not been reported in public water or related civic resource supplies. Examining an empirical ensemble of large number and wide size range, we show that water supply networks possess self-organized size abundance and theory-explained allometric scaling in spatial, infrastructural, and resource- and emission-flow properties. These discoveries establish scaling physics for water supply networks and may lead to novel applications in resource- and jurisdiction-scale water governance.

  9. Optimal Extraction and Taxation of Strategic Natural Resources: A Differential Game Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Pemy, Moustapha

    2016-01-01

    This paper studies the optimal extraction and taxation of nonrenewable natural resources. It is well known the market values of the main strategic resources such as oil, natural gas, uranium, copper,...,etc, fluctuate randomly following global and seasonal macro-economic parameters, these values are modeled using Markov switching L\\'evy processes. We formulate this problem as a differential game where the two players are the mining company whose aim is to maximize the revenues generated from ...

  10. Strategic Supply

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    leaders as Sears, Limited Brands, DHL, Circuit City, Cingular, Nestle and IKEA (Manugistics, 2006). The Strategic Supply Chain Industry Study Group...inventory turns have increased. Other global customers have also reaped the benefits of the Manugistics software. IKEA , Sweden’s retail icon...turned to Manugistics after a mid-1990s ERP implementation failed to fix their forecasting problems, which gave way to fluctuating inventory levels. IKEA

  11. Fuel supply security

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wakabayashi, Hiroaki

    1987-01-01

    Stable fuel supply is a prerequisite for any nuclear power program including ISER-PIUS. It encompasses procurement of uranium ore, enriched uranium and fuel elements. Uranium is different from oil in that it can be stockpiled for more than a decade besides the fact that the core residence time is as long as six years, for example in the case of ISER-PIUS. These basic fuel characteristics are favoring nuclear fuel over others in terms of supply security. The central concern will be a gradual increase in prices of uranium and enrichment. Under the present glut situation with the worldwide prevalence of LWRs, fuel supply security seems ensured for the time being till the middle of 21st century. It is estimated that by the turn of the century, the free world will have roughly 450 GWe capacity of nuclear power. If 10 % is supplied for ISER-PIUS, more than 200 modules of 200 MWe ISER-PIUS may be deployed all over the world probably starting around 2000. As part of the fuel supply security consideration, heavy water reactor (HWR) may seem interesting to such a country as Indonesia where there is uranium resources but no enrichment capability. But it needs heavy water instead and the operation is not so easy as of LWR, because of the positive void coefficient as was seen at the Chernobyl-4. Safeguarding of the fuel is also difficult, because it lends itself to on line refueling. The current and future situation of the fuel supply security for LWR seem well founded and established long into the future. (Nogami, K.)

  12. Estimating Swedish biomass energy supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johansson, J.; Lundqvist, U.

    1999-01-01

    Biomass is suggested to supply an increasing amount of energy in Sweden. There have been several studies estimating the potential supply of biomass energy, including that of the Swedish Energy Commission in 1995. The Energy Commission based its estimates of biomass supply on five other analyses which presented a wide variation in estimated future supply, in large part due to differing assumptions regarding important factors. In this paper, these studies are assessed, and the estimated potential biomass energy supplies are discusses regarding prices, technical progress and energy policy. The supply of logging residues depends on the demand for wood products and is limited by ecological, technological, and economic restrictions. The supply of stemwood from early thinning for energy and of straw from cereal and oil seed production is mainly dependent upon economic considerations. One major factor for the supply of willow and reed canary grass is the size of arable land projected to be not needed for food and fodder production. Future supply of biomass energy depends on energy prices and technical progress, both of which are driven by energy policy priorities. Biomass energy has to compete with other energy sources as well as with alternative uses of biomass such as forest products and food production. Technical progress may decrease the costs of biomass energy and thus increase the competitiveness. Economic instruments, including carbon taxes and subsidies, and allocation of research and development resources, are driven by energy policy goals and can change the competitiveness of biomass energy

  13. The role of enterprise systems in supply chain networks: a taxonomy of supply chain strategies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Charles

    2006-01-01

    in the supply chain and to choose the right supply chain strategy. The work is based on a comprehensive study of the Supply Chain Management (SCM) and Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) literature and the study suggests that there is an emerging new research potential for Enterprise Systems (ES) in the supply......This paper proposes a taxonomy for supply chain integration strategies. The taxonomy is based on the contingencies of supply chain network coupling and the Extended Enterprise Systems (EES) architecture in the supply chain. The purpose of this model is to map the portfolio of relations...

  14. Multimode Preemptive Resource Investment Problem Subject to Due Dates for Activities: Formulation and Solution Procedure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Behrouz Afshar-Nadjafi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The preemptive Multimode resource investment problem is investigated. The Objective is to minimize the total renewable/nonrenewable resource costs and earliness-tardiness costs by a given project deadline and due dates for activities. In this problem setting preemption is allowed with no setup cost or time. The project contains activities interrelated by finish-start type precedence relations with a time lag of zero, which require a set of renewable and nonrenewable resources. The problem formed in this way is an NP-hard. A mixed integer programming formulation is proposed for the problem and parameters tuned genetic algorithm (GA is proposed to solve it. To evaluate the performance of the proposed algorithm, 120 test problems are used. Comparative statistical results reveal that the proposed GA is efficient and effective in terms of the objective function and computational times.

  15. Future agriculture and food supply chain - not even doomsday preppers got it right

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Stefanic

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Future agriculture and food supply chain is one of the pillars of human survival and prosperity in the long run. The planet’s ecosystem is very fragile and influenced by a large array of very diverse natural and human factors which are frequently interdependent. Regardless of root cause, climate change, pollution and depletion of non-renewable resources and several other unfavorable processes are in place. We can argue that the increase of the average temperature is just a part of a long-term natural cycle and not the consequence of human negligence and pollution, but in the end, it doesn’t matter. The ecosystem is changed and agricultural plants might not survive the change and adopt in time. Relevant and fairly reliable indicators are available, but it seems that nobody is paying attention to those staggering numbers and trends. Doomsday preppers are well known to be a rather suspicious and concerned group of people about the reliability of future food supply chain. But even they somehow assume that agricultural production will go on, and the only problems that could occur are short run disruptions in distribution. The main challenge for future agriculture and food supply chain is to produce more food with considerably less resources in a sustainable manner for a rapidly growing population, preferably even reducing current levels of pollution. Securing future agriculture and food supply chain is a complex task which requires not only new technologies but a paradigm shift in the current technological and economic system. Possibly the most important change is the change in current agricultural practices and agricultural education. Reliability of the food system is heavily dependent on mineral oil and significant amount of transportation. Moreover, global agriculture is extremely centralized and profit oriented. Intense push of GMOs into standard agricultural practice lead to severe reduction of biodiversity in agriculture. Once upon a time

  16. Who Manages Our Supply Chains?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flöthmann, Christoph

    to manage the manifold tasks they face on a daily basis. Unfortunately, as globalization has simultaneously increased the complexity of supply chains and the demand for highly qualified personnel, companies are facing a significant undersupply of talent (Cottrill, 2010). Moreover, organizations appear......While managers in traditional management functions focus on developing strong expertise to become “specialists” in their own discipline, supply chain managers are a different species: They have to combine a cross-functional understanding of various business fields and multi-faceted competencies......-based dissertation is to address the research gap between human resource management (HRM) and supply chain management (SCM)....

  17. Characterisation and normalisation factors for life cycle impact assessment mined abiotic resources categories in South Africa - The manufacturing of catalytic converter exhaust systems as a case study

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Strauss, K

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available of the most commonly produced minerals in South Africa is used as basis to determine characterisation factors for a non-renewable mineral resources category. The average production of these minerals from 1991 to 2000 is compared to economically Demonstrated...

  18. The cellulose resource matrix

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keijsers, E.R.P.; Yilmaz, G.; Dam, van J.E.G.

    2013-01-01

    The emerging biobased economy is causing shifts from mineral fossil oil based resources towards renewable resources. Because of market mechanisms, current and new industries utilising renewable commodities, will attempt to secure their supply of resources. Cellulose is among these commodities, where

  19. A Hybrid Life-Cycle Assessment of Nonrenewable Energy and Greenhouse-Gas Emissions of a Village-Level Biomass Gasification Project in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingyue Pang

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Small-scale bio-energy projects have been launched in rural areas of China and are considered as alternatives to fossil-fuel energy. However, energetic and environmental evaluation of these projects has rarely been carried out, though it is necessary for their long-term development. A village-level biomass gasification project provides an example. A hybrid life-cycle assessment (LCA of its total nonrenewable energy (NE cost and associated greenhouse gas (GHG emissions is presented in this paper. The results show that the total energy cost for one joule of biomass gas output from the project is 2.93 J, of which 0.89 J is from nonrenewable energy, and the related GHG emission cost is 1.17 × 10−4 g CO2-eq over its designed life cycle of 20 years. To provide equivalent effective calorific value for cooking work, the utilization of one joule of biomass gas will lead to more life cycle NE cost by 0.07 J and more GHG emissions by 8.92 × 10−5 g CO2-eq compared to natural gas taking into consideration of the difference in combustion efficiency and calorific value. The small-scale bio-energy project has fallen into dilemma, i.e., struggling for survival, and for a more successful future development of village-level gasification projects, much effort is needed to tide over the plight of its development, such as high cost and low efficiency caused by decentralized construction, technical shortcomings and low utilization rate of by-products.

  20. NGLs supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richardson, I.

    1999-01-01

    This presentation dealt with the supply of natural gas liquids (NGLs) as a prelude to a review of the Alliance pipeline project. With all approvals having been received both in Canada and the United States, and complete financing secured, construction of the line will commence in the spring of 1999, with operation scheduled to begin Oct. 1, 2000. U.S. midwest and Alberta field gas prices, natural gas production in Alberta and British Columbia, current Alberta gas exports, the Aux Sable's NGL markets, market access for Western Canadian NGLs, historical disposition of Alberta ethane, propane and butyl ethane availability in Alberta, and historical and forecast NGL recovery in Alberta and British Columbia with and without the Alliance pipeline were reviewed. It was concluded that additional natural gas pipeline capacity is necessary to stimulate industry activity and monetize Western Canada Sedimentary Basin reserves. In turn, increased natural gas production will stimulate NGL exports. The Alliance Pipeline will provide additional NGL export capacity and potentially increase producer netbacks while minimizing capital expenditures. . 14 figs

  1. 30 CFR 874.14 - Water supply restoration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Water supply restoration. 874.14 Section 874.14... ABANDONED MINE LAND RECLAMATION GENERAL RECLAMATION REQUIREMENTS § 874.14 Water supply restoration. (a) Any... supply restoration projects. For purposes of this section, “water supply restoration projects” are those...

  2. World uranium supply and demand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patterson, J.A.

    1980-01-01

    The role of nuclear energy is under increasing scrutiny and uncertainty. None the less, there will be an increasing need for expansion of uranium supply to fuel committed reactors. Longer-term demand projections are very uncertain. Improved knowledge of the extent of world resources and their availability and economics is needed to support planning for reactor development, especially for breeder reactors, and for fuel-cycle development, especially enrichment, and reprocessing and recycle of uranium and plutonium. Efforts to date to estimate world uranium resources have been very useful but have largely reflected the state of available knowledge for the lower cost resources in regions that have received considerable exploration efforts. The IUREP evaluation of world resources provides an initial speculative estimate of world resources, including areas not previously appraised. Projections of long-range supply from the estimated resources suggest that the high-growth nuclear cases using once-through cycle may not be supportable for very long. However, additional effort is needed to appraise and report more completely and consistently on world resources, the production levels attainable from these resources, and the economic and price characteristics of such production. (author)

  3. U.S. uranium supply outlook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hogerton, J.F.

    1977-01-01

    The subject is analysed in the light of figures and forecasts contained in the following diagrams: forecasts of U.S. uranium production, 1977 to 1990; indicated relationship between annual U.S. uranium supply and demand, 1977 to 1986; presently indicated cumulative U.S. uranium supply/demand balance, 1977 to 1990; indicated cumulative U.S. supply/demand balance (shortage or surpluses) 1976 to 1990; presently indicated balance between outstanding U.S. utility procurement needs and uncommitted domestic supply capability 1977 to 1986; projected U.S. uranium requirements in relation to existing supply base and presently indicated additional domestic resource potential, 1977 to 2000. (U.K.)

  4. Synergies between energy supply networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Jianzhnog; Yan, Jinyue; Desideri, Umberto

    2017-01-01

    Energy system integration uses a whole-system approach to optimize the synergies between energy supply networks to facilitate and coordinate the grid integration of distributed energy resources while enabling the synergies and conflicts between the local distribution networks and the national lev...... and integration of local renewables including solar energy wind geothermal waste heat and biomass is presented.......Energy system integration uses a whole-system approach to optimize the synergies between energy supply networks to facilitate and coordinate the grid integration of distributed energy resources while enabling the synergies and conflicts between the local distribution networks and the national level...... objectives to be understood and optimally coordinated. The latest research on the network coupling technologies analysis of synergies between energy supply networks and optimal use of synergies in network operation is discussed. A diagram on the possible interactions between different energy networks...

  5. Trends in uranium supply

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansen, M [International Atomic Energy Agency, Division of Nuclear Power and Reactors, Nuclear Materials and Fuel Cycle Section, Vienna (Austria)

    1976-07-01

    Prior to the development of nuclear power, uranium ores were used to a very limited extent as a ceramic colouring agent, as a source of radium and in some places as a source of vanadium. Perhaps before that, because of the bright orange and yellow colours of its secondary ores, it was probably used as ceremonial paint by primitive man. After the discovery of nuclear fission a whole new industry emerged, complete with its problems of demand, resources and supply. Spurred by special incentives in the early years of this new nuclear industry, prospectors discovered over 20 000 occurrences of uranium in North America alone, and by 1959 total world production reached a peak of 34 000 tonnes uranium from mines in South Africa, Canada and United States. This rapid growth also led to new problems. As purchases for military purposes ended, government procurement contracts were not renewed, and the large reserves developed as a result of government purchase incentives, in combination with lack of substantial commercial market, resulted in an over-supply of uranium. Typically, an over-supply of uranium together with national stockpiling at low prices resulted in depression of prices to less than $5 per pound by 1971. Although forecasts made in the early 1970's increased confidence in the future of nuclear power, and consequently the demand for uranium, prices remained low until the end of 1973 when OPEC announced a very large increase in oil prices and quite naturally, prices for coal also rose substantially. The economics of nuclear fuel immediately improved and prices for uranium began to climb in 1974. But the world-wide impact of the OPEC decision also produced negative effects on the uranium industry. Uranium production costs rose dramatically, as did capital costs, and money for investment in new uranium ventures became more scarce and more expensive. However, the uranium supply picture today offers hope of satisfactory development in spite of the many problems to be

  6. Trends in uranium supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hansen, M.

    1976-01-01

    Prior to the development of nuclear power, uranium ores were used to a very limited extent as a ceramic colouring agent, as a source of radium and in some places as a source of vanadium. Perhaps before that, because of the bright orange and yellow colours of its secondary ores, it was probably used as ceremonial paint by primitive man. After the discovery of nuclear fission a whole new industry emerged, complete with its problems of demand, resources and supply. Spurred by special incentives in the early years of this new nuclear industry, prospectors discovered over 20 000 occurrences of uranium in North America alone, and by 1959 total world production reached a peak of 34 000 tonnes uranium from mines in South Africa, Canada and United States. This rapid growth also led to new problems. As purchases for military purposes ended, government procurement contracts were not renewed, and the large reserves developed as a result of government purchase incentives, in combination with lack of substantial commercial market, resulted in an over-supply of uranium. Typically, an over-supply of uranium together with national stockpiling at low prices resulted in depression of prices to less than $5 per pound by 1971. Although forecasts made in the early 1970's increased confidence in the future of nuclear power, and consequently the demand for uranium, prices remained low until the end of 1973 when OPEC announced a very large increase in oil prices and quite naturally, prices for coal also rose substantially. The economics of nuclear fuel immediately improved and prices for uranium began to climb in 1974. But the world-wide impact of the OPEC decision also produced negative effects on the uranium industry. Uranium production costs rose dramatically, as did capital costs, and money for investment in new uranium ventures became more scarce and more expensive. However, the uranium supply picture today offers hope of satisfactory development in spite of the many problems to be

  7. Water resources (Chapter 12)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas C. Brown; Romano Foti; Jorge Ramirez

    2012-01-01

    In this chapter, we focus on the vulnerability of U.S. freshwater supplies considering all lands, not just forest and rangelands. We do not assess the condition of those lands or report on how much of our water supply originates on lands of different land covers or ownerships, because earlier Resources Planning Act (RPA) Assessment work addressed these topics....

  8. A Survey and Assessment of the Cultural Resources-Oologah Lake Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-10-01

    Lake is the goal of this study. Since these resources are nonrenewable it is essential that they are identified and preserved ; or, if preservation is...established an important trading post at Saline, Oklahoma. He sought to preserve his already well established fur trading monopoly among the Osage...beans, pumpkin , squash and tobacco. Hunting acitvities took men away from home periodically to hunt beaver, bear, fish and fowl (Weslager 1972:56

  9. Coordinated supply chain dynamic production planning model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandra, Charu; Grabis, Janis

    2001-10-01

    Coordination of different and often contradicting interests of individual supply chain members is one of the important issues in supply chain management because the individual members can not succeed without success of the supply chain and vice versa. This paper investigates a supply chain dynamic production planning problem with emphasis on coordination. A planning problem is formally described using a supply chain kernel, which defines supply chain configuration, management policies, available resources and objectives both at supply chain or macro and supply chain member or micro levels. The coordinated model is solved in order to balance decisions made at the macro and micro levels and members' profitability is used as the coordination criterion. The coordinated model is used to determine inventory levels and production capacity across the supply chain. Application of the coordinated model distributes costs burden uniformly among supply chain members and preserves overall efficiency of the supply chain. Influence of the demand series uncertainty is investigated. The production planning model is a part of the integrated supply chain decision modeling system, which is shared among the supply chain members across the Internet.

  10. ERP extension - Supply Chain Management (SCM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasile LUPSE

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available This article presents an extension of a ERP (Enterprise Resource Planning, more precisely the Supply Chain Management (SCM, together with some personal considerations and contributions of the authors, regarding the presented concepts.

  11. Resource Dynamism of the Rwandan Economy: An Emergy Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evariste Rutebuka

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Africa is experiencing unprecedented economic growth that requires planners to understand the interactions between the social, economic, and ecological systems to ensure its sustainable development. The present paper uses the emergy method to analyse the Rwandan economy from 1975 to 2016. Emergy-based sustainability indicators were used to analyse and compare two distinct periods of economic growth: the pre- and post-Tutsi genocide periods. The results revealed that, by 2016, the total emergy use had increased by approximately 74% of the emergy recorded in 1975. The increase in total emergy use was associated with an increase in imports with contributions from 6.5 to 46.2% and the renewable resource contribution decrease from 93.5 to 53.8%. The emergy analysis, which covered 41 years, categorises Rwanda as a non-renewable resource-poor country. The total emergy use of the pre-genocide period was significantly lower than the post-genocide period. Based on the 2016 emergy self-support of 54% and the emergy sustainability index of 2.52, Rwanda has the highest import dependence compared to other developing countries listed in this paper and tends toward a developed country like Canada, Portugal, and so on. An imperative decision needs to be made in terms of the management of the economic system of Rwanda, as imports are becoming the highest impetus of the Rwandan economy but are also the top major cause of a long-run sustainability downfall. Thus, the present study recommends a scrutinised selection system of imports by increasing raw materials, particularly non-renewable resources, and by subsequently increasing the internal transformation to be exported. This recommendation is also applicable to other developing countries with similar non-renewable resource statuses.

  12. Natural gas supply - a producer's perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Papa, M.G.

    1994-01-01

    The supply of natural gas from the producers standpoint is discussed. The following factors in the marketing demand for natural gas are considered to be important: gas demand is growing, U.S. gas resource base is large, chronic gas bubble has shrunk, and North American supply is more resilient than expected

  13. Global sustainable timber supply and demand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter J. Ince

    2010-01-01

    Industrial timber use has provided timber revenue that has helped make timber supply and demand more sustainable in the leading timber producing regions of the world. Sustainable development implies not consuming more resources today than we can replace tomorrow, but sustainable forest management implies more than merely a non-declining supply of timber. Forests as a...

  14. Economic drivers of mineral supply

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Lorie A.; Sullivan, Daniel E.; Sznopek, John L.

    2003-01-01

    The debate over the adequacy of future supplies of mineral resources continues in light of the growing use of mineral-based materials in the United States. According to the U.S. Geological Survey, the quantity of new materials utilized each year has dramatically increased from 161 million tons2 in 1900 to 3.2 billion tons in 2000. Of all the materials used during the 20th century in the United States, more than half were used in the last 25 years. With the Earth?s endowment of natural resources remaining constant, and increased demand for resources, economic theory states that as depletion approaches, prices rise. This study shows that many economic drivers (conditions that create an economic incentive for producers to act in a particular way) such as the impact of globalization, technological improvements, productivity increases, and efficient materials usage are at work simultaneously to impact minerals markets and supply. As a result of these economic drivers, the historical price trend of mineral prices3 in constant dollars has declined as demand has risen. When price is measured by the cost in human effort, the price trend also has been almost steadily downward. Although the United States economy continues its increasing mineral consumption trend, the supply of minerals has been able to keep pace. This study shows that in general supply has grown faster than demand, causing a declining trend in mineral prices.

  15. CHALLENGES OF SUPPLY CHAIN MANAGEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia GALANTON

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The present article highlights the basic characteristics of the supply chain, specific to changes in the business environment of companies at the beginning of the 21st century. Supply chain activities turn natural resources, raw materials and components into a finished product, which is then delivered to the final customer. The supply chain incorporates the production process alongside the raw material acquisition and distribution of finished products, encompassing all the existing process responsible for transforming the materials taken from the supplier to the finished products delivered to customers. Today, competitiveness and performance of an organization are dependent on belonging to an efficient and effective supply-delivery chain where synergies exist due to the establishment and implementation of common goals and strategies by partners. Competition does not take place between independent organizations or between small groups of organizations, but between supply and delivery chains, made up of interconnected networks of producers, distributors and logistics providers. Under these circumstances, supply chain managers must seek solutions to respond promptly to the most important challenges in the field.

  16. Panel estimation for renewable and non-renewable energy consumption, economic growth, CO2 emissions, the composite trade intensity, and financial openness of the commonwealth of independent states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasoulinezhad, Ehsan; Saboori, Behnaz

    2018-04-13

    This article investigates the long-run and causal linkages between economic growth, CO 2 emissions, renewable and non-renewable (fossil fuels) energy consumption, the Composite Trade Intensity (CTI) as a proxy for trade openness, and the Chinn-Ito index as a proxy for financial openness for a panel of the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) region including Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Russia, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, Ukraine, and Uzbekistan over the period of 1992-2015. It is the first time that CTI and the Chinn-Ito indexes are used in an economic-pollution model. Employing three panel unit root tests, panel cointegration estimation methods (DOLS and FMOLS), and two panel causality tests, the main empirical results provided evidence for the bidirectional long-run relationship between all the variables in all 12 sampled countries except for economic growth-renewable energy use linkage. The findings of causality tests indicated that there is a unidirectional short-run panel causality running from economic growth, financial openness, and trade openness to CO 2 emissions and from fossil fuel energy consumption to renewable energy use.

  17. Analysis of uranium supply to 2050

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-05-01

    The central theme of this report is to assess the adequacy of uranium resources to meet future requirements based on a range of opinions as to the future of nuclear power. The report discusses three demand cases that project uranium requirements from 2000 to 2050. The report also reviews the supply sources that are expected to be available to meet reactor uranium demand through to 2050. Supply is divided into two broad categories: secondary and primary supply. The report also assesses the adequacy of uranium resources to satisfy market based production requirements

  18. Algae Resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2016-06-01

    Algae are highly efficient at producing biomass, and they can be found all over the planet. Many use sunlight and nutrients to create biomass, which contain key components—including lipids, proteins, and carbohydrates— that can be converted and upgraded to a variety of biofuels and products. A functional algal biofuels production system requires resources such as suitable land and climate, sustainable management of water resources, a supplemental carbon dioxide (CO2) supply, and other nutrients (e.g., nitrogen and phosphorus). Algae can be an attractive feedstock for many locations in the United States because their diversity allows for highpotential biomass yields in a variety of climates and environments. Depending on the strain, algae can grow by using fresh, saline, or brackish water from surface water sources, groundwater, or seawater. Additionally, they can grow in water from second-use sources such as treated industrial wastewater; municipal, agricultural, or aquaculture wastewater; or produced water generated from oil and gas drilling operations.

  19. North American natural gas supply dynamics: A focus on U.S. supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    George, R.

    1999-01-01

    This paper discusses US natural gas supply dynamics in the context of the North American gas marketplace. Supply fundamentals are examined, methodology is briefly presented, regional supply outlooks are discussed. Assumptions, drivers and issues are highlighted. The analysis and outlook indicate that the sizeable North American resource base can be economically developed to supply growing US natural gas requirements. The major incremental supply sources are likely to come from deepwater Gulf of Mexico, Rocky Mountain regions, onshore Texas and imports from Canada. Given this outlook, major business and investment opportunities exist for the gas upstream and midstream sectors despite some short-term challenges

  20. Water resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    The report entitled Climate Change Impacts and Adaptation : A Canadian Perspective, presents a summary of research regarding the impacts of climate change on key sectors over the past five years as it relates to Canada. This chapter on water resources describes how climate change will affect the supply of water in Canada. Water is one of Canada's greatest resources, which contributes about $7.5 to 23 billion per year to the Canadian economy. The decisions taken to adapt to climate change within the water resources sector will have profound implications in many other areas such as agriculture, human health, transportation and industry. The water related problems include water quality issues that relate to water shortages from droughts, or excesses from floods. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change forecasts an increase in global average surface air temperatures of 1.4 to 5.8 degrees C by 2100. Such a change would impact the hydrological cycle, affecting runoff, evaporation patterns, and the amount of water stored in glaciers, lakes, wetlands and groundwater. The uncertainty as to the magnitude of these changes is due to the difficulty that climate models have in projecting future changes in regional precipitation patterns and extreme events. This chapter presents potential impacts of climate change on water resources in the Yukon, British Columbia, the Prairies, the Great Lakes basin, the Atlantic provinces, and the Arctic and Subarctic. The associated concerns for each region were highlighted. Adaptation research has focused on the impacts of supply and demand, and on options to adapt to these impacts. 60 refs., 2 tabs., 1 fig

  1. Sustainability evaluation of water supply technologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Godskesen, Berit

    Sustainability evaluation of water supply systems is important to include in the decision making process when planning new technologies or resources for water supply. In Denmark the motivations may be many and different for changing technology, but since water supply is based on groundwater...... the main driver is the limitations of the available resource from the groundwater bodies. The environmental impact of products and systems can be evaluated by life-cycle assessment (LCA) which is a comprehensive and dominant decision support tool capable of evaluating a water system from the cradle......-criteria decision analysis method was used to develop a decision support system and applied to the study. In this thesis a standard LCA of the drinking water supply technology of today (base case) and 4 alternative cases for water supply technologies is conducted. The standard LCA points at the case rain...

  2. The user cost of energy resource and its reasonable tax rate-A case of oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lifan, Liu

    2017-12-01

    The development and use of natural resources bring about the externality of resources depletion, especially for non-renewable resources. This paper takes oil as an example to analyze the user cost of energy resource with EI Serafy User cost method, and discusses the rationality of the resource tax. Meanwhile, this paper determines oil resource tax rate in consideration of resource sustainable development. The results show that, the user cost of oil isn’t compensated fully, it is too low to make compensation to the environment and the profit of future generation, and the resource tax is a little low. At last of the paper, some conclusions and policy suggestions on resource tax reform are given.

  3. Renewables in Global Energy Supply

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-07-01

    Renewable energies are essential contributors to the energy supply portfolio as they contribute to world energy supply security, reducing dependency on fossil fuel resources, and provide opportunities for mitigating greenhouse gases. Differences in definition and lack of adequate data complicated the discussion between participants on these key issues. The International Energy Agency believes that this fact sheet can be of use to all to facilitate the debate on the past, current and future place and role of renewables in total energy supply. Our goal is to present as objectively as possible the main elements of the current renewables energy situation. The definitions and coverage of national statistics vary between countries and organisations. In this fact sheet, the renewables definition includes combustible renewables and waste (CRW), hydro, geothermal, solar, wind, tide and wave energy.

  4. Canadian gas supply : an update

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rochefort, T.

    1998-01-01

    An overview of the daily production from the Western Canada Sedimentary Basin (WCSB) from 1986 to 1997 was presented. This presentation also outlined Canadian production trends, Canadian reserves and resources, and supply challenges. Ultimate conventional marketable gas from the WCSB, the Scotian Shelf, the Beaufort Sea and Canada's Arctic region was estimated at 591 TCF. Issues regarding supply and demand of natural gas such as the impact of electricity restructuring on pricing, generation fuel mix, the capacity of the U.S. market to absorb Canadian heavy oil production, and the influence of the rate of technological advances on supply and demand were outlined. The overall conclusion confirmed the health and competitiveness of the Canadian upstream sector and expressed confidence that the WCSB can support rising levels of production to meet the expected continued market growth. tabs., figs

  5. When Environmental Policy is Superfluous: Growth and Polluting Resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schou, Poul

    2002-01-01

    In a research-driven endogenous growth model, a non-renewable resource gives rise to pollution. Consumption may either grow or decline along the optimal balanced growth path, hut the (flow) pollution level necessarily diminishes continuously. Any positive balanced growth path is sustainable. Utility may improve, even though consumption declines. Although positive growth is optimal, the market economy may nevertheless result in permanently declining consumption possibilities. At the same time, a growth-enhancing government policy may improve long-run environmental conditions. The pollution externality does not distort the decisions of the market economy, so that a specific environmental policy is superfluous

  6. Uranium supply analysis: Evolution of concepts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, R.M.

    1998-01-01

    Considerable effort has been expended during the last 15 years to develop improved methods of analysing current and future mineral supply, with the objectives of providing illustrations of mineral supply possibilities that are more meaningful and easily understood. Significant contributions toward these objectives have been made in the course of studies on world uranium supply, which took place in the 1970s prompted by concern about the future availability of mineral fuels. The Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) of the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), and the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) have played a key role in these efforts, through their biennial assessments of world uranium supply. There has been a pronounced shift in emphasis in the NEA/IAEA assessments away from resource estimates by themselves as a measure of supply, because of a growing awareness that, in isolation, resource estimates cannot provide a truly meaningful illustration of uranium availability. Indeed, resource estimates taken out of context can lead to false conclusions about resource adequacy. Successive NEA/IAEA studies have made increasing use of projections of production capability that show the possible availability of uranium from different categories of resources and production centres over specified time-frames. It is believed that such supply scenarios provide a much more meaningful illustration of uranium availability for both short and long-term planning purposes. As part of the effort to introduce such an approach to NEA/IAEA uranium supply analyses, the IAEA has prepared a manual which provides general guidelines for preparing projections of production capability. It is hoped that these efforts will contribute to a better understanding of the constraints on uranium supply and to the wider acceptance of projections of production capability as measures of resource adequacy. (author)

  7. Energy supply - a global problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barthelt, K.

    1990-01-01

    The text of a speech celebrating the 10 years operation of the nuclear power plant in Goesgen. The author expresses his opinion on the future of nuclear energy, on the responsibility towards the next generation and on the energy supply for the Third World. He draws attention to the gap between north and south and to the limited amount of resources and mention the CO2-problem and the potential of nuclear energy

  8. 2005 resource options report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morris, T.

    2005-01-01

    This resource options report (ROR) fulfils regulatory requirements in British Columbia's two-year resource planning process. It identifies a wide range of resources and technologies that could be used to meet BC Hydro's future electricity demand. As such, it facilitates a transparent public review of resource options which include both supply-side and demand-side options. The resource options that will be used in the 2005 integrated electricity plan (IEP) were characterized. This ROR also documents where there is a general agreement or disagreement on the resource type characterization, based on the First Nations and Stakeholder engagement. BC Hydro used current information to provide realistic ranges on volume and cost to characterize environmental and social attributes. The BC Hydro system was modelled to assess the benefit and cost of various resource options. The information resulting from this ROR and IEP will help in making decisions on how to structure competitive acquisition calls and to determine the level of transmission services needed to advance certain BC Hydro projects. The IEP forecasts the nature and quantity of domestic resources required over the next 20 years. A strategic direction on how those needs will be met has been created to guide the management of BC Hydro's energy resources. Supply-side options include near-commercial technologies such as energy storage, ocean waves, tidal, fuel cells and integrated coal gasification combined cycle technology. Supply-side options also include natural gas, coal, biomass, geothermal, wind, and hydro. 120 refs., 39 tabs., 21 figs., 6 appendices

  9. The future of oil supply.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Richard G; Sorrell, Steven R

    2014-01-13

    Abundant supplies of oil form the foundation of modern industrial economies, but the capacity to maintain and grow global supply is attracting increasing concern. Some commentators forecast a peak in the near future and a subsequent terminal decline in global oil production, while others highlight the recent growth in 'tight oil' production and the scope for developing unconventional resources. There are disagreements over the size, cost and recoverability of different resources, the technical and economic potential of different technologies, the contribution of different factors to market trends and the economic implications of reduced supply. Few debates are more important, more contentious, more wide-ranging or more confused. This paper summarizes the main concepts, terms, issues and evidence that are necessary to understand the 'peak oil' debate. These include: the origin, nature and classification of oil resources; the trends in oil production and discoveries; the typical production profiles of oil fields, basins and producing regions; the mechanisms underlying those profiles; the extent of depletion of conventional oil; the risk of an approaching peak in global production; and the potential of various mitigation options. The aim is to introduce the subject to non-specialist readers and provide a basis for the subsequent papers in this Theme Issue.

  10. Outlook for Noth American natural gas supplies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuuskraa, V.A.

    1995-01-01

    The underlying resource base for North America natural gas is large, sufficient for nearly 100 years of current consumption. As such, the issues are not the size of the resource, but how to convert this resource into economically competitive supply. The key questions are: Will the cost (price) of natural gas remain competitive? What is the status of near-term deliverability? Will there be enough supply to meet growing demand? These economic and market issues frame the outlook for gas supplies in North America. Most importantly, they will determine how natural gas emerges from its competition for markets with other fuels and electricity. The paper addresses these questions by examining: (1) the underlying nature of the natural gas resource base; (2) the current status and trends in deliverability; and, (3) the potential of new technologies for producing gas more cost-effectively. (author)

  11. Exergetic assessment for resources input and environmental emissions by Chinese industry during 1997-2006.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Bo; Peng, Beihua; Liu, Mingchu

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of the resources use and environmental impact of the Chinese industry during 1997-2006. For the purpose of this analysis the thermodynamic concept of exergy has been employed both to quantify and aggregate the resources input and the environmental emissions arising from the sector. The resources input and environmental emissions show an increasing trend in this period. Compared with 47568.7 PJ in 1997, resources input in 2006 increased by 75.4% and reached 83437.9 PJ, of which 82.5% came from nonrenewable resources, mainly from coal and other energy minerals. Furthermore, the total exergy of environmental emissions was estimated to be 3499.3 PJ in 2006, 1.7 times of that in 1997, of which 93.4% was from GHG emissions and only 6.6% from "three wastes" emissions. A rapid increment of the nonrenewable resources input and GHG emissions over 2002-2006 can be found, owing to the excessive expansion of resource- and energy-intensive subsectors. Exergy intensities in terms of resource input intensity and environmental emission intensity time-series are also calculated, and the trends are influenced by the macroeconomic situation evidently, particularly by the investment-derived economic development in recent years. Corresponding policy implications to guide a more sustainable industry system are addressed.

  12. Exergetic Assessment for Resources Input and Environmental Emissions by Chinese Industry during 1997–2006

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Zhang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an overview of the resources use and environmental impact of the Chinese industry during 1997–2006. For the purpose of this analysis the thermodynamic concept of exergy has been employed both to quantify and aggregate the resources input and the environmental emissions arising from the sector. The resources input and environmental emissions show an increasing trend in this period. Compared with 47568.7 PJ in 1997, resources input in 2006 increased by 75.4% and reached 83437.9 PJ, of which 82.5% came from nonrenewable resources, mainly from coal and other energy minerals. Furthermore, the total exergy of environmental emissions was estimated to be 3499.3 PJ in 2006, 1.7 times of that in 1997, of which 93.4% was from GHG emissions and only 6.6% from “three wastes” emissions. A rapid increment of the nonrenewable resources input and GHG emissions over 2002–2006 can be found, owing to the excessive expansion of resource- and energy-intensive subsectors. Exergy intensities in terms of resource input intensity and environmental emission intensity time-series are also calculated, and the trends are influenced by the macroeconomic situation evidently, particularly by the investment-derived economic development in recent years. Corresponding policy implications to guide a more sustainable industry system are addressed.

  13. Sustainability of Drinking Water Supply Projects in Rural of North ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Safe water supply coverage in the rural areas of Ethiopia is very marginal. The coverage still remains very low because of limited progress in water supply activities in these areas. Factors affecting the continued use of the outcome of water supply projects in the background of limited resources are not well ...

  14. A coordination theoretic model for three level supply chains using ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Typically, supply chain members are dependent on each other to manage various resources and information. The conflicting objectives and lack of coordination between supply chain members may often cause uncertainties in supply and demand. The basic elements of coordination theory like interdependency, coherency ...

  15. 30 CFR 36.27 - Fuel-supply system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Fuel-supply system. 36.27 Section 36.27 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR TESTING, EVALUATION, AND APPROVAL OF... Construction and Design Requirements § 36.27 Fuel-supply system. (a) Fuel tank. (1) The fuel tank shall not...

  16. Consumer driven supply chains: the case of Dutch organic tomato

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Anastasiadis, F.; Dam, van Y.K.

    2014-01-01

    Supply chain management refers to the efficient integration of various processes involved in turning resources into consumer products. Effectiveness of the supply chain is more easily understood in terms of Value Chain Management, and the integration of processes that turn resources into consumer

  17. Wood fiber supply and demand in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenneth E. Skog; Peter J. Ince; Richard W. Haynes

    1998-01-01

    The USDA Forest Service is preparing a national assessment of supply and demand for wood fiber resources in the United States. Based in part on preliminary results of this assessment and partly on our 1993 Assessment, this paper outlines trends and gives an outlook for demand and trade for timber and fiber products, changes in technology, and wood fiber resource supply...

  18. Glass vs. Plastic: Life Cycle Assessment of Extra-Virgin Olive Oil Bottles across Global Supply Chains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riccardo Accorsi

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The environmental impacts of global food supply chains are growing with the need for their measurement and management. This paper explores the operations of a global supply chain for extra-virgin olive oil (EVOO according to a life cycle assessment (LCA methodology. The LCA assessment methodology is applied to determine the environmental impact categories associated with the bottled EVOO life cycle, focusing on packaging decisions. The proposed analysis identifies the greatest environmental stressors of the EVOO supply chain, thereby supporting strategic and operative decisions toward more efficient and environmentally-friendly operations management and packaging choices. This paper quantifies the environmental categories of the impacts of global warming potential, ozone layer depletion, non-renewable energy use, acidification, eutrophication and photochemical smog, for the observed EVOO supply chain, given alternative packaging configurations, i.e., a glass bottle vs. a plastic bottle. The observed system includes the supply of EVOO, the EVOO processing and bottling, the supply of packaging, the distribution of final products to customers, the end-of-life (EOL treatments regarding the management, recycling and the disposal of waste across a global supply chain. The findings from the LCA highlight the potential of PET bottles in reducing the environmental impact of EVOO supply chains and identifies hotspots of discussion for policy-makers, EVOO producers and consumers.

  19. Towards an Empirical-Relational Model of Supply Chain Flexibility

    OpenAIRE

    Santanu Mandal

    2015-01-01

    Supply chains are prone to disruptions and associated risks. To develop capabilities for risk mitigation, supply chains need to be flexible. A flexible supply chain can respond better to environmental contingencies. Based on the theoretical tenets of resource-based view, relational view and dynamic capabilities theory, the current study develops a relational model of supply chain flexibility comprising trust, commitment, communication, co-operation, adaptation and interdependence. Subsequentl...

  20. Vendor Managed Inventory: A new approach to supply chain management

    OpenAIRE

    Gandhi, Ujval

    2003-01-01

    The Global Supply Chain Forum (Stanford Global Supply Chain Forum Web Resource, http://www.stanford.edu/groups/scforum) defines supply chain management (SCM) as “Supply chain management is the integration of key business processes from end user through original suppliers that provides products, services and information that add value for customer and other stakeholders.” The rapid development of the Internet has dramatically changed the traditional definitions of manufacturer, suppliers and c...

  1. Laser power supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernstein, D.

    1975-01-01

    The laser power supply includes a regulator which has a high voltage control loop based on a linear approximation of a laser tube negative resistance characteristic. The regulator has independent control loops for laser current and power supply high voltage

  2. Foreign uranium supply. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McLeod, N.B.; Steyn, J.J.

    1978-04-01

    This report presents an assessment of the extent to which foreign uranium may be available to United States utilities in the short term (through 1980), the intermediate term (1981--1985), and the long term (1986--95). All free world foreign uranium producers and prospects are included, with particular emphasis on Australia, Canada, southern Africa, France, and French-speaking Africa. The assessment includes reserves, resources, exploration and prospects; firm and potential production capacity and prospects; national policies and relevant political and economic conditions; foreign uranium demand; etc. Conclusions are: Foreign supply capability is greater than foreign demand in the near term. The current availability of uncommitted future Australian production presents an unusual opportunity for establishing commercial relations with very substantial producers. Foreign uranium contracts represent an increase in diversity of supply and access to resources but have less assurance of supply than do domestic contracts. However, uncertainties can frequently be accommodated within an overall procurement program, thereby retaining the diversity and price advantages of foreign procurement. The practice of market pricing of contracts reduces the incentives for foreign contracting

  3. Changing landscape for North American supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deegan, J.

    2005-01-01

    The United States represents 29 per cent of world natural gas consumption but holds 5 per cent of world natural gas resources. Supply and demand balances in the United States were examined in this PowerPoint presentation. Issues concerning market considerations and the Energy Policy Act were reviewed. The impacts of hurricanes were assessed and the U.S. supply and demand balance for the winter of 2004-2005 was considered. Growing producer expenditures were reviewed, and average finding and development cost increases were presented. New supply sources were examined, and details of expected major domestic supply contributors by 2010 were presented by region. It was suggested that unconventional sources will play a greater role in U.S. natural gas supply, and that liquefied natural gas (LNG) will be needed to attract resources within the world market. Increased regulatory certainty and supply flexibility is essential to economical supply development decisions. Issues concerning the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission's role in LNG terminal siting were examined. Permits, taxes and royalty incentives for deep water exploration were discussed. It was suggested that the Energy Policy Act falls short on increasing access to new supply. It was observed that traditional North American producing areas will provide only 75 per cent of long-term U.S. needs. Access to multi-use, non-park, non-wilderness federal lands for gas exploration will be needed. It was concluded that non-conventional resources are more costly and face greater public resistance than conventional resource plays. tabs., figs

  4. Vliv Cloud Computingu na Supply Chain Management

    OpenAIRE

    Karkošková, Soňa

    2013-01-01

    Master thesis "Impact of Cloud Computing on Supply Chain Management" analyses the provisioning of IT resources in the form of cloud computing services and their impact on supply chain management environment. Attention is focused particularly on providing SaaS model of public applications delivery. The Cloud SCM implementation offers many advantages especially for small and medium sized companies. In this thesis I analysed the specifics of the deployment of Cloud SCM in highly unstable market ...

  5. Changing landscape for North American supply

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deegan, J. [Natural Gas Supply Association, Washington DC (United States)

    2005-07-01

    The United States represents 29 per cent of world natural gas consumption but holds 5 per cent of world natural gas resources. Supply and demand balances in the United States were examined in this PowerPoint presentation. Issues concerning market considerations and the Energy Policy Act were reviewed. The impacts of hurricanes were assessed and the U.S. supply and demand balance for the winter of 2004-2005 was considered. Growing producer expenditures were reviewed, and average finding and development cost increases were presented. New supply sources were examined, and details of expected major domestic supply contributors by 2010 were presented by region. It was suggested that unconventional sources will play a greater role in U.S. natural gas supply, and that liquefied natural gas (LNG) will be needed to attract resources within the world market. Increased regulatory certainty and supply flexibility is essential to economical supply development decisions. Issues concerning the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission's role in LNG terminal siting were examined. Permits, taxes and royalty incentives for deep water exploration were discussed. It was suggested that the Energy Policy Act falls short on increasing access to new supply. It was observed that traditional North American producing areas will provide only 75 per cent of long-term U.S. needs. Access to multi-use, non-park, non-wilderness federal lands for gas exploration will be needed. It was concluded that non-conventional resources are more costly and face greater public resistance than conventional resource plays. tabs., figs.

  6. Supply Cain Risk Management

    OpenAIRE

    Goodwin, Les

    2011-01-01

    “The management of supply chain risk is crucial to any business, more so to Rolls Royce who face an almost doubling of load within the next 10 years. So what is supply chain risk management and how well is it deployed within an operational business of Rolls Royce? What are the tools and techniques available and what are the key issues around implementing world class supply chain risk management with a Supply Chain Unit within Rolls Royce?”

  7. Report from the Uranium Supply Committee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-12-01

    Based on studies of world uranium supply made by NEA, IAEA and other national and international bodies the Danish Uranium Supply Committee has examined the uranium supply situation. The Committee concludes that there will be no lack of natural uranium in a period until year 2025 provided that more advanced and uranium economic reactors will be effiective from the beginning of the 21th century. However it will be necessary to discover new resources and to use low-grade uranium resources. Through long term contracts with the users the uranium producers should be urged to continue their production. The Committee recommends that uranium prospecting in Greenland continues in order to get a through knowledge of Greenlandic resources. The establishment of further reprocessing capacity should be speeded up, whereas the Committee do not foresee any shortages with regard to enrichment, conversion, and fuel element production. (BP)

  8. Energy supply. Energieversorgung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eickhof, N.

    1983-01-01

    This anthology presents nine papers dealing with the following subjects: 1) international and national aspects of energy supply, 2) regional and local energy supply concepts, and 3) issues of district-heat supply. Each of the nine papers was entered separately.

  9. Trim coil power supplies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haisler, R.; Peeler, H.; Zajicek, W.

    1985-01-01

    The 18 trim coil power supplies have been constructed and are now in place in the K500 pit and pit mezzanine. Final wiring of the primary power and control power is proceeding along with installation of cooling water supplies. The supplies are expected to be ready for final testing into resistive loads at the beginning of June, 1985

  10. Analysis of uranium supply to 2050

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Underhill, D.H.

    2002-01-01

    The 1999 uranium mine production was about 55% of the 61 500 tonnes uranium (t U) used by the nuclear industry, with the balance met by secondary supply. Based on a recent WEC-IIASA study which defines a wide range of possible future levels of nuclear electricity generation, it is estimated that by 2050 annual uranium requirements could increase to 177 000 and 283 000 t U respectively, in the mid and high cases, or fall to 52 000 t U in the low case. Cumulative requirements to 2050 for the low, mid and high cases are, respectively 3.39, 5.35 and 7.58 million t U. A new IAEA analysis describes how known uranium resources (RAR and EAR-1) plus undiscovered resources (EAR-II and SR), supplemented by secondary supplies, could be utilized to supply reactors to 2050. Secondary supplies include: existing inventories, blended down warhead material (LEU blended from HEU), MOX, Repu, and re-enrichment of tails. The methodology of this analysis estimates the amounts and annual deliveries of the secondary supply, plus non-market supply. The balance of demand is met from Market Based Production (MBP) or: 'Uranium produced at or below market price to satisfy requirements not met by other supply sources'. The analysis then evaluates the production role for 125 uranium deposits, which supply MBP considering individual deposit resources, production cost and capability, and timing. Production costs are classified from low ( $130/kgU). Annual supply and demand balancing is used to allocate the resources on an individual deposit basis, assuming use of the next lowest available cost production. Secondary supplies will continue to supplement mine production to about 2025, but their relative importance will decrease over the period. An analysis of the benefit of lowering the enrichment tails assay from 0.30% 235 U to 0.15% 235 U, when economically justified is also discussed. The report also discusses projected production cost trends to 2025 under the mid and high cases. The final

  11. True Nature of Supply Network Communication Structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lokhman Hakim bin Osman

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Globalization of world economy has altered the definition of organizational structure. Global supply chain can no longer be viewed as an arm-length structure. It has become more complex. The complexity demands deeper research and understanding. This research analyzed a structure of supply network in an attempt to elucidate the true structure of the supply network. Using the quantitative Social Network Analysis methodology, findings of this study indicated that, the structure of the supply network differs depending on the types of network relations. An important implication of these findings would be a more focus resource management upon network relationship development that is based on firms’ positions in the different network structure. This research also contributes to the various strategies of effective and efficient supply chain management.

  12. Supply regimes in fisheries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Max

    2006-01-01

    Supply in fisheries is traditionally known for its backward bending nature, owing to externalities in production. Such a supply regime, however, exist only for pure open access fisheries. Since most fisheries worldwide are neither pure open access, nor optimally managed, rather between the extremes......, the traditional understanding of supply regimes in fisheries needs modification. This paper identifies through a case study of the East Baltic cod fishery supply regimes in fisheries, taking alternative fisheries management schemes and mesh size limitations into account. An age-structured Beverton-Holt based bio......-economic supply model with mesh sizes is developed. It is found that in the presence of realistic management schemes, the supply curves are close to vertical in the relevant range. Also, the supply curve under open access with mesh size limitations is almost vertical in the relevant range, owing to constant...

  13. Renewable energy resources and technologies practice in Bangladesh

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rofiqul Islam, M.; Rafiqul Alam Beg, M. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Rajshahi University of Engineering and Technology, Rajshahi 6204 (Bangladesh); Rabiul Islam, M. [Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Rajshahi University of Engineering and Technology, Rajshahi 6204 (Bangladesh)

    2008-02-15

    Bangladesh has very limited nonrenewable energy resources of its own. She is facing energy crisis and serious desertification problem in rural areas. These issues could be removed if renewable energy is used as a primary source of energy in rural areas. It is essential for scientists and researchers to find out the renewable energy resources and effective technologies. Bangladesh is endowed with vast renewable energy resources such as biomass and solar insolation. Besides, hydro and wind power can be considered as potential renewable energy resources. Harnessing these resources appears to be a promising solution for improving the quality of life of rural villagers. The government and many non-governmental organizations (NGOs) have tried to comprehend and have strived to address the problem of energy. This paper reviews the renewable energy resources and renewable energy technologies (RETs) practicing in Bangladesh in terms of its implementation, research and development activities. The development and trial of systems are mostly funded so far by donor agencies in collaboration with government and NGOs. Biomass energy sources are traditionally used for domestic cooking and in small rural industries. Approximately 60% of total energy demand of the country is supplied by indigenous biomass based fuels. Activities on the development and promotion of biomass technologies have been going on for one decade. Some national and international funds have been available for biogas technology, improved biomass cookers and production of biomass briquettes. At the time, around 25,000 biogas plants exist all over the country in rural areas and educational institutes, etc. More than 0.20 million improve stoves have been installed to save biomass fuel. Over 900 briquetting machines have been operating in the country on commercial basis. The annual solar radiation availability in Bangladesh is as high as 1700 kWh/m{sup 2}. Research and demonstration activities carried out for one

  14. Online Resources

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Genetics; Online Resources. Journal of Genetics. Online Resources. Volume 97. 2018 | Online resources. Volume 96. 2017 | Online resources. Volume 95. 2016 | Online resources. Volume 94. 2015 | Online resources. Volume 93. 2014 | Online resources. Volume 92. 2013 | Online resources ...

  15. Supply chain reliability modelling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugen Zaitsev

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Today it is virtually impossible to operate alone on the international level in the logistics business. This promotes the establishment and development of new integrated business entities - logistic operators. However, such cooperation within a supply chain creates also many problems related to the supply chain reliability as well as the optimization of the supplies planning. The aim of this paper was to develop and formulate the mathematical model and algorithms to find the optimum plan of supplies by using economic criterion and the model for the probability evaluating of non-failure operation of supply chain. Methods: The mathematical model and algorithms to find the optimum plan of supplies were developed and formulated by using economic criterion and the model for the probability evaluating of non-failure operation of supply chain. Results and conclusions: The problem of ensuring failure-free performance of goods supply channel analyzed in the paper is characteristic of distributed network systems that make active use of business process outsourcing technologies. The complex planning problem occurring in such systems that requires taking into account the consumer's requirements for failure-free performance in terms of supply volumes and correctness can be reduced to a relatively simple linear programming problem through logical analysis of the structures. The sequence of the operations, which should be taken into account during the process of the supply planning with the supplier's functional reliability, was presented.

  16. Canada's resources and the national interest. A summary of a report by an independent task force on the crisis in the development of Canada's mining and petroleum resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, R D; Chapman, E P; Gander, J E; Manning, E C; Pallister, A E; Peters, D D; Thorssen, L A [Canada West Foundation

    1977-01-01

    This report summarizes almost two years of research and discussion concerning the fundamental problems facing Canada with respect to the development of its resource industries. The report expresses the concern of the members of the Task Force that, unless action is taken now, Canada will fail to secure the benefits that it should from the use of its national heritage of mineral and petroleum resources. The main report of the Task Force is accompanied by four major research studies, published as appendices to the main report and covering the broad subjects of the taxation of non-renewable resources, a survey of Canada's oil and gas resources, a survey of its other mineral resources, and a possible plan for the development of its oil and gas reserves in the coming decade. This booklet represents only a summary of the Report's main discussion and conclusions.

  17. THE COSTS OF ENERGY SUPPLY SECURITY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rogner, H.H.; Langlois, L.M.; McDonald, A.; Weisser, D.; Howells, M.

    2007-07-01

    In general, increasing a country's energy supply security does not come for free. It costs money to build up a strategic reserve, to increase supply diversity or even to accelerate energy efficiency improvements. Nor are all investments in increasing energy supply security cost effective, even if the shocks they are designed to insure against can be predicted with 100% accuracy. The first half of the paper surveys different definitions and strategies associated with the concept of energy supply security, and compares current initiatives to establish an 'assured supply of nuclear fuel' to the International Energy Agency's (IEA's) system of strategic national oil reserves. The second half of the paper presents results from several case studies of the costs and effectiveness of selected energy supply security policies. One case study examines alternative strategies for Lithuania following the scheduled closure of the Ignalina-2 nuclear reactor in 2009. The second case study examines, for countries with different energy resources and demand structures, the effectiveness of a policy to increase supply diversity by expanding renewable energy supplies. (auth)

  18. Supply Chain Management og Supply Chain costing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Steen; Mortensen, Ole

    2002-01-01

    Formålet med denne artikel er at belyse de muligheder som ligger i at integrere virksomhedens økonomiske styring med begrebet Supply Chain Management (SCM). Dette søges belyst ved først at beskrive den teoretiske ramme, hvori SCM indgår. Herefter analyseres begrebet Supply Chain Costing (SCC) som...... Århus. Et resultat er, at via begrebet Supply Chain Costing skabes der mulighed for at måle logistikkædens aktiviteter i kr./øre. Anvendelsen af denne information har også strategisk betydning for at kunne vælge kunde og leverandør. Ved hjælp af integrationen skabes der også helt nye mulighed...

  19. New local energy supply as a communal task. Solar statutes between local autonomy and global climatic and resources protection; Neue oertliche Energieversorgung als kommunale Aufgabe. Solarsatzungen zwischen gemeindlicher Selbstverwaltung und globalem Klima- und Ressourcenschutz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Longo, Fabio

    2010-07-01

    Cities and communities have a constitutionally secured autonomy. What means this within the range of the protection of climate and resources? May communities take over global tasks, or are these limited in their local sphere of activity? In the meantime, in most German city halls something is done for the employment of renewable energies. Under this aspect, the author of the contribution under consideration reports at first on a comprehensive jurisprudential answer on the fundamental question which local tasks are entitled to the cities and communities and how this affects the range of climate protection and resources protection. Moreover, up-to-date particularly disputed local solar statutes are evaluated legally.

  20. FY 1982 report on the results of the verification test on the methanol conversion for oil-fired power plant. Survey of the potential supply amount of overseas resource (Survey of the potential supply amount of methanol); 1982 nendo sekiyu karyoku hatsudensho metanoru tenkan tou jissho shiken. Kaigai shigen kyokyu kano ryo chosa (Metanoru kyokyu kano ryo chosa) seika hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1983-07-01

    For the study of the potential supply amount of methanol as power generation use fuel, survey was conducted as case study on the following: Victorian brown coal of Australia, conversion of Arun natural gas to methanol at site in Indonesia, political/social/technical restrictions, supply scale, economical efficiency, etc. at the time of the supply to Japan. For the calculation of economical efficiency, it was assumed that the scale of methanol production was 5,000 t/d, that the plant operated years were 20 and that the price of acquisition of raw material was US$4-10/t in Victorian brown coal and US$1-4/t in Arun natural gas. As a result of the study, in the case of natural gas base methanol, the CIF Japan is lower than CIF prices of LNG and crude oil in case the price of acquisition of raw material is US$1/t, but is higher than those in case the price is US$2/t. In the case of brown coal base methanol, it was found that the CIF Japan could not be lower than CIF prices of LNG and crude oil even in case the price of acquisition of raw material is US$4/t, which is the lowest. (NEDO)

  1. Closed Loop Supply Chains for Sustainable Mass Customization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Kjeld; Brunø, Thomas Ditlev

    2013-01-01

    Closed loop supply chains reducing waste, energy consumption and natural resource depletion which all contribute to more sustainable production and products. For mass customization however, the challenges of closed loop supply chains are emphasized by the large variety of inbound end-of-life prod......Closed loop supply chains reducing waste, energy consumption and natural resource depletion which all contribute to more sustainable production and products. For mass customization however, the challenges of closed loop supply chains are emphasized by the large variety of inbound end...

  2. Maintenance Resources Evaluation Technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-03-01

    variable Z; P-6 BIBLIOGRAPHY Argentine Air Force. Reglamento de Conduction Logistica RAC 9 (Logistics Management Regulation). Estado Mayor General de ...other hand, too many resources are expensive to acquire and maintain and difficult to transport . 1-1 Sizing the means needed to accomplish its...functional areas (maintenance, supply/inventory, transportation , etc), methodologies of operations research (simulation, mathematical programming

  3. Canadian gas resource

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1989-01-01

    Canadian exports of gas to the United States are a critical component of EMF-9 (North American Gas Supplies). However, it has been noted that there are differences between US expectations for imports and Canadian forecasts of export supply capacity. Recent studies by the National Petroleum Council (NPC) and the US Department of Energy (DOE) indicate that 1.8 to 2.4 Tcf of imports may be required in the mid to late 1990's; A recent study by Canada's National Energy Board (NEB) indicates that the conventional resource base may not be able to provide continued gas exports to the US after the mid 1990's and that frontier sources would need to be developed to meet US expectations. The discrepancies between US expectations and Canadian estimates of capacity are of great concern to US policymakers because they call into question the availability of secure supplies of natural gas and suggest that the cost of imports (if available) will be high. By implication, if shortages are to be averted, massive investment may be required to bring these higher cost sources to market. Since the long-term supply picture will be determined by the underlying resource base, EMF-9 participants have been asked to provide estimates of critical components of the Canadian resource base. This paper provides a summary of ICF-Lewin's recent investigation of both the Conventional and Tight Gas resource in Canada's Western Sedimentary Basin, which includes both quantitative estimates and a brief sketch of the analysis methodology

  4. Optics Supply Planning System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaylord, J.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to specify the design for an initial optics supply planning system for NIF, and to present quality assurance and test plans for the construction of the system as specified. The National Ignition Facility (NIF) is a large laser facility that is just starting operations. Thousands of specialized optics are required to operate the laser, and must be exchanged over time based on the laser shot plan and predictions of damage. Careful planning and tracking of optic exchanges is necessary because of the tight inventory of spare optics, and the long lead times for optics procurements and production changes. Automated inventory forecasting and production planning tools are required to replace existing manual processes. The optics groups members who are expected to use the supply planning system are the stakeholders for this project, and are divided into three groups. Each of these groups participated in a requirements specification that was used to develop this design. (1) Optics Management--These are the top level stakeholdersk, and the final decision makers. This group is the interface to shot operations, is ultimately responsible for optics supply, and decides which exchanges will be made. (2) Work Center Managers--This group manages the on site optics processing work centers. They schedule the daily work center operations, and are responsible for developing long term processing, equipment, and staffing plans. (3) Component Engineers--This group manages the vendor contracts for the manufacture of new optics and the off site rework of existing optics. They are responsible for sourcing vendors, negotiating contracts, and managing vendor processes. The scope of this analysis is to describe the structure and design details of a system that will meet all requirements that were described by stakeholders and documented in the analysis model for this project. The design specifies the architecture, components, interfaces, and data stores of the system

  5. Editorial: Supply Chain Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitrios Aidonis

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available This special issue has followed up the 3rd Olympus International Conference on Supply Chains held on Athens Metropolitan Expo, November 7 & 8 2015, Greece. The Conference was organized by the Department of Logistics Technological Educational Institute of Central Macedonia, in collaboration with the: a Laboratory of Quantitative Analysis, Logistics and Supply Chain Management of the Department of Mechanical Engineering, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki (AUTH, b Greek Association of Supply Chain Management (EEL of Northern Greece and the c Supply Chain & Logistics Journal. During the 2-Days Conference more than 60 research papers were presented covering the following thematic areas: (i Transportation, (ii Best Practices in Logistics, (iii Information and Communication Technologies in Supply Chain Management, (iv Food Logistics, (v New Trends in Business Logistics, and (vi Green Supply Chain Management. Three keynote invited speakers addressed interesting issues for the Operational Research, the Opportunities and Prospects of Greek Ports chaired Round Tables with other Greek and Foreign Scientists and Specialists.

  6. AC power supply systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Law, H.

    1987-01-01

    An ac power supply system includes a rectifier fed by a normal ac supply, and an inverter connected to the rectifier by a dc link, the inverter being effective to invert the dc output of the receiver at a required frequency to provide an ac output. A dc backup power supply of lower voltage than the normal dc output of the rectifier is connected across the dc link such that the ac output of the rectifier is derived from the backup supply if the voltage of the output of the inverter falls below that of the backup supply. The dc backup power may be derived from a backup ac supply. Use in pumping coolant in nuclear reactor is envisaged. (author)

  7. Switzerland's electricity supply industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inwyler, Ch.

    1980-01-01

    After a short description of Switzerland's electricity supply industry, the author comments on the production and consumption of electrical energy as well as on Switzerland's role within the European grid. A brief survey of electricity supply as a service is followed by a discussion of the political tools (such as e.g. the referendum, the hearing procedure etc.), which are an essential clue for understanding the position of the electricity supply industry in Switzerland. (Auth.)

  8. Perspectives of electricity supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    The 7 papers read at the symposium discussed the following subjects: Effects of the CO 2 problems of fossil energy systems on the world climate; status and perspectives of the German electricity industry in terms of competitiveness; The European electricity market and the integrated power supply system; Power supply without nuclear power; Costs and rates for households and other customers; Renewable energy sources and their contribution to energy supply in the Federal Republic of Germany; Electricity utilities as service partners. (UA) [de

  9. Supply chain components

    OpenAIRE

    Vieraşu, T.; Bălăşescu, M.

    2011-01-01

    In this article I will go through three main logistics components, which are represented by: transportation, inventory and facilities, and the three secondary logistical components: information, production location, price and how they determine performance of any supply chain. I will discuss then how these components are used in the design, planning and operation of a supply chain. I will also talk about some obstacles a supply chain manager may encounter.

  10. Supply chain components

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vieraşu, T.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article I will go through three main logistics components, which are represented by: transportation, inventory and facilities, and the three secondary logistical components: information, production location, price and how they determine performance of any supply chain. I will discuss then how these components are used in the design, planning and operation of a supply chain. I will also talk about some obstacles a supply chain manager may encounter.

  11. D. C. power supply

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohashi, N. Watanabe, Y.; Kitani, M

    1978-04-01

    DC power supplies are for ordinary and emergency use as power sources for various structures such as office buildings, department stores, hotels, and for facilities such as roads, tunnels, dams, power stations, etc. There is strong demand for these dc power supplies to be safe, automated, and maintenance free, and to have high reliability. A dc power supply which meets these demands is described; electric circuit construction is emphasized. (10 figures, 4 tables)

  12. Idaho National Laboratory Cultural Resource Management Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lowrey, Diana Lee

    2009-02-01

    As a federal agency, the U.S. Department of Energy has been directed by Congress, the U.S. president, and the American public to provide leadership in the preservation of prehistoric, historic, and other cultural resources on the lands it administers. This mandate to preserve cultural resources in a spirit of stewardship for the future is outlined in various federal preservation laws, regulations, and guidelines such as the National Historic Preservation Act, the Archaeological Resources Protection Act, and the National Environmental Policy Act. The purpose of this Cultural Resource Management Plan is to describe how the Department of Energy, Idaho Operations Office will meet these responsibilities at the Idaho National Laboratory. This Laboratory, which is located in southeastern Idaho, is home to a wide variety of important cultural resources representing at least 13,500 years of human occupation in the southeastern Idaho area. These resources are nonrenewable; bear valuable physical and intangible legacies; and yield important information about the past, present, and perhaps the future. There are special challenges associated with balancing the preservation of these sites with the management and ongoing operation of an active scientific laboratory. The Department of Energy, Idaho Operations Office is committed to a cultural resource management program that accepts these challenges in a manner reflecting both the spirit and intent of the legislative mandates. This document is designed for multiple uses and is intended to be flexible and responsive to future changes in law or mission. Document flexibility and responsiveness will be assured through annual reviews and as-needed updates. Document content includes summaries of Laboratory cultural resource philosophy and overall Department of Energy policy; brief contextual overviews of Laboratory missions, environment, and cultural history; and an overview of cultural resource management practices. A series of

  13. Idaho National Laboratory Cultural Resource Management Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lowrey, Diana Lee

    2011-02-01

    As a federal agency, the U.S. Department of Energy has been directed by Congress, the U.S. president, and the American public to provide leadership in the preservation of prehistoric, historic, and other cultural resources on the lands it administers. This mandate to preserve cultural resources in a spirit of stewardship for the future is outlined in various federal preservation laws, regulations, and guidelines such as the National Historic Preservation Act, the Archaeological Resources Protection Act, and the National Environmental Policy Act. The purpose of this Cultural Resource Management Plan is to describe how the Department of Energy, Idaho Operations Office will meet these responsibilities at the Idaho National Laboratory. This Laboratory, which is located in southeastern Idaho, is home to a wide variety of important cultural resources representing at least 13,500 years of human occupation in the southeastern Idaho area. These resources are nonrenewable; bear valuable physical and intangible legacies; and yield important information about the past, present, and perhaps the future. There are special challenges associated with balancing the preservation of these sites with the management and ongoing operation of an active scientific laboratory. The Department of Energy, Idaho Operations Office is committed to a cultural resource management program that accepts these challenges in a manner reflecting both the spirit and intent of the legislative mandates. This document is designed for multiple uses and is intended to be flexible and responsive to future changes in law or mission. Document flexibility and responsiveness will be assured through annual reviews and as-needed updates. Document content includes summaries of Laboratory cultural resource philosophy and overall Department of Energy policy; brief contextual overviews of Laboratory missions, environment, and cultural history; and an overview of cultural resource management practices. A series of

  14. Idaho National Laboratory Cultural Resource Management Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Julie Braun Williams

    2013-02-01

    As a federal agency, the U.S. Department of Energy has been directed by Congress, the U.S. president, and the American public to provide leadership in the preservation of prehistoric, historic, and other cultural resources on the lands it administers. This mandate to preserve cultural resources in a spirit of stewardship for the future is outlined in various federal preservation laws, regulations, and guidelines such as the National Historic Preservation Act, the Archaeological Resources Protection Act, and the National Environmental Policy Act. The purpose of this Cultural Resource Management Plan is to describe how the Department of Energy, Idaho Operations Office will meet these responsibilities at Idaho National Laboratory in southeastern Idaho. The Idaho National Laboratory is home to a wide variety of important cultural resources representing at least 13,500 years of human occupation in the southeastern Idaho area. These resources are nonrenewable, bear valuable physical and intangible legacies, and yield important information about the past, present, and perhaps the future. There are special challenges associated with balancing the preservation of these sites with the management and ongoing operation of an active scientific laboratory. The Department of Energy, Idaho Operations Office is committed to a cultural resource management program that accepts these challenges in a manner reflecting both the spirit and intent of the legislative mandates. This document is designed for multiple uses and is intended to be flexible and responsive to future changes in law or mission. Document flexibility and responsiveness will be assured through regular reviews and as-needed updates. Document content includes summaries of Laboratory cultural resource philosophy and overall Department of Energy policy; brief contextual overviews of Laboratory missions, environment, and cultural history; and an overview of cultural resource management practices. A series of appendices

  15. Herpes - resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genital herpes - resources; Resources - genital herpes ... following organizations are good resources for information on genital herpes : March of Dimes -- www.marchofdimes.org/complications/sexually- ...

  16. Norwegian gas supplies for the European market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hansen, B.L.

    1994-01-01

    The conference paper deals with the Norwegian key role in the European gas market with increasing market shares. The supply capacity in a long-term perspective can be 65-70 bcm/year or more if export prices support the development of new and more costly gas resources. The main challenges for the Norwegian shelf are discussed. 5 figs

  17. Instructional Aids, Materials, and Supplies--Guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Education Development Center, Inc., Newton, MA.

    This resource guide produced for the Follow Through Program, primarily lists instructional aids and supplies; it also suggests practical implications for provisioning the classroom environment, gives specific suggestions for Project Follow Through directors, and lists addresses of suppliers. The materials are divided into nine categories, which…

  18. Complementary Theories to Supply Chain Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halldorsson, Arni; Hsuan, Juliana; Kotzab, Herbert

    Borrowing from complementary theories has become an important part of theorizing SCM. We build upon principal-agent theory (PAT), transaction cost analysis (TCA), network theory (NT), and resource-based view (RBV) to provide insights on how to structure a supply chain and manage it. Through...

  19. Water supply and needs for West Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    This presentation focused on the water supplies and needs of West Texas, Texas High Plains. Groundwater is the most commonly used water resources on the Texas High Plains, with withdrawals from the Ogallala Aquifer dominating. The saturation thickness of the Ogallala Aquifer in Texas is such that t...

  20. Comparing recent uranium supply scenarios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arnold, N.; Gufler, K.

    2014-01-01

    For more than one decade – even after the Fukushima accidents - an increase in global nuclear energy generation capacity is widely expected. At the same time a variety of uranium supply scenarios were published by industry, academics or international organizations, drawing different pictures of future uranium supply. They were created with the background of a uranium market facing several challenges. First an excursion in the uranium market price, in 2007, then reduced nuclear growth expectations after 2011, at least in non-Asian countries, also implying considerable changes to the supply side. For this publication a meta-study was carried out identifying, evaluating and comparing different recent scenarios on the availability of uranium. While there are some differences in the frame conditions (e.g. the expected uranium demand, the time fame, the considered mining projects,..), there are also notable similarities in these scenarios. This concerns long lead times for mine openings as well as the dependence on large mining projects (e.g. Olympic Dam, Cigar Lake). Generally, a decline in production in about 10 years is assumed, and thus the necessity of the timely development of mining projects is pointed out. In addition the omission of uranium from Russian nuclear weapons and the chances of keeping the changes in secondary supplies in balance with primary production have been widely discussed. Here, the production growth in Kazakhstan but also the role of the current market situation are central aspects. As another aspect the possible contribution from unconventional resources is of interest, particularly against the background of rising production costs for conventional resources. Finally, it shall be reflected how well older scenarios were able to map the reality and which trends could or could not be anticipated. It is relevant to identify which aspects in the development of mining capacities are essential for security of supply, and can therefore be regarded

  1. Canadian Library Human Resources Short‐Term Supply and Demand Crisis Is Averted, But a Significant Long‐Term Crisis Must Be Addressed. A review of: 8Rs Research Team. The Future of Human Resources in Canadian Libraries February 2005. Edmonton, AB: University of Alberta. 21 February 2007 .

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie McKenna

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective – To examine the human resources environment in Canadian libraries in order to assess readiness to accommodate change and to identify opportunities for human resources planning. The “8Rs” of the study were defined as recruitment, retirement, retention, remuneration, repatriation, rejuvenation, re‐accreditation, and restructuring.Design – This study was undertaken in three phases over nearly three years through the use a variety of methods including literature review, analyses of existing data (Statistics Canada and library school graduate data, telephone interviews (with senior library administrators, focus groups (with representatives from Canadian Association of Research Libraries, Canadian Urban Libraries Council and Alberta Association of Library Technicians, print surveys (library institutions and web‐based surveys (of professional librarians and paraprofessional library staff.Setting – Canadian libraries that are not component branches of a system, and that employ professional librarians.Subjects – Stage I: 17 senior library administrators participated in telephone interviews and three focus groups were conducted. Stage II: Surveyed library administrators representing institutions. A multi‐stage stratified random sampling technique was used to ensure geographical representation from each of Canada’s provinces and territories. Full census participation was conducted for members of the Canadian Association of Research Libraries and the Canadian Urban Libraries Council. The print survey instrument was distributed to 1,357 subjects; 461 completed surveys were returned (response rate of 34% with results for the total sample accurate within plus or minus 3.8 per centage points, 95 times out of 100. Stage III: Surveyed professional librarians and paraprofessional staff. Multi‐stage random sampling was used to ensure representation of library staff from all library sectors and sufficient sub‐sample sizes. Of the

  2. Opportunities and realities of supply chain integration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Donk, Dirk Pieter; Akkerman, Renzo; van der Vaart, Taco

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of the paper is to investigate the limitations and barriers for supply chain integration that food manufacturers experience and to highlight their planning and scheduling problems. Possible ways to cope with these are offered. Methodology: The paper is theoretical/conceptual ......Purpose: The purpose of the paper is to investigate the limitations and barriers for supply chain integration that food manufacturers experience and to highlight their planning and scheduling problems. Possible ways to cope with these are offered. Methodology: The paper is theoretical...... of solutions that might assist production managers in better understanding their situation and thinking about improvements. Originality/Value of the paper: The paper introduces buyer focus, shared resources and the limitations of supply chain integration into the field of food supply chains....

  3. A THEORETICAL APPROACH OF THE SUPPLY PROCESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicoleta Ciucescu

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In a permanently changing economy, organizations need to achieve more goals with fewer resources in order to remain competitive. A key component in this effort is the design and coordination of distribution and supply networks. Each product has a particular distribution channel to the end customer, which is often long and complex. The supply process has an important contribution to achieving results of economic, industrial and productive organizations and has direct responsibilities related to reducing costs. This article aims to present some of general questions relating to the supply process, such as the definition, classification, stages and phase of the supply process using a comparative study of literature as a research method. The article also presents a variety of information that underlying the preparation of approved vendors list.

  4. Supply Chain Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wieland, Andreas; Handfield, Robert B.

    Supply chain management has made great strides in becoming a discipline with a standalone body of theories. As part of this evolution, researchers have sought to embed and integrate observed supply chain management phenomena into theoretical statements. In our review, we explore where we have been...

  5. Wood supply and demand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter J. Ince; David B. McKeever

    2011-01-01

    At times in history, there have been concerns that demand for wood (timber) would be greater than the ability to supply it, but that concern has recently dissipated. The wood supply and demand situation has changed because of market transitions, economic downturns, and continued forest growth. This article provides a concise overview of this change as it relates to the...

  6. World health, populations, sanitation and resources. Part 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humphries, S V

    1981-07-01

    This paper discusses 5 crises that are confronted by mankind: 1) population pressure, 2) the environment, 3) food, 4) energy, and 5) raw materials. Developing countries are those with rapid population growth rates while developed countries have slow growth rates. Sweden, Austria, East and West Germany, and Luxemburg were the only 5 countries with zero population growth in 1980. Other developed countries such as Canada and the USA double in population every 88 and 99 years, respectively. In contrast, developing countries such as Kenya, Zimbabwe, Zambia, and South Africa double every 18, 21, 22, and 25 years respectively. Such population increases cause problems in the environment, transportation, education, crime, and riots. The level of foreign aid for food to developing countries needs to increase or else the economic gap between rich and poor nations will increase on an average from 5:1 to 8:1 in Latin America and to 20:1 in South Asia. Availability of food has increaseed in developed countries whereas in developing countries it has dropped. Use of tropical forest lands as well as the sea bed for a source of food is difficult. There ia an upper limit to the fresh water runoff from land areas of the earth and fresh water is non-renewable. There is also a scarcity of other non-renewable resources, including at least 20 minerals. Finally, the standard of living in prosperous countries must be lowered at the same time as raising it in developing countries.

  7. Exploitation of Natural Resources and the Public Sector in Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Søren Bo

    This paper considers the role of the public sector in future exploitation of non-renewable resources, especially minerals, in Greenland. The focus is on fiscal sustainability, principles for public sector involvement and the form of government take from mining activities. At present, the public...... budget in Greenland is nearly in balance, but at unchanged policies and standards public expenditures relative to GDP are bound to increase dramatically over the next decades due to population ageing. At the same time, the freezing of the block grant from Denmark implies a decrease in revenues relative...... to GDP. Hence, fiscal policy is quite far from being sustainable. Apart from a need for reforms, these facts also constrain the possible role of the public sector in future resource exploitation. In any case, the government should preferably adhere to strict principles when developing the mineral sector...

  8. INPRO Methodology for Sustainability Assessment of Nuclear Energy Systems: Environmental Impact from Depletion of Resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-01-01

    INPRO is an international project to help ensure that nuclear energy is available to contribute in a sustainable manner to meeting the energy needs of the 21st century. A basic principle of INPRO in the area of environmental impact from depletion of resources is that a nuclear energy system will be capable of contributing to the energy needs in the 21st century while making efficient use of non-renewable resources needed for construction, operation and decommissioning. Recognizing that a national nuclear energy programme in a given country may be based both on indigenous resources and resources purchased from abroad, this publication provides background materials and summarizes the results of international global resource availability studies that could contribute to the corresponding national assessments

  9. Optimal transport on supply-demand networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yu-Han; Wang, Bing-Hong; Zhao, Li-Chao; Zhou, Changsong; Zhou, Tao

    2010-06-01

    In the literature, transport networks are usually treated as homogeneous networks, that is, every node has the same function, simultaneously providing and requiring resources. However, some real networks, such as power grids and supply chain networks, show a far different scenario in which nodes are classified into two categories: supply nodes provide some kinds of services, while demand nodes require them. In this paper, we propose a general transport model for these supply-demand networks, associated with a criterion to quantify their transport capacities. In a supply-demand network with heterogeneous degree distribution, its transport capacity strongly depends on the locations of supply nodes. We therefore design a simulated annealing algorithm to find the near optimal configuration of supply nodes, which remarkably enhances the transport capacity compared with a random configuration and outperforms the degree target algorithm, the betweenness target algorithm, and the greedy method. This work provides a start point for systematically analyzing and optimizing transport dynamics on supply-demand networks.

  10. What is Climate Leadership: Examples and Lessons Learned in Supply Chain Management Webinar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Organizations that have developed comprehensive greenhouse gas inventories and aggressive emissions reduction goals discuss their strategies for managing greenhouse gases in their organizational supply chains and use of EPA Supply Chain resources.

  11. Effect of Rainfall Variability on Water Supply in Ikeduru L.G.A. of Imo ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    alternatives, which are that there is a strong relationship between rural water supply in ... Rainfall is a renewable resource, highly variable in space and time and ..... Due to the total dependence on the immediate environment for water supply,.

  12. Quantifying global exergy resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hermann, Weston A.

    2006-01-01

    Exergy is used as a common currency to assess and compare the reservoirs of theoretically extractable work we call energy resources. Resources consist of matter or energy with properties different from the predominant conditions in the environment. These differences can be classified as physical, chemical, or nuclear exergy. This paper identifies the primary exergy reservoirs that supply exergy to the biosphere and quantifies the intensive and extensive exergy of their derivative secondary reservoirs, or resources. The interconnecting accumulations and flows among these reservoirs are illustrated to show the path of exergy through the terrestrial system from input to its eventual natural or anthropogenic destruction. The results are intended to assist in evaluation of current resource utilization, help guide fundamental research to enable promising new energy technologies, and provide a basis for comparing the resource potential of future energy options that is independent of technology and cost

  13. Heavy oil supply economics and supply response to low oil prices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fisher, L.

    1999-01-01

    The dynamics of the heavy oil industry are examined, including prices, market demand, supply and supply costs. Price assumptions are provided for the reference case oil price (west Texas intermediate at Cushing). Supply cost methodology is explained. Capital and operating costs for various heavy oil and synthetic sources are derived from modeling results. The range of supply costs for heavy oil and bitumen from various sources, supply costs in terms of reference case market values and in terms of 1995-1996 average market values for Bow River crude, are derived. The CERI long term supply forecast model is explained. Western Canada upstream oil and gas cash flow and capital expenditures, eastern Canada exploration and expenditures by hydrocarbon type, and Canadian heavy oil and bitumen production based on reference case prices are estimated. Based on these projections the outlook for heavy oil at reference case prices for better than average quality resources is judged to be economic. Lower quality resources will require technology gains for successful commercialization. SAGD is a likely candidate in this respect. Again based on reference prices, production is forecast to decline by 100 Kb/d over the next five years. Diluent supply is considered to be adequate throughout the forecast period. As far as thermal bitumen is concerned, the growth could, in fact, exceed the projection, but if so, more upgrading will be required. 11 figs

  14. Integrated supply chain risk management

    OpenAIRE

    Riaan Bredell; Jackie Walters

    2007-01-01

    Integrated supply chain risk management (ISCRM) has become indispensable to the theory and practice of supply chain management. The economic and political realities of the modern world require not only a different approach to supply chain management, but also bold steps to secure supply chain performance and sustainable wealth creation. Integrated supply chain risk management provides supply chain organisations with a level of insight into their supply chains yet to be achieved. If correctly ...

  15. Supply chain planning classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hvolby, Hans-Henrik; Trienekens, Jacques; Bonde, Hans

    2001-10-01

    Industry experience a need to shift in focus from internal production planning towards planning in the supply network. In this respect customer oriented thinking becomes almost a common good amongst companies in the supply network. An increase in the use of information technology is needed to enable companies to better tune their production planning with customers and suppliers. Information technology opportunities and supply chain planning systems facilitate companies to monitor and control their supplier network. In spite if these developments, most links in today's supply chains make individual plans, because the real demand information is not available throughout the chain. The current systems and processes of the supply chains are not designed to meet the requirements now placed upon them. For long term relationships with suppliers and customers, an integrated decision-making process is needed in order to obtain a satisfactory result for all parties. Especially when customized production and short lead-time is in focus. An effective value chain makes inventory available and visible among the value chain members, minimizes response time and optimizes total inventory value held throughout the chain. In this paper a supply chain planning classification grid is presented based current manufacturing classifications and supply chain planning initiatives.

  16. Control of supply temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Madsen, H; Nielsen, T S; Soegaard, H T

    1996-09-01

    For many district heating systems, e.g. the system in Hoeje Taastrup, it is desirable to minimize the supply temperature from the heat production unit(s). Lower supply temperature implies lower costs in connection with the production and distribution of heat. Factors having impact on the heat demand are for instance solar radiation, wind speed, wind direction and a climate independent part, which is a function of the time of the day/week/year. By applying an optimization strategy, which minimizes the supply temperature, it is assumed that optimal economical operation can be obtained by minimizing the supply temperature and thereby the heat losses in the system. The models and methods described in this report take such aspects into account, and can therefore be used as elements in a more efficient minimization of the supply temperature. The theoretical part of this report describes models and methods for optimal on-line control of the supply temperature in district heating systems. Some of the models and methods have been implemented - or are going to be implemented - in the computer program PRESS which is a tool for optimal control of supply temperature and forecasting of heat demand in district heating systems. The principles for using transfer function models are briefly described. The ordinary generalized predictive control (OGPC) method is reviewed, and several extensions of this method are suggested. New controller, which is called the extended generalized predictive controller (XGPC), is described. (EG) 57 refs.

  17. Global Carbon Fiber Composites Supply Chain Competitiveness Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sujit Das, Josh Warren, Devin West, Susan M. Schexnayder

    2016-05-01

    This analysis identifies key opportunities in the carbon fiber supply chain where resources and investments can help advance the clean energy economy. The report focuses on four application areas — wind energy, aerospace, automotive, and pressure vessels — that top the list of industries using carbon fiber and carbon fiber reinforced polymers. For each of the four application areas, the report addresses the supply and demand trends within that sector, supply chain, and costs of carbon fiber and components.

  18. Building a Natural Disaster Risk Index for Supply Chain Operations

    OpenAIRE

    Kun Liao; Ozden Bayazit; Fang Wang

    2014-01-01

    Risk for an organization is associated with uncertainties in all areas of its operations. As firms move toward global sourcing, supply chain risk increases dramatically, which is linked to lower financial performance and market value. One major type of supply chain risk is disruptions caused by natural or man-made disasters. In this paper, major factors causing supply chain disruptions are identified based on resource dependency theory and contingency theory. As a result of the study, a compr...

  19. Successful use of e‐procurement in supply chains

    OpenAIRE

    Puschmann, Thomas; Alt, Rainer

    2005-01-01

    Purpose – Electronic support of internal supply chains for direct or production goods has been a major element during the implementation of enterprise resource planning (ERP) systems that has taken place since the late 1980s. However, supply chains to indirect material suppliers were not usually included due to low transaction volumes, low product values and low strategic importance of these goods. Dedicated information systems for streamlining indirect goods supply chains have emerged...

  20. Sediment supply to beaches

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aagaard, Troels

    2014-01-01

    Many beaches have been built by an onshore supply of sand from the shoreface, and future long-term coastal evolution critically depends on cross-shore sediment exchange between the upper and the lower shorefaces. Even so, cross-shore sediment supply remains poorly known in quantitative terms...... and this reduces confidence in predictions of long-term shoreline change. In this paper, field measurements of suspended sediment load and cross-shore transport on the lower shoreface are used to derive a model for sediment supply from the lower to the upper shoreface at large spatial and temporal scales. Data...

  1. Ethane supply and demand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jamerson, J.B.

    1993-01-01

    Estimates are given for ethane production, chiefly from the Gulf Coast area. Increase in interregional transfers are predicted. Comparisons from 1992 through 1995 are made. The author concludes the following: ethane will be supply limited over the decade of the 90's; values will be over competing feedstocks; minimum practical demands will be close to available supply; regional relationships will reflect pipeline tariffs; purity ethane/EP spreads may narrow with new Mt. Belvieu fractionation capacity; new domestic supplies will back out imports; and Ethane's share of ethylene production may drop over the period

  2. Uranium supply and demand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-05-01

    This report covers the period 1983 to 1995. It draws together the industry's latest views on future trends in supply and demand, and sets them in their historical context. It devotes less discussion than its predecessors to the technical influences underpinning the Institute's supply and demand forecasts, and more to the factors which influence the market behaviour of the industry's various participants. As the last decade has clearly shown, these latter influences can easily be overlooked when undue attention is given to physical imbalances between supply and demand. (author)

  3. WATER SUPPLY ANALYSIS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clark, R.D.

    1996-01-01

    This analysis defines and evaluates the surface water supply system from the existing J-13 well to the North Portal. This system includes the pipe running from J-13 to a proposed Booster Pump Station at the intersection of H Road and the North Portal access road. Contained herein is an analysis of the proposed Booster Pump Station with a brief description of the system that could be installed to the South Portal and the optional shaft. The tanks that supply the water to the North Portal are sized, and the supply system to the North Portal facilities and up to Topopah Spring North Ramp is defined

  4. Minerals Planning Policies and Supply Practices in The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ike, P.

    Table of Contents: 1 Country background. 2 General description of the mineral industry. 3 National system legislation governing ownership resources. 4 National system governing securing supply of minerals. 5 Land use planning. 6 Evaluation of sustainability of mineral supply. 7 Identification of the

  5. Minerals Planning Policies and Supply Practices in Great Britain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ike, P.; van der Molen, S.D.A.

    Table of Contents: 1 Country background. 2 General description of the mineral industry. 3 National system legislation governing ownership resources. 4 National system governing securing supply of minerals. 5 Land use planning. 6 Evaluation of sustainability of mineral supply. 7 Identification of the

  6. Minerals Planning Policies and Supply Practices in Ireland.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ike, P.; van der Molen, S.D.A.

    Table of Contents: 1 Country background. 2 General description of the mineral industry. 3 National system legislation governing ownership resources. 4 National system governing securing supply of minerals. 5 Land use planning. 6 Evaluation of sustainability of mineral supply. 7 Identification of the

  7. Barriers to Sustainable MVA Supply in Ghana: Challenges for the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Multiple studies have demonstrated that manual vacuum aspiration (MVA) is ideal for surgical uterine evacuation in low-resource settings such as Ghana, but developing a sustainable supply to MVA has been challenging. In 2007 a situational analysis was conducted in Ghana to identify barriers to sustainable MVA supply.

  8. Hardwood supply in the Pacific Northwest-a policy perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terry L. Raettig; Kent P. Connaughton; Glenn R. Ahrens

    1995-01-01

    The policy framework for the hardwood resource and hardwood industry in western Oregon and Washington is examined. Harvesting trends, harvesting behavior of public and private landowners, and harvesting regulation are presented to complete the analysis of factors affecting short-run hardwood supply. In the short term, the supply of hardwoods is generally favorable, but...

  9. Oahu, Hawaii's Water Supply: 1848-2020 A.D.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felix, John Henry

    Demand projections indicate that Oahu's natural ground water supply will be fully developed by the year 2000. Supplementary water resources will need to be developed in keeping with the growth of the economy and population. The author, chairman of the Honolulu Board of Water Supply, authoritatively discusses types of ground water in Hawaii, and…

  10. The Effect of Labor Supply Shortages on Asymmetric Cost Behavior

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoffmann, Kira

    facing restrictions in labor supply increase costs (and resources) less than companies operating with sufficient access to additional personnel. This leads to a more symmetrical cost behavior for increasing activity compared to decreasing activity. Additional analyses show that shortages in labor supply......, such as prior period slack creation or pessimistic managerial expectations with respect to future demand....

  11. A dynamic perspective of the geopolitical supply risk of metals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Habib, Komal; Hamelin, Lorie; Wenzel, Henrik

    2016-01-01

    . In the context of strategic planning and innovation, and in scientific literature, this aspect is often referred to as geopolitical supply risk. In the past few decades, cobalt crisis, the oil embargo, and the more recent Rare Earth Elements (REEs) issue are the best examples regarding the geopolitical supply...... production distribution and more dependent on the location of current geological resources and the future discoveries, as well as on the technological development to improve profitability of mining the currently sub-economical resources....

  12. The role of the Arctic in future global petroleum supply

    OpenAIRE

    Lars Lindholt; Solveig Glomsrød

    2011-01-01

    The Arctic has a substantial share of global petroleum resources, but at higher costs than in most other petroleum provinces. Arctic states and petroleum companies are carefully considering the potential for future extraction in the Arctic. This paper studies the oil and gas supply from 6 arctic regions during 2010-2050 along with global economic growth and different assumptions regarding petroleum prices and resource endowments. Supply is calculated based on a global model of oil and gas mar...

  13. Editorial: Supply Chain Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aidonis, D.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This special issue has followed up the 2nd Olympus International Conference on Supply Chains held on October 5-6, 2012, in Katerini, Greece. The Conference was organized by the Department of Logistics of Alexander Technological Educational Institution (ATEI of Thessaloniki, in collaboration with the Laboratory of Quantitative Analysis, Logistics and Supply Chain Management of the Department of Mechanical Engineering, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki (AUTH. During the 2-Days Conference more than 50 research papers were presented covering the following thematic areas: (i Business Logistics, (ii Transportation, Telematics and Distribution Networks, (iii Green Logistics, (iv Information and Communication Technologies in Supply Chain Management, and (v Services and Quality. Three keynote invited speakers addressed interesting issues for the Humanitarian Logistics, Green Supply Chains of the Agrifood Sector and the Opportunities and Prospects of Greek Ports chaired Round Tables with other Greek and Foreign Scientists and Specialists.

  14. Characterizing Oregon's supply chains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    In many regions throughout the world, freight models are used to aid infrastructure investment and : policy decisions. Since freight is such an integral part of efficient supply chains, more realistic : transportation models can be of greater assista...

  15. Baby supplies you need

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newborn care - baby supplies ... wintertime. Mobile. This can entertain and distract a baby who is fussy or is having a hard ... rainfall). These sounds can be soothing for the baby and can help him sleep.

  16. Tuning magnet power supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, B.M.; Karady, G.G.; Thiessen, H.A.

    1989-01-01

    The particles in a Rapid Cycling Accelerator are accelerated by rf cavities, which are tuned by dc biased ferrite cores. The tuning is achieved by the regulation of bias current, which is produced by a power supply. The tuning magnet power supply utilizes a bridge circuit, supplied by a three phase rectifier. During the rise of the current, when the particles are accelerated, the current is controlled with precision by the bridge which operates a power amplifier. During the fall of the current, the bridge operates in a switching mode and recovers the energy stored in the ferrites. The recovered energy is stored in a capacitor bank. The bridge circuit is built with 150 power transistors. The drive, protection and control circuit were designed and built from commercial component. The system will be used for a rf cavity experiment in Los Alamos and will serve as a prototype tuning power supply for future accelerators. 1 ref., 7 figs

  17. Supply chain risk management

    OpenAIRE

    Christian Hollstein; Frank Himpel

    2013-01-01

    Background: Supply chain risk management increasingly gains prominence in many international industries. In order to strengthen supply chain structures, processes, and networks, adequate potentials for risk management need to be built (focus on effective logistics) and to be utilized (focus on efficient logistics). Natural-based disasters, such as the case of Fukushima, illustrate how crucial risk management is. Method: By aligning a theoretical-conceptual framework with empirical-induct...

  18. MASTERING SUPPLY CHAIN RISKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borut Jereb

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Risks in supply chains represent one of the major business issues today. Since every organizationstrives for success and uninterrupted operations, efficient supply chain risk management is crucial.During supply chain risk research at the Faculty of Logistics in Maribor (Slovenia some keyissues in the field were identified, the major being the lack of instruments which can make riskmanagement in an organization easier and more efficient. Consequently, a model which captures anddescribes risks in an organization and its supply chain was developed. It is in accordance with thegeneral risk management and supply chain security standards, the ISO 31000 and ISO 28000families. It also incorporates recent finding from the risk management field, especially from theviewpoint of segmenting of the public.The model described in this paper focuses on the risks itself by defining them by different keydimensions, so that risk management is simplified and can be undertaken in every supply chain andorganizations within them. Based on our mode and consequent practical research in actualorganizations, a freely accessible risk catalog has been assembled and published online from the risksthat have been identified so far. This catalog can serve as a checklist and a starting point in supplychain risk management in organizations. It also incorporates experts from the field into a community,in order to assemble an ever growing list of possible risks and to provide insight into the model andits value in practice.

  19. Understanding the supply chain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aćimović Slobodan

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Supply chain management represents new business philosophy and includes strategically positioned and much wider scope of activity in comparison with its "older brother" - management of logistics. Philosophy of the concept of supply chain is directed to more coordination of key business functions of every link in distribution chain in the process of organization of the flow of both goods and information, while logistic managing instruments are focused on internal optimum of flows of goods and information within one company. Applying the concept of integrated supply chain among several companies makes the importance of operative logistics activity even greater on the level of one company, thus advancing processes of optimum and coordination within and between different companies and confirms the importance of logistics performances for the company’s profitability. Besides the fact that the borders between companies are being deleted, this concept of supply chain in one distribution channel influences increasing of importance of functional, i.e. traditional business managing approaches but instead it points out the importance of process managing approaches. Although the author is aware that "there is nothing harder, more dangerous and with uncertain success, but to find a way for introducing some novelties (Machiavelli, it would be even his additional stimulation for trying to bring closer the concept and goals of supply chain implementation that are identified in key, relevant, modern, theoretical and consulting approaches in order to achieve better understanding of the subject and faster implementation of the concept of supply chain management by domestic companies.

  20. Natural resource trust funds : a comparison of Alberta and Alaska resource funds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warrack, A.A.; Keddie, R.R. [Alberta Univ., Edmonton, AB (Canada)

    2002-09-01

    Alberta and Alaska both have an economy based largely on natural resources. The cyclical nature of their economies poses a challenge to stability and sustained prosperity. During the oil crisis of 1973-1974, Alberta and Alaska began receiving oil and gas royalties. The idea of an endowment-type fund began taking shape. This fund would assist in the gradual transition from dependence on non-renewable resources to the responsible management of these resources. Both the Alberta Heritage Savings Trust Fund and the Alaska Permanent Fund were created in 1976. The governments of both jurisdictions set aside revenues from natural resource royalties to provide economic stability. Both jurisdictions followed different policies in terms of management, structure, governance, and objectives. In this paper, the authors compared both funds, examining the policy options which had an impact on their growth and successes. The results showed that in Alaska, monies are paid directly to eligible persons, while allocation decisions in Alberta have been made by the government. The government manages the fund in Alberta, while in Alaska, the fund is managed by a separate entity. The Alaskan fund continues to grow, while the the size of the Alberta fund has remained unchanged for a number of years and is not growing. 21 refs., 5 figs.

  1. The role of natural resource and environmental economics in determining the trade-offs in consumption and production of energy inputs: The case of biomass energy crops

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Downing, M.; Graham, R.L.

    1993-12-31

    Natural resource economics issues deal with flows and funds of renewable and nonrenewable resources over time. These issues include topics concerned with management of fisheries, forests, mineral, energy resources, the extinction of species and the irreversibility of development over time. Environmental economics issues deal with regulation of polluting activities and the valuation of environmental amenities. In this study we outline a framework for studying both natural resource and environmental economics issues for any renewable or nonrenewable resource. Valuation from both the cost and benefit sides are addressed as they relate to the valuation of environmental programs or policies. By using this top-down approach to analyze and determine the costs and benefits of using renewable or nonrenewable resources, policy-makers on the global, national and local scales may be better informed as to the probable nonmarket and market ramifications of their natural resource and environmental policy decisions. This general framework for analysis is then focused to address biomass energy crops and their usage as inputs to energy production. As with any energy technology, a complete analysis must include an examination of the entire fuel cycle; specifically both production and consumption sides. From a production standpoint, market valuation issues such as crop management techniques, inputs to production, and community economics issues must be addressed as well as nonmarket valuation issues such as soil erosion, ground water effects and carbon sequestration. On the consumption side, market valuation considerations such as energy fuel efficiency and quality, cost of conversion and employment of labor are important factors while the critical nonmarket valuation factors are ambient air visibility, greenhouse gas release, and disposal of the by-products of conversion and combustion.

  2. The role of natural resource and environmental economics in determining the trade-offs in consumption and production of energy inputs: The case of biomass energy crops

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Downing , M.; Graham, R.L.

    1993-01-01

    Natural resource economics issues deal with flows and funds of renewable and nonrenewable resources over time. These issues include topics concerned with management of fisheries, forests, mineral, energy resources, the extinction of species and the irreversibility of development over time. Environmental economics issues deal with regulation of polluting activities and the valuation of environmental amenities. In this study we outline a framework for studying both natural resource and environmental economics issues for any renewable or nonrenewable resource. Valuation from both the cost and benefit sides are addressed as they relate to the valuation of environmental programs or policies. By using this top-down approach to analyze and determine the costs and benefits of using renewable or nonrenewable resources, policy-makers on the global, national and local scales may be better informed as to the probable nonmarket and market ramifications of their natural resource and environmental policy decisions. The general framework for analysis is then focused to address biomass energy crops and their usage as inputs to energy production. As with any energy technology, a complete analysis must include an examination of the entire fuel cycle; specifically both production and consumption sides. From a production standpoint, market valuation issues such as crop management techniques, inputs to production, and community economics issues must be addressed as well as nonmarket valuation issues such as soil erosion, ground water effects and carbon sequestration. On the consumption side, market valuation considerations such as energy fuel efficiency and quality, cost of conversion and employment of labor are important factors while the critical nonmarket valuation factors are ambient air visibility, greenhouse gas release, and disposal of the by-products of conversion and combustion

  3. Canadian Library Human Resources Short‐Term Supply and Demand Crisis Is Averted, But a Significant Long‐Term Crisis Must Be Addressed. A review of: 8Rs Research Team. The Future of Human Resources in Canadian Libraries February 2005. Edmonton, AB: University of Alberta. 21 February 2007 .

    OpenAIRE

    Julie McKenna

    2007-01-01

    Objective – To examine the human resources environment in Canadian libraries in order to assess readiness to accommodate change and to identify opportunities for human resources planning. The “8Rs” of the study were defined as recruitment, retirement, retention, remuneration, repatriation, rejuvenation, re‐accreditation, and restructuring.Design – This study was undertaken in three phases over nearly three years through the use a variety of methods including literature review, analyses of exi...

  4. Accounting for Depletion of Oil and Gas Resources in Malaysia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Othman, Jamal, E-mail: jortman@ukm.my; Jafari, Yaghoob, E-mail: yaghoob.jafari@gmail.com [Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Faculty of Economics and Management (Malaysia)

    2012-12-15

    Since oil and gas are non-renewable resources, it is important to identify the extent to which they have been depleted. Such information will contribute to the formulation and evaluation of appropriate sustainable development policies. This paper provides an assessment of the changes in the availability of oil and gas resources in Malaysia by first compiling the physical balance sheet for the period 2000-2007, and then assessing the monetary balance sheets for the said resource by using the Net Present Value method. Our findings show serious reduction in the value of oil reserves from 2001 to 2005, due to changes in crude oil prices, and thereafter the depletion rates decreased. In the context of sustainable development planning, albeit in the weak sustainability sense, it will be important to ascertain if sufficient reinvestments of the estimated resource rents in related or alternative capitals are being attempted by Malaysia. For the study period, the cumulative resource rents were to the tune of RM61 billion. Through a depletion or resource rents policy, the estimated quantum may guide the identification of a reinvestment threshold (after considering needed capital investment for future development of the industry) in light of ensuring the future productive capacity of the economy at the time when the resource is exhausted.

  5. Accounting for Depletion of Oil and Gas Resources in Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Othman, Jamal; Jafari, Yaghoob

    2012-01-01

    Since oil and gas are non-renewable resources, it is important to identify the extent to which they have been depleted. Such information will contribute to the formulation and evaluation of appropriate sustainable development policies. This paper provides an assessment of the changes in the availability of oil and gas resources in Malaysia by first compiling the physical balance sheet for the period 2000–2007, and then assessing the monetary balance sheets for the said resource by using the Net Present Value method. Our findings show serious reduction in the value of oil reserves from 2001 to 2005, due to changes in crude oil prices, and thereafter the depletion rates decreased. In the context of sustainable development planning, albeit in the weak sustainability sense, it will be important to ascertain if sufficient reinvestments of the estimated resource rents in related or alternative capitals are being attempted by Malaysia. For the study period, the cumulative resource rents were to the tune of RM61 billion. Through a depletion or resource rents policy, the estimated quantum may guide the identification of a reinvestment threshold (after considering needed capital investment for future development of the industry) in light of ensuring the future productive capacity of the economy at the time when the resource is exhausted.

  6. Innovation Across the Supply Chain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Druehl, Cheryl; Carrillo, Janice; Hsuan, Juliana

    Innovation is an integral part of every firm’s ongoing operations. Beyond product innovation, supply chain innovations offer a unique source of competitive advantage. We synthesize recent research on innovation in the supply chain, specifically, innovative supply chain processes...

  7. Forecasting the Depletion of Transboundary Groundwater Resources in Hyper-Arid Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzoni, A.; Heggy, E.

    2014-12-01

    The increase in awareness about the overexploitation of transboundary groundwater resources in hyper-arid environments that occurred in the last decades has highlighted the need to better map, monitor and manage these resources. Climate change, economic and population growth are driving forces that put more pressure on these fragile but fundamental resources. The aim of our approach is to address the question of whether or not groundwater resources, especially non-renewable, could serve as "backstop" water resource during water shortage periods that would probably affect the drylands in the upcoming 100 years. The high dependence of arid regions on these resources requires prudent management to be able to preserve their fossil aquifers and exploit them in a more sustainable way. We use the NetLogo environment with the FAO Aquastat Database to evaluate if the actual trends of extraction, consumption and use of non-renewable groundwater resources would remain feasible with the future climate change impacts and the population growth scenarios. The case studies selected are three: the Nubian Sandstone Aquifer System, shared between Egypt, Libya, Sudan and Chad; the North Western Sahara Aquifer System, with Algeria, Tunisia and Libya and the Umm Radhuma Dammam Aquifer, in its central part, shared between Saudi Arabia, Qatar and Bahrain. The reason these three fossil aquifers were selected are manifold. First, they represent properly transboundary non-renewable groundwater resources, with all the implications that derive from this, i.e. the necessity of scientific and socio-political cooperation among riparians, the importance of monitoring the status of shared resources and the need to elaborate a shared management policy. Furthermore, each country is characterized by hyper-arid climatic conditions, which will be exacerbated in the next century by climate change and lead to probable severe water shortage periods. Together with climate change, the rate of population

  8. Supply of nuclear materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1959-07-15

    Any large-scale atomic energy programme is inherently dependent on the availability of materials that can be used as fuel in reactors, and the International Atomic Energy Agency, at its inception, was intended to act as a bank for the flow of materials between Member States. According to its Statute, one of its primary functions is to provide materials 'to meet the needs of research on, and development and practical application of, atomic energy for peaceful purposes, including the production of electric power, with due consideration for the needs of the under-developed areas of the world'. If the Agency is to fulfil its Statutory function, it would be essential for it to have not only some ready sources of supply, but also an established framework of general terms and conditions on which it could secure the supplies. The latter would eliminate the need for going through elaborate procedural formalities whenever the Agency receives a new request for materials. Such a framework has now been established with the signing of broad agreements with three countries which had offered to supply various quantities of special fissionable materials to the Agency. These agreements, signed in Vienna on 11 May 1959, with the USSR, the UK and the USA, lay down the basic terms and conditions on which these three countries will make nuclear materials available when needed by the Agency. The USSR has agreed to make available to the Agency 50 kg of uranium-235, the UK 20 kg and the USA 5 000 kg. The material will be supplied in the form of enriched uranium in any concentration up to 20 per cent; the amounts mentioned relate to the 235-isotope content of the materials. The UK and the USA have agreed that the parties to a particular supply agreement may decide on higher enrichment of uranium to be used for research reactors, material testing reactors or for other research purposes. The USA has also agreed to make available to the Agency such additional supplies as would match in amount

  9. A profile of physiotherapy supply in Ireland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eighan, James; Walsh, Brendan; Smith, Samantha; Wren, Maev-Ann; Barron, Steve; Morgenroth, Edgar

    2018-04-13

    The lack of information on public and private physiotherapy supply in Ireland makes current and future resource allocation decisions difficult. This paper estimates the supply of physiotherapists in Ireland and profiles physiotherapists across acute and non-acute sectors, and across public and private practice. It examines geographic variation in physiotherapist supply, examining the implications of controlling for healthcare need. Physiotherapist headcounts are estimated using Health Service Personnel Census (HSPC) and Irish Society of Chartered Physiotherapists (ISCP) Register data. Headcounts are converted to whole-time equivalents (WTEs) using the HSPC and a survey of ISCP members to account for full- and part-time working practices. Non-acute supply per 10,000 population in each county is estimated to examine geographic inequalities and the raw population is adjusted in turn for a range of need indicators. An estimated 3172 physiotherapists were practising in Ireland in 2015; 6.8 physiotherapists per 10,000, providing an estimated 2620 WTEs. Females accounted for 74% of supply. Supply was greater in the non-acute sector; 1774 WTEs versus 846 WTEs in the acute sector. Physiotherapists in the acute sector were located mainly in publicly financed institutions (89%) with an even public/private split observed in the non-acute sector. Non-acute physiotherapist supply is unequally distributed across Ireland (Gini coefficient = 0.12; 95% CI 0.08-0.15), and inequalities remain after controlling for variations in healthcare needs across counties. The supply of physiotherapists in Ireland is 30% lower than the EU-28 average. Substantial inequality in the distribution of physiotherapists across counties is observed.

  10. Uranium resource assessments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    The objective of this investigation is to examine what is generally known about uranium resources, what is subject to conjecture, how well do the explorers themselves understand the occurrence of uranium, and who are the various participants in the exploration process. From this we hope to reach a better understanding of the quality of uranium resource estimates as well as the nature of the exploration process. The underlying questions will remain unanswered. But given an inability to estimate precisely our uranium resources, how much do we really need to know. To answer this latter question, the various Department of Energy needs for uranium resource estimates are examined. This allows consideration of whether or not given the absence of more complete long-term supply data and the associated problems of uranium deliverability for the electric utility industry, we are now threatened with nuclear power plants eventually standing idle due to an unanticipated lack of fuel for their reactors. Obviously this is of some consequence to the government and energy consuming public. The report is organized into four parts. Section I evaluates the uranium resource data base and the various methodologies of resource assessment. Part II describes the manner in which a private company goes about exploring for uranium and the nature of its internal need for resource information. Part III examines the structure of the industry for the purpose of determining the character of the industry with respect to resource development. Part IV arrives at conclusions about the emerging pattern of industrial behavior with respect to uranium supply and the implications this has for coping with national energy issues

  11. Petroleum Supply Monthly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-02-01

    The Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) is one of a family of four publications produced by the Petroleum Supply Division within the Energy Information Administration (EIA) reflecting different levels of data timeliness and completeness. The other publications are the Weekly Petroleum Status Report (WPSR), the Winter Fuels Report, and the Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA). Data presented in the PSM describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major U.S. geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States. Data presented in the PSM are divided into two sections: Summary Statistics and Detailed Statistics.

  12. Petroleum supply monthly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-10-01

    The Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) is one of a family of four publications produced by the Petroleum Supply Division within the Energy Information Administration (EIA) reflecting different levels of data timeliness and completeness. The other publications are the Weekly Petroleum Status Report (WPSR), the Winter Fuels Report, and the Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA). Data presented in the PSM describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blends, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States.

  13. INTEGRATED AUTOMOTIVE MANUFACTURING SUPPLY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.J.S. Van Dyk

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available

    ENGLISH ABSTRACT: Supply planning and traffic flow planning are major activities in the automotive manufacturing environment worldwide. Traditionally, the impact of supply planning strategies on plant traffic is rarely considered. This paper describes the development of a Decision Support System (DSS that will assist automotive manufacturers to analyse the effect of supply planning decisions on plant traffic during the supply planning phase of their logistics planning process. In essence, this DSS consists of a Supply Medium Decision Support Tool (SMDST (an interactive MS-Excel model with Visual Basic interfacing and a traffic flow simulation model tool (using eMPlant simulation software.

    AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Verskaffingsbeplanning en verkeersvloeibeplanning is belangrike aktiwiteite in die motorvervaardigingsbedryf wêreldwyd. Tradisioneel word die uitwerking van verskaffings-beplanningsstrategië op aanlegverkeer selde in ag geneem. Hierdie artikel beskryf die ontwikkeling van ’n Besluitnemings Ondersteuningstelsel (DSS wat motorvervaardigers sal ondersteun in die analise van die effek van verskaffingsbeplanningbesluite op aanlegverkeer tydens die verskaffingsbeplanningsfase van hulle logistieke beplanningsproses. Hierdie DSS bestaan hoofsaaklik uit ’n Verskaffings-vervoermiddel Besluitnemingshulpmiddel (SMDST (’n interaktiewe MS-Excel model met “Visual Basic” koppelling asook ’n simulasiemodel van verkeersvloei (met eM-Plant simulasiesagteware.

  14. Sustainable land use and renewable materials. Options for sustainable land use and resource protection strategies considering in particular a sustainable supply with renewable raw materials; Nachhaltige Flaechennutzung und nachwachsende Rohstoffe. Optionen einer nachhaltigen Flaechennutzung und Ressourcenschutzstrategien unter besonderer Beruecksichtigung der nachhaltigen Versorgung mit nachwachsenden Rohstoffen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bringezu, Stefan; Schuetz, Helmut; Schepelmann, Philipp [Wuppertal Inst. fuer Klima, Umwelt, Energie (DE). Forschungsgruppe 3: Stoffstroeme und Ressourcenmanagement] (and others)

    2009-10-15

    This report highlights perspectives and options for action in order to promote sustainable land use considering resource of protection and supply with renewable raw materials. Land use within Germany is described as well as the global land use Germany based on its domestic consumption of products from agriculture and forestry. In terms of sustainable development, a long-lasting environmentally sound land use must be enabled which supports the required supply of renewable raw materials for energetic and non-energetic use while not endangering the future food supply of the growing world population. The Wuppertal Institute for Climate, Environment and Energy (WI), together with the Fraunhofer Institute for Environmental, Safety and Energy Technology (UMSICHT) in Oberhausen and the Institute for Energy and Environmental Research Heidelberg (IFEU), have for the first time with this study performed a comprehensive global land use balance for the consumption of food and non-food biomass in Germany, and have calculated in particular those greenhouse gas emissions which result from land use changes. In order not to endanger the climate and resource policy targets of the German government corrective measures for the implementation of policy targets for biomass use are needed. Existing targets for envisaged, enacted and promoted use of energy plants and biofuels should be reviewed. Existing legal biofuel quotas should by no means be increased. Furthermore, the national biofuels target for 2020 of a 12- 15% biofuels share of fuel consumption should be withdrawn, especially as this would send a clear international message. Such a target in the future would only be justifiable if the total amount of fuel consumed would decrease drastically (i.e. by more than half) as compared with today. Thereby the respective amount of biofuels required in the future would also decrease. The bonus for renewable raw materials of the Renewable Energy Sources Act (EEG) should be critically

  15. Supply chain management under fuzziness recent developments and techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Öztayşi, Başar

    2014-01-01

    Supply Chain Management Under Fuzziness presents recently developed fuzzy models and techniques for supply chain management. These include: fuzzy PROMETHEE, fuzzy AHP, fuzzy ANP, fuzzy VIKOR, fuzzy DEMATEL, fuzzy clustering, fuzzy linear programming, and fuzzy inference systems. The book covers both practical applications and new developments concerning these methods. This book offers an excellent resource for researchers and practitioners in supply chain management and logistics, and will provide them with new suggestions and directions for future research. Moreover, it will support graduate students in their university courses, such as specialized courses on supply chains and logistics, as well as related courses in the fields of industrial engineering, engineering management and business administration.

  16. Harvesting urban resources towards more resilient cities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Agudelo Vera, C.M.; Leduc, W.R.W.A.; Mels, A.R.; Rijnaarts, H.H.M.

    2012-01-01

    With accelerating global changes, cities have to cope with growing pressures, especially for resource supply. Cities may be considered as resources reservoirs and producers of secondary resources. This paper introduces the concept of urban harvesting as a management tool to change inefficient linear

  17. Sustainable supply chain design: a configurational approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masoumik, S Maryam; Abdul-Rashid, Salwa Hanim; Olugu, Ezutah Udoncy; Raja Ghazilla, Raja Ariffin

    2014-01-01

    Designing the right supply chain that meets the requirements of sustainable development is a significant challenge. Although there are a considerable number of studies on issues relating to sustainable supply chain design (SSCD) in terms of designing the practices, processes, and structures, they have rarely demonstrated how these components can be aligned to form an effective sustainable supply chain (SSC). Considering this gap in the literature, this study adopts the configurational approach to develop a conceptual framework that could configure the components of a SSC. In this respect, a process-oriented approach is utilized to classify and harmonize the design components. A natural-resource-based view (NRBV) is adopted to determine the central theme to align the design components around. The proposed framework presents three types of SSC, namely, efficient SSC, innovative SSC, and reputed SSC. The study culminates with recommendations concerning the direction for future research.

  18. An integrated mine development and supply system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muguira, T. [Brambles Coal Services, Newcastle, NSW (Australia)

    1998-12-31

    In the face of intense global competition and other business pressures on coal miners, ongoing quality initiatives and continuous process improvements are needed to enhance business performance. By viewing a minesite interms of key processes, rather than departments, and employing innovative technologies and better applying organisational resources, there exists enormous potential to achieve reductions in process cost and time. The paper identifies and selects one critical coal mining process, namely the supply system, to think about how productivity improvements might occur and what changes might be employed to enhance overall system performance. While the supply system is one of few processes existing at a minesite, the paper addresses only the supply process, but includes interaction across traditional interdepartmental boundaries. The paper has been prepared for a wide audience and is based on experience and observation at several underground mines however some of the concepts are a result of dreaming in the face of global competition. 3 refs., 1 tab.

  19. Sustainable Supply Chain Design: A Configurational Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masoumik, S. Maryam; Raja Ghazilla, Raja Ariffin

    2014-01-01

    Designing the right supply chain that meets the requirements of sustainable development is a significant challenge. Although there are a considerable number of studies on issues relating to sustainable supply chain design (SSCD) in terms of designing the practices, processes, and structures, they have rarely demonstrated how these components can be aligned to form an effective sustainable supply chain (SSC). Considering this gap in the literature, this study adopts the configurational approach to develop a conceptual framework that could configure the components of a SSC. In this respect, a process-oriented approach is utilized to classify and harmonize the design components. A natural-resource-based view (NRBV) is adopted to determine the central theme to align the design components around. The proposed framework presents three types of SSC, namely, efficient SSC, innovative SSC, and reputed SSC. The study culminates with recommendations concerning the direction for future research. PMID:24523652

  20. Supply chain quality management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hannan Amoozad Mahdiraji

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, there are several methods introduced for the improvement of operational performances. Total quality management and supply chain management are two methods recommended for this purpose. These two approaches have been studied in most researches separately, while they have objectives in common, and this makes them a strategic means, which can be used, simultaneously. Total quality management and supply chain management play significant roles to increase the organizational competitiveness power. Moreover, they have only one purpose that is customer satisfaction, and they are different only on their approaches to reach their objectives. In this research, we aim to study both approaches of quality management and supply chain, their positive increasing effects that may be generated after their integration. For this purpose, the concept and definitions of each approach is studied, independently, their similarities and differences are recognized, and finally, the advantages of their integration are introduced.

  1. Petroleum supply annual 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    The Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA) contains information on the supply and disposition of crude oil and petroleum products. The publication reflects data that were collected from the petroleum industry during 1992 through annual and monthly surveys. The PSA is divided into two volumes. The first volume contains four sections: Summary Statistics, Detailed Statistics, Refinery Capacity, and Oxygenate Capacity each with final annual data. This second volume contains final statistics for each month of 1992, and replaces data previously published in the Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM). The tables in Volumes 1 and 2 are similarly numbered to facilitate comparison between them. Explanatory Notes, located at the end of this publication, present information describing data collection, sources, estimation methodology, data quality control procedures, modifications to reporting requirements and interpretation of tables. Industry terminology and product definitions are listed alphabetically in the Glossary

  2. Intelligent power supply controller

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rumrill, R.S.; Reinagel, D.J.

    1991-01-01

    The authors have developed a new power supply controller which would combine 20-bit precision, simple interfacing, and versatile software control. It performs many tasks internal to the power supply and also communicates with an external host computer. Parameters can be entered and/or read over a serial link using one of the 82 command words. In addition, an optional remote control panel can be located up to thousands of feet away. This new controller will reduce the software development time normally spent by the user, while increasing the reliability of the system. The cost is less than buying the equivalent separate CAMAC system. Nonvolatile memory remembers all configuration data; one generic controller can thus be programmed to use anywhere from the smallest power supply to the largest. The controllers will be used at the Clinton P. Anderson Meson Facility at Los Alamos

  3. Uranium resources, production and demand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    Nuclear power-generating capacity will continue to expand, albeit at a slower pace than during the past fifteen years. This expansion must be matched by an adequately increasing supply of uranium. This report compares uranium supply and demand data in free market countries with the nuclear industry's natural uranium requirements up to the year 2000. It also reviews the status of uranium exploration, resources and production in 46 countries

  4. Supply Chain Connectivity: Enhancing Participation in the Global Supply Chain

    OpenAIRE

    Patalinghug, Epictetus E.

    2015-01-01

    Supply chain connectivity is vital for the efficient flow of trade among APEC economies. This paper reviews the literature and supply chain management, describes the barriers to enhancing participation in global supply chain, analyzes the various measures of supply chain performance, and suggests steps for the Philippines to fully reap the benefits of the global value chain.

  5. 18 CFR 2.105 - Gas supply charges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Gas supply charges. 2.105 Section 2.105 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION... prior to nominations by the customers a firm price or pricing formula for the service, and hold that...

  6. The uranium supply strategy of China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao, S.

    2014-01-01

    Currently there are 28 units of nuclear power plants (NPPs) under construction in China. Most of these plants will be put into operation sequentially in a couple years. The paper will present the operational and construction status of NPPs in China. As the reactor fleet increases, the requirement for uranium will also substantially increase. Due to declining air quality, as atmospheric pollution spreads rapidly from northern parts to southern parts of China, the option to develop nuclear power has become the highest priority. Uranium demand will be the key to support the expanded nuclear power in the future. Current and future requirements of uranium and the envisaged supply strategy will be discussed. Domestic production is seen as one of the channels to meet the increased requirement. As the uranium price remain low, there will be limited the expansion of domestic production in the short term. The exploration of economic resources is being promoted. Decreasing production costs is mandated in operations due to low uranium prices at present. Development of overseas uranium resources is another channel to supply for the NPPs. Through acquisition of uranium mining projects, advanced uranium projects and exploration projects, China can meet the requirement of NPPs in the long-term. Joint venture partnership is also flexible option for developing uranium resources overseas. Purchasing uranium in the market is the third option. Complementing the supply by domestic production and overseas development, purchase of uranium product in the market is a simple and easy option. Advantages and disadvantages of these three channels and how these can be combined into an integrated strategy of supply and the proprotionate weightage of each channel for the potential future supply of uranium to the NNP fleet will be discussed. (author)

  7. Electricity supply in India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abbott, H.J.

    1993-09-01

    This briefing deals with the electricity supply industry in India in two parts. In the first, the structure and organization of the industry is described under sections dealing with national government involvement, energy policy, state electricity boards, regional electricity boards, state corporations, the private sector and private investment in the power sector including foreign investment. Secondly, the power supply system is described covering generation, plant load factor, non-utility generation, nuclear power, transmission and distribution, system losses and electricity consumption. (8 tables) (UK)

  8. Supply Chain Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gammelgaard, Britta

    2017-01-01

    Supply Chan management (SCM) som begreb stammer fra starten af 1990´erne. Mange definitioner af begrebet har været i cirkulation siden da, men overordnet er der enighed om, at det handler om at styre og optimere materiale- og informationsstrømme fra råvareleverandør til slutbruger.......Supply Chan management (SCM) som begreb stammer fra starten af 1990´erne. Mange definitioner af begrebet har været i cirkulation siden da, men overordnet er der enighed om, at det handler om at styre og optimere materiale- og informationsstrømme fra råvareleverandør til slutbruger....

  9. Power supply and ethics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2004-01-01

    The 'Power Supply and Ethics' workshop was designed on the basis of a recommendation by the Nuclear Technology Committee (FA-KT) of VDI-GET. The topic is part of a series of events and publications by VDI in an area where engineering and the humanities converge. The Workshop comprised presentations and thorough discussions of seven papers on 'Power Supply and Ethics', reflecting a variety of contents and points of view of the different disciplines participating. The Workshop offered another opportunity to take the initiative and influence the public, especially politics. Other activities are planned which also the participants increasingly consider an obligation to the public. (orig.) [de

  10. Switch mode power supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Hui Jun

    1993-06-01

    This book concentrates on switch mode power supply. It has four parts, which are introduction of switch mode power supply with DC-DC converter such as Buck converter boost converter, Buck-boost converter and PWM control circuit, explanation for SMPS with DC-DC converter modeling and power mode control, resonance converter like resonance switch, converter, multi resonance converter and series resonance and parallel resonance converters, basic test of SMPS with PWM control circuit, Buck converter, Boost converter, flyback converter, forward converter and IC for control circuit.

  11. Interaction between supply and end-use

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skytte, K.; Noergaard, P.; Togeby, M.

    2005-01-01

    In a future power system with a high proportion of distributed and intermittent generation, it will be difficult and costly to ensure short-term security of supply if demand is unable to react to fluctuations on the supply side. At present, most power consumers in the EU, with the exception of the largest consumers such as energy intensive industries, buy their power on fixed tariffs. Fixed tariffs provide no incentives for consumers to alter their patterns of power consumption. This calls for more interaction between the supply and demand sides, which in turn would allow better matching of demand to intermittent supply. The development of cheap and reliable electronic communication technologies has made this a realistic option, so we are left with the general question of how the demand side can become more active in the future power market. Liberalisation of the wholesale power markets has introduced market-based pricing for the marginal electricity supply. Prices are set hourly, or even more frequently, by reference to the balance between the expected demand and supply at the time. If the expected demand exceeds supply, prices increase until demand falls or more generation comes on line. If supply exceeds demand, prices fall. In this way, market prices are used to determine the balance level between generation and consumption. In liquid markets, the power price is a reliable indicator of the state of the electricity system. Price fluctuations reveal the cost of marginal production capacity; very high prices indicate that capacity is limited compared with demand. At present, it is mostly the generation side that adjust their supply in order to create balance between supply and expected demand. If demand, as well as supply, could respond to price signals from the market, the flexibility of the energy system would increase. This would make it easier to increase the proportion of intermittent renewable energy sources in the system. Demand response (DR) is the term

  12. Is the Philippine geothermal resource sustainable?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lalo, J.; Raymundo, E.

    2005-01-01

    This paper aims to illustrate the scenario in the Geothermal Energy Development Projects in the Philippines, to make the Filipino population aware that there is an existing cleaner technology available that is being utilized in Europe; for the Philippine geothermal energy project operators to adapt a cleaner production technology that has no harmful emission, hence, no pollution technology; to help end the conflict between stake holders and geothermal players through the introduction of cleaner production technology intervention. While it is a fact that the Philippines' Geothermal resource is second to U.S. or around the globe, the unwise utilization of geothermal energy may lead to depletion, hence, becomes non-renewable. It should be understood that the geothermal energy is a renewable resource only if the development process is sustainable. There is a need to educate the Filipino populace regarding a cleaner production technology as well as our government and political leaders. This cleaner production technology is a solution to the stake holders. It is of great importance to inform the Filipino people that there is an existing cleaner new technology from Europe and U.S. that is not pollutive in nature and is essentially sustainable development scheme since underground reservoirs are not depleted in the process. (author)

  13. The security of energy supplies in Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vuillemin, Francois

    2002-01-01

    As an attempt occurred against a French oil tanker in the Persian Gulf (in 2002), and showed that security of oil supplies is not only related to oil shock or to political environment such as the Cold War, this article discusses issues of security for European energy supplies. It first addresses the situation and the evolution of energy needs and resources in the World and in Europe: predictions of evolution of consumption and production, major role of fossil fuels in the European consumption. It discusses the outage risks: the supply security can be analysed with respect to consumption per sector, per usage or per energy product, and Europe must face three major risks (no more hydrocarbon resources at a reasonable cost, economic risk due to market volatility, geopolitical risk). The next part discusses the perspective of a European strategy. It identifies several elements of choice for Europe in terms of energy demand management, of opening up to competition of electricity and gas markets. It discusses European ambitions in terms of supply security: need of a community framework, actual propositions of a directive for oil and gas

  14. Polution of basic natural resources with hazardous matters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pejanović Ljubo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyzes conceptual guidelines and a multidimensional approach to the thematic of agriculture as a land property with rich and available natural resources, which are characterized by their specifics. Specifics of natural resources are characterized by renewable and non-renewable contents without which life is impossible, and these basic contents are land, air and water. In addition, agrarians and agriculture have natural riches in their possession, out of which food for living creatures on the planet is produced. Natural resources are the contents of agrarians and with every pollution, and thus destruction of natural resources, it damages and destroys sustainability of both natural resources and the sustainability of agriculture with its content of living creatures and plants on which life and survival on this planet depend on. Any pollution, especially from hazardous substances and excessive treatment from the air and ground, causes damage, destruction and loss of life which is contained by living creatures and plant life, a prerequisite for sustainable development and the survival on Earth. The problem and aim of this paper is to point out and prove a phenomenon of the modern world, which poses a threat to the survival of natural resources, and thus life to living things and plant life on Earth. However, the aforementioned phenomenon is not a much known one, it's only known to a shortlist of scientists and theoreticians, while the general public is not aware of the mentioned and doesn't even assume the consequences of the threat.

  15. Information Sharing in the Hardwood Supply Chain

    OpenAIRE

    Stiess, Timothy Stephen

    2010-01-01

    The Hardwood Industry in United States has been challenged by low-cost competition from overseas. Although cost reduction strategies have had minimal success, the proximity of industry to the domestic market has large implications on a more customer-focused strategy. The problem arises that individual companies and supply chains evolved based on the principles of economies of size and not on the flexibility to adapt to customer needs and changing resource constraints. An increased rate at ...

  16. Regional Resource Planning Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    Natural gas and electricity commodities are among the most volatile commodities in the world. Spurred on by the recent significant increases in the price of natural gas, the BC Utilities Commission initiated an investigation into factors impacting on natural gas prices, and the validity of the Sumas index (a market trading point, or interchange where multiple pipelines interconnect, allowing the purchase and sale of gas among market participants) as a price setting mechanism. The Commission also sought the opinions and perspectives of the the province's natural gas industry regarding the high volatility of the Sumas gas prices, and as to what could be done to alleviate the wild fluctuations. Following review of the responses from stakeholders, the Commission issued a directive to BC Gas to undertake discussions on regional resource planning with full representation from all stakeholders. This study is the result of the Commission's directive, and is intended to address the issues contained in the directives. Accordingly, the study examined gas demand in the region, demand growth, including power generation, natural gas resource balance in the region, the California impacts on demand and on supply to the region, supply shortfalls on a peak day, and on a seasonal and annual basis, near term remedies, possible resource additions in the longer term, the economic justification for adding major resources and proposed actions to develop needed resource additions. The study confirmed the existence of a growing capacity deficit, which limits the supply of natural gas to the region. Near term options to alleviate the regional capacity deficit were found to be limited to discouraging power generation from serving export markets, demand side management efforts, and expansion of the WEI's systems by 105 mmcf/d. Longer term solutions would involve larger scale expansion of WEI's T-South capacity, the BC Gas' Inland Pacific Connector Project and the Washington Lateral proposed by

  17. Supply-Chain Optimization Template

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quiett, William F.; Sealing, Scott L.

    2009-01-01

    The Supply-Chain Optimization Template (SCOT) is an instructional guide for identifying, evaluating, and optimizing (including re-engineering) aerospace- oriented supply chains. The SCOT was derived from the Supply Chain Council s Supply-Chain Operations Reference (SCC SCOR) Model, which is more generic and more oriented toward achieving a competitive advantage in business.

  18. Essentials of supply chain management

    CERN Document Server

    Hugos, Michael H

    2011-01-01

    The latest thinking, strategies, developments, and technologies to stay current in supply chain management Presenting the core concepts and techniques of supply chain management in a clear, concise and easily readable style, the Third Edition of Essentials of Supply Chain Management outlines the most crucial tenets and concepts of supply chain management.

  19. Analysis of Resource and Emission Impacts: An Emergy-Based Multiple Spatial Scale Framework for Urban Ecological and Economic Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lixiao Zhang

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The development of the complex and multi-dimensional urban socio-economic system creates impacts on natural capital and human capital, which range from a local to a global scale. An emergy-based multiple spatial scale analysis framework and a rigorous accounting method that can quantify the values of human-made and natural capital losses were proposed in this study. With the intent of comparing the trajectory of Beijing over time, the characteristics of the interface between different scales are considered to explain the resource trade and the impacts of emissions. In addition, our improved determination of emergy analysis and acceptable management options that are in agreement with Beijing’s overall sustainability strategy were examined. The results showed that Beijing’s economy was closely correlated with the consumption of nonrenewable resources and exerted rising pressure on the environment. Of the total emergy use by the economic system, the imported nonrenewable resources from other provinces contribute the most, and the multi‑scale environmental impacts of waterborne and airborne pollution continued to increase from 1999 to 2006. Given the inputs structure, Beijing was chiefly making greater profits by shifting resources from other provinces in China and transferring the emissions outside. The results of our study should enable urban policy planners to better understand the multi-scale policy planning and development design of an urban ecological economic system.

  20. APS power supply controls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saunders, C.W.; Despe, O.D.

    1994-01-01

    The purpose of this document is to provide comprehensive coverage of the APS power supply control design. This includes application software, embedded controller software, networks, and hardware. The basic components will be introduced first, followed by the requirements driving the overall design. Subsequent sections will address each component of the design one by one. Latter sections will address specific applications

  1. Innovation in Supply Chains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maier, Maximilian; Korbel, Jakob; Brem, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    . Moreover, along with the fourth industrial revolution – industry 4.0 – new technologies such as cyber physical systems are fast gaining popularity. Hence, based on the analysis of relevant literature, we further develop the supply chain committee model, developed by Kaluza et al. (2003) to demonstrate how...

  2. Supply Chain Costing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asmussen, Jesper Normann; Kristensen, Jesper; Wæhrens, Brian Vejrum

    Based Costing (ABC) på et forsyningskædeniveau – heri benævnt Supply Chain Costing (SCC). Udoverdefordelederfindesved ABCtilføjerSCCogså et økonomisk grundlag til det strategiske rationale, der ofte ligger bag opbygningen af virksomhedens forsyningskæde, og kan dermed medvirke til konkret...

  3. Oil sands supply outlook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dunbar, R.

    2004-01-01

    In March 2004, The Canadian Energy Research Institute released a report on the expected future supply from Alberta's oil sands. The report indicates that the future for the already well-established oil sands industry is promising, particularly given the outlook for oil prices. The challenges facing the industry include higher industry supply costs and the need for innovative commercial and technological solutions to address the risks of irregularities and changes in crude oil prices. In 2003, the industry produced 874 thousand barrels per day of synthetic crude oil and unprocessed crude bitumen. This represents 35 per cent of Canada's total oil production. Current production capacity has increased to 1.0 million barrels per day (mbpd) due to new projects. This number may increase to 3.5 mbpd by 2017. Some new projects may be deferred due to the higher raw bitumen and synthetic crude oil supply costs. This presentation provided supply costs for a range of oil sands recovery technologies and production projections under various business scenarios. tabs., figs

  4. Investments secure supply security

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Baarle, D.

    2006-01-01

    In order to guarantee the supply of energy considerable investment must be made to improve the infrastructure (e.g. capacity for LNG-transport and -storage) and ties with the natural gas supplier in the Russian Federation must be intensified [nl

  5. Ethics of Information Supply.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oppenheim, Charles

    This discussion of the ethics of the information process provides a brief review of the process of information supply and flow, primarily in science and technology; looks at various points in the flow of information; and highlights particular ethical concerns. Facets of the process discussed in more detail include ways in which some scientists…

  6. Aid Supplies Over Time

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jones, Edward Samuel

    The recent financial crisis has rekindled interest in the foreign aid supply behaviour of bilateral donors. Using the latest data covering the period 1960-2009, this paper examines how such behaviour is related to domestic factors. Based on a simple empirical model, a distinction is made between...

  7. Female Labor Supply

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maassen-van den Brink, te Henriet

    1994-01-01

    To gain insight on factors that impede economic independence of women, this book concentrates on female labor supply in relation to child care, male-female wage differentials, the division of unpaid labor, and marital conflicts between women and men. It may very well be that restrictions on the

  8. Teleconnected food supply shocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bren d'Amour, Christopher; Wenz, Leonie; Kalkuhl, Matthias; Steckel, Jan Christoph; Creutzig, Felix

    2016-03-01

    The 2008-2010 food crisis might have been a harbinger of fundamental climate-induced food crises with geopolitical implications. Heat-wave-induced yield losses in Russia and resulting export restrictions led to increases in market prices for wheat across the Middle East, likely contributing to the Arab Spring. With ongoing climate change, temperatures and temperature variability will rise, leading to higher uncertainty in yields for major nutritional crops. Here we investigate which countries are most vulnerable to teleconnected supply-shocks, i.e. where diets strongly rely on the import of wheat, maize, or rice, and where a large share of the population is living in poverty. We find that the Middle East is most sensitive to teleconnected supply shocks in wheat, Central America to supply shocks in maize, and Western Africa to supply shocks in rice. Weighing with poverty levels, Sub-Saharan Africa is most affected. Altogether, a simultaneous 10% reduction in exports of wheat, rice, and maize would reduce caloric intake of 55 million people living in poverty by about 5%. Export bans in major producing regions would put up to 200 million people below the poverty line at risk, 90% of which live in Sub-Saharan Africa. Our results suggest that a region-specific combination of national increases in agricultural productivity and diversification of trade partners and diets can effectively decrease future food security risks.

  9. Integrated supply chain risk management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riaan Bredell

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Integrated supply chain risk management (ISCRM has become indispensable to the theory and practice of supply chain management. The economic and political realities of the modern world require not only a different approach to supply chain management, but also bold steps to secure supply chain performance and sustainable wealth creation. Integrated supply chain risk management provides supply chain organisations with a level of insight into their supply chains yet to be achieved. If correctly applied, this process may optimise management decision-making and assist in the protection and enhancement of shareholder value.

  10. The Supply of Trade Credit by Brazilian Publicly Traded Firms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Felipe Schiozer

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the determinants of trade credit supply by Brazilian publicly traded companies between the years of 2005 and 2008. International literature (both theoretical and empirical documents that the main determinants of trade credit supply are the size of the firm and the size of its debt. Both indicate that the availability of resources to the firm is an important factor for the supply of trade credit. In addition, the literature confirms strategic uses of trade credit such as those for price discrimination purposes. The results obtained using a sample of 157 Brazilian companies do not support that size and indebtedness are relevant determinants for trade credit supply, but they confirm the supply of trade credit as a strategic tool for the firms. Additionally we observed a significant decrease in trade credit supply in 2008, the year in which a severe international financial crisis took place.

  11. Future directions conventional oil supply, Western Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campbell, G.R.; Hayward, J.

    1997-01-01

    The history of the Canadian oil industry was briefly sketched and the future outlook for crude oil and natural gas liquids in western Canada was forecast. The historical review encompassed some of the significant events in history of the Canadian oil industry, including the Leduc discovery in 1947, the Swan Hills discovery in 1957, the start of commercial production from the Athabasca oil sands in 1967, the discovery of the Hibernia oilfield offshore Newfoundland in 1979, and the onset of the use of horizontal production wells in western Canada in 1987. The resource base, supply costs, and the technology that is being developed to reduce costs and to improve recovery, were reviewed. Future oil prices were predicted, taking into account the costs associated with technological developments. It was suggested that the character of the industry is undergoing a change from an industry dominated by conventional supply to a mixed industry with increasing volume of heavy oil, primary bitumen, synthetic oil and frontier supply replacing 'conventional' light crude oil. Projections into the future are subject to uncertainty both on the supply as well as on the demand side. The potential impact of technology can significantly affect demand, and technological developments can yield additional supplies which exceed current expectations. 10 figs

  12. The Supply Chain, a Strategic Marketing Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ştefan Claudiu Căescu

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this article is to integrate strategic marketing instruments within the supply chain in relationship with the suppliers. In order to integrate the commercial and economic activities at the supply chain level there is a need of developing tight relationships between the customer and the supplier. Thus, it is justified to approach the supply chain from a strategic perspective and the strategic marketing tools are perfectly applicable on the business-to-business market. Our research, has led us to the conclusion that, especially on business to business markets, organizations focus their marketing activities not only on the relationship with their customers, but on the relationship with their suppliers as well. In the supply chain, companies appear as buyers and as clients for the suppliers of goods, financial resources and of work force. Starting from this, we have developed a quantitative marketing research, interviewing 60 organizations from the business-to-business Romanian market, with the purpose of identifying the way in which companies from the B2b market integrate strategic marketing in their supply-chain.

  13. Monitoring the Vulnerability of Energy Supply System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gnansonounou, E.

    2006-01-01

    Due to the increasing complexity of the world evolution, the public decision makers, the energy supply industry and the consumers in industrialised countries are more and more sensitive to the vulnerability of energy supply. The emergence of new big consumer countries and the perspective of oil and gas depletion at the end of the current century raise the concerns about how to share fairly the remaining resources for the common and sustainable development of the mankind. Erratic energy prices discourage investment and delay the energy transition. Voluntary measures are needed mainly in industrialised countries in order to develop alternative and sustainable energy sources and to avoid world struggle for energy procurement. In this contribution a synthetic energy vulnerability index is defined for monitoring energy supply vulnerability. The proposed index is based on energy intensity, oil and gas import dependency, CO 2 content of primary energy supply, electricity supply vulnerability and non-diversity in transport fuels. The preliminary assessment of this synthetic index for selected industrialised countries provides promising results that need however further refinement.(author)

  14. Canadian gas supply: going up? or down?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woronuk, R. H.

    1999-01-01

    With regard to Canada's gas reserves there are clear indications that the gas market is moving from a supply/demand balance controlled by demand to one that is controlled by supply. There is evidence of a recognition that the Western Canadian Sedimentary Basin (WCSB) , the source of most of Canada's gas supply is a mature basin, with over half of its reserves already discovered, that consumption has exceeded reserve additions for all but one of the last sixteen years, and that under these conditions consumption cannot grow, or even be maintained indefinitely. The central argument advanced in this paper is that the era of ever increasing production from the WCSB is nearing its end and that a more aggressive approach to exploration and development in the WCSB, especially in the deeper and more environmentally sensitive areas, together with the exploitation of conventional gas in frontier areas and unconventional resources will be necessary to prevent projected declines in supply. Identification of new geological plays, exploration for and connection of reserves from frontier regions and the development of technologies for enhanced recoveries will involve increasingly long lead times, therefore, initiatives to address forthcoming supply issues must begin immediately. 4 refs., 17 figs

  15. The design of supply chains

    OpenAIRE

    Bøge Sørensen, Lars

    2004-01-01

    Keywords Supply Chain Management, Supply Chain Design, Literature study Abstract Argues stability is a design objective for supply chain design alongside cost, lead time and responsiveness. Performs an extensive literature study on supply chain design, identifies methods, theories and objectives in the existing literature. Describes the concept external specificity and how it’s used to design supply chains. Using the concept upstream, archetypes of risk minimal and maximal desi...

  16. Reliability criteria selection for integrated resource planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruiu, D.; Ye, C.; Billinton, R.; Lakhanpal, D.

    1993-01-01

    A study was conducted on the selection of a generating system reliability criterion that ensures a reasonable continuity of supply while minimizing the total costs to utility customers. The study was conducted using the Institute for Electronic and Electrical Engineers (IEEE) reliability test system as the study system. The study inputs and results for conditions and load forecast data, new supply resources data, demand-side management resource data, resource planning criterion, criterion value selection, supply side development, integrated resource development, and best criterion values, are tabulated and discussed. Preliminary conclusions are drawn as follows. In the case of integrated resource planning, the selection of the best value for a given type of reliability criterion can be done using methods similar to those used for supply side planning. The reliability criteria values previously used for supply side planning may not be economically justified when integrated resource planning is used. Utilities may have to revise and adopt new, and perhaps lower supply reliability criteria for integrated resource planning. More complex reliability criteria, such as energy related indices, which take into account the magnitude, frequency and duration of the expected interruptions are better adapted than the simpler capacity-based reliability criteria such as loss of load expectation. 7 refs., 5 figs., 10 tabs

  17. An economic model of international wood supply, forest stock and forest area change

    Science.gov (United States)

    James A. Turner; Joseph Buongiorno; Shushuai Zhu

    2006-01-01

    Wood supply, the link between roundwood removals and forest resources, is an important component of forest sector models. This paper develops a model of international wood supply within the structure of the spatial equilibrium Global Forest Products Model. The wood supply model determines, for each country, the annual forest harvest, the annual change of forest stock...

  18. 30 CFR 75.1107-7 - Water spray devices; capacity; water supply; minimum requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Water spray devices; capacity; water supply... Water spray devices; capacity; water supply; minimum requirements. (a) Where water spray devices are... square foot over the top surface area of the equipment and the supply of water shall be adequate to...

  19. IFLA General Conference, 1989. Pre-Session Seminar on Interlending and Document Supply. Papers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    International Federation of Library Associations, The Hague (Netherlands).

    The papers in this compilation address topics relating to interlending and document supply and include the following: (1) "Training in Interlending" (D. E. K. Wijasuriya, Malaysia); (2) "Resource Collections and Document Supply Centre" (Stephney Ferguson, Jamaica); (3) "Organizing for Interlibrary Loan and Document Supply" (Rodrick S. Mabomba);…

  20. Analysis of geologic terrain models for determination of optimum SAR sensor configuration and optimum information extraction for exploration of global non-renewable resources. Pilot study: Arkansas Remote Sensing Laboratory, part 1, part 2, and part 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaupp, V. H.; Macdonald, H. C.; Waite, W. P.; Stiles, J. A.; Frost, F. S.; Shanmugam, K. S.; Smith, S. A.; Narayanan, V.; Holtzman, J. C. (Principal Investigator)

    1982-01-01

    Computer-generated radar simulations and mathematical geologic terrain models were used to establish the optimum radar sensor operating parameters for geologic research. An initial set of mathematical geologic terrain models was created for three basic landforms and families of simulated radar images were prepared from these models for numerous interacting sensor, platform, and terrain variables. The tradeoffs between the various sensor parameters and the quantity and quality of the extractable geologic data were investigated as well as the development of automated techniques of digital SAR image analysis. Initial work on a texture analysis of SEASAT SAR imagery is reported. Computer-generated radar simulations are shown for combinations of two geologic models and three SAR angles of incidence.

  1. Northern Resource Centre: a first step toward a University of the North

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-01-01

    The Science Council of Canada has argued that there is a need for a balanced science policy for northern development. Objectives would be to promote the welfare of northern people, especially the indigenous peoples, through encouragement of appropriate developments designed to aid, where the people desire, community development, the retention of traditional life styles and cultures, as well as opportunities for participation in wage activities which support this general objective. This objective encompasses the extension of appropriate health and dental care, housing, and municipal services. Additionally, environmental considerations including land-use policies, should be important components in the decision-making process for northern projects. Renewable energy resource development should have a higher priority than at present. The goal is the economic and social sufficiency of northern communities. Economically viable nonrenewable resource projects should be encouraged. Recommendations to be followed for establishing the Northern Resource Centre are described. (MCW)

  2. Life cycle assessment as development and decision support tool for wastewater resource recovery technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fang, Linda L.; Valverde Perez, Borja; Damgaard, Anders

    2016-01-01

    resource recovery. The freshwater and nutrient content of wastewater are recognized as potential valuable resources that can be recovered for beneficial reuse. Both recovery and reuse are intended to address existing environmental concerns, for example, water scarcity and use of non-renewable phosphorus...... and water recovery system in its potential operating environment, we assess the potential environmental impacts of such a system using the EASETECH model. In the simulation, recovered water and nutrients are used in scenarios of agricultural irrigation-fertilization and aquifer recharge. In these scenarios......, TRENS reduces global warming up to 15% and marine eutrophication impacts up to 9% compared to conventional treatment. This is due to the recovery and reuse of nutrient resources, primarily nitrogen. The key environmental concerns obtained through the LCA are linked to increased human toxicity impacts...

  3. The Urban Transition Performance of Resource-Based Cities in Northeast China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juntao Tan

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Resource-based cities face unique challenges when undergoing urban transitions because their non-renewable resources will eventually be exhausted. In this article, we introduce a new method of evaluating the urban transition performance of resource-based cities from economic, social and eco-environmental perspectives. A total of 19 resource-based cities in Northeast China are studied from 2003 to 2012. The results show that resource-based cities in Jilin and Liaoning provinces performed better than those in Heilongjiang province. Liaoyuan, Songyuan and Baishan were ranked as the top three resource-based cities; and Jixi, Yichun and Heihe were ranked last. Multi-resource and petroleum resource-based cities performed better than coal and forestry resource-based cities. We also analyzed the factors influencing urban transition performance using the method of the geographic detector. We found that capital input, road density and location advantage had the greatest effects on urban transition performance, followed by urban scale, remaining resources and the level of sustainable development; supporting policies and labor input had the smallest effects. Based on these insights, we have formulated several recommendations to facilitate urban transitions in China’s resource-based cities.

  4. Achievement report for fiscal 1995 on the research and development of comprehensive basic technologies on marine resources (manganese nodule mining system) in industrial and scientific technology research and development project. Trends and forecasts of the supply-demand for metal resources (Ni, Co, Cu, Fe, Mn) that are contained in manganese nodules; 1995 nendo kaiyo shigen sogo kiban gijutsu no kenkyu kaihatsu (mangan dankai saiko system) seika hokokusho. Mangan dankai ni kakawaru kinzoku shigen (Ni, Co, Cu, Fe, Mn) no kyokyu ni kansuru shorai doko no suitei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-12-01

    Living standards improving in developing countries especially in China are the most influential factor to determine the demand for Cu. Consumption of Ni will depend on the trends of advanced technologies such as Ni-hydrogen battery, fuel cell, shape memory alloy, hydrogen absorbing alloy, in addition to increase in global population and developing countries' living standards improvement. Co is far more dependent on advanced technologies than Ni is. On the land, Ni ore is increasingly lower in quality and Co is being retrieved from by-products of Cu production, both meeting the problem of unstable supply. Consideration is made to apply new extraction methods to Cu production; there are some potential resources for Fe and Mn. The Mn nodule exists in great quantities and is a attractive source of supply, but a long time will be required before it is exploited. It is necessary to speed up the study to exploit the Mn nodule, but first of all the problem of its competition with land resources in terms of cost has to be solved. It needs to be found out at what stage of production the Mn nodule is competitive with land products. In any case, Japan should undertake the efforts of marine resources exploitation leading other countries of the world. (NEDO)

  5. Buyer focus : Evaluation of a new concept for supply chain integration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Vaart, T; van Donk, DP

    2004-01-01

    The goal of integrated supply chains is to remove barriers to ease the flow of materials and information. This article concentrates on an important barrier: shared resources in a supply chain. The removal of these shared resources is closely related to the recently introduced concept of buyer focus.

  6. Buyer focus : evaluation of a new concept for supply chain integration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vaart, Taco van der; Donk, Dirk Pieter van

    2003-01-01

    The goal of integrated supply chains is to remove barriers to ease the flow of materials and information. This article concentrates on an important barrier: shared resources in a supply chain. The removal of these shared resources is closely related to the recently introduced concept of buyer focus.

  7. Geographical analyses of wood chips potentials, cost and supply for sustainable energy production in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Möller, Bernd

    2004-01-01

    The paper presents a study which uses a practical application of rasterbased geographical information system to perform cost-supply analysis of wood chips resources for energy production.......The paper presents a study which uses a practical application of rasterbased geographical information system to perform cost-supply analysis of wood chips resources for energy production....

  8. Geographical cost-supply analysis forest biomass for distributed generation in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Möller, Bernd

    2004-01-01

    The article presents a study which uses geographical information system (GIS) to perform cost-supply analysis of wood chips resources for energy production.......The article presents a study which uses geographical information system (GIS) to perform cost-supply analysis of wood chips resources for energy production....

  9. 18 CFR 401.36 - Water supply projects-Conservation requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Water supply projects-Conservation requirements. 401.36 Section 401.36 Conservation of Power and Water Resources DELAWARE RIVER BASIN... Compact § 401.36 Water supply projects—Conservation requirements. Maximum feasible efficiency in the use...

  10. Front Range Infrastructure Resources Project: water-resources activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robson, Stanley G.; Heiny, Janet S.

    1998-01-01

    Infrastructure, such as roads, buildings, airports, and dams, is built and maintained by use of large quantities of natural resources such as aggregate (sand and gravel), energy, and water. As urban area expand, local sources of these resource are becoming inaccessible (gravel cannot be mined from under a subdivision, for example), or the cost of recovery of the resource becomes prohibitive (oil and gas drilling in urban areas is costly), or the resources may become unfit for some use (pollution of ground water may preclude its use as a water supply). Governmental land-use decision and environmental mandates can further preclude development of natural resources. If infrastructure resources are to remain economically available. current resource information must be available for use in well-reasoned decisions bout future land use. Ground water is an infrastructure resource that is present in shallow aquifers and deeper bedrock aquifers that underlie much of the 2,450-square-mile demonstration area of the Colorado Front Range Infrastructure Resources Project. In 1996, mapping of the area's ground-water resources was undertaken as a U.S. Geological Survey project in cooperation with the Colorado Department of Natural Resources, Division of Water Resources, and the Colorado Water Conservation Board.

  11. Forest resource economics and policy research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ellefson, P.V.

    1989-01-01

    This book contains chapters relating to forest economics. Included are the following chapters: Forecasting demand and supply of forest resources, products, and services; Wood fiber production; Forestry sector environmental effects

  12. Planetary Volatiles Extractor for In Situ Resource Utilization, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — In Situ Resource Utilization (ISRU) or ?living off the land relies on exploiting local resources and in turn reducing burden of transporting supplies. NASA has...

  13. Discontinuous Mode Power Supply

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagadinos, John; Poulos, Ethel

    2012-01-01

    A document discusses the changes made to a standard push-pull inverter circuit to avoid saturation effects in the main inverter power supply. Typically, in a standard push-pull arrangement, the unsymmetrical primary excitation causes variations in the volt second integral of each half of the excitation cycle that could lead to the establishment of DC flux density in the magnetic core, which could eventually cause saturation of the main inverter transformer. The relocation of the filter reactor normally placed across the output of the power supply solves this problem. The filter reactor was placed in series with the primary circuit of the main inverter transformer, and is presented as impedance against the sudden changes on the input current. The reactor averaged the input current in the primary circuit, avoiding saturation of the main inverter transformer. Since the implementation of the described change, the above problem has not reoccurred, and failures in the main power transistors have been avoided.

  14. Offshore Supply Industry Dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roslyng Olesen, Thomas

    This report is part of the research project “The competitive challenges and strategic development possibilities for The Blue Denmark”, which was launched in 2014. The project is funded by the Danish Maritime Fund and carried out by researchers at CBS Maritime which is a Business in Society Platform...... with companies in the maritime sector. This report “Offshore Supply Industry Dynamics – Business strategies in the offshore supply industry” is the second report in mapping project D. It examines the markets and business strategies of various suppliers and furthermore presents an analysis of the challenges...... at Copenhagen Business School with a focus on value creation in the maritime industries. The project embraces various maritime segments from shipping and offshore to ports and suppliers. The research questions for the individual projects have been formulated by researchers at CBS Maritime in cooperation...

  15. Gas in Europe: supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1994-01-01

    It is predicted that natural gas consumption in western Europe could rise by more than 55% over the next two decades, from 290bn cubic metres (cm) in 1991 to 450bn cm in 2010. This growth, projected by the consultants, Arthur D Little, reflects the environmental and economic attractions of natural gas, particularly in the power generation sector. Another consultant, Poten and Partners, predicts an even greater rise in gas consumption, from 301bn cm in 1992 to 482 bn cm in 2010. However, while demand is forecast to increase in all major European gas markets, indigenous production within Europe is expected to remain stable for the foreseeable future, with indigenous supplies projected to peak at approximately 350bn cubic metres per year (cm/y) in the late 1990s. This raises the prospect of significant supply constraints emerging in Europe. (author)

  16. Electricity supply in Denmark

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-08-01

    Electric power was introduced in Denmark in 1891. Recently, the development of the Danish electricity supply industry has been influenced by a number of political measures aiming at a cleaner environment. The booklet gives a general introduction to the industry in Denmark. It reflects the actual supply situation and looks at the future as well as giving a survey of the historical and political background. In addition to relevant statistics, brief information is given on national energy balance, consumption, costs and pricing, distribution and transmission, end-use efficiency, electric power generation, imports and exports, wind power, cogeneration and district heating, pollutive emission, planning and Danish energy policy. There is also a list of useful addresses. (AB)

  17. Environmental Retail Supply Chains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kotzab, Herbert; Munch, Hilde; de Faultrier, Birgitte

    2011-01-01

    which were grouped into eight categories; they refer to “fundamental environmental attitude”, “use of energy”, “use of input material”, “product”, “packaging”, “transport”, “consumption” and “waste”. The level of environmental supply chain management can be characterised as very operational and very...... short-term oriented (green operations). Long-term oriented green design initiatives were hardly observed. Furthermore, the specific environmental activities of three retailers from Denmark, France and the UK were compared. Research limitations/implications – The empirical study investigates supply chain...... operations of retailers and excludes other areas of retail management. The results are based on material that is published by the respective companies and thus do not include internal reports. Originality/value – The main contribution of this paper is to test the proposition that global retailers follow...

  18. Towards Intelligent Supply Chains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Siurdyban, Artur; Møller, Charles

    2012-01-01

    applied to the context of organizational processes can increase the success rate of business operations. The framework is created using a set of theoretical based constructs grounded in a discussion across several streams of research including psychology, pedagogy, artificial intelligence, learning...... of deploying inapt operations leading to deterioration of profits. To address this problem, we propose a unified business process design framework based on the paradigm of intelligence. Intelligence allows humans and human-designed systems cope with environmental volatility, and we argue that its principles......, business process management and supply chain management. It outlines a number of system tasks combined in four integrated management perspectives: build, execute, grow and innovate, put forward as business process design propositions for Intelligent Supply Chains....

  19. Supply Chain Initiatives Database

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2012-11-01

    The Supply Chain Initiatives Database (SCID) presents innovative approaches to engaging industrial suppliers in efforts to save energy, increase productivity and improve environmental performance. This comprehensive and freely-accessible database was developed by the Institute for Industrial Productivity (IIP). IIP acknowledges Ecofys for their valuable contributions. The database contains case studies searchable according to the types of activities buyers are undertaking to motivate suppliers, target sector, organization leading the initiative, and program or partnership linkages.

  20. Supply chain finance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kasavica Petar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The concept of supply chain finance is a response to global illiquidity, intensified through the global economic crisis and globalization of commercial and financial flows. The growing illiquidity undermines credit ratings of economic entities, thereby reducing the potential for achieving the projected goals (profitability and portfolio quality. In order to overcome this, banks have introduced certain products flexible to the requirements of specific transactions. The concerned products redirect the focus from a client's credit rating and risk to the credit rating and risk of a business partner (buyer, resulting in benefits for all transaction participants ('win-win-win'. Moreover, the activities are targeted at transaction analysis, i.e. the isolation and protection of the cash flow as the source of financial instrument's repayment. On the other hand, there has been an increasing number of transactions based on the risk of the commercial bank of the client's business partner, or on the risk of collateral (inventory. The focus is actually placed on the financing of adequate supply chain stages, given that counterparty relationship management has been proven to be crucial for efficient management of one's own business. The tensions existing in the relations between partners (increasingly long payment deadlines are in the basis of the supply chain finance concept. Decisions made by banks are based on the entire supply chain (wide information basis, thereby shifting the focus from the product (as was the case before the crisis to the client's needs. Thus, decisions become increasingly comprehensive, quicker, and more precise, and portfolios less risky. Through the individual portfolio of banks, the market of national economies also becomes safer and more liquid. These are rather profitable transactions, because, due to the risk transfer, financing is enabled to companies to whom classic crediting in most cases is not available.