WorldWideScience

Sample records for nonrenewable mineral resources

  1. Remote sensing for non-renewable resources - Satellite and airborne multiband scanners for mineral exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goetz, Alexander F. H.

    1986-01-01

    The application of remote sensing techniques to mineral exploration involves the use of both spatial (morphological) as well as spectral information. This paper is directed toward a discussion of the uses of spectral image information and emphasizes the newest airborne and spaceborne sensor developments involving imaging spectrometers.

  2. Technology adoption in nonrenewable resource management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cunha-e-Sa, Maria A.; Balcao Reis, Ana; Roseta-Palma, Catarina

    2009-01-01

    Technological change has played an important role in models of nonrenewable resource management, since its presence mitigates the depletion effect on extraction costs over time. We formalize the problem of a competitive nonrenewable resource extracting firm faced with the possibility of technology adoption. Based on a quadratic extraction cost function, our results show that the expected net benefits from adoption increase both with the size of the resource stock and with prices. A boundary that separates the region where expected net benefits are positive from the one where they are negative is derived. (author)

  3. Growth and non-renewable resources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Groth, Christian; Schou, Poul

    2007-01-01

    , interest income taxes and investment subsidies can no longer affect the long-run growth rate, whereas resource tax instruments are decisive for growth. The results stand out both against observations in the literature from the 1970's on non-renewable resources and taxation-observations which were not based...

  4. The supply of non-renewable resources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Daubanes, Julien Xavier; Lasserre, Pierre

    that the substitution effect always dominates: A price increase at some point in space and time causes NRR supply to decrease at all other points. This new but orthodox supply setting extends to NRRs the partial equilibrium analysis of demand and supply policies. Thereby, it provides a generalization of many results......There exists no formal treatment of non-renewable resource (NRR) supply, systematically deriving quantity as function of price. We establish instantaneous restricted (fixed reserves) and unrestricted NRR supply functions. The supply of a NRR at any date and location not only depends on the local...... contemporary price of the resource but also on prices at all other dates and locations. Besides the usual law of supply, which characterizes the own-price effect, cross-price effects have their own law. They can be decomposed into a substitution effect and a stock compensation effect. We show...

  5. A New-Growth Perspective on Non-Renewable Resources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Groth, Christian

    This article reviews issues related to the incorporation of non-renewable resources in the theory of economic growth and development. As an offshoot of the new growth theory of the last two decades a series of contributions have studied endogenous technical change in relation to resource scarcity...

  6. Exploration can cause falling non-renewable resource prices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boyce, John R.

    2003-01-01

    This note shows that when marginal exploration costs are increasing in the rate of exploration that it is possible to observe non-renewable resource prices falling over a portion of the extraction profile. Thus, while the model of Pindyck (J. Polit. Econ. 86 (1978) 841) was based on an incorrect specification of the aggregate extraction cost function, its general conclusion that exploration can cause falling non-renewable resource prices is upheld. This result is in contrast to Mendelsohn and Swierzbinski (Int. Econ. Rev. 30 (1989) 175), who assumed that marginal extraction costs were constant

  7. Meta-analysis of non-renewable energy resource estimates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dale, Michael

    2012-01-01

    This paper offers a review of estimates of ultimately recoverable resources (URR) of non-renewable energy sources: coal, conventional and unconventional oil, conventional and unconventional gas, and uranium for nuclear fission. There is a large range in the estimates of many of the energy sources, even those that have been utilized for a long time and, as such, should be well understood. If it is assumed that the estimates for each resource are normally distributed, then the total value of ultimately recoverable fossil and fissile energy resources is 70,592 EJ. If, on the other hand, the best fitting distribution from each of the resource estimate populations is used, a the total value is 50,702 EJ, a factor of around 30% smaller. - Highlights: ► Brief introduction to categorization of resources. ► Collated over 380 estimates of ultimately recoverable global resources for all non-renewable energy sources. ► Extensive statistical analysis and distribution fitting conducted. ► Cross-energy source comparison of resource magnitudes.

  8. World nonrenewable conventional energy resources as of December 31, 1982

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parent, J.D.

    1984-01-01

    Energy analysts present year-end 1982 estimates for world proved reserves, remaining recoverable resources, annual production rates, and cumulative production of the non-renewable convectional energy resources: coal, natural gas, crude oil, natural gas liquids, bitumens, shale oil, and uranium oxide. Life indices for world fossil fuels are also given for several annual growth rates. The world's proved and currently recoverable natural gas reserves amount to 2649-3250 trillion CF; the estimated total remaining recoverable is 6693-7462 TCF. In 1982, 54 TCF of gas was produced for a cumulative production of 1320 TCF (not counting vented or flared gas)

  9. On ad valorem taxation of nonrenewable resource production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rowse, John

    1997-01-01

    Taxing a nonrenewable resource typically shifts production through time, compresses the economically recoverable resource base and shrinks social welfare. But by how much? In this paper a computational model of natural gas use, representing numerous demand and supply features believed important for shaping efficient intertemporal allocations, is utilized to answer this question under different ad valorem royalty taxes on wellhead production. Proportionate social welfare losses from fixed royalties up to 30% are found to be small and the excess burden stands at less than 6.5% for a 30% royalty. This result replicates findings of several earlier studies and points to a general conclusion

  10. Optimum commodity taxation with a non-renewable resource

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Daubanes, Julien Xavier; Lasserre, Pierre

    2017-01-01

    We examine optimum commodity taxation (OCT), including the taxation of non-renewable resources (NRRs), by a government that needs to rely on commodity taxes to raise revenues. NRRs should be taxed at higher rates than otherwise-identical conventional commodities, according to an augmented, dynamic...... formulas can directly be used to indicate how Pigovian taxation of carbon NRRs should be increased in the presence of public-revenue needs, as illustrated in a numerical example. We show that NRR substitutes and complements should receive a particular tax treatment. Finally, in a NRR-importing economy...

  11. Comment: The Economics of Interdependent Renewable and Non-renewable Resources revisited.

    OpenAIRE

    Viktoria Kahui; Claire W. Armstrong

    2009-01-01

    This work expands upon Swallow's theoretical analysis of interactions between renewable and non-renewable resources. In this comment the interaction is such that the renewable resource prefers the non-renewable environment, as opposed to SwallowÕs (op cit) case of the non-renewable environment being essential to the renewable resource. We find that this difference strongly affects the results, and makes the resources change from being complements to being substitutes, i.e. in the essential ca...

  12. On price taking behavior in a nonrenewable resource cartel-fringe game

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Withagen, C.A.A.M.; Benchekroun, H.

    2012-01-01

    We consider a nonrenewable resource game with one cartel and a set of fringe members. We show that (i) the outcomes of the closed-loop and the open-loop nonrenewable resource game with the fringe members as price takers (the cartel-fringe game à la Salant, 1976) coincide and (ii) when the number of

  13. Economic and environmental effects under resource scarcity and substitution between renewable and non-renewable resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, Susana; Soares, Isabel; Afonso, Oscar

    2013-01-01

    We build a general equilibrium model with renewable (non-polluting) and non-renewable (polluting) resources to analyze the interaction and compatibility between economic growth and a cleaner environment. The study is in two phases: (i) resource extraction/production costs are constant; (ii) resource producers invest in knowledge to reduce extraction/production costs, endogenizing technical change. With constant costs, there is a permanent trade-off between economic growth and a cleaner environment. With endogenous technical change, it is possible to harmonize more output and less emissions by replacing non-renewable resources for renewable ones. We also conduct a sensitivity analysis to explore three specific policy actions. With constant costs, the best policy action is the imposition of a higher renewable resources standard, while with endogenous technical change, under certain conditions, all policy interventions may benefit both the economy and the environment. - Highlights: ► Our general equilibrium model includes renewable and non-renewable resources. ► Under constant resource production costs emissions grow at the same rate as output. ► Resource producers can invest in knowledge to reduce production costs. ► Under decreasing costs, lower emissions are compatible with stable output growth. ► Empirical results differ under constant costs and under endogenous technical change

  14. Taxation of non-renewable resources: Appendix A to Canada's resources and the national interest

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1975-11-01

    This report includes all revisions made in legislation and other developments up to May 1976 at both the Federal and provincial level that affect the taxation of the nonrenewable resource industries. The report is divided into four sections. Section I is a brief summary of the principal conclusions; Section II presents recent developments in the Taxation of Mining, Oil, and Gas in Canada; Section III provides estimated Federal and provincial government revenues from nonrenewable resources during the six years 1970/71 to 1975/76; and Section IV analyzes briefly the various methods used by governments to obtain additional revenues and the likely effect of these methods on the future development of the industry. (MCW)

  15. Dynamic taxation of non-renewable natural resources under asymmetric information about reserves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osmundsen, P.

    1998-01-01

    A study was conducted in which a model was developed for the effective tax collection of non-renewable natural resources, subject to private information about reserves. Most governments are faced with the problem that resource exploitation companies possess private information about the size of reserves. Often governments do not know if a company's high costs are due to low reserves or to strategic cost reporting. This model was designed to solve that problem. It was shown that the specific cost characteristics of extracting non-renewable natural resource make it desirable to reduce both the extent and the pace of extraction. This conclusion was reached using both a two-period model and a time terminal endogenized model. Although this paper referred specifically to petroleum, the model applies for all types of non-renewable natural resources. 21 refs

  16. A Multi-mode RCPSP with Stochastic Nonrenewable Resource Consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Muller, Laurent Flindt

    Many processes within production scheduling and project management involve the scheduling of a number of activities, each activity having a certain duration and requiring a certain amount of limited resources. The duration and resource requirements of activities are com- monly the result...

  17. Vulnerability and fragility risk indices for non-renewable resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Anne E; Steele, Nicholas; Tobin, Benjamin W

    2018-06-02

    Protected areas are tasked with mitigating impacts to a wide range of invaluable resources. These resources are often subject to a variety of potential natural and anthropogenic impacts that require monitoring efforts and management actions to minimize the degradation of these resources. However, due to insufficient funding and staff, managers often have to prioritize efforts, leaving some resources at higher risk to impact. Attempts to address this issue have resulted in numerous qualitative and semi-quantitative frameworks for prioritization based on resource vulnerability. Here, we add to those methods by modifying an internationally standardized vulnerability framework, quantify both resource vulnerability, susceptibility to human disturbance, and fragility, susceptibility to natural disturbance. This modified framework quantifies impacts through a six-step process: identifying the resource and management objectives, identifying exposure and sensitivity indicators, define scoring criteria for each indicator, collect and compile data, calculate indices, and prioritize sites for mitigations. We applied this methodology to two resource types in Grand Canyon National Park (GRCA): caves and fossil sites. Three hundred sixty-five cave sites and 127 fossil sites in GRCA were used for this analysis. The majority of cave and fossil sites scored moderate to low vulnerability (0-6 out of 10 points) and moderate to low fragility for fossils. The percentage of sites that fell in the high-priority range was 5.5% for fossils and 21.9% for caves. These results are consistent with the known state of these resources and the results present a tool for managers to utilize to prioritize monitoring and management needs.

  18. Three essays on the exploration for non-renewable resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sadorsky, P.A.

    1990-06-01

    A new additional motive for exploration activity is proposed in the first essay. When exploration occurs before the resource is extracted, there is an incentive to use exploration activity as a strategic instrument to capture market share and inflict capital losses on rivals. This provides an incentive for governments to use strategic taxation to capture greater rents from the imperfectly competitive world output markets. Analytic expressions for the optimal domestic extraction tax and exploration subsidy are presented. In the second essay, Canadian data are used to estimate a multiple-output translog exploration cost function. A new definition of depletion is introduced and its estimated coefficient is found to be statistically significant. Monte Carlo integration techniques were applied to ensure the estimated cost function satisfies concavity and monotonicity. The fitted cost function parameters are then used to estimate the marginal cost of oil and gas exploration. These estimates are used, along with estimates of exploration rents, to measure resource scarcity. In the third essay, Canadian data are used to estimate a stochastic and dynamic model of oil exploration and extraction in Alberta. The main determinants of current period extraction are one period lagged extraction and one period expected extraction. The main determinants of current period exploration are one period lagged cumulative exploration and a relative price variable. 150 refs., 13 figs., 19 tabs

  19. Science requirements for free-flying imaging radar (FIREX) experiment for sea ice, renewable resources, nonrenewable resources and oceanography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carsey, F.

    1982-01-01

    A future bilateral SAR program was studied. The requirements supporting a SAR mission posed by science and operations in sea-ice-covered waters, oceanography, renewable resources, and nonrenewable resources are addressed. The instrument, mission, and program parameters were discussed. Research investigations supporting a SAR flight and the subsequent overall mission requirements and tradeoffs are summarized.

  20. Mineral resources

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Valsangkar, A.B.

    (placers), biogenous (ooze, limestone) or chemogenous (phosphorites and polymetallic nodules) type. In recent years, hydrothermal deposits, cobalt crust and methane gas hydrates are considered as frontier resources. Their distribution depends upon proximity...

  1. Strategic Uncertainty in Markets for Nonrenewable Resources: A Level-k Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingmar Vierhaus

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Existing models of nonrenewable resources assume that sophisticated agents compete with other sophisticated agents. This study instead uses a level-k approach to examine cases where the focal agent is uncertain about the strategy of his opponent or predicts that the opponent will act in a nonsophisticated manner. Level-0 players are randomized uniformly across all possible actions, and level-k players best respond to the action of player k-1. We study a dynamic nonrenewable resource game with a large number of actions. We are able to solve for the level-1 strategy by reducing the averaging problem to an optimization problem against a single action. We show that lower levels of strategic reasoning are close to the Walras and collusive benchmark, whereas higher level strategies converge to the Nash-Hotelling equilibrium. These results are then fitted to experimental data, suggesting that the level of sophistication of participants increased over the course of the experiment.

  2. On the dynamics of non-renewable resources. A mathematical model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alliney, S.; Alvoni, E.

    2001-01-01

    A mathematical model is presented for the consumption dynamics of non-renewable resources; the underlying assumption is that the most relevant factor is given by the evolution of technology. Then, the consumption as a function of time is governed by a non-linear differential equation,whose parameters can be estimated using the historical record. Some meaningful cases are worked out in detail, namely the coal consumption in UK and the world oil consumption [it

  3. Geologic utility of improved orbital measurement capabilities in reference to non-renewable resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, H.; Marsh, S.

    1982-01-01

    Spectral and spatial characteristics necessary for future orbital remote sensing systems are defined. The conclusions are based on the past decade of experience in exploring for non-renewable resources with reference to data from ground, aircraft, and orbital systems. Two principle areas of investigation are used in the discussion: a structural interpretation in a basin area for hydrocarbon exploration, and a discrimination of altered areas in the Cuprite district in Nevada.

  4. Short run effects of bleaker prospects for oligopolistic producers of a non-renewable resource

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grimsrud, Kristine; Rosendahl, Knut Einar; Storroesten, Halvor Briseid; Tsygankova, Marina

    2013-01-15

    In a non-renewable resource market with imperfect competition, the resource owners' supply is governed both by current demand and by the resource rent. New information regarding future market conditions will typically affect the resource rent and hence current supply. Bleaker prospects will tend to accelerate extraction. We show, however, that for resource owners with substantial resource stocks, a more pessimistic outlook may in fact slow down early extraction. The explanation is that for players with extensive resource stocks, the resource rent is limited and supply is more driven by current market considerations. As players with less resources accelerate their supply, it may be optimal for the large resource owners to cut back on their supply. We illustrate this in the case of the European gas market, finding that the shale gas revolution may lead to an accelerated supply by most gas producers, but a postponement of Russian gas extraction.(Author)

  5. Mineral resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-09-01

    This paper reports that to prevent the concentration of control over federal oil and gas resources in a few companies or individuals, Congress has limited the number of acres of oil and gas leases that one party may control in a single state. An exception to this limitation involves lease acreage within the boundaries of development contracts. These contracts permit oil and gas lease operators and pipeline companies to contract with enough lessees to economically justify large-scale drilling operations for the production and transportation of oil and gas, subject to approval by the Secretary of the Interior, who must find that such contracts are in the public interest. Since 1986 Interior has entered into or approved 10 contracts with 12 lease operators for exploration of largely unleased federal lands-ranging from about 180,000 to 3.5 million acres in four western states-and has designated them as developmental contracts. GAO believes that the 10 contracts do not satisfy the legal requirements for development contracts because they are for oil and gas exploration on largely unleased federal lands, rather than for developing existing leases. By designating the 10 contracts as development contracts, Interior has enabled nine of the 12 contract parties to accumulate lease acreage that vastly exceeds the statutory acreage limitation. All nine of the contract parties were major or large independent oil companies. As a result, other parties who wish to participate in developing federal oil and gas resources within the four states may be adversely affected because the parties to Interior's contracts have been able to compete for and obtain lease acreage beyond the statutory acreage limitation. Although Interior believes that the Secretary has the discretion under law to use development contracts in the current manner, in April 1989 it ceased issuing these contracts pending completion of GAO's review

  6. Accounting for the income of non-renewable resources - Four essays on new theoretical approaches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wei, Taoyuan

    2009-01-15

    Non-renewable resources are widely extracted and used in today's global economy. On the one hand, the use of these resources generates huge cash flows that can be used for current consumption. On the other hand, the extraction of these resources implies less wealth of these natural resources in the future. To compensate for this wealth decrease, we have to accumulate other kinds of real wealth, like man-made capital, human capital, and renewable resources. The wealth accumulation can be achieved by activities of investments. Reasonable financial support for the investments should come from cash flows related to non-renewable resources. Hence, cash flows related to non-renewable resources should be divided for two basic purposes: current consumption and savings to support activities of investments. The trade-off between current consumption and savings invokes a fundamental question: how much of the cash flows can we use for current consumption without impoverishing the future? Following the literature line from Hicks (1946, Chapter 14) via Samuelson (1961) to Sefton and Weale (2006), in the first essay of this dissertation, Geir Asheim and I develop a theory of sectoral income. The theory can be applied to estimate income at a sectoral level. By this notion of sectoral income, we can answer the fundamental question concerning the division of the cash flows generated by non-renewable resources into consumption and savings. In particular, by applying the new theory in this dissertation, I provide a new method for estimating real income generated by non-renewable resources. The new method has at least two advantages when compared with the wealth-based method, which is a commonly applied method in practical resource accounting. By the wealth-based method, sectoral income is associated with the interest on the sector's wealth, where the wealth is estimated as the present value of cash flows generated from the sector (see, e.g., Aslaksen et al., 1990, and Brekke

  7. Aggregate and Mineral Resources - Minerals

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC State | GIS Inventory — This point occurrence data set represents the current mineral and selected energy resources of Utah. The data set coordinates were derived from USGS topographic maps...

  8. On the global economic potentials and marginal costs of non-renewable resources and the price of energy commodities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mercure, Jean-François; Salas, Pablo

    2013-01-01

    A model is presented in this work for simulating endogenously the evolution of the marginal costs of production of energy carriers from non-renewable resources, their consumption, depletion pathways and timescales. Such marginal costs can be used to simulate the long term average price formation of energy commodities. Drawing on previous work where a global database of energy resource economic potentials was constructed, this work uses cost distributions of non-renewable resources in order to evaluate global flows of energy commodities. A mathematical framework is given to calculate endogenous flows of energy resources given an exogenous commodity price path. This framework can be used in reverse in order to calculate an endogenous marginal cost of production of energy carriers given an exogenous carrier demand. Using rigid price inelastic assumptions independent of the economy, these two approaches generate limiting scenarios that depict extreme use of natural resources. This is useful to characterise the current state and possible uses of remaining non-renewable resources such as fossil fuels and natural uranium. The theory is however designed for use within economic or technology models that allow technology substitutions. In this work, it is implemented in the global power sector model FTT:Power. Policy implications are given. - Highlights: • Theoretical model to forecast marginal costs of non-renewable resources. • Tracks the consumption and costs of non-renewable resources. • For use in economic or technology models

  9. A test of the theory of nonrenewable resources. Controlling for exploration and market power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malischek, Raimund; Tode, Christian; Koeln Univ.

    2015-01-01

    Despite the central role of the Hotelling model within the theory of nonrenewable resources, tests of the model are rarely found. If existent, these tests tend to ignore two key features, namely market power and exploration. We therefore suggest an extension of the basic Hotelling framework to incorporate exploration activity and market power and propose an implicit price behavior test of the model to indicate whether firms undergo inter-temporal optimization. When applied to a newly constructed data set for the uranium mining industry, the null hypothesis of the firm optimizing inter-temporally is rejected in all settings. However, parameter estimates of the model still yield valuable information on cost structure, resource scarcity and market power. Our results suggest that the shadow price of the resource in situ is comparably small and may be overshadowed by market power, which may serve as an explanation for the firm failing to optimize inter-temporally.

  10. A test of the theory of nonrenewable resources. Controlling for exploration and market power

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malischek, Raimund [Koeln Univ. (Germany). Inst. of Energy Economics; Tode, Christian [Koeln Univ. (Germany). Inst. of Energy Economics; Koeln Univ. (Germany). Dept. of Economics

    2015-05-15

    Despite the central role of the Hotelling model within the theory of nonrenewable resources, tests of the model are rarely found. If existent, these tests tend to ignore two key features, namely market power and exploration. We therefore suggest an extension of the basic Hotelling framework to incorporate exploration activity and market power and propose an implicit price behavior test of the model to indicate whether firms undergo inter-temporal optimization. When applied to a newly constructed data set for the uranium mining industry, the null hypothesis of the firm optimizing inter-temporally is rejected in all settings. However, parameter estimates of the model still yield valuable information on cost structure, resource scarcity and market power. Our results suggest that the shadow price of the resource in situ is comparably small and may be overshadowed by market power, which may serve as an explanation for the firm failing to optimize inter-temporally.

  11. Mass and energy-capital conservation equations to study the price evolution of non-renewable energy resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gori, F.

    2006-01-01

    Mass conservation equation of non-renewable resources is employed to study the resources remaining in the reservoir according to the extraction policy. The energy conservation equation is transformed into an energy-capital conservation equation. The Hotelling rule is shown to be a special case of the general energy-capital conservation equation when the mass flow rate of extracted resources is equal to unity. Mass and energy-capital conservation equations are then coupled and solved together. It is investigated the price evolution of extracted resources. The conclusion of the Hotelling rule for non-extracted resources, i.e. an exponential increase of the price of non-renewable resources at the rate of current interest, is then generalized. A new parameter, called 'Price Increase Factor', PIF, is introduced as the difference between the current interest rate of capital and the mass flow rate of extraction of non-renewable resources. The price of extracted resources can increase exponentially only if PIF is greater than zero or if the mass flow rate of extraction is lower than the current interest rate of capital. The price is constant if PIF is zero or if the mass flow rate of extraction is equal to the current interest rate. The price is decreasing with time if PIF is smaller than zero or if the mass flow rate of extraction is higher than the current interest rate. (author)

  12. Migrant labor supply in a booming non-renewable resource economy: Cure and transmission mechanism for de-industrialization?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nulle, Grant Mark

    This paper challenges the determinism that booming resource economies suffer from de-industrialization, the "Dutch Disease". For several decades, economists have attempted to explain how a sudden surge in mineral and energy extraction affects an economy's output and employment from an aggregate and sectoral perspective. Economic theory shows that a "boom" in mineral and energy production is welfare enhancing to the economy experiencing it. However, the phenomenon also induces inter-sectoral adjustments among non-renewable resource (NRR), traditional traded, and non-traded industries that tend to crowd out traditional export sectors such as agriculture and manufacturing. In turn, this paper asks two fundamental questions: 1) Can the inter-sectoral adjustments wrought by a boom in NRR production be mitigated in the resource-abundant economy experiencing it; 2) Can the inter-sectoral adjustments be exported to a neighboring non-resource economy by movements in migrant labor supply? The theoretical model and empirical estimation approach presented in this paper introduces an endogenous migrant labor supply response to booms in NRR output to test the extent traditional tradable sectors shrink in the NRR-abundant economy during the boom and if such effects are exported to a neighboring jurisdiction. Using data at the U.S. county level, the empirical results show that booming economies experience positive and statistically significant rates of real income and traded sector job growth during the boom, attributable to the influx of migrant labor. By contrast, little evidence is found that non-booming counties adjacent to the booming counties experience declines in income or job growth because of labor supply outflows. Instead, the results suggest the larger the number of potential "donor" counties that can supply labor to the booming economies, the more likely the transmission of booming economy effects, namely evidence of de-industrialization, is diffused across all of the

  13. United States mineral resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brobst, Donald A.; Pratt, Walden P.

    1973-01-01

    The work on this volume began in January 1972, but in a broader sense its production began many years ago. The chapters were written by geologists most of whom have had many years of experience studying the geology of mineral deposits, and more particularly the commodities about which they have written here. A total of nearly 2,300 man-years of professional experience in the geology of mineral resources is represented by the authors of the volume, and about 30 man-years went directly into its preparation. Each chapter contains not only a synthesis of the state of knowledge of the geology of the commodity, but also an appraisal of the known resources, and an examination of the geologic possibilities for finding additional deposits. In January 1972, responsibility for the preparation of the volume was assigned to us as co-editors, and we were given a tentative list of commodities and authors. We provided each author with a suggested outline of general topics to be covered, and some guidelines as to scope and philosophy of approach, but beyond that we avoided any attempt to fit each chapter into a stereotype. Moreover, the types of commodities range from the major metals and industrial minerals such as copper, silver, and fluorspar, which have been the subject of geologic research for years, to other commodities that are of such varied geologic nature (such as pigments or gemstones) or of such minor present importance (such as scandium or thallium) that they cannot be treated from the same viewpoint as the major minerals. The chapters range, therefore, from comprehensive summary reports to general essays that reflect the individuality of the authors as well as the variation among commodities. Throughout the book the emphasis is on geology, but each chapter contains some summary information on uses, technology, and economics. These summaries are not meant to be exhaustive, however, and additional details are in the 1970 edition of "Mineral Facts and Problems" (Bulletin

  14. Invention, innovation and R and D behaviours in non-renewable resource markets: the case of petroleum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poudou, J.Ch.

    1996-12-01

    This work tries to show how the neo-Hotellinian analysis can be reconsidered through the R and D and technological innovation prism. It tries to appreciate how the R and D efforts, the incitation to innovate and the innovation timing phenomena modify the basic r% rule and allow to explain some of the conventionalized facts observed on non-renewable resource markets, and in particular on the crude-oil market. Methodologically talking, this work follows the mining paradigm built by H. Hotelling and L. Gray, i.e. a neo-classical logic of the agents and of the market. This choice corresponds to a wish to carry out a theoretical analysis instead of a pragmatic one of the relations between natural resource sectors and technological innovation. This study is organized around a separation between the decision problems of companies and the market strategy problems. (J.S.)

  15. Depletion of the non-renewable natural exergy resources as a measure of the ecological cost

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szargut, Jan; Ziebik, Andrzej; Stanek, Wojciech

    2002-01-01

    The cumulative consumption of non-renewable exergy connected with the fabrication of particular products has been termed as their ecological cost. System of linear input-output equations determining the ecological costs have been formulated. The cogeneration processes have been considered using the principle of the avoided costs of fabrication of the products substituted by the by-products of the considered process. The ecological cost determined in a regional scope takes into account the ecological cost of the imported raw materials and semi-finished products. These quantities have been substituted by the economically equivalent export of own products. The deleterious effect of the rejection of waste products to the environment has been approximately determined by means of the monetary indices of harmfulness of waste products. It has been proved, that the ecological cost of human work cannot be introduced into the set of input-output equations. Exemplary calculations have been made for the products connected with the blast-furnace process. The influence of the injection of auxiliary fuels into the blast furnace on the ecological cost of pig iron has been analyzed too. (Author)

  16. Applications of remote sensing to geobotanical prospecting for non-renewable resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birnie, R. W.

    1982-01-01

    Airborne sensors used in the remote detection of geobotanical anomalies are able to locate mineral deposits. Geobotanical stress is manifested in increased visible spectrum reflectance due to a decrease in chlorophyll content which induces chlorosis. The effectiveness of this method is, however, restricted to soils in which plant root structures are embedded in bedrock-derived soils to a depth sufficient for the production of heavy metal stress. It is noted that Landsat remote sensors are inherently better suited to the detection of overall plant density or biomass changes relating to zones of mineralization.

  17. Planning for a soft landing : non-renewable resource development and community infrastructure in the Northwest Territories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-02-01

    This paper provided a high-level overview of research related to the boom and bust cycle of resource-based economic development and community infrastructure in the north, particularly in the Northwest Territories. The paper focused on what is known and on knowledge gaps that needed to be filled in each of 3 theme areas for an experts workshop on northern communities. The themes that were discussed at the workshop and in this paper were: the connections between non-renewable resources development and community infrastructure in the north; planning for resource development; and strategies for moving ahead and putting ideas into practice. The paper discussed the objectives of the research and discussed findings under each of the 3 themes. Topics discussed included: changes in the infrastructure mix; infrastructure and climate change; infrastructure financing; uncertainty; knowledge; planning tools; stakeholder participation; and measuring and monitoring planning implementation. Data availability was also discussed along with funding mechanisms, technological innovations and community capacity building. It was concluded that strategies for dealing with the boom-induced infrastructure challenges facing communities in the Northwest Territories should focus on making more creative use of available funding; promoting technical innovation; and improving maintenance capacity at the community level. 62 refs

  18. Optimising the extraction rate of a non-durable non-renewable resource in a monopolistic market: a mathematical programming approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corominas, Albert; Fossas, Enric

    2015-01-01

    We assume a monopolistic market for a non-durable non-renewable resource such as crude oil, phosphates or fossil water. Stating the problem of obtaining optimal policies on extraction and pricing of the resource as a non-linear program allows general conclusions to be drawn under diverse assumptions about the demand curve, discount rates and length of the planning horizon. We compare the results with some common beliefs about the pace of exhaustion of this kind of resources.

  19. Taxation of a nonrenewable but quasi-infinite energy resource: a two-period framework

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanf, C.H.; Thampapillai, D.J.

    1992-01-01

    This paper deals with the formation of a resource extraction tax for a resource that is finite yet relatively abundant in its availability. The basis for the formulation is the higher extraction cost imposed on future generations as a result of present extraction. The optimal size of the tax is determined by the trade-off between present losses and future gains. (author)

  20. Funds from non-renewable energy resources: Policy lessons from Alaska and Alberta

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baena, César; Sévi, Benoît; Warrack, Allan

    2012-01-01

    We document the use of energy natural resource funds in Alaska and Alberta and analyze theirs characteristics for further implementation in resource-rich countries. Such funds allow dealing theoretically with intergenerational equity issues, corruption, and more general institutional problems. The performance of both funds is very different, depending on the management and composition choices but some policy lessons can be drawn from these two examples. Importantly, the role of a public dividend policy is highlighted as a way to bypass corrupted institutions and to enhance quality of life for poorest people. We also emphasize the need to deal with inflation to make the fund sustainable. - Highlights: ► We document the optimal intergenerational energy resource management using funds. ► We use Alaskan and Albertan experiences to provide policy lessons for future implementation of such funds. ► We emphasize the role of a public dividend policy

  1. VT Mineral Resources - MRDS Extract

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) MRDSVT is an extract from the Mineral Resources Data System (MRDS) covering the State of Vermont only. MRDS database contains the records provided...

  2. Mineral resources potential of Antarctica

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Splettstoesser, John F; Dreschhoff, Gisela A. M

    1990-01-01

    .... This volume of the Antarctic Research Series results from an attempt to assemble a summary of current factual knowledge and scientific data related to issues of mineral resources in Antarctica...

  3. Using non-renewable resources to promote economic development: The case of stock-dependent extraction cost

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jefferson, R.W.

    1991-01-01

    Various policies for using a newly discovered deposit of a non-renewable resource to promote local economic development are considered. A model of optimal extraction, in which cost depends on both current output and remaining stock levels is constructed. The model is simplified by the assumptions that prices are exogenous and that extraction cost is linear homogeneous in current output and remaining stock. Both pure depletion and combined extraction and exploration models are considered. The models are solved using the dynamic programming algorithm. The effects of taxes on profit and gross revenue are analyzed both algebraically and through numerical simulations. The conditions under which a tax on profit does not distort production are specified. The welfare costs of tax-induced distortions in extraction and exploration are discussed using simulation results. The effects on production of future prices being stochastic are discussed, and it is shown that a firm which re-optimizes each period on the basis of new information concerning that period's price will choose to restrict output below that which would have been optimal if the expected price could be forecast with certainty

  4. A Depletion Protocol for Non-Renewable Natural Resources: Australia as an Example

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartlett, Albert A.

    2006-01-01

    This paper examines the implications of statements by Australia's Minister of Resources that Australia's exports of coal are growing rapidly and that Australia's coal will last '110 years at current rates of production.' If one assumes that coal production P(t), follows a Gaussian curve (similar to a Hubbert curve) one can construct a family of Gaussian curves showing possible future paths of P(t) which are consistent with the cited '110 years.' Each curve reaches a maximum after which P(t) declines toward zero. Knowledge of the present value of dP/dt allows one member of the family to be identified as the most probable future path of P(t). Families of curves and tabular data are presented for resource quantities that would last 50, 100 and 200 years 'at current rates of production.' If, instead, Australia's P(t) follows a declining exponential curve (exp(-kt)) with k = (1/110) per year, the stated quantity of coal will allow production to continue forever, with P(t) declining with a half life of 76 y. This and more rapidly declining exponential paths are the only paths that can be said to be sustainable. The envelope of the family of Gaussian curves divides the (P, t) plane into 'allowed' and 'forbidden' areas. The declining exponential curve divides the 'allowed' area into an upper area that is 'terminal' and a lower area that is 'sustainable.' These facts, coupled with Australia's expectations of rapid growth of its population, suggest that Australia's present resource policies are 'anti-sustainable' and that the people of Australia need to rethink their present policy of rapidly exporting their fossil fuels

  5. Using discrete-time mathematical programming to optimise the extraction rate of a durable non-renewable resource with a single primary supplier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albert Corominas

    Full Text Available A non-linear discrete-time mathematical program model is proposed to determining the optimal extraction policy for a single primary supplier of a durable non-renewable resource, such as gemstones or some metals. Karush, Kuhn and Tucker conditions allow obtaining analytic solutions and general properties of them in some specific settings. Moreover, provided that the objective function (i.e., the discounted value of the incomes throughout the planning horizon is concave, the model can be easily solved, even using standard commercial solver. However, the analysis of the solutions obtained for different assumptions of the values of the parameters show that the optimal extraction policies and the corresponding prices do not exhibit a general shape. Keywords: Durable non-renewable resources, Single primary supplier, Non-linear programming

  6. Mineral resources of Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kušnír Imrich

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available Vietnam je bohatý na nerastné suroviny, ktoré sa nachádzajú prevažne na severe krajiny. Ložiská bauxitov, fosfátov, vzácnych zemín (REE, majú svetový význam. Ale i zásoby celého radu ïalších surovín (ropy, uhlia, zlata, železných rúd, chromitu, cínu, ilmenitu, medi, grafitu, atï. sú významné, ekonomicky ažite¾né a ich potenciál je obrovský. Za uvedené nerastné bohatstvo je „zodpovednᓠrozmanitá geologická stavba krajiny. Taktiež i morfológia a klíma (vlhká, tropická prispeli ku vytvoreniu niektorých ložísk (bauxity v krasových priehlbniach, atï.. Súèasná produkcia, okrem ropy (3,5 Mt/rok, zahròuje: 10,7 Mt uhlia, 3,5 Mt chromitu, asi 1 000 kg zlata, grafitu, kaolínu a mnohé iné minerály. Napriek tomu, je banícky priemysel v porovnaní so surovinovou základòou slabo vyvinutý. K jeho rozvoju urèite prispeje i úèas zahranièných spoloèností, odnedávna prítomných pri prieskume a ažbe surovín urèených pre export. Okrem struèného úvodu do geológie krajiny, obsahuje tento èlánok krátky popis nerastného bohatstva Vietnamu.

  7. Impact of mineral resource depletion

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Brent, AC

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available In a letter to the editor, the authors comment on BA Steen's article on "Abiotic Resource Depletion: different perceptions of the problem with mineral deposits" published in the special issue of the International Journal of Life Cycle Assessment...

  8. U.S. Geological Survey Mineral Resources Program—Mineral resource science supporting informed decisionmaking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkins, Aleeza M.; Doebrich, Jeff L.

    2016-09-19

    The USGS Mineral Resources Program (MRP) delivers unbiased science and information to increase understanding of mineral resource potential, production, and consumption, and how mineral resources interact with the environment. The MRP is the Federal Government’s sole source for this mineral resource science and information. Program goals are to (1) increase understanding of mineral resource formation, (2) provide mineral resource inventories and assessments, (3) broaden knowledge of the effects of mineral resources on the environment and society, and (4) provide analysis on the availability and reliability of mineral supplies.

  9. Aggregate and Mineral Resources - MO 2014 Industrial Mineral Mines (SHP)

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC State | GIS Inventory — This data set contains names, locations and additional data for active Industrial Mineral Mines permitted with the Missouri Department of Natural Resources, Division...

  10. Sustainable development and the exploitation of mineral and energy resources: a review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wellmer, F.-W.; Becker-Platen, J. D.

    2002-04-01

    Natural resources, e.g., metals, industrial minerals, water, and soil, are the essential basis for our economy and well-being. We have to know where these raw materials come from and how they are mined. Sustainable development requires the maintenance, rational use and enhancement of natural resources, as well as a balanced consideration of ecology, economy and social justice. Four general rules concerning the implementation of sustainable development for renewable and non-renewable resources are discussed. Examples of the consumption of selected materials from historical times to the present day are presented, as well as of regional distribution, usage (in contrast to consumption), lifetimes of resources, the supply-and-demand cycle, recycling and substitution in modern times. To fulfill the requirement of sustainable development, the efficiency with which resources are utilized has to be improved. The learning process, often driven by financial rewards, leads from one technology to a better one, thus increasing the efficiency of the use of a resource or commodity. Examples of learning curves are discussed. Industrial countries have to transfer their advanced technologies to developing countries in order to avoid undesirable development in the mining industry and use of natural resources in those regions. The use of the best available technology by the mining industry, taking into account economic considerations, and the necessity to establish environmental guidelines are essential if environmental impact of the production of non-renewable resources is to be minimized. Far more critical than the production of non-renewable resources under the aspect of sustainable development and the capacity of the pollutant sinks of the Earth is the element of natural attenuation with regard to the resources soil and water.

  11. Status of mineral resources evaluation and forecast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma Hanfeng; Li Ziying; Luo Yi; Li Shengxiang; Sun Wenpeng

    2007-01-01

    The work of resources evaluation and forecast is a focus to the governments of every country in the world, it is related to the establishment of strategic policy on the national mineral resources. In order to quantitatively evaluate the general potential of uranium resources in China and better forecast uranium deposits, this paper briefly introduces the method of evaluating total amount of mineral resources, especially 6 usual prospective methods which are recommended in international geology comparison programs, as well as principle of usual mineral resources quantitative prediction and its steps. The work history of mineral resources evaluation and forecast is reviewed concisely. Advantages and disadvantages of each method, their application field and condition are also explained briefly. At last, the history of uranium resources evaluation and forecast in China and its status are concisely outlined. (authors)

  12. Mineral resource of the month: potash

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jasinski, Stephen M.

    2011-01-01

    The article offers basic information about the mineral resource potash. According to the author, potash is the generic term for a variety of mined and manufactured salts that contain the mineral potassium in a water-soluble form. The author adds that potash is used in fertilizers, soaps and detergents, glass and ceramics, and alkaline batteries.

  13. Africa: Mineral resources, environment, and governance | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2011-01-25

    Jan 25, 2011 ... Africa: Mineral resources, environment, and governance ... benefits the poor, more effective social and environmental policies, and respect for human ... Who should claim responsibility for local crime prevention and security?

  14. Oceans: Geochemistry and mineral resources

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Joao, H.M.; Paropkari, A.L.

    , Indian became the first country to have been allocated exclusive rights of exploration in the pioneer area in the Central Indian Ocean Basin. Presently world wide some of the near-shore deposits are being exploited. However, the mining for other mineral...

  15. Mineral resources in Afghanistan. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-02-01

    Despite Afghanistan's wide variety of mineral resources and long history of small-scale mining of gems, gold, copper, and coal, it was not until the 1950's that the country's mineral resources were subject to systematic exploration. The report documents the past and present status of these resources and examines alternative strategies for their exploitation. Chapter 2 provides a brief history of minerals exploration, exploitation, and planning in Afghanistan, including the roles of Great Britain, France, Germany, the Soviet bloc, and the United States in Afghanistan's mineral sector; mineral policy in the five national plans during the years 1962-83; and sector assessments conducted by the World Bank (1978) and the US Department of Energy (1989). Chapter 3 discusses three strategies for developing the country's mineral and hydrocarbon resources. (1) a national orientation focusing on domestic needs; (2) a regional strategy that would consider markets in countries close to Afghanistan; and (3) an international strategy that would place Afghan resources on the international market

  16. Petroleum and mineral resources of Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovar, Karel; Behrendt, John Charles

    1983-01-01

    No known petroleum or mineral resources occur in Antarctica. The data on these subjects have been collected, mainly since the IGY (International Geophysical Year), 1957-58, as a part of other research carried out by geologists and geophysicists from a number of countries. Specific resource-related studies have not been made. Wright and Williams (1974) summarized what was known of Antarctic mineral resources a decade ago.The U.S. Geological Survey has been actively pursuing various investigations in Antarctica since 194 7. In the course of this work and that of our colleagues elsewhere in the United States and in other countries, much information relevant to petroleum and mineral resources has been obtained. Since 1976, modern state-of-the-art multichannel seismic reflection and aeromagnetic surveys by several countries over the continental margin of Antarctica have indicated thick sedimentary basins. However, no offshore drilling beneath the continental shelf has taken place since the DSDP (Deep Sea Drilling Project) holes in the Ross Sea in 1973. Geologic field investigations begun at the turn of the twentieth century have been intensified in the past two decades; most rock outcrops have been visited and samples collected. Technology to exploit resources, particularly in the Arctic, has been developing at a rapid rate, and much of it could be applied to Antarctica. As a result of the petroleum price increases of the past decade, the attention of a number of countries has turned to Antarctica, but under the policy of "voluntary restraint" adopted by the Antarctic Treaty nations, no active petroleum or mineral exploration is taking place. The Antarctic treaty countries are in the process of negotiating an Antarctic mineral resources regime that is anticipated to be completed within the next several years. Therefore it seemed timely to us to readdress the question of petroleum and mineral resources. These reports review and summarize the available information. The

  17. Taxation and our future mineral resources. [Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, R D

    1976-05-01

    Canada's known reserves of minerals are estimated in general to be adequate to meet domestic requirements and current export demands until the mid-1980's. Beyond that time, an increasing proportion of reserves needed to maintain, let alone increase, present mineral production must come from mineral deposits not yet discovered, delineated or developed. The major question for Canada is whether present tax and regulatory programs will provide sufficient incentives for the industry to spend the large amounts required--perhaps $1.2 billion annually--in the exploration and development of mineral resources. Without such a major capital commitment to the development of new mineral resources, Canada will not be able to maintain the relative importance of its mining sector, or the contribution that the sector has made to our balance of payments, employment, and the opening of new frontiers. However, present levels of exploration and development expenditures are likely to be totally inadequate in maintaining, let alone increasing present production. The article refers to two major new reports that provide new information on Canada's resource industries and their future.

  18. Mass and energy-capital conservation equations to study the price evolution of non-renewable energy resources. Part II-Extension to resources sold to the market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gori, F.

    2006-01-01

    The time evolution of the price of resources sold to the market and of the price difference, between sold and extracted resources, is investigated in case of no accumulation of the resources; i.e. when the resources are extracted and sold to the market at the same mass flow rate. The price evolution of sold resources varies with time according to the relation between the price increase factor, PIF, of sold and extracted resources. The price evolutions of sold resources and price difference are investigated according to the relation between extraction rate and interest rate of extracted and sold resources. The price of sold resources and the price difference increase with time if the PIF of sold resources is greater than the PIF of extracted resources and the initial price is greater than the critical price of sold resources, which depends on the initial price of extracted resources and the interest rate of non-extracted and extracted resources. The price of sold resources and the price difference decrease with time if the PIF of sold resources is greater than the PIF of extracted resources and the initial price is smaller than the critical price of sold resources. The other cases are discussed extensively in the paper. (author)

  19. Mineral resources of Slovakia, questions of classification and valuation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baláž Peter

    1999-06-01

    Full Text Available According to the Constitution of Slovak Republic, mineral resources of Slovakia are in the ownership of Slovak Republic. In 1997, 721 exclusive mineral deposits of mineral fuels, metals and industrial minerals were registered in Slovakia. The classification for economic and uneconomic reserves/resources requires an annual updating, concerning changes of market mineral prices and mine production costs. In terms of economic valuation of mineral resources, a new United Nations international classification for reserves/resources appears as a perspective alternative. Changes of geological and mining legislation are necessary for real valuation of Slovak mineral resources.

  20. Mineral resources of Peru's ancient societies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, W.E.

    2003-01-01

    Northern Peru has an exceptionally rich archaeological heritage that includes metalwork, ceramics and textiles. The success of at least a half-dozen pre-Columbian societies dating back 3,000 years and subsequent Spanish colonization in the 1400s has rested on the effective use of northern Peru's abundant resources. In the summer of 2000, my son Matt and I learned about that connection firsthand by volunteering at the Santa Rita B archaeological site in the Chao Valley near Trujillo in northern Peru. Riding donkey-back through the Andes and talking with local people, we got our hands dirty in the rich archaeology and geology of the area. We were able to correlate mineral occurrences to their various roles in society - opening a window into the region's fascinating past. From construction to metallurgy, pre-Columbian societies flourished and advanced because of their understanding and use of the available mineral resources.

  1. Global mineral resource assessment: porphyry copper assessment of Mexico: Chapter A in Global mineral resource assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammarstrom, Jane M.; Robinson, Gilpin R.; Ludington, Steve; Gray, Floyd; Drenth, Benjamin J.; Cendejas-Cruz, Francisco; Espinosa, Enrique; Pérez-Segura, Efrén; Valencia-Moreno, Martín; Rodríguez-Castañeda, José Luis; Vásquez-Mendoza, Rigobert; Zürcher, Lukas

    2010-01-01

    Mineral resource assessments provide a synthesis of available information about distributions of mineral deposits in the Earth’s crust. A probabilistic mineral resource assessment of undiscovered resources in porphyry copper deposits in Mexico was done as part of a global mineral resource assessment. The purpose of the study was to (1) delineate permissive areas (tracts) for undiscovered porphyry copper deposits within 1 km of the surface at a scale of 1:1,000,000; (2) provide a database of known porphyry copper deposits and significant prospects; (3) estimate numbers of undiscovered deposits within those permissive tracts; and (4) provide probabilistic estimates of amounts of copper (Cu), molybdenum (Mo), gold (Au), and silver (Ag) that could be contained in undiscovered deposits for each permissive tract. The assessment was conducted using a three-part form of mineral resource assessment based on mineral deposit models (Singer, 1993). Delineation of permissive tracts primarily was based on distributions of mapped igneous rocks related to magmatic arcs that formed in tectonic settings associated with subduction boundary zones. Using a GIS, map units were selected from digital geologic maps based on lithology and age to delineate twelve permissive tracts associated with Jurassic, Laramide (~90 to 34 Ma), and younger Tertiary magmatic arcs. Stream-sediment geochemistry, mapped alteration, regional aeromagnetic data, and exploration history were considered in conjunction with descriptive deposit models and grade and tonnage models to guide estimates.

  2. Mineral Resource Points, US EPA Region 9, 2006, USGS

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Mineral resource occurrence data covering the world, most thoroughly within the U.S. This database contains the records previously provided in the Mineral Resource...

  3. Non-renewal of contracts

    CERN Multimedia

    Association du personnel

    2007-01-01

    A new illegal practice is appearing in certain sectors of the Organization: the non-renewal of renewable three-year limited-duration (LD) contracts, despite a more than satisfactory performance and an obvious commitment to the Organization.

  4. Mineral resources, geologic structure, and landform surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lattman, L. H.

    1973-01-01

    The use of ERTS-1 imagery for mineral resources, geologic structure, and landform surveys is discussed. Four categories of ERTS imagery application are defined and explained. The types of information obtained by the various multispectral band scanners are analyzed. Samples of land use maps and tectoning and metallogenic models are developed. It is stated that the most striking features visible on ERTS imagery are regional lineaments, or linear patterns in the topography, which reflect major fracture zones extending upward from the basement of the earth.

  5. China's mineral resources security under economic globalization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Y. [China University of Mining and Technology, Xuzhou (China). College of Environment and Spatial Informatics

    2002-10-01

    The concept and intention of mineral resources security are introduced. From the insurance and leverage that mineral resources has on China's socio-economic development, the strength of support, the opportunity and challenge imposed by globalised economy, the effect of mineral resource development on the safety of the eco-environment, the author analyses the basic situation and existing problem of the mineral resources security in China; summarizes the current research situation of mineral resources security and the main tactics which are used to ensure mineral resources security in the developed countries; presents the essence of mineral resources security, the basic principles of research and the problems focused; and points out the research areas and goals that should be strengthened urgently. 15 refs.

  6. Aggregate and Mineral Resources - Industrial Mineral Mining Operations

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Education | GIS Inventory — An Industrial Mineral Mining Operation is a DEP primary facility type related to the Industrial Mineral Mining Program. The sub-facility types are listed below:Deep...

  7. Mineral resources accounting: A technique formonitoring the Philippine mining industry for sustainable development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Teodoro M.; Zaratan, May L.

    Mining which extracts exhaustible mineral resources has been condemned by certain sectors as promoting social inequity and underdevelopment. This is so because once a tonne of copper, say, is mined it is forever lost to the future generation. Such perception translates into policies that are usually disadvantageous or even hostile to the industry. Despite this adverse criticism, recent developments in natural resources accounting indicate that mining can truly contribute to the sustainable economic development of a society. True worth of mining in economic development can be assessed and monitored on a continuing basis through an appropriate system of natural accounts (SNA). If the industry is found deficient, such SNA can also point out how the industry can be made to constribute to sustainable growth. The prevailing SNA is criticized as having failed to capture the adverse effects on the welfare of society of producing a nonrenewable resource such as minerals. For instance, the production of copper for a particular year registers an increase in gross national product equivalent to its monetary value. However, the concomitant depletion of the country's natural wealth due to such production is nowhere recorded in the SNA. This faulty accounting gives rise to policies that result in nonsustainable economic growth. In order to address the preceding problem, this paper presents an accounting formula applicable to any nonrenewable resource whereby revenue is decomposed into income and capital components. To achieve sustainable economic growth, it states that the capital component must be invested to generate future incomes. However, investments need not be confined to the same sector. Application of the accounting scheme to the Philippine copper and gold sectors during the 1980-1990 period leads to the following conclusions: (a) by and large, gold and copper mining operations have indeed contributed positively to national income, contrary to allegations of certain

  8. Evaluation of mineral resource potential of the Finnish precambrian

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peltonen, K.

    1993-05-01

    In the report the undiscovered mineral resource potential of metallogenic regions in Finland is evaluated. The evaluation is based on known deposits. The criteria of the evaluation were: ore and mineral deposit density, regional distribution of valuable metals, and the amount and the nature of prospecting methods used. The information for the study has been collected from the data base for ore minerals maintained by the Geological Survey of Finland. Regions with mineral resource potential conclusively under national average are Presvecokarelidic and Svecokarelidic granitoids and rapakivi Massif. The mineral resource potential of basic rocks in relation to their surface area is multiple compared to non-basic rocks

  9. Mineral resource of the month: vermiculite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanner, Arnold O.

    2014-01-01

    Vermiculite comprises a group of hydrated, laminar magnesium-aluminum-iron silicate minerals resembling mica. They are secondary minerals, typically altered biotite, iron-rich phlogopite or other micas or clay-like minerals that are themselves sometimes alteration products of amphibole, chlorite, olivine and pyroxene. Vermiculite deposits are associated with volcanic ultramafic rocks rich in magnesium silicate minerals, and flakes of the mineral range in color from black to shades of brown and yellow. The crystal structure of vermiculite contains water molecules, a property that is critical to its processing for common uses.

  10. Mineral Resource Information System for Field Lab in the Osage Mineral Reservation Estate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carroll, H.B.; Johnson, William I.

    1999-04-27

    The Osage Mineral Reservation Estate is located in Osage County, Oklahoma. Minerals on the Estate are owned by members of the Osage Tribe who are shareholders in the Estate. The Estate is administered by the Osage Agency, Branch of Minerals, operated by the U.S. Bureau of Indian Affairs (BIA). Oil, natural gas, casinghead gas, and other minerals (sand, gravel, limestone, and dolomite) are exploited by lessors. Operators may obtain from the Branch of Minerals and the Osage Mineral Estate Tribal Council leases to explore and exploit oil, gas, oil and gas, and other minerals on the Estate. Operators pay a royalty on all minerals exploited and sold from the Estate. A mineral Resource Information system was developed for this project to evaluate the remaining hydrocarbon resources located on the Estate. Databases on Microsoft Excel spreadsheets of operators, leases, and production were designed for use in conjunction with an evaluation spreadsheet for estimating the remaining hydrocarbons on the Estate.

  11. Sustainable mineral resources management: from regional mineral resources exploration to spatial contamination risk assessment of mining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, Gyozo

    2009-07-01

    Wide-spread environmental contamination associated with historic mining in Europe has triggered social responses to improve related environmental legislation, the environmental assessment and management methods for the mining industry. Mining has some unique features such as natural background contamination associated with mineral deposits, industrial activities and contamination in the three-dimensional subsurface space, problem of long-term remediation after mine closure, problem of secondary contaminated areas around mine sites, land use conflicts and abandoned mines. These problems require special tools to address the complexity of the environmental problems of mining-related contamination. The objective of this paper is to show how regional mineral resources mapping has developed into the spatial contamination risk assessment of mining and how geological knowledge can be transferred to environmental assessment of mines. The paper provides a state-of-the-art review of the spatial mine inventory, hazard, impact and risk assessment and ranking methods developed by national and international efforts in Europe. It is concluded that geological knowledge on mineral resources exploration is essential and should be used for the environmental contamination assessment of mines. Also, sufficient methodological experience, knowledge and documented results are available, but harmonisation of these methods is still required for the efficient spatial environmental assessment of mine contamination.

  12. Evaluation of mineral status in feed resources and effects of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Evaluation of mineral status in feed resources and effects of supplementation to farm animals in northern Ghana. ... Ghana Journal of Agricultural Science ... A survey was conducted on the mineral concentration of available feed resources at three locations in the northern Guinea Savannah Zone between 1992 and 1997.

  13. Geological structure and mineral resources of Algeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduard Dobra

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The hydrocarbon System Ourd Mya is located in the Sahara Basin. It is one of the producing basins in Algeria. The stratigraphic section consists of Paleozoic and Mesosoic, it is about 5000 m thick. In the eastern part, the basin is limited by the Hassi-Messaoud high zone which is a giant oil field produced from the Cambrian sands. The western part is limited by Hassi R`mel which is one of the biggest gas field in the world, it is produced from the triassic sands. The Mesozoic section lays on the lower Devonian and in the eastern part, on the Cambrian. The main source rock is Silurian shale with an average thickness of 50 m and a total organic matter of 6 % (14 % in some cases. Results of maturation modeling indicate that the lower Silurian source is in the oil window. The Ordovician shales are also a source rock but in a second order. Clastic reservoirs are in the Triassic sequence which is mainly fluvial deposit with complex alluvial channels, it is the main target in the basin. Clastic reservoirs within the lower Devonian section have a good hydrocarbon potential in the east of the basin through a southwest-northeast orientation. The late Triassic-Early Jurassic evaporites overlie the Triassic clastic interval and extend over the entire Oued Mya Basin. This is considered as a super-seal evaporate package, which consists predominantly of anhydrite and halite. For Paleozoic targets, a large number of potential seals exist within the stratigraphic column.This paper describe the main geological structure and mineral resources of Algeria.

  14. Earth mineral resource of the month: asbestos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virta, Robert L.

    2010-01-01

    The article discusses the characteristics and feature of asbestos. According to the author, asbestos is a generic name for six needle-shaped minerals that possess high tensile strengths, flexibility, and resistance to chemical and thermal degradation. These minerals are actinolite, amosite, anthophyllite, chrysolite, crocilodite and tremolite. Asbestos is used for strengthening concrete pipe, plastic components, and gypsum plasters.

  15. Superficial mineral resources of the Indian Ocean

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Siddiquie, H.N.; Hashimi, N.H.; Gujar, A; Valsangkar, A

    The sea floor of the Indian Ocean and the continental margins bordering the ocean are covered by a wide variety of terrigenous, biogenous and anthigenic mineral deposits. The biogenous deposits in the Indian Ocean comprise the corals on shallow...

  16. Edaiila area of interest non-renewable resource assessment (phase 1) Great Bear Lake area, Northwest Territories Parts of NTS 86 K, 86 L, 86 M, 86 N and 96 I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gebert, J.S.; Jackson, J.E.; O' Neil, C.E. [AMEC Americas Ltd., Calgary, AB (Canada). Earth and Environment Division

    2007-07-01

    The Edaiila study area of interest is located in the Deline District of the Sahtu Settlement area in the Northwest Territories. It lies in the Proterozoic Bear geologic province of the Canadian Shield. The area is currently covered by prospecting claims and is likely undergoing exploration for uranium, precious metals, base metals and diamonds. This document presented a Phase 1 non-renewable resource assessment (NRA) of the area that was completed as part of the Northwest Territories Protect Area Strategy (PAS). It presented compiled historical information, provided a preliminary resource assessment and made recommendations for further Phase 2 studies. This region is within the continuous permafrost zone and is characterized by a high subarctic climate. The study area straddles the tree line and contains vegetation typical of taiga and tundra regions. The bedrock covering the flat to gently rolling topography is covered by undulating glacial drift, raised beaches and outwash deposits. About 25 per cent of the area is covered by wetlands. The Bear province is subdivided into two major domains, the Wopmay orogen and the Coppermine homocline. In the eastern portion of the study area, basement rocks are part of the Great Bear magmatic zone and are locally exposed in the Fault River area. Although basement rocks in the western portion of the study area are not exposed, they are assumed to be composed of the Hottah terrane. 86 refs., 14 tabs., 7 figs., 4 appendices.

  17. Placer mineral resources of Tamil Nadu

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anil Kumar, V.

    2016-01-01

    Tamil Nadu, the southernmost state with second longest coast line in India has many placer heavy mineral deposits. These deposits contain economically important light heavy minerals like ilmenite, rutile, leucoxene, monazite, zircon, garnet, sillimanite, kyanite and non-economic minerals like pyroxenes, amphiboles and magnetite along with associated accessory minerals like staurolite, epidote, spinel, biotite and tourmaline. Geologically, granulitic rocks, principally Khondalites (garnet-sillimanite-graphite gneisses), charnockites and granitic gneisses bordered by sedimentary rocks are exposed along the eastern coastal plains of the Tamil Nadu. The principal highland areas, as for example, Shavaroys, Nilgiris, Palni-Kodaikanal Hills and Cardomom hills consists primarily of Charnockites. The margins of highland show a gradation into less metamorphosed rocks generally of amphibolite facies. The khondalites are found south of Kodaikanal massif. Anorthosites and layered mafic complexes occur at Sittampundi, Kadavur areas. Alkaline rocks and carbonatites are prominent at Simalpatti, Sevattur and Sivamalai. Coastal sedimentaries include, Gondwanas, Cretaceous, Tertiary and Quaternary rocks along with lateritic soils and beach sands

  18. Mineral resource of the month: magnesium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, Deborah A.

    2012-01-01

    Magnesium is the eighthmost abundant element in Earth’s crust, and the second-most abundant metal ion in seawater. Although magnesium is found in more than 60 minerals, only brucite, dolomite, magnesite and carnallite are commercially important for their magnesium content. Magnesium and its compounds also are recovered from seawater, brines found in lakes and wells, and bitterns (salts).

  19. Mineral resource of the month: diatomite

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    2013-01-01

    The article discusses the properties and applications of the mineral diatomite. According to the author, diatomite is a soft, friable and very fine-grained siliceous sedimentary rock made of the remains of fossilized diatoms. The author adds that its properties make diatomite very useful as a filtration medium and as a component in cement.

  20. Classification system of the mineral reserves and resources of Ukraine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lovinyukov, V.I.

    1998-01-01

    This paper describes the system used to classify the resources and reserves of all minerals and fuels in Ukraine. The classification system is part of an official procedure determined by the Ukrainian State Commission on Reserves. Following preparation of resource estimates the results are registered with the State, which maintains an official inventory of all mineral resources. This paper compares the Ukrainian system to, and finds it compatible with the United Nations International Framework of resource classification. The UN system is based on economics of production and mineability. (author)

  1. Classification system of the mineral reserves and resources of Ukraine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lovyunikov, V.I.

    1997-01-01

    This paper describes the system used to classify the resources and reserves of all minerals and fuels in Ukraine. The classification system is part of an official procedures determined by the Ukrainian State Commission on Reserves. Following preparation of resource estimates the results are registered with the State, which maintains an official inventory of all mineral resources. This paper compares the Ukrainian system to, and finds it compatible with the United Nations International Framework of resources classification. The UN system is based on economics of production and mineability. (author). 1 tab

  2. Mineral resource of the month: perlite

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    2010-01-01

    The article talks about perlite, which is a mineral used as an aggregate for lightweight construction products, filler for paints and horticultural soil blends. Perlite comes from viscous lava, mined and processed to produce lightweight material that competes with pumice, exfoliated vermiculite and expanded clay and shale. It is mined in about 35 countries that include Greece, Japan and the U.S. Other uses include insulation, concrete and plaster aggregate, and stonewashing.

  3. Probability calculations for three-part mineral resource assessments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellefsen, Karl J.

    2017-06-27

    Three-part mineral resource assessment is a methodology for predicting, in a specified geographic region, both the number of undiscovered mineral deposits and the amount of mineral resources in those deposits. These predictions are based on probability calculations that are performed with computer software that is newly implemented. Compared to the previous implementation, the new implementation includes new features for the probability calculations themselves and for checks of those calculations. The development of the new implementation lead to a new understanding of the probability calculations, namely the assumptions inherent in the probability calculations. Several assumptions strongly affect the mineral resource predictions, so it is crucial that they are checked during an assessment. The evaluation of the new implementation leads to new findings about the probability calculations,namely findings regarding the precision of the computations,the computation time, and the sensitivity of the calculation results to the input.

  4. Mineral Resource of the Month: Antimony

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guberman, David E.

    2015-01-01

    Antimony is a lustrous silvery-white semimetal or metalloid. Archaeological and historical studies indicate that antimony and its mineral sulfides have been used by humans for at least six millennia. The alchemist Basil Valentine is sometimes credited with “discovering” the element; he described the extraction of metallic antimony from stibnite in his treatise “The Triumphal Chariot of Antimony,” published sometime between 1350 and 1600. In the early 18th century, Jöns Jakob Berzelius chose the periodic symbol for antimony (Sb) based on stibium, which is the Latin name for stibnite.

  5. Critical mineral resources of the United States—An introduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulz, Klaus J.; DeYoung, John H.; Seal, Robert R.; Bradley, Dwight C.; Schulz, Klaus J.; DeYoung,, John H.; Seal, Robert R.; Bradley, Dwight C.

    2017-12-19

    Many changes have taken place in the mineral resource sector since the publication by the U.S. Geological Survey of Professional Paper 820, “United States Mineral Resources,” which is a review of the long-term United States resource position for 65 mineral commodities or commodity groups. For example, since 1973, the United States has continued to become increasingly dependent on imports to meet its demands for an increasing number of mineral commodities. The global demand for mineral commodities is at an alltime high and is expected to continue to increase, and the development of new technologies and products has led to the use of a greater number of mineral commodities in increasing quantities to the point that, today, essentially all naturally occurring elements have several significant industrial uses. Although most mineral commodities are present in sufficient amounts in the earth to provide adequate supplies for many years to come, their availability can be affected by such factors as social constraints, politics, laws, environmental regulations, land-use restrictions, economics, and infrastructure.This volume presents updated reviews of 23 mineral commodities and commodity groups viewed as critical to a broad range of existing and emerging technologies, renewable energy, and national security. The commodities or commodity groups included are antimony, barite, beryllium, cobalt, fluorine, gallium, germanium, graphite, hafnium, indium, lithium, manganese, niobium, platinum-group elements, rare-earth elements, rhenium, selenium, tantalum, tellurium, tin, titanium, vanadium, and zirconium. All these commodities have been listed as critical and (or) strategic in one or more of the recent studies based on assessed likelihood of supply interruption and the possible cost of such a disruption to the assessor. For some of the minerals, current production is limited to only one or a few countries. For many, the United States currently has no mine production or any

  6. Thallium in mineral resources extracted in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bojakowska I.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Thallium concentrations in primary mineral commodities extracted in Poland and processed in high temperatures were determined by ICP-MS method. Samples of hard and brown coal, copper-silver and zinclead ores, argillaceous and calcareous rocks of different genesis and age were analyzed. The highest thallium concentrations occur in the zinc-lead ores, the average content being of 52.1 mg/kg. The copper ores contain in average 1.4 mg/kg of thallium. Hard coals from the Upper Silesian Coal Basin display higher thallium content than those exploited in the Lublin Coal Basin. Brown coals from Turow deposit distinguish by much higher values, 0.7 mg/kg Tl, than those from huge Bełchatów and smaller Konin-Turek region deposits. Average thallium concentrations in clays used for ceramic materials are lower than 1 mg/kg, except of Mio-Pliocene Slowiany deposit. The average content of thallium in the studied limestone and dolomite raw materials for cement, lime, and metallurgical flux, and refractories is very low in comparison to the average amounts in the world carbonate rocks.

  7. World Mineral resources and the Limits to Economic Growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bardi Ugo

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This presentation describes how the present economic situation can be described in terms of the system dynamics models developed in the series of studies that were titled “The Limits to Growth”. The result of this examination is that mineral depletion may be a major factor in causing the slowdown in economic growth in several countries. The effect is not the result of “running out” of any resource, but of the gradual increase in extraction costs which is forcing the economy to dedicate larger and larger resources to the production of mineral commodities.

  8. The United Nations' endeavour to standardize mineral resource classification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schanz, J.J. Jr.

    1980-01-01

    The United Nations' Economic and Social Council passed a resolution in July 1975 calling for the development of a mineral resources classification system to be used in reporting data to the United Nations. Following preparation of background papers and an agenda by the UN Centre for Natural Resources, Energy and Transport, a panel of experts recommended a classification system to the Council's Committee on Natural Resources. The Committee met in Turkey in June 1979 and has reported favourably to the Council on the proposed system. The classification system is designed to provide maximum capability for requesting and receiving data from the resources data systems already used internally by major mineral producing nations. In addition, the system provides for flexibility in adjusting to the particular needs of individual mineral commodities. The proposed system involves three basic categories of in-situ resources: R-1, reliable estimates of known deposits; R-2, preliminary estimates of the extensions of known deposits; and, R-3, tentative estimates of quantities to be found in undiscovered deposits. As an option for given countries and commodities, the R-1 category can be further sub-divided into: R-1-E, economic; R-1-M, marginal; and R-1-S, sub-economic. Finally, the classification scheme provides for all categories to have a parallel set of estimates of recoverable mineral quantities. (author)

  9. Technoeconomic aspects of nonrenewable energy resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, A.M.

    1989-01-01

    Taking into account an increasing energy demand in the developing countries and aiming to facilitate integrated national energy planning, the author performs assessment of the potential energy supply sources with due consideration of their entire fuel chain and evaluates the related technologies with respect to their investment requirements, operational costs, environmental impacts, etc. 23 refs, 8 tabs

  10. Management of Canadian mineral resources: an industry viewpoint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Powis, A

    1976-03-01

    Federal and provincial governments in Canada are developing strategies for a national mineral policy, the theme being to obtain optimum benefit for Canada from present and future use of minerals. The provisions of the British North America Act, the centerpiece of Canada's constitution, place ownership of natural resources under the jurisdiction of the province in which they are found, although it retains exclusive authority for the Federal government over the export and interprovincial trade of such resources. Contradiction and challenges are now being experienced between these two levels of government, resulting in excess taxation policies in the minerals industry. Mr. Powis discussed these issues at the 32nd Annual Conference of Provincial Ministers of Mines in Saskatoon on September 15, 1975. The roles of the private sector and governments, the Economic Council of Canada trade strategy report, the mineral area planning study, and the public and political perceptions are reviewed. Options for the future are summarized. Mr. Powis concludes that the atmosphere of confrontation in Canadian mineral policy leads to irrational management of Canadian resources; further, he sees a lack of communication between industry and government as complicating the issue. The Canadian mining industry also faces the other serious problems: (1) mining problems in inhospitable areas; (2) continuing difficulty in attracting and retaining trained labor forces; (3) increasing costs of exploration and transport; (4) competing with larger and more accessible deposits in other parts of the world; and (5) the impact of inflation in all areas of the industry. (MCW)

  11. Short Course Introduction to Quantitative Mineral Resource Assessments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singer, Donald A.

    2007-01-01

    This is an abbreviated text supplementing the content of three sets of slides used in a short course that has been presented by the author at several workshops. The slides should be viewed in the order of (1) Introduction and models, (2) Delineation and estimation, and (3) Combining estimates and summary. References cited in the slides are listed at the end of this text. The purpose of the three-part form of mineral resource assessments discussed in the accompanying slides is to make unbiased quantitative assessments in a format needed in decision-support systems so that consequences of alternative courses of action can be examined. The three-part form of mineral resource assessments was developed to assist policy makers evaluate the consequences of alternative courses of action with respect to land use and mineral-resource development. The audience for three-part assessments is a governmental or industrial policy maker, a manager of exploration, a planner of regional development, or similar decision-maker. Some of the tools and models presented here will be useful for selection of exploration sites, but that is a side benefit, not the goal. To provide unbiased information, we recommend the three-part form of mineral resource assessments where general locations of undiscovered deposits are delineated from a deposit type's geologic setting, frequency distributions of tonnages and grades of well-explored deposits serve as models of grades and tonnages of undiscovered deposits, and number of undiscovered deposits are estimated probabilistically by type. The internally consistent descriptive, grade and tonnage, deposit density, and economic models used in the design of the three-part form of assessments reduce the chances of biased estimates of the undiscovered resources. What and why quantitative resource assessments: The kind of assessment recommended here is founded in decision analysis in order to provide a framework for making decisions concerning mineral

  12. Platinum-group elements in southern Africa: mineral inventory and an assessment of undiscovered mineral resources: Chapter Q in Global mineral resource assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zientek, Michael L.; Causey, J. Douglas; Parks, Heather L.; Miller, Robert J.

    2014-01-01

    The platinum-group elements, platinum, palladium, rhodium, ruthenium, iridium, and osmium, possess unique physical and chemical characteristics that make them indispensable to modern technology and industry. However, mineral deposits that are the main sources of these elements occur only in three countries in the world, raising concerns about potential disruption in mineral supply. Using information in the public domain, mineral resource and reserve information has been compiled for mafic and ultramafic rocks in South Africa and Zimbabwe that host most of the world’s platinum-group element resources.

  13. ECONOMIC EFFECTS OF MINERAL RESOURCE DEVELOPMENT IN NORTHEAST MINNESOTA

    OpenAIRE

    Maki, Wilbur R.

    1980-01-01

    The economic effects of mineral resource development addressed in this paper are the changes in employment, population and income in the State of Minnesota and in Northeast Minnesota. These include the present mining, processing and shipping of natural ores and taconite pellets and the potential copper-nickel development.

  14. Preliminary Mineral Resource Assessment of Selected Mineral Deposit Types in Afghanistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludington, Steve; Orris, Greta J.; Bolm, Karen S.; Peters, Stephen G.; ,

    2007-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Wise decision-making and management of natural resources depend upon credible and reliable scientific information about the occurrence, distribution, quantity and quality of a country's resource base. Economic development decisions by governments require such information to be part of a Mineral Resource Assessment. Such Mineral Assessments are also useful to private citizens and international investors, consultants, and companies prior to entry and investment in a country. Assessments can also be used to help evaluate the economic risks and impact on the natural environment associated with development of resources. In February 2002, at the request of the Department of State and the then U.S. Ambassador to Afghanistan (Robert P. Finn), the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) prepared a detailed proposal addressing natural resources issues critical to the reconstruction of Afghanistan. The proposal was refined and updated in December 2003 and was presented as a 5-year work plan to USAID-Kabul in February 2004. USAID-Kabul currently funds this plan and this report presents a part of the preliminary results obligated for fiscal year 2006. A final Preliminary Assessment of the Non Fuel Mineral Resource of Afghanistan will be completed and delivered at the end of fiscal year 2007. Afghanistan has abundant metallic and non-metallic resources, but the potential resources have never been systematically assessed using modern methods. Much of the existing mineral information for Afghanistan was gathered during the 1950s and continued in the late 1980s until the departure of the geologic advisors from the Soviet Union. During this period, there were many mineral-related activities centered on systematic geologic mapping of the country, collection of geochemical and rock samples, implementation of airborne geophysical surveys, and exploration focused on the discovery of large mineral deposits. Many reports, maps, charts, and tables were produced at that time. Some of

  15. Formation and development of theoretical principles for mineral resources logistics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Б. К. Плоткин

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Market transformations in Russia became foundations for formation and development of a new scientific and practical field in economics – logistics. Out of more than 30 existing definitions of logistics the authors according to their opinion have chosen the most appropriate. Logistics of mineral resources should be attributed to production (industrial logistics. It is a proven fact that processes of supply chain management in mining industry and its infrastructure in the framework of mineral resources chain have some fundamental distinctions. Importance of material resources recycling in theory and practice of mineral resources logistics has been highlighted. Special features of merchandise assortment and classifications in the mining industry have been examined in conjunction with substantial contents of material flow. Special consideration has been given to relevant issues in the field of price formation for mining produce, in the view of specific relations between its costs and logistic procurement of the industry. Moreover, questions of inventory control in the mining industry, activity of commodity exchanges, management of mining logistics system have been addressed.

  16. The Battle for New Resources: Minor minerals in green technologies

    OpenAIRE

    David S. ABRAHAM

    2012-01-01

    Emerging green technologies are the most significant and realistic path to reducing global dependence on polluting fossil fuels while simultaneously decreasing the reliance of many countries on oil-rich regimes to meet their energy needs. However, as nations begin to rely on green energy products, they are trading one set of resource dependencies for another. Wind and sun produce energy, but rare minerals like neodymium and tellurium are essential in applications to harness that power. To the...

  17. Characterisation and normalisation factors for life cycle impact assessment mined abiotic resources categories in South Africa - The manufacturing of catalytic converter exhaust systems as a case study

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Strauss, K

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available of the most commonly produced minerals in South Africa is used as basis to determine characterisation factors for a non-renewable mineral resources category. The average production of these minerals from 1991 to 2000 is compared to economically Demonstrated...

  18. [Inventories of the Earth. Mineral resource appraisals and the rise of resource economics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westermann, Andrea

    2014-03-01

    How do the earth sciences mediate between the natural and social world? This paper explores the question by focusing on the history of nonfuel mineral resource appraisal from the late nineteenth to the mid twentieth century. It argues that earth sciences early on embraced social scientific knowledge, i.e. economic knowledge, in particular, when it came to determining or deposits and estimating the magnitude of mineral reserves. After 1900, assessing national and global mineral reserves and their "life span" or years of supply became ever more important, scaling up and complementing traditional appraisal practices on the level of individual mines or mining and trading companies. As a consequence, economic methods gained new weight for mineral resource estimation. Natural resource economics as an own field of research grew out of these efforts. By way of example, the mineral resource appraisal assigned to the U.S. Materials Policy Commission by President Harry S. Truman in 1951 is analyzed in more detail. Natural resource economics and environmental economics might be interpreted as a strategy to bring down the vast and holistically conceived object of geological and ecological research, the earth, to human scale, and assimilate it into social matters.

  19. Mineral Resources: Reserves, Peak Production and the Future

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lawrence D. Meinert

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The adequacy of mineral resources in light of population growth and rising standards of living has been a concern since the time of Malthus (1798, but many studies erroneously forecast impending peak production or exhaustion because they confuse reserves with “all there is”. Reserves are formally defined as a subset of resources, and even current and potential resources are only a small subset of “all there is”. Peak production or exhaustion cannot be modeled accurately from reserves. Using copper as an example, identified resources are twice as large as the amount projected to be needed through 2050. Estimates of yet-to-be discovered copper resources are up to 40-times more than currently-identified resources, amounts that could last for many centuries. Thus, forecasts of imminent peak production due to resource exhaustion in the next 20–30 years are not valid. Short-term supply problems may arise, however, and supply-chain disruptions are possible at any time due to natural disasters (earthquakes, tsunamis, hurricanes or political complications. Needed to resolve these problems are education and exploration technology development, access to prospective terrain, better recycling and better accounting of externalities associated with production (pollution, loss of ecosystem services and water and energy use.

  20. Quantifying exhaustible resource theory: an application to mineral taxation policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ward, F.A.; Kerkvliet, J.

    1993-01-01

    The paper presents the results of a dynamic nonlinear programming model of a mineral resource market with several features of heterogeneous quality in the mineral, links with related product markets, incorporation of institutional constraints, resource allocations for each year in the planning period, and analysis of outcomes under various severance tax rates. The model computes privately efficient competitive use paths to perform cost-benefit analysis of public mineral policies. Policy variables are evaluated for their impact on both private behaviour and public benefits. The application is to New Mexico's linked coal and electric power markets. Findings reveal that scarcity rents are currently 4% of coal's price, and peak at 27% in 43 years. Increasing the present 1 dollar/ton New Mexico severance tax to 11 dollars reduces current annual coal output by 25%, prolongs the life of the state's coal industry by three years, and increases discounted severance tax revenues by 850% or 4.2 billion dollars. 38 refs., 2 figs., 4 tabs

  1. Investigations needed to stimulate the development of Jordan's mineral resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKelvey, V.E.

    1979-01-01

    The level of living that any society can attain is a direct function of the use it makes of all kinds of raw materials (soil, water, metals, nonmetals, etc.), all kinds of energy (both animate and inanimate), and all kinds of human ingenuity; and is an inverse function of the size of the population that must share the collective product. The relation between raw materials, energy and ingenuity is such that use of a large amount of one may offset the need for large amounts of others. The most vital raw materials are water, soil, and construction materials, for these are needed in large quantities and are hard to import. Metals, chemicals, and inanimate energy are necessary for industrialization. The more of these minerals a nation possess, the better, but not nation can hope to be self-sufficient in all of the m and therefore must trade for some essential materials. Jordan’s natural resources have been little explored. The grantitc-metamorphic terrane in the southeastern part of the Kingdom could contain deposits of tungsten, rare earths, feldspar, mica, fluorite etc. and the sedimentary terrane over much of the rest of the county is favorable for the occurrence of oil. Even if none of these minerals is found, however, Jordan’s other mineral resource, if fully explored and developed in the light of modern technology, will support a far higher level of living than her people now enjoy. Very likely she can increase her rainfall by about 10 percent by cloud seeding, and she undeveloped supplies in both surface and ground water that are sufficient to nearly double her usable water supply. Even if she does not have oil or have it in large quantities, she can buy it cheaply from neighboring counties, and in addition has undeveloped sources of hydroelectric power, large reserves of bituminous limestone, large reserves of nuclear power as uranium in phosphate rock, and can use solar and wind power for special purposes. Her large supplies of construction, fertilizer, and

  2. Minerals resource implications of a tokamak fusion reactor economy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cameron, E; Conn, R W; Kulcinski, G L; Sviatoslavsky, I

    1979-09-01

    The mineral resource implications of an economy of tokamak-type fusion reactors are assessed based upon the recent conceptual reactor design study, NUWMAK, developed at the University of Wisconsin. For comparative purposes, various structural alloys of vanadium and steel are assumed to be usable in the NUWMAK design in place of the titanium alloy originally selected. In addition, the inner blanket core and magnet system of the conceptual reactor, HFCTR, developed at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, are assumed to be interchangeable with the comparable components in NUWMAK. These variations permit a range of likely requirements to be assessed.

  3. Minerals resource implications of a tokamak fusion reactor economy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cameron, E.; Conn, R.W.; Kulcinski, G.L.; Sviatoslavsky, I.

    1979-09-01

    The mineral resource implications of an economy of tokamak-type fusion reactors are assessed based upon the recent conceptual reactor design study, NUWMAK, developed at the University of Wisconsin. For comparative purposes, various structural alloys of vanadium and steel are assumed to be usable in the NUWMAK design in place of the titanium alloy originally selected. In addition, the inner blanket core and magnet system of the conceptual reactor, HFCTR, developed at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, are assumed to be interchangeable with the comparable components in NUWMAK. These variations permit a range of likely requirements to be assessed

  4. Selected social phenomena following the extraction of mineral resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kocoń Paweł

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The author, due to the didactic needs and seeing a small gap in the way of presenting scientific data on the area of social science, have decided to present this work hoping that it will influence on widening both the social science and geography knowledge of the recipients, having connected the development and creation of certain social phenomena with particular economic activity, that is, the extraction of mineral resources. The aim of the hereby text is to present such social phenomena like organizational culture, discourse and social capital. The notions mentioned above ought to concern not only students, but also the specialists and scientists dealing with any of those two fields, as it seems prudent to follow the path of closely connecting two major issues emerging from two distinctively separate areas of science if that may help to better understand how such mixture influence people’s behaviour and allows to draw conclusion on the effect such actions may have on community or society. Moreover, such fact was prior for the author to decide to work on the problem of protests for mining in the future. On the other hand, the article may help in organizing the process of exploitation of mineral resources in the different organizations involved in this type of activity.

  5. 36 CFR 293.15 - Gathering information about resources other than minerals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... resources other than minerals. 293.15 Section 293.15 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE... than minerals. (a) The Chief, Forest Service, shall allow any activity, for the purposes of gathering information about resources, other than minerals, in National Forest Wilderness, except that any such activity...

  6. Mineral resources of the Hawk Mountain Wilderness Study Area, Honey County, Oregon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turrin, B.D.; Conrad, J.E.; Plouff, D.; King, H.D.; Swischer, C.C.; Mayerle, R.T.; Rains, R.L.

    1989-01-01

    The Hawk Mountain Wildeness Study Area in south-central Oregon is underlain by Miocene age basalt, welded tuff, and interbedded sedimentary rock. The western part of this study area has a low mineral resource potential for gold. There is a low mineral resource potential for small deposits of uranium in the sedimentary rocks. This entire study area has a low potential for geothermal and oil and gas resources. There are no mineral claims or identified resources in this study area

  7. Rare earth minerals and resources in the world

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kanazawa, Yasuo [Human Resource Department, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), 1-1-1 Umezono, Tsukuba 305-8568 (Japan)]. E-mail: y.kanazawa@aist.go.jp; Kamitani, Masaharu [Institute for Geo-Resources and Environment, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), 1-1-1 Higashi, Tsukuba 305-8567 (Japan)

    2006-02-09

    About 200 rare earth (RE) minerals are distributed in a wide variety of mineral classes, such as halides, carbonates, oxides, phosphates, silicates, etc. Due to the large ionic radii and trivalent oxidation state, RE ions in the minerals have large coordination numbers (c.n.) 6-10 by anions (O, F, OH). Light rare earth elements (LREEs) tend to occupy the larger sites of 8-10 c.n. and concentrate in carbonates and phosphates. On the other hand, heavy rare earth elements (HREEs) and Y occupy 6-8 c.n. sites and are abundant in oxides and a part of phosphates. Only a few mineral species, such as bastnaesite (Ce,La)(CO{sub 3})F, monazite (Ce,La)PO{sub 4}, xenotime YPO{sub 4}, and RE-bearing clay have been recovered for commercial production. Bayan Obo, China is the biggest RE deposit in the world. One of probable hypotheses for ore geneses is that the deposit might be formed by hydrothermal replacement of carbonate rocks of sedimentary origin. The hydrothermal fluid may be derived from an alkaline-carbonatite intrusive series. Following Bayan Obo, more than 550 carbonatite/alkaline complex rocks constitute the majority of the world RE resources. The distribution is restricted to interior and marginal regions of continents, especially Precambrian cratons and shields, or related to large-scale rift structures. Main concentrated areas of the complexes are East African rift zones, northern Scandinavia-Kola peninsula, eastern Canada and southern Brazil. Representative sedimentary deposits of REE are placer- and conglomerate-types. The major potential countries are Australia, India, Brazil, and Malaysia. Weathered residual deposits have been formed under tropical and sub-tropical climates. Bauxite and laterite nickel deposit are the representative. Ion adsorption clay without radioactive elements is known in southern China. Weathering processes concentrate REE in a particular clay mineral-layer in the weathered crusts whose source were originally REE-rich rocks like granite

  8. Rare earth minerals and resources in the world

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanazawa, Yasuo; Kamitani, Masaharu

    2006-01-01

    About 200 rare earth (RE) minerals are distributed in a wide variety of mineral classes, such as halides, carbonates, oxides, phosphates, silicates, etc. Due to the large ionic radii and trivalent oxidation state, RE ions in the minerals have large coordination numbers (c.n.) 6-10 by anions (O, F, OH). Light rare earth elements (LREEs) tend to occupy the larger sites of 8-10 c.n. and concentrate in carbonates and phosphates. On the other hand, heavy rare earth elements (HREEs) and Y occupy 6-8 c.n. sites and are abundant in oxides and a part of phosphates. Only a few mineral species, such as bastnaesite (Ce,La)(CO 3 )F, monazite (Ce,La)PO 4 , xenotime YPO 4 , and RE-bearing clay have been recovered for commercial production. Bayan Obo, China is the biggest RE deposit in the world. One of probable hypotheses for ore geneses is that the deposit might be formed by hydrothermal replacement of carbonate rocks of sedimentary origin. The hydrothermal fluid may be derived from an alkaline-carbonatite intrusive series. Following Bayan Obo, more than 550 carbonatite/alkaline complex rocks constitute the majority of the world RE resources. The distribution is restricted to interior and marginal regions of continents, especially Precambrian cratons and shields, or related to large-scale rift structures. Main concentrated areas of the complexes are East African rift zones, northern Scandinavia-Kola peninsula, eastern Canada and southern Brazil. Representative sedimentary deposits of REE are placer- and conglomerate-types. The major potential countries are Australia, India, Brazil, and Malaysia. Weathered residual deposits have been formed under tropical and sub-tropical climates. Bauxite and laterite nickel deposit are the representative. Ion adsorption clay without radioactive elements is known in southern China. Weathering processes concentrate REE in a particular clay mineral-layer in the weathered crusts whose source were originally REE-rich rocks like granite and

  9. Legal Update--The Term Contract Nonrenewal Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Stephen B.; Davenport, Linda L.

    1982-01-01

    The Term Contract Nonrenewal Act, passed by the Texas Legislature in August 1981, provides term contract teachers with the option of a due process hearing before nonrenewal. Specific aspects of this act, dealing with teacher evaluation, notice of nonrenewal, hearings, and decisions and appeals, are reveiwed. (CJ)

  10. Sustainable Development Strategy for Russian Mineral Resources Extracting Economy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dotsenko, Elena; Ezdina, Natalya; Prilepskaya, Angelina; Pivnyk, Kirill

    2017-11-01

    The immaturity of strategic and conceptual documents in the sphere of sustainable development of the Russian economy had a negative impact on long-term strategic forecasting of its neo-industrialization. At the present stage, the problems of overcoming the mineral and raw material dependence, the negative structural shift of the Russian economy, the acceleration of the rates of economic growth, the reduction of technological gap from the developed countries become strategically in demand. The modern structure of the Russian economy, developed within the framework of the proposed market model, does not generate a sustainable type of development. It became obvious that in conditions of the market processes' entropy, without neo-industrial changes, the reconstruction of industry on a new convergence-technological basis and without increasing the share of high technology production the instability of macroeconomic system, the risks of environmental and economic security of Russia are growing. Therefore, today we need a transition from forming one industry development strategy to the national one that will take into account both the social and economic and environmental challenges facing Russia as a mineral resources extracting country.

  11. Active Learning Techniques Applied to an Interdisciplinary Mineral Resources Course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aird, H. M.

    2015-12-01

    An interdisciplinary active learning course was introduced at the University of Puget Sound entitled 'Mineral Resources and the Environment'. Various formative assessment and active learning techniques that have been effective in other courses were adapted and implemented to improve student learning, increase retention and broaden knowledge and understanding of course material. This was an elective course targeted towards upper-level undergraduate geology and environmental majors. The course provided an introduction to the mineral resources industry, discussing geological, environmental, societal and economic aspects, legislation and the processes involved in exploration, extraction, processing, reclamation/remediation and recycling of products. Lectures and associated weekly labs were linked in subject matter; relevant readings from the recent scientific literature were assigned and discussed in the second lecture of the week. Peer-based learning was facilitated through weekly reading assignments with peer-led discussions and through group research projects, in addition to in-class exercises such as debates. Writing and research skills were developed through student groups designing, carrying out and reporting on their own semester-long research projects around the lasting effects of the historical Ruston Smelter on the biology and water systems of Tacoma. The writing of their mini grant proposals and final project reports was carried out in stages to allow for feedback before the deadline. Speakers from industry were invited to share their specialist knowledge as guest lecturers, and students were encouraged to interact with them, with a view to employment opportunities. Formative assessment techniques included jigsaw exercises, gallery walks, placemat surveys, think pair share and take-home point summaries. Summative assessment included discussion leadership, exams, homeworks, group projects, in-class exercises, field trips, and pre-discussion reading exercises

  12. Survey and critique of quantitative methods for the appraisal of mineral resources. Progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harris, D.P.

    1976-01-01

    Two major categories of appraisal methods (models) for regional mineral resources are identified by virtue of the manner in which mineral endowment is treated in the appraisal: implicit and explicit models. Implicit models do not identify nor specify the mineral endowment model. Mineral resources are inferred to exist as required to fulfill economic or secular relationships. Econometric models of mineral supply and Hubbert's time-rate trend projection are varieties of implicit models. Explicit mineral resource models separate the economic and endowment models and state the endowment model explicitly. Explicit models describe mineral endowment as a function of some physical aspect of the earth's crust, such as geology, volume of rock, density of mineral occurrences, and crustal abundance of an element. Economic factors are introduced subsequent to the appraisal of endowment either as an explicit model which interacts with the deposits inferred by the endowment model, or as a simple adjustment made directly on some aggregate measure of endowment

  13. Technologies for the exploration of highly mineralized geothermal resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkhasov, A. B.; Alkhasova, D. A.; Ramazanov, A. Sh.; Kasparova, M. A.

    2017-09-01

    The prospects of the integrated processing of the high-parameter geothermal resources of the East Ciscaucasia of artesian basin (ECAB) with the conversion of their heat energy into electric energy at a binary geoPP and the subsequent extraction of solved chemical compounds from thermal waters are evaluated. The most promising areas for the exploration such resources are overviewed. The integrated exploration of hightemperature hydrogeothermal brines is a new trend in geothermal power engineering, which can make it possible to significantly increase the production volume of hydrogeothermal resources and develop the geothermal field at a higher level with the realization of the energy-efficient advanced technologies. The large-scale exploration of brines can solve the regional problems of energy supply and import substitution and fulfill the need of Russia in food and technical salt and rare elements. The necessity of the primary integrated exploration of the oil-field highly mineralized brines of the South Sukhokumskii group of gas-oil wells of Northern Dagestan was shown in view of the exacerbated environmental problems. Currently, the oil-field brines with the radioactive background exceeding the allowable levels are discharged at disposal fields. The technological solutions for their deactivation and integrated exploration are proposed. The realization of the proposed technological solutions provides 300 t of lithium carbonate, 1650 t of caustic magnesite powder, 27300 t of chemically precipitated chalk, 116100 t of food salt, and up to 1.4 mln m3 of desalinated water from oil-field brines yearly. Desalinated water at the output of a geotechnological complex can be used for different economic needs, which is important for the arid North Caucasus region, where the fresh water deficiency is acute, especially in its plain part within the ECAB.

  14. Elemental distributions in surficial sediments and potential offshore mineral resources from the western continental margin of India. Part 2. Potential offshore mineral resources

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Paropkari, A.L.; Mascarenhas, A.; Rao, Ch.M.; PrakashBabu, C.; Murty, P.S.N.

    patterns of ten selected elements is surficial sediments. Part 2 projects the potential offshore mineral resources. Target areas for future exploration and indicated and exploration strategies are recommended. Appendix 1 is a compilation of the bibliography...

  15. Review of Biohydrometallurgical Metals Extraction from Polymetallic Mineral Resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helen R. Watling

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This review has as its underlying premise the need to become proficient in delivering a suite of element or metal products from polymetallic ores to avoid the predicted exhaustion of key metals in demand in technological societies. Many technologies, proven or still to be developed, will assist in meeting the demands of the next generation for trace and rare metals, potentially including the broader application of biohydrometallurgy for the extraction of multiple metals from low-grade and complex ores. Developed biotechnologies that could be applied are briefly reviewed and some of the difficulties to be overcome highlighted. Examples of the bioleaching of polymetallic mineral resources using different combinations of those technologies are described for polymetallic sulfide concentrates, low-grade sulfide and oxidised ores. Three areas for further research are: (i the development of sophisticated continuous vat bioreactors with additional controls; (ii in situ and in stope bioleaching and the need to solve problems associated with microbial activity in that scenario; and (iii the exploitation of sulfur-oxidising microorganisms that, under specific anaerobic leaching conditions, reduce and solubilise refractory iron(III or manganese(IV compounds containing multiple elements. Finally, with the successful applications of stirred tank bioleaching to a polymetallic tailings dump and heap bioleaching to a polymetallic black schist ore, there is no reason why those proven technologies should not be more widely applied.

  16. Undiscovered porphyry copper resources in the Urals—A probabilistic mineral resource assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammarstrom, Jane M.; Mihalasky, Mark J.; Ludington, Stephen; Phillips, Jeffrey; Berger, Byron R.; Denning, Paul; Dicken, Connie; Mars, John; Zientek, Michael L.; Herrington, Richard J.; Seltmann, Reimar

    2017-01-01

    A probabilistic mineral resource assessment of metal resources in undiscovered porphyry copper deposits of the Ural Mountains in Russia and Kazakhstan was done using a quantitative form of mineral resource assessment. Permissive tracts were delineated on the basis of mapped and inferred subsurface distributions of igneous rocks assigned to tectonic zones that include magmatic arcs where the occurrence of porphyry copper deposits within 1 km of the Earth's surface are possible. These permissive tracts outline four north-south trending volcano-plutonic belts in major structural zones of the Urals. From west to east, these include permissive lithologies for porphyry copper deposits associated with Paleozoic subduction-related island-arc complexes preserved in the Tagil and Magnitogorsk arcs, Paleozoic island-arc fragments and associated tonalite-granodiorite intrusions in the East Uralian zone, and Carboniferous continental-margin arcs developed on the Kazakh craton in the Transuralian zone. The tracts range from about 50,000 to 130,000 km2 in area. The Urals host 8 known porphyry copper deposits with total identified resources of about 6.4 million metric tons of copper, at least 20 additional porphyry copper prospect areas, and numerous copper-bearing skarns and copper occurrences.Probabilistic estimates predict a mean of 22 undiscovered porphyry copper deposits within the four permissive tracts delineated in the Urals. Combining estimates with established grade and tonnage models predicts a mean of 82 million metric tons of undiscovered copper. Application of an economic filter suggests that about half of that amount could be economically recoverable based on assumed depth distributions, availability of infrastructure, recovery rates, current metals prices, and investment environment.

  17. The Alaskan mineral resource assessment program; background information to accompany folio of geologic and mineral resource maps of the Ambler River Quadrangle, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayfield, Charles F.; Tailleur, I.L.; Albert, N.R.; Ellersieck, Inyo; Grybeck, Donald; Hackett, S.W.

    1983-01-01

    The Ambler River quadrangle, consisting of 14,290 km2 (5,520 mi2) in northwest Alaska, was investigated by an interdisciplinary research team for the purpose of assessing the mineral resource potential of the quadrangle. This report provides background information for a folio of maps on the geology, reconnaissance geochemistry, aeromagnetics, Landsat imagery, and mineral resource evaluation of the quadrangle. A summary of the geologic history, radiometric dates, and fossil localities and a comprehensive bibliography are also included. The quadrangle contains jade reserves, now being mined, and potentially significant resources of copper, zinc, lead, and silver.

  18. Sustainable Management of Mineral Resources-another view on criticality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wellmer, F.-W.

    2012-04-01

    Generally investigations of criticality capture the supply risks on one hand and on the other hand the impact on the economy, the vulnerability to supply disruptions. The classification is a relative one and the analyses are always only a snapshot of a dynamic system: in the seventies of the last century chromium was generally considered the most critical metal. Today others are considered far more critical. These are especially the rare earth and the platinum group elements. Regardless in which direction technology develops these elements together with the steel alloy and electronic metal elements will most probably be the decisive elements to produce the high-tech products necessary for the well-being of Europe in the 21st century. These elements- often in small quantities- have a high economic lever effect. In a new research programme of the German Ministry of Education and Research they have been termed, therefore: economic-strategic raw materials. This paper will concentrate not so much on the critical materials as such, but on the factors critical in the background, critical to produce them: water, energy and the social acceptance of mining —the license to operate. From the point of sustainable management of mineral resources an important question with regard to critical aspects is also, how fast and to what extent mankind is able to reactivate the secondary materials in the technosphere to replace resource requirements from the geosphere under the limiting factors to minimize the environmental impact and energy needs. There will always be losses which have to be compensated from the geosphere (thermodynamical impossibility of a 100% closed loop, losses due to different redox potential, losses due to dispersal effects like wear and corrosion), however losses occurring today due to low scrap values can be minimized by better technology. Developments are well under way to replace more and more relative proportions of the major metal needs by material from the

  19. Canada's resources and the national interest

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1977-01-01

    This is the main report of the task force on the broad subjects of taxation of nonrenewable resources, a survey of oil and gas reserves, a survey of other mineral resources, and the development of an oil and gas energy plan for Canada. Individual reports on the subjects above were issued as separate appendices to this main report. The preliminary draft of the report was published in early 1976. The introductory chapter surveys the critical choices and their costs for Canada, followed by chapters on Canadian resources; availability of private resource capital investments and returns; the tax position of the nonrenewable resource industry; and Federal-provincial conflicts over resource revenue and jurisdiction. It is concluded that the future is likely to yield only possibly adequate returns after massive commitments of capital and the acceptance of large risks by all concerned; further, that a climate of cooperation between government and industry is needed. (MCW)

  20. Mineral supply for sustainable development requires resource governance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Saleem H.; Giurco, Damien; Arndt, Nicholas; Nickless, Edmund; Brown, Graham; Demetriades, Alecos; Durrheim, Ray; Enriquez, Maria Amélia; Kinnaird, Judith; Littleboy, Anna; Meinert, Lawrence D.; Oberhänsli, Roland; Salem, Janet; Schodde, Richard; Schneider, Gabi; Vidal, Olivier; Yakovleva, Natalia

    2017-01-01

    Successful delivery of the United Nations sustainable development goals and implementation of the Paris Agreement requires technologies that utilize a wide range of minerals in vast quantities. Metal recycling and technological change will contribute to sustaining supply, but mining must continue and grow for the foreseeable future to ensure that such minerals remain available to industry. New links are needed between existing institutional frameworks to oversee responsible sourcing of minerals, trajectories for mineral exploration, environmental practices, and consumer awareness of the effects of consumption. Here we present, through analysis of a comprehensive set of data and demand forecasts, an interdisciplinary perspective on how best to ensure ecologically viable continuity of global mineral supply over the coming decades.

  1. Niger Republic mineral planning (part five): recommendations and suggestions for the developement of mineral resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franconi, A.

    1986-06-01

    The mineral planning present a comprehensive program of prospecting in order to increase mineral industry sector participation to the economc development of the country. Subjects taken in consideration in this volume are: setting up structural and technical means; projects proposal; summary of projects, financial cost estimation and proposals for activities forward looking calendar [fr

  2. Summary of the mineral- and energy-resource endowment, BLM roswell resource area, east-central New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartsch-Winkler, S.; Sutphin, D.M.; Ball, M.M.; Korzeb, S.L.; Kness, R.F.; Dutchover, J.T.

    1993-01-01

    In this summary of two comprehensive resource reports produced by the U.S. Bureau of Mines and the U.S. Geological Survey for the U.S. Bureau of Land Management, we discuss the mineral- and energyresource endowment of the 14-millon-acre Roswell Resource Area, New Mexico, managed by the Bureau of Land Management. The Bureau and Survey reports result from separate studies that are compilations of published and unpublished data and integrate new findings on the geology, geochemistry, geophysics, mineral, industrial, and energy commodities, and resources for the seven-county area. The reports have been used by the Bureau of Land Management in preparation of the Roswell Resource Area Resource Management Plan, and will have future use in nationwide mineral- and energy-resource inventories and assessments, as reference and training documents, and as public-information tools. In the Roswell Resource Area, many metals, industrial mineral commodities, and energy resources are being, or have been, produced or prospected. These include metals and high-technology materials, such as copper, gold, silver, thorium, uranium and/or vanadium, rare-earth element minerals, iron, manganese, tungsten, lead, zinc, and molybdenum; industrial mineral resources, including barite, limestone/dolomite, caliche, clay, fluorspar, gypsum, scoria, aggregate, and sand and gravel; and fuels and associated resources, such as oil, gas, tar sand and heavy oil, coal, and gases associated with hydrocarbons. Other commodities that have yet to be identified in economic concentrations include potash, halite, polyhalite, anhydrite, sulfur, feldspar, building stone and decorative rock, brines, various gases associated with oil and gas exploration, and carbon dioxide. ?? 1993 Oxford University Press.

  3. Overview of the Practical and Theoretical Approaches to the Estimation of Mineral Resources. A Financial Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leontina Pavaloaia

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Mineral resources represent an important natural resource whose exploitation, unless it is rational, can lead to their exhaustion and the collapse of sustainable development. Given the importance of mineral resources and the uncertainty concerning the estimation of extant reserves, they have been analyzed by several national and international institutions. In this article we shall present a few aspects concerning the ways to approach the reserves of mineral resources at national and international level, by considering both economic aspects and those aspects concerned with the definition, classification and aggregation of the reserves of mineral resources by various specialized institutions. At present there are attempts to homogenize practices concerning these aspects for the purpose of presenting correct and comparable information.

  4. Mineral resource potential map of the Sugarloaf Roadless Area, San Bernardino County, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Robert E.; Matti, Jonathan C.; Cox, Brett F.; Oliver, Howard W.; Wagini, Alexander; Campbell, Harry W.

    1983-01-01

    Geologic, geochemical, and geophysical investigations and a survey of mines and prospects indicate that the Sugaloaf Roadless Area contains subeconomic graphite and magnesian marble resources. Parts of the area have a low potential for the occurrence of additional low-grade graphite resources, but there is no potential for additional magnesian marble resources within the roadless area. Sand, gravel, and construction stone other than carbonate rocks are found in the roadless area, but similar or better quality materials are abundant and more accessible outside the area. The roadless area has no identified energy mineral resources, but parts of the area have a low to moderate potential for low-grade uranium resources. There are no identified metallic mineral resources within the area, and there is no evidence of a potential for the occurrence of such resources. No previously unknown mineral occurrence was located during this study.

  5. Teacher Contract Non-Renewal: What Matters to Principals?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nixon, Andy; Packard, Abbot; Dam, Margaret

    2016-01-01

    This quantitative study investigated the relationship between teacher dispositions, subject content knowledge, pedagogical content knowledge, and reasons that school principals recommend non-renewal of teachers' contracts. Nearly 2,000 school principals in 13 states completed an emailed survey. In deciding whether to non-renew a teacher contract,…

  6. Nonrenewable energy cost of corn-ethanol in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Q.; Chen, G.Q.

    2012-01-01

    Nonrenewable energy cost is accounted for the believed renewable biofuel of corn-ethanol in China. By a process-based energy analysis, nonrenewable energy cost in the corn-ethanol production process incorporating agricultural crop production, industrial conversion and wastewater treatment is conservatively estimated as 1.70 times that of the ethanol energy produced, corresponding to a negative energy return in contrast to the positive ones previously reported. Nonrenewable energy cost associated with wastewater treatment usually ignored in previous researches is shown important in the energy balance. Denoting the heavy nonrenewability of the produced corn-ethanol, the calculated nonrenewable energy cost would rise to 3.64 folds when part of the nonrenewable energy cost associated with water consumption, transportation and environmental remediation is included. Due to the coal dominated nonrenewable energy structure in China, corn-ethanol processes in China are mostly a conversion of coal to ethanol. Validations and discussions are also presented to reveal policy implications against corn based ethanol as an alternative energy in long term energy security planning. - Highlights: ► Nonrenewable energy (NE) cost is conservatively accounted for corn-ethanol in China. ► Corn cultivation, ethanol conversion and wastewater treatment are included. ► NE cost is estimated as 1.70 times that of the ethanol energy produced. ► Corn-ethanol processes in China are mostly a conversion of coal to ethanol.

  7. Arc-related porphyry molybdenum deposit model: Chapter D in Mineral deposit models for resource assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Ryan D.; Hammarstrom, Jane M.; Piatak, Nadine M.; Seal, Robert R.

    2012-01-01

    This report provides a descriptive model for arc-related porphyry molybdenum deposits. Presented within are geological, geochemical, and mineralogical characteristics that differentiate this deposit type from porphyry copper and alkali-feldspar rhyolite-granite porphyry molybdenum deposits. The U.S. Geological Survey's effort to update existing mineral deposit models spurred this research, which is intended to supplement previously published models for this deposit type that help guide mineral-resource and mineral-environmental assessments.

  8. Eco-socio Impact of Mineral Resource Mining in the Karamoja ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Eco-socio Impact of Mineral Resource Mining in the Karamoja Region of ... Oftentimes, the economic aspect of mining overshadows ecological and social needs in ... For that reason, Karamoja region has experienced violent ethnic conflicts, ...

  9. Modern Trends of Additional Professional Education Development for Mineral Resource Extracting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borisova, Olga; Frolova, Victoria; Merzlikina, Elena

    2017-11-01

    The article contains the results of development of additional professional education research, including the field of mineral resource extracting in Russia. The paper describes the levels of education received in Russian Federation and determines the place and role of additional professional education among them. Key factors influencing the development of additional professional education are identified. As a result of the research, the authors proved the necessity of introducing additional professional education programs on educational Internet platforms for mineral resource extracting.

  10. Proceedings for a Workshop on Deposit Modeling, Mineral Resource Assessment, and Their Role in Sustainable Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briskey, Joseph A.; Schulz, Klaus J.

    2007-01-01

    The world's use of nonfuel mineral resources continues to increase to support a growing population and increasing standards of living. The ability to meet this increasing demand is affected especially by concerns about possible environmental degradation associated with minerals production and by competing land uses. What information does the world need to support global minerals development in a sustainable way?Informed planning and decisions concerning sustainability and future mineral resource supply require a long–term perspective and an integrated approach to resource, land use, economic, and environmental management worldwide. Such perspective and approach require unbiased information on the global distribution of identified and especially undiscovered resources, the economic and political factors influencing their development, and the potential environmental consequences of their exploitation.The U.S. Geological Survey and the former Deposit Modeling Program of the International Union of Geological Sciences (IUGS) of the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) sponsored a workshop on "Deposit Modeling, Mineral Resource Assessment, and Their Role in Sustainable Development" at the 31st International Geological Congress (IGC) in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, on August 18–19, 2000. The purpose of the workshop was to review the state-of-the-art in mineral deposit modeling and resource assessment and to examine the role of global assessments of nonfuel mineral resources in sustainable development.The workshop addressed questions such as the following: Which of the available mineral deposit models and assessment methods are best suited for predicting the locations, deposit types, and amounts of undiscovered nonfuel mineral resources remaining in the world? What is the availability of global geologic, mineral deposit, and mineral exploration information? How can mineral resource assessments be used to address economic and

  11. Conversion, ecological and social aspects of the research on mineral resources at the Semipalatinsk test site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tukhvatulin, Sh.T.; Belyashova, N.N.; Nedbaev, I.N.

    2000-01-01

    Despite the history of the Semipalatinsk test site in nuclear weapons testing, this territory is of interest for geologic exploration and utilization of mineral resources. The prospect for minerals on this territory was already known before the beginning of tests. Nowadays several companies work on the territory. Positive experience of using Kara Zhira coal deposit, refinement of local gabbros and stone-cutting plant, and preparation of gold mining at Naimanzhal deposit, allow us to hope that these mineral and raw material resources of the Semipalatinsk test site can become an important economic factor for development of the Eastern Kazakhstan region. (author)

  12. Analysis of stream sediment reconnaissance data for mineral resources from the Montrose NTMS Quadrangle, Colorado

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beyth, M.; Broxton, D.; McInteer, C.; Averett, W.R.; Stablein, N.K.

    1980-06-01

    Multivariate statistical analysis to support the National Uranium Resource Evaluation and to evaluate strategic and other commercially important mineral resources was carried out on Hydrogeochemical and Stream Sediment Reconnaissance data from the Montrose quadrangle, Colorado. The analysis suggests that: (1) the southern Colorado Mineral Belt is an area favorable for uranium mineral occurrences; (2) carnotite-type occurrences are likely in the nose of the Gunnison Uplift; (3) uranium mineral occurrences may be present along the western and northern margins of the West Elk crater; (4) a base-metal mineralized area is associated with the Uncompahgre Uplift; and (5) uranium and base metals are associated in some areas, and both are often controlled by faults trending west-northwest and north

  13. U.S. Geological Survey Energy and Minerals science strategy: a resource lifecycle approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrero, Richard C.; Kolak, Jonathan J.; Bills, Donald J.; Bowen, Zachary H.; Cordier, Daniel J.; Gallegos, Tanya J.; Hein, James R.; Kelley, Karen D.; Nelson, Philip H.; Nuccio, Vito F.; Schmidt, Jeanine M.; Seal, Robert R.

    2013-01-01

    The economy, national security, and standard of living of the United States depend heavily on adequate and reliable supplies of energy and mineral resources. Based on population and consumption trends, the Nation’s use of energy and minerals can be expected to grow, driving the demand for ever broader scientific understanding of resource formation, location, and availability. In addition, the increasing importance of environmental stewardship, human health, and sustainable growth places further emphasis on energy and mineral resources research and understanding. Collectively, these trends in resource demand and the interconnectedness among resources will lead to new challenges and, in turn, require cutting- edge science for the next generation of societal decisions. The long and continuing history of U.S. Geological Survey contributions to energy and mineral resources science provide a solid foundation of core capabilities upon which new research directions can grow. This science strategy provides a framework for the coming decade that capitalizes on the growth of core capabilities and leverages their application toward new or emerging challenges in energy and mineral resources research, as reflected in five interrelated goals.

  14. Mineral resource potential of the Piedra Wilderness Study Area, Archuleta and Hinsdale counties, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bush, Alfred L.; Condon, Steven M.; Franczyk, Karen J.; Brown, S.Don

    1983-01-01

    The mineral resource potential of the Piedra Wilderness Study Area is low. No occurrences of metallic minerals, of valuable industrial rocks and minerals, or of useful concentrations of organic fuels are known in the study area. However, a noneconomic occurrence of gypsum in the Jurassic Wanakah Formation lies a few hundred feet west of the WSA boundary, is believed to extend into the WSA, and has a low resource potential. Particular attention was paid to the possible occurrence of organic fuels in the Pennsylvanian Hermosa Formation, of uranium and vanadium in the Jurassic Entrada Sandstone and Morrison Formation, and of coal in the Cretaceous Dakota Sandstone. Thin coaly beds in the Dakota have a low resource potential. Extensive sampling of stream sediments, limited sampling of rock outcrops and springs, and a number of scintillometer traverses failed to pinpoint significant anomalies that might be clues to mineral deposits.

  15. Preliminary Assessment of Non-Fuel Mineral Resources of Afghanistan, 2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    2007-01-01

    Introduction Afghanistan has abundant mineral resources, including known deposits of copper, iron, barite, sulfur, talc, chromium, magnesium, salt, mica, marble, rubies, emeralds, lapis lazuli, asbestos, nickel, mercury, gold and silver, lead, zinc, fluorspar, bauxite, beryllium, and lithium (fig. 1). Between 2005 and 2007, the U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID) funded a cooperative study by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and the Afghanistan Geological Survey (AGS) to assess the non-fuel mineral resources of Afghanistan as part of the effort to aid in the reconstruction of that country. An assessment is an estimation or evaluation, in this instance of undiscovered non-fuel mineral resources. Mineral resources are materials that are in such form that economic extraction of a commodity is currently or potentially feasible. In this assessment, teams of scientists from the USGS and the AGS compiled information about known mineral deposits and then evaluated the possible occurrence of undiscovered deposits of all types. Quantitative probabilistic estimates were made for undiscovered deposits of copper, mercury, rare-earth elements, sulfur, chromite, asbestos, potash, graphite, and sand and gravel. These estimates were made for undiscovered deposits at depths less than a kilometer. Other deposit types were considered and discussed in the assessment, but quantitative estimates of numbers of undiscovered deposits were not made. In addition, the assessment resulted in the delineation of 20 mineralized areas for further study, of which several may contain resources amenable to rapid development.

  16. Minerals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minerals are important for your body to stay healthy. Your body uses minerals for many different jobs, including keeping your bones, muscles, heart, and brain working properly. Minerals are also important for making enzymes and hormones. ...

  17. Western Mineral and Environmental Resources Science Center--providing comprehensive earth science for complex societal issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, David G.; Wallace, Alan R.; Schneider, Jill L.

    2010-01-01

    Minerals in the environment and products manufactured from mineral materials are all around us and we use and come into contact with them every day. They impact our way of life and the health of all that lives. Minerals are critical to the Nation's economy and knowing where future mineral resources will come from is important for sustaining the Nation's economy and national security. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Mineral Resources Program (MRP) provides scientific information for objective resource assessments and unbiased research results on mineral resource potential, production and consumption statistics, as well as environmental consequences of mining. The MRP conducts this research to provide information needed for land planners and decisionmakers about where mineral commodities are known and suspected in the earth's crust and about the environmental consequences of extracting those commodities. As part of the MRP scientists of the Western Mineral and Environmental Resources Science Center (WMERSC or 'Center' herein) coordinate the development of national, geologic, geochemical, geophysical, and mineral-resource databases and the migration of existing databases to standard models and formats that are available to both internal and external users. The unique expertise developed by Center scientists over many decades in response to mineral-resource-related issues is now in great demand to support applications such as public health research and remediation of environmental hazards that result from mining and mining-related activities. Western Mineral and Environmental Resources Science Center Results of WMERSC research provide timely and unbiased analyses of minerals and inorganic materials to (1) improve stewardship of public lands and resources; (2) support national and international economic and security policies; (3) sustain prosperity and improve our quality of life; and (4) protect and improve public health, safety, and environmental quality. The MRP

  18. Mineral resources at the beginning of the 21st century - trends and possibilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grecula Pavol

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available The world's population growth might have a positive impact on the geological investigation, the exploration and on the mining industry. The globalization of the world economy will have a positive economic cosequence for mining enterprises. Important is, that mining companies have to accept the environmental laws and to carry out rehabilitation in areas of mining activities. The detail understanding of geology of mineral deposits remains the primary control of their efficient exploitation.In regards to growing concerns about the sustainability of mineral production and environmental quality, as well as the simultaneous increase of demand for mineral-resource information, the Ministry of Environment of Slovak Republic completed the introduction study of the feasibility of assessing and predicting where and how much undiscovered mineral resources remain in Slovakia.

  19. Multivariate statistical analysis of stream sediments for mineral resources from the Craig NTMS Quadrangle, Colorado

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beyth, M.; McInteer, C.; Broxton, D.E.; Bolivar, S.L.; Luke, M.E.

    1980-06-01

    Multivariate statistical analyses were carried out on Hydrogeochemical and Stream Sediment Reconnaissance data from the Craig quadrangle, Colorado, to support the National Uranium Resource Evaluation and to evaluate strategic or other important commercial mineral resources. A few areas for favorable uranium mineralization are suggested for parts of the Wyoming Basin, Park Range, and Gore Range. Six potential source rocks for uranium are postulated based on factor score mapping. Vanadium in stream sediments is suggested as a pathfinder for carnotite-type mineralization. A probable northwest trend of lead-zinc-copper mineralization associated with Tertiary intrusions is suggested. A few locations are mapped where copper is associated with cobalt. Concentrations of placer sands containing rare earth elements, probably of commercial value, are indicated for parts of the Sand Wash Basin

  20. Mineral and energy resource assessment maps of the Mount Katmai, Naknek, and western Afognak quadrangles, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Church, S.E.; Riehle, J.R.; Magoon, L.B.; Campbell, D.L.

    1992-01-01

    On the basis of new geologic mapping and exploration geochemical studies, we have provided a mineral and energy resource assessment of the Mount Katmai, Naknek, and western Afognak quadrangles, Alaska. We delineate four tracts of ground that have metallic mineral resources. The mineral deposit types considered in each tract are summarized in table 4. Estimates of the number of undiscovered mineral deposits have been made for porphyry copper and polymetallic vein deposits. We estimate that one undiscovered porphyry copper deposit is present in the Katmai study area at the ten percent probability level. Although the sampling density may be too low to give an accurate estimate of the number of undiscovered polymetallic vein deposits, we suggest that, at a minimum, there is a five percent probability for five or more undiscovered polymetallic vein deposits in the Katmai study area. In addition, several areas have potential for undiscovered porphyry molybdenum, massive sulfide, and epithermal gold and mercury deposits.

  1. Mineral resources of the Turtle Mountains Wilderness Study Area, San Bernardino County, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Keith A.; Nielson, Jane E.; Simpson, Robert W.; Hazlett, Richard W.; Alminas, Henry V.; Nakata, John K.; McDonnell, John R.

    1988-01-01

    At the request of the U.S. Bureau of Land Management, approximately 105,200 acres of the Turtle Mountains Wilderness Study Area (CDCA-307) were evaluated for mineral resources (known) and resource potential (undiscovered). In this report, the area studied is referred to as "the wilderness study area" or simply "the study area"; any reference to the Turtle Mountain Wilderness Study Area refers only to that part of the wilderness study area for which a mineral survey was requested by the U.S. Bureau of Land Management.The wilderness study area is in southeastern San Bernardino County, Calif. Gold, silver, copper, and lead have been mined within and adjacent to the study area. Copper-zinc-silver-gold mineral occurrences are found in the southern part and gold-silver mineral occurrences are found in the northern part of the study area; identified low- to moderate-grade gold-silver resources occur adjacent to the study area along the western boundary. Six areas in the south-central and northwestern parts of the study area have high resource potential, two broad areas have moderate resource potential, and part of the southwest corner has low resource potential for lode gold, silver, and associated copper, lead, zinc, molybdenum, and tungsten. Alluvium locally within one of these areas has moderate resource potential for placer gold and silver, and the entire area has low resource potential for placer gold and silver. There is low resource potential for perlite, ornamental stone (onyx marble and opal), manganese, uranium and thorium, pegmatite minerals, and oil and gas within the study area. Sand and gravel are abundant but are readily available outside the wilderness study area.

  2. Analysis on uranium resource situations and metallogenic potential of Heyuan mineralization belt of Guangdong province

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Zhuhai; Zheng Mingliang; Song Shizhu; Liang Yewu; Zhao Wei

    2008-01-01

    Heyuan mineralization belt is a structure-magmatic activities belt which is charcterized by strong plastic deformation and shearing. The squeeze (overthrust) structure is formed early. Later stretch produced slide shovel-shaped normal fault which control the red basin and uranium mineralization. Comprehensive study shows that this area is of favorable uranium metallogenic condition due to the rich uranium source and higher degree of geology work, it is a target for the new round resources exploration. (authors)

  3. Canada's resources and the national interest: summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1977-01-01

    This booklet is a summary of a report prepared by an Independent Task Force on the critical policy choices facing Canada with respect to the development of its mining and petroleum resources. The main report of the Task Force (NP-22249) is accompanied by four major research studies, published as Appendices to the main report, and covering the broad subjects of the taxation of non-renewable resources, a survey of our oil and gas resources, a survey of our other mineral resources, and a possible plan for the development of our oil and gas reserves in the coming decade.

  4. International standardisation for the reporting of Mineral Resources and Ore Reserves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farmer, Karilyn

    2014-01-01

    The mining industry is a vital contributor to national and global economies. It is a truly international business that depends on the trust and confidence of investors and other stakeholders for its financial and operational well-being. Unlike many other industries, it is based on depleting mineral assets, the knowledge of which is imperfect prior to the commencement of extraction. It is therefore essential that the industry communicates the risks associated with investment effectively and transparently in order to earn the level of trust necessary to underpin its activities. Enforceable mineral resource and mineral (Ore) reserves codes are critical to earning this confidence.

  5. Australasian code for reporting of mineral resources and ore reserves (the JORC code)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-06-01

    The latest revision of the Code first published in 1989 becomes effective in September 1999. It was prepared by the Joint Ores Reserves Committee of the Australasian Institute of Mining and Metallurgy, Australian Institute of Geoscientists and Minerals Council of Australia (JORC). It sets out minimum standards, recommendations and guidelines for public reporting of exploration results, mineral resources and ore reserves in Australasia. In this edition, the guidelines, which were previously separated from the Code, have been placed after the respective Code clauses. The Code is applicable to all solid minerals, including diamonds, other gemstones and coal for which public reporting is required by the Australian and New Zealand Stock Exchanges.

  6. An Opportunity on Exploiting of Geology and Mineral Resource Data for Regional Development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agus-Hendratno

    2004-01-01

    Indonesia archipelago have the very complex geo diversity. The complexity of geo diversity gives a lot of opportunity on exploiting of earth resources for society prosperity. In other side, the complexity of geology also gives a lot of resistance and various limitation at one particular region to expand. Hence, various data of geology as well as data of result of mapping of minerals resources (mapping at macro scale and also have detail scale) require to be managed and exploited maximally. Effort the exploiting also require various infrastructure which is concerning regulatory, technological, human resources being, market-drive of an economic geo material, social environment and culture which grow around geology data, and also availability and readiness of geology and mineral resources data. This study is expected can give a few description of how the geology and minerals resources data can be as reference in regional development planning. This paper was writed by assessment of description qualitative and comparative inter-region case study in various regency area, where writer have been involved to conduct the activity of geological mapping and mineral resources data and also involved by a discussion with a few officers of local government in so many opportunity. Some of the case study region for example : in Kampar Regency (Riau), Tanjung Jabung Timur Regency (Jambi), Biak Numfor Regency (Papua), Gunung Kidul Regency (Yogyakarta), Pacitan Regency (East Java), and also Klaten Regency (Central Java). (author)

  7. Mineral resources of the Swasey Mountain and Howell Peak Wilderness Study Areas, Millard County, Utah

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindsey, D.A.; Zimbelman, D.R.; Campbell, D.L.; Duval, J.S.; Cook, K.L.; Podwysocki, M.H.; Brickey, D.W.; Yambrick, R.A.; Tuftin, S.E.

    1989-01-01

    The Swasey Mountain and the Howell Peak Wilderness Study Areas are underlain by an east-dipping sequence of carbonate rocks, shale, and quartzite of Cambrian age. The Sand Pass mineralized area, immediately northwest of the Swasey Mountain Wilderness Study Area, contains numerous occurrences of jasperoid, small igneous intrusions of Tertiary age, and geochemical anomalies; the mineralized area has been explored for gold. Although no identified resources of metals are known in or near the wilderness study areas, the distribution of geologic structures and stream-sediment geochemical anomalies indicates there is a moderate potential for undiscovered resources of lead, zinc, copper, molybdenum, silver, and gold. An area of moderate potential for undiscovered resources of these metals extends south and east into the Swasey Mountain Wilderness Study Area from the Sand Pass mineralized area. A second area of moderate potential for undiscovered resources of these metals extends from the southern part of the Swasey Mountain Wilderness Study Area across the western part of the Howell Peak Wilderness Study Area. Both study areas contain inferred subeconomic resources of quartzite, high-purity limestone, and sand and gravel. Both areas have moderate resource potential for high-purity limestone and dolomite. Fossils, especially trilobites, of interest to collectors are present in both areas. The potential for undiscovered resources is moderate for oil and gas and is low for geothermal energy within the study areas. There is no potential for undiscovered resources of coal.

  8. Resource nationalism in Indonesia—Effects of the 2014 mineral export ban

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lederer, Graham W.

    2016-09-27

    Resource nationalism encompasses a broad range of political and economic actions taken by Governments to regulate the extraction of natural resources within their borders. Policies such as increased tariffs or export restrictions can have far-reaching economic effects on international trade. As the Governments of several developing countries consider enacting nationalistic policies, an examination of the 2014 mineral export ban in Indonesia provides an instructive example of the possible impacts of resource nationalism. Significant changes in the production and trade of unprocessed (that is, ores and concentrates) and processed (that is, refined metal) aluminum, copper, and nickel before and after the export ban form the basis of this study.The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) National Minerals Information Center (NMIC) tracks production and trade of mineral commodities between producer and consumer countries. Materials flow studies clarify the effects of an export ban on different mineral commodities by assessing changes in production, processing capacity, and trade. Using extensive data collection and monitoring procedures, the USGS NMIC investigated the effects of resource nationalism on the flow of mineral commodities from Indonesia to the global economy.

  9. A magnetic survey of mineral resources in northeastern Cuba

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Batista Rodriguez, Jose Alberto [Instituto Superior Minero Metalurgico de Moa (Cuba)

    2006-01-15

    Interpretation of the aeromagnetic survey of northeastern Cuba at scale 1 50 000 is presented. Mainly ophiolitic rocks are characterized by a high magnetic response. The aeromagnetic data was reduced to the pole and the horizontal and vertical gradients, as well as the upward continuation were calculated. To define areas of serpentinized ultrabasic rocks at surface and depth, the magnetic field transformations were interpreted. We discuss lateral extension of outcrops, thickness variation of the ophiolitic rocks, basement extension and fault zones. Hydrothermal alterations indicate associated precious metal secondary mineralization. Operations are planned to limit damage to mining by siliceous material in Fe+Ni laterites. [Spanish] Cuba, en la cual afloran fundamentalmente rocas ofioliticas caracterizadas por un alto grado de magnetizacion. Los datos aeromagneticos fueron reducidos al polo y luego se realizaron los calculos de gradientes horizontales y verticales y la continuacion analitica ascendente. A partir de los resultados de estas transformaciones se delimitaron zonas donde predominan las rocas ultrabasicas serpentinizadas tanto en superficie como en profundidad, definiendose la extension lateral de estas rocas por debajo de las rocas que afloran en superficie. Tambien se estimaron las variaciones de los espesores de las rocas ofioliticas, el basamento de las rocas que afloran, la presencia de estructuras disyuntivas, y se proponen nuevas estructuras de este tipo. Por ultimo se delimitan las zonas de alteracion hidrotermal, lo cual posee gran importancia, ya que con las mismas se pueden vincular mineralizaciones de metales preciosos. Ademas, su delimitacion en depositos lateriticos permite orientar los trabajos de explotacion minera, teniendo en cuenta el dano que causa al proceso metalurgico la presencia de material silicio en las lateritas Fe+Ni.

  10. To accelerate technology of in situ leaching and heap leaching for mining mineral resources of China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luo Mei

    1999-01-01

    Recently, in situ leaching and heap leaching are the most advanced technology for mining low-grade mineral resources in the world. The author briefly expounds the basic concept and advantages of in situ leaching and heap leaching and deals with the main research content of the hydrometallurgical technology of in situ leaching and heap leaching, its development and present application at home and abroad. Having expounded the gap existing between China's technology of in situ leaching and heap leaching and the foreign technology, the author forecasts the prospects of accelerating the mining of China's mineral resources by using the technology of in situ leaching and heap leaching

  11. Porphyry copper assessment of northeast Asia: Far East Russia and northeasternmost China: Chapter W in Global mineral resource assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mihalasky, Mark J.; Ludington, Stephen; Alexeiev, Dmitriy V.; Frost, Thomas P.; Light, Thomas D.; Briggs, Deborah A.; Hammarstrom, Jane M.; Wallis, John C.; Bookstrom, Arthur A.; Panteleyev, Andre

    2015-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey assesses resources (mineral, energy, water, environmental, and biologic) at regional, national, and global scales to provide science in support of land management and decision making. Mineral resource assessments provide a synthesis of available information about where mineral deposits are known and suspected to be in the Earth’s crust, which commodities may be present, and estimates of amounts of resources in undiscovered deposits.

  12. World mineral energy resources and their distribution in time and space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toens, P.D.; Camisani-Calzolari, F.A.G.M.; Van der Merwe, P.J.; Andreoli, M.A.G.

    1985-01-01

    If the estimated total geological potential of the world mineral energy resources is reduced to a common denominator, then the total resources are estimated at 20 600 terawatt years (TWyr). Assuming that all these resources are recoverable, and applying today's technology, they would suffice for 1 700 years under no-growth conditions and approximately 130 years assuming an annual growth rate of 3%. It should, however, be borne in mind that only about 15% (or 3 100 TWry) of the world's resources can be regarded as proved or partly proved and recoverable at current price levels and with current technology. Assuming a no-growth scenario, these resources will meet future energy requirements for a period of approximately 260 years. At a 3% annual growth rate resources will last for about 70 years. From these figures it is clear that the known mineral energy resources will be depleted in the near future. The challenge to the geologist to locate additional energy potential is enormous and in order to do so, the distribution of known resources in time and space was reappraised. The present investigation confirms the time-bound character of the mineralising processes. These took place in a series of clearly defined rhythms ranging from the early Proterozoic to the Recent. Uranium and thorium constitute the only energy resources of the Proterozoic. In contrast, the Phanerozoiceon contains the totality of fossil fuels and at least 60% of the nuclear resources; strata younger than 600 Ma therefore represent the most favourable target areas for prospecting

  13. A framework for quantitative assessment of impacts related to energy and mineral resource development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haines, Seth S.; Diffendorfer, James; Balistrieri, Laurie S.; Berger, Byron R.; Cook, Troy A.; Gautier, Donald L.; Gallegos, Tanya J.; Gerritsen, Margot; Graffy, Elisabeth; Hawkins, Sarah; Johnson, Kathleen; Macknick, Jordan; McMahon, Peter; Modde, Tim; Pierce, Brenda; Schuenemeyer, John H.; Semmens, Darius; Simon, Benjamin; Taylor, Jason; Walton-Day, Katherine

    2013-01-01

    Natural resource planning at all scales demands methods for assessing the impacts of resource development and use, and in particular it requires standardized methods that yield robust and unbiased results. Building from existing probabilistic methods for assessing the volumes of energy and mineral resources, we provide an algorithm for consistent, reproducible, quantitative assessment of resource development impacts. The approach combines probabilistic input data with Monte Carlo statistical methods to determine probabilistic outputs that convey the uncertainties inherent in the data. For example, one can utilize our algorithm to combine data from a natural gas resource assessment with maps of sage grouse leks and piñon-juniper woodlands in the same area to estimate possible future habitat impacts due to possible future gas development. As another example: one could combine geochemical data and maps of lynx habitat with data from a mineral deposit assessment in the same area to determine possible future mining impacts on water resources and lynx habitat. The approach can be applied to a broad range of positive and negative resource development impacts, such as water quantity or quality, economic benefits, or air quality, limited only by the availability of necessary input data and quantified relationships among geologic resources, development alternatives, and impacts. The framework enables quantitative evaluation of the trade-offs inherent in resource management decision-making, including cumulative impacts, to address societal concerns and policy aspects of resource development.

  14. Mineral Resources of the Morey and Fandango Wilderness Study Areas, Nye County, Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    John, David A.; Nash, J. Thomas; Plouff, Donald; McDonnell, John R.

    1987-01-01

    The Morey (NV-060-191) and Fandango (NV-060-190) Wilderness Study Areas are located in the northern Hot Creek Range about 25 mi north of Warm Springs, Nev. At the request of the Bureau of Land Management, 46,300 acres of the Morey and Fandango Wilderness Study Areas were studied. In this report, the area studied is referred to as 'the wilderness study area', or simply 'the study area'. Geologic, geochemical, geophysical, and mineral surveys were conducted by the USGS and the USBM in 1984 to appraise the identified mineral resources and to assess the mineral resource potential of the study areas. These studies indicate that there are small identified resources of zinc, lead, and silver at the Lead Pipe property in the Fandango Wilderness Study Area, several areas of high potential for the occurrence of gold resources in the Fandango study area, small areas of low and moderate potential for the occurrence of silver, lead, and zinc resources in the Fandango study area, areas of moderate and high potential for the occurrence of silver, lead, and zinc resources in the Morey study area, and an area of low potential for copper, molybdenum, and tin in the Morey study area. Both study areas have low resource potential for petroleum, natural gas, uranium, and geothermal energy.

  15. Mineral resource potential map of the Raywood Flat Roadless Areas, Riverside and San Bernardino counties, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matti, Jonathan C.; Cox, Brett F.; Iverson, Stephen R.

    1983-01-01

    Geologic, geochemical, and geophysical studies within the Raywood "Flat Roadless Areas, together with an investigation of mines and prospects within the further planning area, resulted in (1) identification of nonmetallic mineral resources at a marble mine in the further planning area and (2) recognition of a small area in the recommended wilderness that has moderate potential for base-metal resources. Except for these two areas of identified and suspected resources, we did not observe indications of resource potential elsewhere in the Raywood Flat Roadless Areas.

  16. NATO Advanced Study Institute on Statistical Treatments for Estimation of Mineral and Energy Resources

    CERN Document Server

    Fabbri, A; Sinding-Larsen, R

    1988-01-01

    This volume contains the edited papers prepared by lecturers and participants of the NATO Advanced Study Institute on "Statistical Treatments for Estimation of Mineral and Energy Resources" held at II Ciocco (Lucca), Italy, June 22 - July 4, 1986. During the past twenty years, tremendous efforts have been made to acquire quantitative geoscience information from ore deposits, geochemical, geophys ical and remotely-sensed measurements. In October 1981, a two-day symposium on "Quantitative Resource Evaluation" and a three-day workshop on "Interactive Systems for Multivariate Analysis and Image Processing for Resource Evaluation" were held in Ottawa, jointly sponsored by the Geological Survey of Canada, the International Association for Mathematical Geology, and the International Geological Correlation Programme. Thirty scientists from different countries in Europe and North America were invited to form a forum for the discussion of quantitative methods for mineral and energy resource assessment. Since then, not ...

  17. Economic filters for evaluating porphyry copper deposit resource assessments using grade-tonnage deposit models, with examples from the U.S. Geological Survey global mineral resource assessment: Chapter H in Global mineral resource assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Gilpin R.; Menzie, W. David

    2012-01-01

    An analysis of the amount and location of undiscovered mineral resources that are likely to be economically recoverable is important for assessing the long-term adequacy and availability of mineral supplies. This requires an economic evaluation of estimates of undiscovered resources generated by traditional resource assessments (Singer and Menzie, 2010). In this study, simplified engineering cost models were used to estimate the economic fraction of resources contained in undiscovered porphyry copper deposits, predicted in a global assessment of copper resources. The cost models of Camm (1991) were updated with a cost index to reflect increases in mining and milling costs since 1989. The updated cost models were used to perform an economic analysis of undiscovered resources estimated in porphyry copper deposits in six tracts located in North America. The assessment estimated undiscovered porphyry copper deposits within 1 kilometer of the land surface in three depth intervals.

  18. Porphyry copper assessment of the Tibetan Plateau, China: Chapter F in Global mineral resource assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludington, Steve; Hammarstrom, Jane M.; Robinson, Gilpin R.; Mars, John L.; Miller, Robert J.

    2012-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey collaborated with the China Geological Survey to conduct a mineral-resource assessment of resources in porphyry copper deposits on the Tibetan Plateau in western China. This area hosts several very large porphyry deposits, exemplified by the Yulong and Qulong deposits, each containing at least 7,000,000 metric tons (t) of copper. However, large parts of the area are underexplored and are likely to contain undiscovered porphyry copper deposits.

  19. Methodology for an economic valuation of the mineral resources of Colombia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franco Sepulveda, Giovanni

    2007-01-01

    The present article presents a synthesis of the project of investigation; Methodology for an economic valuation of the mineral resources of Colombia, whose objective is the of proposing a methodology, specifically for the calcareous and coal deposits, like a tool for its administration, planning, regulation and control that it can be applied to the generality of the non renewable resources with the end to insert them in the states of national accounts in the long term

  20. Availability of mineral resources for society; Disponibilidad y retos actuales de los recursos minerales para la sociedad

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Price, J. G.; Espi, J. A.

    2014-06-01

    Trends in global mineral production and expanding uses of mineral resources foretell a bright future, although with significant challenges, for exploration and development. Demand for mineral resources is likely to remain high and grow to meet increases in world population and standards of living. Significant challenges include meeting future demand with new discoveries and developing the resources in environmentally, socially, and economically sustainable ways. A historical perspective from the last 50 years on finding new mineral districts, discovering new types of ore deposits, and using new technologies in exploration suggests that the world will not run out of mineral resources. It is likely that substitution and recycling will play increasingly major roles in meeting global mineral demand. New technologies for ocean mining will help add to the resource base. Historical perspectives also suggest that mining scams will continue, and environmental, health, and safety concerns will be major factors in deciding where future mines will be located and how they will be operated. (Author)

  1. Climate policy and nonrenewable resources : The green paradox and beyond

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pittel, Karen; van der Ploeg, Rick; Withagen, Cees

    2014-01-01

    Recent developments suggest that well-intended climate policies–including carbon taxes and subsidies for renewable energy – might not accomplish what policy makers intend. Hans-Werner Sinn has described a "green paradox," arguing that these policies could hasten global warming by encouraging owners

  2. Fundamentals of converging mining technologies in integrated development of mineral resources of lithosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trubetskoy, KN; Galchenko, YuP; Eremenko, VA

    2018-03-01

    The paper sets forth a theoretical framework for the strategy of the radically new stage in development of geotechnologies under conditions of rapidly aggravating environmental crisis of the contemporary technocratic civilization that utilizes the substance extracted from the lithosphere as the source of energy and materials. The authors of the paper see the opportunity to overcome the conflict between the techno- and bio-spheres in the area of mineral raw materials by means of changing the technological paradigm of integrated mineral development by implementing nature-like technologies oriented to the ideas and methods of converging resources of natural biota as the object of the environmental protection and geotechnologies as the major source of ecological hazards induced in the course of development of mineral resources of lithosphere.

  3. An Analysis of the Published Mineral Resource Estimates of the Haji-Gak Iron Deposit, Afghanistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sutphin, David M.; Renaud, Karine M.; Drew, Lawrence J.

    2011-01-01

    The Haji-Gak iron deposit of eastern Bamyan Province, eastern Afghanistan, was studied extensively and resource calculations were made in the 1960s by Afghan and Russian geologists. Recalculation of the resource estimates verifies the original estimates for categories A (in-place resources known in detail), B (in-place resources known in moderate detail), and C 1 (in-place resources estimated on sparse data), totaling 110.8 Mt, or about 6% of the resources as being supportable for the methods used in the 1960s. C 2 (based on a loose exploration grid with little data) resources are based on one ore grade from one drill hole, and P 2 (prognosis) resources are based on field observations, field measurements, and an ore grade derived from averaging grades from three better sampled ore bodies. C 2 and P 2 resources are 1,659.1 Mt or about 94% of the total resources in the deposit. The vast P 2 resources have not been drilled or sampled to confirm their extent or quality. The purpose of this article is to independently evaluate the resources of the Haji-Gak iron deposit by using the available geologic and mineral resource information including geologic maps and cross sections, sampling data, and the analog-estimating techniques of the 1960s to determine the size and tenor of the deposit.

  4. Space technology in the discovery and development of mineral and energy resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowman, P. D.

    1977-01-01

    Space technology, applied to the discovery and extraction of mineral and energy resources, is summarized. Orbital remote sensing for geological purposes has been widely applied through the use of LANDSAT satellites. These techniques also have been of value for protection against environmental hazards and for a better understanding of crustal structure.

  5. Lung cancer in uranium miners: A tissue resource and pilot study. Final performance report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Samet, J.; Gilliland, F.D.

    1998-08-13

    This project incorporates two related research projects directed toward understanding respiratory carcinogenesis in radon-exposed former uranium miners. The first project involved a continuation of the tissue resource of lung cancer cases from former underground uranium miners and comparison cases from non-miners. The second project was a pilot study for a proposed longitudinal study of respiratory carcinogenesis in former uranium miners. The objectives including facilitating the investigation of molecular changes in radon exposed lung cancer cases, developing methods for prospectively studying clinical, cytologic, cytogenetic, and molecular changes in the multi-event process of respiratory carcinogenesis, and assessing the feasibility of recruiting former uranium miners into a longitudinal study that collected multiple biological specimens. A pilot study was conducted to determine whether blood collection, induced sputum, bronchial brushing, washings, and mucosal biopsies from participants at two of the hospitals could be included efficiently. A questionnaire was developed for the extended study and all protocols for specimen collection and tissue handling were completed. Resource utilization is in progress at ITRI and the methods have been developed to study molecular and cellular changes in exfoliated cells contained in sputum as well as susceptibility factors.

  6. Lung cancer in uranium miners: A tissue resource and pilot study. Final performance report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samet, J.; Gilliland, F.D.

    1998-01-01

    This project incorporates two related research projects directed toward understanding respiratory carcinogenesis in radon-exposed former uranium miners. The first project involved a continuation of the tissue resource of lung cancer cases from former underground uranium miners and comparison cases from non-miners. The second project was a pilot study for a proposed longitudinal study of respiratory carcinogenesis in former uranium miners. The objectives including facilitating the investigation of molecular changes in radon exposed lung cancer cases, developing methods for prospectively studying clinical, cytologic, cytogenetic, and molecular changes in the multi-event process of respiratory carcinogenesis, and assessing the feasibility of recruiting former uranium miners into a longitudinal study that collected multiple biological specimens. A pilot study was conducted to determine whether blood collection, induced sputum, bronchial brushing, washings, and mucosal biopsies from participants at two of the hospitals could be included efficiently. A questionnaire was developed for the extended study and all protocols for specimen collection and tissue handling were completed. Resource utilization is in progress at ITRI and the methods have been developed to study molecular and cellular changes in exfoliated cells contained in sputum as well as susceptibility factors

  7. Critical Minerals and Energy–Impacts and Limitations of Moving to Unconventional Resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin C. McLellan

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The nexus of minerals and energy becomes ever more important as the economic growth and development of countries in the global South accelerates and the needs of new energy technologies expand, while at the same time various important minerals are declining in grade and available reserves from conventional mining. Unconventional resources in the form of deep ocean deposits and urban ores are being widely examined, although exploitation is still limited. This paper examines some of the implications of the transition towards cleaner energy futures in parallel with the shifts through conventional ore decline and the uptake of unconventional mineral resources. Three energy scenarios, each with three levels of uptake of renewable energy, are assessed for the potential of critical minerals to restrict growth under 12 alternative mineral supply patterns. Under steady material intensities per unit of capacity, the study indicates that selenium, indium and tellurium could be barriers in the expansion of thin-film photovoltaics, while neodymium and dysprosium may delay the propagation of wind power. For fuel cells, no restrictions are observed.

  8. Preliminary publications book 2 from project on mineral resources, metallogenesis, and tectonics of northeast Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nokleberg, Warren J.; Miller, Robert J.; Naumova, Vera V.; Khanchuk, Alexander I.; Parfenov, Leonid M.; Kuzmin, Mikhail I.; Bounaeva, Tatiana M.; Obolenskiy, Alexander A.; Rodionov, Sergey M.; Seminskiy, Zhan V.; Diggles, Michael F.

    2003-01-01

    This is the Web version of a CD-ROM publication. This report consists of summary major compilations and syntheses accomplished in the six-year project through April 2003 for the study on the Mineral Resources, Metallogenesis, and Tectonics of Northeast Asia (Eastern and Southern Siberia, Mongolia, Northeastern China, South Korea, and Japan). The major scientific goals and benefits of the project are to: (1) provide a comprehensive international data base on the mineral resources of the region that is the first, extensive knowledge available in English; (2) provide major new interpretations of the origin and crustal evolution of mineralizing systems and their host rocks, thereby enabling enhanced, broad-scale tectonic reconstructions and interpretations; and (3) promote trade and scientific and technical exchanges between the North America and Northeast Asia. Data from the project are providing sound scientific data and interpretations for commercial firms, governmental agencies, universities, and individuals that are developing new ventures and studies in the project area, and for land-use planning studies that deal with both mineral potential issues. Northeast Asia has vast potential for known and undiscovered mineral deposits; however, little information existed in English in the West until publication of products from this project. Consequently, data and interpretations from the project are providing basic knowledge for major scientific, commercial, national, and international endeavors by other interested individuals and groups.

  9. Beryllium—A critical mineral commodity—Resources, production, and supply chain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lederer, Graham W.; Foley, Nora K.; Jaskula, Brian W.; Ayuso, Robert A.

    2016-11-14

    Beryllium is a lightweight metallic element used in a wide variety of specialty and industrial applications. As a function of its unique chemical and physical properties, such as a high stiffness-to-weight ratio, resistance to temperature extremes, and high thermal conductivity, beryllium cannot be easily replaced by substitute materials in applications where combinations of these properties make it the material of choice. Because the number of beryllium producers is limited and the use of substitute materials in specific defense-related applications that are vital to national security is inadequate, several studies have categorized beryllium as a critical and strategic material. This categorization has led to the United States Government recommending that beryllium be stockpiled for use in the event of a national emergency. As of December 31, 2015, the National Defense Stockpile inventory of hot-pressed beryllium metal powder, structured beryllium metal powder, and vacuum-cast beryllium metal totaled 78 metric tons (t).The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Mineral Resources Program supports research on the occurrence, quality, quantity, and availability of mineral resources vital to the economy and national security. The USGS, through its National Minerals Information Center (NMIC), collects, analyzes, and disseminates information on more than 90 nonfuel mineral commodities from more than 180 countries. This fact sheet provides information on the production, consumption, supply chain, geology, and resource availability of beryllium in a global context.

  10. Resource power and resource security: the politics of nonfuel minerals trade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kahn, O.E.

    1985-01-01

    The developed producers, Canada, Australia, and South Africa, and not the developing producers, are the power wielders and major tracers in nonfuel minerals. Specific circumstances allow producers to obtain compliant behavior from consumers. These include: exporter's market share, importer's degree of dependence, the material's being critical to importer's economy, and the trading system's condoning nonmarket goals. These (and other) criteria comprise an analytical device, the strategic trading relationship, which is used to demonstrate developed producer commodity power and developed consumer vulnerability. Consuming country governments rely on the private sector to deal with national enmeshment in strategic trading relationships. Japan excepted, OECD members fail either to address their continued access to nonfuel minerals, or their ability to survive supply disruption with minimum dislocation. Producer power is exemplified by Canada's threat and use of embargo to make her uranium customers tighten their nonproliferation policies. Structural power deters South Africa's ability to head off wholehearted economic pressure is the classic case

  11. Analysis of development achievement of overseas resources and study of plans of system improvement (bituminous coal, general mineral resources)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hwang, J N [Korea Energy Economics Institute, Euiwang (Korea, Republic of)

    1998-05-01

    Development policy of overseas resources of Korea should be carried out as a part of long-term resources security policy that can prepare for the stable supply and demand of needed resources under the proper economic size and industrial structure. This study tried to search for the ways to promote overseas development of bituminous coal and, general mineral resources, and support them more effectively per field. For this, development achievements so far, domestic and foreign pending issues, and operation status of the support system are studied, analyzed, and the improvement plans are drafted per field. Financial support for overseas resources development should be more expanded than the present in the future. For this, the current collateral system centered on real right should be improved and financial support centered on the credit of enterprise should be reinforced. Besides, in the related tax support system, related tax laws and systems should be improved in order to alleviate the tax burden of business operators so that they can carry out the overseas resources development business with more advantageous conditions through the additive introduction of current deduction system of indirect payment tax. Since payback period of overseas resources development business tends to become long-term, it should be continuously carried out based on future-oriented development investment plan and will of more than twenty (20) years rather than on temporary development support plan based on short-term market trend. 25 refs., 73 tabs.

  12. Minerals

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Aren't minerals something you find in the earth, like iron and quartz? Well, yes, but small ... canned salmon and sardines with bones leafy green vegetables, such as broccoli calcium-fortified foods — from orange ...

  13. Protection of mineral deposits - a way towards difficult compromises

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radwanek-Bąk, Barbara; Nieć, Marek

    2014-05-01

    Mineral deposits are non-renewable natural resources. Their protection and reasonable exploitation are crucial requests resulting from sustainable development principles. Those are also fundamental issues in frame of the intergeneration justice and fairness concept. Protection of mineral resources should be based on interrelated activities: maintaining the possibility of economic use of the identified mineral resources, reduced consumption of mineral resources and ensuring satisfactory results of new prospecting and development of innovative technologies for the mineral resources base. The main problem with guarantee to the use of mineral resources is the accessibility to sites with documented deposits and prospective areas of their occurrence. Often, this contradicts with the interests of residents, planners and needs of the biotic environment protection, thus is often a source of conflicts. Legislative regulations are necessary to mitigate such arguable matters. SWOT analysis carried out with respect to introducing such legal regulations serves to identify the sources of conflicts and difficulties associated with their solution. Consensus reaching is a difficult task, so all decision makers are required to show their mutual understanding and willingness to achieve the goals taking into consideration all benefits for the population (including future generations). Foundations for finding the middle ground are: making the communities aware of their demands on minerals and of indispensable conditions for satisfying these demands; providing complete and accessible information; factual, non-emotional negotiations between decision makers and the public.

  14. Porphyry copper assessment of Southeast Asia and Melanesia: Chapter D in Global mineral resource assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammarstrom, Jane M.; Bookstrom, Arthur A.; Dicken, Connie L.; Drenth, Benjamin J.; Ludington, Steve; Robinson, Gilpin R.; Setiabudi, Bambang Tjahjono; Sukserm, Wudhikarn; Sunuhadi, Dwi Nugroho; Wah, Alexander Yan Sze; Zientek, Michael L.

    2013-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey collaborated with member countries of the Coordinating Committee for Geoscience Programmes in East and Southeast Asia (CCOP) on an assessment of the porphyry copper resources of Southeast Asia and Melanesia as part of a global mineral resource assessment. The region hosts world-class porphyry copper deposits and underexplored areas that are likely to contain undiscovered deposits. Examples of known porphyry copper deposits include Batu Hijau and Grasberg in Indonesia; Panguna, Frieda River, and Ok Tedi in Papua New Guinea; and Namosi in Fiji.

  15. Porphyry copper assessment of western Central Asia: Chapter N in Global mineral resource assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Byron R.; Mars, John L.; Denning, Paul; Phillips, Jeffrey D.; Hammarstrom, Jane M.; Zientek, Michael L.; Dicken, Connie L.; Drew, Lawrence J.; with contributions from Alexeiev, Dmitriy; Seltmann, Reimar; Herrington, Richard J.

    2014-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey conducted an assessment of resources associated with porphyry copper deposits in the western Central Asia countries of Kyrgyzstan, Uzbekistan, Kazakhstan, and Tajikistan and the southern Urals of Kazakhstan and Russia as part of a global mineral resource assessment. The purpose of the study was to (1) delineate permissive areas (tracts) for undiscovered porphyry copper deposits; (2) compile a database of known porphyry copper deposits and significant prospects; (3) where data permit, estimate numbers of undiscovered deposits within those permissive tracts; and (4) provide probabilistic estimates the amounts of copper (Cu), molybdenum (Mo), gold (Au), and silver (Ag) that could be contained in those undiscovered deposits.

  16. The United Nations framework classification for fossil energy and mineral reserves and resources 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDonald, D.; Lynch-Bell, M.; Ross, J.; Heiberg, S.; Griffiths, C.; Klett, T.

    2011-01-01

    Effective resource management in a globalizing economy requires accurate assessments of fossil energy and minerals resources. The recoverable quantities must be described and categorized in a manner that is consistent with scientific and social/economic information describing the economy as well as with the information describing the projects to recover them. A number of different standards have evolved over time in response to various professional needs Under a mandate given by the United Nations Economic and Social Council, the United Nations Economic Commission for Europe (UNECE) has cooperated with Governments, regulatory agencies, industry, international organizations, and professional organizations (including Committee for Mineral Reserves International Reporting Standards (CRIRSCO), the Society of Petroleum Engineers (SPE), the American Association of Petroleum Geologists (AAPG), and the Society of Petroleum Evaluation Engineers (SPEE)), as well as with outstanding experts, to define a global classification for extractive activities (including oil, gas, heavy oil and bitumen extraction) that reflects the principal concerns of existing petroleum and mineral classifications. The United Nations Framework Classification for Fossil Energy and Mineral Reserves and Resources-2009 (UNFC-2009) aims to serve the following four principal needs: 1. The needs in international energy and mineral studies to formulate robust and long-sighted policies. 2. The needs of governments in managing their resources accordingly, allowing market prices to be transferred to the wellhead with as little loss as possible. 3. The industries' needs for information while deploying technology, management and finance to secure energy supplies and capture value efficiently within the established frameworks to serve its host countries, shareholders and stakeholders. 4. The financial community's need for information to allocate capital appropriately, providing reduced costs and improved long

  17. Mineral resources of the South Mccullough Mountains Wilderness Study Area, Clark County, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DeWitt, E.; Anderson, J.L.; Barton, H.N.; Jachens, R.C.; Podwysocki, M.H.; Brickey, D.W.; Close, T.J.

    1989-01-01

    The authors present a study of 19,558 acres of the South McCullough Mountains Wilderness Study Area. The study area contains no identified mineral resources and has no areas of high mineral resource potential. However, five areas that make up 20 percent of the study area have a moderate potential either for undiscovered silver, gold, lead, copper, and zinc resources in small vein deposits; for lanthanum and other rare-earth elements, uranium, thorium, and niobium in medium-size carbonatite bodies and dikes; for tungsten and copper in small- to medium-size vein deposits; or for silver and gold in small vein or breccia-pipe deposits. Six areas that makeup 24 percent of the study area have an unknown resource potential either for gold, silver, lead, and copper in small vein deposits; for gold, silver, lead, zinc, copper, and arsenic in small vein or breccia-pipe deposits; for lanthanum and other rare-earth elements, uranium, thorium, and niobium in medium-size carbonatite bodies and dikes; or for tungsten and copper in small vein deposits

  18. The Australian mineral resources industry in 2006 - ongoing business and new challenges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leschhorn, F.

    2006-08-15

    Australia has the potential to remain as a stable long-term supplier of important minerals for the entire world (Table 1). The national income of Australia is direct related to the exports of minerals and it is no wonder that the annual poker-style price negotiations for iron ore and coking coal have become the most important events on the Australian economic calendar. The 2005 price increases for the two biggest export commodities, iron ore and coal, alone have contributed to a 2% rise of the national income. The total value of exported minerals will be 91.8 bn AS in 2006/2007. This boom was mainly driven by the surge of demand from China. In addition to iron ore and coal there are also gold, copper, nickel, bauxite, and many more metals which are creating headlines. Diamond and recently uranium mining have become hot topics. Besides the big players there are hundreds of small exploration and mining companies especially in the gold and base metal sector. Australia's rich resources, social stability and economic strengths have shaped a unique investment environment which continues to attract investors from around the world. The following will give you an overview on Australia's supply potential for the most important minerals. (orig.)

  19. The seabed - an important mineral resource of Slovakia in the future

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Blišťan

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In 1987, Slovakia bought part of the ocean bottom with the occurrence of mineral resources future - polymetallic nodules. The polymetallic nodule is a geological term for naming natural features consisting of more than 40 metals and other chemical elements. These special services originated in the ocean for two to three million years and nowadays, they are of main interest for countries whose mineral wealth is little or no available. Nodules contain about 30 % manganese, 1.2 % copper, 1.2 % nickel, 0.2 % cobalt, rare earth elements, etc. The existence of submarine nodules was found by the British ship HMS "Challenger" by oceanographic research in 1872 - 1876. Research and the subsequent mining of nodules were particularly points of interest for Western countries as well as the USSR. Rules for the use of mineral resources of the seabed beyond the limits of national jurisdiction were codified in the Convention on the Law of 1982, which came into force on 16.11.1994, and in the Slovakia on 21.7.1996. The seabed is one of the international space next to the high seas, Antarctica, outer space and celestial bodies, which are not subject to the sovereignty of any state authority.

  20. Minerals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vaquero, M. P.

    1998-08-01

    Full Text Available The possible changes in the mineral composition of food during frying could be the consequence of losses by leaching, or changes in concentrations caused by exchanges between the food and culinary fat of other compounds. The net result depends on the type of food, the frying fat used and the frying process. Moreover, the modifications that frying produces in other nutrients could indirectly affect the availability of dietary minerals. The most outstanding ones are those that can take place in the fat or in the protein. With respect to the interactions between frying oils and minerals, we have recent knowledge concerning the effects of consuming vegetable oils used in repeated fryings of potatoes without turnover, on the nutritive utilization of dietary minerals. The experiments have been carried out in pregnant and growing rats, which consumed diets containing, as a sole source of fat, the testing frying oils or unused oils. It seems that the consumption of various frying oils, with a polar compound content lower or close to the maximum limit of 25% accepted for human consumption, does not alter the absorption and metabolism of calcium, phosphorous, iron or copper. Magnesium absorption from diets containing frying oils tends to increase but the urinary excretion of this element increases, resulting imperceptible the variations in the magnesium balance. The urinary excretion of Zn also increased although its balance remained unchanged. Different studies referring to the effects of consuming fried fatty fish on mineral bioavailability will also be presented. On one hand, frying can cause structural changes in fish protein, which are associated with an increase in iron absorption and a decrease in body zinc retention. The nutritive utilization of other elements such as magnesium, calcium and copper seems to be unaffected. On the other hand; it has been described that an excess of fish fatty acids in the diet produces iron depletion, but when fatty

  1. Deposit model for heavy-mineral sands in coastal environments: Chapter L in Mineral deposit models for resource assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Gosen, Bradley S.; Fey, David L.; Shah, Anjana K.; Verplanck, Philip L.; Hoefen, Todd M.

    2014-01-01

    This report provides a descriptive model of heavy-mineral sands, which are sedimentary deposits of dense minerals that accumulate with sand, silt, and clay in coastal environments, locally forming economic concentrations of the heavy minerals. This deposit type is the main source of titanium feedstock for the titanium dioxide (TiO2) pigments industry, through recovery of the minerals ilmenite (Fe2+TiO3), rutile (TiO2), and leucoxene (an alteration product of ilmenite). Heavy-mineral sands are also the principal source of zircon (ZrSiO4) and its zirconium oxide; zircon is often recovered as a coproduct. Other heavy minerals produced as coproducts from some deposits are sillimanite/kyanite, staurolite, monazite, and garnet. Monazite [(Ce,La,Nd,Th)PO4] is a source of rare earth elements as well as thorium, which is used in thorium-based nuclear power under development in India and elsewhere.

  2. Application of Research on the Metallogenic Background in the Assessment of Mineral Resources Potentiality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, D.; Feng, Y.; Liu, J.; Yao, X.; Zhang, Z.; Ye, T.

    2017-12-01

    1. Working BackgroundCurrent Status of Geological Prospecting: Detecting boundaries and bottoms, making ore search nearby; Seeing the stars, not seeing the Moon; Deep prospecting, undesirable results. The reasons of these problems are the regional metallogenic backgroud unclear and the metallogenic backgroud of the exploration regions unknown. Accordingly, Development and Research Center, CGS organized a geological setting research, in detail investigate metallogenic geological features and acquire mineralization information. 2. Technical SchemeCore research content is prediction elements of Metallogenic Structure. Adopt unified technical requirements from top to bottom, and technical route from bottom to top; Divide elements of mineral forecast and characteristics of geological structure into five elements for research and expression; Make full use of geophysical, geochemical and remote sensing inferences for the interpretation of macro information. After eight years the great project was completed. 3. Main AchievementsInnovation of basic maps compilation content of geological background, reinforce of geological structure data base of potentiality valuation. Preparation of geotectonic facies maps in different scales and professions, providing brand-new geologic background for potentiality assessment, promoting Chinese geotectonic research to the new height. Preparation of 3,375 geological structure thematic base maps of detecting working area in 6 kinds of prediction methods, providing base working maps, rock assemblage, structure of the protolith of geologic body / mineralization / ore controlling for mineral prediction of 25 ores. Enrichment and development of geotectonic facies analysis method, establishment of metallogenic background research thoughts and approach system for assessment of national mineral resources potentiality for the first time. 4. Application EffectOrientation——More and better results with less effort. Positioning——Have a definite

  3. The actual status of uranium ore resources at Eko Remaja Sector: the need of verification of resources computation and geometrical form of mineralization zone by mining test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johan Baratha; Muljono, D.S.; Agus Sumaryanto; Handoko Supalal

    1996-01-01

    Uranium ore resources calculation was done after ending all of geological work step. Estimation process of ore resources was started from evaluation drilling, continued with borehole logging. From logging, the result has presented in anomaly graphs, then was processed to determine thickness and grade value of ore. Those mineralization points were correlated one another to form mineralization zones which have direction of N 270 degree to N 285 degree with 70 degree dip to North. From Grouping the mineralization distribution, 19 mineralization planes was constructed which contain 553 ton of U 3 O 8 measured. It is suggested that before expanding measured ore deposit area, mining test should be done first at certain mineralization planes to prove the method applied to calculate the reserve. Results form mining test could be very useful to reevaluate all the work-step done. (author); 4 refs; 2 tabs; 8 figs

  4. The use of different analytical techniques as a backup to mineral resources assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carvalho Tofani, P. de; Ferreira, M.P.; Gomes, H.; Avelar, M.M.

    1982-01-01

    The Empresas Nucleares Brasileiras S.A. (NUCLEBRAS) has implemented and improved, since their foundation in 1974, several laboratories at the Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN), in Belo Horizonte (MG, Brazil), in order to develop capabilities in the analytical chemistry field. Skillful personnel, using a large spectrum of equipment and procedures, is already able to determine, fast and accurately, almost any chemical element in any matrix. About 340.000 analytical determinations have been performed during the last seven years, concerning mostly chemical elements of great importance in the mineral technology programs. This considerable amount of results has been used, specially, as a backup to assess Brazilian uranium resources. (Author) [pt

  5. Renewable Substitutability Index: Maximizing Renewable Resource Use in Buildings

    OpenAIRE

    Srinivasan, Ravi; Campbell, Daniel; Wang, Wei

    2015-01-01

    In order to achieve a material and energy balance in buildings that is sustainable in the long run, there is an urgent need to assess the renewable and non-renewable resources used in the manufacturing process and to progressively replace non-renewable resources with renewables. Such progressive disinvestment in the non-renewable resources that may be substituted with renewable resources is referred to as “Renewable Substitutability” and if implemented, this process will lead to a paradigm sh...

  6. Raw material monitoring assists companies. German Mineral Resources Agency at BGR provides information on global developments in resource markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-01-01

    Germany is dependent on imports for its metalliferous natural resources. Although prices have been declining significantly in recent months, numerous raw materials such as platinum, cobalt and rare earth elements continue to be exposed to price and supply risks. To ensure that German industry can respond better to this situation in their procurement activities, the German Mineral Resources Agency (DERA) at BGR has developed a raw material monitoring system on behalf of the German government. DERA experts have con figured a screening method for the early identification of possible procurement risks. This is the platform which enables German companies to gain the specific advice they require. All of the most important information on this issue is bundled within DERA 's internet portal (www.deutsche-rohstoffagentur.de). BGR also provides its expertise in other important fields with great societal relevance. BGR has been advising the national commission on ''Storage of High-level Radioactive Waste'' since 2014. Due to their comprehensive research activities in the field of radioactive waste disposal, BGR scientists are important technical experts to which the commission can turn to for geological information and advice.

  7. Geology and mineral resources of the Johnson City, Phenix City, and Rome 10 x 20 NTMS quadrangles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karfunkel, B.S.

    1981-11-01

    This document provides geologic and mineral resources data for the Savannah River Laboratory-National Uranium Resource Evaluation hydrogeochemical and stream-sediment reports for the Johnson City, Phenix City, and Rome 1 0 x 2 0 National Topographic Map Series quadrangles in the southeastern United States

  8. Mineral resource potential map of the Blanco Mountain and Black Canyon roadless areas, Inyo and Mono counties, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diggles, Michael F.; Blakely, Richard J.; Rains, Richard L.; Schmauch, Steven W.

    1983-01-01

    On the basis of geologic, geochemical, and geophysical investigations and a survey of mines and prospects, the mineral resource potential for gold, silver, lead, zinc, tungsten, and barite of the Blanco Mountain and Black Canyon Roadless Areas is judged to be low to moderate, except for one local area that has high potential for gold and tungsten resources.

  9. 3&4D Geomodeling Applied to Mineral Resources Exploration - A New Tool for Targeting Deposits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Royer, Jean-Jacques; Mejia, Pablo; Caumon, Guillaume; Collon-Drouaillet, Pauline

    2013-04-01

    3 & 4D geomodeling, a computer method for reconstituting the past deformation history of geological formations, has been used in oil and gas exploration for more than a decade for reconstituting fluid migration. It begins nowadays to be applied for exploring with new eyes old mature mining fields and new prospects. We describe shortly the 3&4D geomodeling basic notions, concepts, and methodology when applied to mineral resources assessment and modeling ore deposits, pointing out the advantages, recommendations and limitations, together with new challenges they rise. Several 3D GeoModels of mining explorations selected across Europe will be presented as illustrative case studies which have been achieved during the EU FP7 ProMine research project. It includes: (i) the Cu-Au porphyry deposits in the Hellenic Belt (Greece); (ii) the VMS in the Iberian Pyrite Belt including the Neves Corvo deposit (Portugal) and (iii) the sediment-hosted polymetallic Cu-Ag (Au, PGE) Kupferschiefer ore deposit in the Foresudetic Belt (Poland). In each case full 3D models using surfaces and regular grid (Sgrid) were built from all dataset available from exploration and exploitation including geological primary maps, 2D seismic cross-sections, and boreholes. The level of knowledge may differ from one site to another however those 3D resulting models were used to pilot additional field and exploration works. In the case of the Kupferschiefer, a sequential restoration-decompaction (4D geomodeling) from the Upper Permian to Cenozoic was conducted in the Lubin- Sieroszowice district of Poland. The results help in better understanding the various superimposed mineralization events which occurred through time in this copper deposit. A hydro-fracturing index was then calculated from the estimated overpressures during a Late Cretaceous-Early Paleocene up-lifting, and seems to correlate with the copper content distribution in the ore-series. These results are in agreement with an Early Paleocene

  10. Critical mineral resources of the United States—Economic and environmental geology and prospects for future supply

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulz, Klaus J.; DeYoung,, John H.; Seal, Robert R.; Bradley, Dwight C.

    2017-12-19

    SummaryMineral commodities are vital for economic growth, improving the quality of life, providing for national defense, and the overall functioning of modern society. Minerals are being used in larger quantities than ever before and in an increasingly diverse range of applications. With the increasing demand for a considerably more diverse suite of mineral commodities has come renewed recognition that competition and conflict over mineral resources can pose significant risks to the manufacturing industries that depend on them. In addition, production of many mineral commodities has become concentrated in relatively few countries (for example, tungsten, rare-earth elements, and antimony in China; niobium in Brazil; and platinum-group elements in South Africa and Russia), thus increasing the risk for supply disruption owing to political, social, or other factors. At the same time, an increasing awareness of and sensitivity to potential environmental and health issues caused by the mining and processing of many mineral commodities may place additional restrictions on mineral supplies. These factors have led a number of Governments, including the Government of the United States, to attempt to identify those mineral commodities that are viewed as most “critical” to the national economy and (or) security if supplies should be curtailed.This book presents resource and geologic information on the following 23 mineral commodities currently among those viewed as important to the national economy and national security of the United States: antimony (Sb), barite (barium, Ba), beryllium (Be), cobalt (Co), fluorite or fluorspar (fluorine, F), gallium (Ga), germanium (Ge), graphite (carbon, C), hafnium (Hf), indium (In), lithium (Li), manganese (Mn), niobium (Nb), platinum-group elements (PGE), rare-earth elements (REE), rhenium (Re), selenium (Se), tantalum (Ta), tellurium (Te), tin (Sn), titanium (Ti), vanadium (V), and zirconium (Zr). For a number of these commodities

  11. PROJECT MANAGEMENT FOR THE STATE-GOVERNED GEOLOGICAL EXPLORATION OF MINERAL RESOURCES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. Lygin

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The relevance of the research. Creating high-efficient and innovation-oriented system of studying the subsoil and the mineral resource base is one of the priority areas of developing the geological sphere. The purpose of the present study is to substantiate the rationale for the adoption of the project management methods for the exploration work. Research methods: method of system analysis, method of comparison and analogies, and method of scientific generalization. The results and their application. This article deals with the content of the main standard legislative documents which determine the strategy and lines of the country’s geological sector development in the nearest future. The article discloses the purposes and their strategic objectives and the content of the state program of the Russian Federation called “Reproduction and use of natural resources”. The resource support of the program and its subroutines is also revealed. The structure of geological industry management in modern conditions is presented. The main activities for restructuring of the geological industry are set out. They include the following points. The transformation of the Federal state unitary enterprises of information and expert profile, the advancement of scientific organizations engaged in scientific and analytical support of performed public functions. These functions are concerned with the geological study of subsoil and reproduction of the mineral resource base, as well as improving its management. The consolidation of specialized geological organizations on the types of exploration and mining, and also the main results of reorganization of the enterprises is taken into account. All of the aforementioned is subordinated to and is conducted by the Federal Agency for subsoil management. The shortcomings of the current system of management of works on the state geological study of the subsoil were revealed at the expense of the Federal budget. The

  12. The parasitoids of the asparagus miner (Diptera: Agromyzidae): field parasitism and the influence of food resources on life history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, William R; Gibson, Gary A P; Szendrei, Zsofia

    2014-12-01

    The goals of this study were to identify pupal parasitoids of the asparagus miner, Ophiomyia simplex Loew (Diptera: Agromyzidae), and examine the effect of different diets and floral resources on the lifespan of adult asparagus miners and their parasitoids. We also measured the effect of parasitism on stem damage caused by the asparagus miner. The identity and abundance of the parasitoids of the asparagus miner were determined in asparagus fields in Michigan from weekly asparagus miner pupal collections during the 2010-2013 seasons. Twelve species of hymenopterous parasitoids were reared from asparagus miner pupae, including Chorebus rondanii (Giard) (Ichneumonoidea: Braconidae), 10 species in three families of Chalcidoidea, and one species of Bethylidae (Chrysidoidea), that represent new host records for the asparagus miner. C. rondanii and Thinodytes cephalon (Walker) (Pteromalidae) were the most common parasitoids. The effects of different diets and flowers on the lifespan of the pest and parasitoid adults were also evaluated. Buckwheat resulted in the shortest life span for the asparagus miner, whereas Riddell's goldenrod significantly increased its lifespan relative to the control. Parasitoid lifespan was doubled when individuals were fed sugar-rich diets. In the field, parasitoids preferred stems that contained more pupae and damage. The two most commonly reared parasitoids should be considered as targets for future conservation biological control efforts of the asparagus miner.

  13. Geology and industrial mineral resources of the Macon-Gordon Kaolin District, Georgia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buie, Bennett Frank; Hetrick, J.H.; Patterson, S.H.; Neeley, C.L.

    1979-01-01

    The Macon-Gordon kaolin district is about 80 miles (130 km) southeast of Atlanta, Georgia. It extends across the boundary between, and includes parts of, the Piedmont and Atlantic Coastal Plain physiographic provinces. The rocks in the Piedmont are mainly intensely folded sericite schist and granite gneiss containing irregular masses of amphibolite and feldspathic biotite gneiss and scattered igneous intrusive rocks. Most of the crystalline rocks are thought to be of Paleozoic age, but some of the intrusive rocks may be younger. The crystalline rocks are cut by a major unconformity and are overlain by sedimentary formations ranging in age from Cretaceous to Miocene. The valuable kaolin deposits occur in the Cretaceous beds, undivided, and in the Huber Formation which is of Paleocene to middle Eocene age. The resources of kaolin in the district are estimated in millions of metric tons as follows: reserves, 100; subeconomic resources, 700 to 900; undiscovered resources, probably 700 to 1,000. In addition to kaolin, the leading mineral commodity mined in the district, crushed stone and sand are now being produced, and fuller's earth and a minor amount of limestone were formerly produced. The crushed stone is quarried from igneous rocks in the Piedmont province. The sand is washed from the Cretaceous beds, undivided. The fuller's earth was mined from the Twiggs Clay Member of the Barnwell Formation, and limestone was dug from the Tivola Limestone.

  14. Lung cancer in uranium miners: A tissue resource and pilot study. Progress report, September 25, 1992 - May 31, 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samet, J.M.

    1993-05-01

    This project involves two related activities directed toward understanding respiratory carcinogenesis in radon-exposed former uranium miners. The first activity involves a continuation of the tissue resource of lung cancer cases from former underground uranium miners and comparison cases from non-miners. The second activity is a pilot study for a proposed longitudinal study of respiratory carcinogenesis in former uranium miners. The objectives are to facilitate the investigation of molecular changes in radon exposed lung cancer cases and to develop methods for prospectively studying clinical, cytologic, cytogenetic, and molecular changes in the multi-event process of respiratory carcinogenesis, and to assess the feasibility of recruiting former uranium miners into a longitudinal study that collects multiple biologic specimens

  15. Mineral resources of the southern half of Zone III Santander, Norte de Santander and Boyaca, Colombia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Dwight Edward; Goldsmith, Richard; Cruz, Bruna B.; Restrepo, Jaime; Hernan, A.

    1970-01-01

    are being explored and sampled at the present time (1969). A little lead has been mined and smelted in the past but operations were on a very small scale and of short duration. Small amounts of lead, zinc, and copper minerals accompany dolomite replacement of Cretaceous limestone in a few scattered places, and several promising prospects are being investigated by means of trenches and drilling. One magnetite and several hematite prospects were examined but none offers any potential for economic development. Thick beds of gypsum in Lower Cretaceous limestone on Mesa de Los Santos, south of Bucaramanga are being quarried from outcrops for use in cement manufacture. The deposit was discovered shortly before the present project began, and although its extent beneath overlying strata is not yet determined by drilling, it appears to be in a small evaporite basin of about three kilometers in radius. Reserves of gypsum are large, but future development will have to be by underground mining. Outcrops of Cretaceous limestone of high purity are widespread and are more than adequate to meet all demands, which at present are for cement and calcined lime, road construction material, and to a small extent for agricultural lime and polished decorative stone. Upper Paleozoic limestone of the Diamante Formation crops out in a few places; it has been used near Bucaramanga for cement manufacture. Marble is present in several localities of the Santander massif in Lower Paleozoic and Devonian rocks. Impurities, fractures, and solution cavities render most of it unsuitable for decorative purposes, but selected parts are used in floor tile and terrazo. Recrystallized limestone of the Diamante Formation in the same area, usually referred to as marble, is of uniform high purity throughout a thick and uninterrupted section, and offers a good source of limestone raw material. A little is now used for agricultural lime. The potential of this resource has not been fully evalua

  16. The ANTOSTRAT legacy: Science collaboration and international transparency in potential marine mineral resource exploitation of Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Alan; Barker, Peter; Barrett, Peter; Behrendt, John; Brancolini, Giuliano; Childs, Jonathan R.; Escutia, Carlota; Jokat, Wilfried; Kristoffersen, Yngve; Leitchenkov, German; Stagg, Howard; Tanahashi, Manabu; Wardell, Nigel; Webb, Peter

    2009-01-01

    The Antarctic Offshore Stratigraphy project (ANTOSTRAT; 1989–2002) was an extremely successful collaboration in international marine geological science that also lifted the perceived “veil of secrecy” from studies of potential exploitation of Antarctic marine mineral resources. The project laid the groundwork for circum-Antarctic seismic, drilling, and rock coring programs designed to decipher Antarctica’s tectonic, stratigraphic, and climate histories. In 2002, ANTOSTRAT evolved into the equally successful and currently active Antarctic Climate Evolution research program. The need for, and evolution of, ANTOSTRAT was based on two simple tenets within SCAR and the Antarctic Treaty: international science collaboration and open access to data. The ANTOSTRAT project may be a helpful analog for other regions of strong international science and geopolitical interests, such as the Arctic. This is the ANTOSTRAT story.

  17. Who owns the Moon? extraterrestrial aspects of land and mineral resources ownership

    CERN Document Server

    Pop, Virgiliu

    2008-01-01

    This work investigates the permissibility and viability of property rights on the celestial bodies, particularly the extraterrestrial aspects of land and mineral resources ownership. In lay terms, it aims to find an answer to the question "Who owns the Moon?" After critically analyzing and dismantling with legal arguments the trivial issue of sale of extraterrestrial real estate, the book addresses the apparent silence of the law in the field of landed property in outer space, scrutinizing whether the factual situation on the extraterrestrial realms calls for legal regulations. The legal status of asteroids and the relationship between appropriation under international law and civil law appropriation are duly examined, as well as different property patterns – such as the commons regime, the Common Heritage of the Mankind, and the Frontier paradigm. Virgiliu Pop is one of world's specialists in the area of space property rights. A member of the International Institute of Space Law, Virgiliu has authored seve...

  18. Mineral resources of parts of the Departments of Antioquia and Caldas, Zone II, Colombia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, R.B.; Feininger, Tomas; Barrero, L.; Dario, Rico H.; ,; Alvarez, A.

    1970-01-01

    The mineral resources of an area of 40,000 sq km, principally in the Department of Antioquia, but including small parts of the Departments of Caldas, C6rdoba, Risaralda, and Tolima, were investigated during the period 1964-68. The area is designated Zone II by the Colombian Inventario Minero Nacional(lMN). The geology of approximately 45 percent of this area, or 18,000 sq km, has been mapped by IMN. Zone II has been a gold producer for centuries, and still produces 75 percent of Colombia's gold. Silver is recovered as a byproduct. Ferruginous laterites have been investigated as potential sources of iron ore but are not commercially exploitable. Nickeliferous laterite on serpentinite near Ure in the extreme northwest corner of the Zone is potentially exploitable, although less promising than similar laterites at Cerro Matoso, north of the Zone boundary. Known deposits of mercury, chromium, manganese, and copper are small and have limited economic potentia1. Cement raw materials are important among nonmetallic resources, and four companies are engaged in the manufacture of portland cement. The eastern half of Zone II contains large carbonate rock reserves, but poor accessibility is a handicap to greater development at present. Dolomite near Amalfi is quarried for the glass-making and other industries. Clay saprolite is abundant and widely used in making brick and tiles in backyard kilns. Kaolin of good quality near La Union is used by the ceramic industry. Subbituminous coal beds of Tertiary are an important resource in the western part of the zone and have good potential for greater development. Aggregate materials for construction are varied and abundant. Deposits of sodic feldspar, talc, decorative stone, and silica are exploited on a small scale. Chrysotils asbestos deposits north of Campamento are being developed to supply fiber for Colombia's thriving asbestos-cement industry, which is presently dependent upon imported fiber. Wollastonite and andalusite are

  19. Assessment of undiscovered sandstone copper deposits of the Kodar-Udokan area, Russia: Chapter M in Global mineral resource assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zientek, Michael L.; Chechetkin, Vladimir S.; Parks, Heather L.; Box, Stephen E.; Briggs, Deborah A.; Cossette, Pamela M.; Dolgopolova, Alla; Hayes, Timothy S.; Seltmann, Reimar; Syusyura, Boris; Taylor, Cliff D.; Wintzer, Niki E.

    2014-01-01

    Mineral resource assessments integrate and synthesize available information as a basis for estimating the location, quality, and quantity of undiscovered mineral resources. This probabilistic mineral resource assessment of undiscovered sandstone copper deposits within Paleoproterozoic metasedimentary rocks of the Kodar-Udokan area in Russia is a contribution to a global assessment led by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS). The purposes of this study are to (1) delineate permissive areas (tracts) to indicate where undiscovered sandstone-hosted copper deposits may occur within 2 km of the surface, (2) provide a database of known sandstone copper deposits and significant prospects, (3) estimate numbers of undiscovered deposits within these permissive tracts at several levels of confidence, and (4) provide probabilistic estimates of amounts of copper (Cu) and mineralized rock that could be contained in undiscovered deposits within each tract. The workshop for the assessment, held in October 2009, used a three-part form of mineral resource assessment as described by Singer (1993) and Singer and Menzie (2010).

  20. Geology and mineral resources of central Antioquia Department (Zone IIA), Colombia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, R.B.; Alvarez A., Jairo; Rico H., Hector

    1973-01-01

    This report summarizes the geology of an area of some 6000 square kilometers in the northern part of the Central Cordillera of the Colombian Andes. The area, in north-central Department of Antioquia, was mapped between 1964 and 1968 as part of the Inventario Minero Nacional (IMN) project. Mineral resources are summarized within a larger area, designated as subzone ILK of IMN Zone If, which comprises almost 22,000 sq. kin, including the area mapped geologically by IMN and additional areas mapped by other agencies. The oldest formation is a micaceous paragneiss of early Paleozoic or possibly late Precambrian age. A thick geosynclinal sedimentary series accumulated during the Paleozoic Era and became regionally metamorphosed to greenschist (locally amphibolite) facies during the Permian or early Triassic; these schists and gneisses are designated collectively as the Valdivia Group. The Permian(?) orogenic episode included intrusion of concordant syntectonic plutons, mostly of tonalitic composition. Rocks of unequivocal Triassic or Jurassic age are not recognized. The Cretaceous is well represented by both igneous and sedimentary assemblages. Eugeosynclinal alpine ophiolites comprising submarine basalt flows and numerous intrusions of gabbro and serpentinite are prominent in the Lower Cretaceous, together with flysch composed of marine shale and lesser sandstone and conglomerate. The Upper Cretaceous is represented along the west border of the mapped area by submarine basalt flows and pyroclastic rocks, locally Interbedded with fine-grained clastic sedimentary beds, and lenses of dark laminated chert, at least part of which is radiolarian. The Late Cretaceous was marked by an orogenic event that profoundly folded and faulted all rocks and in the Central Cordillera caused low-grade metamorphism, the overprint of which is hardly observable in pre-Cretaceous rocks elsewhere. The Late Cretaceous orogeny culminated with discordant intrusion of the epizonal tonalitic

  1. THE ANALYSIS OF THE GEOLOGICAL AND ECONOMIC MINERAL RESOURCES IN THE RAIL ROAD CORRIDOR "URAL INDUSTRIAL – URAL POLAR"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.P. Pakhomov

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The article brings forth the geological-economic analysis of the mineral resource in the area of the transport corridor "Urals industrial – Urals Polar". Given is the analysis of the potential finding of coal on the territory, chromate and other important excavations, the whereabouts of which are more easily approachable for the acquiring with the condition of building a railroad with the path of station Polunochnoye-Obskaya. Given are the possible masses of the delivery of the products accordingly. Distinguished is the size of the investments, that are needed for the mineral resources of the given territory.

  2. Occurrence model for volcanogenic beryllium deposits: Chapter F in Mineral deposit models for resource assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foley, Nora K.; Hofstra, Albert H.; Lindsey, David A.; Seal, Robert R.; Jaskula, Brian W.; Piatak, Nadine M.

    2012-01-01

    Current global and domestic mineral resources of beryllium (Be) for industrial uses are dominated by ores produced from deposits of the volcanogenic Be type. Beryllium deposits of this type can form where hydrothermal fluids interact with fluorine and lithophile-element (uranium, thorium, rubidium, lithium, beryllium, cesium, tantalum, rare earth elements, and tin) enriched volcanic rocks that contain a highly reactive lithic component, such as carbonate clasts. Volcanic and hypabyssal high-silica biotite-bearing topaz rhyolite constitutes the most well-recognized igneous suite associated with such Be deposits. The exemplar setting is an extensional tectonic environment, such as that characterized by the Basin and Range Province, where younger topaz-bearing igneous rock sequences overlie older dolomite, quartzite, shale, and limestone sequences. Mined deposits and related mineralized rocks at Spor Mountain, Utah, make up a unique economic deposit of volcanogenic Be having extensive production and proven and probable reserves. Proven reserves in Utah, as reported by the U.S. Geological Survey National Mineral Information Center, total about 15,900 tons of Be that are present in the mineral bertrandite (Be4Si2O7(OH)2). At the type locality for volcanogenic Be, Spor Mountain, the tuffaceous breccias and stratified tuffs that host the Be ore formed as a result of explosive volcanism that brought carbonate and other lithic fragments to the surface through vent structures that cut the underlying dolomitic Paleozoic sedimentary rock sequences. The tuffaceous sediments and lithic clasts are thought to make up phreatomagmatic base surge deposits. Hydrothermal fluids leached Be from volcanic glass in the tuff and redeposited the Be as bertrandite upon reaction of the hydrothermal fluid with carbonate clasts in lithic-rich sections of tuff. The localization of the deposits in tuff above fluorite-mineralized faults in carbonate rocks, together with isotopic evidence for the

  3. Non-renewable water use on the globe and its implication to sea level change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oki, T.; Pokhrel, Y. N.; Hanasaki, N.; Koirala, S.; Kanae, S.

    2012-12-01

    The real hydrological cycles on the Earth are not natural anymore. Global hydrological model simulations of the water cycle and available water resources should have an ability to consider the effects of human interventions on hydrological cycles. Anthropogenic activity modules, such as reservoir operation, crop growth and water demand in croplands, and environmental flows, were incorporated into a land surface model to form a new model, MAT-HI. Total terrestrial water storages (TWS) in large river basins were estimated using the new model by off-line simulation, and compared with the TWS observed by GRACE for 2002-2007. MAT-HI was further coupled with a module representing the ground water level fluctuations, and consists a new land surface scheme HiGW-MAT (Human Intervention and Ground Water coupled MATSIRO). HiGW-MAT is also associated with a scheme tracing the origin and flow path with the consideration on the sources of water withdrawal from stream flow, medium-size reservoirs and nonrenewable groundwater in addition to precipitation to croplands which enabled the assessment of the origin of water producing major crops. Areas highly dependent on nonrenewable groundwater are detected in the Pakistan, Bangladesh, Western part of India, north and western parts of China, some regions in the Arabian Peninsula, and the western part of the United States through Mexico. Cumulative nonrenewable groundwater withdrawals estimated by the model are corresponding fairly well with the country statistics of total groundwater withdrawals. Ground water table depletions in large aquifers in US estimated by HiGW-MAT were compared with in-situ observational data, and the correspondences are very good. Mean global exploitation of ground water for 2000 estimated by HiGW-MAT is 360 km3/y as an excess of ground water withdrawal over natural recharge into aquifer. This unsustainable groundwater use, together with artificial reservoir water impoundment, climate-driven changes in

  4. Geology and mineral resources of the Florence, Beaufort, Rocky Mount, and Norfolk 10 x 20 NTMS quadrangles. National Uranium Resource Evaluation program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harris, W.B.

    1982-08-01

    This document provides geologic and mineral resources data for previously-issued Savannah River Laboratory hydrogeochemical and stream sediment reports of the Beaufort, Florence, Norfolk, and Rocky Mount 1 0 x 2 0 National Topographic Map Series quadrangles in the southeastern United States. This report is issued in draft form, without detailed technical and copy editing. This was done to make the report available to the public before the end of the National Uranium Resource Evaluation program

  5. Geology and mineral resources of the Florence, Beaufort, Rocky Mount, and Norfolk 1/sup 0/ x 2/sup 0/ NTMS quadrangles. National Uranium Resource Evaluation program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harris, W.B.

    1982-08-01

    This document provides geologic and mineral resources data for previously-issued Savannah River Laboratory hydrogeochemical and stream sediment reports of the Beaufort, Florence, Norfolk, and Rocky Mount 1/sup 0/ x 2/sup 0/ National Topographic Map Series quadrangles in the southeastern United States. This report is issued in draft form, without detailed technical and copy editing. This was done to make the report available to the public before the end of the National Uranium Resource Evaluation program.

  6. Titanium mineral resources in heavy-mineral sands in the Atlantic coastal plain of the southeastern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Gosen, Bradley S.; Ellefsen, Karl J.

    2018-04-16

    This study examined titanium distribution in the Atlantic Coastal Plain of the southeastern United States; the titanium is found in heavy-mineral sands that include the minerals ilmenite (Fe2+TiO3), rutile (TiO2), or leucoxene (an alteration product of ilmenite). Deposits of heavy-mineral sands in ancient and modern coastal plains are a significant feedstock source for the titanium dioxide pigments industry. Currently, two heavy-mineral sands mining and processing operations are active in the southeast United States producing concentrates of ilmenite-leucoxene, rutile, and zircon. The results of this study indicate the potential for similar deposits in many areas of the Atlantic Coastal Plain.This study used the titanium analyses of 3,457 stream sediment samples that were analyzed as part of the U.S. Geological Survey’s National Geochemical Survey program. This data set was analyzed by an integrated spatial modeling technique known as Bayesian hierarchical modeling to map the regional-scale, spatial distribution of titanium concentrations. In particular, clusters of anomalous concentrations of titanium occur: (1) along the Fall Zone, from Virginia to Alabama, where metamorphic and igneous rocks of the Piedmont region contact younger sediments of the Coastal Plain; (2) a paleovalley near the South Carolina and North Carolina border; (3) the upper and middle Atlantic Coastal Plain of North Carolina; (4) the majority of the Atlantic Coastal Plain of Virginia; and (5) barrier islands and stretches of the modern shoreline from South Carolina to northeast Florida. The areas mapped by this study could help mining companies delimit areas for exploration.

  7. From Field to the Web: Management and Publication of Geoscience Samples in CSIRO Mineral Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devaraju, A.; Klump, J. F.; Tey, V.; Fraser, R.; Reid, N.; Brown, A.; Golodoniuc, P.

    2016-12-01

    Inaccessible samples are an obstacle to the reproducibility of research and may cause waste of time and resources through duplication of sample collection and management. Within the Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO) Mineral Resources there are various research communities who collect or generate physical samples as part of their field studies and analytical processes. Materials can be varied and could be rock, soil, plant materials, water, and even synthetic materials. Given the wide range of applications in CSIRO, each researcher or project may follow their own method of collecting, curating and documenting samples. In many cases samples and their documentation are often only available to the sample collector. For example, the Australian Resources Research Centre stores rock samples and research collections dating as far back as the 1970s. Collecting these samples again would be prohibitively expensive and in some cases impossible because the site has been mined out. These samples would not be easily discoverable by others without an online sample catalog. We identify some of the organizational and technical challenges to provide unambiguous and systematic access to geoscience samples, and present their solutions (e.g., workflow, persistent identifier and tools). We present the workflow starting from field sampling to sample publication on the Web, and describe how the International Geo Sample Number (IGSN) can be applied to identify samples along the process. In our test case geoscientific samples are collected as part of the Capricorn Distal Footprints project, a collaboration project between the CSIRO, the Geological Survey of Western Australia, academic institutions and industry partners. We conclude by summarizing the values of our solutions in terms of sample management and publication.

  8. ENVIRONMENTAL ASPECTS OF USE, DEVELOPMENT AND DISPOSAL OF MINERAL WOOL IN THE CONTEXT OF ENVIRONMENTAL RESOURCES POLLUTION BY WASTE RETARDATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorota Nowak

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In this study presents the environmental aspects of the use, management and disposal of mineral wool. Fiber structure makes that wool products have many unique properties enabling them to be versatile. With all the advantages of mineral wool is one very significant drawback - does not decompose. From the point of view of slowing (retardation transformation of environmental resources, the introduction of mineral wool to crops under glass, in a very much reduced use of peatlands, which for reasons of natural resources are extremely important. On the other hand, problems of rational use of mineral wool already postconsumer caused among others formation of "wild dumps" and thus transforming the landscape, and, due to their characteristics (respirable fibers, the risk to health. Manufacture of asbestiform can cause ecological consequences within almost all elements of the environment. Therefore, the overall assessment of the impact in this case, mineral wool on the environment would need to be so. "Life cycle assessment" - called the method of LCA (Life Cycle Assessmentwhich is commonly called the "cradle to grave" - that is, from extraction of raw materials, through processing, exploitation, to the storage of waste. Therefore, the responsibility for the redevelopment of the post-production of mineral wool should lie with the producer of wool. These issues are the subject of discussion in this study.

  9. A review of the surface features and properties, surfactant adsorption and floatability of four key minerals of diasporic bauxite resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ningning; Nguyen, Anh V; Zhou, Changchun

    2018-04-01

    Diasporic bauxite represents one of the major aluminum resources. Its upgrading for further processing involves a separation of diaspore (the valuable mineral) from aluminosilicates (the gangue minerals) such as kaolinite, illite, and pyrophyllite. Flotation is one of the most effective ways to realize the upgrading. Since flotation is a physicochemical process based on the difference in the surface hydrophobicity of different components, determining the adsorption characteristics of various flotation surfactants on the mineral surfaces is critical. The surfactant adsorption properties of the minerals, in turn, are controlled by the surface chemistry of the minerals, while the latter is related to the mineral crystal structures. In this paper, we first discuss the crystal structures of the four key minerals of diaspore, kaolinite, illite, and pyrophyllite as well as the broken bonds on their exposed surfaces after grinding. Next, we summarize the surface chemistry properties such as surface wettability and surface electrical properties of the four minerals, and the differences in these properties are explained from the perspective of mineral crystal structures. Then we review the adsorption mechanism and adsorption characteristics of surfactants such as collectors (cationic, anionic, and mixed surfactants), depressants (inorganic and organic), dispersants, and flocculants on these mineral surfaces. The separation of diaspore and aluminosilicates by direct flotation and reverse flotation are reviewed, and the collecting properties of different types of collectors are compared. Furthermore, the abnormal behavior of the cationic flotation of kaolinite is also explained in this section. This review provides a strong theoretical support for the optimization of the upgrading of diaspore bauxite ore by flotation and the early industrialization of the reverse flotation process. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Research cooperation project on environmentally friendly technology for highly efficient mineral resources extraction and treatment. Detail design for pilot plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    Photographs and drawings were edited into a book in relation with a joint project for environment preservation technologies in high-efficiency extraction and treatment of mineral resources, and detail design for a pilot plant. The book classified the related devices into fabricated devices, purchased devices and electrical devices, and contains detailed drawings and photographs thereof. (NEDO)

  11. Geology and undiscovered resource assessment of the potash-bearing Central Asia Salt Basin, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, Tajikistan, and Afghanistan: Chapter AA in Global mineral resource assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wynn, Jeff; Orris, Greta J.; Dunlap, Pamela; Cocker, Mark D.; Bliss, James D.

    2016-03-23

    Undiscovered potash resources in the Central Asia Salt Basin (CASB) of Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, Tajikistan, and Afghanistan were assessed as part of a global mineral resource assessment led by the U.S. Geological Survey. The term “potash” refers to potassium-bearing, water-soluble salts derived from evaporite basins, where seawater dried up and precipitated various salt compounds; the word for the element “potassium” is derived from potash. Potash is produced worldwide at amounts exceeding 30 million metric tons per year, mostly for use in fertilizers. The term “potash” is used by industry to refer to potassium chloride, as well as potassium in sulfate, nitrate, and oxide forms. For the purposes of this assessment, the term “potash” refers to potassium ores and minerals and potash ore grades. Resource and production values are usually expressed by industry in terms of K2O (potassium oxide) or muriate of potash (KCl, potassium chloride).

  12. Mineral resource potential map of the Benton Range Roadless Area, Mono County, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donahoe, James L.; McKee, Edwin D.; Rains, Richard L.; Barnes, Donald J.; Campbell, Harry W.; Denton, David K.; Iverson, Stephen R.; Jeske, Rodney E.; Stebbins, Scott A.

    1983-01-01

    Tungsten-bearing rocks in the Benton Range Roadless Area occur in tactite lenses within the Paleozoic metasedimentary units that surround and are intruded by Triassic granodiorite of the Benton Range. High anomalous tungsten values were found in the southern part of the study area. Quartz-vein deposits with copper, lead, zinc, and silver may occur within the Jurassic granitic rock in the northwestern part of the area. Stream-sediment and panned-concentrate samples from the northwestern part of the roadless area, reveal anomalous values in a number of elements. Some of these elements are indicative of mineral suites that form by hydrothermal alteration and are potential metallic-ore producers. Metals having anomalous values are antimony, copper, lead, molybdenum, tin, and zinc; their presence suggests the potential for deposits of the lead-zinc-silver or copper-molybdenum type. Molybdenum and lead were identified by geochemical sampling as having low to moderate potential in the roadless area. An estimated 190,000 tons (172,000 t) of subeconomic gold and silver resources are inside the roadless area at the Gold Crown, Gold Webb, and Gold Wedge mines; another 60,000 tons (54,000 t) of subeconomic gold and silver resources are just outside the area at the Tower, Gold Webb, and Gold Wedge mines (table 1). Most of the lode gold and silver deposits are in quartz veins and shear zones. Minor amounts of copper, lead, and zinc occur in some gold deposits. About 2,240 oz (70 kg) of gold, 8,450 oz (260 kg) of silver, and 4,600 lb of lead (2,090 kg) have been produced from the roadless area. In addition, 7,257 oz (226 kg) of gold and 350 oz (11 kg) silver were produced at the Tower mine, near the area.

  13. Analytical methods manual for the Mineral Resource Surveys Program, U.S. Geological Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arbogast, Belinda F.

    1996-01-01

    The analytical methods validated by the Mineral Resource Surveys Program, Geologic Division, is the subject of this manual. This edition replaces the methods portion of Open-File Report 90-668 published in 1990. Newer methods may be used which have been approved by the quality assurance (QA) project and are on file with the QA coordinator.This manual is intended primarily for use by laboratory scientists; this manual can also assist laboratory users to evaluate the data they receive. The analytical methods are written in a step by step approach so that they may be used as a training tool and provide detailed documentation of the procedures for quality assurance. A "Catalog of Services" is available for customer (submitter) use with brief listings of:the element(s)/species determined,method of determination,reference to cite,contact person,summary of the technique,and analyte concentration range.For a copy please contact the Branch office at (303) 236-1800 or fax (303) 236-3200.

  14. Neo-Industrial and Sustainable Development of Russia as Mineral Resources Exploiting Country

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prokudina, Marina; Zhironkina, Olga; Kalinina, Oksana; Gasanov, Magerram; Agafonov, Felix

    2017-11-01

    In the Russian economy, the world leadership in the extraction of different mineral resources is combined with the potential for their processing and a significant scientific sector. Innovative development of raw materials extraction is impossible without the parallel technological modernization of the high-tech sector. In general, the complex of these processes is a neo-industrialization of the economy. Neo-industrially oriented transformation of the economy reflects complex changes in its structure, the transformation of established stable relationships between various elements of the system of social production that determine macroeconomic proportions. Neo-industrial transformations come along with the modification of economic relations associated with investments, innovations, labor and income distribution, with the process of locating productive forces and regulating the economy by the government. Neo-industrialization of economy is not only significant changes in its technological and reproductive structure (the development of high-tech industries, the integration of science and industry), but, above all, the implementation of a system structural policy of innovative development of raw material industry and the recovery of manufacturing industries on a new technological basis.

  15. Renewable and nonrenewable energy consumption, real GDP and CO2 emissions nexus: a structural VAR approach in Pakistan

    OpenAIRE

    Muhammad, Shahbaz Shabbir; Muhammad, Zeshan; Muhammad, Shahbaz

    2011-01-01

    Any rise in real GDP crafts higher energy demand in Pakistan. This short-term rising energy requirement is fulfilled with the help of nonrenewable and renewable energy consumption, but nonrenewable energy consumption adds more in it. The rise in nonrenewable energy consumption lifts real GDP up in short-run. Forecast error variance decomposition illustrates nonrenewable energy consumption alone passes 87% variation in the CO2 emissions. This verifies fossil fuels are accountable for environme...

  16. Annotated bibliography: overview of energy and mineral resources for the Nevada nuclear-waste-storage investigations, Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bell, E.J.; Larson, L.T.

    1982-09-01

    This Annotated Bibliography was prepared for the US Department of Energy as part of the Environmental Area Characterization for the Nevada Nuclear Waste Storage Investigations (NNWSI) at the Nevada Test Site (NTS). References were selected to specifically address energy resources including hydrocarbons, geothermal and radioactive fuel materials, mineral resources including base and precious metals and associated minerals, and industrial minerals and rock materials which occur in the vicinity of the NNWSI area

  17. In Situ Identification of Mineral Resources with an X-Ray-Optical "Hands-Lens" Instrument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, J.; Koppel, L.; Bratton, C.; Metzger, E.; Hecht, M.

    1999-09-01

    The recognition of material resources on a planetary surface requires exploration strategies not dissimilar to those employed by early field geologists who searched for ore deposits primarily from surface clues. In order to determine the location of mineral ores or other materials, it will be necessary to characterize host terranes at regional or subregional scales. This requires geographically broad surveys in which statistically significant numbers of samples are rapidly scanned from a roving platform. To enable broad-scale, yet power-conservative planetary-surface exploration, we are developing an instrument that combines x-ray diffractometry (XRD), x-ray fluorescence spectrometry (XRF), and optical capabilities; the instrument can be deployed at the end of a rover's robotic arm, without the need for sample capture or preparation. The instrument provides XRD data for identification of mineral species and lithological types; diffractometry of minerals is conducted by ascertaining the characteristic lattice parameters or "d-spacings" of mineral compounds. D-spacings of 1.4 to 25 angstroms can be determined to include the large molecular structures of hydrated minerals such as clays. The XRF data will identify elements ranging from carbon (Atomic Number = 6) to elements as heavy as barium (Atomic Number = 56). While a sample is being x-rayed, the instrument simultaneously acquires an optical image of the sample surface at magnifications from lx to at least 50x (200x being feasible, depending on the sample surface). We believe that imaging the sample is extremely important as corroborative sample-identification data (the need for this capability having been illustrated by the experience of the Pathfinder rover). Very few geologists would rely on instrument data for sample identification without having seen the sample. Visual inspection provides critical recognition data such as texture, crystallinity, granularity, porosity, vesicularity, color, lustre, opacity, and

  18. Canada's resources and the national interest. A summary of a report by an independent task force on the crisis in the development of Canada's mining and petroleum resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, R D; Chapman, E P; Gander, J E; Manning, E C; Pallister, A E; Peters, D D; Thorssen, L A [Canada West Foundation

    1977-01-01

    This report summarizes almost two years of research and discussion concerning the fundamental problems facing Canada with respect to the development of its resource industries. The report expresses the concern of the members of the Task Force that, unless action is taken now, Canada will fail to secure the benefits that it should from the use of its national heritage of mineral and petroleum resources. The main report of the Task Force is accompanied by four major research studies, published as appendices to the main report and covering the broad subjects of the taxation of non-renewable resources, a survey of Canada's oil and gas resources, a survey of its other mineral resources, and a possible plan for the development of its oil and gas reserves in the coming decade. This booklet represents only a summary of the Report's main discussion and conclusions.

  19. Investigating the effectiveness of different forms of mineral resources governance in meeting the objectives of the UK petroleum fiscal regime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdo, Hafez

    2014-01-01

    After 40 years of oil investments, the UK is now a mature oil province. During these 40 years or so, the UK Government has changed the type of governance it uses to manage its petroleum resources. This paper introduces the theoretical background to two models of mineral resource governance: proprietorial and non-proprietorial regimes. It investigates how adoption any of these two models by the UK Government has historically affected the achievement of the objectives of the UK petroleum fiscal regime. The analysis tracks the changes in the governance of the UK petroleum resources using changes in the average petroleum tax rate, and how this last influenced the achievement of the objectives of the UK petroleum Regime. The findings remain significant for their policy implications. The study concludes that the UK Government adopted a proprietorial type of mineral governance during the period 1975–1982, before changing to a non-proprietorial regime in the period 1983–2000. Since 2000 it has begun to move back towards a proprietorial style of governance. The excessive use of one type of these modes of governance leads to the objectives of the UK petroleum fiscal regime being not met. - Highlights: • UK petroleum fiscal regime has historically been unstable, It has shifted between two different types of minerals governance. • Proprietorial and non-proprietorial philosophies of minerals governance have been used exchangeable in the UK. • Excessive use of either type of governance restricts meeting objectives of the UK petroleum fiscal regime. • The UK needs to use a transparent type of minerals governance by using tools from the two governance philosophies

  20. Renewable Substitutability Index: Maximizing Renewable Resource Use in Buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    In order to achieve a material and energy balance in buildings that is sustainable in the long run, there is an urgent need to assess the renewable and non-renewable resources used in the manufacturing process and to progressively replace non-renewable resources with renewables. ...

  1. Value and depreciation of mineral resources over the very long run: An empirical contrast of different methods

    OpenAIRE

    Rubio Varas, M. del Mar

    2005-01-01

    The paper contrasts empirically the results of alternative methods for estimating the value and the depreciation of mineral resources. The historical data of Mexico and Venezuela, covering the period 1920s-1980s, is used to contrast the results of several methods. These are the present value, the net price method, the user cost method and the imputed income method. The paper establishes that the net price and the user cost are not competing methods as such, but alternative adjustments to diff...

  2. Role of Non-Renewable and Renewable Energy for Sustainable Electricity Generation in Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Hussain Ali Bekhet; Nor Hamisham Harun

    2016-01-01

    The main objective of this paper is to give a comprehensive review of non-renewable energy and renewable energy utilization in Malaysia, including hydropower, solar photovoltaic, biomass and biogas technologies. Malaysia mainly depends on non-renewable energy (natural gas, coal and crude oil) for electricity generation. Therefore, this paper provides a comprehensive review of the energy sector and discusses diversification of electricity generation as a strategy for providing sustainable ener...

  3. Managing large energy and mineral resources (EMR) projects in challenging environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chanmeka, Arpamart

    The viability of energy mineral resources (EMR) construction projects is contingent upon the state of the world economic climate. Oil sands projects in Alberta, Canada exemplify large EMR projects that are highly sensitive to fluctuations in the world market. Alberta EMR projects are constrained by high fixed production costs and are also widely recognized as one of the most challenging construction projects to successfully deliver due to impacts from extreme weather conditions, remote locations and issues with labor availability amongst others. As indicated in many studies, these hardships strain the industry's ability to execute work efficiently, resulting in declining productivity and mounting cost and schedule overruns. Therefore, to enhance the competitiveness of Alberta EMR projects, project teams are targeting effective management strategies to enhance project performance and productivity by countering the uniquely challenging environment in Alberta. The main purpose of this research is to develop industry wide benchmarking tailored to the specific constraints and challenges of Alberta. Results support quantitative assessments and identify the root causes of project performance and ineffective field productivity problems in the heavy industry sector capital projects. Customized metrics produced from the data collected through a web-based survey instrument were used to quantitatively assess project performance in the following dimensions: cost, schedule, change, rework, safety, engineering and construction productivity and construction practices. The system enables the industry to measure project performance more accurately, get meaningful comparisons, while establishing credible norms specific to Alberta projects. Data analysis to identify the root cause of performance problems was conducted. The analysis of Alberta projects substantiated lessons of previous studies to create an improved awareness of the abilities of Alberta-based companies to manage their

  4. The carbon footprint and non-renewable energy demand of algae-derived biodiesel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azadi, Pooya; Brownbridge, George; Mosbach, Sebastian; Smallbone, Andrew; Bhave, Amit; Inderwildi, Oliver; Kraft, Markus

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Global sensitivity analysis is performed to determine the environmental impact of algal biodiesel. • GHG emission of algal biodiesel ranges from 40 to 125 g e-CO 2 /MJ. • Biodiesel from dried algae may prove sustainable if a low carbon solution e.g. solar drying is used. - Abstract: We determine the environmental impact of different biodiesel production strategies from algae feedstock in terms of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and non-renewable energy consumption, we then benchmark the results against those of conventional and synthetic diesel obtained from fossil resources. The algae cultivation in open pond raceways and the transesterification process for the conversion of algae oil into biodiesel constitute the common elements among all considered scenarios. Anaerobic digestion and hydrothermal gasification are considered for the conversion of the residues from the wet oil extraction route; while integrated gasification–heat and power generation and gasification–Fischer–Tropsch processes are considered for the conversion of the residues from the dry oil extraction route. The GHG emissions per unit energy of the biodiesel are calculated as follows: 41 g e-CO 2 /MJ b for hydrothermal gasification, 86 g e-CO 2 /MJ b for anaerobic digestion, 109 g e-CO 2 /MJ b for gasification–power generation, and 124 g e-CO 2 /MJ b for gasification–Fischer–Tropsch. As expected, non-renewable energy consumptions are closely correlated to the GHG values. Also, using the High Dimensional Model Representation (HDMR) method, a global sensitivity analysis over the entire space of input parameters is performed to rank them with respect to their influence on key sustainability metrics. Considering reasonable ranges over which each parameter can vary, the most influential input parameters for the wet extraction route include extractor energy demand and methane yield generated from anaerobic digestion or hydrothermal gasification of the oil extracted

  5. Prospecting and exploration of rare earth bearing mineral resources in India: an overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohanty, R.

    2014-01-01

    Rare earth elements (REE) have a wide range of applications including nuclear and the REE bearing minerals occur in varied geological environments.The commercial rare earth bearing minerals are monazite ((Ce,La,Pr,Nd,Th,Y)PO 4 ), xenotime (YPO 4 ), bastnasite ((Ce,La,Y)CO 3 F) and pyrochlore ((Na,Ca) 2 Nb 2 O 6 (OH,F) which occur either as placer concentrations or in tracer quantities in rocks. While Monazite contains dominantly LREE, Xenotime and Bastnasite are richer in HREE. The exploration and evaluation of these two types of occurrences follow different methodologies

  6. Automated electron microprobe identification of minerals in stream sediments for the national uranium resources evaluation program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mosley, W.C. Jr.

    1979-01-01

    Over 500 stream sediment particles have been analyzed. About 96% have been identified as distinct minerals. Most of the others appeared to be mixtures. Only zinc-bearing gahnite had to be analyzed further for positive identification. Monazite and zircon were the only minerals with concentrations of uranium significantly above the detection limit. The Frantz Isodynamic Magnetic Separator isolated the monazite into the 1.0 fraction. Monazite particles in anomalous sediments contained up to 3.7 wt % uranium. This uranium concentration is unusually high for monazite, which normally has about 0.5 wt % uranium, and may be the cause of the anomaly

  7. Exploitation of Natural Resources and the Public Sector in Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Søren Bo

    This paper considers the role of the public sector in future exploitation of non-renewable resources, especially minerals, in Greenland. The focus is on fiscal sustainability, principles for public sector involvement and the form of government take from mining activities. At present, the public...... budget in Greenland is nearly in balance, but at unchanged policies and standards public expenditures relative to GDP are bound to increase dramatically over the next decades due to population ageing. At the same time, the freezing of the block grant from Denmark implies a decrease in revenues relative...... to GDP. Hence, fiscal policy is quite far from being sustainable. Apart from a need for reforms, these facts also constrain the possible role of the public sector in future resource exploitation. In any case, the government should preferably adhere to strict principles when developing the mineral sector...

  8. Mineral resources and energy. Report by the 'Soil and underground' group of the Ancre Alliance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-06-01

    After comments on the growth of the world consumption of raw materials, on the relocation of productions and on the loss of interest by industrialized countries in mineral resources and their dependency, and a discussion of the relationship between energy and mineral raw materials, this study proposes an assessment and a discussion of energy needs for mining and metal industries. In the next part, needs in raw materials for the energy sector are analysed and discussed with respect to their field of application, to their intensity, to energy scenarios, and to application to research. The value chain is then analysed as well as its risks which can be political, industrial, related to infrastructures, economic, environmental, geological, technical, or social. Recycling capacities and the potential of substitution are then addressed. Themes and axis of research are identified for the assessment of needs, social acceptability, geology and exploration, mining, ore processing and metal industry, recycling, and substitution

  9. Research cooperation project on environmentally friendly technology for highly efficient mineral resources extraction and treatment. Detail design for pilot plant (Mechanical fabrication)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    The paper prepared plans of the mechanical equipment in the detailed design of a pilot plant in the joint research project on the environmental protection technology for highly efficient mineral resource extraction and treatment. (NEDO)

  10. Exergetic assessment for resources input and environmental emissions by Chinese industry during 1997-2006.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Bo; Peng, Beihua; Liu, Mingchu

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of the resources use and environmental impact of the Chinese industry during 1997-2006. For the purpose of this analysis the thermodynamic concept of exergy has been employed both to quantify and aggregate the resources input and the environmental emissions arising from the sector. The resources input and environmental emissions show an increasing trend in this period. Compared with 47568.7 PJ in 1997, resources input in 2006 increased by 75.4% and reached 83437.9 PJ, of which 82.5% came from nonrenewable resources, mainly from coal and other energy minerals. Furthermore, the total exergy of environmental emissions was estimated to be 3499.3 PJ in 2006, 1.7 times of that in 1997, of which 93.4% was from GHG emissions and only 6.6% from "three wastes" emissions. A rapid increment of the nonrenewable resources input and GHG emissions over 2002-2006 can be found, owing to the excessive expansion of resource- and energy-intensive subsectors. Exergy intensities in terms of resource input intensity and environmental emission intensity time-series are also calculated, and the trends are influenced by the macroeconomic situation evidently, particularly by the investment-derived economic development in recent years. Corresponding policy implications to guide a more sustainable industry system are addressed.

  11. Exergetic Assessment for Resources Input and Environmental Emissions by Chinese Industry during 1997–2006

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Zhang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an overview of the resources use and environmental impact of the Chinese industry during 1997–2006. For the purpose of this analysis the thermodynamic concept of exergy has been employed both to quantify and aggregate the resources input and the environmental emissions arising from the sector. The resources input and environmental emissions show an increasing trend in this period. Compared with 47568.7 PJ in 1997, resources input in 2006 increased by 75.4% and reached 83437.9 PJ, of which 82.5% came from nonrenewable resources, mainly from coal and other energy minerals. Furthermore, the total exergy of environmental emissions was estimated to be 3499.3 PJ in 2006, 1.7 times of that in 1997, of which 93.4% was from GHG emissions and only 6.6% from “three wastes” emissions. A rapid increment of the nonrenewable resources input and GHG emissions over 2002–2006 can be found, owing to the excessive expansion of resource- and energy-intensive subsectors. Exergy intensities in terms of resource input intensity and environmental emission intensity time-series are also calculated, and the trends are influenced by the macroeconomic situation evidently, particularly by the investment-derived economic development in recent years. Corresponding policy implications to guide a more sustainable industry system are addressed.

  12. Searching for a global reserves standard - The United Nations Framework Classification for Fossil Energy and Mineral Reserves and Resources 2009

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lynch-Bell, Michael

    2010-09-15

    The UNFC-2009 applies to fossil energy and mineral reserves and resources located on or below the Earth's surface and is intended to serve the needs for classification at a global level for governments, for industry and for financial reporting. UNFC-2009 is a generic system in which quantities are classified on the basis of the three fundamental criteria of economic and social viability (E), field project status and feasibility (F), and geological knowledge (G), using a numerical coding system. The aim of this paper is to explore whether the UNFC-2009 can meet the needs of all internal and external stakeholders.

  13. Quartz-pebble-conglomerate gold deposits: Chapter P in Mineral deposit models for resource assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Ryan D.; Anderson, Eric D.

    2018-05-17

    Quartz-pebble-conglomerate gold deposits represent the largest repository of gold on Earth, largely due to the deposits of the Witwatersrand Basin, which account for nearly 40 percent of the total gold produced throughout Earth’s history. This deposit type has had a controversial history in regards to genetic models. However, most researchers conclude that they are paleoplacer deposits that have been modified by metamorphism and hydrothermal fluid flow subsequent to initial sedimentation.The deposits are found exclusively within fault-bounded depositional basins. The periphery of these basins commonly consists of granite-greenstone terranes, classic hosts for lode gold that source the detrital material infilling the basin. The gold reefs are typically located along unconformities or, less commonly, at the top of sedimentary beds. Large quartz pebbles and heavy-mineral concentrates are found associated with the gold. Deposits that formed prior to the Great Oxidation Event (circa 2.4 giga-annum [Ga]) contain pyrite, whereas younger deposits contain iron oxides. Uranium minerals and hydrocarbons are also notable features of some deposits.Much of the gold in these types of deposits forms crystalline features that are the product of local remobilization. However, some gold grains preserve textures that are undoubtedly of detrital origin. Other heavy minerals, such as pyrite, contain growth banding that is truncated along broken margins, which indicates that they were transported into place as opposed to forming by in situ growth in a hydrothermal setting.The ore tailings associated with these deposits commonly contain uranium-rich minerals and sulfides. Oxidation of the sulfides releases sulfuric acid and mobilizes various metals into the environment. The neutralizing potential of the tailings is minimal, since carbonate minerals are rare. The continuity of the tabular ore bodies, such as those of the Witwatersrand Basin, has allowed these mines to be the deepest in

  14. Brazilian mineral resources of refractory metals: Nb, Ta, W and Mo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barbosa, F.M.; Manso, G.C.

    1984-01-01

    A brief outlook of selected Brazilian refractory metals resources is presented. The metals are dealt separately with topics covering resources availability, production, Brazilian foreign trade, apparent consumption, and supply-demand balance with emphasis varying according to the specific metal characteristics. (E.G.) [pt

  15. GIS-based identification of areas with mineral resource potential for six selected deposit groups, Bureau of Land Management Central Yukon Planning Area, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, James V.; Karl, Susan M.; Labay, Keith A.; Shew, Nora B.; Granitto, Matthew; Hayes, Timothy S.; Mauk, Jeffrey L.; Schmidt, Jeanine M.; Todd, Erin; Wang, Bronwen; Werdon, Melanie B.; Yager, Douglas B.

    2015-01-01

    This study, covering the Bureau of Land Management (BLM) Central Yukon Planning Area (CYPA), Alaska, was prepared to aid BLM mineral resource management planning. Estimated mineral resource potential and certainty are mapped for six selected mineral deposit groups: (1) rare earth element (REE) deposits associated with peralkaline to carbonatitic intrusive igneous rocks, (2) placer and paleoplacer gold, (3) platinum group element (PGE) deposits associated with mafic and ultramafic intrusive igneous rocks, (4) carbonate-hosted copper deposits, (5) sandstone uranium deposits, and (6) tin-tungsten-molybdenum-fluorspar deposits associated with specialized granites. These six deposit groups include most of the strategic and critical elements of greatest interest in current exploration.

  16. THE SCARCITY-ABUNDANCE RELATIONSHIP OF MINERAL RESOURCES INTRODUCING SOME SUSTAINTABLE ASPECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JOSÉ ANTONIO ESPI

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available El Planeta posee un gran número de concentraciones de minerales. Sin embargo, el bajo precio asignado a estos recursos y los principios de la minería sostenible, a corto plazo, pueden producir limitaciones en la exploración y en la extracción de estos recursos, que en un futuro inmediato, sin duda, afectarán al suministro de los minerales. La verdadera contabilidad de los recursos naturales no renovables ha de hacerse introduciendo los valores sin mercado provocados por su explotación que hasta ahora no habían sido contabilizados. Las herramientas de gestión ambiental (fundamentalmente el Análisis Exergético y el Análisis de Ciclo de Vida, aplicados a la producción mineral son instrumentos para alcanzar este fin, tal como se expresa a continuación.

  17. Geologic and mineral and water resources investigations in western Colorado using ERTS-1 data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knepper, D. H. (Principal Investigator)

    1974-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Most of the geologic information in ERTS-1 imagery can be extracted from bulk processed black and white transparencies by a skilled interpreter using standard photogeologic techniques. In central and western Colorado, the detectability of lithologic contacts on ERTS-1 imagery is closely related to the time of year the imagery was acquired. Geologic structures are the most readily extractable type of geologic information contained in ERTS images. Major tectonic features and associated minor structures can be rapidly mapped, allowing the geologic setting of a large region to be quickly accessed. Trends of geologic structures in younger sedimentary appear to strongly parallel linear trends in older metamorphic and igneous basement terrain. Linears and color anomalies mapped from ERTS imagery are closely related to loci of known mineralization in the Colorado mineral belt.

  18. AbMiner: A bioinformatic resource on available monoclonal antibodies and corresponding gene identifiers for genomic, proteomic, and immunologic studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shankavaram Uma

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Monoclonal antibodies are used extensively throughout the biomedical sciences for detection of antigens, either in vitro or in vivo. We, for example, have used them for quantitation of proteins on "reverse-phase" protein lysate arrays. For those studies, we quality-controlled > 600 available monoclonal antibodies and also needed to develop precise information on the genes that encode their antigens. Translation among the various protein and gene identifier types proved non-trivial because of one-to-many and many-to-one relationships. To organize the antibody, protein, and gene information, we initially developed a relational database in Filemaker for our own use. When it became apparent that the information would be useful to many other researchers faced with the need to choose or characterize antibodies, we developed it further as AbMiner, a fully relational web-based database under MySQL, programmed in Java. Description AbMiner is a user-friendly, web-based relational database of information on > 600 commercially available antibodies that we validated by Western blot for protein microarray studies. It includes many types of information on the antibody, the immunogen, the vendor, the antigen, and the antigen's gene. Multiple gene and protein identifier types provide links to corresponding entries in a variety of other public databases, including resources for phosphorylation-specific antibodies. AbMiner also includes our quality-control data against a pool of 60 diverse cancer cell types (the NCI-60 and also protein expression levels for the NCI-60 cells measured using our high-density "reverse-phase" protein lysate microarrays for a selection of the listed antibodies. Some other available database resources give information on antibody specificity for one or a couple of cell types. In contrast, the data in AbMiner indicate specificity with respect to the antigens in a pool of 60 diverse cell types from nine different

  19. AbMiner: a bioinformatic resource on available monoclonal antibodies and corresponding gene identifiers for genomic, proteomic, and immunologic studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Major, Sylvia M; Nishizuka, Satoshi; Morita, Daisaku; Rowland, Rick; Sunshine, Margot; Shankavaram, Uma; Washburn, Frank; Asin, Daniel; Kouros-Mehr, Hosein; Kane, David; Weinstein, John N

    2006-04-06

    Monoclonal antibodies are used extensively throughout the biomedical sciences for detection of antigens, either in vitro or in vivo. We, for example, have used them for quantitation of proteins on "reverse-phase" protein lysate arrays. For those studies, we quality-controlled > 600 available monoclonal antibodies and also needed to develop precise information on the genes that encode their antigens. Translation among the various protein and gene identifier types proved non-trivial because of one-to-many and many-to-one relationships. To organize the antibody, protein, and gene information, we initially developed a relational database in Filemaker for our own use. When it became apparent that the information would be useful to many other researchers faced with the need to choose or characterize antibodies, we developed it further as AbMiner, a fully relational web-based database under MySQL, programmed in Java. AbMiner is a user-friendly, web-based relational database of information on > 600 commercially available antibodies that we validated by Western blot for protein microarray studies. It includes many types of information on the antibody, the immunogen, the vendor, the antigen, and the antigen's gene. Multiple gene and protein identifier types provide links to corresponding entries in a variety of other public databases, including resources for phosphorylation-specific antibodies. AbMiner also includes our quality-control data against a pool of 60 diverse cancer cell types (the NCI-60) and also protein expression levels for the NCI-60 cells measured using our high-density "reverse-phase" protein lysate microarrays for a selection of the listed antibodies. Some other available database resources give information on antibody specificity for one or a couple of cell types. In contrast, the data in AbMiner indicate specificity with respect to the antigens in a pool of 60 diverse cell types from nine different tissues of origin. AbMiner is a relational database that

  20. Current state and problems of integrated development of mineral resources base in Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filimonova, I. V.; Eder, L. V.; Mishenin, M. V.; Mamakhatov, T. M.

    2017-09-01

    The article deals with the issues of integrated development of subsoil resources taking into account the actual problems facing the Russian oil and gas complex. The key factors determining the need for integrated development of subsoil resources have been systematized and investigated. These factors are the change of the hydrocarbon resource base quality, the improvement of the depletion degree of basic (unique and major) oil fields, the increase in the number of small and smallest oil fields discovered and introduced into development, the increased capital intensity and the riskiness of geological exploration, and the territorial location of new subsoil use facilities.

  1. CO2 Mineralization and Utilization using Steel Slag for Establishing a Waste-to-Resource Supply Chain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Shu-Yuan; Chung, Tai-Chun; Ho, Chang-Ching; Hou, Chin-Jen; Chen, Yi-Hung; Chiang, Pen-Chi

    2017-12-08

    Both steelmaking via an electric arc furnace and manufacturing of portland cement are energy-intensive and resource-exploiting processes, with great amounts of carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) emission and alkaline solid waste generation. In fact, most CO 2 capture and storage technologies are currently too expensive to be widely applied in industries. Moreover, proper stabilization prior to utilization of electric arc furnace slag are still challenging due to its high alkalinity, heavy metal leaching potentials and volume instability. Here we deploy an integrated approach to mineralizing flue gas CO 2 using electric arc furnace slag while utilizing the reacted product as supplementary cementitious materials to establish a waste-to-resource supply chain toward a circular economy. We found that the flue gas CO 2 was rapidly mineralized into calcite precipitates using electric arc furnace slag. The carbonated slag can be successfully utilized as green construction materials in blended cement mortar. By this modulus, the global CO 2 reduction potential using iron and steel slags was estimated to be ~138 million tons per year.

  2. Mineral Resource Dilemma: How to Balance the Interests of Government, Local Communities and Abiotic Nature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikitina, Nataliya

    2014-01-01

    It is noted that over the last few years the implementation of several mineral exploration, development and mining projects has been suspended and even completely stopped due to resistance from local communities. The key concerns of local residents typically include perceived or real impact of mining enterprises on the environment, unfair distribution of profits from mining and exploration activities, insufficient contributions to local government budgets and lack of transparency regarding ultimate ownership of companies conducting exploration and mining. The article looks at social conflicts of this kind and suggests some alternative solutions that could prevent such conflicts at the stage of granting exploration and mining rights. PMID:25158138

  3. Country-scale phosphorus balancing as a base for resources conservation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Seyhan, D.

    2009-01-01

    In order to effectively conserve the non-renewable resource phosphorus (P), flows and stocks of P must be known at national, regional and global scales. P is a key non-renewable resource because its use as fertilizer cannot be substituted posing a constraint on the global food production in the

  4. Application of Neutron Activation Analysis to Geochemical Studies of Mineral Resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winchester, J. W. [Department Of Meteorology and Oceanography, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Catoggio, J. A. [Facultad de Ciencias Exactas, Universidad Nacional de La Plata, La Plata (Argentina)

    1969-03-15

    Sensitive and accurate measurement of closely related trace element concentrations in naturally occurring materials leads to the most useful geochemical information in the study of crystallizing systems. Studies of the rare earth elements have shown regularities that can be related to geological crystallization processes in igneous and sedimentary materials, and it is likely that similar studies of economic mineral deposits will lead to similar information. An analytical method should be chosen with great care to assure adequate sensitivity for the trace elements under investigation. Neutron activation analysis and spark source mass spectrometry both have high sensitivity adequate for many geochemical applications. However, simpler methods, such as atomic absorption, absorption spectrophotometry and electrochemical methods have adequate sensitivity for many elements and are preferred when suitable. (author)

  5. Increased understanding of the cereal phytase complement for better mineral bio-availability and resource management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brinch-Pedersen, Henrik; Madsen, Claus Krogh; Holme, Inger Bæksted

    2014-01-01

    The present paper summarizes the current state of knowledge on cereal phytase that are particular relevant for improving mineral and phosphate bio-availability. Phytases can initiate the hydrolysis of phytate, the main storage form of phosphate in cereals and the major anti-nutritional factor...... for the bio-availability of micronutrients in human nutrition. The composition and levels of mature grain phytase activity (MGPA) in cereals is of central importance for efficient phytate hydrolysis. The MGPA varies considerably between species. Substantial activity is present in Triticeae tribe cereals like...... wheat, barley and rye whereas non-Triticeae cereals such as maize and rice have very little MGPA. Recent studies have determined the evolutionary relationships of phytases in Triticeae and non-Triticeae and highlighted the importance of the purple acid phosphatase phytases (PAPhys). In the Triticeae...

  6. Geologic and mineral and water resources investigations in western Colorado, using Skylab EREP data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, K. (Principal Investigator); Prost, G. L.; Knepper, D. H.; Sawatzky, D. L.; Huntley, D.; Weimer, R. J.

    1975-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Skylab photographs are superior to ERTS images for photogeologic interpretation, primarily because of improved resolution. Lithologic contacts can be detected consistently better on Skylab S190A photos than on ERTS images. Color photos are best; red and green band photos are somewhat better than color-infrared photos; infrared band photos are worst. All major geologic structures can be recognized on Skylab imagery. Large folds, even those with very gentle flexures, can be mapped accurately and with confidence. Bedding attitudes of only a few degrees are recognized; vertical exaggeration factor is about 2.5X. Mineral deposits in central Colorado may be indicated on Skylab photos by lineaments and color anomalies, but positive identification of these features is not possible. S190A stereo color photography is adequate for defining drainage divides that in turn define the boundaries and distribution of ground water recharge and discharge areas within a basin.

  7. Securing Energy and Mineral Resources for China: Debating the role of markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seaman, John

    2015-10-01

    This paper examines how China seeks to secure access to an ever growing level of natural resources from overseas. In its quest for resources necessary to fuel its economy, does China seek to bolster the development of international markets, or rather to procure resources in a more mercantilist fashion? China's varied behavior in a broad range of resource markets suggest that there is no guiding principle that pre-ordains a common approach today. Three cases - oil, iron ore and rare earths - show three different Chinese approaches to issues of resource procurement and allocation. In the case of oil, China has shown an increasing acceptance of market principles over the course of the last decade. In iron ore, meanwhile, China's strategy to gain a strong negotiating position within a pre-existing, closed system was ultimately upended by its inability to control its own market actors. The result was the opening-up of a more fluid market. Finally, the rare earth case provides an example of China's approach when it controls global production (albeit production within its own borders). China has been willing to contravene market principles in the rare earth trade either for diplomatic gains or to incite transfers of foreign technology to China. Nevertheless, it has also shown that it is not willing to sacrifice its participation in the broader system of international trade rules as laid out in the World Trade Organization (WTO). Ultimately, while China's growing need for imported raw materials certainly poses a number of challenges, many of the concerns about China are exaggerated, or overlook emerging trends in the way Chinese companies do business overseas. In particular, fears of Chinese 'mercantilism' are tempered by the fact that Chinese companies have in practice served to reinforce and even improve, rather than contravene international market mechanisms for trade in resources. Skepticism of international market principles in China has seemingly waned over time, and

  8. Mineral resources of the Desolation Canyon, Turtle Canyon, and Floy Canyon Wilderness Study Areas, Carbon Emery, and Grand counties, Utah

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cashion, W.B.; Kilburn, J.E.; Barton, H.N.; Kelley, K.D.; Kulik, D.M.; McDonnell, J.R.

    1990-09-01

    This paper reports on the Desolation Canyon, Turtle Canyon, and Floy Canyon Wilderness Study Areas which include 242,000 acres, 33,690 acres, and 23,140 acres. Coal deposits underlie all three study areas. Coal zones in the Blackhawk and Nelsen formations have identified bituminous coal resources of 22 million short tons in the Desolation Canyon Study Area, 6.3 million short tons in the Turtle Canyon Study Area, and 45 million short tons in the Floy Canyon Study Area. In-place inferred oil shale resources are estimated to contain 60 million barrels in the northern part of the Desolation Canyon area. Minor occurrences of uranium have been found in the southeastern part of the Desolation Canyon area and in the western part of the Floy Canyon area. Mineral resource potential for the study areas is estimated to be for coal, high for all areas, for oil and gas, high for the northern tract of the Desolation Canyon area and moderate for all other tracts, for bituminous sandstone, high for the northern part of the Desolation Canyon area, and low for all other tracts, for oil shale, low in all areas, for uranium, moderate for the Floy Canyon area and the southeastern part of the Desolation Canyon area and low for the remainder of the areas, for metals other than uranium, bentonite, zeolites, and geothermal energy, low in all areas, and for coal-bed methane unknown in all three areas

  9. Mineral resources of the Muggins Mountains Wilderness Study Area, Yuma County, Arizona

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, D.B.; Tosdal, R.M.; Pitkin, J.A.; Kleinkopf, M.D.; Wood, R.H.

    1989-01-01

    The Muggins Mountains Wilderness Study Area covers approximately 8,855 acres immediately south of the Yuma Proving Ground. This study area contains sand and gravel, and it has a moderate potential for gold in placer deposits. One small drainage basin along the southeast boundary of this study area has a moderate potential for uranium. This study area has a low potential for geothermal energy and for oil and gas resources

  10. International conference Caspy-95. Caspian region: economy, ecology, mineral resources. Technical abstracts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon,

    1996-12-31

    The collection of technical abstracts submitted to the International conference Caspy-95 held in Moscow (the Russian Federation), June 20-23, 1995, contains 166 presentations in the following fields: (1) Sea levels`s fluctuation and changes of water balance; (2) Geodynamics of the Caspian region; (3) Prospecting, exploration and exploitation of oil and gas fields; (4) Ecological and environmental problems; (5) Complex monitoring and engineering coastal protection; (6) Social-economical and legal aspects of natural resources usage.

  11. International conference Caspy-95. Caspian region: economy, ecology, mineral resources. Technical abstracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1995-01-01

    The collection of technical abstracts submitted to the International conference Caspy-95 held in Moscow (the Russian Federation), June 20-23, 1995, contains 166 presentations in the following fields: 1) Sea levels's fluctuation and changes of water balance; 2) Geodynamics of the Caspian region; 3) Prospecting, exploration and exploitation of oil and gas fields; 4) Ecological and environmental problems; 5) Complex monitoring and engineering coastal protection; 6) Social-economical and legal aspects of natural resources usage

  12. Recent situation and future of mineral resources in Myanmar. Myanmar no shigen no genjo to shorai

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sasaki, H

    1993-11-05

    Though being one of the most impoverished countries with a per capita national income of 225 dollars (1989) because of instability in its political situation, Myanmar is blessed with abundant underground resources. This paper describes the current status of their production and development. Oil fields located in the central sedimentary basin produces 58 million barrels of crude oil and 35 billion 650 million ft[sup 3] of natural gas, but the production is a little insufficient to meet the national demand. Petroleum production is carried out by the operating organizations and departments under the control of the Ministry of Energy. The production has been decreasing since the peak in 1984 because of aged facilities. The government is exerting efforts on production increase and developments leveraged by foreign capital investments. Coal is produced annually at 40,000 tons in the north-west area, all consumed domestically. Such natural resources as copper, zinc, lead, gold, and precious stones are produced by the operating organizations under the control of the Ministry of Mining. Although the country is blessed with an extremely great variety of underground resources, its actual situation in the national economy expects strongly cooperations from other countries including Japan. 6 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  13. Potential release scenario and radiological consequence evaluation of mineral resources at WIPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Little, M.S.

    1982-05-01

    This report has reviewed certain of the natural resources which may be found at the site of the nuclear waste repository being considered for southeastern New Mexico, and discussed the scenarios which have been used to estimate the radiological consequences from the mining of these resources several hundred years after the radioactive waste has been emplaced. It has been concluded that the radiological consequences of the mining of potash or hydrocarbons (mostly natural gas) are probably bounded by the consequences of hydrologic breach scenarios already considered by the US Department of Energy, and by reports of EEG. These studies conclude that the resultant doses would not constitute a significant threat to public health. This report also evaluates the radiological consequences of solution mining of halite at the WIPP site. Although such mining in the Delaware Basin and particularly at the WIPP site, is not likely at the present time, significant economic, social or climatic changes a few hundred years after emplacement may make these resources more attractive. The DOE did not consider such mining at the site credible

  14. Mineral, Energy, and Fertilizer Resources of the North Coast of Peru: Perspective from the Santa Rita B Archaeological Site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, William E.; Kent, Jonathan D.; Willett, Jason C.

    2004-01-01

    The Santa Rita B archaeological site is in the Chao Valley, approximately 65 km southeast of Trujillo, northern Peru. Location of Santa Rita B at the emergence of several drainages from the Andean cordillera is an important factor in the almost continuous occupation of the site over the past 3,000 years. Mineral resources are abundant throughout the Andes; however, the north coast of Peru was an important center for pre-Columbian mining, metallurgy, and craftsmanship. Success of the Chavin, Moche, Chimu, and other north coast cultures is directly related to the availability and exploitation of mineral and energy resources that include: gold (?silver), as electrum, mainly from placers, and copper from local oxide and carbonate occurrences and from sulfides related to copper porphyry occurrences in the cordillera. An alloy of these three metals is referred to as tumbaga, which is the primary material for Andean metalcraft. Anthracite was used for mirrors by north coast cultures and is available near Rio Chicama, Rio Santa, and east of Santa Rita B. These outcrops are a part of the Alto Chicama, Peru's largest coalfield, which extends from Rio Chicama, in the north, for 200 km southward to Rio Santa. Charcoal from the algorrobo tree and llama dung are considered to be the common pre-Columbian energy sources for cooking and metalwork; however, availability and the higher heat content of anthracite indicate that it was used in metallurgical applications. Bitumen is available from petroleum seeps near Talara, north of the study area, and may have been used as glue or as cement. Hematite, goethite, limonite, and manganese oxides from clay-altered volcanic rock may have provided color and material for ceramics. Guano from the Islas Gua?apes, Chinchas, and Ballestas was used as fertilizer for cotton and other crops.

  15. Evaluation of LANDSAT-2 (ERTS) images applied to geologic structures and mineral resources of South America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, W. D. (Principal Investigator)

    1975-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Work with the Image 100 clearly demonstrates that radiance values of LANDSAT data can be used for correlation of geologic formations across international boundaries. The Totora Formation of the Corocoro Group of Tertiary age was traced from known outcrops near Tiahuanaco, Bolivia, along the south side of Lake Titicaca westward into Peru where the same rocks are considered to be Cretaceous in age. This inconsistency suggests: (1) that a review of this formation is needed by joint geological surveys of both countries to determine similarities, differences, and the true age; (2) that recognition of the extension of the copper-bearing Totora Formation of Bolivia into Peru may provide Peru with a new target for exploration. Equal radiance maps made by use of the Image 100 system show as many as eight different units within salar deposits (salt flats) of the Bolivian Altiplano. Standard film processed images show them as nearly uniform areas of white because of lack of dynamic range in film products. The Image 100 system, therefore, appears to be of great assistance in subdividing the salt flats on the basis of moisture distribution, surface roughness, and distribution of windblown materials. Field work is needed to determine these relationships to mineral composition and distribution. Images representing seasonal changes should also improve the accuracy of such maps. Radiance values of alteration zones related to the occurrence of porphyry copper ores were measured at the San Juan del Abra deposit of northern Chile using the Image 100 system. The extent to which these same values may be used to detect similar alteration zones in other areas has not yet been tested.

  16. Atomic mineral resources and geotectonics of it's deposits in South Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shin, B.W.

    1981-01-01

    The necessity of nuclear power in the electric generation is increased yearly in the oil-importing nations. Accordingly it is very important and essential to investigate and develop the uranium resources in Korea. Prospecting of the uranium deposits in south Korea was started in 1960 and for twenty years, the survey of Kangneum, Chungnam and Honam coal fields, Kapyong-Chuncheon metamorphis zone and Taejeon, Boeon-Hwenam caboni-ferous slate have been made. I have studied the geologic structure, mainly the lineaments of Okcheon, Kwesan and Kapyong uranium deposits. The lieaments are not related to uranium reserves and grade but important to exploration. In future it is also necessary to study the thorium, heavy sand deposits and to determine the feasibility for developments. (Author)

  17. ECONOMIC ANALYSIS OF EXPLORATION FOR AND EVELUATION OF MINERAL RESOURCES BASED ON FINANCIAL STATEMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrey Nikolayevich Belonogov

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The article examines different techniques of economic analysis of exploration costs. The purpose of the article is to develop an approach to exploration costs economic analysis and to propose recommendations on improvement of an analytical value of Notes to Financial Statements. To achieve the purpose analysis, synthesis, deductive methods were employed. In course of the research we analyzed studies of J.C. Alfaro, A. Naggar, А.А. Muzychenko, E.V. Shevchenko, etc. We proposed an approach to economic analysis of resources sufficiency to complete exploration and evaluation works and to accounting for exploration and evaluation activities risks. We also proposed to supplement Notes to Financial Statements with additional relevant data. Results of the research can be used by investment analysts in order to enhance understanding of specific industry risks.

  18. Prospects of development of highly mineralized high-temperature resources of the Tarumovskoye geothermal field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkhasov, A. B.; Alkhasova, D. A.; Ramazanov, A. Sh.; Kasparova, M. A.

    2016-06-01

    The promising nature of integrated processing of high-temperature geothermal brines of the Tarumovskoye geothermal field is shown. Thermal energy of a geothermal brine can be converted to the electric power at a binary geothermal power plant (GPP) based on low-boiling working substance. The thermodynamic Rankine cycles are considered which are implemented in the GPP secondary loop at different evaporation temperatures of the working substance―isobutane. Among them, the most efficient cycle from the standpoint of attaining a maximum power is the supercritical one which is close to the so-called triangular cycle with an evaporation pressure of p e = 5.0 MPa. The used low-temperature brine is supplied from the GPP to a chemical plant, where main chemical components (lithium carbonate, burnt magnesia, calcium carbonate, and sodium chloride) are extracted from it according to the developed technology of comprehensive utilization of geothermal brines of chloride-sodium type. The waste water is delivered to the geotechnological complex and other consumers. For producing valuable inorganic materials, the electric power generated at the GPP is used. Owing to this, the total self-sufficiency of production and independence from external conditions is achieved. The advantages of the proposed geotechnological complex are the full utilization of the heat potential and the extraction of main chemical components of multiparameter geothermal resources. In this case, there is no need for reverse pumping, which eliminates the significant capital costs for building injection wells and a pumping station and the operating costs for their service. A characteristic of the modern state of the field and estimated figures of the integrated processing of high-temperature brines of well no. 6 are given, from which it follows that the proposed technology has a high efficiency. The comprehensive development of the field resources will make it possible to improve the economic structure of the

  19. Assessment of critical minerals: Updated application of an early-warning screening methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCullough, Erin A.; Nassar, Nedal

    2017-01-01

    Increasing reliance on non-renewable mineral resources reinforces the need for identifying potential supply constraints before they occur. The US National Science and Technology Council recently released a report that outlines a methodology for screening potentially critical minerals based on three indicators: supply risk (R), production growth (G), and market dynamics (M). This early-warning screening was initially applied to 78 minerals across the years 1996 to 2013 and identified a subset of minerals as “potentially critical” based on the geometric average of these indicators—designated as criticality potential (C). In this study, the screening methodology has been updated to include data for 2014, as well as to incorporate revisions and modifications to the data, where applicable. Overall, C declined in 2014 for the majority of minerals examined largely due to decreases in production concentration and price volatility. However, the results vary considerably across minerals, with some minerals, such as gallium, recording increases for all three indicators. In addition to assessing magnitudinal changes, this analysis also examines the significance of the change relative to historical variation for each mineral. For example, although mined nickel’s R declined modestly in 2014 in comparison to that of other minerals, it was by far the largest annual change recorded for mined nickel across all years examined and is attributable to Indonesia’s ban on the export of unprocessed minerals. Based on the 2014 results, 20 minerals with the highest C values have been identified for further study including the rare earths, gallium, germanium, rhodium, tantalum, and tungsten.

  20. KEBIJAKAN HUKUM PIDANA DALAM MENANGGULANGI TINDAK PIDANA PERTAMBANGAN TENTANG MENDULANG EMAS SECARA TRADISIONAL YANG MENGAKIBATKAN PENCEMARAN DAN MENELAN KORBAN JIWA BERDASARKAN UNDANG-UNDANG NOMOR 4 TAHUN 2009 TENTANG PERTAMBANGAN MINERAL DAN BATU BARA (STUDI KASUS GUNUNG PONGKOR BOGOR)

    OpenAIRE

    Margo Hadi Pura, S.H., M.H.

    2016-01-01

    State of Indonesia is one country in the world that has natural resources that are very much whether it is renewable and can not be renewed (or unerewable). Examples of non-renewable wealth of the mining sector, among others, one of them a gold mine. Not all parts of Indonesia has a potential gold mine that has one gold mine is in the western part of Mount Pongkor Kab. Bogor, West Java. Until now, the hunt for gurandil (designation illegal gold miners) and traditional gold mining in this regi...

  1. The Conterminous United States Mineral Appraisal Program; background information to accompany folio of geologic, geochemical, geophysical, and mineral resources maps of the Tonopah 1 by 2 degree Quadrangle, Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    John, David A.; Nash, J.T.; Plouff, Donald; Whitebread, D.H.

    1991-01-01

    The Tonopah 1 ? by 2 ? quadrangle in south-central Nevada was studied by an interdisciplinary research team to appraise its mineral resources. The appraisal is based on geological, geochemical, and geophysical field and laboratory investigations, the results of which are published as a folio of maps, figures, and tables, with accompanying discussions. This circular provides background information on the investigations and integrates the information presented in the folio. The selected bibliography lists references to the geology, geochemistry, geophysics, and mineral deposits of the Tonopah 1 ? by 2 ? quadrangle.

  2. Exploration of mineral resource deposits based on analysis of aerial and satellite image data employing artificial intelligence methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osipov, Gennady

    2013-04-01

    We propose a solution to the problem of exploration of various mineral resource deposits, determination of their forms / classification of types (oil, gas, minerals, gold, etc.) with the help of satellite photography of the region of interest. Images received from satellite are processed and analyzed to reveal the presence of specific signs of deposits of various minerals. Course of data processing and making forecast can be divided into some stages: Pre-processing of images. Normalization of color and luminosity characteristics, determination of the necessary contrast level and integration of a great number of separate photos into a single map of the region are performed. Construction of semantic map image. Recognition of bitmapped image and allocation of objects and primitives known to system are realized. Intelligent analysis. At this stage acquired information is analyzed with the help of a knowledge base, which contain so-called "attention landscapes" of experts. Used methods of recognition and identification of images: a) combined method of image recognition, b)semantic analysis of posterized images, c) reconstruction of three-dimensional objects from bitmapped images, d)cognitive technology of processing and interpretation of images. This stage is fundamentally new and it distinguishes suggested technology from all others. Automatic registration of allocation of experts` attention - registration of so-called "attention landscape" of experts - is the base of the technology. Landscapes of attention are, essentially, highly effective filters that cut off unnecessary information and emphasize exactly the factors used by an expert for making a decision. The technology based on denoted principles involves the next stages, which are implemented in corresponding program agents. Training mode -> Creation of base of ophthalmologic images (OI) -> Processing and making generalized OI (GOI) -> Mode of recognition and interpretation of unknown images. Training mode

  3. Life cycle greenhouse gases and non-renewable energy benefits of kraft black liquor recovery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaudreault, Caroline; Malmberg, Barry; Upton, Brad; Miner, Reid

    2012-01-01

    The life cycle greenhouse gas (GHG) and fossil fuel benefits of black liquor recovery are analyzed. These benefits are due to the production of energy that can be used in the pulping process or sold, and the recovery of the pulping chemicals that would otherwise need to be produced from other resources. The fossil GHG emissions and non-renewable energy consumption of using black liquor in the kraft recovery system are approximately 90% lower than those for a comparable fossil fuel-based system. Across all scenarios, the systems relying on black liquor solids achieve a median reduction of approximately 140 kg CO 2 eq./GJ of energy produced, compared to the systems relying on fossil fuels to provide the same energy and pulping chemical production functions. The benefits attributable to the recovery of pulping chemicals vary from 44% to 75% of the total benefit. Applied to the total production of kraft pulp in the U.S., the avoided emissions are equivalent to the total Scopes 1 and 2 emissions from the entire U.S. forest products industry. These results do not depend on the accounting method for biogenic carbon (because biogenic CO 2 emissions are the same for the systems compared) and the results are valid across a range of assumptions about the displaced fossil fuel, the GHG-intensity of the electricity grid, the fossil fuels used in the lime kiln, and the level of cogeneration at pulp and paper mills. The benefits occur without affecting the amount of wood harvested or the amount of chemical pulp produced. -- Highlights: ► Black liquor, a by-product of kraft pulping, represents about half of the energy used in the paper industry. ► The greenhouse gases (GHG) benefits of black liquor recovery compared to an equivalent fossil fuel system were analyzed. ► The GHG emissions of the black liquor system are approximately 90% lower than those for the fossil fuel system. ► The benefits from the recovery of the chemicals vary from 44% to 75% of the total benefit.

  4. Statistical supplement to the report of the Department of Mineral Resources New South Wales for the year ending 30th June 1981

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1982-01-01

    This annual publication of statistics relating to the New South Wales Mining Industry supplements the annual report of the Department of Mineral Resources. The document focuses on providing detailed statistics on production, value of production, employment and value added statistics for each of the energy and non-energy resource sectors for the financial year 1980 to 1981. For comparative purposes corresponding figures are provided for the previous year.

  5. The environmental Kuznets curve, economic growth, renewable and non-renewable energy, and trade in Tunisia

    OpenAIRE

    Ben Jebli, Mehdi; Ben Youssef, Slim

    2013-01-01

    We use the autoregressive distributed lag (ARDL) bounds testing approach for cointegration with structural breaks and the vector error correction model (VECM) Granger causality approach in order to investigate relationships between per capita CO2 emissions, GDP, renewable and non-renewable energy consumption and international trade (exports or imports) for Tunisia during the period 1980-2009. We show the existence of a short-run unidirectional causality running from trade, GDP, CO2 emission a...

  6. The impacts of non-renewable and renewable energy on CO2 emissions in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulut, Umit

    2017-06-01

    As a result of great increases in CO 2 emissions in the last few decades, many papers have examined the relationship between renewable energy and CO 2 emissions in the energy economics literature, because as a clean energy source, renewable energy can reduce CO 2 emissions and solve environmental problems stemming from increases in CO 2 emissions. When one analyses these papers, he/she will observe that they employ fixed parameter estimation methods, and time-varying effects of non-renewable and renewable energy consumption/production on greenhouse gas emissions are ignored. In order to fulfil this gap in the literature, this paper examines the effects of non-renewable and renewable energy on CO 2 emissions in Turkey over the period 1970-2013 by employing fixed parameter and time-varying parameter estimation methods. Estimation methods reveal that CO 2 emissions are positively related to non-renewable energy and renewable energy in Turkey. Since policy makers expect renewable energy to decrease CO 2 emissions, this paper argues that renewable energy is not able to satisfy the expectations of policy makers though fewer CO 2 emissions arise through production of electricity using renewable sources. In conclusion, the paper argues that policy makers should implement long-term energy policies in Turkey.

  7. South Africa's mineral industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-06-01

    The main aim of the Minerals Bureau in presenting this annual review is to provide an up-to-date reference document on the current state of the mineral industry in South Africa. This includes a brief look at the production, trade, economy, resources and deposits of precious metals and minerals, energy minerals, metallic minerals, and non-metallic minerals. One article discusses the production, trade, export, deposits and economy of uranium

  8. The Role of Heat in the Development of Energy and Mineral Resources in the Northern Basin and Range Province

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, Richard L.

    It is now just over a decade since OPEC escalated the price of oil and triggered a flurry of alternate energy research and changing energy consumption practices. One scientific impact of that historical economic turning point was the launching of geothermal exploration programs of unprecedented intensity that focused on Cenozoic volcanic rocks and active, as well as fossil, geothermal systems. The good science that was already being done on such rocks and systems was both accelerated and diluted by government-funded research and energy industry exploration efforts. After the initial flood of detailed reports, gray literature, and documents interred in company files, we are observing the appearance of syntheses of just what happened and what progress was achieved during the geothermal boom (which has now wilted to the quiet development of a few most promising sites). Recent examples of geothermal synthesis literature include the book Geothermal Systems by L. Rybach and L.J. Muffler (John Wiley, New York, 1981), publications like Oregon Department of Geology and Mineral Industries Paper 15 by G.R. Priest et al. (1983) entitled “Geology and geothermal resources of central Oregon Cascade range,” and informative maps like the U.S. Geological Survey series summarizing late Cenozoic volcanic rock distribution and age (R.G. Luedke and R.L. Smith, maps 1-1091 A to D, 1979 to 1982), and state and regional geothermal resources maps (NOAA National Geophysical Data Center, 1977-1982). The book under review here is part of this second literature wave, a useful primary reference, collection of syntheses, and literature guide but certainly not unique.

  9. Disk Rock Cutting Tool for the Implementation of Resource-Saving Technologies of Mining of Solid Minerals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manietyev, Leonid; Khoreshok, Aleksey; Tsekhin, Alexander; Borisov, Andrey

    2017-11-01

    The directions of a resource and energy saving when creating a boom-type effectors of roadheaders of selective action with disc rock cutting tools on a multi-faceted prisms for the destruction of formation of minerals and rocks pricemax are presented. Justified reversing the modes of the crowns and booms to improve the efficiency of mining works. Parameters of destruction of coal and rock faces by the disk tool of a biconical design with the unified fastening knots to many-sided prisms on effectors of extraction mining machines are determined. Parameters of tension of the interfaced elements of knots of fastening of the disk tool at static interaction with the destroyed face of rocks are set. The technical solutions containing the constructive and kinematic communications realizing counter and reverse mode of rotation of two radial crowns with the disk tool on trihedral prisms and cases of booms with the disk tool on tetrahedral prisms in internal space between two axial crowns with the cutter are proposed. Reserves of expansion of the front of loading outside a table of a feeder of the roadheader of selective action, including side zones in which loading corridors by blades of trihedral prisms in internal space between two radial crowns are created are revealed.

  10. Spatial Databases of Geological, Geophysical, and Mineral Resource Data Relevant to Sandstone-Hosted Copper Deposits in Central Kazakhstan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syusyura, Boris; Box, Stephen E.; Wallis, John C.

    2010-01-01

    Central Kazakhstan is host to one of the world's giant sandstone-hosted copper deposits, the Dzhezkazgan deposit, and several similar, smaller deposits. The United Stated Geological Survey (USGS) is assessing the potential for other, undiscovered deposits of this type in the surrounding region of central Kazakhstan. As part of this effort, Syusyura compiled and partially translated an array of mostly unpublished geologic, geophysical, and mineral resource data for this region in digital format from the archives of the former Union of Soviet Socialists Republics (of which Kazakhstan was one of the member republics until its dissolution in 1991), as well as from later archives of the Republic of Kazakhstan or of the Kazakhstan consulting firm Mining Economic Consulting (MEC). These digital data are primarily map-based displays of information that were transmitted either in ESRI ArcGIS, georeferenced format, or non-georeferenced map image files. Box and Wallis reviewed all the data, translated Cyrillic text where necessary, inspected the maps for consistency, georeferenced the unprojected map images, and reorganized the data into the filename and folder structure of this publication.

  11. Porphyry copper assessment of Europe, exclusive of the Fennoscandian Shield: Chapter K in Global mineral resource assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutphin, David M.; Hammarstrom, Jane M.; Drew, Lawrence J.; Large, Duncan E.; Berger, Byron R.; Dicken, Connie L.; DeMarr, Michael W.; with contributions from Billa, Mario; Briskey, Joseph A.; Cassard, Daniel; Lips, Andor; Pertold, Zdeněk; Roşu, Emilian

    2013-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) collaborated with European geologists to assess resources in porphyry copper deposits in Europe, exclusive of Scandinavia (Sweden, Denmark, Norway, and Finland) and Russia. Porphyry copper deposits in Europe are Paleozoic and Late Cretaceous to Miocene in age. A number of the 31 known Phanerozoic deposits contain more than 1 million metric tons of contained copper, including the Majdanpek deposit, Serbia; Assarel, Bulgaria; Skouries, Greece; and Rosia Poeni, Romania. Five geographic areas were delineated as permissive tracts for post-Paleozoic porphyry copper deposits. Two additional tracts were delineated to show the extent of permissive igneous rocks associated with porphyry copper mineralization related to the Paleozoic Caledonian and Variscan orogenies. The tracts are based on mapped and inferred subsurface distributions of igneous rocks of specific age ranges that define areas where the occurrence of porphyry copper deposits within 1 kilometer of the Earth’s surface is possible. These tracts range in area from about 4,000 to 93,000 square kilometers. Although maps at a variety of different scales were used in the assessment, the final tract boundaries are intended for use at a scale of 1:1,000,000.

  12. The role of natural resource and environmental economics in determining the trade-offs in consumption and production of energy inputs: The case of biomass energy crops

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Downing, M.; Graham, R.L.

    1993-12-31

    Natural resource economics issues deal with flows and funds of renewable and nonrenewable resources over time. These issues include topics concerned with management of fisheries, forests, mineral, energy resources, the extinction of species and the irreversibility of development over time. Environmental economics issues deal with regulation of polluting activities and the valuation of environmental amenities. In this study we outline a framework for studying both natural resource and environmental economics issues for any renewable or nonrenewable resource. Valuation from both the cost and benefit sides are addressed as they relate to the valuation of environmental programs or policies. By using this top-down approach to analyze and determine the costs and benefits of using renewable or nonrenewable resources, policy-makers on the global, national and local scales may be better informed as to the probable nonmarket and market ramifications of their natural resource and environmental policy decisions. This general framework for analysis is then focused to address biomass energy crops and their usage as inputs to energy production. As with any energy technology, a complete analysis must include an examination of the entire fuel cycle; specifically both production and consumption sides. From a production standpoint, market valuation issues such as crop management techniques, inputs to production, and community economics issues must be addressed as well as nonmarket valuation issues such as soil erosion, ground water effects and carbon sequestration. On the consumption side, market valuation considerations such as energy fuel efficiency and quality, cost of conversion and employment of labor are important factors while the critical nonmarket valuation factors are ambient air visibility, greenhouse gas release, and disposal of the by-products of conversion and combustion.

  13. The role of natural resource and environmental economics in determining the trade-offs in consumption and production of energy inputs: The case of biomass energy crops

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Downing , M.; Graham, R.L.

    1993-01-01

    Natural resource economics issues deal with flows and funds of renewable and nonrenewable resources over time. These issues include topics concerned with management of fisheries, forests, mineral, energy resources, the extinction of species and the irreversibility of development over time. Environmental economics issues deal with regulation of polluting activities and the valuation of environmental amenities. In this study we outline a framework for studying both natural resource and environmental economics issues for any renewable or nonrenewable resource. Valuation from both the cost and benefit sides are addressed as they relate to the valuation of environmental programs or policies. By using this top-down approach to analyze and determine the costs and benefits of using renewable or nonrenewable resources, policy-makers on the global, national and local scales may be better informed as to the probable nonmarket and market ramifications of their natural resource and environmental policy decisions. The general framework for analysis is then focused to address biomass energy crops and their usage as inputs to energy production. As with any energy technology, a complete analysis must include an examination of the entire fuel cycle; specifically both production and consumption sides. From a production standpoint, market valuation issues such as crop management techniques, inputs to production, and community economics issues must be addressed as well as nonmarket valuation issues such as soil erosion, ground water effects and carbon sequestration. On the consumption side, market valuation considerations such as energy fuel efficiency and quality, cost of conversion and employment of labor are important factors while the critical nonmarket valuation factors are ambient air visibility, greenhouse gas release, and disposal of the by-products of conversion and combustion

  14. Renewable and non-renewable energy consumption and economic growth: Evidence from MENA Net Oil Exporting Countries.

    OpenAIRE

    Kahia, Montassar; Ben Aissa, Mohamed Safouane

    2014-01-01

    This study investigate the relationship between renewable and non-renewable energy consumption and economic growth in a sample of 13 MENA Net Oil Exporting Countries covering the period 1980–2012 within a multivariate panel framework. The Pedroni (1999, 2004), Kao (1999) as well as the Westerlund (2007) panel cointegration tests indicate that there is a long-run equilibrium relationship between real GDP, renewable energy consumption, non-renewable energy consumption, real gross fixed capital ...

  15. Renewable and non-renewable energy consumption and economic growth: Evidence from MENA Net Oil Importing Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Kahia, Montassar; Ben Aissa, Mohamed Safouane

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we use panel cointegration techniques to explore the relationship between renewable and non-renewable energy consumption and economic growth in a sample of 11 MENA Net Oil Importing Countries covering the period 1980–2012. The Pedroni (1999, 2004), Kao(1999) as well as Westerlund(2007) panel cointegration tests indicate that there is a long-run equilibrium relationship between real GDP, renewable energy consumption, non-renewable energy consumption, real gross fixed capital for...

  16. Mines and Mineral Resources

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — Mines in the United States According to the Homeland Security Infrastructure Program Tiger Team Report Table E-2.V.1 Sub-Layer Geographic Names, a mine is defined as...

  17. Social marketing improved the use of multivitamin and mineral supplements among resource-poor women in Bolivia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warnick, Elizabeth; Dearden, Kirk A; Slater, Sharon; Butrón, Betzabé; Lanata, Claudio F; Huffman, Sandra L

    2004-01-01

    To test the hypothesis that social marketing improves women's awareness and consumption of multivitamin and mineral supplements. Formative research and baseline and final surveys using a multistaged stratified cluster sample. Department of Santa Cruz, Bolivia. Women 15 to 49 years old (n=1709 at baseline and n=1735 at final survey). Social marketing campaign using radio and television spots. Awareness and use of multivitamins, including VitalDía, the brand promoted as part of this social marketing campaign. Cross-tabulations to assess changes over time in awareness and use of multivitamins. Logistic regression analyses to identify determinants of multivitamin use. The campaign increased women's awareness and use of multiple supplements, including VitalDía. Awareness of multiple supplements nearly doubled among women with 6 to 8 years of schooling, tripled among women with 4 to 5 years of education, and more than quadrupled among women with less than 4 years of schooling. After 9 months of social marketing, 11% of women had taken VitalDía one or more times, 7% had taken it at least once in the last 3 months, and 4% had used it one or more times in the last month. Improvements in the use of VitalDía were evident for women of all socioeconomic and educational levels, with the greatest increases occurring in the least advantaged groups. Additionally, women who had a positive perception of the benefits of multivitamins were 1.7 times (95% confidence interval 1.2-2.3; P marketing of multiple supplements reached resource-poor women and can be used to bridge gaps in access, improve awareness of supplementation as an option, and increase the likelihood that women will try supplements.

  18. GIS-based identification of areas that have resource potential for critical minerals in six selected groups of deposit types in Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karl, Susan M.; Jones, James V.; Hayes, Timothy S.

    2016-11-16

    Alaska has considerable potential for undiscovered mineral resources. This report evaluates potential for undiscovered critical minerals in Alaska. Critical minerals are those for which the United States imports more than half of its total supply and which are largely derived from nations that cannot be considered reliable trading partners. In this report, estimated resource potential and certainty for the state of Alaska are analyzed and mapped for the following six selected mineral deposit groups that may contain one or more critical minerals: (1) rare earth elements-thorium-yttrium-niobium(-uranium-zirconium) [REE-Th-Y-Nb(-U-Zr)] deposits associated with peralkaline to carbonatitic igneous intrusive rocks; (2) placer and paleoplacer gold (Au) deposits that in some places might also produce platinum group elements (PGE), chromium (Cr), tin (Sn), tungsten (W), silver (Ag), or titanium (Ti); (3) platinum group elements(-cobalt-chromium-nickel-titanium-vanadium) [PGE(-Co-Cr-Ni-Ti-V)] deposits associated with mafic to ultramafic intrusive rocks; (4) carbonate-hosted copper(-cobalt-silver-germanium-gallium) [Cu(-Co-Ag-Ge-Ga)] deposits; (5) sandstone-hosted uranium(-vanadium-copper) [U(-V-Cu)] deposits; and (6) tin-tungsten-molybdenum(-tantalum-indium-fluorspar) [Sn-W-Mo(-Ta-In-fluorspar)] deposits associated with specialized granites.This study used a data-driven, geographic information system (GIS)-implemented method to identify areas that have mineral resource potential in Alaska. This method systematically and simultaneously analyzes geoscience data from multiple geospatially referenced datasets and uses individual subwatersheds (12-digit hydrologic units) as the spatial unit of classification. The final map output uses a red, yellow, green, and gray color scheme to portray estimated relative potential (High, Medium, Low, Unknown) for each of the six groups of mineral deposit types, and it indicates the relative certainty (High, Medium, Low) of that estimate for

  19. World health, populations, sanitation and resources. Part 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humphries, S V

    1981-07-01

    This paper discusses 5 crises that are confronted by mankind: 1) population pressure, 2) the environment, 3) food, 4) energy, and 5) raw materials. Developing countries are those with rapid population growth rates while developed countries have slow growth rates. Sweden, Austria, East and West Germany, and Luxemburg were the only 5 countries with zero population growth in 1980. Other developed countries such as Canada and the USA double in population every 88 and 99 years, respectively. In contrast, developing countries such as Kenya, Zimbabwe, Zambia, and South Africa double every 18, 21, 22, and 25 years respectively. Such population increases cause problems in the environment, transportation, education, crime, and riots. The level of foreign aid for food to developing countries needs to increase or else the economic gap between rich and poor nations will increase on an average from 5:1 to 8:1 in Latin America and to 20:1 in South Asia. Availability of food has increaseed in developed countries whereas in developing countries it has dropped. Use of tropical forest lands as well as the sea bed for a source of food is difficult. There ia an upper limit to the fresh water runoff from land areas of the earth and fresh water is non-renewable. There is also a scarcity of other non-renewable resources, including at least 20 minerals. Finally, the standard of living in prosperous countries must be lowered at the same time as raising it in developing countries.

  20. 75 FR 22153 - Grant Program To Assess, Evaluate and Promote Development of Tribal Energy and Mineral Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-27

    .... Submission of Application in Digital Format E. Application Evaluation and Administrative Information F. When... in collecting digital land grids, geographic information system (GIS) data and imagery data for many... energy and solid mineral projects; and Marketing studies. 9. What the Energy and Mineral Development...

  1. Marine mineral resources of Pacific Islands - a review of the Exclusive Economic Zones of islands of U.S. affiliation, excluding the State of Hawaii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hein, James R.; McIntyre, Brandie R.; Piper, David Z.

    2005-01-01

    The United States Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) was established in 1983 and comprises all marine areas within 200 nautical miles (370 kilometers) of the nearest U.S. land. This vast area of 3.38 million square nautical miles (11.6 million square kilometers) is about 20 percent greater than the entire land area of the United States. The resource potential of the vast mineral deposits that occur within the U.S. EEZ is unknown, despite field studies that have taken place during the past 25 years. Since about 1975, information on marine mineral deposits has been obtained by numerous research cruises to the Pacific Ocean by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), the U.S. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), equivalent government agencies in Germany, Canada, France, Russia, Japan, China, South Korea, Australia, and New Zealand, and by academic researchers from all of these nations. Although most of the cruises by other nations explored areas outside the U.S. EEZ, information gained from those studies can aid in the evaluation of the mineral potential in the U.S. EEZ. However, the global effort remains inadequate to allow for the quantitative evaluation of mineral resources contained within the EEZ of nations or within international regions of the oceans.

  2. The Analysis of Pricing Power of Preponderant Metal Mineral Resources under the Perspective of Intergenerational Equity and Social Preferences: An Analytical Framework Based on Cournot Equilibrium Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meirui Zhong

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper combines intergenerational equity equilibrium and social preferences equilibrium with Cournot equilibrium solving the technological problem of intergenerational equity and strategic value compensation confirmation, achieving the effective combination between sustainable development concept and value evaluation, thinking and expanding the theoretical framework for the lack of pricing power of mineral resources. The conclusion of the theoretical model and the numerical simulation shows that intergenerational equity equilibrium and social preferences equilibrium enhance international trade market power of preponderant metal mineral resources owing to the production of intergenerational equity compensation value and strategic value. However, the impact exerted on Cournot market power by social preferences is inconsistent: that is, changes of altruistic Cournot equilibrium and reciprocal inequity Cournot equilibrium are consistent, while inequity aversion Cournot equilibrium has the characteristic of loss aversion, namely, under the consideration of inequity aversion Cournot competition, Counot-Nash equilibrium transforms monotonically with sympathy and jealousy of inequity aversion.

  3. New Opportunities to Expand Information on Intense-Strained State of the Earth's Crust in the Areas of Development Mineral Resources During Monitoring Creation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pershin Vladimir

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available It is established that new safe and pollution-free technologies of development of Kuzbass coal deposits should be based on new knowledge of development geodynamic and technogenic processes in exploration of mineral resources. Such information is impossible without formation of new models of deformations of the earth crust blocks. Now in traditional technologies of geomechanical ensuring development of mineral resources the main characteristic is the information about the kinematics of these processes. A comprehensive approach which beginning is development of the theory for justification of scale of the explored territory and establishment of uniform integral parameters of a strained state of blocks of crust. Justification of scale of the explored territory defines effectiveness of expenses. Establishment of uniform integral parameters of a strained state of crustal blocks characterizes the new level of information exchange between sciences about Earth and geomechanics. Practical use of the specified theory consists of assessment of geodynamic danger at development of coal fields.

  4. Porphyry copper assessment of the Mesozoic of East Asia: China, Vietnam, North Korea, Mongolia, and Russia: Chapter G in Global mineral resource assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludington, Steve; Mihalasky, Mark J.; Hammarstrom, Jane M.; Robinson, Giplin R.; Frost, Thomas P.; Gans, Kathleen D.; Light, Thomas D.; Miller, Robert J.; Alexeiev, Dmitriy V.

    2012-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) collaborated with the China Geological Survey (CGS) to conduct a mineral resource assessment of Mesozoic porphyry copper deposits in East Asia. This area hosts several very large porphyry deposits, exemplified by the Dexing deposit in eastern China that contains more than 8,000,000 metric tons of copper. In addition, large parts of the area are undergoing active exploration and are likely to contain undiscovered porphyry copper deposits.

  5. Porphyry copper assessment of East and Southeast Asia: Philippines, Taiwan (Republic of China), Republic of Korea (South Korea), and Japan: Chapter P in Global mineral resource assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammarstrom, Jane M.; Bookstrom, Arthur A.; Demarr, Michael W.; Dicken, Connie L.; Ludington, Stephen; Robinson, Gilpin R.; Zientek, Michael L.

    2014-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey collaborated with member countries of the Coordinating Committee for Geoscience Programmes in East and Southeast Asia (CCOP) on an assessment of the porphyry copper resources of East and Southeast Asia as part of a global mineral resource assessment. The assessment covers the Philippines in Southeast Asia, and the Republic of Korea (South Korea), Taiwan (Province of China), and Japan in East Asia. The Philippines host world class porphyry copper deposits, such as the Tampakan and Atlas deposits. No porphyry copper deposits have been discovered in the Republic of Korea (South Korea), Taiwan (Province of China), or Japan.

  6. Roll-front uranium occurrences of the South Texas Mineral Belt: Development of a database for mineral potential modelling and quantitative resource assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mihalasky, M.

    2014-01-01

    The South Texas Mineral Belt in the United States is a broad curvilinear region of marginal-marine roll-front sandstone uranium occurrences. Located ~130 km inland, the belt parallels the Gulf of Mexico coastline and extends from southeast Texas to Mexico. It trends northeast-southwest and is about 400 km long and 10-50 km wide as delineated by alignments and clusters of occurrences, but ~100 km wide if outlying occurrences are included. The occurrences are hosted in coastal plain sediments and rocks of Tertiary age that dip gently towards the Gulf. These include the Lower Eocene Wilcox Group, Middle Eocene Claiborne Group, Upper Eocene Jackson Group, Upper Oligocene–Miocene Catahoula Tuff, Lower Miocene Oakville Sandstone, and Pliocene Goliad Sand. Older sequences are mixed fluvial-beach facies, whereas younger are dominantly fluvial. Occurrence distribution is controlled by host unit strike and dip, and permeable sequences therein, and by a combination of growth faults and locations of reductants.

  7. Innovative biofibers from renewable resources

    CERN Document Server

    Reddy, Narendra

    2015-01-01

    This book will be a one-stop-shop for readers seeking information on biofibers that are sustainable and environmentally friendly and those that can replace the non-renewable synthetic polymer based fibers. Emphasis will be on fibers that are derived from agricultural byproducts and coproducts without the need for additional natural resources.

  8. The economic value of remote sensing of earth resources from space: An ERTS overview and the value of continuity of service. Volume 7: Nonreplenishable natural resources: Minerals, fossil fuels and geothermal energy sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lietzke, K. R.

    1974-01-01

    The application of remotely-sensed information to the mineral, fossil fuel, and geothermal energy extraction industry is investigated. Public and private cost savings are documented in geologic mapping activities. Benefits and capabilities accruing to the ERS system are assessed. It is shown that remote sensing aids in resource extraction, as well as the monitoring of several dynamic phenomena, including disturbed lands, reclamation, erosion, glaciation, and volcanic and seismic activity.

  9. Brazilian minerals annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-01-01

    Statistics of Brazilian mineral resources and production in 1977 are presented. Data included refer also to economic aspects, market, taxes, government incentives, manpower, exportation, importation, etc [pt

  10. Integration of NURE and other data sets, southwest Montana and northeast Idaho: an orientation study to characterize mineralized environments. National Uranium Resource Evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Madson, M.E.; Karp, K.E.; D'Andrea, R.F. Jr.; Morrison, B.C.

    1983-04-01

    Mineralized environments in the Dillon, Butte, Hamilton, and Elk City 1 0 x 2 0 NTMS Quadrangles were identified and characterized from the National Uranium Resource Evaluation (NURE) Hydrogeochemical and Stream Sediment Reconnaissance and Aerial Radiometric and Magnetic Survey data, folio data, and other data sets used in this study. Methods applied to reconnaissance for uranium during the NURE program were used successfully in this project to recognize and delineate locales that have mineral-resource potential. These methods included preparation and interpretation of maps of geochemical, aerial radiometric, and aeromagentic data, as well as interpretation of univariate and multivariate statistical analyses of NURE data sets. Data interpretations were conducted by a contingency approach that puts a variety of statistical and cartographic tools at the disposal of the geologist. These tools were applied selectively to the data until the geochemical and geophysical signature of an anomalous locale was described and characterized to the geologist's satisfaction. Ten areas known to be mineralized were described as type localities and used to calibrate the geochemical and geophysical models employed in the study. Other areas exhibiting anomalous geochemical and (or) geophysical characteristics were analogized to the type localities. Thirty anomalous areas were delineated during this study; 17 of the 30 are believed to warrant further investigation. Three locales contain Tertiary intrusive bodies that were delineated on the basis of their characteristic signatures and trace-element contents. 5 figures, 10 tables

  11. Qualitative assessment of selected areas of the world for undiscovered sediment-hosted stratabound copper deposits: Chapter Y in Global mineral resource assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zientek, Michael L.; Wintzer, Niki E.; Hayes, Timothy S.; Parks, Heather L.; Briggs, Deborah A.; Causey, J. Douglas; Hatch, Shyla A.; Jenkins, M. Christopher; Williams, David J.; Zientek, Michael L.; Hammarstrom, Jane M.; Johnson, Kathleen M.

    2015-12-14

    A qualitative mineral resource assessment of sediment-hosted stratabound copper mineralized areas for undiscovered copper deposits was performed for 10 selected areas of the world. The areas, in alphabetical order, are (1) Belt-Purcell Basin, United States and Canada; (2) Benguela and Cuanza Basins, Angola; (3) Chuxiong Basin, China; (4) Dongchuan Group rocks, China; (5) Egypt–Israel–Jordan Rift, Egypt, Israel, and Jordan; (6) Maritimes Basin, Canada; (7) Neuquén Basin, Argentina; (8) Northwest Botswana Rift, Botswana and Namibia; (9) Redstone Copperbelt, Canada; and (10) Salta Rift System, Argentina. This assessment (1) outlines the main characteristics of the areas, (2) classifies known deposits by deposit model subtypes, and (3) ranks the areas according to their potential to contain undiscovered copper deposits.

  12. Identifying the hotspots of non-renewable water use using HiGW-MAT: A new land surface model coupled with human interventions and ground water reservoir

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oki, T.; Pokhrel, Y. N.; Yeh, P. J.; Koirala, S.; Kanae, S.; Hanasaki, N.

    2011-12-01

    The real hydrological cycles on the Earth are not natural anymore. Global hydrological model simulations of the water cycle and available water resources should have an ability to consider the effects of human interventions on hydrological cycles. Anthropogenic activity modules (Hanasaki et al., 2008), such as reservoir operation, crop growth and water demand in crop lands, and environmental flows, were incorporated into a land surface model called MATSIRO (Takata et al., 2003), to form a new model, MAT-HI (Pokhrel et al., 2011). Total terrestrial water storages (TWS) in large river basins were estimated using the new model by off-line simulation, and compared with the TWS observed by GRACE for 2002-2007. The results showed MAT-HI has an advantage estimating TWS particularly in arid river basins compared with H08 (Hanasaki et al., 2008). MAT-HI was further coupled with a module representing the ground water level fluctuations (Yeh et al., 2005), and consists a new land surface scheme HiGW-MAT (Human Intervention and Ground Water coupled MATSIRO). HiGW-MAT is also associated with a scheme tracing the origin and flow path with the consideration on the sources of water withdrawal from stream flow, medium-size reservoirs and nonrenewable groundwater in addition to precipitation to croplands enabled the assessment of the origin of water producing major crops as Hanasaki et al. (2010). Areas highly dependent on nonrenewable groundwater are detected in the Pakistan, Bangladesh, western part of India, north and western parts of China, some regions in the Arabian Peninsula and the western part of the United States through Mexico. Cumulative nonrenewable groundwater withdrawals estimated by the model are corresponding fairly well with the country statistics of total groundwater withdrawals. Ground water table depletions in large aquifers in US estimated by HiGW-MAT were compared with in-situ observational data, and the correspondences are very good. Mean global exploitation

  13. User’s guide for MapMark4—An R package for the probability calculations in three-part mineral resource assessments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellefsen, Karl J.

    2017-06-27

    MapMark4 is a software package that implements the probability calculations in three-part mineral resource assessments. Functions within the software package are written in the R statistical programming language. These functions, their documentation, and a copy of this user’s guide are bundled together in R’s unit of shareable code, which is called a “package.” This user’s guide includes step-by-step instructions showing how the functions are used to carry out the probability calculations. The calculations are demonstrated using test data, which are included in the package.

  14. New Mexico's energy resources '81. Annual report of Bureau of Geology in the Mining and Minerals Division of New Mexico Energy and Minerals Department

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arnold, E.C.; Hill, J.M.

    1981-01-01

    Although production of U 3 O 8 declined only slightly in 1980, New Mexico's share of domestic production has declined from 48% in 1976 to 35% in 1980. Production projections indicate a continued decline in 1981 and lower production until at least 1984. New Mexico has 41% of total domestic reserves producible in the $50-per-lb cost category. In keeping with the anticipated steady depletion of reserves, production of crude oil in New Mexico was 69.9 million bls, a 6.3% decline in production from 1979. Condensate production of 5.4 million bbls in 1980, however, represented an increase of 7% from 1979 production. Although natural gas production was the lowest since 1970 and declined by 2.6% from 1979 production, 1980 was the 15th year that production exceeded 1 trillion cu ft. Despite declines in production, the valuation of oil and gas production has increased significantly with oil sales doubling from the previous year and gas sales increasing by $409 million because of higher prices. Reserves have been estimated to be 959 million bbls of crude oil and 17.667 trillion cu ft of natural gas. Production of 19.5 million short tons of coal in 1980 represented a 33% increase over 1979 production and an increase of 157% since 1970. Coal resources in New Mexico are estimated to be 180.79 billion short tons, and production is projected to incease to 39.61 million tons in 1985 and 67.53 million tons in 1990. The most notable developments in geothermal energy have been in technical advances in drilling, testing, and applications, especially in the area of hot dry rock systems. The US Bureau of Land Management has issued 113 geothermal leases that remain active. Recent geothermal exploration activity has been detailed for 21 companies

  15. New Mexico's energy resources '81. Annual report of Bureau of Geology in the Mining and Minerals Division of New Mexico Energy and Minerals Department

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arnold, E.C.; Hill, J.M.

    1981-01-01

    Although production of U 3 O 8 declined only slightly in 1980, New Mexico's share of domestic production has declined from 48% in 1976 to 35% in 1980. Production projections indicate a continued decline in 1981 and lower production until at least 1984. New Mexico has 41% of total domestic reserves producible in the $50-per-lb cost category. In keeping with the anticipated steady depletion of reserves, production of crude oil in New Mexico was 69.9 million bbls, a 6.3% decline in production from 1979. Condensate production of 5.4 million bbls in 1980, however, represented an increase of 7% from 1979 production. Although natural gas production was the lowest since 1970 and declined by 2.6% from 1979 production, 1980 was the 15th year that production exceeded 1 trillion cu ft. Despite declines in production, the valuation of oil and gas production has increased significantly with oil sales doubling from the previous year and gas sales increasing by $409 million because of higher prices. Reserves have been estimated to be 959 million bbls of crude oil and 17.667 trillion cu ft of natural gas. Production of 19.5 million short tons of coal in 1980 represented a 33% increase over 1979 production and an increase of 157% since 1970. Coal resources in New Mexico are estimated to be 180.79 billion short tons, and production is projected to increase to 39.61 million tons in 1985 and 67.53 million tons in 1990. The most notable developments in geothermal energy have been in technical advances in drilling, testing, and applications, especially in the area of hot dry rock systems. The U.S. Bureau of Land Management has issued 113 geothermal leases that remain active. Recent geothermal exploration activity has been detailed for 21 companies

  16. Challenge theme 5: Current and future needs of energy and mineral resources in the Borderlands and the effects of their development: Chapter 7 in United States-Mexican Borderlands: Facing tomorrow's challenges through USGS science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Updike, Randall G.; Ellis, Eugene G.; Page, William R.; Parker, Melanie J.; Hestbeck, Jay B.; Horak, William F.

    2013-01-01

    Exploration and extraction activities related to energy and mineral resources in the Borderlands—such as coal-fired power plants, offshore drilling, and mining—can create issues that have potentially major economic and environmental implications. Resource assessments and development projects, environmental studies, and other related evaluations help to understand some of these issues, such as power plant emissions and the erosion/denudation of abandoned mine lands. Information from predictive modeling, monitoring, and environmental assessments are necessary to understand the full effects of energy and mineral exploration, development, and utilization. The exploitation of these resources can negatively affect human health and the environment, its natural resources, and its ecological services (air, water, soil, recreation, wildlife, etc.). This chapter describes the major energy and mineral issues of the Borderlands and how geologic frameworks, integrated interdisciplinary (geobiologic) investigations, and other related studies can address the anticipated increases in demands on natural resources in the region.

  17. Mineral commodity summaries 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    2015-01-01

    Each chapter of the 2015 edition of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Mineral Commodity Summaries (MCS) includes information on events, trends, and issues for each mineral commodity as well as discussions and tabular presentations on domestic industry structure, Government programs, tariffs, 5-year salient statistics, and world production and resources. The MCS is the earliest comprehensive source of 2014 mineral production data for the world. More than 90 individual minerals and materials are covered by two-page synopses.

  18. The Examining of Prospective Teachers? Views about Renewable and Non-Renewable Energy Sources: A Case Study of Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasiloglu, Mehmet Akif

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study is to determine prospective teachers? views about renewable and non-renewable energy sources. To collect data, a questionnaire with 5 open-ended questions was conveyed to 463 prospective teachers selected from Agri Ibrahim Cecen University. The results showed that almost three fourths of the prospective teachers tend to…

  19. Brazil Geological Basic Survey Program: special project of mineral resources, soils and vegetation maps for the region of Grande Carajas Program - Mineral resources sub project - Serra dos Carajas - Sheet SB.22-Z-A - Para State

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Araujo, O.J.B. de; Maia, R.G.N.

    1991-01-01

    The geologic landscape at Serra dos Carajas Sheet encloses portions of Southern Para granite-greenstone terrain, Itacaiunas and Araguaia Belts as well as Proterozoic litho-structural components. It shows medium magnetic relief and low radiometric levels due to meta mafic-ultramafic sequences and the high Na granitoids intrusions. The Proterozoic components are represented by a series of anorogenic granitic intrusions shown by distinctive aero gamaspectrometric anomalies. The well known metallogenetic characteristics includes gold, iron, manganese, nickel and aluminium mines and/or deposits and several mineral occurrences mainly chromium, tin, copper, and zinc. (author)

  20. Sustainable development for mineral and energy industries (from a legal pont of view)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frenz, W.

    2000-01-01

    The principle of sustainable development has become a central idea of environmental law. The idea has been around in legal discussion and political declarations for some time. Now, the principle has been legally fixated. This leads to serious consequences for the legal framework in which mineral and energy industries operate. The concept of sustainable development emerged towards the end of the 70s. It has been incorporated into political declarations, first of all, into the Brundtland report from 1987, later into the Rio Declaration on Environment and Development and into Agenda 21 from 1992. According to these documents the needs of future generations must be safeguarded. Furthermore, ecological, economic and social interests must be reconciled. Significantly, the principle could demand from mineral and energy industries to limit the extraction of non-renewable resources. This could imply new restrictions for the mining and energy industrial sector. The following presents ideas which have been developed in connection with Collaborative Research Center 525 'A Resource-Orientated Analysis of the Material Flow of Metallic Raw Materials'. 8 refs

  1. The transboundary non-renewable Nubian Aquifer System of Chad, Egypt, Libya and Sudan: classical groundwater questions and parsimonious hydrogeologic analysis and modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voss, Clifford I.; Soliman, Safaa M.

    2014-03-01

    Parsimonious groundwater modeling provides insight into hydrogeologic functioning of the Nubian Aquifer System (NAS), the world's largest non-renewable groundwater system (belonging to Chad, Egypt, Libya, and Sudan). Classical groundwater-resource issues exist (magnitude and lateral extent of drawdown near pumping centers) with joint international management questions regarding transboundary drawdown. Much of NAS is thick, containing a large volume of high-quality groundwater, but receives insignificant recharge, so water-resource availability is time-limited. Informative aquifer data are lacking regarding large-scale response, providing only local-scale information near pumps. Proxy data provide primary underpinning for understanding regional response: Holocene water-table decline from the previous pluvial period, after thousands of years, results in current oasis/sabkha locations where the water table still intersects the ground. Depletion is found to be controlled by two regional parameters, hydraulic diffusivity and vertical anisotropy of permeability. Secondary data that provide insight are drawdowns near pumps and isotope-groundwater ages (million-year-old groundwaters in Egypt). The resultant strong simply structured three-dimensional model representation captures the essence of NAS regional groundwater-flow behavior. Model forecasts inform resource management that transboundary drawdown will likely be minimal—a nonissue—whereas drawdown within pumping centers may become excessive, requiring alternative extraction schemes; correspondingly, significant water-table drawdown may occur in pumping centers co-located with oases, causing oasis loss and environmental impacts.

  2. 76 FR 26753 - Grant Program To Assess, Evaluate and Promote Development of Tribal Energy and Mineral Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-09

    ..., Solar): Winter Jojola-Talburt, Tel: (720) 407-0668, e-mail: [email protected] . Geothermal..., coal, uranium, and coal bed gas) and renewable energy resources (such as wind, solar, biomass, hydro... search for preexisting data to ensure there is no duplication. If older data does exist, it may still...

  3. 76 FR 78684 - Grant Program To Assess, Evaluate and Promote Development of Tribal Energy and Mineral Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-19

    ...: [email protected] ; Renewable Energy Projects (Biomass, Wind, Solar): Winter Jojola-Talburt, Tel: (720..., gas, coal, uranium, and coal bed gas) and renewable energy resources (such as wind, solar, biomass... search for preexisting data to ensure there is no duplication. If older data does exist, it may still...

  4. Thermal and mineral resource exploitation in Angaco department, province of San Juan, Argentina, as therapeutic and recreational resort area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herrera, M.; Martinez Iillanes, S.; Luccato, M; Herrera, C.

    2007-01-01

    In this paper the development of the Guayaupa thermal and mineral spring water intended as therapeutic and recreational resort area is presented. This area is located on the western piedmont of the Pie de Palo range, Department of Angaco, province of San Juan. From the analysis of the information related to geological, hydrogeological, hydrochemical, location, accessibility and climate aspects and also to the processing of the Landsat Tms satellite images to evaluate the geomorphologic and flora features an ordered diagnosis of the organization internal reality and its relation with the environment (FODA analysis) is presented. Internal strengths and weaknesses and the external factors that generate both opportunities and/or hazards were identified to define strategy guidelines that meet the legal and environmental standards in force. Results obtained from the strategic planning process conclude the availability and convenience of the project.(author)

  5. Uncertainty propagation in life cycle assessment of biodiesel versus diesel: global warming and non-renewable energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Jinglan

    2012-06-01

    Uncertainty information is essential for the proper use of life cycle assessment and environmental assessments in decision making. To investigate the uncertainties of biodiesel and determine the level of confidence in the assertion that biodiesel is more environmentally friendly than diesel, an explicit analytical approach based on the Taylor series expansion for lognormal distribution was applied in the present study. A biodiesel case study demonstrates the probability that biodiesel has a lower global warming and non-renewable energy score than diesel, that is 92.3% and 93.1%, respectively. The results indicate the level of confidence in the assertion that biodiesel is more environmentally friendly than diesel based on the global warming and non-renewable energy scores. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Analysis of renewable and nonrenewable energy consumption, real GDP and CO2 emissions: A structural VAR approach in Romania

    OpenAIRE

    Shahbaz, Muhammad; Zeshan, Muhammad; Tiwari, Aviral Kumar

    2011-01-01

    Impulse responses of our structural VAR portray a positive correlation between the real GDP of Romania and energy consumption. The present study employs the annual data covering the period 1980-2008, and brings to light the factors playing important role in satisfying the energy requirements, its economic and social implications. Any short-run rise in energy requirements is contented with the help of nonrenewable energy consumption, for renewable energy is not so common in Romania. In additio...

  7. The Environmental Kuznets Curve: The Role of Renewable and Non-Renewable Energy Consumption and Trade Openness

    OpenAIRE

    Ben Jebli, Mehdi; Ben Youssef, Slim; Ozturk, Ilhan

    2013-01-01

    We use panel cointegration techniques to investigate the causal relationship between CO2 emissions, renewable and non-renewable energy consumption, and trade openness in three different models for a panel of twenty five OECD countries over the period 1980-2009. Also the validity of the Environmental Kuznets Curve (EKC) hypothesis has been tested for these countries. Short-run Granger causality tests show the existence of a unidirectional causality running from the square of per capita output ...

  8. Non-renewable and renewable energy consumption and CO2 emissions in OECD countries: A comparative analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shafiei, Sahar; Salim, Ruhul A.

    2014-01-01

    This paper attempts to explore the determinants of CO 2 emissions using the STIRPAT model and data from 1980 to 2011 for OECD countries. The empirical results show that non-renewable energy consumption increases CO 2 emissions, whereas renewable energy consumption decreases CO 2 emissions. Further, the results support the existence of an environmental Kuznets curve between urbanisation and CO 2 emissions, implying that at higher levels of urbanisation, the environmental impact decreases. Therefore, the overall evidence suggests that policy makers should focus on urban planning as well as clean energy development to make substantial contributions to both reducing non-renewable energy use and mitigating climate change. - Highlights: • Examine the relationship between disaggregated energy consumption and CO 2 emission. • The STIRPAT econometric model is used for empirical analysis. • Investigate the popular environmental Kuznets curve (EKC) hypothesis between urbanisation and CO 2 emissions. • Non-renewable energy consumption increases CO 2 emissions whereas renewable energy consumption decreases CO 2 emissions. • There is evidence of the existence of an environmental Kuznets curve between urbanisation and CO 2 emissions

  9. Mineral Resource Assessment of Marine Sand Resources in Cape- and Ridge-Associated Marine Sand Deposits in Three Tracts, New York and New Jersey, United States Atlantic Continental Shelf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bliss, James D.; Williams, S. Jeffress; Arsenault, Matthew A.

    2009-01-01

    geographic, economic, preemptive use, environmental, geologic and political factors. In addition, offshore sand resources should only be considered if the area is seaward of the active zone of significant nearshore sediment transport, about 10 to 12 m in depth, and in sufficiently shallow water so that sand can be extracted within U.S. dredging equipment limits, currently about 40 m in depth. If the material is to be used for beach nourishment, material must be of an appropriate sediment texture and character (grain size, sorting, shape, and color) to match the native beach and have mineralogical properties important to its use. Extraction of sand can disturb or alter the benthic habitat and seafloor ecology, so these factors and other site-specific effects will need to be evaluated for any intended use. These and other factors are not considered in this report but can be expected to reduce the total net volume of sand resources available for production. The purpose of this report is to describe and present results from a probabilistic mineral modeling technique previously applied to onshore mineral resources. This modeling and assessment procedure is being used for the first time to assess and estimate offshore aggregate resources; this study is part of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Marine Aggregates Resources and Processes Project (http://woodshole.er.usgs.gov/project-pages/aggregates/).

  10. Metallogeny of Mesoproterozoic Sedimentary Rocks in Idaho and Montana - Studies by the Mineral Resources Program, U.S. Geological Survey, 2004-2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neill, J. Michael

    2007-01-01

    Preface By J.Michael O'Neill The major emphasis of this project was to extend and refine the known Mesoproterozoic geologic and metallogenic framework of the region along and adjacent to the Idaho-Montana boundary north of the Snake River Plain. The Mesoproterozoic metasedimentary rocks in this part of east-central Idaho host important Cu-Co-Au stratabound mineral resources as well as younger, epigenetic hydrothermal, sulfide base-metal mineral deposits. Two tasks of this study were to more accurately understand and portray the character and origin of cobalt-copper-gold deposits that compose the Idaho cobalt belt and specifically to analyze ore mineralogy and metallogenesis within the Blackbird mining district in the central part of the belt. Inasmuch as the cobalt belt is confined to the Mesoproterozoic Lemhi Group strata of east-central Idaho, geologic investigations were also undertaken to determine the relationship between strata of the Lemhi Group and the more extensive, noncobalt-bearing, Belt-Purcell Supergroup strata to the north and northwest. Abrupt lateral differences in the character and thickness of stratigraphic units in the Mesoproterozoic Lemhi Basin may indicate differential sedimentation in contemporaneous fault-bounded subbasins. It is suggested that northeast-trending basement faults of the Great Falls tectonic zone controlled development of the subbasins. O'Neill and others (chapter A, this volume) document a second major basement fault in this area, the newly recognized northwest-striking Great Divide megashear, a zone 1-2 km wide of left-lateral strike-slip faults active during Mesoproterozoic sedimentation and bounding the Cu-Co belt on the northwest. The megashear is a crustal-scale tectonic feature that separates Lemhi Group strata from roughly coeval Belt-Purcell strata to the north and northwest in Montana and northern Idaho. The results of numerous geologic investigations of the Cu- and Co-bearing Mesoproterozoic rocks of east

  11. Life-cycle global warming and non-renewable energy consumption impacts of ammonia fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Are, Kristian Ray Angelo; Razon, Luis; Tan, Raymond Girard

    2015-01-01

    The use of ammonia (NH 3 ) as transportation fuel had been a recent topics of research interest. NH 3 has fuel properties that are better than those of other alternative fuels, such as it high energy density and simpler storage. However, it has a low flame speed and would require to be mixed with a secondary fuel forming a dual fuel system. Moreover, current industrial methods of NH 3 production are major global warming potential (GWP) and non-renewable energy consumption (NREC) impact contributors. This study assessed the life-cycle GWP and NREC of using different NH 3 -secondary fuel mixtures. Four fuel mixtures were considered, wherein NH 3 is mixed with gasoline, diesel, hydrogen or dimethyl ether (DME). Also, our processes of NH 3 production were considered: steam reforming (SR), partial oxidation (PO), which are industrial methods and two biomass-based (alternative) processes wherein cereal straw (Salix) and cyanobacteria (Anabaena ATCC 33047) are used feedstocks. Contribution, sensitivity, and uncertainty analyses (via Monte Carlo simulation) were conducted for life-cycle interpretation. Dominance matrix tool was also employed to aid in drawing conclusions. The study concludes that the environmental impacts of NH 3 fuel are dependent on (i) NH 3 production methods and (ii) type of NH 3 fuel mixture. NH 3 -diesel fuel mixtures have lower GWP compared to pure diesel, while NH 3 -gasoline fuel mixture have higher GWP compared to pure gasoline. Because of large uncertainty of the NREC pure gasoline and pure diesel, no firm conclusion can be made about the NREC ammonia-diesel and ammonia-gasoline. If fuel mixture types are compared, NH 3 -H 2 mixtures have the lowest GWP and NREC among the four, though this would entail designing new engines. Over-all, it is shown that fuel systems involving biomass-based NH 3 have lower environmental impacts as compared to conventionally-produced NH 3 counterparts. (author)

  12. Generic Schemes for Single-Molecule Kinetics. 3: Self-Consistent Pathway Solutions for Nonrenewal Processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piephoff, D Evan; Cao, Jianshu

    2018-04-23

    We recently developed a pathway analysis framework (paper 1) for describing single-molecule kinetics for renewal (i.e., memoryless) processes based on the decomposition of a kinetic scheme into generic structures. In our approach, waiting time distribution functions corresponding to such structures are expressed in terms of self-consistent pathway solutions and concatenated to form measurable probability distribution functions (PDFs), affording a simple way to decompose and recombine a network. Here, we extend this framework to nonrenewal processes, which involve correlations between events, and employ it to formulate waiting time PDFs, including the first-passage time PDF, for a general kinetic network model. Our technique does not require the assumption of Poissonian kinetics, permitting a more general kinetic description than the usual rate approach, with minimal topological restrictiveness. To demonstrate the usefulness of this technique, we provide explicit calculations for our general model, which we adapt to two generic schemes for single-enzyme turnover with conformational interconversion. For each generic scheme, wherein the intermediate state(s) need not undergo Poissonian decay, the functional dependence of the mean first-passage time on the concentration of an external substrate is analyzed. When conformational detailed balance is satisfied, the enzyme turnover rate (related to the mean first-passage time) reduces to the celebrated Michaelis-Menten functional form, consistent with our previous work involving a similar scheme with all rate processes, thereby establishing further generality to this intriguing result. Our framework affords a general and intuitive approach for evaluating measurable waiting time PDFs and their moments, making it a potentially useful kinetic tool for a wide variety of single-molecule processes.

  13. Committee on renewable resources for industrial materials (Corrim)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert W. Meyer; Carol B. Ovens

    1976-01-01

    In recent years major emphasis has been placed on nonrenewable resources in relation to potential national problems that may arise from possible changes in materials supply or utilization. Renewable resources, however, have received disproportionately small attention in spite of their current importance as industrial raw materials and their potential for the future. In...

  14. USGS research on energy resources, 1986; program and abstracts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Lorna M.H.

    1986-01-01

    The extended abstracts in this volume are summaries of the papers presented orally and as posters in the second V. E. McKelvey Forum on Mineral and Energy Resources, entitled "USGS Research on Energy Resources-1986." The Forum has been established to improve communication between the USGS and the earth science community by presenting the results of current USGS research on nonrenewable resources in a timely fashion and by providing an opportunity for individuals from other organizations to meet informally with USGS scientists and managers. It is our hope that the McKelvey Forum will help to make USGS programs more responsive to the needs of the earth science community, particularly the mining and petroleum industries, and Win foster closer cooperation between organizations and individuals. The Forum was named after former Director Vincent E. McKelvey in recognition of his lifelong contributions to research, development, and administration in mineral and energy resources, as a scientist, as Chief Geologist, and as Director of the U.S. Geological Survey. The Forum will be an annual event, and its subject matter will alternate between mineral and energy resources. We expect that the format will change somewhat from year to year as various approaches are tried, but its primary purpose will remain the same: to encourage direct communication between USGS scientists and the representatives of other earth-science related organizations. Energy programs of the USGS include oil and gas, coal, geothermal, uranium-thorium, and oil shale; work in these programs spans the national domain, including surveys of the offshore Exclusive Economic Zone. The topics selected for presentation at this McKelvey Forum represent an overview of the scientific breadth of USGS research on energy resources. They include aspects of petroleum occurrence in Eastern United States rift basins, the origin of magnetic anomalies over oil fields, accreted terranes and energy-resource implications, coal

  15. Indochina area mineral prospects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-10-05

    Prospects for commercial mining of various minerals are considered for Kampuchea (Cambodia), Laos, Vietnam, Myanmar (Burma) and Thailand. Mineral production is much below its geologic potential for economic and political reasons. Resource potential is limited to tin, tungsten, lead and zinc, barytes and gemstones, and coal. 1 fig.

  16. 30 CFR 281.8 - Rights to minerals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Rights to minerals. 281.8 Section 281.8 Mineral Resources MINERALS MANAGEMENT SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE LEASING OF MINERALS OTHER THAN OIL, GAS, AND SULPHUR IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF General § 281.8 Rights to minerals. (a) Unless...

  17. Porphyry copper assessment of the Central Asian Orogenic Belt and eastern Tethysides: China, Mongolia, Russia, Pakistan, Kazakhstan, Tajikistan, and India: Chapter X in Global mineral resource assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mihalasky, Mark J.; Ludington, Stephen; Hammarstrom, Jane M.; Alexeiev, Dmitriy V.; Frost, Thomas P.; Light, Thomas D.; Robinson, Gilpin R.; Briggs, Deborah A.; Wallis, John C.; Miller, Robert J.; Bookstrom, Arthur A.; Panteleyev, Andre; Chitalin, Andre; Seltmann, Reimar; Guangsheng, Yan; Changyun, Lian; Jingwen, Mao; Jinyi, Li; Keyan, Xiao; Ruizhao, Qiu; Jianbao, Shao; Gangyi, Shai; Yuliang, Du

    2015-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey collaborated with international colleagues to assess undiscovered resources in porphyry copper deposits in the Central Asian Orogenic Belt and eastern Tethysides. These areas host 20 known porphyry copper deposits, including the world class Oyu Tolgoi deposit in Mongolia that was discovered in the late 1990s. The study area covers major parts of the world’s largest orogenic systems. The Central Asian Orogenic Belt is a collage of amalgamated Precambrian through Mesozoic terranes that extends from the Ural Mountains in the west nearly to the Pacific Coast of Asia in the east and records the evolution and final closure of the Paleo-Asian Ocean in Permian time. The eastern Tethysides, the orogenic belt to the south of the Central Asian Orogenic Belt, records the evolution of another ancient ocean system, the Tethys Ocean. The evolution of these orogenic belts involved magmatism associated with a variety of geologic settings appropriate for formation of porphyry copper deposits, including subduction-related island arcs, continental arcs, and collisional and postconvergent settings. The original settings are difficult to trace because the arcs have been complexly deformed and dismembered by younger tectonic events. Twelve mineral resource assessment tracts were delineated to be permissive for the occurrence of porphyry copper deposits based on mapped and inferred subsurface distributions of igneous rocks of specific age ranges and compositions. These include (1) nine Paleozoic tracts in the Central Asian Orogenic Belt, which range in area from about 60,000 to 800,000 square kilometers (km2); (2) a complex area of about 400,000 km2 on the northern margin of the Tethysides, the Qinling-Dabie tract, which spans central China and areas to the west, encompassing Paleozoic through Triassic igneous rocks that formed in diverse settings; and (3) assemblages of late Paleozoic and Mesozoic rocks that define two other tracts in the Tethysides, the 100

  18. Evaluation of the environmental potential of the resources, soil, water, mineral and forests in the Cardique jurisdiction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Velasquez Monsalve, Elkin; Viana Rios, Ricardo; Perez Ceron, Rosalbina

    1999-01-01

    The general objective of the study is to obtain a global vision of the potential of the soils, of the water, of the forests, of the construction materials and of the recharge areas of aquifer, as well as of the existent forests in the territory understood inside the Cardique jurisdiction to scale 1:100.000 with base in the existent secondary information and a general revision of field. The potential of the soils was determined to produce cultivations and to characterize this resource like basic element in the ecosystems operation. The hydrological and climatologically characterization was elaborated. It was determined with base in properties like the primary and secondary porosity of the rocks, the areas with potential of recharge of the aquifers. They were characterized and they evaluated the present forests in the Cardique jurisdiction, and some aspects of the structure and flora composition and their relationship were known with some physiographic elements; finally the areas were determined with possibility of use of construction materials

  19. Prevalence of low bone mineral density among HIV patients on long-term suppressive antiretroviral therapy in resource limited setting of western India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dravid, Ameet; Kulkarni, Milind; Borkar, Amit; Dhande, Sachin

    2014-01-01

    Bone mineral density (BMD) assessment in HIV patients is sparsely done in resource limited settings. We conducted a cross-sectional study of BMD amongst HIV patients following up in our clinic from 1 June to 1 December 2013 by performing dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry scan (Lunar Prodigy Advanced DXA System, GE Healthcare) of lumbar spine and hip. Patients on long term (≥12 months), virologically suppressive antiretroviral therapy (ART) were included. Patients who were ART naïve were included as control population. Virologic failures were excluded. Low BMD was defined by WHO T-score criteria (normal: T score ≥-1;osteopenia: T score between -1 and -2.5 SD; osteoporosis: T score ≤-2.5 SD). Baseline risk factors associated with low BMD like age, low BMI, lipoatrophy, diabetes mellitus, current smoking, current alcohol intake, steroid exposure and menopause were recorded. ART-related factors associated with low BMD like ART duration, exposure to tenofovir and exposure to protease inhibitors (PI) were studied. A total of 536 patients (66% males, 496 ART experienced and 40 ART naïve) were included in this analysis. Median age was 42 years, mean BMI 23.35 kg/m(2) and median CD4 count 146 cells/mm(3). All ART experienced patients had plasma viral loadpatients in our cohort is a matter of deep concern due to its association with pathological fractures. Bone mineral loss was seen irrespective of ART used. Association of low BMD with low baseline CD4 count strengthens the case for early ART.

  20. The effect of natural resources on a sustainable development policy: The approach of non-sustainable externalities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schilling, Markus; Chiang Lichun

    2011-01-01

    The debate about the importance of non-renewable resources for economic development between optimists and pessimists shows that the extensive depletion of non-renewable resources, particularly oil, along with a higher level of consumption could have a significant impact on the economic development of future generations. Based on this debate, this paper proposes criteria under which the depletion of non-renewable resources would create excess costs for future generations. Therefore, this paper aims to answer the question 'What will be the impact of the depletion of non-renewable resources on sustainable economic development?' Accordingly, a sustainable development policy appears feasible by minimizing non-sustainable externalities which derive from future externalities that weigh the benefits from a previous employment of natural resources. The research based on qualitative analysis clarifies the reasons for and the extents of taking sustainability into account as well as points to difficulties of implementing policies to time the transition towards a sustainable economic development. Finally, the research shows the implications of this approach for environmental degradation, the depletion of non-renewable resources and energy production. - Research Highlights: →Economic development will more or less smoothly switch to the use of renewable substitutes. →The transition towards a sustainable use of resources may inherit costs for future generations. →Non-sustainable externalities show the future costs of excessive resource depletion. →The approach aims to take the long-term global effects of resource substitution into account.

  1. Raw material monitoring assists companies. German Mineral Resources Agency at BGR provides information on global developments in resource markets; Rohstoffmonitoring hilft Unternehmen. Die Deutsche Rohstoffagentur in der BGR informiert ueber weltweite Entwicklungen auf den Rohstoffmaerkten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2016-05-15

    Germany is dependent on imports for its metalliferous natural resources. Although prices have been declining significantly in recent months, numerous raw materials such as platinum, cobalt and rare earth elements continue to be exposed to price and supply risks. To ensure that German industry can respond better to this situation in their procurement activities, the German Mineral Resources Agency (DERA) at BGR has developed a raw material monitoring system on behalf of the German government. DERA experts have con figured a screening method for the early identification of possible procurement risks. This is the platform which enables German companies to gain the specific advice they require. All of the most important information on this issue is bundled within DERA 's internet portal (www.deutsche-rohstoffagentur.de). BGR also provides its expertise in other important fields with great societal relevance. BGR has been advising the national commission on ''Storage of High-level Radioactive Waste'' since 2014. Due to their comprehensive research activities in the field of radioactive waste disposal, BGR scientists are important technical experts to which the commission can turn to for geological information and advice.

  2. Quantitative Mineral Resource Assessment of Copper, Molybdenum, Gold, and Silver in Undiscovered Porphyry Copper Deposits in the Andes Mountains of South America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, Charles G.; Zappettini, Eduardo O.; Vivallo S., Waldo; Celada, Carlos Mario; Quispe, Jorge; Singer, Donald A.; Briskey, Joseph A.; Sutphin, David M.; Gajardo M., Mariano; Diaz, Alejandro; Portigliati, Carlos; Berger, Vladimir I.; Carrasco, Rodrigo; Schulz, Klaus J.

    2008-01-01

    Quantitative information on the general locations and amounts of undiscovered porphyry copper resources of the world is important to exploration managers, land-use and environmental planners, economists, and policy makers. This publication contains the results of probabilistic estimates of the amounts of copper (Cu), molybdenum (Mo), gold (Au), and silver (Ag) in undiscovered porphyry copper deposits in the Andes Mountains of South America. The methodology used to make these estimates is called the 'Three-Part Form'. It was developed to explicitly express estimates of undiscovered resources and associated uncertainty in a form that allows economic analysis and is useful to decisionmakers. The three-part form of assessment includes: (1) delineation of tracts of land where the geology is permissive for porphyry copper deposits to form; (2) selection of grade and tonnage models appropriate for estimating grades and tonnages of the undiscovered porphyry copper deposits in each tract; and (3) estimation of the number of undiscovered porphyry copper deposits in each tract consistent with the grade and tonnage model. A Monte Carlo simulation computer program (EMINERS) was used to combine the probability distributions of the estimated number of undiscovered deposits, the grades, and the tonnages of the selected model to obtain the probability distributions for undiscovered metals in each tract. These distributions of grades and tonnages then can be used to conduct economic evaluations of undiscovered resources in a format usable by decisionmakers. Economic evaluations are not part of this report. The results of this assessment are presented in two principal parts. The first part identifies 26 regional tracts of land where the geology is permissive for the occurrence of undiscovered porphyry copper deposits of Phanerozoic age to a depth of 1 km below the Earth's surface. These tracts are believed to contain most of South America's undiscovered resources of copper. The

  3. Environmental aspects of ethanol derived from no-tilled corn grain: nonrenewable energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Seungdo; Dale, Bruce E.

    2005-01-01

    Nonrenewable energy consumption and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions associated with ethanol (a liquid fuel) derived from corn grain produced in selected counties in Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Michigan, Minnesota, Ohio, and Wisconsin are presented. Corn is cultivated under no-tillage practice (without plowing). The system boundaries include corn production, ethanol production, and the end use of ethanol as a fuel in a midsize passenger car. The environmental burdens in multi-output biorefinery processes (e.g., corn dry milling and wet milling) are allocated to the ethanol product and its various coproducts by the system expansion allocation approach. The nonrenewable energy requirement for producing 1 kg of ethanol is approximately 13.4-21.5 MJ (based on lower heating value), depending on corn milling technologies employed. Thus, the net energy value of ethanol is positive; the energy consumed in ethanol production is less than the energy content of the ethanol (26.8 MJ kg -1 ). In the GHG emissions analysis, nitrous oxide (N 2 O) emissions from soil and soil organic carbon levels under corn cultivation in each county are estimated by the DAYCENT model. Carbon sequestration rates range from 377 to 681 kg C ha -1 year -1 and N 2 O emissions from soil are 0.5-2.8 kg N ha -1 year -1 under no-till conditions. The GHG emissions assigned to 1 kg of ethanol are 260-922 g CO 2 eq. under no-tillage. Using ethanol (E85) fuel in a midsize passenger vehicle can reduce GHG emissions by 41-61% km -1 driven, compared to gasoline-fueled vehicles. Using ethanol as a vehicle fuel, therefore, has the potential to reduce nonrenewable energy consumption and GHG emissions

  4. Renewable and non-renewable exergy costs and CO2 emissions in the production of fuels for Brazilian transportation sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flórez-Orrego, Daniel; Silva, Julio A.M. da; Velásquez, Héctor; Oliveira, Silvio de

    2015-01-01

    An exergy and environmental comparison between the fuel production routes for Brazilian transportation sector, including fossil fuels (natural gas, oil-derived products and hydrogen), biofuels (ethanol and biodiesel) and electricity is performed, and the percentage distribution of exergy destruction in the different units of the processing plants is characterized. An exergoeconomy methodology is developed and applied to properly allocate the renewable and non-renewable exergy costs and CO 2 emission cost among the different products of multiproduct plants. Since Brazilian electricity is consumed in the upstream processing stages of the fuels used in the generation thereof, an iterative calculation is used. The electricity mix comprises thermal (coal, natural gas and oil-fired), nuclear, wind and hydroelectric power plants, as well as bagasse-fired mills, which, besides exporting surplus electricity, also produce sugar and bioethanol. Oil and natural gas-derived fuels production and biodiesel fatty acid methyl-esters (FAME) derived from palm oil are also analyzed. It was found that in spite of the highest total unit exergy costs correspond to the production of biofuels and electricity, the ratio between the renewable to non-renewable invested exergy (cR/cNR) for those fuels is 2.69 for biodiesel, 4.39 for electricity, and 15.96 for ethanol, whereas for fossil fuels is almost negligible. - Highlights: • Total and non-renewable exergy costs of Brazilian transportation fuels are evaluated. • Specific CO 2 emissions in the production of Brazilian transportation fuels are determined. • Representative production routes for fossil fuels, biofuels and electricity are reviewed. • Exergoeconomy is used to distribute costs and emissions in multiproduct processes

  5. Antagonistic perception of a rock-mass as geomorphosite and/or mineral resource with specific concern of natural stone for heritage conservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prikryl, Richard

    2016-04-01

    Prior to industrial era, the quarrying of natural stone was primarily local (the stone has been used very close to its extraction in most of the cases), small scale, occasional (the stone has been extracted only when needed for specific construction, permanent operations were much rarer than nowadays) but long-term (the quarrying activity at one site persisted over centuries very often). The landscape affected by such quarrying (as we can observe it at present) gained numerous new values (e.g., increased morphological contrast, succession of wildlife habitat, etc.) that are often appreciated more than the presence of valuable mineral resource - natural stone. If these site were claimed natural monuments or gained another type of environmental protection, any further extraction of natural stone is prohibited. However, if the specific site was used for extraction of natural stone that has been used for construction which later became cultural heritage object, the antagonistic perception of the site might appear - the site might be protected as a geomorphosite but, at the same time, it can be a source of unique natural stone required for the restoration of cultural heritage objects. This paper, along with above mentioned basic relationships, provides some real examples connected with the difficulties to find the extractable source of natural stone for restoration of iconic cultural heritage objects - specifically search for sources of Carboniferous arkoses to be used for replacement of the decayed ashlars at the Gothic Charles Bridge in Prague (Czech Republic).

  6. Automation for mineral resource development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Norrie, A.W.; Turner, D.R. (eds.)

    1986-01-01

    A total of 55 papers were presented at the symposium under the following headings: automation and the future of mining; modelling and control of mining processes; transportation for mining; automation and the future of metallurgical processes; modelling and control of metallurgical processes; and general aspects. Fifteen papers have been abstracted separately.

  7. Coastal geomorphology and mineral resources

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Paropkari, A.L.

    stream_size 10 stream_content_type text/plain stream_name Trg_Course_Coast_Zone_Manage_1993_9.pdf.txt stream_source_info Trg_Course_Coast_Zone_Manage_1993_9.pdf.txt Content-Encoding ISO-8859-1 Content-Type text/plain; charset...

  8. Mineral resources potential of Antarctica

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Splettstoesser, John F; Dreschhoff, Gisela A. M

    1990-01-01

    .... This volume includes not only papers that are the culmination of many years of research conducted in Antarctica by leading scientists, but also additional studies from the United States, Australia...

  9. Environmental considerations related to mining of nonfuel minerals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seal, Robert R.; Piatak, Nadine M.; Kimball, Bryn E.; Hammarstrom, Jane M.; Schulz, Klaus J.; DeYoung,, John H.; Seal, Robert R.; Bradley, Dwight C.

    2017-12-19

    Throughout most of human history, environmental stewardship during mining has not been a priority partly because of the lack of applicable laws and regulations and partly because of ignorance about the effects that mining can have on the environment. In the United States, the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969, in conjunction with related laws, codified a more modern approach to mining, including the responsibility for environmental stewardship, and provided a framework for incorporating environmental protection into mine planning. Today, similar frameworks are in place in the other developed countries of the world, and international mining companies generally follow similar procedures wherever they work in the world. The regulatory guidance has fostered an international effort among all stakeholders to identify best practices for environmental stewardship.The modern approach to mining using best practices involves the following: (a) establishment of a pre-mining baseline from which to monitor environmental effects during mining and help establish geologically reasonable closure goals; (b) identification of environmental risks related to mining through standardized approaches; and (c) formulation of an environmental closure plan before the start of mining. A key aspect of identifying the environmental risks and mitigating those risks is understanding how the risks vary from one deposit type to another—a concept that forms the basis for geoenvironmental mineral-deposit models.Accompanying the quest for best practices is the goal of making mining sustainable into the future. Sustainable mine development is generally considered to be development that meets the needs of the present generation without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs. The concept extends beyond the availability of nonrenewable mineral commodities and includes the environmental and social effects of mine development.Global population growth, meanwhile, has

  10. Determinants of CO2 emissions in the MERCOSUR: the role of economic growth, and renewable and non-renewable energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza, Emerson Santana; Freire, Fátima de Souza; Pires, Josimar

    2018-05-13

    The main objective of this study was to analyze the impact of energy consumption (divided into renewable and non-renewable sources) and income on CO 2 emissions within the environmental Kuznets curve (EKC) model for the Southern Common Market (MERCOSUR). To do so, the annual panel data collected during the 1990-2014 periods was used. The CO 2 variable, representing carbon dioxide emissions in metric tons per capita, was used as a proxy for the emission of pollutants. The annual data were obtained from the World Bank (World Development Indicators). The sample consisted of the five MERCOSUR member countries: Argentina, Brazil, Paraguay, Uruguay, and Venezuela, comprising a period of 25 consecutive years. The results showed that energy consumption from renewable sources had a negative impact on CO 2 emissions, while the energy consumption from non-renewable sources had a positive impact. The positive impact of economic development on CO 2 emissions was also seen. In addition, this study supports the validity of the EKC hypothesis for the MERCOSUR because GDP (real output) leads to environmental degradation while GDP 2 reduces the level of gas emissions.

  11. Nonrenewable Energy Cost and Greenhouse Gas Emissions of a “Pig-Biogas-Fish” System in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qing Yang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to assess the energy savings and emission reductions of the present rural biogas system in China. The life cycle assessment (LCA method is used to analyze a “pig-biogas-fish” system in Jingzhou, Hubei Province, China. The nonrenewable energy cost and the greenhouse gas (GHG emissions of the system, including the pigsty, the biogas digester, and the fishpond, are taken into account. The border definition is standardized because of the utilization of the database in this paper. The results indicate that the nonrenewable energy consumption intensity of the “pig-biogas-fish” system is 0.60 MJ/MJ and the equivalent CO2 emission intensity is 0.05 kg CO2-eq/MJ. Compared with the conventional animal husbandry system, the “pig-biogas-fish” system shows high renewability and GHG reduction benefit, which indicates that the system is a scientific and environmentally friendly chain combining energy and ecology.

  12. Factors that May Lead on the Non-renewal of Certified Organic Product According to Organic Producers in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andréa Rossi Scalco

    Full Text Available Abstract: The regulatory process of the organic sector in Brazil began in 1999 and has gone through several changes, culminating in the Decree-Law of December 2007, which established rules for the production and trading of organic products in Brazil. In such Decree, the certification has become a compulsory requirement for production and trading of such products, whose rules governing their obtaining follow rigorous controls standards. As the certification process of organic products is recent and there is a lack of studies carried on this subject, this study will contribute to fill the existing gap in the international literature, mainly national about this topic, once that aimed to identify factors that influence the possibility of non-renewal of organic production certificate, according to the perception of certified producers in Brazil. Through this effort, this research should contribute to wider adherence and maintenance of the producer in the certified system or, at least, proposals for further works. A total of 200 producers from several Brazilian states participated in this study, and data analysis was performed using descriptive statistics and, later, exploratory factor analysis. The results achieved holds that the determining factors to the non-renewal of the certificate involve variables related to transactions among operators, organization of the supply chain and to the regulations. Furthermore, to overcome the challenges imposed to rural producers, one of the proposals is for greater effective actions from representative industry entities of the sector in aspects that are related to the certification process.

  13. The land of black gold, corruption, poverty and sabotage: Overcoming the Niger Delta’s problems through the establishment of a Nigerian Non-Renewable Revenue Special Fund (NNRSF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian Gonzalez

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Through statistics published by the Shell Petroleum Development Company (SPDC, the paper explores why oilfield sabotage from 2009 to 2015 remains a problem in the Niger Delta, despite the 2009 amnesty programme. It explains why some of these incidents are a direct result of the failure to implement socio-economic development in successive state agencies due to corruption, a consequence of the natural resource curse. The article then explores why and how a Nigerian Non-Renewable Revenue Special Fund overseen by the United Nations Development Programme should be established which would not only manage a portion of oil revenue funds from the Niger Delta but also initiate valid social and economic projects in order to help reduce the prevalence of sabotage and instability in the region.

  14. 30 CFR 256.80 - Leases of other minerals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Leases of other minerals. 256.80 Section 256.80 Mineral Resources MINERALS MANAGEMENT SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE LEASING OF SULPHUR OR OIL AND GAS IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF Section 6 Leases § 256.80 Leases of other minerals. The...

  15. In the beginning was the rock. The history of the West - a run for mineral resources. Am Anfang war der Stein. Die Geschichte des Abendlandes - ein Wettlauf um die Bodenschaetze

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maser, W.

    1984-01-01

    The author follows the trace of man and his relationships to mineral resources through the cultural history known: From the first evidence of working and use of rock by man, over copper and iron, then gold and silver, to zinc and lead. The book points out how all sectors of human life received important stimuli from mineral resources. It encompasses a huge section of history, reaching from Mesopotamia as the cradle of culture to the historically relevant events in the central European countries, and describing primitive mining in Anatolia between 8000 and 5000 B.C. as well as the extraction of minerals and their processing in the 20th century. Thus the reader comes to know astonishing facts and details relating to the working conditions for instance of Egyptian and Greek slaves, the mines of Solomon, the first strike in antiquity, the art and social position of smiths since antiquity, and the economic situation of miners and foundry workers. The chapter on medieval mining is restricted to individual aspects of mining in Germany. Mining in modern times is only marginally deals with. The scientific results of the last 20 years are not taken into account. (MOS).

  16. From "farm to fork" strawberry system: current realities and potential innovative scenarios from life cycle assessment of non-renewable energy use and green house gas emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girgenti, Vincenzo; Peano, Cristiana; Baudino, Claudio; Tecco, Nadia

    2014-03-01

    In this study, we analysed the environmental profile of the strawberry industry in Northern Italy. The analysis was conducted using two scenarios as reference systems: strawberry crops grown in unheated plastic tunnels using currently existing cultivation techniques, post-harvest management practices and consumption patterns (scenario 1) and the same strawberry cultivation chain in which some of the materials used were replaced with bio-based materials (scenario 2). In numerous studies, biodegradable polymers have been shown to be environmentally friendly, thus potentially reducing environmental impacts. These materials can be recycled into carbon dioxide and water through composting. Many materials, such as Mater-BI® and PLA®, are also derived from renewable resources. The methodology chosen for the environmental analysis was a life cycle assessment (LCA) based on a consequential approach developed to assess a product's overall environmental impact from the production system to its usage and disposal. In the field stage, a traditional mulching film (non-biodegradable) could be replaced with a biodegradable product. This change would result in waste production of 0 kg/ha for the bio-based product compared to 260 kg/ha of waste for polyethylene (PE). In the post-harvest stage, the issue addressed was the use and disposal of packaging materials. The innovative scenario evaluated herein pertains to the use of new packaging materials that increase the shelf life of strawberries, thereby decreasing product losses while increasing waste management efficiency at the level of a distribution platform and/or sales outlet. In the event of product deterioration or non-sale of the product, the packaging and its contents could be collected together as organic waste without any additional processes because the packaging is compostable according to EN13432. Scenario 2 would achieve reductions of 20% in the global warming potential and non-renewable energy impact categories

  17. Minerals industry survey 1987

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1987-01-01

    This is the eleventh Minerals Industry Survey produced by the Australian Mining Industry Council. It represents an invaluable time series on the minerals industry's financial performance, as well as an up to date description of the industry for the latest financial year. The survey has been conceived as a supplement to and expansion of the various Australian Bureau of Statistics and Bureau of Mineral Resources, Geology and Geophysics publications which describe the exploration, mining and smelting and refining industries in Australia. The tables in this survey have been prepared by Coopers and Lybrand, Chartered Accountants, based on information supplied to them in confidence by the respondent companies.

  18. Miners' welfare

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buckley, C

    1984-06-13

    The Miners' Welfare Committee (MWC) was formed in Britain in 1921 and initiated building programmes to provide welfare amenities for miners and families, using architecture to improve the quality of a miner's working and leisure time. The article reviews the MWC's work, and assesses the design and architecture at the Selby Coalfield. (7 refs.)

  19. Mineral resource potential map of the Vermilion Cliffs-Paria Canyon instant study area, Coconino County, Arizona, and Kane County, Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bush, Alfred L.; Lane, Michael

    1982-01-01

    In general, the mineral potential of the study area is low; in the past the area has yielded only several hundred tons of uranium ore, and there have been a number of unsuccessful efforts to produce gold.

  20. Mineral commodity summaries 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    2013-01-01

    Each chapter of the 2013 edition of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Mineral Commodity Summaries (MCS) includes information on events, trends, and issues for each mineral commodity as well as discussions and tabular presentations on domestic industry structure, Government programs, tariffs, 5-year salient statistics, and world production and resources. The MCS is the earliest comprehensive source of 2012 mineral production data for the world. More than 90 individual minerals and materials are covered by two-page synopses. For mineral commodities for which there is a Government stockpile, detailed information concerning the stockpile status is included in the two-page synopsis. Abbreviations and units of measure, and definitions of selected terms used in the report, are in Appendix A and Appendix B, respectively. “Appendix C—Reserves and Resources” includes “Part A—Resource/Reserve Classification for Minerals” and “Part B—Sources of Reserves Data.” A directory of USGS minerals information country specialists and their responsibilities is Appendix D. The USGS continually strives to improve the value of its publications to users. Constructive comments and suggestions by readers of the MCS 2013 are welcomed.

  1. Mineral commodity summaries 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    2014-01-01

    Each chapter of the 2014 edition of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Mineral Commodity Summaries (MCS) includes information on events, trends, and issues for each mineral commodity as well as discussions and tabular presentations on domestic industry structure, Government programs, tariffs, 5-year salient statistics, and world production and resources. The MCS is the earliest comprehensive source of 2013 mineral production data for the world. More than 90 individual minerals and materials are covered by two-page synopses. For mineral commodities for which there is a Government stockpile, detailed information concerning the stockpile status is included in the two-page synopsis. Abbreviations and units of measure, and definitions of selected terms used in the report, are in Appendix A and Appendix B, respectively. “Appendix C—Reserves and Resources” includes “Part A—Resource/Reserve Classification for Minerals” and “Part B—Sources of Reserves Data.” A directory of USGS minerals information country specialists and their responsibilities is Appendix D. The USGS continually strives to improve the value of its publications to users. Constructive comments and suggestions by readers of the MCS 2014 are welcomed.

  2. Airborne Geophysical/Geological Mineral Inventory CIP Program

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1999-01-01

    The Airborne-Geophysical/Geological Mineral Inventory project is a special multi-year investment to expand the knowledge base of Alaska's mineral resources and catalyze private-sector mineral development...

  3. Mineral Commodity Summaries 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    2009-01-01

    Each chapter of the 2009 edition of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Mineral Commodity Summaries (MCS) includes information on events, trends, and issues for each mineral commodity as well as discussions and tabular presentations on domestic industry structure, Government programs, tariffs, 5-year salient statistics, and world production and resources. The MCS is the earliest comprehensive source of 2008 mineral production data for the world. More than 90 individual minerals and materials are covered by two-page synopses. For mineral commodities for which there is a Government stockpile, detailed information concerning the stockpile status is included in the two-page synopsis. Because specific information concerning committed inventory was no longer available from the Defense Logistics Agency, National Defense Stockpile Center, that information, which was included in earlier Mineral Commodity Summaries publications, has been deleted from Mineral Commodity Summaries 2009. National reserves and reserve base information for most mineral commodities found in this report, including those for the United States, are derived from a variety of sources. The ideal source of such information would be comprehensive evaluations that apply the same criteria to deposits in different geographic areas and report the results by country. In the absence of such evaluations, national reserves and reserve base estimates compiled by countries for selected mineral commodities are a primary source of national reserves and reserve base information. Lacking national assessment information by governments, sources such as academic articles, company reports, common business practice, presentations by company representatives, and trade journal articles, or a combination of these, serve as the basis for national reserves and reserve base information reported in the mineral commodity sections of this publication. A national estimate may be assembled from the following: historically reported

  4. Resource use efficiency and renewability. Assessment of low-input agricultural production using eMergy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wright, Christina; Østergård, Hanne

    2014-01-01

    by reducing dependency on external input. We apply the emergy approach to evaluate resource use efficiency of twolow-input innovative farms while distinguishing between use of renewable and non-renewable resources aswell as local and global origin of resources. This study is a part of the SOLIBAM (www.......solibam.eu) projectfunded by the European commission under the Seventh Framework Programme.We apply an approach where we include efficiency in resource use to produce food energy joules soldwhile distinguishing between use of renewable and non-renewable resources as well as on-site, local andnon-local resources. Result...... shows that the large farm (75 ha) had an input of renewable resources of 32%while the small (6 ha) had a renewable fraction of 26%. The latter is based on assuming that the firewoodused is 50% renewable. If this percentage is increased to 100% then both farms have a renewable fractionof resource use...

  5. 30 CFR 702.16 - Stockpiling of minerals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Stockpiling of minerals. 702.16 Section 702.16 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR GENERAL EXEMPTION FOR COAL EXTRACTION INCIDENTAL TO THE EXTRACTION OF OTHER MINERALS § 702.16 Stockpiling of...

  6. Description of CRIB, the GIPSY retrieval mechanism, and the interface to the General Electric MARK III Service : CRIB, the mineral resources data bank of the U.S. Geological Survey--guide for public users, 1977

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calkins, James Alfred; Keefer, Eleanor K.; Ofsharick, Regina A.; Mason, George T.; Tracy, Patricia; Atkins, Mary

    1978-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey's Computerized Resources Information Bank (CRIB) is being made available for public use through the computer facilities of the University of Oklahoma and the General Electric Company, U.S.A. The use of General Electric's worldwide information-services network provides access to the CRIB file to a worldwide clientele. This manual, which consists of two chapters, is intended as a guide to users who wish to interrogate the file. Chapter A contains a description of the CRIB file, information on the use of the GIPSY retrieval system, and a description of the General Electric MARK III Service. Chapter B contains a description of the individual data items in the CRIB record as well as code lists. CRIB consists of a set of variable-length records on the metallic and nonmetallic mineral resources of the United States and other countries. At present, 31,645 records in the master file are being made available. The record contains information on mineral deposits and mineral commodities. Some topics covered are: deposit name, location, commodity information, description of deposit, geology, production, reserves, potential resources, and references. The data are processed by the GIPSY program, which maintains the data file and builds, updates, searches, and prints the records using simple yet versatile command statements. Searching and selecting records is accomplished by specifying the presence, absence, or content of any element of information in the record; these specifications can be logically linked to prepare sophisticated search strategies. Output is available in the form of the complete record, a listing of selected parts of the record, or fixed-field tabulations. The General Electric MARK III Service is a computerized information services network operating internationally by land lines, satellites, and undersea cables. The service is available by local telephone to 500 cities in North America, Western Europe, Australia, Southeast Asia, Japan

  7. 30 CFR 48.26 - Experienced miner training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... the physical and health hazards of chemicals in the miner's work area, the protective measures a miner... occurred during the miner's absence and that could adversely affect the miner's health or safety. (1) A... Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR EDUCATION AND TRAINING...

  8. Development of a multi-criteria assessment model for ranking of renewable and non-renewable transportation fuel vehicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Safaei Mohamadabadi, H.; Tichkowsky, G.; Kumar, A.

    2009-01-01

    Several factors, including economical, environmental, and social factors, are involved in selection of the best fuel-based vehicles for road transportation. This leads to a multi-criteria selection problem for multi-alternatives. In this study, a multi-criteria assessment model was developed to rank different road transportation fuel-based vehicles (both renewable and non-renewable) using a method called Preference Ranking Organization Method for Enrichment and Evaluations (PROMETHEE). This method combines qualitative and quantitative criteria to rank various alternatives. In this study, vehicles based on gasoline, gasoline-electric (hybrid), E85 ethanol, diesel, B100 biodiesel, and compressed natural gas (CNG) were considered as alternatives. These alternatives were ranked based on five criteria: vehicle cost, fuel cost, distance between refueling stations, number of vehicle options available to the consumer, and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions per unit distance traveled. In addition, sensitivity analyses were performed to study the impact of changes in various parameters on final ranking. Two base cases and several alternative scenarios were evaluated. In the base case scenario with higher weight on economical parameters, gasoline-based vehicle was ranked higher than other vehicles. In the base case scenario with higher weight on environmental parameters, hybrid vehicle was ranked first followed by biodiesel-based vehicle

  9. Development of a multi-criteria assessment model for ranking of renewable and non-renewable transportation fuel vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Safaei Mohamadabadi, H.; Tichkowsky, G.; Kumar, A. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta (Canada)

    2009-01-15

    Several factors, including economical, environmental, and social factors, are involved in selection of the best fuel-based vehicles for road transportation. This leads to a multi-criteria selection problem for multi-alternatives. In this study, a multi-criteria assessment model was developed to rank different road transportation fuel-based vehicles (both renewable and non-renewable) using a method called Preference Ranking Organization Method for Enrichment and Evaluations (PROMETHEE). This method combines qualitative and quantitative criteria to rank various alternatives. In this study, vehicles based on gasoline, gasoline-electric (hybrid), E85 ethanol, diesel, B100 biodiesel, and compressed natural gas (CNG) were considered as alternatives. These alternatives were ranked based on five criteria: vehicle cost, fuel cost, distance between refueling stations, number of vehicle options available to the consumer, and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions per unit distance traveled. In addition, sensitivity analyses were performed to study the impact of changes in various parameters on final ranking. Two base cases and several alternative scenarios were evaluated. In the base case scenario with higher weight on economical parameters, gasoline-based vehicle was ranked higher than other vehicles. In the base case scenario with higher weight on environmental parameters, hybrid vehicle was ranked first followed by biodiesel-based vehicle. (author)

  10. Birches against mineral oils. Lignin - a renewable resource for the alternative production of phenols; Birke contra Erdoel. Lignin - ein nachwachsender Rohstoff zur alternativen Gewinnung von Phenolen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zehnpfund, C.; Bormann, J.; Wehrkamp zu Hoene, F. [Gymnasium Bersenbrueck (Germany)

    1998-02-01

    We wanted to offer an alternative for the `After-mineral oil time` with our work when we attempted to isolate phenols, which are won up to now from mineral oil, of a growing raw material. Phenols are economic important substances for production of epoxies, herbicides, artificial resins, dyes and drugs (e.g. aspirin or Paracetamol). We managed to isolate phenols with normal conditions of lignin, a component of wood. (orig.) [Deutsch] Wir wollten mit unserer Arbeit eine Alternative fuer die `Nach-Erdoel-Zeit` bieten, indem wir versuchten, Phenole, die bisher aus Erdoel gewonnen werden, aus einem nachwachsenden Rohstoff zu isolieren. Phenole sind volkswirtschaftlich bedeutsame Substanzen zur Herstellung von Kunststoffen, Herbiziden, Kunstharzen, Farbstoffen und Arzneimitteln (z.B. Aspirin oder Paracetamol). Es gelang uns, Phenole unter Normalbedingungen aus Lignin, einem Bestandteil des Holzes, zu isolieren. (orig.)

  11. National Uranium Resource Evaluation. Groundwater prospecting for sandstone-type uranium deposits: the merits of mineral-solution equilibria versus single element tracer methods. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chatham, J.R.; Wanty, R.B.; Langmuir, D.

    1981-02-01

    Groundwaters from aquifers in two different sandstone-type uranium mining districts in Texas and Wyoming were collected and chemically analyzed. The data were used to compare the merits of using the computed saturation state of the groundwater with respect to uranium minerals, to that of single-element tracers in the groundwater for geochemical prospecting. Chemical properties of the Texas waters were influenced locally by preferred groundwater flow within buried fluvial channel deposits; upward leakage of brines along growth faults into the aquifer; and the establishment of a redox interface (Eh = 0 volts) within the aquifer. Chemical characteristics of aquifer waters in Wyoming changed gradually downdip, reflecting regional homogeneity in groundwater flow and a more gradual downdip reduction of Eh values than in Texas. The most reliable indicator of reduced uranium ore in both study sites was the saturation state of groundwater with respect to uraninite or coffinite. For both minerals, this saturation state increased from 15 to 20 log units as reduced ore deposits were approached over distances of 3 to 4.5 km in both sites. Tyuyamunite and carnotite approached or exceeded saturation in some oxidized waters of the Texas site reflecting possible occurrences of these minerals. The radiogenic elements Ta and Rn were excellent indicators of ore directly within the deposits, where anomalous values were 2 to 3 orders of magnitude above background. Helium also increased near the ore, although anomalies were generally displaced in the direction of groundwater flow. Uranium and uranium isotope values did not individually pinpoint ore, but may be used together to classify groundwater samples in terms of their position relative to uranium mineralization

  12. Renewable Substitutability Index: Maximizing Renewable Resource Use in Buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravi S. Srinivasan

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available In order to achieve a material and energy balance in buildings that is sustainable in the long run, there is an urgent need to assess the renewable and non-renewable resources used in the manufacturing process and to progressively replace non-renewable resources with renewables. Such progressive disinvestment in the non-renewable resources that may be substituted with renewable resources is referred to as “Renewable Substitutability” and if implemented, this process will lead to a paradigm shift in the way building materials are manufactured. This paper discusses the development of a Renewable Substitutability Index (RSI that is designed to maximize the use of renewable resources in a building and quantifies the substitution process using solar emergy (i.e., the solar equivalent joules required for any item. The RSI of a building or a building component, i.e., floor or wall systems, etc., is the ratio of the renewable resources used during construction, including replacement and maintenance, to the building’s maximum renewable emergy potential. RSI values range between 0 and 1.0. A higher RSI achieves a low-energy building strategy promoting a higher order of sustainability by optimizing the use of renewables over a building’s lifetime from formation-extraction-manufacturing to maintenance, operation, demolition, and recycle.

  13. Remote-sensing data processing with the multivariate regression analysis method for iron mineral resource potential mapping: a case study in the Sarvian area, central Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansouri, Edris; Feizi, Faranak; Jafari Rad, Alireza; Arian, Mehran

    2018-03-01

    This paper uses multivariate regression to create a mathematical model for iron skarn exploration in the Sarvian area, central Iran, using multivariate regression for mineral prospectivity mapping (MPM). The main target of this paper is to apply multivariate regression analysis (as an MPM method) to map iron outcrops in the northeastern part of the study area in order to discover new iron deposits in other parts of the study area. Two types of multivariate regression models using two linear equations were employed to discover new mineral deposits. This method is one of the reliable methods for processing satellite images. ASTER satellite images (14 bands) were used as unique independent variables (UIVs), and iron outcrops were mapped as dependent variables for MPM. According to the results of the probability value (p value), coefficient of determination value (R2) and adjusted determination coefficient (Radj2), the second regression model (which consistent of multiple UIVs) fitted better than other models. The accuracy of the model was confirmed by iron outcrops map and geological observation. Based on field observation, iron mineralization occurs at the contact of limestone and intrusive rocks (skarn type).

  14. Mineral exploration in Austria, possibilities and strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holzer, H.F.

    1981-01-01

    The author reviews the present situation in Austria for mineral exploration. He considers the geological chances of finding new resources, presents a short description of commodities and finally gives proposals for a natural resources inventory. (Auth.)

  15. 36 CFR 331.17 - Minerals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Minerals. 331.17 Section 331..., KENTUCKY AND INDIANA § 331.17 Minerals. All activities in connection with prospecting, exploration, development, mining or other removal or the processing of mineral resources and all uses reasonably incident...

  16. Sustainability in the UK construction minerals industry

    OpenAIRE

    Mitchell, Clive

    2015-01-01

    Sustainability in the UK construction minerals industry Clive Mitchell, Industrial Minerals Specialist, British Geological Survey, Nottingham, UK Email: Sustainability is not just about environmental protection it also concerns biodiversity, community relations, competence, employment, geodiversity, health and safety, resource efficiency, restoration and stakeholder accountability. The UK construction minerals industry aims to supply essential materials in a sustainabl...

  17. Does FDI influence renewable energy consumption? An analysis of sectoral FDI impact on renewable and non-renewable industrial energy consumption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doytch, Nadia; Narayan, Seema

    2016-01-01

    This study examines the link between foreign direct investment (FDI) and energy demand. FDI is a source of financing that allows businesses to grow. At the same time, FDI can be a source of innovation that promotes energy efficiency. Existing evidence on the impact of aggregate FDI inflows on energy consumption is scarce and inconclusive. In the current study, we disaggregate FDI inflows into mining, manufacturing, total services, and financial services components and examine the impact of these FDI flows on renewable – and non-renewable industrial energy – sources for 74 countries for the period 1985–2012. We employ a Blundell–Bond dynamic panel estimator to control for endogeneity and omitted variable biases in our panels. The results point broadly to an energy consumption-reducing effect with respect to non-renewable sources of energy and an energy consumption-augmenting effects with respect to renewable energy. We find that these effects vary in magnitude and significance by sectoral FDI. - Highlights: • FDI generally discourages the use of unclean energy. • Economic growth promotes non-renewable energy consumption. • Service FDI save energy and encourage the switch to renewable energy. • Mining FDI to low and lower middle-income panels save energy. • These results are mainly consistent with the FDI halo effect.

  18. The influence of renewable and non-renewable energy consumption and real income on CO2 emissions in the USA: evidence from structural break tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dogan, Eyup; Ozturk, Ilhan

    2017-04-01

    The objective of this study is to explore the influence of the real income (GDP), renewable energy consumption and non-renewable energy consumption on carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) emissions for the United States of America (USA) in the environmental Kuznets curve (EKC) model for the period 1980-2014. The Zivot-Andrews unit root test with a structural break and the Clemente-Montanes-Reyes unit root test with a structural break report that the analyzed variables become stationary at first-differences. The Gregory-Hansen cointegration test with a structural break and the bounds testing for cointegration in the presence of a structural break show CO 2 emissions, the real income, the quadratic real income, renewable and non-renewable energy consumption are cointegrated. The long-run estimates obtained from the ARDL model indicate that increases in renewable energy consumption mitigate environmental degradation whereas increases in non-renewable energy consumption contribute to CO 2 emissions. In addition, the EKC hypothesis is not valid for the USA. Since we use time-series econometric approaches that account for structural break in the data, findings of this study are robust, reliable and accurate. The US government is advised to put more weights on renewable sources in energy mix, to support and encourage the use and adoption of renewable energy and clean technologies, and to increase the public awareness of renewable energy for lower levels of emissions.

  19. Tapping Into an Ancient Source. Isotope Hydrology Techniques to Help Manage Water Resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kidambi, Misha

    2011-01-01

    The Water Resources Program at the IAEA uses a powerful tool, isotope hydrology, that aids in coping with water scarcity. IAEA scientists are convinced that if we understand how to manage water efficiently, there will be sufficient renewable and non-renewable water sources for meet global needs

  20. Proceedings of XXIV international mineral processing congress

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang Dianzuo; Sun Chuan Yao; Wang Fu Liang; Zhang Li Cheng; Han Long (eds.)

    2008-07-01

    Topics covered in volume 1 include applied mineralogy, comminution, classification, physical separation, flotation chemistry, sulphide flotation, non-sulphide flotation and reagent in mineral industry. Volume 2 covers processing of complex ores, processing of industrial minerals and coal, solid liquid separation, dispersion and aggregation, process simulation, expert systems and control of mineral processing, biohydrometallurgy, and mineral chemical processing. Volume 3 contains powder technology, mineral materials, treatment and recycling for solid wastes, waste water treatment, secondary resource recovery, soil remediation, concentrator engineering and process design, and application of mineral processing in related industry. It includes a CD-ROM of the proceedings.

  1. Economic drivers of mineral supply

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Lorie A.; Sullivan, Daniel E.; Sznopek, John L.

    2003-01-01

    The debate over the adequacy of future supplies of mineral resources continues in light of the growing use of mineral-based materials in the United States. According to the U.S. Geological Survey, the quantity of new materials utilized each year has dramatically increased from 161 million tons2 in 1900 to 3.2 billion tons in 2000. Of all the materials used during the 20th century in the United States, more than half were used in the last 25 years. With the Earth?s endowment of natural resources remaining constant, and increased demand for resources, economic theory states that as depletion approaches, prices rise. This study shows that many economic drivers (conditions that create an economic incentive for producers to act in a particular way) such as the impact of globalization, technological improvements, productivity increases, and efficient materials usage are at work simultaneously to impact minerals markets and supply. As a result of these economic drivers, the historical price trend of mineral prices3 in constant dollars has declined as demand has risen. When price is measured by the cost in human effort, the price trend also has been almost steadily downward. Although the United States economy continues its increasing mineral consumption trend, the supply of minerals has been able to keep pace. This study shows that in general supply has grown faster than demand, causing a declining trend in mineral prices.

  2. The Global Resource Nexus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ridder, M. de; Duijne, F. van; Jong, S. de; Jones, J.; Luit, E. van; Bekkers, F.F.; Auping, W.

    2014-01-01

    Supply and demand of resources are connected in a complex way. This interconnectivity has been framed as the global resource nexus and can conceivebly include all types of resources. This study focus on the nexus of five essential natural resources: land, food, energy, water and minerals. Together

  3. Knowledge and Natural Resources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bertelsen, Rasmus Gjedssø; Justinussen, Jens Christian Svabo

    2016-01-01

    Arctic economies are generally natural resource based economies, whether they are indigenous economies largely dependent on living on the land or industrialized economies depending on marine resources, mineral resources or fossil or renewable energy resources. However, the central role of knowledge...

  4. The resource curse: Analysis of the applicability to the large-scale export of electricity from renewable resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eisgruber, Lasse

    2013-01-01

    The “resource curse” has been analyzed extensively in the context of non-renewable resources such as oil and gas. More recently commentators have expressed concerns that also renewable electricity exports can have adverse economic impacts on exporting countries. My paper analyzes to what extent the resource curse applies in the case of large-scale renewable electricity exports. I develop a “comprehensive model” that integrates previous works and provides a consolidated view of how non-renewable resource abundance impacts economic growth. Deploying this model I analyze through case studies on Laos, Mongolia, and the MENA region to what extent exporters of renewable electricity run into the danger of the resource curse. I find that renewable electricity exports avoid some disadvantages of non-renewable resource exports including (i) shocks after resource depletion; (ii) macroeconomic fluctuations; and (iii) competition for a fixed amount of resources. Nevertheless, renewable electricity exports bear some of the same risks as conventional resource exports including (i) crowding-out of the manufacturing sector; (ii) incentives for corruption; and (iii) reduced government accountability. I conclude with recommendations for managing such risks. - Highlights: ► Study analyzes whether the resource curse applies to renewable electricity export. ► I develop a “comprehensive model of the resource curse” and use cases for the analysis. ► Renewable electricity export avoids some disadvantages compared to other resources. ► Renewable electricity bears some of the same risks as conventional resources. ► Study concludes with recommendations for managing such risks

  5. Fumarolic minerals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balic Zunic, Tonci; Garavelli, Anna; Jakobsson, Sveinn Peter

    2016-01-01

    The fumarolic mineralogy of the Icelandic active volcanoes, the Tyrrhenian volcanic belt (Italy) and the Aegean active arc (Greece) is investigated, and literature data surveyed in order to define the characteristics of the European fumarolic systems. They show broad diversity of mineral...... associations, with Vesuvius and Vulcano being also among the world localities richest in mineral species. Volcanic systems, which show recession over a longer period, show fumarolic development from the hightemperature alkaline halide/sulphate, calcic sulphate or sulphidic parageneses, synchronous...... with or immediately following the eruptions, through mediumtemperature ammonium minerals, metal chlorides, or fluoride associations to the late low-temperature paragenesis dominated by sulphur, gypsum, alunogen, and other hydrous sulphates. The situation can be different in the systems that are not recessing but show...

  6. Evaluation of the environmental potential of the resources, soil, water, mineral and forests in the Cardique jurisdiction; Evaluacion del potencial ambiental de los recursos, suelo, agua, mineral y bosques en el territorio de jurisdiccion de Cardique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Velasquez Monsalve, Elkin; Viana Rios, Ricardo; Perez Ceron, Rosalbina [and others

    1999-07-01

    The general objective of the study is to obtain a global vision of the potential of the soils, of the water, of the forests, of the construction materials and of the recharge areas of aquifer, as well as of the existent forests in the territory understood inside the Cardique jurisdiction to scale 1:100.000 with base in the existent secondary information and a general revision of field. The potential of the soils was determined to produce cultivations and to characterize this resource like basic element in the ecosystems operation. The hydrological and climatologically characterization was elaborated. It was determined with base in properties like the primary and secondary porosity of the rocks, the areas with potential of recharge of the aquifers. They were characterized and they evaluated the present forests in the Cardique jurisdiction, and some aspects of the structure and flora composition and their relationship were known with some physiographic elements; finally the areas were determined with possibility of use of construction materials.

  7. Mineral sands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1990-01-01

    This paper presents an outlook of the Australian mineral sand industry and covers the major operators. It is shown that conscious of an environmentally minded public, the Australian miners have led the way in the rehabilitation of mined areas. Moreover the advanced ceramic industry is generating exciting new perspectives for zircon producers and there is a noticeable growth in the electronic market for rare earths, but in long term the success may depend as much on environmental management and communication skills as on mining and processing skills

  8. 30 CFR 201.100 - Responsibilities of the Associate Director for Minerals Revenue Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Responsibilities of the Associate Director for Minerals Revenue Management. 201.100 Section 201.100 Mineral Resources MINERALS MANAGEMENT SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS REVENUE MANAGEMENT GENERAL Oil and Gas, Onshore § 201.100...

  9. Resource revenues report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    Preliminary forecasts of resource revenues that may be forthcoming with the lifting of the moratorium on the west coast of British Columbia were presented. The forecasts are based on the development scenarios of one natural gas project in the Hecate Strait, and one oil project in the Queen Charlotte Sound. Both projects were assessed in an effort to demonstrate some of the potential resource revenues and public benefits that may be possible from offshore development in the province. Resource revenues provide the return-on-investments to the resource developer and public benefits in the form of taxes, royalties, lease payments and related fees to all levels of governments. Much of the revenues generated from the British Columbia offshore oil and gas development will accrue as income taxes. A public energy trust offers a way to transform non-renewable resource revenues into a renewable source of wealth for citizens of the province. The report presents estimates of project investment, pipeline capacity limitation, operating costs for offshore platforms, and earnings. It was estimated that about $2.0 billion in public benefits would be generated from combined project revenues of $6.9 billion. Information was obtained from offshore leaseholders as well as pipeline and engineering companies. refs., tabs., figs

  10. Study on application of radar technique to explore mineral resources. 1. Sample test in laboratory; Radar ho no kosho tansa eno tekiyosei kento. 1. Shitsunai shiryo shiken

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chiba, A; Okada, K [Sumitomo Metal Mining Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Arai, E [Metal Mining Agency of Japan, Tokyo (Japan); Noguchi, K; Fujiwara, K [Waseda University, Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-10-22

    Dielectric constants of ore body and mother rock specimens taken from an epithermal gold deposit were measured in the frequency band of radar technique. Applicability of the radar technique to mineral exploration has been investigated by comparing measured results and ore showing. This paper describes the results. Measured results of the dielectric constants are summarized as follows. The specific dielectric constant in the forced dry condition did not depend on specimens. The specific dielectric constant in the water saturated condition increased with increasing the porosity. The conductivity increased with increasing the specific dielectric constant. The specific dielectric constant and conductivity increased with increasing the water content. The specific dielectric constant did not depend on types of rocks. The specific dielectric constant decreased with increasing the frequency. Difference of the specific dielectric constant in the water saturated condition decreased with increasing the frequency. The radar technique was applied to blind deposits. Since they were often in the ground water saturated zones, it was considered that the reflection at the boundary was enhanced with increasing the difference of specific dielectric constant between ore body and mother rock compared with that in unsaturated zones. 8 refs., 8 figs., 3 tabs.

  11. Application of electronic learning tools for training of specialists in the field of information technologies for enterprises of mineral resources sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Е. В. Катунцов

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The article shows the advantages of using modern electronic learning tools in the training of specialists for the mineral and raw materials complex and considers the basic principles of organizing training using these tools. The experience of using electronic learning tools using foreign teaching materials and involving foreign professors is described. A special attention is given to the electronic learning environment of the Cisco Networking Academy – Cisco NetAcad. The experience of teaching at the Networking Academy of the Saint-Petersburg Mining University is described. Details are given to modern virtual environments for laboratory work, such as Cisco Packet Tracer, GNS3 and Emulated Virtual Environment. The experience of using electronic learning technologies at the University of Economics of Bratislava is considered. It actively cooperates with a number of universities of other countries, such as the University of International Business (Almaty, the Eurasian National University named after LN Gumilyov (Astana and the Institute of Social and Humanitarian Knowledge (Kazan.

  12. Oxygen Extraction from Minerals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muscatello, Tony

    2017-01-01

    Oxygen, whether used as part of rocket bipropellant or for astronaut life support, is a key consumable for space exploration and commercialization. In Situ Resource Utilization (ISRU) has been proposed many times as a method for making space exploration more cost effective and sustainable. On planetary and asteroid surfaces the presence of minerals in the regolith that contain oxygen is very common, making them a potential oxygen resource. The majority of research and development for oxygen extraction from minerals has been for lunar regolith although this work would generally be applicable to regolith at other locations in space. This presentation will briefly survey the major methods investigated for oxygen extraction from regolith with a focus on the current status of those methods and possible future development pathways. The major oxygen production methods are (1) extraction from lunar ilmenite (FeTiO3) with either hydrogen or carbon monoxide, (2) carbothermal reduction of iron oxides and silicates with methane, and (3) molten regolith electrolysis (MRE) of silicates. Methods (1) and (2) have also been investigated in a two-step process using CO reduction and carbon deposition followed by carbothermal reduction. All three processes have byproducts that could also be used as resources. Hydrogen or carbon monoxide reduction produce iron metal in small amounts that could potentially be used as construction material. Carbothermal reduction also makes iron metal along with silicon metal and a glass with possible applications. MRE produces iron, silicon, aluminum, titanium, and glass, with higher silicon yields than carbothermal reduction. On Mars and possibly on some moons and asteroids, water is present in the form of mineral hydrates, hydroxyl (-OH) groups on minerals, andor water adsorbed on mineral surfaces. Heating of the minerals can liberate the water which can be electrolyzed to provide a source of oxygen as well. The chemistry of these processes, some key

  13. Minerals, lands, and geology for the common defence and general welfare, Volume 3, 1904-1939 : A history of geology in relation to the development of public-land, federal-science, and mapping policies and the development of mineral resources in the United States from the 25th to the 60th year of the U.S. Geological Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabbitt, Mary C.

    1986-01-01

    Mrs. Rabbitt's third volume covers the years 1904 to 1939, from the beginning of the conservation movement under Theodore Roosevelt to the beginning of World War II. From a national perspective, these were years of great development and change in the use of energy, trouble in the coal industry, and a great expansion in the oil industry. They were also years in which the public perceived for the first time that the Nation's mineral resources are not infinite, and the mineral industry realized its dependence on international trade. In these years, water became an increasingly valuable commodity, and the need for a national mapping program became abundantly evident. These were also the years when the Federal Government for the most part practiced stringent economy in funding science, but State and municipal agencies increasingly sought the services of the Survey's topographic and water specialists to aid in the solution of local problems. The balance maintained between fundamental and practical research during the first 25 years was more than once upset during the next 25 years, but the successful struggle to maintain a significant level of research laid the groundwork for the tremendous expansion in the Survey in the subsequent years.

  14. Development of new exploration tools for seabed mineral resources - Result of R/V YOKOSUKA research cruise YK09-09 -

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harada, M.; Sayanagi, K.; Kasaya, T.; Sawa, T.; Goto, T.; Tada, N.; Ichihara, H.; Asada, M.; Nakajima, T.; Isezaki, N.

    2009-12-01

    Detailed information on subsurface structure under seafloor is necessary for the estimation of seabed resources such as the hydrothermal deposit and methane hydrate. Although advantages of geophysical exploration near seafloor are expected for the seabed resource survey, efficient method has not been well-established. The authors started a project to develop exploration tools for seabed resources under the financial support of MEXT-Japan. We carry out research and development mainly regarding measurement of the magnetic field with high-resolution and high-sampling rate electric exploration devices with accurately controlled active source signals. Developed tools will be mounted underwater platforms such as deep-tow system, ROV (remotely operated vehicle), and AUV (autonomous undersea vehicle). We carried out the research cruise (vessel: JAMSTEC R/V YOKOSUKA YK09-09, cruise period: 19-29 July 2009, area surveyed: Kumano-nada, off Kii Peninsula, Japan) to investigate the performance of developed equipments for magnetic exploration. We mounted an Overhauser and two flux-gate magnetometers on the deep-tow and the AUV URASHIMA. To inspect the efficiency of equipments, it is better to measure the magnetic anomaly which is caused by known magnetic source. Therefore, we made a magnetic target which is consisted of 50 neodymium magnets. Before the navigation, the magnetic target was put under water and its position was measured by the acoustic method. The depth of target is about 2,050 meters, and the measurement was performed in the circle of a radius of about 300 meters. The vehicles were navigated at heights of 25 meters for AUV, and about 15 meters for deep-tow. Each of underwater navigation was practiced for two times. Both performances were carried out successfully, which means that we detected the significant magnetic anomalies caused by the target. We will be able to estimate three-dimensional distribution of anomalous magnetic field, and the source property of

  15. Hydrothermal minerals

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Nath, B.N.

    flux. Circulation of seawater through the oceanic crust and upper mantle gives rise to a complex series of physical and chemical reactions that lead to the 1) formation of seafloor mineral deposits; 2) alteration of oceanic crust; 3) control... temperature in the high-temperature reaction zone near the heat source. Important parameters in determining the high- temperature fluid composition are • pressure, • temperature, • water/rock ratio, • rock composition, • recharge fluid...

  16. Australian mineral industry annual review for 1982

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1984-01-01

    The Australian mineral industry annual review records the activities and development of the Australian mineral industry and reports production, consumption, treatment, trade, prices, new developments, exploration and resources for mineral commodities including fuels, and summarises equivalent developments abroad. The present volume reviews activities and developments in 1982. Part 1 (General Review) - after briefly surveying the world mineral industry, summarises developments in the Australian mineral industry as a whole, under the headings: the industry in the national economy; important recent developments; production; overseas trade; prices; exploration expenditure; investment; income tax; royalties; structural data; wages and salaries; industrial disputes; and government assistance, legislation and controls. Part 2 (Commodity Review) - covers industrial mineral commodities, from abrasives to zirconium. Part 3 (Mining Census) - tabulates statistics extracted from the mining census, together with some mineral processing statistics from the manufacturing census. Part 4 (Miscellaneous) - tabulates quantum and value data on mineral output provided by State departments of mines and their equivalents.

  17. Recovering byproduct heavy minerals from sand and gravel, placer gold, and industrial mineral operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomes, J.M.; Martinez, G.M.; Wong, M.M.

    1979-01-01

    The Bureau of Mines, as part of an effort to maximize minerals and metals recovery from domestic resources, has investigated the feasibility of recovering heavy minerals as byproducts from sand and gravel, placer gold, and industrial mineral operations in northern California. Sand samples from about 50 locations were treated by gravity separation to yield heavy-mineral cocentrates (black sands). Mineral compositions of the concentrates were determined by chemical analysis and mineralogical examination. Individual zircon, ilmenite, magnetite, platinum-group metals, thoria, and silica products were prepared from heavy-mineral concentrates by selective separation using low- and high-intensity magnetic, high-tension, and flotation equipment.

  18. Including alternative resources in state renewable portfolio standards: Current design and implementation experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heeter, Jenny; Bird, Lori

    2013-01-01

    As of October 2012, 29 states, the District of Columbia, and Puerto Rico have instituted a renewable portfolio standard (RPS). Each state policy is unique, varying in percentage targets, timetables, and eligible resources. Increasingly, new RPS polices have included alternative resources. Alternative resources have included energy efficiency, thermal resources, and, to a lesser extent, non-renewables. This paper examines state experience with implementing renewable portfolio standards that include energy efficiency, thermal resources, and non-renewable energy and explores compliance experience, costs, and how states evaluate, measure, and verify energy efficiency and convert thermal energy. It aims to gain insights from the experience of states for possible federal clean energy policy as well as to share experience and lessons for state RPS implementation. - Highlights: • Increasingly, new RPS policies have included alternative resources. • Nearly all states provide a separate tier or cap on the quantity of eligible alternative resources. • Where allowed, non-renewables and energy efficiency are being heavily utilized

  19. The cellulose resource matrix

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keijsers, E.R.P.; Yilmaz, G.; Dam, van J.E.G.

    2013-01-01

    The emerging biobased economy is causing shifts from mineral fossil oil based resources towards renewable resources. Because of market mechanisms, current and new industries utilising renewable commodities, will attempt to secure their supply of resources. Cellulose is among these commodities, where

  20. Optimal Extraction and Taxation of Strategic Natural Resources: A Differential Game Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Pemy, Moustapha

    2016-01-01

    This paper studies the optimal extraction and taxation of nonrenewable natural resources. It is well known the market values of the main strategic resources such as oil, natural gas, uranium, copper,...,etc, fluctuate randomly following global and seasonal macro-economic parameters, these values are modeled using Markov switching L\\'evy processes. We formulate this problem as a differential game where the two players are the mining company whose aim is to maximize the revenues generated from ...

  1. VALORACIÓN DE RECURSOS MINERALES BAJO LA TEORIA DEL DESARROLLO SOSTENIBLE VALORAÇÃO DE RECURSOS MINERAIS SOB A TEORIA DO DESENVOLVIMENTO SUSTENTÁVEL VALUATION OF MINERAL RESOURCES UNDER SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT CONCEPT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Rojas

    2010-07-01

    ências implicadas em um projeto de mineração. Todo este processo tem escalas de tempo e é trazido a valor presente líquido. A taxa de desconto a usar-se para obter o valor presente líquido pode dividir-se em diferentes valores para os temas operativos, sociais e ambientais, mas a eleição da taxa tem que ser definida por aqueles que utilizam a metodologia. A aplicação desta proposta metodológica é equiparável à aplicação de uma política social e ambiental empresarial, já que recolhe nela grande parte dos elementos necessários para que se obtenha a licença social de operação.The document presents a methodology for valuation of mineral resources under the sustainable development concept. The first part contains an analysis of the sustainable development concept applied to the mining process, after this there is a summary of the mining process and the environmental task to be done, and finally, starting from the analysis of rent, benefit-cost analysis (Hotelling and Hartwick rules, it is described how to obtain the maximum unit value per unit of measure that may have a defined mineral resource. The mechanism of internalization of externalities and monetization is used to get communication between the sciences involved in a mining project. This whole process has time scales and is brought to a net present value. The discount rates to be used to get the present value could be split in different rates for the operational, social, and environmental issues, but the definition of which is going to be used has to be defined by those who use the methodology. The implementation of this methodological proposal is comparable to the implementation of a social and environmental policy for businesses as it incorporates many of the elements necessary to obtain the social license of operation.

  2. The Study on Industry Chain Model of Mineral Resources in Jiangxi Province Based on the Perspective of Industrial Ecology%基于产业生态化视角的江西矿产资源产业链模式研究∗

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    尹科; 严平; 汤明; 陶春元; 牛莉; 刘睿佳

    2016-01-01

    文章通过文献、案例分析,依据产业生态化的框架,通过对江西矿产资源现状、产业集聚、企业竞争力、技术水平、矿山环境、交通物流、矿产人力资源以及管理体制机制等内部优劣势以及外部发展环境进行分析,构建了江西矿产资源产业生态化的优劣势分析矩阵,并在此基础上提出了基于产业生态化视角的江西矿产资源产业链模式:①矿产品精深加工纵向延伸产业链(企业尺度);②矿产资源主副产品耦合产业链(园区尺度);③区域矿产废弃物交换产业链(区域尺度);④矿产资源产业服务支撑产业链(矿产资源产业与社会经济系统耦合);⑤矿山生态修复产业链(矿产资源产业与生态环境系统耦合)。%Through literature review and case analysis, according to the framework of industrial ecology, the macro-environment and the internal strengths and weaknesses of mineral resources in Jiangxi Province have been explored from several aspects ( including industrial agglomeration, enterprise competitiveness, technological level, mine environ-ment, transportation and logistics, human resources and management system and mechanism). Then the industry chain model of mineral resources in Jiangxi Province based on the perspective of industrial ecology has been put forward by apply-ing SWOT analysis:(1) The mineral products deep-processing industry chain on enterprise level;(2) The coupled in-dustry chain of main product and byproduct on industrial park level;(3) The mineral waste exchange industry chain on re-gional level. (4) The supporting service industry chain of mineral resources industry which formed a bridge between miner-al resource Industry and socio-economic system. (5) The repairing of mine ecological environment industry chain which connects the mineral resource industry and eco-environment system.

  3. Australian mineral industry annual review for 1986

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1988-01-01

    This volume of the Australian Mineral Industry Annual Review records the development and performance of the industry during the calendar year 1986. It reports production, consumption, treatment, trade, prices, new developments, exploration, and resources for mineral commodities including fuels, and summarises equivalent developments abroad. Part 1, 'General Review', after briefly surveying the world mineral industry, summarises developments in the Australian mineral industry as a whole. Part 2, 'Commodity Review', covers individual mineral commodities and commodity groups including brown coal, black coal and peat. Part 3, 'Mining Census', tabulates statistics extracted from the Mining Census, together with some mineral processing statistics from the Manufacturing Census. Part 4, tabulates quantity and value data on mineral output provided by the State departments of mines and their equivalents. The commodity review of black coal has been abstracted separately.

  4. 30 CFR 210.201 - How do I submit Form MMS-4430, Solid Minerals Production and Royalty Report?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., Colorado 80217-5810; or (ii) For courier service or overnight mail (excluding Express Mail): Minerals... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false How do I submit Form MMS-4430, Solid Minerals Production and Royalty Report? 210.201 Section 210.201 Mineral Resources MINERALS MANAGEMENT SERVICE...

  5. Utilization of mining and mineral wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Kyung Ho; Hong, Seung Woong; Choi, Young Yoon; Kim, Byung Gyu; Park, Je Shin [Korea Institute of Geology Mining and Materials, Taejon (Korea)

    1998-12-01

    Up to now, it is estimated that more than 50 million tons of mineral wastes have been generated mining industries and deposited on the land in Korea. Much of cultivated land and hilly areas have been occupied by this wastes, which cause pollution of the environment. Utilization of the mineral wastes is preferable to stabilization because full use would both eliminate the waste and broaden the mineral resource base. Therefore, the development of utilization techniques of mineral wastes is very important not only for improving the environment but also for resource conservation. In countries with high population and poor natural resources like Korea, the utilization of these wastes is essential to decrease the environmental problem and the secure the resources and the study on this field play a important part. Therefore, the objective of this study is to develop the utilization techniques of the mineral wastes. In first year's research, the contents and scope of this study are 1) Present condition and Field Survey on the mineral wastes with respect of their utilization, 2) Reviews of Current effects and research to utilize mineral wastes, 3) Characterization of mineral wastes and environmental test, 4) Evaluation and study on the utilization. (author). 67 refs., 25 tabs., 54 figs.

  6. Preliminary report about minerals raw materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bossi, J.

    1965-01-01

    The group of experts entrusted to construct the bases to study the mineral matters has established priorities for the development of mineral resources during the next ten years: 1) aerial photography, 2) geological map, 3) mechanisms for the exploitation, 4) budget

  7. Utilization of mining and mineral wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Kyung Ho; Hong, Seung Woong; Choi, Young Yoon; Kim, Byung Gyu; Park, Je Shin [Korea Institute of Geology Mining and Materials, Taejon (Korea)

    1998-12-01

    Up to now, it is estimated that more than 50 million tons of mineral wastes have been generated mining industries and deposited on the land in Korea. Much of cultivated land and hilly areas have been occupied by this wastes, which cause pollution of the environment. Utilization of the mineral wastes is preferable to stabilization because full use would both eliminate the waste and broaden the mineral resource base. Therefore, the development of utilization techniques of mineral wastes is very important not only for improving the environment but also for resource conservation. In countries with high population and poor natural resources like Korea, the utilization of these wastes is essential to decrease the environmental problem and the secure the resources and the study on this field play a important part. Therefore, the objective of this study is to develop the utilization techniques of the mineral wastes. In first year's research, the contents and scope of this study are 1) Present condition and Field Survey on the mineral wastes with respect of their utilization, 2) Reviews of Current effects and research to utilize mineral wastes, 3) Characterization of mineral wastes and environmental test, 4) Evaluation and study on the utilization. (author). 67 refs., 25 tabs., 54 figs.

  8. Multimode Preemptive Resource Investment Problem Subject to Due Dates for Activities: Formulation and Solution Procedure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Behrouz Afshar-Nadjafi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The preemptive Multimode resource investment problem is investigated. The Objective is to minimize the total renewable/nonrenewable resource costs and earliness-tardiness costs by a given project deadline and due dates for activities. In this problem setting preemption is allowed with no setup cost or time. The project contains activities interrelated by finish-start type precedence relations with a time lag of zero, which require a set of renewable and nonrenewable resources. The problem formed in this way is an NP-hard. A mixed integer programming formulation is proposed for the problem and parameters tuned genetic algorithm (GA is proposed to solve it. To evaluate the performance of the proposed algorithm, 120 test problems are used. Comparative statistical results reveal that the proposed GA is efficient and effective in terms of the objective function and computational times.

  9. 30 CFR 947.702 - Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals. 947.702 Section 947.702 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION... other minerals. Part 702 of this chapter, Exemption for Coal Extraction Incidental to the Extraction of...

  10. 30 CFR 933.702 - Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals. 933.702 Section 933.702 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION... other minerals. Part 702 of this chapter, Exemption for Coal Extraction Incidental to the Extraction of...

  11. 30 CFR 939.702 - Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals. 939.702 Section 939.702 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION... other minerals. Part 702 of this chapter, Exemption for Coal Extraction Incidental to the Extraction of...

  12. 30 CFR 903.702 - Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals. 903.702 Section 903.702 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION... minerals. Part 702 of this chapter, Exemption for Coal Extraction Incidental to the Extraction of Other...

  13. 30 CFR 912.702 - Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals. 912.702 Section 912.702 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION... minerals. Part 702 of this chapter, Exemption for Coal Extraction Incidental to the Extraction of Other...

  14. 30 CFR 937.702 - Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals. 937.702 Section 937.702 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION... minerals. Part 702 of this chapter, Exemption for Coal Extraction Incidental to the Extraction of Other...

  15. 30 CFR 921.702 - Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals. 921.702 Section 921.702 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION... other minerals. Part 702 of the chapter, Exemption for Coal Extraction Incidental to the Extraction of...

  16. 30 CFR 905.702 - Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals. 905.702 Section 905.702 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION... other minerals. Part 702 of this chapter, Exemption for Coal Extraction Incidental to the Extraction of...

  17. 30 CFR 942.702 - Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals. 942.702 Section 942.702 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION... minerals. Part 702 of this chapter, Exemption for Coal Extraction Incidental to the Extraction of Other...

  18. 30 CFR 910.702 - Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals. 910.702 Section 910.702 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION... minerals. Part 702 of this chapter, Exemption for Coal Extraction Incidental to the Extraction of Other...

  19. 30 CFR 922.702 - Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals. 922.702 Section 922.702 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION... minerals. Part 702 of this chapter, Exemption for Coal Extraction Incidental to the Extraction of Other...

  20. 30 CFR 941.702 - Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals. 941.702 Section 941.702 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION... other minerals. Part 702 of this chapter, Exemption for Coal Extraction Incidental to the Extraction of...

  1. Indústria mineral

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iran F. Machado

    1998-08-01

    , China, CIS and India. The issue of strategic minerals is also discussed, giving emphasis to the concerns raised by the U.S. Department of State. Finally, three possible scenarios pointing to the future behavior of the mineral industry of Brazil are highlighted, and the government is solicited to give special consideration to our mineral resources.

  2. A Hybrid Life-Cycle Assessment of Nonrenewable Energy and Greenhouse-Gas Emissions of a Village-Level Biomass Gasification Project in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingyue Pang

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Small-scale bio-energy projects have been launched in rural areas of China and are considered as alternatives to fossil-fuel energy. However, energetic and environmental evaluation of these projects has rarely been carried out, though it is necessary for their long-term development. A village-level biomass gasification project provides an example. A hybrid life-cycle assessment (LCA of its total nonrenewable energy (NE cost and associated greenhouse gas (GHG emissions is presented in this paper. The results show that the total energy cost for one joule of biomass gas output from the project is 2.93 J, of which 0.89 J is from nonrenewable energy, and the related GHG emission cost is 1.17 × 10−4 g CO2-eq over its designed life cycle of 20 years. To provide equivalent effective calorific value for cooking work, the utilization of one joule of biomass gas will lead to more life cycle NE cost by 0.07 J and more GHG emissions by 8.92 × 10−5 g CO2-eq compared to natural gas taking into consideration of the difference in combustion efficiency and calorific value. The small-scale bio-energy project has fallen into dilemma, i.e., struggling for survival, and for a more successful future development of village-level gasification projects, much effort is needed to tide over the plight of its development, such as high cost and low efficiency caused by decentralized construction, technical shortcomings and low utilization rate of by-products.

  3. Australian mineral industry annual review for 1984

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1987-01-01

    This volume of the Australian Mineral Industry Annual Review records development and performance of the Australian mineral industry during the calendar year 1984. It reports production, consumption, treatment, trade, prices, new developments, exploration, and resources for mineral commodities including fuels, and summarises equivalent developments abroad. Part 1. 'general review' after briefly surveying the world mineral industry, summarises developments in the Australian mineral industry as a whole, under the headings: the industry in the national economy, prices, exploration expenditure, investment, income tax, royalties, structural data, wages and salaries, industrial disputes, and government assistance, legislation, and controls. Part 2. 'commodity review' covers individual mineral commodity groups, from abrasives to zirconium. Part 3, 'mining census', tabulates statistics extracted from the mining census, together with some mineral processing statistics from the manufacturing census. Part 4 tabulates quantity and value data on mineral output provided by state departments of mines and their equivalents. Listed in appendices are: principal mineral producers; ore buyers and mineral dealers; government mining services; analytical laboratories; state mines departments and equivalents; industry, professional and development organisations and associations, etc; summary of mineral royalties payable in the states and territories; and summary of income tax provisions and federal government levies.

  4. Increasing strategic role for SA's minerals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1977-01-01

    The strategic importance of South Africa's vast mineral resources has been strongly underlined by the Minister of Defence, Mr P.W. Botha. It was pointed out that South Africa ranked among the world's five biggest suppliers of nonfuel minerals and that she has demonstrated her potential as the West's most important source of minerals and strategic raw materials. South Africa therefore exercise a very important stabilising influence on the supply and prices of critical, strategic minerals and raw materials, regarded as of the greatest importance to the Western economy

  5. Mineral Resource of the Month: Niobium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papp, John F.

    2014-01-01

    Niobium, also called columbium, is a transition metal with a very high melting point. It is in greatest demand in industrialized countries, like the United States, because of its defense-related uses in the aerospace, energy and transportation industries. Niobium is used mostly to make high-strength, low-alloy (HSLA) steel and stainless steel. HSLA steels are used in large-diameter pipes for oil and natural gas pipelines and automobile wheels.

  6. Mineral resource of the month: salt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostick, Dennis S.

    2010-01-01

    The article presents information on various types of salt. Rock salt is either found from underground halite deposits or near the surface. Other types of salt include solar salt, salt brine, and vacuum pan salt. The different uses of salt are also given including its use as a flavor enhancer, as a road deicing agent, and to manufacture sodium hydroxide.

  7. Mineral Resource of the Month: Lime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corathers, Lisa A.

    2015-01-01

    Lime is the common term for several chemicals in three major categories: quicklime, hydrated lime and refractory dead-burned dolomite. Lime is almost never found naturally. It is primarily manufactured by burning limestone in kilns, followed by hydration when necessary. 

  8. Mineral Resource Team 2010 Activities Summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-29

    similar to pluton -related gold deposits rather than the regional metamorphic deposits that are thought to make up deposits in the Ragh District (2010...missions are located along the southern margins of the Zarkashan pluton . These locations match up with hyperspectral anomalies and anomalous gold and

  9. Mineral resource of the month: manganese

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corathers, Lisa A.

    2012-01-01

    Manganese is a silver-colored metal resembling iron and often found in conjunction with iron. The earliest-known human use of manganese compounds was in the Stone Age, when early humans used manganese dioxide as pigments in cave paintings. In ancient Rome and Egypt, people started using it to color or remove the color from glass - a practice that continued to modern times. Today, manganese is predominantly used in metallurgical applications as an alloying addition, particularly in steel and cast iron production. Steel and cast iron together provide the largest market for manganese (historically 85 to 90 percent), but it is also alloyed with nonferrous metals such as aluminum and copper. Its importance to steel cannot be overstated, as almost all types of steel contain manganese and could not exist without it.

  10. Mineral resource of the month: hydraulic cement

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Oss, Hendrik G.

    2012-01-01

    Hydraulic cements are the binders in concrete and most mortars and stuccos. Concrete, particularly the reinforced variety, is the most versatile of all construction materials, and most of the hydraulic cement produced worldwide is portland cement or similar cements that have portland cement as a basis, such as blended cements and masonry cements. Cement typically makes up less than 15 percent of the concrete mix; most of the rest is aggregates. Not counting the weight of reinforcing media, 1 ton of cement will typically yield about 8 tons of concrete.

  11. Mineral resource of the month: silver

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katrivanos, Florence C.

    2015-01-01

    Silver, one of the eight precious or noble metals, has been used extensively throughout recorded history for various medical purposes, ornaments and utensils, and for its intrinsic value as the basis for trade and monetary systems. Silver has played a significant role in world history, financing a Greek victory over the Persians in 480 B.C., helping Spain become a world power in the 16th and 17th centuries, and helping fund the Union forces during the U.S. Civil War, to give a few examples.

  12. Mineral resource of the month: dimension stone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolley, Thomas P.

    2012-01-01

    The article offers information on dimension stone (DS) that are quarried as natural rock for a specific size and dimension chosen for its color, strength, durability. Varieties of metamorphic, igneous or sedimentary rocks are used but DS rocks are mainly marble, granite and slate that can be found from Maine to Alabama in the U.S., in the Carrara District of Italy as well as in Greece, China and Brazil. It also notes the advent of steel and concrete in construction that ceased the use of DS.

  13. Mineral Resource of the Month: Talc

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virta, Robert L.; Van Gosen, Bradley S.

    2014-01-01

    When people think of talc, they often think of talcum and baby powder. However, these uses of talc are minor compared to its use in industrial manufacturing. The leading use of talc in the United States is in the production of ceramics, where it is a source of magnesium oxide, serves as a flux to reduce firing temperatures, and improves thermal shock characteristics of the final product. Worldwide, the major use of talc is as a paper constituent, where it fills the interstices between cellulose paper fibers, reduces paper transparency, improves ink receptivity, and absorbs undesirable tree sap residues that can generate blemishes in the paper.

  14. Mineral resource of the month: antimony

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    2008-01-01

    The article describes the characteristics and industrial uses of antimony. Antimony, which is produced as a byproduct of mining other metals such as gold, lead or silver, is used in everything from flame retardants, batteries, ceramics and glass. It is also used in glass for television picture tubes, computer monitors, pigments and catalysts.

  15. Mineral resource of the month: gemstones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, Donald W.

    2008-01-01

    Humans have been intrigued by gemstones since prehistoric times. Gemstones have been valued as treasured objects throughout history by all societies in all parts of the world. The first stones known to have been used for making jewelry include amber, amethyst, coral, diamond, emerald, garnet, jade, jasper, lapis lazuli, pearl, rock crystal, ruby, serpentine and turquoise. These stones served as status symbols for the wealthy. Today, arguably, gems are worn more for pleasure and in appreciation of their beauty than to demonstrate wealth.

  16. Mineral resource of the month: iodine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polyak, Désirée E.

    2009-01-01

    The article focuses on iodine, its benefits and adverse effects, and its production and consumption. It states that iodine is essential to humans for it produces thyroid hormones to nourish thyroid glands but excessive intake could cause goiter, hyperthyroidism or hypothyroidism. U.S. laws require salt iodization to help prevent diseases. Chile and Japan are the world's leading iodine producer while in the U.S. iodine is mined from deep well brines in northern Oklahoma.

  17. Mineral resource of the month: titanium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gambogi, Joseph

    2011-01-01

    Titanium is hip - at least when it comes to airplanes and jewelry. Known for its high strength-to weight ratio and its resistance to corrosion, titanium and its alloys can also be found in everything from knee replacements to eyeglass frames to baseball bats to fighter planes.

  18. Mineral resource of the month: silver

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, William E.

    2007-01-01

    Silver has been used for thousands of years as ornaments and utensils, for trade and as the basis of many monetary systems. The metal has played an important part in world history. Silver from the mines at Laurion, Greece, for example, financed the Greek victory over the Persians in 480 B.C. Silver from Potosi, Bolivia, helped Spain become a world power in the 16th and 17th centuries. And silver from the gold-silver ores at the Comstock Lode in Virginia City, Nev., helped keep the Union solvent during the Civil War.

  19. Mineral resource of the month: cesium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angulo, Marc A.

    2010-01-01

    The article offers information on cesium, a golden alkali metal derived from the Latin word caesium which means bluish gray. It mentions that cesium is the first element discovered with the use of spectroscopy. It adds that the leading producer and supplier of cesium is Canada and there are 50,000 kilograms of cesium consumed of the world in a year. Moreover, it states that only 85% of the cesium formate can be retrieved and recycled.

  20. Minerals Yearbook, volume I, Metals and Minerals

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    2018-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Minerals Yearbook discusses the performance of the worldwide minerals and materials industries and provides background information to assist in interpreting that performance. Content of the individual Minerals Yearbook volumes follows:Volume I, Metals and Minerals, contains chapters about virtually all metallic and industrial mineral commodities important to the U.S. economy. Chapters on survey methods, summary statistics for domestic nonfuel minerals, and trends in mining and quarrying in the metals and industrial mineral industries in the United States are also included.Volume II, Area Reports: Domestic, contains a chapter on the mineral industry of each of the 50 States and Puerto Rico and the Administered Islands. This volume also has chapters on survey methods and summary statistics of domestic nonfuel minerals.Volume III, Area Reports: International, is published as four separate reports. These regional reports contain the latest available minerals data on more than 180 foreign countries and discuss the importance of minerals to the economies of these nations and the United States. Each report begins with an overview of the region’s mineral industries during the year. It continues with individual country chapters that examine the mining, refining, processing, and use of minerals in each country of the region and how each country’s mineral industry relates to U.S. industry. Most chapters include production tables and industry structure tables, information about Government policies and programs that affect the country’s mineral industry, and an outlook section.The USGS continually strives to improve the value of its publications to users. Constructive comments and suggestions by readers of the Minerals Yearbook are welcomed.

  1. Laboratory of minerals purification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    The laboratory of minerals purification was organized in 1962 where with application of modern physical and chemical methods were investigated the mechanism of flotation reagents interaction with minerals' surface, was elaborated technologies on rising complexity of using of republic's minerals

  2. Mineral Taxation Policies in Developing Countries: An Application of Resource Rent Tax (L'imposition des ressources dans les pays en développement: application du concept de taxe sur la rente minière) (Políticas de impuestos a los minerales en los países en desarrollo: Aplicación del impuesto a la renta de recursos)

    OpenAIRE

    Keith F. Palmer

    1980-01-01

    The central problem of mineral taxation policy in developing countries is to establish a stable fiscal framework that, under conditions of uncertainty, both obtains a high share of mineral rent for the resource-owning country and ensures for the investor the prospect of a return on his investment commensurate with his risk. The main concern of the paper is to propose a practical fiscal framework, based on the resource rent tax concept, that meets these objectives. The resource rent tax is a p...

  3. Mineral legislations applicable to beach sand industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'Cruz, Eric

    2016-01-01

    India has got a wealth of natural resources in different geological environs and shoreline placers form an important constituent of the natural resources. Large reserves of beach sand minerals, viz. imenite, rutile, leucoxene, zircon, sillimanite, garnet and monazite are the economic minerals in the coastal and inland placer sands. In the federal structure of India, the State Governments are the owners of minerals located within their respective boundaries. The State Governments grant the mineral concessions for all the minerals located within the boundary of the State, under the provisions of the Acts and Rules framed for the purpose. Though the mineral wealth is under the control of the State, the power for framing the rules for the grant of mineral concessions vastly rest with the Central Government. Since mineral concessions are often granted for a longer duration of thirty to fifty years or more, a historical perspective of these rules are imperative in understanding the issues involved with BSM mining industry. Under the Govt. of India Act, 1935, Regulation of Mines and Oilfields and Mineral Development was kept under Federal control, declared by Federal Law. The word 'Federal' was substituted by the word 'Dominion' by the India (Provincial Constitution) Order, 1947. No legislation was, however, enacted in pursuance of above power until after Independence. However, the Govt. on India made the Mining Concession (Central) Rules, 1939 for regulating grants of prospecting license

  4. Minerals Planning Policies and Supply Practices in The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ike, P.

    Table of Contents: 1 Country background. 2 General description of the mineral industry. 3 National system legislation governing ownership resources. 4 National system governing securing supply of minerals. 5 Land use planning. 6 Evaluation of sustainability of mineral supply. 7 Identification of the

  5. Minerals Planning Policies and Supply Practices in Great Britain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ike, P.; van der Molen, S.D.A.

    Table of Contents: 1 Country background. 2 General description of the mineral industry. 3 National system legislation governing ownership resources. 4 National system governing securing supply of minerals. 5 Land use planning. 6 Evaluation of sustainability of mineral supply. 7 Identification of the

  6. Minerals Planning Policies and Supply Practices in Ireland.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ike, P.; van der Molen, S.D.A.

    Table of Contents: 1 Country background. 2 General description of the mineral industry. 3 National system legislation governing ownership resources. 4 National system governing securing supply of minerals. 5 Land use planning. 6 Evaluation of sustainability of mineral supply. 7 Identification of the

  7. Miscellaneous Industrial Mineral Operations

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — This map layer includes miscellaneous industrial minerals operations in the United States. The data represent commodities covered by the Minerals Information Team...

  8. Must producers earn a resource rent?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Austvik, Ole Gunnar

    2003-01-01

    In petroleum producing countries it has been a prevailing opinion that a resource rent should be earned by petroleum producers due to the commodities' non-renewable nature. An important element in this logic is that the supply of oil and natural gas is limited to relatively few places in the world. As the resources are exploited, the remaining reserves are reduced. What is extracted today cannot be extracted tomorrow. Rationing of the scarce resource takes place through pricing mechanisms. Due to the scarcity the consumers must pay a higher price than the marginal production costs, so that the amounts supplied and demanded become equal. Most producers of oil and gas and not just the ones that produce the cheapest, have therefore until now earned an economic rent

  9. Minerals from Macedonia: XV. Sivec mineral assemble

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boev, Blazho; Jovanovski, Gligor; Makreski, Petre; Bermanec, Vladimir

    2005-01-01

    The paper presents investigations carried out on the collected minerals from the Sivec deposit. It is situated in the vicinity of the town of Prilep, representing a rare occurrence of sugary white dolomite marbles. The application of suitable methods of exploitation of decorative-dimension stones makes possible to obtain large amounts of commercial blocks well known in the world. Despite the existence of dolomite marbles, a series of exotic minerals are typical in Sivec mineralization. Among them, the most significant are: calcite, fluorite, rutile, phlogopite, corundum, diaspore, almandine, kosmatite (clintonite or margarite), clinochlore, muscovite, quartz, pyrite, tourmaline and zoisite. An attempt to identify ten collected minerals using the FT IR spectroscopy is performed. The identification of the minerals was based on the comparison of the infrared spectra of our specimens with the corresponding literature data for the mineral species originating all over the world. The coloured pictures of all studied silicate minerals are presented as well. (Author)

  10. Australian uranium resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Battey, G.C.; Miezitis, Y.; McKay, A.D.

    1987-01-01

    Australia's uranium resources amount to 29% of the WOCA countries (world outside centrally-planned-economies areas) low-cost Reasonably Assured Resources and 28% of the WOCA countries low-cost Estimated Additional Resources. As at 1 January 1986, the Bureau of Mineral Resources estimated Australia's uranium resources as: (1) Cost range to US$80/kg U -Reasonably Assured Resources, 465 000 t U; Estimated Additional Resources, 256 000 t U; (2) Cost range US$80-130/kg U -Reasonably Assured Resources, 56 000 t U; Estimated Additional Resources, 127 000 t U. Most resources are contained in Proterozoic unconformity-related deposits in the Alligator Rivers uranium field in the Northern Territory (Jabiluka, Ranger, Koongarra, Nabarlek deposits) and the Proterozoic stratabound deposit at Olympic Dam on the Stuart Shelf in South Australia

  11. Oil. From mineral resource treasure to resource plague

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cabezas, M.

    2006-01-01

    Rising oil prices in the seventies resulted, also because of overspending, in disappointing economic development in the oil-producing countries. Although policy reactions to the current rise of the oil prices did not have that effect so far, there is the danger for financial instability [nl

  12. Determinants of Renewable Energy Resources and Their Relationship Between Economic Growth: The Case of Developing Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Serkan Çınar; Mine Yılmazer

    2015-01-01

    Literature on the relationship between energy consumption and economic growth is based on two different approaches that are supply-side and demand-side. The impact of renewable and non-renewable energy consumption on economic growth is investigated with traditional production function on supply-side approach. The relationship between renewable energy consumption, economic growth, CO2 and energy prices is analyzed on demand-side approach. In this study, the impact of renewable resources on eco...

  13. A Survey and Assessment of the Cultural Resources-Oologah Lake Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-10-01

    Lake is the goal of this study. Since these resources are nonrenewable it is essential that they are identified and preserved ; or, if preservation is...established an important trading post at Saline, Oklahoma. He sought to preserve his already well established fur trading monopoly among the Osage...beans, pumpkin , squash and tobacco. Hunting acitvities took men away from home periodically to hunt beaver, bear, fish and fowl (Weslager 1972:56

  14. Resource Dynamism of the Rwandan Economy: An Emergy Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evariste Rutebuka

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Africa is experiencing unprecedented economic growth that requires planners to understand the interactions between the social, economic, and ecological systems to ensure its sustainable development. The present paper uses the emergy method to analyse the Rwandan economy from 1975 to 2016. Emergy-based sustainability indicators were used to analyse and compare two distinct periods of economic growth: the pre- and post-Tutsi genocide periods. The results revealed that, by 2016, the total emergy use had increased by approximately 74% of the emergy recorded in 1975. The increase in total emergy use was associated with an increase in imports with contributions from 6.5 to 46.2% and the renewable resource contribution decrease from 93.5 to 53.8%. The emergy analysis, which covered 41 years, categorises Rwanda as a non-renewable resource-poor country. The total emergy use of the pre-genocide period was significantly lower than the post-genocide period. Based on the 2016 emergy self-support of 54% and the emergy sustainability index of 2.52, Rwanda has the highest import dependence compared to other developing countries listed in this paper and tends toward a developed country like Canada, Portugal, and so on. An imperative decision needs to be made in terms of the management of the economic system of Rwanda, as imports are becoming the highest impetus of the Rwandan economy but are also the top major cause of a long-run sustainability downfall. Thus, the present study recommends a scrutinised selection system of imports by increasing raw materials, particularly non-renewable resources, and by subsequently increasing the internal transformation to be exported. This recommendation is also applicable to other developing countries with similar non-renewable resource statuses.

  15. ASEAN Mineral Database and Information System (AMDIS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okubo, Y.; Ohno, T.; Bandibas, J. C.; Wakita, K.; Oki, Y.; Takahashi, Y.

    2014-12-01

    AMDIS has lunched officially since the Fourth ASEAN Ministerial Meeting on Minerals on 28 November 2013. In cooperation with Geological Survey of Japan, the web-based GIS was developed using Free and Open Source Software (FOSS) and the Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) standards. The system is composed of the local databases and the centralized GIS. The local databases created and updated using the centralized GIS are accessible from the portal site. The system introduces distinct advantages over traditional GIS. Those are a global reach, a large number of users, better cross-platform capability, charge free for users, charge free for provider, easy to use, and unified updates. Raising transparency of mineral information to mining companies and to the public, AMDIS shows that mineral resources are abundant throughout the ASEAN region; however, there are many datum vacancies. We understand that such problems occur because of insufficient governance of mineral resources. Mineral governance we refer to is a concept that enforces and maximizes the capacity and systems of government institutions that manages minerals sector. The elements of mineral governance include a) strengthening of information infrastructure facility, b) technological and legal capacities of state-owned mining companies to fully-engage with mining sponsors, c) government-led management of mining projects by supporting the project implementation units, d) government capacity in mineral management such as the control and monitoring of mining operations, and e) facilitation of regional and local development plans and its implementation with the private sector.

  16. Saskatchewan resources. [including uranium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-09-01

    The production of chemicals and minerals for the chemical industry in Saskatchewan are featured, with some discussion of resource taxation. The commodities mentioned include potash, fatty amines, uranium, heavy oil, sodium sulfate, chlorine, sodium hydroxide, sodium chlorate and bentonite. Following the successful outcome of the Cluff Lake inquiry, the uranium industry is booming. Some developments and production figures for Gulf Minerals, Amok, Cenex and Eldorado are mentioned.

  17. Panel estimation for renewable and non-renewable energy consumption, economic growth, CO2 emissions, the composite trade intensity, and financial openness of the commonwealth of independent states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasoulinezhad, Ehsan; Saboori, Behnaz

    2018-04-13

    This article investigates the long-run and causal linkages between economic growth, CO 2 emissions, renewable and non-renewable (fossil fuels) energy consumption, the Composite Trade Intensity (CTI) as a proxy for trade openness, and the Chinn-Ito index as a proxy for financial openness for a panel of the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) region including Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Russia, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, Ukraine, and Uzbekistan over the period of 1992-2015. It is the first time that CTI and the Chinn-Ito indexes are used in an economic-pollution model. Employing three panel unit root tests, panel cointegration estimation methods (DOLS and FMOLS), and two panel causality tests, the main empirical results provided evidence for the bidirectional long-run relationship between all the variables in all 12 sampled countries except for economic growth-renewable energy use linkage. The findings of causality tests indicated that there is a unidirectional short-run panel causality running from economic growth, financial openness, and trade openness to CO 2 emissions and from fossil fuel energy consumption to renewable energy use.

  18. The user cost of energy resource and its reasonable tax rate-A case of oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lifan, Liu

    2017-12-01

    The development and use of natural resources bring about the externality of resources depletion, especially for non-renewable resources. This paper takes oil as an example to analyze the user cost of energy resource with EI Serafy User cost method, and discusses the rationality of the resource tax. Meanwhile, this paper determines oil resource tax rate in consideration of resource sustainable development. The results show that, the user cost of oil isn’t compensated fully, it is too low to make compensation to the environment and the profit of future generation, and the resource tax is a little low. At last of the paper, some conclusions and policy suggestions on resource tax reform are given.

  19. Handbook of natural resource and energy economics. Volume III

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kneese, A.V.; Sweeney, J.L.

    1993-01-01

    The last of a three-volume series of handbooks focuses on the economics of energy, minerals and exhaustible resources, and the forecasting issues. The relationship between energy, the environment and economic growth is also examined. Chapter headings are: economic theory of depletable resources; the optimal use of exhaustible resources; intertemporal consistency issues in depletable resources; buying energy and non-fuel minerals; mineral resource stocks and information; strategies for modelling exhaustible resource supply; natural resources in an age of substitutability; natural resource cartels; the economics of energy security; natural resource use and the environment; and energy, the environment and economic growth

  20. When Environmental Policy is Superfluous: Growth and Polluting Resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schou, Poul

    2002-01-01

    In a research-driven endogenous growth model, a non-renewable resource gives rise to pollution. Consumption may either grow or decline along the optimal balanced growth path, hut the (flow) pollution level necessarily diminishes continuously. Any positive balanced growth path is sustainable. Utility may improve, even though consumption declines. Although positive growth is optimal, the market economy may nevertheless result in permanently declining consumption possibilities. At the same time, a growth-enhancing government policy may improve long-run environmental conditions. The pollution externality does not distort the decisions of the market economy, so that a specific environmental policy is superfluous

  1. Granite-related hypothermal uranium mineralization in South China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, X.; Wu, J.; Pan, J.; Zhu, M.

    2014-01-01

    As one of the important geological types, granite-related uranium deposits account for about 29% of the total discovered natural uranium resources in China. Most of the granite-related uranium deposits located in Taoshan - Zhuguang uranium metallogenic belt, South China. In addition to the typical pitchblende vein-type uranium mineralization of epithermal metallogenic system, a new type of granite-related uranium mineralization with characteristics of hypothermal matallogenic system was discovered in South China by current studies. However, hypothermal is contact thermal to epithermal mineralization, and not the conventional intrusive high temperature mineralization. Hypothermal uranium mineralization is presented by disseminated uraninite or pitchblende stockwork in fissures in granites normally with extensive alkaline alteration. The high temperature mineral assemblage of uraninite associate with scheelite and tourmaline was identified in hypothermal uranium mineralization. Fluid inclusion studies on this type mineralization indicated the middle to high temperature (>250℃) mineralization with the mixing evidence of ore forming solution derived from deep level, and the boiling and mixing of ore forming solution are regarded as the dominant mineralization mechanism for the precipitating of uranium. In contrast to the mineralization ages of 67 Ma to 87 Ma for typical pitchblende vein mineralization of epithermal metallogenic system, the mineralization age is older than 100 Ma for hypothermal uranium mineralization in granite. In the Shituling deposit, Xiazhuang uranium ore field, uraninite and pitchblende micro veins with extensive potassic alteration, chloritization and sericitization are hosted in fissures of Indo-Chinese epoch granites with the uranium mineralization age of 130 Ma to 138 Ma with a mineralization temperature of 290℃ to 330℃ indicated. Other examples sharing the similar characters of hypothermal uranium mineralization have been recognized in

  2. Construction Minerals Operations

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — This map layer includes construction minerals operations in the United States. The data represent commodities covered by the Minerals Information Team (MIT) of the...

  3. Agricultural Minerals Operations

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — This map layer includes agricultural minerals operations in the United States. The data represent commodities covered by the Minerals Information Team (MIT) of the...

  4. Fissure minerals, literature review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larsson, S.Aa.

    1980-01-01

    This paper is a review of methods used for direct and indirect dating of tectonic events. Isotope geochemistry including stable isotopes as well as fission track- dating, fluid inclusion and thermoluminescens techniques have been considered. It has been concluded that an investigation of tectonic (and thermal) events should start with a detailed study of the mineral phases grown in seald fissures as well as minerals from fissure walls. This study should include phase identification, textures as well as mineral chemistry. The information from this study is fundamental for the decision of further investigations. Mineral chemistry including isotopes and fluid inclusion studies will give an essential knowledge about crystallization conditions for fissure minerals concerned. Direct dating using fission tracks as well as radioactive isotopes could be useful for some minerals. Application of thermoluminescens dating on fissure minerals is doubtful. (Auth.)

  5. 36 CFR 292.66 - Operating plan requirements-outstanding mineral rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... products, insecticides, pesticides, and herbicides that will be used during the mineral operation and the...-site and off-site damage to natural resources resulting from mineral operations. The plan must: (i...

  6. Development of industrial minerals in Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arbogast, Belinda F.; Knepper, Daniel H.; Langer, William H.; Cappa, James A.; Keller, John W.; Widmann, Beth L.; Ellefsen, Karl J.; Klein, Terry L.; Lucius, Jeffrey E.; Dersch, John S.

    2011-01-01

    Technology and engineering have helped make mining safer and cleaner for both humans and the environment. Inevitably, mineral development entails costs as well as benefits. Developing a mine is an environmental, engineering, and planning challenge that must conform to many Federal, State, and local regulations. Community collaboration, creative design, and best management practices of sustainability and biodiversity can be positive indicators for the mining industry. A better understanding of aesthetics, culture, economics, geology, climate, vegetation and wildlife, topography, historical significance, and regional land planning is important in resolving land-use issues and managing mineral resources wisely. Ultimately, the consuming public makes choices about product use (including water, food, highways, housing, and thousands of other items) that influence operations of the mineral industry. Land planners, resource managers, earth scientists, designers, and public groups have a responsibility to consider sound scientific information, society's needs, and community appeals in making smart decisions concerning resource use and how complex landscapes should change. An effort to provide comprehensive geosciences data for land management agencies in central Colorado was undertaken in 2003 by scientists of the U.S. Geological Survey and the Colorado Geological Survey. This effort, the Central Colorado Assessment Project, addressed a variety of land-use issues: an understanding of the availability of industrial and metallic rocks and minerals, the geochemical and environmental effects of historic mining activity on surface water and groundwater, and the geologic controls on the availability and quality of groundwater. The USDA Forest Service and other land management agencies have the opportunity to contribute to the sustainable management of natural aggregate and other mineral resources through the identification and selective development of mineral resources and the

  7. Minerals, lands, and geology for the common defence and general welfare, Volume 4, 1939-1961: A history of geology in relation to the development of public-land, federal science, and mapping policies and the development of mineral resources in the United States from the 60th to the 82d year of the U.S. Geological Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabbitt, Mary C.; Nelson, Clifford M.

    2015-01-01

    The fourth volume of the comprehensive history of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) is titled “Minerals, Lands, and Geology for the Common Defence and General Welfare—Volume 4, 1939‒1961.” The title is based on a passage in the preamble of the U.S. Constitution.

  8. Grouping Minerals by Their Formulas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulvey, Bridget

    2018-01-01

    Minerals are commonly taught in ways that emphasize mineral identification for its own sake or maybe to help identify rocks. But how do minerals fit in with other science content taught? The author uses mineral formulas to help Earth science students wonder about the connection between elements, compounds, mixtures, minerals, and mineral formulas.…

  9. Is there a metric for mineral deposit occurrence probabilities?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drew, L.J.; Menzie, W.D.

    1993-01-01

    Traditionally, mineral resource assessments have been used to estimate the physical inventory of critical and strategic mineral commodities that occur in pieces of land and to assess the consequences of supply disruptions of these commodities. More recently, these assessments have been used to estimate the undiscovered mineral wealth in such pieces of land to assess the opportunity cost of using the land for purposes other than mineral production. The field of mineral resource assessment is an interdisciplinary field that draws elements from the disciplines of geology, economic geology (descriptive models), statistics and management science (grade and tonnage models), mineral economics, and operations research (computer simulation models). The purpose of this study is to assert that an occurrenceprobability metric exists that is useful in "filling out" an assessment both for areas in which only a trivial probability exists that a new mining district could be present and for areas where nontrivial probabilities exist for such districts. ?? 1993 Oxford University Press.

  10. Statistical models for optimizing mineral exploration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wignall, T.K.; DeGeoffroy, J.

    1987-01-01

    The primary purpose of mineral exploration is to discover ore deposits. The emphasis of this volume is on the mathematical and computational aspects of optimizing mineral exploration. The seven chapters that make up the main body of the book are devoted to the description and application of various types of computerized geomathematical models. These chapters include: (1) the optimal selection of ore deposit types and regions of search, as well as prospecting selected areas, (2) designing airborne and ground field programs for the optimal coverage of prospecting areas, and (3) delineating and evaluating exploration targets within prospecting areas by means of statistical modeling. Many of these statistical programs are innovative and are designed to be useful for mineral exploration modeling. Examples of geomathematical models are applied to exploring for six main types of base and precious metal deposits, as well as other mineral resources (such as bauxite and uranium)

  11. Methodological Approaches for Estimating Gross Regional Product after Taking into Account Depletion of Natural Resources, Environmental Pollution and Human Capital Aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boris Alengordovich Korobitsyn

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available A key indicator of the System of National Accounts of Russia at a regional scale is Gross Regional Product characterizing the value of goods and services produced in all sectors of the economy in a country and intended for final consumption, capital formation and net exports (excluding imports. From a sustainability perspective, the most weakness of GRP is that it ignores depreciation of man-made assets, natural resource depletion, environmental pollution and degradation, and potential social costs such as poorer health due to exposure to occupational hazards. Several types of alternative approaches to measuring socio-economic progress are considering for six administrative units of the Ural Federal District for the period 2006–2014. Proposed alternatives to GRP as a measure of social progress are focused on natural resource depletion, environmental externalities and some human development aspects. The most promising is the use of corrected macroeconomic indicators similar to the “genuine savings” compiled by the World Bank. Genuine savings are defined in this paper as net savings (net gross savings minus consumption of fixed capital minus the consumption of natural non-renewable resources and the monetary evaluations of damages resulting from air pollution, water pollution and waste disposal. Two main groups of non renewable resources are considered: energy resources (uranium ore, oil and natural gas and mineral resources (iron ore, copper, and aluminum. In spite of various shortcomings, this indicator represents a considerable improvement over GRP information. For example, while GRP demonstrates steady growth between 2006 and 2014 for the main Russian oil- and gas-producing regions — Hanty-Mansi and Yamalo-Nenets Autonomous Okrugs, genuine savings for these regions decreased over all period. It means that their resource-based economy could not be considered as being on a sustainable path even in the framework of

  12. 43 CFR 19.8 - Prospecting, mineral locations, mineral patents, and mineral leasing within National Forest...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... patents, and mineral leasing within National Forest Wilderness. 19.8 Section 19.8 Public Lands: Interior... § 19.8 Prospecting, mineral locations, mineral patents, and mineral leasing within National Forest... locations, mineral patents, and mineral leasing within National Forest Wilderness are contained in parts...

  13. Aleutian Islands Coastal Resources Inventory and Environmental Sensitivity Maps: SOCECON (Socioeconomic Resource Points and Lines)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains human-use resource data for Coastal Resource Service Area (CRSA) boundaries, mineral sites, airports, boat ramps, marinas, and Coast Guard...

  14. Radioactive mineral deposits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1948-01-01

    This publication was designed as a guide for uranium and thorium prospectors in Australia. Physical properties, such as color, streak, luster, hardness, fracture, and specific gravity of the uranium and thorium-bearing minerals are summarized and the various methods suitable for detecting radioactivity in minerals are described. Two colored plates show samples of pitchblende (uraninite), autunite, carnotite, monazite, and others of the most important minerals sources of uranium and thorium.

  15. Minerals industry survey, 1984

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1984-01-01

    This is the seventh edition of the statistical survey commissioned by the Australian Mining Industry Council. It represents the most comprehensive review of the financial position of the Australian minerals industry and provides timely financial data on the minerals industry. The tables of this survey have been prepared for AMIC by Coopers and Lybrand, Chartered Accountants, based on information supplied to them in confidence by the respondent companies. For the purpose of the survey, the minerals industry has been defined as including exploration for, and extraction and primary processing of, minerals in Australia. The oil and gas industry is not included.

  16. Reagan issues mineral policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    The National Materials and Minerals Program plan and report that President Reagan sent to Congress on April 5 aims to ‘decrease America's minerals vulnerability’ while reducing future dependence on potentially unstable foreign sources of minerals. These goals would be accomplished by taking inventory of federal lands to determine mineral potential; by meeting the stockpile goals set by the Strategic and Critical Material Stockpiling Act; and by establishing a business and political climate that would encourage private-sector research and development on minerals.Now that the Administration has issued its plan, the Subcommittee on Mines and Mining of the House Committee on Interior and Insular Affairs will consider the National Minerals Security Act (NMSA), which was introduced 1 year ago by subcommittee chairman Jim Santini (D-Nev.) [Eos, May 19, 1981, p. 497]. The bill calls for establishing a three-member White-House-level council to coordinate the development of a national minerals policy; amending tax laws to assist the mining industry to make capital investments to locate and produce strategic materials; and creating a revolving fund for the sale and purchase of strategic minerals. In addition, the NMSA bill would allow the secretary of the interior to make previously withdrawn public lands available for mineral development. The subcommittee will hold a hearing on the Administration's plan on May 11. Interior Secretary James Watt has been invited to testify.

  17. International mineral economics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gocht, W.R.; Eggert, R.G.

    1988-01-01

    International Mineral Economics provides an integrated overview of the important concepts. The treatment is interdisciplinary, drawing on the fields of economics, geology, business, and mining engineering. Part I examines the technical concepts important for understanding the geology of ore deposits, the methods of exploration and deposit evaluation, and the activities of mining and mineral processing. Part II focuses on the economic and related concepts important for understanding mineral development, the evaluation of exploration and mining projects, and mineral markets and market models. Finally, Part III reviews and traces the historical development of the policies of international organizations, the industrialized countries, and the developing countries. (orig.)

  18. Mineral statistics yearbook 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    A summary of mineral production in Saskatchewan was compiled and presented as a reference manual. Statistical information on fuel minerals such as crude oil, natural gas, liquefied petroleum gas and coal, and of industrial and metallic minerals, such as potash, sodium sulphate, salt and uranium, was provided in all conceivable variety of tables. Production statistics, disposition and value of sales of industrial and metallic minerals were also made available. Statistical data on drilling of oil and gas reservoirs and crown land disposition were also included. figs., tabs

  19. Marine Mineral Exploration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    in EEZ areas are fairly unknown; many areas need detailed mapping and mineral exploration, and the majority of coastal or island states with large EEZ areas have little experience in exploration for marine hard minerals. This book describes the systematic steps in marine mineral exploration....... Such exploration requires knowledge of mineral deposits and models of their formation, of geophysical and geochemical exploration methods, and of data evaluation and interpretation methods. These topics are described in detail by an international group of authors. A short description is also given of marine...

  20. Geology and mineral potential of Ethiopia: a note on geology and mineral map of Ethiopia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tadesse, S.; Milesi, J.P.; Deschamps, Y. [University of Addis Ababa, Addis Ababa (Ethiopia). Dept. for Geology & Geophysics

    2003-05-01

    This work presents a geoscientific map and database for geology, mineral and energy resources of Ethiopia in a digital form at a scale of 1 : 2,000,000, compiled from several sources. The final result of the work has been recorded on CD-ROM in GIS format. Metallic resources (precious, rare, base and ferrous-ferroalloy metals) are widely related to the metamorphic meta-volcano-sedimentary belts and associated intrusives belonging to various terranes of the Arabian-Nubian Shield, accreted during the East and West Gondwana collision (Neoproterozoic, 900-500 Ma). Industrial minerals and rock resources occur in more diversified geological environments, including the Proterozoic basement rocks, the Late Paleozoic to Mesozoic sediments and recent (Cenozoic) volcanics and associated sediments. Energy resources (oil, coal, geothermal resources) are restricted to Phanerozoic basin sediments and Cenozoic volcanism and rifting areas.

  1. Issues affecting Northeast Asian minerals and energy markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheales, T.; Smith, V.

    1993-01-01

    Some of the broad issues likely to affect industry developments and trade in minerals and energy commodities in Northeast Asia in the 1990s are examined. Many of these issues will have a bearing on the development of mineral and energy resources of the Russian Far East region. 23 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs

  2. An outlook of Malaysian energy, oil palm industry and its utilization of wastes as useful resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sulaiman, F.; Abdullah, N.; Gerhauser, H.; Shariff, A.

    2011-01-01

    Malaysia has an abundance of energy resources, both renewable and non-renewable. The largest non-renewable energy resource found in Malaysia is oil, and second, is natural gas, primarily liquefied natural gas. The production and consumption of oil, gas and coal in Malaysia are given in this paper. The energy demand and supply by source are also shown in relation to the country's fuel diversification policy. In order to reduce the overall dependence on a single source of energy, efforts were undertaken to encourage the utilization of renewable resources. Forest residue and oil palm biomass are found to be potentially of highest energy value and considered as the main renewable energy option for Malaysia. Palm oil and related products represent the second largest export of Malaysia. The total oil palm planted area in Malaysia has increased significantly in recent years. This paper gives a detailed representation of oil palm planted and produced together with its yield from the year 1976 onwards. The large amounts of available forest and palm oil residues resulting from the harvest can be utilized for energy generation and other by-products in a manner that also addresses environmental concerns related to current waste disposal methods. -- Highlights: →Palm oil and related products represent the second largest export of Malaysia. →Malaysia has an abundance of energy resources, both renewable and non-renewable. →Forest and oil palm residues are the main renewable energy option for Malaysia. →Efforts were undertaken to encourage the utilization of renewable resources.

  3. Exhaustible resources and economic growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campbell, H.F.

    1984-09-01

    This study examines the effect of a booming natural resource sector on regional economic growth, with particular attention to the impact of regional government policy on mineral rent taxation and the allocation of resource revenues. The author's approach is first to document the relevant theory and then apply it to the case of the uranium industry in Saskatchewan

  4. Online Resources

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Genetics; Online Resources. Journal of Genetics. Online Resources. Volume 97. 2018 | Online resources. Volume 96. 2017 | Online resources. Volume 95. 2016 | Online resources. Volume 94. 2015 | Online resources. Volume 93. 2014 | Online resources. Volume 92. 2013 | Online resources ...

  5. Evaluation of water resources around Barapukuria coal mine industrial area, Dinajpur, Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howladar, M. Farhad; Deb, Pulok Kanti; Muzemder, A. T. M. Shahidul Huqe; Ahmed, Mushfique

    2014-09-01

    Water is a very important natural resource which can be utilized in renewable or non-renewable forms but before utilizing, the evaluation of the quality of this resource is crucial for a particular use. However, the problems of water quality are more severe in areas where the mining and mineral processes' industries are present. In mining processes, several classes of wastes are produced which may turn into ultimately the sources of water quality and environmental degradation. In consequences, the evaluations of water quality for livestock, drinking, irrigation purposes and environmental implications have been carried out around the Barapukuria Coal Mining Industry under different methods and techniques such as primarily the field investigation; secondly the laboratory chemical analysis and thirdly justified the suitability of the laboratory analysis with statistical representation and correlation matrix, Schoeller plot, Piper's Trilinear diagram, Expanded Durov diagram, Wilcox diagram, US salinity diagram, Doneen's chart and others. The results of all surface and ground water samples analysis show that the characteristics and concentrations of all the major physical and chemical parameters such as pH, EC, TDS, Na+, K+, Ca2+, Mg2+, Fetotal, Cl-, HCO3 -, CO3 2- and SO4 2- are varied from one sample to other but well analogous with the WHO and EQS standard limit for all purposes in the area where the abundance of the major ions is as follows: Ca2+ > Na+ > Mg2+ > K+ > Fetotal = HCO3 - > SO4 2- > Cl- > CO3 2-. The graphical exposition of analytical data demonstrates two major hydrochemical facies for example: calcium-bicarbonate (Ca2+- HCO3 -) and magnesium-bicarbonate (Mg2+- HCO3 -) type facies which directly support the shallow recently recharged alkaline water around the industry. The calculated values for the evaluation classification of water based on TDS, Na%, EC, SAR, PI, RSC, MH, and TH replicate good to excellent use of water for livestock, drinking and

  6. Mineral oil industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brasser, L.J.; Suess, M.J.; Grefen, K.; Reinisch, D.W.

    1985-01-01

    In this chapter a general picture is presented of the air pollution aspects in the mineral oil industry. The complete field is covered, starting from drilling operations and the well head up to the delivery of the products to the consumer. A large field of activities as is given by the mineral oil

  7. Vitamins, Minerals, and Mood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, Bonnie J.; Crawford, Susan G.; Field, Catherine J.; Simpson, J. Steven A.

    2007-01-01

    In this article, the authors explore the breadth and depth of published research linking dietary vitamins and minerals (micronutrients) to mood. Since the 1920s, there have been many studies on individual vitamins (especially B vitamins and Vitamins C, D, and E), minerals (calcium, chromium, iron, magnesium, zinc, and selenium), and vitamin-like…

  8. Mineral commodity summaries 2018

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ober, Joyce A.

    2018-01-31

    This report is the earliest Government publication to furnish estimates covering 2017 nonfuel mineral industry data. Data sheets contain information on the domestic industry structure, Government programs, tariffs, and 5-year salient statistics for more than 90 individual minerals and materials.

  9. Taxation of unmined minerals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bremberg, B.P.

    1989-01-01

    This paper reports on the Kentucky Revenue Cabinet which began implementing its controversial unmined minerals tax program. The Revenue Cabinet should complete its first annual assessment under this program in December, 1989. The Revenue Cabinet's initial efforts to collect basic data concerning the Commonwealth's coal bearing lands has yielded data coverage for 5 million of Kentucky's 10 million acres of coal lands. Approximately 1000 detailed information returns have been filed. The returns will be used to help create an undeveloped mineral reserves inventory, determine mineral ownership, and value mineral reserves. This new program is run by the Revenue Cabinet's Mineral Valuation Section, under the Division of Technical Support, Department of Property Taxation. It has been in business since September of 1988

  10. Mineral industry in Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parbo, S.A.

    1982-01-01

    The paper reviews the history and growth of the mineral industry in Australia and its significance to the nation's economic growth and overseas trade, particularly over the last twenty years during which time production of coal, iron ore, manganese and mineral sands has increased greatly and new discoveries of petroleum, bauxite and nickel have given rise to major new industries. Australia ranks fourteenths in the value of world trade and is among the world's largest exporters of alumina, iron ore, mineral sands, coal, lead, zinc and nickel. Some details of production, processing and exports of the major minerals are given. Comment is made on the policies and roles of the six State Governments and the Federal Government in respect of ownership and control of the mining, processing and exporting of both energy and non-energy minerals. (orig.) [de

  11. FY 1995 report on the cooperative research on the development of environmentally friendly high efficiency mineral resource extraction/treatment technology; 1995 nendo kankyo chowagata kokoritsu kobutsu shigen chushutsu shori gijutsu no kaihatsu ni kansuru kenkyu kyoryoku hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-03-01

    This promotion project on the cooperative research aims to efficiently extract and recover valuable metals (gold, silver, copper, rare metal, etc.) including in large quantity in tailings of ores in the Republic of Kazakhstan. In FY 1995, conducted were the field survey, support study in Japan, acceptance of researchers from Kazakhstan, conceptual design of pilot plant, etc. The ore/mineral for Cu is mainly an alteration ore of chalcopyrite. Au and Ag are low grade and unknown, and the main gangue mineral is pyrite. The low grade ore (waste/much) of the Nikolayevska mine has a tendency to leaching at normal temperature, but the ore of mostly chalcopyrite such as tailings from each place has difficulty in leaching. It gets leaching by increasing temperature. The more the temperature rises, the more conspicuous the reaction becomes. Further, chalcopyrite is leached with priority over pyrite. From the result, a technical potentiality was obtained of leaching of low grade chalcopyrite in tailings mostly of pyrite. The existence of Thiobacillus ferrooxidans was confirmed. As to the recovery method for Au and Ag, CIC is studied. The process of waste/much is solvent extraction, electrowinning study and leaching, and that of tailings is bacteria leaching and leaching study. (NEDO)

  12. 30 CFR 783.21 - Soil resources information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Soil resources information. 783.21 Section 783.21 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SURFACE COAL MINING AND RECLAMATION OPERATIONS PERMITS AND COAL EXPLORATION SYSTEMS UNDER REGULATORY PROGRAMS UNDERGROUND MINING PERMIT APPLICATION...

  13. 30 CFR 779.21 - Soil resources information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Soil resources information. 779.21 Section 779.21 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SURFACE COAL MINING AND RECLAMATION OPERATIONS PERMITS AND COAL EXPLORATION SYSTEMS UNDER REGULATORY PROGRAMS SURFACE MINING PERMIT...

  14. Geology and Nonfuel Mineral Deposits of Africa and the Middle East

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Cliff D.; Schulz, Klaus J.; Doebrich, Jeff L.; Orris, Greta; Denning, Paul; Kirschbaum, Michael J.

    2009-01-01

    A nation's endowment of nonfuel mineral resources, relative to the world's endowment, is a fundamental consideration in decisions related to a nation's economic and environmental well being and security. Knowledge of the worldwide abundance, distribution, and general geologic setting of mineral commodities provides a framework within which a nation can make decisions about economic development of its own resources, and the economic and environmental consequences of those decisions, in a global perspective. The information in this report is part of a U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) endeavor to evaluate the global endowment of both identified and undiscovered nonfuel mineral resources. The results will delineate areas of the world that are geologically permissive for the occurrence of undiscovered selected nonfuel mineral resources together with estimates of the quantity and quality of the resources. The results will be published as a series of regional reports; this one provides basic data on the identified resources and geologic setting, together with a brief appraisal of the potential for undiscovered mineral resources in Africa and the Middle East. Additional information, such as production statistics, economic factors that affect the mineral industries of the region, and historical information, is available in U.S. Geological Survey publications such as the Minerals Yearbook and the annual Mineral Commodity Summaries (available at http://minerals.usgs.gov/minerals).

  15. Mineral facilities of Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almanzar, Francisco; Baker, Michael S.; Elias, Nurudeen; Guzman, Eric

    2010-01-01

    This map displays over 1,700 records of mineral facilities within the countries of Europe and western Eurasia. Each record represents one commodity and one facility type at a single geographic location. Facility types include mines, oil and gas fields, and plants, such as refineries, smelters, and mills. Common commodities of interest include aluminum, cement, coal, copper, gold, iron and steel, lead, nickel, petroleum, salt, silver, and zinc. Records include attributes, such as commodity, country, location, company name, facility type and capacity (if applicable), and latitude and longitude geographical coordinates (in both degrees-minutes-seconds and decimal degrees). The data shown on this map and in table 1 were compiled from multiple sources, including (1) the most recently available data from the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Minerals Yearbook (Europe and Central Eurasia volume), (2) mineral statistics and information from the USGS Minerals Information Web site (http://minerals.usgs.gov/minerals/pubs/country/europe.html), and (3) data collected by the USGS minerals information country specialists from sources, such as statistical publications of individual countries, annual reports and press releases of operating companies, and trade journals. Data reflect the most recently published table of industry structure for each country at the time of this publication. Additional information is available from the country specialists listed in table 2.

  16. KEBIJAKAN HUKUM PIDANA DALAM MENANGGULANGI TINDAK PIDANA PERTAMBANGAN TENTANG MENDULANG EMAS SECARA TRADISIONAL YANG MENGAKIBATKAN PENCEMARAN DAN MENELAN KORBAN JIWA BERDASARKAN UNDANG-UNDANG NOMOR 4 TAHUN 2009 TENTANG PERTAMBANGAN MINERAL DAN BATU BARA (STUDI KASUS GUNUNG PONGKOR BOGOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margo Hadi Pura, S.H., M.H.

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available State of Indonesia is one country in the world that has natural resources that are very much whether it is renewable and can not be renewed (or unerewable. Examples of non-renewable wealth of the mining sector, among others, one of them a gold mine. Not all parts of Indonesia has a potential gold mine that has one gold mine is in the western part of Mount Pongkor Kab. Bogor, West Java. Until now, the hunt for gurandil (designation illegal gold miners and traditional gold mining in this region occurred since a dozen years ago. Traditional gold mining has been causing pollution and casualties. The problems to be discussed in this issue is, how the criminal law policy in tackling criminal activity in the mining of gold panning traditionally causing pollution and casualties and how the preventive and repressive criminal law in tackling the crime of mining of gold panning traditionally resulting in pollution and fatalities. This research is normative where descriptive data types used are primary data obtained through field studies and secondary data obtained through library. The results of these discussions the government has made policies by monitoring conducted by the Forest Police Rapid Response in tackling gold mining has traditionally and the government has made prevention and action illegal mining of them, by the extension of the dangers of mines traditionally, the deprivation of the means of panning, tightening security and inspection in the area Pongkor mountain region, providing security and raids, seizing and coaching gurandil and undertake community empowerment program development.

  17. Definitions of Health Terms: Minerals

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... gov/definitions/mineralsdefinitions.html Definitions of Health Terms : Minerals To use the sharing features on this page, ... National Institutes of Health, Office of Dietary Supplements Minerals Minerals are those elements on the earth and ...

  18. Characterization of clay minerals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diaz N, C.; Olguin, M.T.; Solache R, M.; Alarcon H, T.; Aguilar E, A.

    2002-01-01

    The natural clays are the more abundant minerals on the crust. They are used for making diverse industrial products. Due to the adsorption and ion exchange properties of these, a great interest for developing research directed toward the use of natural clays for the waste water treatment has been aroused. As part of such researches it is very important to carry out previously the characterization of the interest materials. In this work the results of the mineral and elemental chemical composition are presented as well as the morphological characteristics of clay minerals from different regions of the Mexican Republic. (Author)

  19. Idaho National Laboratory Cultural Resource Management Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lowrey, Diana Lee

    2009-02-01

    As a federal agency, the U.S. Department of Energy has been directed by Congress, the U.S. president, and the American public to provide leadership in the preservation of prehistoric, historic, and other cultural resources on the lands it administers. This mandate to preserve cultural resources in a spirit of stewardship for the future is outlined in various federal preservation laws, regulations, and guidelines such as the National Historic Preservation Act, the Archaeological Resources Protection Act, and the National Environmental Policy Act. The purpose of this Cultural Resource Management Plan is to describe how the Department of Energy, Idaho Operations Office will meet these responsibilities at the Idaho National Laboratory. This Laboratory, which is located in southeastern Idaho, is home to a wide variety of important cultural resources representing at least 13,500 years of human occupation in the southeastern Idaho area. These resources are nonrenewable; bear valuable physical and intangible legacies; and yield important information about the past, present, and perhaps the future. There are special challenges associated with balancing the preservation of these sites with the management and ongoing operation of an active scientific laboratory. The Department of Energy, Idaho Operations Office is committed to a cultural resource management program that accepts these challenges in a manner reflecting both the spirit and intent of the legislative mandates. This document is designed for multiple uses and is intended to be flexible and responsive to future changes in law or mission. Document flexibility and responsiveness will be assured through annual reviews and as-needed updates. Document content includes summaries of Laboratory cultural resource philosophy and overall Department of Energy policy; brief contextual overviews of Laboratory missions, environment, and cultural history; and an overview of cultural resource management practices. A series of

  20. Idaho National Laboratory Cultural Resource Management Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lowrey, Diana Lee

    2011-02-01

    As a federal agency, the U.S. Department of Energy has been directed by Congress, the U.S. president, and the American public to provide leadership in the preservation of prehistoric, historic, and other cultural resources on the lands it administers. This mandate to preserve cultural resources in a spirit of stewardship for the future is outlined in various federal preservation laws, regulations, and guidelines such as the National Historic Preservation Act, the Archaeological Resources Protection Act, and the National Environmental Policy Act. The purpose of this Cultural Resource Management Plan is to describe how the Department of Energy, Idaho Operations Office will meet these responsibilities at the Idaho National Laboratory. This Laboratory, which is located in southeastern Idaho, is home to a wide variety of important cultural resources representing at least 13,500 years of human occupation in the southeastern Idaho area. These resources are nonrenewable; bear valuable physical and intangible legacies; and yield important information about the past, present, and perhaps the future. There are special challenges associated with balancing the preservation of these sites with the management and ongoing operation of an active scientific laboratory. The Department of Energy, Idaho Operations Office is committed to a cultural resource management program that accepts these challenges in a manner reflecting both the spirit and intent of the legislative mandates. This document is designed for multiple uses and is intended to be flexible and responsive to future changes in law or mission. Document flexibility and responsiveness will be assured through annual reviews and as-needed updates. Document content includes summaries of Laboratory cultural resource philosophy and overall Department of Energy policy; brief contextual overviews of Laboratory missions, environment, and cultural history; and an overview of cultural resource management practices. A series of

  1. Idaho National Laboratory Cultural Resource Management Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Julie Braun Williams

    2013-02-01

    As a federal agency, the U.S. Department of Energy has been directed by Congress, the U.S. president, and the American public to provide leadership in the preservation of prehistoric, historic, and other cultural resources on the lands it administers. This mandate to preserve cultural resources in a spirit of stewardship for the future is outlined in various federal preservation laws, regulations, and guidelines such as the National Historic Preservation Act, the Archaeological Resources Protection Act, and the National Environmental Policy Act. The purpose of this Cultural Resource Management Plan is to describe how the Department of Energy, Idaho Operations Office will meet these responsibilities at Idaho National Laboratory in southeastern Idaho. The Idaho National Laboratory is home to a wide variety of important cultural resources representing at least 13,500 years of human occupation in the southeastern Idaho area. These resources are nonrenewable, bear valuable physical and intangible legacies, and yield important information about the past, present, and perhaps the future. There are special challenges associated with balancing the preservation of these sites with the management and ongoing operation of an active scientific laboratory. The Department of Energy, Idaho Operations Office is committed to a cultural resource management program that accepts these challenges in a manner reflecting both the spirit and intent of the legislative mandates. This document is designed for multiple uses and is intended to be flexible and responsive to future changes in law or mission. Document flexibility and responsiveness will be assured through regular reviews and as-needed updates. Document content includes summaries of Laboratory cultural resource philosophy and overall Department of Energy policy; brief contextual overviews of Laboratory missions, environment, and cultural history; and an overview of cultural resource management practices. A series of appendices

  2. Herpes - resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genital herpes - resources; Resources - genital herpes ... following organizations are good resources for information on genital herpes : March of Dimes -- www.marchofdimes.org/complications/sexually- ...

  3. 30 CFR 48.25 - Training of new miners; minimum courses of instruction; hours of instruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...; minimum courses of instruction; hours of instruction. (a) Each new miner shall receive no less than 24...: Provided, That no less than 8 hours of training shall in all cases be given to new miners before they are... instruction; hours of instruction. 48.25 Section 48.25 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION...

  4. Scientific and Engineering Progress in CO2 Mineralization Using Industrial Waste and Natural Minerals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heping Xie

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The issues of reducing CO2 levels in the atmosphere, sustainably utilizing natural mineral resources, and dealing with industrial waste offer challenging opportunities for sustainable development in energy and the environment. The latest advances in CO2 mineralization technology involving natural minerals and industrial waste are summarized in this paper, with great emphasis on the advancement of fundamental science, economic evaluation, and engineering applications. We discuss several leading large-scale CO2 mineralization methodologies from a technical and engineering-science perspective. For each technology option, we give an overview of the technical parameters, reaction pathway, reactivity, procedural scheme, and laboratorial and pilot devices. Furthermore, we present a discussion of each technology based on experimental results and the literature. Finally, current gaps in knowledge are identified in the conclusion, and an overview of the challenges and opportunities for future research in this field is provided.

  5. Law of radioactive minerals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    Legal device done in order to standardize and promote the exploration and explotation of radioactive minerals by peruvian and foreign investors. This device include the whole process, since the prospection until the development, after previous auction given by IPEN

  6. sequenceMiner algorithm

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Detecting and describing anomalies in large repositories of discrete symbol sequences. sequenceMiner has been open-sourced! Download the file below to try it out....

  7. Mineral industry statistics 1975

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-01-01

    Production, consumption and marketing statistics are given for solid fuels (coal, peat), liquid fuels and gases (oil, natural gas), iron ore, bauxite and other minerals quarried in France, in 1975. Also accident statistics are included. Production statistics are presented of the Overseas Departments and territories (French Guiana, New Caledonia, New Hebrides). An account of modifications in the mining field in 1975 is given. Concessions, exploitation permits, and permits solely for prospecting for mineral products are discussed. (In French)

  8. Coastal placer minerals

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Iyer, S.D.; Gujar, A.R.

    to be processed and purified to extract the metal either by sulphate or chloride route. The economical aspects of placer mining would involve the cost to benefit ratio, which would encompass the money Selective sorting has resulted in two distinct sediments... or mineral at the national and international levels. Interestingly, though gold is the most sought metal and the prices per gram keep rising, there are others that are much more costly such as diamond and rare earth metals. Uses of Heavy Minerals...

  9. [Pneumoconiosis in bauxite miners].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molinini, R; Pesola, M; Digennaro, M A; Carino, M; Nuzzaco, A; Coviello, F

    1985-01-01

    The authors examined a group of 40 miners who were being working at an Apulian bauxite mine, presently inactive. Radiographic findings of pulmonary micronodulation without significant reduction of lung functions were showed in 15 miners. Mineralogical analysis of mine dust samples excluded any presence of more than 1% free silica. As a result of this study hypotheses have been formulated about pathogenesis of this moderated and non-invasive pneumoconiosis, showed in long exposed subjects to low silica content dusts.

  10. Existing situation of hydro resources of coal reservoirs in regards to mineral coal mining and processing activities and other human activities; Situacao atual dos recursos hidricos da bacia carbonifera, face as atividades de lavra, beneficiamento e uso do carvao mineral e de outras atividades antropicas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krebs, Antonio Silvio J [Companhia de Pesquisas de Recursos Minerais (CPRM), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Alexandre, Nadja Zim [Fundacao de Amparo ao Meio Ambiente (FATMA), Florianopolis, SC (Brazil); [Universidade do Extermo Sul Catarinense (UNESC), Criciuma, SC (Brazil)

    1997-12-31

    The coal region which is situated in the south-east of Santa Catarina State (Brazil) is best-known as the Brazilian coal capital. The progress brought to this area by the coal explotation and later by the building of a vast ceramic industrial park has been followed by an intense environmental degradation which presents few favorable conditions for the existence of a good life quality. Nowadays this region has two thirds of its underground and surface water resources degraded by activities related the coal explotation and its use. However during the past twenty-five years some new pollution resources have been settled down in this area, specially those related to the ceramic industry, metal-mechanic, chemical and farming, to name just some of them. Therefore the Companhia de Pesquisa de Recursos Minerais - CPRM, in cooperation with Fundacao do Meio Ambiente - FATMA and Universidade do Extremo Sul Catarinense - UNESC has been carrying out a project named Qualidade das Aguas Superficiais da Bacia Carbonifera. Besides, some aspects related to the underground water resources will be focused in this work for these resources have also been very polluted and by the same pollution causes as those named before. (author) 2 refs., 1 tab.

  11. Existing situation of hydro resources of coal reservoirs in regards to mineral coal mining and processing activities and other human activities; Situacao atual dos recursos hidricos da bacia carbonifera, face as atividades de lavra, beneficiamento e uso do carvao mineral e de outras atividades antropicas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krebs, Antonio Silvio J. [Companhia de Pesquisas de Recursos Minerais (CPRM), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Alexandre, Nadja Zim [Fundacao de Amparo ao Meio Ambiente (FATMA), Florianopolis, SC (Brazil)]|[Universidade do Extermo Sul Catarinense (UNESC), Criciuma, SC (Brazil)

    1996-12-31

    The coal region which is situated in the south-east of Santa Catarina State (Brazil) is best-known as the Brazilian coal capital. The progress brought to this area by the coal explotation and later by the building of a vast ceramic industrial park has been followed by an intense environmental degradation which presents few favorable conditions for the existence of a good life quality. Nowadays this region has two thirds of its underground and surface water resources degraded by activities related the coal explotation and its use. However during the past twenty-five years some new pollution resources have been settled down in this area, specially those related to the ceramic industry, metal-mechanic, chemical and farming, to name just some of them. Therefore the Companhia de Pesquisa de Recursos Minerais - CPRM, in cooperation with Fundacao do Meio Ambiente - FATMA and Universidade do Extremo Sul Catarinense - UNESC has been carrying out a project named Qualidade das Aguas Superficiais da Bacia Carbonifera. Besides, some aspects related to the underground water resources will be focused in this work for these resources have also been very polluted and by the same pollution causes as those named before. (author) 2 refs., 1 tab.

  12. Using of Mineral Recourses for Water Purification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tumanova, I.V.; Nazarenko, O.B.; Anna, Yu.

    2009-01-01

    Pollution of surface waters results in necessity of underground waters using for drinking. Underground waters are characterized by the high quantity of heavy metals salts. This led to development of methods reducing the concentration of the metal salts in water. Wide spread occurrence, cheapness and high sorption properties of nature minerals allow to consider them as perspective sorbents for different impurities extraction, including dissoluble compounds of heavy metals. Reachable purification efficiency with mineral resources use for the moment satisfies sanitary indexes and standards presenting to portable water in Russia. In given material there are presented the results of research of artificial sorbent and certain minerals sorption characteristics, which are typical for West Siberia. For purification quality improvement from Fe and Mn ions there are suggested to use the method of boiling bed.

  13. ASSESSMENT OF MACRO-MINERALS STATUS IN SOIL, WATER, FEED RESOURCES AND ITS INFLUENCE ON BLOOD PLASMA OF SHEEP AND GOATS IN CENTRAL MIX CROPPING ZONE OF PUNJAB, PAKISTAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Talat Naseer Pasha

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available This study was undertaken to assess the effects of season, soil, water and feedstuffs on macro-mineral status of blood plasma of sheep and goats in the central mix cropping zone of Punjab, Pakistan. Five sub-locations were selected randomly from the study area. From each sub-location, blood samples were collected from adult sheep and goats as well as from kids and lambs, both in winter and summer season. Lower sodium (Na and potassium (K levels were found in soil and feedstuffs of the area. However, in different sources of water, Na values were nearly within the range but K was slightly higher. This was followed by lower plasma Na concentration both in sheep (114.23 + 10.21 mEq / L and goats (121.78 + 12.35 mEq / L. However, concentration of K was within the critical limit in sheep (4.05 + 0.40 mEq / L and goats (5.10 + 12.4 mEq / L. Plasma Na and K in both species showed effects of season, animal class and interaction of season and animal class (P≤0.05. Lower calcium (Ca concentrations were found in soil, feedstuffs and water. A similar trend was observed in plasma Ca concentration of sheep (3.2 + 0.98 mg / 100ml and goats (3.4 + 1.26 mg / 100ml during winter. In contrast, phosphorous (P was marginally deficient in soil, water and feedstuffs as well as in blood plasma of sheep (3.12 + 2.25 mg / 100ml and goat (3.60 + 2.25 mg / 100ml during winter and summer. The levels of Ca and P were marginally deficient in summer season in adult animals. Soil magnesium (Mg values were slightly higher, whereas, water and feedstuffs were deficient. Blood plasma concentration of Mg was higher many fold both in sheep (5.25 + 1.85 mg / 100ml and goats (4.76 + 1.23 mg / 100ml. However, plasma Mg was affected by season and animal class (P≤0.05.The data were all analyzed using one way ANOVA test and significant differences between means were tested using Duncan’s multiple range test. From these blood analyses, we concluded that macro-mineral

  14. Geoethical approach to mineral activities in Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talalay, Pavel

    2013-04-01

    Antarctica is the outermost from civilization space continent. From 14.0 million km2 of surface area about 98% of Antarctica is covered by ice that averages at least 1.6 km in thickness. Geologically, the continent is the least explored in the world, and it is almost absolutely unknown what mineral resources Antarctica has as they are buried in rock that is covered by a thick ice sheet. It is thought to have large and valuable mineral deposits under the ice. This is because of what has been found in samples taken from the small areas of rock that are exposed, and also from what has been found in South Africa and South America. Up until 180 million years ago, Antarctica was a part of the Gondwanaland super continent, attached to South America, the Southern part of Africa, India and Australia, these continents then drifted apart until they reached their current positions. This leads to a possibility that Antarctica may also share some of the mineral wealth of these continents. Right now on the ice-free areas of Antarctica iron ore, chromium, copper, gold, nickel, platinum, coal and hydrocarbons have been found. The Protocol on Environmental Protection to the Antarctic Treaty, also known as the Madrid Protocol, was signed in 1991 by the signatories to the Antarctic Treaty and became law in January 1998. The Protocol provides for comprehensive protection of the Antarctic environment and associated ecosystems and includes a ban on all commercial mining for at least fifty years (this is up for review in 2041). Current climate change and melting ice in Polar Regions is opening up new opportunities to exploit mineral and oil resources. Even Antarctica's weather, ice and distance from any industrialized areas mean that mineral extraction would be extremely expensive and also extremely dangerous, the depletion of mineral recourses on the Earth can reverse banning of mining in Antarctica in future. There is no question that any resource exploitation in Antarctica will cause

  15. INPRO Methodology for Sustainability Assessment of Nuclear Energy Systems: Environmental Impact from Depletion of Resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-01-01

    INPRO is an international project to help ensure that nuclear energy is available to contribute in a sustainable manner to meeting the energy needs of the 21st century. A basic principle of INPRO in the area of environmental impact from depletion of resources is that a nuclear energy system will be capable of contributing to the energy needs in the 21st century while making efficient use of non-renewable resources needed for construction, operation and decommissioning. Recognizing that a national nuclear energy programme in a given country may be based both on indigenous resources and resources purchased from abroad, this publication provides background materials and summarizes the results of international global resource availability studies that could contribute to the corresponding national assessments

  16. Information system of mineral deposits in Slovenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hribernik, K.; Rokavec, D.; Šinigioj, J.; Šolar, S.

    2010-03-01

    At the Geologic Survey of Slovenia the need for complex overview and control of the deposits of available non-metallic mineral raw materials and of their exploitations became urgent. In the framework of the Geologic Information System we established the Database of non-metallic mineral deposits comprising all important data of deposits and concessionars. Relational database is built with program package MS Access, but in year 2008 we plan to transfer it on SQL server. In the evidence there is 272 deposits and 200 concessionars. The mineral resources information system of Slovenia, which was started back in 2002, consists of two integrated parts, mentioned relational database of mineral deposits, which relates information in tabular way so that rules of relational algebra can be applied, and geographic information system (GIS), which relates spatial information of deposits. . The complex relationships between objects and the concepts of normalized data structures, lead to the practical informative and useful data model, transparent to the user and to better decision-making by allowing future scenarios to be developed and inspected. Computerized storage, and display system is as already said, developed and managed under the support of Geological Survey of Slovenia, which conducts research on the occurrence, quality, quantity, and availability of mineral resources in order to help the Nation make informed decisions using earth-science information. Information about deposit is stored in records in approximately hundred data fields. A numeric record number uniquely identifies each site. The data fields are grouped under principal categories. Each record comprise elementary data of deposit (name, type, location, prospect, rock), administrative data (concessionar, number of decree in official paper, object of decree, number of contract and its duration) and data of mineral resource produced amount and size of exploration area). The data can also be searched, sorted and

  17. The mineral economy of Brazil--Economia mineral do Brasil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurmendi, Alfredo C.; Barboza, Frederico Lopes; Thorman, Charles H.

    1999-01-01

    This study depicts the Brazilian government structure, mineral legislation and investment policy, taxation, foreign investment policies, environmental laws and regulations, and conditions in which the mineral industry operates. The report underlines Brazil's large and diversified mineral endowment. A total of 37 mineral commodities, or groups of closely related commodities, is discussed. An overview of the geologic setting of the major mineral deposits is presented. This report is presented in English and Portuguese in pdf format.

  18. Review of selected global mineral industries in 2011 and an outlook to 2017

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menzie, W. David; Soto-Viruet, Yadira; Bermúdez-Lugo, Omayra; Mobbs, Philip M.; Perez, Alberto Alexander; Taib, Mowafa; Wacaster, Susan; ,

    2013-01-01

    This report reviews the world production of selected mineral commodities in 2011 and includes output projections (based on planned capacity expansions) through 2017. It also includes brief discussions of several issues that are of importance to the mineral sector, including the world economy, the availability of strategic minerals, significant company mergers and acquisitions in 2011, exploration investment made during the year, and the moves towards resource nationalization and expropriation of mineral assets by national Governments.

  19. Mineral wealth and the economic transition: Kazakhstan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Auty, R.M.

    1998-01-01

    The exploitation of mineral wealth can amplify the problems of the transition economies in three basic ways. First, the rebound of the real exchange rate that characterises a successful transition may be augmented by the capital inflow required to expand mineral production. This can cause both recession in the short-run and lower growth in the medium-term. Second, when the mineral revenues expand, the Dutch Disease effects may intensify the transition-related shrinkage of the non-mining tradable sector, thereby retarding economic diversification and rendering the economy vulnerable to external shocks. Third, a mineral boom tends to concentrate revenue on the government, which may use it to postpone difficult decisions on economic reform and/or dissipate the revenue due to weak financial markets and inadequate public accountability. Kazakhstan, like oil-rich Azerbaijan, is a late reformer and displays evidence of a faster transition rebound than other less resource-rich countries in the CIS do. However, Kazakhstan has two advantages over Azerbaijan. First, Kazakhstan has a more diversified mineral endowment with which to counter any trend towards single commodity specialization. Second, Kazakhstan is making a later start on oil expansion so that it can learn from the experience of Azerbaijan. Priorities for Kazakhstan are the continuation of prudent economic policies, the creation of institutions to enhance the transparency of the revenue flows, and the use of environmental accounting to provide a rationale for the deployment of the oil rents. (author)

  20. 78 FR 30810 - Paleontological Resources Preservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-23

    ..., maintaining confidentiality of specific locality data, and authorizing penalties for illegal collecting, sale... the general mining laws, the mineral or geothermal leasing laws, laws providing for minerals materials... with certain non-agency personnel for scientific, educational, or resource management purposes, without...