Department of Homeland Security — This Private Schools feature dataset is composed of all Private elementary and secondary education features in the United States as defined by the Private School...
Stewart, Brandon T.; Heck, Nicholas C.; Cochran, Bryan N.
Sexual minority youth are an at-risk group for negative health outcomes. The present study compares descriptive characteristics and outness of sexual minority youth who attend religious schools to sexual minorities who do not attend religious schools, and also investigates if attending religiously affiliated schools is associated with levels of…
Cronin, Joseph M.; Kenyon, Regan
In examining the state's role in private education, this article discusses court cases bearing on state services to private schools, state regulation of different types of private schools, collaborative efforts between public and private schools, and emerging state attitudes toward private education. (Author/WD)
Full Text Available This paper attempts to study the correlation between IRIB’s Religious and Non-religious programs, and the levels of religiosity in Iran. Accordingly, I would firstly explain the key concepts as religious program, non-religious program, religious broadcasting, and Ideological broadcasting; then, analyzing some instant programs, from non-religious to religious, I would attempt to formulize their impacts on one’s definition of religion –either as a private or simultaneously private and public matter. It is shown that in the trilogy of purely religious, purely entertaining, and mediated religious programs, it is the third which satisfy a religious television’s ideal.
A voucher system enabling parents to choose freely the schools their children attend is the most feasible way to improve education. Vouchers will encourage privatization. That will unleash the drive, imagination, and energy of competitive free enterprise to revolutionize the education process. Government schools will be forced to improve to retain…
Cadigan, Francoise Jane; Wei, Yichun; Clifton, Rodney A.
Very little Canadian research has examined the academic achievement of private school students. Data from The Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) 2003 were used to examine the achievement of private school students. The study found that private school students outperformed their public school peers. In addition, the students'…
Any voucher program that is going to have a major impact on the public education system is likely to require an expansion of private schools in order to accommodate increased demand; however, very little is known about where private schools open and, therefore, how a major voucher program might affect private school availability in various communities. This article examines the relationship between the location of private schools and local neighborhood characteristics, hoping to shed some lig...
Van Hoof, Thomas J.; Sherwin, Tierney E.; Baggish, Rosemary C.; Tacy, Peter B.; Meehan, Thomas P.
Private schools educate a significant percentage of US children and adolescents. Private schools, particularly where students reside during the academic year, assume responsibility for the health and well-being of their students. Children and adolescents experience mental health problems at a predictable rate, and private schools need a mechanism…
Green, Francis; Machin, Stephen; Murphy, Richard; Zhu, Yu
We analyse the role of private schools in the teachers' labour market. Private schools employ an increasingly-disproportionate share of teachers in Britain, relative to the number of their pupils. Their teachers are more likely than state school teachers to possess post-graduate qualifications, and to be specialists in shortage subjects.…
Background The aim of the study was to determine the values (Schwartz’s ten basic values) and sense of symbolic immortality among non-religious adolescents. Participants and procedure Participants were recruited from secondary schools in Gdansk and Gdynia. Results The results showed that non-religious adolescents achieved higher results in the natural mode, and lower in biological-creative and religious modes. They also scored higher on universalism and self...
Gustavo E. Fischman
Full Text Available Local actors' perceptions of curricular and management changes in two private schools and one neighboring public secondary school in the city of Buenos Aires, Argentina, are analyzed. An exploration was conducted of how, within an ideologically and politically pro-reform context and a widespread acceptance of the "private school advantage," principals, teachers, and students in these schools evaluated the changes (or lack of them in management, teaching, and curriculum orientations of the secondary education sector.
Gustavo E. Fischman
Local actors' perceptions of curricular and management changes in two private schools and one neighboring public secondary school in the city of Buenos Aires, Argentina, are analyzed. An exploration was conducted of how, within an ideologically and politically pro-reform context and a widespread acceptance of the "private school advantage," principals, teachers, and students in these schools evaluated the changes (or lack of them) in management, teaching, and curriculum orientations of the se...
This article examines the debate between equity theorists (Adam Swift and Harry Brighouse) and adequacy theorists (Elizabeth Anderson and Debra Satz) over elite private schooling and productivity. It challenges the view, presupposed but never defended by adequacy theorists, that private schools can be justified on social productivity grounds, that…
Full Text Available This article aims to analyze the educational grants from budget of local government. Author presented procedures about establish private schools and educational institutions and explained selected concepts about units of education. The article presents selected judgment from SN and NSA in disputes about grants for private schools.
Andersen, Simon Calmar; Serritzlew, Søren
We examine whether competition from private schools improves public school performance and expenditure. It is difficult methodologically to isolate the effect of competition, but we use new measures of competition in both the public and the private school sector and a data set comprising detailed...... background information on more than 35,000 public school students in the Danish voucher system. This design provides a relatively firm support for the conclusion that competition does not improve achievement of public school students but that it increases public expenditure per student. Finally, we argue...
Sandra Rubin Glass
Full Text Available
School choice is the most controversial education policy issue of the 1990s. John Chubb and Terry Moe's Politics, Markets and America's Schools stimulated this investigation. They concluded that teacher and administrator autonomy was the most important influence on student achievement. They assumed that the organization of private schools offered greater autonomy resulting in higher student achievement and that the bureaucracy of public schools stifles autonomy limiting student achievement. The research undertaken here elaborates, elucidates, and fills in the framework of teacher and principal autonomy in public and private secondary schools. Interviews of more than thirty teachers and administrators in six high schools, observations, field notes, and analysis of documents collected in the field form the empirical base of this work. The sites included three private, independent, nondenominational secondary schools which are college preparatory and three public secondary schools noted for high graduation rates and offering numerous advanced placement courses.
The feelings expressed by both public and private school participants in this study testify to equally high degrees of autonomy. Issues that emerged from data analysis in this study which mitigate and shape autonomy include the following: conflicting and contradictory demands, shared beliefs, layers of protection, a system of laws, funding constraints and matters of size of the institution. These issues challenge oversimplified assertions that differences of any importance exist between the autonomy experienced by professionals in public and private high schools. This study reveals the complexity of the concept of autonomy and challenges the myth that teachers and principals in private schools enjoy autonomy and freedom from democratic bureaucracy that their public school counterparts do not.
... assessments to private schools and private school students. (a) Nothing in § 200.1 or § 200.2 requires a... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Applicability of a State's academic assessments to private schools and private school students. 200.10 Section 200.10 Education Regulations of the Offices of...
Dahler-Larsen, Peter; Foged, Søren Kjær
is that dissimilar functional areas are studied which makes it difficult to isolate effects of privatization as such. We respond to these challenges by carrying out an empirical analysis of job satisfaction among teachers who teach Danish to immigrants. The teachers work in comparable schools, carry out the same...... task, and are subject to the same performance management system, but some of the schools are public, some are private, and some have been subject to competitive tendering. We demonstrate that competition has a greater impact than ownership upon job satisfaction. We also show that one of the key...... mechanisms which translate competition into reduced job satisfaction relates to changing relations between managers and employees. Advocates and opponents of privatization alike should pay more attention to specific aspects and mechanisms related to privatization, in particular the element of competition....
Full Text Available Background The aim of the study was to determine the values (Schwartz’s ten basic values and sense of symbolic immortality among non-religious adolescents. Participants and procedure Participants were recruited from secondary schools in Gdansk and Gdynia. Results The results showed that non-religious adolescents achieved higher results in the natural mode, and lower in biological-creative and religious modes. They also scored higher on universalism and self-direction subscales of Schwartz’s ten basic values. The results are discussed in the light of humanistic personal ideology and terror management theory. Conclusions The cultural worldview that protects non-religious adolescents against death anxiety seems to be more rooted in humanistic and individualistic values.
Hohman, James M.; Fryzelka, Evan E.
Many of Michigan's public school districts are under substantial fiscal pressures from a combination of declining enrollment and increasing costs, particularly related to employee benefits, but most districts are responding to these challenges. One of the ways that districts can stretch their resources further is through competitive contracting…
The level of fee remissions offered by private schools bears upon the scope for relying on private schools to provide public benefit. Analyses of education voucher systems have generally ignored the possibility that they will partially crowd out school-financed fee remissions. Moreover, variation in fee remissions between private schools may be…
Roach, Arthur H.
This report examines the process behind setting up and implementing a "capital campaign": a program for raising money for new or renovated facilities at private K-12 schools. The report covers tax information regarding gifts to institutions then offers advice for setting up a comprehensive development program, including fundraising software and…
The present paper, based on an ethnographic study of a government school and a low-cost private school in Andhra Pradesh, India, argues that the students of a government school and a private school have two different worlds and are socialised differently. As children progress from childhood to adolescence, the transition is accompanied by…
Jan 28, 2013 ... The Private School System is part of the education system in Rivers ... buildings, and adequacy of teaching staff. ... Baptist High School, Port Harcourt, Holy Rosary Secondary School, ..... Nigeria Demographic Profile (2012).
This report explores the role of private consultants in the school facility planning process. : It focuses on such issues as school siting and local government and school district collaboration. : As such, it seeks to demonstrate the importance of th...
Franklin, Renee E.
Materials challenges and censorship occur often in public and private educational settings. Private schools and their library media centers are not subject to the First Amendment but research reported in this article examines the state of challenges to materials held in private schools media centers in the southeast United States as a way to gauge…
Jabbar, Huriya; Li, Dongmei M.
School choice policies, such as charter schools and vouchers, are in part designed to induce competition between schools. While several studies have examined the impact of private school competition on public schools, few studies have explored school leaders' perceptions of private school competitors. This study examines the extent to which public…
Talbert, Joan E.
Based on an institutional-contingency view, this study focuses on ways in which public and private school sectors in six San Francisco area counties embody different organizational logistics and authority principles, including rational-legal, traditional, and local-market. Results suggest that, among other characteristics, nonreligious private…
Duncan, Deirdre J.; Duncan, Robyn M.
Explores contract law governing relationships between the student and school authorities, the teacher and the school, and the school and third parties in Australian private schools. Shows that government schools do not meet the conditions for enforceable contracts under Australian law. Includes seven references. (MLH)
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — California law (California Education Code Section 33190) requires private schools offering or conducting a full-time elementary or secondary level day school for...
This article, written from an insider perspective, and in a personal capacity (the author has been involved with the Council of Europe's work on religion and education since its inception in 2002), gives an account of the developing interest in the study of religions (and latterly non-religious convictions) in publicly funded schools by the…
Catt, Andrew D.
Exploring Ohio's Private Education Sector is the second entry in the Friedman Foundation for Educational Choice's "School Survey Series." This report synthesizes information on Ohio's private schools collected by the U.S. Department of Education and the Ohio Department of Education (ODE). Two appendices provide supplementary tables and…
Honingh, M. E.; Oort, F. J.
Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to compare teachers' organisational behaviour in publicly- and privately-funded schools in the Dutch Vocational Education and Training (VET) sector. Design/methodology/approach: A percentage of all middle managers in publicly and privately funded schools (72 per cent and 43 per cent respectively) distributed…
Honingh, M.E.; Oort, F.J.
Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to compare teachers' organisational behaviour in publicly- and privately-funded schools in the Dutch Vocational Education and Training (VET) sector. Design/methodology/approach - A percentage of all middle managers in publicly and privately funded schools (72
This paper compares external motivation and job satisfaction in private and public secondary schools biology teachers in Education District IV of Lagos state. The sample for the study consists of 120 Biology teachers selected from ten private and ten public secondary schools. A 20-items Likert type questionnaire was ...
Reviews the major phases of development of the relationship between French private education and the state from the early 1950s when private schools (mostly Catholic) began receiving state subsidies. Concludes that the framework of subsidies has enabled Catholic schools to elaborate new social roles as well as to strengthen their traditional place…
Shaw, Jana; Tserenpuntsag, Boldtsetseg; McNutt, Louise-Anne; Halsey, Neal
To compare medical, religious, and personal belief immunization exemption rates between private and public schools in US. Exemption rates were calculated using the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention School Immunization Assessment Surveys for the 2009-2010 school year excluding states with incomplete survey data. Standardized exemption rates weighted on enrollments in public and private schools were calculated. Differences in exemption rates between public and private schools were tested using Wilcoxon signed rank test. The overall state exemption rate was higher in US private than public schools, 4.25% (SD 4.27) vs 1.91% (1.67), P = .0001 and private schools had higher exemption rates for all types of exemptions; medical 0.58% (0.71) vs 0.34% (0.34) respectively (P = .0004), religious 2.09% (3.14) vs 0.83% (1.05) respectively (P = .0001), and personal belief 6.10% (4.12) vs 2.79% (1.57), respectively (P = .006). Overall exemption rates were significantly higher in states that allowed personal belief exemptions. Exemption rates were significantly higher in US private than in public schools. Children attending private schools may be at higher risk of vaccine-preventable diseases than public school children. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Egalite, Anna J.; Wolf, Patrick J.
Parents in the United States have had the legal right to choose the school their child attends for a long time. Traditionally, parental school choice took the form of families moving to a neighborhood with good public schools or self-financing private schooling. Contemporary education policies allow parents in many areas to choose from among…
Pike, Alicia; Pryor, Riana R; Mazerolle, Stephanie M; Stearns, Rebecca L; Casa, Douglas J
Availability of athletic trainer (AT) services in US secondary schools has recently been reported to be as high as 70%, but this only describes the public sector. The extent of AT coverage in private secondary school settings has yet to be investigated and may differ from the public secondary school setting for several reasons, including differences in funding sources. To determine the level of AT services in US private secondary schools and identify the reasons why some schools did not employ ATs. Concurrent mixed-methods study. Private secondary schools in the United States. Of 5414 private secondary schools, 2044 (38%) responded to the survey. School administrators responded to the survey via telephone or e-mail. This instrument was previously used in a study examining AT services among public secondary schools. Descriptive statistics provided national data. Open-ended questions were evaluated through content analysis. Of the 2044 schools that responded, 58% (1176/2044) offered AT services, including 28% (574/2040) full time, 25% (501/2042) part time, 4% (78/1918) per diem, and 20% (409/2042) from a hospital or clinic. A total of 84% (281 285/336 165) of athletes had access to AT services. Larger private secondary schools were more likely to have AT services available. Barriers to providing AT services in the private sector were budgetary constraints, school size and sports, and lack of awareness of the role of an AT. More than half of the surveyed private secondary schools in the United States had AT services available; however, only 28% had a full-time AT. This demonstrates the need for increased medical coverage to provide athletes in this setting the appropriate level of care. Budgetary concerns, size of the school and sport offerings, and lack of awareness of the role of the AT continued to be barriers in the secondary school setting.
Full Text Available Investment in education is considered important for economic growth and poverty alleviation. In many developed and developing countries families contribute privately to the education of their children as a result of continuously shrinking public budgets. Also, in Istanbul private primary schools were supported by the government in order to answer to increasing demand due to continuous rural migration and to create a competitive educational market to improve the quality of primary education. This paper, first, analyzes the spatial distribution of private primary schools according to the concentric rings and illustrates the gap between the center and the periphery and among the districts. Then, the relationships between the number of private primary schools and demand and the characteristics of the districts are investigated by a regression analysis. According to the results, the number of public primary schools is the most important factor and GDP per capita is the second factor to affect the number of private primary schools in the districts. Currently, the cluster of private primary schools mainly in high-income districts does not allow developing a competitive educational market at the metropolitan level. It is expected that a more balanced market will be develop as the urban structure of Istanbul adjusted to the neo-liberal economies in the future. The results are useful for urban planners, investors and policy makers. Further research is suggested to investigate the impact of private primary schools on the quality of public primary school education in Istanbul.
Kahan, David; McKenzie, Thomas L
Physical education (PE) is mandated in most states, but few studies of PE in private schools exist. We assessed selected PE policies and practices in private secondary schools (grades 6 to 12) in California using a 15-item questionnaire related to school characteristics and their PE programs. Responding schools (n = 450; response rate, 33.8%) were from 37 counties. Most were coeducational (91.3%) and had a religious affiliation (83%). Secular schools had more PE lessons, weekly PE min, and smaller class sizes. Most schools met guidelines for class size, but few met national recommendations for weekly PE minutes (13.7%), not permitting substitutions for PE (35.6%), and programs being taught entirely by PE specialists (29.3%). Private schools, which serve about 5 million US children and adolescents, may be falling short in providing quality PE. School stakeholders should encourage adoption and implementation of policies and practices that abide by professional guidelines and state statutes.
This paper, written by strategic partner of the Center on School Turnaround (CST), Julie Corbett, provides research and examples on England's approach to turning around its lowest performing schools. The English education system utilizes private vendors to support chronically low-performing schools and districts. The introduction is followed by…
Using data from the survey of the Ministry of Education, Nepal-2005 for school leaving certificate (SLC) exam, this paper attempts to estimate the impact of private school competition on public school performance for the case of Nepal. The study uses the number of private schools in the neighborhood as a measure of competition. The identification…
... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Funds not to benefit a private school. 76.658 Section... Schools § 76.658 Funds not to benefit a private school. (a) A subgrantee may not use program funds to finance the existing level of instruction in a private school or to otherwise benefit the private school...
Boerema, Albert J.
Using student achievement data from British Columbia, Canada, this study is an exploration of the differences that lie within the private school sector using hierarchical linear modeling to analyze the data. The analysis showed that when controlling for language, parents' level of educational attainment, and prior achievement, the private school…
Khanal, Jeevan; Park, Sae-Hoon
The purpose of this study was to elaborate the situation of corporal punishment which is being practiced in Nepalese schools going against new policies that promote the non-violence teaching. It was based on original qualitative study of one private school of Kathmandu (the capital city of Nepal) having more than 2000 students and 100 teachers.…
To overcome inadequate funding of public schools, the introduction of education tax has been suggested in literature. This paper analysed the effects of such tax on private schools using mathematical models, and highlighted the ways for achieving the smooth functioning of the system. Three case senerios were studied: ...
Catt, Andrew D.
Indiana is at the national forefront on private school choice. With the broadest eligibility guidelines among the country's 22 other school voucher programs, Indiana's Choice Scholarship Program has seen enrollment more than double each year since being enacted in 2011. Today, when compared with voucher programs in 12 other states, Indiana has the…
Southern Education Foundation, 2011
Georgia is one of seven states that currently allow tax credits for scholarships to private schools. Georgia's law was enacted in May 2008 in order to assist low income students to transfer out of low performing public schools. Operations under the new act began in late 2008. The law permits taxpayers in Georgia to reduce their annual state taxes…
Rockenbach, Alyssa N.; Mayhew, Matthew J.; Bowman, Nicholas A.
Based on a campus climate survey involving 633 respondents from two institutions, this study examined perceptions of nonreligious acceptance on campus as a function of students' religious identification and strength of commitment to worldview. The findings suggest that atheist students are less inclined than are their peers to perceive a positive…
Wilson, Marguerite Anne Fillion
Educational researchers have called attention to how neoliberal ideology has profoundly and detrimentally influenced public education systems, but less attention has been paid to how neoliberalism influences "private" educational institutions. This article examines the influence of neoliberal ideology on education in the USA through an…
Bisma Haseeb Khan; Sahar Amjad Shaikh
Over the past decade, Pakistan has seen the rapid growth of a third sector in education: shadow education. According to the Annual Survey of Education Report (2013), 34 percent of private school students and 17 percent of public school students undertake private tuition in Punjab. Anecdotal evidence suggests that private tuition has a positive impact on learning outcomes. Keeping this in view, it is possible that private tuition, rather than a difference inschooling quality, is driving the ob...
Broughman, Stephen P.; Swaim, Nancy L.
In 1988, the National Center for Education Statistics (NCES) developed a private school data collection that improved on the sporadic collection of private school data dating back to 1890 and at the same time developed an alternative to commercially available private school sampling frames. Since 1989, the U.S. Bureau of the Census has conducted…
Broughman, Stephen P.; Swaim, Nancy L.
In 1988, the National Center for Education Statistics (NCES) developed a private school data collection that improved on the sporadic collection of private school data dating back to 1890 by developing an alternative to commercially available private school sampling frames. Since 1989, the U.S. Bureau of the Census has conducted the biennial…
Broughman, Stephen P.; Swaim, Nancy L.; Hryczaniuk, Cassie A.
In 1988, the National Center for Education Statistics (NCES) introduced a proposal to develop a private school data collection that would improve on the sporadic collection of private school data dating back to 1890 and improve on commercially available private school sampling frames. Since 1989, the U.S. Bureau of the Census has conducted the…
Broughman, Stephen P.; Swaim, Nancy L.; Keaton, Patrick W.
Since 1989, the U.S. Bureau of the Census has conducted the biennial Private School Universe Survey (PSS) for the National Center for Education Statistics (NCES). The PSS is designed to generate biennial data on the total number of private schools, students, and teachers, and to build a universe of private schools in the 50 states and the District…
Bailey, Marcia J. Harr; Cooper, Bruce S.
Charter schools are opening, and religious associations are also sponsoring these schools since religious groups find private school tuitions to be high and prohibitive. This study includes studies of Tarek ibn Ziyad Academy, a Minnesota Arabic charter school (Blaine and Inver Grove Heights, MN); Ben Gamla Charter School, a Florida English-Hebrew…
Charter schools are publicly funded schools that have considerable independence from public school districts in their curriculum development and staffing decisions, and their enrollments have increased substantially over the past two decades. Charter schools are changing public and private school enrollment patterns across the United States. This…
Lain A.B. Mathers
Full Text Available Building on research that points out the specific forms of marginalization that transgender and nonreligious people face in contemporary U.S. society, this exploratory analysis focuses on the experiences of transgender nonreligious people who were raised in religious households. Utilizing interviews with eleven formerly religious, now nonreligious, transgender people I draw out some of the future pathways scholars of nonreligion should take to better account for the lives of transgender nonreligious people in scholarship on nonreligion. Specifically, scholars of nonreligion should begin analyzing transgender nonreligious people’s experiences in religious settings, with family, and with organizations and networks outside of religion. I conclude by discussing the ways this study can shed light on the broader processes by which inequality is reproduced and make suggestions for nonreligious leaders to make room for and listen to transgender people in nonreligious spaces.
Lye, Jenny; Hirschberg, Joe
The recent growth in privately administered secondary education in many developed countries has been a widely observed phenomenon. The Australian private secondary school sector has grown faster than those in any other "OECD" nation, even though the average tuition fees charged by these schools have increased at double the nation's…
Jung, Jae Yup; McCormick, John; Gregory, Gary; Barnett, Kerry
The purpose of this study was to investigate the roles of culture and motivation in the occupational decisions of senior high school students attending private schools. A theoretical framework guided the study. A questionnaire was administered to 492 Grade 11 students attending a stratified random sample of six independent (private) schools…
Hoeg, Darren; Lemelin, Nathalie; Bencze, John Lawrence
A contemporary focus on democratic decision-making has occurred in school science through curricular developments such as socioscientific issues (SSIs) and Science, Technology, Society and Environment (STSE), creates opportunities for inclusion of activist education. However, it appears these components are often taught, if at all, as simply add-on content. Private schools represent a domain of education that has received relatively little attention in research literature regarding sociopolitical activism for addressing SSIs. In this study, we aimed to document the extent to which private school students were able to implement socioscientific activism and to map their socio-political development in the context of a project on child labour. Data collected from student projects and interviews indicate, in many cases, dramatic development of socially critical views and activist orientations that took place over time, and in various steps. A discussion of the factors enabling students' activist development, such as the school culture, the curriculum, and their teacher, are discussed.
This research is an exploratory study that investigates students’ perceptions pertinent to textbook layout and organization and their evaluation of the textbook ease of learning. The objective is to find out whether the layout dynamics of school textbooks make any difference in students’ interest in studying or subject understanding. 73 students from various private schools of Pakistan’s cosmopolitan city Karachi responded to a quantitative survey that gauged their percep...
Addi-Raccah, Audrey; Dana, Oshra
Private tutoring (PT) is becoming a worldwide phenomenon. In Israel too, about a third of elementary school students participate in PT. Based on sociological and school quality considerations, we examined school characteristics that are associated with PT intensity at school. The data encompassed a random state wide sample of 389 Israeli…
Full Text Available Contemporary growth in non-religious populations has given rise to novel communities with unique perspectives on social issues. We describe a study of diversity within speakers at conferences organised by and attended by the atheist community. We analyse trends in diversity of 630 speakers, corresponding to 1223 speaking slots at 48 conferences conducted for the purpose of discussing or espousing non-religious views over the period 2003–2014. Diversity among speakers (defined using multivariate statistics in terms of the representation of women and non-white people increased significantly over time during the period studied. This broadening participation may have arisen from interventions to address issues of representation or may simply reflect a generational shift in the demographics of the community. However, on-going problems with data collection and the imbalance in the social cost of identifying as non-religious between different social groups continue to impede efforts to reduce barriers to equality within this growing movement.
The work discussed funding for libraries in selected public and private schools in Imo State as well as provision of resources in their libraries. The major aim of the work was that there is a corollary between funding and provision of resources such that the funding directly affects the resources of the library. The survey ...
This article evaluates strengths and limitations of some studio training. It focuses on values that private studio students bring to the public school setting. One teacher uses this as an opportunity to reflect on and claim her own values and desire to develop students as artists.
Lai, Yun-Kuang; Nadeau, Jessica; McNutt, Louise-Anne; Shaw, Jana
School immunization requirements have ensured high vaccination rates and have helped to control vaccine-preventable diseases. However, vaccine exemptions have increased in the last decade. This study compared New York State private versus public schools with respect to medical and religious exemption rates. This retrospective study utilizes New York State Department of Health Immunization Survey data from the 2003 through 2012 academic years. Schools were categorized as private or public, the former further categorized by religious affiliation. Rates of medical and religious vaccine exemptions were compared by school category. From 2003 to 2012, religious exemptions increased in private and public schools from 0.63% to 1.35% and 0.17% to 0.29% (Spearman's R: 0.89 and 0.81), respectively. Among private schools, increases in religious exemption rates during the study period were observed in Catholic/Eastern Orthodox, Protestant/Other Christian, Jewish, and secular schools (Spearman's R=0.66, 0.99, 0.89, and 0.93), respectively. Exemption rate ratios in private schools compared to public schools were 1.39 (95% CI 1.15-1.68) for medical and 3.94 (95% CI: 3.20-4.86) for religious exemptions. Among private school students, all school types except for Catholic/Eastern Orthodox and Episcopal affiliates were more likely to report religious exemptions compared to children in public schools. Medical and religious exemption rates increased over time and higher rates were observed among New York State private schools compared to public schools. Low exemption rates are critical to minimize disease outbreaks in the schools and their community. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
This study presents new findings comparing public and private high schools using top-quality data from the Education Longitudinal Study (ELS), a long-term research project sponsored by the U.S. Department of Education. The ELS project tracks individual data on thousands of students, allowing researchers to conduct much better analyses than are…
Zhan, Shengli; Bray, Mark; Wang, Dan; Lykins, Chad; Kwo, Ora
This paper examines Hong Kong students' perceptions on the effectiveness of private supplementary tutoring relative to mainstream schooling. Drawing on survey and interview data, it shows that large proportions of secondary school students receive private tutoring. Students generally perceive private tutoring and private tutors to be more…
Wagner, Richard E., Ed.
In this publication, six scholars interested in private education and knowledgeable in economic policy and politics present several different views of government aid to private schools. In the lead essay, William Cage argues that supporters of private schooling are shortsighted in advocating public aid for private education. Government aid, says…
Kahan, David; McKenzie, Thomas L
Interscholastic, intramural, and club physical activity (PA) programs can be important contributors to student PA accrual at schools. Few studies have assessed factors related to the provision of these extracurricular PA programs, especially in private schools. We used a 16-item questionnaire to assess the associations and influences of selected factors relative to extracurricular PA program policies and practices in 450 private California secondary schools. Associations were evaluated using contingency table analyses (i.e., chi-squared, effect size, and post-hoc analyses). Six factors were associated with schools providing extracurricular PA programs: school location, level, enrollment, and religious classification and whether the physical education (PE) program met state PE time standards and was taught by PE specialists. Both static factors (e.g., school location, level, enrollment, and religious affiliation) and modifiable factors (e.g., meeting PE standards and employing specialists) affect the provision of extracurricular PA programs. As education is state-mandated, additional study is recommended to assess the generalizability of these findings to other states and to public schools.
Kapel, David E.; And Others
This study investigated possible effects of school choice programs by surveying 200 private schools in large urban areas. The survey instrument requested information on school demography, possible effects of participation in a Choice program, costs, selection of students participating in Choice, and climate and parental involvement. Analysis of…
Madhuwanthi, L. A. P.
The purpose of this paper is to explore why private sector schools in Sri Lanka employ elderly teachers (ETs). This paper used semi-structured in-depth interviews with 9 employers/principals in the private sector schools in Sri Lanka. The study found that the reasons for employing ETs in the private sector schools were shortfall of English medium…
... process must be designed to ensure— (1) The equitable participation of parentally-placed private school... which the private schools that they attend are located. (Approved by the Office of Management and Budget... 34 Education 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Child find for parentally-placed private school...
... Programs, and Educational Placements Development of Iep § 300.325 Private school placements by public... child to, a private school or facility, the agency must initiate and conduct a meeting to develop an IEP... disability enters a private school or facility, any meetings to review and revise the child's IEP may be...
Langouet, Gabriel; Leger, Alain
During the 1980s, 35 percent of French pupils attended private schools at some point. The private sector (largely state-supported Catholic schools) offered a second chance that was not seized equally. Research shows public-sector recruitment was more democratic; private schools equalized results more successfully. (Contains 12 references.) (MLH)
Feb 23, 2018 ... of school environments of primary schools in Enugu East, Nigeria, and to compare ... Nigeria, is unhealthy and unfriendly and currently cannot promote and protect the ... capable of providing a good platform for improving child.
Stern, Jonathan M. B.
This study uses a comprehensive dataset on secondary school students in Brazil to examine the impact of private school enrollment on educational attainment in São Paulo. The results show that private school students (across all levels of tuition) perform better than their public school counterparts on Brazil's high school exit exam, even after…
Mallett, Christopher A.
Privatized service delivery within Medicaid has greatly increased over the past two decades. This public program-private sector collaboration is quite common today, with a majority of Medicaid recipients receiving services in this fashion; yet controversy remains. This article focuses on just one program within Medicaid, school-based services for…
Akhtar, Iram; Cheema, Khaliq Ur Rehman
The purpose of this study is to analyze the performance in context of student learning of principals in public sector and private sector schools. For this purpose five main domains were used as variables are: 1) teaching, learning and professional growth, 2) Inter-personal and inter-professional relationship and collaboration, 3) Parent and faculty involvement in decision making, 4) Vision and values, 5) Innovation and change. The population for this study was selected randomly. The target sa...
Paula A. Cordeiro
Full Text Available This study explores the opportunities and challenges of women who own low-fee private schools in three West African nations. With the implementation of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs in 2000 and the Sustainable Development Goals in 2016, it has become obvious to policymakers that school leadership needs to be a policy priority around the world. Increased school autonomy and a greater focus on schooling and school results have made it essential to understand and support the role of school leaders. Few countries however have strong and systematic initiatives to professionalize school leadership and to nurture and support current school leaders. This becomes even more complex for governments given the rise of private schooling in low and middle-income countries worldwide; thus, it is crucial for governments to understand the importance of leadership at the school level and how to nurture and professionalize it. In this study, the authors examine the roles of women school leaders in Burkina Faso, Ghana, and Liberia within the context of MDG 3: promote gender equality and empower women. Because of the many challenges in the public sector in education in low and middle-income countries, the private sector has responded by creating thousands of small businesses. Since a large and growing number of women are leading these private schools, this study presents the findings on the nature of the leadership of these women entrepreneurs. Fourteen school proprietors participated in face-to face interviews about their reasons for founding a school as well as the supports and challenges they face. Findings discuss the limited professional learning opportunities for school leaders in these nations. The study describes the school leaders’ desires to help build their nations, and the unique cultural and contextual factors in each country.
Full Text Available This study aims to examine public and private school teachers’ opinions on different aspects of their professional associations and provisions and also asks principals about teachers’ conduct and their views on the Nigerian curriculum. To conduct this study, qualitative and quantitative research models were used to investigate differences between the two organizations. Quantitative data was collected by distributing questionnaires to 118 teachers in the Abuja Municipal Area Council (AMAC, Nigeria. To conduct the qualitative analysis, 15 teachers from two schools were selected (a total of 30 teachers to answer 5 discussion questions concerning their views on the Nigerian educational system. The findings revealed that private school teachers are at an advantage when it comes to provision of resources and technology, professional development and to some degree salaries. Both public and private school teachers felt being a teacher did not bring them respect in their community. Government policy makers need to study private schools and how they operate to see how they can make changes to produce the revolutionary reform needed in education. 30 principals’ interviews revealed that public school teachers are not easily held accountable for misconduct due to the structure of leadership, while private school teachers are held accountable and any form of unprofessionalism easily leads to termination of employment.
Dronkers, Jaap; Robert, Peter
The gross differences in scholastic achievement among public, private government-dependent, and private independent schools in 22 countries are analyzed with Programme for International Student Assessment 2000 data. In a multilevel approach, the authors estimate these sector effects, controlling for sociological characteristics of students and…
Using data from the survey of the Ministry of Education, Nepal-2005 for School Leaving Certificate Exam, this paper analyzes public and private school performance in Nepal. The ordinary least square estimates suggest that private school students perform better than public school students. However, the problem of self-selection bias arises, as…
Gilbert C. Magulod Jr.
Full Text Available What defines effective school is the necessity of the school community to tailor interventions to improve quality of education. This study determined the factors of school effectiveness and level of school performance of private and public elementary schools in the Second Congressional District of Cagayan Province, Philippines. The study made use of mixed-method research. For quantitative, the descriptive correlational method was used to identify the relationship between school effectiveness and school performance. Factorial analysis was also used to identify the principal components of school effectiveness of private and public elementary schools. The participants of the study were the 182 public and private elementary school principals and teachers from the 20 sampled schools. School effectiveness was measured using the seven correlates of effective schools. On the other hand, the level of school performance was gauged through the National Achievement Test (NAT results for the past three years. The qualitative part of the study focused on the school effectiveness practices and NAT practices of selected private and public elementary schools. The findings of the study revealed that the level of school effectiveness of both private and public elementary schools was excellent. However, test of difference showed that public schools exhibited stronger home-school relations than the private schools. In terms of the level of school performance, public schools perform better than the private schools for the past three years. Significantly, there exists a strong positive relationship between school effectiveness and school performance. The factorial analysis revealed that among all the correlates of school effectiveness, school leadership competency and professional collaboration influenced the performance of both schools. Recommendations of the study can help the government and school officials to plan appropriate strategies in improving the quality of
The rise in low-fee private (LFP) primary schooling serving relatively poor clients is becoming well-documented. However much of this literature focuses on urban areas whose dense populations are favourable to market growth and competition. This paper goes some way to filling a gap in the literature on whether LFP schools are serving the needs of…
Tooley, James; Dixon, Pauline; Amuah, Isaac
A census and survey of schools in the district of Ga, Ghana, explored the nature and extent of private education, and compared inputs to public and private schooling. Three quarters of all schools found were private, with almost as many unregistered private as government schools. Several important differences between registered and unregistered private schools were noted, including age, fee levels charged, teacher salaries and class size. A range of inputs, such as teacher activity, availability of desks, chairs, libraries, toilets and drinking water, were used to compare inputs to government, unregistered and registered private schools. Some conclusions are explored about the potential role for the private sector in helping meet "education for all" targets.
Kuponiyi, Olugbenga Temitope; Amoran, Olorunfemi Emmanuel; Kuponiyi, Opeyemi Temitola
Globally the number of children reaching school age is estimated to be 1.2 billion children (18% of the world's population) and rising. This study was therefore designed to determine the school health services available and its practices in primary schools in Ogun state, Western Nigeria. The study was a comparative cross-sectional survey of private and public primary schools in Ogun state using a multi-stage sampling technique. Participants were interviewed using a structured, interviewer administered questionnaire and a checklist. Data collected was analyzed using the SPSS version 15.0. A total of 360 head teachers served as respondents for the study with the overall mean age of 45.7 ± 9.9 years. More than three quarters of the respondents in both groups could not correctly define the school health programme. There were no health personnel or a trained first aider in 86 (47.8%) public and 110 (61.1%) private schools but a nurse/midwife was present in 57 (31.7%) and 27 (15.0%) public and private schools. (χ(2) = 17.122, P = 0.002). In about 95% of the schools, the teacher carried out routine inspection of the pupils while periodic medical examination for staff and pupils was carried out in only 13 (7.2%) public and 31 (17.2%) private schools (χ(2) = 8.398, P = 0.004). A sick bay/clinic was present in 26 (14.4%) and 67 (37.2%) public and private schools respectively (χ(2) = 24.371, P = 0.001). The practice of school health programme was dependent on the age (χ(2) = 12.53, P = 0.006) and the ethnicity of the respondents (χ(2) = 6.330, P = 0.042). Using multivariate analysis only one variable (type of school) was found to be a predictor of school health programme. (OR 4.55, CI 1.918-10.79). The study concludes that the practice of the various components of school health services was poor but better in private primary schools in Nigeria. Routine inspection by teachers was the commonest form of health appraisal. This may suggest that more health personnel need to
Tayyem, R F; Al-Hazzaa, H M; Abu-Mweis, S S; Bawadi, H A; Hammad, S S; Musaiger, A O
The present study examined differences in dietary habits and physical activity levels between students attending private and public high schools in Jordan. A total of 386 secondary-school males and 349 females aged 14-18 years were randomly recruited using a multistage, stratified, cluster sampling technique. Dietary habits and physical activity level were self-reported in a validated questionnaire. The prevalence of obesity was significantly higher among adolescents in private (26.0%) than in public schools (16.7%). The frequency of breakfast intake was significantly higher among adolescents in private schools, whereas French fries and sweets intake was significantly higher in public schools. Television viewing showed a significant interaction with school type by sex. A higher rate of inactivity was found among students attending private schools. Despite a slightly better overall dietary profile for students in private schools, they had a higher rate of overweight and obesity compared with those in public schools.
Salameh, Pascale; Barbour, Bernadette; Issa, Carine; Rachidi, Samar
Since adolescence obesity is becoming an international concern, our objective was to evaluate obesity-related behavior in Lebanese adolescents. We performed a cross-sectional study in 19 Lebanese private schools, using a random multistage cluster sampling process. Dietary and physical activity behaviors were assessed in 1933 adolescents aged 12 to 18 years, stressing on differences between boys and girls and obesity categories. We found that boys were more obese than girls (72% versus 3.7% ; p changes in adolescents' behavior, stressing on physical activity for girls and healthier eating for boys.
International Journal of Development and Management Review ... essential for educational planning; their disparities in public and private pre-primary and ... teaching as a career especially in the private schools where they constitute only 35.
Patnaik, Lipilekha; Pattanaik, Sumitra; Sahu, Trilochan; Rao, E Venkata
To compare prevalence of overweight/obesity among adolescent school children of government and private schools. A school-based cross-sectional study was conducted in 1800 children aged 10-16 years. Body mass index (BMI), Waist circumference (WC), Hip circumference (HC), and Neck circumference (NC) were measured using standard guidelines. The prevalence of overweight obesity was 27.8% (private schools 45.2%, government schools 10.5%). BMI, WC, NC, and Waist-hip ratio were significantly higher among private school students. A differential strategic plan may be needed to prevent and control obesity among adolescent school children.
Full Text Available This research is an exploratory study that investigates students’ perceptions pertinent to textbook layout and organization and their evaluation of the textbook ease of learning. The objective is to find out whether the layout dynamics of school textbooks make any difference in students’ interest in studying or subject understanding. 73 students from various private schools of Pakistan’s cosmopolitan city Karachi responded to a quantitative survey that gauged their perceptions regarding textbook components such as paper, print, color, and textbook pedagogical features. Findings indicate that students rank print and color above paper quality, and that there is no particular relationship between a book layout and the actual use of textbooks.
Full Text Available While religious faith remains one of the most significant features of human life, little is known about its relationship to ordinary belief at the level of the brain. Nor is it known whether religious believers and nonbelievers differ in how they evaluate statements of fact. Our lab previously has used functional neuroimaging to study belief as a general mode of cognition , and others have looked specifically at religious belief . However, no research has compared these two states of mind directly.We used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI to measure signal changes in the brains of thirty subjects-fifteen committed Christians and fifteen nonbelievers-as they evaluated the truth and falsity of religious and nonreligious propositions. For both groups, and in both categories of stimuli, belief (judgments of "true" vs judgments of "false" was associated with greater signal in the ventromedial prefrontal cortex, an area important for self-representation , , , , emotional associations , reward , , , and goal-driven behavior . This region showed greater signal whether subjects believed statements about God, the Virgin Birth, etc. or statements about ordinary facts. A comparison of both stimulus categories suggests that religious thinking is more associated with brain regions that govern emotion, self-representation, and cognitive conflict, while thinking about ordinary facts is more reliant upon memory retrieval networks.While religious and nonreligious thinking differentially engage broad regions of the frontal, parietal, and medial temporal lobes, the difference between belief and disbelief appears to be content-independent. Our study compares religious thinking with ordinary cognition and, as such, constitutes a step toward developing a neuropsychology of religion. However, these findings may also further our understanding of how the brain accepts statements of all kinds to be valid descriptions of the
Gündüz, Nevin; Taspinar, Tugçe; Demis, Nurdan
The purpose of this research is to determine what the game means from the perspectives of children studying at public and private schools. Four questionnaires were applied to all the third grade parents of four schools; two public and two private schools in Ankara, and questionnaires were completed and sent back by 212 parents. A total of 32…
Scanlan, Martin; Tichy, Karen
Conversations about promoting educational reforms that redress educational inequities often ignore private schools as irrelevant. Yet pursuits of inclusivity in private sector schools serve the public interest. This article focuses on how the system of Catholic schools in the Archdiocese of St. Louis has been purposefully striving for 2 decades to…
Alcott, Benjamin; Rose, Pauline
In many low- and lower-middle-income countries, private schools are often considered to offer better quality of education than government schools. Yet, there is a lack of evidence to date on their role in reducing inequalities: namely, the extent to which private schooling improves learning among the most disadvantaged children. Our paper uses…
Various studies have noted that students enrolled in private schools in India perform better on average than students in government schools. In this paper, I show that large gaps in the test scores of children in private and public sector education are evident even at the point of initial enrollment in formal schooling and are associated with…
Lueken, Martin F.
This report follows up on previous work that examined the fiscal effects of private school voucher programs. It estimates the total fiscal effects of tax-credit scholarship programs--another type of private school choice program--on state governments, state and local taxpayers, and school districts combined. Based on a range of assumptions, these…
Uchendu, Chika C.; Nwafor, Innocent A.; Nwaneri, Mary G.
The study investigated marketing strategies and students' enrolment in private secondary schools in Calabar Municipality, Cross River State. One research question was raised and two null hypotheses formulated to guide the study. Thirty two (32) school administrators in 32 private secondary schools in the study area constitute the study population…
... schools. 300.129 Section 300.129 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education... STATES FOR THE EDUCATION OF CHILDREN WITH DISABILITIES State Eligibility Children in Private Schools § 300.129 State responsibility regarding children in private schools. The State must have in effect...
Goto, Rei; Kakihara, Hiroaki
The shortage of physicians in rural areas and in some specialties is a societal problem in Japan. Expensive tuition in private medical schools limits access to them particularly for students from middle- and low-income families. One way to reduce this barrier and lessen maldistribution is to offer conditional scholarships to private medical schools. A discrete choice experiment is carried out on a total of 374 students considering application to medical schools. The willingness to receive a conditional scholarship program to private medical schools is analyzed. The probability of attending private medical schools significantly decreased because of high tuition, a postgraduate obligation to provide a service in specific specialty areas, and the length of time of this obligation. An obligation to provide a service in rural regions had no significant effect on this probability. To motivate non-applicants to private medical schools to enroll in such schools, a decrease in tuition to around 1.2 million yen (US$ 12,000) or less, which is twice that of public schools, was found to be necessary. Further, it was found that non-applicants to private medical schools choose to apply to such schools even with restrictions if they have tuition support at the public school level. Conditional scholarships for private medical schools may widen access to medical education and simultaneously provide incentives to work in insufficiently served areas.
Omisore, A G; Omisore, B; Adelekan, B; Afolabi, O T; Olajide, F O; Arije, O O; Agunbiade, O I
Violence is universal; it occurs in schools (both public and private). The study aim was to assess the rates of violence as well as existing violence prevention strategies in public and private schools in Osun state. A cross sectional study was conducted among 800 secondary school students (599 in public and 201 in private schools) selected by multistage sampling technique using quantitative and qualitative methods of data collection. The mean age for all the respondents was 14.26 years +/- 2.001 Males make up about 51% of the respondents in both public and private schools. Respondents from public schools assaulted other students and staff with a weapon more than their colleagues in private schools (24.7% and 9.7% against 12.9% and 6.5% respectively). The commonest violence 'prevention' strategy in both schools was punishment for violent acts (>90%). Respondents in public schools perpetrated and experienced virtually all forms of school-related violence more than those in private, schools. There were mild differences in existing violence prevention strategies in both schools. School connectedness seems to be a major factor in the differential rates of violence between both groups of schools.
Private and public schools dichotomies in the adoption and use of ... Descriptive statistics such as frequency and percentage distributions were the ... in their operations but computers was the only ICT facility common in the public schools. Also ...
Mar 10, 2017 ... contamination of the soil, water, food and vegetables5,6 and the prevalent habit of ... dichotomisation of school system into private and public schools naturally ..... lation affirming the fact that intermittent use of anthelminthic ...
In this study to demonstrate primary school teachers' employment process and their first year teaching in private educational organizations is aimed. The major employer of primary school teachers is public schools that are funded by state. There will be a gap between grade inflation and employment rate when all of the teacher candidates claim to be appointed to public schools. Hence private educational organizations provide alternative career opportunities for teacher candidates. Qualitative ...
Al-Shehab, Ali Jasem
With the diminishing model of the welfare state, public education in Kuwait is facing the challenges of the competition of private schools, while the private sector has always struggled against the monopolistic power of the public schools that educate a broad spectrum of K-12 students. This article presents estimates of the effect of private…
Selick, Sandra A.
The purpose of this study was to examine the transformation of the School of Nursing at a private university in a Middle Atlantic state during the years 1999 to 2009. The secondary purpose of this study was to determine the leadership style of the Director of the School of Nursing at this private university in a Middle Atlantic state that led this…
The purpose of this study is to determine to what extent private school athletic administrators have implemented programming specifically aimed at combatting the problem of childhood sexual abuse in sport. The study examined published policies and procedures overseen by private school athletic administrators to determine to what extent their…
Alqahtani, Abdulmuhsen Ayedh
The current study aims at exploring Kuwaiti families' educational investment behavior pursuant to the selection of a specific private school for their children from the private school market. Using the quantitative approach and the principles of marketing research, a survey was administered to a randomly selected sample of Kuwaiti families (n =…
Goldring, Ellen B.; Ogwa, Rodney
This paper examines the phenomenon of private-practice teachers in public schools. It helps frame the debates surrounding market-driven reforms that are aimed at freeing schools from bureaucratic control and raises several questions about the potential impact of private-practice teachers. It asks whether market-driven reforms within public schools…
This study investigated the adoption and use of ICT in private and public secondary schools in Kwara State, Nigeria. It particularly examined the availability of ICT infrastructures, ICT adoption factors and the uses to which ICTs are put in the schools. The study also identified the effects and challenges faced by private and ...
Adeyemi, Sunday B.
This paper compares pupils' academic performance between the private and public primary schools. The sample, made up of 240 pupils were randomly selected from the private and public primary schools in Ilesa East and West Local Government Council Areas of Osun State, Nigeria. Two instruments were used. A structured questionnaire and Pupils'…
Southern Education Foundation, 2011
Georgia is one of seven states that currently allow tax credits for scholarships to private schools. The law permits individual taxpayers in Georgia to reduce annual state taxes up to $2,500 for joint returns when they divert funds to a student scholarship organization (SSO). Georgia's law providing tax credits for private school tuition grants or…
An ongoing question is whether private (religious) schools provide better education than public schools. This study re- addresses this issue, using PISA 2006 and 2009 data for the Netherlands and three different methodologies. Overall, there is no consistent pattern. Results based on ordinary least squares and propensity score matching suggest private school attendance is positively associated with mathematics achievement, but only for PISA 2006. Instead, the results generated by an instrumen...
Gilbert C. Magulod Jr.
What defines effective school is the necessity of the school community to tailor interventions to improve quality of education. This study determined the factors of school effectiveness and level of school performance of private and public elementary schools in the Second Congressional District of Cagayan Province, Philippines. The study made use of mixed-method research. For quantitative, the descriptive correlational method was used to identify the relationship between school ...
Bisi-Onyemaechi, A I; Akani, N A; Ikefuna, A N; Tagbo, B N; Chinawa, J M
Poor maintenance of school environment can cause or worsen illnesses among schoolchildren. The objective of this study was to assess the healthfulness of school environments of primary schools in Enugu East, Nigeria, and to compare the difference if any between public and private schools. This was a cross-sectional noninterventional study of the school environments in Enugu East, Nigeria. Multistage sampling method was used to select the sample population. The participating schools were inspected and their head teachers were interviewed using a questionnaire. Scores were awarded using the School Health Program Evaluation scale. Results: Thirty-three schools were studied. The most common source of water for most schools was well. Eleven schools dump refuse openly. Three public schools only had functional toilets. All public schools were adequately ventilated and lit. One private school had a foodservice area. Ten schools did not have a play field, while three public schools had soaps for handwashing. The mean scores for public and private schools were 33.00 and 37.86, respectively. Three schools only attained the minimum score of 57 of a maximum of 66. The environment of primary schools in Enugu east, Nigeria, is unhealthy and unfriendly and currently cannot promote and protect the health of the schoolchildren.
Ashby, Patrick; Mensah, Felicia Moore
This critical ethnography documents how a group of 25 students and their teacher/researcher in a suburban, private school setting, the vast majority from the dominant cultural background, engaged with and enacted a critical chemistry education together. Critical chemistry education contextualizes chemistry in socially relevant issues and problematizes participants' conceptual frameworks for understanding the intersections between chemistry and our capitalist society by identifying the shortcomings of traditional scientific language to sufficiently interrogate privilege and oppression. Qualitative data from teacher/researcher field notes and journal, classroom video transcripts, questionnaires, focus group interviews, and student artifacts document that while it is difficult for the teacher/researcher and the students of this setting to reflect upon their own positions of privilege, together they interpreted and made meaning of their experience by (1) developing the ability to critically analyze the products of science for the potential of oppression, (2) developing an understanding of inequity in science, and (3) evaluating and respecting diverse knowledge bases. Based on the findings, we suggest students should be encouraged to problematize socially situated science issues related to settings close to their own communities, students should participate in structured and purposeful journaling to improve their metacognition and critical reflexivity, and critical pedagogues must be explicit with students in their Marxist-based interpretation of the global capitalist super structure.
Sangeeta Jain Sharma
Full Text Available Background: Malnutrition leads to poor cognitive performance and physical growth in children and is a major component of school health services. Imbalanced nutrition in adolescence can put them at high risk of chronic diseases particularly if combined with adverse lifestyle. Aims & Objectives: This study was designed to assess and compare the nutritional status of government and private school children of Muzaffarnagar city. Material and Methods: School based, comparative Cross-sectional study. One private and one government school was selected using unistage stratified random sampling. A total of 1960 (980 each from private school and government school school children of class 6-12 were studied for socio-epidemiological details, dietary habits, and physical activity. Information on education status, occupation, monthly income of their parents was also collected. Required anthropometric measurements were taken. Results: Of 980 children from private school, 90 (9.18% were underweight,138 (14.08% were overweight, and 137 (13.97% were obese. Majority of children from government school were underweight 215 (21.94% except for 24 (2.45% overweight children. Conclusion: This study shows the dual nature of nutritional problem, under-nutrition among the lower socioeconomic class of govt. school at one side and worrisome epidemic of obesity among the affluent of private school
There has been a growing amount of research on low-fee private schools in less economically developed countries, but much less on low-fee private schools in developed countries. Yet, low-fee private schools have also been a recent feature of the educational landscape in countries such as Canada, the USA, Australia and Great Britain. This paper…
R K Shrestha
Full Text Available Introduction: Children from the developing world are more prone to going blind from avoidable and preventable causes. In Nepal, children in private schools are reported to have a higher ocular morbidity than those in government schools, with myopia being the major cause of the morbidity. This study was designed to evaluate ocular morbidity in students from both types of school. Methods: This was a cross-sectional, comparative study among students from government and private schools of Kathmandu. Eye examination was carried out evaluating visual acuity, color vision, refractive status, binocular vision status, and anterior and posterior segment findings. Results: A total of 4,228 students from government and private schools were evaluated. The prevalence of ocular morbidity was 19.56 % with refractive error (11.9 % being the major cause of the morbidity, followed by strabismus and infective disorders. No signifi cant difference in the prevalence of ocular morbidity and refractive status was found in the students from government and private schools. Conclusions: A signifi cant number of children of school-going age have ocular morbidity with no signifi cant difference in the prevalence in the students from government and private schools. Research exploring the effect of various risk factors in the progression of myopia would be helpful to investigate the refractive status in children from these different types of schools. Keywords: Myopia, ocular morbidity, school Students
Turner, Lindsey; Chaloupka, Frank J
Children spend much of their day in school, and authorities have called for improvements in the school food environment. However, it is not known whether changes have occurred since the federal wellness policy mandate took effect in 2006-2007. We examined whether the school food environment in public and private elementary schools changed over time and examined variations by school type and geographic division. Survey data were gathered from respondents at nationally representative samples of elementary schools during the 2006-2007 and 2009-2010 school years (respectively, 578 and 680 public schools, and 259 and 313 private schools). Topics assessed included competitive foods, school meals, and other food-related practices (eg, school gardens and nutrition education). A 16-item food environment summary score was computed, with possible scores ranging from 0 (least healthy) to 100 (healthiest). Multivariate regression models were used to examine changes over time in the total school food environment score and component items, and variations by US census division. Many practices improved, such as participation in school gardens or farm-to-school programs, and availability of whole grains and only lower-fat milks in lunches. Although the school food environment score increased significantly, the magnitude of change was small; as of 2009-2010 the average score was 53.5 for public schools (vs 50.1 in 2006-2007) and 42.2 for private schools (vs 37.2 in 2006-2007). Scores were higher in public schools than in private schools (Pschool size. For public schools, scores were higher in the Pacific and West South Central divisions compared with the national average. Changes in the school food environment have been minimal, with much room remaining for improvement. Additional policy changes may be needed to speed the pace of improvement. Copyright © 2012 Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Cumming, Joy; Mawdsley, Ralph
In a companion article, we considered legal issues in language and culture in private schooling in two U.S. contexts: "Silva v. St. Anne Catholic School" and "Doe v. Kamehameha Schools". In this article, we consider the facts and findings of these two cases under the human rights and antidiscrimination legal frameworks of…
Walsh, Mary Grace
Private Catholic elementary schools in the United States often trace their origins to religious congregations of women and men. The rapid decline of religious vocations and the choice of many religious to serve in diverse ministries since the Second Vatican Council, has had an effect on all Catholic schools. Schools founded by religious…
Much of what we understand about school governance is generally under-researched, and there has been almost no recent research undertaken into the governing of schools in the non-maintained, private or independent sectors that are financed by the payment of fees. These schools broadly follow a model of governance that is similar to that of the…
This paper analyzes the effect of school vouchers on student sorting - defined as a flight to private schools by high-income and committed public-school students - and whether vouchers can be designed to reduce or eliminate it. Much of the existing literature investigates sorting in cases where private schools can screen students. However, publicly funded U.S. voucher programs require a private school to accept all students unless it is oversubscribed and to pick students randomly if it is ov...
Ferreira, Haroldo S; Lúcio, Glícia Maris A; Assunção, Monica L; Silva, Bárbara Coelho V; Oliveira, Juliana S; Florêncio, Telma Maria M T; Geraldes, Amandio Aristides R; Horta, Bernardo L
The prevalence of hypertension in childhood is increasing, and investigation of its distribution is important for planning timely interventions. This study assessed the prevalence of high blood pressure (HBP) and associated factors in students between 9 and 11 years of age enrolled in public and private schools in Maceió, Brazil. A cross-sectional study was performed in a probabilistic sample of students (10.3 ± 0.5 years). The students were selected from a systematic sampling of 80 schools (40 public and 40 private). To maintain similar proportions of students existing in public and private schools in Maceió, 21 and 14 students were randomly selected from each public and private school, respectively. The prevalence ratio (PR) was estimated using Poisson regression. A total of 1,338 students were evaluated (800 from public schools and 538 from private schools). No differences were observed between school types in terms of student age and gender (p > 0.05). The prevalence of obesity (19.9% vs. 9.0%; PR = 2.2; 95% CI = 1.67-2.92) and hypertension (21.2% vs. 11.4%; PR = 1.86; 95% CI = 1.45-2.40) were higher in private schools. The association between high blood pressure and type of school (public or private) remained statistically significant even after adjustment for obesity (PR = 1.53; 95% CI = 1.19-1.97). (a) students from private schools have higher socioeconomic status, BMI, and HBP prevalence compared to those of public school; (b) among the evaluated students, the prevalence of obesity only partially explained the higher prevalence of high blood pressure among students from private schools. Other factors related to lifestyle of children from private schools may explain the higher prevalence of HBP. This results show the need to implement measures to promote healthy lifestyles in the school environment, since children with HBP are more likely to become hypertensive adults. Therefore, early detection and intervention in children with HBP is an important action
Reviews several privatization strategies and their applications to public education, including load-shedding, asset sales, volunteerism, self-help, user fees, contracting, franchises, vouchers, subsidies, and deregulation. The major forces promoting privatization in education are those stemming from growing discontent with the public sector and…
Quintero Petit, A.M.; Diaz Gallardo, M.I.; Moreno Gonzalez, E.G.
The trip generation model (TGM) is the first step in transportation forecasting, this is useful for estimating travel demand because it can predict travel from or to a particular land use. Typically, the analysis focuses in residential trip generation as a function of the social and economic attributes of households, but nonresidential land use suggests others variables. Travel generator poles such as: Private school, Semi-private and Public, have not been studied in Venezuela. The TGMs that shows the Institute of Transportation Engineers (ITE), EE.UU, are used typically and could be not appropriate. By using stepwise regression and transformation of data, high correlation coefficients and substantial improvements in the variability of data from several schools they were found. The trip generation rates (TGRs) by transportation mode: walking, motorcycle, public transport and cars, can be compared and be included in the Ibero-American Network of travel attractors poles. (Author)
Gotthelf, Susana Judith; Jubany, Lilian Laura
South America is now at a stage of epidemiological transition, changing the condition of high prevalence of underweight and stunting, to a scene marked by increases in obesity that accompanies chronic diseases, such us cardiovascular disease, diabetes and cancer. Surveillance of risk factors associated with them is considered a priority. To establish the prevalence of risk factors associated with cardiovascular disease in adolescents in public and private schools in the city of Salta, and observe the socioeconomic characteristics and presence of cardiovascular risk factors in parents. Cross-sectional design, adolescents aged 16 to 20 years of public and private schools. Anthropometric, biochemical, food, social, lifestyle and family history variables. Adolescents of private schools had higher average values of cholesterol, LDL and glucose. The prevalence of overweight and obesity in public schools was 15% and 14.2% in private, and of hypertension 11.3% and 12.2%, respectively. It was noted higher consumption of sweets, sodas and juices; 35.1% and 42.5% of adolescents in public and private schools, did not perform physical activity, 14.2% and 27.1% smoked and 66.2% and 54.7%, respectively, consumed alcohol at weekend. The prevalence of obesity in mothers of public school students was significantly higher. There is evidence of the emergence of risk factors associated with cardiovascular disease in adolescents with different characteristics as belonging to public or private schools, but both groups involved in an unhealthy family environment.
Shrestha, R K; Joshi, M R; Ghising, R; Rizyal, A
Children from the developing world are more prone to going blind from avoidable and preventable causes. In Nepal, children in private schools are reported to have a higher ocular morbidity than those in government schools, with myopia being the major cause of the morbidity. This study was designed to evaluate ocular morbidity in students from both types of school. This was a cross-sectional, comparative study among students from government and private schools of Kathmandu. Eye examination was carried out evaluating visual acuity, color vision, refractive status, binocular vision status, and anterior and posterior segment findings. A total of 4,228 students from government and private schools were evaluated. The prevalence of ocular morbidity was 19.56 % with refractive error (11.9 %) being the major cause of the morbidity, followed by strabismus and infective disorders. No significant difference in the prevalence of ocular morbidity and refractive status was found in the students from government and private schools. A significant number of children of school-going age have ocular morbidity with no significant difference in the prevalence in the students from government and private schools. Research exploring the effect of various risk factors in the progression of myopia would be helpful to investigate the refractive status in children from these different types of schools.
Kirigwi, Lucy Wambui; Maithya, Redempta
Private tuition refers to tutoring offered outside mainstream teaching. The study sought to establish the difference in prevalence for private tuition among parents, teachers and pupils in public primary schools in Machakos County. The study employed descriptive survey design. The target populations were all teachers, parents and pupils of public…
Kovalchuk, Serhiy; Shchudlo, Svitlana
Educational privatization created new arrangements for funding, provision, and regulation of educational systems and their various stakeholders worldwide. This qualitative study examines the driving forces of privatization in the public education of Ukraine, focusing specifically on the professional roles of school principals who have been…
Ee, Jongyeon; Orfield, Gary; Teitell, Jennifer
Private schools have a long and important tradition in U.S. education and have been the focus of a great deal of political controversy in recent years. There is deep division among Americans over the desirability of using public funds to finance vouchers for private education--an issue that has become the leading educational goal of the Trump…
Cheung, Alan C. K.; Randall, E. Vance; Tam, Man Kwan
Purpose: This paper is a historical review of the development of private primary and secondary education in Hong Kong from 1841-2012. The purpose of this paper is to examine the evolving relationship between the state and private schools in Hong Kong. Design/methodology/approach: This paper utilizes sources from published official documents,…
Dynarski, Susan; Gruber, Jonathan; Li, Danielle
The effect of vouchers on sorting between private and public schools depends upon the price elasticity of demand for private schooling. Estimating this elasticity is empirically challenging because prices and quantities are jointly determined in the market for private schooling. We exploit a unique and previously undocumented source of variation…
Meltzer, Lisa J.; Shaheed, Keisha; Ambler, Devon
Homeschool students provide a naturalistic comparison group for later/flexible school start times. This study compared sleep patterns and sleep hygiene for homeschool students and public/private school students (grades 6-12). Public/private school students (n=245) and homeschool students (n=162) completed a survey about sleep patterns and sleep hygiene. Significant school group differences were found for weekday bedtime, wake time, and total sleep time, with homeschool students waking later and obtaining more sleep. Homeschool students had later school start times, waking at the same time that public/private school students were starting school. Public/private school students had poorer sleep hygiene practices, reporting more homework and use of technology in the hour before bed. Regardless of school type, technology in the bedroom was associated with shorter sleep duration. Later school start times may be a potential countermeasure for insufficient sleep in adolescents. Future studies should further examine the relationship between school start times and daytime outcomes, including academic performance, mood, and health. PMID:25315902
Bovet, Pascal; Chiolero, Arnaud; Madeleine, George; Paccaud, Fred
We compared the prevalence of body weight categories between public and private schools in the Seychelles, a rapidly developing small island state in the African region. In 2004-2006, weight and height were measured and self-reported information on physical activity collected in children of three selected grades in all schools in the country. Overweight, obesity and thinness were defined according to standard criteria. Based on 8 462 students (377 in private schools), the prevalence of overweight (including obesity) was markedly higher in private than public schools (boys: 37% [95% CI: 31-44] vs. 15% [14-16]; girls: 33% [26-41] vs. 20% [19-22]). The prevalence of thinness grade 1 was lower in private than public schools (boys: 9% [5-13] vs. 20% [19-21]; girls: 13% [8-18] vs. 19% [18-20]). Students in private schools reported more physical activity at leisure time while students in public schools reported larger weekly walking time. Our findings suggest that school type may be a useful indicator for assessing the association between socio-economic status and overweight in children, and that overweight affects wealthy children more often than others in developing countries.
Full Text Available Background: India is undergoing a rapid demographic transition accompanied by an epidemiologic and nutritional transition. The nutritional status of school-going children who form a major section of the population, can give an indication of the changing trends in nutritional profile of the population. According to Planning Commission report, 2010, Mid Day Meal (MDM Program has been successful in addressing classroom hunger and the objective of social equity in government school attendees. Aims & Objectives: To study the pattern of school lunch intake and nutritional status in private and government school-going children of district Dehradun. Material & Methods: This was an observational cross-sectional study in district Dehradun in government and private schools, with participants from class 1 to 12. A 24-hour dietary recall was done to measure caloric intake. Height and weight were measured using Microtoise (accuracy 0.1cm and digital weighing machine (Omron Model: HN286, accuracy 100 gm. Statistical analysis was done using SPSS, version 22. Nutritional status was classified using WHO cut-offs and analyzed using AnthroPlus Software. Student t-test was used to compare caloric intake of subgroups. Association between nutritional status and other variables was assessed using Chi-squared test. Results: Using WHO cut-offs, the proportion of thin children was 5.4% in private school and 21.5% in MDM beneficiaries of government schools. The proportion of children who were overweight was 27.7% in private schools and 3.6% in government schools (p<.0.05. The caloric content of school lunch was 271 Kcal in private school attendees and 375 Kcal in MDM beneficiaries. Proportion of children who skipped school lunch increased as they progressed in higher classes, and this proportion was greater in students of government schools beyond class VIII. Conclusion: The study highlights the need for more large scale nutritional surveys with school lunch in focus.
Ajaheb-Jahangeer, Shamim; Jahangeer, Abdul Cayum
This paper presents a case study of the school culture in a secondary school in Mauritius. It analyses how the school culture has an impact on the effectiveness of an educational organisation. The literature on school culture is reviewed and discussed. The education system in the Mauritian context is described; and its advantages and drawbacks…
Full Text Available Introduction: Programs oriented toward prevention have proven to be highly rewarding in reducing the dental disease burden in western populations. Some developing countries have also reported studies of school health programs with varying effectiveness. However, reports regarding improved effectiveness due to mobile dental unit are scarce. Thus, the present study aims at assessment of effectiveness of prevention-oriented school health program in a private school in Pimpri, Pune. Materials and Methods: A longitudinal study was conducted from May 2015 to June 2016 in Dr. D.Y. Patil school among 449 students aged 5 and 10 years using census sampling. Ethical clearance was obtained from Institutional Ethics Committee of Dr. D. Y. Patil Dental College and Hospital and permission was obtained from the school principal. The study was conducted in 3 phases. SPSS version 18 was used for analyzing the data. Results: There was significant reduction in decayed component and a significant increase in filled component in primary and permanent dentition. There was a significant reduction in treatment needs, i.e., one surface, two surface fillings, and pulp care and restoration. Conclusion: It can be concluded that this prevention-oriented 1-year program was helpful in improving the oral health of the children.
Bogaski, Carolyn Siniscalchi
The purpose of this study was to determine how Florida (FL) private, middle school (MS) leaders define highly qualified (HQ) MS science teachers, and how congruent their definitions are. The study also determines how congruent these leaders' definitions are with FL, national, and National Science Teachers Association (NSTA) definitions. Lastly, the study determines the major challenges these private MS leaders have in hiring MS science teachers who meet the NSTA definition of HQ. A convergent mixed methods survey design (Creswell, 2014) was used, in which qualitative and quantitative data were collected in parallel, analyzed separately, and then merged. Participants in the survey consisted of 119 leaders. A congruency rubric separated responses by religious affiliation and socioeconomic status (SES) level and matched responses with the percentage of congruency with the existing FL, national, and NSTA definitions of HQ. Descriptive statistics, paired samples t-test, and chi-squared test were used to analyze the quantitative and qualitative data. Qualitative data were coded into preliminary and final codes. Final codes were converted into magnitude codes, which allowed the researcher to analyze further the qualitative data statistically. Survey responses received were definitely congruent, except in ranking the importance of a candidate having an out-of-field degree with state certification, and in ranking the importance of a candidate being fully qualified to teach science in their state with a strong knowledge of science content. Segregating the survey responses into registered religious affiliations and SES levels found that the definition of a HQ MS science teacher was mostly congruent among all demographics, with only a couple of exceptions. The study found that these private school leaders' common definition of a HQ MS science teacher is one with adequate science content knowledge, pedagogy including engagement in laboratory activities, ability to relate to
Full Text Available This study aims to explain the leadership pattern of social capital based education for the quality improvement of private schools. The research is conducted at private Junior Secondary Level with a qualitative naturalistic approach. This location is in Sleman District. The subject consists of selected cases purposively. The research procedure is carried out by four steps and methods of obtaining the data through observation, indepth interview, and documentation. Data analysis was carried out by inductive model while the level of trust result of research was undertaken by fulfilling criteria of credibility, transferability, dependability and conformability. The research findings are as follows. First, the concept of leadership of social capital based education rests on the ability of principals to influence school resources to achieve goals through an integrated pattern of trust dimensions, reciprocal relationships and networking. Second, school quality can be improved through a school leadership in recognizing social capital, b school leadership in utilizing social capital, c school leadership in functioning social capital. Third, the utilization of social capital based on leadership in private schools in the form of a bridging stakeholder aspirations both initiated by schools and stakeholders; b bonding stakeholder relations with schools; c following up or responding to stakeholder resources in school programs as a perspective new leadership at school.
Fong, Randie Kamuela
The Hawaiian cultural revitalization movement in Hawai`i is an important driver for many Hawaiian organizations as well as educational institutions that serve Native Hawaiians. One such organization is Kamehameha Schools, a private school system founded and endowed by Princess Bernice Pauahi Bishop in 1887 to educate Native Hawaiian children. From…
Studies to date show how low-fee private (LFP) schools, including unrecognised ones, have gained practical legitimacy and continue to increase in number. However, little explanation is offered regarding the legal legitimacy of such unrecognised LFP schools. This paper intends to fill this gap by examining the legal legitimacy of unrecognised…
McDonald, Paula; Pini, Barbara; Mayes, Robyn
The way in which private schools use rhetoric in their communications offers important insights into how these organizational sites persuade audiences and leverage marketplace advantage in the context of contemporary educational platforms. Through systemic analysis of rhetorical strategies employed in 65 "elite" school prospectuses in…
Silva, Nathane Sanches Marques; Crenitte, Patrícia Abreu Pinheiro
To compare the spelling ability of schoolchildren from the fourth to sixth grades of the elementary schools in the private and public schools of Bauru, São Paulo, and to verify whether errors are overcome as studies progress and the hierarchy of errors as to how often they occur. A dictation was applied to 384 schoolchildren: 206 from the private schools: 74 were at the fourth grade, 65 at the fifth grade, and 67 at the sixth grade; and 178 from the public schools; 56 at the fourth grade, 63 at the fifth grade, and 59 at the sixth grade of elementary school. Student's t test was used. In comparison of total spelling errors score, difference was found among the fourth and sixth grades of the private and public schools. Spelling errors decreased as education progressed, and those related to language irregularities were more common. Spelling ability and performance of students from the private and public schools are not similar in the fourth and sixth grades, but it is in the fifth grade. Spelling errors are gradually overcome as education progresses; however, this overcome rate was considerable between the fourth and fifth grades in the public schools. Decrease in the types of spelling errors follows a hierarchy of categories: phoneme/grapheme conversion, simple contextual rules, complex contextual rules, and language irregularities. Finally, the most common type of spelling error found was that related to language irregularities.
Copperbelt Province is one of the ten provinces of Zambia. It has public and private schools which have been faced with escalating levels of environmental problems due to growth in human population and economic growth. The environmental problems which are matters of concern in the schools include, unsound waste management, loss of vegetation…
An ongoing question is whether private (religious) schools provide better education than public schools. This study re- addresses this issue, using PISA 2006 and 2009 data for the Netherlands and three different methodologies. Overall, there is no consistent pattern. Results based on ordinary least
Collins, Ayse Bas
The study examines aspects of centralized and school-based supervision (SBS) as carried out at a private secondary school. Data were gathered from administrators, teachers and students through interviews, critical incidents and pertinent documentation. The study points out that a combination of the two supervision systems offers benefits that a…
Boyd, Marie Nicole
The purpose of this study is to examine the knowledge of special education law held by public and private school principals as the law pertains to providing the appropriate services to students with disabilities. Numerous studies have investigated public school principals' level of preparation, training, and role within in special education law.…
Milian, Roger Pizarro; Quirke, Linda
Conventional wisdom within the sociology of education and organizations posits that schools achieve legitimacy by conforming to institutionalized norms and mimicking the actions of successful peers. Recent work on non-elite private schools (NEPS) shows that this institutional type may serve as an exception to this logic, generally adopting what…
Viteri, Fátima; Clarebout, Geraldine; Crauwels, Marion
While key conceptions and the status of environmental education (EE) have been reported at various international, regional, national and local levels, those in play in the schools of Quito (Ecuador) are still relatively unknown. Of particular interest to this study are private schools: they are considerable in number in Ecuador and elsewhere, yet…
Garg, Pooja; Rastogi, Renu
Purpose: This research aims to assess the significant differences in the climate profile and organizational citizenship behaviors (OCBs) of teachers working in public and private schools of India. Design/methodology/approach: The sample comprised of 100 teachers, out of which 50 teachers were from public school and 50 teachers were from private…
... submitted electronically through the Federal eRulemaking Portal at http://www.regulations.gov by selecting... elementary and secondary schools in the United States. The PSS is designed to gather biennial data on the... used as a sampling frame for NCES surveys of private schools. No substantive changes have been made to...
James, Zoe; Woodhead, Martin
The growth and increasing popularity of 'low-fee' private schooling across many parts of India has attracted much research and policy attention. This paper broadens the discussion by drawing attention to the increasing heterogeneity of the educational landscape in many communities. Our specific focus is on the consequences for school choices made…
Corten, Rense; Dronkers, Jaap
We consider the question whether pupils from the lower social strata perform better in private government-dependent schools than in public or private-independent schools, using the Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) 2000 data on European high schools. In the 1980s, Coleman and Hoffer (1987) found in the USA that the performance…
Student perceptions of school engagement (i.e., sense of connection to school, teachers and peers), motivation to learn, self-esteem, and student safety are part of a range of public accountability indicators. This study examined differences between two groups of Senior Secondary three (SS III) students from public school ...
Ha, Yeojin; Park, Hyun-Jeong
The purpose of this study is to examine the causal effects of after-school programs (ASPs) and private tutoring on Korean secondary school students' academic achievement. The students' data from the Gyeonggi Education Panel Study were used in this study for the actual data analysis. The study attempted to adjust for possible selection bias toward…
Grant, Monica J
There has been a recent, rapid de facto privatization of education in many African countries, as the number of private secondary schools operating in the region grew. The majority of these schools are "low-cost" private schools where tuition and fees are set as low as possible to cover operating costs and still generate profit. Proponents of low-cost private schools argue that these schools have proliferated in impoverished areas to meet unmet demand for access to education and where private schools may offer better quality than locally available public schools. Theories of inequality of educational opportunity suggest that if private schools offer better quality education, students from more advantaged families will be more likely to enroll at these institutions, potentially exacerbating educational inequality in the region. This analysis uses data from a school-based longitudinal survey, the Malawi Schooling and Adolescent Study, to examine socio-economic inequalities in the transition to secondary school and on-time enrollment in upper secondary. My findings indicate that youth from non-poor households are not only more likely to enroll in secondary school than poor youth, but they are also more likely to substitute enrollment in private schools for enrollment in second-tier government schools. Enrollment at private schools, however, does not yield schooling advantages; relative to both tiers of government secondary schooling, students who initially enrolled at private schools were the least likely to enroll on time in upper secondary school. These patterns suggest that these schooling circumstances may yield less segregation of opportunity than might otherwise be assumed.
Casarin, Fabíola Schwengber; Wong, Cristina Elizabeth Izábal; Parente, Maria Alice de Mattos Pimenta; de Salles, Jerusa Fumagalli; Fonseca, Rochele Paz
Neuropsychological assessment reveals that certain cognitive changes that take place during the neural development process may be associated with biopsychosocial issues. A substantial body of research has focused on cognitive development in children and adults, but few such studies have been carried out on adolescents. Therefore, research into the processing of neuropsychological functions in adolescents, taking into account the role of major socio-cultural factors such as school type (public vs. private), is highly relevant. The present study sought to assess whether differences in neuropsychological development exist between adolescent students of public (government-funded) and private schools. A total of 373 grade-matched students between the ages of 12 and 18, 190 from public schools and 183 from private schools, took part in the study. All subjects had no self-reported neurologic or psychiatric conditions and sensory disorders. The NEUPSILIN Brazilian Brief Neuropsychological Assessment Battery was administered to this sample. Comparison of mean scores (one-way ANCOVA with socioeconomic score and age as covariates) showed that adolescents attending private schools generally outperformed their public-school peers in tasks involving sustained attention, memory (working and visual), dictated writing, and constructional and reflective abilities. We conclude that school type should be taken into account during standardization of neuropsychological assessment instruments for adolescent and, probably, child populations.
Choi, Phillip A; Xu, Shuai; Ayanian, John Z
Despite a growing need for primary care physicians in the United States, the proportion of medical school graduates pursuing primary care careers has declined over the past decade. To assess the association of medical school research funding with graduates matching in family medicine residencies and practicing primary care. Observational study of United States medical schools. One hundred twenty-one allopathic medical schools. The primary outcomes included the proportion of each school's graduates from 1999 to 2001 who were primary care physicians in 2008, and the proportion of each school's graduates who entered family medicine residencies during 2007 through 2009. The 25 medical schools with the highest levels of research funding from the National Institutes of Health in 2010 were designated as "research-intensive." Among research-intensive medical schools, the 16 private medical schools produced significantly fewer practicing primary care physicians (median 24.1% vs. 33.4%, p schools. In contrast, the nine research-intensive public medical schools produced comparable proportions of graduates pursuing primary care careers (median 36.1% vs. 36.3%, p = 0.87) and matching in family medicine residencies (median 7.4% vs. 10.0%, p = 0.37) relative to the other 66 public medical schools. To meet the health care needs of the US population, research-intensive private medical schools should play a more active role in promoting primary care careers for their students and graduates.
Clive R. Belfield
Full Text Available U.S. students now have four choices of schooling: public schooling, private–religious schooling, private–independent schooling, and home-schooling. Of these, home-schooling is the most novel: since legalization across the states in the last few decades, it has grown in importance and legitimacy as an alternative choice. Thus, it is now possible to investigate the motivation for home-schooling, relative to the other schooling options. Here, we use two recent large-scale datasets to assess the school enrollment decision: the first is the National Household Expenditure Survey (1999, and the second is micro-data on SAT test-takers in 2001. We find that, generally, families with home-schoolers have similar characteristics to those with children at other types of school, but mother’s characteristics – specifically, her employment status – have a strong influence on the decision to home-school. Plausibly, religious belief has an important influence on the schooling decision, not only for Catholic students, but also those of other faiths.
Costa-Santos, Cristina; Vieira-Marques, Pedro; Costa-Pereira, Altamiro; Ferreira, Maria Amélia; Freitas, Alberto
Internal grade inflation is a documented practice in secondary schools (mostly in private schools) that jeopardises fairness with regard to access to medical school. However, it is frequently assumed that the higher internal grades are in fact justifiable, as they correspond to better preparation of students in private schools in areas that national exams do not cover but nevertheless are important. Consequently, it is expected that students from private schools will succeed better in medical school than their colleagues, or at least not perform worse. We aimed to study whether students from private schools do fare better in medical school than their colleagues from public schools, even after adjusting for internal grade inflation. We analysed all students that entered into a medical course from 2007 to 2014. A linear regression was performed using mean grades for the 1st-year curse units (CU) of the medical school curriculum as a dependent variable and student gender, the nature of students' secondary school (public/private), and whether their secondary school highly inflated grades as independent variables. A logistic regression was also performed, modelling whether or not students failed at least one CU exam during the 1st year of medical school as a function of the aforementioned independent variables. Of the 1709 students analysed, 55% came from public secondary schools. Private (vs. public) secondary school (β = - 0.459, p schools highly inflated grades (β = - 0.246, p = 0.003) were independent factors that significantly influenced grades during the first year of medical school. Having attended a private secondary school also significantly increased the odds of a student having failed at least one CU exam during the 1st year of medical school (OR = 1.33), even after adjusting for whether or not the secondary school used highly inflated grades. It is important to further discuss what we can learn from the fact that students from public
Baum, Donald R.; Cooper, Rachel; Lusk-Stover, Oni
This study provides a comparative assessment of policies governing private schools in twenty countries in Sub-Saharan Africa. Findings suggest that current regulatory systems are failing to adequately address the negative externalities and failures of private schooling markets. Insufficient capacity on the part of governments is a contributor to uneven policy implementation and creates opportunities for rent-seeking and corruption. Onerous market entry regulations offer constraints on the gro...
Rathi, Neha; Riddell, Lynn; Worsley, Anthony
Purpose: The current Indian secondary school curriculum has been criticised for its failure to deliver relevant skills-based food and nutrition education for adolescents. The purpose of this paper is to understand the views of adolescents, their parents, teachers and school principals on the present food and nutrition curriculum and the role of…
The aim of this article is to investigate why Sweden, the epitome of social democracy, has implemented education reforms leading to an extraordinary growth in Free Schools in contrast to liberal England, where Free School policy has been met with enormous resistance. Conventional wisdom would predict the contrary, but as a matter of fact Sweden…
A public, Catholic, and charter school in Boston all work together to share their strengths and learn from each other in an effort to deliver the best education for all of their students. The arrangement is called the School Performance Partnership, and it is a grantee of the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation.
Poole, Kimberly S.
This dissertation study documents in-depth the exploration of the Public Private Partnerships (PPPs) between the Dayton Regional STEM School (DRSS) and their industry partners as well as the establishment of a framework for evaluating and assessing PPPs. The public-private partnership agreements were studied in order to answer the over-arching research question: How is an effective public-private partnership established, assessed, and evaluated in education? A descriptive case study methodology was used to study DRSS' public-private partnership agreements to determine if goals and objectives were established and whether or not the partnerships met those goals and objectives. This case study also included the development and testing of a proposed evaluation framework that will allow for consistent, systematic inquiry that can produce defensible assertions regarding the assessment and evaluation of public-private partnerships in education. Results of the case study support the findings that utilization of an evaluation framework can serve to make public-private partnerships more successful. Results also indicated that establishment of goals and objectives enable effective evaluation for informal partnerships but could not be definitively stated for formal partnerships due to the lack of data points. The data from this case study revealed many emergent themes that should be considered in the development of future public-private partnerships. Overall this study contributes to the growing body of knowledge for public-private partnerships in education.
Full Text Available This study assessed the relationship between teacher retention and job security in private secondary schools in Ogun state, Nigeria. The study assessed ade-quacy in teaching and learning infrastructure, evaluated mode of recruitment of teachers, the factors responsible for high teacher turnover and teachers retention strategies employed in private secondary schools. Descriptive research of the survey design was employed in this study. Data were collected using questionnaire. Multistage sampling technique was used for data collection among 200 teachers including the school principals. Data collected were analyzed with a mixture of descriptive and inferential statistics. Percentages, mean and frequency counts were used to answer the research questions raised while Pearson Moment Correlation Coefficient and t-test analysis were used to test the formulated hypotheses at 0.05 level of significance. The findings from this study revealed that teaching and learning infrastructure were inadequate in most of the schools. It was observed that books, classroom and teachers were very adequate in some of the schools. However, few of the schools had internet facility for knowledge transfer and student exposure to the worldwide web. The study also showed that the proprietors were primarily responsible for staff recruitment although there were instances where formal advertisement for recruitment was made. The study further revealed a significant relationship between teacher retention strategies and job security in private secondary schools in Osun state. The study also showed a significant relationship between teacher turnover and job security in the schools. In addition, the findings showed a significant relationship between teacher turnover and job security in private secondary schools in Osun state. Lastly, the study revealed a significant difference in the mean rate and female teachers' turnover in the selected private secondary schools. Based on the
Erik Jon Byker
Full Text Available This article reports on a Public Private Partnership (PPP program in South India that provided information and communication technology (ICT to rural elementary schools. The article examined the current status of rural, government-run elementary schools in India by reviewing reports like the Annual Status of Education Report (ASER in India. Challenges like teacher absences, student drop-outs, lack of electricity, lack of separate toilets for genders, and a lack of teaching resources is discussed. To meet these challenges, the article describes the rise in popularity of India’s PPPs. Then the article reports on a case study of a PPP, called the SSA Foundation, which implemented a “one laptop per school” program in rural areas in the Indian States of Karnataka and Tamil Nadu. Using ethnographic data from field research, the case study includes a description of how the students in a rural Karnataka elementary school use their school’s laptop. The school was situated in a small village where most travel was non-motorized. Walking, usually without shoes, was the main form of transportation. A bicycle was considered a luxury. Most villagers worked in the surrounding ragi and millet fields; laboring, often with only simple tool blades. Wood fires were the main source of fuel for cooking. In this village, the school’s laptop became a prized possession. The case study offers a “thick description” (Geertz, 1973 of how the village school’s students used the laptop for learning basic computing skills and for learning English.
Alex Villas Boas
Full Text Available This article proposes to examine some theories of non-religious spirituality in light of the growing phenomenon of those individuals who declared themselves as having "no religion" by Brazilian religious census conducted in 2010 by the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics (IBGE. The intention here is to identify how the poetic question presents itself as the fundamental element of these proposals about spirituality for authors, since beauty is part of the spiritual quest, as in: Viktor Frankl and existential religiosity grounded in the search for meaning in life; Marià Corbí and his non-religious or secular spirituality; Robert Solomon and his spirituality for skeptics, and André Comte-Sponville and his atheistic spirituality, or spirituality without God. From there, we then present the perception of spirituality in the poetry of the thought of Jean Paul Sartre, primarily in his work “what is Literature?”
This research is an exploratory study that investigates students' perceptions pertinent to textbook layout and organization and their evaluation of the textbook ease of learning. The objective is to find out whether the layout dynamics of school textbooks make any difference in students' interest in studying or subject understanding. 73 students…
Coulson, Andrew J.
Would large-scale, free-market reforms improve educational outcomes for American children? This question cannot be reliably answered by looking exclusively at domestic evidence, much less by looking exclusively at existing "school choice" programs. Though many such programs have been implemented around the United States, none has created…
José Maria Gonçalves Fernandes
Full Text Available Background:Despite being recommended as a compulsory part of the school curriculum, the teaching of basic life support (BLS has yet to be implemented in high schools in most countries.Objectives:To compare prior knowledge and degree of immediate and delayed learning between students of one public and one private high school after these students received BLS training.Methods:Thirty students from each school initially answered a questionnaire on cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR and use of the automated external defibrillator (AED. They then received theoretical-practical BLS training, after which they were given two theory assessments: one immediately after the course and the other six months later.Results:The overall success rates in the prior, immediate, and delayed assessments were significantly different between groups, with better performance shown overall by private school students than by public school students: 42% ± 14% vs. 30.2% ± 12.2%, p = 0.001; 86% ± 7.8% vs. 62.4% ± 19.6%, p < 0.001; and 65% ± 12.4% vs. 45.6% ± 16%, p < 0.001, respectively. The total odds ratio of the questions showed that the private school students performed the best on all three assessments, respectively: 1.66 (CI95% 1.26-2.18, p < 0.001; 3.56 (CI95% 2.57-4.93, p < 0.001; and 2.21 (CI95% 1.69-2.89, p < 0.001.Conclusions:Before training, most students had insufficient knowledge about CPR and AED; after BLS training a significant immediate and delayed improvement in learning was observed in students, especially in private school students.
Mingle, Jeffrey; Adams, Musah; Adjei, E. A.
The study comparatively analyzed social media usage and academic performance in public and private senior high schools. The issue of social media and academic performance has been a very debatable topic with regard to its effect. This study further explores the relation between private and public schools in relation to social media use and…
In the United States, parents send about 10 percent of elementary and secondary school-age children to private schools, which through their accreditation meet the requirement that students receive an adequate education. By paying out of pocket for their children's private education, these families relieve a financial burden on local, state, and…
Myconos, George; Clarke, Kira; te Riele, Kitty
This research investigates the oft-criticised segment of the vocational education and training (VET) sector in Australia--private, for-profit registered training organisations (RTOs)--with the aim of gaining a clearer understanding of the approaches they adopt in training 15 to 19-year-olds who have left school early. Through a nationwide survey…
This study investigates collective decision making within a multistakeholder partnership through a case study of the Global Partnership for Education (GPE). Analyzed through the theoretical framework of sociological institutionalism, this study applies the issue of private schooling as a lens to understand policy-related decision making between…
Boyle, Marybeth N.
The purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness of a training program for the faculty of a private elementary school on executing the protocols, roles, and responsibilities defined in the institution's crisis-management plan. A formal training program for the faculty had not been developed, and administrators had no measure by which…
Wolf, Patrick J.; Harris, Douglas N.; Berends, Mark; Waddington, R. Joseph; Austin, Megan
In the past few years, four states have established programs that provide public financial support to students who choose to attend a private school. These programs--a tax-credit-funded scholarship initiative in Florida and voucher programs in Indiana, Louisiana, and Ohio--offer a glimpse of what expansive statewide choice might look like. What…
Cheema, Jehanzeb R.
Recent studies have suggested that performance-related differences between private and public schools disappear once student background characteristics are accounted for. However, given the sometimes significant variation in economic, social and cultural norms across countries these findings may not have universal relevance. The main purpose of…
Student bullying is an ongoing educational, social, and public health phenomenon facing countless students, parents, and educators. Educators and parents are challenged with distinguishing student bullying from normal student conflict. The purpose of this qualitative multiple case study was to compare private middle school principals' and middle…
Nawaz, Nosheen; Yasin, Hina
Retaining quality employees is the dream of every organization. This research focuses on a big issue arising in the education sector. A large number of teachers are incoming and leaving the private schools of Bahawalpur. Lack of motivation is a major cause of teachers' turnover. Aspire of this research is to find the factors which can motivate…
Mauch I, James W.
Presents the alliance between Reading High School (Pennsylvania) and a local corporation as a case study of the potential for incentives and private-sector involvement to improve student attendance. The partnership, Reading's Excellence and Attendance Programs, used positive reinforcements, including lottery drawings and ice-cream socials, to…
Leal Terra Silva, F. (Fabiana)
Abstract This research intends to investigate obstacles to moral education in a private school in Brazil, based on teachers’ views, which were gathered through interviews, questionnaires and discussions during workshops. It is a qualitative case study conducted in a country where neoliberal values increasingly influence education, and where high rates of socio economic inequalities are easily observed. Similarly to other em...
Lovoy, Thomas A.
Notes how the British Army's Officer Corps, based on elitism and financial standing, brought the British Empire to its knees. Argues that privatization--a for-profit market system to ration out education--would have a similar effect. Suggests that charter schools (with considerable autonomy but still held accountable by the chain of command) are…
... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Participation of students enrolled in private schools. 75.650 Section 75.650 Education Office of the Secretary, Department of Education DIRECT GRANT PROGRAMS What Conditions Must Be Met by a Grantee? Other Requirements for Certain Projects § 75.650...
Angrist, Joshua D.; Bettinger, Eric; Bloom, Erik; King, Elizabeth; Kremer, Michael
This paper examines the impact of Colombia's Programa de Ampliacion de Cobertura de la Educacion Secundaria (PACES), which provided over 125,000 poor students with private secondary school vouchers, many of which were awarded by lottery. Researchers surveyed lottery winners and losers to compare educational and other outcomes. Results showed no…
Wolfram, Gary; Coulson, Andrew J.
In this article, the authors comment on Andrew Coulson's "Comparing Public, Private, and Market Schools: The International Evidence." The authors believe that Coulson's paper is a very interesting review of the literature on the ability of market-produced education to outperform government-produced education. Coulson's response on this commentary…
Assessment of the role of private schools in the development of education in Ghana. ... supplement the efforts of the government to improve the basic education system in the country. ... Journal of Science and Technology Vol.24(2) 2004: 54-76 ...
The past decade has seen the emergence, predominantly in Thailand and mainland China, of a form of educational institution that has had little scholarly attention or generic identification. This paper shows how the ad hoc and opportunistic franchising of elite English private schools, beginning with the hyper-capitalist exportation of the Dulwich…
Saleem, Mohammed M.
This exploratory study of the implementation of computer technology in an American Islamic private school leveraged the case study methodology and ethnographic methods informed by symbolic interactionism and the framework of the Muslim Diaspora. The study focused on describing the implementation of computer technology and identifying the…
This study investigated the instructional management of a private and a government secondary school principal in the Gigit-Baltistan region of Northern Pakistan. The study used the following lenses to examine the instructional behavior of the two principals: supervisory techniques, professional development activities, curriculum enrichment, and…
Thiruchselvam, Ravi; Gopi, Yashoda; Kilekwang, Leonard; Harper, Jessica; Gross, James J
Even in predominantly religious societies, there are substantial individual differences in religious commitment. Why is this? One possibility is that differences in social conformity (i.e. the tendency to think and behave as others do) underlie inclination towards religiosity. However, the link between religiosity and conformity has not yet been directly examined. In this study, we tested the notion that non-religious individuals show dampened social conformity, using both self-reported and neural (EEG-based ERPs) measures of sensitivity to others' influence. Non-religious vs religious undergraduate subjects completed an experimental task that assessed levels of conformity in a domain unrelated to religion (i.e. in judgments of facial attractiveness). Findings showed that, although both groups yielded to conformity pressures at the self-report level, non-religious individuals did not yield to such pressures in their neural responses. These findings highlight a novel link between religiosity and social conformity, and hold implications for prominent theories about the psychological functions of religion. © The Author (2017). Published by Oxford University Press.
Full Text Available While a large body of research has established that there is substantial prejudice against atheists and nonreligious individuals, both in the US and in other countries where nonreligious people are minorities, to date very little research has looked beyond attitudes toward solitary identities (e.g., “atheists” vs. “gay atheists”. Given the growing recognition of the importance of intersectionality in understanding the experiences of minorities, in this article we examined attitudes toward intersected identities, combining five (nonreligious identities (i.e., Christian, Jewish, Muslim, atheist, and nonreligious with four sexual/gender identities (i.e., heterosexual, homosexual, bisexual, and transgender using a 100-point thermometer scale (N = 618. We found that sexual/gender identities were more influential in ordering the results than were religious identities, with heterosexual individuals being rated most positively, followed for the most part by: homosexual, bisexual, and then transgender individuals. However, within the sexual/gender identities, (nonreligion ordered the results; Christians and Jewish individuals rated most highly among heterosexuals while nonreligious and atheist individuals rated most highly among transgender individuals. We suggest these results indicate that people believe minority sexual/gender identities “taint” or “pollute” religious identities, unless those religious identities are already perceived as tainted, as is the case for atheists and the nonreligious.
Eckhert, N Lynn
Twenty-five percent of the U.S. physician workforce is made up of international medical graduates (IMGs), a growing proportion of whom (27% in 2005) are U.S. citizens. Most IMGs graduate from "offshore medical schools" (OMSs), for-profit institutions primarily located in the Caribbean region and established to train U.S. students who will return home to practice medicine. Following the recent call for a larger physician workforce, OMSs rapidly increased in number. Unlike U.S. schools, which must be accredited by the Liaison Committee on Medical Education, OMSs are recognized by their home countries and may not be subject to a rigorous accreditation process. Although gaps in specific data exist, a closer look at OMSs reveals that most enroll three groups of students per year, and many educate students initially at "offshore campuses" and later at clinical sites in the United States. Students from some OMSs are eligible for the U.S. Federal Family Education Loan Program. The lack of uniform data on OMSs is problematic for state medical boards, which struggle to assess the quality of the medical education offered at any one school and which, in some cases, disapprove a school. With the United States' continued reliance on IMGs to meet its health needs, the public and the profession will be best served by knowing more about medical education outside of the United States. Review of medical education in OMSs whose graduates will become part of U.S. health care delivery is timely as the United States reforms its health-care-delivery system.
Sadoh, W E; Israel-Aina, Y T; Sadoh, A E; Uduebor, J E; Shaibu, M; Ogonor, E; Enugwuna, F C
Overweight and obesity in children, and adolescents is on the rise globally. Affected children are prone to cardio-metabolic problems later in life, especially hypertension. The prevalence of obesity/overweight may differ depending on school type. Private schools are attended mostly by children of the affluent, while public schools are attended predominantly by those in the low and middle socio-economic classes. To compare the prevalence of overweight, obesity and elevated blood pressure (BP) in pupils attending public and private primary schools in an urban community in Nigeria. In this cross sectional study, the BMI and BP of pupils in public and private primary schools, recruited by multistage sampling method, were measured. Their nutritional status was categorized using their BMI percentiles. Analysis was by SPSS. A total of 1466 pupils were recruited, 814(55.5%) were in public schools and 722(49.2%) were males. The prevalence of overweight and obesity was higher in private schools 11.8% and 11.7% compared to public schools 3.3% and 0.9%. The mean systolic BP of pupils in public schools 96.8 ± 12.5 mmHg was higher than that in private schools 95.5 ± 10.2 mmHg, p = 0.032. Distribution of pupils with prehypertension and hypertension between private and public schools was not significantly different. The prevalence of overweight and obesity is higher in pupils attending private schools compared to those in public school. Urgent measures are needed to stem this tide through education, weight reduction and physical activity programs, especially in pupils attending private schools.
Rutkow, Lainie; Traub, Arielle; Howard, Rachel; Frattaroli, Shannon
Recent surveys indicate that approximately 40% of graduates from schools of public health are employed within the private sector or have an employer charged with regulating the private sector. These data suggest that schools of public health should provide curricular opportunities for their students--the future public health workforce--to learn about the relationship between the private sector and the public's health. To identify opportunities for graduate students in schools of public health to select course work that educates them about the relationship between the private sector and public health. We systematically identified and analyzed data gathered from publicly available course titles and descriptions on the Web sites of accredited schools of public health. Data were collected in the United States. The sample consisted of accredited schools of public health. Descriptions of the number and types of courses that schools of public health offer about the private sector and identification of how course descriptions frame the private sector relative to public health. We identified 104 unique courses with content about the private sector's relationship to public health. More than 75% of accredited schools of public health offered at least 1 such course. Nearly 25% of identified courses focused exclusively on the health insurance industry. Qualitative analysis of the data revealed 5 frames used to describe the private sector, including its role as a stakeholder in the policy process. Schools of public health face a curricular gap, with relatively few course offerings that teach students about the relationship between the private sector and the public's health. By developing new courses or revising existing ones, schools of public health can expose the future public health workforce to the varied ways public health professionals interact with the private sector, and potentially influence students' career paths.
Zuilkowski, Stephanie Simmons; Piper, Benjamin; Ong'ele, Salome; Kiminza, Onesmus
Low-cost private schools (LCPS) are widespread in Kenya, particularly in urban areas. This study examines the reasons that parents send children to fee-charging schools in a context of free public primary education. Drawing on parent survey and interview data, as well as interviews with national policy makers, we found that parents who chose LCPS…
Full Text Available There have been controversies over the legal attribute of the decision of dismissal, suspension, or discontinuation of employment of public and private school teachers. The Supreme Administrative Court passed a resolution in July, 2009. In this resolution, the legal relationship between public schools and their teachers was regarded as administrative contracts while the legal attribute of the decision of dismissal, suspension, or discontinuation of employment was categorized into administrative dispositions. Besides, the administrative disposition will not take effect until it obtains approval from the competent educational authorities, and teachers can seek administrative appeal as remedy first, which makes remedy procedure complicated. Therefore, this study first attempts to categorize the legal relationship between the public and private schools and their teachers. Then, the legal attribute of the decision of dismissal, suspension, or discontinuation of employment and the remedy procedure are discussed. It is concluded in this study that the legal relationships between public/private schools and their teachers fall into the categories of administrative/civic contract respectively. Any decision of dismissal, suspension, or discontinuation of employment should be based on this categorization, and the remedy procedure can thus be reduced. Besides teacher’s appeal and re-appeal system being in accordance with Teacher’s Act, the appeal of declaratory judgment on contractual relationship to either the Administrative Court or the Civic Court can also be filed. As a result, the remedy procedure can be simplified to an extent to follow the basic principles stated in the resolution.
Lins, Liliane; Carvalho, Fernando M; Menezes, Marta S; Porto-Silva, Larissa; Damasceno, Hannah
To assess health-related quality of life (HRQOL) and to describe factors associated with its variation among undergraduate medical students at a Brazilian private medical school. A cross-sectional study in a sample (n=180) of medical students at a private medical school in Salvador, Brazil, stratified by year of medical course. Data about age, sex, year of course, physical activity, sleepiness, headaches, participation in a student loan program supported by the Brazilian government (FIES) and living arrangements were collected using a self-administered form. HRQOL was assessed by using a Brazilian Portuguese version of the SF-36 form. The eight domains of SF-36 and the Physical Component (PCS) and Mental Component (MCS) Summaries scales were calculated. The medical students showed poor HRQOL, mainly because of the mental component. Lower mean scores were found among those with FIES support, females, those suffering from sleepiness, headaches and lacking physical activity. No clear trend was observed in the variation of the SF-36 mean scores according to the year of medical school. However, students in the fifth year of the course had the highest HRQOL mean scores. Health-related quality of life of students at this private medical school was poor, mainly because of its mental component. Lower HRQOL was associated with FIES support, females, sleepiness, headaches and lack of regular physical activity. Higher scores were found among fifth year students.
Magda Yolanda Cantú Tijerina
Full Text Available In order to explore the problems faced by beginning teachers in private elementary schools in the Spanish city of Madrid and in the Mexican city of Monterrey, questionnaires were applied to private school teachers just starting out in both cities. The results indicate that in both contexts, as beginners, teachers face problems of an academic, organizational, social, and material and technological nature. However, it stresses the fact that Mexican teachers perceive more problems in all the categories than do their Spanish colleagues. Similarity in the results was found in the category of social problems, which was the one mentioned least by the teachers in both cities. This suggests that the cultural nature of these two countries may be a factor to be considered in connection with fostering beginning teachers’ adaptation process.
Botvar, Pål Ketil; Sjöborg, Anders
This study explores the relation between religion and attitudes towards human rights among young people aged 17 to 19. The data material consists of 1660 questionnaires filled out in the classrooms by upper secondary school pupils living in the capital city of Oslo and in the Stockholm/ Uppsala area. We want first to find out if there are closer relations between religion and attitudes towards human rights concerning the private sphere than for attitudes towards human rights concerning the pu...
Kern, Anwynne; Amod, Zaytoon; Seabi, Joseph; Vorster, Adri
This study investigated foundation phase teachers’ perceptions of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). The teachers’ views on the aetiology, appropriate interventions and incidence rates of ADHD were examined. A total of 130 foundation phase teachers from mainstream private and public schools completed a self-developed questionnaire that had been piloted by the researchers. Both descriptive and inferential statistics were used to analyse the data, specifically to determine whether there were differences in responses between public and private school teachers. Thematic content analysis was used to identify the themes that emerged from the open-ended questions. It was found that the teachers had a limited understanding of ADHD, in terms of what it is as well as the aetiology. In addition, it emerged that medication was the preferred method of intervention despite the participants’ awareness of alternative intervention methods. A comparison of the private and public school teachers’ results indicated no significant difference in their perceptions regarding the aetiology, interventions or incidence rates of ADHD. PMID:25768242
Full Text Available This study investigated foundation phase teachers’ perceptions of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD. The teachers’ views on the aetiology, appropriate interventions and incidence rates of ADHD were examined. A total of 130 foundation phase teachers from mainstream private and public schools completed a self-developed questionnaire that had been piloted by the researchers. Both descriptive and inferential statistics were used to analyse the data, specifically to determine whether there were differences in responses between public and private school teachers. Thematic content analysis was used to identify the themes that emerged from the open-ended questions. It was found that the teachers had a limited understanding of ADHD, in terms of what it is as well as the aetiology. In addition, it emerged that medication was the preferred method of intervention despite the participants’ awareness of alternative intervention methods. A comparison of the private and public school teachers’ results indicated no significant difference in their perceptions regarding the aetiology, interventions or incidence rates of ADHD.
Shakeel, M. Danish; DeAngelis, Corey A.
While substantial school choice research focuses on student achievement outcomes, little has explored the mechanisms involved in producing such outcomes. We present a comparative analysis of private and public school principals using data from the School and Staffing Survey (SASS) 2011-2012. We add to the literature by examining the differences in…
Rhim, Lauren Morando
School franchising (defined as the replication of a particular product or service across a wide geographic region) marks a radical departure from the traditional view of the community-based neighborhood school. This paper reports on a study of a growing niche of charter school private management contracts in Massachusetts. The focus is on the…
Mundy, Karen; Menashy, Francine
In this article, we explore how the World Bank operationalizes its focus on poverty alleviation in one of the most controversial arenas of educational change: the expansion of privately provided schooling. We argue that the Bank's role in promoting private provision has been far more complicated than most critics have discerned. It has…
Full Text Available This paper aims to present the private management of public schools of Basic Education as one of the pillars that support a private-market agenda in the Brazilian contemporary field, based on the belief of greater efficiency and quality in order to ensure equal opportunity to all. The theoretical and methodological approach was the analysis of the current Brazilian situation included in the structural crisis of the capital, followed by the examination of private management in American schools, known as charter schools, and initiatives for the education networks in Brazil. We conclude by stating that the private management of public schools can be seen as a resource to prevent the cyclical crises of capital, which has opened up new market opportunities in the education field under the auspices of the Brazilian state.
Berends, Mark; Waddington, R. Joseph
School choice researchers are often limited to comparing one type of choice with another (e.g., charter schools vs. traditional public schools). One area researchers have not examined is the effects of different school types within the same urban region. We fill this gap by analyzing longitudinal data for students (grades 3-8) in Indianapolis,…
Full Text Available In this study to demonstrate primary school teachers' employment process and their first year teaching in private educational organizations is aimed. The major employer of primary school teachers is public schools that are funded by state. There will be a gap between grade inflation and employment rate when all of the teacher candidates claim to be appointed to public schools. Hence private educational organizations provide alternative career opportunities for teacher candidates. Qualitative methods will be used in this study to display real evidence from the eyes of teachers and also principals. The data have been obtained through documents and interview techniques. After the data have been collected, descriptive analysis has been used. The findings of the study were given within the frame of themes and codes which were determined based on the problem statement. The first theme, career was presented in the context of choosing sector, recruitment and selecting process, professional development, leave the profession. The second theme, factors affecting first years' success was explained in the context of teaching factors, consistency and skills focus. The third theme was presented in a category of pressure, workload, complaining psychological and physical exhaustion, flexible working conditions.
de Almeida, Fernando Antonio; Konigsfeld, Henrique Pinheiro; Machado, Lígia Maria de Oliveira; Canadas, Andréa Farias; Issa, Evelyn Yuri Okumura; Giordano, Roberto Hernandes; Cadaval, Ricardo Augusto de Miranda
The high prevalence of hypertension in high school students in Sorocaba, São Paulo, Brazil, has already been described. In this study, within a new sample of high school students from public and private schools, we evaluated if socioeconomic and lifestyle influence on blood pressure values. This is an epidemiological study, which is part of the activities of a community-based work conducted by medical students. They give speeches to high school students aiming at stimulating a healthy lifestyle and primary prevention of hypertension. In a random sample of 410 students in junior high school (209 from public schools and 201 from private schools), we determined the weight, height, and blood pressure, furthermore, a questionnaire identifying epidemiological and socioeconomic status was applied. No statistical differences were found among students from public and private schools regarding the distribution of gender, body mass index (BMI), systolic and diastolic blood pressure, prevalence of hypertension (16.3%), percentage of smokers (5.9%), regular physical activity, and family history of hypertension. In public schools, there is a higher percentage of African descendents students and a higher percentage of students who also work due to low family income. Men from public and private schools have higher prevalence of hypertension, and their mean blood pressure is higher than in women. BMI has a positive correlation with systolic and diastolic blood pressure. Hypertension and other cardiovascular risk factors have an early beginning and require educational interventions for primary prevention. Socioeconomic factors do not affect blood pressure in adolescence.
Kumah, Ben D; Ebri, Anne; Abdul-Kabir, Mohammed; Ahmed, Abdul-Sadik; Koomson, Nana Ya; Aikins, Samual; Aikins, Amos; Amedo, Angela; Lartey, Seth; Naidoo, Kovin
To assess the prevalence of refractive error and visual impairment in private school children in Ghana. A random selection of geographically defined classes in clusters was used to identify a sample of school children aged 12 to 15 years in the Ashanti Region. Children in 60 clusters were enumerated and examined in classrooms. The examination included visual acuity, retinoscopy, autorefraction under cycloplegia, and examination of anterior segment, media, and fundus. For quality assurance, a random sample of children with reduced and normal vision were selected and re-examined independently. A total of 2454 children attending 53 private schools were enumerated, and of these, 2435 (99.2%) were examined. Prevalence of uncorrected, presenting, and best visual acuity of 20/40 or worse in the better eye was 3.7, 3.5, and 0.4%, respectively. Refractive error was the cause of reduced vision in 71.7% of 152 eyes, amblyopia in 9.9%, retinal disorders in 5.9%, and corneal opacity in 4.6%. Exterior and anterior segment abnormalities occurred in 43 (1.8%) children. Myopia (at least -0.50 D) in one or both eyes was present in 3.2% of children when measured with retinoscopy and in 3.4% measured with autorefraction. Myopia was not significantly associated with gender (P = 0.82). Hyperopia (+2.00 D or more) in at least one eye was present in 0.3% of children with retinoscopy and autorefraction. The prevalence of reduced vision in Ghanaian private school children due to uncorrected refractive error was low. However, the prevalence of amblyopia, retinal disorders, and corneal opacities indicate the need for early interventions.
US Government Accountability Office, 2016
Voucher and education savings account (ESA) programs fund students' private school education expenses, such as tuition. In school year 2014-15, 22 such school choice programs were operating nationwide, all but one of which was state funded. Under two federal grant programs, one for students with disabilities and one for students from disadvantaged…
Dickman, Anneliese; Schmidt, Jeffrey
For the first time since its 1998 expansion to include religious schools, enrollment in the Milwaukee Parental Choice Program (MPCP) did not grow in the 2010-2011 school year. Currently, 20,996 private school students receive taxpayer-funded tuition vouchers (of $6,442 per pupil), a decrease of 66 students over last year. Chart 1 shows program…
Dronkers, Jaap; Avram, Silvia
We apply propensity score matching to the estimation of differential school effectiveness between the publicly funded private sector and the public sector in a sample of 26 countries. This technique allows us to distinguish between school choice and school effectiveness processes and thus to account for selectivity issues involved in the…
Full Text Available The article deals with language courses offered by private language schools in Slovenia. It examines who the people in charge of the language schools are, what criteria new teachers have to meet to become an employee of a school, whether the methodology applied (if any has been carefully chosen, what the teaching techniques are and who chooses them. Second language method discoveries have been subjected to perennial criticism and scepticism over the last half of century. Teachers around the globe have been confused by the constant shifts in the popularity of different methods. The article examines the con sequences of the abovementioned circumstances. The 15 interviews conducted with private language schools’ managers have generated valuable information on the level of professionalism in this area of business. The results have shown that most of the randomly chosen schools are managed by language professionals or by economists who employ a linguist for controlling the teaching and learning processes and that the majority of schools does adopt a particular approach or method of teaching. Teacher trainees receive a lot of support and guidance prior to teaching in a school. In most cases, teachers are free to choose techniques of teaching according to their preferences, providing the techniques are not in conflict with the general schools’ principles. The criteria for employment vary considerably. Nearly all managers would employ a professional language teacher with experience only, but others demand that the teacher be a native speaker regardless of his/her education. Several stress the importance of personal characteristics and would consider employing only lighthearted and energetic teachers. Teachers’ work and students’ progress are often evaluated.
Elacqua, Gregory; Contreras, Dante; Salazar, Felipe; Santos, Humberto
There is a persistent debate over the role of scale of operations in education. Some argue that school franchises offer educational services more effectively than do small independent schools. Skeptics counter that large, centralized operations create hard-to-manage bureaucracies and foster diseconomies of scale and that small schools are more…
Mehan Meenakshi, Munshi Aparna, Surabhi Somila, Bhatt Trushna, Kantharia Neha
Background: Recent shift in lifestyle and behavioral patterns in population have caused an obesity epidemic during formative years. Present study evaluated existing health and nutrition policies in a private school in an urban Indian city and assessed prevalence of obesity in adolescent children & their association if any, with predictive behaviors of obesity. Methods: A private coeducational school located in an urban Indian city was selected and its existing health policies were eva...
Leonard, Noelle R.; Gwadz, Marya V.; Ritchie, Amanda; Linick, Jessica L.; Cleland, Charles M.; Elliott, Luther; Grethel, Michele
There is growing awareness that students’ experiences of stress may impede academic success, compromise mental health, and promote substance use. We examined these factors in an under-studied population, private/independent high school students, using a multi-method (qualitative and quantitative), iterative data collection and analytic process. We first conducted qualitative interviews with faculty and staff at a number of highly competitive private schools, followed by an anonymous quantitative survey with 128 11th grade students from two of these settings. We then conducted a qualitative exploration of the quantitative results with a subset of students. Next, a set of Expert Panel members participated in qualitative interviews to reflect on and interpret study findings. Overall, we found students experienced high levels of chronic stress, particularly in relation to academic performance and the college admissions process. While students described a range of effective, adaptive coping strategies, they also commonly internalized these serious pressures and turned to alcohol and drugs to cope with chronic stress, although not typically at problematic levels. We discuss study implications for both schools and families derived from the Expert Panel. PMID:26257685
Filipe Ferreira da Costa
Physical activity and diet are related to several health outcomes. The aim of this study was to analyze physical activity (PA and diet patterns among Brazilian schoolchildren attending private or public schools. A cross-sectional, school-based study of elementary schoolchildren aged 7-10 years old (n = 2,936 was carried out in Florianopolis (southern Brazil. Self-reported food consumption and PA patterns were assessed by means of a questionnaire. A higher percentage of girls than boys met the recommendations for consumption of fruits and vegetables and limited their consumption of sweets and soft drinks. Boys reported higher PA levels than girls (P < 0.001. Children attending private schools were more likely to be in the highest tertile of PA (odds ratio = 1.53, 1.14-2.05 and 80% less likely to be active in commuting to school compared to public school students. Private schoolchildren were more likely to meet recommendations for fruits and vegetables, limit sweet consumption, report adequate meal frequency and no consumption of fast food or soft drinks. In summary, girls and private schoolchildren reported better eating patterns, while boys and private schoolchildren reported higher PA levels. Such results highlight the public school setting as a target for health promotion initiatives, along with other strategies, in developing countries.
General Accounting Office, Washington, DC. Resources, Community, and Economic Development Div.
In the Healthy Meals for Healthy Americans Act of 1994, Congress directed the Government Accounting Office (GAO) to examine the use of private food establishments and caterers by schools participating in federal programs for school meals. In conducting its review, the GAO relied primarily on questionnaires returned by food authorities that had…
Kathawala, Abeer; Bhamani, Shelina
This research aimed to explore if self-regulation skills had any effect on the academic outcomes of young children in private schools of Karachi, Pakistan. Quantitative research method was used to determine the impact of self-regulation upon the academic outcome of young children by utilizing Early School Self-Regulation Scale-Care Giver Version…
This study examines the effects of prolonged exposure to terrorism in 600 religious and non-religious Jewish adolescents living in Jerusalem, particularly post-traumatic stress (PTS) symptoms, depressive symptoms, alcohol use, coping strategies and social support. The youth in Jerusalem reported high exposure to terrorist acts. This exposure was associated with high PTS, depressive symptoms and alcohol use. Despite an apparently greater exposure to terrorism, religious adolescents reported lower levels of PTS and alcohol consumption, but similar levels of depressive symptoms to non-religious adolescents. Problem-solving coping predicted higher depressive symptoms for religious adolescents exposed to terrorism but not for similarly exposed non-religious adolescents. In contrast, emotion-focused coping predicted more alcohol consumption among highly exposed non-religious adolescents, while emotion-focused coping predicted more alcohol consumption among religious adolescents with low exposure. The overall findings suggest that religiosity may buffer the negative consequences of exposure in other ways than through coping or support.
Friedman, Jared Parker; Jack, Anthony Ian
Better understanding the psychological factors related to certainty in one's beliefs (i.e., dogmatism) has important consequences for both individuals and social groups. Generally, beliefs can find support from at least two different routes of information processing: social/moral considerations or analytic/empirical reasoning. Here, we investigate how these two psychological constructs relate to dogmatism in two groups of individuals who preferentially draw on the former or latter sort of information when forming beliefs about the world-religious and nonreligious individuals. Across two studies and their pooled analysis, we provide evidence that although dogmatism is negatively related to analytic reasoning in both groups of individuals, it shares a divergent relationship with measures of moral concern depending on whether one identifies as religious or not. Study 1 showed that increasing levels of dogmatism were positively related to prosocial intentions among the religious and negatively related to empathic concern among the nonreligious. Study 2 replicated and extended these results by showing that perspective taking is negatively related to dogmatism in both groups, an effect which is particularly robust among the nonreligious. Study 2 also showed that religious fundamentalism was positively related to measures of moral concern among the religious. Because the current studies used a content-neutral measure to assess dogmatic certainty in one's beliefs, they have the potential to inform practices for most effectively communicating with and persuading religious and nonreligious individuals to change maladaptive behavior, even when the mode of discourse is unrelated to religious belief.
The current litigious climate in the United States has resulted in a notably high frequency of lawsuits being filed against the educational system. School administrators are routinely named in lawsuits filed by disgruntled parents and students against schools and their governing bodies. This dissertation reviewed litigious actions in both public…
Full Text Available The intellectual landscape of Europe bears the marks of a long history of cultural perceptions of, and scientific approaches to, religions. The sciences of religions had to establish their autonomy from churches and theologies. However, the cultural context and the institutional set-up of ‘laïcité’ did not foster the development of comparative religion, much less comparative theology. However, this situation may have an advantage: it should discourage the exercise of comparative theology as a sectarian endeavour apart from broader anthropological perspectives and concerns. Comparative theology should not become the last refuge for religious nostalgia. In Europe, interreligious relationships (and hence comparative theologies should not be isolated from simple or more sophisticated forms of indifference, agnosticism, or atheism. The active presence of a non-religious environment as well as the growing interest in Buddhism, are challenges to comparative theology: its contents, its approach, its intended audience.
Full Text Available This paper sets out to explore the perceptions of teachers towards assessment techniques at a secondary level private school of Karachi. This was conjectured on the basis of the circumstances of parallel boards in the education system of Pakistan and its effectiveness within the context with respect to the curriculum. This was gauged in line with the forms and techniques of assessment corresponding with the curriculum. A qualitative research design based on interviews was chosen for this study. Purposive sampling was used to select the teachers from a school. The findings of the study revealed that the General Certificate of Secondary Education (GCSE is best suited to assess students’ knowledge and skills and the teachers viewed that in order for students to be accomplished in this board, the ways of assessment must take a more meaningful measure of evaluating student’s progress
Siahaan, M. F.
The purpose of this study was to identify school mathematics topics and mathematics learning experiences of two elementary schools in contrasting social class settings under an umbrella of one institution. A case study research methodology was used to examine data collected from those two Elementary schools. The data revealed that there were similarities in curriculum framework, curriculum materials but there were also significant differences in what was taught and what was experienced in those two schools. The data suggested that word problem and a pedagogy of critical thinking were implemented in one of the schools. The differences were assessed in terms of theoretical and social implications. It was concluded that social stratification of mathematical knowledge occurred
Srivastava, Prachi; Noronha, Claire
We examine relative household costs and experiences of accessing private and government schooling under India's "Right of Children to Free and Compulsory Education Act, 2009" in the early implementation phase. The Act deems that no child should incur any fee, charges, or expenses in accessing schooling. Private schools are mandated to…
Oliveira, Thiara Castro de; Silva, Antônio Augusto Moura da; Santos, Cristiane de Jesus Nunes dos; Silva, Josenilde Sousa e; Conceição, Sueli Ismael Oliveira da
To analyze factors associated with physical activity and the mean time spent in some sedentary activities among school-aged children. A cross-sectional study was carried out in a random sample of 592 schoolchildren aged nine to 16 years in 2005, in São Luís, Northern Brazil. Data were collected by means of a 24-Hour Physical Activity Recall Questionnaire, concerning demographic and socioeconomic variables, physical activities practiced and time spent in certain sedentary activities. Physical activities were classified according to their metabolic equivalents (MET), and a physical activity index was estimated for each child. Sedentary lifestyle was estimated based on time spent watching television, playing videogames and on the computer/internet. Chi square test was used to compare proportions. Linear regression analysis was used to establish associations. Estimates were adjusted for the effect of the sampling design. The mean of the physical activity index was 605.73 MET-min/day (SD = 509.45). School children that were male (coefficient=134.57; 95%CI 50.77; 218.37), from public schools (coefficient.= 94.08; 95%CI 12.54; 175.62 and in the 5th to 7th grade (coefficient.=95.01; 95%CI 8.10;181.92 presented higher indices than females, children from private schools and in the 8th to the 9th grade (p<0.05). On average, students spent 2.66 hours/day in sedentary activities. Time spent in sedentary activities was significantly lower for children aged nine to 11 years (coefficient.= -0.49 hr/day; 95%CI -0.88; -0.10) and in lower socioeconomic classes (coefficient.=-0.87; 95%CI -1.45;-0.30). Domestic chores (59.43%) and walking to school (58.43%) were the most common physical activities. Being female, in private schools and in the 8th to 9th grade were factors associated with lower levels of physical activity. Younger schoolchildren and those from low economic classes spent less time engaged in sedentary activities.
There are growing numbers of low-cost private schools in urban informal settlements in developing countries. It has been argued that these institutions may constitute alternatives for government schools, as they are able to meet the educational needs of children in urban informal settlements. This study explores the question of whether low-cost…
This paper highlights emerging trends, programmes and policies in privatization of education in Western countries. These trends are educational vouchers, choice of private schools, private school liberalization, private contracting of specific services, tuition tax credits and deductions for parents ,subsidies and assistance grants to private…
Adams, Matthew D.; Requia, Weeberb J.
A child's exposure to environmental pollutants can have life-long health effects. Thus it is critical to understand the potential exposure pathways. In this paper, we examine the increase in ambient PM2.5 concentrations at schools from private vehicle use for dropping children off at school. In North America, students are commonly driven to school in a private vehicle. Additionally, students walk or cycle, or take a school bus. Our vehicle surveys recorded between 23 and 116 personal vehicles at 25 schools, where enrolment ranged from 160 to 765 students. We fit a linear regression model to predict the number of vehicles at schools we did not observe within our study area, which explained 57% of the variation in our surveys. A microsimulation traffic model was created for each of the 86 schools we studied. Outputs from the traffic model were used to determine the emissions generated at each school. PM2.5 emissions varied from 0.14 to 6.38 g. Lastly, we dispersed the emissions produced by private vehicles dropping off students, which are emissions generated by unnecessary trips because students further than walking distance are provided transportation by the school board. At the drop-off location in front of the school, we found ambient concentration increases of at least 5 μg/m3, 10 μg/m3, 25 μg/m3 and 50 μg/m3 during 16.8%, 7.6%, 2.0% and 0.5% of the mornings, respectively. This research was conducted in a medium-sized North American city and should allow transferability to similar cities. We conclude that the use of private vehicles can significantly increase local concentrations, regardless of background conditions.
Human beings are social in nature and need acquisition and possession of knowledge for self-actualisation. This need can only be fulfilled in educational institutions. Turkish educational system is composed of pre-school, elementary, secondary and higher education. It is now evident that governments alone cannot meet the high demand of information…
Maria Ramona S. Braza
Full Text Available This study determined the career choice of the high school students of the different private institutions in San Jose, Batangas as a basis for developing a career program guide to help the students in choosing their career.The descriptive method was used the study with the questionnaire and standardized test as the main data gathering instruments. Parents, students and teachers served as respondents of the study. The study revealed that most preferred career of the respondents is the academic track particularly the Science Technology Engineering and Mathematics (STEM strand. The proposed program guide formulated focused on how to help the students decide on their future career. When properly given, it will benefit the students. The researchers recommended that the proposed career program guide that has been formulated may be shown to school heads for their suggestions; the students should be provided with effective orientation on what career is really all about. This could be done by the school guidance counselor or by the teachers and parents as well and there must be a close–up tie among the guidance personnel, teachers, students, and parents to promote a better understanding of the factors which influence the career choice of the students.
Full Text Available Understanding the notion of learner’s experiences in the design of physical environment of an architecture design studio is a necessity as it contains certain values of influence. It is due to the unique learning experiences which are accrued particularly in design studio that is continued during professional practice as well. Most architectural campuses in Malaysian Private Higher Education Institutions (MPHEI are devoid of certain important elements and this issue needs to be looked into seriously. Apparently, most architectural design studios today have different physical settings, and have developed their own learning culture based on the typical space that they have. Reviewing the physical environment and how it contributes to the social environ-ment in MPHEI’s architectural context requires certain understanding on the learner’s psycho-logical needs, expectations and in the same time to meet the educational objective which is never an easy task. Hence, this paper reviewed the studies of the possible physical environment approaches in connecting the learner’s connections in architecture studio learning environ-ment. A questionnaire survey with Likert-scale components, and semi-structured interview on learners of five distinguished Private Architectural schools in Malaysia unveiled several signifi-cant findings that can lead entrepreneurs to upgrade the physical environment of these MPHEIs in order to cope with the demands of the stakeholders.
The Future of Inner City High Schools: The Public-Private Contribution. Proceedings of Conference "The Future of Inner City High Schools: The Public-Private Contribution" (Boston, Massachusetts, June 21-22, 1984).
Harvard Univ., Cambridge, MA. Kennedy School of Government.
This document summarizes the proceedings of a conference of urban leaders on public-private collaborative efforts to address the problems of inner-city high schools. Findings presented and opinions expressed at sessions on the following topics are outlined: (1) education funds; (2) city-wide umbrella organizations; (3) goal setting--tying jobs and…
Koirala, M; Khatri, R B; Khanal, V; Amatya, A
Childhood overweight/obesity is a global health problem because of adverse health and nutrition consequences worldwide. Currently, there is a paucity of information on childhood overweight/obesity in Nepal. Therefore, the objective of this study was to assess the prevalence of, and the factors associated with, childhood overweight/obesity among primary school children. A cross-sectional study was conducted in June-December, 2013. We collected data using the structured self-administered questionnaire with parents of children aged 6-13 years in grades 1-6 studying at private schools of the Lalitpur district of Nepal. Height and weight measurements of 986 children were taken, and the corresponding body mass index (BMI)-for-age was calculated. The prevalence of childhood overweight/obesity was reported in proportion. Factors associated with childhood overweight/obesity were examined using the Chi-square tests followed by multiple logistic regression analyses. Of 986 children, 144 (14.6%) were overweight and 111 (11.3%) were obese. Overall, 255 (25.9%) children were found to be overweight/obese. Children from families, having ≤2 siblings (adjusted odds ratio (aOR)=1.958, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.163-3.296), upper class family (aOR=3.672; 95% CI: 1.154-11.690), and advantaged ethnic group (aOR=1.561; 95% CI: 1.00-2.437) and children who were of larger birth weight (>4.0kg) had a greater likelihood of being (aOR=2.557, 95% CI: 1.222-5.349) overweight/obese. A quarter of children were found to be overweight/obese in private primary schools. Preventive interventions should focus on the advantaged ethnic groups, families with fewer siblings, and upper class families. A greater emphasis ought to be placed on formulation and implementation of policies aimed at addressing the newly emerging problems of childhood overweight/obesity in Nepal. New school health programs are to be launched and strengthened including avoidance of high energy junk food, and promoting outdoor
Debalke, Serkadis; Worku, Amare; Jahur, Nejat; Mekonnen, Zeleke
Soil transmitted helminth infections are among the most common human infections. They are distributed throughout the world with high prevalence rates in tropical and sub-tropical countries mainly because of lack of adequate sanitary facilities, inappropriate waste disposal systems, lack of safe water supply, and low socio-economic status. A comparative cross sectional study was conducted from December 2011 to June 2012 to determine and assess the prevalence of soil transmitted helminths and their associated factors among government and private primary school children. Stool samples were collected from 369 randomly selected children and examined microscopically for eggs of soil transmitted helminth following McMaster techniques. Soil samples were collected from different parts of the school compound and microscopic examination was performed for eggs of the helminths using sodium nitrate flotation technique. The overall prevalence rate of soil transmitted helminth infections in private and government schools was 20.9% and 53.5% respectively. T. trichiura was the most common soil transmitted helminth in both schools while hookworm infections were identified in government school students only. Type of school and sex were significantly associated with soil transmitted helminth. Soil contamination rate of the school compounds was 11.25% with predominant parasites of A. lumbricoides. Higher prevalence of soil transmitted helminth infection was found among government school students. Thus, more focus, on personal hygiene and sanitary facilities, should be given to children going to government schools.
Full Text Available Studies have shown that the quality of outcome in Nigerian secondary schools is declining at an alarming rate due to shortage of required resources as well as leadership challenges. The challenges have been observed to be as a result of lack of mentoring which is not a common practice in school management in Nigeria. Consequently, this study investigated the extent to which mentoring as a strategy for administrators' succession plan impacts on the performance of their duties in public and private secondary schools in Lagos, Nigeria. The study adopted the descriptive survey design and administered a 25-item self-constructed questionnaire on participants. A total of 530 participants were randomly selected from the population of 4,350 senior teachers. The Participants were drawn from 145 secondary schools (91 public and 54 registered private in Education District IV of Lagos State. The findings showed that mentoring has significant impact on administrators' succession planning and that succession planning does not significantly differ in public and private secondary schools in Lagos State. The study concluded that leadership development is a critical factor in secondary school effectiveness and efficiency. Therefore, serving administrators as well as prospective administrators should be regularly evaluated to determine their training needs at different career stages. There should also be mentoring related policies to enhance the managerial skills, sense of competence and effectiveness of the prospective administrators.
Jelani, Juliana; Tan, Andrew K. G.
In this exploratory study, the censored Tobit model is applied on primary data collected amongst parents of primary school students in Penang, Malaysia to examine the determinants of participation and expenditures on private tuition (PT). Results of the marginal effects indicate that socio-demographic characteristics--ethnicity, household income,…
This study enlisted language immersion practitioners in highlighting and exploring the issues and challenges that accompany language immersion education. Comprehensive focused personal interviews of preschool Mandarin Chinese language immersion educators in a private school provided the basis of the study. The research literature reviewed…
The aim of this research is to determine high school students' opinions regarding the necessity of private courses in the transition to higher education. For this purpose, the descriptive research method has been applied. As a data collection tool, an interview which has both quantitative and qualitative structure in other words a hybrid structure…
Oyier, Charles Richard; Odundo, Paul Amollo; Lilian, Ganira Khavugwi; Wangui, Kahiga Ruth
The convergence between telecommunication, broadcasting multimedia and related technologies commonly known as Information and Communication Technologies (ICT), promises a fundamental change in educational management. ICT could be the missing tool in improving efficiency of private secondary schools to cope with rapidly changing world to…
Full Text Available This study was aimed atidentifying associated barriers to entry of male teachers into early childhood teaching and to understand the gender inequality and the shortage of male role models for early learners at private schools of Karachi. A qualitative research was conducted with phenomenology as the chosen inquiry method. A purposeful sampleof six in-service educators was selected from four private schools in Karachi two male post-secondary teachers, two female early childhood teachers and two private school female heads. The data were collected using three semi structured interviews one for each sample subtype. The study revealed that the male teachers did not teach early learners at private schools due to poor pay;low male adult and child compatibility; the influence of gender stereotypes and societal norms on occupational choice and child safety concerns. To create gender neutrality of early childhood teachers, male participants expressed an interest to teach young learners if offered equitable pay and professional development opportunities, while female participants suggested increased pay and child protection policy implementation.
Kiley, Jill; Robinson, Daniel Bruce
This article presents the results from a qualitative case study that examined the influencers upon a somewhat unique group of female students who opted out of elective physical education (PE). More specifically, this study focused upon female students attending an affluent private school, investigating why--when they transitioned from middle…
Wokadala, J.; Barungi, M.
The study establishes whether government spending on private universal secondary education (USE) schools is equitable across quintiles disaggregated by gender and by region in Uganda. The study employs benefit incidence analysis tool on the Uganda National Panel Survey (UNPS 2009/10) data to establish the welfare impact of public subsidy on…
Semplonius, Thalia; Good, Marie; Willoughby, Teena
Emerging adulthood is a time of many changes. For example, one change that occurs for a subset of emerging adults is leaving home and starting university. Importantly, the creation of social ties can aid in promoting positive adjustment during university. This study investigated whether involvement in religious activities promotes social ties among university students directly and/or indirectly through emotion regulation. Importantly, involvement in religious activities may promote self-regulatory skills, and the ability to effectively regulate emotions can aid in navigating social interactions. To rule out potentially important confounding variables, spirituality and involvement in non-religious clubs were statistically controlled in all analyses. The participants included 1,132 university students (70.5 % female) from a university in Ontario, Canada who were surveyed each year over a period of 3 years. The results indicated that involvement in religious activities indirectly predicted more social ties over time through emotion regulation. Spirituality did not predict social ties or emotion regulation. Furthermore, non-religious clubs directly predicted more social ties over time. Thus, although involvement in religious and non-religious activities both predicted more social ties in a university setting over time, the mechanism by which these activities promote social ties differed.
Sukhabogi, J R; Shekar, Cbr; Hameed, Ia; Ramana, Iv; Sandhu, G
The assessment of oral health status of children in government and private schools provide data on the oral health status of children from different socio-economic background. The aim of the following study is to assess and to compare the oral hygiene status, gingival status and caries experience between children from government and private schools in Andhra Pradesh, India. A combination of cluster and stratified random sampling was employed to select the study participants. Oral hygiene status, gingival status and caries experience was assessed and compared among 12- and 15-year-old children from three government and private schools each. The examination was carried out by three trained and calibrated investigators using a mouth mirror and explorer under natural daylight. A total of 604 children (331 government and 273 private) were examined in the study. The mean oral hygiene index-simplified (OHI-S) was higher among government school children (2.9 [1.1]) compared private school children (0.6 [0.4]). The mean gingival score and mean decayed missing filled teeth were also higher among government school children compared with private school children. A significantly higher number of children in the government schools had poor oral hygiene status, moderate to severe gingivitis and caries experience. The prevalence of oral diseases was relatively less among children from private schools in comparison with those from government schools. Hence, the children from government schools should be given the priority compared with private school children in any school dental health programs planned on a statewide basis.
Full Text Available Research reveals that private or home tuition after school time plays a crucial role in strengthening and improving studentâ€™s academic achievement. The purpose of the study was to explore the effects of private tuition on the academic achievement of students in subject of mathematics at secondary school level. All the students at secondary school level in Kohat Division (Pakistan constituted the population of the study. The study was delimited to the students of Government High School Ahmadi Banda Karak only. Fifty students of class 09 were selected as sample of the study. Sample students were divided into two groups i.e. control group and experimental group by equating them on the basis of their previous knowledge in subject of mathematics as determined through a pre-test. Each group was composed of 25 students. Students of the experimental group were engaged in tuition for two hours after school time. The study was experimental in nature therefore, â€œThe pre-test-post-test Equivalent Groups Designâ€ was used for the collection of data. Statistical tools i.e. the mean, standard deviation and differences of means were computed for each group. Significance of difference between the mean scores of both the experimental and control groups on the variable of pre-test and post test scores was tested at 0.05 levels by applying t-test. After statistical analysis of the data, the researchers concluded that there is significant positive effect of private tuition on the academic achievement of students in subject of mathematics at secondary school level. Based on the findings, it was recommended that parents should arrange private tuition for their children to move up their achievement level in subject of mathematics.
Abo-Hasseba, Ahmed; Waaramaa, Teija; Alku, Paavo; Geneid, Ahmed
This study aimed to assess teachers' voice symptoms and noise in schools in Upper Egypt and to study possible differences between teachers in public and private schools. A cross-sectional analysis via questionnaire was carried out. Four schools were chosen randomly to represent primary and preparatory schools as well as public and private ones. In these schools, a total of 140 teachers participated in the study. They answered a questionnaire on vocal and throat symptoms and their effects on working and social activities, as well as levels and effects of experienced noise. Of all teachers, 47.9% reported moderate or severe dysphonia within the last 6 months, and 21.4% reported daily dysphonia. All teachers reported frequent feelings of being in noise, with 82.2% feeling it sometimes or always during the working day, resulting in a need to raise their voice. Teachers in public schools experienced more noise from nearby classes. The working conditions and vocal health of teachers in Upper Egypt, especially in public schools, are alarming. Copyright © 2017 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available After the restoration of independence in 1991, Estonia continued with a parallel school system with separate public schools operating for Russian- and Estonian-speaking children. Seen as a developmental ‘growing pains’ of a transitional state, during the last 27 years the separate school system has contributed to infrastructural difficulties, educational injustice, and societal segregation. This article investigates the role of private schools in addressing this injustice from the analytical angle of new institutionalism, structuration and intergroup contact theories. How do these institutions challenge and aim at changing the state language regime or path dependency in the language of education? Two case studies are presented in this article: The Open School, established in 2017 for children with different home language backgrounds and targeting trilingual competences; The Sakala Private School, established in 2009, offering trilingual education with Russian as a medium of instruction. During this period of nation-state rebuilding and globalization, we investigate whether developing a multilingual habitus is a way to address the issue of social cohesion in the Estonian society in. So far, no other studies of private initiatives in Estonian language acquisition planning have been done.
Ojofeitimi, Ebenezer Olubanji; Olugbenga-Bello, Adenike Iyanuoluwa; Adekanle, Daniel Adebode; Adeomi, Adeleye A
The prevalence of obesity has continued to rise at an alarming rate worldwide to such an extent that it has been described as a global epidemic. Our study aims to investigate the pattern and determinants of obesity among adolescent females in private and public schools in the Olorunda Local Government Area of Osun State, Nigeria. This is a cross-sectional descriptive study. Using the multistage sampling technique, 520 pre-tested, semi-structured questionnaires were administered to 257 girls from private schools and 263 girls from public schools. Most of the respondents from private schools (65.2%) had good knowledge about obesity and related matters while most of those from public schools (65.9%) had poor knowledge. The dietary practice of the majority of the girls from private schools (60.2%) was unhealthy while most of the girls from public schools (68.7%) had healthy dietary practices. Most of the respondents from private schools (64.2%) lived sedentary lifestyles while most from public schools (64.0%) lived active lifestyles. Using the BMI, the majority of the girls from private schools were underweight (52%), 10 (4.0%) were overweight and 3 (1.2%) were obese. For public schools, the majority (55.4%) fell within the normal group, 6 (2.3%) were overweight and none was obese. The prevalence of being overweight and of obesity was higher among the girls in private schools than among girls attending public schools. We concluded that awareness should be created to promote a healthy balance of food, drink and physical activity within and outside the school.
Peter G. Romerosa
Full Text Available The implementation of the Senior High School program in the Philippines illuminates the State’s response to the changing landscape of the global market economy. Its salient features focus on the additional two year-senior high school program which highlights the development of middle level skills for national development and global competitiveness. In order to concretize the implementation of the program, the State entered into collaboration with the private schools which is commonly known as Public Private Partnership (PPP. In this collaboration, the government provides the guidelines and financing while the private educational institutions provide the academic service. Framed from a socio-cultural approach to policy making in education, this study aimed to unpack a particular implementation of PPP of a private institution in an urban area, examine the institutional policies that were created in response to PPP, and interrogate the impacts of these policies on micro social processes. Using interviews and focus group discussions for methodology, the researcher drew narratives and insights from on-the-ground actors. Further, the investigation looked into how authorized policy actors (school administrators and nonauthorized policy actors (teachers, parents, and students are appropriating policies within the operational framework of the PPP in the implementation of the senior high school program. The results demonstrated that multi- layered appropriation and exercise of the agency were explicitly and implicitly deployed in diverse social spaces by actors as a pragmatic and creative response to the new educational arrangement. The paper provides a lens to further develop under-standing on how policy appropriation and production from the local context can inform institutional approaches in facilitating relevant student experience within the realm of PPP in education.
Mitha, Madhu M; Nijesh, J E; Chaly, Preetha Elizabeth; Priyadharshini, Indra; Junaid, Mohammed; Vaishnavi, S
Dental caries is as ancient as humankind and has the longest association with the dental profession, an association that is punctuated with agony and ecstasy. The agonizing fact is that despite several efforts toward total eradication, this disease is still prevalent. Nevertheless, an ecstatic success of the profession is the global decline in the incidence compared to the yesteryears' epidemics. Hence, predicting dental caries earlier is a boon. One such model to predict is cariogram developed by Bratthall in 1996. The aim of this study was to assess the caries risk among 12-13 year old school-going children of government and private schools of Tirupur district in Tamil Nadu using cariogram computer model. A cross-sectional survey was carried out among 136 study subjects of 12-13 year of age, who fulfilled the inclusion and exclusion criteria. Data were collected using a predesigned questionnaire and scored according to a standardized protocol. The Chi-square test was used to find differences between caries-related factors and cariogram group. The correlation was acquired using Spearman's correlation. Government school study subjects had 56% of chance of avoiding caries whereas the private school study subjects had 66% of chance of avoiding caries in future and the differences were statistically significant (P = 0.001). A negative correlation was observed between the chance to avoid dental caries and cariogram sectors. The majority of the study subjects from government school belonged to medium-risk category and private school subjects belonged to low-risk category which inferred that private school students have high chance to avoid dental caries compared to government study subjects.
Bednarczyk, Robert A.; Richards, Jennifer L.; Allen, Kristen E.; Warraich, Gohar J.; Omer, Saad B.
Objectives. To evaluate trends in rates of personal belief exemptions (PBEs) to immunization requirements for private kindergartens in California that practice alternative educational methods. Methods. We used California Department of Public Health data on kindergarten PBE rates from 2000 to 2014 to compare annual average increases in PBE rates between schools. Results. Alternative schools had an average PBE rate of 8.7%, compared with 2.1% among public schools. Waldorf schools had the highest average PBE rate of 45.1%, which was 19 times higher than in public schools (incidence rate ratio = 19.1; 95% confidence interval = 16.4, 22.2). Montessori and holistic schools had the highest average annual increases in PBE rates, slightly higher than Waldorf schools (Montessori: 8.8%; holistic: 7.1%; Waldorf: 3.6%). Conclusions. Waldorf schools had exceptionally high average PBE rates, and Montessori and holistic schools had higher annual increases in PBE rates. Children in these schools may be at higher risk for spreading vaccine-preventable diseases if trends are not reversed. PMID:27854520
Brennan, Julia M; Bednarczyk, Robert A; Richards, Jennifer L; Allen, Kristen E; Warraich, Gohar J; Omer, Saad B
To evaluate trends in rates of personal belief exemptions (PBEs) to immunization requirements for private kindergartens in California that practice alternative educational methods. We used California Department of Public Health data on kindergarten PBE rates from 2000 to 2014 to compare annual average increases in PBE rates between schools. Alternative schools had an average PBE rate of 8.7%, compared with 2.1% among public schools. Waldorf schools had the highest average PBE rate of 45.1%, which was 19 times higher than in public schools (incidence rate ratio = 19.1; 95% confidence interval = 16.4, 22.2). Montessori and holistic schools had the highest average annual increases in PBE rates, slightly higher than Waldorf schools (Montessori: 8.8%; holistic: 7.1%; Waldorf: 3.6%). Waldorf schools had exceptionally high average PBE rates, and Montessori and holistic schools had higher annual increases in PBE rates. Children in these schools may be at higher risk for spreading vaccine-preventable diseases if trends are not reversed.
Nazirul Hasnain; Zuby Hasan; Sehal Chorath
Background: The components of Psychological capital as well as Organizational citizenship behavior and Work motivation are so influential for an individual especially for their performance in organizational setting. Aims: The main objectives of the study were: (1) to study the contributions of organizational citizenship behavior and work motivation in psycap of public school teachers; (2) to study the contributions of organizational citizenship behavior and work motivation in psycap of privat...
Mhaske, Mayavati S; Khismatrao, Deepak S; Kevin, Fernandez; Pandve, Harshal T; Kundap, Ritesh P
School health is an important intervention as a great deal of research tells us that schools can have a major effect on children's health, by teaching them about health and promoting healthy behaviors. The aim of this study is to determine common health problems and assess personal hygiene status among primary school children. A cross-sectional study was conducted in academic years 2009-2010 and 2010-2011, with three health check-up camps organized in private primary school of Pune city. A total of 450 students were assessed for health problems and composite score of personal hygiene status was calculated ranging from 0 to 5 by examination of hairs, nails, skin and clothes. Proportions calculated with application of Chi-square test and Pearson co-efficient applied to observe the relation between two quantitative variables. Out of 450 students examined, 56.2% were boys and 43.8% were girls with age ranging from 5 to 10 years. The major morbidities observed were dental caries (65.1%), upper respiratory tract infections (38.2%), ear wax (29.9%) and myopia (10.0%). Mean hygiene score was significantly higher in girls (4.32) than boys (3.95) and poor hygiene observed in older boys. Increasing myopia and poor dental hygiene denotes a changing morbidity pattern in private primary school of the urban area. The hygiene status of the girls is significantly better than boys.
Alquaiz, Aljoharah M; Almuneef, Maha A; Minhas, Hafsa R
To investigate the knowledge and sources of knowledge among Saudi female adolescent students, attending public and private schools in the city of Riyadh with regard to sexuality and reproductive health. This cross sectional survey was conducted from January to April 2009. Female adolescents between 11 and 21 years of age were invited to participate in the survey. Five classes of intermediate and secondary levels were randomly selected from 2 schools in Riyadh city. A total of 417 female students were included into the sample. Students were asked to answer a self-administrated questionnaire. Forty-two percent of the participants reported that they discussed sexual matters with their friends. Only 15.8% discussed these matters with their parents (mothers). Interestingly, 17.3% discussed sexual matters with the domestic helper. Most (61%) reported that their teachers had negative attitudes toward questions related to sexual issues. Only 33.3%, 37.9% and 14.5% knew that syphilis, gonorrhea, and hepatitis B, are sexually transmitted diseases. No significant differences were found between students in private schools and public schools. Formal sexual education should be introduced in the curriculum of the schools within the context of our religion and culture. Parents and teachers should be more open to discuss sexual issues with their children and students.
Full Text Available Abstract. To convert an educational institution, such as the private high school, an organization that learns, we must know the school, their strengths, opportunities, to support change, threats, weaknesses that impede it, starting from the individual learning to organizational, because both have an impact on a learner organization, involving all elements such as leadership, work in equipment, resources, culture and values that they make and provide structure, as well as the context in which this immersed; the process of internal learning which characterized them and provide scaffolding, of the new acquisition that they help you or in the future helping you to become the type of organization that not only will be able to adapt to the demands of a modern and dynamic society, but also to transform to generate meaningful learning, allowing it to be competent permanent and relevant to developing its capacities and the survival skills. Resumen. Para convertir una institución educativa, como el bachillerato privado, en una organización que aprende, debemos de conocer la escuela, sus fortalezas, las oportunidades, que apoyarán el cambio, las amenazas, las debilidades que lo impedirán, partiendo desde el aprendizaje individual hasta el organizativo, porque ambos inciden en una organización aprendiente, involucrando todos los elementos como el liderazgo, trabajo en equipo, recursos, cultura y valores, que la conforman y le proporcionan estructura, así como el contexto en el cual está inmerso; los proceso de aprendizaje internos que los caracterizan y le brindan andamiaje, a los de nueva adquisición que le ayudan o en un futuro le auxiliaran a convertirse, en el tipo de organización que no solo será capaz de adaptarse a las exigencias de una sociedad moderna y dinámica, sino también a transformarse para generar el aprendizaje significativo, permitiéndole ser competente, permanente y pertinente desarrollando sus capacidades y habilidades para
Ombra A. Imam
Full Text Available In the Philippine education system, reading, mathematics, and science formed part of the core areas of basic education curriculum. For the last decade, the quality of Philippine education was put into a big question due to poor performance of students in mathematics and science tests both local and abroad. The initial result of current efforts of the government by adopting K-12 curriculum didn’t do much to change the status quo. The purpose of this study is to determine the reading predictors of students’ performance in Mathematics and Science and identify its effects to such performance. A total of 660 freshmen students from public and private high schools in Cotabato City, Philippines were taken as sample. A validated and reliable 150-item test in reading comprehension skills, mathematics and science was used to get primary data to perform correlation and regression analysis. Findings showed that only making inference and getting main idea were predictors of mathematics performance of students in public school and private schools, respectively. Data analysis also revealed that two reading skills such as noting details and making inference had an influence on science performance of students in public school while skills in getting main idea and drawing conclusion influenced science performance of students in private schools. However, there was only one skill such as vocabulary in context which was predictor of overall science performance of all students. Moreover, separate effects of making inference, identifying main idea explained only 1.8 percent and 1.3 percent of students’ math performance while their combined effects provided only .1 percent or nearly zero percent. Furthermore, the study found out that separate effects of noting details contributed 3.3 percent and its combined effects with making inference explained 4.2 percent of science performance of students in public schools. In terms of effects of reading to science
Full Text Available In this paper, we seek for the factors of formation of attitudes of primary school teachers towards inclusion of children who due to some sensory, bodily, mental disability or social deprivation have the need for additional support in development and learning. Research on attitudes towards inclusive education of children with special needs so far indicates that teachers of regular schools 'hesitate' in accepting children with special needs, stating as a reason the fact that they do not feel competent enough to work with them. However, the increase in teacher readiness to work with these children can be seen from the projects for the inclusion of these children that educate the teachers and envisage the support of the school expert team. This study was conducted with the aim of determining whether teacher's experience - either private or professional - with persons with disabilities distinguishes the respondents who exhibit more favourable attitudes towards inclusive education of these children from those with less favourable attitudes. The sample consisted of 105 teachers from five regular primary schools at the territory of Belgrade, 44.2% of whom declared that they had professional experience in working with students with special needs, while 40% of respondents had private experience with persons with developmental disabilities. The results (ANOVA indicate that professional experience with working with children with special needs does not significantly affect the formation and changing of attitudes of teachers of regular schools towards inclusive education. On the other hand, private experience with persons with developmental disabilities has a significant influence both on the attitude towards inclusion as a whole and towards all its components (cognitive, conative, the feeling of competence. Based on the obtained results, implications for the development of the curriculum for educating teachers for working with children with developmental
Lincove, Jane A.; Cowen, Joshua M.; Imbrogno, Jason P.
We examine the characteristics of schools preferred by parents in New Orleans, Louisiana, where a "portfolio" of school choices is available. This tests the conditions under which school choice induces healthy competition between public and private schools through the threat of student exit. Using unique data from parent applications to…
Hassan, Wafa; Ahmad, Farah; Malik, Aisha; Ali, Saba
To assess the awareness about and perception of euthanasia among medical students of Karachi. The cross-sectional study was conducted from December 2011 to March 2012 among students of private-sector and one public-sector medical college in Karachi. Data was analysed using SPSS version 17, and associations were worked out using chi-square test. Out of the 493 students, 226 (46%) were from the matriculation system and 194 (39%) from the Cambridge system, while the remaining 15% were from the American High School. The male-female ratio was 1:3. There were 284 (58%) students from the private medical college. Majority of the private medical school students (n = 284; 99.6%) knew about euthanasia, compared to the public-sector facility where only 161 (77%) knew of it. Of the total, 405 (82%) students agreed that it is physician-assisted suicide; 255 (52%) agreed to the idea of palliative care, claiming it was sufficient to maintain life; 226 (54%) disagreed that a doctor should not be allowed to administer a lethal dose while only 162 (33%) agreed to the idea of it; 285 (58%) disagreed that a law regarding the practice of euthanasia should not be introduced, whereas 134 (27%) agreed to it; 70 (14%) agreed to the practice of euthanasia, while 311 (63%) disagreed, mostly for religious reasons. The awareness of euthanasia was high, but a very small proportion of students approved of it. There is need to include palliative care and euthanasia in the Behavioural Science module in the under-graduation programme of both public and private medical schools.
Diwan, Vishal; Minj, Christie; Chhari, Neeraj; De Costa, Ayesha
In recent years, there has been a massive growth in the private medical education sector in South Asia. India's large private medical education sector reflects the market driven growth in private medical education. Admission criteria to public medical schools are based on qualifying examination scores, while admission into private institutions is often dependent on relative academic merit, but also very much on the ability of the student to afford the education. This paper from Madhya Pradesh province in India aims to study and compare between first year medical students in public and private sector medical schools (i) motives for choosing a medical education (ii) career aspirations on completion of a medical degree (iii) willingness to work in a rural area in the short and long terms. Cross sectional survey of 792 first year medical students in 5 public and 4 private medical schools in the province. There were no significant differences in the background characteristics of students in public and private medical schools. Reasons for entering medical education included personal ambition (23%), parental desire (23%), prestigious/secure profession (25%) or a service motive (20%). Most students wished to pursue a specialization (91%) and work in urban areas (64%) of the country. A small proportion (7%) wished to work abroad. There were no differences in motives or career aspirations between students of public or private schools. 40% were willing to work in a rural area for 2 years after graduating; public school students were more willing to do so. There was little difference in background characteristics, motives for entering medicine or career aspirations between medical students in from public and private sector institutions.
Background In recent years, there has been a massive growth in the private medical education sector in South Asia. India’s large private medical education sector reflects the market driven growth in private medical education. Admission criteria to public medical schools are based on qualifying examination scores, while admission into private institutions is often dependent on relative academic merit, but also very much on the ability of the student to afford the education. This paper from Madhya Pradesh province in India aims to study and compare between first year medical students in public and private sector medical schools (i) motives for choosing a medical education (ii) career aspirations on completion of a medical degree (iii) willingness to work in a rural area in the short and long terms. Methods Cross sectional survey of 792 first year medical students in 5 public and 4 private medical schools in the province. Results There were no significant differences in the background characteristics of students in public and private medical schools. Reasons for entering medical education included personal ambition (23%), parental desire (23%), prestigious/secure profession (25%) or a service motive (20%). Most students wished to pursue a specialization (91%) and work in urban areas (64%) of the country. A small proportion (7%) wished to work abroad. There were no differences in motives or career aspirations between students of public or private schools. 40% were willing to work in a rural area for 2 years after graduating; public school students were more willing to do so. Conclusion There was little difference in background characteristics, motives for entering medicine or career aspirations between medical students in from public and private sector institutions. PMID:24034988
Nascente, Flávia Miquetichuc Nogueira; Jardim, Thiago Veiga; Peixoto, Maria do Rosário Gondim; Carneiro, Carolina de Souza; Mendonça, Karla Lorena; Póvoa, Thaís Inácio Rolim; Sousa, Ana Luiza Lima; Barroso, Weimar Kunz Sebba; Jardim, Paulo César Brandão Veiga
Adolescence is a transition stage between childhood and adulthood and is an important phase for the acquisition of future lifestyles, including the practice of physical activity (PA). The prevalence of sedentary lifestyle in adolescents is often high, creating the need for studies addressing the practice of PA and its associated factors for a better understanding of the phenomenon and possible interventions that would encourage positive changes. Cross-sectional study of a representative sample of students aged 14-18 years enrolled in both public and private schools of a large Brazilian city to determine the level of physical activity (PA) and its associated factors. Sedentary lifestyle was measured by applying the International Physical Activity Questionnaire. The independent variables were gender, age, race, tobacco use and alcohol consumption in the past 30 days, socioeconomic status, body mass index, waist circumference and blood pressure. The crude prevalence ratio was used as a measure of association and was estimated from a Poisson regression. The sample consisted of 862 adolescents with a mean age of 15.4 ± 1.1 years. Females were predominant (52.8%), and the age between 14 and 15 years was the most frequent (52.2%). The majority of the group reported themselves as Caucasians (51.2%), belonging to socioeconomic class C (52.5%) and were attending to public schools (69.1%). The prevalence of sedentary lifestyle was 66.8% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 63.5-69.9), where values of 65.4% and 69.9% were observed among students from public and private schools, respectively (p = 0.196). Sedentary lifestyle was more frequent in females (78.0% vs 54.3%; p sedentary lifestyle was female gender both in public and private schools and the only independent variable related to sedentarism was also female gender. The prevalence of sedentary lifestyle was extremely high in the population of adolescents studied both in public and private schools. Female sex was
Martins, Laura B Motta; da Costa-Paiva, Lúcia Helena S; Osis, Maria José D; de Sousa, Maria Helena; Pinto-Neto, Aarão M; Tadini, Valdir
This study aimed to compare knowledge about STD/AIDS and identify the factors associated with adequate knowledge and consistent use of male condoms in teenagers from public and private schools in the city of São Paulo, Brazil. We selected 1,594 adolescents ranging 12 to 19 years of age in 13 public schools and 5 private schools to complete a questionnaire on knowledge of STD/AIDS and use of male condoms. Prevalence ratios were computed with a 95% confidence interval. The score on STD knowledge used a cutoff point corresponding to 50% of correct answers. Statistical tests were chi-square and Poisson multiple regression. Consistent use of male condoms was 60% in private and 57.1% in public schools (p > 0.05) and was associated with male gender and lower socioeconomic status. Female gender, higher schooling, enrollment in private school, Caucasian race, and being single were associated with higher knowledge of STDs. Teenagers from public and private schools have adequate knowledge of STD prevention, however this does not include the adoption of effective prevention. Educational programs and STD/AIDS awareness-raising should be expanded in order to minimize vulnerability.
Rashmi, M R; Shweta, B M; Fathima, Farah Naaz; Agrawal, Twinkle; Shah, Moulik; Sequeira, Randell
Malnutrition is a serious problem among children in developing countries. In India; a school meal program is in place to combat malnutrition, but only in government schools. This study is an attempt to assess the prevalence of malnutrition in primary and secondary school children in private schools and to also assess the relationship between malnutrition and academic performance. All 582 students from class 1-7 from two select schools in rural Bangalore, India were included in the study. Information on age of study subjects were collected from school records. Height and weight measurements were taken. BMI was calculated. Children were clinically examined for pallor. Data on height, weight and BMI was transformed into WHO 2007 Z scores and then was categorized as -2 SD, > 2 SD. Mathematics and English scores of the previous two class tests were taken, average scores were calculated. Statistical tests used were Chi square test, Odd's ratio, Chi square for trend. A total of 582 students participated in this study. Males were 54% (315) and females were 46% (267). One hundred and fifty-nine (27%) of the children had pallor, 81 (20%) had under nutrition, 38 (7%) had stunting, 197 (34%) had thinness and 5 (1%) were found to be obese. Positive relationship was found between weight for ageZscores and English as well as Maths; Height for age Z scores with English. Hence we conclude that the prevalence of malnutrition is high among children in private schools also; and the nutritional status of the children is strongly associated with their academic performance.
Kascak, Ondrej; Gajnakova, Slavomira
This study researches the role prayer plays in a class at a faith primary school in Slovakia in terms of reproducing the traditional elements of school organisation/schoolwork, such as accepting authority, conforming and competing. It looks at non-religious elements of school socialisation as a consequence of the practice of praying. At the same…
Full Text Available Abstract Background Overweight prevalence among Guatemalan girls is higher in public than in private schools. Little is known about adolescent girls’ perceptions of the right ways to achieve a healthy weight. This study examines public and private school adolescent girls’ perceptions of a “healthy weight,” and barriers and facilitators to achieving it. Methods We conducted 4 focus groups in public and private schools in Guatemala City with girls from 13 to 15 years old. The discussion guide included open-ended questions and activities aimed at examining perceptions of “healthy weight” and barriers and motivators to achieving it within the school environment. Focus groups were audio-recorded and transcribed. Data analyses followed established methods of content analysis. Results Twenty-eight girls (private school, n = 12; public school, n = 16 of ages ranging from 13.1 to 15.9 years (median, 14, IQR, 13.6–14.9 participated in the study. Girls identified images of thin and fit women as healthy. They cited healthy eating and physical activity as ways to achieve a healthy weight. Within the school environment, barriers to maintaining a healthy weight included a lack of healthy food options and the prioritization of sports for boys over girls. In public schools, facilities were less than optimal; in private schools, girls’ access to facilities was limited. Public school girls stated that their uniforms were inappropriate for exercising. Conclusion Our findings support the need to provide more healthy food options in Guatemalan schools. In addition, physical activity for girls should be promoted and facilities made available for their use.
Shailee, Fotedar; Girish, M Sogi; Kapil, R Sharma; Nidhi, Pruthi
To assess the dental caries, periodontal health, and malocclusion of school children aged 12 and 15 years in Shimla city and to compare them in government and private schools. A cross-sectional study of 12- and 15-year-old children in government and private schools was conducted in Shimla city, Himachal Pradesh, India. A sample of 1011 school children (both males and females) was selected by a two-stage cluster sampling method. Clinical recordings of dental caries and malocclusion were done according to World Health Organization diagnostic criteria 1997. Periodontal health was assessed by Community Periodontal Index of Treatment Needs index. The data collected was analyzed by SPSS package 13. The statistical tests used were t-test and Chi-square tests. The prevalence of dental caries was 32.6% and 42.2% at 12 and 15 years, respectively. At the12 years of age, the mean decayed, missing, filled teeth was 0.62 ± 1.42 and it was 1.06 ± 2.93 at 15 years of age. Females had higher level of caries than males at both the ages. At both ages, mean of decayed teeth was statistically higher in government schools as compared with private schools. Children in government schools had significantly less number of mean filled teeth at both ages as compared with private schools. The healthy component of gingiva was present in higher percentage of children in private schools as compared with government schools at both the age groups. The prevalence of malocclusion among the 12- year-old (58.1%) was more as compared with that among the 15-year-old (53.5%). The caries experience of 12- and 15-year-old children was low but the prevalence of gingivitis and malocclusion was quite high. Effective oral health promotion strategies need to be implemented to improve the oral health of school children further in Shimla city.
Shibo, Margaret Nekesa
The purpose of this study was to compare the influence of management styles of head teacher's on pupils' performance in private and public primary schools in Nakuru municipality at Kenya Certificate of Primary Education level. The population comprised of teachers and head teachers in public primary schools. The study adopted the ex post facto…
Poder, Kaire; Lauri, Triin
This article aims to show the segregating effect of the market-like matching of students and schools at the basic school level. The natural experiment case is Tallinn, the capital of Estonia. The current school choice mechanism applied in this case is based on entrance tests. There are increasingly over-subscribed intra-catchment area public…
Elacqua, Gregory; Contreras, Dante; Salazar, Felipe; Santos, Humberto
There is persistent debate over the role of scale of operations in education. Some argue that school franchises offer educational services more effectively than small independent schools. Skeptics counter that large centralized operations create hard-to-manage bureaucracies and foster diseconomies of scale and that small schools are more effective…
Characteristics of Public, Private, and Bureau of Indian Education Elementary and Secondary School Teachers in the United States: Results From the 2007-08 Schools and Staffing Survey. First Look. NCES 2009-324
This report presents selected findings from the school teacher data files of the 2007-08 Schools and Staffing Survey (SASS). SASS is a nationally representative sample survey of public, private, and Bureau of Indian Education-funded (BIE) K-12 schools, principals, and teachers in the 50 states and the District of Columbia. The public school…
Full Text Available Based on the analysis of archival documents the article reflects the history and activity of the girls' school of A.L. Chudnahovskaia - E.I. Genshke in Bălţi. In the development of the school there are three stages. According to archival sources of 1884, it was established instead of a second category school (four-year training system headed by Zinaida Negruş. Due to financial difficulties the school was closed after ten years of operation. Parents of children enrolled in it appealed to local authorities through an official I.A. Marandich to request the continuation of the school, as they are unable to send their children to schools located in other cities. After several consultations with teachers from local schools, I.A. Marandich asked Augustina Chudnahovskaia, the former teacher of French and German from the Negruş's school, to get permission from the Department of Public Education to open a new school similar to the previous one. Thanks to perseverance of the director of popular schools P.C. Borzakovekov, it was decided to open in Bălţi a similar four-year school. The new school began its work on 5 September 1894. The teaching staff was formed from the former school's teach- ers working more on enthusiasm than for money. The amount of money left of the school fees was equally shared among all the teachers. At the beginning of their activities they were paid 5-6 rubles a year for a teaching subject. Their work brought good results. For 10 years of its activity the school had 270 students, 77 of which attended the full course of study. On average, each year the school had an enrollment of up to 27 students. The greatest difficulties in the development of this institution emerged during its reorganization in a gymnasium. The first query on the matter was sent to the authorities in 1899, but was not satisfied. Subsequent attempts in 1901 also failed. Only in 1904, the school was reorganized in a progymnasium for girls providing four
Based on the analysis of archival documents the article reflects the history and activity of the girls' school of A.L. Chudnahovskaia - E.I. Genshke in Bălţi. In the development of the school there are three stages. According to archival sources of 1884, it was established instead of a second category school (four-year training system) headed by Zinaida Negruş. Due to financial difficulties the school was closed after ten years of operation. Parents of children enrolled in it appealed t...
Machale, Priyanka S; Hegde-Shetiya, Sahana; Shirahatti, Ravi; Agarwal, Deept
The present cross-sectional study was conducted to assess and compare the mean number of non-cavitated (initial lesions, IL) and cavitated carious lesions (WHO criteria) per child in the permanent dentition and to correlate it with the plaque index among 12- to 15-year-old government and private school children. 481 schoolchildren aged 12-15 years were selected randomly by multistage random sampling from two government and two private schools. Demographic details were collected at the time of examination. Baseline plaque scores were recorded using the Silness and Löe plaque index. Immediately after brushing and drying the teeth, cavitated lesions were recorded based on WHO recommendations and non-cavitated lesions were recorded using the IL criteria of Nyvad et al and Fyffe et al. The mean number of surfaces with cavitated and non-cavitated lesions for government school children was 2.13 ± 2.98 and 3.21 ± 2.97, respectively, and 1.24 ± 1.86 and 3.08 ± 2.33 for private school children, respectively. WHO + IL surfaces among private school children were 4.33 ± 3.48 and in government school children 5.35 ± 4.45. There was a positive correlation of plaque score with IL (r = 0.63) and WHO+IL (r = 0.73). Non-cavitated lesions are about twice as common as cavitated carious lesions in school children. Government school children had a higher number of cavitated and non-cavitated carious lesions when compared with private school children.
Shanthi Muniandy; Tareef Hayat Khan; Abdullah Sani Ahmad
Understanding the notion of learner’s experiences in the design of physical environment of an architecture design studio is a necessity as it contains certain values of influence. It is due to the unique learning experiences which are accrued particularly in design studio that is continued during professional practice as well. Most architectural campuses in Malaysian Private Higher Education Institutions (MPHEI) are devoid of certain important elements and this issue needs to be looked into s...
Mawdsley, Ralph; Cumming, Joy
Section 1981 prohibits discrimination concerning the right to contract, and Title VI prohibits discrimination on the basis of the basis of race and national origin. The two cases that form the basis for the discussion in this article--"Silva v. St. Anne Catholic School" and "Doe v. Kamehameha Schools"--address whether culture…
The technology conversation in independent schools has evolved considerably over the last five years. In particular, it has moved beyond the question of how can schools augment traditional classroom practices with hardware (laptops, interactive whiteboards, etc.) to the question of how software can improve outcomes and enable new learning models,…
Yeo, Wee Loon
The invaluable use of ethnography in researching educational settings has been demonstrated through many studies and furthered by many passionate researchers. One of such leading lights is Geoffrey Walford. In this paper, Walford's discussion of groups in two public schools, as depicted in his book "Life in public schools", serves as a…
Hayes, Michael T.; Hudson, Roxanne
In this paper we describe a qualitative research project conducted at a public elementary school in a rural community in Guatemala. From analysis of interviews with teachers and the school administrator, we found that a key concern of participants was how they viewed the increasingly problematic relationship between their local educational…
The English education system has been radically transformed over the last two decades. Throughout this period, the New Right and New Labour government policies have embraced the rhetoric of empowering schools to become self-managing institutions. In the course of this transformation, school leadership and management have become exceptionally…
Sulku, Seher Nur; Abdioglu, Zehra
This study investigates the factors influencing the success of students in primary schools in Turkey. TIMSS 2011 data for Turkey, measuring the success of eighth-grade students in the field of mathematics, were used in an econometric analysis, performed using classical linear regression models. Two hundred thirty-nine schools participated in the…
Freire, Maria do Carmo Matias; Reis, Sandra Cristina Guimaraes Bahia; Gonçalves, Michele Martins; Balbo, Patrícia Lima; Leles, Cláudio Rodrigues
To compare 12-year-old students from public and private schools in the city of Goiânia, Brazil, in terms of the prevalence of caries, periodontal conditions, dentofacial anomalies, and fluorosis. In 2003, the 2002-2003 Oral Health Conditions in the Brazilian Population project (SB Brasil) was expanded to Goiânia as a cross-sectional study, as described in the present article. The sample included 1 947 students from urban schools: 1 790 (91.9%) attended public schools and 157 (8.1%) attended private schools. Data on the following oral conditions were collected through clinical examination: dental caries (decayed, missing, or filled teeth index, DMFT), periodontal condition (Community Periodontal Index, CPI), dentofacial anomaly (Dental Aesthetics Index, DAI), and dental fluorosis (Dean index). The groups were compared using the chi-square and Mann-Whitney U tests. There were differences between the public and private schools for all the variables. DMFT, CPI, and DAI indexes were higher in children from public schools (P schools (P school was associated with the oral health condition of the children in this sample. Investments in actions and services to mitigate this inequality and its effects should be made as part of the policies to promote oral health.
Nascimento, Viviane Gabriela; Schoeps, Denise de Oliveira; Souza, Sônia Buongermino de; Souza, José Maria Pacheco de; Leone, Claudio
To assess the risk prevalence of overweight and obesity in children enrolled in private and philanthropic preschools in the State of São Paulo. Comparison of two cross sectional studies with children enrolled in private preschools (PPS) or philanthropic (PHP) of the São Paulo Metropolitan Region. Both surveys evaluated the children's environment. To determine the risk of overweight, excess weight and obesity, body mass index (BMI) values were transformed into z scores (according to the World Health Organization - 2006 and 2007). The risk prevalence of overweight (≥ 1 BMIz < 2) in PPS was 21.9% and 24.6% in PHP, with PR = 1.12 (95% CI: 0.96-1.32), without statistical difference. Considering the children with overweight or obesity, (BMIz ≥ 2) the prevalence in PPS was 14.3% and in PHP was 9.0%, with PR = 1.54 (95% CI: 1.23-1.93), p = 0.0002. Overweight and obesity prevalence in males in PPS was 16.4% (n = 409) and in PHP, 11.1% (n = 829), PR = 1.48 (95% CI: 1.10-1.98) and in females it was 12.5% (n = 400) in the PPS and 6.6% (n = 698) in PHP, corresponding to PR = 1.90 (95% CI: 1.30-2.78), both significant differences. Both groups showed a similar and very high prevalence of weight excess. However, overweight and obesity showed a higher prevalence in children from private preschools. This indicates that even though a better socioeconomic level is still a risk factor for overweight and obesity in preschoolers, the same does not seem to occur when analyzing the risk of overweight.
Gharaei, Nadya; Thijs, Jochem; Verkuyten, Maykel
Ethnic identity plays a key role in the normative development of children and adolescents, and efforts to provide a positive and safe environment for ethnic identity benefit from an understanding of its context-dependency. Following the social identity perspective, we add to research on ethnic identity by considering the role of the classroom context and by conceptualizing ethnic identity in terms of two key dimensions. Specifically, the present study aims to investigate the role of the classroom context for ethnic private regard (positive ethnic self-feelings) and for the under-researched construct of ethnic introjection (subjective self-group merging). These two dimensions of ethnic identity were examined in 51 Dutch school classes among grade 4-6 students (N = 573; M age = 10.77, SD = 1.02; 54% girls) of Dutch, Turkish and Moroccan ethnic background. We focused on teachers' multicultural norms and classmates' evaluation of the ethnic in-group (peer group norms) in combination with the ethnic class composition. It was found that ethnic introjection was empirically distinct from ethnic private regard, and that the former dimension depended on the classroom context more than the latter. Multicultural teacher norms affected minority preadolescents' private regard positively, but only when the share of in-group classmates was low. Positive peer group norms of in-group classmates strengthened students' introjection, while those of out-group classmates lowered it. The findings indicate that ethnic identity research will be enhanced by more fully considering the conceptual and contextual implications of the social identity perspective.
Full Text Available Education has an important role in creating new learning opportunities and driving social progress. As social institutions, schools form a fundamental block to understand about life and society. While schools have done a good job in preparing students for life and society, newer challenges facing humanity have now emerged. How can schools meaningfully engage students on various pressing social issues and empower their students to take action on issues like environmental crisis, social injustice and developmental challenges? Current school curriculum does not provide adequate opportunities where students can experiment and explore these issues and look for solutions. Problem identifications and their solutions can be explored by creating an interface between community and school. This would create an open space for creativity and innovation amongst students to explore, develop and understand social issues. Such practices would further fuel the students to think and act to address social and environmental challenges. Such approach will pave the way for students to implement and share innovative solutions rather than simply limiting their knowledge to the classroom. This paper is an attempt to highlight the initiatives taken by St. Mary’s School (Delhi, India under its social footprint projects and social innovation in the context of community engagement and emerging environmental issues.
Michaud, Claude; Baudier, François
Conflicts of interest between the food industry and public decision makers have increasingly multiplied over the last few years, especially within the context of implementing the French National Nutrition Programme. This paper describes the rhetoric and the strategies developed by the private sector in order to counter the law's implementation and enforcement based on a concrete example, namely, the removal of vending machines from schools. After having evoked possibilities of developing new partnerships as suggested by national and international health authorities, it reaffirms the right and the duty of the State to regulate within the framework of a health promotion policy, an approach which integrates the necessary open democratic public debate between the different sectors.
Wahyono, Irawan; Widodo, Joko; Sumaryanto, Totok
Nowadays many parties strive for intensity increase and character education implementation quality in formal education institutions. Those demands are based on the developed social phenomena which is the juvenile delinquency, such as mass brawl and other moral decadence cases. Character education can be given in school, but it requires cooperation of all school residents to realize. One of which is headmaster's role for character education in school. The problem of this research is about how headmaster optimizes his role in realizing character education in school. The purpose of this research is to describe and analyze headmaster's optimization role to realize character education in vocational high school (SMK). This research uses qualitative descriptive. Data are collected by interview and documentation then analyzed by using data triangulation. The result of this research shows that headmaster must do his role as an educator, manager, administrator, supervisor, leader, entrepreneur and climate creator. By maximizing his role, character education can be started and will be very useful for students after they graduate and continue to work.
Järnefelt, Elisa; Canfield, Caitlin F; Kelemen, Deborah
Do non-religious adults - despite their explicit disavowal of religious beliefs - have a tacit tendency to view nature as purposefully created by some being? This question was explored in three online studies using a speeded judgment procedure, which assessed disbelievers in two different Western cultures (United States and Finland). Despite strong performance on control trials, across all three studies non-religious individuals displayed a default bias to increasingly judge pictures of natural phenomena as "purposefully made by some being" under processing constraints. Personal beliefs in the supernatural agency of nature ("Gaia beliefs") consistently predicted this tendency. However, beliefs in nature as purposefully made by some being persisted even when such secular agency beliefs were controlled. These results suggest that the tendency to view nature as designed is rooted in evolved cognitive biases as well as cultural socialization. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Chang Da Wan
Full Text Available This paper examines the determinants of spending and the amount of time attending private supplementary tutoring, or commonly known as private tuition, in Malaysia. Based on 343 self-reported questionnaires with upper secondary students across three states in Malaysia and using multiple regression analysis, we identified ethnicity, father’s level of education and past academic performance as significant determinants of spending and amount of time attending private tuition. However, interestingly, we found that while geographical location and participation in internal tuition in schools were also determinants of spending, these two were not significant in determining the amount of time attending private supplementary tutoring. The identification of determinants of spending and amount of time, and in addition, the differences between these two illustrates the economic and educational dimensions of shadow education. More importantly, the insight also contributes to the formulation of possible interventions that can improve quality and reduce inequality in the mainstream education system.
Knafle, June D.; Wescott, Alice Legenza
Fifth Graders (N=626) from public, Catholic, Christian, and home schools reacted to values of forgiveness versus retribution in the two main versions of "Cinderella" by choosing which ending they preferred for themselves, for a 4-year old sister, and for a 4-year old brother. Girls preferred the forgiveness ending for themselves…
Carlson, Deven; Cowen, Joshua M.; Fleming, David J.
Few school choice evaluations consider students who leave such programs, and fewer still consider the effects of leaving these programs as policy-relevant outcomes. Using a representative sample of students from the citywide voucher program in Milwaukee, Wisconsin, we analyze more than 1,000 students who leave the program during a 4-year period.…
Yell, Mitchell L.; Katsiyannis, Antonis; Collins, Terri S.
On June 22, 2009, the U.S. Supreme Court issued its decision in the case "Forest Grove School District v. T.A." (hereafter "Forest Grove"). In "Forest Grove," the High Court answered the question of whether the parents of students with disabilities are entitled to reimbursement for the costs associated with placing…
Tooley, James; Dixon, Pauline; Stanfield, James
Free primary education (FPE) is widely assumed to be required to ensure that the poor gain enrolment. After the introduction of FPE (from January 2003) in Kenyan schools, huge increases in enrolment were officially reported. However, our research, conducted 10 months after the introduction of FPE in and around the informal settlement of Kibera,…
Gokturk, Soheyda; Dinckal, Selin
Parental involvement has been associated with numerous student benefits. However, related literature reveals that neither parents nor teachers are content with the scope and depth of parental involvement in schools. This may be partly due to differential understandings that both sides have on the concept of parental involvement. In this study,…
Honingh, M. E.; Hooge, E. H.
This article sheds new light on the so-called "natural tension" between bureaucracy and professionalism in schools. As it is quite common in the educational field to appoint teachers, it is debatable whether the assumed tension really exists. It seems more reasonable to find hierarchical control "within" the professional group.…
Helman, Lori; Delbridge, Anne; Parker, David; Arnal, Martina; Jara Mödinger, Luz
The current study has a twofold purpose: first, to determine the reliability of a tool for assessing orthographic development in Spanish; second, to assess differences in students' performance on the measure across multiple types of primary schools in a large city in Chile. A Spanish developmental spelling inventory that contained words of…
Razavipour, Kioumars; Yousefi, Moslem
Organisation issues rarely feature in the English language education literature, since language education is seemingly mostly concerned with the individual learner or teacher. As such, the impact that school climate might have on Iranian English language teachers remains an uncharted territory. This mixed-method study explores the relationship…
Pizarro Milian, Roger; Davies, Scott
For over 25 years, school choice advocates have argued that market competition drives educational organizations to become more differentiated and technically-oriented. However, empirical research has only partially supported this view, observing such outcomes only under certain conditions. To better understand the contingent nature of market…
Coulson, Andrew J.
School voucher and education tax credit programs have proliferated in the United States over the past two decades. Advocates have argued that they will enable families to become active consumers in a free and competitive education marketplace, but some fear that these programs may in fact bring with them a heavy regulatory burden that could stifle…
Coulson, Andrew J.
School voucher and education tax credit programs have proliferated in the United States over the past 2 decades. Advocates have argued that they will enable families to become active consumers in a free and competitive education marketplace, but some fear that these programs may bring a heavy regulatory burden that could stifle market forces.…
Hill, Jason; Ottem, Randolph; DeRoche, John
Using data from seven administrations of the Schools and Staffing Survey (SASS), this Statistics in Brief examines trends in public and private school principal demographics, experience, and compensation over 25 years, from 1987-88 through 2011-12. Data are drawn from the 1987-88, 1990-91, 1993-94, 1999-2000, 2003-04, 2007-08, and 2011-12 survey…
Berthold, Anne; Ruch, Willibald
According to systematic reviews, religious beliefs and practices are related to higher life satisfaction, happiness, and positive affect (Koenig and Larson, 2001). The present research extends previous findings by comparing satisfaction with life and character strengths of non-religious people, religious people, who practice their religion and people that have a religious affiliation but do not practice their religion. We assessed life satisfaction (SWLS), character strengths (VIA-IS) and the...
Tse, Shek Kam
The reading attainment of the 3,875 primary 4 Hong Kong primary school students participating in the 2011 Progress in International Reading Literacy Study ranked first among 49 countries and regions surveyed worldwide. Analysis of the association between (a) participating students' reading attainment and (b) responses to questionnaires completed…
Al-Derbashi, Khaled Y.; Abed, Osama H.
This study aims to define the level of utilizing blended learning in teaching science from the point of view of science teachers (85 male and female teachers) who are working in private schools of Ajman Educational Zone. The study also aims to find if there are significant differences according to gender, years of experience, or the fact that…
The purpose of this qualitative grounded theory study was to create a student leadership development model specific to secondary students in a private Christian Hawaiian school system. The paradigm that guided this study was Kouzes and Posner's (2012) transformational leadership theory as it provides a framework of leaders equipping, encouraging,…
This study intends to analyze formal and implemented BTS curricula in Lomé (Togo). Data collection was achieved by means of questionnaires and interviews for exploring, in five private BTS schools, the perceptions of students, teachers and pedagogical directors, as well as the views of employed BTS graduates and their employers, regarding the…
The applied dissertation was designed to investigate the three models of grade span configurations of sixth grade and the effects grade span configuration has on results of the standardized achievement scores of sixth grade students in private, Florida schools. Studies that have been conducted on sixth grade students and grade span configuration…
Berthold, Anne; Ruch, Willibald
According to systematic reviews, religious beliefs and practices are related to higher life satisfaction, happiness, and positive affect (Koenig and Larson, 2001). The present research extends previous findings by comparing satisfaction with life and character strengths of non-religious people, religious people, who practice their religion and people that have a religious affiliation but do not practice their religion. We assessed life satisfaction (SWLS), character strengths (VIA-IS) and the orientations to happiness (OTH) in a sample of N = 20538 participants. People with a religious affiliation that also practice their religion were found to be more satisfied with their life and scored higher on life of meaning than those who do not practice their religion and than non-religious people. Also religious people who practice their religion differed significantly from those who do not practice their religion and non-religious people regarding several character strengths; they scored higher on kindness, love, gratitude, hope, forgiveness, and on spirituality. There were no substantial differences between people who had no religious affiliation and those with a religious affiliation that do not practice their religion (all [Formula: see text]s religious affiliation if they also actively practice their religion.
Full Text Available According to systematic reviews, religious beliefs and practices are related to higher life satisfaction, happiness, and positive affect (Koenig & Larson, 2001. The present research extends previous findings by comparing satisfaction with life and character strengths of nonreligious people, religious people, who practice their religion and people that have a religious affiliation but do not practice their religion. We assessed life satisfaction (SWLS, character strengths (VIA-IS and the orientations to happiness (OTH in a sample of N=20538 participants. People with a religious affiliation that also practice their religion were found to be more satisfied with their life and scored higher on life of meaning than those who do not practice their religion and than nonreligious people. Also religious people who practice their religion differed significantly from those who do not practice their religion and nonreligious people regarding several character strengths; they scored higher on kindness, love, gratitude, hope, forgiveness, and on spirituality. There were no substantial differences between people who had no religious affiliation and those with a religious affiliation that do not practice their religion (all ηp2s < .009. Altogether, the present findings suggest that people profit from a religious affiliation if they also actively practice their religion.
Drawing on the nationally representative "Participation and Expenditure in Education" surveys, we document the incidence and cost of private tutoring at different stages of schooling over the last two decades in India. As private tutoring involve two decisions: a) whether to take private tuition or not, and b) how much to spend on private tutoring conditional on positive decision in (a), we analyze the determinants of the two decisions separately using a Hurdle model. We find that private tut...
Farooq, Salima; Rehman, Rehana; Hussain, Mehwish; Dias, Jacqueline Maria
To assess educational environment at a nursing school.. The cross-sectional survey was carried out from May to October 2016 at Aga Khan University School of Nursing and Midwifery, Karachi, using the Dundee Ready Educational Environment Measure tool. The scores were obtained by merging five sub-scales of the inventory. The average scores of the scale and sub-scales were compared in terms of age, year of study, and living status using Mann-Whitney U test, and among years of study by Kruskal Wallis test.. Of the 442 students, 228(51.6%) had age below 20 years. Overall, 131(29.1%) subjects were in the first year, 152(33.8%) second year, 91(20.2%) third year and 76(16.9%) fourth year. The average Dundee Ready Educational Environment Measure score was 129.92±19.97 with reliability of 88.9%. Students aged 20 years and less had more positive perceptions than students over 20 years (pnursing students attained significant highest scores in all sub-scales compared to the rest (pnursing students, as well as those living in the hostel and those who were in their initial years of nursing education.
Spiritual character traits and leadership in the school workplace: An exploration of the relationship between spirituality and school leadership in some private and religiously affiliated schools in South Africa
Jaco S. Dreyer
Full Text Available The South African educational system is in a crisis. This situation places huge demands on school principals and school management teams, and raises many theoretical and empirical questions. Transformational leadership is needed to deal with these challenges and complexities. Not all school leaders show the same level of transformational leadership. Some leaders conform more to other leadership styles. The aim of this article is to explore the relation between spiritual character traits and leadership styles from a theoretical and empirical perspective. The theoretical part focuses on the conceptualisation of leadership (styles and spirituality. The empirical research consists of a web-based survey conducted in some private and religiously affiliated schools in South Africa in 2011–2012. The Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire (MLQ and Cloninger’s shortened Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI-140 were used to measure leadership styles and spiritual traits respectively. Statistical procedures included confirmatory factor analysis, correlation (Pearson rho and regression analysis. Key findings are that leaders of private schools in South Africa mostly conform to a transformative leadership style, disagree with corrective leadership and strongly disagree with passive-avoidant leadership. Regarding the spiritual character traits they agree with self-transcendence and strongly agree with self-directedness. Spiritual character traits are strong predictors for transformational and passive-avoidant leadership. Higher levels of self-transcendence and self-directedness are strong predictors for transformational leadership. Our research suggests that traditional religious variables are less important as predictors of leadership style than spiritual character traits.
Full Text Available Teachers are the most important element in the development of character education in elementary school, because it becomes the main foundation for a child. Therefore character education made a continuous process to produce a future human figure rooted in the cultural values of the Indonesian nation. Character education in the current context is very relevant to students to tackle the ongoing moral crisis in our country, including free association, crime against friends, teenage theft, cheating, drug abuse and drugs, pornography, brawls, and others. This is based on the results of research on SDS Muhammadiyah about teacher and character education education. The research methodology was conducted with qualitative descriptive analysis. Data obtained based on interviews, observation, and study documentation with the object of research. The result of the research shows that character education education in SDS Muhammadiyah 29 Medan City is contained in all subjects and outside subjects that are instilled early on by all teachers. Cultivation of character education conducted in all subjects through 3 content, ie general content (PAI, PKn, IPS, IPA, Bahasa Indonesia, Mathematics, Arts and Culture, special content (Kemuhammadiyahan, and Local Content (Malay Arabic / Arabic, English, Computer. Character education model performed outside the subjects through 4 things, namely: religious habituation (religious, discipline exercises, fun activities, and sports activities. Commonalities include (the implementation of Zuhr prayers bertamaaah, dhuha congregation, tadarus Al-Qur'an and memorizing the verses of Al-Qur'an, and culture shake. Discipline includes (the existence of rules and school rules and liaison books every day. Kewiraaan include (Flag ceremony and Hizbul wathan. Exercise includes (physical fitness exercise.
Ramírez, Carmenza Ricardo; Álvarez, Matilde; Prieto, Germán Valencia; Otálvaro, Felipe Tirado
This study describes prevalence of depressive and anxious symptoms together with family, environmental and personal risk factors in a group of adolescents between 14 and 18 years of age in a private school of Medellín. An analytic observational cross sectional study was performed in 152 adolescents, evaluating sociodemographic aspects and prevalence of depressive and anxious symptomatology, as established through BDI-II and BAI. Average age was 15.4 ± 0.9 years old, with a 25% prevalence of anxiety symptoms and 25.7% of depressive symptoms. From the 38 (25%) students with BAI positive, 26 (68.4%) were BDI positive, and from the 39 (25.6%) students with BDI positive, 26 (66.7%) were BAI positive. the risk factors for anxiety and depressive symptomatology were: being a woman, being a victim of bullying and abuse. Having friends was the protective factors for depressive symptomatology. There was a statistical association between self-report of depressive and anxiety symptomatology; between the anxiety self-report and the depressive symptomatology; as well as between depressive and anxiety symptomatology and parents' perception of such symptoms. Copyright © 2012 Asociación Colombiana de Psiquiatría. Publicado por Elsevier España. All rights reserved.
Differences in Educational Attainment and Religious Socialization of Ex-Pupils from Grammar Schools with Public, Catholic, Protestant, and Private Backgrounds in the German State of Nordrhein-Westfalen during the 1970s and 1980s
Dronkers, Jaap; Hemsing, Werner
Public, religious and private schools have been coexisting in continental Europe since the 19th century. Scientific interest in differences between the educational outcomes of public and religious schools has grown recently, as a result of international debates on parental choice and school autonomy especially in the USA. Clear differences have…
Song, Kyoung-Oh; Park, Hyun-Jeong; Sang, Kyong-Ah
Private tutoring has become a worldwide phenomenon, yet there is little empirical evidence for the main factors leading the demand for private tutoring across nations. Using data from the Third International Mathematics and Science Study of 2003, this study classified the countries into four different groups according to the proportion of student…
Herrmann–Werner, Anne; Keifenheim, Katharina Eva; Loda, Teresa; Bugaj, Till Johannes; Nikendei, Christoph; Lammerding–Köppel, Maria; Zipfel, Stephan; Junne, Florian
Objective Numerous studies from diverse contexts have confirmed high stress levels and stress-associated health impairment in medical students. This study aimed to explore the differential association of perceived stress with private and training-related stressors in medical students according to their stage of medical education. Methods Participants were high-school graduates who plan to study medicine and students in their first, third, sixth, or ninth semester of medical school or in practical medical training. The self-administered questionnaire included items addressing demographic information, the Perceived Stress Questionnaire, and items addressing potential private and training-related stressors. Results Results confirmed a substantial burden of perceived stress in students at different stages of their medical education. In particular, 10–28% of students in their third or ninth semesters of medical school showed the highest values for perceived stress. Training-related stressors were most strongly associated with perceived stress, although specific stressors that determined perceived stress varied across different stages of students’ medical education. High-school graduates highly interested in pursuing medical education showed specific stressors similar to those of medical students in their third, sixth, or ninth semesters of medical school, as well as stress structures with heights of general stress rates similar to those of medical students at the beginning of practical medical training. Conclusions High-school graduates offer new, interesting information about students’ fears and needs before they begin medical school. Medical students and high-school graduates need open, comprehensive information about possible stressors at the outset of and during medical education. Programmes geared toward improving resilience behaviour and teaching new, functional coping strategies are recommended. PMID:29385180
Erschens, Rebecca; Herrmann-Werner, Anne; Keifenheim, Katharina Eva; Loda, Teresa; Bugaj, Till Johannes; Nikendei, Christoph; Lammerding-Köppel, Maria; Zipfel, Stephan; Junne, Florian
Numerous studies from diverse contexts have confirmed high stress levels and stress-associated health impairment in medical students. This study aimed to explore the differential association of perceived stress with private and training-related stressors in medical students according to their stage of medical education. Participants were high-school graduates who plan to study medicine and students in their first, third, sixth, or ninth semester of medical school or in practical medical training. The self-administered questionnaire included items addressing demographic information, the Perceived Stress Questionnaire, and items addressing potential private and training-related stressors. Results confirmed a substantial burden of perceived stress in students at different stages of their medical education. In particular, 10-28% of students in their third or ninth semesters of medical school showed the highest values for perceived stress. Training-related stressors were most strongly associated with perceived stress, although specific stressors that determined perceived stress varied across different stages of students' medical education. High-school graduates highly interested in pursuing medical education showed specific stressors similar to those of medical students in their third, sixth, or ninth semesters of medical school, as well as stress structures with heights of general stress rates similar to those of medical students at the beginning of practical medical training. High-school graduates offer new, interesting information about students' fears and needs before they begin medical school. Medical students and high-school graduates need open, comprehensive information about possible stressors at the outset of and during medical education. Programmes geared toward improving resilience behaviour and teaching new, functional coping strategies are recommended.
Sanchez, Zila M; Martins, Silvia S; Opaleye, Emerita S; Moura, Yone G; Locatelli, Danilo P; Noto, Ana R
Binge drinking (BD) seems to be related to health and social complications among adolescents. Considering that knowledge about BD in developing countries is limited and that in Brazil high socioeconomic status is a risk factor for alcohol abuse, this study sheds light about this phenomenon among adolescents from a different cultural background than prior North-American and European studies. Brazilian students (n = 2691) selected through a representative, stratified and clustered sampling method were asked to answer a self-report questionnaire. The questionnaire contained questions about patterns of alcohol consumption, religious beliefs, leisure activities, family structure and relationships. Data were analyzed with basic contingency tables with Chi-square tests followed by a decision tree analysis and weighted logistic regression. Almost thirty-five percent of the students reported recent binge drinking. BD in the past month was positively associated with older age (aOR = 1.5[1.2-1.7]), male gender (aOR = 1.5[1.2-2.0]) going out with friends almost every night (aOR = 33.9[14.2-80.7]), not living with mother (aOR = 2.4[1.3-4.7]), believing in God with little conviction (aOR = 1.6[1.2-2.0]) and rarely talking to parents about anything (aOR = 1.7[1.3-2.2]) or always about drugs (aOR = 1.8[1.3-2.5]). Factors inversely associated with BD were: paying lower monthly tuition fees (aOR = 0.5[0.4-0.9]), living with people who do not get drunk (aOR = 0.6[0.4-0.7]) and frequent engagement in worships (aOR = 0.7[0.5-0.9]). The habit of BD in adolescents enrolled in private high schools in Brazil is strongly linked to the frequency with which they go out with friends at night. Factors such as religiosity, expressed by trust in God and participation in worship, and being enrolled in a school with cheaper tuition fees were associated with avoidance of BD in this population.
Locatelli Danilo P
Full Text Available Abstract Background Binge drinking (BD seems to be related to health and social complications among adolescents. Considering that knowledge about BD in developing countries is limited and that in Brazil high socioeconomic status is a risk factor for alcohol abuse, this study sheds light about this phenomenon among adolescents from a different cultural background than prior North-American and European studies. Methods Brazilian students (n = 2691 selected through a representative, stratified and clustered sampling method were asked to answer a self-report questionnaire. The questionnaire contained questions about patterns of alcohol consumption, religious beliefs, leisure activities, family structure and relationships. Data were analyzed with basic contingency tables with Chi-square tests followed by a decision tree analysis and weighted logistic regression. Results Almost thirty-five percent of the students reported recent binge drinking. BD in the past month was positively associated with older age (aOR = 1.5[1.2-1.7], male gender (aOR = 1.5[1.2-2.0] going out with friends almost every night (aOR = 33.9[14.2-80.7], not living with mother (aOR = 2.4[1.3-4.7], believing in God with little conviction (aOR = 1.6[1.2-2.0] and rarely talking to parents about anything (aOR = 1.7[1.3-2.2] or always about drugs (aOR = 1.8[1.3-2.5]. Factors inversely associated with BD were: paying lower monthly tuition fees (aOR = 0.5[0.4-0.9], living with people who do not get drunk (aOR = 0.6[0.4-0.7] and frequent engagement in worships (aOR = 0.7[0.5-0.9]. Conclusion The habit of BD in adolescents enrolled in private high schools in Brazil is strongly linked to the frequency with which they go out with friends at night. Factors such as religiosity, expressed by trust in God and participation in worship, and being enrolled in a school with cheaper tuition fees were associated with avoidance of BD in this population.
Different types of schools make for different experiences. Pros and cons abound, whether one teaches at a public, private, magnet, or charter school. Although it's certainly true that some individual schools may offer better environments for music education than others, no type of school is categorically the "best." Still, it can be instructive to…
Álida Dal Vesco
Full Text Available O trabalho compara resultados do WISC com rendimento escolar , no sentido de correlacionar medidas psicométricas de inteligência com critérios de rendimento escolar, a fim de aperfeiçoar a capacidade diagnóstica e preditiva do teste. Participaram 20 alunos (10 de escola pública e 10 de escola particular, de 5ª a 8ª séries, com idade entre 8,7 a 13,2 anos, do grupo considerado com um bom desempenho. Não houve correlação significativa entre resultados do WISC e rendimento escolar. Comparando escolas, os alunos da rede particular tiveram pontuações significativamente melhores em Compreensão [t(2,18= 2,78; pThis study compared performance on the WISC with school grades in na attempt to improve the diagnostic and predictive capacity of the test in Brazil. Twenty students (10 from a public school and 10 from a private school, attending the fifth through the eighth grade, 8.7 to 13.2 years old, from a group classified as having high performance participated in the study. There was no significant correlation between the WISC results and school performance. Comparing the schools, the students from the private school network obtained scores significantly higher in Comprehension, Vocabulary, and Coding. However, no significant difference was found with respect to grades. This finding was explained based on the peculiarities of school programs.
de Castro, Belinda V.; de Guzman, Allan B.
Although there is considerable anecdotal evidence that the scale of private tutoring is substantial in the Philippines, attempts to document its existence is limited. Using phenomenological inquiry, this study aimed to provide a more eidetic portrait of private tutoring transformation in the Philippines from the perspectives and collective…
Brousseau, N; Green, H K; Andrews, N; Pryse, R; Baguelin, M; Sunderland, A; Ellis, J; Pebody, R
Several private boarding schools in England have established universal influenza vaccination programmes for their pupils. We evaluated the impact of these programmes on the burden of respiratory illnesses in boarders. Between November 2013 and May 2014, age-specific respiratory disease incidence rates in boarders were compared between schools offering and not offering influenza vaccine to healthy boarders. We adjusted for age, sex, school size and week using negative binomial regression. Forty-three schools comprising 14 776 boarders participated. Almost all boarders (99%) were aged 11-17 years. Nineteen (44%) schools vaccinated healthy boarders against influenza, with a mean uptake of 48·5% (range 14·2-88·5%). Over the study period, 1468 respiratory illnesses were reported in boarders (5·66/1000 boarder-weeks); of these, 33 were influenza-like illnesses (ILIs, 0·26/1000 boarder-weeks) in vaccinating schools and 95 were ILIs (0·74/1000 boarder-weeks) in non-vaccinating schools. The impact of vaccinating healthy boarders was a 54% reduction in ILI in all boarders [rate ratio (RR) 0·46, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0·28-0·76]. Disease rates were also reduced for upper respiratory tract infections (RR 0·72, 95% CI 0·61-0·85) and chest infections (RR 0·18, 95% CI 0·09-0·36). These findings demonstrate a significant impact of influenza vaccination on ILI and other clinical endpoints in secondary-school boarders. Additional research is needed to investigate the impact of influenza vaccination in non-boarding secondary-school settings.
Full Text Available INTRODUCTION. Chemical equilibrium is recognized as a topic of several misconceptions. Its origins must be tracked from previous scholarship. Its impact on biochemistry learning is not fully described. A possible bulk of data is the FUVEST exam. OBJECTIVES: Identify students’ errors profile on chemical equilibrium tasks using public data from FUVEST exam. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Data analysis from FUVEST were: i Private and Public school distribution in Elementary and Middle School, and High School candidates of Pharmacy-Biochemistry course and total USP careers until the last call for enrollment (2004-2013; ii Average performance in 1st and 2nd parts of FUVEST exam of Pharmacy-Biochemistry, Chemistry, Engineering, Biological Sciences, Languages and Medicine courses and total enrolled candidates until 1st call for enrollment (2008- 2013; iii Performance of candidates of Pharmacy-Biochemistry, Chemistry, Engineering, Biological Sciences, Languages and Medicine courses and total USP careers in chemical equilibrium issues from 1st part of FUVEST (2011-2013. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION: i 66.2% of candidates came from private Elementary-Middle School courses and 71.8%, came from High School courses; ii Average grade over the period for 1st and 2nd FUVEST parts are respectively (in 100 points: Pharmacy-Biochemistry 66.7 and 61.2, Chemistry 65.9 and 58.9, Engineering 75.9 and 71.9, Biological Sciences 65.6 and 54.6, Languages 49.9 and 43.3, Medicine 83.5 and 79.5, total enrolled candidates 51,5 and 48.9; iii Four chemical equilibrium issues were found during 2011-2013 and the analysis of multiplechoice percentage distribution over the courses showed that there was a similar performance of students among them, except for Engineering and Medicine with higher grades, but the same proportional distribution among choices. CONCLUSION: Approved students came majorly from private schools. There was a different average performance among courses and similar on
This Bachelor Thesis titled Private labels deals with distribution strategy based on the introduction of private labels especially in retail chains. At the beginning it is focused on the general concept of private label offered by retailers, where is mentioned basic characteristics, history and structuring of distribution brands. Subsequently this thesis informs readers about the introduction of new special distribution brands, which focus primarily on the new consumption habits of customers....
Andersen, Hans Skifter
for private udlejningsboligers pris, økonomi og kvalitet. Det økonomiske afkast af investering i private udlejningsejendomme har været højt i de sidste 10 år, men fortrinsvist pga. værdistigninger. For tiden er disse gået i stå, hvilket gør den økonomiske fremtid for den private udlejningssektor mindre...
Full Text Available The author, based on the circumstances that contributed to the creation of private prisons, has explained the historical development of private prisons in the United States and Great Britain. After that, the author has analyzed the strengths and weaknesses of the prison run by private companies. Namely, the author has, stating the benefits of private prisons (reduced overcrowding penitencijarnih institution, cheaper accommodation cost per prisoner, provide better services, the possibility of applying a new philosophy in the manner of execution of sentence, with modern Penitentiary program, with the aim of re-socialization and the reduction of recidivism and weaknesses of the private prisons (the question of legitimac, a chronic lack of space in the Penitentiary system is not solved, business-oriented policies of private prisons, less salaries, poor performance of the security service, worst food, weak enforcement of parole, lack of appropriate penitentiary program, wanted to draw attention to the professional public about controversy of the introduction private companies in the management structure of penitentiary institutions . As the Republic of Serbia is, constantly in the last twenty years, faced with the increasing number of inmates, as well as the chronic shortage of money, which affects on the situation in industrial areas of prisons, there are options to give licenses to private companies to manage prisons. Therefore, the author has paid special attention to potential problems of introducing private prisons in the penitentiary system in Serbia.
Kwo, Ora; Bray, Mark
While research is increasingly available on the scale and costs of private supplementary tutoring, less information focuses on its pedagogical dimensions. This paper addresses patterns in Hong Kong. The paper begins with the quantitative picture solicited through questionnaires for students in Grades 9 and 12, and then turns to data from…
Anderson, Gary L.; Donchik, Liliana Montoro
In this article, we examine the American Legislative Exchange Council (ALEC) as an example of a unique node within larger policy networks composed of new policy entrepreneurs (e.g., venture philanthropists, think tanks, private "edubusinesses" and their lobbyists, advocacy organizations, and social entrepreneurs). These new policy…
including Bosnia, Ukraine, Chile , and others made up the largest portion of private contractors in Iraq.43 Mercenary...56 movements, schools are now advocating “diversity rather than unity” and make “little effort to inculcate immigrants in American culture...identities are becoming increasingly important as a result of failures to assimilate new immigrants . Huntington highlights that immigrants from Mexico
Verhoef, Erik T.
This paper studies the efficiency impacts of private toll roads in initially untolled networks. The analysis allows for capacity and toll choice by private operators, and endogenizes entry and therewith the degree of competition, distinguishing and allowing for both parallel and serial competition.
Harris, Diane M; Seymour, Jennifer; Grummer-Strawn, Laurence; Cooper, Ann; Collins, Beth; DiSogra, Lorelei; Marshall, Andrew; Evans, Nona
Few school-age youth consume the recommended amounts of fruits and vegetables, and increasing fruit and vegetable intake in children and adolescents is an important public health goal to maintain long-term good health and to decrease risk of chronic disease and obesity. School salad bars are an important tool to promote fruit and vegetable consumption among schoolchildren. Studies show that introduction of school salad bars increases the amount and variety of fruits and vegetables consumed by children in schools. However, many schools cannot afford the capital investment in the salad bar equipment. In 2010, the National Fruit & Vegetable Alliance (NFVA), United Fresh Produce Association Foundation, the Food Family Farming Foundation, and Whole Foods Market launched Let’s Move Salad Bars to Schools (LMSB2S) in support of First Lady Michelle Obama’s Let’s Move! initiative. The goal of LMSB2S is to place 6000 salad bars in schools over 3 years. As of June, 2012, over 1400 new salad bar units have been delivered to schools across the United States, increasing access to fruits and vegetables for over 700,000 students. Any K through 12 school district participating in the National School Lunch Program is eligible to submit an application at www.saladbars2schools. org/. Requests for salad bar units ($2625 each unit) are fulfilled through grassroots fund raising in the school community and through funds raised by the LMSB2S partners from corporate and foundation sources. LMSB2S is a model for coalition-building across many government, nonprofit, and industry partners to address a major public health challenge.
Serafin, Marsha Jean
The purpose of this grounded theory qualitative study was to explore the value and effectiveness of key aspects of the accreditation process. The aspects explored were the procedures and structures that school leadership establishes in response both to the schoolwide Action Plans that a school develops as part of the self-study process and to the…
The distribution of children in different school-types and regions in Pakistan suggests that access and opportunities in education are not evenly accessible for many children. Segregation at school level is an important concern for equity and social justice because the adverse effects of segregation increase the pre-existing gap in opportunities…
Berger, Mark C.
Studies on Indonesia and the Philippines in this special issue examine how local financial control affects costs of providing primary schooling. In both countries, schools with greater financial decentralization operated more efficiently. These results have important implications for U.S. schools, where decentralization reforms in Kentucky and…
Tadesse, Yoseph; Derso, Terefe; Alene, Kefyalew Addis; Wassie, Molla Mesele
In Sub-Saharan Africa, most nutrition efforts have concentrated on under-nutrition in children. However, national surveys rarely report the high prevalence of overweight and obesity among children. Likewise, in Ethiopia there is growing recognition of the emergence of a "double-burden" of malnutrition, with under and over nutrition occurring simultaneously among children, especially allied with improvements in socio-economic conditions. Hence, the study aimed to assess the prevalence and factors associated with overweight and obesity among private kindergarten school children aged 3-6 years in Bahirdar town, Northwest Ethiopia. A school-based cross sectional study was conducted in Bahirdar Town, northwest Ethiopia from August to September, 2015. Anthropometric measurements such as weight and height were taken from 462 private Kindergarten preschool children aged 3-6 years; socio-economic and demographic factors and feeding practices were collected by interviewing the, mothers or caregivers of the children. The z-score values for BMI-for-age of children were generated using Emergency Nutrition Assessment (ENA) for Standardized Monitoring and Assessment of Relief Transitions (SMART) 2011. Binary logistic regression model was used to identify factors associated with overweight and obesity in children. Odds ratio with 95% confidence interval (CI) was calculated to show the strength of association. The overall prevalence of overweight and obesity was 6.9% [95% CI 2.4, 11.4]. The prevalence of overweight and obesity were 4.1 and 2.8%, respectively. The odds of overweight and obesity was higher among children with high dietary diversity score (DDS) [AOR = 5.12, 95% CI 1.42, 18.47], family size of less than five [AOR = 4.76, 95% CI 1.84, 12.31] and a family having a private car [AOR = 3.43, 95% CI 1.02, 11.49]. The prevalence of overweight and obesity among private kindergarten preschool children in the study area was high. Interventions on improving feeding
Ileana Mourão KAZAPI
Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a adequação do consumo de energia e macronutrientes em adolescentes de escolas públicas (EPU e privadas (EPR do município de Florianópolis, SC. A amostra constou de 797 estudantes: 466 (228 meninas e 238 meninos de EPU e 331 (175 meninas e 156 meninos de EPR. Os dados foram obtidos através do método recordatório de 24 horas. Observou-se que aproximadamente 50% dos adolescentes apresentaram consumo energético insuficiente e mais da metade tiveram um consumo adequado de carboidratos. Entre os adolescentes do sexo masculino que apresentaram alto consumo de carboidratos, houve maior prevalência na rede pública (12,6% EPU e 3,8% EPR. Mais da metade dos estudantes apresentaram alto consumo de proteínas (54,3% EPU e 58,9% EPR, havendo maior prevalência entre os de sexo masculino (61,7% masculino e 50,6% feminino. Apenas 30,5% dos estudantes das EPU e 36,5% das EPR apresentaram consumo adequado de lipídios; ressalta-se o elevado percentual de adolescentes com alto consumo deste nutriente (33,9% EPU e 39,0% EPR. Entre os estudantes que apresentaram baixo consumo de lipídios, houve maior prevalência dos adolescentes do sexo masculino (35,3% masculino e 26,8% feminino, estudantes da EPU (41,6% EPU e 25,6% EPR. Pode-se concluir que o padrão alimentar apresentado por estes adolescentes pode estar associado a riscos para a saúde na vida adulta.The aim of this study was to evaluate the adequacy of energy and macronutrients consumption in adolescent students from public (EPU and private schools (EPR of Florianópolis, state of Santa Catarina. The sample consisted of 797 students: 466 (228 female and 238 male from public schools and 331 (175 female and 156 male from private schools. The informations were obtained using the 24-hour recall method. It was observed that around 50% of the adolescents presented insufficient energy intake and more than 50% of them had adequate consumption of carbohydrates. The
Harwood, Robin; Feng, Xin; Yu, Stella
Adopted children are a heterogeneous group, varying along numerous factors, including type of adoption (international, foster, private), length of exposure to preadoption adversities as indexed by age of adoption, history of preadoption maltreatment, and prenatal substance exposure. Yet, we know little about how these adversity factors are mediated by quality of postadoption parent-child relationships and/or the presence of special health care needs to produce specific child outcomes across different groups of U.S. adopted children. This study uses structural equation modeling to analyze cross-sectional data from the National Survey of Adoptive Parents to investigate differences in outcomes among three groups of U.S. adopted children: international, foster, and private. SEM results indicate that compared with privately adopted children, (a) children adopted from the foster care system were more likely to be identified with special health care needs, and (b) internationally adopted children showed on average poorer school performance as indexed by math and reading. Analyses yielded both direct and indirect paths between preadoption adversities and child outcomes, with the majority of associations mediated or partially mediated by quality of parent-child relationships and/or special health care needs status. The results of these analyses highlight the heterogeneity among different groups of adopted children within the United States and also underline the important mediating roles that the quality of parent-child relationship and children's special health care needs status have on adopted children's selected mental health and academic outcomes. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.
McLeod, Sharynne; Daniel, Graham; Barr, Jacqueline
Children interact with people in context: including home, school, and in the community. Understanding children's relationships within context is important for supporting children's development. Using child-friendly methodologies, the purpose of this research was to understand the lives of children with speech sound disorder (SSD) in context. Thirty-four interviews were undertaken with six school-aged children identified with SSD, and their siblings, friends, parents, grandparents, and teachers. Interview transcripts, questionnaires, and children's drawings were analyzed to reveal that these children experienced the world in context dependent ways (private vs. public worlds). Family and close friends typically provided a safe, supportive environment where children could be themselves and participate in typical childhoods. In contrast, when out of these familiar contexts, the children often were frustrated, embarrassed, and withdrawn, their relationships changed, and they were unable to get their message across in public contexts. Speech-language pathology assessment and intervention could be enhanced by interweaving the valuable insights of children, siblings, friends, parents, teachers, and other adults within children's worlds to more effectively support these children in context. 1. Recognize that children with SSD experience the world in different ways, depending on whether they are in private or public contexts. 2. Describe the changes in the roles of family and friends when children with SSD are in public contexts. 3. Discover the position of the child as central in Bronfenbrenner’s bioecological model. 4. Identify principles of child-friendly research. 5. Recognize the importance of considering the child in context during speech-language pathology assessment and intervention. Crown Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Lavian, Rivka Hillel
This article reports on a quantitative research study designed to examine the impact of organizational climate on burnout among homeroom and special education teachers working in Israeli state (non-religious) schools. The research literature identifies various causes for teacher burnout, offering evidence that special education teachers experience…
A. J. AKKARI
Full Text Available No Brasil, mais que em outros países do Sul, a escola constitui um produto social desigualmente distribuído. Seu acesso é modulado não apenas por múltiplos padrões distintivos (categoria socioeconômica, sexo, etnicidade, local de residência…, como também pelo tipo de rede escolar freqüentado (pública, particular. Este artigo analisa a constituição histórica e progressiva de uma escolarização em várias velocidades. O discurso político republicano, que insiste sobre a função homogeneizadora e igualitária da escola que socializa em comum e fabrica cidadãos iguais, foi se esvaziando progressivamente de sua substância. A heterogeneidade provocada pela atual fragmentação do sistema escolar brasileiro em várias redes reproduz, acentuando-as, as desigualdades sociais e compromete de modo durável o desenvolvimento econômico e social desse país.In Brazil, more than in any other Southern country, school is an unequally distributed social product. Access to it depends not only on such distinctive standards as socioeconomic position, sex, ethnicity, location of residence etc., but also on the type of network attended (public, private. This paper analyses the historical and progressive constitution of a multispeed schooling network. The republican political speech, which highlights the egalitarian and homogenizing function of school, has been gradually losing its substance. The heterogeneity resulting from the current fragmentation of the Brazilian schooling system into various networks reproduces, magnifying them, all social inequities and lastingly endangers the social and economical development of this country.
Joana D’Arc Vila Nova Jatobá
Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Identificar prevalência de depressão e de ansiedade em adolescentes matriculados e freqüentando escolas públicas e privadas da cidade do Recife - Pernambuco. MÉTODOS: Por meio de estudo de prevalência, de base populacional, admitindo população de 10.414 alunos das redes pública e privada, prevalência de depressão e transtornos depressivos de 20,3%, precisão de 5% e nível de significância de 0,05, a amostragem aleatória e estratificada incluiu 243 alunos, do ensino fundamental e médio de 11 escolas, com idade de 14 a 16 anos. As variáveis foram: idade, religião, tipo, adscrição e porte da escola, escolaridade, tempo de estudo, condição estudantil e laboral, características do núcleo familiar, sexo, estado civil, tipo de pele segundo escala de Fitzpatrick (investigadas por questionário demográfico e grau de depressão e de ansiedade pelas escalas de Hamilton. Para análise estatística, empregou-se programa Statistical Package for Social Sciences. RESULTADOS: As prevalências de sintomas depressivos expressivos e de ansiedade igualaram-se a 59,9% e 19,9%, respectivamente. Foram significativas as associações de sintomas depressivos de intensidade grave com o sexo feminino e a crença religiosa diferentes da corrente do cristianismo. A ideação suicida/tentativa de suicídio foi referida por 34,3% dos estudantes. Houve associação significativa de ideação suicida com grau leve ou moderado de sintomas depressivos e moderado de ansiedade, assim como de tentativa de suicídio com sintomas depressivos graves, estudo em escola privada e ansiedade severa. CONCLUSÕES: A gravidade das características psicopatológicas em uma idade tão jovem está a merecer uma intervenção psicossocial para reduzir suas repercussões para o futuro.OBJETIVE: To identify depression and anxiety prevalences within adolescents registered and frequenting public and private schools in the city of Recife - Pernambuco. METHODS: According
Wen, Xiaozhong; Chen, Weiqing; Qian, Zhengmin; Muscat, Joshua E.; Lu, Ciyong; Ling, Wenhua
Background: The prevalence of smoking among Chinese adolescents has dramatically increased in recent years. The purpose of this study was to examine the differences in smoking-related knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors among Chinese students in 3 types of secondary schools. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted among 3957 students of…
This study examined teachers' use of the Multiple Intelligences Theory on vocabulary acquisition by preschoolers during English as a second language (ESL) classes in a K-12 school in Lebanon. Eighty kindergartners (KG II, aged 5 years) and eight teachers constituted the sample. The study used mixed methods, including observations of videotaped…
Sungu, Hilmi; Ilgan, Abdurrahman; Parylo, Oksana; Erdem, Mustafa
In spite of a strong body of research examining teacher job satisfaction and teachers' assessment of their principals' behaviours, most studies focus on the educational systems in the first world countries. This quantitative study focuses on a lesser-examined educational context by comparing school teachers' job satisfaction levels and principals'…
The efforts in progress now in Great Britain to liberalize the nuclear decommissioning activity market imply that by 2012 the competitive commercial private companies will lead the national nuclear decommissioning and decontamination related activity market. Paper dwells upon the new market peculiar features and upon some peculiar features of the new market related activities [ru
Paulo Roberto Vidal de Negreiros
Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo é entender o fenômeno que tem ocorrido nas esferas de ensino público e privado no Brasil no que diz respeito à aplicação do art. 23 da Lei de Diretrizes e Bases da Educação Nacional - LDB -, Lei n. 9.394/96, que trata da organização dos tempos escolares. Ao flexibilizar e delegar a autonomia aos estabelecimentos de ensino na escolha da organização dos tempos escolares esta lei acabou provocando uma situação diversificada. Os dados revelam que a rede pública movimenta-se mais rapidamente para uma organização em ciclos enquanto que a rede privada de ensino mostra-se mais propensa à continuidade da organização seriada. Dados estatísticos recentes, fornecidos pelo Instituto Nacional de Estudos e Pesquisas Educacionais Anísio Teixeira - Inep - comprovam isso. As razões pelas quais os estabelecimentos de ensino público adotam o sistema de ciclos têm sido objeto de muitas publicações. No entanto, quando a escola particular é o foco dessa questão, não se sabe ao certo quais as razões da não adesão à proposta dos ciclos e nem os motivos da continuidade do sistema seriado.The objective of this study is to understand what has been occurring in the spheres of public and private education in Brazil, concerning the application of art. 23 of the Guidelines and Bases Act of Education - LDB -, Law n. 9.394/96, which deals with the organization of school times. This law has caused a diversified situation by allowing flexibility and delegating autonomy to teaching institutions to decide on school time's organization. The data indicate that the public schools are moving more quickly towards an organization based on cycles, whereas the private ones are more inclined to keep grades. Recent statistic data, supplied by the National Institute of Pedagogical Studies and Research Anísio Teixeira - Inep -, prove it. The reasons why public teaching institutions adopt the learning cycle have been discussed in many
Izumi, Miki; Nomura, Kyoko; Higaki, Yuko; Akaishi, Yu; Seki, Masayasu; Kobayashi, Shizuko; Komoda, Takayuki; Otaki, Junji
The shortage of physicians has become a serious problem in Japan. It has been pointed out that an increase in the number of female doctors may contribute to the aggravation of this shortage because it is known that women work fewer hours than male doctors. Here, we investigated how many female doctors had ever resigned from a full-time position, and elucidated the reasons why female doctors find it difficult to stay in full-time employment. An alumnae survey of 2 private medical schools was conducted in 2007. A self-administered questionnaire was sent to 1423 graduates and 711 responded with informed consent (response rate, 50%; mean age, 39 years). Overall, 55% of the respondents had previously resigned from full-time employment, of which 90% resigned within 10 years of graduating from medical school. The difficulty in balancing work, childbirth and child rearing (45%) were the top 2 reasons for resignation, followed by physical problems (12%) and long working hours (8%). Among those who resigned, only 33% returned to full-time employment. Women who had at least 1 child were only 30% of those who had never resigned and 84% of those who had previously resigned. The majority of study subjects, regardless of experience of resignation (88%), agreed that women should continue to work even after childbirth. In conclusion, the results of this study suggested that many female doctors resigned from a full-time position within 10 years of graduating from medical school, largely because of the gender role stereotype and poor working conditions.
Full Text Available BACKGROUND Paediatric obesity is a complex and growing global problem which is escalating much more rapidly in developing countries like India and considered an important predecessor to NCD multi-morbidity due to changing life style as a result of rapid urbanisation and mechanisation. The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of overweight, obesity, paediatric metabolic syndrome and associated risk factors among children in the age group of 10-16 years in private schools of Shimla city. MATERIALS AND METHODS At total of 2100 adolescents attending school (aged 10-16 years participated in this cross-sectional study. All the anthropometric, clinical and biochemical assessment was done after proper consent. Prevalence of overweight and obesity was assessed by using IOTF guidelines and the metabolic syndrome was determined by the Paediatric International Diabetic Federation definition modified for age group. RESULTS The prevalence of overweight, obesity and paediatric metabolic syndrome was 14.5%, 4.1% & 4.3% respectively. In the groups with PMS, hypertension, waist circumference, and TG were significantly higher, and HDL-C was significantly lower. Significant difference was observed in gender, physical activity level, metabolic equivalent, consumption of junk food & time spent on TV in the distribution of overweight, obesity and metabolic syndrome. CONCLUSION Our study highlights the possible role of change in the dietary pattern and physical activity pattern in the development of obesity and metabolic syndrome in early stage of life. Collective efforts of parents and schools are required to institute early preventive measures to reduce progression towards obesity and its future complications.
Contains Executive Summary and Chapters on: Introduction; Political and economic background; Energy supply; The Chinese electricity sector; Private power in China; Issues for private investors; Fuel choice in private projects; Private investors in China; Listed Chinese generators; Private power prospects; Implemented private generation projects; Planned private Generation Projects; Plants owned by listed Chinese generators. (Author)
The United Kingdom government announced in May 1995 plans to privatize the country's two nuclear generating companies, Nuclear Electric and Scottish Nuclear. Under the plan, the two companies will become operating divisions of a unified holding company, to be called British Electric, with headquarters in Scotland. Britain's nuclear plants were left out of the initial privatization in 1989 because the government believed the financial community would be unwilling to accept the open-ended liability of decommissioning the original nine stations based on the Magnox gas-cooled reactor. Six years later, the government has found a way around this by retaining these power stations in state ownership, leaving the new nuclear company with the eight Advanced Gas-cooled Reactor (AGR) stations and the recently completed Sizewell B PWR stations. The operating Magnox stations are to be transferred to BNFL, which operates two Magnox stations of their own at Calder Hall and Chapelcross
working and researching in the key areas of law, security and privacy in IT, international trade and private law. Now, in 2010 and some seven conferences later, the event moves to Barcelona and embraces for the first time the three conference tracks just described. The papers in this work have all been...... blind reviewed and edited for quality. They represent the contributions of leading academics, early career researchers and others from an increasing number of countries, universities and institutions around the world. They set a benchmark for discussion of the current issues arising in the subject area...... and continue to offer an informed and relevant contribution to the policy making agenda. As Chair of the Conference Committee, I am once more very proud to endorse this work "Private Law: Rights, Duties & Conflicts" to all those seeking an up to date and informed evaluation of the leading issues. This work...
Jéssica Raguza Pazin
Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the nutritional status of preschool and school children from private schools served by a specialized infant feeding company. Materials and Methods: Cross-sectional study with children aged 2 to 8 years, which attended 3 different private schools. All schools have a specialized company that offers food for the students. Weight and height were measured and the Body Mass Index was calculated. Data were analyzed by the WHO’s Child Growth Standards (2007, using the indices weight/height (WHZ, height/age (HAZ, weight/age (WAZ and BMI/age (BAZ. Results: 571 children were evaluated, from both genders, in which 396 children were aged between 2 and 4 years, with an average age of 4.1 years (±1.35. We have demonstrated that, although most (99.3% have presented appropriate height for age, the WHZ and BAZ ratios showed 32.1 and 29.4%, respectively, of children with an overweight risk. Conclusion: The results show the absence of nutritional deficiencies in the sample studied, but it’s possible to note that the overweight is present. So, it’s very important to implement actions of nutritional education in both home and school, aiming to prevent health problems in adulthood.Objetivo: Avaliar o estado nutricional de pré-escolares e escolares de escolas particulares atendidas por uma empresa especializada em alimentação infantil. Materiais e Métodos: Estudo transversal, com crianças de 2 a 8 anos de idade, matriculadas em três escolas particulares, atendidas por uma empresa especializada em alimentação infantil. Foram aferidos peso e altura e a partir disso, foi calculado o Índice de Massa Corporal (IMC. Os dados foram analisados por meio das Curvas de Crescimento da Organização Mundial da Saúde (2007, utilizando os indicadores Peso/Estatura (P/E, Altura/Idade (A/I, Peso/Idade (P/I e IMC/Idade (IMC/I. Resultados: Foram avaliadas 571 crianças de ambos os sexos, sendo que a faixa etária entre 2 a 4 anos foi composta por
Full Text Available Apresenta a information literacy, como competência em informação, relata, de forma geral, seu surgimento, desenvolvimento e importância de sua prática na biblioteca escolar. Aborda-se os principais focos da competência em informação: tecnologia da informação, processos cognitivos, e aprendizado ao longo da vida. Relata-se a análise dos dados dos questionários aplicados nas bibliotecas escolares da rede de escolas privadas da cidade de Natal RN com fins de identificar e analisar a competência em informação neste ambiente. Apresenta-se a necessidade de integração entre escola-biblioteca, e a inserção do bibliotecário na comunidade educacional para criação de programas educacionais voltados para a competência em informação. Palavras-chave Competência em informação; Habilidades informativas; Biblioteca escolar; Educação e aprendizagem Abstract It presents information literacy as information competence, as well as reporting, in a general way its appearance, development and the importance of its practice in the school library. Focuses on the main information competences: information technology, cognitive processes and life long learning. It reports on the analysis of data obtained from the questionnaire applied in school libraries of the private schools network in the city of Natal RN, as a means to identify and analyze information competence in this environment. The need for school-library integration is presented, as is the need for the insertion of the librarian in the educational community for the creation of educational programs directed towards information competence. Key words Information competence; Informative skills; School library; Education and learning
Full Text Available In today’s globalised digital era, students are inevitably engaged in various multimodal texts due to their active participation in social media and frequent usage of mobile devices on a daily basis. Such daily activities advocate the need for a transformation in the teaching and learning of ESL lessons in order to promote students’ capabilities in making meaning of different literacy texts which students come across in their ESL learning activities. This paper puts forth the framework of Multimodality in the restructuring of the teaching and learning of ESL with the aim of investigating its effects and students perspectives on the use of multimodal approaches underlying the Multiliteracies theory. Using focus group interviews, this qualitative case study examines the effectiveness of ESL teaching and learning using the Multimodal approaches on literacy in meaning-making among 15 students in a private school in Penang, Malaysia. The results confirm the need to reorientate the teaching and learning of ESL with the focus on multimodal pedagogical practices as it promotes positive learning outcomes among students. The implications of this study suggest that the multimodal approaches integrated in the teaching and learning of ESL have the capacity to promote students’ autonomy in learning, improve motivation to learn and facilitate various learning styles. Keywords: Multimodal Approaches; Multiliteracies; Monomodal; Flipped Classroom; Literacy; Multimodal texts; Ipad
Cristiane Marisa Ruwer
Full Text Available A escola é ambiente indicado para promover hábitos alimentares saudáveis. A portaria do MEC/MS 1.010/06 instituiu várias diretrizes com esse fim. Objetivando verificar as condições de implantação dessa portaria, fizemos um estudo qualitativo em quatro escolas particulares de Manaus, licenciadas pela Vigilância Sanitária, com descrição de práticas alimentares e práticas pedagógicas. Realizamos observações, entrevistas e grupos focais. As práticas alimentares observadas foram quanto aos alimentos disponíveis para consumo na escola. Três das quatro escolas apresentaram proporção maior de alimentos não saudáveis do que de saudáveis. Das entrevistas com diretores ou coordenadores pedagógicos e com responsáveis pela cantina e dos grupos focais com professores, pudemos perceber que a portaria em questão era desconhecida nessas escolas, mas que algumas atividades, no sentido de atendê-la, eram realizadas em sala de aula ou nos momentos de refeição; e que havia um bom conhecimento acerca das práticas alimentares dos alunos. Porém, existe necessidade de capacitação destes profissionais das escolas e inserção de nutricionista para as atividades de educação nutricional. A necessidade de envolvimento dos pais e a questão financeira foram outros desafios citados. A efetivação da promoção da alimentação saudável precisa ser estimulada e cobrada pelo setor público com medidas educativas e regulatórias. --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- The school environment is favorable for promoting healthy eating habits. The ordinance of the Ministry of Education and Ministry of Health nº. 1.010/06 has established several guidelines for this purpose. To check the conditions of implementation of this ordinance, we conducted a qualitative study in four private schools of Manaus, licensed by the health surveillance, with descriptions of feeding and pedagogical practices
Chang Da Wan; Benedict Weerasena
This paper examines the determinants of spending and the amount of time attending private supplementary tutoring, or commonly known as private tuition, in Malaysia. Based on 343 self-reported questionnaires with upper secondary students across three states in Malaysia and using multiple regression analysis, we identified ethnicity, father’s level of education and past academic performance as significant determinants of spending and amount of time attending private tuition. However, interestin...
Bugeaud, G. J. R.
The principles underlying private placements in Alberta, and the nature of the processes employed by the Alberta Securities Commission in handling such transactions were discussed. The Alberta Securities Commission's mode of operation was demonstrated by the inclusion of various documents issued by the Commission concerning (1) special warrant transactions prior to listing, (2) a decision by the Executive Director refusing to issue a receipt for the final prospectus for a distribution of securities of a company and the reasons for the refusal, (3) the Commission's decision to interfere with the Executive Director's decision not to issue a receipt for the final prospectus, with full citation of the Commission's reasons for its decision, (4) and a series of proposed rules and companion policy statements regarding trades and distributions outside and in Alberta. Text of a sample 'short form prospectus' was also included
Heyneman, Stephen P.
Mastering the public school curriculum is so important to a child's occupational future that in many regions of the world "shadow" education outside of the public system has now become the norm. In one way, this is excellent news because private investment in human capital is a strong contributor to economic and social development.…
Full Text Available Background Family can be an important socializing agent that strongly influences child and adolescent behavior. While studies have found associations between parent modeling of healthy behaviors and these behaviors in children in the US and other western countries, there is a dearth of research examining these associations among low and middle-income countries like India. This study examines the association between parent dietary, physical activity, and sedentary behaviors and child behaviors and weight status in Delhi, India. Methods The study was cross-sectional by design. The target population was comprised of a convenience sample of 6th and 8th grade children enrolled at 6 private schools in Delhi, India and their parents. A total of 551 child-parent dyads were used in analysis. Measures included parent and child BMI; physical activity and sedentary behavior; and dietary intake, such as weekly breakfast consumption, daily fruit and vegetable (FV consumption, daily low-fat dairy consumption, daily energy-dense (ED food consumption, daily sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB consumption. Mixed-effects linear regression models were used to test for the association between parent dietary, physical activity, and sedentary behaviors (independent variables and child dietary, physical activity and sedentary behaviors (dependent variables while controlling for parent and child demographics. Results Significant, positive associations were observed between all parent and child dietary behaviors (weekly breakfast consumption, daily FV consumption, daily low-fat dairy consumption, daily ED food consumption, daily SSB consumption after adjusting for child sex and grade, parent sex, and parent weight status (p<0.05, all. Parent moderate/vigorous physical activity was positively associated with child moderate/vigorous physical activity (p=0.000, however there was no significant association between parent and child light physical activity levels (p=0.310. Parent
Olsen, Tore Vincents
and students according to their own value base, and were given a large state subsidy. From the late 1990s a number of legislative changes were introduced demanding that non-governmental schools provide civic education and document the academic value of their teaching programs. The rules concerning......The Danish free school tradition has entailed a large degree of associational freedom for non-governmental schools, religious as well as non-religious. Until the late 1990s, the non-governmental schools were under no strict ideological or pedagogical limitations, they could recruit teachers...... the monitoring of schools were also changed. This article analyses the political justification for these changes and asks to what extent the changes have altered the Danish free school tradition....
Izaguirre, Ada Karina; Hunt, Catherine
Drawing on the World Bank's Private Participation in Infrastructure Project Database, this Note reviews developments in the water and sewerage sector of developing countries in 2004 and changes in private participation in the sector since 2001. Data for 2004 show that total investment in water and sewerage projects with private participation amounted to nearly US$2 billion. Recent private ...
Helby Petersen, Ole
This PhD dissertation studies national similarities and differences in policy and regulation of public-private partnerships (PPPs), with an empirical focus on Denmark and Ireland. The starting point and motivation for the study is the observation that whereas PPPs are often depicted in the academic...... time, and how can their similarities and differences be explained?; (iii) how do differing national policy and regulation frameworks serve to facilitate or hinder the formation of PPPs, exemplified by four case studies from the schools sector?; (iv) what framework conditions does the EU set for PPP...... literature and in policy practice as a globally disseminated governance scheme, in reality, a closer examination of the PPP reform landscape reveals significant differences in national governments’ PPP policy and regulation and in the amount of actually implemented PPP projects. By comparing the initiatives...
GLOBAL JOURNAL OF EDUCATIONAL RESEARCH VOL 11, NO. 2, 2012: 99- ... children/wards to private secondary schools, using Cross River State rural communities as a case study. ..... the schools have standard football fields, adequate ...
A representação social de alunos de escolas da rede particular de ensino acerca do papel do psicólogo escolar The social representation of students from private education on the role of school psychologist
Isaura Santana Costa Carvalho
Full Text Available Esta pesquisa teve como objetivo compreender a representação social que os alunos de escolas da rede particular de ensino têm acerca do papel do psicólogo escolar. Os dados foram obtidos por meio de entrevistas realizadas com 9 alunos do 7º, 8º e 9º ano. Os resultados colhidos constataram que os alunos percebem o psicólogo escolar basicamente como um profissional que está capacitado a solucionar conflitos. Assim, cabe ao psicólogo escolar delimitar melhor seu campo de atuação para uma melhor compreensão da sua prática profissional.This article aims at understanding the social representation that private school students have of the role of a school psychologist. The data included interviews carried out with 9 high school students from the 7h, 8th and 9th grades. The interviews have shown that the students see the school psychologist as a professional whose sole ability is to solve problems. Thus, it is the school psychologist responsibility to better delimit their scope of action in order to produce a clearer understanding of their profession.
In many urban districts, the public education landscape is being transformed as private-sector providers such as educational management organizations, charter management organizations, and partner support organizations partner with or run district schools. While some private-sector providers' visions for school reform have remained static…
M.Ed. (Curriculum Studies) This research focuses on the role the curriculum plays in the existence of certain types of private schools in the RSA. Private schools in South Africa currently number in excess of 500 and the number is increasing every year. The various private schools claim that they offer curricula suited to the specific needs of certain pupils. A structured interview was compiled and used to interview three different schools namely a volkskool (a people's school), a church s...
I briefet opsummerer Tina Magaard de vigtigste konklusioner fra konferencen ”Private sector and stabilisation in Afghanistan – a neglected match?”, som blandt andet gav indsigt i udfordringerne og mulighederne for den private sektor i Afghanistan. Ved at kombinere perspektiver fra strategiske...... studier med forretnings- og udviklingsstudier tilbød konferencen en dybere indsigt i udfordringerne og mulighederne for den private sektor i Afghanistan. Samtidig blev der åbnet en række nye perspektiver for interaktionen mellem den private sektor og stabiliseringsoperationer i en post-krigskontekst som...... Afghanistan. Selvom udgangspunktet var Afghanistan, er konferencens konklusioner i høj grad relevante for andre konflikt/post-konfliktområder. Konferencen var organiseret i et samarbejde mellem Centre for Business and Development Studies (Copenhagen Business School), Public-Private Platform (Copenhagen...
California Natural Resource Agency — Private Water District boundaries are areas where private contracts provide water to the district in California. This database is designed as a regions polygon...
The Relationship between High School Music Activities and the College Student's Musical Independence. (How Musically Important Are All-State Band, Concert Festival, Private Lessons, Marching Contests, Etc.?).
Bobbett, Gordon C.; And Others
This paper presents a study attempting to identify and evaluate high school activities that impact instrumental student outcome. High school music activities and their impact on student instrumental outcome from a variety of perspectives were examined. There is a subtle difference between musical independence and musical achievement. Musical…
A Structural Equation Model (SEM) of the Impact of Transformational, Visionary, Charismatic and Ethical Leadership Styles on the Development of Wise Leadership among Filipino Private Secondary School Principals
Parco-Tropicales, Marishirl; de Guzman, Allan B.
In recent years, wisdom is seen as a key resource for school leaders in dealing with the dynamics of the changing school environments. This study purports to expand the growing interest on wisdom by testing a model that describes the impact of transformational, visionary, charismatic and ethical leadership styles on wise leadership development…
J.T.J. Smit (Han); W.A. van den Berg (Ward)
textabstractThis study presents a dynamic model for the private equity market in which information revelation and uncertainty rationally explain the cyclical pattern of investment flows into private equity. The net benefit of private equity over public equity is i) uncertain and ii) agents have
Escola pública e escola particular: semelhanças de dois imbróglios educacionais Escuela pública e escuela particular: similitudes entre dos retos educacionales Public and private school: resemblances between two educational predicaments
ón permanente, dentro de la premisa de que, si el maestro aprende bien, el estudiante lo podría hacer también.The distance between public and private school in Brazil is considerable, having the private school the advantage. Nevertheless we perceive crisis signals also in the private school, whose performance has been falling in the last years, especially in 2005. What most calls our attention is that this decadence is greater in more developed regions and in mathematics. We suggest that the main reason would be instruccionism in both systems, since they share the same educational politics and the same teachers. The greater difference is possibly that private school is managed by private initiative with market and parents pressure: it follows that its performance, although not acceptable, is higher. We also suggest that the most promising initiative to overcome this predicament would be to bet on teacher, caring systematically of his permanent formation, within the premise that, if the teacher learns well, the student could do it as well.
Nichiforel, Liviu; Keary, Kevin; Deuffic, Philippe
Private forests are widespread in Europe providing a range of ecosystem services of significant value to society, and there are calls for novel policies to enhance their provision and to face the challenges of environmental changes. Such policies need to acknowledge the importance of private...... across jurisdictions, we constructed an original Property Rights Index for Forestry encompassing five rights domains (access, withdrawal, management, exclusion and alienation). We documented substantial variation of the private forest owners' rights, and notably to i) make decisions in operational...... management and the formulation of management goals, ii) withdraw timber resources from their forest, and iii) exclude others from the use of forest resources. We identified broad relations between the scope for decision making of private forest owners and jurisdictions' former socio-political background...
Kam Tung Tuang Suante
Private tuition is the practice of academic teaching and learning from outside of the school with a fee but a few of studies acknowledged what private tuition provides to the receivers beyond the teaching of academic subjects. This study explored the intensity and nature of private tuition through 1119 Grade 9 students’ survey reports and 18 interviewees’ responses. The study revealed the common practice of private tuition in Myanmar and 69.5% of the participants are in private boarding tuiti...
Altinyelken, H.K.; Bray, M.; Mazawi, A.E.; Sultana, R.G.
This chapter focuses on the private tutoring phenomenon in Turkey. It seeks to analyse the impact of the revision of primary school curriculum on the demand for private tutoring. It also outlines various academic, economic and social implications of private tutoring. Based on interviews with school
Arani, Abbas Madandar; Kakia, Lida; Taghavi, Tandis
During the last three decades in Iran, the government has had different policies on the privatization of education. After victory of the Islamic Revolution in 1979, the new government closed all private schools for nearly a decade. Establishing and reopening Non-Governmental Schools (NGS) was the first action toward the privatization of education…
Garber, P A; Molina, A; Molina, R L
In 1993 and 1999, with the assistance of a Nicaraguan family, we founded La Suerte Biological Research Station in northeastern Costa Rica and Ometepe Biological Research Station in southern Nicaragua as a privately owned conservation-oriented business. Our goal was to develop a program of sustainable community ecology focused on education, research, and the conservation of primates and tropical forests. In order to accomplish this we developed field courses in which undergraduate and graduate students conduct scientific research, experience local cultures, and learn about conservation. Over 120 of these students have received doctoral degrees or are currently in graduate programs. Four doctoral dissertations, several MA theses, and some 20 scientific articles have been published based on research conducted at our field stations. In order to achieve our long-term goals of preserving the environment, we also needed to engage directly with local communities to address their needs and concerns. To this end, we developed a series of community-based initiatives related to health care, bilingual education, and conservation education using traditional and on-line teaching tools. In this article, we describe our efforts in Costa Rica and Nicaragua teaching conservation-oriented field courses and working with the local human communities. Building upon these experiences, we outline a set of ethical considerations and responsibilities for private reserves, conservation-oriented businesses, NGOs, and conservancies that help integrate members of the local community as stakeholders in conservation. (c) 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
... reasonable and necessary administrative costs of providing services to public and private school children and... participation of children and teachers in private schools? 299.7 Section 299.7 Education Regulations of the... EDUCATION GENERAL PROVISIONS Services to Private School Students and Teachers § 299.7 What are the factors...
The purpose of this paper is to clarifying the tuition in middle schools at the prewar Tokyo prefecture. The tuition differed between the public schools and the private schools. In the 1890s, most expenses required for management of middle schools was provided with tuition in both private amd public schools. At this time, the tuition of public schools was higher than the private schools. After 1900 tuition of public schools became cheaper than private schools. As expenses of public schools, i...
Full Text Available In reality privatization has never occurred according to the handbook rules of ordinary market transactions. Not even in advanced market economies can privatization transactions be described by the Walrasian or Arrowian, or Leontiefian equilibrium models, or by the equilibrium models of the game theory. In these economies transactions of privatization take place in a fairly organic way – which means that those are driven by the dominance of private property rights and in a market economy. But despite this fact Western privatization also some peculiar features as compared to ordinary company takeovers, since the state as the seller may pursue non – economic goals. Changes in the dominant form of property change positions and status of many individuals and groups in the society. That’s why privatization can even less be explained by ordinary market mechanisms in transition countries where privatizing state-owned property have happened in a mass scale and where markets and private property rights weren't established at the time process of privatization began. In this paper I’ll discuss and analyze the phenomenon of privatization in context of different economic theories arguing that empirical results go in favor of the public choice theory (Buchanan, 1978, theory of "economic constitution" (Brennan and Buchanan 1985, (Buchanan and Tullock, 1989, and theory of "collective action" (Olson, 1982. These theories argues that transition from one economic system into another, for example transition from collectivistic, socialistic system into capitalism and free market economy with dominant private property, will not happen through isolated changes of only few economic institutions, no matter how deep that changes would be. In other words privatization can not give results if it's not followed by comprehensive change of economic system because privatized companied wouldn't be able to operate in old environment.
Luis Miguel LÁZARO LORENTE
Full Text Available The introduction of secular education in Spain from the eighties in the nineteenth century will come from the hand of associations linked to freethinking and masonry, of Republican groups, and of anarchist groups. Since its inception, its development was extremely difficult. Funding was not readily available for premises, nor was for teachers or appropriate textbooks. But, above all, proponents of the secular school will soon have to face systematic harassment by the Spanish Church, social groups and the Conservatives who, at all levels, will oppose a fierce resistance to the timid and limited attempts of secularization in the Spanish social life. In that effort, the secular school should have played an important role, which will, in fact, be severely limited by the small number of secular schools put in place in Spain.
Carpenter, Dick M., II; Ross, John K.
One of the oldest and more popular forms of school choice in the United States is educational tax credits. Like many other types of school choice, educational tax credits enable parents to send their children to the K-12 school of their choice, public or private, religious or non-religious. One type of educational tax credits, tax-credit…
Parental and aloparental care received by children in public and private schools in Vitória, ES / Cuidados parentais e aloparentais recebidos por crianças de escolas públicas e particulares de Vitória – ES
Lara Wright Silva
Full Text Available We investigated the participation of parents and other adults in the caretaking of children in two socio-economic contexts. We found the caretaking is predominant whith participation of related and non that parental related aloparents in all the caretaking tasks assessed. There were differences due to the contexts. Parents of children attending public schools shared more caretaking tasks than parents of children attending private schools. Related aloparents were more frequently responsible for the caretaking of children from public schools while employees were more frequently responsible for children from private schools. Our results show that the socio-economic context is an important factor in the variation of caretaking of children, both for parents and aloparents.
Ban, van den A.W.; Sasidhar, P.V.K.
The changing nature of livestock outreach service delivery, manpower requirements and opportunities in the private sector provide both push and pull dynamics for veterinary graduates to engage in managerial, entrepreneurial, public and private service activities. The veterinary schools should
Descriptions of private observatories in South Africa, written by their owners. Positions, equipment descriptions and observing programmes are given. Included are: Klein Karoo Observatory (B. Monard), Cederberg Observatory (various), Centurion Planetary and Lunar Observatory (C. Foster), Le Marischel Observatory (L. Ferreira), Sterkastaaing Observatory (M. Streicher), Henley on Klip (B. Fraser), Archer Observatory (B. Dumas), Overbeek Observatory (A. Overbeek), Overberg Observatory (A. van Staden), St Cyprian's School Observatory, Fisherhaven Small Telescope Observatory (J. Retief), COSPAR 0433 (G. Roberts), COSPAR 0434 (I. Roberts), Weltevreden Karoo Observatory (D. Bullis), Winobs (M. Shafer)
McLeod, Sharynne; Daniel, Graham; Barr, Jacqueline
Children interact with people in context: including home, school, and in the community. Understanding children's relationships within context is important for supporting children's development. Using child-friendly methodologies, the purpose of this research was to understand the lives of children with speech sound disorder (SSD) in context.…
Oketch, Moses; Mutisya, Maurice; Sagwe, Jackline
With the introduction of free primary education (FPE) in Kenya in 2003, it was expected that the burden on poor households in financing primary education would be reduced substantially. This in turn would increase enrolment in public schools and lead to universal primary education. However, studies have shown that a considerable proportion of…
The results, among others, showed that private schools generally better managed their human resources than the public ones. Hence, it was recommended that there should be standard guidelines for operators of schools while human resource managers in the school system should be groomed in managerial psychology.
Privatization has been recognized as a worldwide phenomenon. In this pa-per, a political economy approach is developed to analyze privatization. The ap-proach assumes that political economy and privatization overlap in people’s need. So, the framework of political economy in privatization is based on the ‘need’ phi-losophy. Government and private sectors are contrasted in this respect, leading to a conclusion on privatization as a method to manage the economy. Keywords: privatization, politic...
Miranda Sarmento, J.J.
Public-private partnerships (PPPs) are increasing in number worldwide and are used to build and manage large public infrastructure projects. In PPPs, the private sector plays a role in developing and maintaining public infrastructure and services, which is usually a public sector responsibility.
Benson, Helene A.
This speech focuses on women and private pension plans, such as private pension coverage and smaller benefit amounts. Pension issues affecting women as employees include participation in plans, vesting, break-in service, benefit accruals, integration with Social Security, sex-based actuarial tables, portability, inflation, and individual…
Bovenberg, L.; van Ewijk, C.
Private pensions can enhance international and intergenerational risk-sharing and create a deeper European capital market, which allows for better diversification of country-specific risks and facilitates economic growth. Private funding of pensions creates a more integrated European capital market
Authoritarian teaching practices in ballet inhibit the use of private speech. This paper highlights the critical importance of private speech in the cognitive development of young ballet students, within what is largely a non-verbal art form. It draws upon research by Russian psychologist Lev Vygotsky and contemporary socioculturalists, to…
van den Berg, V.A.C.
This paper investigates private supply of two congestible infrastructures that are serial, where the consumer has to use both in order to consume. Four market structures are analysed: a monopoly and 3 duopolies that differ in how firms interact. It is well known that private supply leads too high
Kobakhidze, Magda Nutsa
The paper focuses on teacher-supplied private tutoring in the context of post-Soviet Georgia, and elucidates the ways in which teacher-supplied private tutoring can be related to educational corruption. The paper draws on data from in-depth interviews of 18 school teachers in different parts of Georgia in 2013. The findings of the qualitative…
Gerhards, Leonie; Siemer, Neele
We experimentally compare the incentive effects of rewarding individuals for outstanding performance publicly versus privately. We implement two real-effort tasks, which differ in how prestigious subjects perceive working on them. In both tasks private and public feedback similarly enhances...... experiment at a secondary school we furthermore compare the incentive effects of different forms of public recognition....
Stevenson, Kenneth R.
The drive for privatizing public education comes from two different movements: load-shedding and outsourcing. Districts hope to reduce perceived labor problems, avoid managing "uninteresting" services, save money, and/or buy quick-fix education reform. Privatization of charter schools is becoming big business, but its cost-effectiveness…
deviation were used to answer the research questions, while t-test was used for the hypothesis. The study revealed that .... strategic management functions aimed at ensuring .... highly utilized in private schools is classroom observation, with a ...
Huang Hongmei; Zhang Chengjun
Setting up virtual private network for business enterprise provides a low cost network foundation, increases enterprise's network function and enlarges its private scope. The text introduces virtual private network's principal, privileges and protocols that use in virtual private network. At last, this paper introduces several setting up virtual private network's technologies which based on LAN
Huang Hongmei; Zhang Chengjun
Setting up virtual private network for business enterprise provides a low cost network foundation, increases enterprise network function and enlarges its private scope. This text introduces virtual private network principal, privileges and protocols applied in virtual private network. At last, this paper introduces several setting up virtual private network technologies which is based on LAN
Forster, Greg; Carr, Matthew
Opponents of school choice argue that private schools are not "accountable" because they are not subject to detailed oversight by a regulatory bureaucracy. They claim private school employees can be expected to engage in abusive and criminal behavior more frequently. School choice supporters respond that parents hold private schools…
This study investigated the characteristics of the age-job satisfaction relationship for public school teachers. Past studies examining this relationship have found both linear and non-linear relationships. However, such studies have yet to examine these relationships by comparing job satisfaction of teachers with that of company employees in the same cultural context. In order to investigate the characteristics of Japanese teachers' working environment, we examined how different the age-job satisfaction relationships were between teachers and company employees. We conducted hierarchical polynomial regression analyses with four job satisfaction variables to compare the age-job satisfaction relationships of Japanese public elementary, junior and high school teachers with Japanese professional and technical workers who belonged to their respective labor unions. 1) Among teachers, the effects of age on overall job satisfaction and satisfaction with pay were significantly negative, and the effects of age on satisfaction with human relationships and working hours were not significant. 2) Among company employees, these four kinds of satisfactions had U shaped relationships with age. 3) Compared to company employees, teachers showed higher intrinsic satisfaction and lower extrinsic satisfaction. The age-job satisfaction relationship for teachers decreases with age. This result may be explained by the excessive workload of Japanese teachers, a characteristic of their working environment. Elderly teachers' burnout may be related to this characteristic. It may be necessary for elderly teachers to be supported in order to enhance their job satisfaction, especially extrinsic satisfaction.
Crawford, W H
Total expenditures and revenues of 58 US dental school were derived from reports of the ADA Division of Educational Measurements. These financial data were studied by type of dental school (public, state-related private, and private) and by expenditure/revenue categories. Dental schools showed little diversity in expenditures: most were directed toward instruction; few were directed toward research or continuing education. Several distinctive patterns among the three types of dental schools in revenues were observed. Two configurations emerged: public and state-related private dental schools receive more than 75% of their revenues from government and tuition, and private dental schools, more than 50%.
Sobrepeso entre adolescentes de escolas particulares de Fortaleza, CE, Brasil Sobrepeso entre adolescentes de escuelas privadas de Fortaleza, CE, Brasil Overweight among adolescents from private schools in Fortaleza, CE, Brazil
Márcio Flávio Moura Araújo
Full Text Available O objetivo da pesquisa foi identificar casos de excesso de peso em adolescentes de escolas particulares de Fortaleza - Brasil. Foram investigados 794 estudantes entre 12 e 17 anos de idade, de 12 escolas privadas, nos meses de março-junho e agosto-setembro de 2007. A prevalência de sobrepeso e obesidade foi, respectivamente, de 20% e 4%. O sobrepeso foi maior, e duplicado os casos de obesidade, naqueles que mantinham o hábito de assistir tevê durante as refeições (p= 0, 000. Cerca de 28% dos jovens ativos apresentavam excesso de peso (p El objetivo de la investigación fue identificar los casos de sobrepeso en adolescentes de escuelas privadas de Fortaleza-Brasil. Fueron investigados 794 estudiantes entre 12 y 17 años, de 12 escuelas privadas, en los meses de marzo-junio y agosto-septiembre de 2007. La prevalencia de sobrepeso y obsedidad fue de 20% y 4%, respectivamente. La acumulación de peso fue mayor y los casos de obesidad fue dos veces más, en los que tenían la costumbre de asistir a la tele al alimentarse (p= 0, 000. Sobre 28% de los jóvenes que practicaban actividad física regularmente presentaban sobrepeso (p The purpose of the study was to identify cases of overweight among adolescents in private schools in Fortaleza, Brazil. We investigated 794 students between 12 and 17 years old from 12 private schools, in the months March to June and August-September 2007. The prevalence of overweight and obesity was 20% and 4%, respectively. Among the young people who watch TV while eat, the weight accumulated was higher and the cases of obesity was the double (p = 0, 000. About 28% of people who practiced regular physical activity were overweight (p <0, 001. In the fight against adolescent adiposity, to the nursing is primarily the preventive actions, because attenuate various pathological effects related to the accumulation of body weight.
9. juulist Dunaujvarosi Kaasaegse Kunsti Instituudis eesti ja briti kunstnike ühisnäitus "Private Views. Ruum taasavastatud eesti ja briti kaasaegses kunstis". Kuraatorid Pam Skelton, Mare Tralla. Osalejad.
9. juulist Dunaujvarosi Kaasaegse Kunsti Instituudis eesti ja briti kunstnike ühisnäitus "Private Views. Ruum taasavastatud eesti ja briti kaasaegses kunstis" Kuraatorid Pam Skelton, Mare Tralla. Osalejad
Small businesses can be an important vehicle for .... Small and medium enterprises make up most of private businesses in the. Middle East ... Small businesses can drive more equi- table growth. ... patterns affect job creation and the demand ...
Syverson, Paul F; Reed, Michael G; Goldschlag, David M
.... These are both kept confidential from network elements as well as external observers. Private Web browsing is achieved by unmodified Web browsers using anonymous connections by means of HTTP proxies...
Gurun, Ayfer; Millimet, Daniel L.
We assess the causal effect of private tutoring on the probability of university placement in Turkey. We find that tutoring increases the probability of being placed in a university when non-random selection is ignored. Moreover, among those utilizing private tutoring, greater expenditure on tutoring is also positively associated with university placement. However, we find evidence of positive selection into tutoring, but negative selection into greater expenditures among those receiving tuto...
The French nuclear public group Areva (the fusion of CEA-Industrie, Framatome and Cogema companies) will actively prepare its privatization and stock exchange introduction before the end of the first half of 2005, in order to re-launch its acquisitions and associations policy. However, the advantages of this privatization with a preponderant public share-holding will depend on the intentions of the French government. Short paper. (J.S.)
In February 1988, the Government announced their intention of privatizing the electricity supply industry of England, Wales and Scotland. The Government's proposals were outlined in two White Papers. Cm 322 covered the proposals for England and Wales and Cm 327 the proposals for Scotland. This article deals with the events covering the stages of the privatization process from just before passing of the Electricity Bill in July 1989 to December 1990. (author)
Atalmis, Erkan Hasan; Yilmaz, Mustafa; Saatcioglu, Argun
Private tutoring refers to additional instruction out of school. With its determinants and effects, private tutoring has received increasing attention from scholars over the past decades. Because of the increasing role of school and high-stakes exams, the demand for private tutoring has increased tremendously in Turkey. The purpose of this study…
The rise of public supervision over private relationships in many areas of private law has led to the development of what, in the author’s view, could be called ‘European supervision private law’. This emerging body of law forms part of European regulatory private law and is made up of
Comportamentos de saúde entre jovens estudantes das redes pública e privada da área metropolitana do Estado de São Paulo Health behavior among students of public and private schools in S. Paulo, Brazil
Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Estudar a freqüência de vários comportamentos de saúde entre estudantes secundários de escolas estaduais e particulares da cidade de São Paulo, SP. MÉTODOS: Estudo de corte transversal, com o sorteio de dez escolas estaduais e a seleção de sete particulares. Em cada escola, quatro salas de aula foram sorteadas, entre a sétima série do ensino fundamental e a terceira série do ensino médio. Para a coleta de dados, utilizou-se a versão do questionário de autopreenchimento utilizado pelo "Centers for Disease Control" para monitorar comportamentos de risco entre jovens. RESULTADOS: Uma proporção significativa de estudantes engajam-se em comportamentos de risco à saúde, principalmente na faixa de 15 a 18 anos de idade. Nas escolas públicas, os comportamentos mais freqüentes foram: andar de motocicleta sem capacete (70,4% dos estudantes que andaram de motocicleta; não utilização de preservativos na última relação sexual (34% dos sexualmente ativos; andar armado (4,8% dos respondentes no último ano e tentar suicídio (8,6% nos últimos 12 meses. Nas escolas privadas, o uso de substâncias psicoativas foi o comportamento de risco mais proeminente: 25% relatou pelo menos um episódio de uso de álcool; 20,2% usou algum inalante no último ano; e 22,2% consumiu maconha no mesmo período. As estudantes do sexo feminino relataram menos comportamentos de risco, à exceção de tentativas de suicídio e de controle de peso por métodos não saudáveis. CONCLUSÕES: As informações obtidas podem contribuir para a estruturação de ações programáticas que considerem a distribuição de comportamentos de saúde na clientela-alvo.OBJECTIVE: To investigate the prevalence of several health behaviors among students of public and private schools in S. Paulo, Brazil. METHODS: An epidemiological survey about health behaviors among high school students was carried out in S. Paulo in 1998. Seventh to eleventh graders from ten
Cheema, Jehanzeb R.
The education system in Qatar comprises of both private schools, which receive money through student fees, and public schools, which are fully government-funded. In the mid-2000s, Qatar started its transition towards an independent school model with the aim of eventually converting all public schools into government-supported independent schools.…
Full Text Available This study investigates Loyalty Model of Private University Student by using STIKOM London School of Public Relation as a study case. This study examined the model from service quality, college image, price, trust and satisfaction perspective. Thus, the objective of this study is to examine and analyze the effect of service quality, college image, tuition fee, trust and satisfaction towards students’ loyalty; the effect of service quality, college image, price and satisfaction towards trust; and the effect of service quality, college image and price towards satisfaction. This study used survey methodology with causal design. The samples of the study are 320 college students. The gathering of data is conducted by using questionnaire in likert scale. The analysis of the data used a Structural Equation Model (SEM approach. The implication of this study is portraying a full contextual description of loyalty model in private university by giving an integrated and innovated contribution to Student Loyalty Model in private university..
Full Text Available This study investigates Loyalty Model of Private University Student by using STIKOM London School of Public Relation as a study case. This study examined the model from service quality, college image, price, trust and satisfaction perspective. Thus, the objective of this study is to examine and analyze the effect of service quality, college image, tuition fee, trust and satisfaction towards students’ loyalty; the effect of service quality, college image, price and satisfaction towards trust; and the effect of service quality, college image and price towards satisfaction. This study used survey methodology with causal design. The samples of the study are 320 college students. The gathering of data is conducted by using questionnaire in likert scale. The analysis of the data used a Structural Equation Model (SEM approach. The implication of this study is portraying a full contextual description of loyalty model in private university by giving an integrated and innovated contribution to Student Loyalty Model in private university.
Verger, Antoni; Fontdevila, Clara; Zancajo, Adrián
Over the last two decades, education privatization has become a widespread phenomenon, affecting most education systems and giving place to a consistent increase in private school enrolment globally. However, far from being a monolithic phenomenon, privatization advances through a variety of context-sensitive policy processes that translate into…
林素卿 Su-Ching Lin
Full Text Available 本研究旨在探討公辦民營學校之潛在課程。採用非參與觀察、訪談與文件分析法。研究結果如下：一、學習經驗之潛在課程：生活化教材可提升學習動機與興趣，養成學生自主負責的學習態度，並與同儕間培養出學習默契；多元質性評量能讓學生展現其優勢智能；二、師生互動關係之潛在課程：強調尊重、溝通、信任、關懷的師生互動模式，讓學生充分感受到被重視，並學會以同樣模式與老師互動；三、同儕互動關係之潛在課程：在家族同儕間，能彼此關懷與養成自我管理的能力，有助於拓展人際關係；四、學生對學校之認同：包括較多的生活化教材、戶外教學經驗、多元的質性評量。本研究最後根據研究結果提出建議，供教育相關單位及後續研究之參考。 The purpose of the present study was to explore the hidden curriculum in a private management of public school of Goodwill Elementary and Junior high School (anonymous name. A number of different sources were used to collect data: observation, interviews and document analysis. The results of this study include: first, life-relating materials promote students’ learning motivation and acquire profound learning experiences. Students also built the independent and responsible learning attitude. Alternative qualitative assessments enable students to develop their multiple intelligences. Second, students-teachers relationships which are respectful, communicable, encouraged, concerned and trusted make students feel valued and learn self-esteem and how to respect others. Third, students establish the confraternity and consensus with peers, concern with each other and learn how to manage themselves in the family-like, cooperative learning environment. Fourth, students have strong belongs to school. The suggestions are also concluded.
Full Text Available The majority of household savings are in the form of bank deposits. It is therefore of interest for credit institutions to tailor their deposit policy for getting finances from non-banking entities and to provide the private sector with the loans that are necessary for investment activities and consumption. This paper deals with the determinants of the saving rate of the private sector of Slovakia. Economic, financial and demographic variables influence savings. Growth of income per capita, private disposable income, elderly dependency ratio, real interest rate and inflation have a positive impact on savings, while increases in public savings indicate a crowding out effect. The inflation rate implies precautionary savings, and dependency ratio savings for bequest. There are also implications for governing institutions deciding on the implementation of appropriate fiscal and monetary operations.
Full Text Available Given the importance of sport for international integration, affirmation, a sense of belonging and other values of general interest, in order to maintain and open new prospects of development, it is necessary to form the private security system along with state security system, with a view to creating conditions for development sports athletes to achieve better results both in domestic and international competitions. Private security is only one element of an integrated security system which, with its efficient organization with the use of adequate means and measures should provide answers to new challenges, risks and threats. Private security in line with the new understanding of the concept of security has an important role in providing athletes.
Percentage, mean and standard deviation were used to answer the research questions, while t-test was used for the hypothesis. The study revealed that all the seven techniques examined are all utilized by both schools, but the frequency is significantly more in private schools. The government in collaboration with the ...
This paper reports that Petroleos del Peru is forging ahead on several fronts despite Peru's political turmoil and uncertainty over where government ordered-privatization will take it. The state oil company: is expected to sign contract soon related to development of Chambira oil field in the northern jungle; let contract to a group of Peruvian and Brazilian companies for construction of an oil terminal at Talara on the Pacific coast; and received expressions of interest in participating in an operating contract on an offshore block operated by its Petromar SA offshore subsidiary under the government's privatization program
This paper reports that Petroleos del Peru is forging ahead on several fronts despite Peru's political turmoil and uncertainty over where government ordered-privatization will take it. The state oil company: is expected to sign contract soon related to development of Chambira oil field in the northern jungle; let contract to a group of Peruvian and Brazilian companies for construction of an oil terminal at Talara on the Pacific coast; and received expressions of interest in participating in an operating contract on an offshore block operated by its Petromar SA offshore subsidiary under the government's privatization program.
?To go private? As an object the cell phone is a diminutive phenomenon, but its power and importance in the social space is infinite. What happens in the social space when the cell phone is used and when it is turned off? As a point of departure observations from a field study conducted in a youth...... club (teens between 12-16 years) in Denmark will be presented. The teens are always situated end located when they use the cell phone. When they use it, temporary personal reserves are created, in which they do territorial demands. As the most obvious they forget themselves and ?go private?. It has...
Hawley, Willis D.
Argues that the movement to provide parents with financial incentives to send students to private schools will increase the racial, ethnic, and socioeconomic homogeneity of American schools. Six common assumptions about the positive effects of privatizing education are examined and deemed false. Probable costs of tuition vouchers for private…
Koch, Christian; Jensen, Jesper Ole
Public Private Partnerships (PPP) are frequently mobilized as a purchasing form suitable for large infrastructure projects. And it is commonly assumed that transaction costs linked to the establishment of PPP make them prohibitive in small sizes. In a Danish context this has been safeguarded by t...
Yang Yuguang; Cao Weifeng; Wen Qiaoyan
We propose a two-party quantum private comparison protocol using single photons, in which two distrustful parties can compare whether their secrets are equal with the help of a third party (TP). Any information about the values of their respective secrets will not be leaked out even with a compromised TP. Security is also discussed.
Yang Yuguang [College of Computer Science and Technology, Beijing University of Technology, Beijing 100124 (China); Cao Weifeng [College of Electric and Information Engineering, Zhengzhou University of Light Industry, Zhengzhou 450002 (China); Wen Qiaoyan [State Key Laboratory of Networking and Switching Technology, Beijing University of Posts and Telecommunications, Beijing 100876 (China)], E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
We propose a two-party quantum private comparison protocol using single photons, in which two distrustful parties can compare whether their secrets are equal with the help of a third party (TP). Any information about the values of their respective secrets will not be leaked out even with a compromised TP. Security is also discussed.
Scheffer, Mário C; Dal Poz, Mario R
Like other countries, Brazil is struggling with issues related to public policies designed to influence the distribution, establishment, supply and education of doctors. While the number of undergraduate medical schools and places available on medical schools has risen, the increase in the number of doctors in Brazil in recent decades has not benefitted the population homogeneously. The government has expanded the medical schools at the country's federal universities, while providing incentives for the creation of new undergraduate courses at private establishments. This article examines the trends and challenges of the privatization of medical education in Brazil. This is a descriptive, cross-sectional study based on secondary data from official government databases on medical schools and courses and institutions offering such courses in Brazil. It takes into account the year when the medical schools received authorization to initiatte the activities, where they are situated, whether they are run by a public or private entity, how many places they offer, how many students they have enrolled, and their performance according to Ministry of Education evaluations. Brazil had 241 medical schools in 2014, offering a total of 20,340 places. The private higher education institutions are responsible for most of the enrolment of medical students nationally (54 %), especially in the southeast. However, enrolment in public institutions predominate more in the capitals than in other cities. Overal, the public medical schools performed better than the private schools in the last two National Exam of Students' (ENADE). The privatization of the teaching of medicine at undergraduate level in Brazil represents a great challenge: how to expand the number of places while assuring quality and democratic access to this form of education. Upon seeking to understand the configuration and trends in medical education in Brazil, it is hoped that this analysis may contribute to a broader
US Department of Agriculture, 2009
The National School Lunch Program is a federally assisted meal program operating in over 101,000 public and non-profit private schools and residential child care institutions. It provides nutritionally balanced, low-cost or free lunches to more than 30.5 million children each school day in 2008. In 1998, Congress expanded the National School Lunch…
Sørensen, Morten; Wang, Neng; Yang, Jinqiang
We investigate whether the performance of private equity (PE) investments is sufficient to compensate investors (LPs) for risk, long-term illiquidity, management, and incentive fees charged by the general partner (GP).We analyze the LPs’ portfolio-choice problem and find that management fees, car....... On average, LPs may just break even, net of management fees, carry, risk, and costs of illiquidity.......We investigate whether the performance of private equity (PE) investments is sufficient to compensate investors (LPs) for risk, long-term illiquidity, management, and incentive fees charged by the general partner (GP).We analyze the LPs’ portfolio-choice problem and find that management fees......, carried interest, and illiquidity are costly, and GPs must generate substantial alpha to compensate LPs for bearing these costs. Debt is cheap and reduces these costs, potentially explaining the high leverage of buyout transactions. Conventional interpretations of PE performance measures appear optimistic...
Kjellstrom, Sven B.
State capitalism has been a basic tenet of the developing strategy for Turkey for half a century, with import-substituting industrialization through state economic enterprises (SEEs) as a guiding principle. By 1980 a serious economic and political crisis called for a reassessment of economic policies. Policy reorientation was radical : from import substitution to export promotion, from interventionism to market forces, and from promotion of SEEs to promotion of the private sector. The state's...
ABB Combustion Engineering (ABB CE) and seven other companies have submitted a plan to the DOE for deploying a multipurpose reactor at the Savannah River Plant. The facility would consume excess plutonium as fuel, irradiate tritium producing targets, and generate electricity. The plan proposes to establish a consortium that would privately finance and own two System 80+ nuclear units and a mixed oxide fuel fabrication facility
environment such as that in Abu Grahib prison , where military personnel tasked with similar duties to that of contractors have been held legally accountable... Grahib Prison . The Washington Post. Office of Management and Budget Circular A-76. (August 4, 1988. Revised 1999). Performance of Commercial...downsizes the military after the Global War on Terror as it did after the Cold War. Private contractors depend largely upon former service members to
Sahin, Sila; Prowse, Martin Philip; Weigh, Nadia
and this looks set to remain for the next two decades at least. The agriculture and growth evidence paper series has been developed to cover a range of issues that are of most relevance to DFID staff. The paper is not intended to be a comprehensive overview of all issues relating to agriculture and the private...... sector. It concentrates on those areas that are of particular focus for DFID policy and strategy....
A report sponsored by a group of nuclear suppliers and the Royal Bank suggested that the Candu reactor system would sell better if it were owned by a private company. Licensing of a Candu reactor in the U.S.A. was also suggested. The author of this article agrees with these points, but disagrees with the suggestion that safeguards should be relaxed. He suggests that contracts should stipulate that instrumentation should be supplied as much as possible from Canadian sources
Trying to drum up business for what would be the first private temporary storage facility for spent nuclear fuel rods, the Mescalero Apaches are inviting officials of 30 utilities to convene March 10 at the tribe's New Mexico reservation. The state public utilities commission will also attend the meeting, which grew from an agreement the tribe signed last month with Minneapolis-based Northern States Power Co
Lehmann, Martin; Jeppesen, S.
Public-private partnerships in the environmental field have emerged as one option in the pursuit of sustainable development. So-called ‘Green Networks’, ‘Cleaner Production Centres’, ‘Waste Minimisation Clubs’ are among others highlighted as alternatives to governmental regulation. While being...... these initiatives in an institutional framework and suggest how the experiences can be understood in their own rights....
A virtual private network (VPN) is the essential security feature that allows remote monitoring systems to take advantage of the low communications cost of the internet. This paper introduces the VPN concept and summarizes the networking and security principles. The mechanics of security, for example, types of encryption and protocols for exchange of keys between partners, are explained. Important issues for partners in different countries include the interoperability and mutual accreditations of systems. (author)
This paper has been delivered within the context of the research project "Transnational Private Regulatory Regimes: Constitutional foundations and governance design". This paper considers the topic of private regulation and enforcement for internationally active financial services firms. The paper documents the following types of regulation and enforcement that involve significant private input: house rules, contracts, internal compliance, management-based regulation, private standard-sett...
Gregoric, Aleksandra; Masten, Arjana Brezigar; Zajc, Katarina
of the multiple blockholder structures that these firms were assigned at privatization. We observe significant path dependence: patterns of ownership and control are in part determined by the persistence of the initial privatization owners (state funds, privatization investment funds, employees, and managers...
Full Text Available "Private political archives" are understood by me as all acts collected intently by a private person. These acts are connected with the person's participation in political life and gathered in order to be used in public activity as the source of argumentation and information about factors and mechanisms of political processes. Private political archives of the first half of the XVI century were mainly created by royal servants, often with reference to their job duties. These duties could inspire to collect political acts for private purposes. During the reign of Sigismund Augustus, archives of gentry activists were developed to small extent and they mainly focused on parliamentary life. Private political archives were created outside the executionist movement, namely in the community gathered around the royal court. After 1572, Crown and Lithuanian magnates greatly influenced the creation of political archives. Archives of lesser gentry, scarce and poor, did not disappear completely. However, they became difficult for identification. Therefore, developmental process concerned exclusively documentary "treasure troves" created by magnates. They had the financial means and possibilities to create truly valuable political archives. The same as in the previous period the dynamisms of executionist movement was reflected in political archival documentation, now the creation of patronage system and clientele, or traditionally understood magnate oligarchy, (depending on the point of view corresponded best to archives development. The heritage of previous generations was the treasure trove of patterns and solutions. However, this trove was used selectively, on one hand giving up patterns and rights that were uncomfortable, and, on the other, giving the value of precedence to unexpected acts that gained more importance or even new content in changed political conditions. The application of interpretation principle raised interest in old acts and patterns
Salleh Naziah Muhamad
Full Text Available Working or studying in a comfortable environment enhances not only well-being, but also satisfaction and therefore increase the productivity and learning. The numbers of private preschool in Malaysia boost every year. Frequently they operate in premises that have been fully refurbished. This has invited the questions on the building capability and space condition to provide a good environment to the children during the learning activities. Most of the building was refurbished to enhance it applicability as a school. Yet, these adaptive-reused buildings are doubtful. This research focused to identify the characteristics of the buildings’ physical and condition as well as the scenario of refurbished private preschool in accordance with the standard. Observation particularly on space and pupils density either it is reckoning with the authorities’ requirements. Most of the building was refurbished to enhance it applicability as a school. The data obtained from the observation and staff’s interview to 237 preschool (771 classrooms. The data revealed in most of preschools, the occupants in the classrooms were over the limit regulating by the authority. The data obtained was analyzed to become a reference and benchmark to the authorities to prepare the private preschool’s applications.
Uyi Kizito Ehigiamusoe
Full Text Available The study examines private sector participation in secondary education in Nigeria and its implications for national development. The population consisted all the providers and recipients of private secondary education in the Federal Capital Territory (FCT. Simple random sampling was used to select 200 providers and recipients of private secondary education across the six Area Councils in the FCT. An instrument designated Private Sector Participation in Secondary Education (PSPSE was used to collect data. The data were analysed using Chi-Square method to test for the acceptance or rejection of the study hypotheses. The findings revealed that the academic performance of students in private secondary schools is better than the academic performance of students in public secondary schools. The study further revealed that private secondary schools have better infrastructure than public secondary schools in Nigeria, but private secondary schools contribute less to the development of human resources than public schools in Nigeria. Recommendations are proffered to make private secondary education more viable and responsive to the needs of the society.
Variáveis relacionadas à iniciação do tabagismo entre estudantes do ensino médio de escola pública e particular na cidade de Belém - PA Variables related to smoking initiation among students in public and private high schools in the city of Belém, Brazil
Denise da Silva Pinto
Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Analisar as variáveis relacionadas à iniciação do tabagismo entre adolescentes estudantes de nível médio de uma escola particular e outra pública, na cidade de Belém-PA, em 2005. MÉTODOS: Para a coleta de dados, foi utilizado um questionário não identificado, de autopreenchimento, com 27 questões fechadas, sobre experimentação de cigarro, fumo habitual, acesso à compra de cigarros, motivo para a experimentação do fumo, autopercepção sobre o seu rendimento escolar, diálogo sobre tabagismo no ambiente familiar e nível sócio-econômico. Participaram do estudo 1520 estudantes, sendo 724 (47,6% da rede particular e 796 (52,4% da rede pública. RESULTADOS: A média de idade dos estudantes foi de 16,5 anos. Dos 1520 estudantes, 669 (44% referiram ter experimentado cigarro e 11% faziam uso habitual de cigarros. A proporção de experimentadores na escola pública foi de 51,2% e na particular foi de 36,7% (p = 0; a de fumantes habituais foi 14,6% na escola pública e de 7% na particular (p = 0. As associações encontradas para iniciação e uso atual de cigarro em ambas as escolas foram: curiosidade, presença de pessoas fumantes no convívio social do adolescente, não ter sido elogiado por não fumar, e se considerar um aluno regular ou ruim. Não houve associação entre experimentação e fumo atual com classes sociais nas duas escolas, exceto para experimentadores das classes A e B na escola particular. CONCLUSÕES: A variável mais importante para fumo entre os estudantes foi a curiosidade. A experimentação e uso habitual de cigarro foram mais freqüentes na escola pública que na particular.OBJETIVE: To analyze the variables related to smoking initiation among adolescent students in two high schools (one public and one private in the city of Belém, Brazil, in 2005. METHODS: An anonymous self-report questionnaire - comprising 27 closed questions regarding smoking experimentation, smoking habit, access to buying
Full Text Available Privatization is a very complicated process that builds a market economy. It entails numerous problems, the overcoming of which depends on the pace and scale of privatization in a particular country. The privatization process of the Polish economy is assessed differently, and still raises a lot of controversy and debate, not only for the economy, but also politics. This is particularly the privatization of state assets. Privatization was one of the foundations for political transformation in Poland and other Central- and Eastern European countries. Some say that was a great success, while for others it was a field for plunder and affairs. Who is right? Is privatization a success or a failure? This paper aims to present the arguments posed by both supporters and opponents of the privatization in Poland.
Swezey, James A.; Thorp, Kimberly A.
Dinkes, Cataldi, and Lin-Kelly (2007) claims that 78% of public schools reported one or more violent incidents during the 2005/2006 school year. School shootings are a rare but real threat on school campuses. Shootings at private schools are even less frequent with only a few recorded examples in the United States. This case study examines how a…
Pulkkis, Göran; Grahn, Kaj; Mårtens, Mathias; Mattsson, Jonny
Mobile Virtual Private Networking (VPN) solutions based on the Internet Security Protocol (IPSec), Transport Layer Security/Secure Socket Layer (SSL/TLS), Secure Shell (SSH), 3G/GPRS cellular networks, Mobile IP, and the presently experimental Host Identity Protocol (HIP) are described, compared and evaluated. Mobile VPN solutions based on HIP are recommended for future networking because of superior processing efficiency and network capacity demand features. Mobile VPN implementation issues associated with the IP protocol versions IPv4 and IPv6 are also evaluated. Mobile VPN implementation experiences are presented and discussed.
Hansen, Annette Skovsted
New and independent donors are adding their own twist to the experiences of receiving ODA and their examples are already inspiring the DAC, UN, and other multiple- and bilateral aid relationships. Rather than competition among development paradigms, I see negotiations of ideas of development and ...... and a co-existence of a multiplicity of approaches. I will argue that a trend of new and old actors inspiring each other will continue and the explicit focus on private sector development is just a first outcome....
Yi, Xun; Bertino, Elisa
This book deals with Private Information Retrieval (PIR), a technique allowing a user to retrieve an element from a server in possession of a database without revealing to the server which element is retrieved. PIR has been widely applied to protect the privacy of the user in querying a service provider on the Internet. For example, by PIR, one can query a location-based service provider about the nearest car park without revealing his location to the server.The first PIR approach was introduced by Chor, Goldreich, Kushilevitz and Sudan in 1995 in a multi-server setting, where the user retriev
Aim: To evaluate SHS in public and private schools in Sagamu. Settings and Design: This was a cross.sectional study carried out on private and public nursery/primary and secondary schools in Sagamu, Ogun State. Materials and Methods: A total of 91 schools, randomly selected from 182 available, comprising 53 private ...
Fatores associados ao uso de preservativo masculino e ao conhecimento sobre DST/AIDS em adolescentes de escolas públicas e privadas do Município de São Paulo, Brasil Factors associated with condom use and knowledge about STD/AIDS among teenagers in public and private schools in São Paulo, Brazil
Laura B. Motta Martins
Full Text Available Comparar o conhecimento sobre DST/AIDS e avaliar fatores associados ao conhecimento adequado e ao uso consistente do preservativo masculino, em adolescentes de escolas públicas e privadas do Município de São Paulo. Participaram 1.594 adolescentes entre 12 e 19 anos, de 13 escolas públicas e 5 privadas, que responderam um questionário sobre DST/AIDS e uso de preservativo. Calcularam-se as razões de prevalência com intervalo de confiança de 95%. O escore de conhecimento sobre DST teve o ponto de corte equivalendo a 50% de acerto. Os testes estatísticos foram qui-quadrado e Wilcoxon-Gehan. Realizou-se regressão múltipla de Poisson. O uso consistente de preservativo foi 60% nas escolas privadas e 57,1% nas públicas (p > 0,05 e esteve associado ao sexo masculino e menor nível sócio-econômico. O sexo feminino, maior escolaridade, escola privada, cor branca e estado marital solteiro associaram-se ao maior conhecimento sobre DST. Os adolescentes de escola pública e privada apresentam conhecimento adequado sobre prevenção de DST, entretanto esse conhecimento não determina adoção de atitudes efetivas de prevenção. Programas de conscientização sobre DST/AIDS devem ser ampliados visando minimizar as vulnerabilidades.This study aimed to compare knowledge about STD/AIDS and identify the factors associated with adequate knowledge and consistent use of male condoms in teenagers from public and private schools in the city of São Paulo, Brazil. We selected 1,594 adolescents ranging 12 to 19 years of age in 13 public schools and 5 private schools to complete a questionnaire on knowledge of STD/AIDS and use of male condoms. Prevalence ratios were computed with a 95% confidence interval. The score on STD knowledge used a cutoff point corresponding to 50% of correct answers. Statistical tests were chi-square and Poisson multiple regression. Consistent use of male condoms was 60% in private and 57.1% in public schools (p > 0.05 and was
Bernstein, Shai; Lerner, Josh; Sørensen, Morten
The growth of the private equity industry has spurred concerns about its impact on the economy. This analysis looks across nations and industries to assess the impact of private equity on industry performance. We find that industries where private equity funds invest grow more quickly in terms...... of total production and employment and appear less exposed to aggregate shocks. Our robustness tests provide some evidence that is consistent with our effects being driven by our preferred channel....
The purpose of this bibliography is to present a select set of documents that may be of interest to the Offeror, covering a variety of subject areas related to the TWRS Privatization Project. The organization of this bibliography is by subject area. Some of the documents overlap subject areas, and may be presented in more than one. Additionally, assignment of a document to one subject area does not necessarily preclude that document from containing information relevant to other subject areas not identified. The subject areas include, in order of presentation:. Waste Characterization; Pre-treatment; High-level Waste Immobilization; Low-level Waste Immobilization; Low-level Waste Melter Test Program; Performance Assessment; and General Safety
The purpose of this bibliography is to present a select set of documents that may be of interest to the Offeror, covering a variety of subject areas related to the TWRS Privatization Project. This bibliography is not, nor is intended to be, exhaustive or complete. It was prepared with the intent of providing a sampling of representative documents potentially helpful to Offerors. The documents referenced herein have been identified as representative of those potentially helpful to Offerors. This list of documents does not represent the full extent of available and potentially helpful information, nor should it be taken as a representation of documents determined to be of greater importance than other documents not referenced herein. There are numerous documents available to the public that are NOT cited in this bibliography; the Offeror is encouraged to perform searches for alternate sources of information
Hvidman, Ulrik; Andersen, Simon Calmar
of management is less effective in public organizations. A difference-in-differences model based on survey data on management in Danish public and private schools, combined with administrative data of students’ test scores, confirms the hypothesis. The results have important implications for the transfer......Recent theoretical developments suggest that management actions have different impacts on outcomes in public and private organizations. This proposition is important to public organizations’ widespread import of private sector management tools such as performance management. This article examines...... how performance management influences performance outcomes in otherwise similar public and private organizations. Showing that the factors expected to diminish the impact of performance management parallel the organizational characteristics of public organizations, we hypothesize that this type...
Janoska, J.; Benka, M.; Sobinkovic, B.; Haluza, I.
The state has been talking about privatization of 6 municipal heating plants since 2001. The tenders were to start last year. But nothing has happened and the future is uncertain. The city councils would prefer to receive, if not 100%, then at least a majority stake in the heating plants free of charge. But the Cabinet has decided to sell 51% to investors. The privatization agency - the National Property Fund (FNM) is preparing a proposal to increase the stake offered for sale to 67%. According to information provided by the FNM the sale will begin after Cabinet approval. The Fund intends to apply the same model to the sale of all the heating plants. Last year, a major German company Verbundnetz Gas declared its interest in purchasing large municipal heating plants in Slovakia. But it has been waiting for a response ever since. The French company - Dalkia, which has 10-years' experience of doing business in Slovakia, is interested in all the heating plants to be offered for sale. The Austrian company - Stefe is not new to the business either, it is interested mainly in the regions where it has already established itself - Central and Eastern Slovakia. Strategic investors expect financial groups to show interest too. The Penta Group has not hid its ambitions - it has already privatised a company which represents the key to the future development of heat management in Bratislava - Paroplynovy cyklus. Whereas Penta is not new to the heat production business another financial group - Slavia Capital is still surveying the sector. Should it not succeed, it plans several projects that would allow it to take a stake in the sector
Park, Kyeong jin; Ryu, Chun-Ryol; Choi, Jinsu
The International Science Olympiad is an international intellectual olympic in which students, aging under 20 and who have not entered university, compete using their creative problem solving skills in the field of science. Many nations participate in the Olympiad with great interest, for this competition is a global youth science contest which is also used to measure national basic science levels. However in Korea, benefits for Olympiad participants were reduced because issues were risen that the Olympiad could intensify private education. This resulted in a continuous decrease in the number of applicants, bringing national competitiveness deterioration to concern. Therefore in this study, we identified the problems by analyzing the actual conditions of Olympiad participants' private education, and sought support plans to activate Olympiad participation. For this use, we conducted a survey of 367 summer school and winter school acceptees in 9 branches. 68.9% of the students were preparing for the Olympiad by private education, and the highest percentage answered that their private education expenses were an average of 3~5 million won. Olympiad preparation took up 30~50% of all private education, showing that private education greatly influences the preparing processes for the Olympiad. Meanwhile the participants perceived that in order to reduce Olympiad-related private education, the following should be implemented priority: supply of free high-quality on-line education materials, and easy access to Olympiad related information. It was also suggested that the most effective and needed education methods were school olympiad preparation classes, on-line education expansion, and special lectures and mentoring from olympiad-experienced senior representatives. Additionally, as methods to activate Olympiad participation, it was thought that award records should be allowed to be used in college applications by enabling award records into student records and special
Ridge, Natasha Y.; Shami, Soha; Kippels, Susan M.
In the face of rising demand for private schooling in the United Arab Emirates (UAE) and Qatar, a lack of affordable schooling options, monopolistic behavior of private education providers, and unpredictable government regulations have created a complex and unequal education sector. This research employs a mixed methods comparative approach to…
This paper uses 2006 Canadian census data to examine patterns of wage differentials between immigrants and Canadian natives across the public and private sectors. Results reveal that the wage gap is much more a private sector issue than a public sector issue: the average wage gap is in favour of Canadian natives in the private sector but in favour of immigrants in the public sector; compared to natives, immigrants earn significantly less per year of domestic schooling and per year of domestic...
Maria do Carmo Matias Freire
Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Comparar os alunos de 12 anos das escolas públicas e privadas de Goiânia, Goiás, quanto à prevalência de cárie, condição periodontal, anomalia dentofacial e fluorose. MÉTODOS: Em 2003, o Projeto Condições de Saúde Bucal da População Brasileira 2002-2003 (SB Brasil foi ampliado para Goiânia na forma de um estudo transversal, descrito neste trabalho. A amostra foi constituída por 1 947 escolares de 12 anos frequentando escolas da zona urbana do Município: 1 790 (91,9% eram de escolas públicas e 157 (8,1% de escolas privadas. Através de exame clínico, foram coletados dados sobre as seguintes condições bucais: cárie dentária (índice de dentes cariados, perdidos e obturado, CPOD, condição periodontal (índice periodontal comunitário, CPI, anormalidade dento-facial (índice de estética dental, DAI e fluorose dentária (índice de Dean. Para comparação entre os grupos foram utilizados os testes do qui-quadrado e U de Mann Whitney. RESULTADOS: Houve diferença entre os tipos de escola para todas as variáveis investigadas. Os escolares de instituições públicas apresentaram índices mais elevados de cárie, condição periodontal e anomalia dentofacial do que aqueles de escolas privadas (P OBJECTIVE: To compare 12-year-old students from public and private schools in the city of Goiânia, Brazil, in terms of the prevalence of caries, periodontal conditions, dentofacial anomalies, and fluorosis. METHODS: In 2003, the 2002-2003 Oral Health Conditions in the Brazilian Population project (SB Brasil was expanded to Goiânia as a cross-sectional study, as described in the present article. The sample included 1 947 students from urban schools: 1 790 (91.9% attended public schools and 157 (8.1% attended private schools. Data on the following oral conditions were collected through clinical examination: dental caries (decayed, missing, or filled teeth index, DMFT, periodontal condition (Community Periodontal Index, CPI
national progress as investment in education accrues both private and social returns. ... Universal Basic Education (FCUBE), the Capitation Grant and the School Feeding .... working conditions of media workers in Ghana found a close link between educational ..... jobs, particularly elementary jobs in the formal sector.
Davies, Scott; Aurini, Janice
Private tutoring is a growing industry that is being transformed by an evolution from "shadow education" provision into "learning center" franchises. Traditional shadow educators closely follow the school curriculum, offering short-term homework help and test preparation. Learning centers develop their own curricular and…
school of thought further argues that it is immoral and unethical for private, non-state actors to control force or engage in military functions...was able to defeat a rebel force on behalf of a legitimate government. It was also able to rescue thousands of child soldiers from slavery as well
The education sector has been undergoing regular reviews so that to improve efficiency and cost effectiveness in resource utilization. This study was designed to make a comparative study of internal efficiency in both private and public primary schools of Manga Division, Nyamira District, Kenya. Specifically, the study not ...
Spielhagen, Frances R.; Cooper, Bruce S.
The Bruderhof communities in the United States have organized their own private schools with a distinctly Christian philosophy of education, adding to the interesting mix of American private and religious schools. Rooted in early 20th century German pedagogy, romanticism, and shared responsibility, Bruderhof schools represent the essence of a…
Lane, Julie M.; Jones, David R.
The 1997 Amendments of the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) states that children placed in private schools by their parents are no longer afforded the right to special education services. However, IDEA does state that child find activities between public school representatives and private schools are to remain intact. This study…
In this Advanced Introduction, the reader is taken on an intellectual journey through the different facets and dimensions of private law, from the family home to Kuta Beach and from Thomas Piketty to Nina Hagen. This concise book provides an accessible and fresh introduction to private law,
Perotti, E.C.; Guney, S.E.
In recent years a vast transfer of state-owned assets to the private sector has taken place in many countries, irrespective of their level of development or the political affiliation of their government. Privatization is believed to improve economic incentives; attract managerial and technological
Most research on private equity is based on American theory, tested on American empirical data. Nevertheless, the private equity concept has gained a solid foothold in the Nordic region, especially in Sweden. This article analyzes whether American-biased assumptions prevail in the Nordic countries...
Boudreau, Kevin J.; Jeppesen, Lars Bo; Reichstein, Toke
Today's crowdfunding raises funds for tiny, private entrepreneurial ventures without granting funders private claims to a project's future value. Rather than “investments,” these are “contributions.” This paper argues that for such crowdfunding neither producer nor consumer surplus – i.e., project...
In Private Military and Security Contractors: Controlling the Corporate Warrior a multinational team of 16 scholars and a practitioner from political science, sociology, and law address a developing phenomenon: controlling the use of privatized force by states in international politics. Robust...
Institute for College Access & Success, 2014
Private loans are one of the riskiest ways to finance a college education. Like credit cards, they typically have variable interest rates. Both variable and fixed rates are higher for those who can least afford them--as high as 13% in June 2014. Private loans are not eligible for the important deferment, income-based repayment, or loan forgiveness…
Yu, Hongxia; Ding, Xiaohao
This paper analyzes the behavior of families in China regarding private tutoring, applying game theory to its discussion of their actions. It finds that families will definitely give their children private tutoring after school in order to obtain better educational opportunities in situations where the distribution of educational resources is…
should bind PSCs actions.21 This document laid out guiding principles and best practices but fell...use the terms in this 28Stanley, 168. 29Major Kevin Clarke, “ Microeconomics , Private Security and the Significance to Operational Planning...Clarke, Kevin. “ Microeconomics , Private Security and the Significance to Operational Planning.” Master’s thesis, School of Advanced Military Studies
Balci Demirci, Birim
It is widely known that there are many schools in the private sector offering courses in Computer Technology, Computer Engineering, Information Systems and similar disciplines in addition to Universities presenting such courses. The private sector programs are extremely popular with students already studying at university as well as being of great…
Sasidhar, P. V. K.; Van Den Ban, Anne W.
The changing nature of livestock outreach service delivery, manpower requirements and opportunities in the private sector provide both push and pull dynamics for veterinary graduates to engage in managerial, entrepreneurial, public and private service activities. The veterinary schools should support this transition by integrating Managerial,…
Foged, Søren Kjær; Aaskoven, Lasse
Privatization varies considerably among local governments. One of the oft-listed explanations is the ability of public employees to block privatization. However, many studies on the influence of public employees on privatization do not use very precise measures of the influence of public employees...... Danish municipalities in 2012, we are able to measure the strength of the public eldercare union as well as the number of the public eldercare workers relative to the number of local voters. We find that the increased union strength measured in terms of union density at the municipal level leads...... to substantially and significantly less privatization through the voucher market. By comparison, the estimated relationship between the relative number of public workers and privatization does not reach statistical significance. Features of the voucher market and qualitative evidence suggest that the union...
Full Text Available The goal of this study consists in analyzing the technological dimension of private life in school. It deals with an observational research on curricula documents and the perception of high school teenagers and teachers of this dimension as developed in the Romanian educational system.
The main objectives of this research aim at: a the identification of the specific aspects of the technological dimension as reflected in textbooks and school curricula, and b defining the level of openness of teachers and high school pupils towards the technological dimension of private life.
Firslty, we conducted a content analysis of school documents, taking into account specific themes and categories. Secondly, we conducted a survey that tested the way in which 1456 high school students and 890 teachers perceive the technological dimension of the Romanian educational system. The results are distinguished through frequencies on specific themes structured on technological dimension at the level of school documents, and on opening level of high school pupils and teachers.
Malik Amer Atta; Shabnam Razzaq Khan; Shehla Sheikh; Fahmida Akbar
This research work was focused on the “comparative study of parental involvement and private tuition regarding educational attainments of students at secondary school level”. A sample of 80 students of 10th class from ten different secondary schools was taken. To analyze the results t-test was used. In this comparison it was conducted that parental involvement turn out significant effect on student educational attainments as compared to private tuition. On the bases of results researcher has ...
Full Text Available Legal framework for privatization in Croatia was based on two key laws: the Transformation Act of 1991, and the Privatization Act of 1993, amended in 1996. Early start of privatization process in 1990s in Croatia was marked by the transformation of socially-owned companies into stock holding companies or limited liability companies. The first step (1991-1993 of this process of almost 2700 companies which entered privatization was their evaluation and transformation into private ownership entities. The second step (1994- 1997 consisted of privatization of CPF portfolio. The portfolios change constantly, not only as a result of privatization but also because companies themselves change, as does their position in the market. The third step (1998 in the privatization process was voucher privatization. Privatization of large infrastructure and utility companies designated as public enterprises began in 1999 (Croatian Telecom and INA in 2002 (public enterprises are privatized on the basis of separate laws. Attempts to discuss privatization in Croatia in terms of SWOT analysis have been motivated by the stark difference among Croatian professional economists in an appraisal of Croatia's performance during the transition process in general and of the privatization process in particular. Therefore we considered the elements of SWOT analysis to be an acceptable way to delve into the confusing world of bickering arguments on the state and perspective of the Croatia's privatization process. In this paper we have tried to provide an impartial approach by employing two criteria i.e. strength and weaknesses in judging the events and results of the privatization process in Croatia. Strength of the overall privatization process can be mostly ascribed to the institutional swiftness on micro as well as on macro level. On the micro level 80% of the companies were formally privatized in the first two years despite unfavorable external conditions comprising the
Rodgers-Jenkinson, Fay; Chapman, David W.
This study investigated correlates of job satisfaction among public (N=190) and private (N=100) Jamaican elementary school teachers. Emphasis was on the identification of factors that could be affected through administrative intervention. Results indicated that the quality of school working conditions and respondents' relationships with other teachers were significantly related to satisfaction for both public and private school teachers. School prestige and parental encouragement were also significant predictors for public school teachers; leadership style, organizational structure, and teacher-parent relationships predicted job satisfaction for private school teachers. Implications of these findings for Jamaican education are discussed.
Cristina Díez Pampliega
Full Text Available The situation in the district of Puente de Vallecas (Madrid, Spani can be taken as an example of the progressive development of private schools held by public funds at the expense of the public schools network. This situation is the result of different mechanisms: first, the lost perception of education as a common good; second, the neglect of the right to free compulsory education in all schools supported by public funds; and third, the unfair distribution of students from economic and cultural disadvantaged backgrounds.
Lawton, Stephen B.
Government policy on public support for private schools in Sweden, the United States, Australia, Hong Kong, The Netherlands, France and Malta, and Canada is reviewed. In Sweden virtually all schools are government schools funded by local and national grants; only a handful of private schools exist and they receive no government funds. The United…
Petroleos del Peru predicts a 10% increase in Peru's oil production this year and a further increase in 1994. Petroperu also forecasts a sharp increase in drilling in Peru this year. After several years of declining oil production, a gradual turnaround in the cash strapped country's petroleum industry is largely tied to its progress in privatization. The government last year began a campaign to privatize all state owned companies by the end of July 1995. The paper discusses forecasts by Petroperu; the contract of Occidental del Amazonas Inc.; the Petromar privatization; Great Western's contract; development of the Aguaytia gas field; and refinery contracts
Berberoğlu, Giray; Tansel, Aysit
This paper investigates the effectiveness of private tutoring in Turkey. The authors introduce their study by providing some background information on the two major national examinations and three different kinds of tutoring. They then describe how they aimed to analyse whether attending private tutoring centres (PTCs) enhances Turkish students' academic performance. By way of multiple linear regression analysis, their study sought to evaluate whether the impact of private tutoring varies in different subject areas, taking into account several student-related characteristics such as family and academic backgrounds as well as interest in and perception of academic success. In terms of subject areas, the results indicate that while private tutoring does have a positive impact on academic performance in mathematics and Turkish language, this is not the case in natural sciences. However, as evidenced by the effect sizes, these impacts are rather small compared to the impacts of other variables such as interest in and perception of academic success, high school graduation fields of study, high school cumulative grade point average (CGPA), parental education and students' sociocultural background. While the authors point out that more research on the impact of further important variables needs to be done, their view is that school seems to be an important factor for determining students' academic performance.
Aud, Susan L.
School choice programs, which allow students to attend the public or private school of their choice using public funds, have taken root in the U.S. and are growing rapidly both in number and size. Their fiscal impact has become an important political issue. Proponents say school choice saves money because private schooling is more efficient,…
Hursh, David; Martina, Camille Anne
Public education is becoming increasingly privatized as private philanthropic organizations, such as the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, and corporations, such as Pearson, dominate the policy-making process, and more students enroll in publicly funded but privately administered charter schools. The privatization of education results from the…