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Sample records for nonreducing sodium dodecyl

  1. Surface and thermodynamic properties of sodium dodecyl sulphate and sodium dodecyl sulphonate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Janczuk, B. [Dept. de Fisica, Facultad de Ciencias, Univ. de Extremadura, Badajoz (Spain); Gonzalez-Martin, M.L. [Dept. de Fisica, Facultad de Ciencias, Univ. de Extremadura, Badajoz (Spain); Bruque, J.M. [Dept. de Fisica, Facultad de Ciencias, Univ. de Extremadura, Badajoz (Spain); Dorado-Calasanz, C. [Dept. de Fisica, Facultad de Ciencias, Univ. de Extremadura, Badajoz (Spain)

    1996-09-01

    Determinations of the surface tension of aqueous solutions of sodium dodecyl sulphate and sodium dodecyl sulphonate were made in the presence of a neutral salt (NaCl; 0.1 M) at 20 C. On the basis of these determinations the isotherms and the standard thermodynamic parameters of adsorption were determined. The equation of state for a monolayer film of the studied surfactants was also discussed. A linear dependence was found between log {Gamma} and log c in the range of low surfactant concentrations. The limiting value of {Pi} (A-A{sub 0}) was found to be 1 kT in contrary to the case in which the solutions were made in the absence of neutral salt. It has been suggested that there are not only attractive forces of the Lifshitz-van der Waals type but also acid-base forces which can affect the {Pi} parameter. (orig.) [Deutsch] Die Grenzflaechenspannung waessriger Loesungen von Natriumdodecylsulfat und Natriumdodecylsulfonat bei 20 C in Gegenwart eines Neutralsalzes (0,1 M NaCl) wurde bestimmt. Auf der Grundlage dieser Messungen wurden die Isothermen und die thermodynamischen Standardgroessen der Adsorption ermittelt. Die Zustandsgleichung fuer einen monomolekularen Film der untersuchten Tenside wird diskutiert. Es wurde eine lineare Beziehung zwischen log {Gamma} und log c fuer niedrige Tensidkonzentrationen gefunden. Ferner wurde festgestellt, dass der Grenzwert von {Pi} (A-A{sub 0}) in den Loesungen gleich 1 kT ist, anders als bei Abwesenheit eines Neutralsalzes. Daraus wurde geschlossen, dass nicht nur Anziehungskraefte des Lifshitz-van der Waals-Typs vorliegen, sondern auch Saeure-Base-Kraefte, die die {Pi}-Parameter beeinflussen koennen. (orig.)

  2. Phase Behavior and Structural Transitions in Sodium Dodecyl Sulfonate Microemulsions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨根生; 施介华; 等

    2002-01-01

    The forming mechanism of microemulsion of sodium dodecyl sulfonate.alcohols,water and isooctane was studied,with particular emphasis on the effect of molecular weight and concentration of alocohols.Phase diagram of the four components,alcohol, sodium dodecyl sulfonate,water and isooctane,was used as a means of study,through which the microemulsion regions were determined.Phase diagram of sodium dodecyl sulfonate/n-pentanol/isooctane/water system at km=2(km=Wn-pentanol/WSDS)is presented. The variation of conductivities of different microemulsion samples with water was measured.From the conductivities we investigated a change in structure from water droplets in oil(W/O)at low water content to liquid crystal at intermediate water content and a structure of oil droplets in water(O/W)at high water content.

  3. Anaerobic degradation of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) by denitrifying bacteria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Paulo, A.; Plugge, C.M.; Garcia Encina, P.A.; Stams, A.J.M.

    2013-01-01

    Two denitrifying bacteria were isolated using sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) as substrate. Strains SN1 and SN2 were isolated from an activated sludge reactor of a wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) with Anaerobic–Anoxic–Oxic (A2/O) steps. Based on 16S rRNA gene analysis strain SN1 is 99% similar to Pse

  4. Anaerobic degradation of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) by denitrifying bacteria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Paulo, A.; Plugge, C.M.; Garcia Encina, P.A.; Stams, A.J.M.

    2013-01-01

    Two denitrifying bacteria were isolated using sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) as substrate. Strains SN1 and SN2 were isolated from an activated sludge reactor of a wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) with Anaerobic–Anoxic–Oxic (A2/O) steps. Based on 16S rRNA gene analysis strain SN1 is 99% similar to

  5. Green synthesis of gold nanoparticles reduced and stabilized by sodium glutamate and sodium dodecyl sulfate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabrera, Gil Felicisimo S; Balbin, Michelle M; Eugenio, Paul John G; Zapanta, Charleo S; Monserate, Juvy J; Salazar, Joel R; Mingala, Claro N

    2017-03-18

    The Turkevich method has been used for many years in the synthesis of gold nanoparticles. Lately, the use of plant extracts and amino acids has been reported, which is valuable in the field of biotechnology and biomedicine. The AuNPs was synthesized from the reduction of HAuCl4 3H2O by sodium glutamate and stabilized with sodium dodecyl sulfate. The optimum concentrations for sodium glutamate and sodium dodecyl sulfate in the synthesis process were determined. The characteristics of the synthesized AuNPs was analysed through UV-Vis Spectroscopy and SEM. The AuNPs have spherical shape with a mean diameter of approximately 21.62 ± 4.39 nm and is well dispersed. FTIR analysis of the AuNPs reflected that the sulfate head group of sodium dodecyl sulfate is adsorbed at the surface of the AuNPs. Thus, we report herein the synthesis of AuNPs using sodium glutamate and sodium dodecyl sulfate. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Estimation of interfacial acidity of sodium dodecyl sulfate micelles

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Arghya Dey; G Naresh Patwari

    2011-11-01

    An enhancement in the excited state proton transfer (ESPT) processes of coumarin-102 (C-102) dye was observed upon addition of salicylic acid and hydrochloric acid in sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) micellar solution. The phenomenon was observed only in the micellar medium of anionic surfactant SDS and not in case of cationic (CTAB) or neutral (Trition X -100) surfactants. ESPT of C-102 was also observed in aqueous solutions but on addition of very high concentrations of hydrochloric acid. However, on comparing the ratio of the protonated species from the emission spectra in the presence and absence of SDS micelle, a conclusive estimation of the local proton concentration at the Stern layer of SDS micelles could be evaluated.

  7. Ionic quenching of naphthalene fluorescence in sodium dodecyl sulfate micelles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Alessandra F; Fiedler, Haidi D; Nome, Faruk

    2011-03-31

    Micellar effects on luminescense of organic compounds or probes are well established, and here we show that quenching is highly favored in aqueous sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) micelles, which concentrate a naphthalene probe and cations of lanthanides, transition metals, and noble metals. Interactions have been studied by steady state and time-resolved fluorescence in examining the fluorescence suppression of naphthalene by metal ions in anionic SDS micelles. The quenching is collisional and correlated with the unit charge and the reduction potential of the metal ion. The rate constants, calculated in terms of local metal ion concentrations, are close to the diffusion control limit in the interior of SDS micelles, where the microscopic viscosity decreases the transfer rate, following the Stokes-Einstein relation.

  8. Complexation between sodium dodecyl sulfate and amphoteric polyurethane nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiao, Yong; Zhang, Shifeng; Lin, Ouya; Deng, Liandong; Dong, Anjie

    2007-09-27

    The complexation between negatively charged sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) and positively charged amphoteric polyurethane (APU) self-assembled nanoparticles (NPs) containing nonionic hydrophobic segments is studied by dynamic light scattering, pyrene fluorescent probing, zeta-potential, and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) in the present paper. With increasing the mol ratio of SDS to the positive charges on the surface of APU NPs, the aqueous solution of APU NPs presents precipitation at pH 2, around stoichiometric SDS concentration, and then the precipitate dissociates with excess SDS to form more stable nanoparticles of ionomer complexes. Three stages of the complexation process are clearly shown by the pyrene I1/I3 variation of the complex systems, which only depends on the ratio of SDS/APU, and demonstrate that the process is dominated by electrostatic attraction and hydrophobic aggregation.

  9. Location of ethanol in sodium dodecyl sulfate aggregates

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU, Tian-Qing; YU, Wei-Li; GUO, Rong

    2000-01-01

    The hexagonal liquid crystalline phase of SDS ( Sodium dodecyl sulfate)/H2O system changes into lamellar liquid crystal and the effective length of surfactant molecule d0/2 in the lamellar liquid crystal decreases with the addition of ethanol.The micellar aggregation number N of SDS decreases and the micellar diffusion coefficient increases with the added ethanol.Under a constant concentration of SDS, the molecule number ratio of ethanol to SDS in the micelle increases with the concentration of ethanol and even exceeds 10 when ethanol concentration is 1.085 mol/L. All these results show that ethanol, even though a short chain alcohol and soluble in water, can partly exist in the interphase of the amphiphilic aggregates showing some properties of co-surfactant.

  10. Sodium dodecyl sulfate-induced rapid gelation of silk fibroin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xilong; Hou, Jing; Li, Mingzhong; Wang, Jiangnan; Kaplan, David L; Lu, Shenzhou

    2012-07-01

    The in situ formation of injectable silk fibroin (SF) hydrogels have potential advantages over various other biomaterials due to the minimal invasiveness during application. Biomaterials need to gel rapidly under physiological conditions after injection. In the current paper, a novel way to accelerate SF gelation using an anionic surfactant, sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), as a gelling agent is reported. The mechanism of SDS-induced rapid gelation was determined. At low surfactant concentrations, hydrophobic interactions among the SF chains played a dominant role in the association, leading to decreased gelation time. At higher concentrations of surfactant, electrostatic repulsive forces among micellar aggregates gradually became dominant and gelation was hindered. Gel formation involves the connection of clusters formed by the accumulation of nanoparticles. This process is accompanied by the rapid formation of β-sheet structures due to hydrophobic and electrostatic interactions. It is expected that the silk hydrogel with short gelation time will be used as an injectable hydrogel in drug delivery or cartilage tissue engineering.

  11. Use of capillary electrophoresis-sodium dodecyl sulfate to monitor disulfide scrambled forms of an Fc fusion protein during purification process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hapuarachchi, Suminda; Fodor, Szilan; Apostol, Izydor; Huang, Gang

    2011-07-15

    Overexpression of recombinant Fc fusion proteins in Escherichia coli frequently results in the production of inclusion bodies that are subsequently used to produce fully functional protein by an in vitro refolding process. During the refolding step, misfolded proteins such as disulfide scrambled forms can be formed, and purification steps are used to remove these product-related impurities to produce highly purified therapeutic proteins. A variety of analytical methods are commonly used to monitor protein variants throughout the purification process. Capillary electrophoresis (CE)-based techniques are gaining popularity for such applications. In this work, we used a nonreduced capillary electrophoresis-sodium dodecyl sulfate (nrCE-SDS) method for the analysis of disulfide scrambled forms in a fusion protein. Under denatured nonreduced conditions, an extra post-shoulder peak was observed at all purification steps. Detailed characterization revealed that the peak was related to the disulfide scrambled forms and was isobaric with the correctly folded product. In addition, when sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) was used during the CE-SDS peak characterization, we observed that the migration order of scrambled forms is reversed on CE-SDS versus SDS-PAGE. This illustrates the importance of establishing proper correlation of these two techniques when they are used interchangeably to guide the purification process and to characterize proteins.

  12. Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate (SDS)-Loaded Nanoporous Polymer as Anti-Biofilm Surface Coating Material

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Li; Molin, Søren; Yang, Liang

    2013-01-01

    -b-polydimethylsiloxane (1,2-PB-b-PDMS) block copolymer via chemical cross-linking of the 1,2-PB block followed by quantitative removal of the PDMS block. Sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) was loaded into the nanoporous 1,2-PB from aqueous solution. The SDS-loaded nanoporous polymer films were shown to block bacterial attachment...

  13. Thermodynamics of Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate (SDS) Micellization: An Undergraduate Laboratory Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcolongo, Juan P.; Mirenda, Martin

    2011-01-01

    An undergraduate laboratory experiment is presented that allows a thermodynamic characterization of micelle formation of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) in aqueous solutions. The critical micelle concentration (CMC) and the degree of micelle ionization (alpha) are obtained at different temperatures by conductimetry. The molar standard free energy…

  14. The Electrooxidation of Tetracycline at Acetylene Black Electrode in the Presence of Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xue Ping DANG; Cheng Guo HU; Ying Liang WEI; Sheng Shui HU

    2004-01-01

    The electrooxidation of tetracycline (TC) at acetylene black electrode has been studied in the presence of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS). Tetracycline (TC) exhibited very sensitive oxidation peak in this system. The peak current was proportional to TC concentration, and the detection limit was 1.2 × 10-8 mol/L. The system was used to the determination of TC in pharmaceuticals.

  15. CLONING AND SEQUENCING OF PSEUDOMONAS GENES DETERMINING SODIUM DODECYL-SULFATE BIODEGRADATION

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    DAVISON, J; BRUNEL, F; PHANOPOULOS, A; PROZZI, D; TERPSTRA, P

    1992-01-01

    The nucleotide sequences of two genes involved in sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) degradation, by Pseudomonas, have been determined. One of these, sdsA, codes for an alkyl sulfatase (58 957 Da) and has similarity (31.8% identity over a 201-amino acid stretch) to the N terminus of a predicted protein of

  16. The effects of deoxycholate and sodium dodecyl sulphate on the serological reactivity of antigens isolated from six Bacteroides reference strains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    I. Beckmann (Ilse); F. Meisel-Mikolajczyk; H.C.S. Wallenburg (Henk)

    1990-01-01

    markdownabstractAbstract The detergents sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS) and sodium deoxycholate (NaD) are frequently used as solvents for macromolecular polysaccharide complexes in immunochemical and serological techniques. The influence of the disaggregating surfactants on the serological reactivit

  17. The effects of deoxycholate and sodium dodecyl sulphate on the serological reactivity of antigens isolated from six Bacteroides reference strains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    I. Beckmann (Ilse); F. Meisel-Mikolajczyk; H.C.S. Wallenburg (Henk)

    1990-01-01

    markdownabstractAbstract The detergents sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS) and sodium deoxycholate (NaD) are frequently used as solvents for macromolecular polysaccharide complexes in immunochemical and serological techniques. The influence of the disaggregating surfactants on the serological

  18. Phospholipid containing mixed micelles. Characterization of diheptanoyl phosphatidylcholine (DHPC) and sodium dodecyl sulfate and DHPC and dodecyl trimethylammonium bromide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranganathan, Radha; Vautier-Giongo, Carolina; Bakshi, Mandeep Singh; Bales, Barney L; Hajdu, Joseph

    2005-05-01

    Mixed micelles of l,2-diheptanoyl-sn-grycero-3-phosphocholine (DHPC) with ionic detergents were prepared to develop well characterized substrates for the study of lipolytic enzymes. The aggregates that formed on mixing DHPC with the anionic surfactant sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) and with the positively charged dodecyl trimethylammonium bromide (DTAB) were investigated using time-resolved fluorescence quenching (TRFQ) to determine the aggregation numbers and bimolecular collision rates, and electron spin resonance (ESR) to measure the hydration index and microviscosity of the micelles at the micelle-water interface. Mixed micelles between the phospholipid and each of the detergents formed in all compositions, yielding interfaces with varying charge, hydration, and microviscosity. Both series of micelles were found to be globular up to 0.7 mole fraction of DHPC, while the aggregation numbers varied within the same concentration range of the components less than 15%. Addition of the zwitterionic phospholipid component increased the degree of counterion dissociation as measured by the quenching of the fluorescence of pyrene by the bromide ions bound to DHPC/DTAB micelles, showing that at 0.6 mole fraction of DHPC 80% of the bromide ions are dissociated from the micelles. The interface water concentration decreased significantly on addition of DHPC to each detergent. For combined phospholipid and detergent concentration of 50 mM the interface water concentration decreased, as measured by ESR of the spin-probes, from 38.5 M/L of interface volume in SDS alone to 9 M/L when the phospholipid was present at 0.7 mole fraction. Similar addition of DHPC to DTAB decreased the interfacial water concentration from 27 M/L to 11 M/L. Determination of the physicochemical parameters of the phospholipid containing mixed micelles here presented are likely to provide important insight into the design of assay systems for kinetic studies of phospholipid metabolizing enzymes.

  19. Comparative study on the mechanisms of rotavirus inactivation by sodium dodecyl sulfate and ethylenediaminetetraacetate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ward, R.L. (Sandia Labs., Albuquerque, NM); Ashley, C.S.

    1980-06-01

    This report describes a comparative study on the effects of the anionic detergent sodium dodecyl sulfate and the chelating agent ethylenediaminetetraacetate on purified rotavirus SA-11 particles. Both chemicals readily inactivated rotavirus at quite low concentrations and under very mild conditions. In addition, both agents modified the viral capsid and prevented the adsorption of inactivated virions to cells. Capsid damage by ethylenediaminetetraacetate caused a shift in the densities of rotavirions from about l.35 to about 1.37 g/ml and a reduction in their sedimentation coefficients. Sodium dodcyl sulfate, on the other hand, did not detectably alter either of these physical properties of rotavirions. Both agents caused some alteration of the isoelectric points of the virions. Finally, analysis of rotavirus proteins showed that ethylenediaminetetraacetate caused the loss of two protein peaks from the electrophoretic pattern of virions but sodium dodecyl sulfate caused the loss of only one of these same protein peaks.

  20. Electrochemical Oxidation of L-Cysteine in Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate Admicelles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李中春; 刘天晴; 郭荣

    2005-01-01

    The electrochemical oxidation of L-cysteine can be catalyzed by sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) admicelles. The catalytic efficiency increases hardly when SDS concentration is lower than the critical admicelle concentration (CAC) and increases rapidly when SDS concentration is between CAC and the critical micelle concentration (CMC), but decreases when SDS concentration is higher than CMC. Both results of rate constant k0 and Gibbs free energy ΔGck accord with that of catalytic efficiency.

  1. Preparation and Catalytic Properties of Iron-Cerium Phosphates with Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate

    OpenAIRE

    Hiroaki Onoda; Takeshi Sakumura

    2012-01-01

    Iron phosphate was prepared from iron nitrate and phosphoric acid with sodium dodecyl sulfate at various stirring hours. The chemical composition of the obtained samples was estimated from ICP and XRD measurements. Particle shape and size distribution were observed by SEM images and laser diffraction/scattering methods. Further, the catalytic activity was studied with the decomposition of the complex between formaldehyde, ammonium acetate, and acetylacetone. The peaks of FePO4 were observed i...

  2. Small angle neutron scattering studies of mixed micelles of sodium cumene sulphonate with cetyl trimethylammonium bromide and sodium dodecyl sulphate

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    K V Padalkar; V G Gaikar; V K Aswal

    2008-11-01

    The aqueous solutions of sodium cumene sulphonate (NaCS) and its mixtures with each of cetyl trimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) and sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS) are characterized by small angle neutron scattering (SANS). NaCS when added to CTAB solution leads to the formation of long rod-shaped micelles with a dramatic increase in the CTAB aggregation number. Its addition to SDS on the other hand results in the formation of smaller mixed micelles where part of SDS molecules in the micelle is replaced by NaCS molecules.

  3. A comparison study between sodium dodecyl sulfate and sodium dodecyl sulfonate with respect to the thermodynamic properties, micellization, and interaction with poly(ethylene glycol) in aqueous solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sadeghi, Rahmat, E-mail: rsadeghi@uok.ac.ir [Department of Chemistry, University of Kurdistan, Sanandaj (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Shahabi, Somayyeh [Department of Chemistry, University of Kurdistan, Sanandaj (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2011-09-15

    Graphical abstract: Apparent molar volume against molality: o, {center_dot}, and {Delta}, respectively in water, (1 and 4) wt% PEG solution at 293.15 K; x, {Delta}, and lozenge, respectively in water, (1 and 4) wt% PEG solution at 313.15 K. Research Highlights: > C{sub 12}H{sub 25}SO{sub 3}Na(SDSn) was seen to interact with PEG more weakly than C{sub 12}H{sub 25}SO{sub 4}Na(SDS). > The constraints on molecular mobility of SDS micelles are larger than those of SDSn. > Entropy change on micellization for SDSn is larger than those for SDS. > Micelle formation of SDS is less endothermic and more spontaneous than that of SDSn. > Micelles of SDS have smaller aggregation number than that of SDSn. - Abstract: The density, sound velocity, and conductivity measurements were performed on aqueous solutions of sodium dodecyl sulfate (C{sub 12}H{sub 25}SO{sub 4}Na) or sodium dodecyl sulfonate (C{sub 12}H{sub 25}SO{sub 3}Na) in the absence and presence of poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) at different temperatures. Changes in the apparent molar volumes and isentropic compressibilities upon micellization were derived using a pseudophase-transition approach and the infinite dilution apparent molar properties of the monomer and micellar form of C{sub 12}H{sub 25}SO{sub 4}Na and C{sub 12}H{sub 25}SO{sub 3}Na were determined. Variations of the critical micelle concentrations (CMCs) of both surfactants in the solutions investigated with temperature were obtained from which thermodynamic parameters of micellization were estimated. It was found that at low temperature the micelle formation process is endothermic and therefore, this process must be entropically driven. However, upon increasing the temperature, the enthalpic factor becomes more significant and, at temperatures higher than 303.15 K the micellization is enthalpy driven. The interactions between C{sub 12}H{sub 25}SO{sub 4}Na/C{sub 12}H{sub 25}SO{sub 3}Na and PEG were studied and it was found that sodium alkyl sulfonates were seen

  4. Polarized synchronous light scattering characterization of the interaction of proteins with sodium dodecyl sulfonate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO XiaoHui; HUANG ChengZhi

    2007-01-01

    In acid buffer solution, proteins with positive charge can react with anion surfactant and result in a great enhancement of synchronous light scattering (SLS) signals. In this contribution, the correlative experiment was made to compare the interaction of human serum albumin (HAS) and immunoglobulin G (IgG) with sodium dodecyl sulfonate (SDS). Based on the measurements of the polarization light scattering signals, a new method of scattering polarization was constituted to distinguish these two interaction systems with molecular weight difference (HAS 66 kDa; IgG 150 kDa). The results were consistent with the data measured by dynamic light scattering (DLS) technique.

  5. Preparation of Barley Storage Protein, Hordein, for Analytical Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate-Polyacrylamide Gel Electrophoresis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Doll, Hans; Andersen, Bente

    1981-01-01

    The extraction, reduction, and alkylation of barley hordein for routine electrophoresis in sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gels were studied to set up a simple preparation procedure giving well-resolved bands in the electrophoresis gel. Hordein was extracted from single crushed seeds or flour...... by aqueous 50% propan-2-ol containing a Tris-borate buffer, pH 8.6. The presence of the buffer facilitates the consecutive complete reduction of the extracted protein in the alcohol. Reduction and alkylation in the buffer containing propan-2-ol give sharper bands in the electrophoresis than reduction...

  6. Adsorption characteristics of zinc ions on sodium dodecyl sulfate in process of micellar-enhanced ultrafiltration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    To separate zinc ions from aqueous solution efficiently, micellar-enhanced ultrafiltration(MEUF) of hollow ultrafiltration membrane was used with sodium dodecyl sulfate(SDS) as surfactant. The formation of micellar and the adsorption mechanism were investigated, including the influence of the ratio of SDS to zinc ions on the micelle quantity, the micelle ratio, the gross adsorptive capacity, the rejection of zinc ions and the adsorption isotherm law. The results show that the rejection rate of zinc ions reaches 97% and the adsorption of zinc ions on SDS conforms to the Langmuir adsorption isotherm and the adsorption is a chemical adsorption process.

  7. Complexation between Sodium Poly(styrenesulfonate) and Alkyltrimethylammonium Bromides in the Presence of Dodecyl Maltoside.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fegyver, Edit; Mészáros, Róbert

    2015-04-23

    In the present paper, the impact of dodecyl maltoside (C12G2) on the association of sodium poly(styrenesulfonate) (PSS) with dodecyl- and hexadecyltrimethylammonium bromides (DTAB and CTAB) was studied. A low amount of nonionic surfactant enhances the binding of the investigated cationic amphiphiles on PSS, reducing the cationic surfactant-to-polyanion ratio needed for charge neutralization and precipitation. This effect is more pronounced for DTAB than for CTAB due to the considerably higher free surfactant concentration of the former cationic amphiphile. The synergistic surfactant binding also affects the nonequilibrium features of PSS/CTAB association via enhancing the kinetically stable concentration range of overcharged polyion/surfactant nanoparticle dispersions. With increasing C12G2 concentration, however, an opposite effect of the uncharged additive dominates. Namely, the CTAB molecules are solubilized excessively into mixed surfactant micelles, which reduces the surface charge of the PSS/CTAB/C12G2 nanoparticles and thus destabilizes their dispersion. At appropriately large nonionic surfactant concentrations, the binding of CTAB is largely reduced, resulting in the redissolution of the precipitate. In contrast, neither the destabilization nor the resolubilization effects of the added dodecyl maltoside were observed for the PSS/DTAB system due to the much lower driving force of DTAB binding compared to CTAB. Our results clearly demonstrate that the alkyl chain length of the ionic amphiphile has a pronounced effect on both the equilibrium and nonequilibrium aspects of polyion/mixed surfactant complexation which might be further exploited in various next generation applications.

  8. Study of sodium dodecyl sulfate-poly(propylene oxide) methacrylate mixed micelles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastiat, Guillaume; Grassl, Bruno; Khoukh, Abdel; François, Jeanne

    2004-07-01

    Sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS)-poly(propylene oxide) methacrylate (PPOMA) (of molecular weight M(w) = 434 g x mol(-1)) mixtures have been studied using conductimetry, static light scattering, fluorescence spectroscopy, and 1H NMR. It has been shown that SDS and PPOMA form mixed micelles, and SDS and PPOMA aggregation numbers, N(ag SDS) and N(ag PPOMA), have been determined. Total aggregation numbers of the micelles (N(ag SDS) + N(ag PPOMA)) and those of SDS decrease upon increasing the weight ratio R = PPOMA/SDS. Localization of PPOMA inside the mixed micelles is considered (i) using 1H NMR to localize the methacrylate function at the hydrophobic core-water interface and (ii) by studying the SDS-PPO micellar system (whose M(w) = 400 g x mol(-1)). Both methods have indicated that the PPO chain of the macromonomer is localized at the SDS micelle surface. Models based on the theorical prediction of the critical micellar concentration of mixed micelles and structural model of swollen micelles are used to confirm the particular structure proposed for the SDS-PPOMA system, i.e., the micelle hydrophobic core is primarily composed of the C12 chains of the sodium dodecyl sulfate, the hydrophobic core-water interface is made up of the SDS polar heads as well as methacrylate functions of the PPOMA, the PPO chains of the macromonomer are adsorbed preferentially on the surface, i.e., on the polar heads of the SDS.

  9. Effect of 1-Butyl-3-methylimidazolium Halide on the Relative Stability between Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate Micelles and Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate-Poly(ethylene oxide) Nanoaggregates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Gabriel M Dias; Ferreira, Guilherme M Dias; Agudelo, Álvaro J Patiño; Hespanhol da Silva, Maria C; Rezende, Jaqueline de Paula; Pires, Ana Clarissa Dos Santos; da Silva, Luis Henrique Mendes

    2015-12-24

    It is well-known that ionic liquids (ILs) alter the properties of aqueous systems containing only surfactants. However, the effect of ILs on polymer-surfactant systems is still unknown. Here, the effect of 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium bromide (bmimBr) and chloride (bmimCl) on the micellization of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) and its interaction with poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) was evaluated using conductimetry, fluorimetry, and isothermal titration calorimetry. The ILs decreased the critical micellar concentration (cmc) of the surfactant, stabilizing the SDS micelles. A second critical concentration (c2thc) was verified at high SDS concentrations, due to the micelle size decrease. The stability of PEO/SDS aggregates was also affected by ILs, and the critical aggregation concentration (cac) of SDS increased. Integral aggregation enthalpy changed from -0.72 in water to 2.16 kJ mol(-1) in 4.00 mM bmimBr. IL anions did not affect the SDS micellization or the beginning of PEO/SDS aggregation. Nevertheless, when chloride was replaced with bromide, the amount of SDS bound to the polymer increased. At 100.0 mM IL, the PEO-SDS interaction vanished. We suggest that the effect of ILs comes from participating in the structure of the formed aggregates, interacting with the SDS monomers at the core/interface of the micelles, and promoting preferential solvation of the polymer.

  10. Effect of Anionic Surfactant on the Thermo Acoustical Properties of Sodium Dodecyl Sulphate in Polyvinyl Alcohol Solution by Ultrasonic Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Ravichandran

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The interaction of sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS / poly(vinyl alcohol (PVA solution was studied by ultrasonic velocity measurements. Ultrasonic velocity, density, viscosity in mixtures of sodium dodecyl sulphate in polyvinyl alcohol was measured over the entire range of composition. From the experimental data, other related thermodynamic parameters, viz., adiabatic compressibility, intermolecular free length, surface tension, relative association, relaxation time, absorption coefficient and internal pressure were calculated. Formations of rods interfere with velocity of ultrasonic waves. Hence the ultrasonic velocity decreases with concentration. These results were interpreted in terms of polymer-surfactant complex reactions.

  11. Effect of sodium dodecyl sulfate on flow and electrokinetic properties of Na-activated bentonite dispersions

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    E Günıster; S İşçı; A Alemdar; N Güngör

    2004-06-01

    The present study reports the effect of anionic surfactant sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS, C12H25 OSO3Na) upon the electrokinetic (electrophoretic mobility, zeta potential) and rheological (viscosity, yield value) properties of the Ca-bentonitic clay found in Turkey and its Na-activated form. The SDS dispersant was added in different concentrations in the range of 1 × 10-5-5 × 10-2 mol/l. The results show that the viscosity and zeta potential values of bentonite dispersion are affected by the addition of anionic surfactant. The obtained data are analysed by considering the kind of exchangeable cations. Thixotropic property effect was observed in bentonite dispersions.

  12. Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate (SDS-Loaded Nanoporous Polymer as Anti-Biofilm Surface Coating Material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sokol Ndoni

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Biofilms cause extensive damage to industrial settings. Thus, it is important to improve the existing techniques and develop new strategies to prevent bacterial biofilm formation. In the present study, we have prepared nanoporous polymer films from a self-assembled 1,2-polybutadiene-b-polydimethylsiloxane (1,2-PB-b-PDMS block copolymer via chemical cross-linking of the 1,2-PB block followed by quantitative removal of the PDMS block. Sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS was loaded into the nanoporous 1,2-PB from aqueous solution. The SDS-loaded nanoporous polymer films were shown to block bacterial attachment in short-term (3 h and significantly reduce biofilm formation in long-term (1 week by gram-negative bacterium Escherichia coli. Tuning the thickness or surface morphology of the nanoporous polymer films allowed to extent the anti-biofilm capability.

  13. Use of nanoparticles to improve the performance of sodium dodecyl sulfate flooding in a sandstone reservoir

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmadi, Mohammad Ali

    2016-12-01

    One of the prominent enhanced oil recovery (EOR) methods in oil reservoirs is surfactant flooding. The purpose of this research is to study the effect of nanoparticles on the surfactant adsorption. Real reservoir sandstone rock samples were implemented in adsorption tests. The ranges of the initial surfactant and nano silica concentrations were from 500 to 5000 ppm and 500 ppm to 2000 ppm, respectively. The commercial surfactant used is sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) as an ionic surfactant and two different types of nano silica were employed. The rate of surfactant losses extremely depends on the concentration of surfactant in the system, and it was found that the adsorption of surfactant decreased with increasing the concentration of nano silica. Also, it was found that hydrophobic nano silica is more effective than hydrophilic nanoparticles.

  14. Improving the performance of starch-based wood adhesive by using sodium dodecyl sulfate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhaofeng; Wang, Jian; Cheng, Li; Gu, Zhengbiao; Hong, Yan; Kowalczyk, Agnieszka

    2014-01-01

    Sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) was used to improve the performance of starch-based wood adhesive. The effects of SDS on shear strength, viscosity and storage stability were investigated. It was shown that, although the addition of 1.5-2% (dry starch basis) SDS resulted in a slight decrease in shear strength, the mobility and storage stability of adhesive were significantly enhanced. Possible mechanisms regarding specific action of SDS were discussed. It was proved, using blue value or differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) analysis, that the amylose-SDS complexes were formed in the adhesive. The complex formation or simple adsorption of SDS with starch molecules might hinder the aggregation of latex particles, as shown by scanning electron microscopy images, and inhibit starch retrogradation, as observed by DSC analysis. As a result, in the presence of SDS, the adhesive had higher mobility and storage stability, indicating that SDS could be used to prepare starch-based wood adhesives with high performance.

  15. Combined Quenching Mechanism of Anthracene Fluorescence by Cetylpyridinium Chloride in Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate Micelles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soemo, Angela R; Pemberton, Jeanne E

    2014-03-01

    The Stern-Volmer quenching constant (KSV) for quenching of anthracene fluorescence in sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) micelles by pyridinium chloride has been reported previously to be 520 M(-1) based on steady state fluorescence measurements. However, such measurements cannot distinguish static versus dynamic contributions to the overall quenching. In the work reported here, the quenching dynamics of anthracene in SDS micelles by cetylpyridinium chloride (CPC), an analogue of pyridinium chloride, were investigated using both steady state and time resolved fluorescence quenching. Concurrent measurement of the decrease in fluorescence intensity and lifetime of anthracene provide a quantitative evaluation of collision induced (i.e. dynamic) versus complex formation (i.e. static) quenching of the anthracene fluorophore. The results reveal that a combined quenching mechanism is operative with approximately equal constants of 249 ± 6 M(-1) and 225 ± 12 M(-1) for dynamic and static quenching, respectively.

  16. Influence of sodium dodecyl sulfate on the reaction between Nile Blue A and hydrogen peroxide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IVANA A. JANKOVIC

    1999-05-01

    Full Text Available The influence of the anionic surfactant sodium dodecyl sulfate on the rate of the reaction between the cationic form of Nile Blue A and hydrogen peroxide was investigated in the pH range from 5 to 8.5. A retardation of the oxidation of Nile Blue A with hydrogen peroxide of three orders of magnitude was observed at pH 8.5 in the presence of anionic micelles compared to the kinetic data in water. The retardation effect was less pronounced at lower pH values. These effects were explained by the electrostatic interaction of the species involved in the reaction with the negatively charged micellar surface and their effective separation in the vicinity of the micellar surface.

  17. Improved detection of amylase activity by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis with copolymerized starch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez, T F; Alarcón, F J; Díaz-López, M; Moyano, F J

    2000-08-01

    An improved method, based on sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) for detection of amylase activity is described. This method will allow better characterization of certain amylases than that obtained by the Davis technique. The main features of the technique are: (i) identification of amylase bands and molecular mass determination are possible in the same gel; (ii) the hydrolysis of copolymerized substrate during electrophoretic separation is prevented using very low temperatures instead of inactivating agents such as chelating agents; and (iii) the technique is applicable to reveal amylase activity in a wide range of biological samples. The method is not useful for enzymes sensitive to SDS and for high molecular mass amylases.

  18. Epidermal cell proliferation and terminal differentiation in skin organ culture after topical exposure to sodium dodecyl sulphate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sandt, J.J.M. van de; Bos, T.A.; Rutten, A.A.J.J.L.

    1995-01-01

    Epidermal cell proliferation and differentiation were investigated in vitro after exposure to the anionic surfactant sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS). Human skin organ cultures were exposed topically to various concentrations of SDS for 22 h, after which the irritant was removed. Cell proliferation was

  19. Modification of an acetone-sodium dodecyl sulfate disruption method for cellular protein extraction from neuropathogenic Clostridium botulinum

    Science.gov (United States)

    An acetone-sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) disruption method was used for the extraction of cellular proteins from neurotoxigenic Clostridium botulinum. The amount of protein extracted per gram of dry weight and the protein profile as revealed by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE) was comparabl...

  20. A Novel Method for Detection of Glycoproteins on Sodium Dodecyl Sulphate Polyacrylamide Gel Using Radio-Iodinated Tyrosine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nalla, Amarnadh; Draz, Hossam M.; Dole, Anita;

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study is to develop a novel method for detection of glycoproteins on polyacrylamide gel. In this method, radio-iodinated-tyrosine (125I-tyrosine) was conjugated to glycoprotein by schiff's base mechanism on the sodium dodecyl sulfate- polyacrylamide gel. Ovalbumin and Concanavalin...

  1. Impact of sodium dodecyl sulphate on the dissolution of poorly soluble drug into biorelevant medium from drug-surfactant discs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madelung, Peter; Ostergaard, Jesper; Bertelsen, Poul

    2014-01-01

    The purpose was to elucidate the mechanism of action of sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS) on drug dissolution from discs under physiologically relevant conditions. The effect of incorporating SDS (4-30%, w/w) and drug into discs on the dissolution constant and solubility were evaluated for the poorly...

  2. Characterization of a sodium dodecyl sulphate-degrading Pseudomonas sp. strain DRY15 from Antarctic soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halmi, M I E; Hussin, W S W; Aqlima, A; Syed, M A; Ruberto, L; MacCormack, W P; Shukor, M Y

    2013-11-01

    A bacterium capable of biodegrading surfactant sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS) was isolated from Antarctic soil. The isolate was tentatively identified as Pseudomonas sp. strain DRY15 based on carbon utilization profiles using Biolog GN plates and partial 16S rDNA molecular phylogeny. Growth characteristic studies showed that the bacterium grew optimally at 10 degrees C, 7.25 pH, 1 g l(-1) SDS as a sole carbon source and 2 g l(-1) ammonium sulphate as nitrogen source. Growth was completely inhibited at 5 g l(-1) SDS. At a tolerable initial concentration of 2 g l(-1), approximately 90% of SDS was degraded after an incubation period of eight days. The best growth kinetic model to fit experimental data was the Haldane model of substrate inhibition with a correlation coefficient value of 0.97. The maximum growth rate was 0.372 hr(-1) while the saturation constant or half velocity constant (Ks) and inhibition constant (Ki), were 0.094% and 11.212 % SDS, respectively. Other detergent tested as carbon sources at 1 g l(-1) was Tergitol NP9, Tergitol 15S9, Witconol 2301 (methyl oleate), sodium dodecylbenzene sulfonate (SDBS), benzethonium chloride, and benzalkonium chloride showed Tergitol NP9, Tergitol 15S9, Witconol 2301 and the anionic SDBS supported growth with the highest growth exhibited by SDBS.

  3. Sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE of urinary protein in acute kidney injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sufi M Suhail

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent experimental and clinical studies have shown the importance of urinary proteomics in acute kidney injury (AKI. We analyzed the protein in urine of patients with clinical AKI using sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE for its diagnostic value, and followed them up for 40 months to evaluate prognosis. Urine from 31 consecutive cases of AKI was analyzed with SDS-PAGE to determine the low, middle and high molecular weight proteins. Fractional excretion of sodium (FENa was estimated from serum and urine creatinine and sodium (Na. The cases were followed-up for 40 months from the end of the recruitment of study cases. Glomerular protein was higher in the hematuria group when compared with the non-hematuria group (P <0.04 and in the AKI group than in the acute on chronic renal failure (AKI-on-CRF group (P <0.002. Tubular protein was higher in the AKI-on-CRF group (P <0.003 than in the AKI group. Tubular protein correlated with FENa in groups with diabetes mellitus (DM, AKI-on-CRF, and without hematuria (P <0.03, P <0.02 and P <0.004, respectively. Pattern of protein did not differ between groups with and without DM and clinical acute tubular necrosis (ATN. At the end of 40 months follow-up, category with predominantly glomerular protein progressed to chronic renal failure (CRF or end-stage renal failure in higher proportion (P <0.05. In clinical AKI, we observed that glomerular protein dominated in cases with glomerular insult, as indicated by hematuria. Tubular protein was common in the study cases with CRF, DM and cases without hematuria. This indicates tubulo-interstitial injury for AKI in these cases. Patients with predominantly glomerular protein had an adverse outcome.

  4. Sodium dodecyl benzene sulfonate-assisted synthesis through a hydrothermal reaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sobhani, Azam [Department of Inorganic Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, University of Kashan, Kashan, P.O. Box 87317–51167, Islamic Republic of Iran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Salavati-Niasari, Masoud, E-mail: salavati@kashanu.ac.ir [Department of Inorganic Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, University of Kashan, Kashan, P.O. Box 87317–51167, Islamic Republic of Iran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Institute of Nano Science and Nano Technology, University of Kashan, Kashan, P.O. Box 87317–51167, Islamic Republic of Iran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2012-08-15

    Graphical abstract: Reaction of a SeCl{sub 4} aqueous solution with a NiCl{sub 2}·6H{sub 2}O aqueous solution in presence of sodium dodecyl benzene sulfonate (SDBS) as capping agent and hydrazine (N{sub 2}H{sub 4}·H{sub 2}O) as reductant, produces nanosized nickel selenide through a hydrothermal method. The effect of temperature, reaction time and amounts of reductant on the morphology, particle sizes of NiSe nanostructures has been investigated. Highlights: ► NiSe nanostructures were synthesized by hydrothermal method. ► A novel Se source was used to synthesize NiSe. ► SDBS as capping agent plays a crucial role on the morphology of products. ► A mixture of Ni{sub 3}Se{sub 2} and NiSe was prepared in the presence of 2 ml hydrazine. ► A pure phase of NiSe was prepared in the presence of 4 or 6 ml hydrazine. -- Abstract: The effects of the anionic surfactant on the morphology, size and crystallization of NiSe precipitated from NiCl{sub 2}·6H{sub 2}O and SeCl{sub 4} in presence of hydrazine (N{sub 2}H{sub 4}·H{sub 2}O) as reductant were investigated. The products have been successfully synthesized in presence of sodium dodecyl benzene sulfonate (SDBS) as surfactant via an improved hydrothermal route. A variety of synthesis parameters, such as reaction time and temperature, capping agent and amount of reducing agent have a significant effect on the particle size, phase purity and morphology of the obtained products. The sample size became bigger with decreasing reaction temperature and increasing reaction time. In the presence of 2 ml hydrazine, the samples were found to be the mixture of Ni{sub 3}Se{sub 2} and NiSe. With increasing the reaction time and amount of hydrazine a pure phase of hexagonal NiSe was obtained. X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD), scanning electron microscope (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) images indicate phase, particle size and morphology of the products. Chemical composition and purity of the products were

  5. A new insight on the dynamics of sodium dodecyl sulfate aqueous micellar solutions by dielectric spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanzi, Leandro; Carlà, Marcello; Lanzi, Leonardo; Gambi, Cecilia M C

    2009-02-01

    Aqueous sodium dodecyl sulfate micellar solutions were investigated by a recently developed double-differential dielectric spectroscopy technique in the frequency range 100 MHz-3 GHz at 22 degrees C, in the surfactant concentration range 29.8-524 mM, explored for the first time above 104 mM. The micellar contribution to dielectric spectra was analyzed according to three models containing, respectively, a single Debye relaxation, a Cole-Cole relaxation and a double Debye relaxation. The single Debye model is not accurate enough. Both Cole-Cole and double Debye models fit well the experimental dielectric spectra. With the double Debye model, two characteristic relaxation times were identified: the slower one, in the range 400-900 ps, is due to the motion of counterions bound to the micellar surface (lateral motion); the faster one, in the range 100-130 ps, is due to interfacial bound water. Time constants and amplitudes of both processes are in fair agreement with Grosse's theoretical model, except at the largest concentration values, where interactions between micelles increase. For each sample, the volume fraction of bulk water and the effect of bound water as well as the conductivity in the low frequency limit were computed. The bound water increases as the surfactant concentration increases, in quantitative agreement with the micellar properties. The number of water molecules per surfactant molecule was also computed. The conductivity values are in agreement with Kallay's model over the whole surfactant concentration range.

  6. Thermodynamic selectivity of functional agents on zeolite for sodium dodecyl sulfate sequestration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leng, Ling; Wang, Jian; Qiu, Xianxiu; Zhao, Yanxiang; Yip, Yuk-Wang; Law, Ga-Lai; Shih, Kaimin; Zhou, Zhengyuan; Lee, Po-Heng

    2016-11-15

    This study proposes a thermodynamic approach to effectively select functional agents onto zeolite for sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) sequestration in greywater reuse. We combine isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) and quantum chemistry simulation (QCS) to identify the interactions between SDS and agents at the molecular level. Three potential agents, cetyl trimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB), N,N,N-trimethyltetradecan-1-aminium bromide (C14TAB), and 14-hydroxy-N,N,N-trimethyltetradecan-1-aminium bromide (C14HTAB), differ in carbon chain length and hydrophilic groups. The ITC titration of SDS with CTAB released the highest heat, followed by those with C14TAB and C14HTAB, as was the same trend for the amounts of SDS adsorbed by the respective functionalized-zeolites. Results suggest that the favorable SDS sorption occurred at the bilayer CTAB-zeolite is driven by enthalpy as similar as the SDS…CTAB interaction found, regardless of the contribution from electrostatic and/or hydrophobic behaviors, while the declined sorption is entropy-driven via the predominant hydrophobic interaction onto the monolayer CTAB-zeolite. The data presented here interpret the nature of molecularly thermodynamic quantities and enable the manipulation of sorption capacity optimization.

  7. Examination of surface adsorption of cetyltrimethylammonium bromide and sodium dodecyl sulfate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakahara, Hiromichi; Shibata, Osamu; Moroi, Yoshikiyo

    2011-07-28

    Several pieces of experimental evidence of condensation of soluble surfactant molecules, cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) and sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), into the air/water surface region from the bulk solution are presented at different added salt concentrations in order to substantiate that the concentrated molecules do not locate just at the air/solution interface. The insoluble monolayer just at the air/subphase interface for the two surfactants could be studied by surface pressure (π) versus molecular surface area (A), surface potential (ΔV) versus the area (A), infrared absorption of the surface region, and BAM (Brewster angle microscope) image. From surface tension versus concentration curves for the two surfactant solutions, the apparent molecular surface area and the cmc values were determined at different added salt concentrations, and the degree of counterion binding to micelle was found to be 0.70 and 0.73 for CTAB and SDS, respectively. Further examination was made on infrared absorption from the surface region of the surfactant solutions and on BAM images of the surface planes in order to examine the difference between the insoluble monolayer and the condensation in the surface region. Finally, the new concept of bilayer or bilamellar aggregate for soluble surfactant solutions is presented together with the former experimental evidence, which is consistent with several interfacial phenomena of the surfactant solutions.

  8. Effect of Addition of Sodium Dodecyl Sulfite on Physical Properties of Wheat Gluten Films

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZENG Yuwei; ZHAO Mouming; WANG Jinshui

    2005-01-01

    Films were made from the wheat glutens treated with 5%,10%,15%,20%,25% and 30%(wt% of gluten) of sodium dodecyl sulfite (SDS) in order to improve the properties of the films. Glycerol was used as a plasticizer.An addition of SDS in wheat glutens prior to forming films significantly increased the elongation at break(E) (P<0.05) and reduced notably the water vapor permeability(WVP) (P<0.05). In contrast,a decrease in the tensile strength(TS) of the films from gluten containing-SDS was found.Moreover,a significant decrease in PO2 and PCO2 of films from gluten treated with SDS was noticed. Although SDS-treated gluten film was slightly more yellow and darker than control one, it was not visually detrimental. It is indicated that the treatment with SDS prior to forming films greatly enhances the mechanical properties of wheat gluten films.The obivous improvement in water vapor permeability and extensibility of gluten films means that the use of SDS is a potential choice for improving properties of gluten films. The edible film was used to preserve tomatoes. The experimental results show that the shelf life of tomatoes coated with the edible film is extended, and the nutritional quality is kept well.

  9. An investigation of chitosan and sodium dodecyl sulfate interactions in acetic media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrović Lidija B.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Polymer/surfactant association is a cooperative phenomenon where surfactant binds to the polymer in the form of aggregates, usually through electrostatic or hydrophobic forces. As already known, polyelectrolytes may interact with oppositely charged surfactants through electrostatic attraction that results in polymer/surfactant complex formation. This behavior could be desirable in wide range of application of polymer/surfactant mixtures, such as improving colloid stability, gelling, emulsification and microencapsulation. In the present study surface tension, turbidity, viscosity and electrophoretic mobility measurements were used to investigate interactions of cationic polyelectrolyte chitosan (Ch and oppositely charged anionic surfactant, sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS, in buffered water. Obtained results show the presence of interactions that lead to Ch/SDS complexes formation at all investigated pH and for all investigated polymer concentrations. Mechanisms of interaction, as well as characteristics of formed Ch/SDS complexes, are highly dependent on their mass ratio in the mixtures, while pH has no significant influence. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. II46010

  10. Plasmid-mediated biodegradation of the anionic surfactant sodium dodecyl sulphate, by Pseudomonas aeruginosa S7.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeldho, Deepthi; Rebello, Sharrel; Jisha, M S

    2011-01-01

    Sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS), an anionic surfactant, has been used extensively due to its low cost and excellent foaming properties. Fifteen different bacterial isolates capable of degrading SDS were isolated from detergent contaminated soil by enrichment culture technique and the degradation efficiency was assessed by Methylene Blue Active Substances (MBAS) assay. The most efficient SDS degrading isolate was selected and identified as Pseudomonas aeruginosa S7. The selected isolate was found to harbor a single 6-kb plasmid. Acridine orange, ethidium bromide, SDS and elevated temperatures of incubation failed to cure the plasmid. The cured derivatives of SDS degrading Pseudomonas aeruginosa were obtained only when ethidium bromide and elevated temperature (40 °C) were used together. Transformation of E. coli DH5α with plasmid isolated from S7 resulted in subsequent growth of the transformants on minimal salt media with SDS (0.1%) as the sole source of carbon. The SDS degradation ability of S7 and the transformant was found to be similar as assessed by Methylene Blue Active Substance Assay. The antibiotic resistance profiles of S7, competent DH5α and transformant were analyzed and it was noted that the transfer of antibiotic resistance correlated with the transfer of plasmid as well as SDS degrading property.

  11. Microenvironment of tryptophan residues in beta-lactoglobulin derivative polypeptide-sodium dodecyl sulfate complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imamura, T; Konishi, K

    1992-06-01

    The changes of microenvironment of tryptophan residues in beta-lactoglobulin A and its cyanogen bromide (CNBr) fragments with the binding of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) were studied with measurements of the rates of N-bromosuccinimide (NBS) modification reactions by stopped-flow photometry. Two tryptophan residues of carboxyamidomethylated (RCM) beta-lactoglobulin A in the states of their complexes with SDS were clearly distinguishable by their differences in NBS modification rates. We confirmed by experiments with CNBr fragments containing trytophan residue. The modification rates of Trp 19 in RCM beta-lactoglobulin A-SDS complexes were about 10-fold smaller than those expected for tryptophan residues exposed entirely to the aqueous solvent. The Trp 61 was hardly changed. The change of rate constants for Trp 19 was virtually consistent with those observed when N-acetyl-L-trytophan ethylester was dissolved in SDS micelles. For various species of polypeptide-SDS complexes, all tryptophan residues were reactive to NBS and also, for some of them, the differences in NBS modification rates were observed between tryptophan residues on a common polypeptide chain. These results suggest micellar and heterogeneous bindings of SDS to polypeptides.

  12. Electrochemistry of Cytochrome P450 BM3 in Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate Films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udit, Andrew K.; Hill, Michael G.; Gray, Harry B.

    2008-01-01

    Direct electrochemistry of the cytochrome P450 BM3 heme domain (BM3) was achieved by confining the protein within sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) films on the surface of basal-plane graphite (BPG) electrodes. Cyclic voltammetry revealed the heme FeIII/II redox couple at −330 mV (vs. Ag/AgCl, pH 7.4). Up to 10 V/s, the peak current was linear with scan rate, allowing us to treat the system as surface-confined within this regime. The standard heterogeneous rate constant determined at 10 V/s was estimated to be 10 s−1. Voltammograms obtained for the BM3-SDS-BPG system in the presence of dioxygen exhibited catalytic waves at the onset of FeIII reduction. The altered heme reduction potential of the BM3-SDS-graphite system indicates that SDS is likely bound in the enzyme active-site region. Compared to other P450-surfactant systems, we find redox potentials and electron transfer rates that differ by ~ 100 mV and > 10-fold, respectively, indicating that the nature of the surfactant environment has a significant effect on the observed heme redox properties. PMID:17129070

  13. Biodegradation of anionic surfactant, sodium dodecyl sulphate by Pseudomonas aeruginosa MTCC 10311.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambily, P S; Jisha, M S

    2012-07-01

    The anionic surfactant sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS), the core components of detergent and cosmetic product formulations, contributes significantly to the pollution profile of sewage and wastewater of all kinds. In this study, 44 SDS degrading strains were isolated by soil enrichment methods and the utilization efficiency was assessed by methylene blue active substances (MBAS) assay and High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method. Isolate S2 which showed maximum degradation was identified as Pseudomonas aeruginosa MTCC 10311 based on phenotypic features and 16 S rDNA typing. The isolate was found to harbor plasmid within the size range of 9-10 kb. The cured derivative of SDS degrading Pseudomonas aeruginosa was obtained at a frequency of 10.7% by incubation with ethidium bromide (500 mg ml(-1) at 40 degrees C. 96% of SDS degradation occurred at 1500 ppm level within 48 hr of incubation, whereas higher concentration of SDS (10000 ppm) showed only 20% degradation. The optimum temperature and pH was 30 degrees C and 7.5, respectively. The additional supplementation of carbon and nitrogen source increased the degradation capacity from 93 to 95% and 90 to 96% respectively within 36 hrs of incubation.

  14. Inhibition of human hemoglobin autoxidation by sodium n-dodecyl sulphate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reza, Dayer Mohammad; Akbar, Moosavi-Movahedi Ali; Parviz, Norouzi; Ghourchian; Hedayat-Olah; Shahrokh, Safarian

    2002-07-31

    The effect of sodium n-dodecyl sulphate (SDS) on hemoglobin autoxidation was studied in the presence of a 100 mM phosphate buffer (pH 7.0) by different methods. These included spectrophotometry, fluorescence technique, cyclic voltametry, differential scanning calorimetry, and densitometry. Spectroscopic studies showed that SDS concentrations up to 1 mM increased deoxy-, decreases oxy-, and had no significant effect on the met- conformation of hemoglobin. Therefore, a SDS concentration up to 1 mM increased the deoxy form of hemoglobin as the folded, compact state and decreases the oxy conformation. The turbidity measurements and differential scanning calorimetry techniques indicated a more stable conformation for hemoglobin in the presence of SDS up to 1 mM. Electrochemical studies also confirmed a more difficult oxidation under these conditions. The induction of the deoxy form in the presence of SDS was confirmed by densitometry techniques. The compact structure of deoxyhemoglobin blocks the formation of met-conformation in low SDS concentrations.

  15. Interaction of poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) with sodium dodecyl sulfate below the critical aggregation concentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uehara, Nobuo; Ogawa, Minami

    2014-06-10

    Interaction between the thermoresponsive polymer poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (P-NIP) and sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) both above and below its phase transition temperature was examined under dilute conditions. Above the lower critical solution temperature (LCST) of P-NIP (32 °C), 0.01 wt % P-NIP specifically interacted with 1.0 × 10(-5) mol/L SDS to form a precipitate. However, when SDS was added at concentrations above or below 1.0 × 10(-5) mol/L, the P-NIP solution remained clear above the LCST. A fluorometric probe, N-phenyl-naphthalene, indicated that the hydrophobicity of the aggregates composed of P-NIP and SDS changed at an SDS concentration of 1.0 × 10(-5) mol/L. Although the hydrophobicity of the precipitate was similar to that of P-NIP alone at less than 1.0 × 10(-5) mol/L, it approached that of SDS homomicelles as the SDS concentration increased above 1.0 × 10(-5) mol/L. Dynamic light scattering and turbidimetry studies showed no P-NIP phase transition above an SDS concentration of 1.0 × 10(-5) mol/L, which is much lower than the reported critical association concentration (CAC) of SDS with P-NIP. This indicates that P-NIP interacted with SDS above the LSCT at much lower SDS concentration than the reported CAC.

  16. Toxicity Biosensor for Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate Using Immobilized Green Fluorescent Protein Expressing Escherichia coli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lia Ooi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Green fluorescent protein (GFP is suitable as a toxicity sensor due to its ability to work alone without cofactors or substrates. Its reaction with toxicants can be determined with fluorometric approaches. GFP mutant gene (C48S/S147C/Q204C/S65T/Q80R is used because it has higher sensitivity compared to others GFP variants. A novel sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS toxicity detection biosensor was built by immobilizing GFP expressing Escherichia coli in k-Carrageenan matrix. Cytotoxicity effect took place in the toxicity biosensor which leads to the decrease in the fluorescence intensity. The fabricated E. coli GFP toxicity biosensor has a wide dynamic range of 4–100 ppm, with LOD of 1.7 ppm. Besides, it possesses short response time (0.98, and long-term stability (46 days. E. coli GFP toxicity biosensor has been applied to detect toxicity induced by SDS in tap water, river water, and drinking water. High recovery levels of SDS indicated the applicability of E. coli GFP toxicity biosensor in real water samples toxicity evaluation.

  17. Nature of large aggregates in supercooled aqueous solutions of sodium dodecyl sulfate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Franses, E.I. (Purdue Univ., West Lafayette, IN); Davis, H.T.; Miller, W.G.; Scriven, L.E.

    1980-09-18

    Preparations of 2.0 and 5.5 wt % sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) in 3.5 wt % (0.6 M) aqueous NaCl are equilibrium micellar solutions above 28/sup 0/C, the Krafft point of the surfactant at this salinity. These systems can be supercooled and remain transparent for hours and days. At 25/sup 0/C at equilibrium they are biphasic, a hydrated crystal phase and an aqueous salt solution phase containing only 0.01/sub 2/ wt % SDS. Conductimetry and /sup 13/C NMR show that these transparent supercooled systems are indeed supersaturated solutions and not microdispersions of the hydrated crystal. The time lag for the onset of nucleation of the crystals depends strongly on stirring details and probably on presence of gas-liquid interface. The big nonequilibrium aggregates present in the supersaturated systems resemble micelles in conductivity and molecular motion, and are likely to be metastable micelles as is presumed by Mazer, Benedek, and Carey. 21 references, 6 figures, 1 table.

  18. Solvation dynamics of DCM in a polypeptide-surfactant aggregate: gelatin-sodium dodecyl sulfate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halder, Arnab; Sen, Pratik; Burman, Anupam Das; Bhattacharyya, Kankan

    2004-02-03

    Solvation dynamics of 4-(dicyanomethylidene)-2-[p-(dimethylamino)styryl]-6-methyl-4H-pyran (DCM) is studied in a polypeptide-surfactant aggregate consisting of gelatin and sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) in potassium dihydrogen phosphate (KP) buffer. The average solvation time (tauS) in gelatin-SDS aggregate at 45 degrees C is found to be 1780 ps, which is about 13 times slower than that in 15 mM SDS in KP buffer at the same temperature. The fluorescence anisotropy decay in gelatin-SDS aggregate is also different from that in SDS micelles in KP buffer. DCM displays negligible emission in the presence of gelatin in aqueous solution. Thus the solvation dynamics in the presence of gelatin and SDS is exclusively due to the probe (DCM) molecules at the gelatin-micelle interface. The slow solvation dynamics is ascribed to the restrictions imposed on the water molecules trapped between the polypeptide chain and micellar aggregates. The critical association concentration (cac) of SDS for gelatin is determined to be 0.5 +/- 0.1 mM.

  19. Atomistic Simulation of Solubilization of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in a Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate Micelle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Xujun; Marchi, Massimo; Guo, Chuling; Dang, Zhi; Abel, Stéphane

    2016-04-19

    Solubilization of two polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), naphthalene (NAP, 2-benzene-ring PAH) and pyrene (PYR, 4-benzene-ring PAH), into a sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) micelle was studied through all-atom molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. We find that NAP as well as PYR could move between the micelle shell and core regions, contributing to their distribution in both regions of the micelle at any PAH concentration. Moreover, both NAP and PYR prefer to stay in the micelle shell region, which may arise from the greater volume of the micelle shell, the formation of hydrogen bonds between NAP and water, and the larger molecular volume of PYR. The PAHs are able to form occasional clusters (from dimer to octamer) inside the micelle during the simulation time depending on the PAH concentration in the solubilization systems. Furthermore, the micelle properties (i.e., size, shape, micelle internal structure, alkyl chain conformation and orientation, and micelle internal dynamics) are found to be nearly unaffected by the solubilized PAHs, which is irrespective of the properties and concentrations of PAHs.

  20. Application and Mechanism of Anionic Collector Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate (SDS in Phosphate Beneficiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kun Sun

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Phosphate ore is a valuable strategic resource. Most phosphate ore in China is collophane. Utilization of mid-low grade collophane is necessary to maintain social sustainable development. The gravity-flotation combination separation process can be utilized to separate mid-low grade collophane, but the process consumes a large quantity of acid in the reverse stage. Sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS was used as a dolomite collector in this study to reduce the acid consumption of collophane flotation. SDS effectively removed dolomite from the gravity concentrate when no other reagents were present. Flotation test results showed that, compared to the conventional gravity-flotation process, the proposed SDS-based process reduced phosphoric acid dosage from 6.1 kg/t to 3.9 kg/t with similar separation results. The SDS action mechanisms on dolomite were further investigated by zeta potential analysis, single mineral flotation tests, infrared spectrum detection, and theoretical analysis. The results indicate that the SDS adsorption on dolomite is mainly physical adsorption, and that favorable separation effects between collophane and dolomite may be attributed to physical adsorption and entrainment. In addition, it also indicates that the physical adsorption can be utilized to remove dolomite from phosphate on account of zeta potential differences when the separate feed is coarse.

  1. Thermodynamic selectivity of functional agents on zeolite for sodium dodecyl sulfate sequestration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leng, Ling; Wang, Jian [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hung Hom, Kowloon, Hong Kong SAR (China); Qiu, Xianxiu; Zhao, Yanxiang; Yip, Yuk-Wang; Law, Ga-Lai [Department of Applied Biology and Chemical Technology, State Key Laboratory of Chirosciences, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hung Hom, Kowloon, Hong Kong SAR (China); Shih, Kaimin; Zhou, Zhengyuan [Department of Civil Engineering, The University of Hong Kong, Pokfulam Road, Hong Kong, Hong Kong SAR (China); Lee, Po-Heng, E-mail: poheng76@gmail.com [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hung Hom, Kowloon, Hong Kong SAR (China)

    2016-11-15

    Highlights: • A thermodynamic approach to select a functional agent for adsorbent is proposed. • ITC and QCS were used to interpret the interaction between adsorbate and agent. • The interaction identifies the adsorption mechanism and performance. • This approach enables the manipulation of adsorption capacity optimization. - Abstract: This study proposes a thermodynamic approach to effectively select functional agents onto zeolite for sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) sequestration in greywater reuse. We combine isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) and quantum chemistry simulation (QCS) to identify the interactions between SDS and agents at the molecular level. Three potential agents, cetyl trimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB), N,N,N-trimethyltetradecan-1-aminium bromide (C{sub 14}TAB), and 14-hydroxy-N,N,N-trimethyltetradecan-1-aminium bromide (C{sub 14}HTAB), differ in carbon chain length and hydrophilic groups. The ITC titration of SDS with CTAB released the highest heat, followed by those with C{sub 14}TAB and C{sub 14}HTAB, as was the same trend for the amounts of SDS adsorbed by the respective functionalized-zeolites. Results suggest that the favorable SDS sorption occurred at the bilayer CTAB-zeolite is driven by enthalpy as similar as the SDS…CTAB interaction found, regardless of the contribution from electrostatic and/or hydrophobic behaviors, while the declined sorption is entropy-driven via the predominant hydrophobic interaction onto the monolayer CTAB-zeolite. The data presented here interpret the nature of molecularly thermodynamic quantities and enable the manipulation of sorption capacity optimization.

  2. Micelles in mixtures of sodium dodecyl sulfate and a bolaform surfactant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muzzalupo, Rita; Gente, Giacomo; La Mesa, Camillo; Caponetti, Eugenio; Chillura-Martino, Delia; Pedone, Lucia; Saladino, Maria Luisa

    2006-07-04

    Mixtures composed of water, sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), and a bolaform surfactant with two aza-crown ethers as polar headgroups (termed Bola C-16) were investigated by modulating the mole ratios between the components. The two surfactants have ionic and nonionic, but ionizable, headgroups, respectively. The ionization is due to the complexation of alkali ions by the aza-crown ether unit(s). Structural, thermodynamic, and transport properties of the above mixtures were investigated. Results from surface tension, translational self-diffusion, and small angle neutron scattering (SANS) are reported and discussed. Interactions between the two surfactants to form mixed micelles result in a combination of electrostatic and hydrophobic contributions. These effects are reflected in the size and shape of the aggregates as well as in transport properties. The translational diffusion of the components in mixed micelles, in particular, depends on the Bola C-16/SDS mole ratio. Nonideality of mixing of the two components was inferred from the dependence of the critical micelle concentration, cmc, on the mole fraction of Bola C-16. This behavior is also reflected in surface adsorption and in the area per polar headgroup at the air-water interface. SANS data analysis for the pure components gives results in good agreement with previous findings. An analysis of data relative to mixed systems allows us to compute some structural parameters of the mixed aggregates. The dependence of aggregation numbers, nu(T), on the Bola C-16/SDS mole ratio displays a maximum that depends on the overall surfactant content and is rationalized in terms of the nonideality of mixing. Aggregates grow perpendicularly to the major rotation axis, as formerly observed in the Bola C-16 system, and become progressively ellipsoidal in shape.

  3. Isolation of a strain of Pseudomonas putida capable of metabolizing anionic detergent sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Kumar

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Background and objectives: Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate (SDS is one of the most widely used anionic detergents. The present study deals with isolation and identification of SDS-degrading bacteria from a detergent contaminated pond situated in Varanasi city, India."nMaterials and Methods: Employing enrichment technique in minimal medium (PBM, SDS-degrading bacteria were isolated from pond water sample. Rate of degradation of SDS was studied in liquid PBM and also degradation of different concentrations of SDS was also studied to find out maximum concentration of SDS degraded by the potent isolates. Alkyl sulfatase activity (key enzyme in SDS degradation was estimated in crude cell extracts and multiplicity of alkyl sulfatase was studied by Native PAGE Zymography. The potent isolate was identified by 16S rRNA sequence analysis."nResults: Using enrichment technique in minimal medium containing SDS as a sole carbon source, initially three SDS degrading isolates were recovered. However, only one isolate, SP3, was found to be an efficient degrader of SDS. It was observed that this strain could completely metabolize 0.1% SDS in 16 h, 0.2% SDS in 20 h and 0.3% SDS in 24 h of incubation. Specific activity of alkyl sulfatase was 0.087±0.004 μmol SDS/mg protein/min and Native PAGE Zymography showed presence of alkyl sulfatase of Rf value of 0.21. This isolate was identified as Pseudomonas putida strain SP3."nConclusion: This is the report of isolation of SDS-degrading strain of P. putida, which shows high rate of SDS degradation and can degrade up to 0.3% SDS. It appears that this isolate can be exploited for bioremediation of this detergent from water systems.

  4. Cadmium Immobilization in Soil using Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate Stabilized Magnetite Nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Farrokhian Firouzi

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Some methods of contaminated soils remediation reduces the mobile fraction of trace elements, which could contaminate groundwater or be taken up by soil organisms. Cadmium (Cd as a heavy metal has received much attention in the past few decades due to its potential toxic impact on soil organism activity and compositions. Cadmium is a soil pollutant of no known essential biological functions, and may pose threats to soil-dwelling organisms and human health. Soil contamination with Cd usually originates from mining and smelting activities, atmospheric deposition from metallurgical industries, incineration of plastics and batteries, land application of sewage sludge, and burning of fossil fuels. Heavy metal immobilization using amendments is a simple and rapid method for the reduction of heavy metal pollution. One way of the assessment of contaminated soils is sequential extraction procedure. Sequential extraction of heavy metals in soils is an appropriate way to determine soil metal forms including soluble, exchangeable, carbonate, oxides of iron and manganese, and the residual. Its results are valuable in prediction of bioavailability, leaching rate and elements transformation in contaminated agricultural soils. Materials and Methods The objective of this study was to synthesize magnetite nanoparticles (Fe3O4 stabilized with sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS and to investigate the effect of its different percentages (0, 1, 2.5, 5, and 10% on the different fractions of cadmium in soil by sequential extraction method. The nanoparticles were synthesized following the protocol described by Si et al. (19. The investigations were carried out with a loamy sand topsoil. Before use, the soil was air-dried, homogenized and sieved (

  5. Fabrication and study of properties of magnetite nanoparticles in hybrid micelles of polystyrene-block-polyethylene oxide and sodium dodecyl sulfate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loginova, T. P., E-mail: tlg@ineos.ac.ru; Timofeeva, G. I.; Lependina, O. L.; Shandintsev, V. A. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Nesmeyanov Institute of Organoelement Compounds (Russian Federation); Matyushin, A. A. [Ministry of Public Health of the Russian Federation, First Moscow State Medical University (Russian Federation); Khotina, I. A. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Nesmeyanov Institute of Organoelement Compounds (Russian Federation); Shtykova, E. V. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Shubnikov Institute of Crystallography (Russian Federation)

    2016-01-15

    Magnetite nanoparticles have been formed for the first time in hybrid micelles of polystyrene-block-polyethylene oxide and sodium dodecyl sulfate in water by ultrasonic treatment at room temperature. An analysis by small-angle X-ray scattering and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) showed that magnetite nanoparticles in hybrid micelles of block copolymer and sodium dodecyl sulfate are polydesperse (have sizes from 0.5 to 20 nm). The specific magnetization of solid samples has been measured.

  6. Surface modification to produce hydrophobic nano-silica particles using sodium dodecyl sulfate as a modifier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qiao, Bing; Liang, Yong; Wang, Ting-Jie, E-mail: wangtj@tsinghua.edu.cn; Jiang, Yanping

    2016-02-28

    Graphical abstract: Nano silica particle was modified to produce hydrophobic surface with contact angle of 107° using the water soluble SDS as a modifier through a new route. The grafted density reached 1.82–2 nm. Brønsted acid sites supply proton to react with SDS via generating carbocation, forming a Si–O–C structure. - Highlights: • Silica was modified to produce hydrophobic surface using SDS as modifier. • The route is free of organic solvent and gets perfect contact of SDS and silica. • Contact angle of modified silica particles reached 107°. • Grafted density on the silica surface reached 1.82 SDS nm{sup −2}. • Brønsted acid sites supply proton to react with SDS via generating carbocation. - Abstract: Hydrophobic silica particles were prepared using the surfactant sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) as a modifier by a new route comprising three processes, namely, aqueous mixing, spray drying and thermal treatment. Since SDS dissolves in water, this route is free of an organic solvent and gave a perfect dispersion of SDS, that is, there was excellent contact between SDS and silica particles in the modification reaction. The hydrophobicity of the modified surface was verified by the contact angle of the nano-sized silica particles, which was 107°. The SDS grafting density reached 1.82 nm{sup −2}, which is near the highest value in the literature. The optimal parameters of the SDS/SiO{sub 2} ratio in the aqueous phase, process temperature and time of thermal treatment were determined to be 20%, 200 °C and 30 min, respectively. The grafting mechanism was studied by comparing the modification with that on same sized TiO{sub 2} particles, which indicated that the protons of the Brønsted acid sites on the surface of SiO{sub 2} reacted with SDS to give a carbocation which then formed a Si–O–C structure. This work showed that the hydrophilic surface of silica can be modified to be a hydrophobic surface by using a water soluble modifier SDS in a

  7. Optimal concentrations of N-decanoyl-N-methylglucamine and sodium dodecyl sulfate allow the extraction and analysis of membrane proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuang, Jen-Hua; Kao, Yu-Jing; Ruderman, Neil B; Tung, Li-Chu; Lin, Yenshou

    2011-11-15

    We studied the extraction and analysis of integral membrane proteins possessing hydrophobic and hydrophilic domains and found that a nonionic detergent called MEGA-10, used in lysis buffers, had a superior extraction effect compared to most conventional detergents. A sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) concentration of >0.4% (w/v) in the sample buffer was crucial for those proteins to be clearly analyzed by electrophoresis and Western blotting. Furthermore, MEGA-10 had the tendency to maximally extract proteins around its critical micelle concentration (CMC) of 0.24% (w/v). These solutions can greatly assist functional investigations of membrane proteins in the proteomics era.

  8. Thermodynamic solution properties of pefloxacin mesylate and its interactions with organized assemblies of anionic surfactant, sodium dodecyl sulphate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Usman, Muhammad [Department of Chemistry, Government College University, Faisalabad 38000 (Pakistan); Department of Chemistry, Quaid-i-Azam University, Islamabad 45320 (Pakistan); Rashid, Muhammad Abid [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad (Pakistan); Mansha, Asim [Department of Chemistry, Government College University, Faisalabad 38000 (Pakistan); Siddiq, Mohammad, E-mail: m_sidiq12@yahoo.com [Department of Chemistry, Quaid-i-Azam University, Islamabad 45320 (Pakistan)

    2013-12-10

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Free energy of adsorption is more negative than free energy of micellization. • Micellization becomes more spontaneous at high temperature. • There is strong interaction between PFM and SDS. - Abstract: This manuscript reports the physicochemical behavior of antibiotic amphiphilic drug pefloxacin mesylate (PFM) and its interaction with anionic surfactant, sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS). The data of surface tension and electrical conductivity are helpful to detect the CMC as well as to calculate surface parameters, i.e. surface pressure, π, surface excess concentration, Γ, area per molecule of drug and standard Gibbs free energy of adsorption, ΔG{sub ads} and thermodynamic parameters like standard free energy of micellization, ΔG{sub m}, standard enthalpy of micellization, ΔH{sub m} and standard entropy of micellization, ΔS{sub m}. The interaction of this drug with anionic surfactant, sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) was studied by electrical conductivity and UV/visible spectroscopy. This enabled us to compute the values of partition coefficient (K{sub x}), free energy of partition, ΔG{sub p}, binding constant, K{sub b}, free energy of binding, ΔG{sub b}, number of drug molecules per micelle, n, and thermodynamic parameters of drug–surfactant interaction.

  9. Quantitation of antihistamines in pharmaceutical preparations by liquid chromatography with a micellar mobile phase of sodium dodecyl sulfate and pentanol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gil-Agustí, M; Monferrer-Pons, L; Esteve-Romero, J; García-Alvarez-Coque, M C

    2001-01-01

    A reversed-phase liquid chromatographic procedure with a micellar mobile phase of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), containing a small amount of pentanol, was developed for the control of 7 antihistamines of diverse action in pharmaceutical preparations (tablets, capsules, powders, solutions, and syrups): azatadine, carbinoxamine, cyclizine, cyproheptadine, diphenhydramine, doxylamine, and tripelennamine. The retention times of the drugs were <9 min with a mobile phase of 0.15M SDS-6% (v/v) pentanol. The recoveries with respect to the declared compositions were in the range of 93-110%, and the intra- and interday repeatabilities and interday reproducibility were <1.2%. The results were similar to those obtained with a conventional 60 + 40 (v/v) methanol-water mixture, with the advantage of reduced toxicity, flammability, environmental impact, and cost of the micellar-pentanol solutions. The lower risk of evaporation of the organic solvent dissolved in the micellar solutions also increased the stability of the mobile phase.

  10. Investigation on Molecular Non-covalent Interaction in the Sodium Dodecyl Benzene Sulfonatepolychrome Blue B-protein Replacement Reaction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GAO,Hong-Wen(郜洪文); WU,Ji-Rong(邬继荣); SHEN,Rong(沈荣)

    2004-01-01

    The molecular non-covalent interaction often originates from the electrostatic attraction and accords with the Langmuir isothermal adsorption. The sodium dodecyl benzene sulfonate (SDBS)-polychrome blue B (PCB)-protein [bovine serum albumin (BSA), ovalbumin (OVA) and myoglobin (MB)] ternary reaction has been investigated at Ph 3.88. Protein to replace PCB from the PCB-SDBS binding product was used to characterize the assembly of an invisible-spectral compound, SDBS, on proteins by measuring the variation of PCB light-absorption by the microsurface adsorption-spectral correction (MSASC) technique. The effect of ionic strength and temperature on the aggregation was studied. Results showed that the aggregates SDBS92·BSA, SDBS58·OVA and SDBS15·MB at 30 ℃ and SDBS83·BSA, SDBS39·OVA and SDBS10·MB at 50 ℃ are formed.

  11. Micelle enhanced and native spectrofluorimetric methods for determination of sertindole using sodium dodecyl sulfate as sensitizing agent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Kosasy, Amira M; Hussein, Lobna A; Sedki, Nehal G; Salama, Nahla N

    2016-01-15

    Two stability indicating spectrofluorimetric methods were developed and validated for the determination of sertindole (SER) in the presence of its acid and oxidative degradates at λ(ex) 257 nm and λ(em) 335 nm. Method A was based on measuring the native fluorescence of SER using isopropanol as solvent. Method B was based on the enhancement of native fluorescence of SER quenched in aqueous media by using micellar microenvironment created by sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) anionic micelles using Britton Robinson Buffer (BRB) pH3.29 as solvent. Different factors affecting fluorescence intensity; both native and enhanced, were carefully studied to reach the optimum conditions of measurements. The proposed spectrofluorimetric methods were validated in accordance with ICH guidelines and were successfully applied for the determination of SER in bulk powder and pharmaceutical preparation with high sensitivity and stability indicating power. They were also statistically compared to the manufacturer methods with no significant difference in performance.

  12. A comparative study of sodium dodecyl sulfate and freezing/thawing treatment on wheat starch: The role of water absorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Han; Wang, Pei; Zhang, Bao; Wu, Fengfeng; Jin, Zhengyu; Xu, Xueming

    2016-06-05

    The effect of freezing on functionality of native and sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS)-treated wheat starches was investigated, with the aim of understanding the role of water absorption during freezing process. SDS is one of most efficient detergents to remove non-starch components (such as proteins and lipids) for starches but does not cause any apparent damage on granular structure. Slow swelling could be converted to rapid swelling by SDS washing, indicating higher water absorption. Freezing process induced slight roughness on starch granules but the non-starch components content was little affected. Combined SDS+freezing treatment significantly decreased both amylose and proteins non-starch components contents, which was accompanied with high gelatinization temperatures, melting enthalpy, and pasting viscosities. A smaller bread specific volume was obtained from SDS+freezing-treated starches while the crumb firmness significantly increased (pstarch granules, leading to high water absorption and making granules sensitive to the freezing treatment.

  13. Quantitation of yeast total proteins in sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis sample buffer for uniform loading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheen, Hyukho

    2016-04-01

    Proteins in sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) sample buffer are difficult to quantitate due to SDS and reducing agents being in the buffer. Although acetone precipitation has long been used to clean up proteins from detergents and salts, previous studies showed that protein recovery from acetone precipitation varies from 50 to 100% depending on the samples tested. Here, this article shows that acetone precipitates proteins highly efficiently from SDS-PAGE sample buffer and that quantitative recovery is achieved in 5 min at room temperature. Moreover, precipitated proteins are resolubilized with urea/guanidine, rather than with SDS. Thus, the resolubilized samples are readily quantifiable with Bradford reagent without using SDS-compatible assays.

  14. Occurrence of photoluminescence and onion like structures decorating graphene oxide with europium using sodium dodecyl sulfate surfactant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cedeño, V. J.; Rangel, R.; Cervantes, J. L.; Lara, J.; Alvarado, J. J.; Galván, D. H.

    2017-07-01

    Graphene oxide decoration with europium was carried out using SDS (sodium dodecyl sulfate) as the surfactant. The reaction was performed in a microwave oven and subsequently underwent thermal treatment under hydrogen flow. The results found in the present work demonstrate that through the use of SDS surfactant aggregates of hemi-cylindrical and onion-like structures could be obtained; which propitiate an enhanced synergistic photoluminescence located at the red wavelength. On the other hand, after thermal treatment the aggregates disappear providing a good dispersion of europium, however a decrease in the photoluminescence signal is observed. The graphene oxide decorated with europium was characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), Fourier infrared transform spectroscopy (FTIR), RAMAN spectroscopy, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) techniques, showing the characteristic features of graphene oxide and europium.

  15. Measuring the enthalpies of interaction between glycine, L-cysteine, glycylglycine, and sodium dodecyl sulfate in aqueous solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badelin, V. G.; Mezhevoi, I. N.; Tyunina, E. Yu.

    2017-03-01

    Calorimetric measurements of enthalpies of solution Δsol H m for glycine, L-cysteine, and glycylglycine in aqueous solutions of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) with concentrations of up to 0.05 mol kg-1 are made. Standard enthalpy of solution Δsol H 0 and enthalpy of transfer Δtr H 0 of the dipeptide from water into mixed solvent are calculated. The calculated enthalpy coefficients of paired interactions of amino acids and dipeptide with SDS prove to be positive. Hydrophobic interactions between the biomolecules and SDS are found to have a major impact on the enthalpies of interaction in the three-component systems under study, within the indicated range of concentrations.

  16. Differential refractometric determination of binding of sodium dodecyl sulfate to protein using high-performance gel chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, P F; Takagi, T

    1988-10-01

    When sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) is added to a high-performance gel chromatographic column equilibrated with a buffer solution containing SDS at a level above the critical micelle concentration, the surplus SDS migrates as micelles giving a sharp peak. The presence of an unfolded protein in the sample solution gives a polypeptide peak in advance of the SDS micelle peak. As the result of SDS binding to the polypeptide, the SDS micelle peak is attenuated in comparison to that in the absence of protein. Thus the amount of SDS bound to the polypeptide can be determined accurately and simply from the decrease in the area of the SDS micelle peak. This approach is particularly useful for precise determination of bound SDS, which is pertinent to understanding the state of the protein polypeptide-SDS complex under the conditions of SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis.

  17. Contribution of sodium dodecyl sulphate and sodium lauric acid in the one-pot synthesis of intercalated ZnAl-layered double hydroxides

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Fengzhu Lv; Zilin Meng; Penggang Li; Yihe Zhang; Guocheng Lv; Qian Zhang; Zhilei Zhang

    2015-08-01

    Anion surfactants, sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS) and sodium lauric acid (SLA), with almost the same chain length but different anion groups were used together as intercalates to prepare intercalated ZnAl–layered double hydroxides (ZnAl–LDHs). Their composition, structure and morphology were characterized by Fourier transform infrared, X-ray fluorescence, thermogravimetric and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The results indicated SDS intended to maintain the lamellae structure of LDHs, but SLA was more likely to expand the basal spacings of LDHs in the present system. The arrangement of the surfactants in the interlayer of ZnAl–LDHs was also simulated by Materials Studio. The basal spacings of the LDHs calculated based on simulated structure consisted with that from XRD.

  18. Preparative isolation of a cytotoxic principle of a forest mushroom Suillus luteus by sodium dodecyl sulfate based "salting-in" countercurrent chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zhi; Hu, Xueqian; Wu, Shihua

    2016-02-01

    In the course of screening new anticancer natural products, an edible forest mushroom Suillus luteus (L. Ex Franch). Gray was found to have potent cytotoxicity against several human cancer cells. However, the lipophilic sample made some countercurrent chromatography solvent systems emulsify, which caused difficulties in the separation of its cytotoxic components. Here, we found that the addition of an organic salt sodium dodecyl sulfate could efficiently shorten the settling time of the mushroom sample solutions by eliminating the emulsification of two-phase solvent systems. Moreover, we found that sodium dodecyl sulfate could play a new "salting-in" role and made the partition coefficients of the solutes decrease with the increased concentrations. Thus, a sodium dodecyl sulfate based salting-in countercurrent chromatography method has been successfully established for the first time for preparative isolation of a cytotoxic principle of the mushroom. The active component was identified as isosuillin. Whole results indicated that sodium dodecyl sulfate could be used as an efficient salting-in reagent for two-phase solvent system selection and targeted countercurrent chromatography isolation. It is very useful for current natural products isolation and drug discovery.

  19. SODIUM DI-N-DODECYL PHOSPHATE VESICLES IN AQUEOUS-SOLUTION - EFFECTS OF ETHANOL, PROPANOL, AND TETRAHYDROFURAN ON THE GEL TO LIQUID-PHASE TRANSITION

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    BLANDAMER, MJ; BRIGGS, B; BUTT, MD; WATERS, M; CULLIS, PM; ENGBERTS, JBFN; HOEKSTRA, D; MOHANTY, RK

    1994-01-01

    For aqueous solutions containing vesicles formed by sodium di-n-dodecyl phosphate, the gel to liquid-crystal transition occurs near 35 degrees C, the temperature T-m. When ethanol is added, T-m decreases, but the scan shows evidence of several transitions as more alcohol is added. The effect of adde

  20. A molecular simulation probing of structure and interaction for supramolecular sodium dodecyl sulfate/single-wall carbon nanotube assemblies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Zhijun; Yang, Xiaoning; Yang, Zhen

    2010-03-10

    Here we report a larger-scale atomic-level molecular dynamics (MD) simulation for the self-assembly of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) surfactant on single-walled carbon nanotube (SWNT) surfaces and the interaction between supramolecular SDS/SWNT aggregates. We make an effort to address several important problems in regard to carbon nanotube dispersion/separation. At first, the simulation provides comprehensive direct evidence for SDS self-assembly structures on carbon nanotube surfaces, which can help to clarify the relevant debate over the exact adsorption structure. We also, for the first time, simulated the potential of mean force (PMF) between two SWNTs embedded in SDS surfactant micelles. A novel unified PMF approach has been applied to reveal various cooperative interactions between the SDS/SWNT aggregates, which is different from the previous electrostatic repulsion explanation. The unique role of sodium ions revealed here provides a new microscopic understanding of the recent experiments in the electrolyte tuning of the interfacial forces on the selective fractionation of SDS surrounding SWNTs.

  1. Enzymatic hydrolysis of sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS)-pretreated newspaper for cellulosic ethanol production by Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Pichia stipitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xin, Fengxue; Geng, Anli; Chen, Ming Li; Gum, Ming Jun Marcus

    2010-10-01

    Fermentation of enzymatic hydrolysate of waste newspaper was investigated for cellulosic ethanol production in this study. Various nonionic and ionic surfactants were applied for waste newspaper pretreatment to increase the enzymatic digestibility. The surfactant-pretreated newspaper was enzymatically digested in 0.05 M sodium citrate buffer (pH 4.8) with varying solid content, filter paper unit loading (FPU/g newspaper), and ratio of filter paper unit/beta-glucosidase unit (FPU/CBU). Newspaper pretreated with the anionic surfactant sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS) demonstrated the highest sugar yield. The addition of Tween-80 in the enzymatic hydrolysis process enhanced the enzymatic digestibility of newspaper pretreated with all of the surfactants. Enzymatic hydrolysis of SDS-pretreated newspaper with 15% solid content, 15 FPU/g newspaper, and FPU/CBU of 1:4 resulted in a newspaper hydrolysate conditioning 29.07 g/L glucose and 4.08 g/L xylose after 72 h of incubation at 50 degrees C. The fermentation of the enzymatic hydrolysate with Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Pichia stipitis, and their co-culture produced 14.29, 13.45, and 14.03 g/L of ethanol, respectively. Their corresponding ethanol yields were 0.43, 0.41, and 0.42 g/g.

  2. Absorption, fluorescence, and acid-base equilibria of rhodamines in micellar media of sodium dodecyl sulfate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obukhova, Elena N.; Mchedlov-Petrossyan, Nikolay O.; Vodolazkaya, Natalya A.; Patsenker, Leonid D.; Doroshenko, Andrey O.; Marynin, Andriy I.; Krasovitskii, Boris M.

    2017-01-01

    Rhodamine dyes are widely used as molecular probes in different fields of science. The aim of this paper was to ascertain to what extent the structural peculiarities of the compounds influence their absorption, emission, and acid-base properties under unified conditions. The acid-base dissociation (HR+ ⇄ R + H+) of a series of rhodamine dyes was studied in sodium n-dodecylsulfate micellar solutions. In this media, the form R exists as a zwitterion R±. The indices of apparent ionization constants of fifteen rhodamine cations HR+ with different substituents in the xanthene moiety vary within the range of pKaapp = 5.04 to 5.53. The distinct dependence of emission of rhodamines bound to micelles on pH of bulk water opens the possibility of using them as fluorescent interfacial acid-base indicators.

  3. Effect of Sodium Sulfite, Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate, and Urea on the Molecular Interactions and Properties of Whey Protein Isolate-Based Films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmid, Markus; Prinz, Tobias K.; Stäbler, Andreas; Sängerlaub, Sven

    2017-01-01

    Whey protein coatings and cast films are promising for use as food packaging materials. Ongoing research is endeavoring to reduce their permeability. The intention of this study was to evaluate the effect of the reactive additives sodium sulfite, sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), and urea on the oxygen barrier, water vapor barrier, and protein solubility of whey protein cast films. The concentration of the reactive additives was 1 to 20 wt.-%. Dried whey protein cast films were used as substrate materials. The water vapor transmission rate, the oxygen permeability, and the protein solubility were measured. Effective diffusion coefficients and effective sorption coefficients were calculated from the results of the water vapor sorption experiments. The presence of sodium sulfite resulted in an increased number of hydrophobic interactions and hydrogen bonds and a slightly decreased number of disulfide bonds. The oxygen permeability decreased from 68 to 46 cm3 (STP/standard temperature and pressure) 100 μm (m2 d bar)−1 for 1 wt.-% SDS in the whey protein cast film. The water vapor transmission rate decreased from 165 to 44 g 100 μm (m2 d)−1 measured at 50 to 0% r. h. for 20 wt.-% SDS in the whey protein cast film. The reduction in the water vapor transmission rate correlated with the lower effective diffusion coefficient. PMID:28149835

  4. Effect of sodium sulfite, sodium dodecyl sulfate, and urea on the molecular interactions and properties of whey protein isolate-based films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmid, Markus; Prinz, Tobias K.; Stäbler, Andreas; Sängerlaub, Sven

    2016-12-01

    Whey protein coatings and cast films are promising for use as food packaging materials. Ongoing research is endeavoring to reduce their permeability. The intention of this study was to evaluate the effect of the reactive additives sodium sulfite, sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), and urea on the oxygen barrier, water vapor barrier, and protein solubility of whey protein cast films. The concentration of the reactive additives was 1 to 20 wt.-%. Dried whey protein cast films were used as substrate materials. The water vapor transmission rate, the oxygen permeability, and the protein solubility were measured. Effective diffusion coefficients and effective sorption coefficients were calculated from the results of the water vapor sorption experiments. The presence of sodium sulfite resulted in an increased number of hydrophobic interactions and hydrogen bonds and a slightly decreased number of disulfide bonds. The oxygen permeability decreased from 68 to 46 cm³ (STP / standard temperature and pressure) 100 µm (m² d bar)-1 for 1 wt.-% SDS in the whey protein cast film. The water vapor transmission rate decreased from 165 to 44 g 100 µm (m² d)-1 measured at 50 to 0 % r. h. for 20 wt.-% SDS in the whey protein cast film. The reduction in the water vapor transmission rate correlated with the lower effective diffusion coefficient.

  5. Effect of A Long Chain Carboxylate Acid on Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate Micelle Structure: A SANS Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patriati, Arum; Giri Rachman Putra, Edy; Seok Seong, Baek

    2010-01-01

    The effect of a different hydrocarbon chain length of carboxylate acid, i.e. dodecanoic acid, CH3(CH)10COOH or lauric acid and hexadecanoic acid, CH3(CH2)14COOH or palmitic acid as a co-surfactant in the 0.3 M sodium dedecyl sulfate, SDS micellar solution has been studied using small angle neutron scattering (SANS). The present of lauric acid has induced the SDS structural micelles. The ellipsoid micelles structures changed significantly in length (major axis) from 22.6 Å to 37.1 Å at a fixed minor axis of 16.7 Å in the present of 0.005 M to 0.1 M lauric acid. Nevertheless, this effect did not occur in the present of palmitic acid with the same concentration range. The present of palmitic acid molecules performed insignificant effect on the SDS micelles growth where the major axis of the micelle was elongated from 22.9 Å to 25.3 Å only. It showed that the appropriate hydrocarbon chain length between surfactant and co-surfactant molecules emerged as one of the determining factors in forming a mixed micelles structure.

  6. A conductometric investigation of hydroxypropylmethyl cellulose/sodium dodecyl sulfate/nonionic surfactant systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrović Lidija B.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Surfactant mixtures are very often used in various cosmetic and pharmaceutical products because they commonly act in synergism and provide more favorable properties than the single surfactants. At the same time, the 9 presence of polymers in mixtures of surfactants may lead to molecular interactions thereby affecting product stability and activity. For these reasons it is very important to determine the surfactant interactions influence on 1micellization and mixed micellization, as well as polymer-surfactants mixed micelles interactions. In this work we examined self-aggregation of nonionic surfactants, polysorbate 20 (Tween 20, polyoxyethylene octylphenyl ether (Triton X100 and polyoxyethylene-polyoxypropylene block copolymer (Pluronic F68 with ionic surfactant, sodium dodecylsulfate, in aqueous solution at 40ºC using conductometric titration method. It was found that concentration region for mixed micelle formation depends on nonionic surfactant characteristics and its concentration. Formation of surfactants mixed micelles in the presence of nonionic polymer, hydroxypropylmethyl cellulose, and their binding to polymer hydrophobic sites, were investigated too. Analysis of obtained results points to different kinds of interactions in investigated systems, which are crucial for their application. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. III 46010

  7. Highly selective colorimetric detection of Ni2+ using silver nanoparticles cofunctionalized with adenosine monophosphate and sodium dodecyl sulfonate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Jiayu; Jin, Weiwei; Huang, Pengcheng; Wu, Fangying

    2017-09-01

    We report a dual-ligand strategy based on silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) for highly selective detection of Ni2+ using colorimetric techniques. Adenosine monophosphate (AMP) and sodium dodecyl sulfonate (SDS) were both used as ligands to modify AgNPs. The presence of Ni2+ induces the aggregation of AgNPs through cooperative electrostatic interaction and metal-ligand interaction, resulting in a color change from bright yellow to orange. The cofunctionalized AgNPs showed obvious advantages over the ones functionalized only by AMP or SDS in terms of selectivity. Under the optimized conditions, this sensing platform for Ni2+ works in the concentration range of 4.0 to 60 μM and has a low detection limit of 0.60 μM. In addition, the colorimetric assay is very fast, and the whole analysis can be completed within a few minutes. Thus, it can be directly used in tap water and lake water samples. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  8. Thermodynamics of sodium dodecyl sulphate-salicylic acid based micellar systems and their potential use in fruits postharvest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cid, A; Morales, J; Mejuto, J C; Briz-Cid, N; Rial-Otero, R; Simal-Gándara, J

    2014-05-15

    Micellar systems have excellent food applications due to their capability to solubilise a large range of hydrophilic and hydrophobic substances. In this work, the mixed micelle formation between the ionic surfactant sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS) and the phenolic acid salicylic acid have been studied at several temperatures in aqueous solution. The critical micelle concentration and the micellization degree were determined by conductometric techniques and the experimental data used to calculate several useful thermodynamic parameters, like standard free energy, enthalpy and entropy of micelle formation. Salicylic acid helps the micellization of SDS, both by increasing the additive concentration at a constant temperature and by increasing temperature at a constant concentration of additive. The formation of micelles of SDS in the presence of salicylic acid was a thermodynamically spontaneous process, and is also entropically controlled. Salicylic acid plays the role of a stabilizer, and gives a pathway to control the three-dimensional water matrix structure. The driving force of the micellization process is provided by the hydrophobic interactions. The isostructural temperature was found to be 307.5 K for the mixed micellar system. This article explores the use of SDS-salicylic acid based micellar systems for their potential use in fruits postharvest.

  9. Structural Studies on Nonequilibrium Microstructures of Dioctyl Sodium Dodecyl Sulfosuccinate (Aerosol-OT in p-Toluenesulfonic Acid and Phosphatidylcholine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. K. Temgire

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Several microstructures are evolved at the interface when sparingly soluble solid surfactants come in contact with water. One class of these microstructures is termed as “myelin figures”; these were observed when phosphatidylcholine came in contact with water. Although the myelins are initially simple rod-like, complex forms like helices, coils and so forth. appear in the later stage. Finally, the myelins fuse together to form a complex mosaic-like structure. When studied by taking a cross-section using cryoscanning electron microscopy, it revealed concentric circular pattern inside the myelin figures. The cross-sections of (dioctyl sodium dodecyl sulfosiccinate AOT/water system myelin internal structures were lost. When p-toluenesulfonic acid (PTS 2 wt% was present in the water phase, AOT myelins revealed the internal microstructures. It has annular concentric ring-like structure with a core axon at the centre. Further investigation revealed new microstructures for the first time having multiple axons in the single-myelin strand.

  10. A small-angle neutron scattering study of sodium dodecyl sulfate-poly(propylene oxide) methacrylate mixed micelles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastiat, Guillaume; Grassl, Bruno; Borisov, Oleg; Lapp, Alain; François, Jeanne

    2006-03-15

    Mixed micelle of protonated or deuterated sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS and SDSd25, respectively) and poly(propylene oxide) methacrylate (PPOMA) are studied by small-angle neutron scattering (SANS). In all the cases the scattering curves exhibit a peak whose position changes with the composition of the system. The main parameters which characterize mixed micelles, i.e., aggregation numbers of SDS and PPOMA, geometrical dimensions of the micelles and degree of ionisation are evaluated from the analysis of the SANS curves. The position q(max) of the correlation peak can be related to the average aggregation numbers of SDS-PPOMA and SDSd25-PPOMA mixed micelles. It is found that the aggregation number of SDS decreases upon increasing the weight ratio PPOMA/SDS (or SDSd25). The isotopic combination, which uses the "contrast effect" between the two micellar systems, has allowed us to determine the mixed micelle composition. Finally, the SANS curves were adjusted using the RMSA for the structure factor S(q) of charged spherical particles and the form factor P(q) of spherical core-shell particle. This analysis confirms the particular core-shell structure of the SDS-PPOMA mixed micelle, i.e., a SDS "core" micelle surrounded by the shell formed by PPOMA macromonomers. The structural parameters of mixed micelles obtained from the analysis of the SANS data are in good agreement with those determined previously by conductimetry and fluorescence studies.

  11. Hexavalent Molybdenum Reduction to Mo-Blue by a Sodium-Dodecyl-Sulfate-Degrading Klebsiella oxytoca Strain DRY14

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. I. E. Halmi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Bacteria with the ability to tolerate, remove, and/or degrade several xenobiotics simultaneously are urgently needed for remediation of polluted sites. A previously isolated bacterium with sodium dodecyl sulfate- (SDS- degrading capacity was found to be able to reduce molybdenum to the nontoxic molybdenum blue. The optimal pH, carbon source, molybdate concentration, and temperature supporting molybdate reduction were pH 7.0, glucose at 1.5% (w/v, between 25 and 30 mM, and 25°C, respectively. The optimum phosphate concentration for molybdate reduction was 5 mM. The Mo-blue produced exhibits an absorption spectrum with a maximum peak at 865 nm and a shoulder at 700 nm. None of the respiratory inhibitors tested showed any inhibition to the molybdenum-reducing activity suggesting that the electron transport system of this bacterium is not the site of molybdenum reduction. Chromium, cadmium, silver, copper, mercury, and lead caused approximately 77, 65, 77, 89, 80, and 80% inhibition of the molybdenum-reducing activity, respectively. Ferrous and stannous ions markedly increased the activity of molybdenum-reducing activity in this bacterium. The maximum tolerable concentration of SDS as a cocontaminant was 3 g/L. The characteristics of this bacterium make it a suitable candidate for molybdenum bioremediation of sites cocontaminated with detergent pollutant.

  12. ISOLATION OF EGG DROP SYNDROME VIRUS AND ITS MOLECULAR CHARACTERIZATION USING SODIUM DODECYL SULPHATE POLYACRYLAMIDE GEL ELECTROPHORESIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. H. Rasool, S. U. Rahman and M. K. Mansoor

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Six isolates of egg drop syndrome (EDS virus were recovered from five different outbreaks of EDS in commercial laying hens in and around Faisalabad. The aberrant eggs were fed to the susceptible laying hens for experimental induction of infection. The samples from infected birds (egg washing, cloacal swabs, oviducts and spleens were collected, processed and inoculated into 11-day old duck embryos. The presence of virus in harvested allanto-amniotic fluid was monitored by spot and microhaemagglutination tests and confirmed by haemagglutination inhibition and agar gel precipitation tests. The EDS virus grew well in duck embryos and agglutinated only avian but not mammalian red blood cells. These isolates were purified through velocity density gradient centrifugation. Protein concentration was determined through Lowry method and sodium dodecyl sulphate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE was conducted by loading 300 µg protein concentration on 12.5% gel using discontinuous buffer system. All the six isolates showed 13 polypeptides, which were identical to those described in the referral EDS-76 virus (strain-127. The molecular weights of the polypeptides ranged from 6.5 KDa to 126 KDa.

  13. Silver nanoparticles synthesis in aqueous solutions using sulfite as reducing agent and sodium dodecyl sulfate as stabilizer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez-Miranda, A.; Lopez-Valdivieso, A., E-mail: alopez@uaslp.mx [Universidad Autonoma de San Luis Potosi, Instituto de Metalurgia (Mexico); Viramontes-Gamboa, G. [Universidad Michoacana de San Nicolas de Hidalgo, Facultad de Ciencia Fisico-Matematicas (Mexico)

    2012-09-15

    The synthesis of silver nanoparticles has been carried out in aqueous solutions in a stirred semibatch reactor through the reduction of silver ions (Ag{sup +}) by sulfite ions (SO{sub 3}{sup 2-}), which were added at a tightly controlled rate up to a final sulfite/silver molar ratio of 0.45. Sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) was used as the stabilizer at concentrations below its critical micelle concentration. The effects of temperature, sulfite addition rate, and SDS concentration have been assessed. Ag{sup +} turned to Ag{sup 0} in 5 min or less only when the synthesis was performed at 97 Degree-Sign C and not below. The sulfite addition rates studied were 0.5, 7.5, 15, and 90 {mu}mol/min. The size, shape, polydispersity, and stability of the nanoparticles were determined by the sulfite addition rate and SDS concentration. At low SDS concentration (4 mM), stable, spherical shape, small size nanoparticles were formed only at the two intermediate sulfite addition rates. At the highest sulfite addition rate, 9 nm mean size spherical nanoparticles having a low {+-}5 nm polydispersity were produced at a high SDS concentration of 10 mM. With the low SDS concentration, larger truncated and spherical shape nanoparticles were obtained. UV-Vis spectrophotometry and transmission electron microscopy were used to characterize the nanoparticles.

  14. Silver nanoparticles synthesis in aqueous solutions using sulfite as reducing agent and sodium dodecyl sulfate as stabilizer

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Miranda, A.; López-Valdivieso, A.; Viramontes-Gamboa, G.

    2012-09-01

    The synthesis of silver nanoparticles has been carried out in aqueous solutions in a stirred semibatch reactor through the reduction of silver ions (Ag+) by sulfite ions (SO3 2-), which were added at a tightly controlled rate up to a final sulfite/silver molar ratio of 0.45. Sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) was used as the stabilizer at concentrations below its critical micelle concentration. The effects of temperature, sulfite addition rate, and SDS concentration have been assessed. Ag+ turned to Ag0 in 5 min or less only when the synthesis was performed at 97 °C and not below. The sulfite addition rates studied were 0.5, 7.5, 15, and 90 μmol/min. The size, shape, polydispersity, and stability of the nanoparticles were determined by the sulfite addition rate and SDS concentration. At low SDS concentration (4 mM), stable, spherical shape, small size nanoparticles were formed only at the two intermediate sulfite addition rates. At the highest sulfite addition rate, 9 nm mean size spherical nanoparticles having a low ±5 nm polydispersity were produced at a high SDS concentration of 10 mM. With the low SDS concentration, larger truncated and spherical shape nanoparticles were obtained. UV-Vis spectrophotometry and transmission electron microscopy were used to characterize the nanoparticles.

  15. Photochemistry of "end-only" oligo-p-phenylene ethynylenes: complexation with sodium dodecyl sulfate reduces solvent accessibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Eric H; Evans, Deborah G; Whitten, David G

    2013-08-06

    Cationic oligo-p-phenylene ethynylenes are very effective light-activated biocides and biosensors but degrade upon exposure to light. In this study, we explore the photochemistry of a class of "end-only" compounds from this series, which have cationic moieties on the ends of the backbone. Product characterization by mass spectrometry reveals that the photoreactivity of these molecules is higher than that of a previously studied oligomer and that the primary products of photolysis result from the addition of water or oxygen across the triple bond. In addition, a product suggesting the addition of peroxide or other reactive oxygen species across the triple bond was observed. To explore avenues by which the photodegradation of these compounds can be mitigated, the effects of complexation with sodium dodecyl sulfate micelles on their photochemistry was explored. Classical molecular dynamics simulations revealed that compounds that were protected from photolysis by SDS buried their phenylene ethynylene backbones into the interior of the micelle, protecting it from contact with water. This work has revealed a molecular basis for the protection of a novel class of light-activated biocides from irradiation that is consistent with the proposed photochemistry of these compounds. This information can be useful for developing photodegradation-resistant biocidal materials and applications for current compounds and leads to new molecular design.

  16. Effect of low concentration sodium dodecyl sulfate on the electromigration of palonosetron hydrochloride stereoisomers in micellar electrokinetic chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Shao-Qiang; Wang, Gui-Xia; Guo, Wen-Bo; Guo, Xu-Ming; Zhao, Min

    2014-05-16

    The effect of low concentrations of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) on the separation of palonosetron hydrochloride (PALO) stereoisomers by micellar electrokinetic chromatography (MEKC) has been investigated. It was found that the addition of SDS prolongs the migration time and the migration order of four stereoisomers changes regularly with the SDS concentration. Good separations for all the four stereoisomers were achieved at appropriate SDS concentration. The effect of SDS on the electromigration (mobilities) of PALO stereoisomers has been studied, in order to explain its effect on the separation by MEKC. It was found that low concentrations of SDS added into the separation media forms negatively charged complexes with PALO stereoisomers and hence reverses their electromigration direction. Furthermore, the migration order between two enantiomeric pairs is also reversed because the enantiomeric pair with a bigger positive mobility than that of another pair turns to have a bigger negative mobility when bound with SDS. Based on these results, the effect of SDS on the MEKC separation of PALO stereoisomers was elucidated reasonably. The performance of the developed chiral MEKC method was validated by the analysis of a real sample.

  17. Cytochrome P450 102A2 Catalyzes Efficient Oxidation of Sodium Dodecyl Sulphate: A Molecular Tool for Remediation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irene Axarli

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Bacterial cytochrome P450s (CYPs constitute an important family of monooxygenase enzymes that carry out essential roles in the metabolism of endogenous compounds and foreign chemicals. In the present work we report the characterization of CYP102A2 from B. subtilis with a focus on its substrate specificity. CYP102A2 is more active in oxidation of sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS than any other characterized CYP. The effect of SDS and NADPH concentration on reaction rate showed nonhyperbolic and hyperbolic dependence, respectively. The enzyme was found to exhibit a bell-shaped curve for plots of activity versus pH, over pH values 5.9–8.5. The rate of SDS oxidation reached the maximum value approximately at pH 7.2 and the pH transition observed controlled by two pas in the acidic (pa=6.7±0.08 and basic (pa=7.3±0.06 pH range. The results are discussed in relation to the future biotechnology applications of CYPs.

  18. Sodium dodecyl sulfate/β-cyclodextrin vesicles embedded in chitosan gel for insulin delivery with pH-selective release

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhuo Li

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available In an answer to the challenge of enzymatic instability and low oral bioavailability of proteins/peptides, a new type of drug-delivery vesicle has been developed. The preparation, based on sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS and β-cyclodextrin (β-CD embedded in chitosan gel, was used to successfully deliver the model drug-insulin. The self-assembled SDS/β-CD vesicles were prepared and characterized by particle size, zeta potential, appearance, microscopic morphology and entrapment efficiency. In addition, both the interaction of insulin with vesicles and the stability of insulin loaded in vesicles in the presence of pepsin were investigated. The vesicles were crosslinked into thermo-sensitive chitosan/β-glycerol phosphate solution for an in-situ gel to enhance the dilution stability. The in vitro release characteristics of insulin from gels in media at different pH values were investigated. The insulin loaded vesicles–chitosan hydrogel (IVG improved the dilution stability of the vesicles and provided pH-selective sustained release compared with insulin solution–chitosan hydrogel (ISG. In vitro, IVG exhibited slow release in acidic solution and relatively quick release in neutral solutions to provide drug efficacy. In simulated digestive fluid, IVG showed better sustained release and insulin protection properties compared with ISG. Thus IVG might improve the stability of insulin during its transport in vivo and contribute to the bioavailability and therapeutic effect of insulin.

  19. Sodium dodecyl sulfate/β-cyclodextrin vesicles embedded in chitosan gel for insulin delivery with pH-selective release.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhuo; Li, Haiyan; Wang, Caifen; Xu, Jianghui; Singh, Vikramjeet; Chen, Dawei; Zhang, Jiwen

    2016-07-01

    In an answer to the challenge of enzymatic instability and low oral bioavailability of proteins/peptides, a new type of drug-delivery vesicle has been developed. The preparation, based on sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) and β-cyclodextrin (β-CD) embedded in chitosan gel, was used to successfully deliver the model drug-insulin. The self-assembled SDS/β-CD vesicles were prepared and characterized by particle size, zeta potential, appearance, microscopic morphology and entrapment efficiency. In addition, both the interaction of insulin with vesicles and the stability of insulin loaded in vesicles in the presence of pepsin were investigated. The vesicles were crosslinked into thermo-sensitive chitosan/β-glycerol phosphate solution for an in-situ gel to enhance the dilution stability. The in vitro release characteristics of insulin from gels in media at different pH values were investigated. The insulin loaded vesicles-chitosan hydrogel (IVG) improved the dilution stability of the vesicles and provided pH-selective sustained release compared with insulin solution-chitosan hydrogel (ISG). In vitro, IVG exhibited slow release in acidic solution and relatively quick release in neutral solutions to provide drug efficacy. In simulated digestive fluid, IVG showed better sustained release and insulin protection properties compared with ISG. Thus IVG might improve the stability of insulin during its transport in vivo and contribute to the bioavailability and therapeutic effect of insulin.

  20. Impact of model perfume molecules on the self-assembly of anionic surfactant sodium dodecyl 6-benzene sulfonate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradbury, Robert; Penfold, Jeffrey; Thomas, Robert K; Tucker, Ian M; Petkov, Jordan T; Jones, Craig; Grillo, Isabelle

    2013-03-12

    The impact of two model perfumes with differing degrees of hydrophobicity/hydrophilicity, linalool (LL) and phenylethanol (PE), on the solution structure of anionic surfactant sodium dodecyl 6-benzene sulfonate, LAS-6, has been studied by small angle neutron scattering, SANS. For both types of perfume molecules, complex phase behavior is observed. The phase behavior depends upon the concentration, surfactant/perfume composition, and type of perfume. The more hydrophilic perfume PE promotes the formation of more highly curved structures. At relatively low surfactant concentrations, small globular micelles, L1, are formed. These become perfume droplets, L(sm), stabilized by the surfactant at much higher perfume solution compositions. At higher surfactant concentrations, the tendency of LAS-6 to form more planar structures is evident. The more hydrophobic linalool promotes the formation of more planar structures. Combined with the greater tendency of LAS-6 to form planar structures, this results in the planar structures dominating the phase behavior for the LAS-6/linalool mixtures. For the LAS-6/linalool mixture, the self-assembly is in the form of micelles only at the lowest surfactant and perfume concentrations. Over most of the concentration-composition space explored, the structures are predominantly lamellar, L(α), or vesicle, L(v), or in the form of a lamellar/micellar coexistence. At low and intermediate amounts of LL, a significantly different structure is observed, and the aggregates are in the form of small, relatively monodisperse vesicles (i.e., nanovesicles), L(sv).

  1. Sodium dodecyl sulfate-assisted hydrothermal synthesis of mesoporous nickel cobaltite nanoparticles with enhanced catalytic activity for methanol electrooxidation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Rui; Qi, Li; Jia, Mingjun; Wang, Hongyu

    2014-04-01

    Mesoporous nickel cobaltite (NiCo2O4) nanoparticles have been synthesized via a facile hydrothermal strategy with the assistance of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) soft template (ST). Their physicochemical properties have been characterized via X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy-dispersive X-ray spectra (EDS), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray photoelectron spectra (XPS) and nitrogen sorption measurements. Their electrocatalytic performances have been examined by cyclic voltammetry (CV), linear sweep voltammetry (LSV), chronoamperometry (CA) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) tests. The obtained NiCo2O4 materials exhibit a typical nanoscale crystalline hexagonal morphology with specific surface area (SSA) and mesopore volume of 88.63 m2 g-1 and 0.298 cm3 g-1. Impressively, the SDS-assisted NiCo2O4 electrode shows a catalytic current density of 125 mA cm-2 and 72% retention for consecutive 1000 s at 0.6 V in 1 M KOH and 0.5 M CH3OH electrolytes towards methanol (CH3OH) electrooxidation, which is better than the one without SDS assistance. The pronounced electrocatalytic activity is largely ascribed to their higher surface intensities of Co and Ni species and superior mesoporous nanostructures, which provide the richer electroactive sites and faster electrochemical kinetics, leading to the enhanced electrocatalytic activity.

  2. Nonlinear response of a batch BZ oscillator to the addition of the anionic surfactant sodium dodecyl sulfate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sciascia, Luciana; Lombardo, Renato; Turco Liveri, Maria Liria

    2007-02-15

    The response of the Belousov-Zhabotinsy (BZ) system to the addition of increasing amounts of the anionic surfactant sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) was monitored at 25.0 degrees C in stirred batch conditions. The presence of SDS in the reaction mixture influences the oscillatory parameters, i.e., induction period and oscillation period, to an extent that depends on the surfactant concentration. The experimental results have shown that the induction period increases slightly on increasing surfactant concentration and, then, a further increase in the [SDS] leads to an enhancement while the oscillation period increases monotonously on increasing SDS concentration. It has been proposed that the response of the oscillatory BZ system to the addition of SDS is due to the peculiar capability of the organized surfactant assemblies to affect the reactivity by selectively sequestering some key reacting species. Indeed, explanations of the experimental results have been given on the basis of the role played by the micellar shape, which in turn dictates the hydrophobic nature. The suggested perturbation effects have been supported by performing viscosity measurements on the aqueous SDS solutions and by the spectrophotometric estimation of the binding constant of the bromine species to the micellar aggregates. This study has indirectly corroborated the existence of two kind of micelles and unambiguously revealed that the bromine species show a different affinity toward the spherical and rod-like micelles.

  3. A Microfluidic Approach to Investigating a Synergistic Effect of Tobramycin and Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate on Pseudomonas aeruginosa Biofilms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Soojeong; Ahmed, Ishtiaq; Hwang, Jangsun; Seo, Youngmin; Lee, Eunwon; Choi, Jonghoon; Moon, Sangjun; Hong, Jong Wook

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, a microfluidic technology has contributed a significant role in biological research, specifically for the study of biofilms. Bacterial biofilms are a source of infections and contamination in the environment due to an extra polymeric matrix. Inadequate uses of antibiotics make the bacterial biofilms antibiotic resistant. Therefore, it is important to determine the effective concentration of antibiotics in order to eliminate bacterial biofilms. The present microfluidic study was carried out to analyze the activities of tobramycin and sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) against Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilms with a continuous flow in order to achieve a greater delivery of the agents. The results show that a co-treatment of tobramycin and SDS significantly reduced the biomass of biofilms (by more than 99%) after 24 h. Tobramycin and SDS killed and detached bacteria in the cores of biofilms. Evidently, our data suggest that a microchannel would be effective for both quantitative and qualitative evaluations in order to test combinatorial effect of drugs and chemicals on a complexed biological system including biofilm.

  4. Evidence of β-sheet structure induced kinetic stability of papain upon thermal and sodium dodecyl sulphate denaturation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rašković Brankica

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Papain is a protease that consists of α-helical and β-sheet domains which unfold almost independently. Both, papain considerable thermal stability and sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS resistance have been shown. However, the ability of each domain to unfold upon thermal and SDS denaturation has never been studied. This work shows that fruit papain has slightly higher thermal inactivation resistance when it is compared to stem papain with rather high activation energy (Ea of 223 ± 16 kJmol-1 and Tm50 value of 79 ± 2 °C. SDS resistance of fruit papain was estimated by SDS-PAGE analysis and activity staining. It has been noted that, in the presence of SDS, unless heat energy was applied in order to unfold papain, the protein remained active. Furthermore, it has been proven via Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR that α-helical domain of fruit papain is more prone to unfolding at elevated temperatures and in the presence of SDS then β-sheet rich domain. Thermal denaturation of papain without detergent present led to accelerated formation of aggregation specific intermolecular β-sheets as compared to native protein. Presented results are both, of fundamental and application importance. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 172049

  5. Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoretic method for assessing the quaternary state and comparative thermostability of avidin and streptavidin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayer, E A; Ehrlich-Rogozinski, S; Wilchek, M

    1996-08-01

    Avidin, a positively charged egg-white protein, aggregates extensively when mixed at ambient temperatures with anionic detergents, such as sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS). The resultant aggregates fail to penetrate the stacking gel during polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE). To prevent the formation of such aggregates, avidin was acetylated and the pI was thus reduced. Acetylated avidin was found to behave in a manner similar to that of streptavidin; under nondenaturing conditions (i.e., incubation of samples at room temperature), both proteins normally migrated mainly as tetramers with a tendency to form oligomers of the tetramer. When samples were boiled, both proteins migrated mainly as the monomer. The comparative stability properties of avidin and streptavidin were also examined using SDS-PAGE by heating samples and determining the extent of dissociation of tetramers to monomers as a function of temperature. A distinctive transition temperature could be defined for individual samples. Using this assay, it was determined that, in the absence of biotin, the quaternary structure of streptavidin is more stable than that of avidin. Biotin appears to stabilize structures of both avidin and streptavidin to a similar degree. Acetylation of avidin thus provides a simple means to analyze the quaternary structure of the molecule using SDS-PAGE.

  6. Interfacial properties and fluorescence of a coagulating protein extracted from Moringa oleifera seeds and its interaction with sodium dodecyl sulphate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maikokera, R; Kwaambwa, H M

    2007-04-01

    The surfactant behaviour of aqueous coagulating protein extracted from Moringa oleifera seeds has been investigated by surface tension measurements. The interaction of the coagulant protein with an anionic surfactant sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS) has been monitored by surface tension and intrinsic protein fluorescence measurements. The extracted protein shows some weak surface activity at low concentrations. To achieve maximum surface activity (i.e. maximum reduction in surface tension of water), substantially higher concentrations of protein are required. The coagulant protein-SDS interaction scheme did not exhibit the behaviour of weakly interacting polymer-surfactant systems and the SDS interacts in a monomeric form with the protein. The association process of SDS with the coagulant protein is supported by protein fluorescence measurements. SDS has an effect on the fluorescence of the coagulant protein indicating that the local environment of tryptophan in the protein changes as SDS concentration below its critical micelle concentration is increased. These results have led us to the conclusions that: (1) the protein extracted from M. oleifera seeds has significant surfactant behaviour; (2) the coagulant protein interacts strongly with SDS and the protein might have specific binding sites for SDS; (3) there is formation of protein-SDS complex.

  7. Partial characterization of biosurfactant from Lactobacillus pentosus and comparison with sodium dodecyl sulphate for the bioremediation of hydrocarbon contaminated soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moldes, A B; Paradelo, R; Vecino, X; Cruz, J M; Gudiña, E; Rodrigues, L; Teixeira, J A; Domínguez, J M; Barral, M T

    2013-01-01

    The capability of a cell bound biosurfactant produced by Lactobacillus pentosus, to accelerate the bioremediation of a hydrocarbon-contaminated soil, was compared with a synthetic anionic surfactant (sodium dodecyl sulphate SDS-). The biosurfactant produced by the bacteria was analyzed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) that clearly indicates the presence of OH and NH groups, C=O stretching of carbonyl groups and NH nebding (peptide linkage), as well as CH2-CH3 and C-O stretching, with similar FTIR spectra than other biosurfactants obtained from lactic acid bacteria. After the characterization of biosurfactant by FTIR, soil contaminated with 7,000 mg Kg(-1) of octane was treated with biosurfactant from L. pentosus or SDS. Treatment of soil for 15 days with the biosurfactant produced by L. pentosus led to a 65.1% reduction in the hydrocarbon concentration, whereas SDS reduced the octane concentration to 37.2% compared with a 2.2% reduction in the soil contaminated with octane in absence of biosurfactant used as control. Besides, after 30 days of incubation soil with SDS or biosurfactant gave percentages of bioremediation around 90% in both cases. Thus, it can be concluded that biosurfactant produced by L. pentosus accelerates the bioremediation of octane-contaminated soil by improving the solubilisation of octane in the water phase of soil, achieving even better results than those reached with SDS after 15-day treatment.

  8. Small-angle neutron scattering from mixtures of sodium dodecyl sulfate and a cationic, bolaform surfactant containing azobenzene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubbard, F Pierce; Santonicola, Gabriella; Kaler, Eric W; Abbott, Nicholas L

    2005-07-05

    This paper reports on the microstructures formed in aqueous solutions containing mixtures of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) and a photosensitive, bolaform surfactant, bis(trimethylammoniumhexyloxy)azobenzene dibromide (BTHA). By using quasi-elastic light scattering and small-angle neutron scattering, we determined that aqueous solutions containing SDS and the trans isomer of BTHA (0.1 wt % total surfactant, 15 mol % BTHA, 85 mol % SDS) form vesicles with average hydrodynamic diameters of 1350 +/- 50 angstroms and bilayer thicknesses of 35 +/- 2 angstroms. The measured bilayer thickness is consistent with a model of the vesicle bilayer in which the trans isomer of BTHA spans the bilayer. Upon illumination with UV light, the BTHA underwent photoisomerization to produce a cis-rich photostationary state (80% cis isomer). We measured this photoisomerization to drive the reorganization of vesicles into cylindrical aggregates with cross-sectional radii of 19 +/- 3 angstroms and average hydrodynamic diameters of 240 +/- 50 angstroms. Equilibration of the cis-rich solution in the dark at 25 degrees C for 12 h or illumination of the solution with visible light leads to the recovery of the trans-rich photostationary state of the solution and the reformation of vesicles, thus demonstrating the potential utility of this system as the basis of a tunable fluid.

  9. Sodium dodecyl sulfate coated poly (vinyl) chloride: an alternative support for solid phase extraction of some transition and heavy metals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marahel, Farzaneh; Ghaedi, Mehrorang; Shokrollahi, Ardeshir; Montazerozohori, Morteza; Davoodi, Shahnaz

    2009-01-01

    A simple and relatively fast approach for developing a solid phase extraction has been described and used for determination of trace quantities of some heavy and transition metal ions with sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS)-coated poly vinyl chloride (PVC) modified with bis(2-hydroxyacetophenone)-1,4-butanediimine (BHABDI) ligand. The adsorbed ions were stripped from the solid phase by 10 mL of 3M nitric acid as eluent. The eluting solution was analyzed for metals content (cadmium, chromium, cobalt, copper, lead and zinc) by flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS). The main factors such as pH, amount of ligand and PVC, amount and type of surfactant, and condition of eluting solutions on the sorption recovery of metal ions have been investigated in detail. The relative standard deviation was found in the range of 1.0-3.2% for 0.2 microg mL(-1)of metals ions. After optimization of the extraction condition and the instrumental parameters, a detection limit was found to be in the range of 1.2-3.1 microg L(-1), with enrichment factor of 50 was achieved. The method was successfully applied for the determination of these metals contents in real samples with satisfactory results.

  10. Inactivation of salmonella in biofilms and on chicken cages and preharvest poultry by levulinic Acid and sodium dodecyl sulfate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Tong; Zhao, Ping; Cannon, Jennifer L; Doyle, Michael P

    2011-12-01

    Surface contamination (skin and feathers) of broilers with Salmonella occurs primarily during growth and transportation. Immediately after transporting chickens, chicken cage doors were sprayed with a foam containing 3% levulinic acid plus 2% sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS). Samples were collected for Salmonella assay after 45 min. Salmonella on cage doors was reduced from 19% (19 of 100 doors) before treatment to 1% (1 of 100 doors) after treatment, coliform counts were reduced from 6 to 8 to 2 to 4 log CFU/9 cm(2), and aerobic plate counts were reduced from 7 to 9 to 4 to 6 log CFU/9 cm(2). Whole chicken carcasses with feathers were inoculated with 10(8) CFU of Salmonella Enteritidis, soaked for 5 min at 21°C in 72 liters of a treatment or control solution, and assayed for Salmonella. Salmonella counts on chickens treated with water were 6.8 to 8.5 log CFU/9 cm(2), those treated with 50 ppm of calcium hypochlorite were 7.6 to 8.9 log CFU/9 cm(2), and those treated with 3% levulinic acid plus 2% SDS were 4-log reduction). Results of biofilm studies on surfaces of various materials revealed that a 3% levulinic acid plus 2% SDS treatment used as either a foam or liquid for 10 min effectively reduced Salmonella populations by 5 and >6 log CFU/cm(2), respectively.

  11. Small angle neutron scattering study of sodium dodecyl sulfate micellar growth driven by addition of a hydrotropic salt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, P A; Fritz, Gerhard; Kaler, Eric W

    2003-01-01

    The structures of aggregates formed in aqueous solutions of an anionic surfactant, sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), with the addition of a cationic hydrotropic salt, p-toluidine hydrochloride (PTHC), have been investigated by small angle neutron scattering (SANS). The SANS spectra exhibit a pronounced peak at low salt concentration, indicating the presence of repulsive intermicellar interactions. Model-independent real space information about the structure is obtained from a generalized indirect Fourier transformation (GIFT) technique in combination with a suitable model for the interparticle structure factor. The interparticle interaction is captured using the rescaled mean spherical approximation (RMSA) closure relation and a Yukawa form of the interaction potential. Further quantification of the geometrical parameters of the micelles was achieved by a complete fit of the SANS data using a prolate ellipsoidal form factor and the RMSA structure factor. The present study shows that PTHC induces a decrease in the fractional charge of the micelles due to adsorption at the micellar surface and consequent growth of the SDS micelles from nearly globular to rodlike as the concentration of PTHC increases.

  12. Partial Characterization of Biosurfactant from Lactobacillus pentosus and Comparison with Sodium Dodecyl Sulphate for the Bioremediation of Hydrocarbon Contaminated Soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. B. Moldes

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The capability of a cell bound biosurfactant produced by Lactobacillus pentosus, to accelerate the bioremediation of a hydrocarbon-contaminated soil, was compared with a synthetic anionic surfactant (sodium dodecyl sulphate SDS-. The biosurfactant produced by the bacteria was analyzed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR that clearly indicates the presence of OH and NH groups, C=O stretching of carbonyl groups and NH nebding (peptide linkage, as well as CH2–CH3 and C–O stretching, with similar FTIR spectra than other biosurfactants obtained from lactic acid bacteria. After the characterization of biosurfactant by FTIR, soil contaminated with 7,000 mg Kg−1 of octane was treated with biosurfactant from L. pentosus or SDS. Treatment of soil for 15 days with the biosurfactant produced by L. pentosus led to a 65.1% reduction in the hydrocarbon concentration, whereas SDS reduced the octane concentration to 37.2% compared with a 2.2% reduction in the soil contaminated with octane in absence of biosurfactant used as control. Besides, after 30 days of incubation soil with SDS or biosurfactant gave percentages of bioremediation around 90% in both cases. Thus, it can be concluded that biosurfactant produced by L. pentosus accelerates the bioremediation of octane-contaminated soil by improving the solubilisation of octane in the water phase of soil, achieving even better results than those reached with SDS after 15-day treatment.

  13. Adsorption of hydroxamate siderophores and EDTA on goethite in the presence of the surfactant sodium dodecyl sulfate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu Jide

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Siderophore-promoted iron acquisition by microorganisms usually occurs in the presence of other organic molecules, including biosurfactants. We have investigated the influence of the anionic surfactant sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS on the adsorption of the siderophores DFOB (cationic and DFOD (neutral and the ligand EDTA (anionic onto goethite (α-FeOOH at pH 6. We also studied the adsorption of the corresponding 1:1 Fe(III-ligand complexes, which are products of the dissolution process. Adsorption of the two free siderophores increased in a similar fashion with increasing SDS concentration, despite their difference in molecule charge. In contrast, SDS had little effect on the adsorption of EDTA. Adsorption of the Fe-DFOB and Fe-DFOD complexes also increased with increasing SDS concentrations, while adsorption of Fe-EDTA decreased. Our results suggest that hydrophobic interactions between adsorbed surfactants and siderophores are more important than electrostatic interactions. However, for strongly hydrophilic molecules, such as EDTA and its iron complex, the influence of SDS on their adsorption seems to depend on their tendency to form inner-sphere or outer-sphere surface complexes. Our results demonstrate that surfactants have a strong influence on the adsorption of siderophores to Fe oxides, which has important implications for siderophore-promoted dissolution of iron oxides and biological iron acquisition.

  14. Positional isomers of linear sodium dodecyl benzene sulfonate: solubility, self-assembly, and air/water interfacial activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Jian-Guo; Boyd, Ben J; Drummond, Calum J

    2006-10-10

    Commercial linear alkyl benzene sulfonates (ABS) are a very important class of anionic surfactants that are employed in a wide variety of applications, especially those involving wetting and detergency. Linear ABS surfactants generally consist of a complex mixture of different chain lengths and positional isomers. This diversity and level of complexity makes it difficult to develop fundamental structure-property correlations for the commercial surfactants. In this work, six monodisperse headgroup positional isomers of sodium para-dodecyl benzene sulfonate (Na-x-DBS, x = 1-6) have been studied. The influence of headgroup position and added electrolyte (NaCl) on the solubility and self-assembly (micellar and vesicular aggregation and lyotropic liquid crystalline phase behavior) in the temperature range from 10 to 90 degrees C have been investigated. Additionally, the air-aqueous solution interfacial adsorption at 25 (no added NaCl) and 50 degrees C (from 0 to 1.0 M added NaCl) has been examined. The observed physicochemical behavior is interpreted in terms of local molecular packing constraints, and in the case of the lyotropic liquid crystalline behavior global aggregate packing constraints as well.

  15. Effects of buffered vinegar and sodium dodecyl sulfate plus levulinic acid on Salmonella Typhimurium survival, shelf-life, and sensory characteristics of ground beef patties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stelzleni, Alexander M; Ponrajan, Amudhan; Harrison, Mark A

    2013-09-01

    The inclusion of two sources of buffered vinegar and sodium dodecyl sulfate plus levulinic acid were studied as interventions for Salmonella Typhimurium and for their effect on shelf-life and sensory characteristics of ground beef. For the Salmonella challenge, beef trimmings (80/20) were inoculated then treated with 2% (w/v) liquid buffered vinegar (LVIN), 2.5% (w/w) powdered buffered vinegar (PVIN), a solution containing 1.0% levulinic acid plus 0.1% sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDLA) at 10% (w/v), or had no intervention applied (CNT). The same trim source and production methods were followed during production of patties for shelf-life and sensory testing without inoculation. SDLA patties had the largest reduction (PSalmonella. However, LVIN and PVIN had the least (Pcharacteristics, except PVIN exhibited stronger off-flavor (P<0.05).

  16. Effect of NaCl on the spectral and kinetic properties of cresyl violet (CV)-sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS) complex

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    K I Priyadarsini; Hari Mohan

    2003-08-01

    Effect of added NaCl on the spectral and kinetic properties of cationically charged dye (cresyl violet) and anionically charged surfactant (sodium dodecyl sulphate) were studied in the pre-micellar and micellar regions. Addition of 0.2M NaCl to dye-surfactant solution decreased the critical micellar concentration for the micellization of the dye in sodium dodecyl sulphate to 1.2 × 10-3 M. Time-resolved studies using a stopped-flow spectrometer showed that NaCl influences the dynamics of micellisation. Addition of NaCl during the dye-surfactant complex formation converted the complex into micellized form at NaCl concentration of 0.01 to 0.05 M. In contrast, much higher concentration of NaCl (2 M) is required for the salting-out effect of the dye-surfactant complex for conversion to the micellized form.

  17. Conductometric study of sodium dodecyl sulfate - nonionic surfactant (Triton X-100, Tween 20, Tween 60, Tween 80 or Tween 85) mixed micelles in aqueous solution

    OpenAIRE

    Ćirin Dejan M; Poša Mihalj M.; Krstonošić Veljko S.; Milanović Maja Lj.

    2012-01-01

    The present study is concerned with the determination of the critical micelle concentration (cmc) of mixed micelles of sodium dodecyl sulfate with one of five nonionic surfactants (Triton X-100, Tween 20, Tween 60, Tween 80 or Tween 85) from conductance measurements. Based on the calculated values of the β parameters we have noticed that SDS-nonionic surfactants mostly showed strong synergistic effect. It was found that nonionic surfactants with mainly longer and more hydrophobic tail s...

  18. Identification of coagulase-negative staphylococci by using sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and rRNA restriction patterns.

    OpenAIRE

    Pennington, T. H.; Harker, C.; Thomson-Carter, F

    1991-01-01

    A total of 1,417 staphylococcal and micrococcal strains were collected from the beards and scalps of 10 subjects over a period of 8 months. Sixteen strains identified as Staphylococcus epidermidis with an API system had distinctive yellow colonies on nutrient agar plates and sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis whole-cell polypeptide profiles similar to those of Staphylococcus capitis; this identification was confirmed by analysis of rRNA gene restriction patterns.

  19. The Catalysis of Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate/1-Pentanol/Water W/O Microemulsion on the Photoisomerization of trans-Stilbene

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xia GUO; Ling LIN; Rong GUO

    2004-01-01

    The photoisomerization of trans-stilbene was studied in the water in oil (W/O) micro- emulsion formed by SDS (sodium dodecyl sulfate), n-C5H11OH (1-pentanol) and H2O. The experimental results show that after 2-minute UV-irradiation, the yield of cis-stilbene is higher in W/O microemulsion than in homogeneous solvent-n-C5H11OH.

  20. Optical and Thermal Properties of Zn/Al-Layered Double Hydroxide Nanocomposite Intercalated with Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samaneh Babakhani

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Zn/Al-LDH-SDS nanocomposites have been prepared using a coprecipitation method in different molar ratio of Zn2+/Al3+ = 2, 3, and 4 at pH = 10 and different concentrations of sodium dodecyl sulfate solution (0.2 M, 0.4 M, and 0.8 M. The XRD and FTIR data show the successful intercalation of SDS into the LDH interlayer. The XRD diffractogram showed that the basal spacing for Zn/Al–NO3- is 0.89 nm compared to 2.54–2.61 nm for the Zn/Al-SDS nanocomposite. Optical band gap of the samples was calculated using Kubelka-Munk model. Due to the presence of LDH phase, two band gap energies (Eg1 and Eg2 were observed. The values of Eg1 and Eg2 were found around 4.8 eV and 3.75 eV for Zn/Al-LDH (r = 2, 3, and 4. The values of band gap of LDH-SDS nanocomposites were found to increase to around 4.2 eV and 5.2 eV. For Zn4Al-LDH-SDS with 0.4 M and 0.8 M of SDS, only one energy gap at around 3.23 eV was observed. The optical band gap of SO42- phase increased as the amount of SDS increases. Thermal diffusivity of the resulted nanocomposite was also investigated.

  1. Antigenic profile of heat-killed versus thimerosal-treated Leishmania major using sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Arjmand

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Leishmania is a parasitic protozoan of trypanosomatidae family which causes a wide spectrum of diseases ranging from self-healing cutaneous lesions to deadly visceral forms. In endemic areas, field trials of different preparations of Leishmania total antigen were tested as leishmaniasis vaccine. Two preparations of killed Leishmania major were produced In Iran, which were heat-killed vaccine called autoclaved L. major (ALM and thimerosal-treated freeze-thawed vaccine called killed L. major (KLM. In this study, the protein content of both ALM and KLM were compared with that of freshly harvested intact L. major promastigotes using sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE. Materials and Methods: L. major (MRHO/IR/75/ER from pre-infected Balb/c mice was isolated with modified Novy-MacNeal-Nicolle (NNN medium and then subcultured in liquid RPMI 1640 medium supplemented with fetal calf serum (FCS 20% for mass production. Two preparations of KLM and ALM were produced by Razi Vaccine and Serum Research Institute, Iran, under WHO/TDR supervision. Electrophoresis was performed by SDS-PAGE method and the gel was stained by Coomassie brilliant blue dye. The resultant unit bands were compared using standard molecular proteins. Results: Electrophoresis of the two preparations produced many bands from 10 kDa to 100 kDa. KLM bands were much like those of freshly harvested intact L. major. Conclusion: It is concluded that although there are similar bands in the three forms of Leishmania antigens, there are some variations which might be considered for identification and purification of protective immunogens in a total crude antigen, and detection of their stability is essential for the production and marketing of a putative vaccine.

  2. Serum sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis analysis of patients with membranous nephropathy and focal and segmental glomerulosclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pragya Pant

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Diagnosis of membranous nephropathy (MN and focal and segmental glomerulo- sclerosis (FSGS needs a renal biopsy, which is an invasive procedure with potentially serious complications. Proteomics may be applied for the development of a biomarker for these diseases which will obviate the need of biopsy. Serum sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electro-phoresis (SDS-PAGE analysis gives an idea of the various proteins with different molecular weights (MWs in a given sample. This study was conducted to analyze proteins with different MWs in patients with MN and FSGS and to compare the two groups with regard to their protein profile. This was a comparative, experimental study performed from June 2013 to July 2014 in the Department of Nephrology, Sir Sunderlal Hospital, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi. Twenty-three histologically diagnosed cases of primary MN and 25 cases of FSGS were included in the study. Patients were categorized as having mild, moderate, and severe proteinuria with 24 h urinary protein levels of <4, 4- 8 and ≥8 g/24 h, respectively. SDS-PAGE analysis was performed by the method of Laemmli and revealed a significantly higher number of patients with FSGS (80% having a protein corresponding to 29 kDa MW, than those with MN (39.1% (P = 0.004. Protein of 5 kDa MW was present in a significantly higher number of patients with moderate (80% and severe (100% proteinuria than those with mild proteinuria (25% (P <0.001. Thus, protein of MW 29 kDa may be a marker for FSGS and needs further characterization. Similarly, 5 kDa protein, present in patients with moderate and severe proteinuria, might be either contributing to or be a marker of severe illness.

  3. Serum sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis analysis of patients with membranous nephropathy and focal and segmental glomerulosclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pant, Pragya; Singh, R G; Singh, Santosh K; Singh, Vijay P; Doley, Prodip K; Sivasankar, M

    2016-05-01

    Diagnosis of membranous nephropathy (MN) and focal and segmental glomerulo- sclerosis (FSGS) needs a renal biopsy, which is an invasive procedure with potentially serious complications. Proteomics may be applied for the development of a biomarker for these diseases which will obviate the need of biopsy. Serum sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electro-phoresis (SDS-PAGE) analysis gives an idea of the various proteins with different molecular weights (MWs) in a given sample. This study was conducted to analyze proteins with different MWs in patients with MN and FSGS and to compare the two groups with regard to their protein profile. This was a comparative, experimental study performed from June 2013 to July 2014 in the Department of Nephrology, Sir Sunderlal Hospital, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi. Twenty-three histologically diagnosed cases of primary MN and 25 cases of FSGS were included in the study. Patients were categorized as having mild, moderate, and severe proteinuria with 24 h urinary protein levels of <4, 4- 8 and ≥8 g/24 h, respectively. SDS-PAGE analysis was performed by the method of Laemmli and revealed a significantly higher number of patients with FSGS (80%) having a protein corresponding to 29 kDa MW, than those with MN (39.1%) (P = 0.004). Protein of 5 kDa MW was present in a significantly higher number of patients with moderate (80%) and severe (100%) proteinuria than those with mild proteinuria (25%) (P <0.001). Thus, protein of MW 29 kDa may be a marker for FSGS and needs further characterization. Similarly, 5 kDa protein, present in patients with moderate and severe proteinuria, might be either contributing to or be a marker of severe illness.

  4. Aplikasi Metode SDS-PAGE (Sodium Dodecyl Sulphate Poly Acrylamide Gel Electrophoresis untuk Mengidentifikasi Sumber Asal Gelatin pada Kapsul Keras

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Hermanto

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Gelatin as the main ingredient of capsules is still a problem for a moslem. Most of gelatin production remains largely derived from non-halal materials. One of gelatin source is came from collagen of the skin and bones of bovine or pork. The main of study is determine the source of gelatin used in hard capsules by using SDS-PAGE (Sodium Dodecyl Sulphate Gel electrophoresis Poly Acrylamide method. In the early stages, optimization of standards bovine and pork gelatin were hydrolyzed by pepsin at pH 4.5 and 60°C for 1 hour, 2 hours, and 3 hours. Gelatin hydrolyzateswere analyzed by SDS-PAGE to determine the optimal hydrolysis time. Identification of gelatin hydrolyzate fragments were carried by molecular weight. Hydrolysis time optimization throught applied to identify the source of hard gelatin capsules in the samples obtained from market and compared with the simulation of hard gelatin capsules. The results showed there were of specific bands of bovine gelatin with a molecular weight of 11,4 kDa; 34 kDa; 47kDa and specific bands of pork gelatin with a molecular weight of 24.7 kDa; 28 kDa; and 60 kDa. Similar results were obtained on a sample of hard capsules with bands of protein fragments that were identical to bovine gelatinstandard. Based on the results,each of the samples were tested contain of bovine gelatin respectively. DOI :http://dx.doi.org/10.15408/jkv.v0i0.3150

  5. Effect of Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate (SDS) and Tween 80 on Cell Viability in an Air-Cathode Microbial Fuel Cell

    KAUST Repository

    Fregoso, Luisa

    2011-07-01

    Microbial fuel cells (MFCs) generate current via electrochemical reactions produced by bacteria attached to the anode that oxidize organic matter. Due to their high volume use in household products, some concentration of surfactant will reach wastewater treatment plants. The average surfactant concentration in wastewater ranges from 10 to 20 mg L-1, and up to 300 mg L-1, for domestic and industrial wastewaters, respectively. This study aimed to demonstrate the feasibility of enhancing power production by adding Tween 80 and SDS surfactants to air-cathode MFCs, and their effect in cell viability at the anodic biofilm. In order to analyze the effect of anionic and nonionic surfactants in MFCs performance, eight MFCs were spiked with two types of surfactants, the anionic surfactant sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) and the nonionic surfactant Tween® 80 at two different concentrations 10 and 100 mg L-1. Cell viability at the anodic biofilms was examined using the LIVE/DEAD BacLight viability assay and images were visualized with a confocal laser scanning microscope. The electrochemical results demonstrate that, for an air-cathode MFC operating on 1 g L-1 acetate in a fed-batch mode, reactors where SDS was added show a lower overall performance, maximum PD of 544 mW m-2, CE of 12.3%, Rint of 322 Ω (10 mg L-1) and maximum PD of 265 mW m-2, CE of 9.4%, Rint of 758 Ω (100 mg L-1). Reactors where Tween 80 was added show quite stable performance, maximum PD of 623 mW m-2, CE of 15.4%, Rint of 216 Ω (10 mg L-1) and maximum PD of 591 mW m-2, CE of 10.8%, Rint of 279 Ω (100 mg L-1), compared with reactors operating at only acetate as a substrate, maximum PD of 574 mW m-2. Confocal microscopy images confirm this observation and biofilm viability appeared severely compromised in SDS reactors, especially at high concentrations. This study has opened up a whole new research area in determining which types of surfactants are toxic to the anodic biofilm and to further investigate the

  6. Preparation of the cactus-like porous manganese oxide assisted with surfactant sodium dodecyl sulfate for supercapacitors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dai, Yu [State Key Laboratory of Advanced Metallurgy, University of Science and Technology Beijing, No. 30 College Road, Beijing 100083 (China); Li, Jianling, E-mail: lijianling@ustb.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Advanced Metallurgy, University of Science and Technology Beijing, No. 30 College Road, Beijing 100083 (China); Yan, Gang; Xu, Guofeng; Xue, Qingrui [State Key Laboratory of Advanced Metallurgy, University of Science and Technology Beijing, No. 30 College Road, Beijing 100083 (China); Kang, Feiyu [Lab of Advanced Materials, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China)

    2015-02-05

    Highlights: • The cactus-like porous MnO{sub 2} was synthesized by hydrothermal method assisted with SDS. • The MnO{sub 2} exhibits a max specific capacitance of 187.8 F g{sup −1} (0.2 A g{sup −1}, 1 M Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4}). • Excellent cycling stability: 92.9% capacitance retention after 1000 cycles. - Abstract: The cactus-like porous manganese dioxide (MnO{sub 2}) was synthesized by a simple hydrothermal method assisted with the surfactant sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS). The morphology, composition, property of the prepared materials were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman spectroscopy, Brunauer–Emmett–Teller (BET), Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy (FE-SEM) and Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) measurements. It was found that the sample without surfactant was composed of nanoflakes which piling up together, whereas in the presence of the surfactant, the MnO{sub 2} samples with the max specific surface of 321.9 m{sup 2} g{sup −1} showed a porous cactus-like microstructure, consisted of uniform nanowires and porous nanoflakes. The electrochemical performances of the MnO{sub 2} with and without surfactant were analyzed using Cyclic Voltammetry (CV), Electrochemical Impedance Spectrometry (EIS) and Galvanostatic Charge–Discharge (GCD) tests. The results showed that the MnO{sub 2} assisted with 1 wt.% SDS displayed a higher specific capacitance of 187.8 F g{sup −1} at the current density of 0.2 A g{sup −1} compared with the MnO{sub 2} without surfactant (134.8 F g{sup −1}). And such MnO{sub 2} samples with higher specific capacitance also afford an excellent cyclic stability with the capacity retention of approximately 92.9% after 1000 cycles in 1 M Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4} solution at a current density of 1 A g{sup −1}. The superior capacitive performance of the as-prepared materials could be attributed to its unique cactus-like porous structure, which provided good electronic conductivity, large specific surface area as

  7. Analysis of Soluble Proteins in Natural Cordyceps sinensis from Different Producing Areas by Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate-Polyacrylamide Gel Electrophoresis and Two-dimensional Electrophoresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chun-Hong; Zuo, Hua-Li; Zhang, Qian; Wang, Feng-Qin; Hu, Yuan-Jia; Qian, Zheng-Ming; Li, Wen-Jia; Xia, Zhi-Ning; Yang, Feng-Qing

    2017-01-01

    As one of the bioactive components in Cordyceps sinensis (CS), proteins were rarely used as index components to study the correlation between the protein components and producing areas of natural CS. Protein components of 26 natural CS samples produced in Qinghai, Tibet, and Sichuan provinces were analyzed and compared to investigate the relationship among 26 different producing areas. Proteins from 26 different producing areas were extracted by Tris-HCl buffer with Triton X-100, and separated using sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE). The SDS-PAGE results indicated that the number of protein bands and optical density curves of proteins in 26 CS samples was a bit different. However, the 2-DE results showed that the numbers and abundance of protein spots in protein profiles of 26 samples were obviously different and showed certain association with producing areas. Based on the expression values of matched protein spots, 26 batches of CS samples can be divided into two main categories (Tibet and Qinghai) by hierarchical cluster analysis. The number of protein bands and optical density curves of proteins in 26 Cordyceps sinensis samples were a bit different on the sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis protein profilesNumbers and abundance of protein spots in protein profiles of 26 samples were obvious different on two-dimensional electrophoresis mapsTwenty-six different producing areas of natural Cordyceps sinensis samples were divided into two main categories (Tibet and Qinghai) by Hierarchical cluster analysis based on the values of matched protein spots. Abbreviations Used: SDS-PAGE: Sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, 2-DE: Two-dimensional electrophoresis, Cordyceps sinensis: CS, TCMs: Traditional Chinese medicines.

  8. Determination of amino acid compositions and NH2-terminal sequences of peptides electroblotted onto PVDF membranes from tricine-sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ploug, M; Jensen, A L; Barkholt, V.

    1989-01-01

    The combination of high-resolution Tricine-Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (H. Schägger and G. von Jagow (1987) Anal. Biochem. 166, 368-379) and electroblotting onto polyvinylidene difluoride (PVDF) membranes represents a powerful technique for the isolation of small...... amounts of peptides and protein fragments (Mr 1000-20,000) in a suitable form for amino acid sequencing, directly on the blotting membrane. Conditions for electrophoresis and electroblotting were optimized with respect to high transfer yield and suitability for both amino acid analysis and sequence...

  9. Isoelectric focusing of human hair keratins: correlation with sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) patterns and effect of cosmetic treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Calvo, M S; Carracedo, A; Muñoz, I; Concheiro, L

    1992-03-01

    A new isoelectric focusing (IEF) technique in polyacrylamide gels with 6M urea and 1.5% Nonidet P40 has been developed to characterize human hair samples. The phenotypes demonstrated with this procedure has been correlated with the sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) patterns described by other authors. The method described can be applied in the forensic science analysis of a single human hair. Using the same IEF technique we have studied the changes in electrophoretic patterns of cosmetically treated hair. The characteristics of the modifications observed and its utility in forensic science work are also discussed in this paper.

  10. Adsorption of the anionic surfactant sodium dodecyl sulfate on a C18 column under micellar and high submicellar conditions in reversed-phase liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz-Bolsico, C; Ruiz-Angel, M J; García-Alvarez-Coque, M C

    2015-02-01

    Micellar liquid chromatography makes use of aqueous solutions or aqueous-organic solutions containing a surfactant, at a concentration above its critical micelle concentration. In the mobile phase, the surfactant monomers aggregate to form micelles, whereas on the surface of the nonpolar alkyl-bonded stationary phases they are significantly adsorbed. If the mobile phase contains a high concentration of organic solvent, micelles break down, and the amount of surfactant adsorbed on the stationary phase is reduced, giving rise to another chromatographic mode named high submicellar liquid chromatography. The presence of a thinner coating of surfactant enhances the selectivity and peak shape, especially for basic compounds. However, the risk of full desorption of surfactant is the main limitation in the high submicellar mode. This study examines the adsorption of the anionic surfactant sodium dodecyl sulfate under micellar and high submicellar conditions on a C18 column, applying two methods. One of them uses a refractive index detector to obtain direct measurements of the adsorbed amount of sodium dodecyl sulfate, whereas the second method is based on the retention and peak shape for a set of cationic basic compounds that indirectly reveal the presence of adsorbed monomers of surfactant on the stationary phase.

  11. Interactions between sodium dodecyl sulphate and non-ionic cellulose derivatives studied by size exclusion chromatography with online multi-angle light scattering and refractometric detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wittgren, Bengt; Stefansson, Morgan; Porsch, Bedrich

    2005-08-05

    The novel approach described allows to characterise the surfactant-polymer interaction under several sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS) concentrations (0-20 mM) using size exclusion chromatography (SEC) with online multi-angle light scattering (MALS) and refractometric (RI) detection. Three different cellulose derivatives, hydroxypropyl cellulose (HPC), hydroxypropyl methyl cellulose (HPMC) and hydroxyethyl cellulose (HEC), have been studied in solution containing 10 mM NaCl and various concentrations of sodium dodecyl sulphate. It is shown that this approach is well suited for successful application of both Hummel-Dreyer and multi-component light scattering principles and yields reliable molecular masses of both the polymer complex and the polymer itself within the complex, the amount of surfactant bound into the complex as well as appropriate values of the refractive index increment (dn/dc)micro, of both the complex and the polymer in question. The more hydrophobic derivatives HPC and HPMC adsorbed significantly more SDS than HEC. The inter-chain interactions close to critical aggregation concentration (cac) were clearly seen for HPC and HPMC as an almost two-fold average increase in polymer molecular mass contained in the complex.

  12. Method development for cortisol and cortisone by micellar liquid chromatography using sodium dodecyl sulphate: application to urine samples of rugby players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izquierdo-Hornillos, R; Gonzalo-Lumbreras, R; Santos-Montes, A

    2005-01-01

    The chromatographic behavior of cortisol and cortisone using a micellar medium of sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS) as surfactant, a Hypersil C18 (150- x 3.2-mm i.d., 5 microm) column, a flow rate of 0.5 mL/min, and UV absorbance detection at 245 nm is described. The effect of several organic modifiers and the surfactant concentration on the separation is studied. A mobile phase of 18 mM SDS and 8.3% tetrahydrofuran allows for the separation of cortisol and cortisone up to baseline. These results are also achieved by applying a bivariant optimization method. The proposed method is sensitive, reproducible, and selective. In addition, it is less expensive than conventional high-performance liquid chromatography methods for cortisol and cortisone. The method is applied to the determination of cortisol and cortisone in urine samples of rugby players before and after stress for doping control purposes.

  13. Micellar copolymerization of associative polymers: study of the effect of acrylamide on sodium dodecyl sulfate-poly(propylene oxide) methacrylate mixed micelles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastiat, Guillaume; Grassl, Bruno; François, Jeanne

    2005-09-15

    Mixed micelles of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) and poly(propylene oxide) methacrylate (PPOMA) have been studied in the presence of acrylamide using conductimetry, fluorescence spectroscopy, and small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) under the following conditions: (i) the SDS-acrylamide binary system in water; (ii) the SDS-acrylamide-PPOMA ternary system in water. The addition of acrylamide in SDS solutions perturbs the micellization of the surfactant by decreasing the aggregation number of the micelles and increasing their ionization degree. The variations of the various micellar parameters versus the weight ratio R=PPOMA/SDS are different in the presence of acrylamide or in pure water. These differences are much more pronounced for the lower than for the higher PPOMA concentrations. There is competition between acrylamide and PPOMA and at higher PPOMA concentration, acrylamide tends to be released from SDS micelles and is completely replaced by PPOMA.

  14. Conductometric study of sodium dodecyl sulfate - nonionic surfactant (Triton X-100, Tween 20, Tween 60, Tween 80 or Tween 85 mixed micelles in aqueous solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ćirin Dejan M.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study is concerned with the determination of the critical micelle concentration (cmc of mixed micelles of sodium dodecyl sulfate with one of five nonionic surfactants (Triton X-100, Tween 20, Tween 60, Tween 80 or Tween 85 from conductance measurements. Based on the calculated values of the β parameters we have noticed that SDS-nonionic surfactants mostly showed strong synergistic effect. It was found that nonionic surfactants with mainly longer and more hydrophobic tail show stronger interactions with hydrophobic part of SDS, thus expressing stronger synergism. In SDS-Tween 80 binary system the strongest synergistic effect was noticed. SDS-Tween 85 micellar system showed antagonistic effect, most probably because the presence of the double bond in its three hydrophobic tails (three C18 tails makes it sterically rigid.

  15. Characterization of Sm14 related components in different helminths by sodium dodecyl sulphate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and Western blotting analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilton Thaumaturgo

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available Sm14 was the first fatty acid-binding protein homologue identified in helminths. Thereafter, members of the same family were identified in several helminth species, with high aminoacid sequence homology between them. In addition, immune crossprotection was also reported against Fasciola hepatica infection, in animals previously immunized with the Schistosoma mansoni vaccine candidate, r-Sm14. In the present study, data on preliminary sodium dodecyl sulphate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and Western blotting analysis of nine different helminth extracts focusing the identification of Sm14 related proteins, is reported. Out of these, three extracts - Ascaris suum (males and females, Echinostoma paraensei, and Taenia saginata - presented components that comigrated with Sm14 in SDS-PAGE, and that were recognized by anti-rSm14 policlonal serum, in Western blotting tests.

  16. Interaction between sodium dodecyl sulfate and membrane reconstituted aquaporins: A comparative study of spinach SoPIP2;1 and E. coli AqpZ

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Jesper Schmidt; Vararattanavech, Ardcharaporn; Plasencia, Inés;

    2011-01-01

    This study describes the interaction between sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) and membrane proteins reconstituted into large unilamellar lipid vesicles and detergent micelles studied by circular dichroism (CD) and polarity sensitive probe labeling. Specifically, we carried out a comparative study...... of two aquaporins with high structural homology SoPIP2;1 and AqpZ using identical reconstitution conditions. Our CD results indicate that SDS, when added to membrane-reconstituted aquaporins in concentrations below the SDS critical micelle concentration (CMC, ~8mM), causes helical rearrangements of both...... reconstituted SoPIP2;1 as well as AqpZ is associated with initial increased hydrophobic interactions in protein transmembrane (TM) spanning regions up to a concentration of 0.1× CMC. At higher SDS concentrations TM hydrophobic interactions, as reported by Badan, decrease and reach a plateau from SDS CMC up...

  17. Electrochemical deposition of Ni–TiN nanocomposite coatings and the effect of sodium dodecyl sulphate surfactant on the coating properties

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    NAFISE PARHIZKAR; ABOLGHASEM DOLATI; ROYA AGHABABAZADEH; ZAHRA LALEGANI

    2016-08-01

    Ni–TiN nanocomposite coatings were prepared by using electrochemical deposition in a Watt’s bath containing TiN particles to increase the hardness of Ni. The effects of deposition current density, electrolyte agitation speed and the number of particles in the solution on the amount of incorporated particles in the coating process were investigated. The optimum deposition current density of 4 A dm$^{−2}$ and agitation speed of 450 rpm were obtained. The effect of sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS) anionic surfactant on the amount of particles in the coatings was investigated. It was observed that the maximum amount of incorporated particles, with a value of 7.5% by volume, was created in the current density of 4 A dm$^{−2}$, stirring rate of 450 rpm, 30 g l$^{−1}$ TiN particles and in the presence of 0.6 g l$^{−1}$ SDS anionic surfactant.

  18. Synthesis of a new electrolyte by co-poly-esters doped with sodium dodecyl sulfate for application on PEM fuel cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fiuza, J.R.A.; Boaventura, F.J.S.; Jose, N.M.; Bresciani, D. [Univ. Federal da Bahia, Salvador (Brazil). Dept. of Physical Chemistry

    2009-07-01

    Proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs) use polymer membranes as electrolytes and protons as conductors. This paper reported on a study in which co-polyesters were doped with sodium dodecyl sulfate. The co-polymers were synthesized by a copolymerization process that used terephthalic and adipic acids with glycerol. A reactor was used to process the material, which was then hot-pressed to produce homogenous and flexible plates. X-ray diffraction (XRD) scanning electron microscopy (SEM), thermogravimetric, direct scanning calorimetry (DSC) and Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) analyses were conducted. Results of the analyses demonstrated that the composite material was stable up to a temperature of 250 degrees C. A micrographics study showed that MDS was homogeneously dispersed in the polymeric matrix. It was concluded that with an electrical conductivity between 10-7 to 10-1 S per cm, the copolymers were suitable for use in PEMFC applications.

  19. Effect of sodium dodecyl sulfate on immuno-electrosyneresis between normal human erythrocyte membrane and sera of systemic lupus erythematosus patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arimori,Shigeru

    1975-12-01

    Full Text Available An anti-membrane antibody was present in the sera of systemic lupus erythematosus patients in immunoelectrosyneresis with sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS solubilized erythrocyte membrane as antigen. The SDS bound to protein was detected by chromatography at 10(-3M concentration under U.V. light, at 10(-5M concentration by the distilled water spray method and at 10(-6M concentration by using rosaniline hydrochloride colorimetry. SDS was removed from the membrane protein at a concentration of 10(-3M by the first gel filtration of Sephadex G-25 column and at a concentration of 10(-6M by rechromatography of the same column. More than 99% of SDS in the solubilized erythrocyte membrane was removed by gel filtration. The antigenicity was still positive in the refiltrated fractions of systemic lupus erythematosus patients. Therefore, all precipitates in the gels were antigen-antibody aggregates.

  20. Fast Removal of Citalopram Drug from Waste Water Using Magnetic Nanoparticles Modified with Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate Followed by UV-Spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Khoeini Sharifabadi

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available A simple and sensitive, solid-phase extraction method for the removal of Citalopram drug from waste water has been developed by using magnetic nanoparticles modified with surfactant sodium dodecyl sulfate. These magnetic nanoparticles have shown great adsorptive tendency towards Citalopram drug. The effect of different parameters influencing the extraction efficiency of this drug were investigated and optimized including the pH, amount of the surfactant, contact time and temperature. The extracts were analyzed by ultraviolet spectrophotometry at 239nm. Under these conditions, the related standard deviation (RSD % of the method at two concentrations (5 and 50µg.mL-1 was in the range of (3.14–3.75 % (n = 8. The calibration curve was linear in the range of 2-100 µg.mL-1 of Citalopram drug with a correlation coefficient of >0.99.

  1. Fast Removal of Citalopram Drug from Waste Water Using Magnetic Nanoparticles Modified with Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate Followed by UV-Spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Khoeini Sharifabadi

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available A simple and sensitive, solid-phase extraction method for the removal of Citalopram drug from waste water has been developed by using magnetic nanoparticles modified with surfactant sodium dodecyl sulfate. These magnetic nanoparticles have shown great adsorptive tendency towards Citalopram drug. The effect of different parameters influencing the extraction efficiency of this drug were investigated and optimized including the pH, amount of the surfactant, contact time and temperature. The extracts were analyzed by ultraviolet spectrophotometry at 239nm. Under these conditions, the related standard deviation (RSD % of the method at two concentrations (5 and 50µg.mL-1 was in the range of (3.14–3.75 % (n = 8. The calibration curve was linear in the range of 2-100 µg.mL-1 of Citalopram drug with a correlation coefficient of >0.99.

  2. The Effect of Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate (SDS and Cetyltrimethylammonium Bromide (CTAB on the Properties of ZnO Synthesized by Hydrothermal Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun Hin Taufiq-Yap

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available ZnO nanostructures were synthesized by hydrothermal method using different molar ratios of cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB and Sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS as structure directing agents. The effect of surfactants on the morphology of the ZnO crystals was investigated by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM and transmission electron microscopy (TEM techniques. The results indicate that the mixture of cationic-anionic surfactants can significantly modify the shape and size of ZnO particles. Various structures such as flakes, sheets, rods, spheres, flowers and triangular-like particles sized from micro to nano were obtained. In order to examine the possible changes in other properties of ZnO, characterizations like powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD, thermogravimetric and differential thermogravimetric analysis (TGA-DTG, FTIR, surface area and porosity and UV-visible spectroscopy analysis were also studied and discussed.

  3. Comparison of microenvironments of aqueous sodium dodecyl sulfate micelles in the presence of inorganic and organic salts: a time-resolved fluorescence anisotropy approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutt, G B

    2005-11-08

    Microenvironments of aqueous sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) micelles was examined in the presence of additives such as sodium chloride and p-toluidine hydrochloride (PTHC) by monitoring the fluorescence anisotropy decays of two hydrophobic probes, 2,5-dimethyl-1,4-dioxo-3,6-diphenylpyrrolo[3,4-c]pyrrole (DMDPP) and coumarin 6 (C6). It has been well-established that SDS micelles undergo a sphere-to-rod transition and that their mean hydrodynamic radius increases from 19 to 100 A upon the addition of 0.0-0.7 M NaCl at 298 K. A similar size and shape transition is induced by PTHC at concentrations that are 20 times lower compared to that of NaCl. This study was undertaken to find out how the microviscosity of the micelles is influenced under these circumstances. It was noticed that the microviscosity of the SDS/NaCl system increased by approximately 45%, whereas there was a less than 10% variation in the microviscosity of the SDS/PTHC system. The large increase in the microviscosity of the former system with salt concentration has been rationalized on the basis of the high concentration of sodium ions in the headgroup region of the micelles and their ability to strongly coordinate with the water present in this region, which decreases the mobility of the probe molecules.

  4. Development of a sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis reference method for the analysis and identification of fish species in raw and heat-processed samples : A collaborative study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pineiro, C.; Barros-Velazquez, J.; Perez-Martin, R.I.;

    1999-01-01

    A collaborative study was carried out in seven European labs with the aim of achieving a sodium dodecyl sulfate- polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) standard operation procedure to identify fish species in raw and cooked samples. Urea and SDS-containing solutions were evaluated as extra...

  5. Development of a sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis reference method for the analysis and identification of fish species in raw and heat-processed samples : A collaborative study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pineiro, C.; Barros-Velazquez, J.; Perez-Martin, R.I.

    1999-01-01

    A collaborative study was carried out in seven European labs with the aim of achieving a sodium dodecyl sulfate- polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) standard operation procedure to identify fish species in raw and cooked samples. Urea and SDS-containing solutions were evaluated as extra...

  6. Evaluation of DLVO theory with disjoining-pressure and film-conductance measurements of common-black films stabilized with sodium dodecyl sulfate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaros, Heather D; Newman, John; Radke, C J

    2003-06-15

    We develop a unique film holder combining a thin-film balance with AC impedance spectroscopy to measure disjoining pressure, film conductance, and film thickness simultaneously. Foam films stabilized by sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) are investigated with and without added sodium chloride (NaCl) electrolyte. Classical colloidal theory, Derjaguin, Landau, Verwey, and Overbeek (DLVO) theory, is tested rigorously over a wide range of solution conditions by comparing the surface charge densities fit to disjoining-pressure isotherms with those estimated independently from film-conductance and surface-tension data. Film-conductance measurements strongly suggest that the adsorbed anionic surfactant is partially complexed with counterions. Therefore, to reconcile the different values of charge densities calculated from surface tension and film conductance with those from disjoining pressure, we propose a simple ion-binding electrostatic model. The ion-complexation framework predicts increased ion complexing with increasing solution ionic strength, in agreement with surface-tension and film-conductance data. Unfortunately, it is not possible to describe similarly the trends of the measured disjoining-pressure isotherms because the diffuse-layer charge density increases, or equivalently, the ion complexation decreases with increasing ionic strength. Accordingly, the ion-binding extension of classical DLVO theory does not permit agreement between theory and independent experimental data from surface tension, disjoining pressure, and film conductance.

  7. In-tube magnetic solid phase microextraction of some fluoroquinolones based on the use of sodium dodecyl sulfate coated Fe3O4 nanoparticles packed tube.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manbohi, Ahmad; Ahmadi, Seyyed Hamid

    2015-07-23

    In-tube magnetic solid phase microextraction (in-tube MSPME) of fluoroquinolones from water and urine samples based on the use of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) coated Fe3O4 nanoparticles packed tube has been reported. After the preparation of Fe3O4 nanoparticles (NPs) by a batch synthesis, these NPs were introduced into a stainless steel tube by a syringe and then a strong magnet was placed around the tube, so that the Fe3O4 NPs were remained in the tube and the tube was used in the in-tube SPME-HPLC/UV for the analysis of fluoroquinolones in water and urine samples. Plackett-Burman design was employed for screening the variables significantly affecting the extraction efficiency. Then, the significant factors were more investigated by Box-Behnken design. Calibration curves were linear (R(2)>0.990) in the range of 0.1-1000μgL(-1) for ciprofloxacin (CIP) and 0.5-500μgL(-1) for enrofloxacin (ENR) and ofloxacin (OFL), respectively. LODs for all studied fluoroquinolones ranged from 0.01 to 0.05μgL(-1). The main advantages of this method were rapid and easy automation and analysis, short extraction time, high sensitivity, possibility of fully sorbent collection after analysis, wide linear range and no need to organic solvents in extraction. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Effect of Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate Adsorption on the Behavior of Water inside Single Walled Carbon Nanotubes with Dissipative Particle Dynamics Simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minh D. Vo

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Dissipative particle dynamics (DPD simulations were utilized to investigate the ability of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS to adsorb inside a single-walled, arm-chair carbon nanotube (SWCNT, as well as the effect of surfactant on the properties of water inside the SWCNT. The diameter of the SWCNT varied from 1 to 5 nm. The radial and axial density profiles of water inside the SWCNTs were computed and compared with published molecular dynamics results. The average residence time and diffusivity were also calculated to show the size effect on mobility of water inside the SWCNT. It was found that nanotubes with diameter smaller than 3 nm do not allow SDS molecules to enter the SWCNT space. For larger SWCNT diameter, SDS adsorbed inside and outside the nanotube. When SDS was adsorbed in the hollow part of the SWCNT, the behavior of water inside the nanotube was found to be significantly changed. Both radial and axial density profiles of water inside the SWCNT fluctuated strongly and were different from those in bulk phase. In addition, SDS molecules increased the retention of water beads inside SWCNT (d ≥ 3nm while water diffusivity was decreased.

  9. Structural and phase transition changes of sodium dodecyl sulfate micellar solution in alcohols probed by small-angle neutron scattering (SANS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Putra, Edy Giri Rachman [Neutron Scattering Laboratory, National Nuclear Energy Agency of Indonesia (BATAN), Gedung 40 BATAN, Kawasan Puspiptek Serpong, Tangerang 15314 (Indonesia); Patriati, Arum [Neutron Scattering Laboratory, National Nuclear Energy Agency of Indonesia (BATAN), Gedung 40 BATAN, Kawasan Puspiptek Serpong, Tangerang 15314 (Indonesia); Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, University of Gadjah Mada, Bulaksumur, Yogyakarta 55281, Indonesia giri@batan.go.id (Indonesia)

    2015-04-16

    Small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) measurements on 0.3M sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) micellar solutions have been performed in the presence of n-alcohols, from ethanol to decanol at different alcohol concentrations, 2–10 wt%. The ellipsoid micellar structure which occurred in the 0.3M SDS in aqueous solution with the size range of 30–50 Å has different behavior at various hydrocarbon chain length and concentration of alcohols. At low concentration and short chain-length of alcohols, such as ethanol, propanol, and butanol, the size of micelles reduced and had a spherical-like structure. The opposite effect occurred as medium to long chain alcohols, such as hexanol, octanol and decanol was added into the 0.3M SDS micellar solutions. The micelles structure changed to be more elongated in major axis and then crossed the critical phase transition from micellar solution into liquid crystal phase as lamellar structure emerged by further addition of alcohols. The inter-lamellar distances were also depending on the hydrocarbon chain length and concentration of alcohols. In the meantime, the persistent micellar structures occurred in addition of medium chain of n-alcohol, pentanol at all concentrations.

  10. Sodium dodecyl sulfate coated γ-alumina support modified by a new Schiff base for solid phase extraction and flame-AAS determination of lead and copper ions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ardeshir Shokrollahi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A simple and fast approach for solid phase extraction is herein described, and used to determine trace amounts of Pb2+ and Cu2+ metal ions. The solid phase support is sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS-coated γ-alumina modified with bis(2-hydroxy acetophenone-1,6-hexanediimine (BHAH ligand. The adsorbed ions were stripped from the solid phase by 6 mL of 4 M nitric acid as eluent. The eluting solution was analyzed by flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS. The sorption recovery of metal ions was investigated with regard to the effects of pH, amount of ligand, γ-alumina and surfactant and the amount and type of eluent. Complexation of BHAH with Pb2+ or Cu2+ ions was examined via spectrophotometry using the HypSpec program. The detection limit for Cu2+ was 7.9 µg L-1 with a relative standard deviation of 1.67%, while that for Pb2+ was 6.4 µg L-1 with a relative standard deviation of 1.64%. A preconcentration factor of 100 was achieved for these ions. The method was successfully applied to determine analyte concentrations in samples of liver, parsley, cabbage, and water.

  11. Micellization, interaction and thermodynamic study of butylated hydroxyanisole (synthetic antioxidant and sodium dodecyl sulfate in aqueous-ethanol solution at 25, 30 and 35 °C

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Varun Bhardwaj

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Surfactants are found to enhance the diffusion significantly depending on hydrophobic/hydrophilic group lengths and the structure of the surfactant molecule. Aggregation properties of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS in the presence of butylated hydroxyanisole (synthetic antioxidant, at a range of temperatures (25, 30 and 35 °C have been measured by the conductometric study in aqueous-ethanolic composite solution. The experimental data of aqueous-ethanolic solutions as a function of SDS concentration ranging from 1 to 14 mM dm−3 show the presence of inflexion points indicating micellization and interaction mechanisms. Effect of temperature was also observed in increasing the CMC (Critical Micelle Concentration in the narrow composition. From the CMC values as a function of temperature, various thermodynamic parameters have been evaluated viz: (a the standard enthalpy change (ΔHm°, (b standard entropy change (ΔSm°, and (c standard Gibbs energy change (ΔGm°. The results showed that the presence of alcohol, as well as the composition of water + ethanol may have effect on thermodynamic parameters. The variation in these parameters with the concentration of surfactant or with the change in temperature suggests the manifestation of hydrophobic interactions in the studied system.

  12. Effects of Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate on Electroless Nickel Plating%十二烷基硫酸钠对化学镀镍的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    线东升; 李喜太; 李艳玲

    2012-01-01

    Sodium dodecyl sulfate is an indispensable pinhole preventive in the electroless nickel plating. During the electroless nickel plating process, white attachments can be easily produced on the surface of larger solid steel parts, which affects the quality of electroless nickel plating. But no white attachments were found on the surface of test pieces in the same plating bath. The producing reasons and solving methods of the produced white attachments have been found after years of exploration and analysis.%十二烷基硫酸钠是化学镀镍不可缺少的防针孔剂,较大实心钢铁零件化学镀镍过程中,很容易在零件表面产生白色附着物,影响化学镀镍的质量,而在同一镀槽的化学镀镍试片表面不产生白色附着物;经过多年的探索和分析,找到了白色附着物产生的原因和解决方法.

  13. Effects of sodium dodecyl benzene sulfonate on the crystal structures and photocatalytic performance of ZnO powders prepared by hydrothermal method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, Limin; Dong, Shuying; Li, Qilu; Li, Yifan; Pi, Yunqing; Liu, Menglin; Han, Xiao; Sun, Jianhui, E-mail: sunjh@htu.cn

    2015-11-15

    A facile and efficient route for the controllable synthesis of ZnO nanostructures by hydrothermal method using sodium dodecyl benzene sulfonate (SDBS) as surfactant was reported. The obtained products were well characterized with the aid of various techniques to probe their crystallographic, morphological, chemical, electrochemical and optical properties. The prepared products were used as photocatalysts in the application of the degradation of metronidazole (MNZ)-contained wastewater under visible light irradiation. A 4.5-fold augmentation of degradation efficiency was in turn observed for optimal ZnO (ZO-0.75) photocatalyst compared with that of sample without SDBS addition (ZO) under the visible light irradiation. The effects of SDBS dosage on the crystal structures of prepared samples as well as the crystal growth mechanism were also probed. - Graphical abstract: ZnO photocatalysts were fabricated through a facile and efficient hydrothermal method using SDBS as structure-directing surfactant in a controllable manner. In particular, the sample with different SDBS dosage exhibited distinct crystal structure and photocatalytic performance. - Highlights: • A rod-like ZnO photocatalyst was facilely synthesized by using SDBS as surfactant. • The effect of SDBS dosage on the crystal structure of photocatalyst was probed. • The probably crystal growth mechanism of prepared photocatalyst was explored. • The optimal ZnO with 0.75 g SDBS dosage displayed the best photocatalytic activity.

  14. ADSORPTION STUDY OF RHODAMIN B DYE ON IRAQI BENTONITE AND MODIFIED BENTONITE BY NANOCOMPOUNDS TIO2, ZNO, AL2O3 AND SODIUM DODECYL SULFATE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iqbal Salman AL-Jobouri

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The adsorption of Rhodamin B on Iraqi bentonite at the concentration range from 50 to 250 μg mL-1 was studied, Nano compounds; ZnO, TiO2, Al2O3 m and SDS in different amounts 0.01-0.1 g 10-1 g of Bentonite were used to modified the adsorption capacity of bentonite to remove the Rhodamin B from aqueous solutions. The study indicated that using 0.05 g and 0.1 of Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate (SDS lead to increase the percentage removal (%R from 79.3% for pure bentonite to 99.3%. While using 0.05 g TiO2 lead to increase the %R to 98.9%, 0.05 of ZnO to 98.6%. The other amount additives and Al2O3 using was not success to increase the %R for the Rhodamin B on bentonite surface. SEM measurement was achieved to discover the Nanoparticl exists in the bentonite surfaces.

  15. Temperature-dependent phase transition and desorption free energy of sodium dodecyl sulfate at the water/vapor interface: approaches from molecular dynamics simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Meng; Lu, Xiancai; Liu, Xiandong; Hou, Qingfeng; Zhu, Youyi; Zhou, Huiqun

    2014-09-09

    Adsorption of surfactants at the water/vapor interface depends upon their chemical potential at the interface, which is generally temperature-dependent. Molecular dynamics simulations have been performed to reveal temperature influences on the microstructure of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) molecule adsorption layer. At room temperature, SDS molecules aggregate at the interface, being in a liquid-expanded phase, whereas they tend to spread out and probably transit to a gaseous phase as the temperature increases to above 318 K. This phase transition has been confirmed by the temperature-dependent changes in two-dimensional array, tilt angles, and immersion depths to the aqueous phase of SDS molecules. The aggregation of SDS molecules accompanies with larger immersion depths, more coordination of Na(+) ions, and less coordination of water. Desorption free energy profiles show that higher desorption free energy appears for SDS molecules at the aggregate state at low temperatures, but no energy barrier is observed. The shapes of desorption free energy profiles depend upon the distribution of SDS at the interface, which, in turn, is related to the phase state of SDS. Our study sheds light on the development of adsorption thermodynamics and kinetics theories.

  16. Restraining Na-Montmorillonite Delamination in Water by Adsorption of Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate or Octadecyl Trimethyl Ammonium Chloride on the Edges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongliang Li

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The delamination of montmorillonite in water leads to sliming in ore slurry, which is detrimental to mineral flotation and solid/water separation. In this work, the delamination of Na-montmorillonite (Na-MMT has been restrained by sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS or octadecyl trimethyl ammonium chloride (1831 through the adsorption on the edge of the mineral. The experimental results have shown that the pretreatment by adding SDS and 1831 could greatly reduce the Stokes size percentage of −1.1 µm particles in the aqueous Na-MMT suspension. From the X-ray diffractometer (XRD results, the interlayer spacing of the MMT pre-treated by SDS and 1831 is smaller than that of original MMT particles. Adsorption position of SDS and 1831 on MMT surfaces was analyzed by the measurements of adsorption capacity of SDS and 1831, inductively-coupled plasma spectra, and zeta potential before and after the plane surface of MMT was covered with tetraethylenepentaminecopper ([Cu(tetren]2+. The results indicated that SDS and 1831 are adsorbed on the edge and the whole surface of Na-MMT, respectively. Delamination of MMT could be well restrained by the adsorption of SDS and 1831 on the edges of MMT.

  17. Electrochemical quartz crystal microbalance studies on enzymatic specific activity and direct electrochemistry of immobilized glucose oxidase in the presence of sodium dodecyl benzene sulfonate and multiwalled carbon nanotubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Yuhua; Xie, Qingji; Chen, Chao; Zhang, Qingfang; Ma, Ming; Yao, Shouzhuo

    2008-01-01

    The electrochemical quartz crystal microbalance (EQCM) technique was utilized to monitor in situ the adsorption of glucose oxidase (GOD) and the mixture of GOD and sodium dodecyl benzene sulfonate (SDBS) onto Au electrodes with and without modification of multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) or SDBS/MWCNTs composite, and the relationship between enzymatic specific activity (ESA) and direct electrochemistry of the immobilized GOD was quantitatively evaluated for the first time. Compared with the bare gold electrode at which a little GOD was adsorbed and the direct electrochemistry of the adsorbed GOD was negligible, the amount and electroactivity of adsorbed GOD were greatly enhanced when the GOD was mixed with SDBS and then adsorbed onto the SDBS/MWCNTs modified Au electrode. However, the ESA of the adsorbed GOD was fiercely decreased to only 16.1% of the value obtained on the bare gold electrode, and the portion of adsorbed GOD showing electrochemical activity exhibited very low enzymatic activity, demonstrating that the electroactivity and ESA of immobilized GOD responded oppositely to the presence of MWCNTs and SDBS. The ESA results obtained from the EQCM method were well supported by conventional UV-vis spectrophotometry. The direct electrochemistry of redox proteins including enzymes as a function of their biological activities is an important concern in biotechnology, and this work may have presented a new and useful protocol to quantitatively evaluate both the electroactivity and ESA of trace immobilized enzymes, which is expected to find wider applications in biocatalysis and biosensing fields.

  18. Synergistic effect of sodium dodecyl sulfate and cetyltrimethyl ammonium bromide on the corrosion inhibition behavior of l-methionine on mild steel in acidic medium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Mobin

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The corrosion inhibition behavior of amino acid l-methionine (LMT separately and in combination with very low concentration of surfactants sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS and cetyltrimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB on mild steel in 0.1 M H2SO4 solution was studied, using weight loss and potentiodynamic polarization measurement techniques. The studies were carried out in the temperature range of 30–60 °C. The surface morphology of the corroded steel samples was studied by scanning electron microscopy (SEM and atomic force microscopy (AFM.The results show that LMT is an effective inhibitor for mild steel corrosion in 0.1 M H2SO4 which is synergistically improved in the presence of SDS and CTAB. The mixed LMT and CTAB is more effective as an inhibitor than mixture of LMT and SDS. The SEM and AFM photographs show a clearly different surface morphology in the presence of additives. LMT alone and in combination with surfactants obeys Langmuir adsorption isotherm from the fit of the experimental data of all concentrations and temperatures studied. Phenomenon of physical adsorption is proposed from the trend of the IE with temperature and also the values of activation energy (Ea, standard enthalpy of adsorption (ΔHads, and standard free energy of adsorption (ΔGads obtained. The results obtained by potentiodynamic polarization measurements are consistent with the results of the weight loss measurements. LMT acts as a mixed type inhibitor.

  19. Effect of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) on stress response in the Mediterranean mussel (Mytilus Galloprovincialis): regulatory volume decrease (Rvd) and modulation of biochemical markers related to oxidative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messina, Concetta Maria; Faggio, Caterina; Laudicella, Vincenzo Alessandro; Sanfilippo, Marilena; Trischitta, Francesca; Santulli, Andrea

    2014-12-01

    In this study the effects of an anionic surfactant, sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), are assessed on the Mediterranean mussel (Mytilus galloprovincialis), exposed for 18 days at a concentration ranging from 0.1 mg/l to 1 mg/l. The effects are monitored using biomarkers related to stress response, such as regulatory volume decrease (RVD), and to oxidative stress, such as reactive oxygen species (ROS), endogenous antioxidant systems and Hsp70 levels. The results demonstrate that cells from the digestive gland of M. galloprovincialis, exposed to SDS were not able to perform the RVD owing to osmotic stress. Further, SDS causes oxidative stress in treated organisms, as demonstrated by the increased ROS production, in comparison to the controls (p<0.05). Consequently, two enzymes involved in ROS scavenging, superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) have higher activities and the proportion of oxidized glutathione (GSSG) is higher in hepatopancreas and mantle of treated animals, compared to untreated animals (p<0.05). Furthermore Hsp70 demonstrates an up-regulation in all the analyzed tissues of exposed animals, attesting the stress status induced by the surfactant with respect to the unexposed animals. The results highlight that SDS, under the tested concentrations, exerts a toxic effect in mussels in which the disruption of the osmotic balance follows the induction of oxidative stress.

  20. Self-aggregation of synthesized novel bolaforms and their mixtures with sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) and cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) in aqueous medium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maiti, Kajari; Mitra, Debolina; Mitra, Rajendra N; Panda, Amiya K; Das, Prasanta K; Rakshit, Animesh K; Moulik, Satya P

    2010-06-10

    Bolaforms B(1), B(2), and B(3) of the formulas, Br(-)Me(3)N(+)(CH(2))(10)N(+)Me(3)Br(-), Br(-)Me(3)N(+)(CH(2))(10)OH, and Br(-)Me(3)N(+)(CH(2))(10)COO(-)Na(+), respectively, were synthesized, and their properties in the bulk as well as at the air/aqueous NaBr (10 mM) solution interface have been studied. Their interactions with sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) and cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) also have been investigated. Tensiometry, conductometry, spectrophotometry, and microcalorimetry techniques were used for characterization and estimation. Both pure bolaforms and their mixtures with SDS and CTAB have been found to self-aggregate, forming micelles in solution. The mixed systems of bolaform and SDS have been observed to form both micelles and vesicles. Their mutual interactions were synergistic, which at the interface was more spontaneous than in the bulk. The interfacial and bulk compositions of the mixed binary systems (bolaform and SDS or CTAB) with their associated interaction parameters have been estimated from the Rosen interaction model and the regular solution theory of Rubingh, respectively. The formed vesicles have been found to entrap the water-soluble dye, bromophenol blue, and the dye solubilized vesicles of B(1)-SDS and B(2)-SDS completely eluted out of the sephadex column proving their formation. A rough estimation of the size and polydispersity index of the formed micelles and vesicles has been made from DLS measurements.

  1. Sodium dodecyl sulfate-ethoxylated polyethylenimine adsorption at the air-water interface: how the nature of ethoxylation affects the pattern of adsorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batchelor, Stephen N; Tucker, Ian; Petkov, Jordan T; Penfold, Jeffrey; Thomas, Robert K

    2014-08-19

    The strong interaction between ionic surfactants and polyelectrolytes of opposite charge results in enhanced surface adsorption at the air-water interface down to low surfactant concentrations and in some cases in the formation of ordered surface structures. A notable example which exhibits such properties is the mixture of polyethylenimine, PEI, and sodium dodecyl sulfate, SDS. However, the electrostatic interaction, around charge neutralization, between the surfactant and polymer often results in precipitation or coacervation. This can be mitigated for PEI-surfactant mixtures by ethoxylation of the PEI, but this can also result in a weaker surface interaction and a significant reduction in the adsorption. It is shown here that by localizing the ethoxylation of the PEI into discrete regions of the polymer precipitation upon the addition of SDS is suppressed, the strong surface interaction and enhanced adsorption of the polymer-surfactant mixture is retained. The adsorption of SDS in the presence of ethoxylated PEI is greatly enhanced at low SDS concentrations compared to the adsorption for pure SDS. The adsorption is equally pronounced at pH 7 and 10 and is largely independent of the degree of ethoxylation. Surface ordering, more than monolayer adsorption, is observed over a relatively narrow range of SDS concentrations and is most pronounced at pH 10 and for the polymers with the lower degree of ethoxylation. The results show that ethoxylated PEI's reported here provide a suitable route to enhanced surfactant adsorption while retaining favorable solution properties in which precipitation effects are minimized.

  2. An Investigation of Structure Transition in Sodium Dodecyl Trioxyethylene Sulfate/n-Butanol/n-Octane/Water System by Dielectric Relaxation Spectroscopy Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MU Jian-hai; ZHAO Kong-shuang; WEI Su-xiang; LI Ying; LI Gan-zuo

    2004-01-01

    The phase diagram of the quaternary system of sodium dodecyl trioxyethylene sulfate(SDES)/n-butanol/n-octane/water was obtained at (30.0±0.1) ℃. There exists a clear, isotropic, and low-viscosity L phase, which can be divided into W/O, bi-continuous(B.C.) and O/W microemulsions by conductivity measurement results. Dielectric Relaxation Spectroscopy(DRS) measurements, including permittivity, conductivity, relaxation strength, characteristic relaxation time, dielectric parameters, phase parameters, etc., were applied to investigating the microstructures of the system mentioned above. For the samples with a fixed SDES/n-butanol mass ratio of 4/6 including 20%(mass fraction) of n-octane, DRS indicated a structure transition from a W/O to an O/W via a B.C. microemulsion with the increase of the water content. For the samples with a fixed (SDES/20%n-octane)/H2O mass ratio of 5/5, DRS presented that there only exists a onefold structure of a W/O microemulsion as the (n-butanol/20%n-octane) content increases. The results obtained from DRS are in good agreement with those from the phase diagram.

  3. Thermodynamic characteristics of the dissolution of glycine, glycylglycine, and glycylglycylglycine in aqueous solutions of sodium dodecyl sulfate at T = 298.15 K

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smirnov, V. I.; Badelin, V. G.

    2017-09-01

    the enthalpies of dissolution of glycine (Gly), glycylglycine (GlyGly), and glycylglycylglycine (GlyGlyGly) are measured in aqueous solutions of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) at SDS concentrations m = 0-0.7 mol kg-1 and T = 298.15 K by means of calorimetry. The obtained data are used to calculate the standard values of enthalpies of dissolution (Δsol H m ) and enthalpies of transfer (Δtr H m ) of glycine and its oligomers from water to SDS aqueous solutions. The dependences of Δsol H m and Δtr H m on SDS concentration in an aqueous solution at a constant concentration of glycine and its oligomers are determined. A comparative analysis of the thermodynamic characteristics of Gly, GlyGly, and GlyGlyGly transfer within the studied range of SDS concentrations is performed. The results are interpreted in terms of ion-ion, ion-polar, and hydrophobic interactions between SDS and molecules of glycine and its oligomers.

  4. Petal-shaped poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)/sodium dodecyl sulfate-graphene oxide intercalation composites for high-performance electrochemical energy storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Haihan; Han, Gaoyi; Fu, Dongying; Chang, Yunzhen; Xiao, Yaoming; Zhai, Hua-Jin

    2014-12-01

    A facile and one-step electrochemical codeposition method is introduced for incorporating graphene oxide (GO) into poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) films in the presence of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS). The as-prepared PEDOT/SDS-GO composites are characterized using scanning electron microscope, transmission electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and X-ray diffraction. The results show that PEDOT/SDS-GO composites possessing a unique petal-shaped morphology have been prepared successfully and exhibit an intercalated microstructure. With the purpose of electrochemical energy storage, the properties of electrochemical capacitance for composites have also been investigated with cyclic voltammetry, galvanostatic charge/discharge measurements, and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy tests. The electrochemical test results manifest the PEDOT/SDS-GO composites have superior capacitive behaviors and cyclic stability, and a high areal capacitance of 79.6 mF cm-2 is achieved at 10 mV s-1 cyclic voltammetry scan. Furthermore, the PEDOT/SDS-GO composites exhibit more superior capacitive performance than that of PEDOT/SDS, indicating the incorporation of GO into the composites effectively boosts the capacitive performance of PEDOT-based supercapacitor electrodes. We consider that this research further extends the application of GO and the composites prepared can be developed as the candidate for the fabrication of low-cost, high-performance supercapacitors for energy storage.

  5. The degradation of sodium dodecyl sulfate based on graphene-modified MFC%石墨烯修饰微生物燃料电池降解十二烷基磺酸钠

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜倩利; 杨胜科; 张倩; 周扬

    2016-01-01

    以十二烷基磺酸钠为阳极电子供体,同时以石墨烯为催化剂对电极进行修饰。将修饰前后微生物燃料电池的产电性能和十二烷基磺酸钠的降解情况进行对比,经过修饰的电极装置产电效率明显增大,最大电压增加了1倍,并使十二烷基磺酸钠的降解率从49.85%提高到65.11%。这说明用石墨烯修饰后的微生物燃料电池在稳定产电的同时降解十二烷基磺酸钠是可行的,为废水中阴离子表面活性剂的去除提供了新的方法与研究方向。%With sodium dodecyl sulfate as anode electron donor and graphene as catalyst to modify the electrodes,the production performance of MFC and the degradation rate of sodium dodecyl sulfate are compared before and after modification.The treatment effect of modified MFC is two times as the unmodi-fied and the degradation of sodium dodecyl sulfate rate can reach 65 .1 1% from 49 .85%.The perform-ance of MFC with graphene modify electrode and the rate of degradation of SDS was tested.It indicates a good effect with graphene modified MFC to degrade sodium dodecyl sulfate and provides a new orientation for removal of the kind of anionic surfactant in organic wastewater treatment.

  6. Biopartitioning micellar chromatography with sodium dodecyl sulfate as a pseudo α(1)-acid glycoprotein to the prediction of protein-drug binding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadjmohammadi, Mohammadreza; Salary, Mina

    2013-01-01

    A simple and fast method is of urgent need to measure protein-drug binding affinity in order to meet the rapid development of new drugs. Biopartitioning micellar chromatography (BMC), a mode of micellar liquid chromatography (MLC) using micellar mobile phases in adequate experimental conditions, can be useful as an in vitro system in mimicking the drug-protein interactions. In this study, sodium dodecyl sulfate-micellar liquid chromatography (SDS-MLC) was used for the prediction of protein-drug binding based on the similar property of SDS micelles to α(1)-acid glycoprotein (AGP). The relationships between the BMC retention data of a heterogeneous set of 14 basic and neutral drugs and their plasma protein binding parameter were studied and the predictive ability of models was evaluated. Modeling of logk(BMC) of these compounds was established by multiple linear regression (MLR) and second-order polynomial models obtained in two different concentrations (0.07 and 0.09M) of SDS. The developed MLR models were characterized by both the descriptive and predictive ability (R(2)=0.882, R(CV)(2)=0.832 and R(2)=0.840, R(CV)(2)=0.765 for 0.07 and 0.09M SDS, respectively). The p values <0.01 also indicated that the relationships between the protein-drug binding and the logk(BMC) values were statistically significant at the 99% confidence level. The standard error of estimation showed the standard deviation of the regression to be 11.89 and 13.87 for 0.07 and 0.09M, respectively. The application of the developed model to a prediction set demonstrated that the model was also reliable with good predictive accuracy. The external and internal validation results showed that the predicted values were in good agreement with the experimental value.

  7. Effect of β-Cyclodextrin Upon the Sol-gel Transition of Methylcellulose Solutions in the Presence of Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hua-yu Li; Xiang Hao; Yong-jun Xie; Hai-yang Yang; He Liu; Jian-hui Luo

    2012-01-01

    The sol-gel transition temperature of methylcellulose (MC) solution in the presence of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) as well as the mixtures of SDS andβ-cyclodextrin (β-CD) was measured,and the effect of the two competing interactions,the hydrophobic interaction between SDS and MC and the inclusion interaction between SDS and β-CD,upon the sol-gel transition of MC solution was studied.It has been found that the inclusion interaction between SDS and β-CD is much greater than the hydrophobic interaction between SDS and MC.As a result,in the coexistence of SDS and β-CD,the sol-gel transition temperature of MC solution keeps the same value,independent of the concentration of SDS in solution on condition that the concentration of SDS is less than β-CD.Our experimental results not only suggest that the effect of SDS upon the sol-gel transition of MC solution can be screened by β-CD completely but also indicate the inclusion ratio of SDS to β-CD can be determined quantitatively by using rheological measurement.The inclusion ratio of SDS toβ-CD is 1:1,which is in good agreement with the inclusion ratio of SDS to β-CD in the presence of poly(vincyl pyrrolidone) determined by the viscosity measurement but is critically different from the inclusion ratio of SDS toβ-CD in the presence of the oppositely charged polyelectrolyte by using the rheological measurement,mainly due to the reason that the mechanism of the interaction between SDS and MC is critically different from the mechanism of the interaction between SDS and the oppositely charged polyelectrolyte.

  8. Effects of aggregates on mixed adsorption layers of poly(ethylene imine) and sodium dodecyl sulfate at the air/liquid interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonigold, Katrin; Varga, Imre; Nylander, Tommy; Campbell, Richard A

    2009-04-07

    We have exploited the spatial and kinetic resolution of ellipsometry to monitor the lateral movement of inhomogeneous patches of material in mixed adsorption layers of poly(ethylene imine) and sodium dodecyl sulfate at the air/liquid interface. We show that the choice of sample preparation methods can have a profound effect on the state of the interface for chemically equivalent samples. The extent of aggregation in the bulk solution on relevant time scales is affected by specific details of the polymer/surfactant mixing process, which produces varying numbers of aggregates that can become trapped in the interfacial layer, resulting in an enhanced and fluctuating ellipsometry signal. It can be beneficial to apply the surface-cleaning method of aspiration prior to physical measurements to remove trapped aggregates through the creation of a fresh interface. At low pH, the ellipsometry signal of samples prepared with surface cleaning is remarkably constant over a factor of >500 in the bulk composition below charge equivalence, which is discussed in terms of possible adsorption mechanisms. At high pH, through observing temporal fluctuations in the ellipsometry signal of samples prepared with surface cleaning, we reveal two important processes: there is the spontaneous adsorption of aggregates > 0.2 microm in diameter into the interfacial layer, and with time there is the fusion of smaller aggregates to generate new large surface aggregates. We attribute the favorability of the adsorption and fusion processes at high pH to reduced electrostatic barriers resulting from the low surface charge density of the aggregates. It is inappropriate in this case to consider the interface to comprise a homogeneous adsorption layer that is in dynamic equilibrium with the bulk solution. Our work shows that it can be helpful to consider whether there are macroscopic particles embedded in molecular layers at the air/liquid interface for systems where there is prior knowledge of

  9. Direct speciation analysis of thallium based on solid phase extraction and specific retention of a Tl(III) complex on alumina coated with sodium dodecyl sulfate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biaduń, Ewa; Sadowska, Monika; Ospina-Alvarez, Natalia; Krasnodębska-Ostręga, Beata

    Alumina (Al2O3) with an average particle size of 63 μm was modified with the anionic surfactant sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) and then applied to (i) solid phase extraction and separation of both thallium(I) and thallium(III), and (ii) preconcentration of Tl(III) from waste water samples. Only Tl(III), in the form of its complex with diethylenetriaminepentaacetate (DTPA), was retained on the sorbent, from where it can be eluted with 40 % nitric acid. Thallium species were then quantified by ICP MS. The method was characterized by a LOD of 25 pg of Tl(I) and 160 pg of Tl(III) in 10 mL samples. A large excesses of Tl(I) over Tl(III) was tolerated, and relatively high levels of other metal ions, such as a 500-fold excess of Pb(II) and Cd(II), and a 2000-fold excess of Zn(II), respectively, do not interfere. The sorbent was easily prepared and possesses a high loading capacity, and these properties make it an attractive material for rapid and efficient extraction and speciation of Tl. Graphical abstract:Schematic of the SPE procedure for separation (with preconcentration) of Tl(III) from Tl(I) was developed and applied to direct speciation analysis of thallium in wastewater. Self-made columns packed with alumina coated with SDS were used. The method is resistant to interferences from Pb, Cd, Zn and tolerates a large excess of Tl(I) over Tl(III).

  10. Effect of light on self-assembly of aqueous mixtures of sodium dodecyl sulfate and a cationic, bolaform surfactant containing azobenzene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubbard, F Pierce; Abbott, Nicholas L

    2007-04-24

    We report light and small-angle neutron scattering measurements that characterize microstructures formed in aqueous surfactant solutions (up to 1.0 wt % surfactant) containing mixtures of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) and the light-sensitive bolaform surfactant, bis(trimethylammoniumhexyloxy)azobenzene dibromide (BTHA) as a function of composition, equilibration time, and photostationary state (i.e., solutions rich in cis-BTHA or trans-BTHA). We observed formation of vesicles in both SDS-rich and trans-BTHA-rich regions of the microstructure diagram, with vesicles present over a particularly broad range of compositions for trans-BTHA-rich solutions. Illumination of mixtures of BTHA and SDS with a broadband UV light source leads to formation of photostationary states where the fraction of BTHA present as cis isomer (75-80% cis-BTHA) is largely independent of the mixing ratio of SDS and BTHA. For a relatively limited set of mixing ratios of SDS and BTHA, we observed UV illumination of SDS-rich vesicles to result in the reversible transformation of the vesicles to micellar aggregates and UV illumination of BTHA-rich vesicles to result in irreversible precipitation. Surprisingly, however, for many mixtures of trans-BTHA and SDS that formed solutions containing vesicles, illumination with UV light (which was confirmed to lead to photoisomerization of BTHA) resulted in only a small decrease in the number of vesicles in solution, relatively little change in the sizes of the remaining vesicles, and coexistance of the vesicles with micelles. These observations are consistent with a physical model in which the trans and cis isomers of BTHA present at the photostationary state tend to segregate between the different microstructures coexisting in solution (e.g., vesicles rich in trans-BTHA and SDS coexist with micelles rich in cis-BTHA and SDS). The results presented in this paper provide guidance for the design of light-tunable surfactants systems.

  11. Identification of Contaminations Hiding Beneath the α- and β-Subunits of Partially Purified Nitrogenase MoFe Protein on the Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate Gel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hui-Na ZHOU; Ying ZHAO; Shao-Min BIAN; Jian-Feng ZHAO; Fei REN; Huang-Ping WANG; Ju-Fu HUANG

    2005-01-01

    To identify the unknown proteins that would contaminate the α- and β-subunits of nitrogenase MoFe protein on sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE), the partially purified MoFe protein (Av 1) preparation was obtained from Azotobacter vinelandii Lipmann OP by chromatography on DEAE-cellulose (DE52) and Sephacryl S-200 columns and analyzed by PAGE and matrixassisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometry. The Av 1 preparation was shown to have two main bands at the position of the α- and β-subunits of crystalline Avl on the SDS gel. However, on the anoxic native PAGE, in addition to the Ay 1 band, the preparation was shown to have three other main bands that migrated slower than Avl. Of these three main bands, the protein with the fastest migration was identified as bacterioferritin elsewhere. The proteins on the other two bands, termed Upper and Middle, were suggested to be two different homopolymers with the same apparent subunit electrophoretic mobilities as the α- and β-subunits of Avl, respectively. By analysis of MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry, the Upper was identified as GroEL, which belongs to the heat shock protein 60 family, and the Middle was identified as glucose-6-phosphate isomerase (PGI). In our preparation, anoxic native electrophoresis indicated that GroEL was composed of 14 identical subunits and that PGI was composed of 10 identical subunits. This is the first report of PGI, with so many subunits. The contaminating proteins in the Av 1 preparation, mainly GroEL and PGI, could be totally or partially removed from Av1 if the shoulders and center of the elution peak were collected separately from the Sephacryl S-200 column and the center fraction was purified further by Q-Sepharose developed with an NaCl concentration gradient. Thus, Avl with more than 90% purity was obtained. Obviously, this modified method is useful for the purification of mutant MoFe proteins with a high purity.

  12. Giant extracellular Glossoscolex paulistus Hemoglobin (HbGp) upon interaction with cethyltrimethylammonium chloride (CTAC) and sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS) surfactants: Dissociation of oligomeric structure and autoxidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santiago, Patricia S; Moreira, Leonardo M; de Almeida, Erika V; Tabak, Marcel

    2007-04-01

    The effects of two ionic surfactants on the oligomeric structure of the giant extracellular hemoglobin of Glossoscolex paulistus (HbGp) in the oxy - form have been studied through the use of several spectroscopic techniques such as electronic optical absorption, fluorescence emission, light scattering, and circular dichroism. The use of anionic sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS) and cationic cethyltrimethyl ammonium chloride (CTAC) has allowed to differentiate the effects of opposite headgroup charges on the oligomeric structure dissociation and hemoglobin autoxidation. At pH 7.0, both surfactants induce the protein dissociation and a significant oxidation. Spectral changes occur at very low CTAC concentrations suggesting a significant electrostatic contribution to the protein-surfactant interaction. At low protein concentration, 0.08 mg/ml, some light scattering within a narrow CTAC concentration range occurs due to protein-surfactant precipitation. Light scattering experiments showed the dissociation of the oligomeric structure by SDS and CTAC, and the effect of precipitation induced by CTAC. At higher protein concentrations, 3.0 mg/ml, a precipitation was observed due to the intense charge neutralization upon formation of ion pair in the protein-surfactant precipitate. The spectral changes are spread over a much wider SDS concentration range, implying a smaller electrostatic contribution to the protein-surfactant interactions. The observed effects are consistent with the acid isoelectric point (pI) of this class of hemoglobins, which favors the intense interaction of HbGp with the cationic surfactant due to the existence of excess acid anionic residues at the protein surface. Protein secondary structure changes are significant for CTAC at low concentrations while they occur at significantly higher concentrations for SDS. In summary, the cationic surfactant seems to interact more strongly with the protein producing more dramatic spectral changes as compared to the

  13. Rapid discrimination of Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria in liquid samples by using NaOH-sodium dodecyl sulfate solution and flow cytometry.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atsushi Wada

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: For precise diagnosis of urinary tract infections (UTI, and selection of the appropriate prescriptions for their treatment, we explored a simple and rapid method of discriminating gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria in liquid samples. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We employed the NaOH-sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS solution conventionally used for plasmid extraction from Escherichia coli and the automated urine particle analyzer UF-1000i (Sysmex Corporation for our novel method. The NaOH-SDS solution was used to determine differences in the cell wall structures between gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria, since the tolerance to such chemicals reflects the thickness and structural differences of bacterial cell walls. The UF-1000i instrument was used as a quantitative bacterial counter. We found that gram-negative bacteria, including E. coli, in liquid culture could easily be lysed by direct addition of equal volumes of NaOH-SDS solution. In contrast, Enterococcus faecalis, which is a gram-positive bacterium, could not be completely lysed by the solution. We then optimized the reaction time of the NaOH-SDS treatment at room temperature by using 3 gram-positive and 4 gram-negative bacterial strains and determined that the optimum reaction time was 5 min. Finally, in order to evaluate the generalizability of this method, we treated 8 gram-positive strains and 8 gram-negative strains, or 4 gram-positive and 4 gram-negative strains incubated in voluntary urine from healthy volunteers in the same way and demonstrated that all the gram-positive bacteria were discriminated quantitatively from gram negative bacteria using this method. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Using our new method, we could easily discriminate gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria in liquid culture media within 10 min. This simple and rapid method may be useful for determining the treatment course of patients with UTIs, especially for those without a prior history

  14. Implementation of USP antibody standard for system suitability in capillary electrophoresis sodium dodecyl sulfate (CE-SDS) for release and stability methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esterman, Abbie L; Katiyar, Amit; Krishnamurthy, Girija

    2016-09-05

    Capillary electrophoresis sodium dodecyl sulfate (CE-SDS) is widely used for purity analysis of monoclonal antibody therapeutics for release and stability to demonstrate product consistency and shelf life during the manufacturing and life cycle of the product. CE-SDS method development is focused on exploring the method capability to provide the information about the product purity and product related degradants (fragmentation, aggregation etc.). In order to establish the functionality of the instrumentation, software, and sample preparation; system suitability criteria need to be defined for analytical methods using a well characterized reference standard run under the same protocol and analysis as the test articles. Typically the reference standard is produced using a manufacturing process representative of the clinical material. The qualification, control, and maintenance of in-house reference standards are established through rigorous quality and regulatory guidelines. The U.S. Pharmacopeia (USP) has developed a monoclonal IgG System Suitability Reference Standard to be utilized for assessment of system suitability in CE-SDS methods. In this communication, we evaluate the system suitability acceptance criteria performance of the USP IgG standard using two methods, the recommended USP protocol provided in monograph and a molecule specific Bristol-Myers Squibb (BMS) CE-SDS method. The results from USP IgG standard were compared with two in-house monoclonal antibody reference standards. The data suggest that the USP CE-SDS method may not be suitable for CE-SDS analysis for release and stability of monoclonal antibody therapeutics due to the high level of method induced partial reduction observed for all molecules tested. This high level of fragmentation observed utilizing the USP method will result in reporting lower purity levels, which will impact the overall quality assessment of the molecule. The system suitability criteria recommended by the USP method can be

  15. Luminescence and bio-imaging response of thio-glycolic acid (TGA) and sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS)-coated fluorescent cadmium selenide quantum dots

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarma, Runjun; Mohanta, Dambarudhar, E-mail: best@tezu.ernet.in

    2015-05-15

    We demonstrate the usefulness of surfactant coated CdSe quantum dots in bio-imaging applications after evaluating their steady state and time resolved emission responses. The surfactant coated QDs, with the respective sizes of ~14 nm and 10 nm are synthesized considering two different types of coating agents, namely, thio-glycolic acid (TGA) and sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS). The steady state luminescence response is characterized by both near band edge (NBE) and defect-related emissions, but with a strong dependency on the nature of surfactant coating. Time resolved photoluminescence (TR-PL) studies have revealed bi-exponential characteristics with CdSe–TGA QDs exhibiting longer life time decay parameters than those of CdSe–SDS QDs. To be specific, the fast (τ{sub 1}) and the slow (τ{sub 2}) components are characterized by ~10 and 30 times larger values in the former than the latter case. In the FT-IR spectra, several stretching and bending vibrations are observed to be adequately influenced by the nature of surfactant coating. The availability of plentiful Na{sup +} counter ions around SDS coated QDs, as evident from the FT-IR spectroscopy studies, can also be responsible for obtaining reduced size of the QDs. In contrast, Raman active modes are apparently distinguishable in TGA coated QDs, with LO and TO mode positions significantly blue-shifted from the bulk values. While attributing to the intense defect mediated emission of TGA coated QDs, the effect of TGA coating presented a stronger fluorescence imaging capability over the SDS coated ones. A detailed assessment of fluorescent counts, as a basis of bio-imaging response, is being discussed on a comparative basis. - Highlights: • Fluorescent CdSe quantum dots are synthesized with two different kinds of surfactant coatings. • Time resolved photoluminescence (TR-PL) studies have revealed bi-exponential decay characteristics. • Both slow and fast decay parameters are found to be longer in CdSe QDs

  16. 十二烷基磺酸钠/异辛烷/正构醇/水微乳状液的相行为及其结构转变的研究%Phase Behavior and Structural Transitions in Sodium Dodecyl Sulfonate Microemulsions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨根生; 施介华; 李景华; 王普; 姚善泾

    2002-01-01

    The forming mechanism ofmicroemulsion of sodium dodecyl sulfonate, alcohols, water and isooctane was studied, with particular emphasis on the effect of molecular weight and concentration of alcohols. Phase diagram of the four components, alcohol,sodium dodecyl sulfonate, water and isooctane, was used as a means of study, through which the microemulsion regions were determined. Phase diagram of sodium dodecyl sulfonate/n-pentanol/isooctane/water system at km, = 2 (km, = Wn-pentanol / WsDs ) is presented.The variation of conductivities of different microemulsion samples with water was measured. From the conductivities we investigated a change in structure from water droplets in oil (W/O) at low water content to liquid crystal at intermediate water content and a struc ture ofoil droplets in water (O/W) at high water content.

  17. LINEAR SOLVATION ENERGY RELATIONSHIPS FOR CHARACTERIZATION OF MLC SYSTEMS WITH SODIUM DODECYL SULPHATE MOBILE PHASES MODIFIED BY ALIPHATIC ALCOHOLS OR CARBOXYLIC ACIDS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Markov, Vadym V.; Boichenko, Alexander P.; Loginova, Lidia P.

    2012-01-01

    The Linear Solvation Energy Relationships (LSER) have been successfully used for the modeling of partition and retention of the set of test compounds in different systems. The properties of micellar chromatographic systems with the mobile phases on the basis of sodium dodecylsulphate modified (ODS)

  18. 光度法研究十二烷基硫酸钠的临界胶束浓度%Determination of critical micelle concentration of sodium dodecyl sulfate by using spectrophotometry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王新红; 戴兢陶; 顾云兰

    2011-01-01

    Critical micelle concentrations (CMC) of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) in aqueous solution of io dine and I-3 solution were determined, and two salts, sodium sulfate and potassium chloride on the impact of CMC of SDS in the aqueous solution of iodine in different concentrations of iodine were also discussed.The CMC of SDS obtained in two different systems are different by using spectrophotometry. Sodium sul fate salts on the impact of the surface activity of SDS are greater than potassium chloride in I-3 solution, and with the increasing concentration of iodine, the CMC of SDS show the trend of increasing in the aqueous so lution of iodine.%在碘的水溶液和I-3溶液2种体系中测定了十二烷基硫酸钠(SDS)的临界胶束浓度(CMC),讨论了在I-3体系中,不同硫酸钠和氯化钾对测定结果的影响,在碘的水溶液中研究了不同碘浓度对SDS的CMC的影响.采用分光光度法求得SDS在两种体系中的CMC值,硫酸钠与氯化钾对CMC的值有影响,且硫酸钠对SDS的表面活性影响大于氯化钾;在碘的水溶液中,随碘的浓度增大,CMC呈增大趋势.

  19. Mixed hemimicelles solid-phase extraction based on sodium dodecyl sulfate-coated nano-magnets for selective adsorption and enrichment of illegal cationic dyes in food matrices prior to high-performance liquid chromatography-diode array detection detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Ping; Liang, Zhi-an; Wang, Yu; Xiao, Jian; Liu, Jia; Zhou, Qing-qiong; Zheng, Chun-hao; Luo, Li-Ni; Lin, Zi-hao; Zhu, Fang; Zhang, Xue-wu

    2016-03-11

    In this study, mixed hemimicelles solid-phase extraction (MHSPE) based on sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) coated nano-magnets Fe3O4 was investigated as a novel method for the extraction and separation of four banned cationic dyes, Auramine O, Rhodamine B, Basic orange 21 and Basic orange 22, in condiments prior to HPLC detection. The main factors affecting the extraction of analysts, such as pH, surfactant and adsorbent concentrations and zeta potential were studied and optimized. Under optimized conditions, the proposed method was successful applied for the analysis of banned cationic dyes in food samples such as chili sauce, soybean paste and tomato sauce. Validation data showed the good recoveries in the range of 70.1-104.5%, with relative standard deviations less than 15%. The method limits of determination/quantification were in the range of 0.2-0.9 and 0.7-3μgkg(-1), respectively. The selective adsorption and enrichment of cationic dyes were achieved by the synergistic effects of hydrophobic interactions and electrostatic attraction between mixed hemimicelles and the cationic dyes, which also resulted in the removal of natural pigments interferences from sample extracts. When applied to real samples, RB was detected in several positive samples (chili powders) within the range from 0.042 to 0.177mgkg(-1). These results indicate that magnetic MHSPE is an efficient and selective sample preparation technique for the extraction of banned cationic dyes in a complex matrix.

  20. Identification and In Silico Analysis of Major Redox Modulated Proteins from Brassica juncea Seedlings Using 2D Redox SDS PAGE (2-Dimensional Diagonal Redox Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate Polyacrylamide Gel Electrophoresis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaurasia, Satya Prakash; Deswal, Renu

    2017-02-01

    The thiol-disulphide exchange regulates the activity of proteins by redox modulation. Many studies to analyze reactive oxygen species (ROS), particularly, hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) induced changes in the gene expression have been reported, but efforts to detect H2O2 modified proteins are comparatively few. Two-dimensional diagonal redox sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS PAGE) was used to detect polypeptides which undergo thiol-disulphide exchange in Brassica juncea seedlings following H2O2 (10 mM) treatment for 30 min. Eleven redox responsive polypeptides were identified which included cruciferin, NLI [Nuclear LIM (Lin11, Isl-1 & Mec-3 domains)] interacting protein phosphatase, RuBisCO (ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase) large subunit, and myrosinase. Redox modulation of RuBisCO large subunit was further confirmed by western blotting. However, the small subunit of RuBisCO was not affected by these redox changes. All redox modulated targets except NLI interacting protein (although it contains two cysteines) showed oxidation sensitive cysteines by in silico analysis. Interestingly, interactome of cruciferin and myrosinase indicated that they may have additional function(s) beside their well-known roles in the seedling development and abiotic stress respectively. Cruciferin showed interactions with stress associated proteins like defensing-like protein 192 and 2-cys peroxiredoxin. Similarly, myrosinase showed interactions with nitrilase and cytochrome p450 which are involved in nitrogen metabolism and/or hormone biosynthesis. This simple procedure can be used to detect major stress mediated redox changes in other plants.

  1. Surface atomic structures of Fe2O3 nanoparticles coated with cetyltrimethyl ammonium bromide and sodium dodecyl benzene sulphonate:an extended x-ray absorption fine-structure study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1999-01-01

    Fe2O3 nanoparticles coated with sodium dodecyl benzene sulphonate(DBS)or cetyltrimethyl ammonium bromide(CTAB) were prepared by using a microemulsion method in the system water/toluene.The nanoparticles were characterized by means of transmission electron microscopy and average particle sizes of 5.0nm and 6.0nm were found for DBS-modified and CTAB-modified nanoparticles respectively.The local atomic structures of these iron(Ⅲ) oxide nanoparticles were probed by using the extended x-ray absorption fine-structure technique.Fe K absorption spectra were collected at beam line 4W1B of Beijing Synchrotron Radiation Facility.A structureal model was proposed for describing their atomic structures.The Fe-O bond length at the surface of DBS-coated Fe2O3 nanoparticles was found to be similar to that in bulk Fe2O3.but there was about 0.04A expansion for the CTAB-coated Fe2O3 nanoparticles.On the basis of the model proposed in this paper,the thicknesses of the surface layers were estimated to be 0.5nm and 0.7nm.respectively,for the DBS-coated and CTAB-coated Fe2O3 nanoparticles.The anharmonicity of the atomic vibration and the asymmetry of atom-pair distribution were found to be larger at the surface of the nanoparticles than in the bulk material,while the Debye-Waller factors are almost the same for the surface and the core parts of the nanoparticles.It can be concluded that the atomic structure of the nanoparticle surface is ordered.but the atom-pari distribution is asymmetric.

  2. Quantum mechanics, strong emergence and ontological non-reducibility

    CERN Document Server

    Gambini, Rodolfo; Pullin, Jorge

    2015-01-01

    We show that a new interpretation of quantum mechanics, in which the notion of event is defined without reference to measurement or observers, allows to construct a quantum general ontology based on systems, states and events. Unlike the Copenhagen interpretation, it does not resort to elements of a classical ontology. The quantum ontology in turn allows us to recognize that a typical behavior of quantum systems exhibits strong emergence and ontological non-reducibility. Such phenomena are not exceptional but natural, and are rooted in the basic mathematical structure of quantum mechanics.

  3. Studies of muscle proteins in embryonic myocardial cells of cardiac lethal mutant mexican axolotls (Ambystoma mexicanum) by use of heavy meromyosin binding and sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-01-01

    In the Mexican axolotl Ambystoma mexicanum recessive mutant gene c, by way of abnormal inductive processes from surrounding tissues, results in an absence of embryonic heart function. The lack of contractions in mutant heart cells apparently results from their inability to form normally organized myofibrils, even though a few actin-like (60-A) and myosin-like (150-A) filaments are present. Amorphous "proteinaceous" collections are often visible. In the present study, heavy meromyosin (HMM) treatment of mutant heart tissue greatly increases the number of thin filaments and decorates them in the usual fashion, confirming that they are actin. The amorphous collections disappear with the addition of HMM. In addition, an analysis of the constituent proteins of normal and mutant embryonic hearts and other tissues is made by sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) gel electrophoresis. These experiments are in full agreement with the morphological and HMM binding studies. The gels show distinct 42,000-dalton bands for both normal and mutant hearts, supporting the presence of normal actin. During early developmental stages (Harrison's stage 34) the cardiac tissues in normal and mutant siblings have indistinguishable banding patterns, but with increasing development several differences appear. Myosin heavy chain (200,000 daltons) increases substantially in normal hearts during development but very little in mutants. Even so the quantity of 200,000-dalton protein in mutant hearts is significantly more than in any of the nonmuscle tissues studied (i.e. gut, liver, brain). Unlike normal hearts, the mutant hearts lack a prominent 34,000-dalton band, indicating that if mutants contain muscle tropomyosin at all, it is present in drastically reduced amounts. Also, mutant hearts retain large amounts of yolk proteins at stages when the platelets have virtually disappeared from normal hearts. The morphologies and electrophoresis patterns of skeletal muscle from normal and mutant siblings are

  4. 荷电膜去除水中表面活性剂十二烷基苯磺酸钠研究%STUDY ON THE REMOVAL OF SURFACTANT SODIUM DODECYL BENZENE SULFONATE BY CHARGED MEMBRANE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张洁欣; 魏俊富; 张环

    2011-01-01

    采用自制等离子体改性聚砜荷电膜对表面活性剂十二烷基苯磺酸钠(SDBS)进行截留测试,通过改变溶液的初始SDBS质量浓度(40~400 mg· L-1)、操作压力(0.15~0.35 MPa),离子强度(NaCl质量浓度100~300 mg·L-1)以及pH(2~12)等影响因素,观察荷电膜对SDBS溶液的截留率以及通量的变化,分析作用机理.结果表明,静电斥力为主要作用力,同时伴有机械筛分作用.初始SDBS含量低时比高时截留效果好,SDBS初始质量浓度为40 mg· L-1时截留率可达85.68%;低离子强度时静电斥力发挥主要作用,截留率比高离子强度时高;压力越大,截留率越高;溶液pH接近中性时截留效果最好.%Surfactant sodium dodecyl benzene sulfonate solution was retained by the plasma modified polysulfone charged membrane. The rejection tests were at different factors including solution concentration, operating pressure (0.15~0.35 Mpa), ionic strength (concentration of NaCl 100~300 mg*L') and pH (2~12). The retention rate and flux of SDBS solution retained by charged membrane were observed. The mechanism of retention was analyzed. Experimental results revealed that electrostatic repulsion was the main force in the process. And size exclusion also existed. Solutions possessing low concentration showed better rejection effect than those having high concentration. When initial feed concentration was 40 mg'L', the retention rate could reach 85.68%. Electrostatic repulsion played an important role at low ionic strength. The retention rate at low ionic strength was higher than those at high ionic strength. The retention rate increased as the operating pressure presented high. And the rejection performed well when pH was close to neutral.

  5. Role of additives; sodium dodecyl sulphate and manganese chloride on morphology of Zn{sub 1−x}Mn{sub x}O nanoparticles and their photoluminescence properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pandey, Gajanan, E-mail: pandeygajanan@rediffmail.com [Department of Applied Chemistry, Babasaheb Bhimrao Ambedkar University, Lucknow 226025, U.P. (India); Dixit, Supriya; Shrivastava, A.K. [School of Studies in Physics, Jiwaji University, Gwalior 474011, M.P. (India)

    2014-10-15

    In the present study Zn{sub 1−x}Mn{sub x}O (x = 0, 0.05 and 0.1) nanoparticles (NPs) have been synthesised in aqueous solution phase at mild reaction temperature 100 °C in moderate alkaline medium (pH = 9.5), and the role of external additives; like sodium dodecyl sulphate and manganese chloride on the morphology and size of the products has been explored on the basis of transmission electron microscopy (TEM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Fourier transform infrared spectral analyses data. ZnO hexagonal nano-plates, core–shell like spherical/ellipsoidal Zn{sub 0.95}Mn{sub 0.05}O structures and thin sheets, thorn/needle mixed shaped Zn{sub 0.9}Mn{sub 0.1}O structures have been observed in TEM and SEM images. Zn(OH){sub 2} formed in moderate alkaline medium, converted to Zn(II) hydroxo complex ions on dissolution, which further recrystallizes to produce wurtzite ZnO at 100 °C. From XRD and EDX analysis, successful doping of Mn{sup 2+} ions at the Zn{sup 2+} sites in ZnO host has been proved. In the photoluminescence spectra, the observed blue shifts in NBE peaks and decrease of emissions intensity on Mn doping have thoroughly been discussed in the present investigation. - Highlights: • Zn{sub 1−x}Mn{sub x}O NPs have been prepared in aqueous solution at mild temperature 100 °C. • Shifts in XRD lines and NBE peaks in PL spectra proved doping of Mn{sup 2+} in the ZnO. • ZnO is formed via dissolution–recrystallization of ε-Zn(OH){sub 2}–ZnO. • Additives SDS and MnCl{sub 2}·4H{sub 2}O play important role on morphology of Zn{sub 1−x}Mn{sub x}O NPs. • Mn contents increased extrinsic defects, which decreased intensity of PL spectra.

  6. 羊毛纤维吸附十二烷基磺酸钠的热力学研究%Thermodynamic study on the adsorption of sodium dodecyl sulfonate by wool fiber

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    戴丽; 耿信鹏; 林国栋

    2007-01-01

    采用电导法研究了366K(93℃)时经洁净处理的羊毛纤维在酸性(pH=3.0~3.5)水溶液中对十二烷基磺酸钠(SDS)的吸附等温线,以及羊毛在不同助剂(含乙二醇/苯甲醇和硫酸锌)的水溶液中对SDS的吸附等温线.结果表明,加入助剂后,SDS的吸附量均出现不同程度的下降.可解释为较高温度下,阴离子表面活性剂SDS在水中的溶解度升高.同时,苯甲醇、乙二醇分子中都含有羟基,亲水性较强,在水中的溶解度也较高,使得表面活性剂与水的亲和性增强,表面活性剂分子自水中逃离而吸附于羊毛上的趋势相对减少,故SDS的吸附量降低.由通用吸附等温线公式估算了不同助剂作用下SDS在羊毛/溶液界面吸附的表面胶团聚集数和表面胶团化标准自由能,与实验结果比较符合.本文还研究了在空白浴和加助剂("DL"、"FL")条件下分散染料上染羊毛的吸附等温线,并探讨了其吸附机理,从较深层次上探索其染色机理.%The adsorption isotherms of Sodium Dodecyl Sulfonate (SDS) onto wool fiber surface which experienced clean processing from an acid aqueous solution(pH3.0~3.5) by conductance method at 366K(93℃) were studied, so did the isotherms of wool adsorbing SDS from different aqueous solutions which containing various auxiliaries(containing glycol/benzalcohol and zinc sulfate). Some results can be found that all the adsorbed amounts of SDS show a descending trend at different degrees after adding the auxiliaries. The increasing solubility of the agent indicates the affinity of surfactant with water becoming stronger, and the trend of surfactant fleeing away water and adsorbed onto the wool is relatively decrease, which made the adsorbed amounts of SDS reduce. The surface micelle aggregation number and the standard Gibbs free energy for surface micellization of SDS adsorbed onto the wool/solution interface in the actions of different auxiliaries were estimated by the general

  7. 无机阴离子对TiO2-膨润土紫外光降解SDBS的影响%Effect of Inorganic Anion on Degradation of Sodium Dodecyl Benzene Sulfonate by TiO2-bentonite

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    温淑瑶; 马占青; 马敏立

    2012-01-01

    Photodegradation of sodium dodecyl benzene sulfonate (SDBS) by TiO2-bentonite is efficient, and the inorganic anions such as Cl-, SO42-, NO3-, HCO3-, H2PO4- which usually exist in water have an effect on photodegradation efficiency of SDBS by TiO2-bentonite. 36 mmol/L sodium salt of these inorganic anions was input into SDBS aqueous solution respectively,and the solutions were irradiated for 2 h with ultraviolet lamp. The difference of photodegradation results with or without the input of inorganic anions in the solution was compared. Results showed that effect of inorganic anion such as Cl-, SO42-, NO3-,HCO3-, H2PO4- on degradation of SDBS by TiO2-bentonite existed. Among which the effect of HCO3- on degradation was the most obvious, followed by H2PO-4 , NO3- , SO42-, Cl- The concentration of SDBS solutions with input of HCO3- , H2PO4- , NO3- ,SO42-, Cl- increased by 2.63, 1.63, 0.73, 0.52 and 0.46 times respectively within 2 h than that without input of the inorganic anions, which mainly depends on the competitions of surface active position between inorganic anions and organic molecules,appearance of high polarity environment near surface of catalyst particle and change of pH of solutions. Effect of inorganic anion on COD of aqueous solutions was different, within 2 h COD of aqueous solutions which had been input Cl-, SO42-,NO3- , HCO3- , HZPO4- , increased 6.62, 0.26, 0.03, 0.29 and 0.45 times respectively than that hadn't been put into.%TiO2-膨润土光催化降解水溶液中阴离子表面活性剂十二烷基苯磺酸钠(SDBS)的效率较高,Cl-、SO42-、NO3-、HC3-、H2PO4-是水体中常见的阴离子,这些阴离子对降解效果的影响直接影响该技术的实际应用.分别投加36 mmol/L上述阴离子的钠盐到SDBS水溶液中,紫外光照射溶液2h,比较投加与不投加的SDBS去除效果差异,结果表明:(1)水溶液中上述阴离子对TiO2-膨润土降解SDBS的效果都有不利影响,其中HCO3影响最大,其次是H2PO4_,

  8. 分子动力学模拟研究盐离子对十二烷基硫酸钠胶束溶液中亲水亲油协调机制的影响%Molecular Dynamics Simulation of Effect of Salt on the Compromise of Hydrophilic and Hydrophobic Interactions in Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate Micelle Solutions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高健; 任瑛; 葛蔚

    2009-01-01

    The presence of salt has a profound effect on the size, shape and structure of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) micelles. There have been a great number of experiments on SDS micelles in the presence and absence of salt to study this complex problem. Unfortunately, it is not clear yet how electrolyte ions influence the structure of micelles. By describing the compromise between dominant mechanisms, a simplified atomic model of SDS in presence of salt has been developed and the molecular dynamics (MD) simulations of two series of systems with different concentrations of salt and charges of ion have been performed. Polydispersity of micelle size is founded at relatively high concentration of SDS and low charge of cation. Although the counter-ion pairs with head groups are formed, the transition of micelle shape is not observed because the charge of cation is not enough to neutralize the polar of micelle surface.

  9. Synthesis of protons exchange polymeric membranes via co-poly-esters doped with sodium dodecyl sulfate for application in PEM fuel cells; Sintese de membranas polimericas condutoras de protons por imobilizacao de MDs em copoliesteres para aplicacao em PEM-FC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fiuza, R.A.; Brioude, M.M.; Bresciani, D.; Jose, N.M.; Boaventura, J.S. [Universidade Federal da Bahia (IQ/UFBA), Salvador, BA (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica

    2008-07-01

    Polymers are largely studied for use in PEM-type fuel cell (Proton Exchange membrane, PEMFC). These fuel cells are based on polymer membranes as electrolyte, also called protons conductor. This work developed co-polyesters made electrical conductors by doping with sodium dodecyl sulfate. The copolymers were synthesized from the copolymerization of terephthalic and adipic acids with glycerol. The material was processed in a reactor and shaped by hot pressing, yielding homogeneous and flexible plates, with excellent surface finish. The co-polyesters were analyzed by SEM, FTIR, TG, DSC, and XRD. The thermal analysis showed that the composites were thermally stable up to about 250 deg C. The micrographics revealed the MDS homogeneously dispersed in the polymeric matrix. These copolymers showed electrical conductivity between 10-7 to 10-1 S/cm, suggesting strong potential use in PEM fuel cells. (author)

  10. Ecotoxicological assessment of the pharmaceutical fluoxetine hydrochloride and the surfactant dodecyl sodium sulfate after their submission to ionizing radiation treatment; Avaliacao ecotoxicologica do farmaco cloridrato de fluoxetina e do surfactante dodecil sulfato de sodio quando submetidos a tratamento por radiacao ionizante

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Dymes Rafael Alves dos

    2011-07-01

    The use of pharmaceuticals and personal care products and the consequent and continuous input of this substances in the environment generates an increasing need to investigate the presence, behavior and the effects on aquatic biota, as well as new ways to treat effluents containing such substances. Fluoxetine hydrochloride is an active ingredient used in the treatment of depressive disorders and anxiety. As the surfactant sodium dodecyl sulfate is present in many cleaning and personal care products. The present study aimed on assessing the acute toxicity of fluoxetine hydrochloride, sodium dodecyl sulfate and the mixture of both to the aquatic organisms Hyalella azteca, Daphnia similis and Vibrio ficheri. Reducing the toxicity of fluoxetine and the mixture after treatment with ionizing radiation from industrial electron beam accelerator has also been the focus of this study. For Daphnia similis the average values of CE50-4{sub 8h} found for the non-irradiated drug, surfactant and mixture were 14.4 %, 9.62 % and 13.8 %, respectively. After irradiation of the substances, the dose 5 kGy proved itself to be the most effective dose for the treatment of the drug and the mixture as it was obtained the mean values for CE50{sub 48h} 84.60 % and > 90 %, respectively. For Hyalella azteca the acute toxicity tests were performed for water column with duration of 96 hours, the mean values for CE50{sub 96h} found for the drug, the surfactant and the mixture non-irradiated were 5.63 %, 19.29 %, 6.27 %, respectively. For the drug fluoxetine and the mixture irradiated with 5 kGy, it was obtained 69.57 % and 77.7 %, respectively. For Vibrio ficheri the acute toxicity tests for the untreated drug and the drug irradiated with 5 kGy it was obtained CE50{sub 15min} of 6.9 % and 32.88 % respectively. These results presented a reduction of the acute toxicity of the test-substances after irradiation. (author)

  11. Complexation between dodecyl sulfate surfactant and zein protein in solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruso, Juan M; Deo, Namita; Somasundaran, P

    2004-10-12

    Interactions between sodium dodecyl sulfate and zein protein, a model system for the understanding of the effect of surfactants on skin, were investigated using a range of techniques involving UV-vis spectroscopy, TOC (total organic carbon analysis), electrophoresis, and static and dynamic light scattering. Zein protein was solubilized by SDS. The adsorption of SDS onto insoluble protein fraction caused the zeta potential of the complex to become more negative. From these values, we calculated the Gibbs energy of absorption, which decreases when the SDS concentration is raised. Finally the structure of the complex, based on the analysis by static and dynamic light scattering, is proposed to be rod like.

  12. Proteinograma sérico de bezerros recém-nascidos da raça Holandesa obtido por eletroforese em gel de poliacrilamida Serum protein concentration in newborn Holstein calves determined by means of sodium dodecyl sulphate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.J. Fagliari

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available The serum protein concentration of newborn Holstein calves determined by means of sodium dodecyl sulphate-polyacrylamide (SDS-PAGE was studied. Blood samples from 40 healthy newborn calves were obtained 48 hours after birth. Calves had been given 3 liters of colostrum within 2 hours after birth, following by dose corresponding by 15% of animal weight each 24 hours. The results showed three different proteinograms: 19 calves had 14 proteins with molecular weights (MW ranging from 28,000 D to 170,000D (proteinogram 1; 11 calves had 14 proteins with MW ranging from 18,000 to 170,000 D (proteinogram 1; and 10 calves had 12 proteins with MW ranging from 28,000 D to 170,000 D (proteinogram 3. The three groups presented similar IgG levels. The highest serum concentration of ceruloplasmin were verified in proteinogram 3, which had the lowest serum level of protein with MW 58,000D. It was verified a1-antitrypsin only in proteinogram 2, which had no proteins with MW of 42,000 D and 37,000D. The highest serum concentrations of IgA and protein with MW 58,000 D, and the lowest serum levels of transferrin, haptoglobin, and acid glycoprotein were verified in proteinogram 3. Measurement of serum protein concentrations by SDS-PAGE may be useful in monitoring the occurrence of hypogammaglobulinemia and the neonatal disease in calves.

  13. Poly[bis(μ3-dodecyl sulfatocalcium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Genta Sakane

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available In the title compound [Ca(C12H25O4S2]n, the unique CaII ion lies on an inversion center and is coordinated in a slightly distorted octahedral environment by six O atoms from dodecyl sulfate anions. The crystal structure is based on hydrocarbon (dodecyl sulfate layers which sandwich the CaII ions. Within the layers, the hydrocarbon zigzag chains are parallel to one another and interact via van der Waals forces.

  14. Determination of Cd(II, Zn(II and Ag(Iin different matrixes after solid phase extraction on sodium dodecyl sulfate(SDS-coated alumina as their 2,3 Di Hydro 2,3 paratolylQinazoline (1 H- 4 one (DPTQO by Flame atomic absorption spectrometric

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farveh Raoufi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available A sensitive and selective solid phase extraction procedure for the determination of traces of Cd(II, Zn(II and Ag(I ions has been developed. An alumina-sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS coated on with 2,3 Di Hydro 2,3 paratolylQinazoline (1 H- 4 one (DPTQO. The influences of the analytical parameters including pH and sample volume were investigated.Common coexisting ions did not interfere on the separation and determination of analytes under study. The adsorbed analytes were desorbed by using 6mL of 4 mol L−1 nitric acid. The responses are linear 0.02–0.85 µg mL-1 for Cd2+ ion0.01–0.90 µg mL-1 for Zn2+and0.02–0.92µg mL-1for Ag+ detection limit for Cd(II, Zn(II and Ag(I ions were found to be 1.4, 1.3 and1.12(ng mL-1, respectively.It was found that the recovery for Cd2+, Zn2+and Ag+ ions were 97.7, 98.2 and 98.0 with RSD of 1.9, 1.8 and 1.7. It was also observed that recovery for repeated recovery on the same solid phase not varies more than 3%. The presented procedurewas successfully applied for determination of analytes in radiology wastewater, amalgam, natural water and blood samples.

  15. Stabilization of solutions of feather keratins by sodium dodecyl sulphate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schrooyen, P.M.M.; Dijkstra, Pieter J.; Oberthür, Radulf C.; Bantjes, A.; Bantjes, Adriaan; Feijen, Jan

    2001-01-01

    Feather keratins were extracted from chicken feathers with aqueous solutions of urea and 2-mercaptoethanol. After filtration of the insoluble residue, a feather keratin solution was obtained. Removal of 2-mercaptoethanol and urea by dialysis resulted in aggregation of the keratin polypeptide chains

  16. Transport Properties of Water and Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate (Postprint)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-01

    and boiling temperatures. Additionally, MP2f (Akin- Ojo et al., 2008, “Developing Ab Initio Quality Force Fields From Con- densed Phase Quantum...results. In the second part, we introduce the ab initio flexible water model developed by Akin- Ojo et al. [38] in 2008 using the relatively new adaptive...38] Akin- Ojo , O., Song, Y., and Wang, F., 2008, “Developing Ab Initio Quality Force Fields From Condensed Phase Quantum-Mechanics/Molecular-Mechan

  17. A Self-Assembled Nano-Structrured Peroxidase Based on Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate Nano-Micelle and Cytochrome c%十二烷基磺酸钠纳米胶团-细胞色素c自组装高效纳米结构过氧化物酶

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄琨; 洪军; 王玮; 肖保林; 赵莹雪; 杨卫云; 高云飞

    2012-01-01

    用阴离子表面活性剂十二烷基磺酸钠与细胞色素c自组装的方法构建了一种纳米超分子结构,观察到其具有显著的过氧化物酶活性,且在pH为10.5时达到最高.这种纳米结构过氧化物酶的催化效率为0.0219μmol/L·s.电化学方法测得其电子传递速率常数ks为0.586 s-1.这种以自组装方法构建的超分子结构不仅具有较高活性,可在天然过氧化物酶自杀性失活底物浓度较高时运用,且可固定化于电极上,实现与电极间的直接电子传递.%A nano-structured supermolecule or artificial enzyme was built self-assembly based on sodium dodecyl sulfate nano-micelle and cytochrome c. A significant peroxidase activity was observed and reached the maximum value at pH 10.5. Its catalytic efficiency was evaluated to be 0.0219 μmol/L·s. The immobilized nano-structured peroxidase modified electrode showed quasi-reversible electrochemical redox behaviors with a formal potential of (-38 ± 5) mV (vs. Ag/AgCI) at a scan rate of 0.05 V/s. The cathodic transfer coefficient and electron transfer rate constant were evaluated to be 0.51 and 0.59 s-1 respectively. The apparent Michaelis-Menten constant (Kmapp) was calculated to be 0.14 mmol/L. These results suggest that the nano-structured peroxidase not only perform a high activity as peroxidase and can be used in high concentration of hydrogen peroxide,but also can be immobilized on the electrode and realize direct electrochemical behavior.

  18. Correlation between HSP27 and CFL-1 in acute irritation induced by sodium dodecyl sulfate in keratinocytes%HSP27和CFL-1在角质细胞急性刺激反应中相关性的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡浩; 张齐好; 邹萍; 仝雷; 黄亚东

    2011-01-01

    研究急性刺激条件下,角质细胞中热休克蛋白27(heat shock protein 27,HSP27)和Cofilin-1(CFL-1)的表达是否具有相关性,初步探讨皮肤急性刺激反应的作用机理.通过免疫印迹法检测十二烷基硫酸钠(SDS)诱发的急性刺激反应下,角质细胞中HSP27和CFL-1蛋白的表达,并通过RNAi技术验证两者之间的相关性.结果发现,急性刺激诱导HSP27表达显著下调,CFL-1显著上调;干扰HSP27后,CFL-1的表达也随着下调,SDS刺激后,则表达上调.在急性刺激性条件下,HSP27和CFL-1的表达具有一定的浓度和时间依赖性;急性刺激能影响角质细胞骨架的改变,这些改变可能是通过HSP27和CFL-1的相互作用来调节的.%The correlation between heat shock protein 27 (HSP27) and Cofilin-1 ( CFL-1 ) was studied in acute irritation induced by sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) in keratinocytes, which would be helpful for the mechanistic understanding of the skin irritation.The expressions of HSP27 and CFL-1 were detected by immunoblotting in keratinocytes exposed to SDS.The correlation between HSP27 and CFL-1 was validated by RNAi technology.HSP27 was significantly downregulated and CFL-1 was significantly upregulated in response to the chemical challenge.The expression of CFL-1 was significantly reduced after interference of HSP27, but it was upregulated after exposure to SDS.The expressions of HSP27 and CFL-1 showed a time-and dose-dependent manner in acute irritation.The cute irritant may alter the cytoskeleton of keratinocyte, and these changes may be regulated by the interaction between HSP27 and CFL-1.

  19. Flotation of kaolinite with dodecyl tertiary amines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CAO Xue-feng; LIU Chang-miao; HU Yue-hua

    2009-01-01

    The flotation of kaolinite using a series of tertiary amines (N,N-dimethyl-dodecyl amine (DRN), N,N-diethyl-dodecyl amine (DEN), N,N-dipropyl-dodecyl amine (DPN) and N,N-dibenzyl-bodecyi amine (DBN)) was investigated. The results show that the maximum recoveries of kaolinite for DEN, DPN and DRN are 93%, 88% and 84%, respectively, but that of DBN is very low. On the basis of zeta potential and FT-IR spectra, the ionization of surface hydroxyl and isomorphic exchange of surface ions account for the charging mechanisms of kaolinite surface. The adsorption mechanism of tertiary amines on kaolinite surface is mainly electrostatic. The isoelectric point (IEP) of kaolinite increases from 3.4 to some more positive points after the interaction of kaolinite with the four tertiary amines. The FT-IR spectra of kaolinite change with the presence of some new sharp shapes belonging to the tertiary amines. The inductive electronic effects and space-steric effects of -CH_3, -C_2H_5, -C_3H_7 and -C_7H_7 bonding to N atom result in different collecting power of the four tertiary amines.

  20. Effect of intensity of ultraviolet light on degradation of sodium dodecyl benzene sulfonate by TiO2-bentonite%紫外光光强对TiO2-膨润土降解十二烷基苯磺酸钠的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    温淑瑶; 马敏立; 陈素云; 马占青

    2011-01-01

    在室温、电磁搅拌和6W紫外灯(距静止液面距离分别为6.5 cm、18.5 cm、30.5 cm和42.5 cm)的不同光强(在静止液面处的光强分别为700~750 μW/cm2、300~310μW/cm2、200~210 μW/cm2和110~120μW/cm2),及太阳光的不同紫外光强度照射条件下,质量分数为0.5‰的纳米TiO2-膨润土复合光催化剂对初始质量浓度为20 mg/L的十二烷基苯磺酸钠(SDBS)溶液中SDBS的降解反应表明:光强对SDBS降解的影响较大,光强越强SDBS的降解率越高、溶液的COD值降低率越大;不同光强下,TiO2-膨润土对SDBS降解反应为一级反应,符合Langmuir-Hinshelwood方程;随着光强的增大,TiO2-膨润土对SDBS降解的光催化反应速率常数增大.%Different intensities of ultraviolet light (700~750 (μW/cm2 ,300~310μ/W/cm2,200~210μW/cm2 and 110-120 μW/cm2)resulted from different distances(6.5 cm, 18.5 cm,30.5 cm and 42.5 cm ) between 6 W ultraviolet light and still solution surface respectively.Original concentration of sodium dodecyl benzene sulfonate (SDBS) was 20mg/L.Under the same condition (temperature, ultraviolet light shining period, electromagnetic mixing, Ph 6 ) and different intensities of light, the results of degradation reaction of SDBS by 0.5 TiO2-bentonite show that the effect of intensity of light on degradation is obvious.The higher the intensity of ultraviolet light, the more the SDBS was degradated.The higher the intensity of ultraviolet light, the more the chemical oxide demand of solution decreased.The degradation reaction was first-order reaction.Its law of dynamics accorded with Langmuir-Hinshelwood equation.The higher the intensity of ultraviolet light, the bigger the speed coefficient of photocatalytic reaction between SDBS and TiO2-bentonite.

  1. Investigation on the Interaction of Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate with Poly(Ethylene Oxide) by Electron Spin Resonance and UV Spectrum%顺磁共振和紫外光谱法研究SDS-PEO体系的相互作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    海明潭; 韩布兴; 闫海科

    2001-01-01

    合成更疏水的自旋探针4-羰基2,2,6,6四甲基哌啶氮氧自由基2,4-二硝基苯腙.用顺磁共振(ESR)和紫外光谱法研究了十二烷基硫酸钠(SDS)0.5%(w,质量分数)聚氧乙烯(PEO)体系的分子间相互作用.ESR结果表明,此水溶液体系的微极性随SDS浓度增大而减小,并且SDS与PEO聚集体具有更加紧密的堆积结构使其结合处具有较大的微粘性,SDS与PEO间的相互作用导致PEO分子链伸展.UV表明自旋探针分子可能靠近胶束的表面存在,2,4-二硝基苯肼基团可能位于靠近SDS的硫酸根基团,定向于SDS胶束的表面,氮氧自由基基团短距离渗透到SDS胶束的碳氢核.%ESR and UV spectrum of the aqueous solution of sodium dodecyl sulfate(SDS)/poly(ethylene oxide)(PEO) were measured at room temperature respectively, the concentration of PEO was 0.5% (mass fraction), and the concentration of SDS (mSDS) was up to 50 mmol· kg- 1. 2,4-dinitrophylhydrazone of 2,2,6,6-tetramethyl-4-piperidine-1-oxyl (Tempone-DNPH) was synthesized and used as ESR probe. The binding site of SDS-PEO interaction, the micropolarity and microviscosity information of the microenvironments have been determined by ESR. UV spectrum gives information on the environment of 2,4-dinitrophylhydrazone group. The hyperfine coupling constant and the rotational correlation time of the spin probe reflect the microenvironment of the polymer-micelle aggregates. The micropolarity of the solutions decreases with increasing SDS concentration, the polymer-micelle aggregate forms a more compact structure at the binding site and the binding site between PEO and SDS micelles yields a strong increase of the microviscosity at the micelle-polymer interface. Spin probe is located near the surface of the micelle. 2,4-dinitrophylhydrazone group may be adjacent to the sulphate groups, and the nitroxide group penetrates a small distance into the hydrocarbon core of the micelle

  2. 十二烷基苯磺酸钠-异辛烷-正辛醇反胶束萃取苦参生物碱的研究%Extraction of Alkaloids in Sophora Flavescens Ait by Reverse Micelle of Sodium Dodecyl Benzene Sulfonate/Isooctane/n-Octanol

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘小琴; 范华均; 佘旭辉; 张来凤; 王李平

    2012-01-01

    利用阴离子表面活性剂十二烷基苯磺酸钠(SDBS)与溶剂异辛烷和助溶剂正辛醇形成反胶束体系,用于苦参生物碱的萃取分离.研究了pH值、表面活性剂浓度、增溶水量W0、盐种类及浓度等因素对萃取的影响.结果表明:SDBS-异辛烷-正辛醇反胶束体系对苦参生物碱具有良好的选择性和较高萃取率,在pH 5.0,增溶水量W0 25,0.05 mol/L SDBS,0.05 mol/L KCl,室温,萃取时间5 min,反萃取时间20 min的最佳萃取条件下,氧化苦参碱、氧化槐果碱、槐定碱、苦参碱、槐果碱5种生物碱及总生物碱的萃取率和RSD分别在74.1%~87.2%和0.63%~3.0%之间.本方法选择性高,操作简便.%A method of reverse micelle extraction of alkaloids in Sophora Flavescens Ait has been developed using the reverse micelle system of sodium dodecyl benzene sulfonate(SDBS)/isooctane/ n-octanol. The experimental conditions such as pH, water content Wo, extraction time and temperature, the concentration of surfactant and salts were optimized. With the help of high performance liquid chromatography, the results showed that the reverse micelle formed by SDBS, isooctane and n-octanol can more effectively extract alkaloids than others. The optimum extraction conditions were as follows: pH 5. 0, 25 of water content Wo, 0. 05 mol/L of SDBS concentration, 0. 05 mol/L of KC1 concentration, 5 min of forward-extraction time and 20 min of backward-extraction time at room temperature. The method has been applied to separate and purify alkaloids from the extract by water with pressurized microwave-assisted extraction. Under the optimum conditions, the extraction yields of oxymatrine, n-oxysophocarpine, sophoridine, matrine, sophocarpine and total alkaloids in Sophora Flavescens Ait were between 74. 1% and 87. 2%, RSDs of their reproducibility were from 0. 6% to 3. 0%. The method is higher selectivity, and easy to operate.

  3. Interactions between dodecyl phosphates and hydroxyapatite or tooth enamel: relevance to inhibition of dental erosion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Siân B; Barbour, Michele E; Shellis, R Peter; Rees, Gareth D

    2014-05-01

    Tooth surface modification is a potential method of preventing dental erosion, a form of excessive tooth wear facilitated by softening of tooth surfaces through the direct action of acids, mainly of dietary origin. We have previously shown that dodecyl phosphates (DPs) effectively inhibit dissolution of native surfaces of hydroxyapatite (the type mineral for dental enamel) and show good substantivity. However, adsorbed saliva also inhibits dissolution and DPs did not augment this effect, which suggests that DPs and saliva interact at the hydroxyapatite surface. In the present study the adsorption and desorption of potassium and sodium dodecyl phosphates or sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS) to hydroxyapatite and human tooth enamel powder, both native and pre-treated with saliva, were studied by high performance liquid chromatography-mass Spectrometry. Thermo gravimetric analysis was used to analyse residual saliva and surfactant on the substrates. Both DPs showed a higher affinity than SDS for both hydroxyapatite and enamel, and little DP was desorbed by washing with water. SDS was readily desorbed from hydroxyapatite, suggesting that the phosphate head group is essential for strong binding to this substrate. However, SDS was not desorbed from enamel, so that this substrate has surface properties different from those of hydroxyapatite. The presence of a salivary coating had little or no effect on adsorption of the DPs, but treatment with DPs partly desorbed saliva; this could account for the failure of DPs to increase the dissolution inhibition due to adsorbed saliva.

  4. Experimental Investigation on Pool Boiling Heat Transfer With Ammonium Dodecyl Sulfate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mr.P. Atcha Rao

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available We have so many applications related to Pool Boiling. The Pool Boiling is mostly useful in arid areas to produce drinking water from impure water like sea water by distillation process. It is very difficult to distill the only water which having high surface tension. The surface tension is important factor to affect heat transfer enhancement in pool boiling. By reducing the surface tension we can increase the heat transfer rate in pool boiling. From so many years we are using surfactants domestically. It is proven previously by experiments that the addition of little amount of surfactant reduces the surface tension and increase the rate of heat transfer. There are different groups of surfactants. From those I‟m conducting experimentation with anionic surfactant Ammonium Dodecyl Sulfate (ADS, which is most human friendly and three times best soluble than Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate, to test the heat transfer enhancement.

  5. Joint disorder: nonreducing disc displacement with mouth opening limitation - report of a case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hellen Cordeiro Corrêa

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available The internal derangement of the temporomandibular joint (TMJ represents 8% of all cases of temporomandibular disorders (TMD posing difficulties to establish an accurate diagnosis and treatment because of its low prevalence. This article presents the case of an 18-year-old Caucasian female patient who came to our Orofacial Pain and TMD Outpatient Service with complaints of intense pain on the right TMJ and limitation of mouth opening (maximum interincisal opening of 29 mm with deviation to right, which she had been experiencing for the past 3 years. After a detailed clinical interview, a diagnosis hypothesis of nonreducing disc displacement with mouth opening limitation was established. The proposed treatment consisted of intra-joint infiltration with anesthetic in the right TMJ followed by jaw manipulation to recapture the articular disc, which was impeding the complete translation movement of the affected TMJ. After jaw manipulation, a new evaluation was done and showed the re-establishment of jaw dynamics with mouth opening and closing without deviation to the right side, clicking, opening limitation or pain. The patient was followed up at 6 months intervals. Two years after treatment, the patient was reevaluated and her mandibular range of motion without aid increased to 54 mm with no clicking, deviation to right, trismus or pain on the TMJ, indicating success of the treatment approach without recurrence of the pathology.

  6. Growth of a Pt film on non-reduced ceria: a density functional theory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loffreda, David; Delbecq, Françoise

    2012-01-28

    The growth of platinum on non-reduced CeO(2) (111) surface is studied by means of calculations based on the density functional theory. Particles of increasing size are formed on the oxide surface by incorporating the platinum atoms one by one until multilayer films are obtained. The main conclusion is that platinum atoms tend to maximize the number of metallic bonds and to approach the situation of the bulk, hence preferring films to particles, particles to isolated atoms, and a three-dimensional growth to a two-dimensional one. The supported particles and the films exhibit a contraction of the Pt-Pt distances, with respect to those of the Pt bulk, in order to match the ceria lattice. The density of states projected on the film surface platinum atoms shows important differences in shape and energy (lower d-band center) compared to the Pt(111) reference surface, which could be the major reason for the observed changes in catalytic reactivity when deposited particles are compared with single crystal surfaces.

  7. The Responses of Hyperglycemic Dividing Mesangial Cells to Heparin Are Mediated by the Non-reducing Terminal Trisaccharide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Christina P; Hascall, Vincent C; Zhang, Fuming; Linhardt, Robert J; Abbadi, Amina; Wang, Aimin

    2015-11-27

    Our previous studies showed: (i) that growth-arrested G0/G1 rat mesangial cells stimulated to divide in hyperglycemic medium initiate intracellular hyaluronan synthesis that induces autophagy and the cyclin D3-induced formation of a monocyte-adhesive extracellular hyaluronan matrix after completing cell division; and (ii) that heparin inhibits the intracellular hyaluronan and autophagy responses, but after completing division, induces hyaluronan synthesis at the plasma membrane with the formation of a larger monocyte-adhesive hyaluronan matrix. This study shows: (i) that the non-terminal trisaccharide of heparin is sufficient to initiate the same responses as intact heparin, (ii) that a fully sulfated tetrasaccharide isolated from bacterial heparin lyase 1 digests of heparin that contains a Δ-2S-iduronate on the non-reducing end does not initiate the same responses as intact heparin, and (iii) that removal of the Δ-2S-iduronate to expose the fully sulfated trisaccharide (GlcNS(6S)-IdoUA(2S)-GlcNS(6S)) does initiate the same responses as intact heparin. These results provide evidence that mammalian heparanase digestion of heparin and heparan sulfate exposes a cryptic motif on the non-reducing termini that is recognized by a receptor on dividing cells.

  8. Mobility of alkali cations in polypyrrole-dodecyl sulfate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kupila, E.L. [Department of Chemistry, University of Turku, 20500 Turku (Finland); Kankare, J. [Department of Chemistry, University of Turku, 20500 Turku (Finland)

    1995-03-01

    Due to the immobility of the large dodecyl sulfate anion, the mobile ions in polypyrrole-dodecyl sulfate are small ions from the solution. Virgin PP-dodecyl sulfate does not contain other ionic species, but already the first reduction causes the incorporation of cations into the membrane. Using in situ AC conductimetry on a double-band platinum electrode, we show that the insertion of cations from the solution into the PP membrane proceeds as a non-conducting zone advancing from the solution interface toward the substrate. The model allows to estimate ion mobilities in the membrane giving 8.6x10{sup -7}cm{sup 2}s{sup -1}V{sup -1} for K{sup +}. (orig.)

  9. Electronic Conductivity of Polypyrrole−Dodecyl Benzene Sulfonate Complexes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    West, Keld; Bay, Lasse; Nielsen, Martin Meedom

    2004-01-01

    The electronic conductivity of the electroactive polymer polypyrrole-dodecyl benzene sulfonate (PPy-DBS) has been characterized as function of the redox level. The polymer was synthesized with different isomers of the dopant anions: the common mixed DBS tenside and three well-defined synthetic...

  10. The chlorophyll a fluorescence induction pattern in chloroplasts upon repetitive single turnover excitations: accumulation and function of QB-nonreducing centers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vredenberg, Wim; Kasalicky, Vojtech; Durchan, Milan; Prasil, Ondrej

    2006-03-01

    The increase of chlorophyll fluorescence yield in chloroplasts in a 12.5 Hz train of saturating single turnover flashes and the kinetics of fluorescence yield decay after the last flash have been analyzed. The approximate twofold increase in Fm relative to Fo, reached after 30-40 flashes, is associated with a proportional change in the slow (1-20 s) component of the multiphasic decay. This component reflects the accumulation of a sizeable fraction of QB-nonreducing centers. It is hypothesized that the generation of these centers occurs in association with proton transport across the thylakoid membrane. The data are quantitatively consistent with a model in which the fluorescence quenching of QB-nonreducing centers is reversibly released after second excitation and electron trapping on the acceptor side of Photosystem II.

  11. Genotoxic effects of 2-dodecyl cyclobutanone; Genotoxizitaet von 2-Dodecylcyclobutanon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delincee, H.; Pool-Zobel, B.L.; Rechkemmer, G. [Bundesforschungsanstalt fuer Ernaehrung, Karlsruhe (Germany). Inst. fuer Ernaehrungsphysiologie

    1999-07-01

    The paper reports in vivo experiments with rats who received two different doses of 2-dodecyl cyclobutane administered orally. 16 hours after administration, colon cells were isolated and examined for DNA damage by means of the comet assay. No cytotoxic effects were found with the trypan blue exclusion test. When the '% tail intensity' or the 'tail moment' were used for quantitative analysis with the comet assay, it was found that similar results are obtained for the test group which received a lower dose of 2-dodecyl cyclobutane (1.12 mg/kg of body weight) and the control group which received 2% dimethyl sulfoxide. Administration of higher concentrations of the 2-dodecyl cyclobutane (14.9 mg/kg of body weight) was found to induce minor, but significant DNA damage in the test group. Further experiments will be needed in order to assess the relevance of these results for assessment of health risks due to consumption of irradiated food. (orig./CB) [German] In dieser Arbeit wurden in vivo-Versuche an Ratten, die zwei Dosierungen an 2-Dodecylcyclobutanon per Schlundsonde erhielten, durchgefuehrt. Nach 16-stuendiger Einwirkung wurden Kolonzellen aus den Ratten isoliert und mit Hilfe des Comet Assay auf DNA-Schaeden analysiert. Zytotoxische Effekte wurden bei der Anwendung des Trypanblau-Ausschlusstests nicht festgestellt. Wenn im Comet Assay zur quantitativen Auswertung das '% tail intensity' oder das 'tail moment' eingesetzt wurde, wurde bei der Versuchsgruppe, die eine niedrigere Konzentration des 2-Dodecylcyclobutanons (1,12 mg/kg Koerpergewicht) erhielt, aehnliche Werte wie bei der Kontrollgruppe, die 2% Dimethylsulfoxid verabreicht bekamen, beobachtet. Bei der hoeheren Konzentration des 2-Dodecylcyclobutanons (14,9 mg/kg Koerpergewicht) wurde in der Versuchsgruppe eine geringe, aber signifikante DNA-Schaedigung festgestellt. Weiterfuehrende Untersuchungen sind erforderlich, um die Relevanz dieser Ergebnisse fuer eine

  12. 树舌灵芝中分离得到非还原性二糖-海藻糖%Trehalose,a non-reducing disaccharide from Ganoderma applanatum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马红霞; 周忠波; 包海鹰; 图力古尔; 李玉

    2008-01-01

    Trehalose,a non-reducing disaccharide,was separated for the first time from Ganoderma applanatum fruit body.The structure of trehalose was determined by electrospray ionization mass spectrometric and NMR data.The content of trehalose was determined by improved anthrone-sulphuric acid colorimetric method and it was 0.48% of dried weight of G.applanatum fi'uit body.Mannitol was simultaneously obtained during separation of trehalose from G applanatum.

  13. Copolymerization of Styrene with Dodecyl Methacrylate and Octadecyl Methacrylate

    OpenAIRE

    Vidović, Elvira; SARIĆ, Karla; JANOVIĆ, Zvonimir

    2002-01-01

    Styrene (Sty) was copolymerized with dodecyl methacrylate (DDMA) and with octadecyl methacrylate (ODMA) in toluene solution using 2,2'-azobis(isobutyronitrile) (AIBN) as a free radical initiator over a wide composition and conversion range. The copolymer composi-tion was determined from NMR spectra. The copolymerization reactivity ratios were found to be r1 = 0.52 (Sty) and r2 = 0.42 (DDMA) for the Sty-DDMA system, and r1 = 0.58 (Sty) and r2 = 0.45 (ODMA) for the Sty-ODMA system, showing a te...

  14. Differentiation and distribution of colistin- and sodium dodecyl sulfate-tolerant cells in Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haagensen, Janus Anders Juul; Klausen, M; Ernst, RK

    2007-01-01

    During Pseudomonas aeruginosa flow cell biofilm development, the cell population differentiates into a nonmotile subpopulation which forms microcolonies and a migrating subpopulation which eventually colonizes the top of the microcolonies, resulting in the development of mushroom-shaped multicell......During Pseudomonas aeruginosa flow cell biofilm development, the cell population differentiates into a nonmotile subpopulation which forms microcolonies and a migrating subpopulation which eventually colonizes the top of the microcolonies, resulting in the development of mushroom......-targeting antibacterial agents. All biofilm-associated cells were sensitive to the antibacterial agents when tested in standard plate assays. A mutation eliminating the production of type IV pili, and hence surface-associated motility, prevented the formation of regular mushroom-shaped structures in the flow cell...

  15. Degradation of sodium dodecyl sulphate in water using solar driven Fenton-like advanced oxidation processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bandala, Erick R. [Instituto Mexicano de Tecnologia del Agua, Paseo Cuauhnahuac 8532, Progreso Jiutepec, Morelos 62550 (Mexico)], E-mail: ebandala@tlaloc.imta.mx; Pelaez, Miguel A.; Salgado, Maria J. [Instituto Mexicano de Tecnologia del Agua, Paseo Cuauhnahuac 8532, Progreso Jiutepec, Morelos 62550 (Mexico); Torres, Luis [Instituto de Ingenieria, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico (UNAM) (Mexico)

    2008-03-01

    Synthetic wastewater samples containing a model surfactant were treated using two different Fenton-like advanced oxidation processes promoted by solar radiation; the photo-Fenton reaction and Co/PMS/UV processes. Comparison between the different experimental conditions was performed by means of the overall surfactant degradation achieved and by obtaining the initial rate in the first 15 min of reaction (IR{sub 15}). It was found that, for dark Fenton reaction, the maximum surfactant degradation achieved was 14% under low iron and oxidant concentration. Increasing Fenton reagents by one magnitude order, surfactant degradation achieved 63% in 60 min. The use of solar radiation improved the reaction rate by 17% under same conditions and an additional increase of 12.5% was obtained by adjusting initial pH to 2. IR{sub 15} values for dark and irradiated Fenton reactions were 0.143 and 0.154 mmol/min, respectively, for similar reaction conditions and this value increased to 0.189 mmol/min when initial pH was adjusted. The use of the Co/PMS system allow us to determine an increase in the degradation rate, for low reaction conditions (1 mM of transition metal; 4 mM oxidant) similar to those used in dark Fenton reaction. Surfactant degradation increased from 3%, for Fenton reaction, to 44.5% in the case of Co/PMS. When solar irradiation was included in the experiments, under same reaction conditions described earlier, surfactant degradation up to 64% was achieved. By increasing Co/PMS reagent concentration by almost 9 times under irradiated conditions, almost complete (>99%) surfactant degradation was reached in 5 min. Comparing IR{sub 15} values for Co/PMS and Co/PMS/UV, it allow us to observe that the use of solar radiation increased the degradation rate in one magnitude order when compared with dark experiments and further increase of reagent concentration increased reaction rate twice.

  16. Effect of Added Brine on the Physico Chemical Studies of Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate and Aqueous Gelatin

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Jinu; Sreejith, Lisa

    2011-10-01

    Effect of added brine on the structural transitions of SDS, in different compositions of gelatin has been investigated by viscosity, circular dichroism, TGA and DSC. The slow and steady growth of the normal spherical micelles to the higher order aggregates were predicted by viscosity and conductivity measurements. The large negative value for ellipticity observed from CD measurements indicated absence of any conformational change for gelatin. Other measurements were used to study the molecular packing in the micellar aggregates. The complex formed exhibits fantastic properties to be explored in the field of smart gels.

  17. A Fourier transform infrared spectroscopic study of dodecyltrimethylammonium chloride/sodium dodecyl sulfate surfactant mixtures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scheuing, D.R.; Weers, J.G. (Clorox Technical Center, Pleasanton, CA (USA))

    1990-03-01

    The utility of FT-IR in characterizing the composition-dependent changes in packing of DTAC and SDS in mixed micelles is demonstrated. As the mixed micelle composition becomes equimolar, the micelle aggregation number is known to increase, indicating a spherical to nonspherical micelle shape change. The frequency of the composite CH{sub 2} stretching bands decreases as the composition becomes equimolar, suggesting a decrease in the gauche/trans conformer ratio in the tails of the surfactants, which is a result of the increased crowding of the methylene chains accompanying the shape change. The use of SDS-d{sub 25} allows confirmation of this trend through the inspection of the shifts in the CH{sub 2} stretching bands (DTAC tails) and the CD{sub 2} stretching bands (SDS-d{sub 25} tails). Electrostatic interactions between the headgroups of DTAC and SDS can also be monitored spectroscopically. The shifts in the asymmetric and symmetric S-O stretching bands with micelle composition indicate an increase in SDS headgroup ordering in SDS-rich mixed micelles and a dominance of interactions with DTA{sup +} ions in DTAC-rich micelles.

  18. Microdisc gel electrophoresis in sodium dodecyl sulfate of organic material from rat otoconial complexes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, M. D.; Pote, K. G.; Rarey, K. E.; Verma, L. M.

    1981-01-01

    The gravity receptors of all vertebrates utilize a 'test mass' consisting of a complex arrangement of mineral and organic substance that lies over the sensory receptor areas. In most vertebrates, the mineral is a polymorph of calcium carbonate in the form of minute, single crystals called otoconia. An investigation is conducted to determine the number of proteins in otoconial complexes and their molecular weights. The investigation makes use of a microdisk gel electrophoresis method reported by Gainer (1971). The most important finding of the reported research is that analysis of the proteins of the organic material of the otoconial complexes is possible when sensitive microanalytical methods are employed. Further modification of the basic technique employed and the inclusion of other sensitive staining methods should mean that, in the future, protein separation by molecular weight will be possible in sample pools containing only two otoconial masses.

  19. Highly sensitive fluorescent stain for detecting lipopolysaccharides in sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xu; Zhou, Ayi; Cai, Wanhui; Yu, Dongdong; Zhu, Zhongxin; Jiang, Chengxi; Jin, Litai

    2015-08-01

    A sensitive and simple technique was developed for the visualization of gel-separated lipopolysaccharides by using a hydrazide derivative, UGF202. As low as 0.5-1 ng total LPS could be detected by UGF202 stain, which is 2- and 16-fold more sensitive than that of the commonly used Pro-Q Emerald 300 and Keenan et al. developed silver stain, respectively. The results indicated that UGF202 stain could be a good choice for LPS determination in polyacrylamide gels. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. Identifying changes in chemical, interfacial and foam properties of ß-lactoglobulin–sodium dodecyl sulphate mixtures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lech, F.J.; Steltenpool, P.; Meinders, M.B.J.; Sforza, S.; Gruppen, H.; Wierenga, P.A.

    2014-01-01

    Techno-functional properties of proteins, such as foam stability, can be affected by the presence of low-molecular-weight surfactants. In order to understand and control the foam properties of such protein–surfactant mixtures, a thorough characterization of foam and interfacial properties needs to b

  1. Quercetin solubilisation in bile salts: A comparison with sodium dodecyl sulphate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchweitz, Maria; Kroon, Paul A; Rich, Gillian T; Wilde, Peter J

    2016-11-15

    To understand the bioaccessibility of the flavonoid quercetin we studied its interaction with bile salt micelles. The environmental sensitivity of quercetin's UV-visible absorption spectrum gave information about quercetin partitioning. Two quercetin absorption peaks gave complementary information: Peak A (240-280nm) on the intermicellar phase and Peak B (340-440nm) on the micellar phase. Thus, by altering pH, we showed that only non-ionised quercetin partitions into micelles. We validated our interpretation by studying quercetin's interaction with SDS micelles. Pyrene fluorescence and the quercetin UV-visible spectra show that the adsorption site for pyrene and quercetin in bile salt micelles is more hydrophobic than that for SDS micelles. Also, both quercetin and pyrene reported a higher critical micelle concentration for bile salts than for SDS. Our method of using a flavonoid as an intrinsic probe, is generally applicable to other lipophilic bioactives, whenever they have observable environmental dependent properties.

  2. Differentiation and distribution of colistin- and sodium dodecyl sulfate-tolerant cells in Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haagensen, Janus Anders Juul; Klausen, M; Ernst, RK

    2007-01-01

    biofilms, and the development of tolerance to the antimicrobial agents was found to be affected as well. Mutations in genes interfering with lipopolysaccharide modification (pmr) eliminated the biofilm-associated colistin tolerance phenotype. Experiments with a PAO1 strain harboring a pmr-gfp fusion showed...... that only the cap-forming subpopulation in biofilms treated with colistin expresses the pmr operon. These results suggest that increased antibiotic tolerance in biofilms may be a consequence of differentiation into distinct subpopulations with different phenotypic properties....

  3. Identifying changes in chemical, interfacial and foam properties of ß-lactoglobulin–sodium dodecyl sulphate mixtures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lech, F.J.; Steltenpool, P.; Meinders, M.B.J.; Sforza, S.; Gruppen, H.; Wierenga, P.A.

    2014-01-01

    Techno-functional properties of proteins, such as foam stability, can be affected by the presence of low-molecular-weight surfactants. In order to understand and control the foam properties of such protein–surfactant mixtures, a thorough characterization of foam and interfacial properties needs to

  4. Poliovirus sampling by using sodium dodecyl sulfate/EDTA-pretreated chromatography paper strips.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maes, Piet; Van Doren, Els; Denys, Barbara; Thoelen, Inge; Rahman, Mustafizur; Vijgen, Leen; Van Ranst, Marc

    2004-12-17

    To achieve the goal of poliovirus eradication, surveillance of endemic areas is a crucial step in the poliovirus eradication program. Currently, six countries still have endemic poliovirus. We have tested a novel method which uses SDS/EDTA-treated chromatography paper strips to collect and transport poliovirus-containing stool samples. The SDS/EDTA-treated paper strips were soaked with different dilutions of poliovirus-containing feces and stored at different temperatures. After storing the SDS/EDTA paper strips for 5 months at 37 degrees C, poliovirus RNA could be successfully amplified using RT-PCR. Infectivity of wild-type poliovirus type 1, 2, and 3 was lost upon contact with the SDS/EDTA-treated strips. This easy, inexpensive, and biosafe chromatography paper strip method for the collection and transportation of poliovirus samples can be of use in poliovirus surveillance and polio vaccination programs.

  5. Inactivation of brain Na+,K(+)-ATPase catalytic subunit isoforms by sodium dodecyl sulfate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplya, A; Kravtsova, V V; Kravtsov, A V

    1997-01-01

    Persistence of the brain and kidney Na+,K(+)-ATPase isozymes to SDS inactivation under different time and temperature conditions of microsome extraction with the detergent was compared. In contrast to enzyme preparations from medulla oblongata the higher sensitivity of the Na+,K(+)-ATPase alpha-isoform (in comparison to alpha +) to SDS inactivation accompanied by its, at least, partial removal from the membrane was found in the preparations from cerebral cortex. This difference in the sensitivity to SDS was eliminated after extraction of microsomes with the detergent at 37 degrees C. The interpretation of the results is based on the assumed differences in the structural organization of the boundary lipids of the neuronal Na+,K(+)-ATPase catalytic subunit isoforms.

  6. Phase Behavior and Dielectric Spectroscopy of the Sodiun Dodecyl Trioxyethylene Sulfate/n-Butanol/Water System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WEI, Su-Xiang; MU, Jian-Hai; ZHAO, Kong-Shuang; LEI, Jian-Ping; LI, Gan-Zuo

    2003-01-01

    The phase diagram of the ternary system of sodium dodecyl trioxyethylene sulfate (SDES)/n-butanol/water is obtained at (30.0 ± 0.1) ℃. There exists a clear, isotropic, and low-viscosity L phase, which could be divided into W/O micelle, bicontinuous (B. C. ) phase and O/W micelle by conductivity measurements. Dielectric Relaxation Spectroscopy (DRS) measurements are applied to investigate microstructure changes of this system. For samples with a fixed weight ratio, SDES/nbutanol = 3/7, DRS indicates a structure transition from W/Oto O/W micelles via B.C. Phase with the increase of water content. For the samples with a fixed weight ratio, SDES/H2O =4/6, DRS can presents that there exist changes of onefold structure size of W/O micelles as n-butanol content increases. The results obtained from DRS and their analyses are in good agreement with those from phase diagram and conductivity measurements.

  7. [Electrochemical behavior of dopamine at dodecyl benzenesulfonate self-assembled monolayers modified electrode and its application].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Xiao-xia; Gao, Zuo-ning

    2007-04-01

    Sodium dodecyl benzenesulfonate (SDBS) self-assembled monolayers in situ modified electrode (SDBS/CPE) was prepared. The electrochemical behaviors of dopamine (DA) on SDBS/CPE were studied. Electrochemical behaviors and kinetic parameters of DA were investigated at SDBS/CPE by cyclic voltammetry (CV), chronoamperometry (CA) and chronocoulometry (CC). The changes of the oxidation peak currents with concentration of DA were examined by square wave voltametry (SWV). The difference of peak potential at CPB/CPE was less than 149 mV comparing with that at CPE. The charge transfer coefficient alpha, diffusion coefficient D and the apparent reaction rate constant k(f) are 0.61, 3.6 x 10(-5) cm2 x s(-1) and 4.2 x 10(-3) cm x s(-1), respectively. The oxidation peak currents of DA versus its concentration have a good linear relationship in the concentration range of 2.0 x 10(-6)-1.0 x 10(-3) mol x L(-1) with the correlation coefficient of 0.9979 and the detection limit of 9.0 x 10(-7) mol x L(-1) by square wave voltammetry (SWV) response. The modified electrode showed an excellent electrocatalytic activity for the DA electrochemical oxidation. The method can be applied in the determination of DA in injection samples with the satisfactory results.

  8. 40 CFR 721.3848 - Glycine, N-(carboxymethyl)-N-dodecyl-, monosodium salt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...-, monosodium salt. 721.3848 Section 721.3848 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.3848 Glycine, N-(carboxymethyl)-N-dodecyl-, monosodium salt. (a... glycine, N-(carboxymethyl)-N-dodecyl-, monosodium salt (PMN P-00-469; CAS No. 141321-68-8) is subject to...

  9. Laccase aided modification of nanofibrillated cellulose with dodecyl gallate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Päivi Saastamoinen

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Nanofibrillated cellulose, NFC, is an interesting wood fibre-based material that could be utilized in coatings, foams, composites, packages, dispersions, and emulsions, due to its high tensile strength and barrier properties, light weight, and stabilizing features. To improve applicability and properties of NFC, modification of its surface properties is often needed. In this study, the applicability of laccase-aided surface modification with hydrophobic dodecyl gallate (DOGA on unbleached NFC was investigated. Also, laccase-catalyzed polymerization of DOGA and other phenolic compounds with lignin moieties was investigated by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectroscopy (MALDI-TOF MS. NFC modified with T. hirsuta-based laccase and DOGA showed decreased hydrophilicity, as compared with the native NFC, when coated on a paper surface. When dried as free-standing films, the surface properties of chemo-enzymatically modified NFC resembled those of the native NFC. The effect of modification was thus greatly influenced by different surface formation in differently prepared samples. Also, changing of the dispersion properties of DOGA by enzymatic polymerization affected the surface properties of the dried NFC samples. Covalent bonding between DOGA and NFC was not the main factor affecting the surface properties of the NFC in free-standing films or coatings.

  10. Sodium Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... low levels of cortisol, aldosterone and sex hormones ( Addison disease ) Drinking too much water as might occur during ... urinary sodium levels may indicate diuretic use or Addison disease. Sodium levels are often evaluated in relation to ...

  11. Sodium Phosphate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sodium phosphate is used in adults 18 years of age or older to empty the colon (large intestine, bowel) ... view of the walls of the colon. Sodium phosphate is in a class of medications called saline ...

  12. Sodium Oxybate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sodium oxybate is used to prevent attacks of cataplexy (episodes of muscle weakness that begin suddenly and ... urge to sleep during daily activities, and cataplexy). Sodium oxybate is in a class of medications called ...

  13. Preparation and characterization of n-dodecyl-ferulate-loaded solid lipid nanoparticles (SLN).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souto, E B; Anselmi, C; Centini, M; Müller, R H

    2005-05-13

    Solid lipid nanoparticles (SLN) containing a novel potential sunscreen n-dodecyl-ferulate (ester of ferulic acid) were developed. The preparation and stability parameters of n-dodecyl-ferulate-loaded SLN have been investigated concerning particle size, surface electrical charge (zeta potential) and matrix crystallinity. The chemical stability of n-dodecyl-ferulate at high temperatures was also assessed by thermal gravimetry analysis. For the selection of the appropriated lipid matrix, chemically different lipids were melted with 4% (m/m) of active and lipid nanoparticles were prepared by the so-called high pressure homogenization technique. n-Dodecyl-ferulate-loaded SLN prepared with cetyl palmitate showed the lowest mean particle size and polydispersity index, as well as the highest physical stability during storage time of 21 days at 4, 20 and 40 degrees C. These colloidal dispersions containing the sunscreen also exhibited the common melting behaviour of aqueous SLN dispersions.

  14. Sodium and Food Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Sources Top 10 Sources of Sodium How to Reduce Sodium Sodium Reduction Resources for Everyone Sodium Reduction Fact ... in processed food [PDF-867K] and how to reduce sodium. Sodium Reduction Is Challenging Types of food matter: ...

  15. Sodium in diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diet - sodium (salt); Hyponatremia - sodium in diet; Hypernatremia - sodium in diet; Heart failure - sodium in diet ... The body uses sodium to control blood pressure and blood volume. Your body also needs sodium for your muscles and nerves to work ...

  16. MICRO-DETERMINATION OF DODECYL DIMETHYL BENZYL-AMMONIUM CHLOR IDE%微量十二烷基二甲基苯甲基氯化铵的测定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    俞斌; 王峰; 栾承莲

    2001-01-01

    十二烷基二甲基苯甲基氯化铵、十二烷基磺酸钠和溴百里酚蓝在pH 7.4~8.2范围内形成黄绿色离子缔合物。把十二烷基磺酸钠、溴百里酚蓝、缓冲溶液按顺序加入十二烷基二甲基苯甲基氯化铵中,15 min后于456 nm处测其吸光度,微量测定十二烷基二甲基苯甲基氯化铵的含量。通过调节pH值、加入掩蔽剂掩蔽金属离子排除干扰。%Dodecyl dimethyl benzyl-ammonium chloride, sodium laurylsulfonate and bromothymol blue can form yellowish blue ion association complex in pH 7.4~8.2, affi x sodium laurylsulfonate, bromothymol blue and buffer solution to dodecyl dimeth yl benzyl-ammonium chloride in normal sequence. Record the absorbance data of so lutio n in 456nm with spectrophotometer, micro-determine the content of dodecyl di methyl benzyl-ammonium chloride. The disturbance was removed by adjusting the pH value and adding the screening agent to mask the metalion.

  17. Hidden Sodium

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2013-03-04

    In this podcast, learn about reducing sodium intake by knowing what to eat and the main sources of sodium in the diet. It's important for a healthy lifestyle.  Created: 3/4/2013 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 3/4/2013.

  18. Dietary sodium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Graudal, Niels

    2015-01-01

    The 2013 Institute of Medicine (IOM) report "Sodium Intake in Populations: Assessment of Evidence" did not support the current recommendations of the IOM and the American Heart Association (AHA) to reduce daily dietary sodium intake to below 2,300 mg. The report concluded that the population...... Control (CDC), other public health advisory bodies, and major medical journals have continued to support the current policy of reducing dietary sodium.......-based health outcome evidence was not sufficient to define a safe upper intake level for sodium. Recent studies have extended this conclusion to show that a sodium intake below 2,300 mg/day is associated with increased mortality. In spite of this increasing body of evidence, the AHA, Centers for Disease...

  19. Evolution of Chemical Diversity in a Group of Non-Reduced Polyketide Gene Clusters: Using Phylogenetics to Inform the Search for Novel Fungal Natural Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kurt Throckmorton

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Fungal polyketides are a diverse class of natural products, or secondary metabolites (SMs, with a wide range of bioactivities often associated with toxicity. Here, we focus on a group of non-reducing polyketide synthases (NR-PKSs in the fungal phylum Ascomycota that lack a thioesterase domain for product release, group V. Although widespread in ascomycete taxa, this group of NR-PKSs is notably absent in the mycotoxigenic genus Fusarium and, surprisingly, found in genera not known for their secondary metabolite production (e.g., the mycorrhizal genus Oidiodendron, the powdery mildew genus Blumeria, and the causative agent of white-nose syndrome in bats, Pseudogymnoascus destructans. This group of NR-PKSs, in association with the other enzymes encoded by their gene clusters, produces a variety of different chemical classes including naphthacenediones, anthraquinones, benzophenones, grisandienes, and diphenyl ethers. We discuss the modification of and transitions between these chemical classes, the requisite enzymes, and the evolution of the SM gene clusters that encode them. Integrating this information, we predict the likely products of related but uncharacterized SM clusters, and we speculate upon the utility of these classes of SMs as virulence factors or chemical defenses to various plant, animal, and insect pathogens, as well as mutualistic fungi.

  20. Study on Occupation Behavior of Y2O3 in X8R Nonreducible BaTiO3-Based Dielectric Ceramics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Guofeng; Wang, Xiaohui; Li, Longtu

    2011-12-01

    The effects of Y2O3 on BaTiO3-MgO-MnO2-CaZrO3 nonreducible ceramics were investigated. Specimens with Y2O3 contents ranging from 1.0 to 2.5 mol % were prepared via the solid state method. The Curie temperature (Tc) and the electrical properties were closely related to the occupation behavior of yttrium, which is known as an amphoteric element. Tc increased almost linearly as a function of Y2O3 content when the doping content was low. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) indicated a typical “core-shell” structure. The lattice parameters corresponding to the grain cores and the shells were determined by X-ray diffractometry (XRD) separately. The relief of the internal stresses arising from the lattice mismatch was responsible for the Tc shift. The specimens doped by a high level of Y2O3 can fulfill the EIA X8R specification with a high dielectric constant (ɛRT > 2400) and a low dielectric loss (tan δ< 1.1%). A high insulation resistivity and a slow degradation rate were obtained when a sufficient amount of Y2O3 was incorporated, which were attributed to the substitution of Ti4+ and the formation of a donor-acceptor complex.

  1. Viscosity measurements of CO2-in-water foam with dodecyl polypropoxy sulfate surfactants for enhanced oil recovery application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pramudita, Ria Ayu; Ryoo, Won Sun

    2016-08-01

    Apparent viscosities of CO2-in-water foams were measured in a wide range of shear rate from 50 to 105 inverse second for enhanced oil recovery (EOR) application. The CO2-in-water dispersions, made of 50:50 weight proportions of CO2 and water with 1 wt.% surfactant concentration, were prepared in high-pressure recirculation apparatus under pressure where CO2 density becomes 0.7, 0.8, and 0.9 g/mL at each temperature of 35, 45, and 55°C. The surfactants used for the foam generation were sodium dodecyl polypropoxy sulfates with average propoxylation degrees of 4.7 and 6.2. The foam viscosity showed shear thinning behaviors with power-law indices ranging from 0.80 to 0.85, and approached a Newtonian regime in the lower shear rate range at several tens of inverse second. Zero-shear viscosity values projected from experimental data based on Ellis model were as high as 57.4 mPa·s and enough to control the mobility of water and CO2 in oil reservoirs.

  2. Sodium - blood

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... gland problems such as Cushing syndrome or hyperaldosteronism Diabetes insipidus (type of diabetes in which kidneys are not able to conserve water) Too much salt or sodium bicarbonate in the diet Use of certain medicines, including corticosteroids, laxatives, lithium, ...

  3. Spectroscopy and computational studies on the interaction of octyl, dodecyl, and hexadecyl derivatives of anionic and cationic surfactants with adenosine deaminase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajloo, Davood; Mahmoodabadi, Najmeh; Ghadamgahi, Maryam; Saboury, Ali Akbar

    2016-07-01

    Effects of sodium (octyl, dodecyl, hexadecyl) sulfate and their cationic analogous on the structure of adenosine deaminase (ADA) were investigated by fluorescence and circular dichroism spectroscopy as well as molecular dynamics simulation and docking calculation. Root-mean-square derivations, radius of gyration, solvent accessible surface area, and radial distribution function were obtained. The results showed that anionic and cationic surfactants reduce protein stability. Cationic surfactants have more effect on the ADA structure in comparison with anionic surfactants. More concentration and longer surfactants are parallel to higher denaturation. Furthermore, aggregation in the presence of anionic surfactants is more than cationic surfactants. Docking data showed that longer surfactants have more interaction energy and smaller ones bound to the active site.

  4. Preservasi Semen Kambing Peranakan Etawa dalam Pengencer Tris dan Sitrat Kuning Telur dengan Penambahan Sodium Dodecyl Sulphate (THE PRESERVATION OF ETTAWA GRADE BUCK SEMEN IN TRIS AND CITRATE EGG YOLK DILUENTS SUPPLEMENTED WITH SODIUM DODECYL SULPHATE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nur Hidayati

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to determineSDS concentration also to compare Tris egg yolk and citrateegg yolk on the quality of ettawa grade chilled semen. The study consist of two experiments. The firstexperiment was to determine the best SDS concentration in Tris egg yolk diluents and the second experimentwas to compare the SDS suplementation in tris and citrate egg yolk in the quality of ettawa grade chilledsemen. The semen were collected from three bucks, immediately after collection the semen evalutedmacro and microscopycally. Semen demonstrate more than 70% motility and less than 10% spermatozoaabnormality, individually divided into four tube, each tube was diluted in egg yolk supplemented with 0;0,025; 0,05; and 0.075% SDS then stored at 5°C for 72 hours. The quality of chilled semen was observefor motility and viability every 12 hours. Result demonstrated that 0.05% SDS was the best concentrationcompared to others. In the second experiment,the semen were diluted in four different diluents, it wereTris egg yolk (TEY, Tris egg yolk with 0.05% SDS (TEYS, citrate egg yolk (CEY and citrate egg yolk with0.05% SDS (CEYS. Result demonstrated that the mean value of motility and viability of spermatozoa inTEYSdiluents (67.08 ± 6.43% and77.07 ± 6.78% was higher (p<0.05 than CEYS (60.42 ± 9.05% and72.31± 7.45%, TEY (59.23 ± 9.41% and71.21 ± 8.56% and CEY (53.45 ± 11.33% and67.74 ± 8.90%. In conclusion,supplementation of 0.05% SDS in TEY was maintained best sperm quality compared to other diluentsduring preservation.

  5. Proteolysis of the heavy chain of major histocompatibility complex class I antigens by complement component C1s

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksson, H; Nissen, Mogens Holst

    1990-01-01

    into at least two fragments, with apparent molecular weights of 22,000 and 24,000 g/mol on sodium dodecyl sulphate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE), under both reducing and non-reducing conditions. The cleavage of the heavy chain is inhibited by the presence of C1 esterase inhibitor. The molecular...

  6. 十二烷基苯磺酸木薯淀粉酯微波法制备工艺研究%Preparation technology of dodecyl benzene sulfonic acid cassava starch ester by microwave

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张利伟; 薛行华; 赵法敏; 张永强; 李光

    2013-01-01

    Dodecyl benzene sulfonic acid cassava starch ester was prepared by microwave method with cassava starch as the raw material , sodium dodecyl benzene sulfonate as the esterification agent and sodium hydroxide as the catalyst .The effects of synthetic condition , such as molar ratio ( sodi-um dodecyl benzene sulfonate to glucose unit of cassava starch ) , reaction time , incubated tempera-ture and pH value , on the substitution degree were investigated .The best conditions by orthogonal design were the molar ratio of sodium dodecyl benzene sulfonate to cassava at 0.06 , reaction time 5 h and the incubated temperature 80 ℃, at which the degree of substitution was 0.010 0 .FT-IR and XRD revealed the changes in the structure of the esterified starch , and TG analysis also dis-played the decline of the hydrophilic and thermal stability of the esterified starch .%  以木薯淀粉为原料,十二烷基苯磺酸钠为酯化剂,NaOH为催化剂,采用微波法制备十二烷基苯磺酸木薯淀粉酯,并考察其合成的工艺条件。探讨了十二烷基苯磺酸钠与木薯淀粉葡萄糖单元的摩尔比、反应时间、反应温度和pH值对产物取代度的影响,用正交实验分析对制备工艺进行优化,并通过红外、X射线和热重分析表征了酯化淀粉的结构及其热稳定性。结果表明,在十二烷基苯磺酸钠与木薯淀粉葡萄糖单元摩尔比为0.06、反应时间5 h、反应温度80℃和pH为10的条件下制备的十二烷基苯磺酸酯淀粉的取代度最佳,取代度为0.0100。红外和X射线谱图证明了酯化淀粉结构的改变,热重分析表明酯化淀粉亲水性与热稳定性有所下降。

  7. Investigation and Comparison of Leishmania major Promastigote and Amastigote Protein Content by Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate Polyacrylamide Gel Electrophoresis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Soleimanifard

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available ntroduction & Objective: Leishmania is a protozoan of the trypanosomatidae family. This pro-tozoan has two stages in its life cycle, promastigote form in sand flies and amastigote form in macrophage of mammalian hosts. The purpose of this study was identification and compari-son of proteins of Leishmania amastigote and promastigote stages. Materials & Methods: The present study is a cross sectional study of two forms of Leishmania major. To culture promastigotes , L.major (MRHO/IR/75/ER from previously infected Balb/c mice was transferred to modified N.N.N medium with overlay of liquid BHI and then transferred to RPMI-1640 at 26oc ± 1 for mass production. After isolation and growth, pro-mastigotes were transferred to liquid cell culture medium RPMI-1640 with pH 5.5 and incu-bated at 5% CO2 at 37oc for 72 hours until promastigote to amastigote transformation. Elec-trophoresis was performed with SDS-PAGE method to find and compare the molecular weight of the antigens of two stages. Results: The molecular weights of the bands observed in both forms were as follows: 19, 36, 50, 63, 65, 80, 90, 94, 96, 110- 130 KDa. The proteins in the surface of only promastigote were 22, 28 and 46 KDa and special proteins in the surface of amastigote were 12 and 32 KDa. Conclusion : According to this study Leishmania parasite has stage specific proteins. Various studies have shown that axenic amastigotes and tissue amastigotes are similar in their protein content. Therefore, based on stage specific proteins ,effective drugs and vaccines can be de-signed against leishmaniasis. (Sci J Hamadan Univ Med Sci 2013; 20 (1:1-8

  8. Aggregation properties of levofloxacin in water and ethanol and its interaction with sodium dodecyl sulphate: A thermodynamic study

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Muhammad Shakeel; Khalid Mehmood; Mohammad Siddiq

    2015-11-01

    This manuscript reports the determination of critical micelle concentration (CMC) of levofloxacin (LF) in two solvents, water and ethanol, by using surface tension, refractive index and absorbance measurements. The data thus obtained were used to calculate different thermodynamic parameters for micellization process like free energy of micellization, free energy of adsorption, entropy and enthalpy of micellization. The interaction of this drug with anionic surfactant (SDS) was also studied using UV/Visible spectroscopy and conductometry. With rise in temperature, CMC of the drug was found to decrease in ethanol and increase in aqueous solution indicating dominance of lipophobic desolvation over lipophilic desolvation in ethanol and reverse, in case of aqueous solution. A strong drug/surfactant interaction was found to exist. The data obtained from drug/surfactant interaction were also used to find different interaction parameters like partition constant, free energy of partition, binding constant and free energy of binding which are very useful to understand the phenomenon of solubilization.

  9. Combined alcian blue and silver staining of subnanogram quantities of proteoglycans and glycosaminoglycans in sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, H J; Heinegård, D; Poulsen, J H

    1993-01-01

    Proteoglycans stain weakly in polyacrylamide gels by traditional protein stains such as coomassie brilliant blue or silver. In the present work preparations of large aggregating proteoglycan from human articular cartilage were used to evaluate a convenient staining method based on successive stai...

  10. Test Your Sodium Smarts

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... You may be surprised to learn how much sodium is in many foods. Sodium, including sodium chloride ... foods with little or no salt. Test your sodium smarts by answering these 10 questions about which ...

  11. Low sodium diet (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for you. Look for these words on labels: low-sodium, sodium-free, no salt added, sodium-reduced, or ... for you. Look for these words on labels: low-sodium, sodium-free, no salt added, sodium-reduced, or ...

  12. Synthesis of dodecyl lauroyl benzene sulfonate and its application in enhanced oil recovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cui, Zhenggang; Wu, Le; Sun, Mingming; Jiang, Jian-zhong; Wang, Feng [Jiangnan Univ., Wuxi (China). School of Chemical and Material Engineering

    2011-09-15

    A new hydrophobic surfactant, dodecyl lauroyl benzene sulfonate (DLBS), was synthesized and its application in enhanced oil recovery by alkali-surfactant-polymer (ASP) flooding was studied. The results show that DLBS can be synthesized by reaction of industrial dodecyl benzene with lauroyl chloride in the presence of AlCl{sub 3}, followed by sulfonation with ClSO{sub 3}H and neutralization with NaOH. The lauroyl-group is confirmed to be connected to the para-position of the alkylbenzene by1HNMR spectrum. The synthesized DLBS is well soluble in pure water and reservoir (connate) water at 45 C. It is highly surface active which is indicated by its low CMC of 1.1 . 10{sup -5} mol/L, and its low surface tension, {gamma}{sub cmc} of 28.6 mN m{sup -1}. By mixing with heavy alkylbenzene sulfonates of relatively low average molar mass (387g mol{sup -1}) at a total surfactant concentration of 5 mM, DLBS can reduce the interfacial tension of Daqing crude oil/connate water to an order of 10{sup -3} mN/m at 45 C in the presence of 0.5-1.0 wt.% NaOH and 1000 mg L{sup -1} of polymer. If the NaOH was replaced by a gentle alkaline salt, Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3}, certain amounts of dodecyl dimethyl carboxy betaine were added and the concentration of Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3} was increased to 1.2-2.0 wt.%, the interfacial tension of Daqing crude oil/connate water can also be reduced to an ultralow value. Therefore DLBS is a good hydrophobic surfactant applicable in ASP flooding with either NaOH or Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3} as alkaline agents. (orig.)

  13. DCl Transport through Dodecyl Sulfate Films on Salty Glycerol: Effects of Seawater Ions on Gas Entry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaloski, Michael A; Sobyra, Thomas B; Nathanson, Gilbert M

    2015-12-17

    Gas-liquid scattering experiments were employed to measure the entry and dissociation of the acidic gas DCl into salty glycerol coated with dodecyl sulfate ions (DS(-) = CH3(CH2)11OSO3(-)). Five sets of salty solutions were examined: 0.25 and 0.5 M NaCl, 0.25 M MgCl2, 0.25 M CaCl2, and artificial sea salt. DS(-) bulk concentrations were varied from 0 to 11 mM, generating DS(-) surface coverages of up to 34% of a compact monolayer, as determined by surface tension and argon scattering measurements. DS(-) surface segregation is enhanced by the dissolved salts in the order MgCl2 ≈ CaCl2 > sea salt > NaCl. We find that DCl penetration through the dodecyl chains decreases at first gradually and then sharply as more chains segregate to the surface, dropping from 70% entry on bare glycerol to 11% for DS(-) surface concentrations of 1.8 × 10(14) cm(-2). When plotted against DS(-) surface concentration, the DCl entry probabilities fall within a single band for all solutions. These observations imply that the monovalent Na(+) and divalent Ca(2+) and Mg(2+) ions do not bind differently enough to the ROSO3(-) headgroup to significantly alter the diffusive passage of DCl molecules through the dodecyl chains at the same DS(-) chain density. The chief difference among the salts is the greater propensity for the divalent salts to expel the soluble ionic surfactant to the surface.

  14. Aggregation of Dodecyl 1-Pyrenylmethyl Ether and Its Application in Structure-Polarity Relations of Aggregates

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SANG,Da-Yong; TIAN,Juan; JI,Guo-Zhen

    2006-01-01

    The aggregation behavior of dodecyl 1-pyrenylmethyl ether was studied in dioxane-water mixture solvents by fluorescence techniques. The labeled pyrenyl group was effective in monitoring the polarity change of its environment during aggregation processes. Based on the structural effects such as chain-length effect, self-coiling effect,and branch-group effect on the polarity of the probe environment, the structure features of aggregates were discussed and have been used to interpret the effect of the structural features on the aggregates formed by three cholesteryl esters and three long chain alkanes.

  15. New fluorescent polymeric nanocomposites synthesized by antimony dodecyl-mercaptide thermolysis in polymer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available In this work, the formation of semiconductive Sb2S3 nanoparticles inside amorphous polystyrene has been achieved by thermal degradation of the corresponding antimony dodecyl-mercaptide, Sb(SC12H253. The thermolysis of the dodecyl-mercaptide precursor was studied as both pure phase and mercaptide solution in polystyrene. The thermal decomposition of the antimony mercaptide precursor at 350°C, under vacuum, showed the formation of a mixture of antimony trisulfide (stibnite, Sb2S3 and zero-valent antimony (Sb phase. X-ray Powder Diffraction (XRD and Rietveld analysis carried out on the obtained nanostructured powder confirmed the presence of Sb and Sb2S3 phases in 10.4 wt% and 89.6 wt% amount, respectively. The same pyrolysis reaction was carried out in the polymer and the resulting nanocomposite material was characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD, transmission electron microscopy (TEM, UV-VIS spectroscopy, and fluorescence spectroscopy. The nanocomposite structural characterization indicated the presence of well-dispersed nanoclusters of antimony and stibnite (15–30 nm in size inside the amorphous polymeric phase. Optical measurements on the obtained nanocomposite films showed a strong emission at 432 nm upon excitation at 371 nm, probably related to the presence of Sb2S3 nanoclusters.

  16. MICELLIZATION STUDIES OF DODECYL BENZENESULFONIC ACID AND ITS INTERACTION WITH POLYVINYLPYRROLIDONE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mohammad Saleem Khan; Zarshad Ali

    2005-01-01

    Dodecyl benzenesulfonic acid (DBSA) surfactant was used in the present study to find the effect of concentration on its electrical conductance in solution from 293-323 K above and below the critical micelle concentration (CMC). The micellization parameters i.e. degree of counter ion binding (β), aggregation number (n) and number of counter ion micelle(m) were measured. The interaction of DBSA with polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) was also studied at 293 K through conductance and surface tension measure ments. A number of important parameters i.e. critical aggregation concentration(CAC), Gibb's free energy (AG) and binding ratio (R) were determined and the effect of NaCl on the CAC and polymer saturation point (PSP) was also investigated.

  17. Esterification process to synthesize isopropyl chloroacetate catalyzed by lanthanum dodecyl sulfate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Jiasheng; Zhang, Jie; Yin, Xiangyu; Zhang, He; Qian, Jianhua; Liu, Lianli, E-mail: jiashengxu@bhu.edu.c [Bohai University, Jinzhou (China). Liaoning Province Research Center for Silicon Materials Engineering Technology. Liaoning Province Key Laboratory for Synthesis and Application of Functional Compounds; Yang, Dongjiang [Griffith University (Australia). Environmental Futures Centre and Griffith School of Environment; Liu, Xiaoyang [Jilin University (China). College of Chemistry. State Key Lab. of Inorganic Synthesis and Preparative Chemistry

    2011-04-15

    Isopropyl chloroacetate has been synthesized by esterification of chloroacetic acid and isopropanol, using lanthanum dodecyl sulfate (LDDS) as the catalyst. Various factors that affected the esterification have been investigated, such as reaction time, different water-carrying agent and the amount of catalyst. Under the condition of 1.2/1 molar ratio of isopropanol to chloroacetic acid, 1.0% catalyst (molar percent of chloroacetic acid), 2.5 h reaction time, 5 mL cyclohexane as water-carrying agent and reflux temperature, the esterification conversion of isopropyl chloroacetate reaches 98.3%. The catalytic activity of LDDS is almost equal to that of a Bronsted acid. LDDS, as one kind of water-tolerant Lewis acid, is an excellent catalyst compared to the traditional Lewis acid. (author)

  18. Local gene delivery via endovascular stents coated with dodecylated chitosan–plasmid DNA nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dunwan Zhu

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Dunwan Zhu1*, Xu Jin2*, Xigang Leng1, Hai Wang1, Junbo Bao1, Wenguang Liu3, Kangde Yao3, Cunxian Song11Tianjin Key Laboratory of Biomedical Materials, Institute of Biomedical Engineering, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Tianjin, China; 2Department of Anesthesia and Pain Therapy, Capital Medical University Affiliated Beijing Tiantan Hospital, Beijing, China; 3Research Institute of Polymeric Materials, Tianjin University, Tianjin, China; *Both investigators contributed equally to this work and are senior authors.Abstract: Development of efficacious therapeutic strategies to prevent and inhibit the occurrences of restenosis after percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty is critical for the treatment of cardiovascular diseases. In this study, the feasibility and efficiency of stents coated with dodecylated chitosan–plasmid DNA nanoparticles (DCDNPs were evaluated as scaffolds for localized and prolonged delivery of reporter genes into the diseased blood vessel wall. Dodecylated chitosan–plasmid DNA complexes formed stable positive charged nanospheres with mean diameter of approximately 90–180 nm and zeta potential of +28 ± 3 mV. As prepared DCDNPs were spray-coated on stents, a thin layer of dense DCDNPs was successfully distributed onto the metal struts of the endovascular stents as demonstrated by scanning electron microscopy. The DCDNP stents were characterized for the release kinetics of plasmid DNA, and further evaluated for gene delivery and expression both in vitro and in vivo. In cell culture, DCDNP stents containing plasmid EGFP-C1 exhibited high level of GFP expression in cells grown on the stent surface and along the adjacent area. In animal studies, reporter gene activity was observed in the region of the artery in contact with the DCDNP stents, but not in adjacent arterial segments or distal organs. The DCDNP stent provides a very promising strategy for cardiovascular gene therapy

  19. Reduced photoinactivation of 10-dodecyl acridine orange-sensitized yeast cells at high fluence rates measurements and computer simulations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keij, J.F.; Jansen, J.Th.M.; Schultz, F.W.; Visser, J.W.M.

    1994-01-01

    During the development of a photodamage cell sorter several photosensitizers were tested for their ability to photoinactivate more than 90% of the sensitized cells after a brief irradiation with a fluence of 10 kJ/m2. In pilot experiments, yeast cells sensitized with 10-dodecyl acridine orange (DAO)

  20. Diclofenac sodium overdose

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002630.htm Diclofenac sodium overdose To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Diclofenac sodium is a prescription medicine used to relieve pain ...

  1. Naproxen sodium overdose

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002507.htm Naproxen sodium overdose To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Naproxen sodium is a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) used ...

  2. Docusate Sodium and Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... live chat Live Help Fact Sheets Share Docusate Sodium Friday, 01 April 2016 In every pregnancy, a ... This sheet talks about whether exposure to docusate sodium may increase the risk for birth defects over ...

  3. Sodium carbonate poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sodium carbonate (known as washing soda or soda ash) is a chemical found in many household and ... products. This article focuses on poisoning due to sodium carbonate. This article is for information only. Do ...

  4. Sodium Ferric Gluconate Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sodium ferric gluconate injection is used to treat iron-deficiency anemia (a lower than normal number of ... are also receiving the medication epoetin (Epogen, Procrit). Sodium ferric gluconate injection is in a class of ...

  5. Mg2+-induced vesicles of tetradecyldimethylamine oxide and magnesium dodecyl sulfate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teng, Minmin; Song, Aixin; Hao, Jingcheng

    2009-10-15

    A Mg2+-induced vesicle phase was prepared from a mixture of tetradecyldimethylamine oxide (C14DMAO) and magnesium dodecyl sulfate [Mg(DS)2] in aqueous solution. Study of the phase behavior shows that at the appropriate mixing ratios, Mg2+-ligand coordination between C14DMAO and Mg(DS)2 results in the formation of molecular bilayers, in which Mg2+ can firmly bind to the head groups of the two surfactants. The area of the head group can be reduced because of the complexation. In this case, no counterions exist in aqueous solution because of the fixation of Mg2+ ions to the bilayer membranes. Therefore, the charges of the bilayer membranes are not shielded by salts. The birefringent solutions of Mg(DS)2 and C14DMAO mixtures consist of vesicles which were determined by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) images and rheological measurements. Magnesium oxide (MgO) nanoplates were obtained via the decomposition of Mg(OH)2 which were synthesized in Mg2+-induced vesicle phase which was used as the microreactor under the existence of ammonia hydroxide. The morphologies and structures of the obtained MgO nanoplates have been characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The results indicate that the crystal growth is along the (111) direction which can be affected by the presence of a vesicle phase having a fixation of Mg2+ ions to the bilayer membranes.

  6. Aggregation behavior modulation of 1-dodecyl-3-methylimidazolium bromide by organic solvents in aqueous solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jianji; Zhang, Lamei; Wang, Huiyong; Wu, Changzeng

    2011-05-05

    Material preparation in ionic liquids and environmental pollution control by ionic liquids are often closely dependent on the aggregation behavior of ionic liquids in solution. In the present work, conductivity, fluorescence probe, and dynamic light scattering techniques have been used to study the effect of organic solvents on the aggregation behavior of 1-dodecyl-3-methylimidazolium bromide in water. It was shown that the critical aggregation concentration (CAC), the ionization degree of the aggregates (α), and the standard Gibbs energy of aggregation (ΔG(m)°) of the ionic liquid increase, while its aggregation number (N(agg)) and aggregates' size decrease with increasing concentration of organic additives in water. These results have been discussed from the favorable interactions of alkyl chain of the ionic liquid with the mixed solvents. It is suggested that the solvophobic parameter, characterized quantitatively by Gibbs energy of transfer of hydrocarbon from gas into a given solvent, can be used to account for the effect of organic additives on the formation and growth of the ionic liquid aggregates in water. Aggregation behavior of ionic liquids in aqueous organic solutions can be modulated simply by the solvophobic parameters of hydrocarbon in the mixed solvents.

  7. Sodium sieving in children.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rusthoven, E.; Krediet, R.T.; Willems, H.L.; Monnens, L.A.H.; Schroder, C.H.

    2005-01-01

    Sodium sieving is a consequence of dissociation between the amount of water and sodium transported over the peritoneal membrane. This dissociation occurs in the presence of aquaporin-mediated water transport. Sieving of sodium can be used as a rough measure for aquaporin-mediated water transport. Ic

  8. Sodium in feline nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, P; Reynolds, B; Zentek, J; Paßlack, N; Leray, V

    2016-08-23

    High sodium levels in cat food have been controversial for a long time. Nonetheless, high sodium levels are used to enhance water intake and urine volume, with the main objective of reducing the risk of urolithiasis. This article is a review of current evidence of the putative risks and benefits of high dietary sodium levels. Its secondary aim is to report a possible safe upper limit (SUL) for sodium intake. The first part of the manuscript is dedicated to sodium physiology, with a focus on the mechanisms of sodium homeostasis. In this respect, there is only few information regarding possible interactions with other minerals. Next, the authors address how sodium intake affects sodium balance; knowledge of these effects is critical to establish recommendations for sodium feed content. The authors then review the consequences of changes in sodium intake on feline health, including urolithiasis, blood pressure changes, cardiovascular alterations and kidney disease. According to recent, long-term studies, there is no evidence of any deleterious effect of dietary sodium levels as high as 740 mg/MJ metabolizable energy, which can therefore be considered the SUL based on current knowledge.

  9. Effects of dodecyl sulfate and nitrate anions on the supercapacitive properties of α-Co(OH){sub 2}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, L.; Cheng, J.P., E-mail: chengjp@zju.edu.cn; Zhang, J.; Liu, F.; Zhang, X.B.

    2014-12-05

    Highlights: • DS intercalated α-Co(OH){sub 2} is prepared using a simple and efficient co-precipitation method. • The effects of DS and nitrate anions on the supercapacitive properties of α-Co(OH){sub 2} are studied. • α-Co(OH){sub 2} studied here can be applied as an efficient electrode materials for supercapacitors. - Abstract: Dodecyl sulfate and nitrate intercalated α-Co(OH){sub 2} are prepared by a simple co-precipitation and a subsequent anion-exchange method using hexamethylenetetramine as a hydrolysis agent, which have been confirmed by X-ray diffraction and FTIR analysis. Interlayer spacing of α-Co(OH){sub 2} layers for dodecyl sulfate and nitrate intercalated α-Co(OH){sub 2} is determined to be 12.96 and 8 Å, respectively. Their supercapacitive properties are measured by cyclic voltammetry and galvanostatic charge–discharge tests. The α-Co(OH){sub 2} exhibits a higher specific capacitance and better rate capability after anion exchange from dodecyl sulfate to nitrate with the specific capacitance increasing from 304.4 to 582.7 F g{sup −1} at 1 A g{sup −1}.

  10. Renal sodium handling and sodium sensitivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alissa A. Frame

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The pathophysiology of hypertension, which affects over 1 billion individuals worldwide, involves the integration of the actions of multiple organ systems, including the kidney. The kidney, which governs sodium excretion via several mechanisms including pressure natriuresis and the actions of renal sodium transporters, is central to long term blood pressure regulation and the salt sensitivity of blood pressure. The impact of renal sodium handling and the salt sensitivity of blood pressure in health and hypertension is a critical public health issue owing to the excess of dietary salt consumed globally and the significant percentage of the global population exhibiting salt sensitivity. This review highlights recent advances that have provided new insight into the renal handling of sodium and the salt sensitivity of blood pressure, with a focus on genetic, inflammatory, dietary, sympathetic nervous system and oxidative stress mechanisms that influence renal sodium excretion. Increased understanding of the multiple integrated mechanisms that regulate the renal handling of sodium and the salt sensitivity of blood pressure has the potential to identify novel therapeutic targets and refine dietary guidelines designed to treat and prevent hypertension.

  11. Cerebrospinal fluid sodium rhythms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johnson Benjamin

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF sodium levels have been reported to rise during episodic migraine. Since migraine frequently starts in early morning or late afternoon, we hypothesized that natural sodium chronobiology may predispose susceptible persons when extracellular CSF sodium increases. Since no mammalian brain sodium rhythms are known, we designed a study of healthy humans to test if cation rhythms exist in CSF. Methods Lumbar CSF was collected every ten minutes at 0.1 mL/min for 24 h from six healthy participants. CSF sodium and potassium concentrations were measured by ion chromatography, total protein by fluorescent spectrometry, and osmolarity by freezing point depression. We analyzed cation and protein distributions over the 24 h period and spectral and permutation tests to identify significant rhythms. We applied the False Discovery Rate method to adjust significance levels for multiple tests and Spearman correlations to compare sodium fluctuations with potassium, protein, and osmolarity. Results The distribution of sodium varied much more than potassium, and there were statistically significant rhythms at 12 and 1.65 h periods. Curve fitting to the average time course of the mean sodium of all six subjects revealed the lowest sodium levels at 03.20 h and highest at 08.00 h, a second nadir at 09.50 h and a second peak at 18.10 h. Sodium levels were not correlated with potassium or protein concentration, or with osmolarity. Conclusion These CSF rhythms are the first reports of sodium chronobiology in the human nervous system. The results are consistent with our hypothesis that rising levels of extracellular sodium may contribute to the timing of migraine onset. The physiological importance of sodium in the nervous system suggests that these rhythms may have additional repercussions on ultradian functions.

  12. Neurotoxic activity and ultrastructural changes in muscles caused by the brown widow spider Latrodectus geometricus venom Actividad neurotóxica y cambios ultraestructurales en musculos causados por el veneno de la araña viuda marrón Latrodectus geometricus

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    Brown widow spider (Latrodectus geometricus) venom (BrWSV) produces few local lesions and intense systemic reactions such as cramps, harsh muscle pains, nausea, vomiting and hypertension. Approximately 16 protein bands under reducing conditions and ~ 14 bands under non-reducing conditions on a 12.5% sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis were observed. Neurotoxic clinical manifestations were confirmed in vivo, while proteolytic activity was demonstrated on gelatine film. Se...

  13. Solubilities of sodium nitrate, sodium nitrite, and sodium aluminate in simulated nuclear waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reynolds, D.A.; Herting, D.L.

    1984-09-01

    Solubilities were determined for sodium nitrate, sodium nitrite, and sodium aluminate in synthetic nuclear waste liquor. Solubilities were determined as a function of temperature and solution composition (concentrations of sodium hydroxide, sodium nitrate, sodium nitrite, and sodium aluminate). Temperature had the greatest effect on the solubilities of sodium nitrate and sodium nitrite and a somewhat lesser effect on sodium aluminate solubility. Hydroxide had a great effect on the solubilities of all three salts. Other solution components had minor effects. 2 references, 8 figures, 11 tables.

  14. Small-angle neutron scattering study of the structure of mixed micellar solutions based on heptaethylene glycol monotetradecyl ether and cesium dodecyl sulfate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rajewska, A., E-mail: aldonar@jinr.ru [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research (Russian Federation); Medrzycka, K.; Hallmann, E. [Gdansk University of Technology (Poland); Soloviov, D. V. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research (Russian Federation)

    2016-01-15

    The micellization in mixed aqueous systems based on a nonionic surfactant, heptaethylene glycol monotetradecyl ether (C{sub 14}E{sub 7}), and an anionic surfactant, cesium dodecyl sulfate, has been investigated by small-angle neutron scattering. Preliminary data on the behavior of the C{sub 14}E{sub 7} aqueous solutions (with three concentrations, 0.17, 0.5, and 1%) mixed with a small amount of anionic surfactant, cesium dodecyl sulfate, are reported.

  15. Thermodynamic properties of a second-generation poly(phenylene-pyridyl) dendron with a dodecyl-decorated periphery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smirnova, N. N.; Markin, A. V.; Kuchkina, N. V.; Yuzik-Klimova, E. Yu.; Shushunov, A. N.; Shifrina, Z. B.

    2016-12-01

    The heat capacity of a partially crystalline second-generation poly(phenylene-pyridyl) dendron with a dodecyl-decorated periphery is studied by high-precision adiabatic vacuum and differential scanning calorimetry in the temperature range of 6 to 530 K. The thermodynamic characteristics of the glass's transition and melting are determined from the calorimetric data and the degree of its crystallinity is estimated (α = 30%). Standard thermodynamic functions (Cp°, H°- H°(0), S°- S°(0), and G°- H°(0)) for a partially crystalline dendron in the range of T → 0 to 480 K are calculated.

  16. Decode the Sodium Label Lingo

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... For Preschooler For Gradeschooler For Teen Decode the Sodium Label Lingo Published January 24, 2013 Print Email Reading food labels can help you slash sodium. Here's how to decipher them. "Sodium free" or " ...

  17. Solar-mediated thermo-electrochemical oxidation of sodium dodecyl benzene sulfonate by modulating the effective oxidation potential and pathway for green remediation of wastewater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Di; Gao, Simeng; Jiang, Tingting; Wang, Baohui

    2017-03-01

    To match the relentless pursuit of three research hot points - efficient solar utilization, green and sustainable remediation of wastewater and advanced oxidation processes, solar-mediated thermo-electrochemical oxidation of surfactant was proposed and developed for green remediation of surfactant wastewater. The solar thermal electrochemical process (STEP), fully driven with solar energy to electric energy and heat and without an input of other energy, sustainably serves as efficient thermo-electrochemical oxidation of surfactant, exemplified by SDBS, in wastewater with the synergistic production of hydrogen. The electrooxidation-resistant surfactant is thermo-electrochemically oxidized to CO2 while hydrogen gas is generated by lowing effective oxidation potential and suppressing the oxidation activation energy originated from the combination of thermochemical and electrochemical effect. A clear conclusion on the mechanism of SDBS degradation can be proposed and discussed based on the theoretical analysis of electrochemical potential by quantum chemical method and experimental analysis of the CV, TG, GC, FT-IR, UV-vis, Fluorescence spectra and TOC. The degradation data provide a pilot for the treatment of SDBS wastewater that appears to occur via desulfonation followed by aromatic-ring opening. The solar thermal utilization that can initiate the desulfonation and activation of SDBS becomes one key step in the degradation process.

  18. 十二烷基硫酸钠模板法制备纳米硒%Preparation of nano-sized selenium by sodium dodecyl sulfate template method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李志林; 滑鹏敏

    2009-01-01

    以十二烷基硫酸钠作为软模板,用抗坏血酸还原亚硒酸制备纳米硒,并对所制得的纳米硒进行了表征,研究了反应条件对产物形貌以及粒径的影响.结果表明,当反应体系中亚硒酸浓度为0.01 mol/L,抗坏血酸浓度为0.07 mol/L,十二烷基硫酸钠质量分数为1.0%时,常温下反应7 min后可得到均匀稳定的球形红色纳米硒颗粒,平均粒径约35nm,制得的纳米硒颗粒经超声波超声后能稳定存在两个月以上.

  19. Coated capillaries with highly charged polyelectrolytes and carbon nanotubes co-aggregated with sodium dodecyl sulphate for the analysis of sulfonylureas by capillary electrophoresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Debs, Racha; Nehmé, Reine; Claude, Bérengère; Motteau, Solène; Togola, Anne; Berho, Catherine; Morin, Philippe

    2014-11-07

    Sulfonylureas (SUs) are one of the most widely used herbicides to control weeds in crops. Herein, capillary electrophoresis (CE) was used to determine four sulfonylureas in natural waters, namely chlorsulfuron (CS), iodosulfuron methyl (IM), metsulfuron methyl (MSM) and mesosulfuron methyl (MSS). First of all, a bare silica capillary was chosen with 10mM of 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate (bminBF4) as electrophoretic buffer (pH 9.6) containing 2 mg L(-1) of surfactant-coated single-wall carbon nanotubes (SC-SWCNTs). A dramatic deviation in migration times was observed. Therefore, a poly(diallyldimethylammonium) chloride (PDADMAC) statically coated cationic capillary was used to improve repeatability and to alter the selectivity of the separation. The electroosmotic flow (EOF) measurement revealed that the SC-SWCNTs were strongly adsorbed at the surface of the PDADMAC coating even in the absence of the surfactant-coated nanotubes in the electrolyte buffer. Consequently, a stable strong cathodic EOF and excellent repeatabilities were obtained with relative standard deviations (RSDs) on migration times and on corrected peak areas below 0.9 and 1.5%, respectively. The separation of the SUs was conducted in only 6 min. No regeneration of the coating between analyses was necessary, and high peak efficiencies up to 173,000 theoretical plates were obtained. The bi-layer coating was subsequently used to analyze sulfonylureas in tap water, in several mineral waters as well as in underground waters spiked with SUs and directly injected into the CE capillary. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Analysis of recombinant Schistosoma mansoni antigen rSmp28 by on-line liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry combined with sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klarskov, K.; Roecklin, D.; Bouchon, B.; Sabatie, J.; Van Dorsselaer, A.; Bischoff, Rainer

    1994-01-01

    A recombinant Schistosoma mansoni antigen produced in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and purified by glutathione-Sepharose affinity chromatography was analyzed by tryptic peptide mapping using on-line reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography pneumatically assisted electrospray mass

  1. Thermodynamic properties of Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate aqueous solutions with Methanol, Ethanol, n-Propanol and iso-Propanol at different temperatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Abdul Motin

    2015-03-01

    The ΔH# values that are positive for all the studied systems indicate that positive work has to be done to overcome the energy barrier for the flow process. The variation of ΔS# is reversing the variation of the ΔH#. The excess parameters (ΔG#E, ΔH#E data have been fitted by the least square method to the four parameter Redlich–Kister equation and the values of the parameter aj have been reported. The observed increase of thermodynamic values in the aqueous SDS region are thought to be mainly due to the combined effect of hydrophobic hydration and hydrophilic effect.

  2. Efficacy and compatibility with mass spectrometry of methods for elution of proteins from sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gels and polyvinyldifluoride membranes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, C.S.; Jagd, M.; Sørensen, B.K.;

    2004-01-01

    for recovering intact proteins from polyacrylamide gels and electroblotting membranes to define efficient methods compatible with MS. These methods complement in situ digestion protocols and allow determination of the molecular mass of whole proteins separated by SDS-PAGE. Passive elution of proteins from SDS...... acid (TFA) or combinations of 8 M urea and 1% Triton X-100, 1% Tween 20, or 40% isopropanol. The same result was obtained using nitrocellulose membranes, except that these were incompatible with organic solvent and TFA. Elution by TFA was compatible with matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization MS...... (MALDI-MS) but was complicated by a high degree of trifluoroacetylation of the proteins. Alternatively, elution by 8 M urea + 1% Triton X-100, 1% Tween 20, or 40% isopropanol was compatible with both SELDI-MS and MALDI-MS. Eluted proteins were identified in MS experiments by intact mass determination...

  3. A comparative study of leukaemia inhibitory factor and interleukin-1alpha intracellular content in a human keratinocyte cell line after exposure to cosmetic fragrances and sodium dodecyl sulphate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parodi, Alessandro; Sanguineti, Roberta; Catalano, Mariafrancesca; Penco, Susanna; Pronzato, Maria Adelaide; Scanarotti, Chiara; Bassi, Anna Maria

    2010-02-01

    According to European laws animal testing in cosmetic industry will be prohibited in a few years and it will be replaced by alternative methods based on cell and tissue culture. Many ingredients of cosmetic formulations are potentially causes of skin inflammation and sensibilization. Since cytotoxicity is known, among other factors, to trigger irritation, in an alternative model for evaluation of skin irritation, it can be considered also the precocious release of inflammatory mediators, i.e. cytokines, originating mainly from keratinocytes. In this in vitro study we have analysed some parameters directly or indirectly related to irritation/inflammation, in NCTC 2544 human keratinocytes during short-time exposure to some potential irritants cosmetic fragrances, included in the European Laws 2003/15/EEC. IIC50 was extrapolated by MTT and NRU viability indexes after exposure of cell ultures to Geraniol Limonene and Benzylic Alcohol for 1, 3 and 6h. NCTC cells were then exposed to sub-toxic doses of selected compounds and interleukin-1alpha (IL-1alpha) and leukaemia inhibitory factor (LIF) expressions were analysed as early proinflammatory cytokines. To our knowledge our findings demonstrated for the first time that NCTC cells synthesize and modulate LIF after exposure to selected irritating stimuli. Moreover, our results give evidence on LIF role as in vitro precocious endpoint for the assessment of the risk in cosmetic field, because its response under irritation stimuli is very quick and comparable to IL-1alpha. 2009 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. [Sodium and hypertension].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Wardener, H E

    1996-09-01

    Over several million years the human race was programmed to eat a diet which contained about 15 mmol of sodium (1 g of sodium chloride) per day. It is only five to ten thousand years ago that we became addicted to salt. Today we eat about 150 mmol of sodium (9-12 g of salt) per day. It is now apparent that this sudden rise in sodium intake (in evolutionary terms) is the most likely cause for the rise in blood pressure with age that occurs in the majority of the world's population. Those which consume less than 60 mmol/day do not develop hypertension. The reason for the rise in sodium intake is not known but it is probable that an important stimulus was the discovery that meat could be preserved by immersion into a concentrated salt solution. This seemingly miraculous power endowed salt with such magical and medicinal qualities that it became a symbol of goodness and health. It was not until 1904 Ambard and Beaujard suggested that on the contrary dietary salt could be harmful and raise the blood pressure. At first the idea did not prosper and it continues to be opposed by a diminishing band. The accumulated evidence that sodium intake is related to the blood pressure in normal man and animals and in inherited forms of hypertension has been obtained from experimental manipulations and studies of human populations. The following observation links sodium and hypertension. An increase in sodium intakes raises the blood pressure of the normal rat, dog, rabbit, baboon, chimpanzee and man. Population studies have demonstrated a significant correlation between sodium intake and the customary rise in blood pressure with age. The development of hypertensive strains of rats has revealed that the primary genetic lesion which gives rise to hypertension resides in the kidney where it impairs the urinary excretion of sodium. There is similar but less convincing evidence in essential hypertension. The kidney in both essential hypertension and hypertensive strains of rats share a

  5. Allergic contact stomatitis to dodecyl gallate? A review of the relevance of positive patch test results to gallates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamboni, Sarah E; Palmer, Amanda M; Nixon, Rosemary L

    2013-08-01

    Gallic acid esters or gallates are antioxidants used as preservatives in food and cosmetics. Few cases of gallates causing allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) have been reported in the literature. We present a case report of a 42-year-old beauty therapist who presented with a swollen tongue. Patch testing was positive to dodecyl gallate, commonly reported as being present in edible oil and oily foods such as margarine. Our patient avoided foods presumed to contain gallates and at the 6-week review reported a substantial improvement in her tongue symptoms. We reviewed our database and found 16 (7%) definitely or possibly relevant reactions to dodecyl gallate, seven (15%) definitely or possibly relevant reactions to propyl gallate and six (3%) definitely or possibly relevant reactions to octyl gallate. Most reactions were attributed to margarine, moisturising cream and lipstick. These products are often mentioned in the literature as containing gallates; however, ingredient labelling and discussions with manufacturers made it difficult to establish whether they are currently present in foods. Ascertaining relevance for these reactions is not always possible.

  6. Methodology for Extraction of Remaining Sodium of Used Sodium Containers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Minhwan; Kim, Jongman; Cho, Youngil; Jeong, Jiyoung [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-05-15

    Sodium used as a coolant in the SFR (Sodium-cooled Fast Reactor) reacts easily with most elements due to its high reactivity. If sodium at high temperature leaks outside of a system boundary and makes contact with oxygen, it starts to burn and toxic aerosols are produced. In addition, it generates flammable hydrogen gas through a reaction with water. Hydrogen gas can be explosive within the range of 4.75 vol%. Therefore, the sodium should be handled carefully in accordance with standard procedures even though there is a small amount of target sodium remainings inside the containers and drums used for experiment. After the experiment, all sodium experimental apparatuses should be dismantled carefully through a series of draining, residual sodium extraction, and cleaning if they are no longer reused. In this work, a system for the extraction of the remaining sodium of used sodium drums has been developed and an operation procedure for the system has been established. In this work, a methodology for the extraction of remaining sodium out of the used sodium container has been developed as one of the sodium facility maintenance works. The sodium extraction system for remaining sodium of the used drums was designed and tested successfully. This work will contribute to an establishment of sodium handling technology for PGSFR. (Prototype Gen-IV Sodium-cooled Fast Reactor)

  7. Sodium urine test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... urine sodium level may be a sign of: Adrenal glands releasing too much hormone ( hyperaldosteronism ) Not enough fluid in the body (dehydration) Diarrhea and fluid loss Heart failure Kidney problems, such as chronic kidney disease or ...

  8. Skeletal muscle sodium channelopathies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicole, Sophie; Fontaine, Bertrand

    2015-10-01

    This is an update on skeletal muscle sodium channelopathies since knowledge in the field have dramatically increased in the past years. The relationship between two phenotypes and SCN4A has been confirmed with additional cases that remain extremely rare: severe neonatal episodic laryngospasm mimicking encephalopathy, which should be actively searched for since patients respond well to sodium channel blockers; congenital myasthenic syndromes, which have the particularity to be the first recessive Nav1.4 channelopathy. Deep DNA sequencing suggests the contribution of other ion channels in the clinical expressivity of sodium channelopathies, which may be one of the factors modulating the latter. The increased knowledge of channel molecular structure, the quantity of sodium channel blockers, and the availability of preclinical models would permit a most personalized choice of medication for patients suffering from these debilitating neuromuscular diseases. Advances in the understanding of the molecular structure of voltage-gated sodium channels, as well as availability of preclinical models, would lead to improved medical care of patients suffering from skeletal muscle, as well as other sodium channelopathies.

  9. 利用钠盐助磨剂制备超细黄铁矿粉体的界面光学特性%Interfacial and optical characteristics of pyrite ultrafine powder prepared using sodium salts as grinding additives

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李丹; 尹周澜; 陈启元

    2012-01-01

    以超细黄铁矿粉体为研究对象,利用吸光度法研究黄铁矿在液相中添加六偏磷酸钠、油酸钠、硅酸钠、多聚磷酸钠、十二烷基硫酸钠后的分散性.研究结果表明:含有表面活性基团的油酸钠和十二烷基硫酸钠对于黄铁矿具有较好的分散效果.对这2种效果较好的添加剂的分散条件如pH、超声时间的影响进行分析,并对黄铁矿在这两种添加剂中的界面性质包括沉降曲线、表面电位和润湿性进行研究.在此基础上,用红外光谱对油酸钠和十二烷基硫酸钠作为助磨剂时制备黄铁矿超细粉体的光学性质结合扫描电镜进行研究,结果表明在研磨过程中黄铁矿粉体有部分硫被氧化成硫酸根,油酸钠与十二烷基硫酸钠助磨剂的使用有利于降低黄铁矿研磨过程中的氧化程度.%Using pyrite ultrafine powder as the object of this work, the dispersion of pyrite in different sodium salt additives such as sodium hexametaphosphate, sodium oleate, sodium silicate, sodium polyphosphate, and sodium dodecyl sulfate was analyzed with spectrometry. The results indicate that two surfactants namely sodium dodecyl sulfate and sodium oleate show better disperisibility for pyrite. The effects of some dispersion conditions such as pH and ultronication time on the disperisibility of dium dodecyl sulfate and sodium oleate were analyzed. The interfacial properties of pyrite dispersed in sodium dodecyl sulfate and sodium oleate solutions were investigated with precipitation curve, zeta potentiometry, and wettability. Based on these results, pyrite ultrafine powder was prepared using sodium dodecyl sulfate and sodium oleate as grinding additives, whose optical characteristics were studied by FTIR spectrometry in cooperation with scanning electron microscopy. The FTIR spectra indicate that although some parts of sulfur in pyrite are oxidized into sulfate during the grinding, sodium dodecyl sulfate and sodium oleate can

  10. Cardiac sodium channelopathies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amin, Ahmad S; Asghari-Roodsari, Alaleh; Tan, Hanno L

    2010-07-01

    Cardiac sodium channel are protein complexes that are expressed in the sarcolemma of cardiomyocytes to carry a large inward depolarizing current (INa) during phase 0 of the cardiac action potential. The importance of INa for normal cardiac electrical activity is reflected by the high incidence of arrhythmias in cardiac sodium channelopathies, i.e., arrhythmogenic diseases in patients with mutations in SCN5A, the gene responsible for the pore-forming ion-conducting alpha-subunit, or in genes that encode the ancillary beta-subunits or regulatory proteins of the cardiac sodium channel. While clinical and genetic studies have laid the foundation for our understanding of cardiac sodium channelopathies by establishing links between arrhythmogenic diseases and mutations in genes that encode various subunits of the cardiac sodium channel, biophysical studies (particularly in heterologous expression systems and transgenic mouse models) have provided insights into the mechanisms by which INa dysfunction causes disease in such channelopathies. It is now recognized that mutations that increase INa delay cardiac repolarization, prolong action potential duration, and cause long QT syndrome, while mutations that reduce INa decrease cardiac excitability, reduce electrical conduction velocity, and induce Brugada syndrome, progressive cardiac conduction disease, sick sinus syndrome, or combinations thereof. Recently, mutation-induced INa dysfunction was also linked to dilated cardiomyopathy, atrial fibrillation, and sudden infant death syndrome. This review describes the structure and function of the cardiac sodium channel and its various subunits, summarizes major cardiac sodium channelopathies and the current knowledge concerning their genetic background and underlying molecular mechanisms, and discusses recent advances in the discovery of mutation-specific therapies in the management of these channelopathies.

  11. Microencapsulation of dodecyl acetate by complex coacervation of whey protein with acacia gum and its release behavior

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    You Tong Yu; Li Na Liu; Xiao Li Zhu; Xiang Zheng Kong

    2012-01-01

    Complex coacervation of whey protein (WP) with acacia gum (AG) was carried out in water with the presence of dodecyl acetate (DA),a component of insect sex pheromones,in order to obtain microeapsules with DA as the core material and WP-AG coacervate as the wall materials.Through variations in wall/core ratios,concentrations of the wall materials in capsule preparations,DA encapsulation was optimized,which showed a high DA encapsulation was achieved when coacervation was conducted at pH 3.5 with wall/core mass ratio at 3 combined with concentration of wall materials at 1.0 wt%.Morphology and the structure of DA loaded microcapsules were examined by scanning electron microscope,which showed the microcapsules were of core/shell structure with DA encapsulated in the inner of the microcapsules.DA release was examined and the behavior of the release was discussed.

  12. Development of sodium technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hwang, Sung Tai; Nam, H. Y.; Choi, Y. D. [and others

    2000-05-01

    The objective of present study is to produce the experimental data for development and verification of computer codes for development of LMR and to develop the preliminary technologies for the future large scale verification experiments. A MHD experimental test loop has been constructed for the quantitative analysis of the effect of magnetic field on the sodium flow and experiments are carried out for three EM pumps. The previous pressure drop correlations are evaluated using the experimental data obtained from the pressure drop experiment in a 19-pin fuel assembly with wire spacer. An dimensionless variable is proposed to describe the amplitude and frequency of the fluctuation of free surface using the experimental data obtained from free surface experimental apparatus and an empirical correlation is developed using this dimensionless variable. An experimental test loop is constructed to measure the flow characteristics in IHX shell side and the local pressure drop in fuel assembly, and to test the vibration behaviour of fuel pins due to flow induced vibration. The sodium two-phase flow measuring technique using the electromagnetic flowmeter is developed and the sodium differential pressure drop measuring technique using the method of direct contact of sodium and oil is established. The work on the analysis of sodium fire characteristics and produce data for vlidation of computer code is performed. Perfect reopen time of self plugged leak path was observed to be about 130 minutes after water leak initiation. Reopen shape of a specimen appeared to be double layer of circular type, and reopen size of this specimen surface was about 2mm diameter on sodium side. In small water leakage experiments, the following correlation equation about the reopen time between sodium temperature and initial leak rate was obtained, {tau}{sub c} = {delta}{center_dot}g{sup -0.83}{center_dot}10{sup (3570/T{sub Na}-3.34)}, in 400-500 deg C of liquid sodium atmosphere. The characteristics

  13. Melting of sodium clusters

    CERN Document Server

    Reyes-Nava, J A; Beltran, M R; Michaelian, K

    2002-01-01

    Thermal stability properties and the melting-like transition of Na_n, n=13-147, clusters are studied through microcanonical molecular dynamics simulations. The metallic bonding in the sodium clusters is mimicked by a many-body Gupta potential based on the second moment approximation of a tight-binding Hamiltonian. The characteristics of the solid-to-liquid transition in the sodium clusters are analyzed by calculating physical quantities like caloric curves, heat capacities, and root-mean-square bond length fluctuations using simulation times of several nanoseconds. Distinct melting mechanisms are obtained for the sodium clusters in the size range investigated. The calculated melting temperatures show an irregular variation with the cluster size, in qualitative agreement with recent experimental results. However, the calculated melting point for the Na_55 cluster is about 40 % lower than the experimental value.

  14. Too Much Sodium

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2012-02-07

    This podcast is based on the February 2012 CDC Vital Signs report. Ninety percent of Americans age two and older eat too much sodium which can increase your risk for high blood pressure and often leads to heart disease and stroke, two leading causes of death in the US. Learn several small steps you can take to reduce the amount of sodium in your diet.  Created: 2/7/2012 by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).   Date Released: 2/7/2012.

  15. 40 CFR 180.1130 - N-(n-octyl)-2-pyrrolidone and N-(n-dodecyl)-2-pyrrolidone; exemptions from the requirement of a...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false N-(n-octyl)-2-pyrrolidone and N-(n... EXEMPTIONS FOR PESTICIDE CHEMICAL RESIDUES IN FOOD Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1130 N-(n-octyl)-2-pyrrolidone and N-(n-dodecyl)-2-pyrrolidone; exemptions from the requirement of a tolerance....

  16. Cardiac sodium channelopathies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Amin, A.S.; Asghari-Roodsari, A.; Tan, H.L.

    2010-01-01

    Cardiac sodium channel are protein complexes that are expressed in the sarcolemma of cardiomyocytes to carry a large inward depolarizing current (I-Na) during phase 0 of the cardiac action potential. The importance of I-Na for normal cardiac electrical activity is reflected by the high incidence of

  17. Cardiac sodium channelopathies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Amin, A.S.; Asghari-Roodsari, A.; Tan, H.L.

    2010-01-01

    Cardiac sodium channel are protein complexes that are expressed in the sarcolemma of cardiomyocytes to carry a large inward depolarizing current (I-Na) during phase 0 of the cardiac action potential. The importance of I-Na for normal cardiac electrical activity is reflected by the high incidence of

  18. Sodium fluxes in sweet pepper exposed to varying sodium concentrations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blom-Zandstra, M.; Vogelzang, S.A.; Veen, B.W.

    1998-01-01

    The sodium transport and distribution of sweet pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) under saline conditions were studied after transferring the plants to a sodium-free nutrient solution. Sodium stress up to 60 mM did not affect the growth of sweet pepper, as it appears able to counteract the unfavourable phy

  19. Sodium fluxes in sweet pepper exposed to varying sodium concentrations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blom-Zandstra, M.; Vogelzang, S.A.; Veen, B.W.

    1998-01-01

    The sodium transport and distribution of sweet pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) under saline conditions were studied after transferring the plants to a sodium-free nutrient solution. Sodium stress up to 60 mM did not affect the growth of sweet pepper, as it appears able to counteract the unfavourable

  20. Technology for sodium purity control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, Ji Young; Kim, B. H.; Kim, T. J. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea)

    1999-10-01

    When sodium is used as heat transfer fluid, the plugging in coolant flow, the corrosion of structure material and the transfer of radioactive material caused by the impurities in sodium are worth considerable. Accordingly, these impurities must be monitored and controlled continuously by sodium purification devices in the heat transfer system which sodium is used as coolant. Sodium purification loop was constructed for the purpose of accumulating the technology for purity control of the coolant, developing and verifying further efficient instruments for sodium purification. The plugging meter and the cold trap is used as the implement for measuring and controlling the oxygen and the hydrogen, the main impurities in sodium coolant. They are capable of excellent performance as the implements which could detect and monitor the impurities to the concentration limit required for nuclear reactor. Sodium purification loop could be used variably according to the experimental purpose. 18 refs., 34 figs., 8 tabs. (Author)

  1. Inhaled sodium metabisulphite induced bronchoconstriction: inhibition by nedocromil sodium and sodium cromoglycate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixon, C M; Ind, P W

    1990-01-01

    1. The effects of nedocromil sodium and sodium cromoglycate on bronchoconstriction induced by inhaled sodium metabisulphite have been studied in eight atopic subjects, three of whom had mild asthma. 2. Nedocromil sodium (4 mg, 7.8 X 10(-6) M), sodium cromoglycate (10 mg, 24.1 X 10(-6) M) and matched placebo were administered by identical metered dose inhalers 30 min before a dose-response to sodium metabisulphite (5-100 mg ml-1) was performed. 3. Maximum fall in sGaw after placebo pre-treatment was -43.9 +/- 3.3% baseline (mean +/- s.e. mean). At the same metabisulphite concentration maximum fall in sGaw after sodium cromoglycate was -13.0 +/- 3.6% and after nedocromil sodium was +4.3 +/- 6.8%. Nedocromil sodium prevented any significant fall in sGaw even after higher concentrations of metabisulphite. 4. Both nedocromil sodium, 4 mg, and sodium cromoglycate, 10 mg, inhibited sodium metabisulphite induced bronchoconstriction but nedocromil sodium was significantly more effective. Relative in vivo potency of the two drugs is broadly in line with other in vivo and in vitro studies. PMID:2171616

  2. Slicing sodium from bakery products

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noort, M.

    2012-01-01

    The need for sodium reduction in our diet is clear to consumers, dieticians and food manufacturers. As sodium concentration has a strengthening effect on gluten, sodium reduction decreases dough mixing tolerance, dough resistance and induces dough stickiness. In particular, the latter may cause

  3. Slicing sodium from bakery products

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noort, M.

    2012-01-01

    The need for sodium reduction in our diet is clear to consumers, dieticians and food manufacturers. As sodium concentration has a strengthening effect on gluten, sodium reduction decreases dough mixing tolerance, dough resistance and induces dough stickiness. In particular, the latter may cause prob

  4. Hanford site sodium management plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guttenberg, S.

    1995-09-25

    The Hanford Site Sodium Management Plan, Revision 1, provides changes to the major elements and management strategy to ensure an integrated and coordinated approach for disposition of the more than 350,000 gallons of sodium and related sodium facilities located at the DOE`s Hanford Site

  5. Sodium hydride precipitation in sodium cold traps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McPheeters, C.C.; Raue, D.J.

    1980-06-01

    A series of experiments have been performed to test a calculational model for precipitation of NaH in sodium cold traps. The calculational model, called ACTMODEL, is a computer simulation that uses the system geometry and operating conditions as input to calculate a mass-transfer coefficient and the distribution of NaH in a cold trap. The ACTMODEL was tested using an analytical cold trap (ACT) that is simple and essentially one-dimensional. The ACT flow and temperature profile can be controlled at any desired condition. The ACT was analyzed destructively after each test to measure the actual NaH distribution. Excellent agreement was obtained between the ACTMODEL simulations and the experiments. Mass-transfer coefficients ranging upward from 6 x 10/sup -5/ m/s were measured in both packless and packed traps. As much as a fourfold increase in precipitation surface area was observed with increasing amount of NaH deposited. 11 figures, 2 tables.

  6. A 36 m SANS BATAN spectrometer (SMARTer): Probing n-dodecyl-{beta}-D-maltoside micelles structures by a contrast variation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Putra, Edy Giri Rachman [Neutron Scattering Laboratory, National Nuclear Energy Agency of Indonesia (BATAN), Gedung 40 Kawasan Puspiptek Serpong, Tangerang 15314 (Indonesia)], E-mail: e.giri@centrin.net.id; Ikram, Abarrul [Neutron Scattering Laboratory, National Nuclear Energy Agency of Indonesia (BATAN), Gedung 40 Kawasan Puspiptek Serpong, Tangerang 15314 (Indonesia)

    2009-02-21

    The performance of a 36 m small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) BATAN spectrometer (SMARTer) in Serpong, Indonesia, was explored in investigating a micelle structure by a contrast variation technique, changing the H{sub 2}O/D{sub 2}O ratio as aqueous solution. Micellar solution of n-dodecyl-{beta}-D-maltoside was chosen for its sensitivity in various concentrations of 0% D{sub 2}O, 50% D{sub 2}O and 100% D{sub 2}O to reveal the detail structures of the micelle. At first, a spherical lognormal model calculation was employed and fitted on the experimental data to obtain the size range of the micelle. The refinement of the micelle structure was then completed using an oblate-core shell ellipsoid model calculation. The results show that the micelle is composed of 4-9 A thick disaccharides group as a shell or corona layer, while over all the oblate ellipsoid micelle structure has major-axis and minor-axis of 34 and 18 A, respectively.

  7. The Mechanism by Which Dodecyl Dimethyl Benzyl Ammonium Chloride Increased the Toxicity of Chlorpyrifos to Spodoptera exigua

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Cui

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Beet armyworm, Spodoptera exigua (Hübner is one of the most destructive pests that causes significant losses in crops. Unfortunately, S. exigua have developed resistance toward the majority of insecticides. Synergists may provide an important choice to deal with the resistance problems. Dodecyl dimethyl benzyl ammonium chloride (DDBAC is a cationic surfactant, which displayed enhancement effect when combined with chlorpyrifos against S. exigua, giving enhancement factors of 1.50 and 1.57 at the concentrations of 90 and 810 mg L−1. In order to clarify the possible mechanisms, we investigate the effects of DDBAC on detoxification enzymes. However, DDBAC showed no inhibition on these enzymes activities. Meanwhile, scanning electron microscope images indicated DDBAC did not affect the cuticle super micro structure of S. exigua. The alterations in cuticular penetration rate have also been observed; indeed, it has been suggested that synergism is obtained by an acceleration of insecticide penetration through the cuticle. The chlorpyrifos penetration increased sharply when combined with 90 and 810 mg L−1 DDBAC, with only 12.6 and 8.5% of the initial chlorpyrifos recovered by external rinsing after 8 h. In contrast, when there was no DDBAC, more than 23.3% of the initial dose was recovered after 8 h.

  8. Poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate-co-dodecyl methacrylate-co-acrylic acid): synthesis, physico-chemical characterisation and nafcillin carrier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zecheru, Teodora; Rotariu, Traian; Rusen, Edina; Mărculescu, Bogdan; Miculescu, Florin; Alexandrescu, Laura; Antoniac, Iulian; Stancu, Izabela-Cristina

    2010-10-01

    In the present study polymeric microbeads of poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate-co-dodecyl methacrylate-co-acrylic acid) or p(HEMA-co-dDMA-co-AA) were synthesised and characterized through FT-IR and scanning electron microscopy (SEM); their swelling behavior against saline solution was explored and their in vitro cytotoxicity was evaluated. Further, in order to elucidate kinetic aspects regarding the ternary system p(HEMA-co-dDMA-co-AA), a mathematical model of the reactivity ratios of the comonomers in the terpolymer has been conceived and analyzed. An intensified tendency of AA units accumulation in the copolymer has been noticed, in spite of HEMA units, while dDMA conserves in the copolymer the fraction from the feed. Three compositions have been selected for nafcillin-loading and their in vitro release capacity was evaluated. The compositions of 80:10:10 and 75:10:15 M ratios appear suitable for further in vivo testing, in order to be used as drug delivery systems in the treatment of different osseous diseases.

  9. Studies on Middle-Phase Microemulsions of Green Surfactant n -Dodecyl Polyglucoside C12G1.46

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHAI,Jin-Ling; WU,Chang-Ju; LI,Gan-Zuo; ZHANG,Gao-Yong

    2003-01-01

    The three-phase behavior in the quaternary system ot n-dodecyl polyglucoside C12G1.46/1-butanol/cyclohexane/water has been studied at 40 ℃ in terms of the variables γ and δ. Increasing δ at constant γ causes a phase inversion from an oil-in-water microemulsion in contact with excess oil ( winsor Ⅰ or 2) to a water-in-oil microemulsion in contact with excess water (winsor Ⅱ or 2) via a middle-phase microemulsion in contact with excess oil and water (winsor Ⅲ or 3). By taking into account the different solubilities of alkyl polyglucoside and 1-butanol in the oil phase, the composition of the hydrophile-lipophile balanced interfacial film in the middle of the three-phase body can be calculated. The effects of different oils and aqueous media on the phase behavior and on the composition of the interfacial film and the efficiency for alkyl polyglucoside to make equal weights of water and oil to a single phase were investigated.It was found that the oil molecules with small molecular volumes can improve the solubilizing efficiency of the surfactant to form single-phase microemulsion. In inorganic salt (NaCl) and acid (HCl)solutions, less 1-butanol is needed than that in alkali (NaOH) solution to form middle-phase microemulsion.

  10. Doping effect of dodecyl benzene sulphonic acid in poly(3-hexylthiophene)-P3HT-films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alveroglu, Esra

    2015-04-01

    We demonstrated that how dodecyl benzene sulphonic acid (DBSA) as a small-molecular dopant, affects the spectroscopic, electronic and structural properties of poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT). The DBSA volume ratio was varied from 0.001 μL to 30 μL per 1 mL P3HT solvent in p-xylene. DBSA doping reaction was confirmed by the emerging huge absorption peak at the wavelength of ∼800 nm while the ionization potential and nanostructure of P3HT films were highly affected. Additionally, conductivity of P3HT films increased nearly 1000 times at 30 μL DBSA. The crystallinity, as well as the conductivity and the UV-Vis absorption changed with the presence of P3HT. P3HT grain sized crystals seems to be disturbed by the addition of DBSA, but still remained even more DBSA was introduced. DBSA doping has interesting properties when incorporated in OFTs, OPVs and bioelectronics applications, so addition of DBSA can open new pathways for structural, spectroscopic and electronic control of organic semiconductor's blends.

  11. Interaction between dodecyl oxypropyl β-hydroxyltrimethylammonium bromide and Xanthan: MesoDyn simulation and binding isotherm measurements

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    MesoDyn density functional simulation method is used to study the interactions between dodecyl oxypropyl β-hydroxyltrimethylammonium bromide (C12NBr) and Xanthan (XC). The micro dynamic process of aggregate formation and the aggregate morphology are reported. Interaction between XC and nonyphenyloxypropylβ-hydroxyltrimethylammonium bromide (C9phNBr) is compared with that between XC and C12NBr. Simulation results show that the aggregate morphology of XC/C12NBr and XC/C9phNBr is of rod-like shape with helix characteristic. The binding of C9phNBr to XC is more difficult than that of C12NBr to XC. In addition, three stages for the dynamic evolution of surfactant binding to XC are observed. The simulation results agree with binding isotherms of C9phNBr (C12NBr) to XC obtained via the potentiometric titration method, which shows a typical cooperative binding between C9phNBr (C12NBr) and XC.

  12. 21 CFR 201.64 - Sodium labeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... paragraph (b) of this section). (e) The term very low sodium may be used in the labeling of OTC drug... milligrams or less. (f) The term low sodium may be used in the labeling of OTC drug products intended for... substituted for the term sodium. (h) The terms sodium free, very low sodium, and low sodium shall be in print...

  13. A study on sodium-concrete reaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bae, Jae Heum; Min, Byong Hun [Suwon University, Suwon (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-07-01

    A small sodium-concrete reaction facility was designed, manufactured and installed. this facility has been operated under inert gas(N{sub 2}) with different experimental variables such as sodium injection temperature, injection amount of sodium, aging period of concrete, sodium reservoir temperature. As a result, it was found that sodium injection temperature and injected amount of sodium has little effect on sodium-concrete reaction. However, sodium reservoir temperature and aging period of concrete has relatively high impact on sodium-concrete reaction. Sodium-concrete reaction model has also been developed and compared with experimental results. (Author) 51 refs., 16 tabs., 64 figs.

  14. Impact of mixing time and sodium stearoyl lactylate on gluten polymerization during baking of wheat flour dough.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Steertegem, Bénédicte; Pareyt, Bram; Brijs, Kristof; Delcour, Jan A

    2013-12-15

    The impact of differences in dough transient gluten network on gluten cross-linking during baking is insufficiently understood. We varied dough mixing times and/or added sodium stearoyl lactylate (SSL; 1.0% on flour dry matter basis) to the recipe and studied the effect on subsequent gluten polymerization during heating. The level of proteins extractable in sodium dodecyl sulfate containing media was fitted using first order kinetics. The extent and rate of gluten polymerization were lower when mixing for 8 min than when mixing for 2 min. This effect was even more outspoken in the presence of SSL. The present observations were explained as resulting from less gliadin incorporation in the polymer gluten network and from interaction of SSL with the gluten proteins. Finally, a higher degree of gluten polymerization during baking increased the firmness of the baked products.

  15. Controlled release of diclofenac sodium from polylactide acid-based solid dispersions prepared by hot-melt extrusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Rong; Li, Genlin; Han, Aichun; Wu, Hong; Guo, Shaoyun

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, hot-melt extrusion was applied to prepare drug delivery systems using polylactide acid (PLA) as the matrix. Diclofenac sodium (DS) was used as a model drug. Polyethylene glycol (PEG, molecular weight is 6000) and sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) were used as the release rate modifiers. For the PLA/PEG/DS blends, the release of DS was enhanced with higher amounts of PEG and DS. After the addition of SDS to the PLA/PEG/DS blends, the dispersion of DS and PEG was significantly improved. Compared to the PLA/PEG/DS blends with the same drug loading, the drug release behavior of PLA/PEG/DS/SDS was remarkably suppressed due to the presence of SDS. And a controllable linear release of DS was achieved.

  16. (4Z-1-Dodecyl-4-(2-oxopropylidene-2,3,4,5-tetrahydro-1H-1,5-benzodiazepin-2-one

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jihad Sebhaoui

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available In the title compound, C24H36N2O2, the orientation of the 2-oxopropylidene substituent is determined by the formation of an intramolecular N—H...O hydrogen bond. The benzodiazepine seven-membered ring adopts a slightly twisted boat conformation. The molecules pack in a bilayer fashion with the dodecyl chains intercalated to form the inner portion, and the benzodiazepine moieties on the outer surfaces.

  17. Magnetometry with mesospheric sodium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higbie, James M.; Rochester, Simon M.; Patton, Brian; Holzlöhner, Ronald; Bonaccini Calia, Domenico; Budker, Dmitry

    2011-01-01

    Measurement of magnetic fields on the few 100-km length scale is significant for many geophysical applications including mapping of crustal magnetism and ocean circulation measurements, yet available techniques for such measurements are very expensive or of limited accuracy. We propose a method for remote detection of magnetic fields using the naturally occurring atomic sodium-rich layer in the mesosphere and existing high-power lasers developed for laser guide star applications. The proposed method offers a dramatic reduction in cost and opens the way to large-scale, parallel magnetic mapping and monitoring for atmospheric science, navigation, and geophysics. PMID:21321235

  18. Magnetometry with Mesospheric Sodium

    CERN Document Server

    Higbie, J M; Patton, B; Holzlöhner, R; Calia, D Bonaccini; Budker, D

    2009-01-01

    Measurement of magnetic fields on the few-hundred-kilometer length scale is significant for a variety of geophysical applications including mapping of crustal magnetism and ocean-circulation measurements, yet available techniques for such measurements are very expensive or of limited accuracy. We propose a scheme for remote detection of magnetic fields using the naturally occurring atomic-sodium-rich layer in the mesosphere and existing high-power lasers developed for laser guide-star applications. The proposed scheme offers dramatic reduction in cost, opening the way to large-scale magnetic mapping missions.

  19. Molecular Simulations of Dodecyl-β-maltoside Micelles in Water: Influence of the Headgroup Conformation and Force field Parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abel, Stéphane; Dupradeau, François-Yves; Raman, E. Prabhu; MacKerell, Alexander D.; Marchi, Massimo

    2011-01-01

    This paper deals with the development and validation of new potential parameter sets, based on the CHARMM36 and GLYCAM06 force fields, to simulate micelles of the two anomeric forms (α and β) of N-Dodecyl-ß-maltoside (C12G2), a surfactant widely used in the extraction and purification of membrane proteins. In this context, properties such as size, shape, internal structure and hydration of the C12G2 anomer micelles were thoroughly investigated by molecular dynamics simulations and the results compared with experiments. Additional simulations were also performed with the older CHARMM22 force field for carbohydrates (Kuttel, M. et al. J. Comp. Chem. 2002, 23, 1236-1243). We find that our CHARMM and GLYCAM parameter sets yields similar results in case of properties related to the micelle structure, but differ for other properties such as the headgroup conformation or the micelle hydration. In agreement with experiments, our results show that for all model potentials the β-C12G2 micelles have a more pronounced ellipsoidal shape than those containing α anomers. The computed radius of gyration is 20.2 Å and 25.4 Å for the α- and β-anomer micelles, respectively. Finally, we show that depending on the potential the water translational diffusion of the interfacial water is 7 - 11.5 times slower than that of bulk water due to the entrapment of the water in the micelle crevices. This retardation is independent of the headgroup in α- or β- anomers. PMID:21192681

  20. Sodium diffusion in boroaluminosilicate glasses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smedskjaer, Morten M.; Zheng, Qiuju; Mauro, John C.

    2011-01-01

    of isothermal sodium diffusion in BAS glasses by ion exchange, inward diffusion, and tracer diffusion experiments. By varying the [SiO2]/[Al2O3] ratio of the glasses, different structural regimes of sodium behavior are accessed. We show that the mobility of the sodium ions decreases with increasing [SiO2]/[Al2O......3] ratio, revealing that sodium is more mobile when it acts as a charge compensator to stabilize network formers than when it acts as a creator of non-bridging oxygens on tetrahedrally-coordinated silicon and trigonal boron. The impacts of both the addition of iron and its redox state on the sodium...... be attributed to the fact that for sodium inward diffusion, the charge compensation for electron holes is a rather slow process that limits the rate of diffusion. (C) 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved....

  1. 21 CFR 184.1724 - Sodium alginate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Sodium alginate. 184.1724 Section 184.1724 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1724 Sodium alginate. (a) Sodium alginate (CAS Reg. No. 9005-38-3) is the sodium salt of alginic acid, a natural polyuronide constituent of certain brown algae. Sodium alginate...

  2. Vesicle formation and stability in the surfactant sodium 4-(1'-heptylnonyl) benzenesulfonate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Franses, E.I.; Talmon, Y.; Scriven, L.E.; Davis, H.T.; Miller, W.G.

    1982-04-01

    Surfactants composed of a hydrophilic moiety covalently attached to the end of a hydrocarbon chain (e.g., sodium dodecyl sulfate), spontaneously form micelles, equilibrium aggregates, in solution if the surfactant concentration exceeds a critical value called the CMC. Naturally occurring double-tail surfactants (e.g., phospholipids) are not known to form micelles. Over a considerable range in surfactant concentration, 2 phases coexist in equilibrium: a hydrated, multilamellar (smectic) surfactant phase and an aqueous phase saturated with surfactant. In this report the preparation of vesicles, their direct, unstained visualization by electron microscopy, and investigation of their stability and structure by turbidimetry, conductimetry, light microscopy, densitometry, scanning calorimetry, and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy are discussed. Dispersed liquid crystal was studied by the same means. For comparison, parallel studies on bovine lecithin are presented. From the results, it is concluded that these vesicles may be stable for many months, but eventually revert to multilamellar liquid crystals.

  3. Sodium-glucose cotransport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poulsen, Søren Brandt; Fenton, Robert A.; Rieg, Timo

    2017-01-01

    Purpose of review Sodium-glucose cotransporters (SGLTs) are important mediators of glucose uptake across apical cell membranes. SGLT1 mediates almost all sodium-dependent glucose uptake in the small intestine, while in the kidney SGLT2, and to a lesser extent SGLT1, account for more than 90% and nearly 3%, respectively, of glucose reabsorption from the glomerular ultrafiltrate. Although the recent availability of SGLT2 inhibitors for the treatment of diabetes mellitus has increased the number of clinical studies, this review has a focus on mechanisms contributing to the cellular regulation of SGLTs. Recent findings Studies have focused on the regulation of SGLT expression under different physiological/pathophysiological conditions, for example diet, age or diabetes mellitus. Several studies provide evidence of SGLT regulation via cyclic adenosine monophosphate/protein kinase A, protein kinase C, glucagon-like peptide 2, insulin, leptin, signal transducer and activator of transcription-3 (STAT3), phosphoinositide-3 kinase (PI3K)/Akt, mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs), nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB), with-no-K[Lys] kinases/STE20/SPS1-related proline/alanine-rich kinase (Wnk/SPAK) and regulatory solute carrier protein 1 (RS1) pathways. Summary SGLT inhibitors are important drugs for glycemic control in diabetes mellitus. Although the contribution of SGLT1 for absorption of glucose from the intestine as well as SGLT2/SGLT1 for renal glucose reabsorption has been comprehensively defined, this review provides an up-to-date outline for the mechanistic regulation of SGLT1/SGLT2. PMID:26125647

  4. Evolutionary primacy of sodium bioenergetics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wolf Yuri I

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The F- and V-type ATPases are rotary molecular machines that couple translocation of protons or sodium ions across the membrane to the synthesis or hydrolysis of ATP. Both the F-type (found in most bacteria and eukaryotic mitochondria and chloroplasts and V-type (found in archaea, some bacteria, and eukaryotic vacuoles ATPases can translocate either protons or sodium ions. The prevalent proton-dependent ATPases are generally viewed as the primary form of the enzyme whereas the sodium-translocating ATPases of some prokaryotes are usually construed as an exotic adaptation to survival in extreme environments. Results We combine structural and phylogenetic analyses to clarify the evolutionary relation between the proton- and sodium-translocating ATPases. A comparison of the structures of the membrane-embedded oligomeric proteolipid rings of sodium-dependent F- and V-ATPases reveals nearly identical sets of amino acids involved in sodium binding. We show that the sodium-dependent ATPases are scattered among proton-dependent ATPases in both the F- and the V-branches of the phylogenetic tree. Conclusion Barring convergent emergence of the same set of ligands in several lineages, these findings indicate that the use of sodium gradient for ATP synthesis is the ancestral modality of membrane bioenergetics. Thus, a primitive, sodium-impermeable but proton-permeable cell membrane that harboured a set of sodium-transporting enzymes appears to have been the evolutionary predecessor of the more structurally demanding proton-tight membranes. The use of proton as the coupling ion appears to be a later innovation that emerged on several independent occasions. Reviewers This article was reviewed by J. Peter Gogarten, Martijn A. Huynen, and Igor B. Zhulin. For the full reviews, please go to the Reviewers' comments section.

  5. CDC Vital Signs: Where's the Sodium?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... serve food can Consider joining voluntary initiatives to reduce sodium such as the National Salt Reduction Initiative Give choices to consumers to help them reduce sodium in their diet by: Stocking lower sodium foods. ...

  6. Are Reductions in Population Sodium Intake Achievable?

    OpenAIRE

    Levings, Jessica L.; Cogswell, Mary E.; Janelle Peralez Gunn

    2014-01-01

    The vast majority of Americans consume too much sodium, primarily from packaged and restaurant foods. The evidence linking sodium intake with direct health outcomes indicates a positive relationship between higher levels of sodium intake and cardiovascular disease risk, consistent with the relationship between sodium intake and blood pressure. Despite communication and educational efforts focused on lowering sodium intake over the last three decades data suggest average US sodium intake has r...

  7. Susceptibility of Clostridium difficile to the food preservatives sodium nitrite, sodium nitrate and sodium metabisulphite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Su-Chen; Foster, Niki F; Riley, Thomas V

    2016-02-01

    Clostridium difficile is an important enteric pathogen of humans and food animals. Recently it has been isolated from retail foods with prevalences up to 42%, prompting concern that contaminated foods may be one of the reasons for increased community-acquired C. difficile infection (CA-CDI). A number of studies have examined the prevalence of C. difficile in raw meats and fresh vegetables; however, fewer studies have examined the prevalence of C. difficile in ready-to-eat meat. The aim of this study was to investigate the in vitro susceptibility of 11 C. difficile isolates of food animal and retail food origins to food preservatives commonly used in ready-to-eat meats. The broth microdilution method was used to determine the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentrations (MBC) for sodium nitrite, sodium nitrate and sodium metabisulphite against C. difficile. Checkerboard assays were used to investigate the combined effect of sodium nitrite and sodium nitrate, commonly used in combination in meats. Modal MIC values for sodium nitrite, sodium nitrate and sodium metabisulphite were 250 μg/ml, >4000 μg/ml and 1000 μg/ml, respectively. No bactericidal activity was observed for all three food preservatives. The checkerboard assays showed indifferent interaction between sodium nitrite and sodium nitrate. This study demonstrated that C. difficile can survive in the presence of food preservatives at concentrations higher than the current maximum permitted levels allowed in ready-to-eat meats. The possibility of retail ready-to-eat meats contaminated with C. difficile acting as a source of CDI needs to be investigated.

  8. Synthesis and characterization of sodium alkoxides

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    K Chandran; R Nithya; K Sankaran; A Gopalan; V Ganesan

    2006-04-01

    Alcohol route is being adopted for cleaning sodium from sodium-wetted small components of coolant circuits of fast reactors. For better understanding of sodium–alcohol reactions and their energetics, the data on thermo-chemical properties such as heats of sodium–alcohol reactions, heats of dissolution, heat capacities, thermal decomposition behaviour, etc of their end products are essential. In order to generate such data, high purity sodium alkoxides, viz. sodium methoxide, sodium ethoxide and sodium -propoxide, were prepared by reacting sodium metal with respective alcohol. These compounds were characterized using X-ray diffraction technique and IR spectroscopy. The elemental analysis was carried out by CHNS analyser and atomic emission spectroscopy. Normal chain sodium alkoxides were found to exhibit tetragonal crystal structure. Crystal structures of sodium ethoxide and sodium -propoxide are reported for the first time. The IR spectrum of sodium -propoxide is also reported for the first time.

  9. Sodium management in dialysis by conductivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosetto, A; Bene, B; Petitclerc, T

    1999-07-01

    The determination of dialysate sodium concentration is one of the challenges of dialysis prescription, because no accurate information on the predialytic sodium overload is available. Too low dialysate sodium is responsible for intradialytic intolerance symptoms, whereas too high sodium may lead to long-term water sodium overload with cardiovascular hazards (hypertension, left heart failure). We propose here a biofeedback system based on noninvasive repeated measures of ionic dialysance and plasma water conductivity used here as a surrogate of plasma water sodium. This system achieves a stable postdialytic sodium pool and subsequently a dialysate sodium concentration adapted to the inter dialytic sodium load. This new tool in dialysate sodium prescription aims at reducing the morbidity related to patient sodium balance impairment.

  10. Designing microstructures for sodium reduction

    OpenAIRE

    Chiu, N. X. N.

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this project was to develop the tools and knowledge to reduce dietary sodium by mitigating restrictions to flavour delivery and enhancing saltiness perception through sodium contrast effects in the mouth. This is achieved by restructuring semi-solid and liquid model food systems to achieve maximum flavour delivery for enhanced perception. The project considered two model systems: stable foams and double emulsions. Stable foams were developed to evaluate air inclusions as a p...

  11. Stability of Ampicillin Sodium, Nafcillin Sodium, And Oxacillin Sodium in AutoDose Infusion System Bags.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yanping; Trissel, Lawrence A

    2002-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the physical and chemical stability of ampicillin sodium 1g/100mL, nafcillin sodium 1g/100mL, and oxacillin sodium 1g/100mL, each of which was admixed in 0.9% sodium chloride injection and packaged in an AutoDose Infusion System bag. Triplicate test samples were prepared by reconstituting the penicillin antibiotics and bringing the required amount of each drug to a final volume of 100 mL with 0.9% sodium chloride injection. The test solutions were packaged in AutoDose Bags, which are ethylene vinyl acetate plastic containers designed for use in the AutoDose Infusion System. Samples were stored protected from light and were evaluated at appropriate intervals for up to 7 days at 23 deg C and up to 30 days at 4 deg C. Physical stability was assessed by means of a multistep evaluation procedure that included both turbidimetric and particulate measurement as well as visual inspection. Chemical stability was assesed with stability-indicating high-perofrmance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) analytical techniques based on the determination of drug concentrations initially and at appropriate intervals over the study periods. All the penicillin admixtures were initially clear when viewed in normal fluorescent room light. When the admixtures were viewed with a Tyndall beam, a trace haze was observed with the ampicillin sodium and nafcillin sodium mixtures but not with the oxacillin sodium mixture. Measured turbidity and particulate content were low and exhibited little change in the ampicillin sodium and oxacillin sodium samples throughout the study. The nafcillin sodium samples stored at room temperature remained clear, but a microprecipitate developed in the refrigerated samples between 14 and 21 days of storage. All samples were essentially colorless throughout the study. HPLC analysis indicated some decomposition in the samples. Ampicillin sodium, which was the least stable, exhibited a 10% loss after 24 hours at 23 deg C. In the

  12. Dietary sodium and cardiovascular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smyth, Andrew; O'Donnell, Martin; Mente, Andrew; Yusuf, Salim

    2015-06-01

    Although an essential nutrient, higher sodium intake is associated with increasing blood pressure (BP), forming the basis for current population-wide sodium restriction guidelines. While short-term clinical trials have achieved low intake (6 months). Guidelines assume that low sodium intake will reduce BP and reduce cardiovascular disease (CVD), compared to moderate intake. However, current observational evidence suggests a J-shaped association between sodium intake and CVD; the lowest risks observed with 3-5 g/day but higher risk with 5 g/day) and increased risk of CVD. Although lower intake may reduce BP, this may be offset by marked increases in neurohormones and other adverse effects which may paradoxically be adverse. Large randomised clinical trials with sufficient follow-up are required to provide robust data on the long-term effects of sodium reduction on CVD incidence. Until such trials are completed, current evidence suggests that moderate sodium intake for the general population (3-5 g/day) is likely the optimum range for CVD prevention.

  13. Sodium voiding analysis in Kalimer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Won-Pyo; Jeong, Kwan-Seong; Hahn, Dohee [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    2001-07-01

    A sodium boiling model has been developed for calculations of the void reactivity feedback as well as the fuel and cladding temperatures in the KALIMER core after onset of sodium boiling. The sodium boiling in liquid metal reactors using sodium as coolant should be modeled because of phenomenon difference observed from that in light water reactor systems. The developed model is a multiple -bubble slug ejection model. It allows a finite number of bubbles in a channel at any time. Voiding is assumed to result from formation of bubbles that fill the whole cross section of the coolant channel except for liquid film left on the cladding surface. The vapor pressure, currently, is assumed to be uniform within a bubble. The present study is focused on not only demonstration of the sodium voiding behavior predicted by the developed model, but also confirmation on qualitative acceptance for the model. In results, the model catches important phenomena for sodium boiling, while further effort should be made for the complete analysis. (author)

  14. Central regulation of sodium appetite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geerling, Joel C; Loewy, Arthur D

    2008-02-01

    Sodium appetite, the behavioural drive to ingest salt, is stimulated by prolonged physiological sodium deficiency in many animal species. The same neural mechanisms that are responsible for sodium appetite in laboratory animals may influence human behaviour as well, with particular relevance to the dietary salt intake of patients with diseases such as heart failure, renal failure, liver failure and salt-sensitive hypertension. Since the original experimental work of Curt Richter in the 1930s, much has been learned about the regulation of salt-ingestive behaviour. Here, we review data from physiology, pharmacology, neuroanatomy and neurobehavioural investigations into the stimulatory and inhibitory signals that regulate sodium appetite. A rudimentary framework is proposed for the brain circuits that integrate peripheral information representing the need for sodium with neural signals for the gustatory detection of salt in order to drive a motivated ingestive response. Based on this model, areas of remaining uncertainty are highlighted where future information would allow a more detailed understanding of the neural circuitry responsible for sodium appetite.

  15. Sodium: Tips for People with Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... l Fresh meat, poultry, seafood l Low-fat, low-sodium cheese l Unsalted nuts l Low- and reduced- ... for foods labeled: sodium free, salt free, very low sodium, low sodium, reduced or less sodium, light in ...

  16. 21 CFR 172.175 - Sodium nitrite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Preservatives § 172.175 Sodium nitrite. The food additive sodium nitrite may be safely used in or on specified... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Sodium nitrite. 172.175 Section 172.175 Food and... preservative and color fixative, with sodium nitrate, in meat-curing preparations for the home curing of...

  17. Are Reductions in Population Sodium Intake Achievable?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica L. Levings

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The vast majority of Americans consume too much sodium, primarily from packaged and restaurant foods. The evidence linking sodium intake with direct health outcomes indicates a positive relationship between higher levels of sodium intake and cardiovascular disease risk, consistent with the relationship between sodium intake and blood pressure. Despite communication and educational efforts focused on lowering sodium intake over the last three decades data suggest average US sodium intake has remained remarkably elevated, leading some to argue that current sodium guidelines are unattainable. The IOM in 2010 recommended gradual reductions in the sodium content of packaged and restaurant foods as a primary strategy to reduce US sodium intake, and research since that time suggests gradual, downward shifts in mean population sodium intake are achievable and can move the population toward current sodium intake guidelines. The current paper reviews recent evidence indicating: (1 significant reductions in mean population sodium intake can be achieved with gradual sodium reduction in the food supply, (2 gradual sodium reduction in certain cases can be achieved without a noticeable change in taste or consumption of specific products, and (3 lowering mean population sodium intake can move us toward meeting the current individual guidelines for sodium intake.

  18. 21 CFR 522.460 - Cloprostenol sodium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Cloprostenol sodium. 522.460 Section 522.460 Food... Cloprostenol sodium. (a)(1) Specifications. Each milliliter of the aqueous solution contains 263 micrograms of cloprostenol sodium (equivalent to 250 micrograms of cloprostenol) in a sodium citrate, anhydrous citric...

  19. 21 CFR 172.170 - Sodium nitrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Sodium nitrate. 172.170 Section 172.170 Food and... Preservatives § 172.170 Sodium nitrate. The food additive sodium nitrate may be safely used in or on specified... sablefish, smoked, cured salmon, and smoked, cured shad, so that the level of sodium nitrate does not...

  20. 21 CFR 173.73 - Sodium polyacrylate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Sodium polyacrylate. 173.73 Section 173.73 Food and... Substances and Polymer Adjuvants for Food Treatment § 173.73 Sodium polyacrylate. Sodium polyacrylate (CAS... of Weight Average and Number Average Molecular Weight of Sodium Polyacrylate,” which is...

  1. A Patient with MSUD: Acute Management with Sodium Phenylacetate/Sodium Benzoate and Sodium Phenylbutyrate

    OpenAIRE

    Melis Köse; Ebru Canda; Mehtap Kagnici; Sema Kalkan Uçar; Mahmut Çoker

    2017-01-01

    In treatment of metabolic imbalances caused by maple syrup urine disease (MSUD), peritoneal dialysis, and hemofiltration, pharmacological treatments for elimination of toxic metabolites can be used in addition to basic dietary modifications. Therapy with sodium phenylacetate/benzoate or sodium phenylbutyrate (NaPB) in urea-cycle disorder cases has been associated with a reduction in branched-chain amino acid (BCAA) concentrations when the patients are on adequate dietary protein intake. Moreo...

  2. Treprostinil sodium Pharmacia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chattaraj, Sarat C

    2002-04-01

    United Therapeutics Corp (UTC) is developing treprostinil sodium (Remodulin, UT-15), a stable structural analog of prostacyclin, for the potential treatment of primary pulmonary (arterial) hypertension (PAH), peripheral vascular disease (PVD) and other cardiovascular conditions [327593], including critical limb ischemia (CLI) [412483]. In August 2000, UTC submitted the initial, non-clinical sections of an NDA for the treatment of pulmonary hypertension [378906]. Treprostinil, which had previously been designated as an Orphan Drug, was also awarded Priority Review status by the US FDA in October 2000 [385864], [386271]. In December 2000, UTC agreed with the FDA that the NDA for treprostinil did not need to be presented to the Cardiovascular and Renal Drugs Advisory Committee, which was expected to allow UTC and the FDA to work towards the 6-month Priority Review timeline [393888]. On August 9, 2001, the advisory committee recommended approval of treprostinil and UTC refiled the NDA on the same day [418682]. In February 2002, the FDA issued an approvable letter for treprostinil injection for the treatment of PAH. The FDA proposed drug labeling for PAH consistent with the treatment of both primary and secondary pulmonary hypertension in patients with New York Heart Association (NYHA) Class II-IV symptoms. The approvable letter also stated that the FDA intended to approve treprostinil with a requirement that UTC subsequently conduct a post-marketing controlled clinical trial to verify and further describe the drug's clinical benefit [439278]. In February 2001, UTC submitted a marketing authorization application (MAA) in France for approval of treprostinil for the treatment of PAH. Upon approval of the MAA, UTC planned to file for Mutual Recognition in other European countries and was also preparing similar submissions to non-European countries [391986], [397958]. By early 2001, phase II trials of treprostinil for the treatment of CLI were underway [412483]. In March

  3. Sodium Velocity Maps on Mercury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potter, A. E.; Killen, R. M.

    2011-01-01

    The objective of the current work was to measure two-dimensional maps of sodium velocities on the Mercury surface and examine the maps for evidence of sources or sinks of sodium on the surface. The McMath-Pierce Solar Telescope and the Stellar Spectrograph were used to measure Mercury spectra that were sampled at 7 milliAngstrom intervals. Observations were made each day during the period October 5-9, 2010. The dawn terminator was in view during that time. The velocity shift of the centroid of the Mercury emission line was measured relative to the solar sodium Fraunhofer line corrected for radial velocity of the Earth. The difference between the observed and calculated velocity shift was taken to be the velocity vector of the sodium relative to Earth. For each position of the spectrograph slit, a line of velocities across the planet was measured. Then, the spectrograph slit was stepped over the surface of Mercury at 1 arc second intervals. The position of Mercury was stabilized by an adaptive optics system. The collection of lines were assembled into an images of surface reflection, sodium emission intensities, and Earthward velocities over the surface of Mercury. The velocity map shows patches of higher velocity in the southern hemisphere, suggesting the existence of sodium sources there. The peak earthward velocity occurs in the equatorial region, and extends to the terminator. Since this was a dawn terminator, this might be an indication of dawn evaporation of sodium. Leblanc et al. (2008) have published a velocity map that is similar.

  4. Enzymic transfer of 6-modified D-galactosyl residues: synthesis of biantennary penta- and hepta-saccharides having two 6-deoxy-D-galactose residues at the nonreducing end and evaluation of 6-deoxy-D-galactosyl transfer to glycoprotein using bovine beta-(1-->4)-galactosyltransferase and UDP-6-deoxy-D-galactose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kajihara, Y; Endo, T; Ogasawara, H; Kodama, H; Hashimoto, H

    1995-04-19

    UDP-6-Deoxy-D-galactose and UDP-6-deoxy-6-fluoro-D-galactose were synthesized and their transfer to 2-acetamido-2-deoxy-D-glucose (N-acetyl-D-glucosamine) by beta-(1-->4)-galactosyltransferase was examined. The transfer rates of 6-deoxy-D-galactose and 6-deoxy-6-fluoro-D-galactose were 1.3 and 0.2% of that of D-galactosyl transfer, respectively. The 2-acetamido-4-O-(6-deoxy-beta-D-galactopyranosyl)-2-deoxy-D-glucopyranose (6'-deoxy-N-acetyllactosamine) and methyl 2-acetamido-4-O-(6-deoxy-6-fluoro-beta-D-galactopyranosyl)-2-deoxy-D- glucopyranoside (6'-deoxy-6'-fluoro-N-acetyllactosamine) were synthesized enzymatically in 30 and 59% yields, respectively. Further, 6-deoxy-D-galactose could be completely transferred to N-linked type biantennary oligosaccharides having two N-acetyl-D-glucosaminyl residues at the nonreducing end to give the corresponding penta- and hepta-saccharides in 55 and 57% yields, respectively. An assay of 6-deoxy-D-galactosyl transfer using asialo agalacto alpha 1-acid glycoprotein as an acceptor suggested that 6-deoxy-D-galactose was transferred to about 30% of the N-acetyl-D-glucosaminyl residues in the N-linked oligosaccharides of the glycoprotein.

  5. Investigation of rpoS and dps genes in sodium hypochlorite resistance of Salmonella Enteritidis SE86 isolated from foodborne illness outbreaks in southern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritter, Ana Carolina; Bacciu, Donatella; Santi, Lucélia; Silva, Walter Orlando Beys da; Vainstein, Marilene Henning; Rubino, Salvatore; Uzzau, Sergio; Tondo, Eduardo Cesar

    2012-03-01

    In Rio Grande do Sul, southern Brazil, Salmonella Enteritidis is one of the principal microorganisms responsible for foodborne disease. The present study was conducted to compare the sodium hypochlorite resistance of Salmonella Enteritidis SE86 with that of other strains of Salmonella Enteritidis isolated from different regions of the world and to investigate the involvement of the rpoS and dps genes in resistance to this disinfectant. We tested five Salmonella Enteritidis wild-type (WT) strains isolated from different countries, two mutant strains of Salmonella Enteritidis SE86, and two tagged (3XFLAG) strains of Salmonella Enteritidis SE86 for their resistance to sodium hypochlorite (200 ppm). The survival of the WT and attenuated strains was determined based on bacterial counts, and tagged proteins (Dps and RpoS) were detected by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and immunoblotting with anti-FLAG antibodies. None of the WT strains of Salmonella Enteritidis were totally inactivated after 20 min. The SE86 strain lacking dps was more sensitive to sodium hypochlorite than was the WT SE86 strain, with a 2-log reduction in counts after 1 min. The RpoS and Dps proteins were actively expressed under the conditions tested, indicating that in Salmonella Enteritidis SE86 these genes, which are expressed when in contact with sodium hypochlorite, are related to oxidative stress.

  6. Study on the Effect of Organic Additives and Inorganic Fillers on Properties of Sodium Silicate Wood Adhesive Modified by Polyvinyl Alcohol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaomei Liu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available To enhance the properties of sodium silicate wood adhesive modified by PVOH (polyvinyl alcohol, different organic additives (compound A and inorganic fillers (compound B were added into the system. Their effects on the thermal stability and molecular structure of the composite adhesive were investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM, spectroscopic analysis (FT-IR, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC, and thermo- gravimetric analysis (TGA. The results showed that when the compound A consisting of amino acid, TEOS (Tetraethyl orthosilicate, sodium dodecyl sulfate with the mass ratio of 5:3:3 and B consisting of 50% active magnesium oxide and 50% nano-silica were added into the cross-linked sodium silicate adhesive system with the ratio of 90:3, the bonding and water resistance properties were improved by 97.6% and 46.7%, or 13.7% and 36% relative to pure and cross-linked sodium silicate, respectively. The addition of organic additives and inorganic fillers had a good effect on both the bonding strength and thermal stability of sodium silicate wood adhesive modified by PVOH.

  7. Methods to Compose Sodium Fire Extinguishing Equipment on Sodium Test Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, B. H.; Kim, J. M.; Jeong, J. Y.; Choi, B. H

    2008-06-15

    Sodium fire is graded 'D' and it is difficult to extinguish sodium fire. In this report, the characteristics of sodium fire and the methods composing the suitable fire extinguishing systems to suppress fire effectively were described.

  8. Development and validation of an ion-pair liquid chromatographic method for the quantitation of sodium cromoglycate in urine following inhalation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aswania, O A; Corlett, S A; Chrystyn, H

    1997-03-07

    An ion-pair liquid high-performance chromatography method with solid-phase extraction for measuring urinary concentrations of sodium cromoglycate following inhalation has been developed and validated. Sodium cromoglycate was extracted from urine on a 100-mg phenyl cartridge (Isolute, Jones Chromatography) and then quantified on a 25-cm C8 Spherisorb 5 microns stationary phase with a mobile phase of methanol-0.045 M phosphate buffer-0.05 M dodecyl triethyl ammonium phosphate (550:447.6:2.4, v/v) pH 2.3, at 0.85 ml min-1 using nedocromil sodium as an internal standard and UV detection at 238 nm. The inter- and intra-day reproducibilities were 8.33 and 13.63%, respectively, at 0.25 mg l-1. The limit of determination for sodium cromoglycate was 0.25 mg l-1 (with a signal-to-noise ratio of greater than 10:1). Following oral and inhaled administration of 20 mg of sodium cromoglycate to eight healthy volunteers, the mean and S.D. of sodium cromoglycate excreted in the urine at 0.5, 1 and 24 h post-dose were 0.02, 0.05 and 0.33%, and 0.16, 0.30 and 1.55% of the dose, respectively. The urinary recovery of sodium cromoglycate at 0.5 and 1 h following inhalation can therefore be used to compare the amount of drug reaching the respiratory tract using different sodium cromoglycate inhaled products or inhalation methods.

  9. Plasma proteome coverage is increased by unique peptide recovery from sodium deoxycholate precipitate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serra, Aida; Zhu, Hongbin; Gallart-Palau, Xavier; Park, Jung Eun; Ho, Hee Haw; Tam, James P; Sze, Siu Kwan

    2016-03-01

    The ionic detergent sodium deoxycholate (SDC) is compatible with in-solution tryptic digestion and LC-MS/MS-based shotgun proteomics by virtue of being easy to separate from the peptide products via precipitation in acidic buffers. However, it remains unclear whether unique human peptides co-precipitate with SDC during acid treatment of complex biological samples. In this study, we demonstrate for the first time that a large quantity of unique peptides in human blood plasma can be co-precipitated with SDC using an optimized sample preparation method prior to shotgun proteomic analysis. We show that the plasma peptides co-precipitated with SDC can be successfully recovered using a sequential re-solubilization and precipitation procedure, and that this approach is particularly efficient at the extraction of long peptides. Recovery of peptides from the SDC pellet dramatically increased overall proteome coverage (>60 %), thereby improving the identification of low-abundance proteins and enhancing the identification of protein components of membrane-bound organelles. In addition, when we analyzed the physiochemical properties of the co-precipitated peptides, we observed that SDC-based sample preparation improved the identification of mildly hydrophilic/hydrophobic proteins that would otherwise be lost upon discarding the pellet. These data demonstrate that the optimized SDC protocol is superior to sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS)/urea treatment for identifying plasma biomarkers by shotgun proteomics.

  10. Clinical experience with pegaptanib sodium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiara Rosina

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Chiara Rosina, Ferdinando Bottoni, Giovanni StaurenghiLuigi Sacco Hospital, University of Milano, ItalyAbstract: Pegaptanib sodium (Macugen® blocks the extracellular vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF isoform VEGF165, whose elevated levels are associated with the development of choroidal neovascularization (CNV. This selective inhibition prevents binding to the VEGF receptors and the development of the increased vascular permeability and the CNV associated with neovascular age-related degeneration (AMD. The VEGF Inhibition Study In Ocular Neovascularization (VISION demonstrated that pegaptanib sodium confers clinically meaningful benefit in the treatment of all angiographic subtypes of neovascular AMD. It also has a favorable safety profile after 1 and 2 years of continuous treatment, and recent data suggest that the agent has a disease-modifying effect. Post hoc analysis of VISION suggests that treatment benefit may be greatest in patients with early lesions, in whom 80% achieved the primary endpoint of <15 letters lost, 47% maintained visual acuity (VA, and 20% gained ≥15 letters of vision. Similarly, our own clinical experience indicates that pegaptanib sodium achieves better outcomes in early lesions than in established lesions, particularly in patients with previously untreated minimally classic and occult lesions in whom VA improvement and lesion size stabilization has been recorded. Observations indicate that pegaptanib sodium has a slower mode of action than unselective VEGF inhibitors, resulting in an average of 3–4 injections being required to stabilize VA and lesion size. Pegaptanib sodium has good efficacy and safety profiles and represents a good treatment option for patients with early CNV membranes associated with neovascular AMD.Keywords: vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF, choroidal neovasularization (CNV, age-related macular degeneration (AMD, pegaptanib sodium, early lesions, visual acuity (VA

  11. Too Much Sodium PSA (:60)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2012-02-07

    This 60 second PSA is based on the February 2012 CDC Vital Signs report. Ninety percent of Americans age two and older eat too much sodium which can increase your risk for high blood pressure and often leads to heart disease and stroke, two leading causes of death in the US. Learn several small steps you can take to reduce the amount of sodium in your diet.  Created: 2/7/2012 by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).   Date Released: 2/7/2012.

  12. Contact allergy to sodium sulfite and its relationship to sodium metabisulfite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliphant, Thomas; Mitra, Angana; Wilkinson, Mark

    2012-03-01

    Sulfites are in widespread use as preservatives/antioxidants. There is increasing recognition of allergic contact dermatitis caused by sodium metabisulfite; however, contact allergy to sodium sulfite is less well recognized. We sought to establish the prevalence of positive patch test reactions to sodium sulfite in our patient population and investigate its relationship with sodium metabisulfite. Over a 4-month period, 183 patients referred for patch testing were tested with sodium sulfite 1% pet. in addition to sodium metabisulfite 1% pet., which already forms part of our baseline series. Positive allergic reactions occurred to sodium metabisulfite in 5.5% of the tested patients and to sodium sulfite in 3.8% of the tested patients. Sixty per cent of patients with a positive reaction to sodium metabisulfite were positive to sodium sulfite. Only 1 patient (0.6%) with a negative reaction to sodium metabisulfite showed a positive reaction to sodium sulfite. This study shows that the majority of patients with positive reactions to sodium metabisulfite are also positive to sodium sulphite. Routinely patch testing with sodium sulfite is probably unnecessary, as most patients with positive reactions will also react to sodium metabisulfite. Clinicians should consider advising patients to avoid sodium sulfite and other sulfites when a positive allergic reaction to sodium metabisulfite occurs. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  13. Dietary Sodium Intake in Type 2 Diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Provenzano, Laura Ferreira; Stark, Sue; Steenkiste, Ann; Piraino, Beth; Sevick, Mary Ann

    2014-07-01

    Patients with type 2 diabetes have an increased risk for cardiovascular and chronic kidney disease. Superimposed hypertension further increases the risk and is associated with increased dietary sodium intake. There are few data available on dietary sodium intake in type 2 diabetes. The aim of this study was to quantify dietary sodium intake in a cohort of self-referred patients with type 2 diabetes and to identify sociodemographic characteristics associated with it. Sodium intake in this cohort was far greater than current recommendations. Increased awareness of sodium intake in this population might lead to target interventions to reduce sodium intake and potentially improve long-term outcomes.

  14. Characterization and quantification of N-(3-aminopropyl)-N-dodecyl-1,3-propanediamine biocide by NMR, HPLC/MS and titration techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mondin, Andrea; Bogialli, Sara; Venzo, Alfonso; Favaro, Gabriella; Badocco, Denis; Pastore, Paolo

    2014-01-01

    The present paper reports the determination of the tri-amine N-(3-aminopropyl)-N-dodecyl-1,3-propanediamine (TA) present in a raw material called LONZABAC used to formulate various, widely used commercial biocides. The active principle, TA, is present in LONZABAC together with other molecules at lower concentration levels. Three independent analytical approaches, namely solution NMR spectroscopy, liquid chromatography coupled to high resolution mass spectrometry (LC/HRMS) and acid-base titration in mixed solvent, were used to overcome the problem of the non-availability of the active principle as high purity standard. NMR analysis of raw material, using a suitable internal standard, evidenced in all analyzed lots the presence of the active principle, the N-dodecyl-1,3-propanediamine (DA) and the n-dodecylamine (MA) and the absence of non-organic, NMR-inactive species. NMR peak integration led to a rough composition of the MA:DA:TA as 1:9:90. The LC/HRMS analysis allowed the accurate determination of DA and MA and confirmed in all samples the presence of the TA, which was estimated by difference: MA=1.4±0.3%, DA=11.1±0.7%, TA=87.5±1.3%. The obtained results were used to setup an easy, rapid and cheap acid-base titration method able to furnish a sufficiently accurate evaluation of the active principle both in the raw material and in diluted commercial products. For the raw material the results were: TA+MA=91.1±0.8% and DA-MA=8.9±0.8%, statistically coherent with LC/MS ones. The LC/MS approach demonstrated also its great potentialities to recognize trace of the biocide components both in environmental samples and in the formulated commercial products.

  15. Borocaptate sodium (BSH) toxicity issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LaHann, T.

    1995-11-01

    ISU`s Center for Toxicology Research has been conducting toxicity testing of borocaptate sodium (BSH) to aid in assessing if proposed human studies of BSH are likely to be acceptably safe. This report describes BSH interactions with other biological agents.

  16. Spectra of sodium aluminate solutions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The UV spectra of sodium aluminate solutions were obtained in the sodium oxide concentration range from 59 to 409 g/L and the caustic ratio range from 1.5 to 4.0 to reveal the structure characteristics of them. It is found that a new peak appears at about 370 nm besides peaks at about 220 and 266 nm in all solutions. The new peak is strongly favored by high hydroxide concentration and high caustic ratio. And it only appears when the solutions are prepared by dissolving sodium hydroxide and aluminum hydroxide.In addition, the IR and Raman spectra of sodium aluminate solutions with high alkali concentration and high caustic ratio were measured, and the UV spectra of aqueous solutions of Al(H2O)63+ and AlF63- were measured as well. According to the crystal field theory in coordination chemistry as well as the above spectra characteristics, this new peak at about 370 nm is determined as the evidence of a new species of aluminate ion with a coordination number of 6.

  17. Urinary Sodium and Potassium Excretion and Dietary Sources of Sodium in Maputo, Mozambique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Queiroz, Ana; Damasceno, Albertino; Jessen, Neusa; Novela, Célia; Moreira, Pedro; Lunet, Nuno; Padrão, Patrícia

    2017-08-03

    This study aimed to evaluate the urinary excretion of sodium and potassium, and to estimate the main food sources of sodium in Maputo dwellers. A cross-sectional evaluation of a sample of 100 hospital workers was conducted between October 2012 and May 2013. Sodium and potassium urinary excretion was assessed in a 24-h urine sample; creatinine excretion was used to exclude unlikely urine values. Food intake in the same period of urine collection was assessed using a 24-h dietary recall. The Food Processor Plus(®) was used to estimate sodium intake corresponding to naturally occurring sodium and sodium added to processed foods (non-discretionary sodium). Salt added during culinary preparations (discretionary sodium) was computed as the difference between urinary sodium excretion and non-discretionary sodium. The mean (standard deviation) urinary sodium excretion was 4220 (1830) mg/day, and 92% of the participants were above the World Health Organization (WHO) recommendations. Discretionary sodium contributed 60.1% of total dietary sodium intake, followed by sodium from processed foods (29.0%) and naturally occurring sodium (10.9%). The mean (standard deviation) urinary potassium excretion was 1909 (778) mg/day, and 96% of the participants were below the WHO potassium intake recommendation. The mean (standard deviation) sodium to potassium molar ratio was 4.2 (2.4). Interventions to decrease sodium and increase potassium intake are needed in Mozambique.

  18. Urinary Sodium and Potassium Excretion and Dietary Sources of Sodium in Maputo, Mozambique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Queiroz

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the urinary excretion of sodium and potassium, and to estimate the main food sources of sodium in Maputo dwellers. A cross-sectional evaluation of a sample of 100 hospital workers was conducted between October 2012 and May 2013. Sodium and potassium urinary excretion was assessed in a 24-h urine sample; creatinine excretion was used to exclude unlikely urine values. Food intake in the same period of urine collection was assessed using a 24-h dietary recall. The Food Processor Plus® was used to estimate sodium intake corresponding to naturally occurring sodium and sodium added to processed foods (non-discretionary sodium. Salt added during culinary preparations (discretionary sodium was computed as the difference between urinary sodium excretion and non-discretionary sodium. The mean (standard deviation urinary sodium excretion was 4220 (1830 mg/day, and 92% of the participants were above the World Health Organization (WHO recommendations. Discretionary sodium contributed 60.1% of total dietary sodium intake, followed by sodium from processed foods (29.0% and naturally occurring sodium (10.9%. The mean (standard deviation urinary potassium excretion was 1909 (778 mg/day, and 96% of the participants were below the WHO potassium intake recommendation. The mean (standard deviation sodium to potassium molar ratio was 4.2 (2.4. Interventions to decrease sodium and increase potassium intake are needed in Mozambique.

  19. Sodium Balance During Extra Corporeal Dialysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Locatelli Francesco

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to reduce intradialytic and interdialytic morbidity, it is important to obtain a zero sodium balance at the end of each dialysis session. This can be achieved by matching exactly the interdialytic sodium and water intake with the intradialytic sodium and water removal. A positive sodium balance can be obtained by using hypernatric dialysis or "sodium ramping" or convective techniques. While reducing the intradialytic side effects (hypotension, cramps, nausea, vomiting, these methods may increase the interdialytic side effects (thirst, weight gain, hypertension and pulmonary edema. Given the highly variable amounts of sodium introduced during the interdialytic periods, the use of sodium-conductivity kinetic models allows removing exactly the amount of sodium accumulated in the interdialytic period. This strategy may be advantageous towards cardiovascular stability in patients prone to dialysis hypotension.

  20. Solar control of sodium escape from Io

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Grava, Cesare; Schneider, Nicholas M; Leblanc, François; Morgenthaler, Jeffrey P; Mangano, Valeria; Barbieri, Cesare

    2014-01-01

    We report ground‐based spectroscopic observations of the Io sodium cloud before and after eclipse by Jupiter, in a search for possible effects of sunlight on the total atomic sodium content in Io's exosphere...

  1. 21 CFR 186.1750 - Sodium chlorite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Sodium chlorite. 186.1750 Section 186.1750 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 186.1750 Sodium chlorite. (a) Sodium chlorite (NaCLO2, CAS Reg. No. 7758-19-2... into a solution of sodium hydroxide and hydrogen peroxide. (b) the ingredient is used at levels from...

  2. 21 CFR 184.1751 - Sodium citrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Sodium citrate. 184.1751 Section 184.1751 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1751 Sodium citrate. (a) Sodium citrate (C6H5Na3O7·2H2O, CAS Reg. No. 68... may be prepared in an anhydrous state or may contain two moles of water per mole of sodium citrate....

  3. Dietary Sodium Intake in Type 2 Diabetes

    OpenAIRE

    Provenzano, Laura Ferreira; Stark, Sue; Steenkiste, Ann; Piraino, Beth; Sevick, Mary Ann

    2014-01-01

    Patients with type 2 diabetes have an increased risk for cardiovascular and chronic kidney disease. Superimposed hypertension further increases the risk and is associated with increased dietary sodium intake. There are few data available on dietary sodium intake in type 2 diabetes. The aim of this study was to quantify dietary sodium intake in a cohort of self-referred patients with type 2 diabetes and to identify sociodemographic characteristics associated with it. Sodium intake in this coho...

  4. Normal range of human dietary sodium intake

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McCarron, David A; Kazaks, Alexandra G; Geerling, Joel C

    2013-01-01

    The recommendation to restrict dietary sodium for management of hypertensive cardiovascular disease assumes that sodium intake exceeds physiologic need, that it can be significantly reduced, and that the reduction can be maintained over time. In contrast, neuroscientists have identified neural...... circuits in vertebrate animals that regulate sodium appetite within a narrow physiologic range. This study further validates our previous report that sodium intake, consistent with the neuroscience, tracks within a narrow range, consistent over time and across cultures....

  5. 21 CFR 582.3731 - Sodium ascorbate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sodium ascorbate. 582.3731 Section 582.3731 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL....3731 Sodium ascorbate. (a) Product. Sodium ascorbate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance...

  6. 21 CFR 182.3731 - Sodium ascorbate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Sodium ascorbate. 182.3731 Section 182.3731 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR... Sodium ascorbate. (a) Product. Sodium ascorbate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  7. 21 CFR 182.1778 - Sodium phosphate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Sodium phosphate. 182.1778 Section 182.1778 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR... Substances § 182.1778 Sodium phosphate. (a) Product. Sodium phosphate (mono-, di-, and tribasic)....

  8. 21 CFR 582.6778 - Sodium phosphate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sodium phosphate. 582.6778 Section 582.6778 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Sodium phosphate. (a) Product. Sodium phosphate (mono-, di-, and tribasic). (b) Conditions of use....

  9. 21 CFR 582.1778 - Sodium phosphate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sodium phosphate. 582.1778 Section 582.1778 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1778 Sodium phosphate. (a) Product. Sodium phosphate (mono-, di-, and tribasic)....

  10. 21 CFR 582.5778 - Sodium phosphate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sodium phosphate. 582.5778 Section 582.5778 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Supplements 1 § 582.5778 Sodium phosphate. (a) Product. Sodium phosphate (mono-, di-, and tribasic)....

  11. 21 CFR 178.3900 - Sodium pentachlorophenate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Sodium pentachlorophenate. 178.3900 Section 178... SANITIZERS Certain Adjuvants and Production Aids § 178.3900 Sodium pentachlorophenate. Sodium pentachlorophenate may be safely used as a preservative for ammonium alginate employed as a processing aid in the...

  12. 21 CFR 522.1145 - Hyaluronate sodium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Hyaluronate sodium. 522.1145 Section 522.1145 Food... Hyaluronate sodium. (a)(1) Specifications. Each milliliter of sterile aqueous solution contains 10 milligrams of hyaluronate sodium. (2) Sponsor. See 000009 in § 510.600(c). (3) Conditions of use—(i)...

  13. 21 CFR 526.365 - Cephapirin sodium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Cephapirin sodium. 526.365 Section 526.365 Food... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS INTRAMAMMARY DOSAGE FORMS § 526.365 Cephapirin sodium. (a) Specifications. Each 10-milliliter dose contains 200 milligrams of cephapirin sodium activity in a peanut-oil...

  14. Mixed Solvent Reactive Recrystallization of Sodium Carbonate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gaertner, R.S.

    2005-01-01

    Investigation of the reactive recrystallization of trona (sodium sesquicarbonate) and sodium bicarbonate to sodium carbonate (soda) in a mixed solvent led to the design of several alternative, less energy consumptive, economically very attractive process routes for the production of soda from all pr

  15. 21 CFR 558.60 - Arsanilate sodium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Arsanilate sodium. 558.60 Section 558.60 Food and... in Animal Feeds § 558.60 Arsanilate sodium. (a) Appprovals. Type A medicated articles: 20, 50, or 100...) Arsanilate sodium may be used in accordance with the provisions of this section in the combinations...

  16. 21 CFR 556.620 - Sulfabromomethazine sodium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sulfabromomethazine sodium. 556.620 Section 556... Tolerances for Residues of New Animal Drugs § 556.620 Sulfabromomethazine sodium. Tolerances for residues of sulfabromomethazine sodium in food are established as follows: (a) In the uncooked edible tissues of cattle at...

  17. Polymorphism of Metallic Sodium under Nanoconfinement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uskov, A V; Nefedov, D Yu; Charnaya, E V; Haase, J; Michel, D; Kumzerov, Yu A; Fokin, A V; Bugaev, A S

    2016-01-13

    (23)Na NMR studies of sodium nanoparticles confined to porous glass with the 3.5 nm mean pore size were carried out. The emergence of the second component of the NMR line was observed below 240 K that evidences the occurrence of another modification of metallic sodium. The phase transition temperature is much higher than the martensite transformation temperature in bulk sodium.

  18. 21 CFR 582.6751 - Sodium citrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sodium citrate. 582.6751 Section 582.6751 Food and..., FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Sequestrants 2 § 582.6751 Sodium citrate. (a) Product. Sodium citrate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally recognized...

  19. 21 CFR 582.1751 - Sodium citrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sodium citrate. 582.1751 Section 582.1751 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS....1751 Sodium citrate. (a) Product. Sodium citrate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  20. Sodium: How to Tame Your Salt Habit

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... sodium than are luncheon meat, bacon, hot dogs, sausage and ham. Buy fresh or frozen poultry or ... ducing-Sodium-in-a-Salty-World_UCM_457519_Article.jsp#.VuD81cfAju8. Accessed March 10, 2016. Sodium: Tips ...

  1. The influence of moderate reduction in dietary sodium on human salivary sodium concentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, C M; Bertino, M; Beauchamp, G K; Navazesh, M; Engelman, K

    1986-01-01

    Twenty-four healthy subjects were placed for 12-13 weeks on diets that reduced average sodium intake from 145 to 74 m-equiv. Na+/day as determined by multiple 24-h urine collections before and during the diet. Whole-mouth resting and stimulated saliva was collected and analysed for flow rate and sodium concentration several times before and during the low-sodium period. Sodium restriction did not influence salivary flow rates but salivary sodium levels fell 25 per cent for resting and 17 per cent for stimulated saliva. Thus moderate reductions in sodium intake are accompanied by significantly lower salivary sodium levels.

  2. CDC Vital Signs: Reducing Sodium in Children's Diets

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... foods sold and served in schools that will reduce sodium up to 50% by 2022. Reducing sodium intake ... have already made efforts to reduce added sodium. Replace sodium with alternatives like spices, herbs, and vegetables. Shop ...

  3. Sodium intake and dietary sources of sodium in undergraduate students from Novi Sad, Serbia

    OpenAIRE

    Jovičić-Bata Jelena; Grujičić Maja; Rađen Slavica; Novaković Budimka

    2016-01-01

    Background/Aim. Data on sodium intake and sources of sodium in the diet in Serbia are limited. The aim of this study was to estimate the sodium intake and identify the sources of sodium in the diet of undergraduate students attending the University of Novi Sad. Methods. Students completed a questionnaire to gather data on their gender, age and university faculty attended, and then a 24 h dietary recall. The sodium intake of the students was calculated using...

  4. Stability of Ranitidine Hydrochloride with Cefazolin Sodium, Cefbuperazone Sodium, Cefoxitin Sodium and Cephalothin Sodium during Simulated Y-Site Administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inagaki, K; Miyamoto, Y; Kurata, N; Nakane, S; Gill, M A; Nishida, M

    2000-01-01

    The compatibility and stability of ranitidine hydrochloride when comixed with four cephalosporins (cefazolin sodium, cefoxitin sodium, cephalothin sodium and cefbuperazone sodium) during simulated Y-site injection were studied. The mixtures were prepared by mixing equal volumes (2 mL) of ranitidine hydrochloride (1mg/mL) and each tested cephalosporin (20 mg/mL) in a 10 mL glass test tube. All study mixtures were prepared in triplicate and stored at room temperature under normal fluorescent room lighting. The physical appearaance and pH of each mixture were recorded; the chemical stability of each drug was immediatedly determined by stability-indicating high-performance liquid chromatography from samples stored for up to four hours after mixing. Stability was defined as the retention of more than 90% of the initial concentration of each drug. Visual inspection revealed no color or clarity change and the pH changes were less than 0.2 pH units in the tested mixtures for cefazolin and cefoxitin: however, there were significant pH changes for cefbuperazone and cephalothin after four hours of storage. Ranitidine retained greater than 90% of its original concentration within the tested period in the mixture with 20 mg/mL of each tested cephalosporin, except for cephalothin (86.6% of control). In the presence of 10 mg/mL cephalothin, however, ranitidine retained greater than 90% for four hours. Meanwhile, all four cephalosporins retained greater than 90% of their original concentrations for up to four hours in the mixture with ranitidine. From the results obtained, it is clear that ranitidine solution may be coadministered with a solution of either cefazolin, cefoxitin or cefbuperazone during Y-site administration for up to four hours after mxining. On the other hand, since ranitidine with cephalothin (20 mg/mL) fell below 90%, the amount of cephalothin should not exceed 10 mg/mL when coadminstered with ranitidine solution.

  5. Sodium cromoglycate in nocturnal asthma.

    OpenAIRE

    1986-01-01

    To investigate whether mast cell degranulation was important in producing nocturnal asthma, the effect of a single high dose of nebulised sodium cromoglycate on overnight bronchoconstriction, oxygen saturation, and breathing patterns in eight patients with nocturnal wheeze was examined. The study took the form of a double blind placebo controlled crossover comparison. Treatment with cromoglycate did not reduce the overnight fall in FEV1 or FVC, although it was associated with improved nocturn...

  6. Enhancement of Aminoacylase Activity by Sodium Citrate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于范利; 曹志方; 李森; 周海梦

    2001-01-01

    Kidney and other tissues of animals and humans have a high concentration of citrate which is an important intermediate substance in the citrate cycle. Citrate may play an important physiological role in metabolism. In this paper, we studied the interaction of the sodium salt of citrate with aminoacylase which is an important enzyme in metabolism and found sodium citrate can enhance the activity of aminoacylase. The maximum enzyme activity induced by sodium citrate increased approximately 3 folds over the enzyme activity without sodium citrate. The initial reaction rates (Ⅴ) for different concentrations of sodium citrate were obtained, showing that sodium citrate is a non-competitive activator. The result of the ANS binding fluorescence measurements for aminoacylase indicated that increasing sodium citrate concentrations markedly increased the ANS binding fluorescence with a blue shift of the emission spectra peak. This suggests the formation of more hydrophobic regions. Aggregates formed quickly when aminoacylase was incubated with sodium citrate (0.3 mol/L) and guanidinium chloride (0- 3. 5 mol/L). Aminoacylase lost enzyme activity in the guanidinium chloride more quickly in the presence of sodium citrate than in the absence of sodium citrate. The intrinsic fluorescence emission intensity decreased more quickly and the red shift of the emission spectra peak was larger than that without sodium citrate.

  7. [Sodium determination in biological fluids].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cristol, J-P; Balint, B; Canaud, B; Daurés, M-F

    2007-09-01

    Electrolyte disorders are frequently observed in nephrology and intensive care unit department and Na determination is routinely performed in biochemistry laboratories. Three methods are currently available. Flame photometry remains the reference method. With this method the serum sample is diluted before the actual measurement is obtained. Results are expressed as molarity (per Liter of plasma). Potentiometric methods have an increasing importance due to the advances in ion sensitive (selective) electrodes (ISE). Whereas the instruments for routine chemical analysis typically use indirect potentiometry (involving te dilution of samples) to measure sodium levels, the equipment for measuring arterial blood gases use direct potentiometry without any dilution. Thus, results obtained with indirect potentiometry are expressed in molarity (per liter of plasma) while results obtained with direct potentiometry are initially given in morality (per kg of plasma water) then converted in molarity. Analytical performances are in all cases satisfactory and therefore all the methods could be used in both normal and pathological ranges. Methods involving sample dilution such as flame photometry or indirect potentiometry, the serum sodium value would be expected to be low in case of decrease plasma water (pseudohyponatremia). By contrast, with direct potentiometry where no sample dilution takes place, no interference would be expected since the activity of sodium in the water phase only is being measured. Thus, the classical pseudohyponatremia observed with hyperlipemia or paraproteinemia are not further observed with direct potentiometry. These differences in methodology should be taken into account to explain discrepancies between results obtained with classical biochemistry analyser and with blood gas apparatus.

  8. Resonance Scattering Spectral Assay of Papain Enzymatic Activity with Sodium Dodecyl Benzene Sulfonate%十二烷基苯磺酸钠共振散射光谱法测定木瓜蛋白酶活力

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄国霞; 蒋治良; 梁爱惠; 邓业成

    2007-01-01

    在pH值6.5的磷酸盐缓冲溶液中,十二烷基苯磺酸钠(SDBS)与酪蛋白(Casein)形成缔合物微粒,在470,360,400,420和520 nm产生5个瑞利散射峰.在选定条件下,木瓜蛋白酶(Papain)可水解酪蛋白(Casein),加SDBS可中止酶催化反应并与未反应的酪蛋白底物结合形成缔合物微粒.随着Papain浓度的增大,470 nm处的共振散射峰强度降低.Papain的酶活力在0.048~4.8 USP·mL-1范围内与△I470nm呈现良好的线性关系.其线性回归方程为△ISDBS=1.972c+2.31,相关系数分别为r=0.999 9,检测限为0.020USP·mL-1.该法用于嫩肉粉中木瓜蛋白酶活力测定,结果令人满意.

  9. 成人牙周炎患者全唾液蛋白质凝胶电泳分析%Sodium Dodecyle Sulphate Polyacrylamide Gel Electrophoresis of Whole Salivary Proteins from Patients with Adult Periodontitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐晓琳; 潘亚萍; 王兆元

    2003-01-01

    目的筛选与成人牙周炎(AP)相关的唾液蛋白因子.方法分为AP组和正常对照(NC组)两组,每组25例,收集非刺激性全唾液,采用十二烷基磺酸钠聚丙烯酰胺凝胶电泳(SDS-PAGE)法分离唾液蛋白并分析其成分.AP组牙周基础治疗后2周、4周重复采样与分析.结果 AP组治疗前唾液中66 kD、18 kD、15 kD、13 kD蛋白条带容量值,51 kD、34 kD、19 kD、17 kD蛋白条带出现率都显著高于NC组;牙周基础治疗后以上各变量都显著下降.结论 18 kD、15 kD、13 kD与AP的发生与转归有关;牙周炎症状态下唾液中血清性蛋白增加.

  10. 十二烷基苯磺酸钠存在下替米沙坦的电化学分析%Electroanalysis of telmisartan in the presence of sodium dodecyl sulfonate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李耀华

    2009-01-01

    目的:建立灵敏、简便、快速测定替米沙坦的微分脉冲伏安法.方法:循环伏安法(CV)和微分脉冲伏安法(DPV).结果:在7.5×10-5mol·L-1十二烷基苯磺酸钠(SDBS)溶液存在下,0.1mol·L-1HClO4溶液中,替米沙坦在乙炔黑碳糊电极上于1.42 V(vs.SCE)处产生一灵敏的氧化峰,氧化峰电流与替米沙坦的浓度在2.5×10-7~2.0×10-5mol·L-1之间有良好的线性关系.结论:方法可用于药品样品中替米沙坦的测定.

  11. Protein extraction from Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis: Comparison of methods for analysis by sodium dodecyl sulphate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, native PAGE and surface enhanced laser desorption/ionization time of flight mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gumber, Sanjeev; Taylor, Deborah L; Whittington, Richard J

    2007-01-01

    Mycobacterium paratuberculosis causes Johne's disease, a chronic bowel disease in ruminants worldwide and is currently incurable. This study was conducted to compare methods for examining the proteome of M. paratuberculosis. SDS-PAGE, native PAGE and SELDI-TOF-MS were compared and the efficacy of various lysis buffers was assessed. Chaotropic agents (Urea CHAPS and potassium thiocyanate) and non-ionic detergent (Tween20 and Triton X-100) extracts were compared on three different ProteinChip surfaces along with two energy absorbing molecules (EAM): EAM-1 proprietary formulation and sinapinic acid (Ciphergen). Urea CHAPS was efficient for extraction of proteins and their detection on all the ProteinChip surfaces. However, potassium thiocyanate was the most effective buffer, leading to detection of the greatest number of protein peaks on the immobilized metal affinity chromatography (IMAC) surface. Sinapinic acid was more efficient than the EAM-1 proprietary formulation and resulted in additional peaks with higher intensity for both the low and the medium molecular weight range proteins. Intra-chip and inter-chip coefficient of variation for mass/charge varied from 0.01% to 0.07% and 0.00% to 0.08%, respectively. SELDI-TOF-MS was an efficient tool for the protein profiling of M. paratuberculosis and will be useful for investigation of novel proteins, although SDS-PAGE/2D gel electrophoresis is recommended for study of high molecular weight species. All buffers were suitable for protein extraction for SDS-PAGE, while Tween20 was best for native PAGE.

  12. 十二烷基聚氧乙烯聚氧丙烯醚(LSmn)序列混合体系的分子交换能及协同效应%Molecule-Exchanging Energy and Synergistic Effect in Binary Mixed System of Linear Dodecyl Polyoxyethylene Polyoxypropylene Ether(LSmn)in Aqueous Solution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪明贵; 王宇曦; 唐亚芳; 王正武

    2013-01-01

      目的评价十二烷基聚氧乙烯聚氧丙烯醚(LSmn)系列表面活性剂与不同类型表面活性剂复配的协同效应。方法测定LS36、LS45、LS54分别与离子型表面活性剂十六烷基三甲基溴化铵(CTAB)、十二烷基磺酸钠(AS)、双-2-乙基己基琥珀酸磺酸钠(AOT)及全氟辛酸钠(OBS)复配的表面张力~浓度对数关系(γ~log c)曲线,计算它们在溶液表面吸附层及胶束中的组成、分子相互作用参数及分子交换能。通过交换能,判断产生的协同效应效果。结果与结论所有混合体系的分子交换能均为负值,与纯组分的表面活性比较,复配后不论是形成胶束的能力,还是降低表面张力的效率和能力均出现显著的协同效应。%Objective To evaluate the synergisms of systems between LSmn surfactants and other types of surfactants. Methods Curves of surface tension vs. the total concentration of the binary system of nonionic surfactants-linear dodecyl polyoxyethylene polyoxypropylene ether C12H25(EO)m(PO)nH, which is also written as LSmn, with different structural ionic surfactants have been measured at 25℃. The series of LSmn are LS36, LS45 and LS54, and the ionic surfactants are cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB), sodium dodecylesulfonate (AS), sodium of double-2-ethyl hexyl ethylene dicarboxylic acid sulfonic acid (AOT) and sodium perfluorocarylate (OBS). The composition, the parameters of molecule interaction and the molecule-exchanging energies both in the surface phase and in the micelle phase have been obtained from the curves. Results The molecule-exchanging energies are negative. Conclusion All the synergisms in mixed micelle formation and in surface tension reduction efficiency as well as effectiveness remarkably appear in all the studied mixtures.

  13. Compared With Usual Sodium Intake, Low- and Excessive-Sodium Diets Are Associated With Increased Mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Graudal, Niels; Jürgens, Gesche; Baslund, Bo

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The effect of sodium intake on population health remains controversial. The objective was to investigate the incidence of all-cause mortality (ACM) and cardiovascular disease events (CVDEs) in populations exposed to dietary intakes of low sodium (sodium (low usual...... sodium: 115-165 mmol; high usual sodium: 166-215 mmol), and high sodium (>215 mmol). METHODS: The relationship between individual measures of dietary sodium intake vs. outcome in cohort studies and randomized controlled trials (RCTs) measured as hazard ratios (HRs) were integrated in meta......-analyses. RESULTS: No RCTs in healthy population samples were identified. Data from 23 cohort studies and 2 follow-up studies of RCTs (n = 274,683) showed that the risks of ACM and CVDEs were decreased in usual sodium vs. low sodium intake (ACM: HR = 0.91, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.82-0.99; CVDEs: HR = 0...

  14. Analysis of the solution structure of Thermosynechococcus elongatus photosystem I in n-dodecyl-β-d-maltoside using small-angle neutron scattering and molecular dynamics simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Le, Rosemary K. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Harris, Bradley J. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Iwuchukwu, Ifeyinwa J. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Bruce, Barry D. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Cheng, Xiaolin [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Qian, Shuo [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Heller, William T. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); O’Neill, Hugh [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Frymier, Paul D. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States)

    2014-05-01

    Small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) and molecular dynamics (MD) simulation were used to investigate the structure of trimeric photosystem I (PSI) from Thermosynechococcus elongatus (T. elongatus) stabilized in n-dodecyl-β-d-maltoside (DDM) detergent solution. Scattering curves of detergent and protein–detergent complexes were measured at 18% D2O, the contrast match point for the detergent, and 100% D2O, allowing observation of the structures of protein/detergent complexes. It was determined that the maximum dimension of the PSI–DDM complex was consistent with the presence of a monolayer belt of detergent around the periphery of PSI. A dummy-atom reconstruction of the shape of the complex from the SANS data indicates that the detergent envelope has an irregular shape around the hydrophobic periphery of the PSI trimer rather than a uniform, toroidal belt around the complex. A 50 ns MD simulation model (a DDM ring surrounding the PSI complex with extra interstitial DDM) of the PSI–DDM complex was developed for comparison with the SANS data. The results suggest that DDM undergoes additional structuring around the membrane-spanning surface of the complex instead of a simple, relatively uniform belt, as is generally assumed for studies that use detergents to solubilize membrane proteins.

  15. Synthesis and biological evaluation of new creatine fatty esters revealed dodecyl creatine ester as a promising drug candidate for the treatment of the creatine transporter deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trotier-Faurion, Alexandra; Dézard, Sophie; Taran, Frédéric; Valayannopoulos, Vassili; de Lonlay, Pascale; Mabondzo, Aloïse

    2013-06-27

    The creatine transporter deficiency is a neurological disease caused by impairment of the creatine transporter SLC6A8, resulting in mental retardation associated with a complete absence of creatine within the brain and cellular energy perturbation of neuronal cells. One of the therapeutic hypotheses was to administer lipophilic creatine derivatives which are (1) thought to have better permeability through the cell membrane and (2) would not rely on the activity of SLC6A8 to penetrate the brain. Here, we synthesized creatine fatty esters through original organic chemistry process. A screening on an in vitro rat primary cell-based blood-brain barrier model and on a rat primary neuronal cells model demonstrated interesting properties of these prodrugs to incorporate into endothelial, astroglial, and neuronal cells according to a structure-activity relationship. Dodecyl creatine ester showed then a 20-fold increase in creatine content in pathological human fibroblasts compared with the endogenous creatine content, stating that it could be a promising drug candidate.

  16. Inhibition of cytotoxicity by the Nhe cytotoxin of Bacillus cereus through the interaction of dodecyl maltoside with the NheB component.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phung, Danh; Granum, Per Einar; Dietrich, Richard; Märtlbauer, Erwin; Hardy, Simon P

    2012-05-01

    Nhe ('nonhaemolytic enterotoxin') is a three-component cytotoxin implicated in the pathogenesis of diarrhoea by Bacillus cereus. Nhe forms pores in pure lipid bilayers, but the function of the individual components (NheA, NheB and NheC) remains unclear. NheB and NheC are structural homologues of ClyA, a pore-forming cytotoxin of Escherichia coli. The non-ionic detergent dodecyl maltoside (DDM) has been shown to inhibit haemolysis of ClyA. We used DDM as a probe to examine the response of the Nhe proteins to DDM micelles. At its critical micellar concentration (0.2 mM), DDM inhibited propidium uptake by the native Nhe complex in Vero and HT29 cell suspensions. Pre-incubation of NheC with DDM did not inhibit cytotoxicity. NheB exhibited marked changes in 1-anilinonaphthalene-8-sulphonic acid (ANS) fluorescence after pre-exposure to DDM. Pre-incubation of NheB with DDM resulted in large molecular weight complexes as detected by size exclusion chromatography and diffusion through sized dialysis membranes and prevented binding of NheB to Vero cell monolayers. These data support a model in which conformational changes and oligomerization of NheB are prerequisite events in the process of pore formation.

  17. Effects of sodium cromoglycate and nedocromil sodium on histamine secretion from human lung mast cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, K B; Flint, K C; Brostoff, J; Hudspith, B N; Johnson, N M; Lau, H Y; Liu, W L; Pearce, F L

    1988-01-01

    Sodium cromoglycate and nedocromil sodium produced a dose dependent inhibition of histamine secretion from human pulmonary mast cells obtained by bronchoalveolar lavage and by enzymatic dissociation of lung parenchyma. Both compounds were significantly more active against the lavage cells than against the dispersed lung cells, and nedocromil sodium was an order of magnitude more effective than sodium cromoglycate against both cell types. Tachyphylaxis was observed with the parenchymal cells but not with the lavage cells. Nedocromil sodium and sodium cromoglycate also inhibited histamine release from the lavage cells of patients with sarcoidosis and extrinsic asthma. PMID:2462755

  18. Organic electrolytes for sodium batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vestergaard, B.

    1992-09-01

    A summary of earlier given status reports in connection with the project on organic electrolytes for sodium batteries is presented. The aim of the investigations was to develop new room temperature molten salts electrolytes mainly with radical substituted heterocyclic organic chlorides mixed with aluminum chloride. The new electrolytes should have an ionic conductivity comparable with MEIC1:AlCl3 or better. A computer model program MOPAC (Molecular Orbital Package) was to be included to calculate theoretically reduction potentials for a variety of organic cations. Furthermore, MOPAC could be utilized to predict the electron densities, and then give a prediction of the stability of the organic cation.

  19. Sodium cacodylate as antimitotic agent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jadwiga A. Tarkowska

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of pure sodium cacodylate on dividing cells was studied. The root meristematic cells of Allium cepa L. (the roots were squashed in acetoorcein and endosperm cells of Haemanthus katherinae Bak. (in vitro observations were used. Serious disturbances in karyokinesis and cytokinesis were found that led most often to the formation of polyploid or multinucleate (A. cepa cells. These results point to damage of the mitotic spindle and phragmoplast. Careful use of cacodylate buffer in ultrastructural studies of microtubules is advised.

  20. Sodium cromoglycate in nocturnal asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, A D; Connaughton, J J; Catterall, J R; Shapiro, C M; Douglas, N J; Flenley, D C

    1986-01-01

    To investigate whether mast cell degranulation was important in producing nocturnal asthma, the effect of a single high dose of nebulised sodium cromoglycate on overnight bronchoconstriction, oxygen saturation, and breathing patterns in eight patients with nocturnal wheeze was examined. The study took the form of a double blind placebo controlled crossover comparison. Treatment with cromoglycate did not reduce the overnight fall in FEV1 or FVC, although it was associated with improved nocturnal oxygenation. This study suggests that mast cell degranulation may not be important in the pathogenesis of nocturnal asthma. PMID:3085257

  1. Sodium intake and dietary sources of sodium in undergraduate students from Novi Sad, Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovičić-Bata Jelena

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Data on sodium intake and sources of sodium in the diet in Serbia are limited. The aim of this study was to estimate the sodium intake and identify the sources of sodium in the diet of undergraduate students attending the University of Novi Sad. Methods. Students completed a questionnaire to gather data on their gender, age and university faculty attended, and then a 24 h dietary recall. The sodium intake of the students was calculated using the dietary recall data and data on the sodium content of foods. The contribution of different food groups as well as of specific foodstuffs to the total sodium intake was calculated. Results. The mean estimated sodium intake of the students was 3,938.5 ± 1,708.1 mg/day. The sodium intake of 89.1% of the surveyed students exceeded the guideline for sodium intake, the majority of the sodium coming from processed foods (78.9% of the total sodium intake. The food groups that contributed the most to the total sodium intake of the students were meat and meat products (21.7% and cereals and cereal-based products (18.6%. Bread and other bakery products were responsible for 13.1% of the total sodium intake. Conclusion. High sodium intake in students of the University of Novi Sad puts them at high risk of developing high blood pressure. The food industry should work towards reformulating products with high sodium content, especially bread and other bakery products. Efforts should be taken to reduce sodium intake among undergraduate students in Novi Sad.

  2. Parametric Effect of Sodium Hydroxide and Sodium Carbonate on the Potency of a Degreaser

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babatope Abimbola Olufemi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE Experimental and statistical analysis was carried out on the comparative effect of sodium hydroxide and sodium carbonate on the potency of a laboratory produced degreaser in this work. The materials used include; octadecyl benzene sulphonic acid, sodium hydroxide, sodium carbonate, sodium metasilicate, carboxyl methyl cellulose (C.M.C, formadelhyde, perfume, colourant and distilled water. Different samples of degreaser were produced with varying composition of sodium hydroxide and sodium carbonate respectively. Statistical significance through methods like analysis of variance (ANOVA of some parameters on various concentrations of sodium hydroxide and sodium carbonate was investigated. The effect of the varying compositions of sodium hydroxide and sodium carbonate was also determined by using a gray scale (GS test, and also subjecting surfaces heavily stained with crude oil to determine and characterize the cleansing action of the degreaser. It was found that as the concentration of sodium hydroxide increases, the cleansing ability also increases, whereas the increase in concentration of sodium carbonate had no effect on the cleansing ability. The work would enable production of effective, useful and property controlled degreasers at moderate cost.

  3. Reduced Dietary Sodium Intake Increases Heart Rate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Graudal, Niels A; Hubeck-Graudal, Thorbjørn; Jürgens, Gesche

    2016-01-01

    Reduced dietary sodium intake (sodium reduction) increases heart rate in some studies of animals and humans. As heart rate is independently associated with the development of heart failure and increased risk of premature death a potential increase in heart rate could be a harmful side......-effect of sodium reduction. The purpose of the present meta-analysis was to investigate the effect of sodium reduction on heart rate. Relevant studies were retrieved from an updated pool of 176 randomized controlled trials (RCTs) published in the period 1973-2014. Sixty-three of the RCTs including 72 study...... populations reported data on heart rate. In a meta-analysis of these data sodium reduction increased heart rate with 1.65 beats per minute [95% CI: 1.19, 2.11], p sodium reduction...

  4. 1, 5-BIS [(4-DITHIOCARBOXYLATE-1-DODECYL-5-HYDROXY-3-METHYLPYRAZOLYL] PENTANE AS COPPER CORROSION INHIBITOR IN 0.1 M SULPHURIC ACID 1, 5-Bis [(4-Dithiocarboxylat-1-dodecyl-5-Hydroxy-3-METHYL PYRAZOLYL] Pentan als Kupferkorrosionsinhibitor in 0,1 M SCHWEFELSÄURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa Vera, Alfonso Oliva and Aurora Molinari

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The ability of tetradentate ligand 1,5-bis[(4-dithiocarboxylate-1-dodecyl-5-hydroxy-3- methylpyrazolyl]pentane (H2BDTCPP as organic surface coating to inhibit the copper corrosion in 0.1 M H2SO4 have been studied. The inhibitory properties were studied by immersion assays and the results show that H2BDTCPP behaves as a mixed inhibitor in 0.1 M H2SO4 aqueous solution, with an inhibition efficiency of 62.1 %, increasing the corrosion potential and decreasing the corrosion current of copper when it is coated over the metal surface. These properties can be attributed to the planar aromatic structure of the pyrazolyldithiocarboxylate group and to the high π/lone-pair electron density due to nitrogen, oxygen and sulphur which favour its physical and chemical adsorption.

  5. Neurotransmitter: Sodium Symporters: Caught in the Act!

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malinauskaite, Lina

    The neurotransmitter: sodium symporters in the neurons. Communication between neurons is mediated by the release of molecules called neurotransmitters (blue dots) from first neuron and sensed by receptors on the surface of the second (purple sphere). The signal is ended by active reuptake...... of these neurotransmitters by a family of proteins called neurotransmitter: sodium symporters (NSS), which are driven using the large concentration difference of sodium (orange dots) between the outside and the inside of the cell...

  6. Diffusion coefficients in viscous sodium alginate solutions

    OpenAIRE

    Aoki, K.; Wang, B; Chen, J.; Nishiumi, T.

    2012-01-01

    Sodium alginate solution, being viscous hydrocolloid, was examined voltammetricallyin the context of viscous effects by use of a ferrocenyl compound as a redox probe.Voltammograms were almost independent of concentrations of sodium alginate even ina solid-like state. Diffusion coefficients of the ferrocenyl compound did not vary withviscosity evaluated by a viscometer. Ionic conductivity of sodium alginate was alsoindependent of the viscosity. In contrast, diffusion coefficients of the latex ...

  7. Neuronal Sodium Channels in Neurodegeneration and Neuroprotection

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-06-01

    NIL) of the Univ Michigan. Ann Arbor Mr, USA. rat pituitary gland exhibit a 40-50% decrease in sodium current density from postnatal day 3 (P3) to...that deleted all residues beyond the tyr (gIL182STOP). Ankyrin rec of channel production may underlie the suppression of sodium current density. To...subunits con- 11 critical is for ankyrin association. Homophilic cell adhesion through 81 subunits m tributes to the suppression of melanotrope sodium

  8. Sodium cleaning from sodium contaminated components and operation for experimental equipment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, B. H.; Kim, J. M.; Kim, T. J.; Nam, H. Y.; Jeong, J. Y.; Choi, B. H.; Choi, J. H

    2007-11-15

    An objective of washing technology development for sodium contaminated equipment is to clean and reuse safely and effectively the used equipment through a washing and maintenance, and recovery of the sodium wastes generated during washing.

  9. Electrolytic process to produce sodium hypochlorite using sodium ion conductive ceramic membranes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balagopal, Shekar; Malhotra, Vinod; Pendleton, Justin; Reid, Kathy Jo

    2012-09-18

    An electrochemical process for the production of sodium hypochlorite is disclosed. The process may potentially be used to produce sodium hypochlorite from seawater or low purity un-softened or NaCl-based salt solutions. The process utilizes a sodium ion conductive ceramic membrane, such as membranes based on NASICON-type materials, in an electrolytic cell. In the process, water is reduced at a cathode to form hydroxyl ions and hydrogen gas. Chloride ions from a sodium chloride solution are oxidized in the anolyte compartment to produce chlorine gas which reacts with water to produce hypochlorous and hydrochloric acid. Sodium ions are transported from the anolyte compartment to the catholyte compartment across the sodium ion conductive ceramic membrane. Sodium hydroxide is transported from the catholyte compartment to the anolyte compartment to produce sodium hypochlorite within the anolyte compartment.

  10. Mechanical properties of cement mortar in sodium sulfate and sodium chloride solutions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    熊良宵; 虞利军

    2015-01-01

    To investigate the mechanical properties of cement mortar in sodium sulfate and sodium chloride solutions, uniaxial compression test and ultrasonic test were performed. Test results show that the relative dynamic elastic modulus, the mass variation, and the compressive strength of cement mortar increase first, and then decrease with increasing erosion time in sodium sulfate and sodium chloride solutions. The relative dynamic elastic moduli and the compressive strengths of cement mortars with water/cement ratios of 0.55 and 0.65 in sodium sulfate solution are lower than those in sodium chloride solution with the same concentration at the 420th day of immersion. The compressive strength of cement mortar with water/cement ratio of 0.65 is more sensitive to strain rate than that with water/cement ratio of 0.55. In addition, the strain-rate sensitivity of compressive strength of cement mortar will increase under attacks of sodium sulfate or sodium chloride solution.

  11. Development of dismantling and sodium removal technique for large sodium components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirakawa, Yasushi; Nakai, Satoru [Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Inst., Oarai, Ibaraki (Japan). Oarai Engineering Center

    2002-06-01

    Large sodium test facilities that had been constructed to perform R and D for Monju were dismantled after the removal of sodium. Because experience of such tasks in limited, for the establishment of the technology, information on past experiences, R and D results, the results of small-scale sodium removal experiments and related information were gathered worldwide. Different sodium removal processes such as the alcohol process, water vapor nitrogen process, aestivation process etc. were selected based on the component structure and were applied to various components such as the steam generator, cold trap, intermediate heat exchanger etc. As a result, sodium removal and dismantling of these facilities were conducted successfully without sodium fires, injuries caused by sodium and with little burden to the environment. Furthermore, problems to be solved when applying these processes to the radioactive sodium components were identified and an R and D plan was drawn up. (author)

  12. Purification of the tetrodotoxin-binding component associated with the voltage-sensitive sodium channel from Electrophorus electricus electroplax membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agnew, W S; Levinson, S R; Brabson, J S; Raftery, M A

    1978-01-01

    The tetrodotoxin-binding component associated with the voltage-sensitive sodium channel from electroplax membranes of Electrophorus electricus has been purified. The toxin-binding site could be efficiently solubilized with Lubrol-PX, resulting in an extract of high initial specific activity. Purification was facilitated by the development of a rapid, quantitative binding assay. The binding component was stabilized during purification by the use of mixed lipid/detergent micelles of defined composition, and by the saturation of the site with tetrodotoxin. The purification was achieved by means of a highly selective adsorption of the toxin-binding component to DEASE-Sephadex A-25, followed by desorption at high ionic strength and chromatography over Sepharose 6B. Final peak specific activities were at least 50% of the specific activity expected for a pure, undenatured toxin-binding componenet of 230,000 molecular weight. The purified material exhibited a sedimentation coefficient of approximately 8 S and an unusual Stokes radius of 95 A. Purified material showed a relatively simple pattern on sodium dodecyl sulfate/polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, being comprised of only three polypeptides. PMID:275831

  13. EVALUATION OF THE URINARY SODIUM EXCRETION IN PATIENTS WITH LOW SODIUM DIET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Emanuela

    2012-06-01

    We conclude that sodium intake in this population at risk is excessive. There was good correlation between the intake of sodium and excretion. Future studies should examine the impact of nutritional interventions aimed at reducing sodium intake in this group of patients.

  14. 77 FR 71006 - Sodium Nitrite Injection and Sodium Thiosulfate Injection Drug Products Labeled for the Treatment...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-28

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration [Docket No. FDA-2012-N-1134 Sodium Nitrite Injection and Sodium Thiosulfate Injection Drug Products Labeled for the Treatment of Cyanide Poisoning; Enforcement... products containing sodium nitrite labeled for the treatment of cyanide poisoning and unapproved...

  15. Thiol-reactive drug substrates of human P-glycoprotein label the same sites to activate ATPase activity in membranes or dodecyl maltoside detergent micelles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loo, Tip W; Clarke, David M

    2017-07-08

    P-glycoprotein (P-gp, ABCB1) is an ABC drug pump that is clinically important because it is involved in multidrug resistance. Many studies have used purified P-gp in detergent (n-dodecyl-β-D-maltoside; DM) micelles to map the locations of the drug-binding sites. A potential problem is that DM could be a substrate and affect binding of drugs to P-gp. To test whether DM was a substrate of P-gp, we used an assay involving drug-rescue of the immature 150 kDa misprocessed P-gp mutant (L1260A) to show that DM is not substrate. By contrast, the detergents Triton X-100 or NP-35 were substrates because they rescued the L1260A P-gp mutant such that the major product was the mature 170 kDa protein. Cross-linking of mutant A80C/R741C in membranes can only be inhibited by the P-gp substrate tariquidar. We show that cross-linking A80C/R741C mutant was also inhibited by tariquidar in the presence of excess DM. This result suggests that the presence of DM did not affect the tariquidar-binding site. Similarly, the presence of DM did not alter the locations of other drug-binding sites since the thiol reactive forms of the substrates verapamil or rhodamine labeled the same sites in transmembrane segments 5 (I306C for verapamil) and 6 (F343C for rhodamine) whether P-gp was in native membranes or in detergent micelles. These results suggest that the presence of DM does not alter the locations of the P-gp drug-binding sites and that the detergent purified protein is suitable for mapping their locations using biochemical or structural assays. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Inhaled sodium cromoglycate for asthma in children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Wouden, Johannes C.; Uijen, Johannes H. J. M.; Bernsen, Roos M. D.; Tasche, Marjolein J. A.; de Jongste, Johan C.; Ducharme, Francine

    2008-01-01

    Background Sodium cromoglycate has been recommended as maintenance treatment for childhood asthma for many years. Its use has decreased since 1990, when inhaled corticosteroids became popular, but it is still used in many countries. Objectives To determine the efficacy of sodium cromoglycate compare

  17. 21 CFR 582.7724 - Sodium alginate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sodium alginate. 582.7724 Section 582.7724 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... alginate. (a) Product. Sodium alginate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally recognized...

  18. 21 CFR 573.700 - Sodium nitrite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Listing § 573.700 Sodium nitrite. Sodium nitrite may be safely used in canned pet food containing meat and fish in accordance with the following prescribed conditions: (a) It is used or intended for use alone as a preservative and color fixative in canned pet food containing fish, meat, and fish and...

  19. 21 CFR 182.8778 - Sodium phosphate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Sodium phosphate. 182.8778 Section 182.8778 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR... phosphate. (a) Product. Sodium phosphate (mono-, di-, and tribasic). (b) Conditions of use. This...

  20. 21 CFR 182.6778 - Sodium phosphate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Sodium phosphate. 182.6778 Section 182.6778 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR... phosphate. (a) Product. Sodium phosphate (mono-, di-, and tribasic). (b) Conditions of use. This...

  1. Assessment of sodium conductor distribution cable

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1979-06-01

    The study assesses the barriers and incentives for using sodium conductor distribution cable. The assessment considers environmental, safety, energy conservation, electrical performance and economic factors. Along with all of these factors considered in the assessment, the sodium distribution cable system is compared to the present day alternative - an aluminum conductor system. (TFD)

  2. The Sodium Tail of the Moon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matta, M.; Smith, S.; Baumgardner, J.; Wilson, J.; Martinis, C.; Mendillo, M.

    2009-01-01

    During the few days centered about new Moon, the lunar surface is optically hidden from Earth-based observers. However, the Moon still offers an observable: an extended sodium tail. The lunar sodium tail is the escaping "hot" component of a coma-like exosphere of sodium generated by photon-stimulated desorption, solar wind sputtering and meteoroid impact. Neutral sodium atoms escaping lunar gravity experience solar radiation pressure that drives them into the anti-solar direction forming a comet-like tail. During new Moon time, the geometry of the Sun, Moon and Earth is such that the anti-sunward sodium flux is perturbed by the terrestrial gravitational field resulting in its focusing into a dense core that extends beyond the Earth. An all-sky camera situated at the El Leoncito Observatory (CASLEO) in Argentina has been successfully imaging this tail through a sodium filter at each lunation since April 2006. This paper reports on the results of the brightness of the lunar sodium tail spanning 31 lunations between April 2006 and September 2008. Brightness variability trends are compared with both sporadic and shower meteor activity, solar wind proton energy flux and solar near ultra violet (NUV) patterns for possible correlations. Results suggest minimal variability in the brightness of the observed lunar sodium tail, generally uncorrelated with any single source, yet consistent with a multi-year period of minimal solar activity and non-intense meteoric fluxes.

  3. Sodium Heat Engine Development Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, J.P.; Kupperman, D.S.; Majumdar, S.; Dorris, S.; Gopalsami, N.; Dieckman, S.L.; Jaross, R.A.; Johnson, D.L.; Gregar, J.S.; Poeppel, R.B.; Raptis, A.C.; Valentin, R.A.

    1992-01-01

    The Sodium Heat Engine (SHE) is an efficient thermoelectric conversion device which directly generates electricity from a thermally regenerative electrochemical cell that relies on the unique conduction properties of {beta}{double prime}-alumina solid electrolyte (BASE). Laboratory models of a variety of SHE devices have demonstrated the feasibility and efficiency of the system, engineering development of large prototype devices has been slowed by a series of materials and fabrication problems. Failure of the electrolyte tubes has been a recurring problem and a number of possible causes have been postulated. To address these issues, a two-phase engineering development program was undertaken. This report summarizes the final results of the first phase of the program, which included extensive materials characterization activities, a study of applicable nondestructive evaluation methods, an investigation of possible stress states that would contribute to fracture, and certain operational issues associated with the electromagnetic pumps used in the SHE prototype. Mechanical and microstructural evaluation of commercially obtained BASE tubes revealed that they should be adequate for SHE applications and that sodium exposure produced no appreciable deleterious strength effects. Processing activities to produce a more uniform and smaller grain size for the BASE tubes were completed using isostatic pressing, extrusion, and slip casting. Green tubes were sintered by conventional and microwave plasma methods. Of particular interest is the residual stress state in the BASE tubes, and both analysis and nondestructive evaluation methods were employed to evaluate these stresses. X-ray and neutron diffraction experiments were performed to determine the bulk residual stresses in commercially fabricated BASE tubes; however, tube-to-tube variations and variations among the various methods employed did not allow formulation of a definitive definition of the as-fabricated stress state.

  4. Sodium hypochlorite-induced acute kidney injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peck, Brandon W; Workeneh, Biruh; Kadikoy, Huseyin; Abdellatif, Abdul

    2014-03-01

    Sodium hypochlorite (bleach) is commonly used as an irrigant during dental procedures as well as a topical antiseptic agent. Although it is generally safe when applied topically, reports of accidental injection of sodium hypochlorite into tissue have been reported. Local necrosis, pain and nerve damage have been described as a result of exposure, but sodium hypo-chlorite has never been implicated as a cause of an acute kidney injury (AKI). In this report, we describe the first case of accidental sodium hypochlorite injection into the infraorbital tissue during a dental procedure that precipitated the AKI. We speculate that oxidative species induced by sodium hypochlorite caused AKI secondary to the renal tubular injury, causing mild acute tubular necrosis.

  5. Sodium hypochlorite-induced acute kidney injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brandon W Peck

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Sodium hypochlorite (bleach is commonly used as an irrigant during dental proce-dures as well as a topical antiseptic agent. Although it is generally safe when applied topically, reports of accidental injection of sodium hypochlorite into tissue have been reported. Local necrosis, pain and nerve damage have been described as a result of exposure, but sodium hypo-chlorite has never been implicated as a cause of an acute kidney injury (AKI. In this report, we describe the first case of accidental sodium hypochlorite injection into the infraorbital tissue during a dental procedure that precipitated the AKI. We speculate that oxidative species induced by sodium hypochlorite caused AKI secondary to the renal tubular injury, causing mild acute tubular necrosis.

  6. The role of sodium in the body

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Munteanu Constantin

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Sodium is a metallic element with the symbol Na , in the same group with Li, K, Rb, Cs; is widespread in nature in the form of salts (nitrates, carbonates, chlorides, atomic number 11 and atomic weight 22,9898 . It,s a soft metal, reactive and with a low melting point , with a relative density of 0,97 at 200C (680 F. From the commercial point of view, sodium is the most important of all the alkaline metals. Elemental sodium was first isolated by Humpry Davy in 1807 by passing an electric current through molten sodium hydroxide. Elemental sodium does not occur naturally on earth, because it quickly oxidizes in air and is violently reactive with water, so it must be stored in a non-oxidizing medium, such as liquid hydrocarbon . The free metal is used for some chemical synthesis, analysis, and heat transfer applications .

  7. Effect of sodium ascorbate and sodium nitrite on protein and lipid oxidation in dry fermented sausages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berardo, A; De Maere, H; Stavropoulou, D A; Rysman, T; Leroy, F; De Smet, S

    2016-11-01

    The effects of sodium nitrite and ascorbate on lipid and protein oxidation were studied during the ripening process of dry fermented sausages. Samples were taken at day 0, 2, 8, 14, 21 and 28 of ripening to assess lipid (malondialdehyde) and protein (carbonyls and sulfhydryl groups) oxidation. Sodium ascorbate and nitrite were separately able to reduce the formation of malondialdehyde. Their combined addition resulted in higher amounts of carbonyl compounds compared to their separate addition or the treatment without any of both compounds. Moreover, sodium nitrite limited the formation of γ-glutamic semialdehyde whereas sodium ascorbate showed a pro-oxidant effect. A loss of thiol groups was observed during ripening, which was not affected by the use of sodium ascorbate nor sodium nitrite. In conclusion, sodium nitrite and ascorbate affected protein and lipid oxidation in different manners. The possible pro-oxidant effect of their combined addition on carbonyl formation might influence the technological and sensory properties of these products.

  8. Sodium-NaK engineering handbook. Volume III. Sodium systems, safety, handling, and instrumentation. [LMFBR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foust, O J [ed.

    1978-01-01

    The handbook is intended for use by present and future designers in the Liquid Metals Fast Breeder Reactor (LMFBR) Program and by the engineering and scientific community performing other type investigation and exprimentation requiring high-temperature sodium and NaK technology. The arrangement of subject matter progresses from a technological discussion of sodium and sodium--potassium alloy (NaK) to discussions of varius categories and uses of hardware in sodium and NaK systems. Emphasis is placed on sodium and NaK as heat-transport media. Sufficient detail is included for basic understanding of sodium and NaK technology and of technical aspects of sodium and NaK components and instrument systems. Information presented is considered adequate for use in feasibility studies and conceptual design, sizing components and systems, developing preliminary component and system descriptions, identifying technological limitations and problem areas, and defining basic constraints and parameters.

  9. Sodium D-line emission in Comet West (1975n) and the sodium source in Comets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oppenheimer, M.

    1980-09-15

    A spectrum of the sodium D-line emission from Comet West (1975n) taken at heliocentric distance 1.4 AU is analyzed by comparing the D-line brightness to that in the underlying continuum. Using the observations of this comet by Ney and Merrill, we find that the dust grains which dominate the visible and infrared continua are too cool to to provide the observed sodium atoms through evaporation of sodium metal or a sodium compound from grain surfaces. Though sodium metal may evaporate from a small-grain component, we suggest that molecules embedded in the volatile nuclear matrix are a more plausible source of sodium. The relationship between this source and the interstellar sodium abundance is discussed.

  10. Nutritional impact of sodium reduction strategies on sodium intake from processed foods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendriksen, M A H; Verkaik-Kloosterman, J; Noort, M W; van Raaij, J M A

    2015-01-01

    Background/objectives: Sodium intake in the Netherlands is substantially above the recommended intake of 2400 mg/day. This study aimed to estimate the effect of two sodium reduction strategies, that is, modification of the composition of industrially processed foods toward the technologically feasible minimum level or alteration of consumers' behavior on sodium intake in the Netherlands. Subjects/methods: Data from the Dutch National Food Consumption Survey (2007–2010) and the Food Composition Table (2011) were used to estimate the current sodium intake. In the first scenario, levels in processed foods were reduced toward their technologically feasible minimum level (sodium reduction in processed foods scenario). The minimum feasible levels were based on literature searches or expert judgment. In the second scenario, foods consumed were divided into similar food (sub)groups. Subsequently, foods were replaced by low-sodium alternatives (substitution of processed foods scenario). Sodium intake from foods was calculated based on the mean of two observation days for the current food consumption pattern and the scenarios. Results: Sodium levels of processed foods could be reduced in most food groups by 50%, and this may reduce median sodium intake from foods by 38% (from 3042 to 1886 mg/day in adult men). Substitution of foods may reduce sodium intake by 47% (from 3042 to 1627 mg/day in adult men), owing to many low-sodium alternatives within food groups. Conclusions: In the Netherlands, reduction of sodium intake by modification of food composition or by alteration of behavior may substantially reduce the median sodium intake from foods below the recommended sodium intake. PMID:25782426

  11. Hydrogen embrittlement of type 410 stainless steel in sodium chloride, sodium sulfate, and sodium hydroxide environments at 90 C

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez-Rodriguez, J.G.; Salinas-Bravo, V.M. [Inst. de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico). Dept. Fisico Quimica Aplicada; Martinez-Villafane, A. [Centro de Investigaciones en Materiales Avanzados Leon Tolstoi, Chihuahua (Mexico)

    1997-06-01

    Susceptibility of martensitic type 410 (UNS S41000) stainless steel (SS) to environmental cracking was evaluated at 90 C in concentrated sodium chloride, sodium sulfate and sodium hydroxide solutions, all of which are environments related to steam turbine conditions, using the slow strain rate testing (SSRT) technique. In NaCl, the effects of solution pH, concentration, and anodic and cathodic polarization were investigated. Tests were supplemented by detailed electron fractography and hydrogen permeation measurements. A clear correlation was found between the degree of embrittlement and the amount of hydrogen permeating the steel, suggesting a hydrogen-induced cracking mechanism.

  12. Sodium-metal halide and sodium-air batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, Seongmin; Kim, Jae-Kwang; Choi, Aram; Kim, Youngsik; Lee, Kyu Tae

    2014-07-21

    Impressive developments have been made in the past a few years toward the establishment of Na-ion batteries as next-generation energy-storage devices and replacements for Li-ion batteries. Na-based cells have attracted increasing attention owing to low production costs due to abundant sodium resources. However, applications of Na-ion batteries are limited to large-scale energy-storage systems because of their lower energy density compared to Li-ion batteries and their potential safety problems. Recently, Na-metal cells such as Na-metal halide and Na-air batteries have been considered to be promising for use in electric vehicles owing to good safety and high energy density, although less attention is focused on Na-metal cells than on Na-ion cells. This Minireview provides an overview of the fundamentals and recent progress in the fields of Na-metal halide and Na-air batteries, with the aim of providing a better understanding of new electrochemical systems. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Design and Commissioning Test of WKN Sodium Thermodynamic Test Loop

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    In the research of fast reactor a sodium thermodynamic test loop was designed and commissioned. Its highest operating temperature is 700℃, after the sodium is passed the cooler, the temperature of the sodium can be reduced to 300 ℃; the sodium flow is 0.2 m3/h. The loop consists of sodium electromagnetic pump, sodium flow meter, two groups of heater, two groups of cooler, surge tank, sodium vapor trap, diffusion cold trap, sodium transportation tank, electric control panel and microprocessor. It has two experimental bypass loops for research of heat transfer

  14. Scientific Opinion on the safety evaluation of the active substances, sodium carbonate peroxyhydrate coated with sodium carbonate and sodium silicate, bentonite, sodium chloride, sodium carbonate for use in active food contact materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EFSA Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids (CEF

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This scientific opinion of the Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids deals with the safety evaluation of the powder mixture of the active substances sodium carbonate peroxyhydrate coated with sodium carbonate and sodium silicate (FCM substance No 1009, bentonite (CAS No 1302-78-9, FCM No 393, sodium chloride (CAS No 7647-14-5, FCM No 985, sodium carbonate (CAS No 497-19-8, FCM No 1008 which are intended to be used as combined oxygen generator and carbon dioxide absorber in packaging containing whole fresh fruits. The powder mixture is placed in a nonwoven polyethylene sachet separated from the food by a pad. In the presence of moisture, sodium carbonate peroxyhydrate first decomposes into sodium carbonate and hydrogen peroxide which decomposes into water and oxygen. Sodium carbonate reacts with carbon dioxide to form sodium bicarbonate. Because the sachet is not placed in direct contact with the food or food exudates, only hydrogen peroxide which decomposes to water and oxygen may be released with no other potential migration of volatile compounds. Based on the conclusion drawn in the EU Risk Assessment Report that hydrogen peroxide is not classified as a mutagen and the results from a subchronic toxicity study with hydrogen peroxide, the Panel concluded that hydrogen peroxide does not raise a safety concern under the intended conditions of use. Therefore the CEF Panel concluded that sodium carbonate peroxyhydrate coated with sodium carbonate and sodium silicate, bentonite, sodium chloride and sodium carbonate do not raise a safety concern for the consumer when used as combined oxygen generator and carbon dioxide absorber, for packaging of whole fruits. The substances should be used in sachets which prevent the release of the powder mixture into the food. Sachets should not be in direct contact with food or food exudates.

  15. A Global Model of Meteoric Sodium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsh, Daniel R.; Janches, Diego; Feng, Wuhu; Plane, John M. C.

    2013-01-01

    A global model of sodium in the mesosphere and lower thermosphere has been developed within the framework of the National Center for Atmospheric Research's Whole Atmosphere Community Climate Model (WACCM). The standard fully interactive WACCM chemistry module has been augmented with a chemistry scheme that includes nine neutral and ionized sodium species. Meteoric ablation provides the source of sodium in the model and is represented as a combination of a meteoroid input function (MIF) and a parameterized ablation model. The MIF provides the seasonally and latitudinally varying meteoric flux which is modeled taking into consideration the astronomical origins of sporadic meteors and considers variations in particle entry angle, velocity, mass, and the differential ablation of the chemical constituents. WACCM simulations show large variations in the sodium constituents over time scales from days to months. Seasonality of sodium constituents is strongly affected by variations in the MIF and transport via the mean meridional wind. In particular, the summer to winter hemisphere flow leads to the highest sodium species concentrations and loss rates occurring over the winter pole. In the Northern Hemisphere, this winter maximum can be dramatically affected by stratospheric sudden warmings. Simulations of the January 2009 major warming event show that it caused a short-term decrease in the sodium column over the polar cap that was followed by a factor of 3 increase in the following weeks. Overall, the modeled distribution of atomic sodium in WACCM agrees well with both ground-based and satellite observations. Given the strong sensitivity of the sodium layer to dynamical motions, reproducing its variability provides a stringent test of global models and should help to constrain key atmospheric variables in this poorly sampled region of the atmosphere.

  16. Pharmacologic inhibition of intestinal sodium uptake: a gut centric approach to sodium management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer, Andrew G; Greasley, Peter J

    2015-09-01

    Impaired sodium excretion in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) can drive fluid overload and hypertension and accelerate CKD progression. Diuretics reduce fluid overload but require residual kidney function to work. Adherence to dietary sodium restriction is generally poor. Here, we review an alternative pharmacologic strategy aimed at reducing sodium absorption from the gut. Genetic studies implicate the sodium/hydrogen exchanger isoform 3 (NHE3) as the major absorptive sodium transporter. Pharmacologic inhibition of apically expressed gut NHE3 offers the potential of reducing sodium absorption and fluid overload independent of kidney function and with better safety than systemic drugs. Two small-molecule inhibitors of NHE3 (tenapanor and SAR218034) with minimal systemic exposure reduce urinary sodium and increase stool sodium in a dose-dependent manner in rodents, with similar results observed with tenapanor in humans. These molecules also reduce blood pressure in rat models of CKD (tenapanor) and hypertension (SAR218034). Clinical trials of tenapanor in patients with CKD-related disorders are ongoing. Pharmacologic inhibition of gut NHE3 may be a viable strategy for managing sodium load in patients with CKD or with sodium-sensitive hypertension in general. Ongoing clinical trials will shed further light on the potential benefits of this approach.

  17. Radioimmunoassay of sodium cromoglycate in human plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, K.; Gardner, J.J.; Lockley, W.J.S.; Preston, J.R.; Wilkinson, D.J. (Fisons plc, Loughborough (UK). Pharmaceutical Div.)

    1983-01-01

    A sensitive radioimmunoassay method for sodium cromoglycate in human plasma is described. The lowest quantifiable concentration of sodium cromoglycate is 0.93 nmol/l when 0.1 ml plasma samples are analysed. The range of the method is limited; both 0.01 and 0.1 ml volumes of plasma must be analysed to encompass the concentration range 0.93-139 nmol/l which may be encountered in plasma samples from patients and human volunteers. The method is specific for sodium cromoglycate as indicated by a low cross-reactivity of the anti-cromoglycate antiserum with a number of drugs.

  18. Interaction of theobromine with sodium benzoate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nishijo, J.; Yonetani, I.

    1982-03-01

    The interaction of theobromine with sodium benzoate was investigated by PMR spectroscopy. The interaction of theobromine with pentadeuterated benzoic acid (benzoic acid-d5) was examined in the same manner but to a lesser degree. Chemical shifts of theobromine protons were determined as a function of sodium benzoate concentration in deuterium oxide at 30 and 15 degrees. Signals of both methyl groups of theobromine underwent significant upfield shifts when sodium benzoate was added to a theobromine solution. This fact suggests that a complex is formed by vertical stacking or plane-to-plane stacking. The same results were obtained for benzoic acid-d5.

  19. Formaldehyde impairs transepithelial sodium transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Yong; Li, Huiming; Wu, Sihui; Zhao, Runzhen; Du, Deyi; Ding, Yan; Nie, Hongguang; Ji, Hong-Long

    2016-01-01

    Unsaturated oxidative formaldehyde is a noxious aldehyde in cigarette smoke that causes edematous acute lung injury. However, the mechanistic effects of formaldehyde on lung fluid transport are still poorly understood. We examined how formaldehyde regulates human epithelial sodium channels (ENaC) in H441 and expressed in Xenopus oocytes and exposed mice in vivo. Our results showed that formaldehyde reduced mouse transalveolar fluid clearance in vivo. Formaldehyde caused a dose-dependent inhibition of amiloride-sensitive short-circuit Na+ currents in H441 monolayers and of αβγ-ENaC channel activity in oocytes. α-ENaC protein was reduced, whereas phosphorylation of the extracellular regulated protein kinases 1 and 2 (ERK1/2) increased significantly post exposure. Moreover, both α- and γ-ENaC transcripts were down-regulated. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) was elevated significantly by formaldehyde in addition to markedly augmented membrane permeability of oocytes. These data suggest that formaldehyde contributes to edematous acute lung injury by reducing transalveolar Na+ transport, through decreased ENaC activity and enhanced membrane depolarization, and by elevating ROS production over long-term exposure. PMID:27762337

  20. Heterogeneous Transmutation Sodium Fast Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    S. E. Bays

    2007-09-01

    The threshold-fission (fertile) nature of Am-241 is used to destroy this minor actinide by capitalizing upon neutron capture instead of fission within a sodium fast reactor. This neutron-capture and its subsequent decay chain leads to the breeding of even neutron number plutonium isotopes. A slightly moderated target design is proposed for breeding plutonium in an axial blanket located above the active “fast reactor” driver fuel region. A parametric study on the core height and fuel pin diameter-to-pitch ratio is used to explore the reactor and fuel cycle aspects of this design. This study resulted in both non-flattened and flattened core geometries. Both of these designs demonstrated a high capacity for removing americium from the fuel cycle. A reactivity coefficient analysis revealed that this heterogeneous design will have comparable safety aspects to a homogeneous reactor of comparable size. A mass balance analysis revealed that the heterogeneous design may reduce the number of fast reactors needed to close the current once-through light water reactor fuel cycle.

  1. Estimating 24-hour urinary sodium excretion from casual urinary sodium concentrations in Western populations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brown, Ian J; Dyer, Alan R; Chan, Queenie

    2013-01-01

    High intakes of dietary sodium are associated with elevated blood pressure levels and an increased risk of cardiovascular disease. National and international guidelines recommend reduced sodium intake in the general population, which necessitates population-wide surveillance. We assessed...... the utility of casual (spot) urine specimens in estimating 24-hour urinary sodium excretion as a marker of sodium intake in the International Cooperative Study on Salt, Other Factors, and Blood Pressure. There were 5,693 participants recruited in 1984-1987 at the ages of 20-59 years from 29 North American...... and European samples. Participants were randomly assigned to test or validation data sets. Equations derived from casual urinary sodium concentration and other variables in the test data were applied to the validation data set. Correlations between observed and estimated 24-hour sodium excretion were 0...

  2. Recovery of synthetic dye from simulated wastewater using emulsion liquid membrane process containing tri-dodecyl amine as a mobile carrier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Othman, N., E-mail: norasikin@cheme.utm.my [Faculty of Chemical Engineering, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310 UTM Skudai, Johor (Malaysia); Zailani, S.N.; Mili, N. [Faculty of Chemical Engineering, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310 UTM Skudai, Johor (Malaysia)

    2011-12-30

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The emulsion liquid membrane process for synthetic reactive dyes recovery was examined. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Mobile carriers of tri-dodycylamine and salicyclic acid was used in formulation to remove the reactive dyes from simulated wastewater. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Almost 100% of dye was extracted and recovered in receiving phase. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer An electrical field was used to breakdown the emulsion to separate the liquid membrane and receiving/recovery phase. - Abstract: The extraction of Red 3BS reactive dye from aqueous solution was studied using emulsion liquid membrane (ELM). ELM is one of the processes that have very high potential in treating industrial wastewater consisting of dyes. In this research, Red 3BS reactive dye was extracted from simulated wastewater using tridodecylamine (TDA) as the carrier agent, salicyclic acid (SA) to protonate TDA, sodium chloride as the stripping agent, kerosene as the diluent and SPAN 80 as emulsifier. Experimental parameters investigated were salicyclic acid concentration, extraction time, SPAN 80 concentration, sodium chloride concentration, TDA concentration, agitation speed, homogenizer speed, emulsifying time and treat ratio. The results show almost 100% of Red 3BS was removed and stripped in the receiving phase at the optimum condition in this ELM system. High voltage coalesce was applied to break the emulsion hence, enables recovery of Red 3BS in the receiving phase.

  3. Micellar electrokinetic chromatographic separation and determination of potassium sorbate, sodium benzoate and sodium saccharin%胶束电动色分离测定山梨酸钾、苯甲酸钠和糖精钠

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢建平; 张建夫; 田军丽; 刘秋艳; 邓洪瑞; 王晓璐

    2011-01-01

    A new micellar electrokinetic chromatography with photo diode array detection method was developed to separate and determine potassium sorbate,sodium benzoate and sodium saccharin.In conditions of sodium dodecyl sulphate 24 mmol/L,Na2B4O7 20 mmol/L,pH 9.6,and separation voltage 12 kV,the separation was achieved within 4.2 min.Good linear relationships between peak height and concentration were found in the tested range.Relative standard deviations (n=6) of migration times or peak heights were less than 0.63%.The detection limits for potassium sorbate,sodium benzoate and sodium saccharin were 0.42,0.43,and 0.42 μg/L respectively.The sensitivity was improved ten to a hundred times more than those of high performance liquid chromatography method reported recently.The method was applied to the determination of the three food additives in real drink samples with recoveries of 89.3%-112.0%.%建立了一个胶束电动色谱-二极管阵列检测方法,用于分离测定山梨酸钾、苯甲酸钠和糖精钠.在优化条件下,使用24 mmol/L十二烷基硫酸钠、20 mmol/L硼砂,pH 9.6、电压12 kV,分离时间仅用4.2 min.测定范围内,峰高与分析物浓度呈良好的线性关系,迁移时间和峰高的相对标准偏差(n=6)小于0.63%,3个分析物的检测限分别为0.42、0.43和0.42 μg/L,与高效液相色谱方法相比灵敏度增加了约10~100倍.方法被用于实际饮料样品中的3种食品添加剂的测定,回收率89.3%~112.0%.

  4. Radioimmunoassay of sodium cromoglycate in human plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, K.; Gardner, J.J.; Lockley, W.J.S.; Preston, J.R.; Wilkinson, D.J. (Fisons Ltd., Loughborough (UK). Pharmaceutical Div.)

    1983-01-01

    A sensitive radioimmunoassay method for sodium cromoglycate in human plasma is described. The lowest quantifiable concentration of sodium cromoglycate is 0.93 nmol/1 when 0.1 ml plasma samples are analysed. Direct analysis of sodium cromoglycate concentrations in plasma samples collected up to several hours after the administration of single therapeutic doses of the compound is possible. The range of the method is limited; both 0.01 and 0.1 ml volumes of plasma must be analysed to encompass the concentration range 0.93-139 nmol/1 which may be encountered in plasma samples from patients and human volunteers. The method is specific for sodium cromoglycate as indicated by a low cross-reactivity of the anti-cromoglycate antiserum with a number of drugs.

  5. Brain Sodium Channel and Febrile Seizure Mechanism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Gordon Millichap

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Researchers at the University of Melbourne, Australia, measured the effect of temperature on brain sodium channel, Nav1.2, properties, using a computer model of the dentate gyrus granule cell.

  6. 21 CFR 184.1763 - Sodium hydroxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) DIRECT FOOD SUBSTANCES AFFIRMED AS GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Listing of.... 1310-73-2) is also known as sodium hydrate, soda lye, caustic soda, white caustic, and lye....

  7. Trifluoromethylation of Carbonyl Compounds with Sodium Trifluoroacetate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    In the presence of copper (Ⅰ) halide as catalyst, a variety of carbonyl compounds could be trifluoromethylated with sodium trifluoroacetate to give the corresponding alcohols in moderate to high yields.

  8. Kinetics of wet sodium vapor complex plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, S. K.; Sodha, M. S.

    2014-04-01

    In this paper, we have investigated the kinetics of wet (partially condensed) Sodium vapor, which comprises of electrons, ions, neutral atoms, and Sodium droplets (i) in thermal equilibrium and (ii) when irradiated by light. The formulation includes the balance of charge over the droplets, number balance of the plasma constituents, and energy balance of the electrons. In order to evaluate the droplet charge, a phenomenon for de-charging of the droplets, viz., evaporation of positive Sodium ions from the surface has been considered in addition to electron emission and electron/ion accretion. The analysis has been utilized to evaluate the steady state parameters of such complex plasmas (i) in thermal equilibrium and (ii) when irradiated; the results have been graphically illustrated. As a significant outcome irradiated, Sodium droplets are seen to acquire large positive potential, with consequent enhancement in the electron density.

  9. Astrocyte Sodium Signalling and Panglial Spread of Sodium Signals in Brain White Matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moshrefi-Ravasdjani, Behrouz; Hammel, Evelyn L; Kafitz, Karl W; Rose, Christine R

    2017-02-18

    In brain grey matter, excitatory synaptic transmission activates glutamate uptake into astrocytes, inducing sodium signals which propagate into neighboring astrocytes through gap junctions. These sodium signals have been suggested to serve an important role in neuro-metabolic coupling. So far, it is unknown if astrocytes in white matter-that is in brain regions devoid of synapses-are also able to undergo such intra- and intercellular sodium signalling. In the present study, we have addressed this question by performing quantitative sodium imaging in acute tissue slices of mouse corpus callosum. Focal application of glutamate induced sodium transients in SR101-positive astrocytes. These were largely unaltered in the presence of ionotropic glutamate receptors blockers, but strongly dampened upon pharmacological inhibition of glutamate uptake. Sodium signals induced in individual astrocytes readily spread into neighboring SR101-positive cells with peak amplitudes decaying monoexponentially with distance from the stimulated cell. In addition, spread of sodium was largely unaltered during pharmacological inhibition of purinergic and glutamate receptors, indicating gap junction-mediated, passive diffusion of sodium between astrocytes. Using cell-type-specific, transgenic reporter mice, we found that sodium signals also propagated, albeit less effectively, from astrocytes to neighboring oligodendrocytes and NG2 cells. Again, panglial spread was unaltered with purinergic and glutamate receptors blocked. Taken together, our results demonstrate that activation of sodium-dependent glutamate transporters induces sodium signals in white matter astrocytes, which spread within the astrocyte syncytium. In addition, we found a panglial passage of sodium signals from astrocytes to NG2 cells and oligodendrocytes, indicating functional coupling between these macroglial cells in white matter.

  10. Clinical evaluation of nedocromil sodium in asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holgate, S T

    1986-01-01

    The recognition that inflammatory events in the airways play a key role in the pathogenesis of asthma has led to a relentless search for pharmacological agents which modify these processes. Nedocromil sodium (Tilade) represents one such agent. Nedocromil sodium, when inhaled by patients with asthma (0.05-0.50% nebulized, 0.5-4.0 mg m.d.i.), has been shown to inhibit immediate bronchoconstriction provoked by challenges with allergen (10 studies), exercise (five studies), isocapnic hyperventilation, fog and sulphur dioxide (one study each) and adenosine (two studies). With these challenges, inhibition of bronchoconstriction exhibited dose-dependency up to 4 mg, with nedocromil sodium being up to four times more potent than sodium cromoglycate. When inhaled prior to allergen provocation, nedocromil sodium inhibited the late asthmatic reaction; when taken regularly during the pollen season, it attenuated the allergen-induced increase in non-specific bronchial responsiveness. The efficacy of nedocromil sodium (4 mg q.i.d.) in the treatment of clinical asthma was initially shown in four open studies and subsequently confirmed in nine double-blind, placebo-controlled 4-12 week studies on patients with seasonal and perennial asthma. Further clinical trials (eight studies) identified some difficulty in replacing inhaled corticosteroids with nedocromil sodium, especially if the corticosteroids were reduced rapidly (four studies). However, two studies have shown that nedocromil sodium produced further improvement in asthma symptoms when used in addition to bronchodilators and inhaled corticosteroids. Treatment with nedocromil sodium (4 mg q.i.d.) for up to 52 weeks demonstrated a progressive reduction in bronchodilator usage throughout the whole treatment period. During clinical assessment, nedocromil sodium was well tolerated, side-effects being unpleasant taste, nausea and headache. In most cases the adverse reactions were mild and transient, although in approximately 3% of

  11. Light scattering measurement of sodium polyacrylate products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lama, Nisha; Norwood, David; Boone, Steven; Massie-Boyer, Valerie

    2015-03-01

    In the presentation, we will describe the use of a multi-detector HPLC incorporating the DAWN EOS multi-angle laser light scattering (MALLS) detector to measure the properties such as molecular weight, RMS radius, contour and persistence length and polydispersity of sodium polyacrylate products. The samples of sodium polyacrylate are used in various industries as thickening agents, coating dispersants, artificial snow, laundry detergent and disposable diapers. Data and results obtained from the experiment will be presented.

  12. Assessment of flow induced vibration in a sodium-sodium heat exchanger

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prakash, V. [Fast Reactor Technology Group, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam, Tamil Nadu (India)], E-mail: prakash@igcar.gov.in; Thirumalai, M.; Prabhakar, R.; Vaidyanathan, G. [Fast Reactor Technology Group, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam, Tamil Nadu (India)

    2009-01-15

    The 500 MWe Prototype Fast Breeder Reactor (PFBR) is under construction at Kalpakkam. It is a liquid metal sodium cooled pool type fast reactor with all primary components located inside a sodium pool. The heat produced due to fission in the core is transported by primary sodium to the secondary sodium in a sodium to sodium Intermediate Heat Exchanger (IHX), which in turn is transferred to water in the steam generator. PFBR IHX is a shell and tube type heat exchanger with primary sodium on shell side and secondary sodium in the tube side. Since IHX is one of the critical components placed inside the radioactive primary sodium, trouble-free operation of the IHX is very much essential for power plant availability. To validate the design and the adequacy of the support system provided for the IHX, flow induced vibration (FIV) experiments were carried out in a water test loop on a 60 deg. sector model. This paper discusses the flow induced vibration measurements carried out in 60 deg. sector model of IHX, the modeling criteria, the results and conclusion.

  13. Advanced sodium fast reactor accident source terms :

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Powers, Dana Auburn; Clement, Bernard; Denning, Richard; Ohno, Shuji; Zeyen, Roland

    2010-09-01

    An expert opinion elicitation has been used to evaluate phenomena that could affect releases of radionuclides during accidents at sodium-cooled fast reactors. The intent was to identify research needed to develop a mechanistic model of radionuclide release for licensing and risk assessment purposes. Experts from the USA, France, the European Union, and Japan identified phenomena that could affect the release of radionuclides under hypothesized accident conditions. They qualitatively evaluated the importance of these phenomena and the need for additional experimental research. The experts identified seven phenomena that are of high importance and have a high need for additional experimental research: High temperature release of radionuclides from fuel during an energetic event Energetic interactions between molten reactor fuel and sodium coolant and associated transfer of radionuclides from the fuel to the coolant Entrainment of fuel and sodium bond material during the depressurization of a fuel rod with breached cladding Rates of radionuclide leaching from fuel by liquid sodium Surface enrichment of sodium pools by dissolved and suspended radionuclides Thermal decomposition of sodium iodide in the containment atmosphere Reactions of iodine species in the containment to form volatile organic iodides. Other issues of high importance were identified that might merit further research as development of the mechanistic model of radionuclide release progressed.

  14. 21 CFR 181.34 - Sodium nitrite and potassium nitrite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Sodium nitrite and potassium nitrite. 181.34...-Sanctioned Food Ingredients § 181.34 Sodium nitrite and potassium nitrite. Sodium nitrite and potassium... fixatives and preservative agents, with or without sodium or potassium nitrate, in the curing of red...

  15. 21 CFR 133.121 - Low sodium colby cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... common name or names of the ingredient or ingredients used as a salt substitute. (f) Low sodium colby... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Low sodium colby cheese. 133.121 Section 133.121... Cheese and Related Products § 133.121 Low sodium colby cheese. Low sodium colby cheese is the food...

  16. Thermochemical analysis of laterite ore alkali roasting: Comparison of sodium carbonate, sodium sulfate, and sodium hydroxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samadhi, Tjokorde Walmiki

    2017-01-01

    The abundance of global nickel reserve is in fact dominated by low grade laterite ores containing only approximately 1.0-1.8 %-Ni. Indonesia is a major limonite and saprolite ores source, particularly in the Sulawesi, northern Maluku, and Papua islands. Production of nickel from laterites typically requires a pre-concentration step which breaks down the mineral crystalline structure, thereby facilitating the subsequent extraction of the valuable metals. This work discusses the thermochemical analysis of the alkali roasting of an Indonesian saprolite ore using Na2CO3, Na2SO4, and NaOH. These alkali compounds are selected due to their relatively low cost. The Factsage thermochemical computation package is used to predict thermodynamically stable gaseous, solution, pure liquid, and pure solid phases present in the roasting process at temperatures from 100 to 1200°C at ambient pressure, in inert atmosphere. The formation of a liquid solution (or slag) phase is interpreted as a major indicator of mineral structure breakdown. The computed slag formation temperatures are 373.2, 1041.4, and 792.0°C when using Na2CO3, Na2SO4, and NaOH, respectively. The masses of volatilized alkali at 1200°C with a total feed mass of 100 gram are 0.49, 3.24, and 3.25 mg for Na2CO3, Na2SO4, and NaOH, respectively. It is therefore hypothesized that Na2CO3 is the most competitive sodium-based alkali for saprolite ore roasting.

  17. 76 FR 37129 - Determination That SODIUM FLUORIDE F 18 (Sodium Fluoride F-18) Injection, 10 to 200 Millicuries...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-24

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Determination That SODIUM FLUORIDE F 18 (Sodium Fluoride F... Drug Administration (FDA) has determined that SODIUM FLUORIDE F 18 (sodium fluoride F-18) injection, 10... FLUORIDE F 18 injection, 10 to 200 mCi/mL, if all other legal and regulatory requirements are met. FOR...

  18. Sodium stimulates growth of Panicum coloratum through enhanced photosynthesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matoh, Toru; Murata, Shinji (Kyoto Univ. (Japan))

    1990-04-01

    A sodium-requiring C{sub 4} plant, Panicum coloratum Walt. cv Kabulabula, was grown with and without sodium. Rate of nitrogen uptake and photosynthesis were measured during the recovery from sodium deficiency. The beneficial effect of sodium on growth was apparent irrespective of nitrogen source, ammonium- or nitrate-nitrogen. The leaf photosynthetic rate ({sup 14}CO{sub 2} fixation) doubled by sodium within 1 hour of the application.

  19. Sodium Stimulates Growth of Panicum coloratum through Enhanced Photosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matoh, T; Murata, S

    1990-04-01

    A sodium-requiring C(4) plant, Panicum coloratum Walt. cv Kabulabula, was grown with and without sodium. Rate of nitrogen uptake and photosynthesis were measured during the recovery from sodium deficiency. The beneficial effect of sodium on growth was apparent irrespective of nitrogen source, ammonium- or nitrate-nitrogen. The leaf photosynthetic rate ((14)CO(2) fixation) doubled by sodium within 1 hour of the application.

  20. Analysis of the action of lidocaine on insect sodium channels

    OpenAIRE

    Song, Weizhong; Silver, Kristopher S.; Du, Yuzhe; Liu, Zhiqi; Dong, Ke

    2010-01-01

    A new class of sodium channel blocker insecticides (SCBIs), which include indoxacarb, its active metabolite, DCJW, and metaflumizone, preferably block inactivated states of both insect and mammalian sodium channels in a manner similar to that by which local anesthetic (LA) drugs block mammalian sodium channels. A recent study showed that two residues in the cockroach sodium channel, F1817 and Y1824, corresponding to two key LA-interacting residues identified in mammalian sodium channels are n...

  1. Sodium Purification Device for Production of Tantalum Powder

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    In the process of tantalum powder production it requires pure sodium to reduce potassium fluotantalate, thus the design of a sodium purification device is improved, later it is built and commissioned. The device includes sodium transportation tank, storage tank, filter, cold trap, final storage tank, metering tank, regulating valve, argon purification system, electric control panel and instrument. Industrial purity sodium is purified, the impurities in the sodium were reduced to very

  2. Salt craving: the psychobiology of pathogenic sodium intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Michael J; Na, Elisa S; Johnson, Alan Kim

    2008-08-06

    Ionic sodium, obtained from dietary sources usually in the form of sodium chloride (NaCl, common table salt) is essential to physiological function, and in humans salt is generally regarded as highly palatable. This marriage of pleasant taste and physiological utility might appear fortunate--an appealing taste helps to ensure that such a vital substance is ingested. However, the powerful mechanisms governing sodium retention and sodium balance are unfortunately best adapted for an environment in which few humans still exist. Our physiological and behavioral means for maintaining body sodium and fluid homeostasis evolved in hot climates where sources of dietary sodium were scarce. For many reasons, contemporary diets are high in salt and daily sodium intakes are excessive. High sodium consumption can have pathological consequences. Although there are a number of obstacles to limiting salt ingestion, high sodium intake, like smoking, is a modifiable behavioral risk factor for many cardiovascular diseases. This review discusses the psychobiological mechanisms that promote and maintain excessive dietary sodium intake. Of particular importance are experience-dependent processes including the sensitization of the neural systems underlying sodium appetite and the effects of sodium balance on hedonic state and mood. Accumulating evidence suggests that plasticity within the central nervous system as a result of experience with high salt intake, sodium depletion, or a chronic unresolved sodium appetite fosters enduring changes in sodium related appetitive and consummatory behaviors.

  3. Concordance of dietary sodium intake and concomitant phosphate load : Implications for sodium interventions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Humalda, J K; Keyzer, C A; Binnenmars, S H; Kwakernaak, A J; Slagman, M C J; Laverman, G D; Bakker, S J L; de Borst, M H; Navis, G J

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Both a high dietary sodium and high phosphate load are associated with an increased cardiovascular risk in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD), and possibly also in non-CKD populations. Sodium and phosphate are abundantly present in processed food. We hypothesized that (m

  4. Concordance of dietary sodium intake and concomitant phosphate load : Implications for sodium interventions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Humalda, J. K.; Keyzer, C. A.; Binnenmars, S. H.; Kwakernaak, A. J.; Slagman, M. C. J.; Laverman, G. D.; Bakker, S. J. L.; de Borst, M. H.; Navis, G. J.

    2016-01-01

    Background and aims: Both a high dietary sodium and high phosphate load are associated with an increased cardiovascular risk in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD), and possibly also in non-CKD populations. Sodium and phosphate are abundantly present in processed food. We hypothesized that (m

  5. Nutritional impact of sodium reduction strategies on sodium intake from processed foods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hendriksen, M.A.H.; Verkaik-Kloosterman, J.; Noort, M.W.; Raaij, J.M.A. van

    2015-01-01

    Background/objectives: Sodium intake in the Netherlands is substantially above the recommended intake of 2400 mg/day. This study aimed to estimate the effect of two sodium reduction strategies, that is, modification of the composition of industrially processed foods toward the technologically feasib

  6. Nutritional impact of sodium reduction strategies on sodium intake from processed foods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hendriksen, M.A.H.; Verkaik-Kloosterman, J.; Noort, M.W.J.; Raaij, van J.M.A.

    2015-01-01

    Background/objectives: Sodium intake in the Netherlands is substantially above the recommended intake of 2400¿mg/day. This study aimed to estimate the effect of two sodium reduction strategies, that is, modification of the composition of industrially processed foods toward the technologically feasib

  7. Concordance of dietary sodium intake and concomitant phosphate load : Implications for sodium interventions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Humalda, J K; Keyzer, C A; Binnenmars, S H; Kwakernaak, A J; Slagman, M C J; Laverman, G D; Bakker, S J L; de Borst, M H; Navis, G J

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Both a high dietary sodium and high phosphate load are associated with an increased cardiovascular risk in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD), and possibly also in non-CKD populations. Sodium and phosphate are abundantly present in processed food. We hypothesized that (m

  8. Concordance of dietary sodium intake and concomitant phosphate load : Implications for sodium interventions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Humalda, J. K.; Keyzer, C. A.; Binnenmars, S. H.; Kwakernaak, A. J.; Slagman, M. C. J.; Laverman, G. D.; Bakker, S. J. L.; de Borst, M. H.; Navis, G. J.

    2016-01-01

    Background and aims: Both a high dietary sodium and high phosphate load are associated with an increased cardiovascular risk in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD), and possibly also in non-CKD populations. Sodium and phosphate are abundantly present in processed food. We hypothesized that (m

  9. Bradykinin-induced bronchoconstriction: inhibition by nedocromil sodium and sodium cromoglycate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixon, C M; Barnes, P J

    1989-01-01

    1. The effects of inhaled nedocromil sodium and sodium cromoglycate on bradykinin-induced bronchoconstriction have been studied in a double-blind, placebo controlled study, in eight mild asthmatic subjects. 2. The subjects attended on four occasions. Fifteen minutes after drug pre-treatment a bradykinin challenge was performed. Increasing concentrations were inhaled until a greater than 40% fall in expiratory flow at 30% of vital capacity from a partial flow volume manoeuvre (V p30) was demonstrated. 3. Inhaled bradykinin (0.06-8.0 mg ml-1) caused dose-related bronchoconstriction with the geometric mean cumulative dose causing a 40% fall in V p30 (PD40) of 0.035 (95% CI: 0.02-0.07) mumol, after placebo inhalation, which was similar to that measured before the trial (0.04: 0.02-0.09 mumol). 4. Both nedocromil sodium (4 mg) and sodium cromoglycate (10 mg) gave significant protection (P less than 0.05) against bradykinin-induced bronchoconstriction (PD40 0.37: 0.19-0.72 mumol after nedocromil sodium and 0.22: 0.11-0.49 after sodium cromoglycate). 5. Since bradykinin-induced bronchoconstriction is probably neurally mediated we conclude that both nedocromil sodium and sodium cromoglycate have an action on neural pathways which may be useful in the control of asthma symptoms. PMID:2547408

  10. Nutritional impact of sodium reduction strategies on sodium intake from processed foods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hendriksen, M.A.H.; Verkaik-Kloosterman, J.; Noort, M.W.J.; Raaij, van J.M.A.

    2015-01-01

    Background/objectives: Sodium intake in the Netherlands is substantially above the recommended intake of 2400¿mg/day. This study aimed to estimate the effect of two sodium reduction strategies, that is, modification of the composition of industrially processed foods toward the technologically

  11. Nutritional impact of sodium reduction strategies on sodium intake from processed foods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hendriksen, M.A.H.; Verkaik-Kloosterman, J.; Noort, M.W.; Raaij, J.M.A. van

    2015-01-01

    Background/objectives: Sodium intake in the Netherlands is substantially above the recommended intake of 2400 mg/day. This study aimed to estimate the effect of two sodium reduction strategies, that is, modification of the composition of industrially processed foods toward the technologically

  12. Concordance of dietary sodium intake and concomitant phosphate load : Implications for sodium interventions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Humalda, J. K.; Keyzer, C. A.; Binnenmars, S. H.; Kwakernaak, A. J.; Slagman, M. C. J.; Laverman, G. D.; Bakker, S. J. L.; de Borst, M. H.; Navis, G. J.

    Background and aims: Both a high dietary sodium and high phosphate load are associated with an increased cardiovascular risk in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD), and possibly also in non-CKD populations. Sodium and phosphate are abundantly present in processed food. We hypothesized that

  13. Sodium intake in US ethnic subgroups and potential impact of a new sodium reduction technology: NHANES Dietary Modeling

    OpenAIRE

    Fulgoni, Victor L.; Agarwal, Sanjiv; Spence, Lisa; Samuel, Priscilla

    2014-01-01

    Background Because excessive dietary sodium intake is a major contributor to hypertension, a reduction in dietary sodium has been recommended for the US population. Using the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2007–2010 data, we estimated current sodium intake in US population ethnic subgroups and modeled the potential impact of a new sodium reduction technology on sodium intake. Methods NHANES 2007–2010 data were analyzed using The National Cancer Institute method to e...

  14. Method and system for producing hydrogen using sodium ion separation membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bingham, Dennis N; Klingler, Kerry M; Turner, Terry D; Wilding, Bruce M; Frost, Lyman

    2013-05-21

    A method of producing hydrogen from sodium hydroxide and water is disclosed. The method comprises separating sodium from a first aqueous sodium hydroxide stream in a sodium ion separator, feeding the sodium produced in the sodium ion separator to a sodium reactor, reacting the sodium in the sodium reactor with water, and producing a second aqueous sodium hydroxide stream and hydrogen. The method may also comprise reusing the second aqueous sodium hydroxide stream by combining the second aqueous sodium hydroxide stream with the first aqueous sodium hydroxide stream. A system of producing hydrogen is also disclosed.

  15. Sodium phosphate as an ergogenic aid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buck, Christopher L; Wallman, Karen E; Dawson, Brian; Guelfi, Kym J

    2013-06-01

    Legal nutritional ergogenic aids can offer athletes an additional avenue to enhance their performance beyond what they can achieve through training. Consequently, the investigation of new nutritional ergogenic aids is constantly being undertaken. One emerging nutritional supplement that has shown some positive benefits for sporting performance is sodium phosphate. For ergogenic purposes, sodium phosphate is supplemented orally in capsule form, at a dose of 3-5 g/day for a period of between 3 and 6 days. A number of exercise performance-enhancing alterations have been reported to occur with sodium phosphate supplementation, which include an increased aerobic capacity, increased peak power output, increased anaerobic threshold and improved myocardial and cardiovascular responses to exercise. A range of mechanisms have been posited to account for these ergogenic effects. These include enhancements in 2,3-Diphosphoglycerate (2,3-DPG) concentrations, myocardial efficiency, buffering capacity and adenosine triphosphate/phosphocreatine synthesis. Whilst there is evidence to support the ergogenic benefits of sodium phosphate, many studies researching this substance differ in terms of the administered dose and dosing protocol, the washout period employed and the fitness level of the participants recruited. Additionally, the effect of gender has received very little attention in the literature. Therefore, the purpose of this review is to critically examine the use of sodium phosphate as an ergogenic aid, with a focus on identifying relevant further research.

  16. Toxicity of aerosols of sodium reaction products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwicker, G M; Allen, M D; Stevens, D L

    1979-01-01

    Sodium is used as the heat transfer medium in several new energy technologies such as liquid-metal fast-breeder reactors and solar-thermal collection systems. Because sodium burns in air and reacts violently with water, the potential exists for an airborne release of sodium combustion products and subsequent human exposure. To help evaluate the potential short-term hazard from an accidental sodium fire, male juvenile or adult Wistar rats were exposed to sodium aerosols for 2 hours to determine the dose at which 50 percent of the animals were affected (ED50) for each age group. The estimated ED50 of 510 microgram/l for adults was not significantly different from the estimated ED50 of 489 microgram/l for juveniles. The incidence of acute laryngitis, attributed to exposure, was three times higher for juvenile rats than for adults, and the degree of severity of this lesion was significantly (P less than 0.05) higher for juveniles.

  17. Idraparinux sodium: SANORG 34006, SR 34006.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    Idraparinux sodium [SANORG 34006, SR 34006], a synthetic, anti Xa pentasaccharide and analogue of SR 32701 and fondaparinux sodium, was in development with Sanofi (now Sanofi-Synthélabo) and Organon (Akzo Nobel) in Europe and the USA (now Sanofi-Synthélabo alone). It may have potential in the treatment and secondary prevention of thrombosis, especially deep-vein thrombosis (DVT). Because of the long duration of action of idraparinux sodium, it may be suitable for once-weekly administration. In January 2004, Sanofi-Synthélabo announced it was to acquire, before the end of the first quarter 2004, all the rights of Organon relating to idraparinux sodium, subject to approval of the regulatory authorities. Sanofi-Synthélabo is to make payments to Organon based on future sales. Idraparinux sodium has completed phase IIb development with the PERSIST study and it is in phase III clinical trials. In June 2003, Organon announced the initiation of pivotal phase III studies as a once-weekly treatment of DVT and pulmonary embolism (PE), and for the prevention of stroke in patients with atrial fibrillation. The AMADEUS study will focus on patients with atrial fibrillation while the Van Gogh PE, Van Gogh DVT and the Van Gogh extension (EXT) will focus on patients with DVT or PE.

  18. Sodium ascorbyl phosphate in topical microemulsions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiclin, Polona; Homar, Miha; Zupancic-Valant, Andreja; Gasperlin, Mirjana

    2003-04-30

    Sodium ascorbyl phosphate is a hydrophilic derivative of ascorbic acid, which has improved stability arising from its chemical structure. It is used in cosmetic and pharmaceutical preparations since it has many favorable effects in the skin, the most important being antioxidant action. In order to achieve this, it has to be converted into free ascorbic acid by enzymatic degradation in the skin. In the present work, o/w and w/o microemulsions composed of the same ingredients, were selected as carrier systems for topical delivery of sodium ascorbyl phosphate. We showed that sodium ascorbyl phosphate was stable in both types of microemulsion with no significant influence of its location in the carrier system. To obtain liquid microemulsions appropriate for topical application, their viscosity was increased by adding thickening agents. On the basis of rheological characterization, 4.00% (m/m) colloidal silica was chosen as a suitable thickening agent for w/o microemulsions and 0.50% (m/m) xanthan gum for the o/w type. The presence of thickening agent and the location of sodium ascorbyl phosphate in the microemulsion influenced the in vitro drug release profiles. When incorporated in the internal aqueous phase, sustained release profiles were observed. This study confirmed microemulsions as suitable carrier systems for topical application of sodium ascorbyl phosphate.

  19. Temporal sodium release related to gel microstructural properties-implications for sodium reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Wan-Yuan; Lee, Youngsoo

    2014-11-01

    The microstructure of food can be engineered to enhance sodium release during mastication, which may be used as a strategy to reduce sodium content in foods. This study aimed to relate sodium release to microstructural properties of solid lipoproteic colloid (SLC) foods. The SLC gels with 1.5% (w/w) NaCl were prepared by homogenization of whey protein isolate and anhydrous milk fat, followed by heat-induced gelation. The gels varied in protein content (8% or 16%), fat content (0%, 11%, 22%, or 33%), and homogenization pressures (14 or 55 MPa). The maximum rate of sodium release during the initial gel compression increased with increasing gel porosity and pore size. This was due to more releasable serum in the gels with larger pore volume and larger pores. The maximum concentration of sodium at the end of sodium release increased with reduced size of the fat particles in the gels. The smaller fat particles were dispersed more uniformly and interrupted the protein network more, and facilitated the gel breakdown. The above findings suggested that, during the breakdown of the SLC gels, the major mechanisms of sodium release are via serum release followed by sodium diffusion, which are governed by the gel porosity and the particle size of fat, respectively. This study demonstrated the dependence of temporal sodium release properties on the microstructural properties of an SLC food system. The findings from this study could lay the foundation for further investigation of the dependence of saltiness perception on SLC microstructure, which can provide insight for sodium reduction in SLC products. © 2014 Institute of Food Technologists®

  20. Synthesis of layered zinc hydroxide intercalated with dodecyl sulfate organic-inorganic hybrid nanocomposite as a fiber coating for the headspace solid-phase microextraction of aromatic hydrocarbons from water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yousefi, Vahid; Parastari, Sheyda; Gorji, Mohsen; Foroutani, Reza; Mahdavi, Mehri; Hazizadeh, Behzad

    2016-12-01

    We describe the synthesis of a layered zinc hydroxide-dodecyl sulfate organic-inorganic hybrid nanocomposite as a new solid-phase microextraction fiber. The fiber coating can be prepared easily in a short time and the reaction is at room temperature; it is mechanically stable and exhibits relatively high thermal stability. The synthesized layered zinc hydroxide-dodecyl sulfate nanocomposite was successfully prepared and immobilized on a stainless steel wire and evaluated for the extraction of aromatic compounds from aqueous sample solutions in combination with gas chromatography and mass spectrometry. The method yields good results for some validation parameters. Under optimum conditions (extraction time: 15 min, extraction temperature: 50°C, desorption time: 1 min, desorption temperature: 250°C, salt concentration: 0.5 g/mL), the limit of detection and dynamic linear range were 0.69-3.2 ng/L and 10-500 ng/L, respectively. The method was applied to the analyses of benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and o-, p-, and m-xylenes in two real water samples collected from the Aji river and Mehran river, Tabriz, Iran. Under optimum conditions, the repeatability and reproducibility for one fiber (n = 3), expressed as the relative standard deviation, was 3.2-7.3% and 4.2-11.2% respectively. The fibers are thermally stable and yield better recoveries than conventional methods of analysis. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. The Effect of Chronic Sodium Loading and Sodium Restriction on Plasma Prostaglandin A, E and F Concentrations in Normal Humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zusman, Randall M.; Spector, David; Caldwell, Burton V.; Speroff, Leon; Schneider, George; Mulrow, Patrick J.

    1973-01-01

    It has been suggested that prostaglandins may be involved in the control of sodium homeostasis. Prostaglandin A and prostaglandin E have been shown to increase renal blood flow and urinary sodium excretion and prostaglandin A has been shown to stimulate aldosterone release. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of chronic sodium loading and sodium restriction on plasma prostaglandin A, E, and F concentrations. Seven normal human volunteers were placed on three sodium intake diets: (a) ad lib. sodium intake, (b) high sodium intake, and (c) low sodium intake. Plasma prostaglandin A, E, and F concentrations were measured by radioimmunoassay. Mean prostaglandin A levels on the ad lib. diet were 1.60 ng/ml. Prostaglandin A levels decreased 49% to 0.82 ng/ml on the high sodium intake and increased 34% to 2.14 ng/ml on the low sodium intake. Prostaglandin A levels increased 161% on the low sodium diet in comparison with levels on the high sodium diet. Plasma prostaglandin E and F concentrations did not change significantly during variation in sodium intake. These results show that dietary sodium content markedly effects plasma prostaglandin A levels and that prostaglandins may play a role in the physiologic mechanism of sodium homeostasis. PMID:4700484

  2. Comparative study on bactericidal activity of benzalkonium chloride and dodecyl two propylene triamine%苯扎氯铵与十二烷基二亚丙三胺杀菌活性比较研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张丽蓉; 陈维; 邓金花; 宋金武

    2016-01-01

    Objective To compare bactericidal activity of benzalkonium chloride and dodecyl two propylene triamine.Methods Suspension quantitative germicidal test and antibacterial ring test were used to study bactericidal activity of benzalkonium chloride and dodecyl two propylene triamine.Results The average killing logarithm values of Pseudomonas aeruginosa,Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus exposed to the concentration of 500 mg/L of the benzalkonium chloride for 1 min were 5.18,7.02 and 7.13 respectively,the average killing logarithm value of Candida albicans was 4.48.The average killing logarithm values of P.aeruginosa,E.coli and S.aureus exposed to the concentration of 500 mg/L of the dodecyl two propylene triamine for 1 min were 5.84,7.32 and 7.13 respectively,the average killing logarithm value of C.albicans was 4.94.Concentration was 50 mg/L,the antibacterial ring diameters of benzalkonium chloride and dodecyl two propylene triamine were 8.3 mm and 8.2 mm respectively.Conclusion The bactericidal effect of dodecyl two propylene triamine is better than that of benzalkonium chloride,there was no significant difference in antibacterial effect.%目的 比较苯扎氯铵与十二烷基二亚丙三胺的杀菌活性.方法 采用悬液定量杀菌试验和抑菌环试验方法,对苯扎氯铵和十二烷基二亚丙三胺的杀菌活性进行比较研究.结果 用含500 mg/L的苯扎氯铵作用1 min,对铜绿假单胞菌、大肠杆菌和金黄色葡萄球菌的平均杀灭对数值分别为5.18、7.02和7.13,对白色念珠菌的平均杀灭对数值为4.48.用含500 mg/L的十二烷基二亚丙三胺作用1 min,对铜绿假单胞菌、大肠杆菌和金黄色葡萄球菌的平均杀灭对数值分别为5.84、7.32和7.13,对白色念珠菌的平均杀灭对数值为4.94.浓度为50 mg/L时,苯扎氯铵与十二烷基二亚丙三胺的抑菌环直径分别为8.3 mm和8.2 mm.结论 十二烷基二亚丙三胺的杀菌效果优于苯扎氯铵,抑菌效果无显著差异.

  3. Sodium Intake Requirements for Preterm Neonates: Review and Recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bischoff, Adrianne R; Tomlinson, Christopher; Belik, Jaques

    2016-12-01

    It is widely accepted that sodium is an essential nutritional electrolyte and its deficiency is associated with neurological sequelae and poor growth. The provision of an adequate sodium intake to preterm neonates is hampered by the technical difficulty in clinically assessing total body sodium content. As addressed in this review, there is a lack of consensus on the definition of hyponatremia early in life, but there is no evidence that it should deviate from the widely accepted normative data for adult subjects. A low urinary sodium content is accepted by many as reflecting total body sodium deficiency, yet spot urinary sodium measurements are of questionable clinical value. The hormonal regulation of sodium homeostasis is here reviewed and the mechanism accounting for sodium deficiency-induced growth impairment in preterm infants addressed. Lastly, we provide evidence-based gestational and postnatal age-dependent recommendations for the provision of adequate sodium intake to preterm neonates.

  4. An emerging antiarrhythmic target: late sodium current.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banyasz, T; Szentandrássy, N; Magyar, J; Szabo, Z; Nánási, P P; Chen-Izu, Y; Izu, L T

    2015-01-01

    The cardiac late sodium current (INa,L) has been in the focus of research in the recent decade. The first reports on the sustained component of voltage activated sodium current date back to the seventies, but early studies interpreted this tiny current as a product of a few channels that fail to inactivate, having neither physiologic nor pathologic implications. Recently, the cardiac INa,L has emerged as a potentially major arrhythmogenic mechanism in various heart diseases, attracting the attention of clinicians and researchers. Research activity on INa,L has exponentially increased since Ranolazine, an FDA-approved antianginal drug was shown to successfully suppress cardiac arrhythmias by inhibiting INa,L. This review aims to summarize and discuss a series of papers focusing on the cardiac late sodium current and its regulation under physiological and pathological conditions. We will discuss critical evidences implicating INa,L as a potential target for treating myocardial dysfunction and cardiac arrhythmias.

  5. Is sodium chloride worth its salt?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIntosh, Euan; Andrews, Peter J

    2013-06-11

    The choice of fluid for resuscitation of the brain-injured patient remains controversial, and the 'ideal' resuscitation fluid has yet to be identified. Large volumes of hypotonic solutions must be avoided because of the risk of cerebral swelling and intracranial hypertension. Traditionally, 0.9% sodium chloride has been used in patients at risk of intracranial hypertension, but there is increasing recognition that 0.9% saline is not without its problems. Roquilly and colleagues show a reduction in the development of hyperchloremic acidosis in brain-injured patients given 'balanced' solutions for maintenance and resuscitation compared with 0.9% sodium chloride. In this commentary, we explore the idea that we should move away from 0.9% sodium chloride in favor of a more 'physiological' solution.

  6. Electrochemical Oxygen Sensor Development for Liquid Sodium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nollet, Billy K.

    Safe operation of a sodium-cooled fast reactor (SFR) requires in-depth understanding of the corrosion implications of liquid sodium coolant on reactor materials. Dissolved oxygen concentration is of particular importance in characterizing sodium attack, so an accurate means of measuring and controlling oxygen is crucial. There is significant room for improvement in current oxygen sensing technology, so extensive research has been conducted at the University of Wisconsin-Madison to address this issue. Experimental facilities and electrochemical oxygen sensors have been developed, tested, and analyzed. This research is discussed in detail in this report. The oxygen sensors tested in this research were developed using a yttria stabilized zirconia (YSZ) electrolyte whereas many of the past research in this field was conducted with yttria doped thoria (YDT or YST) electrolytes. Thorium, an alpha emitter, is expensive and increasingly difficult to acquire, so motivation to switch to a new material exists. YSZ is commonly used as the electrolyte for solid oxide fuel cells, and ample data is available for high temperature ionic conduction of this material. While some work has been done with YSZ in oxygen sensors (the automotive field, for example, uses YSZ O2 sensors), research on YSZ sensors in sodium is limited. A thorough study of YSZ-based electrochemical oxygen sensors must include detailed corrosion testing and analysis of YSZ in liquid sodium, careful oxygen sensor development and testing, and finally, a comprehensive analysis of the acquired sensor data. The research presented in this report describes the design and development of an electrochemical oxygen sensor for use in sodium using a YSZ electrolyte through the previously-mentioned steps. The designed sensors were subjected to a series of hypotheses which advance common understanding of oxygen sensor signal. These results were used in conjunction with past research to form reliable conclusions.

  7. High Temperature Sodium Thermal Convection Test Loop

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    A project for the evaluation of compatibility characteristic of structural materials used in China experimental fast reactor(CEFR) has been in operation. The conditions which these structural materials contact with liquid sodium in reactor can be simulated by the tests in high temperature sodium thermal convection test loop. The main aims of designing and constructing the thermal convection test loop is for the corrosion test of CEFR materials, and the objective is to obtain the corrosion data of domestic materials.The main features of the test loop are shown in Fig.1. The primary components of the loop

  8. LOW SODIUM DIET: PROS AND CONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. M. Drapkina

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Currently, there is rather contradictory evidence on the effectiveness of a low sodium diet for the prevention of various diseases. At that, it is a generally accepted fact, that it is necessary to reduce salt intake in order to reduce high blood pressure. An internist should remember that the degree of blood pressure reduction is individual and not always depends on the level of salt intake. Moreover, the low-sodium diet helps to reduce the rate of telomere shortening, thereby slowing down the aging process.

  9. Bleaching of Wool with Sodium Borohydride

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duygu Yilmazer, MSc.

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available An untreated wool fabric was bleached both with sodium borohydride (SBH in the presence of sodium bisulphite (SBS solution and with a commercial H2O2 bleaching method. The concentration effects of SBH and SBS, bleaching time, pH and temperature on SBH bleaching process were investigated. Whiteness, yellowness and alkali solubility results were assessed for both bleaching methods. The results showed that whiteness degrees obtained with SBH bleaching was comparable with that of H2O2 bleaching method; whereas the alkali solubility values of the SBH bleaching was superior to the H2O2 bleaching.

  10. Sodium fast reactors with closed fuel cycle

    CERN Document Server

    Raj, Baldev; Vasudeva Rao, PR 0

    2015-01-01

    Sodium Fast Reactors with Closed Fuel Cycle delivers a detailed discussion of an important technology that is being harnessed for commercial energy production in many parts of the world. Presenting the state of the art of sodium-cooled fast reactors with closed fuel cycles, this book:Offers in-depth coverage of reactor physics, materials, design, safety analysis, validations, engineering, construction, and commissioning aspectsFeatures a special chapter on allied sciences to highlight advanced reactor core materials, specialized manufacturing technologies, chemical sensors, in-service inspecti

  11. Analysis of Nitrogen in Sodium by Spectrophotometry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Sodium sample in which nitrogen exists in form of sodium nitride, lithium nitride and calcium nitrideis solved by distilled water and produce ammonia. Ammonia is relieved when solution is heated, then it isabsorbed by hydrochloric acid to produce ammnium chloride. In alkaline solution, ammonium chlorideconverts into ammonia. Ammonia reacts with hypochlorite and phenol that produces a blue indophenol.Nitrogen is determined by 751G type spectrophotometry at the absorption wavelength of 635 nm. The work condition of 751G type spectroscopy, colorimetric condition, smicture of the apparatus

  12. LOW SODIUM DIET: PROS AND CONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. M. Drapkina

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Currently, there is rather contradictory evidence on the effectiveness of a low sodium diet for the prevention of various diseases. At that, it is a generally accepted fact, that it is necessary to reduce salt intake in order to reduce high blood pressure. An internist should remember that the degree of blood pressure reduction is individual and not always depends on the level of salt intake. Moreover, the low-sodium diet helps to reduce the rate of telomere shortening, thereby slowing down the aging process.

  13. Impact Of Sodium Oxalate, Sodium Aluminosilicate, and Gibbsite/Boehmite on ARP Filter Performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poirier, M. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Burket, P. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2015-11-01

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) is currently treating radioactive liquid waste with the Actinide Removal Process (ARP) and the Modular Caustic Side Solvent Extraction Unit (MCU). Recently, the low filter flux through the ARP of approximately 5 gallons per minute has limited the rate at which radioactive liquid waste can be treated. Salt Batch 6 had a lower processing rate and required frequent filter cleaning. Savannah River Remediation (SRR) has a desire to understand the causes of the low filter flux and to increase ARP/MCU throughput. SRR requested SRNL to conduct bench-scale filter tests to evaluate whether sodium oxalate, sodium aluminosilicate, or aluminum solids (i.e., gibbsite and boehmite) could be the cause of excessive fouling of the crossflow or secondary filter at ARP. The authors conducted the tests by preparing slurries containing 6.6 M sodium Salt Batch 6 supernate, 2.5 g MST/L slurry, and varying concentrations of sodium oxalate, sodium aluminosilicate, and aluminum solids, processing the slurry through a bench-scale filter unit that contains a crossflow primary filter and a dead-end secondary filter, and measuring filter flux and transmembrane pressure as a function of time. Among the conclusions drwn from this work are the following: (1) All of the tests showed some evidence of fouling the secondary filter. This fouling could be from fine particles passing through the crossflow filter. (2) The sodium oxalate-containing feeds behaved differently from the sodium aluminosilicate- and gibbsite/boehmite-containing feeds.

  14. Wound healing evaluation of sodium fucidate-loaded polyvinylalcohol/sodium carboxymethylcellulose-based wound dressing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jeong Hoon; Lim, Soo-Jeong; Oh, Dong Hoon; Ku, Sae Kwang; Li, Dong Xun; Yong, Chul Soon; Choi, Han-Gon

    2010-07-01

    The cross-linked hydrogel films containing sodium fucidate were previously reported to be prepared polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) and sodium carboxymethylcellulose (Na-CMC) using the freeze-thawing method and their physicochemical property was investigated. For the development of novel sodium fucidate-loaded wound dressing, here its in vivo wound healing test and histopathology were performed compared with the conventional ointment product. In wound healing test, the sodium fucidate-loaded composed of 2.5% PVA, 1.125% Na-CMC and 0.2% drug showed faster healing of the wound made in rat dorsum than the hydrogel without drug, indicating the potential healing effect of sodium fucidate. Furthermore, from the histological examination, the healing effect of sodium fucidate-loaded hydrogel was greater than that of the conventional ointment product and hydrogel without drug, since it might gave an adequate level of moisture and build up the exudates on the wound area. Thus, the sodium fucidate-loaded wound dressing composed of 5% PVA, 1.125% Na-CMC and 0.2% drug is a potential wound dressing with excellent wound healing.

  15. Restraining Sodium Volatilization in the Ferric Bauxite Direct Reduction System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wentao Hu

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Direct reduction is an emerging utilization technology of ferric bauxite. However, it requires much more sodium carbonate than ordinary bauxite does. The volatilization is one of the most significant parts of sodium carbonate consumption, as reported in previous studies. Based on the new direct reduction method for utilization of ferric bauxite, this paper has systematically investigated factors including heating temperature, heating time, and sodium carbonate dosage influencing sodium volatilization. For the purpose of reducing sodium volatilization, the Box–Benhken design was employed, and the possibility of separating iron and sodium after direct reduction was also investigated.

  16. Inhibition of neutrophil and eosinophil induced chemotaxis by nedocromil sodium and sodium cromoglycate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruijnzeel, P. L.; Warringa, R. A.; Kok, P. T.; Kreukniet, J.

    1990-01-01

    1. Neutrophils and eosinophils infiltrate the airways in association with the allergen-induced late phase asthmatic reaction. Mobilization of these cells takes place via lipid-like and protein-like chemotactic factors. In this study platelet-activating factor (PAF), leukotriene B4 (LTB4), zymosan-activated serum (ZAS) and N-formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine (FMLP) were used as illustrative examples of both groups. Chemotaxis was studied in human neutrophils and eosinophils. The inhibitory effects of nedocromil sodium and sodium cromoglycate were evaluated. 2. All chemotactic factors tested attracted neutrophils with the following rank order of activity: ZAS greater than PAF identical to FMLP identical to LTB4. Eosinophils were only mobilized by PAF, LTB4 and ZAS with the following rank order of activity: ZAS greater than PAF greater than LTB4. 3. Nedocromil sodium and sodium cromoglycate were equally active as the PAF antagonist BN 52021 in inhibiting the PAF-induced chemotaxis of neutrophils (IC50 approximately 10(-8) M). Both drugs were also equally active in inhibiting the chemotaxis of neutrophils induced by ZAS (IC50 approximately 10(-7)-10(-6) M), FMLP (IC50 approximately 10(-7) M) and LTB4 (IC50 approximately 10(-6) M). 4. Nedocromil sodium significantly inhibited the chemotaxis of eosinophils induced by PAF (IC50 approximately 10(-6) M) and LTB4 (IC50 approximately 10(-7) M). The inhibitory potency of BN 52021 was similar to that of nedocromil sodium on the PAF-induced chemotaxis of eosinophils. Sodium cromoglycate was incapable of eliciting significant inhibition of these chemotactic responses. However, sodium cromoglycate significantly inhibited the chemotaxis of eosinophils induced by ZAS (IC50 approximately 10(-7) M), whereas nedocromil sodium was ineffective. PMID:2163279

  17. Increased brain tissue sodium concentration in Huntington's Disease - a sodium imaging study at 4 T.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reetz, Kathrin; Romanzetti, Sandro; Dogan, Imis; Saß, Christian; Werner, Cornelius J; Schiefer, Johannes; Schulz, Jörg B; Shah, N Jon

    2012-10-15

    The neuropathological hallmark of the autosomal dominantly inherited, neurodegenerative disorder Huntington's disease is progressive striatal loss starting several years prior to symptom manifestation. Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging has been widely used to detect altered structure in premanifest and early Huntington's disease. Given that neurodegeneration is likely preceded by substantial neuronal dysfunction, we used in vivo sodium MR imaging, which has been shown to be sensitive to cell death and viability, to investigate cellular and metabolic integrity of Huntington's disease brain tissue. We studied a total of thirteen healthy controls and thirteen Huntington's disease gene carriers (11 manifest and 2 premanifest). The manifest Huntington's disease group was subdivided into stages 1 and 2 according to their Total Functional Capacity scores. Clinical total motor and cognitive scores, as well as calibrated sodium and T1-weighted MR images were obtained with a 4 T Siemens MR scanner. Sodium images were acquired by means of a constant time imaging technique with an ultra-short "echo time". T1-weighted MR images were further analysed with voxel-based morphometry. The absolute total sodium concentration and grey matter values were measured in several Huntington's disease-specific and also non-specific areas. Statistical analysis of variance and Pearson correlation were applied. In Huntington's disease subjects, we found an increase of total sodium concentration of the entire brain compared to controls. Increased total sodium concentration values were found in structurally affected, but also in some non-affected, regions. The highest total sodium concentration values were found in the bilateral caudate, which was associated with caudate grey matter atrophy and CAG repeat length. In all Huntington's disease subjects we further found a profound increase of total sodium concentration in the putamen, pallidum, thalamus, hippocampus, insula, precuneus and occipital

  18. 阴离子表面活性剂SDS和SDBS对紫贻贝生化指标的影响研究%Effect of Two Anionic Surfactants Sodium-Dodecylbenzene Sulfonate (SDBS) and Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate (SDS) on Biochemical Indice in Mytilus galloprovincialis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘波; 俞志明; 宋秀贤; 周斌

    2007-01-01

    以青岛胶州湾现场调查数据为依据,选择阴离子表面活性剂十二烷基硫酸钠(SDS)和十二烷基苯磺酸钠(SDBS)作为污染物,以近海底栖生物紫贻贝为受试生物,研究了长期暴露后紫贻贝生化指标(SOD,CAT,GSH,GPx,GST,iNOS,AKP)的变化.结果表明,经过72 d不同浓度暴露后,SDBS实验组紫贻贝体内的SOD、CAT和iNOS活性均有显著下降(除CAT 0.1 mg/L组外),GSH、GST和GPx在3.0 mg/L SDS和SDBS组较各自对照组均有显著升高.SDBS对紫贻贝生化指标影响的显著性水平大于SDS.统计分析显示,SDBS暴露组下GST与GPx呈显著正相关关系,iNOS与SOD也表现出一定正相关,但GSH与CAT、GSH与SOD呈现显著负相关关系.此外,结果发现后闭壳肌中iNOS可能是一个具有应用前景的阴离子表面活性剂暴露生物标志物.

  19. Modeling and Validation of Sodium Plugging for Heat Exchangers in Sodium-cooled Fast Reactor Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferroni, Paolo [Westinghouse Electric Company LLC, Cranberry Township, PA (United States). Global Technology Development; Tatli, Emre [Westinghouse Electric Company LLC, Cranberry Township, PA (United States); Czerniak, Luke [Westinghouse Electric Company LLC, Cranberry Township, PA (United States); Sienicki, James J. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Chien, Hual-Te [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Yoichi, Momozaki [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Bakhtiari, Sasan [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2016-06-29

    The project “Modeling and Validation of Sodium Plugging for Heat Exchangers in Sodium-cooled Fast Reactor Systems” was conducted jointly by Westinghouse Electric Company (Westinghouse) and Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), over the period October 1, 2013- March 31, 2016. The project’s motivation was the need to provide designers of Sodium Fast Reactors (SFRs) with a validated, state-of-the-art computational tool for the prediction of sodium oxide (Na2O) deposition in small-diameter sodium heat exchanger (HX) channels, such as those in the diffusion bonded HXs proposed for SFRs coupled with a supercritical CO2 (sCO2) Brayton cycle power conversion system. In SFRs, Na2O deposition can potentially occur following accidental air ingress in the intermediate heat transport system (IHTS) sodium and simultaneous failure of the IHTS sodium cold trap. In this scenario, oxygen can travel through the IHTS loop and reach the coldest regions, represented by the cold end of the sodium channels of the HXs, where Na2O precipitation may initiate and continue. In addition to deteriorating HX heat transfer and pressure drop performance, Na2O deposition can lead to channel plugging especially when the size of the sodium channels is small, which is the case for diffusion bonded HXs whose sodium channel hydraulic diameter is generally below 5 mm. Sodium oxide melts at a high temperature well above the sodium melting temperature such that removal of a solid plug such as through dissolution by pure sodium could take a lengthy time. The Sodium Plugging Phenomena Loop (SPPL) was developed at ANL, prior to this project, for investigating Na2O deposition phenomena within sodium channels that are prototypical of the diffusion bonded HX channels envisioned for SFR-sCO2 systems. In this project, a Computational Fluid Dynamic (CFD) model capable of simulating the thermal-hydraulics of the SPPL test

  20. Sodium reduction in margarine using NaCl substitutes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CARLA GONÇALVES

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Sodium chloride is traditionally used as a food additive in food processing. However, because of its high sodium content, NaCl has been associated with chronic diseases. Margarine is a popular product that is used in several preparations, but it includes high sodium content; therefore, it is among the products whose sodium content should be reduced. Thus, the objective of this study was to produce margarines with reduced sodium content prepared using a salt mixture. The following 4 margarine formulations were prepared: Formulation A (control - 0% sodium reduction, Formulation B (20.8% less sodium, Formulation C (33.0% less sodium and Formulation D (47.4% less sodium. The low sodium formulations were produced using a salt mixture consisting of NaCl, KCl, and monosodium glutamate at different concentrations. The margarines were evaluated using an acceptance test and descriptive tests: time-intensity and temporal dominance of sensations. The mixture used is a good alternative for preparing low sodium margarine because the low sodium formulations feature equal salinity and do not produce a strange or bad taste. Furthermore, it may be possible to prepare margarines with up to 47.4% less sodium and that are acceptable to consumers.