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Sample records for nonrandomized longitudinal study

  1. Intravenous Immunoglobulin Therapy in Pediatric Narcolepsy: A Nonrandomized, Open-Label, Controlled, Longitudinal Observational Study

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    Lecendreux, Michel; Berthier, Johanna; Corny, Jennifer; Bourdon, Olivier; Dossier, Claire; Delclaux, Christophe

    2017-01-01

    Study Objectives: Previous case reports of intravenous immunoglobulins (IVIg) in pediatric narcolepsy have shown contradictory results. Methods: This was a nonrandomized, open-label, controlled, longitudinal observational study of IVIg use in pediatric narcolepsy with retrospective data collection from medical files obtained from a single pediatric national reference center for the treatment of narcolepsy in France. Of 56 consecutively referred patients with narcolepsy, 24 received IVIg (3 infusions administered at 1-mo intervals) in addition to standard care (psychostimulants and/or anticataplectic agents), and 32 continued on standard care alone (controls). Results: For two patients in each group, medical files were unavailable. Of the 22 IVIg patients, all had cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) hypocretin ≤ 110 pg/mL and were HLA-DQB1*06:02 positive. Of the 30 control patients, 29 were HLA-DQB1*06:02 positive and of those with available CSF measurements, all 12 had hypocretin ≤ 110 pg/mL. Compared with control patients, IVIg patients had shorter disease duration, shorter latency to sleep onset, and more had received H1N1 vaccination. Mean (standard deviation) follow-up length was 2.4 (1.1) y in the IVIg group and 3.9 (1.7) y in controls. In multivariate-adjusted linear mixed-effects analyses of change from baseline in Ullanlinna Narcolepsy Scale (UNS) scores, high baseline UNS, but not IVIg treatment, was associated with a reduction in narcolepsy symptoms. On time-to-event analysis, among patients with high baseline UNS scores, control patients achieved a UNS score narcolepsy symptoms were not significantly reduced by IVIg. However, in patients with high baseline symptoms, a subset of IVIg-treated patients achieved remission more rapidly than control patients. Commentary: A commentary on this article appears in this issue on page 363. Citation: Lecendreux M, Berthier J, Corny J, Bourdon O, Dossier C, Delclaux C. Intravenous immunoglobulin therapy in pediatric

  2. Change in organizational justice as a predictor of insomnia symptoms: longitudinal study analysing observational data as a non-randomized pseudo-trial.

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    Lallukka, Tea; Halonen, Jaana I; Sivertsen, Børge; Pentti, Jaana; Stenholm, Sari; Virtanen, Marianna; Salo, Paula; Oksanen, Tuula; Elovainio, Marko; Vahtera, Jussi; Kivimäki, Mika

    2017-01-08

    Despite injustice at the workplace being a potential source of sleep problems, longitudinal evidence remains scarce. We examined whether changes in perceived organizational justice predicted changes in insomnia symptoms. Data on 24 287 Finnish public sector employees (82% women), from three consecutive survey waves between 2000 and 2012, were treated as 'pseudo-trials'. Thus, the analysis of unfavourable changes in organizational justice included participants without insomnia symptoms in Waves 1 and 2, with high organizational justice in Wave 1 and high or low justice in Wave 2 (N = 6307). In the analyses of favourable changes in justice, participants had insomnia symptoms in Waves 1 and 2, low justice in Wave 1 and high or low justice in Wave 2 (N = 2903). In both analyses, the outcome was insomnia symptoms in Wave 3. We used generalized estimating equation models to analyse the data. After adjusting for social and health-related covariates in Wave 1, unfavourable changes in relational organizational justice (i.e. fairness of managerial behaviours) were associated with increased odds of developing insomnia symptoms [odds ratio = 1.15; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.02-1.30]. A favourable change in relational organizational justice was associated with lower odds of persistent insomnia symptoms (odds ratio = 0.83; 95% CI 0.71-0.96). Changes in procedural justice (i.e. the fairness of decision-making procedures) were not associated with insomnia symptoms. These data suggest that changes in perceived relational justice may affect employees' sleep quality. Decreases in the fairness of managerial behaviours were linked to increases in insomnia symptoms, whereas rises in fairness were associated with reduced insomnia symptoms. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the International Epidemiological Association.

  3. Causal inference methods to study nonrandomized, preexisting development interventions

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    Arnold, Benjamin F.; Khush, Ranjiv S.; Ramaswamy, Padmavathi; London, Alicia G.; Rajkumar, Paramasivan; Ramaprabha, Prabhakar; Durairaj, Natesan; Hubbard, Alan E.; Balakrishnan, Kalpana; Colford, John M.

    2010-01-01

    Empirical measurement of interventions to address significant global health and development problems is necessary to ensure that resources are applied appropriately. Such intervention programs are often deployed at the group or community level. The gold standard design to measure the effectiveness of community-level interventions is the community-randomized trial, but the conditions of these trials often make it difficult to assess their external validity and sustainability. The sheer number of community interventions, relative to randomized studies, speaks to a need for rigorous observational methods to measure their impact. In this article, we use the potential outcomes model for causal inference to motivate a matched cohort design to study the impact and sustainability of nonrandomized, preexisting interventions. We illustrate the method using a sanitation mobilization, water supply, and hygiene intervention in rural India. In a matched sample of 25 villages, we enrolled 1,284 children <5 y old and measured outcomes over 12 mo. Although we found a 33 percentage point difference in new toilet construction [95% confidence interval (CI) = 28%, 39%], we found no impacts on height-for-age Z scores (adjusted difference = 0.01, 95% CI = −0.15, 0.19) or diarrhea (adjusted longitudinal prevalence difference = 0.003, 95% CI = −0.001, 0.008) among children <5 y old. This study demonstrates that matched cohort designs can estimate impacts from nonrandomized, preexisting interventions that are used widely in development efforts. Interpreting the impacts as causal, however, requires stronger assumptions than prospective, randomized studies. PMID:21149699

  4. Does school-based physical activity decrease overweight and obesity in children aged 6-9 years? A two-year non-randomized longitudinal intervention study in the Czech Republic.

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    Sigmund, Erik; El Ansari, Walid; Sigmundová, Dagmar

    2012-07-29

    Globally, efforts aimed at the prevention of childhood obesity have led to the implementation of a range of school-based interventions. This study assessed whether augmenting physical activity (PA) within the school setting resulted in increased daily PA and decreased overweight/obesity levels in 6-9-year-old children. Across the first to third primary school years, PA of 84 girls and 92 boys was objectively monitored five times (each for seven successive days) using Yamax pedometer (step counts) and Caltrac accelerometer (activity energy expenditure AEE - kcal/kg per day). Four schools were selected to participate in the research (2 intervention, 2 controls), comprising intervention (43 girls, 45 boys) and control children (41 girls, 47 boys). The study was non-randomized and the intervention schools were selected on the basis of existing PA-conducive environment. Analyses of variance (ANOVA) for repeated measures examined the PA programme and gender effects on the step counts and AEE. Logistic regression (Enter method) determined the obesity and overweight occurrence prospect over the course of implementation of the PA intervention. There was a significant increase of school-based PA during schooldays in intervention children (from ≈ 1718 to ≈ 3247 steps per day; and from 2.1 to ≈ 3.6 Kcal/Kg per day) in comparison with the control children. Increased school-based PA of intervention children during schooldays contributed to them achieving >10,500 steps and >10.5 Kcal/Kg per school day across the 2 years of the study, and resulted in a stop of the decline in PA levels that is known to be associated with the increasing age of children. Increased school-based PA had also positive impact on leisure time PA of schooldays and on PA at weekends of intervention children. One year after the start of the PA intervention, the odds of being overweight or obese in the intervention children was almost three times lower than that of control children (p

  5. Nonrandomized studies are not always found even when selection criteria for health systems intervention reviews include them: a methodological study.

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    Glenton, Claire; Lewin, Simon; Mayhew, Alain; Scheel, Inger; Odgaard-Jensen, Jan

    2013-04-01

    Systematic reviews within the Cochrane Effective Practice and Organisation of Care Group (EPOC) can include both randomized and nonrandomized study designs. We explored how many EPOC reviews consider and identify nonrandomized studies, and whether the proportion of nonrandomized studies identified is linked to the review topic. We recorded the study designs considered in 65 EPOC reviews. For reviews that considered nonrandomized studies, we calculated the proportion of identified studies that were nonrandomized and explored whether there were differences in the proportion of nonrandomized studies according to the review topic. Fifty-one (78.5%) reviews considered nonrandomized studies. Forty-six of these reviews found nonrandomized studies, but the proportion varied a great deal (median, 33%; interquartile range, 25--50%). Reviews of health care delivery interventions had lower proportions of nonrandomized studies than those of financial and governance interventions. Most EPOC reviews consider nonrandomized studies, but the degree to which they find them varies. As nonrandomized studies are believed to be at higher risk of bias and their inclusion entails a considerable effort, review authors should consider whether the benefits justify the inclusion of these designs. Research should explore whether it is more useful to consider nonrandomized studies in reviews of some intervention types than others. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Does school-based physical activity decrease overweight and obesity in children aged 6–9 years? A two-year non-randomized longitudinal intervention study in the Czech Republic

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    Sigmund, Erik; El Ansari, Walid; Sigmundová, Dagmar

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Globally, efforts aimed at the prevention of childhood obesity have led to the implementation of a range of school-based interventions. This study assessed whether augmenting physical activity (PA) within the school setting resulted in increased daily PA and decreased overweight/obesity levels in 6-9-year-old children. Methods Across the first to third primary school years, PA of 84 girls and 92 boys was objectively monitored five times (each for seven successive days) usi...

  7. Meta-analysis of non-randomized studies in interventional cardiology: a critical appraisal

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    Eliano Pio Navarese

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Utilisation of meta-analysis is becoming more and more common in interventional cardiology. The aim of this statistical approach is to collect a large number of patients from randomized clinical studies and nonrandomized registries in order to obtain a pooled estimate of the results. Nevertheless, simply pooling these results without a correct methodological approach can easily lead to biased conclusions. In this report we analyse the possible methodological drawbacks of such an approach and we suggest a simplified check-list of items to be considered in the effort of building-up a meta-analysis from non-randomized studies.

  8. The quality of control groups in nonrandomized studies published in the Journal of Hand Surgery.

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    Johnson, Shepard P; Malay, Sunitha; Chung, Kevin C

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate control group selection in nonrandomized studies published in the Journal of Hand Surgery American (JHS). We reviewed all papers published in JHS in 2013 to identify studies that used nonrandomized control groups. Data collected included type of study design and control group characteristics. We then appraised studies to determine whether authors discussed confounding and selection bias and how they controlled for confounding. Thirty-seven nonrandomized studies were published in JHS in 2013. The source of control was either the same institution as the study group, a different institution, a database, or not provided in the manuscript. Twenty-nine (78%) studies statistically compared key characteristics between control and study group. Confounding was controlled with matching, exclusion criteria, or regression analysis. Twenty-two (59%) papers explicitly discussed the threat of confounding and 18 (49%) identified sources of selection bias. In our review of nonrandomized studies published in JHS, papers had well-defined controls that were similar to the study group, allowing for reasonable comparisons. However, we identified substantial confounding and bias that were not addressed as explicit limitations, which might lead the reader to overestimate the scientific validity of the data. Incorporating a brief discussion of control group selection in scientific manuscripts should help readers interpret the study more appropriately. Authors, reviewers, and editors should strive to address this component of clinical importance. Copyright © 2015 American Society for Surgery of the Hand. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Quantitative assessment of unobserved confounding is mandatory in nonrandomized intervention studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groenwold, R H H; Hak, E; Hoes, A W

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: In nonrandomized intervention studies unequal distribution of patient characteristics in the groups under study may hinder comparability of prognosis and therefore lead to confounding bias. Our objective was to review methods to control for observed confounding, as well as unobserved conf

  10. Systematic reviews incorporating evidence from nonrandomized study designs: reasons for caution when estimating health effects.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reeves, B.C.; Binsbergen, J.J. van; Weel, C. van

    2005-01-01

    Systematic reviews that include nonrandomized studies (NRS) face a number of logistical challenges. However, the greatest threat to the validity of such reviews arises from the differing susceptibility of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and NRS to selection bias. Groups compared in NRS are unlik

  11. Checklists of Methodological Issues for Review Authors to Consider When Including Non-Randomized Studies in Systematic Reviews

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    Wells, George A.; Shea, Beverley; Higgins, Julian P. T.; Sterne, Jonathan; Tugwell, Peter; Reeves, Barnaby C.

    2013-01-01

    Background: There is increasing interest from review authors about including non-randomized studies (NRS) in their systematic reviews of health care interventions. This series from the Ottawa Non-Randomized Studies Workshop consists of six papers identifying methodological issues when doing this. Aim: To format the guidance from the preceding…

  12. Meta-analyses including non-randomized studies of therapeutic interventions: a methodological review

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    Timor Faber

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is an increasing number of meta-analyses including data from non-randomized studies for therapeutic evaluation. We aimed to systematically assess the methods used in meta-analyses including non-randomized studies evaluating therapeutic interventions. Methods For this methodological review, we searched MEDLINE via PubMed, from January 1, 2013 to December 31, 2013 for meta-analyses including at least one non-randomized study evaluating therapeutic interventions. Etiological assessments and meta-analyses with no comparison group were excluded. Two reviewers independently assessed the general characteristics and key methodological components of the systematic review process and meta-analysis methods. Results One hundred eighty eight meta-analyses were selected: 119 included both randomized controlled trials (RCTs and non-randomized studies of interventions (NRSI and 69 only NRSI. Half of the meta-analyses (n = 92, 49 % evaluated non-pharmacological interventions. “Grey literature” was searched for 72 meta-analyses (38 %. An assessment of methodological quality or risk of bias was reported in 135 meta-analyses (72 % but this assessment considered the risk of confounding bias in only 33 meta-analyses (18 %. In 130 meta-analyses (69 %, the design of each NRSI was not clearly specified. In 131 (70 %, whether crude or adjusted estimates of treatment effect for NRSI were combined was unclear or not reported. Heterogeneity across studies was assessed in 182 meta-analyses (97 % and further explored in 157 (84 %. Reporting bias was assessed in 127 (68 %. Conclusions Some key methodological components of the systematic review process—search for grey literature, description of the type of NRSI included, assessment of risk of confounding bias and reporting of whether crude or adjusted estimates were combined—are not adequately carried out or reported in meta-analyses including NRSI.

  13. Randomly and Non-Randomly Missing Renal Function Data in the Strong Heart Study: A Comparison of Imputation Methods.

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    Shara, Nawar; Yassin, Sayf A; Valaitis, Eduardas; Wang, Hong; Howard, Barbara V; Wang, Wenyu; Lee, Elisa T; Umans, Jason G

    2015-01-01

    Kidney and cardiovascular disease are widespread among populations with high prevalence of diabetes, such as American Indians participating in the Strong Heart Study (SHS). Studying these conditions simultaneously in longitudinal studies is challenging, because the morbidity and mortality associated with these diseases result in missing data, and these data are likely not missing at random. When such data are merely excluded, study findings may be compromised. In this article, a subset of 2264 participants with complete renal function data from Strong Heart Exams 1 (1989-1991), 2 (1993-1995), and 3 (1998-1999) was used to examine the performance of five methods used to impute missing data: listwise deletion, mean of serial measures, adjacent value, multiple imputation, and pattern-mixture. Three missing at random models and one non-missing at random model were used to compare the performance of the imputation techniques on randomly and non-randomly missing data. The pattern-mixture method was found to perform best for imputing renal function data that were not missing at random. Determining whether data are missing at random or not can help in choosing the imputation method that will provide the most accurate results.

  14. Randomly and Non-Randomly Missing Renal Function Data in the Strong Heart Study: A Comparison of Imputation Methods.

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    Nawar Shara

    Full Text Available Kidney and cardiovascular disease are widespread among populations with high prevalence of diabetes, such as American Indians participating in the Strong Heart Study (SHS. Studying these conditions simultaneously in longitudinal studies is challenging, because the morbidity and mortality associated with these diseases result in missing data, and these data are likely not missing at random. When such data are merely excluded, study findings may be compromised. In this article, a subset of 2264 participants with complete renal function data from Strong Heart Exams 1 (1989-1991, 2 (1993-1995, and 3 (1998-1999 was used to examine the performance of five methods used to impute missing data: listwise deletion, mean of serial measures, adjacent value, multiple imputation, and pattern-mixture. Three missing at random models and one non-missing at random model were used to compare the performance of the imputation techniques on randomly and non-randomly missing data. The pattern-mixture method was found to perform best for imputing renal function data that were not missing at random. Determining whether data are missing at random or not can help in choosing the imputation method that will provide the most accurate results.

  15. Development of an interventional pain management specific instrument for methodologic quality assessment of nonrandomized studies of interventional techniques.

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    Manchikanti, Laxmaiah; Hirsch, Joshua A; Heavner, James E; Cohen, Steven P; Benyamin, Ramsin M; Sehgal, Nalini; Falco, Frank J E; Vallejo, Ricardo; Onyewu, Obi; Zhu, Jie; Kaye, Alan D; Boswell, Mark V; Helm, Standiford; Candido, Kenneth D; Diwan, Sudhir; Simopoulos, Thomas T; Singh, Vijay; Pampati, Vidyasagar; Racz, Gabor B; Raj, P Prithvi

    2014-01-01

    The major component of a systematic review is assessment of the methodologic quality and bias of randomized and nonrandomized trials. While there are multiple instruments available to assess the methodologic quality and bias for randomized controlled trials (RCTs), there is a lack of extensively utilized instruments for observational studies, specifically for interventional pain management (IPM) techniques. Even Cochrane review criteria for randomized trials is considered not to be a "gold standard," but merely an indication of the current state of the art review methodology. Recently a specific instrument to assess the methodologic quality of randomized trials has been developed for interventional techniques. Our objective was to develop an IPM specific instrument to assess the methodological quality of nonrandomized trials or observational studies of interventional techniques. The item generation for the instrument was based on a definition of quality, to the extent to which the design and conduct of the trial were congruent with the objectives of the study. Applicability was defined as the extent to which procedures produced by the study could be applied using contemporary IPM techniques. Multiple items based on Cochrane review criteria and Interventional Pain Management Techniques - Quality Appraisal of Reliability and Risk of Bias Assessment for Nonrandomized Studies (IPM-QRBNR) were utilized. A total of 16 items were developed which formed the IPM-QRBNR tool. The assessment was performed in multiple stages. The final assessment was 4 nonrandomized studies. The inter-rater agreement was moderate to good for IPM-QRBNR criteria. Limited validity or accuracy assessment of the instrument and the large number of items to be scored were limitations. We have developed a new comprehensive instrument to assess the methodological quality of nonrandomized studies of interventional techniques. This instrument provides extensive information specific to interventional

  16. Strategies for improving postpartum contraceptive use: evidence from non-randomized studies.

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    Lopez, Laureen M; Grey, Thomas W; Chen, Mario; Hiller, Janet E

    2014-11-27

    Nearly two-thirds of women in their first postpartum year have an unmet need for family planning. Adolescents often have repeat pregnancies within a year of giving birth. Women may receive counseling on family planning both antepartum and postpartum. Decisions about contraceptive use made right after counseling may differ considerably from actual postpartum use. In earlier work, we found limited evidence of effectiveness from randomized trials on postpartum contraceptive counseling. For educational interventions, non-randomized studies may be conducted more often than randomized trials. We reviewed non-randomized studies of educational strategies to improve postpartum contraceptive use. Our intent was to examine associations between specific interventions and postpartum contraceptive use or subsequent pregnancy. We searched for eligible non-randomized studies until 3 November 2014. Sources included CENTRAL, PubMed, POPLINE, and Web of Science. We also sought current trials via ClinicalTrials.gov and ICTRP. For additional citations, we examined reference lists of relevant reports and reviews. The studies had to be comparative, i.e., have intervention and comparison groups. The educational component could be counseling or another behavioral strategy to improve contraceptive use among postpartum women. The intervention had to include contact within six weeks postpartum. The comparison condition could be another behavioral strategy to improve contraceptive use, usual care, other health education, or no intervention. Our primary outcomes were postpartum contraceptive use and subsequent pregnancy. Two authors evaluated abstracts for eligibility and extracted data from included studies. We computed the Mantel-Haenszel odds ratio (OR) for dichotomous outcomes and the mean difference (MD) for continuous measures, both with 95% Confidence Intervals (CI). Where studies used adjusted analyses for continuous outcomes, we presented the results as reported by the investigators

  17. Outcome of Percutaneous Release of Tennis Elbow: A Non-Randomized Controlled Trial Study

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    Khatri, Kishor; Kharel, Krishna; Byanjankar, Subin; Shrestha, Rahul; Sharma, Jay R; Vaishya, Raju; Agarwal, Amit kumar; Vijay, Vipul

    2017-01-01

    Background Tennis elbow is a common disorder of the upper extremity. It can be treated conservatively in the majority of patients, but some resistant cases eventually can be treated by percutaneous release with good functional outcome. Materials and methods This non-randomized control trial was conducted at the Department of Orthopaedics Surgery in a tertiary care hospital from July 2015 to June 2016 on 50 patients who underwent percutaneous release of the common extensor origin using an 18 gauge hypodermic needle. These patients did not respond to conservative treatment including rest, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDS) and local steroid injections. The outcome was graded as Excellent, Good, Fair, and Poor. Results Fifty patients (50 elbows) were included in the study. Thirty-two patients were female (64%), and 18 were male (36%). The right side was affected in 37 patients (74%) and left side in 13 (26%). The time taken to achieve a completely pain-free elbow ranged from one day to two months (average of 26.2 days). Those who did not achieve a pain-free elbow had a residual pain of 1.5 to six on the visual analogue scale (VAS) (average 2.32). Excellent outcome was noticed in 24 patients (48%); Good result in eight patients (36% ); Fair in four patients (eight percent) and Poor in four patients (eight percent). Conclusion Tennis elbow probably results from the degenerative tear of the common extensor origin, and a percutaneous tenotomy using an 18 gauge hypodermic needle is a simple, safe, patient-friendly, efficient, and easily reproducible method of treating tennis elbow in those who are resistant to conservative treatment, and it can be done as an outpatient procedure. PMID:28168130

  18. Improvement of functional constipation with kiwifruit intake in a Mediterranean patient population: An open, non-randomized pilot study

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    Oriol Cunillera

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Kiwifruit consumption has shown to improve functional constipation in healthy elderly population, according to studies in New Zealand and China. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of kiwifruit intake on functional constipation in a Mediterranean patient population characterized by its distinctive nutritional habits.Material and Methods: An open, non-controlled and non-randomized longitudinal study was conducted in 46 patients with constipation (Rome III criteria. Patients monitored for five weeks: weeks 1 and 2 no kiwifruit and weeks 3-5 three kiwifruit per day (Green kiwifruit, Actinidia deliciosa var Hayward. Bristol Scale, volume of stools, and ease of defecation was self- reported daily. The evolution of the categorical variables was tested using the Bhapkar test; functional data methodology was used for continuous variables, and Generalized Estimating Equation (GEE models were adjusted.Results: The percentage of patients with ≥3 stools per week increased from 82.61% (95% CI: 69–91.2 at week 1 to 97.78% (95% CI: 87.4–99.9 at week 2 of kiwifruit intake, with 76.09% (95% CI: 61.9–86.2 responding during the first week. The reporting of stable ideal stools increased from 17.39% (95% CI: 8.8–31 at week 2 to 33.33% (95% CI: 21.3–48 at week 5. According to GEE models, the number of depositions increased significantly (p-values<0.001 in 0.398 daily units at week 1 the first week of intake, up to 0.593 daily units at week 5; significant improvements on facility in evacuation and volume of evacuation were found from the firstweek of intake (all p-values<0.001.Conclusions: The intake of three kiwifruits per day significantly improves the quality of evacuation (number of depositions, volume, consistency and ease in a Mediterranean patient population suffering from functional constipation.

  19. Multidisciplinary intervention reducing readmissions in medical inpatients: a prospective, non-randomized study

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    Torisson G

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Gustav Torisson,1 Lennart Minthon,1 Lars Stavenow,2 Elisabet Londos1 1Clinical Memory Research Unit, Department of Clinical Sciences, Lund University, 2Department of Internal Medicine, Skåne University Hospital, Malmö, Sweden Background: The purpose of this study was to examine whether a multidisciplinary intervention targeting drug-related problems, cognitive impairment, and discharge miscommunication could reduce readmissions in a general hospital population. Methods: This prospective, non-randomized intervention study was carried out at the department of general internal medicine at a tertiary university hospital. Two hundred medical inpatients living in the community and aged over 60 years were included. Ninety-nine patients received interventions and 101 received standard care. Control/intervention allocation was determined by geographic selection. Interventions consisted of a comprehensive medication review, improved discharge planning, post-discharge telephone follow-up, and liaison with the patient's general practitioner. The main outcome measures recorded were readmissions and hospital nights 12 months after discharge. Separate analyses were made for 12-month survivors and from an intention-to-treat perspective. Comparative analyses were made between groups as well as within groups over time. Results: After 12 months, survivors in the control group had 125 readmissions in total, compared with 58 in the intervention group (Mann–Whitney U test, P = 0.02. For hospital nights, the numbers were 1,228 and 492, respectively (P = 0.009. Yearly admissions had increased from the previous year in the control group from 77 to 125 (Wilcoxon signed-rank test, P = 0.002 and decreased from 75 to 58 in the intervention group (P = 0.25. From the intention-to-treat perspective, the same general pattern was observed but was not significant (1,827 versus 1,008 hospital nights, Mann–Whitney test, P = 0.054. Conclusion: A multidisciplinary approach

  20. Intracorneal Rings (INTACS SK) Might be Beneficial in Keratoconus; A Prospective Nonrandomized Study.

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    A Ibrahim, Tarek; Elmor, Osama

    2013-01-01

    In order to determine the effect of intracorneal rings (Intacs SK), when implanted in keratoconic patients, on corneal curvature, Uncorrected Visual Acuity (UCVA), Best Corrected Visual Acuity (BCVA) and on the progression of the cone through three years follow-up period. In this prospective nonrandomized study 114 eyes of 71 keratoconic patients (38 females and 33 males) were implanted with Intacs SK. Incisions were always made in the steep meridian. UCVA, BCVA, Corneal Topography (TMS) were measured pre and postoperatively and at intervals of 1, 3, 6 & 12 months then yearly for 3 consecutive years. Preoperative mean k-reading was 52.53 and 48.18, 49.56, 49.17, 48.51, 48.15 & 48.01 at 1, 3, 6, 12, 24 & 36 months postoperatively (P‹0.01). In terms of UCVA, 15.64% of patients gained more than 3 lines and 69.73% gained 1-3 lines with a total of 85.37% of patients gaining lines compared to their preoperative UCVA (P‹0.01) while 14.63% of cases did not gain any lines at 1 month postoperative. At three months postoperatively, 12.64% gained more than 3 lines, 71.15% gained 1-3 lines with a total of 83.79% while 16.21% did not gain any lines. Three years postoperative 11.82% of cases gained more than 3 lines, 73.23% gained 1-3 lines with a total of 85.05% while 14.95% did not gain any lines (P‹0.01). With regard to BCVA, 19.73% gained more than 3 lines, 68.26% gained 1-3 lines with a total of 87.99% of cases gaining lines compared to their preoperative BCVA (P‹0.01) while 12.01% did not gained any lines at 1 month postoperative. At three months postoperatively, 14.96% gained more than 3 lines, 70.19% gained 1-3 lines with a total of 85.15% while 14.85% did not gain any lines. Three years postoperative, 12.17% gained more than 3 lines, 71.78% gained 1-3 lines with a total of 83.95% (P‹0.01) while 16.05% did not gain any lines. No eyes lost any lines as it pertained to UCVA & BCVA. Despite the fluctuation of k-readings, UCVA and BCVA in the first 3 months, which

  1. A meta-analysis of nonrandomized effectiveness studies on outpatient cognitive behavioral therapy for adult anxiety disorders.

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    Hans, Eva; Hiller, Wolfgang

    2013-12-01

    The primary aim of this study was to assess the overall effectiveness of individual and group outpatient cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) for adults with a primary anxiety disorder in routine clinical practice. We conducted a random effects meta-analysis of 71 nonrandomized effectiveness studies on outpatient individual and group CBT for adult anxiety disorders. Standardized mean gain effect sizes pre- to posttreatment, and posttreatment to follow-up are reported for disorder-specific symptoms, depression, and general anxiety. The mean dropout from CBT is reported. Outpatient CBT was effective in reducing disorder-specific symptoms in completer (d=0.90-1.91) and intention-to-treat samples (d=0.67-1.45). Moderate to large (d=0.54-1.09) and small to large effect sizes (d=0.42-0.97) were found for depressive and general anxiety symptoms posttreatment. Across all anxiety disorders, the weighted mean dropout rate was 15.06%. Posttreatment gains for disorder-specific anxiety were maintained 12months after completion of therapy. CBT for adult anxiety disorders is very effective and widely accepted in routine practice settings. However, the methodological and reporting quality of nonrandomized effectiveness studies must be improved. © 2013.

  2. Issues Relating to Study Design and Risk of Bias When Including Non-Randomized Studies in Systematic Reviews on the Effects of Interventions

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    Higgins, Julian P. T.; Ramsay, Craig; Reeves, Barnaby C.; Deeks, Jonathan J.; Shea, Beverley; Valentine, Jeffrey C.; Tugwell, Peter; Wells, George

    2013-01-01

    Non-randomized studies may provide valuable evidence on the effects of interventions. They are the main source of evidence on the intended effects of some types of interventions and often provide the only evidence about the effects of interventions on long-term outcomes, rare events or adverse effects. Therefore, systematic reviews on the effects…

  3. A longitudinal study

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    Hantel, Hajo

    2010-01-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the influence of stress, coping and occlusion in the development of temporomandibular disorders (TMD). 99 dental students (m/w = 33/66) could be observed over a period of 24 months. Clinical data were recorded using the protocol of RDC/TMD-axis I, Helkimo’s clinical Dysfunction Index (DI) as well as Helkimo’s Index for Occlusal State (OI). For quantitative evaluation the findings of RDC/TMD were transferred into the RDC-Index (Kanzlivius). Data regardin...

  4. The Importance of Longitudinal Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knezek, Patricia

    2014-01-01

    It has been eight years since the AAS Council unanimously endorsed the document, known as "Equity Now: The Pasadena Recommendations for Gender Equality in Astronomy," in January 2005. This document was the main product of the conference entitled “Women in Astronomy II: Ten Years After” (WIA II), held in June 2003 in Pasadena, CA. One of the key recommendations represented in that document was the need for a longitudinal study of astronomers. It was recognized that in order to understand our own field, how it is evolving, and the impact on individuals, we need to track people over time. I will discuss the fundamental questions that led to the recommendation, and set the stage for the current (ongoing) longitudinal study.

  5. Issues Relating to Confounding and Meta-analysis When Including Non-Randomized Studies in Systematic Reviews on the Effects of Interventions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valentine, Jeffrey C.; Thompson, Simon G.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Confounding caused by selection bias is often a key difference between non-randomized studies (NRS) and randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of interventions. Key methodological issues: In this third paper of the series, we consider issues relating to the inclusion of NRS in systematic reviews on the effects of interventions. We discuss…

  6. Does balneotherapy with low radon concentration in water influence the endocrine system? A controlled non-randomized pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagy, Katalin; Berhés, István; Kovács, Tibor; Kávási, Norbert; Somlai, János; Bender, Tamás

    2009-08-01

    Radon bath is a well-established modality of balneotherapy for the management of degenerative musculoskeletal disorders. The present study was conducted to ascertain whether baths of relatively low (80 Bq/l) radon concentration have any influence on the functioning of the endocrine system. In the study, a non-randomized pilot study, 27 patients with degenerative musculoskeletal disorders received 30-min radon baths (of 31-32 degrees C temperature and 80 Bq/l average radon concentration) daily, for 15 days. Twenty-five patients with matching pathologies were subjected to balneotherapy according to the same protocol, using thermal water with negligible radon content (6 Bq/l). Serum thyroid stimulating hormone, prolactin, cortisol, adrenocorticotropic hormone, and dehydroepiandrosterone levels were measured before and after a balneotherapy course of 15 sessions. Comparison of the accumulated data using the Wilcoxon test did not reveal any significant difference between pre- and post-treatment values or between the two patient groups. It is noted that while the beneficial effects of balneotherapy with radon-containing water on degenerative disorders is widely known, only few data have been published in the literature on its effect on endocrine functions. The present study failed to demonstrate any substantial effect of thermal water with relatively low radon content on the functioning of the endocrine system.

  7. Effectiveness of team-based learning in microbiology: a non-randomized control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harakuni, Sheetal U; Nagamoti, Jyoti M; Mallapur, Maheshwar D

    2015-01-01

    As per the present curriculum in India, pre- and paraclinical subjects are taught away from the clinical setting. Therefore, students fail to connect the subject taught through didactic lectures to the clinical setting. Team-based learning (TBL) can be used in conjunction with lectures to teach applied microbiology. This study aims to evaluate the effectiveness of TBL sessions in conjunction with lectures to enhance learning of applied microbiology, among Indian students. All students enrolled in the study were taught systemic bacteriology through lectures. Of the 88 students, 49 students (study group) attended TBL sessions on the topics of diarrhea, fever of unknown origin, urinary tract infection and 39 students (control group) preferred self-study on the topics without attending the TBL sessions. Students' feedback on their perception on TBL sessions was collected using a questionnaire of 10 items. The performance of both the groups on the pre- and post-test were analyzed using unpaired t-test and analysis of variance (ANOVA). Gender-wise performance within the teams was analyzed by paired t-test using SPSS version 12. The TBL group outperformed the self-study group on the post-test [F 1 = 5.521, P = 0.021]. Female students as a whole performed better than males on the pre-test, scoring higher within both the TBL and self-study groups. Male students in the TBL group performed significantly better on the post-test than female students who participated in TBL sessions (P = 0.013). Students generally enjoyed and appreciated the TBL sessions. TBL sessions can be used judiciously in combination with the lectures to enhance learning of applied microbiology in India. In this study, TBL improved the performance of male students over self-study, but performance for female students following TBL was no better than when they simply studied by themselves.

  8. Bias analysis applied to Agricultural Health Study publications to estimate non-random sources of uncertainty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lash Timothy L

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The associations of pesticide exposure with disease outcomes are estimated without the benefit of a randomized design. For this reason and others, these studies are susceptible to systematic errors. I analyzed studies of the associations between alachlor and glyphosate exposure and cancer incidence, both derived from the Agricultural Health Study cohort, to quantify the bias and uncertainty potentially attributable to systematic error. Methods For each study, I identified the prominent result and important sources of systematic error that might affect it. I assigned probability distributions to the bias parameters that allow quantification of the bias, drew a value at random from each assigned distribution, and calculated the estimate of effect adjusted for the biases. By repeating the draw and adjustment process over multiple iterations, I generated a frequency distribution of adjusted results, from which I obtained a point estimate and simulation interval. These methods were applied without access to the primary record-level dataset. Results The conventional estimates of effect associating alachlor and glyphosate exposure with cancer incidence were likely biased away from the null and understated the uncertainty by quantifying only random error. For example, the conventional p-value for a test of trend in the alachlor study equaled 0.02, whereas fewer than 20% of the bias analysis iterations yielded a p-value of 0.02 or lower. Similarly, the conventional fully-adjusted result associating glyphosate exposure with multiple myleoma equaled 2.6 with 95% confidence interval of 0.7 to 9.4. The frequency distribution generated by the bias analysis yielded a median hazard ratio equal to 1.5 with 95% simulation interval of 0.4 to 8.9, which was 66% wider than the conventional interval. Conclusion Bias analysis provides a more complete picture of true uncertainty than conventional frequentist statistical analysis accompanied by a

  9. Effectiveness of a mindfulness-based intervention on oncology nurses' burnout and compassion fatigue symptoms: A non-randomized study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duarte, Joana; Pinto-Gouveia, José

    2016-12-01

    Job stress and burnout are highly frequent in healthcare professionals, and prevalence in nurses can be as high as 40%. Mindfulness-based interventions have been shown to be effective in reducing stress and increasing well-being in a wide range of populations and contexts. However, controlled studies with healthcare professionals, and especially nurses, are scarce. The aim of this study was to explore the effectiveness of an on-site, abbreviated mindfulness-based intervention for nurses, using a nonrandomized, wait-list comparison design. The effectiveness of the intervention was measured through several validated self-report measures that participants completed before and after the intervention, assessing burnout, compassion fatigue, psychological symptoms, mindfulness, self-compassion, experiential avoidances, rumination, and satisfaction with life. A sample of 94 oncology nurses agreed to participate in the study and self-selected into an experimental (n=45) and comparison condition (n=48). Complete data was obtained for 48 of the initial 94 participants, mainly due to poor follow-up data rather than high drop-out rate. Statistical analyses included a series of 2×2 ANOVAs and ANCOVAs. Results indicated that nurses in the intervention reported significant decreases in compassion fatigue, burnout, stress, experiential avoidance, and increases in satisfaction with life, mindfulness and self-compassion, with medium to large effect sizes. Nurses in the comparison group didn't present significant changes in these variables. Results also pointed to a high degree of acceptability of the intervention. This study provides preliminary evidence that mindfulness-based interventions may be efficacious in reducing oncology nurses' psychological symptoms and improving their overall well-being, and thus may be worthy of further study in this population. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Effectiveness and Safety of Acupuncture for Poststroke Dysphagia: Study Protocol for a Pragmatic Multicenter Nonrandomized Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Yuan Qi

    2017-01-01

    Background. Dysphagia is one of the most common complications of stroke. Acupuncture is widely employed to treat poststroke dysphagia in East Asia. No evidence is established to support such treatment approach. This proposed study aims to evaluate the effectiveness and safety of acupuncture for the treatment of poststroke dysphagia. Methods and Design. This is a multicenter, pragmatic, single-blinded, nonrandomized controlled clinical trial. A total of 140 eligible patients will be enrolled in the study. Subjects who are eligible in study but refuse to have acupuncture treatment will be put on the no-acupuncture control arm. Both groups of patients will receive standard routine care, while the patients of intervention group will receive add-on standardized acupuncture treatment. Each participant in intervention group will receive a total of 24 sessions of acupuncture treatment (three times per week). The primary outcome measure is the Royal Brisbane Hospital Outcome Measure for Swallowing (RBHOMS). Secondary outcome measures include functional oral intake scale, swallow quality-of-life questionnaire in Chinese version, BMI of the participant, and adverse events. All outcome measures will be assessed at baseline, at the end of acupuncture treatment (month 2), and at two months after treatment (month 4). Ethics and Dissemination. The ethics approval of clinical research study was granted by the Research Ethics Committee of both New Territories East and West Cluster of Hong Kong. Written informed consent will be obtained from all participants and the study will be undertaken according to the ICH-GCP Guidelines. Trial Registration. This trial is registered with chictr.org (registration number: ChiCTR-TRC-12002621 and registration date: 2012-10-26). PMID:28246537

  11. A prospective, non-randomized study of home use of mifepristone for medical abortion in the U.S.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chong, Erica; Frye, Laura J; Castle, Jen; Dean, Gillian; Kuehl, Laurel; Winikoff, Beverly

    2015-09-01

    To determine the acceptability of taking mifepristone at home for early medical abortion in the United States. This prospective, non-randomized, open-label study at six Planned Parenthood centers gave women with pregnancies up to 63 days' gestation seeking medical abortion the choice of taking mifepristone in the center or at home. Participants were interviewed at a follow-up visit 1-2 weeks after mifepristone administration to assess their experience with the option they selected. Four-hundred women were enrolled between April 2013 and June 2014 of which 32% (n=128) chose to take mifepristone at home. Abortion success rates did not differ between home and center users (96% and 97%). Among home users, 82% reported taking the mifepristone at the time they planned with their provider and no participant took it after 63 days' gestation. The most common reason cited for selecting home use was scheduling flexibility and significantly more home users took misoprostol on the weekend (50% vs. 36%, p=.02). Home users were more likely than center users to report missing no days of work due to the abortion (47% vs. 28%, p=.08). Ninety-nine percent of home users reported that they would take mifepristone at home again and 96% would recommend home use to a friend. Offering this option did not increase the service delivery burden on study providers, who would recommend home use in the future for most participants. Home use of mifepristone is a highly acceptable practice for which there is current demand, and it should be offered as part of routine medical abortion services. Offering the option of home use of mifepristone to medical abortion patients can provide women and clinics with more flexibility while maintaining a safe, effective and acceptable service. These results provide support for telemedicine or pharmacy distribution. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Colorado Longitudinal Twin Study of Reading Disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wadsworth, Sally J.; DeFries, John C.; Olson, Richard K.; Willcutt, Erik G.

    2007-01-01

    The primary objectives of the present study are to introduce the Colorado Longitudinal Twin Study of Reading Disability, the first longitudinal twin study in which subjects have been specifically selected for having a history of reading difficulties, and to present some initial assessments of the stability of reading performance and cognitive…

  13. Neurotransmitter changes in patients with Parkinson's disease detected by encephalofluctuography technology A non-randomized control study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yan Han; Zhenfu Wang; Yang Yang; Xianhong Chen; Hong Sun

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Encephalofluctuograph Technology (ET) is an advanced and non-traumatic analytical method of brain function. ET can acquire super-slow waves from electroencephalic signals. Studies have shown that these particular spectra can reflect neurochemical processes in the brain. OBJECTIVE: To verify neurotransmitter changes in the brains Parkinson's disease (PD) patients through the use of ET. DESIGN, TIME AND SETTING: A non-randomized concurrent control experiment was performed at the Department of Neurology in Southern Building, General Hospital of Chinese PLA from August to December 2007. PARTICIPANTS: Sixty-one outpatients with PD were selected from the General Hospital of Chinese PLA from August 2007 to December 2007. In addition, 48 healthy subjects were selected as normal controls. METHODS: All patients underwent assessment of the sub scale Ⅱ,Ⅲ, and V of the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS), in which part Ⅱ was used to inform activity of daily living, part Ⅲ reflected athletic ability, and part Ⅴ was the Hoehn & Yahr grade for symptoms evaluation. Correlation analysis was performed between dopamine levels and UPDRS assessment. Neurotransmitter changes were observed forty-eight prior to and 1.5 hours after medicating with Benserazide. The S1, S2, S4, S5,S7, and S11 spectras respectively reflect gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), glutamic acid (Glu), 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT), acetylcholine (ACh), norepinephrine, and dopamine. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Neurotransmitter changes in the brains of all subjects, and correlations between dopamine concentrations and UPDRS assessment. Neurotransmitter changes in a subgroup of patients prior to and 1.5 hours after medicating with Benserazide. RESULTS: Concentrations of 5-HT, ACh, and norepinephrine were decreased in the PD group, and GABA was increased. However, there was no significant difference compared with the normal control group (P > 0.05). The level of dopamine in PD group was

  14. Perioperative and long-term results after left pancreatectomy: a single-institution, non-randomized, comparative study between open and laparoscopic approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butturini, Giovanni; Partelli, Stefano; Crippa, Stefano; Malleo, Giuseppe; Rossini, Roberto; Casetti, Luca; Melotti, Gian Luigi; Piccoli, Micaela; Pederzoli, Paolo; Bassi, Claudio

    2011-09-01

    Laparoscopic left pancreatic resections are being increasingly performed. In this study, we provide a nonrandomized comparison between laparoscopic and open left pancreatectomy (OLP) for benign and borderline tumors, focusing on both perioperative and long-term results. Demographic, pathologic, and perioperative details from patients who underwent laparoscopic and OLP between 1999 and 2006 were retrieved from our database and analyzed. Long-term results, including resume to full-time work, occurrence of incisional hernias, and incidence of exocrine and endocrine insufficiency also were evaluated. A total of 116 patients were included in the analysis; 43 (37.1%) were managed laparoscopically and 73 (62.9%) underwent the open procedure. There were no significant differences regarding clinical and pathological data. All of the resections attempted laparoscopically were completed. The rate of splenic preservation was significantly higher in the laparoscopic group (P = 0.0001). Postoperative outcomes were similar between the two groups. Longitudinal comparison between two time periods (1999-June 2004 vs. July 2004-2006) showed that pancreatic fistula and hospital stay significantly diminished over time in the laparoscopic group (P = 0.04 and P = 0.004, respectively). Median follow-up was 53 months. The incidence of exocrine insufficiency and incisional hernias was significantly higher after open resections (both P = 0.05). After hospital discharge, median time to resume full-time work was 6 weeks in the open group and 3 weeks after laparoscopic resections (P < 0.0001). Laparoscopy also resulted as an independent factor for an early resume to full-time activities in the multivariate analysis (P < 0.0001). Laparoscopic left pancreatectomy is a safe procedure for benign and borderline tumors, with similar perioperative outcomes compared with the open procedure. In the long term, the laparoscopic approach is likely to be superior thanks to a more rapid resume

  15. Longitudinal Single Bunch Instability Study on BEPCII

    CERN Document Server

    Dou, Wang; Zhe, Duan; Na, Wang; Li, Wang; Lin, Wang; Jie, Gao

    2013-01-01

    In order to study the single bunch longitudinal instability in BEPCII, experiments on the positron ring (BPR) for the bunch lengthening phenomenon were made. By analyzing the experimental data based on Gao's theory, the longitudinal loss factor for the bunch are obtained. Also, the total wake potential and the beam current threshold are estimated.

  16. Studies of longitudinal single bunch stability

    CERN Document Server

    Argyropoulos, T; Bhat, C; Baudrenghien, P; Esteban Muller, J; Hofle, W; Papotti, G; Shaposhnikova, E; Tuckmantel, J; Valuch, D; Venturini Delsolaro, W; Wehrle, U

    2011-01-01

    The goal of this MD was to study a single bunch longitudinal instability observed during the acceleration ramp in the LHC in 2010 for bunches with nominal intensity and small injected longitudinal emittance. During this MD there were two fills, the first without acceleration and the second with acceleration. In the first each ring was filled with 8 high intensity bunches with small longitudinal emittance. During the second 8 high intensity bunches were injected into each ring with longitudinal emittances varying from 0.9 eVs to 0.3 eVs. Two longitudinal instability modes (dipole and quadrupole) were observed in different parts of the cycle with both beams. Measurements of phase and bunch length oscillations, as well as data extracted from bunch profile acquisitions during the cycle, are presented in this Note together with an analysis of the growth rate dependence on bunch emittances and intensity.

  17. Are Sibling Relationships Protective? A Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gass, Krista; Jenkins, Jennifer; Dunn, Judy

    2007-01-01

    Background: Although the protective effects of familial and parental support have been studied extensively in the child psychopathology literature, few studies have explored the protective quality of positive sibling relationships. Methods: A two-wave longitudinal design was used to examine the protective effect of positive sibling relationships…

  18. Biomechanics of Distance Running: A Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Richard C.; Gregor, Robert J.

    1976-01-01

    Training for distance running over a long period produces meaningful changes in the running mechanics of experienced runners, as revealed in this longitudinal study of the biomechanical components of stride length, stride rate, stride time, and support and nonsupport time. (MB)

  19. Burnout development among dentists: a longitudinal study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H. te Brake; N. Smits; J.M. Wicherts; R.C. Gorter; J. Hoogstraten

    2008-01-01

    Knowledge on the development of burnout among dentists is important for purposes of prevention and intervention. Using a two-wave longitudinal design, this study examined the chronological sequence of the three dimensions of the Maslach Burnout Inventory: emotional exhaustion; depersonalization; and

  20. PROSPECTIVE OBSERVATIONAL, NON-RANDOMIZED, PARALLEL SEQUENCE STUDY FOR ASSESSMENT OF ADVERSE DRUG REACTIONS DUE TO CHEMOTHERAPEUTIC TREATMENT IN DIFFERENT TYPES OF CANCER PATIENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mrugank B.P. * and Hareesha R.P.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To assess incidence, causality, severity, predictability and preventability of adverse drug reactions (ADRs in hospitalised oncology patients.Materials and Methods: A prospective observational, non-randomized, parallel sequence study was conducted at Dr B. Borooah Cancer Institute (BBCI after getting an approval from human ethical committee. Patients hospitalised at BBCI from Aug 2010 to June 2011 were interviewed about symptoms related to their drug therapy. Patient medical records were also reviewed for data collection.Results: Total 663 patients associated with hospitalizations were interviewed. 899 ADRs were identified in total 410 (61.84% patients detected with ADRs. Most of all ADRs were moderate, predictable and not preventable. The most common ADRs were leucopenia, weakness, anorexia, alopecia, vomiting, diarrhoea, nausea, abdominal pain, fatigue, and anaemia in this study.Conclusions: For definite conclusion study should be repeated. Strict drug analyzing and in vivo study is also required if feasible.Key message: The process of defining and concluding about ADRs should be continuous and ongoing to keep a record of newly marketed drugs and medicinal products.

  1. Material deprivation and health: a longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tøge, Anne Grete; Bell, Ruth

    2016-08-08

    Does material deprivation affect the consequences of ill health? Answering this question requires that we move beyond the effects of income. Longitudinal data on material deprivation, longstanding illness and limiting longstanding illness enables investigations of the effects of material deprivation on risk of limiting longstanding illness. This study investigates whether a shift from affording to not affording a car predicts the probability of limiting longstanding ill (LLSI). The 2008-2011 longitudinal panel of Statistics on Income, Social Inclusion and Living Conditions (EU-SILC) is utilised. Longitudinal fixed effects logit models are applied, using LLSI as dependent variable. Transition from affording a car to not affording a car is used as a proxy for material deprivation. All models are controlled for whether the person becomes longstanding ill (LSI) as well as other time-variant covariates that could affect the results. The analysis shows a statistically significant increased odds ratio of LLSI when individuals no longer can afford a car, after controlling for confounders and LSI in the previous year (1.129, CI = 1.022-1.248). However, when restricting the sample to observations where respondents report longstanding illness the results are no longer significant (1.032, CI = 0.910-1.171). The results indicate an individual level effect of material deprivation on LLSI, suggesting that material resources can affect the consequences of ill health.

  2. Estimating the treatment effect from non-randomized studies: The example of reduced intensity conditioning allogeneic stem cell transplantation in hematological diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Resche-Rigon Matthieu

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In some clinical situations, for which RCT are rare or impossible, the majority of the evidence comes from observational studies, but standard estimations could be biased because they ignore covariates that confound treatment decisions and outcomes. Methods Three observational studies were conducted to assess the benefit of Allo-SCT in hematological malignancies of multiple myeloma, follicular lymphoma and Hodgkin’s disease. Two statistical analyses were performed: the propensity score (PS matching approach and the inverse probability weighting (IPW approach. Results Based on PS-matched samples, a survival benefit in MM patients treated by Allo-SCT, as compared to similar non-allo treated patients, was observed with an HR of death at 0.35 (95%CI: 0.14-0.88. Similar results were observed in HD, 0.23 (0.07-0.80 but not in FL, 1.28 (0.43-3.77. Estimated benefits of Allo-SCT for the original population using IPW were erased in HR for death at 0.72 (0.37-1.39 for MM patients, 0.60 (0.19-1.89 for HD patients, and 2.02 (0.88-4.66 for FL patients. Conclusion Differences in estimated benefits rely on whether the underlying population to which they apply is an ideal randomized experimental population (PS or the original population (IPW. These useful methods should be employed when assessing the effects of innovative treatment in non-randomized experiments.

  3. Additive Complex Ayurvedic Treatment in Patients with Fibromyalgia Syndrome Compared to Conventional Standard Care Alone: A Nonrandomized Controlled Clinical Pilot Study (KAFA Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian S. Kessler

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Fibromyalgia (FMS is a challenging condition for health care systems worldwide. Only limited trial data is available for FMS for outcomes of complex treatment interventions of complementary and integrative (CIM approaches. Methods. We conducted a controlled, nonrandomized feasibility study that compared outcomes in 21 patients treated with Ayurveda with those of 11 patients treated with a conventional approach at the end of a two-week inpatient hospital stay. Primary outcome was the impact of fibromyalgia on patients as assessed by the FIQ. Secondary outcomes included scores of pain intensity, pain perception, depression, anxiety, and quality of sleep. Follow-up assessments were done after 6 months. Results. At 2 weeks, there were comparable and significant improvements in the FIQ and for most of secondary outcomes in both groups with no significant in-between-group differences. The beneficial effects for both treatment groups were partly maintained for the main outcome and a number of secondary outcomes at the 6-month followup, again with no significant in-between-group differences. Discussion. The findings of this feasibility study suggest that Ayurvedic therapy is noninferior to conventional treatment in patients with severe FMS. Since Ayurveda was only used as add-on treatment, RCTs on Ayurveda alone are warranted to increase model validity. This trial is registered with NCT01389336.

  4. Residents’ perceptions of an integrated longitudinal curriculum: a qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca Lubitz

    2015-12-01

    Conclusions: This study suggests that an integrated longitudinalized family medicine block training model has the potential to support the principles of a longitudinal integrated competency-based curriculum to effectively prepare residents for family medicine practice.

  5. A Complex Multiherbal Regimen Based on Ayurveda Medicine for the Management of Hepatic Cirrhosis Complicated by Ascites: Nonrandomized, Uncontrolled, Single Group, Open-Label Observational Clinical Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Manish V; Patel, Kalapi B; Gupta, Shivenarain; Michalsen, Andreas; Stapelfeldt, Elmar; Kessler, Christian S

    2015-01-01

    Hepatic cirrhosis is one of the leading causes of death worldwide, especially if complicated by ascites. This chronic condition can be related to the classical disease entity jalodara in Traditional Indian Medicine (Ayurveda). The present paper aims to evaluate the general potential of Ayurvedic therapy for overall clinical outcomes in hepatic cirrhosis complicated by ascites (HCcA). In form of a nonrandomized, uncontrolled, single group, open-label observational clinical study, 56 patients fulfilling standardized diagnostic criteria for HCcA were observed during their treatment at the P. D. Patel Ayurveda Hospital, Nadiad, India. Based on Ayurvedic tradition, a standardized treatment protocol was developed and implemented, consisting of oral administration of single and compound herbal preparations combined with purificatory measures as well as dietary and lifestyle regimens. The outcomes were assessed by measuring liver functions through specific clinical features and laboratory parameters and by evaluating the Child-Pugh prognostic grade score. After 6 weeks of treatment and a follow-up period of 18 weeks, the outcomes showed statistically significant and clinically relevant improvements. Further larger and randomized trials on effectiveness, safety, and quality of the Ayurvedic approach in the treatment of HCcA are warranted to support these preliminary findings.

  6. A Complex Multiherbal Regimen Based on Ayurveda Medicine for the Management of Hepatic Cirrhosis Complicated by Ascites: Nonrandomized, Uncontrolled, Single Group, Open-Label Observational Clinical Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manish V. Patel

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Hepatic cirrhosis is one of the leading causes of death worldwide, especially if complicated by ascites. This chronic condition can be related to the classical disease entity jalodara in Traditional Indian Medicine (Ayurveda. The present paper aims to evaluate the general potential of Ayurvedic therapy for overall clinical outcomes in hepatic cirrhosis complicated by ascites (HCcA. In form of a nonrandomized, uncontrolled, single group, open-label observational clinical study, 56 patients fulfilling standardized diagnostic criteria for HCcA were observed during their treatment at the P. D. Patel Ayurveda Hospital, Nadiad, India. Based on Ayurvedic tradition, a standardized treatment protocol was developed and implemented, consisting of oral administration of single and compound herbal preparations combined with purificatory measures as well as dietary and lifestyle regimens. The outcomes were assessed by measuring liver functions through specific clinical features and laboratory parameters and by evaluating the Child-Pugh prognostic grade score. After 6 weeks of treatment and a follow-up period of 18 weeks, the outcomes showed statistically significant and clinically relevant improvements. Further larger and randomized trials on effectiveness, safety, and quality of the Ayurvedic approach in the treatment of HCcA are warranted to support these preliminary findings.

  7. Bifidobacterium bifidum OLB6378 Simultaneously Enhances Systemic and Mucosal Humoral Immunity in Low Birth Weight Infants: A Non-Randomized Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Katsunori; Tsukahara, Takamitsu; Yanagi, Takahide; Nakahara, Sayuri; Furukawa, Ouki; Tsutsui, Hidemi; Koshida, Shigeki

    2017-01-01

    Probiotic supplementation has been part of the discussion on methods to enhance humoral immunity. Administration of Bifidobacterium bifidum OLB6378 (OLB6378) reduced the incidence of late-onset sepsis in infants. In this non-randomized study, we aimed to determine the effect of administration of live OLB6378 on infants’ humoral immunity. Secondly, we tried to elucidate whether similar effects would be observed with administration of non-live OLB6378. Low birth weight (LBW) infants weighing 1500–2500 g were divided into three groups: Group N (no intervention), Group L (administered live OLB6378 concentrate), and Group H (administered non-live OLB6378 concentrate). The interventions were started within 48 h after birth and continued until six months of age. Serum immunoglobulin G (IgG) levels (IgG at one month/IgG at birth) were significantly higher in Group L than in Group N (p food ingredient, showed a more marked effect than the viable bacteria. PMID:28245626

  8. Bifidobacterium bifidum OLB6378 Simultaneously Enhances Systemic and Mucosal Humoral Immunity in Low Birth Weight Infants: A Non-Randomized Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katsunori Tanaka

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Probiotic supplementation has been part of the discussion on methods to enhance humoral immunity. Administration of Bifidobacterium bifidum OLB6378 (OLB6378 reduced the incidence of late-onset sepsis in infants. In this non-randomized study, we aimed to determine the effect of administration of live OLB6378 on infants’ humoral immunity. Secondly, we tried to elucidate whether similar effects would be observed with administration of non-live OLB6378. Low birth weight (LBW infants weighing 1500–2500 g were divided into three groups: Group N (no intervention, Group L (administered live OLB6378 concentrate, and Group H (administered non-live OLB6378 concentrate. The interventions were started within 48 h after birth and continued until six months of age. Serum immunoglobulin G (IgG levels (IgG at one month/IgG at birth were significantly higher in Group L than in Group N (p < 0.01. Group H exhibited significantly higher serum IgG levels (p < 0.01 at one month of age and significantly higher intestinal secretory immunoglobulin A (SIgA levels (p < 0.05 at one and two months of age than Group N. No difference was observed in the mortality or morbidity between groups. Thus, OLB6378 administration in LBW infants enhanced humoral immunity, and non-live OLB6378, which is more useful as a food ingredient, showed a more marked effect than the viable bacteria.

  9. Longitudinal study on osteoarthritis and bone metabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Postiglione

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The relationship between Osteoarthritis (OA and Osteoporosis (OP is not well defined due to lacking in longitudinal data, mainly regarding correlations between biochemical factors and OA incidence. Aim of this paper was to investigate the predictive value for OA incidence of bone mass variations and of selected biochemical markers in healthy women participating in a population-based longitudinal study carried out in Naples (Italy. Subjects and Methods: High completion rate (85.2% and statistically adequate sample size were obtained: 139 women (45 to 79 years of age were examined and follow up visit was performed after two years (24±2 months, following the same protocol. Patients underwent medical examination, questionnaire, anthropometric measurements, blood sampling and urine collection. Bone mineral density (BMD measurement was performed by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA at the lumbar spine (L1-L4 and femoral neck. Radiographs of dorsal and lumbar spine in lateral view were performed at basal and at 24 months visits; a team of three experts scored radiographs using Kellegren and Lawrence grading. Results: The score was calculated for two individual radiographic features (narrowing of the joint space, presence of osteophytes and as a global score. Results show a relevant percentage, 23% up, of subjects presenting both OA and OP. In the cross-sectional study the presence of osteophytosis correlates with anthropometric variables and PTH levels. In the longitudinal study results show a correlation between serum vitamin D and delta score for osteophytosis (β=0.02 p<0.05. Conclusions: Data obtained outline the importance of further studies on the pathogenetic link between OA and bone metabolism.

  10. Spiritual Care Therapy on Quality of Life in Cancer Patients and Their Caregivers: A Prospective Non-randomized Single-Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sankhe, A; Dalal, K; Agarwal, V; Sarve, P

    2017-04-01

    Spiritual care is still in infancy stage all over the globe including India. The present study was an original study evaluating the role of spiritual care in cancer patients and their primary caregivers regarding their spiritual and general well-being. The study was a prospective, non-randomized single-group study involving cancer patients undergoing surgery and their primary caregivers. Functional assessment of cancer therapy-general and functional assessment of chronic illness therapy-spiritual care was evaluated during the admission and at the time of discharge, two, four  and 6 months following discharge from the hospital. Descriptive statistics was used for demographic details and repeated measure ANOVA with Dunn's test was used for analysis of changes in the scores. A total of 107 (63 males and 44 females) patients with a mean (SD) of age 51 (13) years were recruited in the study. Similarly, for each patient one of their primary caregivers was recruited with their mean (SD) age of 39.4 (12.7) years. A total of 11/107 (10.3%) patients died and nine out of 107 (8.4%) were lost to follow-up eventually during the study period. There was a statistically significant (P spiritual care on the basis of MATCH guideline improved the level of not only spiritual well-being but general well-being also in both the patients and their primary caregivers. Control group could have improved scientific validity of study in accessing effect of spiritual care. Authors believe that more robust comparative study on each principle against all five MATCH principles in future will add scientific validity and clear the various ambiguities in spiritual care.

  11. Qualitative longitudinal study of micro-entrepreneurs

    OpenAIRE

    Rövekamp, Cornelia

    2012-01-01

    In a qualitative longitudinal study 30 founders from small companies – small busi-nesses, liberal professions and self-employed – were examined. Types of successful and less successful founders are constructed, which are posed with factors of suc-cess. On the one hand the typology is based on material and immaterial personal goals that are pursued with the start up, on the other hand on biographical striv-ings: (1A) conventional enterpriser or persons who are (1B) double- and multio-riented, ...

  12. A synthetic Longitudinal Study dataset for England and Wales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dennett, Adam; Norman, Paul; Shelton, Nicola; Stuchbury, Rachel

    2016-12-01

    This article describes the new synthetic England and Wales Longitudinal Study 'spine' dataset designed for teaching and experimentation purposes. In the United Kingdom, there exist three Census-based longitudinal micro-datasets, known collectively as the Longitudinal Studies. The England and Wales Longitudinal Study (LS) is a 1% sample of the population of England and Wales (around 500,000 individuals), linking individual person records from the 1971 to 2011 Censuses. The synthetic data presented contains a similar number of individuals to the original data and accurate longitudinal transitions between 2001 and 2011 for key demographic variables, but unlike the original data, is open access.

  13. [The use of ProstaDoz in patients with chronic prostatitis. Results ofa multicenter nonrandomized clinical study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamalov, A A; Aboian, I A; Sitdykova, M È; Tsukanova, A Iu; Teodorovich, O V; Medvedev, V L; Komiakov, B K; Zhuravlev, V N; Novikov, A I; Erkovich, A A; Okhobotov, D A; Karpov, V K; Zubkov, A Iu

    2013-01-01

    The main purpose of the study was to determine the effectiveness of a multicomponent dietary supplement ProstaDoz in patients with chronic prostatitis. The study included 50 men with clinical symptoms of a chronic prostatitis, which were observed in 9 clinical centers in different regions of Russia. All patients have received 2 capsules of ProstaDoz twice a day for 1 month, followed by dynamic observation for 4 weeks. Symptomatic improvement was achieved in 46 (92%) patients. Evaluation of effects of ProstaDoz on various groups of symptoms has revealed that it reduces pain, promotes urination normalization and improvement of quality of life. These effects were maintained during all follow-up period.

  14. COMPARATIVE EFFECTIVENESS PIPOFEZINE, TIANEPTINE AND CHLORPROTHIXENE IN PATIENTS WITH ATTENTION DEFICIT DISORDER , AND HYPERTENSION: AN OPEN NON-RANDOMIZED STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Glushchenko

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To evaluate the influence of pipofezine, tianeptine and chlorprothixene on blood pressure (BP level and neuropsychological performance in patients with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD and arterial hypertension (HT. Material and methods. Young males with ADHD and HT (n=58 were included into the study. Patients were split into three treatment groups: group 1 (n=19 received pipofezine 50 mg/day, group 2 (n=20 — tianeptine 25 mg/day , group 3 (n=19 — chlorprothixene 50 mg/day. Clinicopsychopathologic and neurophysiological findings were evaluated at baseline and after 4 weeks of treatment. BP self-monitoring, analysis of psychiatric disorders severity with Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale, electroencephalography (EEG were performed. Results. The positive dynamics of disregulatory-motor hyperactivity , subjective-cognitive and emotional-vegetative components of ADHD was observed. The positive dynamics of neurophysiological parameters (increase in EEG frequencies index in groups 1 and 2 (from 0.37±0.05 to 0.54±0.07 and 0.38±0.06 to 0.50±0.05, respectively , p<0.05 for both was also found. There were no significant effects of the study drugs on BP levels in patients of all groups (p>0.05. Conclusion. Four-week usage of the study drugs in adolescents with ADHD and HT had no significant effect on BP levels. Pipofezine and tianeptine showed more pronounced improvement of clinicopsychiatric and neuropsychological performance in comparison with chlorprothixene in patients with ADHD.

  15. COMPARATIVE EFFECTIVENESS PIPOFEZINE, TIANEPTINE AND CHLORPROTHIXENE IN PATIENTS WITH ATTENTION DEFICIT DISORDER , AND HYPERTENSION: AN OPEN NON-RANDOMIZED STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Glushchenko

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To evaluate the influence of pipofezine, tianeptine and chlorprothixene on blood pressure (BP level and neuropsychological performance in patients with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD and arterial hypertension (HT. Material and methods. Young males with ADHD and HT (n=58 were included into the study. Patients were split into three treatment groups: group 1 (n=19 received pipofezine 50 mg/day, group 2 (n=20 — tianeptine 25 mg/day , group 3 (n=19 — chlorprothixene 50 mg/day. Clinicopsychopathologic and neurophysiological findings were evaluated at baseline and after 4 weeks of treatment. BP self-monitoring, analysis of psychiatric disorders severity with Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale, electroencephalography (EEG were performed. Results. The positive dynamics of disregulatory-motor hyperactivity , subjective-cognitive and emotional-vegetative components of ADHD was observed. The positive dynamics of neurophysiological parameters (increase in EEG frequencies index in groups 1 and 2 (from 0.37±0.05 to 0.54±0.07 and 0.38±0.06 to 0.50±0.05, respectively , p<0.05 for both was also found. There were no significant effects of the study drugs on BP levels in patients of all groups (p>0.05. Conclusion. Four-week usage of the study drugs in adolescents with ADHD and HT had no significant effect on BP levels. Pipofezine and tianeptine showed more pronounced improvement of clinicopsychiatric and neuropsychological performance in comparison with chlorprothixene in patients with ADHD.

  16. Prevalence of burnout in Polish anesthesiologists and anesthetist nursing professionals: A comparative non-randomized cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misiołek, Aleksandra; Gil-Monte, Pedro R; Misiołek, Hanna

    2015-10-01

    The purpose of the study was to assess the burnout levels in nurses (N = 161) versus physicians (N = 373). The levels of burnout were evaluated by the Polish adaptation of the Spanish Burnout Inventory (Cronbach's alpha > .70). High burnout level was found in 18.63 percent nurses and 12.06 percent anesthesiologists, and critical level in 3.74 percent nurses and 5.90 percent anesthetists. There were statistically significant differences in Burnout global score, Enthusiasm toward the job, Psychological exhaustion, and Indolence subscales between nurses and physicians. No significant differences were found between sexes in any variable.

  17. Efficacy of thrombomodulin for acute exacerbation of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis and nonspecific interstitial pneumonia: a nonrandomized prospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abe M

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Mitsuhiro Abe, Kenji Tsushima, Takuma Matsumura, Tsukasa Ishiwata, Yasunori Ichimura, Jun Ikari, Jiro Terada, Yuji Tada, Seiichirou Sakao, Nobuhiro Tanabe, Koichiro Tatsumi Department of Respirology, Graduate School of Medicine, Chiba University, Chiba, Japan Purpose: Acute exacerbation (AE is an important outcome of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF and nonspecific interstitial pneumonia (NSIP. Recombinant human soluble thrombomodulin (rhTM is a new drug for the treatment of disseminated intravascular coagulation in Japan. The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of rhTM for AE of IPF/NSIP.Methods: Twenty-two patients with AE-idiopathic interstitial pneumonia (16 patients with IPF and six patients with NSIP were enrolled in our study. Among them, eleven patients were treated with rhTM (rhTM group, and eleven patients were treated without rhTM (non-rhTM group. Patients admitted to our hospital prior to December 2013 were treated with rhTM, while those admitted after January 2014 were treated without rhTM. The primary endpoint was mortality at 90 days after AE treatment. The secondary endpoint was the safety of rhTM for AE-IPF/AE-NSIP. In addition, we examined prognostic factors of AE-IPF/AE-NSIP.Results: The mortality rate was significantly lower in the rhTM group than in the non-rhTM group (mortality rate at 90 days: 36% vs 90%, P=0.023; median survival time: not reached vs 15.0 days, P=0.019. A univariate analysis revealed the respiratory rate (hazard ratio [HR] 1.09, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.00–1.18, P=0.039 and rhTM administration (HR 0.21, 95% CI 0.06–0.77, P=0.013 as predictors of mortality at 90 days, and a multivariate analysis identified rhTM administration (HR 0.025, 95% CI 0.0006–0.94, P=0.046 as an independent predictor of mortality at 90 days. No serious adverse events were observed.Conclusion: The administration of rhTM is associated with reductions in mortality in patients with AE

  18. Effect of severe renal impairment on umeclidinium and umeclidinium/vilanterol pharmacokinetics and safety: a single-blind, nonrandomized study

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    Mehta R

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Rashmi Mehta,1 Kelly Hardes,2 Noushin Brealey,3 Lee Tombs,4 Andrew Preece,2 Dennis Kelleher1 1Respiratory Medicines Development Center, GSK, Research Triangle Park, NC, USA; 2Clinical Pharmacology Science and Study Operations, 3Respiratory Medicines Development Centre, GSK, Stockley Park, UK; 4Statistics and Programming, Synergy, Slough, Berkshire, UKBackground: Umeclidinium and vilanterol, long-acting bronchodilators for the treatment of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, are primarily eliminated via the hepatic route; however, severe renal impairment may adversely affect some elimination pathways other than the kidney.Objectives: To evaluate the effect of severe renal impairment on the pharmacokinetics of umeclidinium and umeclidinium/vilanterol.Methods: Nine patients with severe renal impairment (creatinine clearance <30 mL/min and nine matched healthy volunteers received a single dose of umeclidinium 125 µg; and after a 7- to 14-day washout, a single dose of umeclidinium/vilanterol 125/25 µg.Results: No clinically relevant increases in plasma umeclidinium or vilanterol systemic exposure (area under the curve or maximum observed plasma concentration were observed following umeclidinium 125 µg or umeclidinium/vilanterol 125/25 µg administration. On average, the amount of umeclidinium excreted in 24 hours in urine (90% confidence interval was 88% (81%–93% and 89% (81%–93% lower in patients with severe renal impairment compared with healthy volunteers following umeclidinium 125 µg and umeclidinium/vilanterol 125/25 µg administration, respectively. Treatments were well tolerated in both populations.Conclusion: Umeclidinium 125 µg or umeclidinium/vilanterol 125/25 µg administration to patients with severe renal impairment did not demonstrate clinically relevant increases in systemic exposure compared with healthy volunteers. No dose adjustment for umeclidinium and umeclidinium/vilanterol is warranted in patients with severe renal

  19. Parental mediation and cyberbullying - a longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chng, Grace S; Liau, Albert; Khoo, Angeline; Li, Dongdong

    2014-01-01

    Parents use active and restrictive mediation strategies to guide and regulate children's online participation and the online risks they encounter. However, changes in parental mediation do occur over time and the effectiveness of these strategies on cyberbullying demands for further empirical investigation. The current study addresses these issues with a sample of 1084 students (49% girls) in a longitudinal, three-wave design. Gender differences were tested via multi-group analyses. Longitudinal growth models showed that parental use of both active and restrictive mediation decreased over time. For both types of mediation, the mean rate of change had a significant effect on boys' engagement in cyberbullying, but not for girls. Initial levels of restrictive mediation, but not active mediation, were found to be significantly predictive of cyberbullying in both genders. Girls had higher initial levels of both parental mediation types in comparison to boys. The results reveal that the effectiveness of active and restrictive mediation in relation to students' cyberbullying differs and informs us on gender differences. The implications of these results for parental education in online mediation are discussed.

  20. Hepatic artery injection of {sup 131}I-labelled metuximab combined with chemoembolization for intermediate hepatocellular carcinoma: a prospective nonrandomized study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Lu; Yang, Ye-Fa; Ge, Nai-Jian; Shen, Shu-Qun; Liang, Jun [Second Military Medical University, The First Department of Interventional Radiology, Eastern Hepatobiliary Surgery Hospital, Shanghai (China); Wang, Yi [Second Military Medical University, The Second Department of Hepatic Surgery, Eastern Hepatobiliary Surgery Hospital, Shanghai (China); Zhou, Wei-Ping [Second Military Medical University, The Third Department of Hepatic Surgery, Eastern Hepatobiliary Surgery Hospital, Shanghai (China); Shen, Feng; Wu, Meng-Chao [Second Military Medical University, Eastern Hepatobiliary Surgery Hospital, Shanghai (China)

    2012-08-15

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the fifth and seventh most common cause of cancer in men and women, respectively. Transcatheter arterial chemoembolization (TACE) is the standardized therapy for the intermediate stage of HCC. However, the 3-year overall survival remains low (<30 %) in these patients. Thus, there is a critical need for the development of treatment modalities to improve the survival rate. This study aimed to evaluate whether the combination of {sup 131}I-metuximab with chemoembolization could improve treatment efficiency. Between January 2009 and January 2010, a prospective two-arm nonrandomized study was performed in patients with intermediate HCC. Of 138 patients, 68 (combination therapy group) received 132 courses of intraarterial {sup 131}I-metuximab injections combined with chemoembolization (mean 1.94 per patient, median 2, range 1-2), followed by 152 sessions of TACE (mean 2.24 per patient, median 2, range 0-4). The remaining 70 patients (monotherapy group) received 296 sessions of TACE (mean 4.23 per patient, median 4, range 1-7). The overall median survival times for the combination therapy group and the group treated only with TACE were 26.7 months (95 % CI 20.7-31.3 months) and 20.6 months (95 % CI 15.3-24.7 months), respectively. The combination therapy group had a significantly higher survival rate than the TACE-only group (P = 0.038). Age {>=}65 years, serum albumin {<=}35 g/l, and treatment category (combination therapy or TACE only) were independent prognostic factors for survival according to multivariate analysis. The combination of {sup 131}I-metuximab and chemoembolization extended survival in patients with intermediate HCC compared with TACE only, and was well tolerated by patients with Child-Pugh class A or B disease. This combination seems to be a promising treatment modality for patients with intermediate HCC. (orig.)

  1. Two-stage revision surgery with preformed spacers and cementless implants for septic hip arthritis: a prospective, non-randomized cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Logoluso Nicola

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Outcome data on two-stage revision surgery for deep infection after septic hip arthritis are limited and inconsistent. This study presents the medium-term results of a new, standardized two-stage arthroplasty with preformed hip spacers and cementless implants in a consecutive series of adult patients with septic arthritis of the hip treated according to a same protocol. Methods Nineteen patients (20 hips were enrolled in this prospective, non-randomized cohort study between 2000 and 2008. The first stage comprised femoral head resection, debridement, and insertion of a preformed, commercially available, antibiotic-loaded cement hip spacer. After eradication of infection, a cementless total hip arthroplasty was implanted in the second stage. Patients were assessed for infection recurrence, pain (visual analog scale [VAS] and hip joint function (Harris Hip score. Results The mean time between first diagnosis of infection and revision surgery was 5.8 ± 9.0 months; the average duration of follow up was 56.6 (range, 24 - 104 months; all 20 hips were successfully converted to prosthesis an average 22 ± 5.1 weeks after spacer implantation. Reinfection after total hip joint replacement occurred in 1 patient. The mean VAS pain score improved from 48 (range, 35 - 84 pre-operatively to 18 (range, 0 - 38 prior to spacer removal and to 8 (range, 0 - 15 at the last follow-up assessment after prosthesis implantation. The average Harris Hip score improved from 27.5 before surgery to 61.8 between the two stages to 92.3 at the final follow-up assessment. Conclusions Satisfactory outcomes can be obtained with two-stage revision hip arthroplasty using preformed spacers and cementless implants for prosthetic hip joint infections of various etiologies.

  2. Psychosocial adjustment to ALS: a longitudinal study

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    Tamara eMatuz

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available For the current study the Lazarian stress-coping theory and the appendant model of psychosocial adjustment to chronic illness and disabilities (Pakenham 1999 has shaped the foundation for identifying determinants of adjustment to ALS. We aimed to investigate the evolution of psychosocial adjustment to ALS and to determine its long-term predictors. A longitudinal study design with four measurement time points was therefore, used to assess patients’ quality of life, depression, and stress-coping model related aspects, such as illness characteristics, social support, cognitive appraisals and coping strategies during a period of two years. Regression analyses revealed that 55% of the variance of severity of depressive symptoms and 47% of the variance in quality of life at T2 was accounted for by all the T1 predictor variables taken together. On the level of individual contributions, protective buffering and appraisal of own coping potential accounted for a significant percentage in the variance in severity of depressive symptoms, whereas problem management coping strategies explained variance in quality of life scores. Illness characteristics at T2 did not explain any variance of both adjustment outcomes. Overall, the pattern of the longitudinal results indicated stable depressive symptoms and quality of life indices reflecting a successful adjustment to the disease across four measurement time points during a period of about two years.Empirical evidence is provided for the predictive value of social support, cognitive appraisals, and coping strategies, but not illness parameters such as severity and duration for adaptation to ALS. The current study contributes to a better conceptualization of adjustment, allowing us to provide evidence-based support beyond medical and physical intervention for people with ALS.

  3. A psycho-educational HIV/STI prevention intervention for internally displaced women in Leogane, Haiti: results from a non-randomized cohort pilot study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen H Logie

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Little evidence exists regarding efficacious HIV and sexually transmitted infections (STI prevention interventions with internally displaced populations. Internally displaced women are at elevated risk for HIV/STI due to limited access to health services, heightened poverty and social network breakdown. The FASY (Famn an Aksyon Pou Sante' Yo (Women Taking Action For Their Health study examined the effectiveness of a peer health worker (PHW delivered psycho-educational HIV/STI pilot study with internally displaced women in Leogane, Haiti. METHOD: This was a non-randomized cohort pilot study. Participants completed a computer-assisted pre-test programmed on Android tablet PCs followed by an HIV/STI educational video-based session and a 6-week psycho-educational group program of weekly meetings. Participants completed a post-test upon completion of group sessions. The primary outcome was HIV knowledge; our pre-specified index of clinically significant change was an effect size of 0.30. Secondary outcomes included: STI knowledge, condom use, social support, resilient coping, depression and relationship control. We used mixed-effects regression to calculate mean outcome pre-post score change. This study was registered (clinicaltrials.gov, NCT01492829. RESULTS: Between January 1-April 30, 2012 we assigned 200 participants to the study. The majority of participants (n = 176, 88% completed the study and were followed up at 8 weeks, finishing April 30, 2012. Adjusted for socio-demographic characteristics, HIV knowledge (β = 4.81; 95% CI 4.36-5.26, STI knowledge (β = 0.84; 95% CI 0.70-0.99, condom use (AOR = 4.05, 95% CI 1.86-8.83, and depression (β = -0.63, 95% CI -0.88--0.39 scores showed statistically significant change post-intervention (p<0.05. CONCLUSIONS: This pilot study evaluated a PHW psycho-educational HIV/STI prevention intervention among internally displaced women in post-earthquake Haiti. Pilot studies are an important

  4. Paediatric UK demyelinating disease longitudinal study (PUDDLS

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    Likeman Marcus

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is evidence that at least 5% of Multiple sclerosis (MS cases manifest in childhood. Children with MS present with a demyelinating episode involving single or multiple symptoms prior to developing a second event (usually within two years to then meet criteria for diagnosis. There is evidence from adult cohorts that the incidence and sex ratios of MS are changing and that children of immigrants have a higher risk for developing MS. A paediatric population should reflect the vanguard of such changes and may reflect trends yet to be observed in adult cohorts. Studying a paediatric population from the first demyelinating event will allow us to test these hypotheses, and may offer further valuable insights into the genetic and environmental interactions in the pathogenesis of MS. Methods/Design The Paediatric UK Demyelinating Disease Longitudinal Study (PUDDLS is a prospective longitudinal observational study which aims to determine the natural history, predictors and outcomes of childhood CNS inflammatory demyelinating diseases. PUDDLS will involve centres in the UK, and will establish a cohort of children affected with a first CNS inflammatory demyelinating event for long-term follow up by recruiting for approximately 5 years. PUDDLS will also establish a biological sample archive (CSF, serum, and DNA, allowing future hypothesis driven research. For example, the future discovery of a biomarker will allow validation within this dataset for the evaluation of novel biomarkers. Patients will also be requested to consent to be contacted in the future. A secondary aim is to collaborate internationally with the International Paediatric Multiple Sclerosis Study Group when future collaborative studies are proposed, whilst sharing a minimal anonymised dataset. PUDDLS is the second of two jointly funded studies. The first (UCID-SS is an epidemiological surveillance study that already received ethical approvals, and started on the 1st

  5. Symptomatic or prophylactic treatment of weekend migraine: an open-label, nonrandomized, comparison study of frovatriptan versus naproxen sodium versus no therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guidotti M

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Mario Guidotti,1 Caterina Barrilà,1 Serena Leva,1 Claudio De Piazza,1 Stefano Omboni21Department of Neurology, Valduce Hospital, Como, 2Italian Institute of Telemedicine, Varese, ItalyBackground: Migraine often occurs during weekends. The efficacy of frovatriptan, naproxen sodium, or no therapy for the acute or prophylactic treatment of weekend migraineurs was tested in an open-label, nonrandomized pilot study.Methods: Twenty-eight subjects (mean age 36 ± 12 years, including 18 females suffering from migraine without aura were followed up for six consecutive weekends. No treatment was administered during the first two weekends. On the third and fourth weekends, patients were given frovatriptan 2.5 mg and on the fifth and sixth weekends naproxen sodium 500 mg. Treatment was taken on Saturday and Sunday morning, regardless of the occurrence of migraine. Efficacy was evaluated through a diary, where patients reported the severity of migraine on a scale from 0 (no migraine to 10 (severe migraine and use of rescue medication.Results: The migraine severity score was significantly lower with frovatriptan (4.8 [95% confidence interval (CI 3.8–5.9] than with naproxen sodium (5.7 [CI 5.1–6.4], P < 0.05 versus frovatriptan or no therapy (6.6 [6.2–7.0], P < 0.01 versus frovatriptan. The difference in favor of frovatriptan was more striking in patients not taking rescue medication (frovatriptan, 1.9 [1.5–2.3] versus naproxen sodium 3.6 [3.0–4.2], P < 0.001 and versus no therapy (5.1 [4.4–5.8], P < 0.001 and on the second day of treatment. The rate of use of rescue medication was significantly (P < 0.05 lower on frovatriptan (12.5% than on naproxen sodium (31.3% or no therapy (56.3%.Conclusion: This pilot study provides the first evidence of the efficacy of a second-generation triptan as symptomatic or prophylactic treatment for weekend migraine.Keywords: migraine, frovatriptan, naproxen sodium, weekend

  6. TP53 status and taxane-platinum versus platinum-based therapy in ovarian cancer patients: A non-randomized retrospective study

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    Markowska Janina

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Taxane-platinum therapy (TP has replaced platinum-based therapy (PC or PAC, DNA damaging chemotherapy in the postoperative treatment of ovarian cancer patients; however, it is not always effective. TP53 protein plays a differential role in response to DNA-damaging agents and taxanes. We sought to define profiles of patients who benefit the most from TP and also of those who can be treated with PC. Methods We compared the effectiveness of PC/PAC (n = 253 and TP (n = 199 with respect to tumor TP53 accumulation in ovarian cancer patients with FIGO stage IIB-IV disease; this was a non-randomized retrospective study. Immunohistochemical analysis was performed on 452 archival tumors; univariate and multivariate analysis by the Cox's and logistic regression models was performed in all patients and in subgroups with [TP53(+] and without TP53 accumulation [TP53(-]. Results The advantage of taxane-platinum therapy over platinum-based therapy was seen in the TP53(+, and not in the TP53(- group. In the TP53(+ group taxane-platinum therapy enhanced the probability of complete remission (p = .018, platinum sensitivity (p = .014, platinum highly sensitive response (p = .038 and longer survival (OS, p = .008. Poor tumor differentiation diminished the advantage from taxane-platinum therapy in the TP53(+ group. In the TP53(- group PC/PAC was at least equally efficient as taxane-platinum therapy and it enhanced the chance of platinum highly sensitive response (p = .010. However, in the TP53(- group taxane-platinum therapy possibly diminished the risk of death in patients over 53 yrs (p = .077. Among factors that positively interacted with taxane-platinum therapy in some analyses were endometrioid and clear cell type, FIGO III stage, bulky residual tumor, more advanced age of patient and moderate tumor differentiation. Conclusion Our results suggest that taxane-platinum therapy is particularly justified in patients with TP53(+ tumors or older

  7. Adolescent stress and coping: a longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groër, M W; Thomas, S P; Shoffner, D

    1992-06-01

    The purpose of this longitudinal panel study was to investigate developmental and gender influences on stress and coping in adolescents attending a suburban high school in Tennessee. Data were collected from the same 167 subjects during the freshman year and again during the senior year. Life events stress was measured through the Adolescent Life Change Event Scale (ALCES) and ways of coping were categorized from data gathered from an open-ended questionnaire. Girls reported more life events stress at both testings than boys. Life events stress was greater at senior testing for both girls and boys, but girls' scores increased more. The "gender intensification" phenomenon may account for the greater disparity in types of stress reported by boys and girls as seniors. Girls generally reported more life events associated with interpersonal and family relationships. Both girls and boys reported coping with stress mostly through active distraction techniques such as exercise. However, girls' use of active distraction decreased over time, while passive distraction increased. Self-destructive and aggressive coping behaviors increased for boys. There were no relationships between amounts or types of life events stress and ways of coping for subjects at either time.

  8. Change over Time: Conducting Longitudinal Studies of Children's Cognitive Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grammer, Jennie K; Coffman, Jennifer L; Ornstein, Peter A; Morrison, Frederick J

    2013-10-01

    Developmental scientists have argued that the implementation of longitudinal methods is necessary for obtaining an accurate picture of the nature and sources of developmental change (Magnusson & Cairns, 1996; Morrison & Ornstein, 1996; Magnusson & Stattin, 2006). Developmentalists studying cognition have been relatively slow to embrace longitudinal research, and thus few exemplar studies have tracked individual children's cognitive performance over time and even fewer have examined contexts that are associated with this growth. In this article we first outline some of the benefits of implementing longitudinal designs. Using illustrations from existing studies of children's basic cognitive development and of their school-based academic performance, we discuss when it may be appropriate to employ longitudinal (versus other) methods. We then outline methods for integrating longitudinal data into one's research portfolio, contrasting the leveraging of existing longitudinal data sets with the launching of new longitudinal studies in order to address specific questions concerning cognitive development. Finally, for those who are interested in conducting longitudinal investigations of their own, we provide practical on-the-ground guidelines for designing and carrying out such studies of cognitive development.

  9. Causal inference in longitudinal comparative effectiveness studies with repeated measures of a continuous intermediate variable.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chen-Pin; Jo, Booil; Brown, C Hendricks

    2014-09-10

    We propose a principal stratification approach to assess causal effects in nonrandomized longitudinal comparative effectiveness studies with a binary endpoint outcome and repeated measures of a continuous intermediate variable. Our method is an extension of the principal stratification approach originally proposed for the longitudinal randomized study "Prevention of Suicide in Primary Care Elderly: Collaborative Trial" to assess the treatment effect on the continuous Hamilton depression score adjusting for the heterogeneity of repeatedly measured binary compliance status. Our motivation for this work comes from a comparison of the effect of two glucose-lowering medications on a clinical cohort of patients with type 2 diabetes. Here, we consider a causal inference problem assessing how well the two medications work relative to one another on two binary endpoint outcomes: cardiovascular disease-related hospitalization and all-cause mortality. Clinically, these glucose-lowering medications can have differential effects on the intermediate outcome, glucose level over time. Ultimately, we want to compare medication effects on the endpoint outcomes among individuals in the same glucose trajectory stratum while accounting for the heterogeneity in baseline covariates (i.e., to obtain 'principal effects' on the endpoint outcomes). The proposed method involves a three-step model estimation procedure. Step 1 identifies principal strata associated with the intermediate variable using hybrid growth mixture modeling analyses. Step 2 obtains the stratum membership using the pseudoclass technique and derives propensity scores for treatment assignment. Step 3 obtains the stratum-specific treatment effect on the endpoint outcome weighted by inverse propensity probabilities derived from Step 2.

  10. Participation in a US community-based cardiovascular health study: investigating nonrandom selection effects related to employment, perceived stress, work-related stress, and family caregiving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDonald, Leslie A; Fujishiro, Kaori; Howard, Virginia J; Landsbergis, Paul; Hein, Misty J

    2017-08-15

    Participation in health studies may be inversely associated with employment and stress. We investigated whether employment, perceived stress, work-related stress, and family caregiving were related to participation in a longitudinal US community-based health study of black and white men and women aged ≥45 years. Prevalence ratios and confidence intervals were estimated for completion of the second stage (S2) of a two-stage enrollment process by employment (status, type), and stress (perceived stress, work-related stress, caregiving), adjusting for age, sex, race, region, income, and education. Eligibility and consent for a follow-up occupational survey were similarly evaluated. Wage- but not self-employed participants were less likely than the unemployed to complete S2. Among the employed, S2 completion did not vary by stress; however, family caregivers with a short time burden of care (<2 hour/d) were more likely to complete S2, compared to noncaregivers. Eligibility and participation in the follow-up occupational survey were higher among those employed (vs. unemployed) at enrollment but were not associated with enrollment stress levels. Limited evidence of selection bias was seen by employment and stress within a large US community-based cohort, but findings suggest the need for enrollment procedures to consider possible barriers to participation among wage-employed individuals. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  11. Analysis of repeated outcome measures from longitudinal studies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yuanjia WANG; Naihua DUAN

    2011-01-01

    @@ In many clinical studies repeated measurements of an outcome are collected over time.For example,in an 8-week study of treatment for obsessive compulsive disorder,the severity of the disorder may be measured weekly using the Yale-Brown-Obsessive-Compulsive-Disorder-Scale (YBOCS).For each study participant who completes the study,there will be nine repeated measures of YBOCS (a baseline assessment plus eight assessments during the course of treatment).Such a study in which participants are followed and measured repeatedly over time is called a longitudinal study and the resulting data are called longitudinal data.

  12. Risk of Bias in Systematic Reviews of Non-Randomized Studies of Adverse Cardiovascular Effects of Thiazolidinediones and Cyclooxygenase-2 Inhibitors: Application of a New Cochrane Risk of Bias Tool.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anja Bilandzic

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Systematic reviews of the effects of healthcare interventions frequently include non-randomized studies. These are subject to confounding and a range of other biases that are seldom considered in detail when synthesizing and interpreting the results. Our aims were to assess the reliability and usability of a new Cochrane risk of bias (RoB tool for non-randomized studies of interventions and to determine whether restricting analysis to studies with low or moderate RoB made a material difference to the results of the reviews.We selected two systematic reviews of population-based, controlled non-randomized studies of the relationship between the use of thiazolidinediones (TZDs and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2 inhibitors and major cardiovascular events. Two epidemiologists applied the Cochrane RoB tool and made assessments across the seven specified domains of bias for each of 37 component studies. Inter-rater agreement was measured using the weighted Kappa statistic. We grouped studies according to overall RoB and performed statistical pooling for (a all studies and (b only studies with low or moderate RoB. Kappa scores across the seven bias domains ranged from 0.50 to 1.0. In the COX-2 inhibitor review, two studies had low overall RoB, 14 had moderate RoB, and five had serious RoB. In the TZD review, six studies had low RoB, four had moderate RoB, four had serious RoB, and two had critical RoB. The pooled odds ratios for myocardial infarction, heart failure, and death for rosiglitazone versus pioglitazone remained significantly elevated when analyses were confined to studies with low or moderate RoB. However, the estimate for myocardial infarction declined from 1.14 (95% CI 1.07-1.24 to 1.06 (95% CI 0.99-1.13 when analysis was confined to studies with low RoB. Estimates of pooled relative risks of cardiovascular events with COX-2 inhibitors compared with no nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug changed little when analyses were confined to studies with

  13. Separation-Individuation of Late Adolescents : A Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aslan, Sevda; Gelbal, Selahattin

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to demonstrate the change in separation-individuation between late adolescents in the first, second, third and fourth year of higher education. The study sample used for this longitudinal study consisted of 148 students attending class studies, computer education and science education departments of Kirikkale University.…

  14. A Longitudinal Study of Usability in Health Care

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjeldskov, Jesper; Skov, Mikael B.; Stage, Jan

    2010-01-01

    We report from a longitudinal laboratory-based usability evaluation of a health care information system. The purpose of the study was to inquire into the nature of usability problems experienced by novice and expert users, and to see to what extend usability problems of a health care information...... system may or may not disappear over time, as the nurses get more familiar with it-if time heals poor design? As our method for studying this, we conducted a longitudinal study with two key studies. A usability evaluation was conducted with novice users when an electronic patient record system was being......, we discuss implications for evaluating usability in health care....

  15. LONGITUDINAL STUDIES OF MUSICALLY GIFTED SCHOOLGIRLS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svetlana N. Loseva

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the article is to consider the empirical aspects of the development of musical gifted schoolgirls in vocal and choral activities.Methods. Scientific methods of research (observation, questionnaire, interview, formative experiment, longitude, testing are used. Data are analyzed using a complex of psychodiagnostic techniques: culture and free intelligence test by R. Cattell; the modified creative test by F. Williams; personal multifactorial questionnaire by R. Cattell. The reliability of the results and the validity of the findings is provided by the use of reliable and proven in the domestic and foreign psychology methods and techniques, using different statistical methods of data processing, the definition of parametric and non-parametric statistical tests (Student’s t-criterion, Spearman’s rank correlation, criterion U-Mann – Whitney, criterion T-Wilcoxon, L-criterion trends Page.Results and scientific novelty. Results of longitudinal research of development of musical aptitude are presented. Experimental work in which schoolgirls of 8–15 years participated, was carried out on the basis of creative choral collectives of Irkutsk within three years. Features of development of the pupils who are engaged in singing are revealed. It is established that in process of development of specially developed program (comprehension of emotional and semantic aspects of perception of a piece of music, finding of ability to distinguish musical timbres and the general coloring of sounding etc. analytical and intonation hearing improves under pupils’ age. Regular long singing trainings promote formation of cogitative operations: active development of divergent, rational and logical thinking and intelligence in general, and also acquisition of skills of a self-assessment. Besides, such occupations dispose children and teenagers to emotional responsiveness and spiritual self-improvement.Practical significance. The research

  16. [Longitudinal studies in the prevention of cardiovascular diseases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balaguer Vintró, Ignacio

    2004-01-01

    Longitudinal studies of well defined cohorts have contributed to the identification of risk factors of coronary heart disease and other clinical complications of atherosclerosis. After commenting on the conclusions of experimental atherosclerosis and risk factors suggested by the study of a series of myocardial infarction in young adults and their matched controls, we discuss the methodology, management and results of longitudinal studies carried out in the United States since 1949: Twin Cities, Framingham, Pooling Project, Western Collaborative, Puerto Rico Evans County, NI-IION-SAN, San Francisco, Harvard, Bogalusa and CARDIA. Special attention is given to the hypothesis proposed at the beginning of the Framingham Study and the obstacles and changes to continue the project after the first twenty-four years. We also expose the Seven Countries Study, designed and managed by Ancel Keys, as the first study performed with centralized methodology in various countries, and the studies in various European countries: Whitehall, Manresa, Paris, British Regional, Northwick Park, Caerphilly, Speedwell and PROCAM. We analyse the role of the longitudinal studies in the methodology of later studies: sons and daughters of the Framingham participants, longitudinal studies based on questionnaires, studies of the other risk factors, prevalence of risk factors in retrospective studies, trials of primary prevention (MRFIT, WHO European Collaborative Trial and Gotenburg Study) and the participation of the trained teams in the MONICA Project. We present the issues still under debate in connection with the methodology and results of the longitudinal studies: problems in the periodic examination of the participants in the epidemiologic studies, changes in definition of the new cases of acute cardiovascular events, use and selection of risk functions based on coronary charts to calculate the individual risk and cardiovascular risk factors as yet unknown.

  17. Positive illusions in marital relationships: a 13-year longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Paul J E; Niehuis, Sylvia; Huston, Ted L

    2006-12-01

    This study examined the long-term consequences of idealization in marriage, using both daily diary and questionnaire data collected from a sample of 168 newlywed couples who participated in a 4-wave, 13-year longitudinal study of marriage. Idealization was operationalized as the tendency for people to perceive their partner as more agreeable than would be expected based on their reports of their partner's agreeable and disagreeable behaviors. Spouses who idealized one another were more in love with each other as newlyweds. Longitudinal analyses suggested that spouses were less likely to suffer declines in love when they idealized one another as newlyweds. Newlywed levels of idealization did not predict divorce.

  18. Career Trajectories of Dutch Pop Musicians: A Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwaan, Koos; ter Bogt, Tom F. M.; Raaijmakers, Quinten

    2010-01-01

    Systematic studies of artistic careers are scarce and this is the first large-scale study on the career development of pop musicians. Using a prospective longitudinal approach we followed a sample of aspiring pop musicians in the Netherlands (N=369) over a three-year period. First we identified four groups of pop musicians with different career…

  19. Unemployment and psychological distress among graduates: A longitudinal study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schaufeli, Wilmar B.; Van Yperen, Nico W.

    1992-01-01

    A longitudinal study which addresses the relationship between unemployment and psychological distress in Dutch technical college graduates is presented. Two samples were studied: sample 1 (N = 635) consisted of students leaving technical college and sample 2 (N = 487) consisted of technical college

  20. Homeschooling Education: Longitudinal Study of Methods, Materials, and Curricula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanna, Linda G.

    2012-01-01

    In a comprehensive study of two-hundred fifty homeschooling families in urban, rural and suburban areas of the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, the researcher examined all aspects of the instruction, materials and curricula employed by the families in a ten-year longitudinal study from 1998 through 2008. The researcher conducted interviews and…

  1. Giftedness, Trauma, and Development: A Qualitative, Longitudinal Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Jean Sunde

    2014-01-01

    A qualitative, longitudinal, phenomenological case study explored how a gifted female experienced various life events and aspects of development during adolescence and young adulthood (ages 15-30 years), particularly as related to multiple traumatic experiences, which were revealed late in the first year of the study. Additional experiences, well…

  2. Suprasegmental Phonology Development and Reading Acquisition: A Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calet, Nuria; Gutiérrez-Palma, Nicolás; Simpson, Ian C.; González-Trujillo, M. Carmen; Defior, Sylvia

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies implicate suprasegmental phonology in reading acquisition. However, little is known about how suprasegmental sensitivity develops or how it contributes to reading. Here, 130 Spanish primary-school children participated in this 2-year longitudinal study. Nonlinguistic rhythm, lexical-stress sensitivity and metrical-stress…

  3. Giftedness, Trauma, and Development: A Qualitative, Longitudinal Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Jean Sunde

    2014-01-01

    A qualitative, longitudinal, phenomenological case study explored how a gifted female experienced various life events and aspects of development during adolescence and young adulthood (ages 15-30 years), particularly as related to multiple traumatic experiences, which were revealed late in the first year of the study. Additional experiences, well…

  4. Longitudinal Study of Low and High Achievers in Early Mathematics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro, Jose I.; Aguilar, Manuel; Marchena, Esperanza; Ruiz, Gonzalo; Menacho, Inmaculada; Van Luit, Johannes E. H.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Longitudinal studies allow us to identify, which specific maths skills are weak in young children, and whether there is a continuing weakness in these areas throughout their school years. Aims: This 2-year study investigated whether certain socio-demographic variables affect early mathematical competency in children aged 5-7 years.…

  5. English as a Foreign Language Spelling Development: A Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahn-Horwitz, Janina; Sparks, Richard L.; Goldstein, Zahava

    2012-01-01

    English as a foreign language (EFL) spelling was examined longitudinally three times (4th, 9th, 12th grades) during 9 years of EFL study among Hebrew first language (L1) students. The study examined the impact of L1 literacy variables including phonemic awareness, word attack, and spelling on EFL spelling and the relationship between EFL literacy…

  6. A longitudinal study of tooth erosion in adolescents.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aidi, H El; Bronkhorst, E.M.; Truin, G.J.

    2008-01-01

    Incidence studies on tooth erosion among adolescents are scarce. This longitudinal study aimed at estimating the prevalence, incidence, progression, and distribution of erosion in young adolescents over a 1.5-year period. Erosion at baseline was present in 32.2% of the 622 children (mean age, 11.9

  7. Career Trajectories of Dutch Pop Musicians: A Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwaan, Koos; ter Bogt, Tom F. M.; Raaijmakers, Quinten

    2010-01-01

    Systematic studies of artistic careers are scarce and this is the first large-scale study on the career development of pop musicians. Using a prospective longitudinal approach we followed a sample of aspiring pop musicians in the Netherlands (N=369) over a three-year period. First we identified four groups of pop musicians with different career…

  8. English as a Foreign Language Spelling Development: A Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahn-Horwitz, Janina; Sparks, Richard L.; Goldstein, Zahava

    2012-01-01

    English as a foreign language (EFL) spelling was examined longitudinally three times (4th, 9th, 12th grades) during 9 years of EFL study among Hebrew first language (L1) students. The study examined the impact of L1 literacy variables including phonemic awareness, word attack, and spelling on EFL spelling and the relationship between EFL literacy…

  9. Generalization of Rare Variant Association Tests for Longitudinal Family Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chien, Li-Chu; Hsu, Fang-Chi; Bowden, Donald W; Chiu, Yen-Feng

    2016-02-01

    Given the functional relevance of many rare variants, their identification is frequently critical for dissecting disease etiology. Functional variants are likely to be aggregated in family studies enriched with affected members, and this aggregation increases the statistical power to detect rare variants associated with a trait of interest. Longitudinal family studies provide additional information for identifying genetic and environmental factors associated with disease over time. However, methods to analyze rare variants in longitudinal family data remain fairly limited. These methods should be capable of accounting for different sources of correlations and handling large amounts of sequencing data efficiently. To identify rare variants associated with a phenotype in longitudinal family studies, we extended pedigree-based burden (BT) and kernel (KS) association tests to genetic longitudinal studies. Generalized estimating equation (GEE) approaches were used to generalize the pedigree-based BT and KS to multiple correlated phenotypes under the generalized linear model framework, adjusting for fixed effects of confounding factors. These tests accounted for complex correlations between repeated measures of the same phenotype (serial correlations) and between individuals in the same family (familial correlations). We conducted comprehensive simulation studies to compare the proposed tests with mixed-effects models and marginal models, using GEEs under various configurations. When the proposed tests were applied to data from the Diabetes Heart Study, we found exome variants of POMGNT1 and JAK1 genes were associated with type 2 diabetes.

  10. Children in care (CIC): A Danish longitudinal study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Egelund, Tine; Hestbæk, Anne-Dorthe

    This paper presents results describing what characterizes young, Danish children in care and their parents, and, furthermore, discusses social policy implications of the complex psychosocial disadvantages influencing the families. The paper is based on a longitudinal study of all Danish children,...... collection newcomers into care from the 1995 cohort will be included in the sample....

  11. Exploring Dynamism in Willingness to Communicate: A Longitudinal Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Yiqian Katherine

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines dynamism in students' situational willingness to communicate (WTC) within a second language classroom. This longitudinal study involved twelve English as a Second Language (ESL) participants who enrolled in an English for Academic Purposes (EAP) programme in New Zealand for five months. Based on data from classroom…

  12. Secondary Analysis of National Longitudinal Transition Study 2 Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hicks, Tyler A.; Knollman, Greg A.

    2015-01-01

    This review examines published secondary analyses of National Longitudinal Transition Study 2 (NLTS2) data, with a primary focus upon statistical objectives, paradigms, inferences, and methods. Its primary purpose was to determine which statistical techniques have been common in secondary analyses of NLTS2 data. The review begins with an…

  13. Criminal Victimization and Crime Risk Perception: A Multilevel Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, Silvia; Roccato, Michele; Vieno, Alessio

    2013-01-01

    In a national sample of the Italian population, surveyed four times between October 2002 and January 2007 (N = 2,008), we performed a multilevel longitudinal study aimed at predicting the increase in crime risk perception as a function of three families of independent variables, respectively lying at the within individual level (direct…

  14. Always connected: a longitudinal field study of mobile communication

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peters, O.; Ben Allouch, Soumaya

    2005-01-01

    Twenty-five novice users of a new mobile communication device were closely tracked for a period of three months. The results of this longitudinal field study show that people’s motivations for using mobile communication technology are initially influenced more strongly by their perceptions about the

  15. A Longitudinal Study on Internship Effectiveness in Vocational Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Chin-Sheng; Yang, Jen-te; Cheng, Shu-yun; Su, Chiakai

    2013-01-01

    A cooperative education experience (or internship placement) is an essential component of the curricula of vocational higher education. The efficacy of internship placements has become one of the major concerns facing those who develop education curricula. The purpose of this longitudinal study was to explore the relationships among the…

  16. Nine year longitudinal retrospective study of Taekwondo injuries

    OpenAIRE

    Kazemi, Mohsen; Chudolinski, Artur; Turgeon, Matt; Simon, Aaron; Ho, Eric; Coombe, Lianne

    2009-01-01

    This retrospective longitudinal study aims to describe reported Taekwondo injuries and to examine associations between competitor experience level, age and gender, and the type, location, and mechanism of injury sustained. Additionally, we examined whether recent rule changes concerning increased point value of head shots in adult Taekwondo competition had affected injury incidence.

  17. Longitudinal Study on Reciprocity between Personality Traits and Parenting Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rantanen, Johanna; Tillemann, Kati; Metsäpelto, Riitta-Leena; Kokko, Katja; Pulkkinen, Lea

    2015-01-01

    Reciprocal associations between the Big Five personality traits and parenting stress--including both parents' feelings of their distress and perception of their incompetence as parents--were studied with 248 participants (49% of which were males). Longitudinal data, collected at ages 33/36, 42 and 50 years, were used. Cross-lagged path analysis…

  18. A Longitudinal Study of the Impact of an Environmental Action

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rioux, Liliane; Pasquier, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    In a previous study, we investigated the impact of an awareness-raising campaign on the behaviour of secondary school children in the Centre Region of France, regarding the recycling of used batteries. But, was it a question of pro-environmental behaviour or simply an environmental action? To answer this question, a three-year longitudinal study…

  19. Minor Delinquency and Immigration: A Longitudinal Study among Male Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Titzmann, Peter F.; Silbereisen, Rainer K.; Mesch, Gustavo

    2014-01-01

    On the basis of general theories of delinquency and the specific situation of immigrants, this longitudinal study investigated predictors of initial levels and rates of change in delinquency among 188 male ethnic German Diaspora immigrants from the former Soviet Union (FSU) in Germany, 237 male native German adolescents, and 182 male Jewish…

  20. Accelerated Brain Aging in Schizophrenia : A Longitudinal Pattern Recognition Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schnack, Hugo G; van Haren, Neeltje E M; Nieuwenhuis, Mireille; Hulshoff Pol, Hilleke E; Cahn, Wiepke; Kahn, René S

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Despite the multitude of longitudinal neuroimaging studies that have been published, a basic question on the progressive brain loss in schizophrenia remains unaddressed: Does it reflect accelerated aging of the brain, or is it caused by a fundamentally different process? The authors used

  1. Accelerated brain aging in schizophrenia : A longitudinal pattern recognition study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schnack, Hugo G.; Van Haren, Neeltje E M; Nieuwenhuis, Mireille; Pol, Hilleke E Hulshoff; Cahn, Wiepke; Kahn, René S.

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Despite the multitude of longitudinal neuroimaging studies that have been published, a basic question on the progressive brain loss in schizophrenia remains unaddressed: Does it reflect accelerated aging of the brain, or is it caused by a fundamentally different process? The authors used

  2. Early Cognitive Profiles of Emergent Readers: A Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunswick, Nicola; Martin, G. Neil; Rippon, Georgina

    2012-01-01

    This longitudinal study examined the contribution of phonological awareness, phonological memory, and visuospatial ability to reading development in 142 English-speaking children from the start of kindergarten to the middle of Grade 2. Partial cross-lagged analyses revealed significant relationships between early performance on block design and…

  3. A Longitudinal Study of Children's Social Adjustment during Elementary School.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battistich, Victor; Solomon, Daniel

    A 7-year, longitudinal study of children's social development from kindergarten through sixth grade was designed to identify unusually prosocial children and characteristics that differentiated them from average and antisocial peers. Another objective was to identify functional socioemotional predictors of changes in children's social adjustment.…

  4. Accelerated Brain Aging in Schizophrenia : A Longitudinal Pattern Recognition Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schnack, Hugo G; van Haren, Neeltje E M; Nieuwenhuis, Mireille; Hulshoff Pol, Hilleke E; Cahn, Wiepke; Kahn, René S

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Despite the multitude of longitudinal neuroimaging studies that have been published, a basic question on the progressive brain loss in schizophrenia remains unaddressed: Does it reflect accelerated aging of the brain, or is it caused by a fundamentally different process? The authors used

  5. Longitudinal Study on Reciprocity between Personality Traits and Parenting Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rantanen, Johanna; Tillemann, Kati; Metsäpelto, Riitta-Leena; Kokko, Katja; Pulkkinen, Lea

    2015-01-01

    Reciprocal associations between the Big Five personality traits and parenting stress--including both parents' feelings of their distress and perception of their incompetence as parents--were studied with 248 participants (49% of which were males). Longitudinal data, collected at ages 33/36, 42 and 50 years, were used. Cross-lagged path…

  6. The National Early Intervention Longitudinal Study (NEILS) Design Overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hebbeler, Kathleen; Wagner, Mary

    The National Early Intervention Longitudinal Study (NEILS) is being conducted to address some of the most important questions related to the implementation and outcomes of Part C of the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA). NEILS is following a nationally representative sample of children from birth to 3 years old and their families…

  7. Longitudinal study of serum placental GH in 455 normal pregnancies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chellakooty, Marla; Skibsted, Lillian; Skouby, Sven Olaf

    2002-01-01

    Placental GH is thought to be responsible for the rise in maternal IGF-I during pregnancy and is considered to be important for fetal growth. In this prospective longitudinal study of healthy pregnant women, we investigated determinants of placental GH in maternal serum. Serum was obtained from 4...

  8. The development of polypharmacy. A longitudinal study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veehof, LJG; Stewart, RE; Haaijer-Ruskamp, FM; Meyboom-de Jong, B

    2000-01-01

    Background. To date, only a few studies have been carried out on the development and progress of polypharmacy in relation to morbidity in general practices in The Netherlands. Objective. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between an increase in long-term drug use and the incid

  9. A Longitudinal Study of Consumer Socialization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moschis, George P.; Moore, Roy L.

    A study examined the effects of factors (including television, family, peers, age, and socioeconomic status) on consumer socialization, the process by which individuals develop consumption-related cognitions and behaviors. The specific criterion variables studied included consumer affairs knowledge, puffery filtering, consumer finance management,…

  10. The development of polypharmacy. A longitudinal study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veehof, LJG; Stewart, RE; Haaijer-Ruskamp, FM; Meyboom-de Jong, B

    Background. To date, only a few studies have been carried out on the development and progress of polypharmacy in relation to morbidity in general practices in The Netherlands. Objective. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between an increase in long-term drug use and the

  11. A Longitudinal Study of Moral Judgment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colby, Anne; And Others

    A 20-year study to verify Lawrence Kohlberg's theory of moral development through a new research design, the Standard Issue Scoring System, is reported. Kohlberg theorizes that an individual progresses through several stages in attaining moral judgment. As children grow older, they are able to integrate diverse points of view on a moral conflict.…

  12. Shapes related to longitudinal studies of disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Erleben, Lene Lillemark

    . The first part of this dissertation studies the growth patterns of atherosclerotic calcified deposits in the lumbar aorta based on x-ray images over an 8-year time period. We have been able to find simple growth patterns that explain how the calcifications evolve. The calcifications grew on average 41 % (p...... aorta wall and 21 $% (p aorta. We have made a prediction model for the atherosclerotic growth that is significantly better to predicting...

  13. Longitudinal MRI studies of brain morphometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skimminge, Arnold Jesper Møller

    into the accompanying deformation field. Deformation fields from high dimensional warping founds tensor based morphometry (TBM), and provides unique opportunities to study human brain morphology and plasticity. In this thesis, specially adapted image processing streams utilizing several image registration techniques......High resolution MR images acquired at multiple time points of the brain allow quantification of localized changes induced by external factors such as maturation, ageing or disease progression/recovery. High-dimensional warping of such MR images incorporates changes induced by external factors...

  14. Shapes related to longitudinal studies of disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Erleben, Lene Lillemark

    This dissertation investigates novel markers for cardiovascular diseases (CVD) and Alzheimer's disease (AD). Both CVD and AD are among the large diseases counted in morbidity and mortality in the western world, which makes them huge and increasing problems. By investigating and learning...... characteristics of the specific disease, and how it evolves, one can design novel markers for the disease. These markers could, in the long run, aid in clinical screening programs and in drug trials which in the end could make a great difference in the life quality of the affected patients and their surroundings....... The first part of this dissertation studies the growth patterns of atherosclerotic calcified deposits in the lumbar aorta based on x-ray images over an 8-year time period. We have been able to find simple growth patterns that explain how the calcifications evolve. The calcifications grew on average 41 % (p...

  15. A review of longitudinal studies on antenatal and postnatal depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Underwood, Lisa; Waldie, Karen; D'Souza, Stephanie; Peterson, Elizabeth R; Morton, Susan

    2016-10-01

    Antenatal depression is a known risk factor for postnatal depression; both are common disorders associated with negative impacts on child development. Few studies have followed up women from pregnancy and through the postnatal period to explore how rates of depression change. This review evaluates recent evidence on depression during pregnancy and after childbirth. A search of Embase, PsychINFO, MEDLINE and Cochrane Reviews was carried out to identify longitudinal studies on antenatal and postnatal depression. Studies that measured depression during pregnancy and up to 1 year after childbirth were evaluated against a set of criteria (e.g. less than 50 % attrition). Of the initial 523 studies identified, 16 studies met the final inclusion criteria with a total of 35,419 women. The average rate of antenatal depression across these studies was 17 and 13 % postnatal depression. The longitudinal nature of the studies revealed that on average 39 % of those who experienced antenatal depression went on to have postnatal depression. Similarly, on average, 47 % of those with postnatal depression had also experienced antenatal depression. On average, almost 7 % of women reported significant depressive symptoms in pregnancy that persisted after childbirth. The review provided evidence that rates of depression tend to be higher during pregnancy than in the first year following childbirth. Furthermore, the longitudinal data show that there is much movement between the groups categorised as depressed or not depressed. There is evidence that postnatal depression is often a continuation of existing antenatal depression.

  16. HRI in the home: A Longitudinal Ethnographic Study with Roomba

    OpenAIRE

    Fink, Julia; Bauwens, Valérie; Mubin, Omar; Kaplan, Frédéric; Dillenbourg, Pierre

    2011-01-01

    Personal service robots, such as the iRobot Roomba vacuum cleaner provide a promising opportunity to study human-robot interaction (HRI) in domestic environments. Still rather little is known about long-term impacts of robotic home appliances on people’s daily routines and attitudes and how they evolve over time. We investigate these aspects through a longitudinal ethnographic study with nine households, to which we gave a Roomba cleaning robot. During six months, data is gathered through a c...

  17. Longitudinal Deformation of Pulmonary Artery: A Case Series Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Hosseinsabet

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives:: In this study, pulmonary artery longitudinal deformation was evaluated and attempted to clarify pulmonary artery deformation. Methods:: Eight healthy men and seven healthy women with structurally normal hearts were enrolled. In the parasternal short axis view at the aortic valve level, longitudinal axis of pulmonary artery was obtained and color coded Doppler myocardial imaging applied. Results:: The systolic strain was positive in most the pulmonary segments, velocity and strain rate waves had three defined peaks, one positive in systole and two negative in diastole. Conclusions:: This study revealed for first time, deformation pattern of pulmonary artery by color coded Doppler myocardial imaging and can be basis for future researches in cardiopulmonary diseases.

  18. Long term and transitional intermittent smokers: a longitudinal study.

    OpenAIRE

    Lindström, Martin; Isacsson, Sven-Olof

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To investigate differences in snuff consumption, sociodemographic and psychosocial characteristics between baseline intermittent smokers that had become daily smokers, stopped smoking or remained intermittent smokers at the one year follow up. Design/setting/participants/measurements: A population of 12 507 individuals interviewed at baseline in 1992-94 and at a one year follow up, aged 45-69 years, was investigated in a longitudinal study. The three groups of baseline intermittent...

  19. The study protocol for a non-randomized controlled clinical trial using a genotype-guided strategy in a dataset of patients who undergone percutaneous coronary intervention with stent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Lucía Dávila-Fajardo

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available This article contains data related to the research article entitled “Results of genotype–guided antiplatelet therapy in patients undergone percutaneous coronary intervention with stent” (J. Sánchez-Ramos, C.L. Dávila-Fajardo, P. Toledo Frías, X. Díaz Villamarín, L.J. Martínez-González, S. Martínez Huertas, F. Burillo Gómez, J. Caballero Borrego, A. Bautista Pavés, M.C. Marín Guzmán, J.A. Ramirez Hernández, C. Correa Vilches, J. Cabeza Barrera, 2016 (1. This data article reports, for the first time, about the non-randomized clinical trial protocol that check if CYP2C19/ABCB1 genotype–guided strategy in which the choice of antiplatelet therapy is based on the genetic test, reduces the rates of cardiovascular events and bleeding compared to a non-tailored strategy in patients undergone percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI with stent. The data included in this article are: design and setting of the study, study population, inclusion and exclusion criteria, definition of the intervention, objectives, variables (baseline characteristics and during the follow-up, study procedures, collection and treatment of the biological sample, genotyping, withdrawal criteria, sample size, statistic analysis, ethical aspects, information sheet and consent form. The authors confirm that this study has been registered in Eudra CT (Eudra CT: 2016-001294-33.

  20. Longitudinal tracking studies for a high intensity proton synchrotron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lessner, E.; Cho, Y.; Harkay, K.; Symon, K. [Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 Cass Ave., Argonne, Illinois 60439 (United States)

    1996-06-01

    Results from longitudinal tracking studies for a high intensity proton synchrotron designed for a 1-MW spallation source are presented. The machine delivers a proton beam of 0.5 mA time-averaged current at a repetition rate of 30 Hz. The accelerator is designed to have radiation levels that allow hands-on-maintenance. However, the high beam intensity causes strong space charge fields whose effects may lead to particle loss and longitudinal instabilities. The space charge fields modify the particle distribution, distort the stable bucket area and reduce the rf linear restoring force. Tracking simulations were conducted to analyze the space charge effects on the dynamics of the injection and acceleration processes and means to circumvent them. The tracking studies led to the establishment of the injected beam parameters and rf voltage program that minimized beam loss and longitudinal instabilities. Similar studies for a 10-GeV synchrotron that uses the 2-GeV synchrotron as its injector are also discussed. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

  1. Web-based tracking methods in longitudinal studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Izaak L; O'Donnell, Clifford R

    2014-08-01

    The use of online resources to reduce the attrition of program participants in longitudinal studies is examined. Higher-risk individuals, those involved in illegal activities, and females with last name changes are typically more difficult to locate. The effectiveness of using online resources for these participants is addressed. These resources include social networking sites, people-finder search engines, telephone and address directories, judicial records, and death records. The strengths and limitations of these resources are presented and discussed. Longitudinal studies using these resources are examined to evaluate their successful follow-up rates. The results of these studies indicate that participant characteristics are more important to successful follow-up than the length of time since participation or sample size. The use of multiple online sites increased follow-up rates, especially for those who are typically difficult to locate. The variables and websites to consider are discussed, and six lessons learned are offered. The prospective use of online participant involvement is especially important for successful longitudinal evaluation and program planning.

  2. Academic dishonesty among Italian nursing students: A longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macale, Loreana; Ghezzi, Valerio; Rocco, Gennaro; Fida, Roberta; Vellone, Ercole; Alvaro, Rosaria

    2017-03-01

    Considering the ethical issues related to nursing and that Ethics is an integral part of the nursing education in the degree course, one would suppose that academic dishonesty might be less frequent in nursing students than in students of other disciplines. However, several studies show that this trend of deceitful behaviour seems to be similar among the university nursing students and those of other disciplines. The aim of this study is to investigate the phenomenon of academic dishonesty in the classroom from a longitudinal perspective within a cohort of Italian nursing students. A non-experimental longitudinal design was used. All nursing students were recruited from the Nursing Science Bachelor Degree Program of a big Italian university in the centre of Italy and participants were part of an ongoing longitudinal research project which started in 2011 on nursing students' wellbeing. The results show that students get accustomed to taking academically deceitful actions. They come to consider their behaviours acceptable and normal, thereby stabilizing them, which increases the probability of stabilizing subsequent deceitful behaviours. The stability through time of academic cheating behaviours committed during higher education, within the study's timeframe, provides important perspectives into the establishment of rigorous standards of ethical and moral behaviours by the students. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Predicting 6-Minute Walking Distance in Recipients of Lung Transplantation : Longitudinal Study of 108 Patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Adrichem, Edwin J.; Reinsma, Gerda D.; van den Berg, Sanne; van der Bij, Wim; Erasmus, Michiel E.; Krijnen, Wim P.; Dijkstra, Pieter U.; van der Schans, Cees P.

    Background. Exercise capacity, muscle function, and physical activity levels remain reduced in recipients of lung transplantation. Factors associated with this deficiency in functional exercise capacity have not been studied longitudinally. Objective. The study aims were to analyze the longitudinal

  4. Effects of electroconvulsive therapy on amygdala function in major depression - a longitudinal functional magnetic resonance imaging study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redlich, R; Bürger, C; Dohm, K; Grotegerd, D; Opel, N; Zaremba, D; Meinert, S; Förster, K; Repple, J; Schnelle, R; Wagenknecht, C; Zavorotnyy, M; Heindel, W; Kugel, H; Gerbaulet, M; Alferink, J; Arolt, V; Zwanzger, P; Dannlowski, U

    2017-09-01

    Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is one of the most effective treatments for severe depression. However, little is known regarding brain functional processes mediating ECT effects. In a non-randomized prospective study, functional magnetic resonance imaging data during the automatic processing of subliminally presented emotional faces were obtained twice, about 6 weeks apart, in patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) before and after treatment with ECT (ECT, n = 24). Additionally, a control sample of MDD patients treated solely with pharmacotherapy (MED, n = 23) and a healthy control sample (HC, n = 22) were obtained. Before therapy, both patient groups equally showed elevated amygdala reactivity to sad faces compared with HC. After treatment, a decrease in amygdala activity to negative stimuli was discerned in both patient samples indicating a normalization of amygdala function, suggesting mechanisms potentially unspecific for ECT. Moreover, a decrease in amygdala activity to sad faces was associated with symptomatic improvements in the ECT sample (r spearman = -0.48, p = 0.044), and by tendency also for the MED sample (r spearman = -0.38, p = 0.098). However, we did not find any significant association between pre-treatment amygdala function to emotional stimuli and individual symptom improvement, neither for the ECT sample, nor for the MED sample. In sum, the present study provides first results regarding functional changes in emotion processing due to ECT treatment using a longitudinal design, thus validating and extending our knowledge gained from previous treatment studies. A limitation was that ECT patients received concurrent medication treatment.

  5. Studies of longitudinal instability with an electron beam

    Science.gov (United States)

    This progress report covers the research on the 'Study of Longitudinal Instability with an Electron Beam' performed at the University of Maryland during the period from September 1, 1993 to February 28, 1994 of the two-year grant sponsored by the Department of Energy, under Grant No. DEFG02-92ER54178. This research is motivated by the issue of longitudinal instability in induction linacs as drivers for heavy ion inertial fusion. The Fusion Policy Advisory Committee (FPAC) in its final report to DOE (September 1990) identified longitudinal instability as a key physics problem that needs to be solved if an induction linac is to be developed into a successful HIF driver. The FPAC report also stated that 'in parallel' to the design and construction of ILSE 'enhanced theoretical and experimental efforts are required for an improved understanding of potentially serious longitudinal beam instability issues'. The experiment with electron beams in this area is a low-cost way to gain a thorough understanding of the instability and to test computer codes in collaboration with LBL, LLNL, and I. Haber at NRL. The last six months saw the transition of the research activities from phase 1 to phase 2. By the end of last September, the experiments on space-charge waves had been completed. This had fulfilled the first year's goal of this two-year grant. Though the completion of the experiments was one month later than that scheduled and the data analysis still continues up to now, the authors have done much more than was originally proposed.

  6. Adalimumab specifically induces CD3+ CD4+ CD25high Foxp3+ CD127− T-regulatory cells and decreases vascular endothelial growth factor plasma levels in refractory immuno-mediated uveitis: a non-randomized pilot intervention study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calleja, S; Cordero-Coma, M; Rodriguez, E; Llorente, M; Franco, M; Ruiz de Morales, J G

    2012-01-01

    Aim To explore immunoregulatory and anti-inflammatory pathways specifically targeted by a subcutaneous anti-TNFαdrug—adalimumab—which might be relevant for controlling refractory uveitis. Design Non-randomized pilot intervention study on the effects of adalimumab on Treg populations and plasma VEGF levels in refractory uveitis patients. Inflammatory and immunological parameters were measured in 12 patients before therapy, and 1 and 6 months after therapy, and analyzed in the context of ophthalmological outcomes. The results were compared with those obtained in 10 systemic prednisone-treated uveitis patients. Results After 1 month of treatment, all patients responded, with 67% of adalimumab group and 80% of the corticosteroid group achieving inactivity (P=0.5). Unlike steroid-treated patients, a significant increase in T-regulatory CD4+ CD25high Foxp3+ CD127− cells was observed in adalimumab patients after 1 month of treatment, and maintained after 6 months (P=0.003). A significant adalimumab-specific drop in plasma VEGF was observed after 1 and 6 months of treatment (P=0.019). In every single patient, Tregs but not VEGF correlated with disease activity. Conclusions In refractory uveitis patients treated with adalimumab, clinical efficacy may be mediated through upregulation of Tregs in addition to modulation of VEGF-mediated inflammatory pathways. These biological properties, which were not observed in patients treated with corticosteroids, may reflect the specificity of TNF-αtargeting. PMID:22222264

  7. Whole grain intake: The Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging

    OpenAIRE

    Maras, Janice E.; Newby, P.K.; Bakun, Peter J.; Ferrucci, Luigi; Tucker, Katherine L.

    2009-01-01

    Our objective was to identify major dietary sources of whole grains and to describe the construction of a database of whole grain content of foods. Dietary information was collected with 7-d food records from men and women in the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging, mean age 62.1 ± 16.0 years, who participated in the dietary assessment portion of the study (n = 1516), and estimates of whole grain intake were obtained from a newly developed database. The Pyramid Servings database and 1994–19...

  8. Study of longitudinal dynamics in space-charge dominated beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Kai

    Modern accelerator applications, such as heavy ion fusion drivers, pulsed neutron sources, electron injectors for high-energy linear colliders, and X-ray Free Electron Lasers, demand beams with high intensity, low emittance and small energy spread. At low (non-relativistic) energies, the "electrostatic", collective interactions from space-charge forces existing in such intense beams play the dominant role; we characterize these beams as space-charge dominated beams. This dissertation presents numerous new findings on the longitudinal dynamics of a space-charge dominated beam, particularly on the propagation of density perturbations. In order to fully understand the complex physics of longitudinal space-charge waves, we combine the results of theory, computer simulation, and experiment. In the Long Solenoid Experimental system (LSE), with numerous diagnostic tools and techniques, we have, for the first time, experimentally measured the detailed energy profiles of longitudinal space-charge waves at different locations, both near the beam source and at the end of the transport system. Along with the current profiles, we have a complete set of experimental data for the propagation of space-charge waves. We compare these measured results to a 1-D theory and find better agreement for beams with perturbations in the linear regime, where the perturbation strength is less than 10%, than those with nonlinear perturbations. Using fast imaging techniques that we newly developed, we have, for the first time, obtained the progressive time-resolved images of longitudinal slices of a space-charge dominated beam. These images not only provide us time-resolved transverse density distribution of the beam, but also enable us to take time-resolved transverse phase space measurement using computerized tomography. By combining this information with the longitudinal energy measurement, we have, for the first time, experimentally constructed the full 6-D phase space. Part of the results

  9. A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized and non-randomized studies comparing laparoscopic and open abdominoperineal resection for rectal cancer.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Ahmad, N Z

    2013-03-01

    Evidence supporting the role of laparoscopy in abdominoperineal resection (APR) is limited. This study compared the short-term and long-term outcomes and complications associated with open and laparoscopic APR.

  10. Cohort profile: the Quebec Longitudinal Study of Kindergarten Children (QLSKC).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouquette, Alexandra; Côté, Sylvana M; Pryor, Laura E; Carbonneau, René; Vitaro, Frank; Tremblay, Richard E

    2014-02-01

    The Quebec Longitudinal Study of Kindergarten Children (QLSKC) is an ongoing population-based prospective longitudinal study presently spanning ages 6-29 years, designed to study the prevalence, risk factors, development and consequences of behavioural and emotional problems during elementary school. Kindergarten boys and girls attending French-speaking public schools in the Canadian province of Quebec during the 1986-87 and 1987-88 school years were included in the cohort: 2000 children representative of the population and 1017 children exhibiting disruptive behaviour problems. To date, 12 waves of data have been collected, and three generations of participants have been involved in the study (i.e. the study child, his parents and the first child of the study child). Information on demographics, psycho-social and lifestyle factors, child and family member characteristics (physical and mental health), and outcomes such as psychiatric diagnoses, delinquency or school diploma were assessed during three important developmental stages (childhood, adolescence and early adulthood). Blood samples were also collected in early adulthood for genetic analyses. Information on publications, available data and access to data can be found on the following website (http://www.gripinfo.ca/Grip/Public/www/).

  11. Effectiveness of and Dropout from Outpatient Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Adult Unipolar Depression: A Meta-Analysis of Nonrandomized Effectiveness Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hans, Eva; Hiller, Wolfgang

    2013-01-01

    Objective: The primary aim of this study was to assess the overall effectiveness of and dropout from individual and group outpatient cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) for adults with a primary diagnosis of unipolar depressive disorder in routine clinical practice. Method: We conducted a random effects meta-analysis of 34 nonrandomized…

  12. Effectiveness of and Dropout from Outpatient Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Adult Unipolar Depression: A Meta-Analysis of Nonrandomized Effectiveness Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hans, Eva; Hiller, Wolfgang

    2013-01-01

    Objective: The primary aim of this study was to assess the overall effectiveness of and dropout from individual and group outpatient cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) for adults with a primary diagnosis of unipolar depressive disorder in routine clinical practice. Method: We conducted a random effects meta-analysis of 34 nonrandomized…

  13. Evaluating a Non-Randomized Trial: A Case Study of a Pilot to Increase Pre-Collegiate Math Course Success Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaManque, Andrew

    2009-01-01

    This article presents a case study of a two-year pilot to increase pre-collegiate math course success rates at a large community college. The EnableMath pilot involved the use of computerized software that allowed students to practice math problems in a lab during class time. Additional components of the program included the administration of the…

  14. A longitudinal study on enteropathogenic infections of livestock in Trinidad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adesiyun A.A.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available A longitudinal study was conducted on selected livestock farms to determine the prevalence of enteropathogens in diarrhoeic and non-diarrhoeic animals. The enteropathogens assayed from faecal samples and rectal swabs were bacteria (Escherichia coli, Campylobacter spp. Salmonella spp. and Yersinia enterocolitica, parasites (coccidia, gastrointestinal nematodes and Cryptosporidium spp. and viruses (group A rotavirus and parvovirus. The prevalence of the enteropathogens in various animal species was related to age and month of the year. Generally, younger animals presented a higher prevalence of infection by enteropathogens than older animals while most infections occurred between the months of January and April.

  15. Retrospective, nonrandomized controlled study on autoadjusting, dual-pressure positive airway pressure therapy for a consecutive series of complex insomnia disorder patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krakow, Barry; McIver, Natalia D; Ulibarri, Victor A; Nadorff, Michael R

    2017-01-01

    Purpose Emerging evidence shows that positive airway pressure (PAP) treatment of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) and upper airway resistance syndrome (UARS) in chronic insomnia patients (proposed “complex insomnia” disorder) leads to substantial decreases in insomnia severity. Although continuous PAP (CPAP) is the pressure mode most widely researched, intolerance to fixed pressurized air is rarely investigated or described in comorbidity patients. This retrospective study examined dual pressure, autoadjusting PAP modes in chronic, complex insomnia disorder patients. Patients and methods Chronic insomnia disorder patients (mean [SD] insomnia severity index [ISI] =19.11 [3.34]) objectively diagnosed with OSA or UARS and using either autobilevel PAP device or adaptive servoventilation (ASV) device after failing CPAP therapy (frequently due to intolerance to pressurized air, poor outcomes, or emergence of CSA) were divided into PAP users (≥20 h/wk) and partial users (insomnia patients, PAP users (n=246) averaged 6.10 (1.78) nightly hours and 42.71 (12.48) weekly hours and partial users (n=56) averaged 1.67 (0.76) nightly hours and 11.70 (5.31) weekly hours. For mean (SD) decreases in total ISI scores, a significant (group × time) interaction was observed (F[1,300]=13.566; Pinsomnia symptoms (r=−0.256, PInsomnia severity significantly decreased in patients using autoadjusting PAP devices, but the study design restricts interpretation to an association. Future research must elucidate the interaction between insomnia and OSA/UARS as well as the adverse influence of pressure intolerance on PAP adaptation in complex insomnia patients. Randomized controlled studies must determine whether advanced PAP modes provide benefits over standard CPAP modes in these comorbidity patients. PMID:28331381

  16. Early crisis nontechnical skill teaching in residency leads to long-term skill retention and improved performance during crises: A prospective, nonrandomized controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doumouras, Aristithes G; Engels, Paul T

    2017-07-01

    Medical error is common in crises, and the majority of observed errors are nontechnical in nature. The long-term impact of teaching crisis nontechnical skills to residents has not been evaluated. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of simulation-based teaching of crisis nontechnical skills compared to controls one year after initial teaching. This was a prospective study using both historical controls and a before-and-after methodology to evaluate the effect of a high-fidelity simulation curriculum that used crisis resource management principles to teach nontechnical skills. Postgraduate year 2 and 3 residents were invited to take part in a prospective training course over 2 years. The primary outcome was leader performance evaluated by expert raters using the previously validated 7-point Ottawa Global Rating Scale. Overall, 23 residents performed 30 simulations over the 2 years with the intervention group of 7 residents being assessed in both years. After adjustment, the postgraduate year 3 intervention group who received training the previous year had significantly higher overall performance scores than all postgraduate year 2 scores (1.09 95% confidence interval 0.70-1.47, P < .001) and the historical postgraduate year 3 cohort who received no prior training (1.20, 95% confidence interval 0.37-2.03, P = .005). There was no decay of skills noted over the course of the study. Postgraduate year 3 residents who had prior training had significantly improved crisis performance compared to historical postgraduate year 3 controls and untrained postgraduate year 2 residents. There were no significant differences between the crisis performance of postgraduate year 2 residents and the untrained postgraduate year 3 controls. This confirms the beneficial effect and long-term retention after crisis nontechnical skill training. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. GEMCYTABIN (CYTOGEM®) AND CISPLATIN AS FIRST-LINE THERAPY FOR ADVANCED BLADDER CANCER: RESULTS OF A PROSPECTIVE OPEN-LABELED NON-COMPARATIVE NON-RANDOMIZED STUDY

    OpenAIRE

    V. B. Matveev; M. I. Volkova; M. M. Konstantinova; L. V. Schapligin; G. M. Manikhas

    2014-01-01

    Purpose.  The primary end-points of the study were overall response rate, progressive-free and overall survival in patients received Gemcytabin (Cytogem®) and Cisplatin as first-line therapy for transitional-cell bladder cancer. Secondary end-points were toxicity and safty of the regimen. Material. From February 2005 to March 2007 25 patients with morphologically verified inoperable locally advanced and metastatic transitional-cell bladder cancer were recruited. Men-to-women ratio was 3:1. Me...

  18. Impact of a Multifaceted and Clinically Integrated Training Program in Evidence-Based Practice on Knowledge, Skills, Beliefs and Behaviour among Clinical Instructors in Physiotherapy: A Non-Randomized Controlled Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina Rydland Olsen

    Full Text Available Physiotherapists practicing at clinical placement sites assigned the role as clinical instructors (CIs, are responsible for supervising physiotherapy students. For CIs to role model evidence-based practice (EBP they need EBP competence. The aim of this study was to assess the short and long term impact of a six-month multifaceted and clinically integrated training program in EBP on the knowledge, skills, beliefs and behaviour of CIs supervising physiotherapy students.We invited 37 CIs to participate in this non-randomized controlled study. Three self-administered questionnaires were used pre- and post-intervention, and at six-month follow-up: 1 The Adapted Fresno test (AFT, 2 the EBP Belief Scale and 3 the EBP Implementation Scale. The analysis approach was linear regression modeling using Generalized Estimating Equations.In total, 29 CIs agreed to participate in the study: 14 were invited to participate in the intervention group and 15 were invited to participate in the control group. One in the intervention group and five in the control group were lost to follow-up. At follow-up, the group difference was statistically significant for the AFT (mean difference = 37, 95% CI (15.9 -58.1, p < 0.001 and the EBP Beliefs scale (mean difference = 8.1, 95% CI (3.1 -13.2, p = 0.002, but not for the EBP Implementation scale (mean difference = 1.8. 95% CI (-4.5-8.1, p = 0.574. Comparing measurements over time, we found a statistically significant increase in mean scores related to all outcome measures for the intervention group only.A multifaceted and clinically integrated training program in EBP was successful in improving EBP knowledge, skills and beliefs among CIs. Future studies need to ensure long-term EBP behaviour change, in addition to assessing CIs' abilities to apply EBP knowledge and skills when supervising students.

  19. Impact of a Multifaceted and Clinically Integrated Training Program in Evidence-Based Practice on Knowledge, Skills, Beliefs and Behaviour among Clinical Instructors in Physiotherapy: A Non-Randomized Controlled Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, Nina Rydland; Bradley, Peter; Espehaug, Birgitte; Nortvedt, Monica Wammen; Lygren, Hildegunn; Frisk, Bente; Bjordal, Jan Magnus

    2015-01-01

    Background and Purpose Physiotherapists practicing at clinical placement sites assigned the role as clinical instructors (CIs), are responsible for supervising physiotherapy students. For CIs to role model evidence-based practice (EBP) they need EBP competence. The aim of this study was to assess the short and long term impact of a six-month multifaceted and clinically integrated training program in EBP on the knowledge, skills, beliefs and behaviour of CIs supervising physiotherapy students. Methods We invited 37 CIs to participate in this non-randomized controlled study. Three self-administered questionnaires were used pre- and post-intervention, and at six-month follow-up: 1) The Adapted Fresno test (AFT), 2) the EBP Belief Scale and 3) the EBP Implementation Scale. The analysis approach was linear regression modeling using Generalized Estimating Equations. Results In total, 29 CIs agreed to participate in the study: 14 were invited to participate in the intervention group and 15 were invited to participate in the control group. One in the intervention group and five in the control group were lost to follow-up. At follow-up, the group difference was statistically significant for the AFT (mean difference = 37, 95% CI (15.9 -58.1), p<0.001) and the EBP Beliefs scale (mean difference = 8.1, 95% CI (3.1 -13.2), p = 0.002), but not for the EBP Implementation scale (mean difference = 1.8. 95% CI (-4.5-8.1), p = 0.574). Comparing measurements over time, we found a statistically significant increase in mean scores related to all outcome measures for the intervention group only. Conclusions A multifaceted and clinically integrated training program in EBP was successful in improving EBP knowledge, skills and beliefs among CIs. Future studies need to ensure long-term EBP behaviour change, in addition to assessing CIs’ abilities to apply EBP knowledge and skills when supervising students. PMID:25894559

  20. Prospective, noncomparative, nonrandomized case study of short-term outcomes of 360° suture trabeculotomy ab interno in patients with open-angle glaucoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sato T

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Tomoki Sato,1 Akira Hirata,2 Takanori Mizoguchi31Sato Eye Clinic, Arao City, Kumamoto, 2Hayashi Eye Hospital, Fukuoka, 3Mizoguchi Eye Clinic, Nagasaki, JapanBackground: In this paper, we describe 360° suture trabeculotomy (360°LOT ab interno and the short-term course in patients who underwent this procedure.Methods: We prospectively studied 12 patients (12 eyes with open-angle glaucoma who underwent 360°LOT ab interno at the Sato Eye Clinic between February and July 2014. The surgical procedure involved making a 1.7 mm temporal corneal incision, exposing an approximately 15° opening in the inner wall of Schlemm’s canal (nasal side using a Trabectome with a gonioscope, and inserting a 5-0 nylon suture rounded at the tip into Schlemm’s canal opened via the anterior chamber. The suture was then threaded around Schlemm’s canal, and the tip of the suture that emerged on the other side was then advanced through the opening to make a circumferential incision. Intraocular pressure (IOP, number of anti-glaucoma medications used, complications, and the surgery completion rate were prospectively studied.Results: Mean IOP, which was 19.4 mmHg at baseline, showed a significant decrease at each of the monthly observation points, reaching 13.8 mmHg at 6 months after surgery (P=0.0004, paired t-test. The mean number of anti-glaucoma medications decreased from 3.2 at baseline to 1.1 at 6 months after surgery. IOP spikes ≥30 mmHg were seen in 25% of patients, but there were no other serious complications and the surgery completion rate was 92%.Conclusion: The 360°LOT ab interno procedure preserves the conjunctiva and sclera, and has a high surgery completion rate when using the anterior chamber approach, and could therefore be an effective short-term treatment of open-angle glaucoma.Keywords: non-penetrating surgery, intraocular pressure, Schlemm’s canal, corneal incision, Trabectome

  1. A pilot study to determine the short-term effects of a low glycemic load diet on hormonal markers of acne: a nonrandomized, parallel, controlled feeding trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Robyn; Mann, Neil; Mäkeläinen, Henna; Roper, Jessica; Braue, Anna; Varigos, George

    2008-06-01

    Observational evidence suggests that dietary glycemic load may be one environmental factor contributing to the variation in acne prevalence worldwide. To investigate the effect of a low glycemic load (LGL) diet on endocrine aspects of acne vulgaris, 12 male acne sufferers (17.0 +/- 0.4 years) completed a parallel, controlled feeding trial involving a 7-day admission to a housing facility. Subjects consumed either an LGL diet (n = 7; 25% energy from protein and 45% from carbohydrates) or a high glycemic load (HGL) diet (n = 5; 15% energy from protein, 55% energy from carbohydrate). Study outcomes included changes in the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG), free androgen index (FAI), insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I), and its binding proteins (IGFBP-I and IGFBP-3). Changes in HOMA-IR were significantly different between groups at day 7 (-0.57 for LGL vs. 0.14 for HGL, p = 0.03). SHBG levels decreased significantly from baseline in the HGL group (p = 0.03), while IGFBP-I and IGFBP-3 significantly increased (p = 0.03 and 0.03, respectively) in the LGL group. These results suggest that increases in dietary glycemic load may augment the biological activity of sex hormones and IGF-I, suggesting that these diets may aggravate potential factors involved in acne development.

  2. Impact of specialist home-based palliative care services in a tertiary oncology set up: A prospective non-randomized observational study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunil R Dhiliwal

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Home-based specialist palliative care services are developed to meet the needs of the patients in advanced stage of cancer at home with physical symptoms and distress. Specialist home care services are intended to improve symptom control and quality of life, enable patients to stay at home, and avoid unnecessary hospital admission. Materials and Methods: Total 690 new cases registered under home-based palliative care service in the year 2012 were prospectively studied to assess the impact of specialist home-based services using Edmonton symptom assessment scale (ESAS and other parameters. Results: Out of the 690 registered cases, 506 patients received home-based palliative care. 50.98% patients were cared for at home, 28.85% patients needed hospice referral and 20.15% patients needed brief period of hospitalization. All patients receiving specialist home care had good relief of physical symptoms ( P < 0.005. 83.2% patients received out of hours care (OOH through liaising with local general practitioners; 42.68% received home based bereavement care and 91.66% had good bereavement outcomes. Conclusion: Specialist home-based palliative care improved symptom control, health-related communication and psychosocial support. It promoted increased number of home-based death, appropriate and early hospice referral, and averted needless hospitalization. It improved bereavement outcomes, and caregiver satisfaction.

  3. Pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic profiling of imipenem in patients admitted to an intensive care unit in India: A nonrandomized, cross-sectional, analytical, open-labeled study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B Abhilash

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Widespread use of imipenem in intensive care units (ICUs in India has led to the development of numerous carbapenemase-producing strains of pathogens. The altered pathophysiological state in critically ill patients could lead to subtherapeutic antibiotic levels. Hence, the aim of this study was to investigate the variability in the pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic profile of imipenem in critically ill patients admitted to an ICU in India. Materials and Methods: Plasma concentration of imipenem was determined in critically ill patients using high performance liquid chromatography, at different time points, by grouping them according to their locus of infection. The elimination half-life (t΍ and volume of distribution (V d values were also computed. The patients with imipenem trough concentration values below the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC and 5 times the MIC for the isolated pathogen were determined. Results: The difference in the plasma imipenem concentration between the gastrointestinal and the nongastrointestinal groups was significant at 2 h (P = 0.015 following drug dosing; while the difference was significant between the skin/cellulitis and nonskin/cellulitus groups at 2 h (P = 0.008, after drug dosing. The imipenem levels were above the MIC and 5 times the MIC for the isolated organism in 96.67% and 50% of the patients, respectively. Conclusions: The pharmacokinetic profile of imipenem does not vary according to the locus of an infection in critically ill patients. Imipenem, 3 g/day intermittent dosing, maintains a plasma concentration which is adequate to treat most infections encountered in patients admitted to an ICU. However, a change in the dosing regimen is suggested for patients infected with organisms having MIC values above 4 mg/L.

  4. Conservative/surgical treatment predictors of maternal hydronephrosis: results of a single-center retrospective non-randomized non-controlled observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ercil, Hakan; Arslan, Burak; Ortoglu, Ferhat; Alma, Ergun; Unal, Umut; Deniz, Mehmet Eflatun; Senturk, Aykut Bugra; Gurbuz, Zafer Gokhan

    2017-08-01

    To determine the parameters that may help the clinicians decide the best suitable treatment method for the pregnant women with symptomatic hydronephrosis which will be based on the easily accessible laboratory tests, monitoring methods and clinical symptoms. Digital data and documents of 246 pregnant women with symptomatic hydronephrosis who were hospitalized in our clinic between the dates of January 2011 and January 2016 were retrospectively evaluated. All patients were statistically evaluated in terms of age, symptomatic maximal anterior-posterior diameter of the renal pelvis (MADP), parity, C-reactive protein (CRP) level, white blood cell count (WBC), presence of pyuria, growth of urine culture, fever, serum urine and creatinine levels, visual analog scale (VAS) score of pre- and post-therapy and threatened preterm labor. The study includes a total of 211 pregnant women with symptomatic hydronephrosis. In the second and third trimester groups, the surgical treatment group statistically provided higher levels of CRP, WBC and VAS. Mean MADP in the second trimester of the conservative and surgical groups where symptomatic hydronephrosis was on the right side was 16.67 ± 4.67 and 28.68 ± 7.70 mm, respectively. Mean MADP in the third trimester group of the conservative and surgical groups where symptomatic hydronephrosis was on the right side was 16.96 ± 5.96 and 28.85 ± 7.64 mm, respectively. In patients with symptomatic pregnancy hydronephrosis, the likelihood of surgical treatment for CRP levels, WBC counts and VAS is high.

  5. Leadership in transformation: a longitudinal study in a nursing organization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viitala, Riitta

    2014-01-01

    Not only does leadership produce changes, but those changes produce leadership in organisations. The purpose of this paper is to present a theoretical and empirical analysis of the transformation of leadership at two different historical points in a health care organisation. It leans on the perspective of social constructionism, drawing especially from the ideas of Berger and Luckmann (1966). The paper seeks to improve understanding of how leaders themselves construct leadership in relation to organisational change. The empirical material was gathered in a longitudinal case study in a nursing organisation in two different historical and situational points. It consists of written narratives produced by nurse leaders that are analysed by applying discourse analysis. The empirical study revealed that the constructions of leadership were dramatically different at the two different historical and situational points. Leadership showed up as a complex, fragile and changing phenomenon, which fluctuates along with the other organisational changes. The results signal the importance of agency in leadership and the central role of "significant others". The paper questions the traditional categorisation and labelling of leadership as well as the cross-sectional studies in understanding leadership transformation. Its originality relates to the longitudinal perspective on transformation of leadership in the context of a health care organisation.

  6. Confounding in longitudinal studies in addiction treatment research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierce, Matthias; Dunn, Graham; Millar, Tim

    2017-05-04

    Background: The effectiveness of treatment for people with substance use disorders is usually examined using longitudinal cohorts. In these studies, treatment is often considered as a time-varying exposure. The aim of this commentary is to examine confounding in this context, when the confounding variable is time-invariant and when it is time-varying. Method: Types of confounding are described with examples and illustrated using path diagrams. Simulations are used to demonstrate the direction of confounding bias and the extent that it is accounted for using standard regression adjustment techniques. Results: When the confounding variable is time invariant or time varying and not influenced by prior treatment, then standard adjustment techniques are adequate to control for confounding bias, provided that in the latter scenario the time-varying form of the variable is used. When the confounder is time varying and affected by prior treatment status (i.e. it is a mediator of treatment), then standard methods of adjustment result in inconsistency. Conclusions: In longitudinal cohorts where treatment exposure is time varying, confounding is an issue which should be considered, even if treatment exposure is initially randomized. In these studies, standard methods of adjustment may result be inadequate, even when all confounders have been identified. This occurs when the confounder is also a mediator of treatment. This is a likely scenario in many studies in addiction.

  7. GEMCYTABIN (CYTOGEM® AND CISPLATIN AS FIRST-LINE THERAPY FOR ADVANCED BLADDER CANCER: RESULTS OF A PROSPECTIVE OPEN-LABELED NON-COMPARATIVE NON-RANDOMIZED STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. B. Matveev

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose.  The primary end-points of the study were overall response rate, progressive-free and overall survival in patients received Gemcytabin (Cytogem® and Cisplatin as first-line therapy for transitional-cell bladder cancer. Secondary end-points were toxicity and safty of the regimen. Material. From February 2005 to March 2007 25 patients with morphologically verified inoperable locally advanced and metastatic transitional-cell bladder cancer were recruited. Men-to-women ratio was 3:1. Median age of the patients was 66,5±6,8 years. All the patients received Cytogem® 1000 mg/m2 days 1, 8, 15, cisplatin 70 mg/m2 on day 2; every 28 days. No more than 6 cycles were allowed if the evidence of disease progression and unacceptable toxicity were not registered. Median follow-up was 36,2±12,1 months.  Results. Complete response was observed in 2 (8%, partial — in 11 (44%, stabilization — in 10 (40%, progression — in 2 (8% of 25 patients. Twelve- and 24-month overall survival was — 51,3% and 22,4% (median 13,4±3,5 (95% CI: 6,6—20,4 months, progressive- free survival — 26% and 13% respectively (median 8,8±1 (95% CI: 6,6—10,6 months. Toxicity was evaluated in 24 patients and occurred in all cases (grade I—II — 16 (67%, grade III—IV — 8 (33%. The main regimen-related toxicity was hematological (neutropenia — 16 (67% (grade I—II — 8 (33%, grade III—IV — 8 (33%, thrombocytopenia — 14 (58% (grade I—II — 10 (41,5%, grade III—IV — 4 (16,5%, anemia — 7 (29% (grade I—II — 5 (21%, grade III—IV — 2 (8%. Hematological toxicity was not associated with com- plications in any case. Non-hematological side-effects were nausea and vomiting in 21 (88% (grade I—II — 67%, grade III — 21%, alopecia — in 11 (44% patients. The regimen-related toxicity was considerable and reversible. No side-effect demanded blood transfusion, antibiotic and/or growth factors administration, and hospital admission.

  8. GEMCYTABIN (CYTOGEM® AND CISPLATIN AS FIRST-LINE THERAPY FOR ADVANCED BLADDER CANCER: RESULTS OF A PROSPECTIVE OPEN-LABELED NON-COMPARATIVE NON-RANDOMIZED STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. B. Matveev

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose.  The primary end-points of the study were overall response rate, progressive-free and overall survival in patients received Gemcytabin (Cytogem® and Cisplatin as first-line therapy for transitional-cell bladder cancer. Secondary end-points were toxicity and safty of the regimen. Material. From February 2005 to March 2007 25 patients with morphologically verified inoperable locally advanced and metastatic transitional-cell bladder cancer were recruited. Men-to-women ratio was 3:1. Median age of the patients was 66,5±6,8 years. All the patients received Cytogem® 1000 mg/m2 days 1, 8, 15, cisplatin 70 mg/m2 on day 2; every 28 days. No more than 6 cycles were allowed if the evidence of disease progression and unacceptable toxicity were not registered. Median follow-up was 36,2±12,1 months.  Results. Complete response was observed in 2 (8%, partial — in 11 (44%, stabilization — in 10 (40%, progression — in 2 (8% of 25 patients. Twelve- and 24-month overall survival was — 51,3% and 22,4% (median 13,4±3,5 (95% CI: 6,6—20,4 months, progressive- free survival — 26% and 13% respectively (median 8,8±1 (95% CI: 6,6—10,6 months. Toxicity was evaluated in 24 patients and occurred in all cases (grade I—II — 16 (67%, grade III—IV — 8 (33%. The main regimen-related toxicity was hematological (neutropenia — 16 (67% (grade I—II — 8 (33%, grade III—IV — 8 (33%, thrombocytopenia — 14 (58% (grade I—II — 10 (41,5%, grade III—IV — 4 (16,5%, anemia — 7 (29% (grade I—II — 5 (21%, grade III—IV — 2 (8%. Hematological toxicity was not associated with com- plications in any case. Non-hematological side-effects were nausea and vomiting in 21 (88% (grade I—II — 67%, grade III — 21%, alopecia — in 11 (44% patients. The regimen-related toxicity was considerable and reversible. No side-effect demanded blood transfusion, antibiotic and/or growth factors administration, and hospital admission.

  9. Heat rate variability and dyssomnia and their correlations to neurological defects in cerebral infarction patients complicated by insomnia A concurrent non-randomized case-control study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jianping Chu; Xueli Shen; Jun Fan; Changhai Chen; Shuyang Lin

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Heart rate variability refers to the beat-to-beat alteration in heart rate. It is usually a slight periodic variation of R-R intervals. Much information of autonomic nerve system balance can be obtained by measuring the heart rate variability of patients. It remains to be shown whether heart rate variability can be used as an index for determining the severity of insomnia and cerebral infarction. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to analyze the correlation for each frequency spectrum parameter of heart rate variability with an insomnia index, as well as the degree of neurological defects in patients with simple cerebral infarction and cerebral infarction complicated by insomnia. The goal was to verify the feasibility of frequency spectrum parameters for heart rate variability as a marker for insomnia and cerebral infarction. DESIGN: A case-control observation. SETTING: Department of Neurology, First Hospital Affiliated to China Medical University. PARTICIPANTS: Sixty inpatients, and/or outpatients, with cerebral infarction were admitted to the 202 Hospital of Chinese PLA between December 2005 and October 2006, confirmed by CT, and recruited to the study. According to the insomnia condition (insomnia is defined by a Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index score > 7), the patients were assigned to a simple cerebral infarction group and a cerebral infarction complicated by insomnia group, with 30 subjects in each group. Thirty additional subjects, who concurrently received ex-aminations and were confirmed to not suffer from cerebral infarction and insomnia, were recruited into the control group. Written informed consent was obtained from each subject for laboratory specimens. The pro-tocol was approved by the Hospital's Ethics Committee. METHODS: Following admission, each subject's neurological impairment was assessed with the National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale and Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index. Heart rate variability of each subject was measured with an

  10. Longitudinal associations between objective sleep and lipids: the CARDIA study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrov, Megan E Ruiter; Kim, Yongin; Lauderdale, Diane; Lewis, Cora E; Reis, Jared P; Carnethon, Mercedes R; Knutson, Kristen; Glasser, Stephen J

    2013-11-01

    To investigate the longitudinal relationships between actigraph-derived sleep duration, fragmentation, and lipid levels. Longitudinal data from the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults Sleep Study (2003-05), an observational cohort at the Chicago site. There were 503 black and white adults, ages 32-51 years, with no prior history of cardiovascular disease. N/A. Sleep duration and fragmentation were measured using 6 days of wrist actigraphy. Sleep quality was measured with the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index. The outcome variables, measured at 3 examinations over 10 years (Baseline [2000-01], 5-year [2005-06], and 10-year follow-up [2010-11]), were total cholesterol (TC), high-density lipoprotein (HDL), low-density lipoprotein (LDL), triglycerides (TG), and TC/HDL ratio. The associations between each sleep parameter and 10-year change in lipids were analyzed with generalized estimating equation models adjusting for relevant confounders. After adjustment, each hour increase in sleep duration was significantly associated with higher TC (5.2 mg/dL, 95%CI: 1.7, 8.6) and LDL (3.4 mg/dL, 95%CI: 0.2, 6.6) in the total sample, a 1.1 mg/dL increase in TG (95%CI: 1.0, 1.1) among men, and a borderline significant greater odds for a TC/HDL ratio ≥ 5 among men (OR: 1.37, 95%CI: 0.99, 1.90). Overall, sleep fragmentation and sleep quality scores were not associated with change in lipids. Beyond relevant covariates, over a 10-year follow-up, longer objective sleep duration was longitudinally and significantly associated with a poorer lipid profile. Greater objective sleep fragmentation and self-reported poor sleep quality were not related to a poorer lipid profile.

  11. INCAP Oriente longitudinal study: 40 years of history and legacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez-Zea, Manuel; Melgar, Paul; Rivera, Juan A

    2010-02-01

    Our purpose in this article is to describe the objectives, design, overall coverage, and main domains of data collection of the Institute of Nutrition of Central America and Panama Oriente Longitudinal Study and subsequent follow-up studies. This supplementary feeding trial targeted to pregnant and lactating women and children from birth to 7 y of age, conducted in 4 rural Guatemalan villages (1969-77) with a series of follow-up studies (1988-2007), is one of the richest sources of information on the effects of nutrition, growth, development, and human capital in the developing world, with outstanding data from gestation to adult age and 40 y of follow-up. Its results have influenced nutrition knowledge and policy with over 300 scientific publications. We present brief descriptions of preliminary studies that were critical for the success of the trial and the design and methods used during the trial and in the follow-up studies, in chronological order.

  12. Impact of Preprocedural Left Ventricular Ejection Fraction on 1-Year Outcomes After MitraClip Implantation (from the ACCESS-EU Phase I, a Prospective, Multicenter, Nonrandomized Postapproval Study of the MitraClip Therapy in Europe).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schäfer, Ulrich; Maisano, Francesco; Butter, Christian; Franzen, Olaf; Baldus, Stephan; Hausleiter, Jörg; Ussia, Gian Paolo; Sievert, Horst; Geist, Volker; Widder, Julian Daniel; Moccetti, Tiziano; Schillinger, Wolfgang

    2016-09-15

    This report describes the 12-month outcomes of the a prospective, multicenter, nonrandomized post-approval study of the MitraClip therapy in Europe (ACCESS-EU postapproval study of MitraClip therapy) with respect to preprocedural left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF). Transcatheter deployment of the MitraClip device may be considered for patients who are not suitable for conventional surgery. A total of 567 patients with significant mitral regurgitation (MR) underwent MitraClip therapy. Of those, 393 had functional MR (FMR) and were subdivided by preprocedural LVEF (A: 10% to 20%, B: >20% to 30%, C: >30% to 40%, D: >40%). Procedural safety and efficacy and treatment outcomes including MR grade, New York Heart Association (NYHA) functional class, 6-minute walk test, and the Minnesota Living with Heart Failure Questionnaire were analyzed at baseline, 30 days, and 12 months. Baseline mean logistic EuroSCORE was 25 ± 19; 87% of patients were in NYHA classes III or IV (A: 96%, B: 83%, C: 90%, D: 86%). There was no incidence of death or stroke intraprocedurally. Eleven patients died within 30 days with no differences among subgroups. Kaplan-Meier survival at 12 months was 81.8% (A: 71%, B: 79%, C: 87%, D: 86%). There was a significant improvement in MR severity at 30 days and 12 months (p FMR. In conclusion, the low rates of hospital mortality and adverse events in patients with FMR-even in patients with severely reduced LVEF-provide additional evidence of substantial benefits after MitraClip implantation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. A longitudinal study of epigenetic variation in twins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caspi, Avshalom; Williams, Benjamin; Craig, Ian W; Houts, Renate; Ambler, Antony; Moffitt, Terrie E; Mill, Jonathan

    2010-01-01

    DNA methylation is a key epigenetic mechanism involved in the developmental regulation of gene expression. Alterations in DNA methylation are established contributors to inter-individual phenotypic variation and have been associated with disease susceptibility. The degree to which changes in loci-specific DNA methylation are under the influence of heritable and environmental factors is largely unknown. In this study, we quantitatively measured DNA methylation across the promoter regions of the dopamine receptor 4 gene (DRD4), the serotonin transporter gene (SLC6A4/SERT) and the X-linked monoamine oxidase A gene (MAOA) using DNA sampled at both ages 5 and 10 years in 46 MZ twinpairs and 45 DZ twin-pairs (total n = 182). Our data suggest that DNA methylation differences are apparent already in early childhood, even between genetically identical individuals, and that individual differences in methylation are not stable over time. Our longitudinal-developmental study suggests that environmental influences are important factors accounting for interindividual DNA methylation differences, and that these influences differ across the genome. The observation of dynamic changes in DNA methylation over time highlights the importance of longitudinal research designs for epigenetic research. PMID:20505345

  14. Cognitive and affective assessment in day care versus institutionalized elderly patients: a 1-year longitudinal study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maseda A

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Ana Maseda, Aránzazu Balo, Laura Lorenzo–López, Leire Lodeiro–Fernández, José Luis Rodríguez–Villamil, José Carlos Millán–CalentiGerontology Research Group, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of A Coruña, A Coruña, SpainPurpose: Cognitive decline and depression are two common mental health problems that may create a need for long-term care among the elderly. In the last decade, the percentage of older adults who receive health care in nursing homes, day care centers, or home support services has increased in Europe. The objectives of this descriptive and nonrandomized longitudinal study were to evaluate and to compare the cognitive and affective evolution of day care versus institutionalized older patients through a 1-year period, and to assess the presence of cognitive and affective impairment as a function of the care setting.Patients and methods: Ninety-four patients were assessed at baseline, and 63 (67.0% were reassessed 1 year later. Neuropsychological assessment included measures of cognitive performance (general cognitive status, visuospatial, and language abilities and affective status (depressive symptoms.Results: Our findings indicated that the majority of the participants (day care and institutionalized patients had mild–moderate cognitive impairment at baseline, which significantly increased in both groups after 1-year follow-up. However, the rate of change in global cognitive function did not significantly differ between groups over time. Regarding language abilities, naming function maintained among day care patients in comparison with institutionalized patients, who showed worse performance at follow-up. As regards to affective status, results revealed that institutionalized patients had a significant reduction in depressive symptoms at follow-up, when compared to day care patients. Results also highlight the high frequency of cognitive impairment and depressive symptoms regardless of the care setting

  15. Postural changes in dental hygienists. Four-year longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barry, R M; Woodall, W R; Mahan, J M

    1992-01-01

    Numerous surveys identify the occurrence of musculoskeletal complaints as a concern in dentistry. However, no longitudinal data exist to indicate whether postural changes occur as a result of practicing dental hygiene. The purpose of this preliminary, four-year longitudinal study was to investigate whether any postural changes developed during the hygienists' clinical education and/or during subsequent dental hygiene practice after one and/or two years. It was anticipated that the awkward positions and intense physical demands placed on hygienists might initiate musculoskeletal problems, but that no postural changes would occur over this short period of time. Nine of 10 dental hygienists in the graduating class of 1987 were surveyed for existing musculoskeletal complaints, and the subjects were photographed for a measurement of postural change. Responses from participants indicated an increase in musculoskeletal-related complaints in each of the six areas investigated. The photographic findings indicated that one of the nine hygienists showed an increase in forward head posture, a postural change.

  16. A Longitudinal Examination of Childhood Maltreatment and Adolescent Obesity: Results from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (AddHealth) Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Sunny Hyucksun; Miller, Daniel P.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: We sought to explore the association between childhood maltreatment (e.g., neglect, physical and sexual abuse) and longitudinal growth trajectories of body mass index (BMI) from adolescence to young adulthood. Methods: We used latent curve modeling to examine data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (N = 8,471),…

  17. Longitudinal Studies of Attitude Change: Issues and Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-04-01

    relative contributions of variables which are presently influencing attitudes from historical variables. Conversely a longitudinal method can be used to...different training techniques. Neidt and Meredith (1966) used a longitudinal method to determine the changes in attitudes of a single group of Air... longitudinal method is viewed as the most promising for measurement of change. With the increasing improvement in unobtrusive measures (e.g., Webb

  18. Longitudinal study of spatial working memory development in young children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsujii, Takeo; Yamamoto, Eriko; Masuda, Sayako; Watanabe, Shigeru

    2009-05-27

    This study longitudinally compared activity in the frontal cortex during a spatial working memory task between 5-year-old and 7-year-old children using near-infrared spectroscopy. Eight children participated in this study twice, once at 5 years and once at 7 years of age. Behavioral analysis showed that older children performed the working memory task more precisely and more rapidly than younger children. Near-infrared spectroscopy analysis showed that right hemisphere dominance was observed in older children, whereas no hemispheric difference was apparent in younger children. Children with strengthened lateralization showed improved performance from 5 to 7 years. We therefore offer the first demonstration of the developmental changes in frontal cortical activation during spatial working memory tasks during the preschool period.

  19. Α Markov model for longitudinal studies with incomplete dichotomous outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Efthimiou, Orestis; Welton, Nicky; Samara, Myrto; Leucht, Stefan; Salanti, Georgia

    2017-03-01

    Missing outcome data constitute a serious threat to the validity and precision of inferences from randomized controlled trials. In this paper, we propose the use of a multistate Markov model for the analysis of incomplete individual patient data for a dichotomous outcome reported over a period of time. The model accounts for patients dropping out of the study and also for patients relapsing. The time of each observation is accounted for, and the model allows the estimation of time-dependent relative treatment effects. We apply our methods to data from a study comparing the effectiveness of 2 pharmacological treatments for schizophrenia. The model jointly estimates the relative efficacy and the dropout rate and also allows for a wide range of clinically interesting inferences to be made. Assumptions about the missingness mechanism and the unobserved outcomes of patients dropping out can be incorporated into the analysis. The presented method constitutes a viable candidate for analyzing longitudinal, incomplete binary data.

  20. Study of the nonlinear longitudinal dynamics of a stochastic system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cunha Americo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the theoretical study of how discrete elements attached to a continuous stochastic systems can affect their dynamical behavior. For this, it is studied the nonlinear longitudinal dynamics of an elastic bar, attached to springs and a lumped mass, with a random elastic modulus and subjected to a Gaussian white-noise distributed external force. Numerical simulations are conducted and their results are analyzed in function of the ratio between the masses of the discrete and the continuous parts of the system. This analysis reveals that the dynamic behavior of the bar is significantly altered when the lumped mass is varied, being more influenced by the randomness for small values of the lumped mass.

  1. Gastrocnemius muscle contracture after spinal cord injury: a longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diong, Joanna; Harvey, Lisa A; Kwah, Li Khim; Clarke, Jillian L; Bilston, Lynne E; Gandevia, Simon C; Herbert, Robert D

    2013-07-01

    The aim of this study was to examine changes in passive length and stiffness of the gastrocnemius muscle-tendon unit in people after spinal cord injury. In a prospective longitudinal study, eight wheelchair-dependent participants with severe paralysis were assessed 3 and 12 mos after spinal cord injury. Passive torque-angle data were obtained as the ankle was slowly rotated through range at six knee angles. Differences in passive ankle torque-angle data recorded at different knee angles were used to derive passive length-tension curves of the gastrocnemius muscle-tendon unit. Ultrasound imaging was used to determine fascicle and tendon contributions to the muscle-tendon unit length-tension curves. The participants had ankle contractures (mean [SD] maximum passive ankle dorsiflexion angle, 88 [9] degrees) 3 mos after spinal cord injury. Ankle range did not worsen significantly during the subsequent 9 mos (mean change, -5 degrees; 95% confidence interval, -16 to 6 degrees). There were no changes in the mean slack length or the stiffness of the gastrocnemius muscle-tendon unit or in the slack lengths of the fascicles or the tendon between 3 and 12 mos after spinal cord injury. There were no consistent patterns of the change in slack length or stiffness with the changes in ankle range in the data from the individual participants. This study, the first longitudinal study of muscle length and stiffness after spinal cord injury, showed that the length and the stiffness of the gastrocnemius did not change substantially between 3 and 12 mos after injury.

  2. A Longitudinal Adoption Study of Substance Use Behavior in Adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huibregtse, Brooke M; Corley, Robin P; Wadsworth, Sally J; Vandever, Joanna M; DeFries, John C; Stallings, Michael C

    2016-08-01

    Although cross-sectional twin studies have assessed the genetic and environmental etiologies of substance use during adolescence and early adulthood, comparisons of results across different samples, measures, and cohorts are problematic. While several longitudinal twin studies have investigated these issues, few corroborating adoption studies have been conducted. The current study is the first to estimate the magnitude of genetic, shared environmental, and non-shared environmental influences on substance use (cigarettes, alcohol, and marijuana) from ages 14 to 18 years, using a prospective longitudinal adoption design. Adoptive and control sibling correlations provided substantial evidence for early genetic effects on cigarette, alcohol, and marijuana use/no use. Shared environmental effects were relatively modest, except for alcohol use, which showed increases in late adolescence (age 17 to 18 years). Sibling similarity for quantity/frequency of use also support additive genetic influences across adolescence, with some shared environmental influences for all three substances. To test the stability of these influences across time, a series of independent pathway models were run to explore common and age-specific influences. For all substances, there were minimal age-specific additive genetic and shared environmental influences on quantity/frequency of use. Further, there was a trend toward increasing genetic influences on cigarette and alcohol use across ages. Genetic influences on marijuana were important early, but did not contribute substantially at age 17 and 18 years. Overall, the findings indicate that genetic influences make important contributions to the frequency/quantity of substance use in adolescence, and suggest that new genetic influences may emerge in late adolescence for cigarette and alcohol use.

  3. A Longitudinal Study of Hedges in Different Moves of EMRAs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    寇英

    2013-01-01

    This paper investigates the evolutionary change in the OF (OF) of hedges in different moves of EMRAs (EMRAs). Two corpora are established for longitudinal study, with Corpus A consisting of EMRAs from 1990-1994 and Corpus B from 2005-2009. Generally, no significant change has been found in overall use of hedges. However, apart from move 6, 7 and 10, we have found some interesting changes in the other moves. On the one hand, the OF of hedges in move 1, move 3, move 4 and move 5 shows a significant increase. On the other hand, the OF of hedges in move 2, 8, 9 and move 11 show a significant de⁃crease.

  4. The Development of Preschoolers' Living Kinds Concept: A Longitudinal Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margett-Jordan, Tessa; Falcon, Rachael G; Witherington, David C

    2016-12-19

    Given limitations in the integrative scope of past research, basic questions about the organization and development of preschoolers' living kinds concept remain open to debate. This study was designed to address past limitations through use of a longitudinal design, extensive stimulus set, and alternate indices of understanding. Thirty-five English-speaking 3-year-olds from middle-class families in Albuquerque, NM participated in four testing sessions over 1 year. Indices of understanding included statements that preschoolers generated about various living and nonliving objects, biological properties they attributed to the objects, and their characterization of objects as "alive" or not. Results reveal a multifaceted picture of developmental change in preschoolers' living kinds concept involving both the construction and elaboration of a core biological understanding.

  5. Skin conductance fear conditioning impairments and aggression: a longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yu; Tuvblad, Catherine; Schell, Anne; Baker, Laura; Raine, Adrian

    2015-02-01

    Autonomic fear conditioning deficits have been linked to child aggression and adult criminal behavior. However, it is unknown if fear conditioning deficits are specific to certain subtypes of aggression, and longitudinal research is rare. In the current study, reactive and proactive aggression were assessed in a sample of males and females when aged 10, 12, 15, and 18 years old. Skin conductance fear conditioning data were collected when they were 18 years old. Individuals who were persistently high on proactive aggression measures had significantly poorer conditioned responses at 18 years old when compared to others. This association was not found for reactive aggression. Consistent with prior literature, findings suggest that persistent antisocial individuals have unique neurobiological characteristics and that poor autonomic fear conditioning is associated with the presence of increased instrumental aggressive behavior.

  6. Facial expression recognition in Alzheimer's disease: a longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, Bianca; Santos, Raquel Luiza; Sousa, Maria Fernanda Barroso de; Simões Neto, José Pedro; Nogueira, Marcela Moreira Lima; Belfort, Tatiana T; Dias, Rachel; Dourado, Marcia Cristina Nascimento

    2015-05-01

    Facial recognition is one of the most important aspects of social cognition. In this study, we investigate the patterns of change and the factors involved in the ability to recognize emotion in mild Alzheimer's disease (AD). Through a longitudinal design, we assessed 30 people with AD. We used an experimental task that includes matching expressions with picture stimuli, labelling emotions and emotionally recognizing a stimulus situation. We observed a significant difference in the situational recognition task (p ≤ 0.05) between baseline and the second evaluation. The linear regression showed that cognition is a predictor of emotion recognition impairment (p ≤ 0.05). The ability to perceive emotions from facial expressions was impaired, particularly when the emotions presented were relatively subtle. Cognition is recruited to comprehend emotional situations in cases of mild dementia.

  7. Emotion recognition by children with Down syndrome: a longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pochon, Régis; Declercq, Christelle

    2013-12-01

    According to the literature, children with Down syndrome (DS) have difficulties recognising facial expressions. Yet abilities to recognise emotional expressions are often assessed in tasks that imply comprehension of words for emotions. We investigated the development of these abilities in children with DS in a longitudinal study that did not involve lexical knowledge of emotions. Children with DS and nonspecific intellectual disability and typically developing children matched for developmental age (DA) were assessed once a year over 3 years. They were asked to recognise the facial expression of an emotion after hearing a vocalisation. In each annual session, children with DS were not significantly different from others at recognising emotions. Their abilities to discriminate basic emotions improved significantly and to a similar extent to those of other children. The findings indicate that children with DS develop emotion recognition abilities similarly to other children of the same DA.

  8. Confounding adjustment through front-door blocking in longitudinal studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arvid Sjölander

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available A common aim of epidemiological research is to estimate the causal effect of a particular exposure on a particular outcome. Towards this end, observed associations are often ‘adjusted’ for potential confounding variables. When the potential confounders are unmeasured, explicit adjustment becomes unfeasible. It has been demonstrated that causal effects can be estimated even in the presence of umeasured confounding, utilizing a method called ‘front-door blocking’. In this paper we generalize this method to longitudinal studies. We demonstrate that the method of front-door blocking poses a number of challenging statistical problems, analogous to the famous problems associ- ated with the method of ‘back-door blocking’.

  9. Young adults with developmental coordination disorder: a longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tal-Saban, Miri; Ornoy, Asher; Parush, Shula

    2014-01-01

    We conducted a longitudinal study to assess the continuing influence of developmental coordination disorder (DCD) on quality of life and participation. Ninety-six participants (25 in the DCD group, 30 in the borderline group, and 41 in the control group) ages 22-29 yr who had been screened for DCD 3-4 yr previously completed the Participation in Every Day Activities of Life, the Life-Satisfaction Questionnaire, and the World Health Organization Quality of Life (WHOQOL-BREF) instrument. Multivariate analysis of variance revealed a significant between-groups difference, F(7, 95) = 2.89, p = .001, η = 0.173, and post hoc analyses revealed that participants in the DCD and borderline groups scored lower overall on participation, quality of life, and life satisfaction. Linear regression found the Psychological Health domain of the WHOQOL-BREF to be a significant predictor of life satisfaction (B = 0.533; p = .001).

  10. Using data from studies of health-related quality of life to describe clinical issues examples from a longitudinal study of patients with advanced stages of cervical cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klee, M; Groenvold, M; Machin, D

    1999-12-01

    The focus of the paper is to describe how to present data from studies on health-related quality of life (H-QoL) in a way that is simple and clinically relevant. Data from a longitudinal study of patients with advanced stages of cervix cancer are used. One hundred and eighteen patients filled out questionnaires (including EORTC QLQ-C30) 7 times over a period of 2 years. The following issues are considered: (1) The use of a panel for an initial overview of data. (2) The visual difference between using mean and median values. (3) Box-whisker plots to illustrate the variability of the data. (4) The effect of combining categorical data into fewer categories. (5) Individual patient profiles showing the wide variability among patients. (6) A table showing the change of scores over a one-year period. (7) "Prognostic plots" dividing the initial scores and the following scores. (8) Plotting changes over time. (9) Illustration of the impact of non-random dropout. (10) The effect of drop-out for the patients who fill out two sequential assessments. (11) The use of healthy controls to help answer the question "what is normal?".

  11. The nutritional situation in Swedish nursing homes - a longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borgström Bolmsjö, Beata; Jakobsson, Ulf; Mölstad, Sigvard; Ostgren, Carl Johan; Midlöv, Patrik

    2015-01-01

    Poor nutritional status is widespread among the elderly and is associated with increased morbidity and mortality. The aim of this study was to longitudinally describe the nutritional status in elderly people living in nursing homes. Nutritional status was recorded longitudinally in elderly people living in 11 different nursing homes in Sweden. Participants were examined at baseline by specially trained nurses who also assisted with questionnaires and collected data for current medical treatment from patient records. Nutritional status was evaluated at baseline and after 24 months with the mini nutritional assessment (MNA). The study included 318 subjects. The mean age of the participants was 85.0 years (range 65-101). At baseline, 41.6% were well nourished, 40.3% at risk of malnutrition, and 17.7% malnourished according to the MNA. Survival was significantly lower in the malnourished group. After 24 months, almost half of the population had died. The group of participants who survived at 24 months represents a population of better nutritional state, where 10.6% were malnourished at baseline increasing to 24.6% after 24 months. After 24 months, 38.7% of the participants showed a decline in nutritional state. The group with deteriorating MNA scores had higher weight, BMI values, and a higher hospitalization rate. The prevalence of malnutrition in nursing home residents increased over time and it is important to evaluate nutritional state regularly. Nutritional interventions should be considered in better nourished groups, as well as in malnourished individuals, to prevent a decline in nutritional state.

  12. Pseudo-empirical Likelihood-Based Method Using Calibration for Longitudinal Data with Drop-Out.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Baojiang; Zhou, Xiao-Hua; Chan, Kwun Chuen Gary

    2015-01-01

    In observational studies, interest mainly lies in estimation of the population-level relationship between the explanatory variables and dependent variables, and the estimation is often undertaken using a sample of longitudinal data. In some situations, the longitudinal data sample features biases and loss of estimation efficiency due to non-random drop-out. However, inclusion of population-level information can increase estimation efficiency. In this paper we propose an empirical likelihood-based method to incorporate population-level information in a longitudinal study with drop-out. The population-level information is incorporated via constraints on functions of the parameters, and non-random drop-out bias is corrected by using a weighted generalized estimating equations method. We provide a three-step estimation procedure that makes computation easier. Some commonly used methods are compared in simulation studies, which demonstrate that our proposed method can correct the non-random drop-out bias and increase the estimation efficiency, especially for small sample size or when the missing proportion is high. In some situations, the efficiency improvement is substantial. Finally, we apply this method to an Alzheimer's disease study.

  13. Non-random structures in universal compression and the Fermi paradox

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurzadyan, A. V.; Allahverdyan, A. E.

    2016-02-01

    We study the hypothesis of information panspermia assigned recently among possible solutions of the Fermi paradox ("where are the aliens?"). It suggests that the expenses of alien signaling can be significantly reduced, if their messages contained compressed information. To this end we consider universal compression and decoding mechanisms ( e.g. the Lempel-Ziv-Welch algorithm) that can reveal non-random structures in compressed bit strings. The efficiency of the Kolmogorov stochasticity parameter for detection of non-randomness is illustrated, along with the Zipf's law. The universality of these methods, i.e. independence from data details, can be principal in searching for intelligent messages.

  14. Non-random structures in universal compression and the Fermi paradox

    CERN Document Server

    Gurzadyan, A V

    2016-01-01

    We study the hypothesis of information panspermia assigned recently among possible solutions of the Fermi paradox ("where are the aliens?"). It suggests that the expenses of alien signaling can be significantly reduced, if their messages contain compressed information. To this end we consider universal compression and decoding mechanisms (e.g. the Lempel-Ziv-Welch algorithm) that can reveal non-random structures in compressed bit strings. The efficiency of Kolmogorov stochasticity parameter for detection of non-randomness is illustrated, along with the Zipf's law. The universality of these methods, i.e. independence on data details, can be principal in searching for intelligent messages.

  15. Estudos dos padrões de não aleatoriedade dos gráficos de controle de Shewhart: um enfoque probabilístico Studies on non-random patterns in Shewhart control charts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quintiliano Siqueira Schroden Nomelini

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Além de investimento em novas tecnologias e modernização do parque industrial, a competitividade dos produtos brasileiros está ligada ao aumento de produtividade. O Controle Estatístico de Processo (CEP, junto com os gráficos de controle, inseriu-se neste contexto no que diz respeito ao controle das características significativas do produto e do processo, em tempo real, garantindo níveis de qualidade, a um custo exigido pelo mercado. Um procedimento importante é a interpretação dos gráficos de controle. Um estudo foi feito para ilustrar e discutir padrões de não aleatoriedade, que auxiliam na interpretação de tais gráficos. Alguns padrões de não aleatoriedade foram ilustrados e, por meio de cálculo de probabilidade, mostrou-se quais deles rejeitaram a hipótese de controle estatístico, a um nível de significância pré-especificado. Concluiu-se que os padrões mencionados na literatura não eram tão informativos. No que diz respeito ao nível de significância, observou-se então que em alguns padrões a um certo nível de significância retornaram resultados diferentes dos mencionados na literatura.In the last two decades, the Brazilian consuming market was modified by the insertion of products of better quality and minor cost. Statistical Process Control (SPC and control charts look after significant characteristics products and processes, in real time, guaranteeing quality levels, in a cost demanded by the market. In that context, an important procedure is the interpretation of the control charts; this is made through non-random patters. A study was made illustrating and arguing such standards. Standards had been illustrated and one revealed which of them, rejected the nullity hypothesis, under a determined significance. One concluded that the standards mentioned in literature are not so informative and can be improved.

  16. Chronic pain in multiple sclerosis: A 10-year longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Jamie; Amatya, Bhasker; Galea, Mary P; Khan, Fary

    2017-07-01

    Pain is a common symptom associated with multiple sclerosis (MS), and has lasting effects on an individual's functional capacity and quality of life. A wide range of prevalence rates of pain (between 23% and 90%)have been reported in MS and this is mainly due to the methodological differences amongst the studies such as variability in patient sources, method of sampling and the definition of pain used. Chronic pain in MS, defined as pain lasting for greater than 3-6 months, can have a significant impact on their biopsychosocial health, including negative impact on activities of daily living, relationships and social participation. The long-term course of MS-related pain and its impact in an Australian cohort over a 7-year period has been investigated earlier. The aim of this longitudinal study was to describe the impact of chronic pain, pain-related disability and carer burden in persons with MS over a 10-year period. The aim of this longitudinal study was to describe the impact of chronic pain, pain-related disability and carer burden in persons with MS over a 10-year period. This was a prospective longitudinal study conducted at the Rehabilitation Department of Royal Melbourne Hospital (RMH), a tertiary referral hospital in Victoria and Australia. The source of participants was from the RMH MS database and contains detailed MS patient information including demographic data, diagnosis details (using McDonald's criteria), pain characteristics. Structured face-face interviews and validated measures were used, which include the visual analogue scale (VAS); chronic pain grade (CPG); the assessment of quality of life (AQoL) and the carer strain index (CSI). The mean age of the participants (n=70) was 55.3 years and majority (70%) were female. The mean age of the participants (n=70) was 55.3 years and majority (70%) were female. The findings show that over time (10 years), participants report having greater bilateral bodily pain and greater description of pain as 'worse

  17. Parental influences on adolescent physical activity: a longitudinal study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayala Guadalupe X

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Physical inactivity is increasing among adolescents in the U.S., especially among girls. Despite growing evidence that parents are an important influence on adolescent health, few longitudinal studies have explored the causal relationship between parental influence and physical activity. This study examines how the relationships between parental influences and adolescent physical activity differ by gender and tests whether these relationships are mediated by adolescents' self-esteem and depression. Methods Data are from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health. The sample includes 13,246 youth, grades 7 to 12, interviewed in 1995 and again 1 year later. Logit models were used to evaluate parental influences on achieving five or more bouts of moderate to vigorous physical activity per week [MVPA] and whether the relationship between parental influence and MVPA was mediated by adolescents' level of self-esteem and depression. Results Family cohesion, parent-child communication and parental engagement positively predicted MVPA for both genders one year later (odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals for females, 1.09 [1.05–1.12], 1.13 [1.07–1.19], 1.25 [1.17–1.33] and males, 1.08 [1.04–1.11], 1.14 [1.07–1.23], 1.23 [1.14–1.33], respectively; however, parental monitoring did not (odds ratio and confidence intervals for females and males, 1.02 [.97–1.07]. For both females and males, self-esteem mediated the relationship between parental influence and physical activity. Depressive symptoms were only a mediator among males. Females reported higher levels of parent-child communication and lower family cohesion compared with males. There were no gender differences in levels of parental monitoring and engagement. Females had significantly lower levels of self-esteem and higher levels of depressive symptoms than males. Conclusion Strategies to promote physical activity among adolescents should focus on

  18. The USA National Longitudinal Lesbian Family Study (NLLFS): homophobia, psychological adjustment, and protective factors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bos, H.M.W.; Gartrell, N.K.; Peyser, H.; van Balen, F.

    2008-01-01

    The study assessed the influence of protective factors on the psychological adjustment of children who had experienced homophobia and whose mothers were participants in a longitudinal study of planned lesbian families. Data were collected as part of the National Longitudinal Lesbian Family Study by

  19. [Changes in interpersonal values in student nurses: a longitudinal study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagata, H; Kondo, M; Ogawa, S

    1994-01-01

    Our cross-sectional studies of interpersonal values in female student nurses showed that (1) third graders attached more importance to the values of Support and Independence and less to those of Benevolence and Leadership than did first graders, and (2) the discrepancy between the ratings of what they were and those of what their ideal nurses were was greater in the third than in the first graders. We interpreted these differences between the two graders as indicating a developmental change brought about during the three years. This study examined the internal validity of this interpretation through the use of a longitudinal method. The KG-SIV (Kikuchi-Gordon Survey of Interpersonal Values) was administered twice to 85 female student nurses: immediately after entering their nursing schools and immediately before finishing them, with a testing interval of approximately three years. For each testing, subjects were asked to rate what they were and then what their ideal nurses were. Analyses produced almost the same results as obtained in cross-sectional studies: perceived values of Benevolence and Leadership decrease while those of Support and Independence increase over the three years, with the discrepancy increasing from the first to the second testing. Findings thus support the internal validity of our prior interpretation. The changes in interpersonal values found for the student nurses suggest a socialization process they undertake in nurse training and imply an increase of stress they experience in that process.

  20. Data management in a longitudinal cross-cultural study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, R J; Musick, B S; Olley, B; Hall, K S; Hendrie, H C; Oyediran, A B

    The Indianapolis-Ibadan Dementia Project compares the rates of dementia at two sites, one in the U.S.A. and one in Nigeria. This paper concentrates on the data management issues in this longitudinal cross-cultural study. Approximately 2500 elderly people were recruited at each site, and continue to be re-assessed every two years. All the data are collected on paper and then entered into a FoxPro relational database. Most of the data management, including data cleaning, is done in Indianapolis. The design of the data collection forms is particularly important in a cross-cultural study, with the questions and the coding of responses clear and simple. Since Nigeria and the U.S.A. have different levels of technological development, the computer hardware and software were chosen to be suitable for use at either site. Exchange visits have been needed to address data management issues and resolve unexpected problems. The data management on cross-cultural studies can be handled successfully, given careful planning.

  1. Becoming a mental health nurse; A three year longitudinal study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harvey Wells

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This longitudinal case series study explores how students’ conceptions of ‘mental health nursing’ changed whilst on a three-year pre-registration Mental Health Nursing programme. The study was carried out in two university nursing schools in the South East of England and this paper reports a detailed analysis of 6 individual case studies. The researchers utilised Novak’s approach to concept mapping to elicit students’ personal knowledge structures, which were explored further using semi-structured individual qualitative interviews. The maps were analysed by looking at their gross morphology to interpret changes over time into types of learning achieved and the associated interview data were analysed using thematic content analysis. Results from analysis of the map structures suggest that whilst four of the selected students learned deeply, one participant learned superficially and one appeared not to learn at all. The associated interview data provides an interesting insight into the students’ reflective narratives on the process of learning. The findings also demonstrate further evidence of the practicability of using Novakian concept maps to self-prompt qualitative research interviews. Implications for the professional education of Mental Health Nurses are discussed.

  2. Undergraduate nursing students' learning styles: a longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleming, Sandra; McKee, Gabrielle; Huntley-Moore, Sylvia

    2011-07-01

    This paper reports on the main findings of a longitudinal study of the learning styles of one cohort of undergraduate pre-registration nursing students at an Irish university. The Honey and Mumford (2000a) Learning Styles Questionnaire was administered to a sample of students in their first (n=202) and final year of study (n=166), the final sample number (58) was based on matched pairs. The most common dominant learning style in first year was the dual learning category (35%) while a large proportion of the students (53%) in their final year had no dominant learning style. The preferred learning style of students in their first (69%) and final (57%) year was reflector. Learning styles were significantly different at the two time points and there was a significant relationship between some learning styles and students' age but not with academic achievement. Total scores of all learning styles showed significant improvements across the two time points of the study. An important implication for nurse education practice is the need for nurse educators to be aware of students' learning styles and in an attempt to maximise students' learning potential, utilise a range of teaching and learning methodologies and assessments that develop all learning styles.

  3. A longitudinal study of language learners’ images about Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikitina Larisa

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Several studies in the field of applied linguistics have explored images held by language learners about a target language country. However, for the most part, these studies focused on learners of modern European languages, such as German, Spanish and French and they were conducted in Western educational contexts. Besides, none of the previous investigations attempted to conduct a systematic classification of the language learners’ images. The present longitudinal study addressed these gaps in the research literature. It explored images about Russia held by Malaysian learners of the Russian language in a large university in East Malaysia. This article reports the findings of three questionnaire surveys conducted in 2004, 2007 and 2010. It was found that the images about Russia held by the participants were diverse and clustered around eight countryrelated aspects. Content of some categories of images was stable and changed little over time. Other categories were more fluid and more prone to change. The paper concludes with a discussion of pedagogical implications that can be derived from the findings.

  4. A longitudinal study of very young children's vowel production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGowan, Rebecca W; McGowan, Richard S; Denny, Margaret; Nittrouer, Susan

    2014-02-01

    Ecologically realistic, spontaneous, adult-directed, longitudinal speech data of young children were described by acoustic analyses. The first 2 formant frequencies of vowels produced by 6 children from different American English dialect regions were analyzed from ages 18 to 48 months. The vowels were from largely conversational contexts and were classified according to dictionary pronunciation. Within-subject formant frequency variability remained relatively constant for the span of ages studied. It was often difficult to detect overall decreases in the first 2 formant frequencies between ages 30 and 48 months. A study of the movement of the corner vowels with respect to the vowel centroid showed that the shape of the vowel space remained qualitatively constant from 30 through 48 months. The shape of the vowel space is established early in life. Some aspects of regional dialect were observed in some of the subjects at 42 months of age. The present study adds to the existing data on the development of vowel spaces by describing ecologically realistic speech.

  5. Natural course of behavioral addictions: a 5-year longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konkolÿ Thege, Barna; Woodin, Erica M; Hodgins, David C; Williams, Robert J

    2015-01-22

    Resolving the theoretical controversy on the labeling of an increasing number of excessive behaviors as behavioral addictions may also be facilitated by more empirical data on these behavioral problems. For instance, an essential issue to the classification of psychiatric disorders is information on their natural course. However, longitudinal research on the chronic vs. episodic nature of behavioral addictions is scarce. The aim of the present study, therefore, was to provide data on prevalence, substance use comorbidity, and five-year trajectories of six excessive behaviors-namely exercising, sexual behavior, shopping, online chatting, video gaming, and eating. Analyses were based on the data of the Quinte Longitudinal Study, where a cohort of 4,121 adults from Ontario, Canada was followed for 5 years (2006 to 2011). The response rate was 21.3%, while retention rate was 93.9%. To assess the occurrence of each problem behavior, a single self-diagnostic question asked people whether their over-involvement in the behavior had caused significant problems for them in the past 12 months. To assess the severity of each problem behavior reported, the Behavioral Addiction Measure was administered. A mixed design ANOVA was used to investigate symptom trajectories over time for each problem behavior and whether these symptom trajectories varied as a function of sex. The large majority of people reported having problematic over-involvement for just one of these behaviors and just in a single time period. A main effect of time was found for each problem behavior, indicating a moderately strong decrease in symptom severity across time. The time x sex interaction was insignificant in each model indicating that the decreasing trend is similar for males and females. The data also showed that help seeking was very low in the case of excessive sexual behavior, shopping, online chatting, and video gaming but substantially more prevalent in the case of excessive eating and

  6. Race, ideology, and the tea party: a longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knowles, Eric D; Lowery, Brian S; Shulman, Elizabeth P; Schaumberg, Rebecca L

    2013-01-01

    The Tea Party movement, which rose to prominence in the United States after the election of President Barack Obama, provides an ideal context in which to examine the roles of racial concerns and ideology in politics. A three-wave longitudinal study tracked changes in White Americans' self-identification with the Tea Party, racial concerns (prejudice and racial identification), and ideologies (libertarianism and social conservatism) over nine months. Latent Growth Modeling (LGM) was used to evaluate potential causal relationships between Tea Party identification and these factors. Across time points, racial prejudice was indirectly associated with movement identification through Whites' assertions of national decline. Although initial levels of White identity did not predict change in Tea Party identification, initial levels of Tea Party identification predicted increases in White identity over the study period. Across the three assessments, support for the Tea Party fell among libertarians, but rose among social conservatives. Results are discussed in terms of legitimation theories of prejudice, the "racializing" power of political judgments, and the ideological dynamics of the Tea Party.

  7. Interpersonal social responsibility model of service learning: A longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahav, Orit; Daniely, Noa; Yalon-Chamovitz, Shira

    2017-06-02

    Service-learning (SL) is commonly used in Occupational Therapy (OT) programs worldwide as a community placement educational strategy. However, most SL models are not clearly defined in terms of both methodology and learning outcomes. This longitudinal study explores a structured model of Service-Learning (Interpersonal Social Responsibility-Service Learning: ISR-SL) aimed towards the development of professional identity among OT students. Based on OT students experiences from the end of the course through later stages as mature students and professionals. A qualitative research design was used to explore the perceptions and experiences of 150 first, second, and third-year OT students and graduates who have participated in ISR-SL during their first academic year. Our findings suggest that the structured, long-term relationship with a person with a disability in the natural environment, which is the core of the ISR-SL, allowed students to develop a professional identity based on seeing the person as a whole and recognizing his/her centrality in the therapeutic relationship. This study suggests ISR-SL as future direction or next step for implementing SL in OT and other healthcare disciplines programs.

  8. Race, Ideology, and the Tea Party: A Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knowles, Eric D.; Lowery, Brian S.; Shulman, Elizabeth P.; Schaumberg, Rebecca L.

    2013-01-01

    The Tea Party movement, which rose to prominence in the United States after the election of President Barack Obama, provides an ideal context in which to examine the roles of racial concerns and ideology in politics. A three-wave longitudinal study tracked changes in White Americans’ self-identification with the Tea Party, racial concerns (prejudice and racial identification), and ideologies (libertarianism and social conservatism) over nine months. Latent Growth Modeling (LGM) was used to evaluate potential causal relationships between Tea Party identification and these factors. Across time points, racial prejudice was indirectly associated with movement identification through Whites’ assertions of national decline. Although initial levels of White identity did not predict change in Tea Party identification, initial levels of Tea Party identification predicted increases in White identity over the study period. Across the three assessments, support for the Tea Party fell among libertarians, but rose among social conservatives. Results are discussed in terms of legitimation theories of prejudice, the “racializing” power of political judgments, and the ideological dynamics of the Tea Party. PMID:23825630

  9. Multiproject interdependencies in health systems management: a longitudinal qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spaulding, Aaron; Gamm, Larry; Kim, Jungyeon; Menser, Terri

    2014-01-01

    A health care organization often engages in the simultaneous implementation of multiple organization change initiatives. However, the degree to which these initiatives are implemented and can be enhanced based on their interdependencies is an open question. How organizations and the change initiatives they pursue might benefit from more careful examination of potential interdependencies among projects was explored in this article. The aim of this study was to introduce a multiproject management conceptualization that stresses project interdependencies and suggests synergies can be found to enhance overall project and organizational performance. It examines this conceptualization in the context of a health system pursuing several major initiatives to capture insights into the nature of such interdependencies. Longitudinal qualitative analysis of interviews conducted with hospital leaders attempting to manage multiple initiatives being implemented by the system's leadership team was used in this study. The implementation of an electronic medical record (EMR) is empirically identified as the most central among multiple projects based on other projects dependencies on the EMR. Furthermore, concerns for data are identified most frequently as success factors across all projects. This reinforces the depiction of the EMR as a central organizational focus. A unique perspective on multiproject management in hospitals and on EMR projects is presented. In addition, the interdependency conceptualization and its application and results provide insights into multiproject management that can help ensure that benefits of individual projects are more fully optimized or exploited in leveraging the effectiveness of other project initiatives.

  10. Cardiovascular Health and Arterial Stiffness: The Maine Syracuse Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crichton, Georgina E; Elias, Merrill F; Robbins, Michael A

    2014-01-01

    Ideal cardiovascular health is a recently defined construct by the American Heart Association (AHA) to promote cardiovascular disease reduction. Arterial stiffness is a major risk factor for cardiovascular disease. The extent to which the presence of multiple prevalent cardiovascular risk factors and health behaviors is associated with arterial stiffness is unknown. The aim of this study was to examine the association between the AHA construct of cardiovascular health and arterial stiffness, as indexed by pulse wave velocity and pulse pressure. The AHA health metrics, comprising of four health behaviors (smoking, body mass index, physical activity, and diet) and three health factors (total cholesterol, blood pressure, and fasting plasma glucose) were evaluated among 505 participants in the Maine-Syracuse Longitudinal Study. Outcome measures were carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (PWV) and pulse pressure measured at 4 to 5-year follow-up. Better cardiovascular health, comprising both health factors and behaviors, was associated with lower arterial stiffness, as indexed by pulse wave velocity and pulse pressure. Those with at least five health metrics at ideal levels had significantly lower PWV (9.8 m/s) than those with two or less ideal health metrics (11.7 m/s) (P<0.001). This finding remained with the addition of demographic and PWV-related variables (P=0.004). PMID:24384629

  11. VALPROIC ACID-INDUCED THROMBOCYTOPENIA: A LONGITUDINAL STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manoj Kumar Sahu

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Valproate shows the most promising efficiency in treating mood as well as anxiety disorders; however, thrombocytopenia is one of the most common side effects associated with it. The perceived novelty and under recognition of the platelet lowering effects of valproate is illustrated by various case reports of thrombocytopenia associated with valproate in psychiatric populations. AIMS Present study aims is to investigate the relationship between platelet count & VPA therapy, age, and duration of medication. SETTINGS AND DESIGN It was a longitudinal observational study conducted at Department of Psychiatry, Pt. JNM Medical College, Raipur. METHODS AND MATERIAL The sample consisted of patients of either sex, aged between 18 to 65 years who were prescribed valproate therapy by the treating doctor. Patients were evaluated at baseline, at every month up to three months and at six months. The platelet counts were determined using an automatic haematology analyser. STATISTICAL ANALYSIS Correlation statistics were used to analyse the collected data. CONCLUSION Most of the time thrombocytopenia is mild and transient which resolves spontaneously. Regular monitoring of platelet level is required in the high risk groups.

  12. Race, ideology, and the tea party: a longitudinal study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric D Knowles

    Full Text Available The Tea Party movement, which rose to prominence in the United States after the election of President Barack Obama, provides an ideal context in which to examine the roles of racial concerns and ideology in politics. A three-wave longitudinal study tracked changes in White Americans' self-identification with the Tea Party, racial concerns (prejudice and racial identification, and ideologies (libertarianism and social conservatism over nine months. Latent Growth Modeling (LGM was used to evaluate potential causal relationships between Tea Party identification and these factors. Across time points, racial prejudice was indirectly associated with movement identification through Whites' assertions of national decline. Although initial levels of White identity did not predict change in Tea Party identification, initial levels of Tea Party identification predicted increases in White identity over the study period. Across the three assessments, support for the Tea Party fell among libertarians, but rose among social conservatives. Results are discussed in terms of legitimation theories of prejudice, the "racializing" power of political judgments, and the ideological dynamics of the Tea Party.

  13. A nonrandomized comparison of stapes surgery with and without a vein graft in patients with otosclerosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bittermann, A.J.; Vincent, R.; Rovers, M.M.; Heijden, G.J. van der; Tange, R.A.; Dreschler, W.A.; Grolman, W.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effectiveness of primary stapes surgery with and without a vein graft in patients with otosclerosis and to determine the differences in the postoperative gain in air-bone gap (ABG) and air-conduction (AC). STUDY DESIGN: A nonrandomized multicenter clinical evaluation.

  14. Use versus Nonuse of Repeater Examinees in Common Item Linear Equating with Nonrandom Groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cope, Ronald T.

    This study considers the use of repeaters when test equating. The subjects consist of five groups of applicants to a professional certification program. Each group comprises first time examinees and repeaters. The procedures include a common item linear equating with nonrandom groups, use of equating chains, and the use of total examinee group…

  15. How much do differences in medical schools influence student performance? A longitudinal study employing hierarchical linear modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hecker, Kent; Violato, Claudio

    2008-01-01

    Medical school curricula have undergone considerable change in the past half century. There is little evidence, however, for the impact of various curricula and educational policies on student learning once incoming performance and the nonrandom nature of students nested within schools has been accounted for. To investigate effects of school variables on United States Medical Licensing Examination (USMLE) Step 1-3 scores over an 11-year period (1994-2004). Using Association of American Medical Colleges and USMLE longitudinal data for 116 medical schools, hierarchical linear modeling was used to study the effects of school variables on Step 1-3. Mean unadjusted between school variance was 14.74%, 10.50%, and 11.25%, for USMLE Step 1-3. When student covariates were included, between-school variation was less than 5%. The variance accounted for in student performance by the student covariates ranged from 27.58% to 36.51% for Step 1,16.37% to 24.48% for Step 2 and 19.22% to 25.32% for Step 3.The proportion of the between-school variance that was accounted for by the student covariates ranged between 81.22% and 88.26% for Step 1, 48.44% and 79.77% for Step 2, and 68.41% and 80.78% for Step 3 [corrected]. School-level variables did not consistently predict for adjusted mean school Step performance. Individual student differences account for most of the variation in USMLE performance with small contributions from between-school variation and even smaller contribution from curriculum and educational policies.

  16. PREVALENCE OF ADVERSE PREGNANCY OUTCOMES: A COMMUNITY BASED LONGITUDINAL STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vidya

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In most developed countries, pregnancies are planned, complications are few and outcomes are generally favorable for both mother and infant. But in developing countries, adverse pregnancy outcomes are far more frequent due to various reasons. T he most severe adverse outcome of pregnancy is the death of the mother or her offspring. Over the years maternal and child health programmes are striving to improve the health status of pregnant women and neonates. However, the adverse pregnancy outcomes ( M aternal and N eonatal still remain high. OBJECTIVE: To study the prevalence of adverse pregnancy in the study area. METHODOLOGY: A community based longitudinal study was carried out in the 36 villages of Kaiwara from January 2011 to December 2011. All the antenatal mothers were traced through Anganwadi records maintained at different villages. They were contacted at their residence and the questionnaire was administered in their local language. The questionnaire was administered during three different visi ts to collect information regarding socio - demographic details, pregnancy outcomes. The first visit was made before delivery and subsequently second and third visits were made within 7 days and 42 nd day after delivery respectively. Maternal and child protec tion cards were used to validate the collected information. Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS software version 18.0 RESULTS: The present study revealed that, the proportion of low birth weight in the study area was 31.9% (95% CI=25.74 - 38.06, p reterm birth 20.5% (95% CI=15.28 - 25.72, postnatal complications 5% (95% CI=14.819 - 9.181, abortion 2.1% (95% CI=0.25 - 3.95, maternal death 0.4% (95% CI=0.416 - 1.216 and neonatal death 0.4% (95% CI=0.416 - 1.216. CONCLUSION: The present study revealed that the proportion of adverse pregnancy outcomes was in par with the national average.

  17. Vocal aging and the impact on daily life: a longitudinal study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leeuw, de I.M.; Mahieu, H.F.

    2004-01-01

    Longitudinal studies on vocal aging are scarce, and information on the impact of age-related voice changes on daily life is lacking. This longitudinal study reports on age-related voice changes and the impact on daily life over a time period of 5 years on 11 healthy male speakers, age ranging from 5

  18. Peer Victimization in Childhood and Internalizing Problems in Adolescence: A Prospective Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwierzynska, Karolina; Wolke, Dieter; Lereya, Tanya S.

    2013-01-01

    Traumatic childhood experiences have been found to predict later internalizing problems. This prospective longitudinal study investigated whether repeated and intentional harm doing by peers (peer victimization) in childhood predicts internalizing symptoms in early adolescence. 3,692 children from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and…

  19. Longitudinal study of leptin levels in chronic hemodialysis patients

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    Averbukh Zhan

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The influence of serum leptin levels on nutritional status and survival in chronic hemodialysis patients remained to be elucidated. We conducted a prospective longitudinal study of leptin levels and nutritional parameters to determine whether changes of serum leptin levels modify nutritional status and survival in a cohort of prevalent hemodialysis patients. Methods Leptin, dietary energy and protein intake, biochemical markers of nutrition and body composition (anthropometry and bioimpedance analysis were measured at baseline and at 6, 12, 18 and 24 months following enrollment, in 101 prevalent hemodialysis patients (37% women with a mean age of 64.6 ± 11.5 years. Observation of this cohort was continued over 2 additional years. Changes in repeated measures were evaluated, with adjustment for baseline differences in demographic and clinical parameters. Results Significant reduction of leptin levels with time were observed (linear estimate: -2.5010 ± 0.57 ng/ml/2y; p Conclusions Thus leptin levels reflect fat mass depots, rather than independently contributing to uremic anorexia or modifying nutritional status and/or survival in chronic hemodialysis patients. The importance of such information is high if leptin is contemplated as a potential therapeutic target in hemodialysis patients.

  20. Some antecedents of academic self-concept: a longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, J W; Lambourne, R; Silva, P A

    1990-06-01

    The influence of cognitive, achievement, and family background variables on academic self-concept was examined for 435 students participating in a major longitudinal study in New Zealand. Family background variables included mother's marital status at the birth of the child, family socio-economic status at the time the child was born, and family environment when the child was 7 years and 9 years of age. These factors were not significantly related to academic self-concept at ages 9 and 11. In addition, the general emotional status of mothers when their child was 3 years and 5 years old was not significantly related to academic self-concept at ages 9 and 11. Mother's intelligence when the child was 3 years, and mother's expectations for school performance when the child started school at age 5 were not significantly related to academic self-concept. Similarly, cognitive and intellectual functioning at ages 3, 5, 7, and 9 years were not significantly related to academic self-concept at ages 7 and 9 years. Rather, academic self-concept at age 11 appeared to be influenced primarily by reading achievement and academic self-concept at age 9, and academic self-concept at age 9 was influenced primarily by reading achievement at age 7. It was concluded that academic self-concept is mainly a product of school achievement, and that any influence home background factors may have are likely to occur by means of their effect on school achievement.

  1. Spiritual stress and coping model of divorce: a longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krumrei, Elizabeth J; Mahoney, Annette; Pargament, Kenneth I

    2011-12-01

    This study represents the first longitudinal effort to use a spiritual stress and coping model to predict adults' psychosocial adjustment following divorce. A community sample of 89 participants completed measures at the time of their divorce and 1 year later. Though the sample endorsed slightly lower levels of religiosity than the general U.S. population, most reported spiritual appraisals and positive and negative religious coping tied to divorce. Hierarchical regression analyses controlling general religiousness and nonreligious forms of coping indicated that (a) appraising divorce as a sacred loss or desecration at the time it occurred predicted more depressive symptoms and dysfunctional conflict tactics with the ex-spouse 1 year later; (b) positive religious coping reported about the year following divorce predicted greater posttraumatic growth 1 year after divorce; and (c) negative religious coping reported about the year following divorce predicted more depressive symptoms 1 year after the divorce. Bootstrapping mediation analyses indicated that negative religious coping fully mediated links between appraising the divorce as a sacred loss or desecration at the time it occurred and depressive symptoms 1 year later. In addition, moderation analyses revealed that negative religious coping is more strongly associated with depressive symptoms among those who form high versus low appraisals of their divorce as a sacred loss or desecration. These findings are relevant to divorce education and intervention provided by professionals in legal, family, mental health, and clerical roles. Implications are discussed for clinical and counseling psychology and religious communities.

  2. [Longitudinal study of the situational specificity of coping strategies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mafune, Kosuke; Kosugi, Shotaro

    2007-02-01

    This longitudinal study examines the situational specificity of coping strategies for 3 943 male employees of the research and development division of an industrial company. The Job Stress Scale-Revised version (JSS-R) was administered twice to the same subjects 40 months apart to assess chronic job stressors (qualitative and quantitative) and coping strategies (problem-solving, support-seeking, and problem-leaving). Analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to examine changes in coping strategies corresponding to changes in chronic job stressors. The results suggest a situational specificity of coping strategies. (a) With decreasing qualitative stressors, "problem-solving" coping increases and "problem-leaving" coping decreases. (b) With increasing qualitative stressors, "problem-leaving" coping increases and "problem-solving" coping decreases. (c) With increasing quantitative stressors, "support-seeking" coping increases. (d) With decreasing quantitative stressors, "problem-leaving" coping decreases. (e) There is no variance in "problem-leaving" coping attributable to the change in the quantitative stressors when the qualitative stressors decrease or increase. "Problem-leaving" coping is more strongly related to qualitative than quantitative stressors.

  3. Cost of breast cancer treatment. A 4-year longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legorreta, A P; Brooks, R J; Leibowitz, A N; Solin, L J

    1996-10-28

    To determine the longitudinal cost of the treatment of patients with breast cancer. An analysis was performed of 200 women with 205 newly diagnosed breast cancers during 1989 in a health maintenance organization population (US Healthcare, Blue Bell, Pa). Medical records and claims data were analyzed for the total costs of medical care during the 4-year period after diagnosis. The costs over time were analyzed for clinical stage and use of mammography screening. The total costs of medical care during the 4-year period after diagnosis were strongly related to clinical stage at diagnosis, with higher total costs for patients with stages III to IV at diagnosis compared with patients with stages 0 to II at diagnosis. The cost for all stages of disease declined after years 1 to 2, with the exception of stage II, which increased slightly in years 3 to 4. The use of screening mammography was associated with a significant decrease in the cost of medical care during the 4-year study period. The goal of mammography screening programs should be to achieve downstaging to stages 0 to 1 to achieve reduction in breast cancer mortality and to reduce the overall consumption of health care resources for the treatment of breast cancer. These cost data should be considered within the framework of future cost-effective analysis for screening mammography programs.

  4. Executive function influences sedentary behavior: A longitudinal study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loprinzi, Paul D.; Nooe, Allison

    2016-01-01

    Background: No study has evaluated the effects of executive function on follow-up sedentary behavior, which was this study’s purpose. Methods: A longitudinal design was employed among 18 young adult college students (Mage = 23.7 years; 88.9% female). Accelerometer-determined sedentary behavior and physical activity, along with executive function, were assessed at baseline. Approximately 8 weeks later, re-assessment of accelerometer-determined sedentary behavior and physical activity occurred. Executive function was assessed using the Parametric Go/No-Go (PGNG) computer task. From this, 2 primary executive function outcome parameters were evaluated, including the Simple Rule and Repeating Rule. Results: After adjusting for baseline sedentary behavior, age, gender, body mass index and baseline moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA), for every 25% increase in the number of correctly identified targets for the Repeating rule at the baseline assessment, participants engaged in 91.8 fewer minutes of sedentary behavior at the follow-up assessment (β = -91.8; 95% CI: -173.5, -10.0; P = 0.03). Results were unchanged when also adjusting for total baseline or follow-up physical activity. Conclusion: Greater executive function is associated with less follow-up sedentary behavior.

  5. Executive function influences sedentary behavior: A longitudinal study

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    Paul D. Loprinzi

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: No study has evaluated the effects of executive function on follow-up sedentary behavior, which was this study’s purpose. Methods: A longitudinal design was employed among 18 young adult college students (Mage = 23.7 years; 88.9% female. Accelerometer-determined sedentary behavior and physical activity, along with executive function, were assessed at baseline. Approximately 8 weeks later, re-assessment of accelerometer-determined sedentary behavior and physical activity occurred. Executive function was assessed using the Parametric Go/No-Go (PGNG computer task. From this, 2 primary executive function outcome parameters were evaluated, including the Simple Rule and Repeating Rule. Results: After adjusting for baseline sedentary behavior, age, gender, body mass index and baseline moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA, for every 25% increase in the number of correctly identified targets for the Repeating rule at the baseline assessment, participants engaged in 91.8 fewer minutes of sedentary behavior at the follow-up assessment (β = -91.8; 95% CI: -173.5, -10.0; P = 0.03. Results were unchanged when also adjusting for total baseline or follow-up physical activity. Conclusion: Greater executive function is associated with less follow-up sedentary behavior.

  6. Longitudinal study of habits leading to malocclusion development in childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moimaz, Suzely Adas Saliba; Garbin, Artênio José Ísper; Lima, Arinilson Moreira Chaves; Lolli, Luiz Fernando; Saliba, Orlando; Garbin, Cléa Adas Saliba

    2014-08-04

    The increased prevalence of malocclusions represents a secular trend attributed to the interaction of genetic and environmental factors. The analysis of factors related to the causes of these changes is essential for planning public health policies aimed at preventing and clinically intercepting malocclusion. This study investigated the sucking habits, nocturnal mouth breathing, as well as the relation of these factors with malocclusion. This is a longitudinal study in which 80 mother-child pairs were monitored from the beginning of pregnancy to the 30th month after childbirth. Home visits for interviews with the mothers were made on the 12th, 18th and 30th months of age. Finger sucking, pacifier sucking, bottle feeding, breastfeeding and nocturnal mouth breathing, were the variables studies. On the 30th month, clinical examinations were performed for overjet, overbite and posterior crossbite. A previously calibrated single examiner (Kappa coefficient = 0.92) was responsible for all examinations. Data were analyzed using the chi-squared or Fisher's exact tests, at a significance level of 5%. Bottle feeding was the most prevalent habit at 12, 18 and 30 months (87.5%; 90% and 96.25%, respectively). Breastfeeding was 40%, 25% and 12.50% at 12, 18 and 30 months, respectively. Nearly 70% of the children in this study had some sort of malocclusion. Pacifier sucking habit at 12, 18 and 30 months of age was associated with overjet and open bite; and at 30 months, an association with overbite was also observed. Finger sucking habit and breastfeeding at 12, 18 and 30 months were also associated with overjet and open bite. The posterior crossbite was associated with bottle feeding at 12 and 30 months, and nocturnal mouth breathers at 12 and 18 months. Sucking habits, low rates of breastfeeding, and nocturnal mouth breathing were risk factors for malocclusion.

  7. Social Strategies during University Studies Predict Early Career Work Burnout and Engagement: 18-Year Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmela-Aro, Katariina; Tolvanen, Asko; Nurmi, Jari-Erik

    2011-01-01

    This longitudinal study spanning 18 years examined the role of social strategies in early career adaptation. The aim was to find out whether individuals' social strategies measured during their university studies had an impact on work burnout and work engagement measured 10-18 years later. A sample of 292 university students completed the SAQ…

  8. The value of time in longitudinal studies of ageing. Lessons from the Australian Longitudinal Study on Women's Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byles, Julie E; Dobson, Annette

    2011-10-01

    The Australian Longitudinal Study on Women's Health (ALSWH) involves three cohorts of women born in 1921-1926, 1946-1951 and 1973-1978, who have been surveyed every 3 years since 1996. We describe how the 1921-1926 cohort have changed over time. We also describe trends in health risks among the younger cohorts, providing an indication of future health threats. By Survey 5, 28.4% of the 1921-1926 cohort had died. Among those who survived and remained in the study, 61% maintained high physical function scores over time. Chronic conditions such as arthritis, diabetes, heart disease and stroke were associated with lower physical function scores and decline in scores over time. ALSWH will continue to provide information on changes in health and health service use as we follow the oldest cohort through their 90 s, and as younger cohorts accumulate increasing burden of disease and disability as they age. © 2011 The Authors. Australasian Journal on Ageing © 2011 ACOTA.

  9. Longitudinal study on methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus pseudintermedius in households.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura M Laarhoven

    Full Text Available Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus pseudintermedius (MRSP is an emerging pathogen in dogs and has been found in Europe, Asia and North America. To date most studies are one-point prevalence studies and therefore little is known about the dynamics of MRSP in dogs and their surrounding. In this longitudinal study MRSP colonization in dogs and the transmission of MRSP to humans, contact animals and the environment was investigated. Sixteen dogs with a recent clinical MRSP infection were included. The index dogs, contact animals, owners and environments were sampled once a month for six months. Samples taken from the nose, perineum and infection site (if present of the index cases and contact animals, and the nares of the owners were cultured using pre-enrichment. Index cases were found positive for prolonged periods of time, in two cases during all six samplings. In five of the 12 households that were sampled during six months, the index case was intermittently found MRSP-positive. Contact animals and the environment were also found MRSP-positive, most often in combination with a MRSP-positive index dog. In four households positive environmental samples were found while no animals or humans were MRSP-positive, indicating survival of MRSP in the environment for prolonged periods of time. Genotyping revealed that generally similar or indistinguishable MRSP isolates were found in patients, contact animals and environmental samples within the same household. Within two households, however, genetically distinct MRSP isolates were found. These results show that veterinarians should stay alert with (former MRSP patients, even after repeated MRSP-negative cultures or after the disappearance of the clinical infection. There is a considerable risk of transmission of MRSP to animals in close contact with MRSP patients. Humans were rarely MRSP-positive and never tested MRSP-positive more than once suggesting occasional contamination or rapid elimination of

  10. Pelvic pain after childbirth: a longitudinal population study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjelland, Elisabeth Krefting; Owe, Katrine Mari; Pingel, Ronnie; Kristiansson, Per; Vangen, Siri; Eberhard-Gran, Malin

    2016-03-01

    In this longitudinal population study, the aims were to study associations of mode of delivery with new onset of pelvic pain and changes in pelvic pain scores up to 7 to 18 months after childbirth. We included 20,248 participants enrolled in the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (1999-2008) without preexisting pelvic pain in pregnancy. Data were obtained by 4 self-administered questionnaires and linked to the Medical Birth Registry of Norway. A total of 4.5% of the women reported new onset of pelvic pain 0 to 3 months postpartum. Compared to unassisted vaginal delivery, operative vaginal delivery was associated with increased odds of pelvic pain (adjusted odds ratio [OR]: 1.30; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.06-1.59). Planned and emergency cesarean deliveries were associated with reduced odds of pelvic pain (adjusted OR: 0.48; 95% CI: 0.31-0.74 and adjusted OR: 0.65; 95% CI: 0.49-0.87, respectively). Planned cesarean delivery, young maternal age, and low Symptom Checklist-8 scores were associated with low pelvic pain scores after childbirth. A history of pain was the only factor associated with increased pelvic pain scores over time (P = 0.047). We conclude that new onset of pelvic pain after childbirth was not commonly reported, particularly following cesarean delivery. Overall, pelvic pain scores were rather low at all time points and women with a history of pain reported increased pelvic pain scores over time. Hence, clinicians should follow up women with pelvic pain after a difficult childbirth experience, particularly if they have a history of pain.

  11. Longitudinal study of children with unilateral hearing loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lieu, Judith E C; Tye-Murray, Nancy; Fu, Qiang

    2012-09-01

    Children with unilateral hearing loss (UHL) have been found to have lower language scores, and increased rate of speech therapy, grade failures, or needing Individualized Education Plans (IEPs). The objective of this study was to determine whether language skills and educational performance improved or worsened over time in a cohort of children with UHL. Prospective longitudinal cohort study. Forty-six children with permanent UHL, ages 6 to 12 years, were studied using standardized cognitive, achievement, and language testing at yearly intervals for 3 years. Using standardized test scores allowed implicit comparison to norms established by national cross-sectional samples. Secondary outcomes included behavioral issues, IEPs, receipt of speech therapy, or teacher report of problems at school. Analysis utilized repeated measures analysis of variance and multilevel random regression modeling. Several cognitive and language mean standardized scores increased over time. Possible predictors of increase with time included higher baseline cognitive levels and receipt of interventions through an IEP. However, standardized achievement scores and indicators of school performance did not show concomitant improvements. Rates of IEPs remained >50% throughout, and rates of speech therapy were consistently about 20%. Children with UHL demonstrated improvement in oral language and verbal intelligence quota scores over time, but not improvements in school performance. Parents and teachers reported persistent behavioral problems and academic weaknesses or areas of concern in about 25%. The provision of IEPs for children with UHL, and acknowledging UHL as a hearing disability, may be an effective intervention to improve language skills over time. Copyright © 2012 The American Laryngological, Rhinological, and Otological Society, Inc.

  12. [Inequalities in mortality in the Italian longitudinal studies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardano, M; Costa, G; Demaria, M; Merler, E; Biggeri, A

    1999-01-01

    The article presents some of the most relevant results on inequalities in mortality, obtained by the two Italian longitudinal studies carried out in Turin, and Tuscany (in Leghorn and Florence). The two studies share the same methodology. Each database contains census data, information from population register and from death certificates. The authors approach this issue not in an analytical way (as they did in the works cited in the reference list), but answering some questions, relevant both from a scientific and a political point of view. How big are the health inequalities in Italy? Are the health inequalities in Italy increasing or decreasing? Are the health inequalities due to absolute or to relative deprivation? Does the mortality profile of the Italian population express the presence of old or new health inequalities? Can the health inequalities be reduced? The study's results prove that the health inequalities in Italy are deep and strictly related to individuals' position in the social fabric. Facing the other questions the authors focus only in the Turin data. From the 1970's to the 1990's the health inequalities in Turin have increased, despite of general improvement of population's health condition and the progressive reduction of the size of deprived groups. Turin data support both the hypotheses on the source of health inequalities, using long term unemployment as absolute deprivation's indicator, and status' inconsistency as (a row) indicator of relative deprivation. The growth of drug-related causes of death (AIDS and overdose) shows that in the Turin and--quite reasonably--Italian population old and new health inequalities live together. The essay closes offering evidence on the possibility to reduce health inequalities. For this purpose the authors analyses the Turin trend of avoidable deaths and infant and adolescent mortality.

  13. Nine year longitudinal retrospective study of Taekwondo injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazemi, Mohsen; Chudolinski, Artur; Turgeon, Matt; Simon, Aaron; Ho, Eric; Coombe, Lianne

    2009-01-01

    This retrospective longitudinal study aims to describe reported Taekwondo injuries and to examine associations between competitor experience level, age and gender, and the type, location, and mechanism of injury sustained. Additionally, we examined whether recent rule changes concerning increased point value of head shots in adult Taekwondo competition had affected injury incidence. This study was a summation of 9 years of data of competition injury reports, which included 904 injury reports spanning 58 individual competitions. The data was collected on standardized injury reports at time of injury during competition. Care was provided to the athletes, but the type of care provided was not included in the study. Participants included athletes injured during competition who sought care by the health care team, and for whom an injury report was filled out. The data analysis was performed at the Canadian Memorial Chiropractic College. The three most common locations of presenting injury were the head (19%), foot (16%), and thigh (9%). The most common mechanism of presenting injury was found to be a defensive kick (44%), followed by an offensive kick (35%). The most commonly diagnosed injuries were contusions (36%), sprains (19%), and strains (15%). Coloured belts had a higher incidence of contusions, while black belts sustained more joint irritation injuries. Black belts were more likely to suffer multiple injuries. Colored belts suffered more injuries while receiving a kick, while black belts had a larger influence of past history of injury. We found no significant difference in location or type of injury when comparing pre versus post rule change. The most common locations of injury are head, foot, and thigh respectively, and are areas for concern when considering preventative measures. Colour belt competitors are more likely to sustain contusions, which the authors believe is due to more aggressive tactics and lack of control. Those more likely to be injured tend

  14. Normal ageing in adults with Down's syndrome: a longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devenny, D A; Silverman, W P; Hill, A L; Jenkins, E; Sersen, E A; Wisniewski, K E

    1996-06-01

    The ubiquitous presence of the neuropathology of Alzheimer disease (AD) in individuals with Down's syndrome (DS) over 40 years of age suggests that this group of people will exhibit a high prevalence of dementia of the Alzheimer type (DAT) as they age. The present study indicates that there is a clear discrepancy between the presumed presence of AD neuropathology and the clinical expression of DAT among older people with DS. In the first 6 years of a longitudinal study, the present authors compared 91 adults (31-63 years of age) with DS and mild or moderate mental retardation to 64 adults (31-76 years of age) with other forms of mental retardation (MR) on yearly measures of mental status, short- and long-term memory, speeded psychomotor function, and visuospatial organization. The results indicated that, over repeated testing on the verbal long-term memory test, younger participants with DS showed small increases in their scores, while older participants with DS showed very slight decreases. Overall performance scores on this test and a speeded psychomotor task were poorer for both diagnostic groups in individuals aged 50 years and older. The magnitude and type of these selective changes in performance were consistent with performance profiles observed in older healthy adults without mental retardation on tests measuring similar cognitive functions. Only four out of the 91 people with DS in the present sample showed changes in functioning that have led to a diagnosis of possible DAT, and in these individuals, alternative causes of performance declines were concurrently present (e.g. thyroid dysfunction). These findings indicate that some age-associated changes in functioning are related to "normal' but probably precocious ageing among adults with DS. Furthermore, these findings suggest that adults with DS and mild or moderate mental retardation may be at lower risk for dementia during their fourth and fifth decades of life than previous studies have suggested.

  15. Longitudinal variability of time-location/activity patterns of population at different ages: a longitudinal study in California

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    Cassady Diana L

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Longitudinal time-activity data are important for exposure modeling, since the extent to which short-term time-activity data represent long-term activity patterns is not well understood. This study was designed to evaluate longitudinal variations in human time-activity patterns. Method We report on 24-hour recall diaries and questionnaires collected via the internet from 151 parents of young children (mostly under age 55, and from 55 older adults of ages 55 and older, for both a weekday and a weekend day every three months over an 18-month period. Parents also provided data for their children. The self-administrated diary and questionnaire distinguished ~30 frequently visited microenvironments and ~20 activities which we selected to represent opportunities for exposure to toxic environmental compounds. Due to the non-normal distribution of time-location/activity data, we employed generalized linear mixed-distribution mixed-effect models to examine intra- and inter-individual variations. Here we describe variation in the likelihood of and time spent engaging in an activity or being in a microenvironment by age group, day-type (weekday/weekend, season (warm/cool, sex, employment status, and over the follow-up period. Results As expected, day-type and season influence time spent in many location and activity categories. Longitudinal changes were also observed, e.g., young children slept less with increasing follow-up, transit time increased, and time spent on working and shopping decreased during the study, possibly related to human physiological changes with age and changes in macro-economic factors such as gas prices and the economic recession. Conclusions This study provides valuable new information about time-activity assessed longitudinally in three major age groups and greatly expands our knowledge about intra- and inter-individual variations in time-location/activity patterns. Longitudinal variations beyond weekly and

  16. Comparing Longitudinal Profile Patterns of Mathematics and Reading in Early Child Longitudinal Study, Kindergarten: The Profile Analysis via Multidimensional Scaling (PAMS) Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Se-Kang

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the study is to compare longitudinal patterns from Mathematics and Reading data from the direct child assessment of Early Child Longitudinal Study, Kindergarten (ECLS-K, US Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics 2006), utilizing Profile Analysis via Multidimensional Scaling (PAMS). PAMS has been used initially…

  17. Evaluating the Effectiveness of an Antimicrobial Stewardship Program on Reducing the Incidence Rate of Healthcare-Associated Clostridium difficile Infection: A Non-Randomized, Stepped Wedge, Single-Site, Observational Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giulio DiDiodato

    Full Text Available The incidence rate of healthcare-associated Clostridium difficile infection (HA-CDI is estimated at 1 in 100 patients. Antibiotic exposure is the most consistently reported risk factor for HA-CDI. Strategies to reduce the risk of HA-CDI have focused on reducing antibiotic utilization. Prospective audit and feedback is a commonly used antimicrobial stewardship intervention (ASi. The impact of this ASi on risk of HA-CDI is equivocal. This study examines the effectiveness of a prospective audit and feedback ASi on reducing the risk of HA-CDI.Single-site, 339 bed community-hospital in Barrie, Ontario, Canada. Primary outcome is HA-CDI incidence rate. Daily prospective and audit ASi is the exposure variable. ASi implemented across 6 wards in a non-randomized, stepped wedge design. Criteria for ASi; any intravenous antibiotic use for ≥ 48 hrs, any oral fluoroquinolone or oral second generation cephalosporin use for ≥ 48 hrs, or any antimicrobial use for ≥ 5 days. HA-CDI cases and model covariates were aggregated by ward, year and month starting September 2008 and ending February 2016. Multi-level mixed effect negative binomial regression analysis was used to model the primary outcome, with intercept and slope coefficients for ward-level random effects estimated. Other covariates tested for inclusion in the final model were derived from previously published risk factors. Deviance residuals were used to assess the model's goodness-of-fit.The dataset included 486 observation periods, of which 350 were control periods and 136 were intervention periods. After accounting for all other model covariates, the estimated overall ASi incidence rate ratio (IRR was 0.48 (95% 0.30, 0.79. The ASi effect was independent of antimicrobial utilization. The ASi did not seem to reduce the risk of Clostridium difficile infection on the surgery wards (IRR 0.87, 95% CI 0.45, 1.69 compared to the medicine wards (IRR 0.42, 95% CI 0.28, 0.63. The ward-level burden of

  18. Ovarian function and reproductive hormone levels in girls with prader-willi syndrome: a longitudinal study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Siemensma, E.P.; Alfen-van der Velden, J. van; Otten, B.J.; Laven, J.S.E.; Hokken-Koelega, A.C.

    2012-01-01

    Context: The etiology of hypogonadism in girls with Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) remains uncertain. Objectives: The aim of the study was to evaluate gonadal function longitudinally in girls and female adolescents with PWS. Measurements: We performed a longitudinal assessment of anti-Mullerian hormone

  19. Use of Missing Data Methods in Longitudinal Studies: The Persistence of Bad Practices in Developmental Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jelicic, Helena; Phelps, Erin; Lerner, Richard M.

    2009-01-01

    Developmental science rests on describing, explaining, and optimizing intraindividual changes and, hence, empirically requires longitudinal research. Problems of missing data arise in most longitudinal studies, thus creating challenges for interpreting the substance and structure of intraindividual change. Using a sample of reports of longitudinal…

  20. Use of Missing Data Methods in Longitudinal Studies: The Persistence of Bad Practices in Developmental Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jelicic, Helena; Phelps, Erin; Lerner, Richard M.

    2009-01-01

    Developmental science rests on describing, explaining, and optimizing intraindividual changes and, hence, empirically requires longitudinal research. Problems of missing data arise in most longitudinal studies, thus creating challenges for interpreting the substance and structure of intraindividual change. Using a sample of reports of longitudinal…

  1. A Longitudinal Study of Children's Social Behaviors and Their Causal Relationship to Reading Growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Hyo Jin; Kim, Junyeop

    2011-01-01

    This paper aims at investigating the causal effects of social behaviors on subsequent reading growth in elementary school, using the "Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Kindergarten" ("ECLS-K") data. The sample was 8,869 subjects who provided longitudinal measures of reading IRT scores from kindergarten (1998-1999) to fifth…

  2. Changes in HRM in Europe: A Longitudinal Comparative Study among 18 European Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikandrou, Irene; Apospori, Eleni; Papalexandris, Nancy

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: To examine HRM strategies and practices and HRM position within organizations in various cultural, economic and sociopolitical contexts from a longitudinal perspective. Design/methodology/approach: The study uses the 1995 and 1999 Cranet data in a longitudinal methodological framework to explore the changes and trends in 18 European…

  3. Electron Correlation Effects on the Longitudinal Polarizabilities and Second Hyperpolarizabilities of Polyenes: A Finite Field Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qingxu Li

    2014-01-01

    perturbation theory and coupled cluster with singles and doubles method. Calculations with density functional theory are also made to compare with wave-function based methods. Our study shows that electron correlation reduces linear longitudinal polarizability and enhances longitudinal second hyperpolarizability for short polyenes, but the effects decrease as the chain increases; choosing appropriate basis sets is important when quantitative results are required.

  4. What Alumni Value from New Product Development Education: A Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cobb, Corie L.; Hey, Jonathan; Agogino, Alice M.; Beckman, Sara L.; Kim, Sohyeong

    2016-01-01

    We present a longitudinal study of what graduates take away from a cross-disciplinary graduate-level New Product Development (NPD) course at UC Berkeley over a 15-year period from 1996-2010. We designed and deployed a longitudinal survey and interviewed a segment of our NPD alumni population to better understand how well our course prepared these…

  5. Wealth Distribution and Mobility in Denmark: a Longitudinal Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bentzen, Jan Børsen; Schmidt-Sørensen, Jan Beyer

    1994-01-01

    We describe and analyse wealth mobility in a national sample of 32,675 individuals from the Danish Longitudinal Database over the period from 1983 to 1990. A transition matrix, the Shorrocks measure, average decile position for various subgroups, and wealth in 1990 compared with wealth in 1983...

  6. Predictors of HPV vaccination uptake: A longitudinal study among parents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Hofman (Robine); P. van Empelen (Pepijn); J.H. Richardus (Jan Hendrik); I.M.C.M. de Kok (Inge); H.J. de Koning (Harry); M. van Ballegooijen (Marjolein); I.J. Korfage (Ida)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractTo assess among parents longitudinal predictors of human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination uptake for their daughters, random samples of parents were identified via municipal services and sent baseline questionnaires in June 2009 and follow-up questionnaires in November 2011 after their

  7. Prediction of the development of reading comprehension: a longitudinal study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhoeven, L.T.W.; Leeuwe, J.F.J. van

    2008-01-01

    Specific effects of word decoding, vocabulary and listening comprehension abilities on the development of reading comprehension were longitudinally examined for a representative sample of 2143 Dutch children throughout the elementary school period. An attempt was made to test two theoretical framewo

  8. Treatment of non-response in longitudinal network studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huisman, Mark; Steglich, Christian

    2008-01-01

    The collection of longitudinal data on complete social networks often faces the problem of actor non-response. The resulting incomplete data pose a challenge to statistical analysis, as there typically is no natural way to treat the missing cases. This paper examines the problems caused by actors mi

  9. Effects of Team and Organizational Commitment--A Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neininger, Alexandra; Lehmann-Willenbrock, Nale; Kauffeld, Simone; Henschel, Angela

    2010-01-01

    Retention management, i.e., keeping qualified employees, is a top priority for contemporary organizations. Commitment, and especially team commitment, can be the key to mastering this challenge. There is a lack of longitudinal research concerning the development and the direction of the effects of team commitment over time. In a longitudinal…

  10. Predictors of hpv vaccination uptake: a longitudinal study among parents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hofman, R.; Empelen, P. van; Richardus, J.H.; Kok, I.M.C.M. de; Koning, H.J. de; Ballegooijen, M. van; Korfage, I.J.

    2014-01-01

    To assess among parents longitudinal predictors of human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination uptake for their daughters, random samples of parents were identified via municipal services and sent baseline questionnaires in June 2009 and follow-up questionnaires in November 2011 after their uptake

  11. Longitudinal study of computerized cardiotocography in early fetal growth restriction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wolf, H.; Arabin, B.; Lees, C. C.; Oepkes, D.; Prefumo, F.; Thilaganathan, B.; Todros, T.; Visser, G. H. A.; Bilardo, C. M.; Derks, J. B.; Diemert, A.; Duvekot, J. J.; Ferrazzi, E.; Frusca, T.; Hecher, K.; Marlow, N.; Martinelli, P.; Ostermayer, E.; Papageorghiou, A. T.; Scheepers, H. C. J.; Schlembach, D.; Schneider, K. T. M.; Valcamonico, A.; Van Wassenaer-Leemhuis, A.; Ganzevoort, W.

    Objectives: To explore whether, in early fetal growth restriction (FGR), the longitudinal pattern of fetal heart rate (FHR) short-term variation (STV) can be used to identify imminent fetal distress and whether abnormalities of FHR recordings are associated with 2-year infant outcome. Methods: The

  12. Prediction of the development of reading comprehension: a longitudinal study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhoeven, L.T.W.; Leeuwe, J.F.J. van

    2008-01-01

    Specific effects of word decoding, vocabulary and listening comprehension abilities on the development of reading comprehension were longitudinally examined for a representative sample of 2143 Dutch children throughout the elementary school period. An attempt was made to test two theoretical framewo

  13. Effects of Team and Organizational Commitment--A Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neininger, Alexandra; Lehmann-Willenbrock, Nale; Kauffeld, Simone; Henschel, Angela

    2010-01-01

    Retention management, i.e., keeping qualified employees, is a top priority for contemporary organizations. Commitment, and especially team commitment, can be the key to mastering this challenge. There is a lack of longitudinal research concerning the development and the direction of the effects of team commitment over time. In a longitudinal…

  14. Effects of organizational and team commitment - a longitudinal study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Neininger, A.; Lehmann-Willenbrock, N.K.; Kauffeld, S.; Henschel, A.

    2010-01-01

    Retention management, i.e., keeping qualified employees, is a top priority for contemporary organizations. Commitment, and especially teamcommitment, can be the key to mastering this challenge. There is a lack of longitudinal research concerning the development and the direction of the effects of te

  15. Psychosocial predictors of non-adherence to chronic medication: systematic review of longitudinal studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zwikker, H.E.; Bemt, B.J.F van den; Vriezekolk, J.E.; Ende, C.H.M. van den; Dulmen, S. van

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Several cross-sectional studies suggest that psychosocial factors are associated with non-adherence to chronic preventive maintenance medication (CPMM); however, results from longitudinal associations have not yet been systematically summarized. Therefore, the objective of this study was

  16. Using Social Media While Waiting in Pain: A Clinical 12-Week Longitudinal Pilot Study

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Merolli, Mark; Gray, Kathleen; Martin-Sanchez, Fernando; Mantopoulos, Steven; Hogg, Malcolm

    2015-01-01

    .... The aim was to conduct a longitudinal pilot study to understand what aspects of research design are key to the success of running a larger-scale study of social media use in the clinical management of chronic pain...

  17. Psychosocial predictors of non-adherence to chronic medication: systematic review of longitudinal studies.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zwikker, H.E.; Bemt, B.J. van den; Vriezekolk, J.E.; Ende, C.H. van den; Dulmen, S. van

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: Several cross-sectional studies suggest that psychosocial factors are associated with non-adherence to chronic preventive maintenance medication (CPMM); however, results from longitudinal associations have not yet been systematically summarized. Therefore, the objective of this study was

  18. Psychosocial predictors of non-adherence to chronic medication: systematic review of longitudinal studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zwikker, H.E.; Bemt, B.J.F van den; Vriezekolk, J.E.; Ende, C.H.M. van den; Dulmen, S. van

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Several cross-sectional studies suggest that psychosocial factors are associated with non-adherence to chronic preventive maintenance medication (CPMM); however, results from longitudinal associations have not yet been systematically summarized. Therefore, the objective of this study was

  19. 77 FR 39344 - Agency Information (Post-9/11 GI Bill Education Longitudinal Study Survey) Activity Under OMB Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-02

    ... AFFAIRS [OMB Control No. 2900-New (Post-9/11 GI Bill Longitudinal Study Survey)] Agency Information (Post-9/11 GI Bill Education Longitudinal Study Survey) Activity Under OMB Review AGENCY: Veterans.... Please refer to ``OMB Control No. 2900-New (Post-9/11 GI Bill Longitudinal Study Survey) in any...

  20. 77 FR 22068 - Proposed Information Collection (Post-9/11 GI Bill Education Longitudinal Study Survey) Activity...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-12

    ... AFFAIRS [OMB Control No. 2900-New (Post-9/11 GI Bill Longitudinal Study Survey)] Proposed Information Collection (Post-9/11 GI Bill Education Longitudinal Study Survey) Activity: Comment Request AGENCY: Veterans... . Please refer to ``OMB Control No. 2900-New (Post-9/11 GI Bill Longitudinal Study Survey)'' in any...

  1. Social mobility and health in the Turin longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardano, Mario; Costa, Giuseppe; Demaria, Moreno

    2004-04-01

    One of the most controversial explanations of class inequalities in health is the health selection hypothesis or drift hypothesis which suggests there is a casual link between the health status of individuals and their chances of social mobility, both inter- and intra-generational. This study tests this hypothesis, and tries to answer three related questions: (a) to what extent does health status influence the chances of intra-generational mobility of individuals? (b) what is the impact on health inequalities of the various kinds of social mobility (both mobility in the labour market and exit from employment)-do they increase or reduce inequalities? (c) to what extent does health-related intra-generational social mobility contribute to the production of health inequalities? The data analysed in this paper were drawn from the records of the Turin Longitudinal Study, which was set up to monitor health inequality of the Turin population by combining census data, population registry records and medical records. Occupational mobility was observed during the decade 1981-1991. To evaluate the impact of the various processes of social mobility on health inequalities, mortality was observed over the period 1991-1999. The study population consists of men and women aged 25-49 at the beginning of mortality follow-up (1991), and registered as resident in Turin at both the 1981 and the 1991 censuses (N = 127,384). Health status was determined by observing hospital admission. For the purpose of the study healthy individuals were those with no hospital admissions during the period 1984-1986, while those admitted were classed as unhealthy. Social mobility in the labour market was measured via an interval data index of upward and downward movements on a scale of social desirability of occupations, designed for the Italian labour force via an empirical study carried out by de Lillo and Schizzerotto (La valutazione sociale delle occupazioni. Una scala di stratificazione occupazionale

  2. Mathematics, Language, and Learning: A Longitudinal Study of Elementary Teachers and Their Mathematics Teaching Practices

    OpenAIRE

    Yeh, Cathery

    2016-01-01

    Elementary school mathematics has gained increased attention in the last few decades. A growing field of research has studied the programmatic design and development of elementary mathematics teaching in teacher education, however, few studies have examined longitudinally the mathematics teaching of novice elementary teachers. Existing longitudinal studies on elementary mathematics teaching have generally focused on the effects of teacher preparation on their beginning practices and have exam...

  3. Selective drop-out in longitudinal studies and non-biased prediction of behaviour disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Wolke, Dieter; Waylen, Andrea; Samara, Muthanna; Steer, Colin; Goodman,Robert; Ford, Tamsin; Lamberts, Koen

    2009-01-01

    Background Participant drop-out occurs in all longitudinal studies, and if systematic, may lead to selection biases and erroneous conclusions being drawn from a study. Aims We investigated whether drop out in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents And Children (ALSPAC) was systematic or random, and if systematic, whether it had an impact on the prediction of disruptive behaviour disorders. Method Teacher reports of disruptive behaviour among currently participating, previously participating a...

  4. A longitudinal study of the effects of television viewing on aggressive and prosocial behaviours

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wiegman, O.; Kuttschreuter, M.; Baarda, B.

    1992-01-01

    A longitudinal study investigated the extent to which children's exposure to aggressive and prosocial television models in drama programmes influences their aggressive and prosocial behaviour. In The Netherlands we did not find significant positive correlations between prosocial behaviour and the

  5. Longitudinal Stability Study for the FACET-II e+ Damping Ring

    CERN Document Server

    Bane, Karl

    2016-01-01

    This is an initial study of the longitudinal, single-bunch stability in the proposed FACET-II e+ damping ring. It is preliminary because many vacuum chamber objects of the ring have not yet been designed.

  6. Effects of Nicotine Dependence and Depressive Symptoms on Smoking Cessation: A Longitudinal Study Among Adolescents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scherphof, C.S.; Eijnden, R.J.J.M. van den; Harakeh, Z.; Raaijmakers, Q.A.W.; Kleinjan, M.; Engels, R.C.M.E.; Vollebergh, W.A.M.

    2013-01-01

    Nicotine dependence has been shown to hamper successful smoking cessation in adolescents. Nicotine dependence and depression are highly comorbid, but the relation between depression and smoking cessation is not yet fully understood. Therefore, the present study examines both the longitudinal

  7. Project-based learning in the teaching-learning process university. A longitudinal study

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Leyla Angélica Sandoval Hamón; Fernando Casani; Jesus Pomeda-Rodriguez; Ricado Olmos Albacete

    2017-01-01

    .... The implementation of this research was carried out by means of a longitudinal study in the subject of the degree of Economics, with the development of the methodology of Project Based Learning...

  8. Executive Functions in Preschool Children With ADHD and DBD : An 18-Month Longitudinal Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schoemaker, Kim; Bunte, Tessa; Espy, Kimberly Andrews; Dekovic, Maja; Matthys, Walter

    2014-01-01

    In this longitudinal study, we examined the stability of the association between executive functions and externalizing behavior problems, and the developmental change of executive functions in a predominately clinically diagnosed preschool sample (N = 200). Inhibition and working memory performance

  9. Vicarious function within the human primary motor cortex? A longitudinal fMRI stroke study

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jaillard, Assia; Martin, Chantal Delon; Garambois, Katia; Lebas, Jean François; Hommel, Marc

    2005-01-01

    .... We examined four patients with one ischaemic stroke limited to M1, and four sex- and age-matched healthy controls in a temporally balanced prospective longitudinal fMRI study over three sessions...

  10. A Longitudinal Multilevel Study of Individual Characteristics and Classroom Norms in Explaining Bullying Behaviors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sentse, Miranda; Veenstra, Rene; Kiuru, Noona; Salmivalli, Christina

    2015-01-01

    This three-wave longitudinal study was set out to examine the interplay between individual characteristics (social standing in the classroom) and descriptive and injunctive classroom norms (behavior and attitudes, respectively) in explaining subsequent bullying behavior, defined as initiating, assis

  11. A Longitudinal Study of Objectively Measured Built Environment as Determinant of Physical Activity in Young Adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schipperijn, Jasper; Ried-Larsen, Mathias; Nielsen, Merete S;

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: This longitudinal study aimed to examine if a Moveability Index (MI), based on objectively measured built environment characteristics, was a determinant for objectively measured physical activity (PA) among young adults. METHOD: Data collected from 177 persons participating...

  12. Executive Functions in Preschool Children With ADHD and DBD : An 18-Month Longitudinal Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schoemaker, Kim; Bunte, Tessa; Espy, Kimberly Andrews; Dekovic, Maja; Matthys, Walter

    2014-01-01

    In this longitudinal study, we examined the stability of the association between executive functions and externalizing behavior problems, and the developmental change of executive functions in a predominately clinically diagnosed preschool sample (N = 200). Inhibition and working memory performance

  13. A Longitudinal Study of the Effects of Family Background Factors on Mathematics Achievements Using Quantile Regression

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xi-zhi Wu; Mao-zai Tian

    2008-01-01

    Quantile regression is gradually emerging as a powerful tool for estimating models of conditional quantile functions, and therefore research in this area has vastly increased in the past two decades. This paper, with the quantile regression technique, is the first comprehensive longitudinal study on mathematics participation data collected in Alberta, Canada. The major advantage of longitudinal study is its capability to separate the so-called cohort and age effects in the context of population studies. One aim of this paper is to study whether the family background factors alter performance on the mathematical achievement of the strongest students in the same way as that of weaker students based on the large longitudinal sample of 2000,2001 and 2002 mathematics participation longitudinal data set. The interesting findings suggest that there may be differential family background factor effects at different points in the mathematical achievement conditional distribution.

  14. Effects of multidisciplinary teamwork on lead times and patient flow in the emergency department: a longitudinal interventional cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muntlin Athlin, Asa; von Thiele Schwarz, Ulrica; Farrohknia, Nasim

    2013-11-01

    Long waiting times for emergency care are claimed to be caused by overcrowded emergency departments and non-effective working routines. Teamwork has been suggested as a promising solution to these issues. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of teamwork in a Swedish emergency department on lead times and patient flow. The study was set in an emergency department of a university hospital where teamwork, a multi-professional team responsible for the whole care process for a group of patients, was introduced. The study has a longitudinal non-randomized intervention study design. Data were collected for five two-week periods during a period of 1.5 years. The first part of the data collection used an ABAB design whereby standard procedure (A) was altered weekly with teamwork (B). Then, three follow-ups were conducted. At last follow-up, teamwork was permanently implemented. The outcome measures were: number of patients handled within teamwork time, time to physician, total visit time and number of patients handled within the 4-hour target. A total of 1,838 patient visits were studied. The effect on lead times was only evident at the last follow-up. Findings showed that the number of patients handled within teamwork time was almost equal between the different study periods. At the last follow-up, the median time to physician was significantly decreased by 11 minutes (p = 0.0005) compared to the control phase and the total visit time was significantly shorter at last follow-up compared to control phase (p = Teamwork seems to contribute to the quality improvement of emergency care in terms of small but significant decreases in lead times. However, although efficient work processes such as teamwork are necessary to ensure safe patient care, it is likely not sufficient for bringing about larger decreases in lead times or for meeting the 4-hour target in the emergency department.

  15. Trajectories of Mental Health over 16 Years amongst Young Adult Women: The Australian Longitudinal Study on Women's Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holden, Libby; Ware, Robert S.; Lee, Christina

    2016-01-01

    This article used data from 5,171 young women participating in the Australian Longitudinal Study on Women's Health, a nationally representative longitudinal cohort study, to identify longitudinal trajectory patterns of mental health across 6 surveys over 16 years of early adulthood, from age 18-23 to age 34-39. In addition, we identified both…

  16. Measuring medial longitudinal arch deformation during gait. A reliability study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bencke, Jesper; Christiansen, Ditte; Jensen, Anne Kathrine Bendrup;

    2012-01-01

    during gait and to compare this method with a static measure and a 2D dynamic method. Fifty-two feet (26 healthy male participants) were tested twice 4-9 days apart in a biomechanical gait analysis laboratory using a 3D three-marker foot model, a 2D video-based model for the measurement of MLAD during...... and showed that ND obtained during quiet standing could not predict the MLAD during gait. The 3D method, or alternatively the 2D method, may be used in clinical settings as reliable methods for easy estimation of the foot longitudinal stability....

  17. Carotid Artery Longitudinal Displacement, Cardiovascular Disease and Risk Factors: The Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam D Gepner

    Full Text Available Associations between carotid artery longitudinal displacement, cardiovascular disease risk factors, and events were evaluated in a large, multi-ethnic cohort.A novel, reproducible protocol was developed for measuring right common carotid artery longitudinal displacement using ultrasound speckle-tracking. Total longitudinal displacement was measured in 389 randomly selected participants from the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis that were free of cardiovascular disease at baseline. Univariate analyses and Pearson Correlations were used to define relationships between longitudinal displacement with traditional cardiovascular risk factors and traditional measures of arterial stiffness. Hazard ratios of longitudinal displacement for cardiovascular disease and coronary heart disease events were compared using Cox proportional hazards models.Participants were a mean (standard deviation 59.0 (8.7 years old, 48% female, 39% White, 26% Black, 22% Hispanic, and 14% Chinese. They had 19 (4.9% cardiovascular disease and 14 (3.6% coronary heart disease events over a mean 9.5 years of follow-up. Less longitudinal displacement was associated with Chinese (β = -0.11, p = 0.02 compared to White race/ethnicity and greater longitudinal displacement was associated with higher carotid intima-media thickness (β = 0.26, p = 0.004. Longitudinal displacement was not associated with other cardiovascular disease risk factors or markers of arterial stiffness. After adjustment for age and sex, and heart rate, Chinese race/ethnicity (β = -0.10, p = 0.04 and carotid intima-media thickness (β = 0.30 p = 0.003 were associated independently with longitudinal displacement. Longitudinal displacement predicted coronary heart disease (Hazard ratio [HR] 3.3, 95% Confidence intervals [CI] 0.96-11.14, p = 0.06 and cardiovascular disease (HR 2.1, 95% CI 0.6-7.3, p = 0.23 events.Less longitudinal displacement is associated with Chinese ethnicity and greater carotid artery

  18. Development of the perceptual span in reading: A longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sperlich, Anja; Meixner, Johannes; Laubrock, Jochen

    2016-06-01

    The perceptual span is a standard measure of parafoveal processing, which is considered highly important for efficient reading. Is the perceptual span a stable indicator of reading performance? What drives its development? Do initially slower and faster readers converge or diverge over development? Here we present the first longitudinal data on the development of the perceptual span in elementary school children. Using the moving window technique, eye movements of 127 German children in three age groups (Grades 1, 2, and 3 in Year 1) were recorded at two time points (T1 and T2) 1 year apart. Introducing a new measure of the perceptual span, nonlinear mixed-effects modeling was used to separate window size effects from asymptotic reading performance. Cross-sectional differences were well replicated longitudinally. Asymptotic reading rate increased monotonously with grade, but in a decelerating fashion. A significant change in the perceptual span was observed only between Grades 2 and 3. Together with results from a cross-lagged panel model, this suggests that the perceptual span increases as a consequence of relatively well-established word reading. Stabilities of observed and predicted reading rates were high after Grade 1, whereas the perceptual span was only moderately stable for all grades. Comparing faster and slower readers as assessed at T1, in general, a pattern of stable between-group differences emerged rather than a compensatory pattern; second and third graders even showed a Matthew effect in reading rate and the perceptual span, respectively.

  19. Use of missing data methods in longitudinal studies: the persistence of bad practices in developmental psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jelicić, Helena; Phelps, Erin; Lerner, Richard M

    2009-07-01

    Developmental science rests on describing, explaining, and optimizing intraindividual changes and, hence, empirically requires longitudinal research. Problems of missing data arise in most longitudinal studies, thus creating challenges for interpreting the substance and structure of intraindividual change. Using a sample of reports of longitudinal studies obtained from three flagship developmental journals-Child Development, Developmental Psychology, and Journal of Research on Adolescence-we examined the number of longitudinal studies reporting missing data and the missing data techniques used. Of the 100 longitudinal studies sampled, 57 either reported having missing data or had discrepancies in sample sizes reported for different analyses. The majority of these studies (82%) used missing data techniques that are statistically problematic (either listwise deletion or pairwise deletion) and not among the methods recommended by statisticians (i.e., the direct maximum likelihood method and the multiple imputation method). Implications of these results for developmental theory and application, and the need for understanding the consequences of using statistically inappropriate missing data techniques with actual longitudinal data sets, are discussed.

  20. Motivational interview with alcoholics: a longitudinal study abstract / A entrevista motivacional com alcoolistas: um estudo longitudinal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margareth da Silva Oliveira

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This was a follow up study with alcoholic patients participating in a clinical trial with the use of Motivational Interviewing. 152 subjects were randomly allocated into two groups: the intervention group (IG, which was submitted to Motivational Interviewing, and the control group (CG, submitted to standard treatment. Data were collected with a structured interview and FORM-90. 152 subjects were assessed at the first evaluation (T1, approximately 4 years ago. From 89 subjects who were assessed at follow-up 1 (T2, 59 remained abstinent (37 IG and 22 CG and 30 had relapsed (13 IG and CG. 46 subjects returned for the final evaluation, at follow-up 2 (T3. 29 of them had remained abstinent (20 IG and 10 CG and 17 had relapsed (13 IG and 4CG. Data show that subjects submitted to Motivational Interviewing had better outcomes than the control group in both abstinence maintenance and follow-up attendance.

  1. Loss and gain cycles? A longitudinal study about burnout, engagement and self-efficacy

    OpenAIRE

    Susana Llorens-Gumbau; Marisa Salanova-Soria

    2014-01-01

    The present longitudinal study (two waves), conducted on a population of 274 secondary-school teachers, expands on previous research on burnout and work engagement. Accordingly, the effect of organizational factors (obstacles, facilitators) as well as personal resources (self-efficacy) on burnout and engagement is tested longitudinally following the Social Cognitive Theory. More specifically, we test the loss and gain cycles, and reciprocal relationships concerning burnout, engagement, and se...

  2. An experimental study of the longitudinal aerodynamic and static stability characteristics of hang gliders

    OpenAIRE

    Kilkenny, E. A.

    1986-01-01

    A mobile experimental test facility has been developed to carry out the aerodynamic evaluation of hang glider wings normally performed in a wind tunnel. Longitudinal aerodynamic data obtained using this facility is presented for three modern hang glider wings, a Silhouette, Demon 175 and Magic 166, together with surface flow patterns for the latter two wings. The longitudinal stability criterion are studied and alternatives established, equivalent to the stick fixed an...

  3. A entrevista motivacional com alcoolistas: um estudo longitudinal Motivational interview with alcoholics: a longitudinal study abstract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margareth da Silva Oliveira

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Este foi um estudo de seguimento com pacientes alcoolistas que participaram de um ensaio clínico em que foi empregada Entrevista Motivacional. A amostra constituiu-se de 152 sujeitos alocados randomicamente em dois grupos: grupo de intervenção submetido à Entrevista Motivacional (GI, e um grupo controle submetido a tratamento padrão (GC. Os instrumentos utilizados foram: entrevista estruturada e o FORM-90. Na avaliação inicial (T1, realizada entre os anos de 1999 e 2001, foram avaliados 152 sujeitos; para o follow-up 1, na segunda avaliação (T2, foram avaliados 89 sujeitos, dos quais 59 permaneciam abstinentes (37GI e 22GC e 30 haviam recaído (13GE e 17GC; já para o follow-up 2, na avaliação final (T3 - entre os anos de 2003 e 2005, regressaram 46 sujeitos, dos quais 29 mantinham-se abstinentes (20GI e 10GC e 17 recaíram (13GI e 4GC. Esses dados demonstram que os sujeitos submetidos à Entrevista Motivacional tiveram mais êxito na manutenção da abstinência e compareceram em maior número aos follow-up, demonstrando melhores resultados comparados com o grupo controle.This was a follow up study with alcoholic patients participating in a clinical trial with the use of Motivational Interviewing. 152 subjects were randomly allocated into two groups: the intervention group (IG, which was submitted to Motivational Interviewing, and the control group (CG, submitted to standard treatment. Data were collected with a structured interview and FORM-90. 152 subjects were assessed at the first evaluation (T1, approximately 4 years ago. From 89 subjects who were assessed at follow-up 1 (T2, 59 remained abstinent (37 IG and 22 CG and 30 had relapsed (13 IG and CG. 46 subjects returned for the final evaluation, at follow-up 2 (T3. 29 of them had remained abstinent (20 IG and 10 CG and 17 had relapsed (13 IG and 4CG. Data show that subjects submitted to Motivational Interviewing had better outcomes than the control group in both abstinence

  4. A longitudinal study of families with technology-dependent children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toly, Valerie Boebel; Musil, Carol M; Carl, John C

    2012-02-01

    Few researchers have longitudinally examined families caring for technology-dependent children at home. We tested a theoretically and empirically based conceptual model by examining family functioning and normalization in 82 mothers (female primary caregivers) twice over 12 months. Time 1 and Time 2 cross-sectional findings were consistent; the only predictor of family functioning was mothers' depressive symptoms. Contrary to the proposed model, normalization, caregiving duration, and home nursing hours were not directly related to family functioning. Baseline family functioning significantly predicted future family functioning. Also, mothers whose children were no longer technology-dependent at Time 2 reported significant improvements in family functioning and normalization. An intervention to address high levels of depressive symptoms of these mothers is essential to optimizing family functioning.

  5. Implications of nonrandom seed abscission and global stilling for migration of wind-dispersed plant species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Sally E; Katul, Gabriel G

    2013-06-01

    Migration of plant populations is a potential survival response to climate change that depends critically on seed dispersal. Biological and physical factors determine dispersal and migration of wind-dispersed species. Recent field and wind tunnel studies demonstrate biological adaptations that bias seed release toward conditions of higher wind velocity, promoting longer dispersal distances and faster migration. However, another suite of international studies also recently highlighted a global decrease in near-surface wind speeds, or 'global stilling'. This study assessed the implications of both factors on potential plant population migration rates, using a mechanistic modeling framework. Nonrandom abscission was investigated using models of three seed release mechanisms: (i) a simple drag model; (ii) a seed deflection model; and (iii) a 'wear and tear' model. The models generated a single functional relationship between the frequency of seed release and statistics of the near-surface wind environment, independent of the abscission mechanism. An Inertial-Particle, Coupled Eulerian-Lagrangian Closure model (IP-CELC) was used to investigate abscission effects on seed dispersal kernels and plant population migration rates under contemporary and potential future wind conditions (based on reported global stilling trends). The results confirm that nonrandom seed abscission increased dispersal distances, particularly for light seeds. The increases were mitigated by two physical feedbacks: (i) although nonrandom abscission increased the initial acceleration of seeds from rest, the sensitivity of the seed dispersal to this initial condition declined as the wind speed increased; and (ii) while nonrandom abscission increased the mean dispersal length, it reduced the kurtosis of seasonal dispersal kernels, and thus the chance of long-distance dispersal. Wind stilling greatly reduced the modeled migration rates under biased seed release conditions. Thus, species that require

  6. A longitudinal study of age-related changes in intraocular pressure: the Kangbuk Samsung Health Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Di; Kim, Myung Hun; Pastor-Barriuso, Roberto; Chang, Yoosoo; Ryu, Seungho; Zhang, Yiyi; Rampal, Sanjay; Shin, Hocheol; Kim, Joon Mo; Friedman, David S; Guallar, Eliseo; Cho, Juhee

    2014-09-02

    To examine the longitudinal association between age and intraocular pressure (IOP) in a large sample of Korean men and women. We conducted a prospective cohort study of 274,064 young and middle-aged Korean adults with normal fundoscopic findings, following them from January 1, 2002, to February 28, 2010. Health exams were scheduled annually or biennially. At each visit, IOP was measured in both eyes using automated noncontact tonometers. The longitudinal change in IOP with age was evaluated using three-level mixed models for longitudinal paired-eye data, accounting for correlations between paired eyes and repeated measurements over time. In fully adjusted models, the average longitudinal change in IOP per 1-year increase in age was -0.065 mm Hg (95% confidence interval [CI] -0.068 to -0.063), with marked sex differences (P < 0.001). In men, the average annual IOP change was -0.093 mm Hg (95% CI -0.096 to -0.091) throughout follow-up. In women, the average annual IOP change was -0.006 mm Hg (95% CI -0.010 to -0.003), with a relatively flat association in the age range of 30 to 59 years and more marked annual decreases at younger and older ages. Intraocular pressure was inversely associated with age in a large cohort of Korean adults attending health-screening visits. For men, this inverse association was observed throughout the entire age range, while for women it was evident only in younger (<30 years of age) and older (≥60 years of age) women, with no association in women aged 30 to 59. Further research is needed to better understand the underlying mechanisms and to reconsider cutoffs for defining high IOP by age and sex groups in Asian populations. Copyright 2014 The Association for Research in Vision and Ophthalmology, Inc.

  7. What is Learned from Longitudinal Studies of Advertising and Youth Drinking and Smoking? A Critical Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jon P. Nelson

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper assesses the methodology employed in longitudinal studies of advertising and youth drinking and smoking behaviors. These studies often are given a causal interpretation in the psychology and public health literatures. Four issues are examined from the perspective of econometrics. First, specification and validation of empirical models. Second, empirical issues associated with measures of advertising receptivity and exposure. Third, potential endogeneity of receptivity and exposure variables. Fourth, sample selection bias in baseline and follow-up surveys. Longitudinal studies reviewed include 20 studies of youth drinking and 26 studies of youth smoking. Substantial shortcomings are found in the studies, which preclude a causal interpretation.

  8. Nonrandom Assignment in ANCOVA: The Alternate Ranks Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalton, Starrett; Overall, John E.

    1977-01-01

    A specific form of nonrandom assignment to treatment groups, the "alternate ranks" design, was investigated. This design eliminates the possibility of a correlation between the covariate and the treatment, and rules out experimenter bias in assignment of subjects to groups. (Editor)

  9. The Nonrandom Brain: Efficiency, Economy, and Complex Dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olaf eSporns

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Modern anatomical tracing and imaging techniques are beginning to reveal the structural anatomy of neural circuits at small and large scales in unprecedented detail. When examined with analytic tools from graph theory and network science, neural connectivity exhibits highly nonrandom features, including high clustering and short path length, as well as modules and highly central hub nodes. These characteristic topological features of neural connections shape nonrandom dynamic interactions that occur during spontaneous activity or in response to external stimulation. Disturbances of connectivity and thus of neural dynamics are thought to underlie a number of disease states of the brain, and some evidence suggests that degraded functional performance of brain networks may be the outcome of a process of randomization affecting their nodes and edges. This article provides a survey of the nonrandom structure of neural connectivity, primarily at the large-scale of regions and pathways in the mammalian cerebral cortex. In addition, we will discuss how nonrandom connections can give rise to differentiated and complex patterns of dynamics and information flow. Finally, we will explore the idea that at least some disorders of the nervous system are associated with increased randomness of neural connections.

  10. Frugivores bias seed-adult tree associations through nonrandom seed dispersal: a phylogenetic approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razafindratsima, Onja H; Dunham, Amy E

    2016-08-01

    Frugivores are the main seed dispersers in many ecosystems, such that behaviorally driven, nonrandom patterns of seed dispersal are a common process; but patterns are poorly understood. Characterizing these patterns may be essential for understanding spatial organization of fruiting trees and drivers of seed-dispersal limitation in biodiverse forests. To address this, we studied resulting spatial associations between dispersed seeds and adult tree neighbors in a diverse rainforest in Madagascar, using a temporal and phylogenetic approach. Data show that by using fruiting trees as seed-dispersal foci, frugivores bias seed dispersal under conspecific adults and under heterospecific trees that share dispersers and fruiting time with the dispersed species. Frugivore-mediated seed dispersal also resulted in nonrandom phylogenetic associations of dispersed seeds with their nearest adult neighbors, in nine out of the 16 months of our study. However, these nonrandom phylogenetic associations fluctuated unpredictably over time, ranging from clustered to overdispersed. The spatial and phylogenetic template of seed dispersal did not translate to similar patterns of association in adult tree neighborhoods, suggesting the importance of post-dispersal processes in structuring plant communities. Results suggest that frugivore-mediated seed dispersal is important for structuring early stages of plant-plant associations, setting the template for post-dispersal processes that influence ultimate patterns of plant recruitment. Importantly, if biased patterns of dispersal are common in other systems, frugivores may promote tree coexistence in biodiverse forests by limiting the frequency and diversity of heterospecific interactions of seeds they disperse.

  11. Forbidden fruit? A longitudinal study of Christianity, sex, and marriage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, Willy

    2014-01-01

    Does religion still play a role in explorations of romance and sexuality among adolescents and young adults in a secular society such as Norway? Does it influence the type of living arrangements chosen? A population-based sample (n = 2,454) was followed longitudinally from their midteens to their late 20s using survey and register data. Christian involvement in teenage years was associated with subsequent less "precoital" exploration, less masturbation, delayed sexual intercourse, and a smaller number of sex partners. However, there were no associations with prevalence of same-sex experiences. Christians also postponed initiating romantic relationships and chose marriage over cohabitation. Associations were reduced after controlling for confounding factors but remained significant. Some associations (for example, the form of residential union chosen) were present only in the most "active" Christians. In other areas, such as "precoital explorations" and the age at which intercourse is initiated, Christian norms seem to play a role in much broader segments of the population. The findings indicate that Christianity may continue to influence young Norwegians' experiences of sexuality and cohabitation more than has been expected.

  12. Study of fatigue behavior of longitudinal welded pipes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simion, P.; Dia, V.; Istrate, B.; Hrituleac, G.; Hrituleac, I.; Munteanu, C.

    2016-08-01

    During transport and storage of the various fluids, welded pipes are subjected to cyclic loading due to pressure fluctuations that often exceed the prescribed values for normal operation. These cyclic loading can significantly reduce the life of the pipes; as a result the design should be based on the fatigue strength not only on static resistance. In general the fatigue strength of pipes is dependent by strength, pipe geometry and surface quality. In case of the electric longitudinal welded pipes, the fatigue strength is significantly limited by concentration of residual stress and the size of existing defects in the weld seam. This paper presents the fatigue behaviour of the electric welded pipes by high frequency, under conditions that simulate real operating conditions pipes. Fatigue testing was performed on welded pipes made of micro alloyed carbon steels. Some of these pipes were previously subjected to a heat treatment of normalization, in order to also determine the influence of heat treatment on the fatigue strength of welded pipes. To determine and correlate the different factors affecting the fatigue strength, welded pipes were also subjected to various tests: tensile tests, impact tests, measurement of micro hardness, microstructural analysis by optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy.

  13. Gender representation in the vision sciences: A longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Emily A; Radonjic, Ana

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the current status and historical trends of gender representation within a research field is an important component of fostering a diverse and inclusive scientific community. Here, we report on the gender representation of a large sample of the vision science research community--the attendees of the Annual Meeting of the Vision Sciences Society (VSS). Our analysis shows that the majority of scientists at all career levels in our sample are male. This imbalance is most pronounced for the senior scientists, whereas predoctoral students are nearly balanced between the genders. Historically, the gender imbalance was larger than it is at present, and it has followed a slow-but-steady trend toward gender parity over the past decade. A longitudinal analysis based on tracking individual attendees shows a larger dropout rate for female than male predoctoral trainees. However, among the trainees who continue in the vision science field after graduate school, evidence suggests that career advancement is quite similar between the genders. In an additional analysis, we found that the VSS Young Investigator awardees and the abstract review committee members reflect substantial gender imbalances, suggesting that these recognitions have yet to catch up with the greater gender balance of the rising generation of junior vision scientists. We hope that this report will encourage awareness of issues of diversity in the scientific community and further promote the development of a research field in which all talented scientists are supported to succeed.

  14. A Longitudinal Study of Motivation in Foreign and Second Language Learning Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ordem, Eser

    2017-01-01

    Although motivation has been one of the most commonly studied subjects in second and foreign language learning in recent decades, it still remains an enigma for learners and teachers. This longitudinal study aimed to follow a student (N = 1) studying German in both second and foreign language environment for three years. The study was descriptive,…

  15. Psychosocial predictors of non-adherence to chronic medication: systematic review of longitudinal studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwikker, Hanneke E; van den Bemt, Bart J; Vriezekolk, Johanna E; van den Ende, Cornelia H; van Dulmen, Sandra

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Several cross-sectional studies suggest that psychosocial factors are associated with non-adherence to chronic preventive maintenance medication (CPMM); however, results from longitudinal associations have not yet been systematically summarized. Therefore, the objective of this study was to systematically synthesize evidence of longitudinal associations between psychosocial predictors and CPMM non-adherence. Materials and methods PUBMED, EMBASE, CINAHL, and PsychINFO databases were searched for studies meeting our inclusion criteria. The reference lists and the ISI Web of Knowledge of the included studies were checked. Studies were included if they had an English abstract, involved adult populations using CPMM living in Western countries, and if they investigated associations between psychosocial predictors and medication non-adherence using longitudinal designs. Data were extracted according to a literature-based extraction form. Study quality was independently judged by two researchers using a framework comprising six bias domains. Studies were considered to be of high quality if ≥four domains were free of bias. Psychosocial predictors for non-adherence were categorized into five pre-defined categories: beliefs/cognitions; coping styles; social influences and social support; personality traits; and psychosocial well-being. A qualitative best evidence synthesis was performed to synthesize evidence of longitudinal associations between psychosocial predictors and CPMM non-adherence. Results Of 4,732 initially-identified studies, 30 (low-quality) studies were included in the systematic review. The qualitative best evidence synthesis demonstrated limited evidence for absence of a longitudinal association between CPMM non-adherence and the psychosocial categories. The strength of evidence for the review’s findings is limited by the low quality of included studies. Conclusion The results do not provide psychosocial targets for the development of new

  16. Selective drop-out in longitudinal studies and non-biased prediction of behaviour disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Wolke, Dieter; Waylen , Andrea E.; Samara, Muthanna; Steer, Colin; Goodman,Robert; Ford, Tamsin; Lamberts, Koen

    2009-01-01

    Background\\ud \\ud Participant drop-out occurs in all longitudinal studies, and if systematic, may lead to selection biases and erroneous conclusions being drawn from a study.\\ud \\ud Aims\\ud \\ud We investigated whether drop out in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents And Children (ALSPAC) was systematic or random, and if systematic, whether it had an impact on the prediction of disruptive behaviour disorders.\\ud \\ud Method\\ud \\ud Teacher reports of disruptive behaviour among currently partic...

  17. Oclusão traqueal para fetos com hérnia diafragmática esquerda grave isolada: um estudo experimental controlado não randomizado Tracheal occlusion for fetuses with severe isolated left-sided diaphragmatic hernia: a nonrandomized controlled experimental study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cleisson Fábio Andrioli Peralta

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Comparar a sobrevida pós-natal de fetos com hérnia diafragmática congênita esquerda grave isolada, os quais foram submetidos à oclusão traqueal, com a de controles não randomizados contemporâneos. MÉTODOS: Estudo experimental não randomizado e controlado, conduzido de abril de 2007 a setembro de 2011. Fetos portadores de hérnia diafragmática congênita esquerda isolada com herniação hepática e relação pulmão/cabeça PURPOSE: To compare postnatal survival to hospital discharge of fetuses with severe isolated left-sided congenital diaphragmatic hernia, who underwent tracheal occlusion, with that of nonrandomized contemporaneous controls. METHODS: Experimental nonrandomized controlled study, performed from April 2007 to September 2011. Fetuses with severe isolated left-sided congenital diaphragmatic hernia with liver herniation into the chest and lung area-to-head circumference ratio <1.0, who underwent tracheal occlusion (study group or expectant management (non-randomized contemporaneous controls, were compared in terms of lung area-to-head circumference ratio and observed/expected lung area-to-head circumference ratio (observed/expected lung area-to-head circumference ratio at the time of diagnosis, gestational age at birth, and survival to hospital discharge. Modifications in lung area-to-head circumference ratio and o/e lung area-to-head circumference ratio after tracheal occlusion were also analyzed. Fisher's exact test, Mann-Whitney's or Wilcoxon's tests were used for the comparisons. RESULTS: There were no significant differences between the Study Group (TO=28 and Controls (n=13 in terms of the lung area-to-head circumference ratio (p=0.709 and the observed/expected lung area-to-head circumference ratio (p=0.5 at the time of diagnosis and gestational age at birth (p=0.146. The survival to hospital discharge was higher (p=0.012 in the tracheal occlusion group (10/28=35.7% than in controls (0/13=0.0%. There was a

  18. Which emotional regulatory strategy makes Chinese adolescents happier? A longitudinal study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sang, B.; Deng, X.; Luan, Z.

    2014-01-01

    Growing interest in emotion regulation is reflected in the studies of cognitive and social development. However, the extant studies mainly highlight how emotion regulation develops based on a western value system. This study utilised a longitudinal design to examine the development of emotion regula

  19. A Longitudinal Investigation into L2 Learners' Cognitive Processes during Study Abroad

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Wei

    2014-01-01

    The present study longitudinally investigates the cognitive processes of advanced L2 learners engaged in a multimedia task that elicited status-equal and status-unequal refusals in English during their study abroad. Data were collected three times by retrospective verbal report from 20 Chinese learners who were studying abroad over the course of…

  20. A Longitudinal Investigation into L2 Learners' Cognitive Processes during Study Abroad

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Wei

    2014-01-01

    The present study longitudinally investigates the cognitive processes of advanced L2 learners engaged in a multimedia task that elicited status-equal and status-unequal refusals in English during their study abroad. Data were collected three times by retrospective verbal report from 20 Chinese learners who were studying abroad over the course of…

  1. Psychosocial Determinants of Attrition in a Longitudinal Study of Tobacco Use in Youth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ann Post

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available To gain knowledge on psychosocial characteristics that predict the propensity of participation in longitudinal studies, attrition was analysed in a cohort of 3020 adolescents participating in the baseline survey of a longitudinal study with repeated followup focusing on adolescents’ tobacco use. During the followup surveys, the proportion of responders was constantly at or above 90%. There were 941 adolescents (31.2% who failed to participate in at least one of the six followup surveys. Boys had a fifty percent increased risk of nonparticipation compared with girls. Adolescents in families with experience of divorce, unemployment, and change of residence had a higher risk of nonparticipation. An increasing number of stressful life events during the previous year, uptake of tobacco use, number of friends, perceived performance at school, truancy, and alcohol use during the last term also independently associated with nonparticipation. Diverse psychosocial characteristics are independently associated with nonparticipation of youths in longitudinal studies.

  2. Longitudinal changes of cardiac structure and function in CKD (CASCADE study).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Qi-Zhe; Lu, Xiu-Zhang; Lu, Ye; Wang, Angela Yee-Moon

    2014-07-01

    Little is known regarding the natural longitudinal changes in cardiac structure and function in CKD. We hypothesized that baseline CKD stage is associated with progressive worsening in cardiac structure and function. We conducted a prospective longitudinal study, recruiting 300 patients with stages 3-5 CKD from a major regional tertiary center and university teaching hospital in Hong Kong. Baseline CKD stages were studied in relation to natural longitudinal changes in echocardiographic and tissue Doppler imaging-derived parameters. Over 1 year, the prevalence of left ventricular (LV) hypertrophy increased from 40.3% to 48.9%, median left atrial volume index increased 4.8 (interquartile range [IQR], 2.1, 7.7) ml/m(2) (Pcardiac structure and function and predicted greater longitudinal progression in LV mass index (odds ratio [OR], 3.02; 95% confidence interval [95% CI], 1.39 to 6.58), volume index (OR, 2.58; 95% CI, 1.18 to 5.62), and left atrial volume index (OR, 2.61; 95% CI, 1.20 to 5.69) and worse diastolic dysfunction grade (OR, 3.17; 95% CI, 1.16 to 8.69) compared with stage 3a in the fully adjusted analysis. In conclusion, more advanced CKD at baseline may be associated with larger longitudinal increases in LV mass and volume and greater deterioration in diastolic function.

  3. Flowing together: a longitudinal study of collective efficacy and collective flow among workgroups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salanova, Marisa; Rodríguez-Sánchez, Alma M; Schaufeli, Wilmar B; Cifre, Eva

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study is to extend the Channel Model of Flow (Csikszentmihalyi, 1975, 1990) at the collective level (workgroups) by including collective efficacy beliefs as a predictor of collective flow based on the Social Cognitive Theory (Bandura, 1997, 2001). A two-wave longitudinal lab study was conducted with 250 participants working in 52 small groups. Longitudinal results from Structural Equation Modeling with data aggregated at the group level showed, as expected, that collective efficacy beliefs predict collective flow over time, both being related reciprocally. Findings and their theoretical and practical implications in the light of Social Cognitive Theory are discussed.

  4. Estimates of External Validity Bias When Impact Evaluations Select Sites Nonrandomly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Stephen H.; Olsen, Robert B.; Orr, Larry L.; Stuart, Elizabeth A.

    2016-01-01

    Evaluations of educational programs or interventions are typically conducted in nonrandomly selected samples of schools or districts. Recent research has shown that nonrandom site selection can yield biased impact estimates. To estimate the external validity bias from nonrandom site selection, we combine lists of school districts that were…

  5. Chronic Illness and Depressive Symptoms among Chinese Older Adults: A Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Kee-Lee; Chi, Iris

    2002-01-01

    Depression is quite common among the elderly members of Hong Kong Chinese society. This study examined the impact of a series of chronic illnesses on change in depressive symptoms among the older people. The respondents were 260 people aged 70 years or older from a longitudinal study of a representative community sample of the elderly population…

  6. Longitudinal Case Studies of the Information Search Process of Users in Libraries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhlthau, Carol Collier

    1988-01-01

    Presents longitudinal case studies of four students in high school and after completion of college to compare their perceptions of the information search process in libraries. Library user studies are discussed, a model of the search process is described, and implications for the design of information systems are suggested. (36 references) (LRW)

  7. A Longitudinal Study of the Determinants and Outcomes of Career Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carless, Sally A.; Arnup, Jessica L.

    2011-01-01

    The present longitudinal field study investigated the antecedents and consequences of an actual career change. The framework for this study was Rhodes and Doering's (1983) model of career change. We examined the effect of individual and organisational characteristics on career change behaviour. The individual characteristics were: traits (Openness…

  8. Emotional and Behavioural Problems in the Context of Cyberbullying: A Longitudinal Study among German Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultze-Krumbholz, Anja; Jakel, Anne; Schultze, Martin; Scheithauer, Herbert

    2012-01-01

    Although many studies have reported on internalising and externalising problems related to cyberbullying roles, there is a lack of longitudinal research in this area. This study reports (1) cross-sectional data from 412 German middle-school students to examine differences between cyberbullies, cybervictims and cyberbully-victims compared to…

  9. Exposure to Intimate Partner Violence, Peer Relations, and Risk for Internalizing Behaviors: A Prospective Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camacho, Kathleen; Ehrensaft, Miriam K.; Cohen, Patricia

    2012-01-01

    The present study examines the quality of peer relations as a mediator between exposure to IPV (intimate partner violence) and internalizing behaviors in a sample of 129 preadolescents and adolescents (ages 10-18), who were interviewed via telephone as part of a multigenerational, prospective, longitudinal study. Relational victimization is also…

  10. Information Behavior of People Diagnosed with a Chronic Serious Health Condition: A Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    St. Jean, Beth Lenore

    2012-01-01

    This study consisted of a longitudinal investigation into the information behavior of people diagnosed with a particular chronic serious health condition, type 2 diabetes. This study sought to identify the factors that motivate or impede the information seeking and use of these individuals and to discover how these factors and their influences…

  11. Early conduct problems, school achievement and later crime: findings from a 30-year longitudinal study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Ida Skytte; Fergusson, David; Horwood, John L.

    2012-01-01

    This study used dato from a 30-year longitudinal study to esamine the associations between early conduct problems, school achievement and later crime. The analysis showed that, even following extensive adjustment for confounding, both early conduct problems and later educational achievement made...

  12. Attention Problems in Very Preterm Children from Childhood to Adulthood: The Bavarian Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breeman, Linda D.; Jaekel, Julia; Baumann, Nicole; Bartmann, Peter; Wolke, Dieter

    2016-01-01

    Background: Very preterm (VP; gestational age attention problems in childhood and adulthood. The stability of these problems into adulthood is not known. Methods: The Bavarian Longitudinal Study is a prospective cohort study that followed 260 VP/VLBW and 229 term-born…

  13. Social Dominance in Romantic Relationships: A Prospective Longitudinal Study of Non-Verbal Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostrov, Jamie M.; Collins, W. Andrew

    2007-01-01

    The study of social dominance has a long tradition within the peer relationships literature, but rarely has the topic been investigated observationally and longitudinally within other salient close relationships. The present study investigated the role of experiences in social relationships and adjustment indices in childhood in predicting later…

  14. Substance use by adolescents of the USA National Longitudinal Lesbian Family Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goldberg, N.G.; Bos, H.M.W.; Gartrell, N.

    2011-01-01

    Although studies show that adolescents with same-sex parents experience homophobic discrimination, little is known about associations between stigmatization and substance use in this population. The 17-year-old offspring of lesbian parents from the largest, longest-running, longitudinal study of

  15. Delayed initiation of breast development in girls with higher prenatal dioxin exposure: A longitudinal cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leijs, M.M.; Koppe, J.G.; Olie, K.; van Aalderen, W.M.C.; de Voogt, P.; Vulsma, T.; Westra, M.; ten Tusscher, G.W.

    2008-01-01

    Objectives: While many studies have assessed the health impacts of PCDD/Fs and PCBs on animals and humans, long-term consequences for especially adolescents, have not (yet) been well documented. This is certainly also true for the effects of PBDE exposure. As part of a longitudinal cohort study, now

  16. Empathy and Extracurricular Involvement in Emerging Adulthood: Findings from a Longitudinal Study of Undergraduate College Males

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson-Flege, Matthew; Thompson, Martie P.

    2017-01-01

    In this study, we analyzed the Interpersonal Reactivity Index Perspective Taking subscale scores for male college students in a 2008-2011 longitudinal study at a large public university in the Southeast. Findings suggest that empathy is amenable to change among college males in the period of emerging adulthood. Through repeated measures analyses…

  17. Team turnover and task conflict: A longitudinal study on the moderating effects of collective experience

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuypers, A.P.A.; Günter, H.; van Emmerik, I.H.

    2015-01-01

    Team turnover can be harmful to a team in many ways. This study examined whether a team’s collective experience (team organizational tenure) attenuates the association between team turnover and task conflict changes. Differing from prior research, our study used a longitudinal design to assess the e

  18. Etiology of Pervasive versus Situational Antisocial Behaviors: A Multi-informant Longitudinal Cohort Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wertz, Jasmin; Zavos, Helena M. S.; Matthews, Timothy; Gray, Rebecca; Best-Lane, Janis; Pariante, Carmine M.; Moffitt, Terrie E.; Arseneault, Louise

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to disentangle pervasive from situational antisocial behaviors using multiple informants, and to investigate their genetic and environmental etiologies in preadolescence and across time. Antisocial behaviors were assessed in 2,232 twins from the Environmental Risk (E-Risk) Longitudinal Twin Study at ages 5 and 12.…

  19. A Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Internet Addiction: The Role of Conscientiousness and Classroom Hostility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stavropoulos, Vasilis; Kuss, Daria; Griffiths, Mark; Motti-Stefanidi, Frosso

    2016-01-01

    Over the last decade, research on Internet addiction (IA) has increased. However, almost all studies in the area are cross-sectional and do not examine the context in which Internet use takes place. Therefore, a longitudinal study examined the role of conscientiousness (as a personality trait) and classroom hostility (as a contextual factor) in…

  20. Flowing together : a longitudinal study of collective efficacy and collective flow among workgroups.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salanova, Marisa; Rodríguez-Sánchez, Alma M.; Schaufeli, Wilmar B.; Cifre, Eva

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study is to extend the Channel Model of Flow (Csikszentmihalyi, 1975, 1990) at the collective level (workgroups) by including collective efficacy beliefs as a predictor of collective flow based on the Social Cognitive Theory (Bandura, 1997, 2001). A two-wave longitudinal lab study wa

  1. Relation between birth weight and blood pressure: longitudinal study of infants and children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L.J. Launer (Lenore); D.E. Grobbee (Diederick); A. Hofman (Albert)

    1993-01-01

    textabstractOBJECTIVE--To study the relation between birth weight and systolic blood pressure in infancy and early childhood. DESIGN--Longitudinal study of infants from birth to 4 years of age. SETTING--A middle class community in the Netherlands. PARTICIPANTS--476

  2. Information Behavior of People Diagnosed with a Chronic Serious Health Condition: A Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    St. Jean, Beth Lenore

    2012-01-01

    This study consisted of a longitudinal investigation into the information behavior of people diagnosed with a particular chronic serious health condition, type 2 diabetes. This study sought to identify the factors that motivate or impede the information seeking and use of these individuals and to discover how these factors and their influences…

  3. Language Learning at Key Stage 2: Findings from a Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cable, Carrie; Driscoll, Patricia; Mitchell, Rosamond; Sing, Sue; Cremin, Teresa; Earl, Justine; Eyres, Ian; Holmes, Bernardette; Martin, Cynthia; Heins, Barbara

    2012-01-01

    This paper discusses some of the findings from a 3-year longitudinal study of language learning in the upper stage of English primary schools, i.e. at Key Stage 2. This largely qualitative study (commissioned by the then Department for Children, Schools and Families) was designed to explore and document developing provision and practice in a…

  4. Functional health decline before and after retirement : A longitudinal analysis of the Health and Retirement Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Zon, Sander K. R.; Bultmann, Ute; Reijneveld, Sijmen A.; de Leon, Carlos F. Mendes

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: The aims of this study are to examine the pattern of pre- and post-retirement changes in functional health and to examine the degree to which socioeconomic position (SEP) modifies pre- and post-retirement changes in functional health. Method: This longitudinal study was conducted using

  5. Development of Working Memory and Performance in Arithmetic: A Longitudinal Study with Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, Magdalena

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: This study has aimed to investigate the relationship between the development of working memory and performance on arithmetic activities. Method: We conducted a 3-year longitudinal study of a sample of 90 children, that was followed during the first, second and third year of primary school. All children were tested on measures of WM…

  6. Longitudinal patterns and predictors of multiple health risk behaviors among adolescents : The TRAILS study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Winter, Andrea F; Visser, Leenke; Verhulst, Frank C; Vollebergh, Wilma A M; Reijneveld, Sijmen A

    2016-01-01

    Background. Most studies on multiple health risk behaviors among adolescents have cross-sectionally studied a limited number of health behaviors or determinants. Purpose. To examine the prevalence, longitudinal patterns and predictors of individual and multiple health risk behaviors among adolescent

  7. Conditions for Ubiquitous Computing: What Can Be Learned from a Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Jing

    2010-01-01

    Based on survey data and interview data collected over four academic years, this longitudinal study examined how a ubiquitous computing project evolved along with the changes in teachers, students, the human infrastructure, and technology infrastructure in the school. This study also investigated what conditions were necessary for successful…

  8. Social and Behavioural Outcomes in Children Diagnosed with Autism Spectrum Disorders: A Longitudinal Cohort Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Ginny; Golding, Jean; Norwich, Brahm; Emond, Alan; Ford, Tamsin; Steer, Colin

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To compare social and behavioural outcomes between children formally diagnosed with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) with those of children who displayed autistic traits at preschool age, but remained undiagnosed as teenagers. Method: A secondary analysis of data from a birth cohort study, the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and…

  9. Violence against Pregnant Women Can Increase the Risk of Child Abuse: A Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Ko Ling; Brownridge, Douglas A.; Fong, Daniel Y. T.; Tiwari, Agnes; Leung, Wing Cheong; Ho, Pak Chung

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To assess the impact of intimate partner violence (IPV) against pregnant women on subsequent perpetration of child abuse and neglect (CAN) by parents; and to test the mediation effect of recent IPV on the link between IPV during pregnancy and subsequent CAN. Methods: This study was a longitudinal follow-up of a population-based study on…

  10. Sleep Problems in Children with Autism Spectrum Problems: A Longitudinal Population-Based Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivertsen, Borge; Posserud, Maj-Britt; Gillberg, Christopher; Lundervold, Astri J.; Hysing, Mari

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the prevalence and chronicity of sleep problems in children who manifest problems believed to be typical of Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD). Using data from a longitudinal total population study, symptoms of ASD, insomnia and potential explanatory factors were assessed at ages 7-9 and 11-13. Children were included in a group…

  11. Longitudinal patterns and predictors of multiple health risk behaviors among adolescents : The TRAILS study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Winter, Andrea F.; Visser, Leenke; Verhulst, Frank C.; Vollebergh, Wilma A M|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/090632893; Reijneveld, Sijmen A.

    2016-01-01

    BackgroundMost studies on multiple health risk behaviors among adolescents have cross-sectionally studied a limited number of health behaviors or determinants. PurposeTo examine the prevalence, longitudinal patterns and predictors of individual and multiple health risk behaviors among adolescents. M

  12. The Developmental Sequence of Social-Communicative Skills in Young Children with Autism: A Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Chin-Chin; Chiang, Chung-Hsin

    2014-01-01

    To explore the different developmental trajectories of social-communicative skills in children with autism and typically developing infants, two longitudinal studies were conducted. In Study 1, we examined the developmental sequence of social-communicative skills in 26 typically developing infants when they were 9 months old and reexamined them…

  13. A Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Internet Addiction: The Role of Conscientiousness and Classroom Hostility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stavropoulos, Vasilis; Kuss, Daria; Griffiths, Mark; Motti-Stefanidi, Frosso

    2016-01-01

    Over the last decade, research on Internet addiction (IA) has increased. However, almost all studies in the area are cross-sectional and do not examine the context in which Internet use takes place. Therefore, a longitudinal study examined the role of conscientiousness (as a personality trait) and classroom hostility (as a contextual factor) in…

  14. A Longitudinal Twin Study of General Cognitive Ability over Four Decades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, Michael J.; Panizzon, Matthew S.; Liu, Weijian; McKenzie, Ruth; Bluestone, Noah J.; Grant, Michael D.; Franz, Carol E.; Vuoksimaa, Eero P.; Toomey, Rosemary; Jacobson, Kristen C.; Reynolds, Chandra A.; Kremen, William S.; Xian, Hong

    2017-01-01

    In this longitudinal study we examined the stability of general cognitive ability (GCA), as well as heterogeneity and genetic and environmental influences underlying individual differences in change. We investigated GCA from young adulthood through late midlife in 1,288 Vietnam Era Twin Study of Aging participants at ages ~20, ~56, and ~62 years.…

  15. Job Demands and Resources as Antecedents of Work Engagement: A Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mauno, Saija; Kinnunen, Ulla; Ruokolainen, Mervi

    2007-01-01

    By utilizing a 2-year longitudinal design, the present study investigated the experience of work engagement and its antecedents among Finnish health care personnel (n = 409). The data were collected by questionnaires in 2003 (Time 1) and in 2005 (Time 2). The study showed that work engagement--especially vigor and dedication--was relatively…

  16. A Longitudinal Study of the Social and Academic Competence of Economically Disadvantaged Bilingual Preschool Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oades-Sese, Geraldine V.; Esquivel, Giselle B.; Kaliski, Pamela K.; Maniatis, Lisette

    2011-01-01

    This longitudinal study was conducted to gain understanding of the social-emotional and academic development of economically disadvantaged bilingual preschool children. In Study 1, the authors combined cognitive, psychosocial, and cultural-linguistic factors to determine profiles of social competence as measured by peer play. A person-centered…

  17. A Longitudinal Investigation of Project-Based Instruction and Student Achievement in High School Social Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Summers, Emily J.; Dickinson, Gail

    2012-01-01

    This longitudinal study focused on how project-based instruction (PBI) influenced secondary social studies students' academic achievement and promoted College and Career Readiness (CCR). We explored and compared student achievement in a PBI high school versus a traditional instruction high school within the same rural school district. While…

  18. A Longitudinal Investigation of Project-Based Instruction and Student Achievement in High School Social Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Summers, Emily J.; Dickinson, Gail

    2012-01-01

    This longitudinal study focused on how project-based instruction (PBI) influenced secondary social studies students' academic achievement and promoted College and Career Readiness (CCR). We explored and compared student achievement in a PBI high school versus a traditional instruction high school within the same rural school district. While…

  19. A Longitudinal Study of the Determinants and Outcomes of Career Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carless, Sally A.; Arnup, Jessica L.

    2011-01-01

    The present longitudinal field study investigated the antecedents and consequences of an actual career change. The framework for this study was Rhodes and Doering's (1983) model of career change. We examined the effect of individual and organisational characteristics on career change behaviour. The individual characteristics were: traits (Openness…

  20. Development of dribbling in talented youth soccer players aged 12-19 years : A longitudinal study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huijgen, Barbara C. H.; Elferink-Gemser, Marije T.; Post, Wendy; Visscher, Chris

    2010-01-01

    The aims of the current study were to assess the development and determine the underlying mechanisms of sprinting and dribbling needed to compete at the highest level in youth soccer. Talented soccer players aged 12-19 years (n=267) were measured on a yearly basis in a longitudinal study over 7 year

  1. Relation between birth weight and blood pressure: longitudinal study of infants and children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L.J. Launer (Lenore); D.E. Grobbee (Diederick); A. Hofman (Albert)

    1993-01-01

    textabstractOBJECTIVE--To study the relation between birth weight and systolic blood pressure in infancy and early childhood. DESIGN--Longitudinal study of infants from birth to 4 years of age. SETTING--A middle class community in the Netherlands. PARTICIPANTS--476 Dutc

  2. Exploring Student Teachers' Beliefs about Language Learning and Teaching: A Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozmen, Kemal Sinan

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a four-year longitudinal study of student teachers' beliefs about language learning and teaching over the course of an English teacher education (ELT) program. The study attempts to track possible changes in the beliefs and to analyze the impact of an ELT pre-service program by taking the program itself as a dynamic variable.…

  3. Individual Differences in Pronoun Reversal: Evidence from Two Longitudinal Case Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Karen E.; Demuth, Katherine

    2012-01-01

    Pronoun reversal, the use of "you" for self-reference and "I" for an addressee, has often been associated with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) and impaired language. However, recent case studies have shown the phenomenon also to occur in typically developing and even precocious talkers. This study examines longitudinal corpus data from two…

  4. Longitudinal patterns and predictors of multiple health risk behaviors among adolescents : The TRAILS study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Winter, Andrea F; Visser, Leenke; Verhulst, Frank C; Vollebergh, Wilma A M; Reijneveld, Sijmen A

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Most studies on multiple health risk behaviors among adolescents have cross-sectionally studied a limited number of health behaviors or determinants. PURPOSE: To examine the prevalence, longitudinal patterns and predictors of individual and multiple health risk behaviors among adolescent

  5. Longitudinal patterns and predictors of multiple health risk behaviors among adolescents : The TRAILS study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Winter, Andrea F.; Visser, Leenke; Verhulst, Frank C.; Vollebergh, Wilma A M; Reijneveld, Sijmen A.

    2016-01-01

    BackgroundMost studies on multiple health risk behaviors among adolescents have cross-sectionally studied a limited number of health behaviors or determinants. PurposeTo examine the prevalence, longitudinal patterns and predictors of individual and multiple health risk behaviors among adolescents. M

  6. Smoking in Movies and Adolescent Smoking Initiation Longitudinal Study in Six European Countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Morgenstern, M.; Sargent, J.D.; Engels, R.C.M.E.; Scholte, R.H.J.; Florek, E.; Hunt, K.; Sweeting, H.; Mathis, F.; Faggiano, F.; Hanewinkel, R.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Longitudinal studies from the U.S. suggest a causal relationship between exposure to images of smoking in movies and adolescent smoking onset. Purpose: This study investigates whether adolescent smoking onset is predicted by the amount of exposure to smoking in movies across six European

  7. Nonrandom involvement of chromosomal segments in human hematologic malignancies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rowley, J. D.

    1977-01-01

    The consistent occurrence of nonrandom chromosome changes in human malignancies suggests that they are not trivial epiphenomena. Whereas we do not understand their significance at present, one possible role which they may fulfill is to provide the chromosomally aberrant cells with a proliferative advantage as the result of alteration of the number and/or location of genes related to nucleic acid biosynthesis. It would be expected that the proliferative advantage provided by various chromosome aberrations differs in patients with different genetic constitutions.

  8. Calculating osmotic pressure according to nonelectrolyte Wilson nonrandom factor model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hui; Zhan, Tingting; Zhan, Xiancheng; Wang, Xiaolan; Tan, Xiaoying; Guo, Yiping; Li, Chengrong

    2014-08-01

    Abstract The osmotic pressure of NaCl solutions was determined by the air humidity in equilibrium (AHE) method. The relationship between the osmotic pressure and the concentration was explored theoretically, and the osmotic pressure was calculated according to the nonelectrolyte Wilson nonrandom factor (N-Wilson-NRF) model from the concentration. The results indicate that the calculated osmotic pressure is comparable to the measured one.

  9. Problematics of Time and Timing in the Longitudinal Study of Human Development: Theoretical and Methodological Issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lerner, Richard M; Schwartz, Seth J; Phelps, Erin

    2009-02-01

    Studying human development involves describing, explaining, and optimizing intraindividual change and interindividual differences in such change and, as such, requires longitudinal research. The selection of the appropriate type of longitudinal design requires selecting the option that best addresses the theoretical questions asked about developmental process and the use of appropriate statistical procedures to best exploit data derived from theory-predicated longitudinal research. This paper focuses on several interrelated problematics involving the treatment of time and the timing of observations that developmental scientists face in creating theory-design fit and in charting in change-sensitive ways developmental processes across life. We discuss ways in which these problematics may be addressed to advance theory-predicated understanding of the role of time in processes of individual development.

  10. A systematic review of health-related quality of life in longitudinal studies of myeloma patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Lene Kongsgaard; Jarden, Mary Ellen; Andersen, Christen Lykkegaard

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Multiple myeloma (MM) patients report high symptom burden and reduced health-related quality of life (HRQoL) compared to patients with other haematological malignancies. The aim of this review was to analyse published longitudinal studies including MM patients according to a change...... in HRQoL scores, which is perceived as beneficial to the patient according to two published guidelines. METHODS: A literature search was performed May 2016. Publications with longitudinal follow-up using the EORTC QLQ-C30 instrument for HRQoL measurement of physical functioning, global quality of life...

  11. A longitudinal study of parenting and adolescent adjustment in Chinese adolescents with economic disadvantage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shek, Daniel T L

    2003-01-01

    This longitudinal study examines the relationship between parenting behavior and adolescent adjustment (psychological well-being, substance abuse and delinquent behavior) in Chinese adolescents with economic disadvantage (N = 199). Results showed that parenting characteristics were concurrently and longitudinally related to measures of adolescent adjustment, particularly adolescent problem behavior. Compared with the norm based on adolescents of a community sample, poor adolescents perceived parenting characteristics to be more negative and they had relatively lower life satisfaction. Paternal parenting was perceived to be more negative than maternal parenting and parenting behavior was perceived to deteriorate over time.

  12. Study of cross correlation coefficients of temperature fluctuations in a longitudinal magnetic field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Genin, L.G.; Manchkha, S.P.; Sviridov, V.G.

    1977-01-01

    An experimental study was made of the effect that a longitudinal magnetic field has on correlation coefficients of temperature fluctuations in a transverse direction. This effect on those fluctuations was shown to be small in comparison to its effect on the coefficients of longitudinal correlation. This indicates that the structure of the temperature field becomes more anisotropic so that there is an increase in the scale of turbulent disturbances in the direction of the magnetic field's force lines. 1 figure, 2 references.

  13. SALGOT - Stroke Arm Longitudinal study at the University of Gothenburg, prospective cohort study protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lundgren-Nilsson Åsa

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recovery patterns of upper extremity motor function have been described in several longitudinal studies, but most of these studies have had selected samples, short follow up times or insufficient outcomes on motor function. The general understanding is that improvements in upper extremity occur mainly during the first month after the stroke incident and little if any, significant recovery can be gained after 3-6 months. The purpose of this study is to describe the recovery of upper extremity function longitudinally in a non-selected sample initially admitted to a stroke unit with first ever stroke, living in Gothenburg urban area. Methods/Design A sample of 120 participants with a first-ever stroke and impaired upper extremity function will be consecutively included from an acute stroke unit and followed longitudinally for one year. Assessments are performed at eight occasions: at day 3 and 10, week 3, 4 and 6, month 3, 6 and 12 after onset of stroke. The primary clinical outcome measures are Action Research Arm Test and Fugl-Meyer Assessment for Upper Extremity. As additional measures, two new computer based objective methods with kinematic analysis of arm movements are used. The ABILHAND questionnaire of manual ability, Stroke Impact Scale, grip strength, spasticity, pain, passive range of motion and cognitive function will be assessed as well. At one year follow up, two patient reported outcomes, Impact on Participation and Autonomy and EuroQol Quality of Life Scale, will be added to cover the status of participation and aspects of health related quality of life. Discussion This study comprises a non-selected population with first ever stroke and impaired arm function. Measurements are performed both using traditional clinical assessments as well as computer based measurement systems providing objective kinematic data. The ICF classification of functioning, disability and health is used as framework for the selection of

  14. A Longitudinal Study of Changes in Marketing Practices at Private Christian Colleges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vander Schee, Brian A.

    2009-01-01

    This article presents the results of a longitudinal study investigating current marketing practices at selected church-related, private, four-year compared to those in place in 1997. The role that institutional selectivity plays in the use of marketing activities was also investigated. The researcher surveyed the admissions directors or enrollment…

  15. A Longitudinal Study of Receptive Vocabulary Breadth Knowledge Growth and Vocabulary Fluency Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xian; Lu, Xiaofei

    2014-01-01

    This article reports results of a longitudinal study of vocabulary breadth knowledge growth, vocabulary fluency development, and the relationship between the two. We administered two versions of the Vocabulary Levels Test (VLT; Nation 1983; Nation 1990; Schmitt et al. 2001) to 300 students at a Chinese university at three different time points…

  16. Guidance Services for Children and a Right to Education Law: Results of a Longitudinal Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anastas, Jeane W.; And Others

    1983-01-01

    Examines guidance services for young children with emotional and behavioral problems in school. A longitudinal study followed the children (N=527) from preschool screening through grade three, and found that over one quarter of the children had used guidance services. Differences emerged between children with transitory and persistent problems.…

  17. EFL Learning and Identity Development: A Longitudinal Study in 5 Universities in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yihong; Jia, Zengyan; Zhou, Yan

    2015-01-01

    Combining psychological and social perspectives and using mixed methods, this 4-year longitudinal study examined the EFL learning and self-identity development of about 1,000 students from 5 universities in Beijing, China. The self-designed questionnaire, administered 5 times during the 4 years, consisted of 7 identity categories of identity…

  18. Individual and Environmental Characteristics Associated with Cognitive Development in Down Syndrome: A Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Couzens, Donna; Haynes, Michele; Cuskelly, Monica

    2012-01-01

    Background: Associations among cognitive development and intrapersonal and environmental characteristics were investigated for 89 longitudinal study participants with Down syndrome to understand developmental patterns associated with cognitive strengths and weaknesses. Materials and Methods: Subtest scores of the Stanford-Binet IV collected…

  19. The contingency of intermedia agenda setting: a longitudinal study in Belgium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vliegenthart, R.; Walgrave, S.

    2008-01-01

    This large-scale study investigates how intermedia agenda-setting effects are moderated by five factors: (1) lag length; (2) medium type; (3) language/institutional barriers; (4) issue type; and (5) election or non-election context. Longitudinal analyses of daily attention to twenty-five issues in n

  20. A longitudinal study in youth of heart rate variability at rest and in response to stress

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, Zhibin; Snieder, Harold; Su, Shaoyong; Ding, Xiuhua; Thayer, Julian F.; Treiber, Frank A.; Wang, Xiaoling

    2009-01-01

    Background: Few longitudinal studies have examined ethnic and sex differences, predictors and tracking stabilities of heart rate variability (HRV) at rest and in response to stress in youths and young adults. Methods: Two evaluations were performed approximately 1.5 years apart on 399 youths and you

  1. A Longitudinal Study of Pragmatic Language Development in Three Children with Cochlear Implants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dammeyer, Jesper

    2012-01-01

    Research has shown how cochlear implants (CIs), in children with hearing impairments, have improved speech perception and production, but very little is known about the children's pragmatic language development. During a 4-year longitudinal study of three children with CIs, certain aspects of pragmatic language development were observed in free…

  2. Grandfather Effects: A Longitudinal Case Study of the Phonological Acquisition of Intervocalic Consonants in English

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barlow, Jessica A.

    2007-01-01

    In this article, I present a longitudinal study of a child's (male, aged 3;0-3;4) acquisition of intervocalic consonants characterized within the framework of Optimality Theory (OT). At Stage I, the child presents with unusual error patterns, weakening and labial substitution, and shows evidence of phonologically opaque surface forms. These…

  3. Developing communicative competence: A longitudinal study of the acquisition of mental state terms and indirect requests

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Mulder, Hannah

    2014-01-01

    This longitudinal study involving 101 Dutch four- and five-year-olds charts indirect request (IR) and mental state term (MST) understanding and investigates the role that Theory of Mind (ToM) and general linguistic ability (vocabulary, syntax, and spatial language) play in this development. The resu

  4. Developing Communicative Competence: A Longitudinal Study of the Acquisition of Mental State Terms and Indirect Requests

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Mulder, Hannah

    2015-01-01

    This longitudinal study involving 101 Dutch four- and five-year-olds charts indirect request (IR) and mental state term (MST) understanding and investigates the role that Theory of Mind (ToM) and general linguistic ability (vocabulary, syntax, and spatial language) play in this development. The results showed basic understanding of IR and MST in…

  5. Individual and Environmental Characteristics Associated with Cognitive Development in Down Syndrome: A Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Couzens, Donna; Haynes, Michele; Cuskelly, Monica

    2012-01-01

    Background: Associations among cognitive development and intrapersonal and environmental characteristics were investigated for 89 longitudinal study participants with Down syndrome to understand developmental patterns associated with cognitive strengths and weaknesses. Materials and Methods: Subtest scores of the Stanford-Binet IV collected…

  6. The contingency of intermedia agenda setting: a longitudinal study in Belgium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vliegenthart, R.; Walgrave, S.

    2008-01-01

    This large-scale study investigates how intermedia agenda-setting effects are moderated by five factors: (1) lag length; (2) medium type; (3) language/institutional barriers; (4) issue type; and (5) election or non-election context. Longitudinal analyses of daily attention to twenty-five issues in n

  7. Behavioral Inhibition as a Risk Factor for the Development of Childhood Anxiety Disorders: A Longitudinal Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.E.H.M. Muris (Peter); A.M.L. van Brakel (Anna); A. Arntz (Arnoud); E. Schouten (Erik)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractThis longitudinal study examined the additive and interactive effects of behavioral inhibition and a wide range of other vulnerability factors in the development of anxiety problems in youths. A sample of 261 children, aged 5 to 8 years, 124 behaviorally inhibited and 137 control childre

  8. Patient demands, lack of reciprocity, and burnout: a five-year longitudinal study about general practitioners.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, A.B.; Schaufeli, W.B.; Sixma, H.J.; Bosveld, W.; Dierendonck, D. van

    2000-01-01

    This study among a sample of 207 general practitioners (GPs) uses a five-year longitudinal design to test a process model of burnout. On the basis of social exchange and equity theory, it is hypothesized and found that demanding patient contacts produce a lack of reciprocity in the GP-patient

  9. Emotional coping differences among breast cancer patients from an online support group: A longitudinal study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Batenburg, A.E.; Das, H.H.J.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Previous research on the effects of online peer support on psychological well-being of patients with cancer showed mixed findings. There is a need for longitudinal studies explaining if and when online peer-led support groups are beneficial. How patients cope with emotions that come

  10. The Relationship between the Negotiation of Meaning and Language Learning: A Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bitchener, John

    2004-01-01

    For over 20 years, SLA research has been investigating the role of negotiation in second language acquisition. While much attention has been given to an examination of the conditions that are necessary for acquisition and the factors that can facilitate opportunities for negotiation, limited attention has been given to a longitudinal study of the…

  11. Exceptional Rule Learning in a Longitudinal Case Study of Williams Syndrome: Acquisition of Past Tense

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, Peggy F.; Cairns, Helen Smith

    2010-01-01

    Conflicting reports of language ability in Williams syndrome (WS) are confusing and may hinder accurate clinical decisions with respect to therapeutic services and educational placements for children with WS.This longitudinal case study examined the acquisition of regular and irregular past tense verbs in a child with WS. The development of…

  12. Longitudinal HIV Risk Behavior among the Drug Abuse Treatment Outcome Studies (DATOS) Adult Sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Debra A.; Brecht, Mary-Lynn; Herbeck, Diane; Evans, Elizabeth; Huang, David; Hser, Yih-Ing

    2008-01-01

    Longitudinal trajectories for HIV risk were examined over 5 years following treatment among 1,393 patients who participated in the nationwide Drug Abuse Treatment Outcome Studies. Both injection drug use and sexual risk behavior declined over time, with most of the decline occurring between intake and the first-year follow-up. However, results of…

  13. L1/L2/L3 Writing Development: Longitudinal Case Study of a Japanese Multicompetent Writer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Hiroe; Rinnert, Carol

    2013-01-01

    This longitudinal case study, supplemented by cross-sectional comparisons among five groups of writers with differing backgrounds, investigates how Natsu, a Japanese multilingual writer, developed her L1, L2 (English), and L3 (Chinese) writing competence over two and a half years. To create a comprehensive picture of this multilingual writer, the…

  14. Understanding Student Stress and Coping in Elementary School: A Mixed-Method, Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sotardi, Valerie A.

    2016-01-01

    This mixed-method, longitudinal study examined daily school stress and coping strategies of elementary schoolchildren in the United States. Students (n = 65) between the ages of 7 and 11 years reported daily school stress measures for 8 weeks and completed individual stress and coping interviews. Results highlight critical relations between…

  15. Developmental Consequences of Poor Phonological Short-Term Memory Function in Childhood: A Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gathercole, Susan E.; Tiffany, Claire; Briscoe, Josie; Thorn, Annabel

    2005-01-01

    Background: A longitudinal study investigated the cognitive skills and scholastic attainments at 8 years of age of children selected on the basis of poor phonological loop skills at 5 years. Methods: Children with low and average performance at 5 years were tested three years later on measures of working memory, phonological awareness, vocabulary,…

  16. Pre-Service Primary Education Teachers' Changing Attitudes towards Teaching: A Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tok, Sukran

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated the longitudinal changes in the attitudes of pre-service primary education teachers towards the teaching profession as they progressed through training. The results indicate that there is a significant difference in pre-service teachers' attitudes towards the profession between their freshman and senior years. Moreover, the…

  17. A Longitudinal Study of Perceived Family Functioning and Adolescent Adjustment in Chinese Adolescents With Economic Disadvantage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shek, Daniel T. L.

    2005-01-01

    This longitudinal study examines the relationships between perceived family functioning and adolescent psychological well-being and problem behavior in Chinese adolescents with economic disadvantage (N = 199). Results showed that perceived family functioning was concurrently related to measures of adolescent psychological well-being (existential…

  18. How Fast Do Students Forget What They Learn in Consumer Behavior? A Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacon, Donald R.; Stewart, Kim A.

    2006-01-01

    The retention curve for knowledge acquired in a consumer behavior course is explored in a longitudinal study, tracking individual students from 8 to 101 weeks following course completion. Rasch measurement is used to link tests and to achieve intervally scaled measures of knowledge. The findings indicate that most of the knowledge gained in the…

  19. A Longitudinal Study of Receptive Vocabulary Breadth Knowledge Growth and Vocabulary Fluency Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xian; Lu, Xiaofei

    2014-01-01

    This article reports results of a longitudinal study of vocabulary breadth knowledge growth, vocabulary fluency development, and the relationship between the two. We administered two versions of the Vocabulary Levels Test (VLT; Nation 1983; Nation 1990; Schmitt et al. 2001) to 300 students at a Chinese university at three different time points…

  20. Shyness and Emotion-Processing Skills in Preschoolers: A 6-Month Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strand, Paul S.; Cerna, Sandra; Downs, Andrew

    2008-01-01

    The present study utilized a short-term longitudinal research design to examine the hypothesis that shyness in preschoolers is differentially related to different aspects of emotion processing. Using teacher reports of shyness and performance measures of emotion processing, including (1) facial emotion recognition, (2) non-facial emotion…

  1. Technique of calculating and studying stability of three dimensional velocity fields of longitudinal waves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pivovarova, N.B.; Slavina, L.B.

    1981-01-01

    The features of a technique for determining the velocity of spread of longitudinal waves in the epicenter zone are briefly formulated. Results are presented from studying the technique in the example of model and experimental data in the focal zone of Kamchatka.

  2. How Long Does Victimization Foster Fear of Crime? A Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, Silvia; Roccato, Michele

    2010-01-01

    We studied the relationship between victimization and fear of crime longitudinally, analyzing data from the Observatory of the North-West (Italian national sample, N = 1,701, two waves: January 2006 and January 2007). We modeled fear of crime at T[subscript 2] using as independent variables: (a) the main sociodemographic variables and fear of…

  3. A Longitudinal Study of Narrative Development in Children and Adolescents with Down Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleave, Patricia; Bird, Elizabeth Kay-Raining; Czutrin, Rachael; Smith, Lindsey

    2012-01-01

    The present study examined narrative development in children and adolescents with Down syndrome longitudinally. Narratives were collected from 32 children and adolescents with Down syndrome three times over a 1-year period. Both micro- and macrolevel analyses were conducted. Significant growth over the 1-year period was seen in semantic complexity…

  4. Change in University Teachers' Elearning Beliefs and Practices: A Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Karen M.

    2016-01-01

    Little longitudinal research has examined change in university teachers' elearning beliefs and practices after their initial experience with elearning. This study addresses this gap by focusing on six teachers who developed and implemented an elearning resource, and the changes they made to the resource and its implementation over two years. A…

  5. The Relations of Effortful Control and Impulsivity to Children's Sympathy: A Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenberg, Nancy; Michalik, Nicole; Spinrad, Tracy L.; Hofer, Claire; Kupfer, Anne; Valiente, Carlos; Liew, Jeffrey; Cumberland, Amanda; Reiser, Mark

    2007-01-01

    The relations of children's (n=214 at Time 1; M age=6 years at Time 1) dispositional sympathy to adult-reported and behavioral measures of effortful control (EC) and impulsivity were examined in a longitudinal study including five assessments, each two years apart. Especially for boys, relatively high levels of EC and growth in EC were related to…

  6. Person-Organization (Culture) Fit and Employee Commitment under Conditions of Organizational Change: A Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, John P.; Hecht, Tracy D.; Gill, Harjinder; Toplonytsky, Laryssa

    2010-01-01

    This longitudinal study examines how person-organization fit, operationalized as congruence between perceived and preferred organizational culture, relates to employees' affective commitment and intention to stay with an organization during the early stages of a strategic organizational change. Employees in a large energy company completed surveys…

  7. Investigation of University Students' Self-Acceptance and Learned Resourcefulness: A Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceyhan, A. Aykut; Ceyhan, Esra

    2011-01-01

    Self-acceptance and learned resourcefulness of university students are important concepts in coping with the environmental and developmental stressors and in the development of healthy personality. In this study, university students' self acceptance and learned resourcefulness levels were investigated longitudinally. 198 university students' self…

  8. Can Language Attitudes Be Improved? A Longitudinal Study of Immigrant Students in Catalonia (Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ianos, Maria-Adelina; Huguet, Ángel; Janés, Judit; Lapresta, Cecilio

    2017-01-01

    This study explores changes in attitudes towards Catalan, Spanish, and English over a 2-year period, on the part of secondary education students of immigrant origin residing in Catalonia. It aims to provide new data by adopting a longitudinal design and by focusing on the immigrant population, which has raised new challenges for the Catalan…

  9. School, Neighborhood, and Family Factors Are Associated with Children's Bullying Involvement: A Nationally Representative Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowes, Lucy; Arseneault, Louise; Maughan, Barbara; Taylor, Alan; Caspi, Ashalom; Moffitt, Terrie E.

    2009-01-01

    School size and problems with neighbors is associated with a greater risk of being a bullying victim while family factors such as maltreatment and domestic violence are associated with involvement in bullying. The findings are based on the Environmental Risk Longitudinal Twin Study that involves 2,232 children.

  10. Understanding Student Stress and Coping in Elementary School: A Mixed-Method, Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sotardi, Valerie A.

    2016-01-01

    This mixed-method, longitudinal study examined daily school stress and coping strategies of elementary schoolchildren in the United States. Students (n = 65) between the ages of 7 and 11 years reported daily school stress measures for 8 weeks and completed individual stress and coping interviews. Results highlight critical relations between…

  11. A Longitudinal Study of Unemployment Insurance Exhaustees: Final Report on Waves 1 and 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholson, Walter; Corson, Walter

    The study reports the results of a two-wave longitudinal interview of over 2,000 individuals who exhausted their unemployment insurance (UI) benefits in October 1974. The interviews were conducted at the time of exhaustion and four months later in Atlanta, Baltimore, Chicago, and Seattle. UI exhaustees are a relatively representative cross-section…

  12. The relationship between early sexual debut and psychosocial outcomes: a longitudinal study of Dutch adolescents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Udell, W.; Sandfort, T.; Reitz, E.; Bos, H.; Dekovic, M.

    2010-01-01

    In a longitudinal dataset of 470 Dutch adolescents, the current study examined the ways in which early sexual initiation was related to subsequent attachment, self-perception, internalizing problems, and externalizing problems. For male adolescents, analyses revealed general attachment to mother and

  13. A longitudinal, prospective study on emotional adjustment before, during and after consecutive fertility treatment cycles.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhaak, C.M.; Smeenk, J.M.J.; Minnen, A. van; Kremer, J.A.M.; Kraaimaat, F.W.

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND: A longitudinal study into the course of the emotional response to IVF from pre-treatment to 6 months post-treatment and factors that contributed to that course. METHODS: A total of 148 IVF patients and 71 partners completed self-report questionnaires on anxiety, depression, personality

  14. The Relation between Mastery Goals and Intrinsic Motivation among University Students: A Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bieg, Sonja; Reindl, Marion; Dresel, Markus

    2017-01-01

    The present work broadens previous research on students' mastery goals and intrinsic motivation by exploring their reciprocal effects using a longitudinal approach. To this end, a study using four measurement points was conducted during 10 weeks of one semester. The sample comprised 1156 students enrolled in psychology courses at a medium-sized…

  15. Teacher-Child Relationships and Social Competence: A Two-Year Longitudinal Study of Chinese Preschoolers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiao; Nurmi, Jari-Erik

    2012-01-01

    Based on a two-year and three-wave longitudinal sample of 118 Chinese preschoolers, the present study examined the cross-lagged associations between teacher-child relationships and social competence, and the cross-system generalization of social competence between home and school. At each of the three waves, teachers rated the children's…

  16. Female Bisexuality from Adolescence to Adulthood: Results from a 10-Year Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diamond, Lisa M.

    2008-01-01

    Debates persist over whether bisexuality is a temporary stage of denial or transition, a stable "3rd type" of sexual orientation, or a heightened capacity for sexual fluidity. The present study uses 5 waves of longitudinal data collected from 79 lesbian, bisexual, and "unlabeled" women to evaluate these models. Both the "3rd orientation" and…

  17. The Impact of Outplacement Programs on Reemployment Criteria: A Longitudinal Study of Displaced Managers and Executives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westaby, James D.

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine longitudinally the impact of outplacement support (e.g., counseling end psychological assessment) on several reemployment criteria. A sample of 1,880 managers and executives using the services of a large outplacement organization was examined. Controlling for past salary, severance, and demographics,…

  18. Multiracial Children and Poverty: Evidence from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study of Kindergartners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bratter, Jenifer; Kimbro, Rachel Tolbert

    2013-01-01

    Despite the recent growth in multiracial children among American children, we know very little about their well-being. Using the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, Kindergarten Class (N?=?17,706), we evaluated the likelihood of living in poverty and near poverty for multiracial and monoracial children. Most multiracial groups have poverty or near…

  19. A Longitudinal Study of Conversations with Parents about Sex and Dating during College

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Elizabeth M.; Thorne, Avril; Zurbriggen, Eileen L.

    2010-01-01

    Emerging adulthood is a time of sexual and romantic relationship development as well as change in the parent-child relationship. This study provides a longitudinal analysis of 30 young adults' (17 women, 13 men) sexual experiences, attitudes about sexuality and dating, and reported conversations with parents about sexuality and dating from the 1st…

  20. Resilience in Midwestern Families: Selected Findings from the First Decade of a Prospective, Longitudinal Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conger, Rand D.; Conger, Katherine J.

    2002-01-01

    An ongoing longitudinal study of 558 focal youth and families was used to review mechanisms of resilience. Findings demonstrated how resilience to economic adversity for families was promoted by marital support, effective problem solving, and a sense of mastery. For youth, resilience was promoted by support from parents, sibling, and other adults.…

  1. Psychological Distress among Nursing, Physiotherapy and Occupational Therapy Students: A Longitudinal and Predictive Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nerdrum, Per; Rustoen, Tone; Helge Ronnestad, Michael

    2009-01-01

    In this study, we present longitudinal data on changes in psychological distress among 232 Norwegian undergraduate students of nursing, physiotherapy, and occupational therapy. Psychological distress was assessed by applying the 12-item version of the General Health Questionnaire. Nursing students became substantially more distressed during the…

  2. The Effects of Education on Business Ownership: A Longitudinal Study of Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolinsky, Arthur L.; And Others

    1993-01-01

    A study using a national longitudinal sample of women to examine variations in the likelihood of entering, staying, and reentering self-employment by level of educational attainment found that each likelihood increased with increasing levels of education. Differences in the likelihood of entry accounted for most of the overall difference between…

  3. Prenatal Stress and Risk of Febrile Seizures in Children: A Nationwide Longitudinal Study in Denmark

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jiong; Olsen, Jorn; Obel, Carsten; Christensen, Jakob; Precht, Dorthe Hansen; Vestergaard, Mogens

    2009-01-01

    We aimed to examine whether exposure to prenatal stress following maternal bereavement is associated with an increased risk of febrile seizures. In a longitudinal population-based cohort study, we followed 1,431,175 children born in Denmark. A total of 34,777 children were born to women who lost a close relative during pregnancy or within 1 year…

  4. Scrutinizing Practicum for a More Powerful Teacher Education: A Longitudinal Study with Pre-Service Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serdar Tülüce, Hande; Çeçen, Sevdeger

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to explore the role of school-based practicum in promoting pre-service English language teachers' professional development through the use of a longitudinal design in combination with qualitative methods. To achieve this aim, pre-service teachers were asked to successively reflect on video-recordings of their micro-lessons in their…

  5. Effects of attitude dissimilarity and time on social integration : A longitudinal panel study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Vegt, GS

    2002-01-01

    A longitudinal panel study in 25 work groups of elementary school teachers examined the effect of attitudinal dissimilarity and time on social integration across a 9-month period. In line with the prediction based on both the similarity-attraction approach and social identity theory, cross-lagged re

  6. Intrinsic and Extrinsic Reading Motivation as Predictors of Reading Literacy: A Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Michael; McElvany, Nele; Kortenbruck, Marthe

    2010-01-01

    The purpose in this study was to examine the longitudinal relationships of intrinsic and extrinsic motivation with reading literacy development. In particular, the authors (a) investigated reading amount as mediator between motivation and reading literacy and (b) probed for bidirectional relationships between reading motivation and reading…

  7. A Longitudinal Study of Speech Timing in Young Children Later Found to Have Reading Disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Allan B.; Smith, Susan Lambrecht; Locke, John L.; Bennett, Jane

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: This study examined the development of timing characteristics in early spontaneous speech of children who were later identified as having reading disability (RD). Method: Child-adult play sessions were recorded longitudinally at 2 and 3 years of age in 27 children, most of whom were at high familial risk for RD. For each speaking turn,…

  8. Morphological Awareness and Bilingual Word Learning: A Longitudinal Structural Equation Modeling Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Dongbo; Koda, Keiko; Leong, Che Kan

    2016-01-01

    This longitudinal study examined the contribution of morphological awareness to bilingual word learning of Malay-English bilingual children in Singapore where English is the medium of instruction. Participants took morphological awareness and lexical inference tasks in both English and Malay twice with an interval of about half a year, the first…

  9. A Longitudinal Study of the Effects of Chronic Maltreatment on Children's Behavioral and Emotional Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ethier, L.S.; Lemelin, J.P.; Lacharite, C.

    2004-01-01

    Objective: The aim of the present longitudinal study was to examine the links between chronicity of maltreatment and child behavioral and emotional problems. Method: Forty-nine maltreated children (32 victims of continuous, or chronic, maltreatment; 17 victims of transitory maltreatment) and their mothers were evaluated in their homes three times…

  10. A Longitudinal Study of Narrative Development in Children and Adolescents with Down Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleave, Patricia; Bird, Elizabeth Kay-Raining; Czutrin, Rachael; Smith, Lindsey

    2012-01-01

    The present study examined narrative development in children and adolescents with Down syndrome longitudinally. Narratives were collected from 32 children and adolescents with Down syndrome three times over a 1-year period. Both micro- and macrolevel analyses were conducted. Significant growth over the 1-year period was seen in semantic complexity…

  11. Changing Stereotypes, Changing Grades: A Longitudinal Study of Stereotyping during a College Math Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramsey, Laura R.; Sekaquaptewa, Denise

    2011-01-01

    Previous research has illuminated an important connection between stereotypes and the performance of those targeted by a stereotype. This body of work suggests that even implicit (i.e., nonconscious and unintended) math-gender stereotyping is related to poor math performance among women. Our longitudinal study sought to measure students'…

  12. A Longitudinal Study of Speech Timing in Young Children Later Found to Have Reading Disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Allan B.; Smith, Susan Lambrecht; Locke, John L.; Bennett, Jane

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: This study examined the development of timing characteristics in early spontaneous speech of children who were later identified as having reading disability (RD). Method: Child-adult play sessions were recorded longitudinally at 2 and 3 years of age in 27 children, most of whom were at high familial risk for RD. For each speaking turn,…

  13. Strong Genetic Contribution to Peer Relationship Difficulties at School Entry: Findings from a Longitudinal Twin Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boivin, Michel; Brendgen, Mara; Vitaro, Frank; Dionne, Ginette; Girard, Alain; Perusse, Daniel; Tremblay, Richard E.

    2013-01-01

    This study assessed the genetic and environmental contributions to peer difficulties in the early school years. Twins' peer difficulties were assessed longitudinally in kindergarten (796 twins, "M"[subscript age] = 6.1 years), Grade 1 (948 twins, "M"[subscript age] = 7.1 years), and Grade 4 (868 twins, "M"[subscript…

  14. Longitudinal Study of Self-Regulation, Positive Parenting, and Adjustment Problems among Physically Abused Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim-Spoon, Jungmeen.; Haskett, Mary E.; Longo, Gregory S.; Nice, Rachel.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Research using normative and high-risk samples indicates a significant link between problems with self-regulation and child maladjustment. Nevertheless, little is known about the processes that may modify the link between self-regulation and maladjustment. This longitudinal study examined the joint contributions of child self-regulation…

  15. Minority Achievement Gaps in STEM: Findings of a Longitudinal Study of Project Excite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olszewski-Kubilius, Paula; Steenbergen-Hu, Saiying; Thomson, Dana; Rosen, Rhoda

    2017-01-01

    This longitudinal study examined the outcomes of Project Excite on reducing minority students' achievement gaps in STEM over 14 years. Project Excite was designed to provide intensive supplemental enrichment and accelerated programming for high-potential, underrepresented minority students from third through eighth grades to better prepare them…

  16. Measuring Mathematical Knowledge for Teaching: A Longitudinal Study Using Two Measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Copur-Gencturk, Yasemin; Lubienski, Sarah T.

    2013-01-01

    This longitudinal study examines growth in teacher knowledge as measured by two popular assessments--Learning Mathematics for Teaching (LMT) and Diagnostic Teacher Assessments in Mathematics and Science (DTAMS). Using data collected from 24 teachers, we compare the extent to which each assessment captured teacher learning during a K-8 mathematics…

  17. Sport Involvement and Educational Outcomes of High School Students: A Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Seunghyun; Feltz, Deborah L.; Kietzmann, Laura A.; Diemer, Matthew A.

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the relations among sport involvement and social and personal influences on high school students' educational expectations and attainment, using National Education Longitudinal Survey-88. Athletic engagement, educational expectations of significant others, peer support for academics, parental involvement in academics, and…

  18. The Relationship between Early Language, Cognitive and Social Development through a Longitudinal Study of Autistic Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogura, Tamiko

    The development of and relationship between early language, symbolic play, sensorimotor skills, and social development were examined in a longitudinal study conducted in Japan with two young autistic males who were observed from the approximate ages of 2 to 4 years in clinic, day care, and home settings. One child acquired speech; the other did…

  19. A longitudinal study on gross motor development in children with learning disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westendorp, Marieke; Hartman, Esther; Houwen, Suzanne; Huijgen, Barbara C. H.; Smith, Joanne; Visscher, Chris

    This longitudinal study examined the development of gross motor skills, and sex-differences therein, in 7; to 11-years-old children with learning disorders (LD) and compared the results with typically developing children to determine the performance level of children with LD. In children with LD (n

  20. Poststroke depression and its multifactorial nature : Results from a prospective longitudinal study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Ryck, A.; Fransen, E.; Brouns, R.; Geurden, M.; Peij, D.; Marien, P.; De Deyn, P. P.; Engelborghs, S.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Poststroke depression (PSD) is commonly observed in stroke patients and has a negative impact on functional outcome and quality of life. Therefore, a prospective, longitudinal epidemiological study was conducted aiming to determine prevalence and risk factors for PSD at 1, 3, 6, 12 and 18

  1. Almost All Start but Who Continue? A Longitudinal Study of Youth Participation in Swedish Club Sports

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakobsson, Britta Thedin; Lundvall, Suzanne; Redelius, Karin; Engstrom, Lars-Magnus

    2012-01-01

    Many young people in Sweden stop participating in club sports during their teens, but some continue. Drawing on a longitudinal study, the aim of this article is to highlight some of the characteristics of teenagers who continue with club sports and to discuss the relation between club-sport participation and social and cultural conditions, with…

  2. Dietary patterns in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children

    OpenAIRE

    Pauline M Emmett; Jones, Louise R.; Northstone, Kate

    2015-01-01

    Publications from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children that used empirically derived dietary patterns were reviewed. The relationships of dietary patterns with socioeconomic background and childhood development were examined. Diet was assessed using food frequency questionnaires and food records. Three statistical methods were used: principal components analysis, cluster analysis, and reduced rank regression. Throughout childhood, children and parents have similar dietary patte...

  3. Impact of Curriculum on Understanding of Professional Practice: A Longitudinal Study of Students Commencing Dental Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kieser, Jules A.; Dall'Alba, Gloria; Livingstone, Vicki

    2009-01-01

    This longitudinal study examines changes in understanding of dental practice among a cohort of students in the early years of a dentistry programme. In their first two professional years, we identified five distinct understandings of dental practice that we have ordered from least to most comprehensive: "relieving pain or generally caring for…

  4. Stability and Change in Work Values: A Meta-Analysis of Longitudinal Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Jing; Rounds, James

    2012-01-01

    A meta-analysis of longitudinal studies was conducted to investigate stability and change in work values across the life span. Both rank-order stability and mean-level change were investigated using an integrative classification for intrinsic, extrinsic, social and status work values (Ross, Schwartz, & Surkis, 1999). Results of rank-order…

  5. Nutrition in adolescence. A longitudinal study in dietary patterns from teenager to adult.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Post, G.B.

    1989-01-01

    This thesis reports the longitudinal changes in dietary intake of a group of Dutch adolescents, 103 girls and 97 boys from about 12 to 21 years of age (part of 'The Amsterdam Growth and Health Study'). The subjects were pupils of a secondary school, and measured five times. A dietary history method

  6. Change in University Teachers' Elearning Beliefs and Practices: A Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Karen M.

    2016-01-01

    Little longitudinal research has examined change in university teachers' elearning beliefs and practices after their initial experience with elearning. This study addresses this gap by focusing on six teachers who developed and implemented an elearning resource, and the changes they made to the resource and its implementation over two years. A…

  7. A process approach to children's understanding of scientific concepts : A longitudinal case study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steen, Steffie van der; Steenbeek, Henderien; Dijk, Marijn van; Geert, Paul van

    2014-01-01

    Using a longitudinal study on childrens’ understanding of scientific concepts, we compare the relative importance of general (e.g., standardized test scores) and microgenetic measures (interaction patterns) to characterize the development of scientific understanding over 1.5 years. A researcher work

  8. Similarities and reciprocal influences in eating behavior within sibling pairs: A longitudinal study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leeuw, R.N.H. de; Snoek, H.M.; Strien, T. van; Leeuwe, J.F.J. van; Engels, R.C.M.E.

    2007-01-01

    The present study investigated similarities and reciprocal influences in emotional, external and restrained eating in adolescent siblings, and the moderating role of sex and quality of relationship. A total of 415 sibling pairs (aged 13-16 years) participated in this two-wave one-year longitudinal s

  9. A longitudinal study of the effects of television viewing on aggressive and prosocial behaviours

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wiegman, O.; Kuttschreuter, M.; Baarda, B.

    1992-01-01

    A longitudinal study investigated the extent to which children's exposure to aggressive and prosocial television models in drama programmes influences their aggressive and prosocial behaviour. In The Netherlands we did not find significant positive correlations between prosocial behaviour and the vi

  10. A Longitudinal Study of Information Technology Impact on Business Faculty in Distance Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jensen, J.; Alexander, Melody W.; Perrreault, Heidi; Waldman, Lila

    2007-01-01

    This longitudinal study compared business faculty's use of information technology in distance education as well as their perception of the technology's impact on their productivity and technology preferences between 2000 and 2006. Data were collected from 81 professors in 2000 and 140 professors in 2006 at AACSB-accredited business colleges across…

  11. Child Care Quality and Children's Cognitive and Socio-Emotional Development: An Australian Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gialamas, Angela; Mittinty, Murthy N.; Sawyer, Michael G.; Zubrick, Stephen R.; Lynch, John

    2014-01-01

    There is growing evidence that high-quality non-parental child care can contribute to children's learning, development and successful transition to school. Research examining the quality of child care and the effect on children's development is not well documented outside the USA. We used data from the Longitudinal Study of Australian Children to…

  12. The parent-child relationship and adolescent alcohol use : a systematic review of longitudinal studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, Leenke; de Winter, Andrea F.; Reijneveld, Sijmen A.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Alcohol use among adolescents has become a major public health problem in the past decade and has large short- and long-term consequences on their health. The aim of this systematic review was to provide an overview of longitudinal cohort studies that have analyzed the association betwee

  13. AGE, PERIOD, AND COHORT EFFECTS ON PULMONARY-FUNCTION IN A 24-YEAR LONGITUDINAL-STUDY

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    XU, XP; LAIRD, N; DOCKERY, DW; SCHOUTEN, JP; RIJCKEN, B; WEISS, ST

    1995-01-01

    This paper proposes the use of two-factor models (age-period and age-cohort models) to estimate age, period, and cohort effects on pulmonary function by using the data collected in a 24-year longitudinal study in the Netherlands from 1965 to 1990. The analysis included 18,363 pulmonary function meas

  14. Segmental Acquisition in Adult ESL Learners: A Longitudinal Study of Vowel Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munro, Murray J.; Derwing, Tracey M.

    2008-01-01

    Research on second language (L2) phonetic learning indicates that, even in adults, segmental acquisition remains possible through L2 experience. However, the findings of previous cross-sectional studies of vowel and consonant learning have proved difficult to interpret. In this longitudinal investigation of 44 recent arrivals in Canada,…

  15. Growth in children with pulmonary arterial hypertension : a longitudinal retrospective multiregistry study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ploegstra, Mark-Jan; Ivy, D Dunbar; Wheeler, Jeremy G; Brand, Monika; Beghetti, Maurice; Rosenzweig, Erika B; Humpl, Tilman; Iriart, Xavier; Rouzic, Erwan Muros-Le; Bonnet, Damien; Berger, Rolf M F

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: To enable adequate interpretation of growth measurements in the management of children with pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH), we assessed growth and its associated determinants in children with PAH. METHODS: We did a retrospective longitudinal study of height and body-mass index in

  16. Social Identities among Engineering Students and through Their Transition to Work: A Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jungert, Tomas

    2013-01-01

    This article draws on a longitudinal and qualitative study of students in a master's program in engineering. Interpretative phenomenological analysis was used to analyze annual, semi-structured interviews with ten students, from the first semester until one year after graduation. The program enjoys a high status and has a reputation of being…

  17. The Utilization of Retention Strategies at Church-Related Colleges: A Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vander Schee, Brian Anthony

    2008-01-01

    Implementing effective student retention strategies is important for all institutions of higher education. This is especially true for smaller, private colleges as resources for higher education are stretched and the dependence on tuition revenue to maintain fiscal viability increases. This longitudinal study focuses on the utilization of…

  18. Poststroke depression and its multifactorial nature : Results from a prospective longitudinal study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Ryck, A.; Fransen, E.; Brouns, R.; Geurden, M.; Peij, D.; Marien, P.; De Deyn, P. P.; Engelborghs, S.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Poststroke depression (PSD) is commonly observed in stroke patients and has a negative impact on functional outcome and quality of life. Therefore, a prospective, longitudinal epidemiological study was conducted aiming to determine prevalence and risk factors for PSD at 1, 3, 6, 12 and 18

  19. Multiracial Children and Poverty: Evidence from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study of Kindergartners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bratter, Jenifer; Kimbro, Rachel Tolbert

    2013-01-01

    Despite the recent growth in multiracial children among American children, we know very little about their well-being. Using the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, Kindergarten Class (N?=?17,706), we evaluated the likelihood of living in poverty and near poverty for multiracial and monoracial children. Most multiracial groups have poverty or near…

  20. Longitudinal Stability Study for the FACET-II e+ Damping Ring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bane, Karl [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States)

    2016-11-29

    This is an initial study of the longitudinal, single-bunch stability in the proposed FACET-II e+ damping ring. It is preliminary because, at present, only a few specific features of the vacuum chamber are known.

  1. How Fast Do Students Forget What They Learn in Consumer Behavior? A Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacon, Donald R.; Stewart, Kim A.

    2006-01-01

    The retention curve for knowledge acquired in a consumer behavior course is explored in a longitudinal study, tracking individual students from 8 to 101 weeks following course completion. Rasch measurement is used to link tests and to achieve intervally scaled measures of knowledge. The findings indicate that most of the knowledge gained in the…

  2. Minority Achievement Gaps in STEM: Findings of a Longitudinal Study of Project Excite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olszewski-Kubilius, Paula; Steenbergen-Hu, Saiying; Thomson, Dana; Rosen, Rhoda

    2017-01-01

    This longitudinal study examined the outcomes of Project Excite on reducing minority students' achievement gaps in STEM over 14 years. Project Excite was designed to provide intensive supplemental enrichment and accelerated programming for high-potential, underrepresented minority students from third through eighth grades to better prepare them…

  3. The Precursors of Reading Ability in Young Readers: Evidence from a Four-Year Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oakhill, Jane V.; Cain, Kate

    2012-01-01

    We report a longitudinal study investigating the predictors of reading comprehension and word reading accuracy between the ages of 7 to 8 (UK Year 3) and 10 to 11 years (Year 6). We found that different skills predicted the development of each. Reading comprehension skill measured in Year 3 was a strong predictor of comprehension in Year 6;…

  4. Dynamics of the connectome in Huntington's disease: A longitudinal diffusion MRI study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omar F.F. Odish

    2015-01-01

    Conclusions: This study demonstrates divergent longitudinal changes to the connectome in (pre HD compared to healthy controls. This provides novel insights into structural correlates associated with clinical and cognitive functions in HD and possible compensatory mechanisms at play in preHD.

  5. Academic and Work-Related Burnout: A Longitudinal Study of Working Undergraduate University Business Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galbraith, Craig S.; Merrill, Gregory B.

    2012-01-01

    We examined the interaction between academic burnout and work-related burnout for a sample of working undergraduate university students. Using a longitudinal design we found that the factors of burnout (Exhaustion, Cynicism, and Efficacy) change significantly over the semester. In addition, the study suggests there are distinct differences in how…

  6. Burnout and Physical Health among Social Workers: A Three-Year Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hansung; Ji, Juye; Kao, Dennis

    2011-01-01

    The high risk of burnout in the social work profession is well established, but little is known about burnout's impact on the physical health of social workers. This article examines the relationship between burnout and physical health, using data from a longitudinal study of social workers. California-registered social workers (N = 406) were…

  7. Patient demands, lack of reciprocity, and burnout: a five-year longitudinal study about general practitioners.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, A.B.; Schaufeli, W.B.; Sixma, H.J.; Bosveld, W.; Dierendonck, D. van

    2000-01-01

    This study among a sample of 207 general practitioners (GPs) uses a five-year longitudinal design to test a process model of burnout. On the basis of social exchange and equity theory, it is hypothesized and found that demanding patient contacts produce a lack of reciprocity in the GP-patient rel

  8. Psychological Distress among Nursing, Physiotherapy and Occupational Therapy Students: A Longitudinal and Predictive Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nerdrum, Per; Rustoen, Tone; Helge Ronnestad, Michael

    2009-01-01

    In this study, we present longitudinal data on changes in psychological distress among 232 Norwegian undergraduate students of nursing, physiotherapy, and occupational therapy. Psychological distress was assessed by applying the 12-item version of the General Health Questionnaire. Nursing students became substantially more distressed during the…

  9. A Longitudinal Study of Conceptual Change: Preservice Elementary Teachers' Conceptions of Moon Phases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trundle, Kathy Cabe; Atwood, Ronald K.; Christopher, John E.

    2007-01-01

    This research consists of a longitudinal study of 12 female elementary preservice teachers' conceptual understanding over the course of several months. The context in which the participants received instruction was in an inquiry-based physics course, and the targeted science content was the cause of moon phases. Qualitative research methods,…

  10. The Relation between Morphological Awareness and Reading and Spelling in Greek: A Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pittas, Evdokia; Nunes, Terezinha

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this longitudinal study is to examine the contribution of morphological awareness to the prediction of reading and spelling in Greek. The target group (N = 404) consisted of children, aged 6-9 years at the start of the project, who learn literacy in Cyprus. Because there are no standardized measures of morphological awareness for Greek…

  11. Social Identities among Engineering Students and through Their Transition to Work: A Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jungert, Tomas

    2013-01-01

    This article draws on a longitudinal and qualitative study of students in a master's program in engineering. Interpretative phenomenological analysis was used to analyze annual, semi-structured interviews with ten students, from the first semester until one year after graduation. The program enjoys a high status and has a reputation of being…

  12. A longitudinal study on gross motor development in children with learning disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westendorp, Marieke; Hartman, Esther; Houwen, Suzanne; Huijgen, Barbara C. H.; Smith, Joanne; Visscher, Chris

    2014-01-01

    This longitudinal study examined the development of gross motor skills, and sex-differences therein, in 7; to 11-years-old children with learning disorders (LD) and compared the results with typically developing children to determine the performance level of children with LD. In children with LD (n

  13. PSYCHOSEXUAL FUNCTIONING AFTER TREATMENT FOR CANCER OF THE CERVIX - A COMPARATIVE AND LONGITUDINAL-STUDY

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    SCHULTZ, WCMW; VANDEWIEL, HBM; BOUMA, J

    1991-01-01

    Twenty-six couples participated in a 2-year longitudinal study of sexual functioning before and after treatment for carcinoma of the cervix. Sexual functioning was measured on admission prior to their treatment and at 6, 12 and 24 months follow-up and made operational in terms of current sexual beha

  14. Person-Organization (Culture) Fit and Employee Commitment under Conditions of Organizational Change: A Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, John P.; Hecht, Tracy D.; Gill, Harjinder; Toplonytsky, Laryssa

    2010-01-01

    This longitudinal study examines how person-organization fit, operationalized as congruence between perceived and preferred organizational culture, relates to employees' affective commitment and intention to stay with an organization during the early stages of a strategic organizational change. Employees in a large energy company completed surveys…

  15. Investigation of University Students' Self-Acceptance and Learned Resourcefulness: A Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceyhan, A. Aykut; Ceyhan, Esra

    2011-01-01

    Self-acceptance and learned resourcefulness of university students are important concepts in coping with the environmental and developmental stressors and in the development of healthy personality. In this study, university students' self acceptance and learned resourcefulness levels were investigated longitudinally. 198 university students' self…

  16. Longitudinal study on transmission of MRSA CC398 within pig herds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broens, E.M.; Espinosa-Gongora, C.; Graat, E.A.M.; Vendrig, N.J.; Wolf, van der P.J.; Guardabassi, L.; Butaye, P.; Nielsen, J.P.; Jong, de M.; Giessen, van de A.W.

    2012-01-01

    Background Since the detection of MRSA CC398 in pigs in 2004, it has emerged in livestock worldwide. MRSA CC398 has been found in people in contact with livestock and thus has become a public health issue. Data from a large-scale longitudinal study in two Danish and four Dutch pig herds were used to

  17. State Dependence and Trait Stability of Perfectionism: A Short-Term Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, Kenneth G.; Aldea, Mirela A.

    2006-01-01

    The authors examined state dependency on depression, trait stability, and state-trait characteristics of perfectionism in a short-term longitudinal study of university students. Relative stability of perfectionism was assessed with test-retest correlations across 3 time points, and results showed higher rank order and relative stability for…

  18. Relations Among Positive Parenting, Children's Effortful Control, and Externalizing Problems: A Three-Wave Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenberg, Nancy; Zhou, Qing; Spinrad, Tracy L.; Valiente, Carlos; Fabes, Richard A.; Liew, Jeffrey

    2005-01-01

    In a 3-wave longitudinal study (with assessments 2 years apart) involving 186 early adolescents (M ages of approximately 9.3, 11.4, and 13.4), the hypothesis that parental warmth/positive expressivity predicts children's effortful control (EC) (a temperamental characteristic contributing to emotion regulation) 2 years later, which in turn predicts…

  19. Burnout and Physical Health among Social Workers: A Three-Year Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hansung; Ji, Juye; Kao, Dennis

    2011-01-01

    The high risk of burnout in the social work profession is well established, but little is known about burnout's impact on the physical health of social workers. This article examines the relationship between burnout and physical health, using data from a longitudinal study of social workers. California-registered social workers (N = 406) were…

  20. "I Feel So Confused": A Longitudinal Study of Young Adolescents' Change in Self-Esteem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booth, Margaret Zoller; Curran, Erin

    2010-01-01

    This paper investigates the growth of early adolescent self-esteem and self-concept as students progress through the middle level years (sixth through eighth grade). Based on mixed method longitudinal research conducted from 2004 to 2007, the study's findings suggest that this sample of 104 urban students' self-esteem changed most significantly…

  1. The Impact of Outplacement Programs on Reemployment Criteria: A Longitudinal Study of Displaced Managers and Executives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westaby, James D.

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine longitudinally the impact of outplacement support (e.g., counseling end psychological assessment) on several reemployment criteria. A sample of 1,880 managers and executives using the services of a large outplacement organization was examined. Controlling for past salary, severance, and demographics,…

  2. Effects of Nicotine Dependence and Depressive Symptoms on Smoking Cessation: A Longitudinal Study Among Adolescents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scherphof, C.S.; Eijnden, R.J.J.M. van den; Harakeh, Z.; Raaijmakers, Q.A.W.; Kleinjan, M.; Engels, R.C.M.E.; Vollebergh, W.A.M.

    2013-01-01

    Nicotine dependence has been shown to hamper successful smoking cessation in adolescents. Nicotine dependence and depression are highly comorbid, but the relation between depression and smoking cessation is not yet fully understood. Therefore, the present study examines both the longitudinal recipro

  3. Intrinsic and Extrinsic Reading Motivation as Predictors of Reading Literacy: A Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Michael; McElvany, Nele; Kortenbruck, Marthe

    2010-01-01

    The purpose in this study was to examine the longitudinal relationships of intrinsic and extrinsic motivation with reading literacy development. In particular, the authors (a) investigated reading amount as mediator between motivation and reading literacy and (b) probed for bidirectional relationships between reading motivation and reading…

  4. Video-Based Interaction, Negotiation for Comprehensibility, and Second Language Speech Learning: A Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Kazuya; Akiyama, Yuka

    2017-01-01

    This study examined the impact of video-based conversational interaction on the longitudinal development (one academic semester) of second language production by college-level Japanese English-as-a-foreign-language learners. Students in the experimental group engaged in weekly dyadic conversation exchanges with native speakers in the United States…

  5. State-to-State Variations in Early Intervention Systems. National Early Intervention Longitudinal Study (NEILS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hebbeler, Kathleen; Spiker, Donna; Wagner, Mary; Cameto, Renee; McKenna, Patti

    This report provides descriptive information on variations in selected features of state and local early intervention systems. Information was gathered from 20 states as part of the National Early Intervention Longitudinal Study (NEILS). Results indicate a considerable variation along a number of dimensions, including: eligibility criteria; type…

  6. Families' First Experiences with Early Intervention: National Early Intervention Longitudinal Study. NEILS Data Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Don; Scarborough, Anita; Hebbeler, Kathleen

    This report describes several aspects of families' experiences in beginning early intervention services using data from the National Early Intervention Longitudinal Study (NEILS). Funded by the U.S. Department of Education, NEILS is following a nationally representative sample of 3,338 infants and toddlers and their families from the time they…

  7. Relationships between Substance Use and Depressive Symptoms: A Longitudinal Study of Australian Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholes-Balog, Kirsty E.; Hemphill, Sheryl A.; Patton, George C.; Toumbourou, John W.

    2015-01-01

    This study examined longitudinal relationships between depressive symptoms and use of alcohol, cigarettes, and illicit substances among adolescents, addressing methodological limitations and potential confounding in the extant literature. The sample comprised adolescents who were surveyed in Grades 6 (n = 916), 9 (n = 804), and 11 (n = 791).…

  8. Schooling, Childhood Poverty and International Development: Choices and Challenges in a Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyden, Jo; James, Zoe

    2014-01-01

    Due to the rarity of longitudinal data, evidence on the benefits of education across the life-course is relatively sparse in developing countries. Young Lives is the only comparative dual-cohort study to combine data collection using mixed-methods at child, household, school and community levels, following 12,000 children in two cohorts across…

  9. Children's advertising exposure and materialistic orientations: A longitudinal study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Opree, S.J.; Valkenburg, P.M.; Reijmersdal, E.A. van; Buijzen, M.A.

    2012-01-01

    As many as nine out of 10 parents worry that children's frequent exposure to advertising makes them materialistic. In this study we not only aim to investigate if children's advertising exposure indeed affects their materialism, but also how it affects their materialism (i.e., by studying the mediat

  10. Proactivity, job characteristics, and engagement: a longitudinal study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dikkers, J.S.E.; Jansen, P.G.W.; Lange, A.H. de; Vinkenburg, C.J.; Kooij, D.T.A.M.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose - This paper sets out to examine proactive personality in relation to job demands, job resources and engagement. Design/methodology/approach - The current study employed a two-wave complete panel study among 794 Dutch government employees. Based upon the Job Demands-Resources (ID-R) model, p

  11. Proactivity, job characteristics, and engagement : a longitudinal study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dikkers, Josje S. E.; Jansen, Paul G. W.; de Lange, Annet H.; Vinkenburg, Claartje J.; Kooij, Dorien

    2010-01-01

    Purpose - This paper sets out to examine proactive personality in relation to job demands, job resources and engagement. Design/methodology/approach - The current study employed a two-wave complete panel study among 794 Dutch government employees. Based upon the Job Demands-Resources (ID-R) model, p

  12. Proactivity, job characteristics, and engagement: a longitudinal study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dikkers, J.S.E.; Jansen, P.G.W.; Lange, A.H. de; Vinkenburg, C.J.; Kooij, D.T.A.M.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose - This paper sets out to examine proactive personality in relation to job demands, job resources and engagement. Design/methodology/approach - The current study employed a two-wave complete panel study among 794 Dutch government employees. Based upon the Job Demands-Resources (ID-R) model,

  13. Children's advertising exposure and materialistic orientations: A longitudinal study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Opree, S.J.; Valkenburg, P.M.; Reijmersdal, E.A. van; Buijzen, M.A.

    2012-01-01

    As many as nine out of 10 parents worry that children's frequent exposure to advertising makes them materialistic. In this study we not only aim to investigate if children's advertising exposure indeed affects their materialism, but also how it affects their materialism (i.e., by studying the

  14. Proactivity, job characteristics, and engagement: a longitudinal study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dikkers, J.S.E.; Jansen, P.G.W.; Lange, A.H. de; Vinkenburg, C.J.; Kooij, D.T.A.M.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose - This paper sets out to examine proactive personality in relation to job demands, job resources and engagement. Design/methodology/approach - The current study employed a two-wave complete panel study among 794 Dutch government employees. Based upon the Job Demands-Resources (ID-R) model, p

  15. Proactivity, job characteristics, and engagement : a longitudinal study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dikkers, Josje S. E.; Jansen, Paul G. W.; de Lange, Annet H.; Vinkenburg, Claartje J.; Kooij, Dorien

    2010-01-01

    Purpose - This paper sets out to examine proactive personality in relation to job demands, job resources and engagement. Design/methodology/approach - The current study employed a two-wave complete panel study among 794 Dutch government employees. Based upon the Job Demands-Resources (ID-R) model, p

  16. Proactivity, job characteristics, and engagement : a longitudinal study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dikkers, Josje S. E.; Jansen, Paul G. W.; de Lange, Annet H.; Vinkenburg, Claartje J.; Kooij, Dorien

    2010-01-01

    Purpose - This paper sets out to examine proactive personality in relation to job demands, job resources and engagement. Design/methodology/approach - The current study employed a two-wave complete panel study among 794 Dutch government employees. Based upon the Job Demands-Resources (ID-R) model,

  17. A Longitudinal Study of Household Change on African American Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnett, Tracey E.; Rowley, Stephanie; Zimmerman, Marc A.; Vansadia, Preeti; Caldwell, Cleopatra Howard

    2011-01-01

    Few studies have examined the effects of household change on adolescent development. We study household composition change and its effect on development, as measured by both internalizing symptoms and externalizing behaviors, in a sample of urban African American adolescents. Household change was defined based on the movement in or out of the…

  18. Optimising qualitative longitudinal analysis: Insights from a study of traumatic brain injury recovery and adaptation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fadyl, Joanna K; Channon, Alexis; Theadom, Alice; McPherson, Kathryn M

    2017-04-01

    Knowledge about aspects that influence recovery and adaptation in the postacute phase of disabling health events is key to understanding how best to provide appropriate rehabilitation and health services. Qualitative longitudinal research makes it possible to look for patterns, key time points and critical moments that could be vital for interventions and supports. However, strategies that support robust data management and analysis for longitudinal qualitative research in health-care are not well documented in the literature. This article reviews three challenges encountered in a large longitudinal qualitative descriptive study about experiences of recovery and adaptation after traumatic brain injury in New Zealand, and the strategies and technologies used to address them. These were (i) tracking coding and analysis decisions during an extended analysis period; (ii) navigating interpretations over time and in response to new data; and (iii) exploiting data volume and complexity. Concept mapping during coding review, a considered combination of information technologies, employing both cross-sectional and narrative analysis, and an expectation that subanalyses would be required for key topics helped us manage the study in a way that facilitated useful and novel insights. These strategies could be applied in other qualitative longitudinal studies in healthcare inquiry to optimise data analysis and stimulate important insights. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Longitudinal Study of Body Mass Index in Young Males and the Transition to Fatherhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garfield, Craig F.; Duncan, Greg; Gutina, Anna; Rutsohn, Joshua; McDade, Thomas W.; Adam, Emma K.; Coley, Rebekah Levine; Chase-Lansdale, P. Lindsay

    2017-01-01

    Despite a growing understanding that the social determinants of health have an impact on body mass index (BMI), the role of fatherhood on young men’s BMI is understudied. This longitudinal study examines BMI in young men over time as they transition from adolescence into fatherhood in a nationally representative sample. Data from all four waves of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health supported a 20-year longitudinal analysis of 10,253 men beginning in 1994. A “fatherhood-year” data set was created and changes in BMI were examined based on fatherhood status (nonfather, nonresident father, resident father), fatherhood years, and covariates. Though age is positively associated with BMI over all years for all men, comparing nonresident and resident fathers with nonfathers reveals different trajectories based on fatherhood status. Entrance into fatherhood is associated with an increase in BMI trajectory for both nonresident and resident fathers, while nonfathers exhibit a decrease over the same period. In this longitudinal, population-based study, fatherhood and residence status play a role in men’s BMI. Designing obesity prevention interventions for young men that begin in adolescence and carry through young adulthood should target the distinctive needs of these populations, potentially improving their health outcomes. PMID:26198724

  20. Sustaining Continuous Improvement: A Longitudinal and Regional Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henry J. Quesada-Pineda

    2013-09-01

    companies, no changes in perception were found during the period of study for any of the factors. For the other two, however, changes were perceived in at least one of the five constructs in the study. Changes were also found across the regions included. By leveraging the quantitative analysis with qualitative data collected through interviews and visits to the case study companies, we were able to explain the changes in perception and single out the best CI management process to sustain CI in the long term.

  1. Psychological Characteristics of Chronic Depression : A Longitudinal Cohort Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wiersma, Jenneke E.; van Oppen, Patricia; van Schaik, Digna J. F.; van der Does, A. J. Willem; Beekman, Aartjan T. E.; Penninx, Brenda W. J. H.

    Background: Few studies have investigated the importance of psychological characteristics for chronicity of depression. Knowledge about psychological differences between chronically depressed persons and nonchronically depressed persons may help to improve treatment of chronic depression. This is

  2. Establishing a multicenter longitudinal clinical cohort Study in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... clinical cohort Study in Ethiopia: Advanced Clinical Monitoring of Antiretroviral Treatment Project. ... Ethiopian Journal of Health Sciences ... Using similar recruitment procedures, a total of 120 children were enrolled in each of retrospective ...

  3. A systematic review of nonrandomized controlled trials on the curative effects of aquatic exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamioka H

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Hiroharu Kamioka1, Kiichiro Tsutani2, Yoshiteru Mutoh3, Hiroyasu Okuizum4, Miho Ohta5, Shuichi Handa4, Shinpei Okada6, Jun Kitayuguchi7, Masamitsu Kamada7, Nobuyoshi Shiozawa8, Sang-Jun Park4, Takuya Honda4, Shoko Moriyama41Faculty of Regional Environment Science, Tokyo University of Agriculture, Tokyo, Japan; 2Department of Drug Policy and Management, Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, 3Department of Physical and Health Education, Graduate School of Education, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan; 4Mimaki Onsen (Spa Clinic, Tomi City, Japan; 5Laboratory of Aqua, Health, and Sports Medicine, 6Physical Education and Medicine Research Foundation, Nagano, Japan; 7Physical Education and Medicine Research Center Unnan, Unnan City, Japan; 8Department of Longevity and Social Medicine, Okayama University Graduate School of Medicine, Dentistry and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Okayama, JapanBackground: The objectives of this review were to integrate the evidence of curative effects through aquatic exercise and assess the quality of studies based on a review of nonrandomized controlled trials (nRCTs.Methods: Study design was a systematic review of nonrandomized controlled trials. Trials were eligible if they were nonrandomized clinical trials. Studies included one treatment group in which aquatic exercise was applied. We searched the following databases from 2000 up to July 20, 2009: MEDLINE via PubMed, CINAHL, and Ichushi-Web.Results: Twenty-one trials met all inclusion criteria. Languages included were English (N = 9, Japanese (N = 11, and Korean (N = 1. Target diseases were knee and/or hip osteoarthritis, poliomyelitis, chronic kidney disease, discomforts of pregnancy, cardiovascular diseases, and rotator cuff tears. Many studies on nonspecific disease (healthy participants were included. All studies reported significant effectiveness in at least one or more outcomes. However results of evaluations with the TREND and CLEAR-NPT checklists generally

  4. Nurturing Compassion Development among College Students: A Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plante, Thomas; Halman, Katherine

    2016-01-01

    Little research exists on the development of compassion among college undergraduates. This study tracks changes in compassion and identifies factors associated with these changes over the course of undergraduate students' college careers, from the time of admittance to the time of graduation. Compassion levels assessed at the point of college…

  5. Childhood Psychopathology Predicts Adolescence-Onset Offending: A Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buck, Nicole; Verhulst, Frank; van Marle, Hjalmar; van der Ende, Jan

    2013-01-01

    Moffitt, Caspi, Harrington, and Milne (2002) found in a follow-up study that many of the supposedly adolescence-limited offenders had committed offenses past adolescence. This finding raises the question of whether adulthood starts later or whether there are two distinct delinquency types, adolescence limited and adolescence onset, each with its…

  6. A Longitudinal Study on Newcomers' Perception of Organisational Culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turker, Duygu; Altuntas, Ceren

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to analyse how newcomers' perceptions of organisational culture can change over time. The study tries to address whether initial working experience changes newcomers' perceptions about the ideal organisational culture, and whether these perceptions converge with those of their supervisors.…

  7. Does Grading Affect Educational Attainment? A Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klapp, Alli

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to investigate how grading in primary school affected students' achievement measured by grades in 7th, 8th and 9th Grade and educational attainment in upper secondary school (12th Grade), and how the effect varied as a function of students' cognitive ability, gender and socio-economic status. The data derived from the…

  8. A Longitudinal Study on Newcomers' Perception of Organisational Culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turker, Duygu; Altuntas, Ceren

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to analyse how newcomers' perceptions of organisational culture can change over time. The study tries to address whether initial working experience changes newcomers' perceptions about the ideal organisational culture, and whether these perceptions converge with those of their supervisors.…

  9. Childhood Psychopathology Predicts Adolescence-Onset Offending: A Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buck, Nicole; Verhulst, Frank; van Marle, Hjalmar; van der Ende, Jan

    2013-01-01

    Moffitt, Caspi, Harrington, and Milne (2002) found in a follow-up study that many of the supposedly adolescence-limited offenders had committed offenses past adolescence. This finding raises the question of whether adulthood starts later or whether there are two distinct delinquency types, adolescence limited and adolescence onset, each with its…

  10. Ultrasonography of Leprosy Neuropathy: A Longitudinal Prospective Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lugão, Helena Barbosa; Frade, Marco Andrey Cipriani; Marques, Wilson; Foss, Norma Tiraboschi; Nogueira-Barbosa, Marcello Henrique

    2016-11-01

    Previous studies have shown that leprosy multi-drug therapy (MDT) does not stop the progression of nerve function impairment. There are no prospective studies investigating the evolution of nerve anatomic abnormalities after treatment. We examined leprosy patients aiming to investigate the evolution of nerve ultrasonography (US) abnormalities and the risk factors for poor outcomes after MDT. We performed bilateral US of the ulnar (U), median (M) and common fibular (CF) nerves in 9 paucibacillary (PB) and 64 multibacillary (MB) patients before and after MDT. Forty-two patients had leprosy reactions (type 1, type 2, acute neuritis) during the study. We analyzed nerve maximum cross-sectional areas (CSA), echogenicity and Doppler signal. Poor outcomes included a post-treatment CSA above normal limits with a reduction of less than 30% (U, M) or 40% (CF) from the baseline, echogenicity abnormalities or intraneural Doppler in the post-treatment study. We found that PB and patients without reactions showed significant increases in CSA at CF, whereas MB and patients with reactions had CSA reduction in some nerves after treatment (p0.05) and in the patients with reactions compared to those without (66.7% and 38.7%; pleprosy classification were not significant risk factors for poor outcomes in CSA, echogenicity or Doppler. US nerve abnormalities can worsen after treatment despite the leprosy classification or the presence of reactions.

  11. Mothers' Teaching Strategies and Children's Effortful Control: A Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenberg, Nancy; Vidmar, Masa; Spinrad, Tracy L.; Eggum, Natalie D.; Edwards, Alison; Gaertner, Bridget; Kupfer, Anne

    2010-01-01

    Findings on the relation of maternal verbal teaching strategies to children's effortful control (EC; i.e., self-regulation) are limited in quantity and somewhat inconsistent. In this study, children's EC was assessed at 18, 30, and 42 months (ns = 255, 229, and 209, respectively) with adults' reports and a behavioral measure. Mothers' verbal…

  12. Intellectual development in Noonan syndrome: a longitudinal study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roelofs, R.L.; Janssen, N.; Wingbermuhle, E.; Kessels, R.P.C.; Egger, J.I.

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Although cognitive impairments in adults with Noonan syndrome seem to be limited to a low-average intelligence and slower processing speed, studies in children with Noonan syndrome have demonstrated more extensive cognitive problems. These include deficits in language skills, memory, a

  13. A prospective longitudinal study to estimate the prevalence of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Previous studies have suggested a high rate of obesity in children with nocturnal ... to the social class of our patients, the prevalence of obesity was higher than ... to the different modalities of therapies in the groups of patients with different BMI.

  14. Intellectual development in Noonan syndrome: a longitudinal study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roelofs, R.L.; Janssen, N.; Wingbermuhle, E.; Kessels, R.P.C.; Egger, J.I.

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Although cognitive impairments in adults with Noonan syndrome seem to be limited to a low-average intelligence and slower processing speed, studies in children with Noonan syndrome have demonstrated more extensive cognitive problems. These include deficits in language skills, memory, a

  15. A Longitudinal Study Examining Changes in Students' Leadership Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Posner, Barry Z.

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated the impact of a leadership development program in students' first year with the subsequent leadership behaviors of those students in their senior year. Significant changes were reported in the frequency of engaging in leadership behaviors from freshman to senior years. No differences were found on the basis of gender. In…

  16. Longitudinal Study of Self-Regulation of Junior Schoolchildren

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sedova, Ekaterina; Goryacheva, Tatiana

    2012-01-01

    The research studies features of self-regulation of schoolchildren in the age of eight to nine and 11 to 12 years. The sample consisting of 30 students (12 boys and 18 girls) has been divided into two groups--students with good and poor school progress. The school results are compared with the results of neuropsychological tests and the level of…

  17. Mothers' Teaching Strategies and Children's Effortful Control: A Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenberg, Nancy; Vidmar, Masa; Spinrad, Tracy L.; Eggum, Natalie D.; Edwards, Alison; Gaertner, Bridget; Kupfer, Anne

    2010-01-01

    Findings on the relation of maternal verbal teaching strategies to children's effortful control (EC; i.e., self-regulation) are limited in quantity and somewhat inconsistent. In this study, children's EC was assessed at 18, 30, and 42 months (ns = 255, 229, and 209, respectively) with adults' reports and a behavioral measure. Mothers' verbal…

  18. Minorities and Urban Electoral Change: A Longitudinal Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Browning, Rufus P.; And Others

    1979-01-01

    Analyzes changes in minority officeholding, voter turnout, and minority candidacies and coalitions in mayoral and council elections in 10 northern California cities from 1950 to 1977. Expanding on studies of negative impact of nonpartisan elections on Democratic strength, argues that traditional nonpartisan structures have been significantly…

  19. Goal Setting and Student Achievement: A Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moeller, Aleidine J.; Theiler, Janine M.; Wu, Chaorong

    2012-01-01

    The connection between goals and student motivation has been widely investigated in the research literature, but the relationship of goal setting and student achievement at the classroom level has remained largely unexplored. This article reports the findings of a 5-year quasi-experimental study examining goal setting and student achievement in…

  20. A longitudinal study of experiential avoidance in emotional disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spinhoven, P.; Drost, J.; Rooij, M. de; Hemert, A.M. van; Penninx, B.W.J.H.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the degree in which measurements of trait experiential avoidance (EA) are affected by current emotional disorder and whether EA is a causal factor in the course of emotional disorders (anxiety and depressive disorders) and the development of comorbidity among emo

  1. A Longitudinal Study of Experiential Avoidance in Emotional Disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spinhoven, Philip; Drost, Jolijn; de Rooij, Mark; van Hemert, Albert M.; Penninx, Brenda W.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the degree in which measurements of trait experiential avoidance (EA) are affected by current emotional disorder and whether EA is a causal factor in the course of emotional disorders (anxiety and depressive disorders) and the development of comorbidity among emo

  2. Ultrasonography of Leprosy Neuropathy: A Longitudinal Prospective Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frade, Marco Andrey Cipriani; Marques-Jr, Wilson; Foss, Norma Tiraboschi

    2016-01-01

    Background Previous studies have shown that leprosy multi-drug therapy (MDT) does not stop the progression of nerve function impairment. There are no prospective studies investigating the evolution of nerve anatomic abnormalities after treatment. We examined leprosy patients aiming to investigate the evolution of nerve ultrasonography (US) abnormalities and the risk factors for poor outcomes after MDT. Methodology/Principal findings We performed bilateral US of the ulnar (U), median (M) and common fibular (CF) nerves in 9 paucibacillary (PB) and 64 multibacillary (MB) patients before and after MDT. Forty-two patients had leprosy reactions (type 1, type 2, acute neuritis) during the study. We analyzed nerve maximum cross-sectional areas (CSA), echogenicity and Doppler signal. Poor outcomes included a post-treatment CSA above normal limits with a reduction of less than 30% (U, M) or 40% (CF) from the baseline, echogenicity abnormalities or intraneural Doppler in the post-treatment study. We found that PB and patients without reactions showed significant increases in CSA at CF, whereas MB and patients with reactions had CSA reduction in some nerves after treatment (p0.05) and in the patients with reactions compared to those without (66.7% and 38.7%; pleprosy classification were not significant risk factors for poor outcomes in CSA, echogenicity or Doppler. Conclusions/Significance US nerve abnormalities can worsen after treatment despite the leprosy classification or the presence of reactions. PMID:27851766

  3. A Longitudinal Study of Selected Characteristics of Children's Melodic Improvisations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brophy, Timothy S.

    2005-01-01

    This study is an examination of the melodic improvisations of a group of children (N = 62) for 3 years, from ages 7 through 9. Participants improvised as part of a class rondo for Orff instruments, in ABACADA form, in which the B, C, and D sections were 8-measure alto-xylophone improvisations in C pentatonic. Each participant improvised three…

  4. Parenting Practices and Adolescent Sexual Behavior: A Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bersamin, Melina; Todd, Michael; Fisher, Deborah A.; Hill, Douglas L.; Grube, Joel W.; Walker, Samantha

    2008-01-01

    The effects of parental attitudes, practices, and television mediation on adolescent sexual behaviors were investigated in a study of adolescent sexuality and media (N = 887). Confirmatory factor analyses supported an eight-factor parenting model with television mediation factors as constructs distinct from general parenting practices. Logistic…

  5. A Recursive Approach to Mixed Methods Research in a Longitudinal Study of Postsecondary Education Disability Support Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christ, Thomas W.

    2007-01-01

    Mixed methods research has increased in popularity over the past 20 years. Literature reveals that exploratory qualitative analysis followed by confirmatory survey research is common and concurrent studies outnumber longitudinal design. Longitudinal studies using quantitative and qualitative methods in sequence for exploratory purposes are rare,…

  6. High School Longitudinal Study of 2009 (HSLS:09): Base-Year Data File Documentation. NCES 2011-328

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingels, Steven J.; Pratt, Daniel J.; Herget, Deborah R.; Burns, Laura J.; Dever, Jill A.; Ottem, Randolph; Rogers, James E.; Jin, Ying; Leinwand, Steve

    2011-01-01

    The High School Longitudinal Study of 2009 (HSLS:09) is the fifth in a series of National Center for Education Statistics (NCES) secondary longitudinal studies. The core research questions for HSLS:09 explore secondary to postsecondary transition plans and the evolution of those plans; the paths into and out of science, technology, engineering,…

  7. Immigrant Arab Americans and alcohol use: longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arfken, Cynthia L; Broadbridge, Carissa L; Jamil, Hikmet; Arnetz, Bengt B

    2014-12-01

    English proficiency is associated with alcohol use in some immigrants groups, but little is known about its association among Arab Americans. Ethnographic work suggests gender, religion, education, and age influence prevalence of alcohol use among Arab Americans. Two years prospective study of recent Iraqi refugees and non-Iraqi Arab immigrants in Michigan using bilingual surveys and interviewers. At Time 1, prevalence of lifetime alcohol use was 20.5 % with males, Christians, better educated, older, and those with greater proficiency in English more likely to report ever drank. At Time 2, lifetime prevalence of drinking had increased to 34.0 %. In analysis of male new drinkers, risk factors were Christian, older age and greater proficiency in English. This study confirms drinking among recent immigrant Arab Americans varies by subgroups and suggests English proficiency may contribute to the increase in prevalence over time.

  8. A longitudinal study of Acinetobacter in three Australian hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, C; Richards, M; Black, J; Sinickas, V; Dendle, C; Korman, T; Spelman, D

    2007-11-01

    Acinetobacter has recently risen in prominence as a nosocomial pathogen, particularly due to increasing antibiotic resistance. The aim of this study was to describe changes in rates and antibiotic susceptibility patterns of Acinetobacter in three Melbourne hospitals. This was a retrospective review of microbiology records over five years. The rates of new clinical isolates of Acinetobacter per 10 000 discharges per quarter were calculated. Other information collected included antibiotic susceptibility patterns, age, gender, length of stay and ward [intensive care unit (ICU) or non-ICU]. Rates increased substantially at two hospitals, but not at the third. Increasing numbers at one hospital were associated with antibiotic resistance. Most first isolates were identified while the patient was in the ICU. Many isolates were from respiratory specimens, although a significant proportion was from blood. This study documents the establishment of Acinetobacter as a nosocomial pathogen in two Melbourne hospitals and serves as a warning for the future.

  9. Exploring paradigms of crime reduction: An empirical longitudinal study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Soothill, University of Lancaster, Keith; Christoffersen, Mogens; Azhar, Hussain

    Using Danish registers for a 1980 birth cohort of 29,944 males with parental information and following up these cases for 24 years, the study considers four paradigms of crime reduction (parental child-rearing, structural factors around adolescence, locality and individual resources). Focusing...... more widespread benefits, but the assumed causal links need to be further explored. The use of population registers, under controlled conditions, provides an important window on criminal careers....

  10. Longitudinal study of mortality among refugees in Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollander, Anna-Clara; Bruce, Daniel; Ekberg, Jan; Burström, Bo; Borrell, Carme; Ekblad, Solvig

    2012-08-01

    Refugee immigrants have poorer health than other immigrant groups but little is known about their mortality. A comparison of mortality among refugees and non-refugee immigrants is liable to exaggerate the former if the latter includes labour migrants, whose mortality risk may be lower than that of the general population. To avoid bias, labour migrants are not included in this study. The aim was to investigate mortality risks among refugees compared with non-labour non-refugee immigrants in Sweden. Population-based cohort design, starting 1 January 1998 and ending with death or censoring 31 December 2006. Persons included in the study were those aged 18-64 years, had received a residence permit in Sweden 1992-98 and were defined by the Swedish Board of Migration as either a refugee or a non-labour non-refugee immigrant. The outcomes were all-cause and cause-specific mortalities and the main exposure was being a refugee. Cox-regression models estimated hazard ratios (HRs) of mortality. The study population totalled 86,395 persons, 49.3% women, 24.2 % refugees. Adjusted for age and origin, refugee men had an over-risk of cardiovascular mortality (HR = 1.58, 95% CI = 1.08-2.33). With socio-economic factors added to the model, refugee men still had an over-risk mortality in cardiovascular disease (HR = 1.53, 95% CI = 1.04-2.24) and external causes (HR = 1.59, 95% CI = 1.01-2.50). Refugee men in Sweden have a higher mortality risk in cardiovascular and external causes compared with male non-labour non-refugee immigrants. This study suggests that the refugee experience resembles other stressors in terms of the association with cardiovascular mortality.

  11. Longitudinal study of the biotypes of Gardnerella vaginalis.

    OpenAIRE

    Briselden, A M; Hillier, S L

    1990-01-01

    Gardnerella vaginalis is the predominant vaginal microorganism in women with bacterial vaginosis. However, this organism is also frequently isolated from women without signs or symptoms of vaginitis. Earlier studies have not revealed whether certain biotypes of G. vaginalis are more often associated with bacterial vaginosis or are more common in women who acquire bacterial vaginosis. We used a typing scheme based on tests for beta-galactosidase, hippurate hydrolysis, and lipase, using oleate ...

  12. Exploring paradigms of crime reduction: An empirical longitudinal study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Soothill, University of Lancaster, Keith; Christoffersen, Mogens; Azhar, Hussain

    on offenders with first-time convictions for shoplifting (n=1,778), for violence (n=1,585) and for burglary (n=1,208), all four paradigms made a contribution to risk of first time offending for all three crimes. The counter factual analysis indicated that a focus on structural issues within a society may have......Using Danish registers for a 1980 birth cohort of 29,944 males with parental information and following up these cases for 24 years, the study considers four paradigms of crime reduction (parental child-rearing, structural factors around adolescence, locality and individual resources). Focusing...

  13. Longitudinal study of serum placental GH in 455 normal pregnancies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chellakooty, Marla; Skibsted, Lillian; Skouby, Sven O

    2002-01-01

    women with normal singleton pregnancies at approximately 19 and 28 wk gestation. Serum placental GH concentrations were measured by a highly specific immunoradiometric assay, and fetal size was measured by ultrasound. Data on birth weight, gender, prepregnancy body mass index (BMI), parity, and smoking.......002). Placental GH at second examination was positively correlated with gestational age (P = 0.002) and negatively correlated with prepregnancy BMI (P = 0.039). Placental GH correlated with fetal weight at approximately 28 wk gestation (P = 0.002) but did not predict birth weight at term. Our study supports...

  14. Smoking reduction and biomarkers in two longitudinal studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Godtfredsen, Nina; Prescott, Eva; Vestbo, Jørgen

    2006-01-01

    /83 and 1991/94, and the Copenhagen Male Study (CMS) in 1976 and 1985/86, respectively. PARTICIPANTS: There were 3026 adults who were smokers at both time-points in the CCHS and 1319 men smoking at both time-points in the CMS. MEASUREMENTS: Smoking status and tobacco consumption were assessed by self......-completion questionnaire. Measurements of biomarkers of smoke intake were taken at the second time-point in the two studies: expired-air carbon monoxide (CO) in the CCHS and serum cotinine in the CMS. Biomarker levels in medium (15-29 g tobacco/day) and heavy (> 30 g/day) smokers at the first time-point who later reported...... a reduction in cigarettes per day of 50% or more without quitting were compared with continuing medium, heavy and light smokers (1-14 g/day) using linear regression. Sex (CCHS only), age, self-reported inhalation of smoke, duration of smoking, type of tobacco and amount smoked were included as covariates...

  15. Glucose metabolism in injured tissue: A longitudinal study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daley, J.M.; Shearer, J.D.; Mastrofrancesco, B.; Caldwell, M.D. (Brown Univ., Providence, RI (USA))

    1990-02-01

    Injured tissue is characterized by increased glucose uptake and increased lactate production as compared to normal tissue. These metabolic changes have been attributed to the presence of inflammatory cells in injured tissues. To correlate these metabolic changes with changes in the inflammatory cell population at various times after injury, we studied the lambda-carrageenan hindlimb wound model in anesthetized rats. Perfusion studies demonstrated that at 3 and 5 days after injury glucose uptake was increased in injured hindlimbs, compared with hindlimbs from pair-fed control animals. At 3, 5, and 10 days after injury, lactate production from glucose was increased in injured hindlimbs, compared with hindlimbs from pair-fed control animals. These metabolic changes were not related to differences in body weight or food intake. There was no difference in glucose oxidation or in oxygen consumption in injured hindlimbs, compared with hindlimbs from pair-fed control animals. The increased glucose uptake and increased lactate production from glucose was coincident with the presence of inflammatory cells--predominantly macrophages--at the site of injury. It is suggested that the glucose metabolism in injured tissue reflects the metabolism of the inflammatory cells at the site of injury.

  16. WORD PROCESSING AND SECOND LANGUAGE WRITING: A LONGITUDINAL CASE STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alister Cumming

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to determine whether word processing might change a second language (L2 leamer's writing processes and improve the quality of his essays over a relatively long period of time. We worked from the assumption that research comparing word-processing to pen and paper composing tends to show positive results when studies include lengthy terms of data collection and when appropriate instruction and training are provided. We compared the processes and products of L2 composing displayed by a 29-year-old, male Mandarin leamer of English with intermediate proficiency in English while he wrote, over 8 months, 14 compositions grouped into 7 comparable pairs of topics altemating between uses of a lap-top computer and of pen and paper. Al1 keystrokes were recorded electronically in the computer environrnent; visual records of al1 text changes were made for the pen-and paper writing. Think-aloud protocols were recorded in al1 sessions. Analyses indicate advantages for the word-processing medium over the pen-and-paper medium in terms ofi a greater frequency of revisions made at the discourse level and at the syntactical level; higher scores for content on analytic ratings of the completed compositions; and more extensive evaluation ofwritten texts in think-aloud verbal reports.

  17. A longitudinal study of children's text messaging and literacy development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Clare; Meachem, Sally; Bowyer, Samantha; Jackson, Emma; Tarczynski-Bowles, M Luisa; Plester, Beverly

    2011-08-01

    Recent studies have shown evidence of positive concurrent relationships between children's use of text message abbreviations ('textisms') and performance on standardized assessments of reading and spelling. This study aimed to determine the direction of this association. One hundred and nineteen children aged between 8 and 12 years were assessed on measures of general ability, reading, spelling, rapid phonological retrieval, and phonological awareness at the beginning and end of an academic year. The children were also asked to provide a sample of the text messages that they sent over a 2-day period. These messages were analyzed to determine the extent to which textisms were used. It was found that textism use at the beginning of the academic year was able to predict unique variance in spelling performance at the end of the academic year after controlling for age, verbal IQ, phonological awareness, and spelling ability at the beginning of the year. When the analysis was reversed, reading and spelling ability were unable to predict unique variance in textism usage. These data suggest that there is some evidence of a causal contribution of textism usage to spelling performance in children aged 8-12 years. However, when the measure of rapid phonological retrieval (rapid picture naming) was controlled in the analysis, the relationship between textism use and spelling ability just failed to reach statistical significance, suggesting that phonological access skills may mediate some of the relationship between textism use and spelling performance. ©2011 The British Psychological Society.

  18. Workplace health interventions in small enterprises: a Swedish longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinberg, Stig

    2008-01-01

    This article has a two-fold approach. First, it investigates relationships between work organizational factors, and health and performance outcomes. Second, it compares two change strategy approaches in workplace health interventions by studying changes of these factors and outcomes. The sample consisted of ten Swedish small enterprises including 102 individuals, who answered a before and after questionnaire about organizational factors and outcomes. The leaders were interviewed and answered a questionnaire about performed workplace health interventions. Statistical methods used were reliability tests, correlation analyses and t-tests. Results indicate rather strong links between indicators of respectful leadership, creative work and team spirit, and the outcome indicators self-assessed health and judged workplace adaptability in association with customer satisfaction. The results concerning changes of determinants and outcomes (after workplace health interventions) showed significant differences between enterprises using a broad change strategy and those using an expert/problem-based strategy with the former having more favourable results. The leader interview results also point at obstacles concerning workplace change processes as lack of resources, insufficient competence and influence of external factors. The study results suggest that work organizational factors and integrated models for workplace health intervention are of importance for health and performance outcomes in small enterprises.

  19. The relationship between study addiction and work addiction: A cross-cultural longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atroszko, Paweł A; Andreassen, Cecilie Schou; Griffiths, Mark D; Pallesen, Ståle

    2016-12-01

    Aims Recent empirical studies investigating "study addiction" have conceptualized it as a behavioral addiction, defined within the framework of work addiction. This study is the first attempt to examine the longitudinal relationship between study addiction and work addiction. Methods The Bergen Study Addiction Scale (BStAS), the Bergen Work Addiction Scale (BWAS), and the Ten-Item Personality Inventory were administered online together with questions concerning demographics and study-related variables in two waves. In Wave 1, a total of 2,559 students in Norway and 2,177 students in Poland participated. A year later, in Wave 2, 379 Norwegians and 401 Polish who began to work professionally completed the survey. Results The intraclass correlation between BStAS and BWAS revealed that the scores were somewhat related; however, the relationship was slightly weaker than the temporal stability of both constructs. In the Norwegian sample, scoring higher on neuroticism and lower on learning time outside educational classes in Wave 1 was positively related to work addiction in Wave 2, whereas gender was unrelated to work addiction in Wave 2 when controlling for other studied variables in either samples. Conclusion Study addiction and work addiction appear to be closely related suggesting that the former may be a precursor for (or an early form of) the latter.

  20. Longitudinal study of magnesium status of Israeli military recruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolev, E; Burstein, R; Wishnitzer, R; Lubin, F; Chetriet, A; Shefi, M; Deuster, P A

    The following study was conducted to assess the biochemical and nutritional status of new military recruits during 12 weeks of strenuous physical activity. Calorie and magnesium (Mg) intake, energy expenditure, and serum, red blood cell (RBC) and mononuclear cell (MNC) Mg were assessed at the start, after 6 weeks and after 12 weeks of training. The results provide evidence that MNC Mg content decreases, whereas serum Mg increases, under prolonged, strenuous training conditions in previously unconditioned military recruits. Mg dietary intake alone could not account for these changes. It is postulated that this decrease in MNC Mg (from 64.76 +/- 34.99 to 23.81 +/- 15.55 fg/cell), unparalleled by similar changes in serum Mg or RBC Mg, reflects a reduction in exchangeable Mg body stores, and the onset of a Mg deficiency state.