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Sample records for nonrandomized control group

  1. The quality of control groups in nonrandomized studies published in the Journal of Hand Surgery.

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    Johnson, Shepard P; Malay, Sunitha; Chung, Kevin C

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate control group selection in nonrandomized studies published in the Journal of Hand Surgery American (JHS). We reviewed all papers published in JHS in 2013 to identify studies that used nonrandomized control groups. Data collected included type of study design and control group characteristics. We then appraised studies to determine whether authors discussed confounding and selection bias and how they controlled for confounding. Thirty-seven nonrandomized studies were published in JHS in 2013. The source of control was either the same institution as the study group, a different institution, a database, or not provided in the manuscript. Twenty-nine (78%) studies statistically compared key characteristics between control and study group. Confounding was controlled with matching, exclusion criteria, or regression analysis. Twenty-two (59%) papers explicitly discussed the threat of confounding and 18 (49%) identified sources of selection bias. In our review of nonrandomized studies published in JHS, papers had well-defined controls that were similar to the study group, allowing for reasonable comparisons. However, we identified substantial confounding and bias that were not addressed as explicit limitations, which might lead the reader to overestimate the scientific validity of the data. Incorporating a brief discussion of control group selection in scientific manuscripts should help readers interpret the study more appropriately. Authors, reviewers, and editors should strive to address this component of clinical importance. Copyright © 2015 American Society for Surgery of the Hand. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Insulin resistance and occurrence and prognosis of ischemic stroke A non-randomized concurrent control and intra-group comparison

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiaohong Zhao; Shaojun Jiang; Yue Tan

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Clinical evidence has demonstrated that insulin resistance might be an independent risk factor for ischemic stroke, which has not been recognized. At present, insulin resistance has been proven to be an independent risk factor for coronary arteriosclerotic heart disease. However, the relationship between the onset and prognosis of ischemic stroke remains unclear. OBJECTIVE: This study was designed to analyze the relationship between insulin resistance and ischemic stroke and the correlation between insulin resistance and stroke risk factor, and to investigate the relationship between insulin resistance and ischemic stroke prognosis as well as whether insulin resistance is an independent prognostic factor. DESIGN: A non-randomized concurrent control experiment. SETTING: Department of Geriatric Disease, Second Affiliated Hospital of Kunming Medical College. PARTICIPANTS: A total of 106 inpatients with ischemic stroke of the cervical internal carotid artery, who had suffered from the disease within the previous 72 hours, were admitted to the Department of Neurology, First Affiliated Hospital of Kunming Medical College from March to December in 2005 and, recruited for the present study. All 106 inpatients corresponded to the diagnostic criteria of ischemic stroke, formulated at the Fourth National Cerebrovascular Disease Conference in 1995, and were confirmed as having had an ischemic stroke by CT/MRI examinations. The patient group consisted of 54 males and 52 females. An additional 50 healthy individuals, who received health examinations simultaneously, were included as controls. Among the control subjects, there were 26 males and 24 females. Informed consent for laboratory measurements was obtained from all subjects; this study was approved by the Hospital Ethics Committee.METHODS: Following admission, all subjects were inquired of age, gender, previous history, blood pressure, body temperature, admission time, and smoking habits. Meanwhile, they were

  3. Effect of cognitive behavioral group therapy for recovery of self-esteem on community-living individuals with mental illness: Non-randomized controlled trial.

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    Kunikata, Hiroko; Yoshinaga, Naoki; Nakajima, Kazuo

    2016-10-01

    The aim of this study was to examine over a 12-month post-intervention period whether the participation of community-living individuals with mental illness in cognitive behavioral group therapy for recovery of self-esteem (CBGTRS) resulted in improved outcomes. This was a non-randomized controlled trial. The participants were persons with mental illness who resided in communities in the Chugoku region of Japan. In total, 41 were assigned to an experimental group (CBGTRS intervention, 12 group sessions), and 21 to a control group. Outcome indices (self-esteem, moods, cognition, subjective well-being, psychiatric symptoms) were measured for the experimental group prior to intervention (T0), immediately post-intervention (T1), and at 3 (T2) and 12 (T3) months post-intervention. The control group was measured at the same intervals. For the experimental group, self-esteem scores at T1, T2, and T3 were significantly higher than at T0. Moods and cognition scores remained significantly low until T2. Scores for Inadequate Mental Mastery in the subjective well-being index had not decreased by T3. Confidence in Coping remained significantly high until T2. Psychiatric symptoms scores at T0, T1, T2, and T3 were significantly lower than at T0. The means and standard errors for self-esteem and Inadequate Mental Mastery increased until T3, and those for Tension-Anxiety, Depression-Dejection, and Confusion decreased until T2. From within-group trends and between-group differences in self-esteem, we conclude that CBGTRS may have a relatively long-term effect on self-esteem recovery. T2 is the turning point for moods and cognition; thus, follow-up is needed 3 months following the initial program. © 2016 The Authors. Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences © 2016 Japanese Society of Psychiatry and Neurology.

  4. Effective Group Training for Patients with Unexplained Physical Symptoms: A Randomized Controlled Trial with a Non-Randomized One-Year Follow-Up

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    Zonneveld, Lyonne N. L.; van Rood, Yanda R.; Timman, Reinier; Kooiman, Cornelis G.; van't Spijker, Adriaan; Busschbach, Jan J. V.

    2012-01-01

    Background Although cognitive-behavioral therapy for Unexplained Physical Symptoms (UPS) is effective in secondary care, studies done in primary care produced implementation problems and conflicting results. We evaluated the effectiveness of a cognitive-behavioral group training tailored to primary care patients and provided by a secondary community mental-health service reaching out into primary care. Methodology/Principal Findings The effectiveness of this training was explored in a randomized controlled trial. In this trial, 162 patients with UPS classified as undifferentiated somatoform disorder or as chronic pain disorder were randomized either to the training or a waiting list. Both lasted 13 weeks. The preservation of the training's effect was analyzed in non-randomized follow-ups, for which the waiting group started the training after the waiting period. All patients attended the training were followed-up after three months and again after one year. The primary outcomes were the physical and the mental summary scales of the SF-36. Secondary outcomes were the other SF-36-scales and the SCL-90-R. The courses of the training's effects in the randomized controlled trial and the follow-ups were analyzed with linear mixed modeling. In the randomized controlled trial, the training had a significantly positive effect on the quality of life in the physical domain (Cohen's d = 0.38;p = .002), but this overall effect was not found in the mental domain. Regarding the secondary outcomes, the training resulted in reporting an improved physical (Cohen's d = 0.43;p = 0.01), emotional (Cohen's d = 0.44;p = .0.01), and social (Cohen's d = 0.36;p = 0.01) functioning, less pain and better functioning despite pain (Cohen's d = 0.51;p =  PMID:22880056

  5. Effective group training for patients with unexplained physical symptoms: a randomized controlled trial with a non-randomized one-year follow-up.

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    Lyonne N L Zonneveld

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Although cognitive-behavioral therapy for Unexplained Physical Symptoms (UPS is effective in secondary care, studies done in primary care produced implementation problems and conflicting results. We evaluated the effectiveness of a cognitive-behavioral group training tailored to primary care patients and provided by a secondary community mental-health service reaching out into primary care. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The effectiveness of this training was explored in a randomized controlled trial. In this trial, 162 patients with UPS classified as undifferentiated somatoform disorder or as chronic pain disorder were randomized either to the training or a waiting list. Both lasted 13 weeks. The preservation of the training's effect was analyzed in non-randomized follow-ups, for which the waiting group started the training after the waiting period. All patients attended the training were followed-up after three months and again after one year. The primary outcomes were the physical and the mental summary scales of the SF-36. Secondary outcomes were the other SF-36-scales and the SCL-90-R. The courses of the training's effects in the randomized controlled trial and the follow-ups were analyzed with linear mixed modeling. In the randomized controlled trial, the training had a significantly positive effect on the quality of life in the physical domain (Cohen's d = 0.38;p = .002, but this overall effect was not found in the mental domain. Regarding the secondary outcomes, the training resulted in reporting an improved physical (Cohen's d = 0.43;p = 0.01, emotional (Cohen's d = 0.44;p = 0.01, and social (Cohen's d = 0.36;p = 0.01 functioning, less pain and better functioning despite pain (Cohen's d = 0.51;p =

  6. Effective group training for patients with unexplained physical symptoms: A randomized controlled trial with a non-randomized one-year follow-up

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L.N.L. Zonneveld (Lyonne); Y.R. van Rood (Yanda); R. Timman (Reinier); C.G. Kooiman (Cornelis); A. van 't Spijker (Adriaan); J.J. van Busschbach (Jan)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Although cognitive-behavioral therapy for Unexplained Physical Symptoms (UPS) is effective in secondary care, studies done in primary care produced implementation problems and conflicting results. We evaluated the effectiveness of a cognitive-behavioral group training tailore

  7. Use versus Nonuse of Repeater Examinees in Common Item Linear Equating with Nonrandom Groups.

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    Cope, Ronald T.

    This study considers the use of repeaters when test equating. The subjects consist of five groups of applicants to a professional certification program. Each group comprises first time examinees and repeaters. The procedures include a common item linear equating with nonrandom groups, use of equating chains, and the use of total examinee group…

  8. A systematic review of nonrandomized controlled trials on the curative effects of aquatic exercise

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    Kamioka H

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Hiroharu Kamioka1, Kiichiro Tsutani2, Yoshiteru Mutoh3, Hiroyasu Okuizum4, Miho Ohta5, Shuichi Handa4, Shinpei Okada6, Jun Kitayuguchi7, Masamitsu Kamada7, Nobuyoshi Shiozawa8, Sang-Jun Park4, Takuya Honda4, Shoko Moriyama41Faculty of Regional Environment Science, Tokyo University of Agriculture, Tokyo, Japan; 2Department of Drug Policy and Management, Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, 3Department of Physical and Health Education, Graduate School of Education, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan; 4Mimaki Onsen (Spa Clinic, Tomi City, Japan; 5Laboratory of Aqua, Health, and Sports Medicine, 6Physical Education and Medicine Research Foundation, Nagano, Japan; 7Physical Education and Medicine Research Center Unnan, Unnan City, Japan; 8Department of Longevity and Social Medicine, Okayama University Graduate School of Medicine, Dentistry and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Okayama, JapanBackground: The objectives of this review were to integrate the evidence of curative effects through aquatic exercise and assess the quality of studies based on a review of nonrandomized controlled trials (nRCTs.Methods: Study design was a systematic review of nonrandomized controlled trials. Trials were eligible if they were nonrandomized clinical trials. Studies included one treatment group in which aquatic exercise was applied. We searched the following databases from 2000 up to July 20, 2009: MEDLINE via PubMed, CINAHL, and Ichushi-Web.Results: Twenty-one trials met all inclusion criteria. Languages included were English (N = 9, Japanese (N = 11, and Korean (N = 1. Target diseases were knee and/or hip osteoarthritis, poliomyelitis, chronic kidney disease, discomforts of pregnancy, cardiovascular diseases, and rotator cuff tears. Many studies on nonspecific disease (healthy participants were included. All studies reported significant effectiveness in at least one or more outcomes. However results of evaluations with the TREND and CLEAR-NPT checklists generally

  9. Intravenous Immunoglobulin Therapy in Pediatric Narcolepsy: A Nonrandomized, Open-Label, Controlled, Longitudinal Observational Study

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    Lecendreux, Michel; Berthier, Johanna; Corny, Jennifer; Bourdon, Olivier; Dossier, Claire; Delclaux, Christophe

    2017-01-01

    Study Objectives: Previous case reports of intravenous immunoglobulins (IVIg) in pediatric narcolepsy have shown contradictory results. Methods: This was a nonrandomized, open-label, controlled, longitudinal observational study of IVIg use in pediatric narcolepsy with retrospective data collection from medical files obtained from a single pediatric national reference center for the treatment of narcolepsy in France. Of 56 consecutively referred patients with narcolepsy, 24 received IVIg (3 infusions administered at 1-mo intervals) in addition to standard care (psychostimulants and/or anticataplectic agents), and 32 continued on standard care alone (controls). Results: For two patients in each group, medical files were unavailable. Of the 22 IVIg patients, all had cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) hypocretin ≤ 110 pg/mL and were HLA-DQB1*06:02 positive. Of the 30 control patients, 29 were HLA-DQB1*06:02 positive and of those with available CSF measurements, all 12 had hypocretin ≤ 110 pg/mL. Compared with control patients, IVIg patients had shorter disease duration, shorter latency to sleep onset, and more had received H1N1 vaccination. Mean (standard deviation) follow-up length was 2.4 (1.1) y in the IVIg group and 3.9 (1.7) y in controls. In multivariate-adjusted linear mixed-effects analyses of change from baseline in Ullanlinna Narcolepsy Scale (UNS) scores, high baseline UNS, but not IVIg treatment, was associated with a reduction in narcolepsy symptoms. On time-to-event analysis, among patients with high baseline UNS scores, control patients achieved a UNS score narcolepsy symptoms were not significantly reduced by IVIg. However, in patients with high baseline symptoms, a subset of IVIg-treated patients achieved remission more rapidly than control patients. Commentary: A commentary on this article appears in this issue on page 363. Citation: Lecendreux M, Berthier J, Corny J, Bourdon O, Dossier C, Delclaux C. Intravenous immunoglobulin therapy in pediatric

  10. Belonging to a peer support group enhance the quality of life and adherence rate in patients affected by breast cancer: A non-randomized controlled clinical trialFNx01

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    Afsaneh Malekpour Tehrani

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Breast cancer is the most common cancer in women. It seems that breast cancer patients benefit from meeting someone who had a similar experience. This study evaluated the effect of two kinds of interventions (peer support and educational program on quality of life in breast cancer patients. Methods: This study was a controlled clinical trial on women with non-metastatic breast cancer. The patients studied in two experimental and control groups. Experimental group took part in peer support program and control group passed a routine educational program during 3 months. The authors administered SF-36 for evaluating the quality of life pre-and post intervention. Also, patient′s adherence was assessed by means of a simple checklist. Results: Two groups were similar with respect of age, age of onset of the disease, duration of having breast cancer, marital status, type of the treatment receiving now, and type of the received surgery. In the control group, there were statistically significant improvements in body pain, role-physical, role-emotional and social functioning. In experimental group, role-physical, vitality, social functioning, role-emotional and mental health showed significant improvement. Vitality score and mental health score in experimental group was significantly higher than that of the control group, both with p < 0.001. Also, it was shown that adherence was in high levels in both groups and no significant difference was seen after the study was done. Conclusions: According to the results of this study, supporting the patients with breast cancer by forming peer groups or by means of educational sessions could improve their life qualities.

  11. An intervention to reduce HIV risk behavior of substance-using men who have sex with men: a two-group randomized trial with a nonrandomized third group.

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    Gordon Mansergh

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Substance use during sex is associated with sexual risk behavior among men who have sex with men (MSM, and MSM continue to be the group at highest risk for incident HIV in the United States. The objective of this study is to test the efficacy of a group-based, cognitive-behavioral intervention to reduce risk behavior of substance-using MSM, compared to a randomized attention-control group and a nonrandomized standard HIV-testing group. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Participants (n = 1,686 were enrolled in Chicago, Los Angeles, New York City, and San Francisco and randomized to a cognitive-behavioral intervention or attention-control comparison. The nonrandomized group received standard HIV counseling and testing. Intervention group participants received six 2-h group sessions focused on reducing substance use and sexual risk behavior. Attention-control group participants received six 2-h group sessions of videos and discussion of MSM community issues unrelated to substance use, sexual risk, and HIV/AIDS. All three groups received HIV counseling and testing at baseline. The sample reported high-risk behavior during the past 3 mo prior to their baseline visit: 67% reported unprotected anal sex, and 77% reported substance use during their most recent anal sex encounter with a nonprimary partner. The three groups significantly (p0.05 from each other at 3-, 6-, and 12-mo follow-up. Outcomes for the 2-arm comparisons were not significantly different at 12-mo follow-up (e.g., unprotected anal sex, odds ratio = 1.14, confidence interval = 0.86-1.51, nor at earlier time points. Similar results were found for each outcome variable in both 2- and 3-arm comparisons. CONCLUSIONS: These results for reducing sexual risk behavior of substance-using MSM are consistent with results of intervention trials for other populations, which collectively suggest critical challenges for the field of HIV behavioral interventions. Several mechanisms may contribute to

  12. Evidence for non-random sampling in randomised, controlled trials by Yuhji Saitoh.

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    Carlisle, J B; Loadsman, J A

    2017-01-01

    A large number of randomised trials authored by Yoshitaka Fujii have been retracted, in part as a consequence of a previous analysis finding a very low probability of random sampling. Dr Yuhji Saitoh co-authored 34 of those trials and he was corresponding author for eight of them. We found a number of additional randomised, controlled trials that included baseline data, with Saitoh as corresponding author, that Fujii did not co-author. We used Monte Carlo simulations to analyse the baseline data from 32 relevant trials in total as well as an outcome (muscle twitch recovery ratios) reported in several. We also compared a series of muscle twitch recovery graphs appearing in a number of Saitoh's publications. The baseline data in 14/32 randomised, controlled trials had p sampling. Combining the continuous and categorical probabilities of the 32 included trials, we found a very low likelihood of random sampling: p = 1.27 × 10(-8) (1 in 100,000,000). The high probability of non-random sampling and the repetition of lines in multiple graphs suggest that further scrutiny of Saitoh's work is warranted. © 2016 The Association of Anaesthetists of Great Britain and Ireland.

  13. Outcome of Percutaneous Release of Tennis Elbow: A Non-Randomized Controlled Trial Study

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    Khatri, Kishor; Kharel, Krishna; Byanjankar, Subin; Shrestha, Rahul; Sharma, Jay R; Vaishya, Raju; Agarwal, Amit kumar; Vijay, Vipul

    2017-01-01

    Background Tennis elbow is a common disorder of the upper extremity. It can be treated conservatively in the majority of patients, but some resistant cases eventually can be treated by percutaneous release with good functional outcome. Materials and methods This non-randomized control trial was conducted at the Department of Orthopaedics Surgery in a tertiary care hospital from July 2015 to June 2016 on 50 patients who underwent percutaneous release of the common extensor origin using an 18 gauge hypodermic needle. These patients did not respond to conservative treatment including rest, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDS) and local steroid injections. The outcome was graded as Excellent, Good, Fair, and Poor. Results Fifty patients (50 elbows) were included in the study. Thirty-two patients were female (64%), and 18 were male (36%). The right side was affected in 37 patients (74%) and left side in 13 (26%). The time taken to achieve a completely pain-free elbow ranged from one day to two months (average of 26.2 days). Those who did not achieve a pain-free elbow had a residual pain of 1.5 to six on the visual analogue scale (VAS) (average 2.32). Excellent outcome was noticed in 24 patients (48%); Good result in eight patients (36% ); Fair in four patients (eight percent) and Poor in four patients (eight percent). Conclusion Tennis elbow probably results from the degenerative tear of the common extensor origin, and a percutaneous tenotomy using an 18 gauge hypodermic needle is a simple, safe, patient-friendly, efficient, and easily reproducible method of treating tennis elbow in those who are resistant to conservative treatment, and it can be done as an outpatient procedure. PMID:28168130

  14. Effectiveness and Safety of Acupuncture for Poststroke Dysphagia: Study Protocol for a Pragmatic Multicenter Nonrandomized Controlled Trial

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    Guo, Yuan Qi

    2017-01-01

    Background. Dysphagia is one of the most common complications of stroke. Acupuncture is widely employed to treat poststroke dysphagia in East Asia. No evidence is established to support such treatment approach. This proposed study aims to evaluate the effectiveness and safety of acupuncture for the treatment of poststroke dysphagia. Methods and Design. This is a multicenter, pragmatic, single-blinded, nonrandomized controlled clinical trial. A total of 140 eligible patients will be enrolled in the study. Subjects who are eligible in study but refuse to have acupuncture treatment will be put on the no-acupuncture control arm. Both groups of patients will receive standard routine care, while the patients of intervention group will receive add-on standardized acupuncture treatment. Each participant in intervention group will receive a total of 24 sessions of acupuncture treatment (three times per week). The primary outcome measure is the Royal Brisbane Hospital Outcome Measure for Swallowing (RBHOMS). Secondary outcome measures include functional oral intake scale, swallow quality-of-life questionnaire in Chinese version, BMI of the participant, and adverse events. All outcome measures will be assessed at baseline, at the end of acupuncture treatment (month 2), and at two months after treatment (month 4). Ethics and Dissemination. The ethics approval of clinical research study was granted by the Research Ethics Committee of both New Territories East and West Cluster of Hong Kong. Written informed consent will be obtained from all participants and the study will be undertaken according to the ICH-GCP Guidelines. Trial Registration. This trial is registered with chictr.org (registration number: ChiCTR-TRC-12002621 and registration date: 2012-10-26). PMID:28246537

  15. Effectiveness of a 'Global Postural Reeducation' program for persistent Low Back Pain: a non-randomized controlled trial

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    Violante Francesco S

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of this non-randomized controlled trial was to evaluate the effectiveness of a Global Postural Reeducation (GPR program as compared to a Stabilization Exercise (SE program in subjects with persistent low back pain (LBP at short- and mid-term follow-up (ie. 3 and 6 months. Methods According to inclusion and exclusion criteria, 100 patients with a primary complaint of persistent LBP were enrolled in the study: 50 were allocated to the GPR group and 50 to the SE group. Primary outcome measures were Roland and Morris Disability Questionnaire (RMDQ and Oswestry Disability Index (ODI. Secondary outcome measures were lumbar Visual Analogue Scale (VAS and Fingertip-to-floor test (FFT. Data were collected at baseline and at 3/6 months by health care professionals unaware of the study. An intention to treat approach was used to analyze participants according to the group to which they were originally assigned. Results Of the 100 patients initially included in the study, 78 patients completed the study: 42 in the GPR group and 36 in the SE group. At baseline, the two groups did not differ significantly with respect to gender, age, BMI and outcome measures. Comparing the differences between groups at short- and mid-term follow-up, the GPR group revealed a significant reduction (from baseline in all outcome measures with respect to the SE group. The ordered logistic regression model showed an increased likelihood of definitive improvement (reduction from baseline of at least 30% in RMDQ and VAS scores for the GPR group compared to the SE group (OR 3.9, 95% CI 2.7 to 5.7. Conclusions Our findings suggest that a GPR intervention in subjects with persistent LBP induces a greater improvement on pain and disability as compared to a SE program. These results must be confirmed by further studies with higher methodological standards, including randomization, larger sample size, longer follow-up and subgrouping of the LBP subjects. Trial

  16. Neurotransmitter changes in patients with Parkinson's disease detected by encephalofluctuography technology A non-randomized control study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yan Han; Zhenfu Wang; Yang Yang; Xianhong Chen; Hong Sun

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Encephalofluctuograph Technology (ET) is an advanced and non-traumatic analytical method of brain function. ET can acquire super-slow waves from electroencephalic signals. Studies have shown that these particular spectra can reflect neurochemical processes in the brain. OBJECTIVE: To verify neurotransmitter changes in the brains Parkinson's disease (PD) patients through the use of ET. DESIGN, TIME AND SETTING: A non-randomized concurrent control experiment was performed at the Department of Neurology in Southern Building, General Hospital of Chinese PLA from August to December 2007. PARTICIPANTS: Sixty-one outpatients with PD were selected from the General Hospital of Chinese PLA from August 2007 to December 2007. In addition, 48 healthy subjects were selected as normal controls. METHODS: All patients underwent assessment of the sub scale Ⅱ,Ⅲ, and V of the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS), in which part Ⅱ was used to inform activity of daily living, part Ⅲ reflected athletic ability, and part Ⅴ was the Hoehn & Yahr grade for symptoms evaluation. Correlation analysis was performed between dopamine levels and UPDRS assessment. Neurotransmitter changes were observed forty-eight prior to and 1.5 hours after medicating with Benserazide. The S1, S2, S4, S5,S7, and S11 spectras respectively reflect gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), glutamic acid (Glu), 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT), acetylcholine (ACh), norepinephrine, and dopamine. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Neurotransmitter changes in the brains of all subjects, and correlations between dopamine concentrations and UPDRS assessment. Neurotransmitter changes in a subgroup of patients prior to and 1.5 hours after medicating with Benserazide. RESULTS: Concentrations of 5-HT, ACh, and norepinephrine were decreased in the PD group, and GABA was increased. However, there was no significant difference compared with the normal control group (P > 0.05). The level of dopamine in PD group was

  17. Effectiveness of team-based learning in microbiology: a non-randomized control study.

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    Harakuni, Sheetal U; Nagamoti, Jyoti M; Mallapur, Maheshwar D

    2015-01-01

    As per the present curriculum in India, pre- and paraclinical subjects are taught away from the clinical setting. Therefore, students fail to connect the subject taught through didactic lectures to the clinical setting. Team-based learning (TBL) can be used in conjunction with lectures to teach applied microbiology. This study aims to evaluate the effectiveness of TBL sessions in conjunction with lectures to enhance learning of applied microbiology, among Indian students. All students enrolled in the study were taught systemic bacteriology through lectures. Of the 88 students, 49 students (study group) attended TBL sessions on the topics of diarrhea, fever of unknown origin, urinary tract infection and 39 students (control group) preferred self-study on the topics without attending the TBL sessions. Students' feedback on their perception on TBL sessions was collected using a questionnaire of 10 items. The performance of both the groups on the pre- and post-test were analyzed using unpaired t-test and analysis of variance (ANOVA). Gender-wise performance within the teams was analyzed by paired t-test using SPSS version 12. The TBL group outperformed the self-study group on the post-test [F 1 = 5.521, P = 0.021]. Female students as a whole performed better than males on the pre-test, scoring higher within both the TBL and self-study groups. Male students in the TBL group performed significantly better on the post-test than female students who participated in TBL sessions (P = 0.013). Students generally enjoyed and appreciated the TBL sessions. TBL sessions can be used judiciously in combination with the lectures to enhance learning of applied microbiology in India. In this study, TBL improved the performance of male students over self-study, but performance for female students following TBL was no better than when they simply studied by themselves.

  18. Vitamin D status and weight loss: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized and nonrandomized controlled weight-loss trials.

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    Mallard, Simonette R; Howe, Anna S; Houghton, Lisa A

    2016-10-01

    Obesity is associated with lower concentrations of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D; however, uncertainty exists as to the direction of causation. To date, meta-analyses of randomized controlled vitamin D-supplementation trials have shown no effect of raising circulating vitamin D on body weight, although several weight-loss-intervention trials have reported an increase in circulating vitamin D after weight reduction. We undertook a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized and nonrandomized controlled trials to determine whether weight loss compared with weight maintenance leads to an increase in serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D. A systematic search for controlled weight-loss-intervention studies published up to 31 March 2016 was performed. Studies that included participants of any age with changes in adiposity and serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D as primary or secondary outcomes were considered eligible. We identified 4 randomized controlled trials (n = 2554) and 11 nonrandomized controlled trials (n = 917) for inclusion in the meta-analysis. Random assignment to weight loss compared with weight maintenance resulted in a greater increase in serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D with a mean difference of 3.11 nmol/L (95% CI: 1.38, 4.84 nmol/L) between groups, whereas a mean difference of 4.85 nmol/L (95% CI: 2.59, 7.12 nmol/L) was observed in nonrandomized trials. No evidence for a dose-response effect of weight loss on the change in serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D was shown overall. Our results indicate that vitamin D status may be marginally improved with weight loss in comparison with weight maintenance under similar conditions of supplemental vitamin D intake. Although additional studies in unsupplemented individuals are needed to confirm these findings, our results support the view that the association between obesity and lower serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D may be due to reversed causation with increased adiposity leading to suboptimal concentrations of circulating vitamin D. This trial was

  19. Clinical Pathways Based on Integrative Medicine in Chinese Hospitals Improve Treatment Outcomes for Patients with Acute Myocardial Infarction: A Multicentre, Nonrandomized Historically Controlled Trial

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    Lei Wang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To determine the impact of an integrative medicine clinical pathways (CPs on the length of in-hospital stay and on outcomes for patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI. Methods. A multicenter nonrandomized controlled trial enrolling 197 consecutive patients with AMI at eight urban TCM hospitals was conducted between 1 January 2010 and 31 October 2010. These patients were enrolled in the interventional group after the CPs had been implemented. The control group included 405 patients with AMI from eight hospitals; these patients were treated between 1 January 2008 and 31 December 2009, before the CPs were implemented. Outcome measures were the length of hospital stay costs of medical care, and major cardiovascular events (MACEs during hospitalization. Results. Compared with the control group, the patients in intervention group had a shorter length of hospital stay (9.2±4.2 days versus 12.7±8.6 days, P<0.05, and reduced healthcare costs in hospital (46365.7±18266.9 versus 52866.0±35404.4, P<0.05. There were statistically significant differences in MACE between the two groups during the hospitalization period (2.5% versus 6.9%, P=0.03. Conclusion. These data suggest that the development and implementation of the clinical pathways based in Integrative Medicine could further improve quality of care and outcome for patients with AMI.

  20. The NARCONON™ drug education curriculum for high school students: A non-randomized, controlled prevention trial

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    Cecchini Marie A

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background An estimated 13 million youths aged 12 to 17 become involved with alcohol, tobacco and other drugs annually. The number of 12- to 17-year olds abusing controlled prescription drugs increased an alarming 212 percent between 1992 and 2003. For many youths, substance abuse precedes academic and health problems including lower grades, higher truancy, drop out decisions, delayed or damaged physical, cognitive, and emotional development, or a variety of other costly consequences. For thirty years the Narconon program has worked with schools and community groups providing single educational modules aimed at supplementing existing classroom-based prevention activities. In 2004, Narconon International developed a multi-module, universal prevention curriculum for high school ages based on drug abuse etiology, program quality management data, prevention theory and best practices. We review the curriculum and its rationale and test its ability to change drug use behavior, perceptions of risk/benefits, and general knowledge. Methods After informed parental consent, approximately 1000 Oklahoma and Hawai'i high school students completed a modified Center for Substance Abuse Prevention (CSAP Participant Outcome Measures for Discretionary Programs survey at three testing points: baseline, one month later, and six month follow-up. Schools assigned to experimental conditions scheduled the Narconon curriculum between the baseline and one-month follow-up test; schools in control conditions received drug education after the six-month follow-up. Student responses were analyzed controlling for baseline differences using analysis of covariance. Results At six month follow-up, youths who received the Narconon drug education curriculum showed reduced drug use compared with controls across all drug categories tested. The strongest effects were seen in all tobacco products and cigarette frequency followed by marijuana. There were also significant

  1. Evaluation of the Prevention and Reactivation Care Program (PReCaP) for the hospitalized elderly: A prospective nonrandomized controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K.J.E. Asmus-Szepesi (Kirsten); L.E. Flinterman (Linda); M.A. Koopmanschap (Marc); A.P. Nieboer (Anna); T.J.E.M. Bakker (Ton); J.P. Mackenbach (Johan); E.W. Steyerberg (Ewout)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractBackground: The hospitalized elderly are at risk of functional decline. We evaluated the effects and care costs of a specialized geriatric rehabilitation program aimed at preventing functional decline among at-risk hospitalized elderly. Methods: The prospective nonrandomized controlled

  2. Botulinum toxin injection versus lateral internal sphincterotomy in the treatment of chronic anal fissure: a non-randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulusoy Nefise B

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although lateral internal sphincterotomy is the gold-standard treatment for chronic anal fissure, intrasphincteric injection of botulinum toxin seems to be a reliable new option. The aim of this non-randomized study is to compare the effect of lateral internal sphincterotomy and botulinum toxin injection treatments on the outcome and reduction of anal sphincter pressures in patients with chronic anal fissure. Methods Patients with chronic anal fissure were treated with either botulinum toxin injection or lateral internal sphincterotomy by their own choice. Maximal resting pressure and maximal squeeze pressure measurements were performed before and 2 weeks after treatments by anal manometry. Patients were followed for fissure relapse during 14 months. Results Twenty-one consecutive outpatients with posterior chronic anal fissure were enrolled. Eleven patients underwent surgery and ten patients received botulinum toxin injection treatment. Before the treatment, anal pressures were found to be similar in both groups. After the treatment, the maximal resting pressures were reduced from 104 ± 22 mmHg to 86 ± 15 mmHg in the surgery group (p 0.05 in the surgery group, and from 117 ± 62 mmHg to 76 ± 34 (p 0.05. There were no relapses during the 14 months of follow up. Conclusion Lateral internal sphincterotomy and botulinum toxin injection treatments both seem to be equally effective in the treatment of chronic anal fissure.

  3. Additive Complex Ayurvedic Treatment in Patients with Fibromyalgia Syndrome Compared to Conventional Standard Care Alone: A Nonrandomized Controlled Clinical Pilot Study (KAFA Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian S. Kessler

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Fibromyalgia (FMS is a challenging condition for health care systems worldwide. Only limited trial data is available for FMS for outcomes of complex treatment interventions of complementary and integrative (CIM approaches. Methods. We conducted a controlled, nonrandomized feasibility study that compared outcomes in 21 patients treated with Ayurveda with those of 11 patients treated with a conventional approach at the end of a two-week inpatient hospital stay. Primary outcome was the impact of fibromyalgia on patients as assessed by the FIQ. Secondary outcomes included scores of pain intensity, pain perception, depression, anxiety, and quality of sleep. Follow-up assessments were done after 6 months. Results. At 2 weeks, there were comparable and significant improvements in the FIQ and for most of secondary outcomes in both groups with no significant in-between-group differences. The beneficial effects for both treatment groups were partly maintained for the main outcome and a number of secondary outcomes at the 6-month followup, again with no significant in-between-group differences. Discussion. The findings of this feasibility study suggest that Ayurvedic therapy is noninferior to conventional treatment in patients with severe FMS. Since Ayurveda was only used as add-on treatment, RCTs on Ayurveda alone are warranted to increase model validity. This trial is registered with NCT01389336.

  4. Does balneotherapy with low radon concentration in water influence the endocrine system? A controlled non-randomized pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagy, Katalin; Berhés, István; Kovács, Tibor; Kávási, Norbert; Somlai, János; Bender, Tamás

    2009-08-01

    Radon bath is a well-established modality of balneotherapy for the management of degenerative musculoskeletal disorders. The present study was conducted to ascertain whether baths of relatively low (80 Bq/l) radon concentration have any influence on the functioning of the endocrine system. In the study, a non-randomized pilot study, 27 patients with degenerative musculoskeletal disorders received 30-min radon baths (of 31-32 degrees C temperature and 80 Bq/l average radon concentration) daily, for 15 days. Twenty-five patients with matching pathologies were subjected to balneotherapy according to the same protocol, using thermal water with negligible radon content (6 Bq/l). Serum thyroid stimulating hormone, prolactin, cortisol, adrenocorticotropic hormone, and dehydroepiandrosterone levels were measured before and after a balneotherapy course of 15 sessions. Comparison of the accumulated data using the Wilcoxon test did not reveal any significant difference between pre- and post-treatment values or between the two patient groups. It is noted that while the beneficial effects of balneotherapy with radon-containing water on degenerative disorders is widely known, only few data have been published in the literature on its effect on endocrine functions. The present study failed to demonstrate any substantial effect of thermal water with relatively low radon content on the functioning of the endocrine system.

  5. The NARCONON™ drug education curriculum for high school students: A non-randomized, controlled prevention trial

    OpenAIRE

    Cecchini Marie A; Lennox Richard D

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background An estimated 13 million youths aged 12 to 17 become involved with alcohol, tobacco and other drugs annually. The number of 12- to 17-year olds abusing controlled prescription drugs increased an alarming 212 percent between 1992 and 2003. For many youths, substance abuse precedes academic and health problems including lower grades, higher truancy, drop out decisions, delayed or damaged physical, cognitive, and emotional development, or a variety of other costly consequences...

  6. Skin-impedance in Fabry Disease: A prospective, controlled, non-randomized clinical study

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    Lidicker Jeffrey R

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We previously demonstrated improved sweating after enzyme replacement therapy (ERT in Fabry disease using the thermo-regularity sweat and quantitative sudomotor axon reflex tests. Skin-impedance, a measure skin-moisture (sweating, has been used in the clinical evaluation of burns and pressure ulcers using the portable dynamic dermal impedance monitor (DDIM system. Methods We compared skin impedance measurements in hemizygous patients with Fabry disease (22 post 3-years of bi-weekly ERT and 5 ERT naive and 22 healthy controls. Force compensated skin-moisture values were used for statistical analysis. Outcome measures included 1 moisture reading of the 100th repetitive reading, 2 rate of change, 3 average of 60–110th reading and 4 overall average of all readings. Results All outcome measures showed a significant difference in skin-moisture between Fabry patients and control subjects (p Conclusion The instrument portability, ease of its use, a relatively short time required for the assessment, and the fact that DDIM system was able to detect the difference in skin-moisture renders the instrument a useful clinical tool.

  7. Efficacy of Health Education using Facebook to Promote Healthy Lifestyle among Medical Students in Puducherry, India: A Non-Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnamohan, Smrithi; Stalin, P; Singh, Zile; Sridhar, Maghida

    2017-07-01

    Increasing burden of overweight and obesity among young adults is mainly due to unhealthy lifestyle especially with respect to diet and physical activity. At the same time, younger generations are spending more time with social network sites. Therefore, this study was intended to explore the role of social networking sites in promoting healthy lifestyle. To measure the efficacy of health education using social networking sites in promoting healthy lifestyle among medical students in Puducherry, India. A non-randomized controlled trial was conducted in a private medical college located in Puducherry. The study participants were overweight/obese individuals with (intervention arm) and without Facebook account (control arm). Following a baseline survey, both the groups received health education from dietician and physical trainer using Audiovisual (AV) aids. Intervention group received health education through Facebook in the forms of messages, pictures and videos for six weeks. Then, follow up survey was done to assess the change in dietary pattern, physical activity and body weight. Data of those who attended baseline, intervention and follow up surveys (23- control and 22- intervention) were analysed. Means and proportions were calculated. Paired t-test and Chi-square test were used to calculate the p-value. The p-valuejunk food intake per week was reduced in both control and intervention groups from 2.91 days/week and 3.27 days/week at baseline to 2.65 days/week to two days/week at follow up respectively. A significant decrease in the Body Mass Index (BMI) (pactivity and intake of fruits and vegetables. Except for the decrease in junk food intake, use of Facebook as an effective tool to promote healthy lifestyle could not be proved with confidence.

  8. A 3-year multicentre randomized controlled trial of etonogestrel- and levonorgestrel-releasing contraceptive implants, with non-randomized matched copper-intrauterine device controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahamondes, Luis; Brache, Vivian; Meirik, Olav; Ali, Moazzam; Habib, Ndema; Landoulsi, Sihem

    2015-11-01

    Is there any difference in the clinical performance of the 3-year one-rod etonogestrel (ENG)- and the 5-year two-rod levonorgestrel (LNG)-releasing contraceptive implants during 3 years of insertion, and between implant and intrauterine device (IUD) contraception, in particular complaints possibly related to hormonal contraceptives? The cumulative contraceptive effectiveness after 3 years and method continuation through 2.5 years were not significantly different between ENG and LNG implants, but both outcomes were significantly worse in the non-randomized age-matched group of IUD users than in the combined implant group. ENG- and LNG-releasing implants are safe and highly efficacious contraceptives with pregnancy rates reported to be 0.0-0.5 per 100 women-years (W-Y). No head-to-head comparative study of the two implants has been undertaken, and little information is available on comparisons of complaints of side effects of implant and copper IUD users. This was an open parallel group RCT with 1:1 allocation ratio of the ENG and the LNG implants with non-randomized control group of women choosing TCu380A IUD to address lack of reliable data on common side effects typically attributed to the use of progestogen-only contraceptives. After device(s) placement, follow-ups were at 2 weeks, 3 and 6 months, and semi-annually thereafter for 3 years or until pregnancy, removal or expulsion of the implant/IUD occurred. The study took place in family planning clinics in Brazil, Chile, Dominican Republic, Hungary, Thailand, Turkey and Zimbabwe. Women seeking long-term contraception were enlisted after an eligibility check and informed consent, and 2982 women were enrolled: 1003, 1005 and 974 in the ENG-implant, LNG-implant and IUD groups, respectively; 995, 997 and 971, respectively, were included in the per protocol analysis reported here. ENG and LNG implants each had the same 3-year cumulative pregnancy rate of 0.4 per 100 W-Y [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.1-1.4]. A weight

  9. Evaluation of the Prevention and Reactivation Care Program (PReCaP for the hospitalized elderly: a prospective nonrandomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asmus-Szepesi KJ

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Kirsten J Asmus-Szepesi,1 Linda E Flinterman,1 Marc A Koopmanschap,2 Anna P Nieboer,2 Ton J Bakker,3 Johan P Mackenbach,1 Ewout W Steyerberg1 1Department of Public Health, Erasmus University Medical Center, 2Institute of Health Policy and Management, Erasmus University, 3Stichting Wetenschap Balans, Rotterdam, the Netherlands Background: The hospitalized elderly are at risk of functional decline. We evaluated the effects and care costs of a specialized geriatric rehabilitation program aimed at preventing functional decline among at-risk hospitalized elderly.Methods: The prospective nonrandomized controlled trial reported here was performed in three hospitals in the Netherlands. One hospital implemented the Prevention and Reactivation Care Program (PReCaP, while two other hospitals providing usual care served as control settings. Within the PReCaP hospital we compared patients pre-implementation with patients post-implementation of the PReCaP (“within-hospital analysis”, while our nonrandomized controlled trial compared patients of the PReCaP hospital post-implementation with patients from the two control hospitals providing usual care (“between-hospital analysis”. Hospitalized patients 65 years or older and at risk of functional decline were interviewed at baseline and at 3 and 12 months using validated questionnaires to score functioning, depression, and health-related quality of life (HRQoL. We estimated costs per unit of care from hospital information systems and national data sources. We used adjusted general linear mixed models to analyze functioning and HRQoL.Results: Between-hospital analysis showed no difference in activities of daily living (ADL or instrumental activities of daily living (IADL between PReCaP patients and control groups. PReCaP patients did have slightly better cognitive functioning (Mini Mental State Examination; 0.4 [95% confidence interval (CI 0.2–0.6], lower depression (Geriatric Depression Scale 15; -0

  10. A Complex Multiherbal Regimen Based on Ayurveda Medicine for the Management of Hepatic Cirrhosis Complicated by Ascites: Nonrandomized, Uncontrolled, Single Group, Open-Label Observational Clinical Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Manish V; Patel, Kalapi B; Gupta, Shivenarain; Michalsen, Andreas; Stapelfeldt, Elmar; Kessler, Christian S

    2015-01-01

    Hepatic cirrhosis is one of the leading causes of death worldwide, especially if complicated by ascites. This chronic condition can be related to the classical disease entity jalodara in Traditional Indian Medicine (Ayurveda). The present paper aims to evaluate the general potential of Ayurvedic therapy for overall clinical outcomes in hepatic cirrhosis complicated by ascites (HCcA). In form of a nonrandomized, uncontrolled, single group, open-label observational clinical study, 56 patients fulfilling standardized diagnostic criteria for HCcA were observed during their treatment at the P. D. Patel Ayurveda Hospital, Nadiad, India. Based on Ayurvedic tradition, a standardized treatment protocol was developed and implemented, consisting of oral administration of single and compound herbal preparations combined with purificatory measures as well as dietary and lifestyle regimens. The outcomes were assessed by measuring liver functions through specific clinical features and laboratory parameters and by evaluating the Child-Pugh prognostic grade score. After 6 weeks of treatment and a follow-up period of 18 weeks, the outcomes showed statistically significant and clinically relevant improvements. Further larger and randomized trials on effectiveness, safety, and quality of the Ayurvedic approach in the treatment of HCcA are warranted to support these preliminary findings.

  11. A Complex Multiherbal Regimen Based on Ayurveda Medicine for the Management of Hepatic Cirrhosis Complicated by Ascites: Nonrandomized, Uncontrolled, Single Group, Open-Label Observational Clinical Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manish V. Patel

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Hepatic cirrhosis is one of the leading causes of death worldwide, especially if complicated by ascites. This chronic condition can be related to the classical disease entity jalodara in Traditional Indian Medicine (Ayurveda. The present paper aims to evaluate the general potential of Ayurvedic therapy for overall clinical outcomes in hepatic cirrhosis complicated by ascites (HCcA. In form of a nonrandomized, uncontrolled, single group, open-label observational clinical study, 56 patients fulfilling standardized diagnostic criteria for HCcA were observed during their treatment at the P. D. Patel Ayurveda Hospital, Nadiad, India. Based on Ayurvedic tradition, a standardized treatment protocol was developed and implemented, consisting of oral administration of single and compound herbal preparations combined with purificatory measures as well as dietary and lifestyle regimens. The outcomes were assessed by measuring liver functions through specific clinical features and laboratory parameters and by evaluating the Child-Pugh prognostic grade score. After 6 weeks of treatment and a follow-up period of 18 weeks, the outcomes showed statistically significant and clinically relevant improvements. Further larger and randomized trials on effectiveness, safety, and quality of the Ayurvedic approach in the treatment of HCcA are warranted to support these preliminary findings.

  12. Effect of post-stroke sensory disorders on the recovery processes of motor function and activity of daily living A non-randomized synchroniesl controlled trial

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND:In the rehabilitation of stroke patients,clinicians usually concentrate on motor problems,such as spasm of limbs and restriction of joint motion,while sensory and perceptive problems are almost always neglected,although they are just as important.One such area is the sensory disorder. OBJECTIVE:To evaluate the motor function and activities of daily living in stroke patients with and without sensory disorders after treatment of integrated western and Chinese medicine.DESIGN:A non-randomized synchronically controlled trial.SETTING:First Affiliated Hospital of Tianjin College of Traditional Chinese Medicine.PARTICIPANTS:Totally 500 stroke inpatients were selected from the Department of Acupuncture and Massage,the First Affiliated Hospital of Tianjin College of Traditional Chinese Medicine from January 2003 to December 2004.They all had suffered from stroke in the last 4 weeks and accompanied by sensory disorder of the ipsilateral limb to different severity.The patients were all accorded with the Diagnostic and Efficacy Evaluative Standards for Stroke (in trial)set by the Encephalopathy Emergency Assistant Group,the State Administration of Traditional Chinese Medicine in 1995,and they were diagnosed by imaging examination.The patients were stratified into sensory disorder group (n =220) and normal sense group (n=280).Informed consent for the detected items and therapeutic program was obtained from the relatives of all the participants.The study was approved by the hospital ethical committee.METHODS:All the patients were treated with acupuncture of Xing Nao Kai Qiao for restoring consciousness and inducing resuscitation,assisted by traditional Chinese medicine and western medicine specific to corresponding symptoms.The therapeutic principles were restoring consciousness and inducing resuscitation,nourishing liver and kidney,and dredging meridian.In addition,the patients were given western medical treatments for decreasing intracranial pressure

  13. Evaluation of an advanced pressure ulcer management protocol followed by trained wound, ostomy, and continence nurses: a non-randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaitani T

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Toshiko Kaitani,1 Gojiro Nakagami,2 Junko Sugama,3 Masahiro Tachi,4 Yutaka Matsuyama,5 Yoshiki Miyachi,6 Takashi Nagase,2 Yukie Takemura,7 Hiromi Sanada2 1School of Nursing, Sapporo City University, Hokkaido, Japan; 2Department of Gerontological Nursing/Wound Care Management, Graduate School of Medicine, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan; 3Department of Clinical Nursing, Institute of Medical, Pharmaceutical and Health Sciences, Kanazawa University, Kanazawa, Japan; 4Department of Plastic Surgery, Tohoku University Graduate School of Medicine, Miyagi, Japan; 5Department of Biostatistics, School of Public Health, Graduate School of Medicine, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan; 6Department of Dermatology, Kyoto University Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto, Japan; 7Department of Nursing, Research Hospital, The Institute of Medical Science, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan Aims and objectives: We investigated the effectiveness and safety of an advanced pressure ulcer (PU management protocol comprising 1 ultrasonography to assess the deep tissue, 2 use of a non-contact thermometer to detect critical colonization, 3 conservative sharp debridement, 4 dressing selection, 5 negative pressure wound therapy, and 6 vibration therapy in comparison with those of a conventional approach. Each protocol was followed by trained wound, ostomy, and continence nurses (WOCNs. Background: At present, there is no systematic PU management protocol for nurses that includes appropriate assessment and intervention techniques for deep tissue injury and critical colonization. In Japan, there is no such protocol that the nurses can follow without a physician’s orders. Design and methods: This was a prospective non-randomized controlled trial. Over a 3-week period, we evaluated the effectiveness of an advanced protocol by comparing the PU severity and healing on the basis of the DESIGN-R scale and presence of patients' discomfort. We recruited ten WOCNs to follow

  14. Interventions for Preventing Childhood Obesity with Smartphones and Wearable Device: A Protocol for a Non-Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hye Jung; Kang, Jae-Heon; Kim, Ok Hyun; Choi, Mona; Oh, Myungju; Nam, Jihyun; Sung, Eunju

    2017-02-13

    Childhood obesity is a critical health issue, both currently and for the foreseeable future. To prevent obesity, behavior changes are essential. Smartphones can be a good tool, as the number of child smartphone users is rapidly increasing. We have developed a mobile platform system named "HAPPY ME," which is a smartphone application coupled with a wearable device, designed to improve healthy behaviors to prevent childhood obesity. This study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of obesity prevention among children 10-12 years of age using HAPPY ME. A total of 1000 participants, all fifth and sixth graders from four schools, were assigned to either control or intervention groups by school. Students in the intervention group used HAPPY ME. The study comprises a safety test, a 12-week efficacy test, and a six-month follow-up test to determine the long-term effects of preventive intervention via the integrated service platform. The integrated service platform aims to facilitate child-parent-school participation, involving the child-parent mobile application, a child-teacher mobile web, and a school website. Primary outcome measures are behavioral changes, including healthy eating, increased physical activity, and fitness. Secondary outcome measures are changes in anthropometric parameters (body weight, height, body mass index z-score, and waist circumference), body mass index (BMI) percentiles (obesity rate), and psychological perceptions among participants. The results of this study will offer evidence of the effectiveness of a mobile platform service with a multi-component intervention program based on a comprehensive approach.

  15. Interventions for Preventing Childhood Obesity with Smartphones and Wearable Device: A Protocol for a Non-Randomized Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hye Jung; Kang, Jae-Heon; Kim, Ok Hyun; Choi, Mona; Oh, Myungju; Nam, Jihyun; Sung, Eunju

    2017-01-01

    Background: Childhood obesity is a critical health issue, both currently and for the foreseeable future. To prevent obesity, behavior changes are essential. Smartphones can be a good tool, as the number of child smartphone users is rapidly increasing. We have developed a mobile platform system named “HAPPY ME,” which is a smartphone application coupled with a wearable device, designed to improve healthy behaviors to prevent childhood obesity. This study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of obesity prevention among children 10–12 years of age using HAPPY ME. Methods: A total of 1000 participants, all fifth and sixth graders from four schools, were assigned to either control or intervention groups by school. Students in the intervention group used HAPPY ME. The study comprises a safety test, a 12-week efficacy test, and a six-month follow-up test to determine the long-term effects of preventive intervention via the integrated service platform. The integrated service platform aims to facilitate child-parent-school participation, involving the child-parent mobile application, a child-teacher mobile web, and a school website. Primary outcome measures are behavioral changes, including healthy eating, increased physical activity, and fitness. Secondary outcome measures are changes in anthropometric parameters (body weight, height, body mass index z-score, and waist circumference), body mass index (BMI) percentiles (obesity rate), and psychological perceptions among participants. Conclusions: The results of this study will offer evidence of the effectiveness of a mobile platform service with a multi-component intervention program based on a comprehensive approach. PMID:28208839

  16. Interventions for Preventing Childhood Obesity with Smartphones and Wearable Device: A Protocol for a Non-Randomized Controlled Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hye Jung Yang

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Childhood obesity is a critical health issue, both currently and for the foreseeable future. To prevent obesity, behavior changes are essential. Smartphones can be a good tool, as the number of child smartphone users is rapidly increasing. We have developed a mobile platform system named “HAPPY ME,” which is a smartphone application coupled with a wearable device, designed to improve healthy behaviors to prevent childhood obesity. This study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of obesity prevention among children 10–12 years of age using HAPPY ME. Methods: A total of 1000 participants, all fifth and sixth graders from four schools, were assigned to either control or intervention groups by school. Students in the intervention group used HAPPY ME. The study comprises a safety test, a 12-week efficacy test, and a six-month follow-up test to determine the long-term effects of preventive intervention via the integrated service platform. The integrated service platform aims to facilitate child-parent-school participation, involving the child-parent mobile application, a child-teacher mobile web, and a school website. Primary outcome measures are behavioral changes, including healthy eating, increased physical activity, and fitness. Secondary outcome measures are changes in anthropometric parameters (body weight, height, body mass index z-score, and waist circumference, body mass index (BMI percentiles (obesity rate, and psychological perceptions among participants. Conclusions: The results of this study will offer evidence of the effectiveness of a mobile platform service with a multi-component intervention program based on a comprehensive approach.

  17. Quantitative assessment of unobserved confounding is mandatory in nonrandomized intervention studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groenwold, R H H; Hak, E; Hoes, A W

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: In nonrandomized intervention studies unequal distribution of patient characteristics in the groups under study may hinder comparability of prognosis and therefore lead to confounding bias. Our objective was to review methods to control for observed confounding, as well as unobserved conf

  18. Systematic reviews incorporating evidence from nonrandomized study designs: reasons for caution when estimating health effects.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reeves, B.C.; Binsbergen, J.J. van; Weel, C. van

    2005-01-01

    Systematic reviews that include nonrandomized studies (NRS) face a number of logistical challenges. However, the greatest threat to the validity of such reviews arises from the differing susceptibility of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and NRS to selection bias. Groups compared in NRS are unlik

  19. Impact of a Multifaceted and Clinically Integrated Training Program in Evidence-Based Practice on Knowledge, Skills, Beliefs and Behaviour among Clinical Instructors in Physiotherapy: A Non-Randomized Controlled Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina Rydland Olsen

    Full Text Available Physiotherapists practicing at clinical placement sites assigned the role as clinical instructors (CIs, are responsible for supervising physiotherapy students. For CIs to role model evidence-based practice (EBP they need EBP competence. The aim of this study was to assess the short and long term impact of a six-month multifaceted and clinically integrated training program in EBP on the knowledge, skills, beliefs and behaviour of CIs supervising physiotherapy students.We invited 37 CIs to participate in this non-randomized controlled study. Three self-administered questionnaires were used pre- and post-intervention, and at six-month follow-up: 1 The Adapted Fresno test (AFT, 2 the EBP Belief Scale and 3 the EBP Implementation Scale. The analysis approach was linear regression modeling using Generalized Estimating Equations.In total, 29 CIs agreed to participate in the study: 14 were invited to participate in the intervention group and 15 were invited to participate in the control group. One in the intervention group and five in the control group were lost to follow-up. At follow-up, the group difference was statistically significant for the AFT (mean difference = 37, 95% CI (15.9 -58.1, p < 0.001 and the EBP Beliefs scale (mean difference = 8.1, 95% CI (3.1 -13.2, p = 0.002, but not for the EBP Implementation scale (mean difference = 1.8. 95% CI (-4.5-8.1, p = 0.574. Comparing measurements over time, we found a statistically significant increase in mean scores related to all outcome measures for the intervention group only.A multifaceted and clinically integrated training program in EBP was successful in improving EBP knowledge, skills and beliefs among CIs. Future studies need to ensure long-term EBP behaviour change, in addition to assessing CIs' abilities to apply EBP knowledge and skills when supervising students.

  20. Impact of a Multifaceted and Clinically Integrated Training Program in Evidence-Based Practice on Knowledge, Skills, Beliefs and Behaviour among Clinical Instructors in Physiotherapy: A Non-Randomized Controlled Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, Nina Rydland; Bradley, Peter; Espehaug, Birgitte; Nortvedt, Monica Wammen; Lygren, Hildegunn; Frisk, Bente; Bjordal, Jan Magnus

    2015-01-01

    Background and Purpose Physiotherapists practicing at clinical placement sites assigned the role as clinical instructors (CIs), are responsible for supervising physiotherapy students. For CIs to role model evidence-based practice (EBP) they need EBP competence. The aim of this study was to assess the short and long term impact of a six-month multifaceted and clinically integrated training program in EBP on the knowledge, skills, beliefs and behaviour of CIs supervising physiotherapy students. Methods We invited 37 CIs to participate in this non-randomized controlled study. Three self-administered questionnaires were used pre- and post-intervention, and at six-month follow-up: 1) The Adapted Fresno test (AFT), 2) the EBP Belief Scale and 3) the EBP Implementation Scale. The analysis approach was linear regression modeling using Generalized Estimating Equations. Results In total, 29 CIs agreed to participate in the study: 14 were invited to participate in the intervention group and 15 were invited to participate in the control group. One in the intervention group and five in the control group were lost to follow-up. At follow-up, the group difference was statistically significant for the AFT (mean difference = 37, 95% CI (15.9 -58.1), p<0.001) and the EBP Beliefs scale (mean difference = 8.1, 95% CI (3.1 -13.2), p = 0.002), but not for the EBP Implementation scale (mean difference = 1.8. 95% CI (-4.5-8.1), p = 0.574). Comparing measurements over time, we found a statistically significant increase in mean scores related to all outcome measures for the intervention group only. Conclusions A multifaceted and clinically integrated training program in EBP was successful in improving EBP knowledge, skills and beliefs among CIs. Future studies need to ensure long-term EBP behaviour change, in addition to assessing CIs’ abilities to apply EBP knowledge and skills when supervising students. PMID:25894559

  1. A non-randomized clinical control trial of Harrison mirror image methods for correcting trunk list (lateral translations of the thoracic cage) in patients with chronic low back pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Deed E; Cailliet, Rene; Betz, Joseph W; Harrison, Donald D; Colloca, Christopher J; Haas, Jason W; Janik, Tadeusz J; Holland, Burt

    2005-03-01

    Spinal trunk list is a common occurrence in clinical practice, but few conservative methods of spinal rehabilitation have been reported. This study is a non-randomized clinical control trial of 63 consecutive retrospective subjects undergoing spinal rehabilitation and 23 prospective volunteer controls. All subjects presented with lateral thoracic-cage-translation posture (trunk list) and chronic low back pain. Initial and follow-up numerical pain rating scales (NRS) and AP lumbar radiographs were obtained after a mean of 11.5 weeks of care (average of 36 visits) for the treatment group and after a mean of 37.5 weeks for the control group. The radiographs were digitized and analyzed for a horizontal displacement of T12 from the second sacral tubercle, verticality of the lumbar spine at the sacral base, and any dextro/levo angle at mid-lumbar spine. Treatment subjects received the Harrison mirror image postural correction methods, which included an opposite trunk-list exercise and a new method of opposite trunk-list traction. Control subjects did not receive spinal rehabilitation therapy, but rather self-managed their back pain. For the treatment group, there were statistically significant improvements (approximately 50%) in all radiographic measurements and a decrease in pain intensity (NRS: 3.0 to 0.8). For the control group, no significant radiographic and NRS differences were found, except in trunk-list displacement of T12 to S1, worsened by 2.4 mm. Mirror image (opposite posture) postural corrective exercises and a new method of trunk-list traction resulted in 50% reduction in trunk list and were associated with nearly resolved pain intensity in this patient population. The findings warrant further study in the conservative treatment of chronic low back pain and spinal disorders.

  2. A non-randomized [corrected] controlled trial of the active music engagement (AME) intervention on children with cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robb, Sheri L; Clair, Alicia A; Watanabe, Masayo; Monahan, Patrick O; Azzouz, Faouzi; Stouffer, Janice W; Ebberts, Allison; Darsie, Emily; Whitmer, Courtney; Walker, Joey; Nelson, Kirsten; Hanson-Abromeit, Deanna; Lane, Deforia; Hannan, Ann

    2008-07-01

    Coping theorists argue that environmental factors affect how children perceive and respond to stressful events such as cancer. However, few studies have investigated how particular interventions can change coping behaviors. The active music engagement (AME) intervention was designed to counter stressful qualities of the in-patient hospital environment by introducing three forms of environmental support. The purpose of this multi-site randomized controlled trial was to determine the efficacy of the AME intervention on three coping-related behaviors (i.e. positive facial affect, active engagement, and initiation). Eighty-three participants, ages 4-7, were randomly assigned to one of three conditions: AME (n = 27), music listening (ML; n = 28), or audio storybooks (ASB; n = 28). Conditions were videotaped to facilitate behavioral data collection using time-sampling procedures. After adjusting for baseline differences, repeated measure analyses indicated that AME participants had a significantly higher frequency of coping-related behaviors compared with ML or ASB. Positive facial affect and active engagement were significantly higher during AME compared with ML and ASB (p<0.0001). Initiation was significantly higher during AME than ASB (p<0.05). This study supports the use of the AME intervention to encourage coping-related behaviors in hospitalized children aged 4-7 receiving cancer treatment. (c) 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. Responses of serum inflammatory factor high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, interleukin-6, and tumor necrosis factor-alpha in elderly males with cerebral infarction Non-randomized concurrent control

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guiping Jiao; Xinjie Tan; Zhiliu Yuan; Chunling Li; Jing Wang; Wen Mo

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Cerebral infarction is poorly treated due to neuronal necrosis and secondary pathophysiological changes; for example, free radical production and inflammatory reactions.OBJECTIVE: To detect the levels of high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and tumor nccrosis factor-α (TNF-α) in elderly males with cerebral infarction.DESIGN: Non-randomized current control study.SETTING: Cadre Medical Department, Guizhou Provincial People's Hospital.PARTICIPANTS: Forty elderly males (65-89 years old) with cerebral infarction were selected from Cadre Medical Department, Guizhou Provincial People's Hospital from February 2004 to December 2006. All patients met the diagnostic criteria of cerebral infarction modified at the 4th National Cerebrovascular Disease Academic Meeting, and were diagnosed on the basis of CT or MRI tests. Furthermore, 35 elderly male inpatients (65-87 years old) without cerebral infarction were selected as the control group. Included subjects provided confirmed consent and did not have heart disease, diabetes mellitus, lipid disorder, acute trauma, infection, rheumatism, or other inflammatory diseases. The study was approved by the local ethics committee. There were no significant differences in age, blood pressure, and lipid levels between the cerebral infarction group and the control group (P>0.05), and this suggested that the baseline data of both groups were comparable.METHODS: Fasting venous blood was drawn from cerebral infarction patients 24 hours after cerebral infarction attack and from control subjects 24 hours after hospitalization. A latex-enhanced immunoturbidimetric assay and an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay were used to detect the levels of hs-CRP, IL-6, and TNF-α in the serum.MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The levels of hs-CRP, IL-6, and TNF-α in the serum in both groups.RESULTS: Forty cerebral infarction patients and thirty-five control subjects were included in the final analysis without any loss

  4. Do Postoperative Psychotherapeutic Interventions and Support Groups Influence Weight Loss Following Bariatric Surgery? A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis of Randomized and Nonrandomized Trials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beck, Nina N.; Johannsen, Maja; Støvring, René K.

    2012-01-01

    Bariatric surgery is currently considered the most effective treatment of severe obesity, but considerable individual variations in weight loss results have been reported. We therefore conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of studies investigating the effect of psychotherapeutic...... interventions and support groups on weight loss following bariatric surgery. A literature search was conducted in the databases PubMed and PsycINFO, identifying nine eligible studies reporting results of the effect of psychotherapeutic interventions and support groups on weight loss following bariatric surgery...

  5. Mindfulness Training for Health Profession Students-The Effect of Mindfulness Training on Psychological Well-Being, Learning and Clinical Performance of Health Professional Students: A Systematic Review of Randomized and Non-randomized Controlled Trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McConville, Janet; McAleer, Rachael; Hahne, Andrew

    High levels of stress have been identified in medical students and increasingly in other health profession student population groups. As stress can affect psychological well-being and interfere with learning and clinical performance, there is a clear argument for universities to include health professional student well-being as an outcome in core curriculum. Mindfulness training is a potential construct to manage stress and enhance academic success. The aims of this systematic review were to assess the effectiveness of mindfulness training in medical and other health professional student population groups and to compare the effectiveness of the different mindfulness-based programs. A literature search was completed using The Cochrane library, Medline, Cinahl, Embase, Psychinfo, and ERIC (proquest) electronic databases from inception to June 2016. Randomized and non-randomized controlled trials were included. Of the potential 5355 articles, 19 met the inclusion criteria. Studies focused on medical (n = 10), nursing (n = 4), social work (n = 1), psychology (n = 1), and medical plus other health (n = 3) students. Interventions were based on mindfulness. The 19 studies included 1815 participants. Meta-analysis was performed evaluating the effect of mindfulness training on mindfulness, anxiety, depression, stress, mood, self-efficacy, and empathy. The effect of mindfulness on academic performance was discussed. Mindfulness-based interventions decrease stress, anxiety, and depression and improve mindfulness, mood, self-efficacy, and empathy in health profession students. Due to the range of presentation options, mindfulness training can be relatively easily adapted and integrated into health professional training programs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Effectiveness of the “What’s Up!” Intervention to Reduce Stigma and Psychometric Properties of the Youth Program Questionnaire (YPQ: Results from a Cluster Non-randomized Controlled Trial Conducted in Catalan High Schools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Andrés-Rodríguez

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Mental disorders are highly prevalent in the general population, and people who experience them are frequently stigmatized. Stigma has a very negative impact on social, academic/professional, and personal life. Considering the high rates of mental disorders among children and adolescents (13.4% and how critical this age is in the formation of nuclear beliefs, many campaigns to combat stigma have been developed in the last decade, with mixed results. The OBERTAMENT initiative has produced various anti-stigma campaigns in Catalonia (Spain. In the present study, the main objective was to report on the effectiveness of the OBERTAMENT “What’s up!” intervention, a curricular intervention including education and social contact conducted by the teachers in the classroom with teenagers aged between 14 and 18. Prior to this, we examined the psychometric properties of the Youth Program Questionnaire (YPQ, our main outcome measure, in terms of dimensionality, reliability, and validity. A cluster non-randomized controlled trial was conducted to assess this intervention, which was tested in nine high schools situated in the Barcelona region. A convenience sample of 261 students formed the intervention group and 132 the control group (52% women, mean age = 14, SD = 0.47. The assignment to study conditions was conducted by Departament d’Ensenyament (Department of Education, Generalitat de Catalunya (Catalan Government. Participants were evaluated at baseline, post-intervention, and 9-month follow-up. The main outcome measure of this study was the YPQ. The Reported and Intended Behavior Scale (RIBS was used as secondary outcome measure. The statistical analysis indicated that the YPQ possesses a two-factor structure (stereotypical attitudes and intended behavior and sound psychometric properties. The multilevel mixed-effects models revealed statistically significant interactions for both study measures and post hoc intragroup analyses revealed a

  7. Nonrandom Assignment in ANCOVA: The Alternate Ranks Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalton, Starrett; Overall, John E.

    1977-01-01

    A specific form of nonrandom assignment to treatment groups, the "alternate ranks" design, was investigated. This design eliminates the possibility of a correlation between the covariate and the treatment, and rules out experimenter bias in assignment of subjects to groups. (Editor)

  8. Nonrandomized studies are not always found even when selection criteria for health systems intervention reviews include them: a methodological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glenton, Claire; Lewin, Simon; Mayhew, Alain; Scheel, Inger; Odgaard-Jensen, Jan

    2013-04-01

    Systematic reviews within the Cochrane Effective Practice and Organisation of Care Group (EPOC) can include both randomized and nonrandomized study designs. We explored how many EPOC reviews consider and identify nonrandomized studies, and whether the proportion of nonrandomized studies identified is linked to the review topic. We recorded the study designs considered in 65 EPOC reviews. For reviews that considered nonrandomized studies, we calculated the proportion of identified studies that were nonrandomized and explored whether there were differences in the proportion of nonrandomized studies according to the review topic. Fifty-one (78.5%) reviews considered nonrandomized studies. Forty-six of these reviews found nonrandomized studies, but the proportion varied a great deal (median, 33%; interquartile range, 25--50%). Reviews of health care delivery interventions had lower proportions of nonrandomized studies than those of financial and governance interventions. Most EPOC reviews consider nonrandomized studies, but the degree to which they find them varies. As nonrandomized studies are believed to be at higher risk of bias and their inclusion entails a considerable effort, review authors should consider whether the benefits justify the inclusion of these designs. Research should explore whether it is more useful to consider nonrandomized studies in reviews of some intervention types than others. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Oclusão traqueal para fetos com hérnia diafragmática esquerda grave isolada: um estudo experimental controlado não randomizado Tracheal occlusion for fetuses with severe isolated left-sided diaphragmatic hernia: a nonrandomized controlled experimental study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cleisson Fábio Andrioli Peralta

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Comparar a sobrevida pós-natal de fetos com hérnia diafragmática congênita esquerda grave isolada, os quais foram submetidos à oclusão traqueal, com a de controles não randomizados contemporâneos. MÉTODOS: Estudo experimental não randomizado e controlado, conduzido de abril de 2007 a setembro de 2011. Fetos portadores de hérnia diafragmática congênita esquerda isolada com herniação hepática e relação pulmão/cabeça PURPOSE: To compare postnatal survival to hospital discharge of fetuses with severe isolated left-sided congenital diaphragmatic hernia, who underwent tracheal occlusion, with that of nonrandomized contemporaneous controls. METHODS: Experimental nonrandomized controlled study, performed from April 2007 to September 2011. Fetuses with severe isolated left-sided congenital diaphragmatic hernia with liver herniation into the chest and lung area-to-head circumference ratio <1.0, who underwent tracheal occlusion (study group or expectant management (non-randomized contemporaneous controls, were compared in terms of lung area-to-head circumference ratio and observed/expected lung area-to-head circumference ratio (observed/expected lung area-to-head circumference ratio at the time of diagnosis, gestational age at birth, and survival to hospital discharge. Modifications in lung area-to-head circumference ratio and o/e lung area-to-head circumference ratio after tracheal occlusion were also analyzed. Fisher's exact test, Mann-Whitney's or Wilcoxon's tests were used for the comparisons. RESULTS: There were no significant differences between the Study Group (TO=28 and Controls (n=13 in terms of the lung area-to-head circumference ratio (p=0.709 and the observed/expected lung area-to-head circumference ratio (p=0.5 at the time of diagnosis and gestational age at birth (p=0.146. The survival to hospital discharge was higher (p=0.012 in the tracheal occlusion group (10/28=35.7% than in controls (0/13=0.0%. There was a

  10. Heat rate variability and dyssomnia and their correlations to neurological defects in cerebral infarction patients complicated by insomnia A concurrent non-randomized case-control study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jianping Chu; Xueli Shen; Jun Fan; Changhai Chen; Shuyang Lin

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Heart rate variability refers to the beat-to-beat alteration in heart rate. It is usually a slight periodic variation of R-R intervals. Much information of autonomic nerve system balance can be obtained by measuring the heart rate variability of patients. It remains to be shown whether heart rate variability can be used as an index for determining the severity of insomnia and cerebral infarction. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to analyze the correlation for each frequency spectrum parameter of heart rate variability with an insomnia index, as well as the degree of neurological defects in patients with simple cerebral infarction and cerebral infarction complicated by insomnia. The goal was to verify the feasibility of frequency spectrum parameters for heart rate variability as a marker for insomnia and cerebral infarction. DESIGN: A case-control observation. SETTING: Department of Neurology, First Hospital Affiliated to China Medical University. PARTICIPANTS: Sixty inpatients, and/or outpatients, with cerebral infarction were admitted to the 202 Hospital of Chinese PLA between December 2005 and October 2006, confirmed by CT, and recruited to the study. According to the insomnia condition (insomnia is defined by a Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index score > 7), the patients were assigned to a simple cerebral infarction group and a cerebral infarction complicated by insomnia group, with 30 subjects in each group. Thirty additional subjects, who concurrently received ex-aminations and were confirmed to not suffer from cerebral infarction and insomnia, were recruited into the control group. Written informed consent was obtained from each subject for laboratory specimens. The pro-tocol was approved by the Hospital's Ethics Committee. METHODS: Following admission, each subject's neurological impairment was assessed with the National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale and Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index. Heart rate variability of each subject was measured with an

  11. Early crisis nontechnical skill teaching in residency leads to long-term skill retention and improved performance during crises: A prospective, nonrandomized controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doumouras, Aristithes G; Engels, Paul T

    2017-07-01

    Medical error is common in crises, and the majority of observed errors are nontechnical in nature. The long-term impact of teaching crisis nontechnical skills to residents has not been evaluated. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of simulation-based teaching of crisis nontechnical skills compared to controls one year after initial teaching. This was a prospective study using both historical controls and a before-and-after methodology to evaluate the effect of a high-fidelity simulation curriculum that used crisis resource management principles to teach nontechnical skills. Postgraduate year 2 and 3 residents were invited to take part in a prospective training course over 2 years. The primary outcome was leader performance evaluated by expert raters using the previously validated 7-point Ottawa Global Rating Scale. Overall, 23 residents performed 30 simulations over the 2 years with the intervention group of 7 residents being assessed in both years. After adjustment, the postgraduate year 3 intervention group who received training the previous year had significantly higher overall performance scores than all postgraduate year 2 scores (1.09 95% confidence interval 0.70-1.47, P < .001) and the historical postgraduate year 3 cohort who received no prior training (1.20, 95% confidence interval 0.37-2.03, P = .005). There was no decay of skills noted over the course of the study. Postgraduate year 3 residents who had prior training had significantly improved crisis performance compared to historical postgraduate year 3 controls and untrained postgraduate year 2 residents. There were no significant differences between the crisis performance of postgraduate year 2 residents and the untrained postgraduate year 3 controls. This confirms the beneficial effect and long-term retention after crisis nontechnical skill training. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. A pilot study to determine the short-term effects of a low glycemic load diet on hormonal markers of acne: a nonrandomized, parallel, controlled feeding trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Robyn; Mann, Neil; Mäkeläinen, Henna; Roper, Jessica; Braue, Anna; Varigos, George

    2008-06-01

    Observational evidence suggests that dietary glycemic load may be one environmental factor contributing to the variation in acne prevalence worldwide. To investigate the effect of a low glycemic load (LGL) diet on endocrine aspects of acne vulgaris, 12 male acne sufferers (17.0 +/- 0.4 years) completed a parallel, controlled feeding trial involving a 7-day admission to a housing facility. Subjects consumed either an LGL diet (n = 7; 25% energy from protein and 45% from carbohydrates) or a high glycemic load (HGL) diet (n = 5; 15% energy from protein, 55% energy from carbohydrate). Study outcomes included changes in the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG), free androgen index (FAI), insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I), and its binding proteins (IGFBP-I and IGFBP-3). Changes in HOMA-IR were significantly different between groups at day 7 (-0.57 for LGL vs. 0.14 for HGL, p = 0.03). SHBG levels decreased significantly from baseline in the HGL group (p = 0.03), while IGFBP-I and IGFBP-3 significantly increased (p = 0.03 and 0.03, respectively) in the LGL group. These results suggest that increases in dietary glycemic load may augment the biological activity of sex hormones and IGF-I, suggesting that these diets may aggravate potential factors involved in acne development.

  13. Estudos dos padrões de não aleatoriedade dos gráficos de controle de Shewhart: um enfoque probabilístico Studies on non-random patterns in Shewhart control charts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quintiliano Siqueira Schroden Nomelini

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Além de investimento em novas tecnologias e modernização do parque industrial, a competitividade dos produtos brasileiros está ligada ao aumento de produtividade. O Controle Estatístico de Processo (CEP, junto com os gráficos de controle, inseriu-se neste contexto no que diz respeito ao controle das características significativas do produto e do processo, em tempo real, garantindo níveis de qualidade, a um custo exigido pelo mercado. Um procedimento importante é a interpretação dos gráficos de controle. Um estudo foi feito para ilustrar e discutir padrões de não aleatoriedade, que auxiliam na interpretação de tais gráficos. Alguns padrões de não aleatoriedade foram ilustrados e, por meio de cálculo de probabilidade, mostrou-se quais deles rejeitaram a hipótese de controle estatístico, a um nível de significância pré-especificado. Concluiu-se que os padrões mencionados na literatura não eram tão informativos. No que diz respeito ao nível de significância, observou-se então que em alguns padrões a um certo nível de significância retornaram resultados diferentes dos mencionados na literatura.In the last two decades, the Brazilian consuming market was modified by the insertion of products of better quality and minor cost. Statistical Process Control (SPC and control charts look after significant characteristics products and processes, in real time, guaranteeing quality levels, in a cost demanded by the market. In that context, an important procedure is the interpretation of the control charts; this is made through non-random patters. A study was made illustrating and arguing such standards. Standards had been illustrated and one revealed which of them, rejected the nullity hypothesis, under a determined significance. One concluded that the standards mentioned in literature are not so informative and can be improved.

  14. Meta-analyses including non-randomized studies of therapeutic interventions: a methodological review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timor Faber

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is an increasing number of meta-analyses including data from non-randomized studies for therapeutic evaluation. We aimed to systematically assess the methods used in meta-analyses including non-randomized studies evaluating therapeutic interventions. Methods For this methodological review, we searched MEDLINE via PubMed, from January 1, 2013 to December 31, 2013 for meta-analyses including at least one non-randomized study evaluating therapeutic interventions. Etiological assessments and meta-analyses with no comparison group were excluded. Two reviewers independently assessed the general characteristics and key methodological components of the systematic review process and meta-analysis methods. Results One hundred eighty eight meta-analyses were selected: 119 included both randomized controlled trials (RCTs and non-randomized studies of interventions (NRSI and 69 only NRSI. Half of the meta-analyses (n = 92, 49 % evaluated non-pharmacological interventions. “Grey literature” was searched for 72 meta-analyses (38 %. An assessment of methodological quality or risk of bias was reported in 135 meta-analyses (72 % but this assessment considered the risk of confounding bias in only 33 meta-analyses (18 %. In 130 meta-analyses (69 %, the design of each NRSI was not clearly specified. In 131 (70 %, whether crude or adjusted estimates of treatment effect for NRSI were combined was unclear or not reported. Heterogeneity across studies was assessed in 182 meta-analyses (97 % and further explored in 157 (84 %. Reporting bias was assessed in 127 (68 %. Conclusions Some key methodological components of the systematic review process—search for grey literature, description of the type of NRSI included, assessment of risk of confounding bias and reporting of whether crude or adjusted estimates were combined—are not adequately carried out or reported in meta-analyses including NRSI.

  15. Data fabrication and other reasons for non-random sampling in 5087 randomised, controlled trials in anaesthetic and general medical journals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlisle, J B

    2017-08-01

    Randomised, controlled trials have been retracted after publication because of data fabrication and inadequate ethical approval. Fabricated data have included baseline variables, for instance, age, height or weight. Statistical tests can determine the probability of the distribution of means, given their standard deviation and the number of participants in each group. Randomised, controlled trials have been retracted after the data distributions have been calculated as improbable. Most retracted trials have been written by anaesthetists and published by specialist anaesthetic journals. I wanted to explore whether the distribution of baseline data in trials was consistent with the expected distribution. I wanted to determine whether trials retracted after publication had distributions different to trials that have not been retracted. I wanted to determine whether data distributions in trials published in specialist anaesthetic journals have been different to distributions in non-specialist medical journals. I analysed the distribution of 72,261 means of 29,789 variables in 5087 randomised, controlled trials published in eight journals between January 2000 and December 2015: Anaesthesia (399); Anesthesia and Analgesia (1288); Anesthesiology (541); British Journal of Anaesthesia (618); Canadian Journal of Anesthesia (384); European Journal of Anaesthesiology (404); Journal of the American Medical Association (518) and New England Journal of Medicine (935). I chose these journals as I had electronic access to the full text. Trial p values were distorted by an excess of baseline means that were similar and an excess that were dissimilar: 763/5015 (15.2%) trials that had not been retracted from publication had p values that were within 0.05 of 0 or 1 (expected 10%), that is, a 5.2% excess, p = 1.2 × 10(-7) . The p values of 31/72 (43%) trials that had been retracted after publication were within 0.05 of 0 or 1, a rate different to that for unretracted trials, p = 1.03

  16. Does working with the Veder Contact Method influence the job satisfaction of caregivers? A non-randomized controlled trial in nursing homes for people with dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boersma, P; Dröes, R M; Lissenberg-Witte, B I; van Meijel, B; van Weert, J C M

    2017-08-22

    Person-centered care interventions can improve the quality of life and decrease behavioral problems of people with dementia. Although not convincingly proven, person-centered care interventions may benefit the caregivers as well. This study aims to gain insight into how working with the Veder Contact Method (VCM) - a new person-centered care method - influences the job satisfaction of caregivers. Within a quasi-experimental study, the job satisfaction of caregivers of six experimental wards (n = 75) was compared with caregivers of six control wards (n = 36) that applied Care-As-Usual. The Leiden Quality of Work Questionnaire (LQWQ) was filled in by caregivers in both conditions. Additionally, on the experimental wards, qualitative research, i.e. focus groups with 42 caregivers and interviews with 11 managers, was conducted to obtain a deeper understanding of the influence of applying VCM on caregivers' job satisfaction. The transcripts were analyzed using deductive analysis. No quantitatively significant differences were found on the subscales of the LQWQ: work and time pressure, job satisfaction, autonomous decision making, social support from colleagues, and social support from supervisors. From the qualitative research, some caregivers and managers reported that implementing VCM contributed to their job satisfaction and that applying VCM supported handling difficult behavior and depressed mood of residents and contributed to team building. No significant effects on job satisfaction were demonstrated. Qualitative findings indicate that VCM positively influences the daily work performances of nursing home caregivers. The relation between the experience of offering quality care and job satisfaction of caregivers needs further investigation.

  17. Retrospective, nonrandomized controlled study on autoadjusting, dual-pressure positive airway pressure therapy for a consecutive series of complex insomnia disorder patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krakow, Barry; McIver, Natalia D; Ulibarri, Victor A; Nadorff, Michael R

    2017-01-01

    Purpose Emerging evidence shows that positive airway pressure (PAP) treatment of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) and upper airway resistance syndrome (UARS) in chronic insomnia patients (proposed “complex insomnia” disorder) leads to substantial decreases in insomnia severity. Although continuous PAP (CPAP) is the pressure mode most widely researched, intolerance to fixed pressurized air is rarely investigated or described in comorbidity patients. This retrospective study examined dual pressure, autoadjusting PAP modes in chronic, complex insomnia disorder patients. Patients and methods Chronic insomnia disorder patients (mean [SD] insomnia severity index [ISI] =19.11 [3.34]) objectively diagnosed with OSA or UARS and using either autobilevel PAP device or adaptive servoventilation (ASV) device after failing CPAP therapy (frequently due to intolerance to pressurized air, poor outcomes, or emergence of CSA) were divided into PAP users (≥20 h/wk) and partial users (insomnia patients, PAP users (n=246) averaged 6.10 (1.78) nightly hours and 42.71 (12.48) weekly hours and partial users (n=56) averaged 1.67 (0.76) nightly hours and 11.70 (5.31) weekly hours. For mean (SD) decreases in total ISI scores, a significant (group × time) interaction was observed (F[1,300]=13.566; Pinsomnia symptoms (r=−0.256, PInsomnia severity significantly decreased in patients using autoadjusting PAP devices, but the study design restricts interpretation to an association. Future research must elucidate the interaction between insomnia and OSA/UARS as well as the adverse influence of pressure intolerance on PAP adaptation in complex insomnia patients. Randomized controlled studies must determine whether advanced PAP modes provide benefits over standard CPAP modes in these comorbidity patients. PMID:28331381

  18. The Challenge of Recruiting Control Groups

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    O'Connor, Maja

    2011-01-01

      Recruitment of a large and reliable control group is a challenge in psychological survey based research. The effect of recruitment styles and age on response-rate, data quality, and individual differences were investigated in a control group for a postal survey of elderly bereaved people. This ...... incentive had the highest response-rate (51%), good data quality, and no sampling bias in individual differences. This method can be highly recommended in future control group recruitment....

  19. 78 FR 46851 - Controlled Group Regulation Examples

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-02

    ... controlled group rules should be applied in connection with the RIC ``asset diversification'' test. This... the Income Tax Regulations (26 CFR part 1) relating to the application of the ``controlled group...)(B) provides that, to qualify as a RIC, a taxpayer must meet an asset diversification test pursuant...

  20. Conservative/surgical treatment predictors of maternal hydronephrosis: results of a single-center retrospective non-randomized non-controlled observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ercil, Hakan; Arslan, Burak; Ortoglu, Ferhat; Alma, Ergun; Unal, Umut; Deniz, Mehmet Eflatun; Senturk, Aykut Bugra; Gurbuz, Zafer Gokhan

    2017-08-01

    To determine the parameters that may help the clinicians decide the best suitable treatment method for the pregnant women with symptomatic hydronephrosis which will be based on the easily accessible laboratory tests, monitoring methods and clinical symptoms. Digital data and documents of 246 pregnant women with symptomatic hydronephrosis who were hospitalized in our clinic between the dates of January 2011 and January 2016 were retrospectively evaluated. All patients were statistically evaluated in terms of age, symptomatic maximal anterior-posterior diameter of the renal pelvis (MADP), parity, C-reactive protein (CRP) level, white blood cell count (WBC), presence of pyuria, growth of urine culture, fever, serum urine and creatinine levels, visual analog scale (VAS) score of pre- and post-therapy and threatened preterm labor. The study includes a total of 211 pregnant women with symptomatic hydronephrosis. In the second and third trimester groups, the surgical treatment group statistically provided higher levels of CRP, WBC and VAS. Mean MADP in the second trimester of the conservative and surgical groups where symptomatic hydronephrosis was on the right side was 16.67 ± 4.67 and 28.68 ± 7.70 mm, respectively. Mean MADP in the third trimester group of the conservative and surgical groups where symptomatic hydronephrosis was on the right side was 16.96 ± 5.96 and 28.85 ± 7.64 mm, respectively. In patients with symptomatic pregnancy hydronephrosis, the likelihood of surgical treatment for CRP levels, WBC counts and VAS is high.

  1. The Control Group and Meta-Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John E Hunter

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Social scientists use a mixture of different methodologies, which creates problems for researchers attempting to review the cumulative results of all studies.  Standard practice for review studies using meta-analysis is to adjust the findings of all studies that use control groups and to include studies not having control groups without adjustment for extraneous effects, or to not use studies that lack a control group, which could produce an erroneous result.  Our study develops a novel meta-analytic procedure that combines the evidence on control group change with evidence on change from the intervention, making it possible to adjust for the effects of extraneous factors in all studies and bridges the gap between control group studies and other types of studies. DOI: 10.2458/azu_jmmss.v5i1.18302

  2. A multicenter randomized clinical trial of one-rod etonogestrel and two-rod levonorgestrel contraceptive implants with nonrandomized copper-IUD controls: methodology and insertion data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meirik, Olav; Brache, Vivian; Orawan, Kiriwat; Habib, Ndema Abu; Schmidt, Johannes; Ortayli, Nuriye; Culwell, Kelly; Jackson, Emily; Ali, Moazzam

    2013-01-01

    Comparative data on etonogestrel and two-rod levonorgestrel contraceptive implants are lacking. A multicenter, open, parallel-group trial with random allocation of implants was performed. For every second implant user, an age-matched woman choosing an intrauterine device (IUD) (TCu380A) was admitted. Methods and data on implant/IUD insertion and 6-week follow-up are reported. A total of 2008 women were randomized to an implant, and 974 women were enrolled in the IUD group. Results from 997 etonogestrel implant users, 997 levonorgestrel implant users and 971 IUD users were analyzed. In the etonogestrel and levonorgestrel groups, respectively, mean insertion durations were 51 (SD 50.2) s and 88 (SD 60.8) s; complication rates at insertion were 0.8% and 0.2%; and at follow-up, 27.2% and 26.7% of women, respectively, had signs or symptoms at the insertion site. At follow-up within 6 weeks after insertion, all implants were in situ, while 2.1% of IUDs were expelled. Performance of etonogestrel and levonorgestrel implants at insertion and within the first 6 weeks is similar. Short-term (6 weeks) continuation rates appear higher for implants than TCu380A. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Effect of robotic-assisted three-dimensional repetitive motion to improve hand motor function and control in children with handwriting deficits: a nonrandomized phase 2 device trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palsbo, Susan E; Hood-Szivek, Pamela

    2012-01-01

    We explored the efficacy of robotic technology in improving handwriting in children with impaired motor skills. Eighteen participants had impairments arising from cerebral palsy (CP), autism spectrum disorder (ASD), attention deficit disorder (ADD), attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), or other disorders. The intervention was robotic-guided three-dimensional repetitive motion in 15-20 daily sessions of 25-30 min each over 4-8 wk. Fine motor control improved for the children with learning disabilities and those ages 9 or older but not for those with CP or under age 9. All children with ASD or ADHD referred for slow writing speed were able to increase speed while maintaining legibility. Three-dimensional, robot-assisted, repetitive motion training improved handwriting fluidity in children with mild to moderate fine motor deficits associated with ASD or ADHD within 10 hr of training. This dosage may not be sufficient for children with CP. Copyright © 2012 by the American Occupational Therapy Association, Inc.

  4. Control groups in recent septic shock trials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pettilä, Ville; Hjortrup, Peter Buhl; Jakob, Stephan M

    2016-01-01

    , and mortality outcomes, and calculated a data completeness score to provide an overall view of quality of reporting. RESULTS: A total of 24 RCTs were included (mean n = 287 patients and 71 % of eligible patients were randomized). Of the 24 studies, 14 (58 %) presented baseline data on vasopressors and 58......PURPOSE: The interpretation of septic shock trial data is profoundly affected by patients, control intervention, co-interventions and selected outcome measures. We evaluated the reporting of control groups in recent septic shock trials. METHODS: We searched for original articles presenting...... randomized clinical trials (RCTs) in adult septic shock patients from 2006 to 2016. We included RCTs focusing on septic shock patients with at least two parallel groups and at least 50 patients in the control group. We selected and evaluated data items regarding patients, control group characteristics...

  5. Controlling Functional Group Architecture in Artificial Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-07-02

    further enable enzyme encapsulation to improve the efficiency of light-driven hydrogen fuel production. 5. Changes in key personnel, if applicable : -None ...Controlling Functional Group Architecture in Artificial Cells 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER W9132T-14-2-0002 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6...cycloadditions to modify reactive groups within the phospholipid membrane structure and how the nature of the reactive elements, the copper catalyst

  6. GROUP VELOCITY CONTROL SCHEME WITH LOW DISSIPATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    In order to prevent smearing the discontinuity, a modified term is added to the third order Upwind Compact Difference scheme to lower the dissipation error. Moreover, the dispersion error is controled to hold back the non-physical oscillation by means of the group velocity control. The scheme is used to simulate the interactions of shock-density stratified interface and the disturbed interface developing to vortex rollers. Numerical results are satisfactory.

  7. Evaluation of support group interventions for children in troubled families: study protocol for a quasi-experimental control group study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skerfving, Annemi; Johansson, Fredrik; Elgán, Tobias H

    2014-01-24

    Support groups for children in troubled families are available in a majority of Swedish municipalities. They are used as a preventive effort for children in families with different parental problems such as addiction to alcohol/other drugs, mental illness, domestic violence, divorce situations, or even imprisonment. Children from families with these problems are a well-known at-risk group for various mental health and social problems. Support groups aim at strengthening children's coping behaviour, to improve their mental health and to prevent a negative psycho-social development. To date, evaluations using a control-group study design are scarce. The aim of the current study is to evaluate the effects of support groups. This paper describes the design of an effectiveness study, initially intended as a randomized controlled trial, but instead is pursued as a quasi-experimental study using a non-randomized control group. The aim is to include 116 children, aged 7-13 years and one parent/another closely related adult, in the study. Participants are recruited via existing support groups in the Stockholm county district and are allocated either into an intervention group or a waiting list control group, representing care as usual. The assessment consists of questionnaires that are to be filled in at baseline and at four months following the baseline. Additionally, the intervention group completes a 12-month follow-up. The outcomes include the Strength and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ S11-16), the Kids Coping Scale, the "Ladder of life" which measures overall life satisfaction, and "Jag tycker jag är" (I think I am) which measures self-perception and self-esteem. The parents complete the SDQ P4-16 (parent-report version) and the Swedish scale "Familjeklimat" (Family Climate), which measures the emotional climate in the family. There is a need for evaluating the effects of support groups targeted to children from troubled families. This quasi-experimental study

  8. Potential explanations for control group benefit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichols, Linda O; Martindale-Adams, Jennifer L; Burns, Robert; Graney, Marshall J; Zuber, Jeffrey K; Kennedy, Sarah E

    2012-10-01

    Estimating effectiveness of clinical interventions depends on detecting differences between the responses of intervention and control groups. The outcome, intervention, and moderating factors all may influence the between group change. The absence of a clinically or statistically meaningful difference may also result from control group improvement due to nonspecific factors such as participants' perception of attention, positive regard, expectations, desire to please, and therapeutic alliance with the care provider. We examined perceived benefit and sources of benefit for control caregivers who participated in the CONNECT randomized controlled trial of a dementia caregiving intervention. After the final scheduled data collection in CONNECT, control group participants were asked whether they believed they benefited from study participation. Those who reported benefit were asked to describe the benefit received. Data were analyzed qualitatively. Of 60 available control caregivers, 82% reported a perceived benefit from study participation in five areas: getting information about dementia and caregiving; having someone to talk to and feeling supported; receiving understanding and validation of feelings; knowledge that others were in similar situations; and perceived appreciation of own abilities. Control caregivers who reported benefit were less burdened and depressed and spent less time on duty at baseline than those who did not report benefit. From caregivers' responses, we have identified the assessment battery, both content and time spent in data collection, as a possible mechanism of action for benefit. Study limitations include the better baseline characteristics of the control caregivers who reported benefit, the sample size of benefit control caregivers, the possibility of perceptions of benefit being a function of social desirability, and the lack of a similar question about benefit being asked of intervention caregivers. These findings suggest that the

  9. Pain control: mastery through group experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herman, E; Baptiste, S

    1981-02-01

    This paper describes a group program which is part of the therapeutic management of out-patients with chronic pain at the multidisciplinary Pain Clinic in Hamilton, Ontario (McMaster Division, Chedoke-McMaster Hospital). The programme seeks to assist chronic pain sufferers in developing more adaptive coping styles. Groups of 12--14 patients meet for 9 weeks, 3 h/week, under the co-leadership of a physiotherapist and an occupational therapist with backgrounds in psychology and psychiatry. Seventy-five patients with diverse aetiologies of chronic pain have completed these "pain control classes". Outcome was assessed on the basis of several parameters. Results indicate a considerable reduction in depression, pain perception and analgesic intake. Conversely, employment figures increased from 20 to 48% after completion of the program. 21% were considered failures. Significant variables differentiating successes from failures were sex, marital status, work incentive, employment and absence of litigation or Workmen's Compensation claims.

  10. Inbreeding avoidance through non-random mating in sticklebacks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frommen, Joachim G; Bakker, Theo C M

    2006-06-22

    Negative effects of inbreeding are well documented in a wide range of animal taxa. Hatching success and survival of inbred offspring is reduced in many species and inbred progeny are often less attractive to potential mates. Thus, individuals should avoid mating with close kin. However, experimental evidence for inbreeding avoidance through non-random mating in vertebrates is scarce. Here, we show that gravid female three-spined sticklebacks (Gasterosteus aculeatus) when given the choice between a courting familiar brother and a courting unfamiliar non-sib prefer to mate with the non-sib and thus avoid the disadvantages of incest. We controlled for differences in males' body size and red intensity of nuptial coloration. Thus, females adjust their courting behaviour to the risk of inbreeding.

  11. Causal inference methods to study nonrandomized, preexisting development interventions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, Benjamin F.; Khush, Ranjiv S.; Ramaswamy, Padmavathi; London, Alicia G.; Rajkumar, Paramasivan; Ramaprabha, Prabhakar; Durairaj, Natesan; Hubbard, Alan E.; Balakrishnan, Kalpana; Colford, John M.

    2010-01-01

    Empirical measurement of interventions to address significant global health and development problems is necessary to ensure that resources are applied appropriately. Such intervention programs are often deployed at the group or community level. The gold standard design to measure the effectiveness of community-level interventions is the community-randomized trial, but the conditions of these trials often make it difficult to assess their external validity and sustainability. The sheer number of community interventions, relative to randomized studies, speaks to a need for rigorous observational methods to measure their impact. In this article, we use the potential outcomes model for causal inference to motivate a matched cohort design to study the impact and sustainability of nonrandomized, preexisting interventions. We illustrate the method using a sanitation mobilization, water supply, and hygiene intervention in rural India. In a matched sample of 25 villages, we enrolled 1,284 children <5 y old and measured outcomes over 12 mo. Although we found a 33 percentage point difference in new toilet construction [95% confidence interval (CI) = 28%, 39%], we found no impacts on height-for-age Z scores (adjusted difference = 0.01, 95% CI = −0.15, 0.19) or diarrhea (adjusted longitudinal prevalence difference = 0.003, 95% CI = −0.001, 0.008) among children <5 y old. This study demonstrates that matched cohort designs can estimate impacts from nonrandomized, preexisting interventions that are used widely in development efforts. Interpreting the impacts as causal, however, requires stronger assumptions than prospective, randomized studies. PMID:21149699

  12. Striving for Group Agency: Threat to Personal Control Increases the Attractiveness of Agentic Groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janine eStollberg

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available When their sense of personal control is threatened people try to restore perceived control through the social self. We propose that it is the perceived agency of ingroups that provides the self with a sense of control. In three experiments, we for the first time tested the hypothesis that threat to personal control increases the attractiveness of being part or joining those groups that are perceived as coherent entities engaging in coordinated group goal pursuit (agentic groups but not of those groups whose agency is perceived to be low. Consistent with this hypothesis we found in Study 1 (N = 93 that threat to personal control increased ingroup identification only with task groups, but not with less agentic types of ingroups that were made salient simultaneously. Furthermore, personal control threat increased a sense of collective control and support within the task group, mediated through task-group identification (indirect effects. Turning to groups people are not (yet part of, Study 2 (N = 47 showed that personal control threat increased relative attractiveness ratings of small groups as possible future ingroups only when the relative agency of small groups was perceived to be high. Perceived group homogeneity or social power did not moderate the effect. Study 3 (N = 78 replicated the moderating role of perceived group agency for attractiveness ratings of entitative groups, whereas perceived group status did not moderate the effect. These findings extend previous research on group-based control, showing that perceived agency accounts for group-based responses to threatened control.

  13. Striving for group agency: threat to personal control increases the attractiveness of agentic groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stollberg, Janine; Fritsche, Immo; Bäcker, Anna

    2015-01-01

    When their sense of personal control is threatened people try to restore perceived control through the social self. We propose that it is the perceived agency of ingroups that provides the self with a sense of control. In three experiments, we for the first time tested the hypothesis that threat to personal control increases the attractiveness of being part or joining those groups that are perceived as coherent entities engaging in coordinated group goal pursuit (agentic groups) but not of those groups whose agency is perceived to be low. Consistent with this hypothesis we found in Study 1 (N = 93) that threat to personal control increased ingroup identification only with task groups, but not with less agentic types of ingroups that were made salient simultaneously. Furthermore, personal control threat increased a sense of collective control and support within the task group, mediated through task-group identification (indirect effects). Turning to groups people are not (yet) part of, Study 2 (N = 47) showed that personal control threat increased relative attractiveness ratings of small groups as possible future ingroups only when the relative agency of small groups was perceived to be high. Perceived group homogeneity or social power did not moderate the effect. Study 3 (N = 78) replicated the moderating role of perceived group agency for attractiveness ratings of entitative groups, whereas perceived group status did not moderate the effect. These findings extend previous research on group-based control, showing that perceived agency accounts for group-based responses to threatened control.

  14. The study protocol for a non-randomized controlled clinical trial using a genotype-guided strategy in a dataset of patients who undergone percutaneous coronary intervention with stent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Lucía Dávila-Fajardo

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available This article contains data related to the research article entitled “Results of genotype–guided antiplatelet therapy in patients undergone percutaneous coronary intervention with stent” (J. Sánchez-Ramos, C.L. Dávila-Fajardo, P. Toledo Frías, X. Díaz Villamarín, L.J. Martínez-González, S. Martínez Huertas, F. Burillo Gómez, J. Caballero Borrego, A. Bautista Pavés, M.C. Marín Guzmán, J.A. Ramirez Hernández, C. Correa Vilches, J. Cabeza Barrera, 2016 (1. This data article reports, for the first time, about the non-randomized clinical trial protocol that check if CYP2C19/ABCB1 genotype–guided strategy in which the choice of antiplatelet therapy is based on the genetic test, reduces the rates of cardiovascular events and bleeding compared to a non-tailored strategy in patients undergone percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI with stent. The data included in this article are: design and setting of the study, study population, inclusion and exclusion criteria, definition of the intervention, objectives, variables (baseline characteristics and during the follow-up, study procedures, collection and treatment of the biological sample, genotyping, withdrawal criteria, sample size, statistic analysis, ethical aspects, information sheet and consent form. The authors confirm that this study has been registered in Eudra CT (Eudra CT: 2016-001294-33.

  15. Cooperation, control, and concession in meerkat groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clutton-Brock, T H; Brotherton, P N; Russell, A F; O'Riain, M J; Gaynor, D; Kansky, R; Griffin, A; Manser, M; Sharpe, L; McIlrath, G M; Small, T; Moss, A; Monfort, S

    2001-01-19

    "Limited control" models of reproductive skew in cooperative societies suggest that the frequency of breeding by subordinates is determined by the outcome of power struggles with dominants. In contrast, "optimal skew" models suggest that dominants have full control of subordinate reproduction and allow subordinates to breed only when this serves to retain subordinates' assistance with rearing dominants' own litters. The results of our 7-year field study of cooperative meerkats, Suricata suricatta, support the predictions of limited control models and provide no indication that dominant females grant reproductive concessions to subordinates to retain their assistance with future breeding attempts.

  16. 78 FR 36541 - Public Interface Control Working Group (ICWG) Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-18

    ... Department of the Air Force Public Interface Control Working Group (ICWG) Meeting ACTION: Public ICWG... be hosting a Public Interface Control Working Group (ICWG) meeting for the Navstar GPS public signals....mil by August 7, 2013. Public Interface Control Working Group Meeting (ICWG) Date(s) and Times:...

  17. Command Control Group Behaviors. Objective 1. A Methodology for and Identification of Command Control Group Behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-08-01

    recordings were DD I JAN 73 1473 EDITION OF I NOV 65 IS OBSOLETE UNCLASSIFIED i SECUPITY CLASSIFICATION OF THIS PAGE (K4hen Data Entered) ’Ii...numbers of per- sonnet and 2weapons we now have at our disposal. The command and control (C ) process is one such factor where deficiencies invite...OBSERVATIONAL TASKS Position Codes: 01 10 S1 02 20 S2 03 Brigade 3 30 S3 04 40 S4 05 50 XO 06 60 Entire Group 07 70 Commander (71-"A" Co, 72-"B" Co, 73 -"C" Co

  18. Effect of a multidisciplinary stress treatment programme on the return to work rate for persons with work-related stress. A non-randomized controlled study from a stress clinic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Netterstrøm, Bo; Bech, Per

    2010-01-01

    Medicine) completed a stress treatment programme consisted of the following:1) Identification of relevant stressors. 2. Changing the coping strategies of the participants. 3. Evaluating/changes in participant workload and tasks. 4. Relaxation techniques. 5. Physical exercise. 6. Psychiatric evaluation when...... was to test the effect of a multidisciplinary stress treatment programme on the return to work (RTW) rate in persons with work-related stress and establish predictive factors for this outcome. METHODS: During a two-year period 63 out of 73 referrals to the Stress Clinic (a section of a Clinic of Occupational...... indicated by depression test score.On average each patient attended six one-hour sessions over the course of four months.A group of 34 employees referred to the Clinic of Occupational Medicine by their general practitioners served as a control group. Each participant had a one-hour consultation at baseline...

  19. Effect of a multidisciplinary stress treatment programme on the return to work rate for persons with work-related stress. A non-randomized controlled study from a stress clinic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bech Per

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In recent years an increasing number of patients have been referred to the medical sector with stress symptoms. Moreover, these conditions imply increased sickness absence. This indicates a need for treatment programmes in general medical practice. The aim of this study was to test the effect of a multidisciplinary stress treatment programme on the return to work (RTW rate in persons with work-related stress and establish predictive factors for this outcome. Methods During a two-year period 63 out of 73 referrals to the Stress Clinic (a section of a Clinic of Occupational Medicine completed a stress treatment programme consisted of the following: 1 Identification of relevant stressors. 2. Changing the coping strategies of the participants. 3. Evaluating/changes in participant workload and tasks. 4. Relaxation techniques. 5. Physical exercise. 6. Psychiatric evaluation when indicated by depression test score. On average each patient attended six one-hour sessions over the course of four months. A group of 34 employees referred to the Clinic of Occupational Medicine by their general practitioners served as a control group. Each participant had a one-hour consultation at baseline and after four months. A specialist in occupational medicine carried out all sessions. Return To Work (RTW, defined as having a job and not being on sick leave at the census, was used as outcome measure four months after baseline, and after one and two years. Results The level of sick leave in the stress treatment group dropped from 52% to 16% during the first four months of follow-up and remained stable. In the control group, the reduction in sick leave was significantly smaller, ranging from 48% at baseline to 27% after four months and 24% after one year. No statistically significant difference between the two groups was observed after one and two years. Age below 50 years and being a manager increased the odds ratio for RTW after one and two years

  20. Child Cancer Control. Report on a Working Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    World Health Organization, Copenhagen (Denmark). Regional Office for Europe.

    This World Health Organization (WHO) report on the proceedings of a Working Group on Child Cancer Control was prepared by the WHO Regional Office for Europe. The working group met in Prague in April 1977 and was comprised of representatives from 14 European countries. Its task was to review existing methods of child cancer control, the efficacy of…

  1. Controllability of Linear Systems with inner derivation on Lie Groups

    OpenAIRE

    Jouan, Philippe

    2011-01-01

    A vector field on a connected Lie group is said to be linear if its flow is a one parameter group of automorphisms. A control-affine system is linear if the drift is linear and the controlled vector fields right invariant. The controllability properties of such systems are studied, mainly in the case where the derivation of the group Lie algebra that can be associated to the linear vector field is inner. After some general considerations controllability properties on semi simple, nilpotent an...

  2. Controllability of Linear Systems on Generalized Heisenberg Groups

    OpenAIRE

    Dath, Mouhamadou; Jouan, Philippe

    2015-01-01

    This paper is devoted to the study of controllability of linear systems on generalized Heisenberg groups. Some general necessary controllability conditions and some sufficient ones are provided. We introduce the notion of decoupled systems, and more precise controllability criteria are stated for them.

  3. The effectiveness of a multidisciplinary pain management programme managing chronic pain on pain perceptions, health-related quality of life and stages of change--A non-randomized controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dysvik, Elin; Kvaløy, Jan Terje; Stokkeland, Ragnhild; Natvig, Gerd Karin

    2010-07-01

    Cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) has been useful in the treatment of chronic pain conditions for many years. Given the increasing number of persons with chronic pain and associated psychosocial problems, the development and implementation of effective interventions based on CBT is warranted. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effects of a multidisciplinary pain management programme on health-related quality of life (HRQL), as measured by the Short Form Health Survey (SF-36), pain perception as measured by the Brief Pain Inventory (BPI), and readiness-to-change as measured by the Pain Stages of Change Questionnaire (PSOCQ). A pretest-post-test quasi-experimental design, with waiting list controls and baseline and post-test measures, was used. The study was conducted in the rehabilitation unit of a university hospital. Of 117 people suffering from chronic pain, 113 completed the 8-week multidisciplinary pain management programme. The patients were consecutive referrals. Inclusion criteria were: adults (18-67 years), pain lasting over 6 months, motivation and no ongoing litigation. Exclusion criteria were affected by major mental disorders or major medical conditions requiring treatment. The intervention was based on a cognitive behavioural approach. Therapeutic dialogues and training, combined with physical activity, were provided to a fixed plan, including homework. The programme has several features that directly address psychosocial aspects of chronic pain. Statistical and clinical significance are considered. The findings suggest that this programme has the potential to improve HRQL, reduce pain intensity and interference, and contribute to improvement in readiness-to-change. Statistically significant results are supplemented by results showing their clinical significance. Improvements in HRQL, pain-related disability, and readiness-to-change suggest that the vicious cycle of chronic pain may be alleviated by our programme. As we see it, effective

  4. Intrinsic Optimal Control for Mechanical Systems on Lie Group

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao Liu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The intrinsic infinite horizon optimal control problem of mechanical systems on Lie group is investigated. The geometric optimal control problem is built on the intrinsic coordinate-free model, which is provided with Levi-Civita connection. In order to obtain an analytical solution of the optimal problem in the geometric viewpoint, a simplified nominal system on Lie group with an extra feedback loop is presented. With geodesic distance and Riemann metric on Lie group integrated into the cost function, a dynamic programming approach is employed and an analytical solution of the optimal problem on Lie group is obtained via the Hamilton-Jacobi-Bellman equation. For a special case on SO(3, the intrinsic optimal control method is used for a quadrotor rotation control problem and simulation results are provided to show the control performance.

  5. Does reduced movement restrictions and use of assistive devices affect rehabilitation outcome after total hip replacement? A non-randomized, controlled study in 365 patients with six week follow up

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Lone Ramer; Petersen, Annemette Krintel; Søballe, Kjeld

    a standard package of assistive devices (restricted group, RG). This group was compared to patients included into the study the following 3 months with a less restricted hip movement regime and use of assistive devices according to individual needs (unrestricted group, UG). Questionnaires on function...... (difference ≤5 points). Yet, there is a beneficial or equal effect of the unrestricted regime concerning secondary outcomes. It seems possible to reduce the use of assistive devices considerably and thereby induce cost savings. More research on safety issues is needed to elucidate the effect of unrestricted...

  6. Systematic review of control groups in nutrition education intervention research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrd-Bredbenner, Carol; Wu, FanFan; Spaccarotella, Kim; Quick, Virginia; Martin-Biggers, Jennifer; Zhang, Yingting

    2017-07-11

    Well-designed research trials are critical for determining the efficacy and effectiveness of nutrition education interventions. To determine whether behavioral and/or cognition changes can be attributed to an intervention, the experimental design must include a control or comparison condition against which outcomes from the experimental group can be compared. Despite the impact different types of control groups can have on study outcomes, the treatment provided to participants in the control condition has received limited attention in the literature. A systematic review of control groups in nutrition education interventions was conducted to better understand how control conditions are described in peer-reviewed journal articles compared with experimental conditions. To be included in the systematic review, articles had to be indexed in CINAHL, PubMed, PsycINFO, WoS, and/or ERIC and report primary research findings of controlled nutrition education intervention trials conducted in the United States with free-living consumer populations and published in English between January 2005 and December 2015. Key elements extracted during data collection included treatment provided to the experimental and control groups (e.g., overall intervention content, tailoring methods, delivery mode, format, duration, setting, and session descriptions, and procedures for standardizing, fidelity of implementation, and blinding); rationale for control group type selected; sample size and attrition; and theoretical foundation. The search yielded 43 publications; about one-third of these had an inactive control condition, which is considered a weak study design. Nearly two-thirds of reviewed studies had an active control condition considered a stronger research design; however, many failed to report one or more key elements of the intervention, especially for the control condition. None of the experimental and control group treatments were sufficiently detailed to permit replication of the

  7. Strategies for improving postpartum contraceptive use: evidence from non-randomized studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Laureen M; Grey, Thomas W; Chen, Mario; Hiller, Janet E

    2014-11-27

    Nearly two-thirds of women in their first postpartum year have an unmet need for family planning. Adolescents often have repeat pregnancies within a year of giving birth. Women may receive counseling on family planning both antepartum and postpartum. Decisions about contraceptive use made right after counseling may differ considerably from actual postpartum use. In earlier work, we found limited evidence of effectiveness from randomized trials on postpartum contraceptive counseling. For educational interventions, non-randomized studies may be conducted more often than randomized trials. We reviewed non-randomized studies of educational strategies to improve postpartum contraceptive use. Our intent was to examine associations between specific interventions and postpartum contraceptive use or subsequent pregnancy. We searched for eligible non-randomized studies until 3 November 2014. Sources included CENTRAL, PubMed, POPLINE, and Web of Science. We also sought current trials via ClinicalTrials.gov and ICTRP. For additional citations, we examined reference lists of relevant reports and reviews. The studies had to be comparative, i.e., have intervention and comparison groups. The educational component could be counseling or another behavioral strategy to improve contraceptive use among postpartum women. The intervention had to include contact within six weeks postpartum. The comparison condition could be another behavioral strategy to improve contraceptive use, usual care, other health education, or no intervention. Our primary outcomes were postpartum contraceptive use and subsequent pregnancy. Two authors evaluated abstracts for eligibility and extracted data from included studies. We computed the Mantel-Haenszel odds ratio (OR) for dichotomous outcomes and the mean difference (MD) for continuous measures, both with 95% Confidence Intervals (CI). Where studies used adjusted analyses for continuous outcomes, we presented the results as reported by the investigators

  8. 西罗莫司在肾移植术后早期计划性切换的前瞻性对照研究%Early conversion from calcineurin inhibitor to sirolimusto after renal transplantation:a prospective,open-label and non-randomized control study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄洪锋; 谢文卿; 吴建永; 徐莹; 余献平; 任萍萍; 陈江华

    2014-01-01

    Objective To explore the efficacy and safety of designed early conversion from calcineurin inhibitor (CNI) to sirolimus (SRL) as major immunosuppressive therapy in renal transplant recipients with stable renal function.Methods A prospective,open-label and non-randomized control study was performed for 112 renal transplant recipients (3-6 months post-operation) with stable renal function between June 2008 and June 2011.The patients in SRL group (n =57) switched to sirolimus while those in CNI group (n =55) continued CNI.The dosing of mycophenolate mofetil and steroids had no change.They were followed up for at least 24 months to evaluate the acute rejection,patient and graft survival,renal function,estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR),blood lipids,blood glucose,liver function and urinary protein at 1,6,12 and 24 months after inclusion.Adverse events were also recorded.Results The serum creatinine of SRL group decreased significantly after conversion ((89.2 ± 24.7),(87.6 ± 23.8),(86.1 ±20.4),(86.7 ± 19.7) vs(117.0 ± 16.3) μ.mol/L,all P < 0.05).CNI group showed no improvement of renal function.SRL group had a significantly higher eGFR than CNI group (P < 0.05).Among 3 cases of acute rejection,there were 2 in SRL group and 1 in CNI group (P > 0.05).Blood lipids in SRL group increased significantly at 1 month after conversion (P < 0.05) and reverted back to average level after intervention (P > 0.05).SRL group had a drop of hemoglobin level within the normal range.Two patients in SRL group developed hypokalemia and another 2 patients had oral ulcer.They all improved after treatment.During follow-ups,1 case of mild proteinuria was found in SIR group.Three patients were diagnosed with diabetes (1 in SRL group vs 2 in CNI group).Conclusions Early conversion from CNI to SRL as major immunosuppressive therapy in renal transplant recipients with stable renal function further improves renal function.There is no higher rate of acute rejection during

  9. Using electric fields for pulse compression and group velocity control

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Qian; Thuresson, Axel; Rippe, Lars; Kröll, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    In this article, we experimentally demonstrate a new way of controlling the group velocity of an optical pulse by using a combination of spectral hole burning, slow light effect and linear Stark effect in a rare-earth-ion-doped crystal. The group velocity can be changed continuously by a factor of 20 without significant pulse distortion or absorption of the pulse energy. With a similar technique, an optical pulse can also be compressed in time. Theoretical simulations were developed to simulate the group velocity control and the pulse compression processes. The group velocity as well as the pulse reshaping are solely controlled by external voltages which makes it promising in quantum information and quantum communication processes. It is also proposed that the group velocity can be changed even more in an Er doped crystal while at the same time having a transmission band matching the telecommunication wavelength.

  10. Multidisciplinary intervention reducing readmissions in medical inpatients: a prospective, non-randomized study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Torisson G

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Gustav Torisson,1 Lennart Minthon,1 Lars Stavenow,2 Elisabet Londos1 1Clinical Memory Research Unit, Department of Clinical Sciences, Lund University, 2Department of Internal Medicine, Skåne University Hospital, Malmö, Sweden Background: The purpose of this study was to examine whether a multidisciplinary intervention targeting drug-related problems, cognitive impairment, and discharge miscommunication could reduce readmissions in a general hospital population. Methods: This prospective, non-randomized intervention study was carried out at the department of general internal medicine at a tertiary university hospital. Two hundred medical inpatients living in the community and aged over 60 years were included. Ninety-nine patients received interventions and 101 received standard care. Control/intervention allocation was determined by geographic selection. Interventions consisted of a comprehensive medication review, improved discharge planning, post-discharge telephone follow-up, and liaison with the patient's general practitioner. The main outcome measures recorded were readmissions and hospital nights 12 months after discharge. Separate analyses were made for 12-month survivors and from an intention-to-treat perspective. Comparative analyses were made between groups as well as within groups over time. Results: After 12 months, survivors in the control group had 125 readmissions in total, compared with 58 in the intervention group (Mann–Whitney U test, P = 0.02. For hospital nights, the numbers were 1,228 and 492, respectively (P = 0.009. Yearly admissions had increased from the previous year in the control group from 77 to 125 (Wilcoxon signed-rank test, P = 0.002 and decreased from 75 to 58 in the intervention group (P = 0.25. From the intention-to-treat perspective, the same general pattern was observed but was not significant (1,827 versus 1,008 hospital nights, Mann–Whitney test, P = 0.054. Conclusion: A multidisciplinary approach

  11. The Nonrandom Brain: Efficiency, Economy, and Complex Dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olaf eSporns

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Modern anatomical tracing and imaging techniques are beginning to reveal the structural anatomy of neural circuits at small and large scales in unprecedented detail. When examined with analytic tools from graph theory and network science, neural connectivity exhibits highly nonrandom features, including high clustering and short path length, as well as modules and highly central hub nodes. These characteristic topological features of neural connections shape nonrandom dynamic interactions that occur during spontaneous activity or in response to external stimulation. Disturbances of connectivity and thus of neural dynamics are thought to underlie a number of disease states of the brain, and some evidence suggests that degraded functional performance of brain networks may be the outcome of a process of randomization affecting their nodes and edges. This article provides a survey of the nonrandom structure of neural connectivity, primarily at the large-scale of regions and pathways in the mammalian cerebral cortex. In addition, we will discuss how nonrandom connections can give rise to differentiated and complex patterns of dynamics and information flow. Finally, we will explore the idea that at least some disorders of the nervous system are associated with increased randomness of neural connections.

  12. Stability control of gate groups in deep wells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhi-biao Guo; Ping-ye Guo; Mao-hong Huang; Yin-gen Liu [China University of Mining & Technology, Beijing (China). School of Geotechnical Engineering

    2009-03-15

    In order to study stability control methods for a deep gate group under complex stresses, we conducted field investigations and analyses of reasons for damage in the Xuzhou coal mining district. Three reasons are proposed: deep high stress, improper roadway layout and support technology. The stability control countermeasures of the gate group consist of an intensive design technology and responding bolt-mesh-anchor truss support technology. Our research method has been applied at the -1000 m level gate group in Qishan Coal Mine. Suitable countermeasures have been tested by field monitoring. 16 refs., 9 figs.

  13. Stability control of gate groups in deep wells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUO Zhi-biao; GUO Ping-ye; HUANG Mao-hong; LIU Yin-gen

    2009-01-01

    In order to study stability control methods for a deep gate group under complex stresses, we conducted field investiga-tions and analyses of reasons for damage in the Xuzhou mining district. Three reasons are proposed: deep high stress, improper roadway layout and support technology. The stability control countermeasures of the gate group consist of an intensive design technology and responding bolt-mesh-anchor truss support technology. Our research method has been applied at the -1000 m level gate group in Qishan Coal Mine. Suitable countermeasures have been tested by field monitoring.

  14. Control groups in recent septic shock trials: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pettilä, Ville; Hjortrup, Peter Buhl; Jakob, Stephan M; Wilkman, Erika; Perner, Anders; Takala, Jukka

    2016-12-01

    The interpretation of septic shock trial data is profoundly affected by patients, control intervention, co-interventions and selected outcome measures. We evaluated the reporting of control groups in recent septic shock trials. We searched for original articles presenting randomized clinical trials (RCTs) in adult septic shock patients from 2006 to 2016. We included RCTs focusing on septic shock patients with at least two parallel groups and at least 50 patients in the control group. We selected and evaluated data items regarding patients, control group characteristics, and mortality outcomes, and calculated a data completeness score to provide an overall view of quality of reporting. A total of 24 RCTs were included (mean n = 287 patients and 71 % of eligible patients were randomized). Of the 24 studies, 14 (58 %) presented baseline data on vasopressors and 58 % the proportion of patients with elevated lactate values. Five studies (21 %) provided data to estimate the proportion of septic shock patients fulfilling the Sepsis-3 definition. The mean data completeness score was 19 out of 36 (range 8-32). Of 18 predefined control group characteristics, a mean of 8 (range 2-17) were reported. Only 2 (8 %) trials provided adequate data to confirm that their control group treatment represented usual care. Recent trials in septic shock provide inadequate data on the control group treatment and hemodynamic values. We propose a standardized trial dataset to be created and validated, comprising characteristics of patient population, interventions administered, hemodynamic values achieved, surrogate organ dysfunction, and mortality outcomes, to allow better analysis and interpretation of future trial results.

  15. Anderson transition in low-dimensional disordered systems driven by long-range nonrandom hopping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, A; Malyshev, V A; Sierra, G; Martín-Delgado, M A; Rodríguez-Laguna, J; Domínguez-Adame, F

    2003-01-17

    The single-parameter scaling hypothesis predicts the absence of delocalized states for noninteracting quasiparticles in low-dimensional disordered systems. We show analytically, using a supersymmetric method combined with a renormalization group analysis, as well as numerically that extended states may occur in the one- and two-dimensional Anderson model with a nonrandom hopping falling off as some power of the distance between sites. The different size scaling of the bare level spacing and the renormalized magnitude of the disorder seen by the quasiparticles finally results in the delocalization of states at one of the band edges of the quasiparticle energy spectrum.

  16. Estimates of External Validity Bias When Impact Evaluations Select Sites Nonrandomly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Stephen H.; Olsen, Robert B.; Orr, Larry L.; Stuart, Elizabeth A.

    2016-01-01

    Evaluations of educational programs or interventions are typically conducted in nonrandomly selected samples of schools or districts. Recent research has shown that nonrandom site selection can yield biased impact estimates. To estimate the external validity bias from nonrandom site selection, we combine lists of school districts that were…

  17. Coordination of baseload power plant group control with static reactive power compensator control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zbigniew Szczerba

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Reactive power sources in power system nodes: generators and static reactive power compensators, are controlled by control systems. Generators – by generator node group controllers, compensators – by voltage controllers. The paper presents issues of these control systems’ coordination and proposals for its implementation.

  18. The Effects of Forest Therapy on Coping with Chronic Widespread Pain: Physiological and Psychological Differences between Participants in a Forest Therapy Program and a Control Group

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin-Woo Han

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to investigate the effects of a two-day forest therapy program on individuals with chronic widespread pain. Sixty one employees of a public organization providing building and facilities management services within the Seoul Metropolitan area participated in the study. Participants were assigned to an experimental group (n = 33 who participated in a forest therapy program or a control group (n = 28 on a non-random basis. Pre- and post-measures of heart rate variability (HRV, Natural Killer cell (NK cell activity, self-reported pain using the visual analog scale (VAS, depression level using the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI, and health-related quality of life measures using the EuroQol Visual Analog Scale (EQ-VAS were collected in both groups. The results showed that participants in the forest therapy group, as compared to the control group, showed physiological improvement as indicated by a significant increase in some measures of HRV and an increase in immune competence as indicated by NK cell activity. Participants in the forest therapy group also reported significant decreases in pain and depression, and a significant improvement in health-related quality of life. These results support the hypothesis that forest therapy is an effective intervention to relieve pain and associated psychological and physiological symptoms in individuals with chronic widespread pain.

  19. Nonrandom involvement of chromosomal segments in human hematologic malignancies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rowley, J. D.

    1977-01-01

    The consistent occurrence of nonrandom chromosome changes in human malignancies suggests that they are not trivial epiphenomena. Whereas we do not understand their significance at present, one possible role which they may fulfill is to provide the chromosomally aberrant cells with a proliferative advantage as the result of alteration of the number and/or location of genes related to nucleic acid biosynthesis. It would be expected that the proliferative advantage provided by various chromosome aberrations differs in patients with different genetic constitutions.

  20. Calculating osmotic pressure according to nonelectrolyte Wilson nonrandom factor model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hui; Zhan, Tingting; Zhan, Xiancheng; Wang, Xiaolan; Tan, Xiaoying; Guo, Yiping; Li, Chengrong

    2014-08-01

    Abstract The osmotic pressure of NaCl solutions was determined by the air humidity in equilibrium (AHE) method. The relationship between the osmotic pressure and the concentration was explored theoretically, and the osmotic pressure was calculated according to the nonelectrolyte Wilson nonrandom factor (N-Wilson-NRF) model from the concentration. The results indicate that the calculated osmotic pressure is comparable to the measured one.

  1. 78 FR 67132 - GPS Satellite Simulator Control Working Group Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-08

    ... Department of the Air Force GPS Satellite Simulator Control Working Group Meeting AGENCY: Space and Missile Systems Center, Global Positioning Systems (GPS) Directorate, Air Force, DoD. ACTION: Meeting notice..., 2013 Vol. 78 No. 206. This new meeting notice is to inform GPS simulator manufacturers, who supply...

  2. 77 FR 70421 - GPS Satellite Simulator Control Working Group Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-26

    ... Department of the Air Force GPS Satellite Simulator Control Working Group Meeting AGENCY: Space and Missile Systems Center, Global Positioning Systems (GPS) Directorate, Department of the Air Force, DoD. ACTION: Meeting Notice. SUMMARY: This meeting notice is to inform GPS simulator manufacturers, who supply products...

  3. 78 FR 63459 - GPS Satellite Simulator Control Working Group Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-24

    ... Force GPS Satellite Simulator Control Working Group Meeting AGENCY: Department of the Air Force. ACTION: Meeting Notice. SUMMARY: This meeting notice is to inform GPS simulator manufacturers, who supply products to the Department of Defense (DoD), and GPS simulator users, both government and DoD contractors...

  4. Pragmatic randomised controlled trial of group psychoeducation versus group support in the maintenance of bipolar disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberts Christopher

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Non-didactically delivered curriculum based group psychoeducation has been shown to be more effective than both group support in a specialist mood disorder centre in Spain (with effects lasting up to five years, and treatment as usual in Australia. It is unclear whether the specific content and form of group psychoeducation is effective or the chance to meet and work collaboratively with other peers. The main objective of this trial is to determine whether curriculum based group psychoeducation is more clinically and cost effective than unstructured peer group support. Methods/design Single blind two centre cluster randomised controlled trial of 21 sessions group psychoeducation versus 21 sessions group peer support in adults with bipolar 1 or 2 disorder, not in current episode but relapsed in the previous two years. Individual randomisation is to either group at each site. The groups are carefully matched for the number and type of therapists, length and frequency of the interventions and overall aim of the groups but differ in content and style of delivery. The primary outcome is time to next bipolar episode with measures of the therapeutic process, barriers and drivers to the effective delivery of the interventions and economic analysis. Follow up is for 96 weeks after randomisation. Discussion The trial has features of both an efficacy and an effectiveness trial design. For generalisability in England it is set in routine public mental health practice with a high degree of expert patient involvement. Trial Registration ISRCTN62761948 Funding National Institute for Health Research, England.

  5. Development of an interventional pain management specific instrument for methodologic quality assessment of nonrandomized studies of interventional techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manchikanti, Laxmaiah; Hirsch, Joshua A; Heavner, James E; Cohen, Steven P; Benyamin, Ramsin M; Sehgal, Nalini; Falco, Frank J E; Vallejo, Ricardo; Onyewu, Obi; Zhu, Jie; Kaye, Alan D; Boswell, Mark V; Helm, Standiford; Candido, Kenneth D; Diwan, Sudhir; Simopoulos, Thomas T; Singh, Vijay; Pampati, Vidyasagar; Racz, Gabor B; Raj, P Prithvi

    2014-01-01

    The major component of a systematic review is assessment of the methodologic quality and bias of randomized and nonrandomized trials. While there are multiple instruments available to assess the methodologic quality and bias for randomized controlled trials (RCTs), there is a lack of extensively utilized instruments for observational studies, specifically for interventional pain management (IPM) techniques. Even Cochrane review criteria for randomized trials is considered not to be a "gold standard," but merely an indication of the current state of the art review methodology. Recently a specific instrument to assess the methodologic quality of randomized trials has been developed for interventional techniques. Our objective was to develop an IPM specific instrument to assess the methodological quality of nonrandomized trials or observational studies of interventional techniques. The item generation for the instrument was based on a definition of quality, to the extent to which the design and conduct of the trial were congruent with the objectives of the study. Applicability was defined as the extent to which procedures produced by the study could be applied using contemporary IPM techniques. Multiple items based on Cochrane review criteria and Interventional Pain Management Techniques - Quality Appraisal of Reliability and Risk of Bias Assessment for Nonrandomized Studies (IPM-QRBNR) were utilized. A total of 16 items were developed which formed the IPM-QRBNR tool. The assessment was performed in multiple stages. The final assessment was 4 nonrandomized studies. The inter-rater agreement was moderate to good for IPM-QRBNR criteria. Limited validity or accuracy assessment of the instrument and the large number of items to be scored were limitations. We have developed a new comprehensive instrument to assess the methodological quality of nonrandomized studies of interventional techniques. This instrument provides extensive information specific to interventional

  6. A comparison of donor and control group quality of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tumin, Makmor; Abdul Talib Abdul Mutalib, Muzalwana; Mohd Satar, Nurulhuda; Abdullah, Nawi; Chong, Chin-Sieng; Ng, Kok-Peng; Lim, Soo-Kun

    2014-03-03

    Informed consent of prospective donors should include information about the quality of life (QoL) of existing donors, especially those within the relevant country. This study aimed to provide information on Malaysian organ donors' QoL relative to a control group. Using a shorter version of the SF-36, QoL of 80 donors from the University of Malaya Medical Center (UMMC), Malaysia was surveyed and compared to QoL of 80 selected healthy individuals. ANOVA and General Linear Model (GLM) procedure were each applied for the QoL comparison, which was based on gender and age. Donors recorded a better QoL relative to the control group. Comparison across gender revealed that differences are more obvious for males than females. Donor/control comparison across age groups reveals that donors aged 56 and above reported significantly better QoL in most domains relative to other age groups. Information on donor QoL should be made available to the public to present a comprehensive picture of the consequences of organ donation. Nonetheless, we also argue that, despite the merits of organ donation, caution is required before concluding that donors have better QoL because the present research outcomes may reflect a self-selection bias in which respondents only included donors engaging in regular follow-ups.

  7. Fourth order accurate compact scheme with group velocity control (GVC)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    For solving complex flow field with multi-scale structure higher order accurate schemes are preferred. Among high order schemes the compact schemes have higher resolving efficiency. When the compact and upwind compact schemes are used to solve aerodynamic problems there are numerical oscillations near the shocks. The reason of oscillation production is because of non-uniform group velocity of wave packets in numerical solutions. For improvement of resolution of the shock a parameter function is introduced in compact scheme to control the group velocity. The newly developed method is simple. It has higher accuracy and less stencil of grid points.

  8. FEATURES OF TAX CONTROL ON THE CONSOLIDATED GROUP OF TAXPAYERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena B. Shuvalova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In article features of formation of the consolidated base on income tax of the organizations, difficulties of tax control of all participants of the consolidated group oftaxpayers are opened. On the basis of theanalysis of statistical reportes of FederalTax Service of Russia subjects of the Russian Federation in whom need of carryingout tax audits is proved are revealed.

  9. From deception trials to control reagents - The introduction of the control group about a century ago

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dehue, T

    2000-01-01

    This is the story of the remarkable psychologist John E. Coover, who, in the early 1900s, was the first to advocate the comparison of experimental and control ol groups as a methodological necessity. Moreover, the author raises the issue of why control groups were launched about a century ago, and w

  10. Patterns of Nonrandom Mating Within and Across 11 Major Psychiatric Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordsletten, Ashley E.; Larsson, Henrik; Crowley, James J.; Almqvist, Catarina; Lichtenstein, Paul; Mataix-Cols, David

    2016-01-01

    IMPORTANCE Psychiatric disorders are heritable, polygenic traits, which often share risk alleles and for which nonrandom mating has been suggested. However, despite the potential etiological implications, the scale of nonrandom mating within and across major psychiatric conditions remains unclear. OBJECTIVE To quantify the nature and extent of nonrandom mating within and across a broad range of psychiatric conditions at the population level. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS Population-based cohort using Swedish population registers. Participants were all Swedish residents with a psychiatric diagnosis of interest (attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, autism spectrum disorder, schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, major depression, generalized anxiety disorder, agoraphobia, social phobia, obsessive-compulsive disorder, anorexia, or substance abuse), along with their mates. Individuals with select nonpsychiatric disorders (Crohn’s disease, type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus, multiple sclerosis, or rheumatoid arthritis) were included for comparison. General population samples were also derived and matched 1:5 with each case proband. Inpatient and outpatient diagnostic data were derived from the Swedish National Patient Register (1973-2009), with analyses conducted between June 2014 and May 2015. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES Correlation in the diagnostic status of mates both within and across disorders. Conditional logistic regression was used to quantify the odds of each diagnosis in the mates of cases relative to matched population controls. RESULTS Across cohorts, data corresponded to 707 263 unique case individuals, with women constituting 45.7% of the full population. Positive correlations in diagnostic status were evident between mates. Within-disorder correlations were marginally higher (range, 0.11-0.48) than cross-disorder correlations (range, 0.01-0.42). Relative to matched populations, the odds of psychiatric case probands having an affected mate were

  11. Hypovitaminosis D according to psychiatric diagnosis groups: A study with control group

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Derya Güliz Mert

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: One of the risk factor for different psychiatric disorders has been indicated as hypovit-aminosis D. The present study aimed to compare 25 (OH D level between 4 different types of psychiatric disorders (schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, depression and anxiety disorder and healthy controls, and to assess the risk factors of hypovitaminosis D in psychiatric inpatients. Method: This retrospective study included 974 individuals [depression (n=553, bipolar disorder (n=135, schizophrenia (n=186 and anxiety disorder (n=100] who received inpatient treatment in psychiatry clinic between 2012 and 2014, and 574 individuals in control group who were not diagnosed with a psychiatric condition. A 25 (OH D level less than 21 ng/mL was considered to indicate hypovitaminosis D. Results: 25 (OH D level average of the control group was found to be significantly higher than that of the four psychiatric diagnosis groups (p0.05. Lo-gistic regression analysis of the study parameters suggested that the female gender (odds ratio: 3.46; 95% confidence interval: 0.99-1.01, winter and spring seasons (odds ratio: 2.56; 95% con-fidence interval: 1.69-3.86 and odds ratio: 2.03; 95% confidence interval: 1.33-3.11, respectively were significant predictors in level of vitamin D in psychiatric inpatients. Conclusions: Hypovitaminosis D is a condition that frequently exists in inpatients in psychiatry clinic suffering from schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, anxiety disorder and depression. Being a female, winter and spring are the most remarkable risk factors in these patients.

  12. Mitochondrial control region diversity in Sindhi ethnic group of Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasmin, Memona; Rakha, Allah; Noreen, Saadia; Salahuddin, Zeenat

    2017-05-01

    The entire mitochondrial DNA control region (nt 16024-576) of 88 unrelated individuals of Sindhi ethnic group residing in different parts of Sindh province of Pakistan was sequenced. Out of 66 different observed haplotypes 50 were unique and 16 were shared by more than one individual. Results showed admixture of mtDNA pool constituting the haplogroups derived mainly from South Asia (47.6%) and West Eurasian (35.7%) whereas the contribution of the African haplogroup was very small (2.4%). High values of genetic diversity (0.992), power of discrimination (0.981) and low value of random match probability (0.018) indicates that mtDNA analysis for this population can effectively be used for forensic casework. The results are valuable contribution towards building mtDNA population variation database for this particular ethnic group from Pakistan. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Controlling group velocity in a superconductive quantum circuit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qiu Tian-Hui; Yang Guo-Jian

    2012-01-01

    We investigate the controllable group velocity of a microwave probe field in a superconductive quantum circuit (SQC) pumped by microwave fields,and the use of such a SQC function as an artificial A-type three-level atom.The exchange between the subluminal and the superluminal states of the probe field can be realized simply by sweeping the pumping intensity,and the superluminal state is usually realized with a lower absorption.This work is one of the efforts to extend the study of electromagnetically induced transparency and its related properties from the lightwave band to the microwave band.

  14. Nonrandomized Trial of Feasibility and Acceptability of Strategies for Promotion of Soapy Water as a Handwashing Agent in Rural Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashraf, Sania; Nizame, Fosiul A; Islam, Mahfuza; Dutta, Notan C; Yeasmin, Dalia; Akhter, Sadika; Abedin, Jaynal; Winch, Peter J; Ram, Pavani K; Unicomb, Leanne; Leontsini, Elli; Luby, Stephen P

    2017-02-08

    We conducted a nonrandomized trial of strategies to promote soapy water for handwashing in rural Bangladesh and measured uptake. We enrolled households with children promotion of soapy water (N = 120), soapy water promotion plus handwashing stations (N = 103), and soapy water promotion, stations plus detergent refills (N = 90); we also enrolled control households (N = 72). Our handwashing stations included tap-fitted buckets and soapy water bottles. Community promoters visited households and held community meetings to demonstrate soapy water preparation and promote handwashing at key times. Field workers measured uptake 4 months later. In-depth interviews and focus group discussions assessed factors associated with uptake. More households had soapy water at the handwashing place in progressively intensive arms: 18% (promotion), 60% (promotion plus station), and 71% (promotion, station with refills). Compared with the promotion-only arm, more households that received stations had soapy water at the primary handwashing station (44%, P ≤ 0.001; 71%, P < 0.001 with station plus detergent refill). Qualitative findings highlighted several dimensions that affected use: contextual (shared courtyard), psychosocial (perceived value), and technology dimensions (ease of use, convenience). Soapy water may increase habitual handwashing by addressing barriers of cost and availability of handwashing agents near water sources. Further research should inform optimal strategies to scale-up soapy water as a handwashing agent to study health impact.

  15. Nonrandomized Trial of Feasibility and Acceptability of Strategies for Promotion of Soapy Water as a Handwashing Agent in Rural Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashraf, Sania; Nizame, Fosiul A.; Islam, Mahfuza; Dutta, Notan C.; Yeasmin, Dalia; Akhter, Sadika; Abedin, Jaynal; Winch, Peter J.; Ram, Pavani K.; Unicomb, Leanne; Leontsini, Elli; Luby, Stephen P.

    2017-01-01

    We conducted a nonrandomized trial of strategies to promote soapy water for handwashing in rural Bangladesh and measured uptake. We enrolled households with children promotion of soapy water (N = 120), soapy water promotion plus handwashing stations (N = 103), and soapy water promotion, stations plus detergent refills (N = 90); we also enrolled control households (N = 72). Our handwashing stations included tap-fitted buckets and soapy water bottles. Community promoters visited households and held community meetings to demonstrate soapy water preparation and promote handwashing at key times. Field workers measured uptake 4 months later. In-depth interviews and focus group discussions assessed factors associated with uptake. More households had soapy water at the handwashing place in progressively intensive arms: 18% (promotion), 60% (promotion plus station), and 71% (promotion, station with refills). Compared with the promotion-only arm, more households that received stations had soapy water at the primary handwashing station (44%, P ≤ 0.001; 71%, P strategies to scale-up soapy water as a handwashing agent to study health impact. PMID:28025233

  16. Local Control With Reduced-Dose Radiotherapy for Low-Risk Rhabdomyosarcoma: A Report From the Children's Oncology Group D9602 Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Breneman, John, E-mail: john.breneman@uchealth.com [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Cincinnati and Cincinnati Children' s Hospital Medical Center, Cincinnati, OH (United States); Meza, Jane [Department of Biostatistics, University of Nebraska Medical Center College of Public Health, Omaha, NE (United States); Donaldson, Sarah S. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA (United States); Raney, R. Beverly [Children' s Cancer Hospital and Division of Pediatrics, University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); Children' s Ambulatory Blood and Cancer Center, Dell Children' s Medical Center of Central Texas, Austin, TX (United States); Wolden, Suzanne [Department of Radiation Oncology, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY (United States); Michalski, Jeff [Department of Radiation Oncology, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO (United States); Laurie, Fran [Quality Assurance Review Center, Lincoln, RI (United States); Rodeberg, David A. [Department of Surgery, East Carolina University, Greenville, NC (United States); Meyer, William [Section of Pediatric Hematology/Oncology, University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center, Oklahoma City, OK (United States); Walterhouse, David [Division of Hematology/Oncology, Children' s Memorial Medical Center, Chicago, IL (United States); Hawkins, Douglas S. [Department of Pediatrics, Seattle Children' s Hospital, University of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States)

    2012-06-01

    Purpose: To analyze the effect of reduced-dose radiotherapy on local control in children with low-risk rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS) treated in the Children's Oncology Group D9602 study. Methods and Materials: Patients with low-risk RMS were nonrandomly assigned to receive radiotherapy doses dependent on the completeness of surgical resection of the primary tumor (clinical group) and the presence of involved regional lymph nodes. After resection, most patients with microscopic residual and uninvolved nodes received 36 Gy, those with involved nodes received 41.4 to 50.4 Gy, and those with orbital primary tumors received 45 Gy. All patients received vincristine and dactinomycin, with cyclophosphamide added for patient subsets with a higher risk of relapse in Intergroup Rhabdomyosarcoma Study Group III and IV studies. Results: Three hundred forty-two patients were eligible for analysis; 172 received radiotherapy as part of their treatment. The cumulative incidence of local/regional failure was 15% in patients with microscopic involved margins when cyclophosphamide was not part of the treatment regimen and 0% when cyclophosphamide was included. The cumulative incidence of local/regional failure was 14% in patients with orbital tumors. Protocol-specified omission of radiotherapy in girls with Group IIA vaginal tumors (n = 5) resulted in three failures for this group. Conclusions: In comparison with Intergroup Rhabdomyosarcoma Study Group III and IV results, reduced-dose radiotherapy does not compromise local control for patients with microscopic tumor after surgical resection or with orbital primary tumors when cyclophosphamide is added to the treatment program. Girls with unresected nonbladder genitourinary tumors require radiotherapy for postsurgical residual tumor for optimal local control to be achieved.

  17. Evidence for Non-Random Hydrophobicity Structures in Protein Chains

    CERN Document Server

    Irbäck, A; Potthast, F; Irb\\"ack, Anders; Peterson, Carsten; Potthast, Frank

    1996-01-01

    The question of whether proteins originate from random sequences of amino acids is addressed. A statistical analysis is performed in terms of blocked and random walk values formed by binary hydrophobic assignments of the amino acids along the protein chains. Theoretical expectations of these variables from random distributions of hydrophobicities are compared with those obtained from functional proteins. The results, which are based upon proteins in the SWISS-PROT data base, convincingly show that the amino acid sequences in proteins differ from what is expected from random sequences in a statistical significant way. By performing Fourier transforms on the random walks one obtains additional evidence for non-randomness of the distributions. We have also analyzed results from a synthetic model containing only two amino-acid types, hydrophobic and hydrophilic. With reasonable criteria on good folding properties in terms of thermodynamical and kinetic behavior, sequences that fold well are isolated. Performing t...

  18. Issues Relating to Confounding and Meta-analysis When Including Non-Randomized Studies in Systematic Reviews on the Effects of Interventions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valentine, Jeffrey C.; Thompson, Simon G.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Confounding caused by selection bias is often a key difference between non-randomized studies (NRS) and randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of interventions. Key methodological issues: In this third paper of the series, we consider issues relating to the inclusion of NRS in systematic reviews on the effects of interventions. We discuss…

  19. Synonymous codon usage in different protein secondary structural classes of human genes: Implication for increased non-randomness of GC3 rich genes towards protein stability

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Pamela Mukhopadhyay; Surajit Basak; Tapash Chandra Ghosh

    2007-08-01

    The relationship between the synonymous codon usage and different protein secondary structural classes were investigated using 401 Homo sapiens proteins extracted from Protein Data Bank (PDB). A simple Chi-square test was used to assess the significance of deviation of the observed and expected frequencies of 59 codons at the level of individual synonymous families in the four different protein secondary structural classes. It was observed that synonymous codon families show non-randomness in codon usage in four different secondary structural classes. However, when the genes were classified according to their GC3 levels there was an increase in non-randomness in high GC3 group of genes. The non-randomness in codon usage was further tested among the same protein secondary structures belonging to four different protein folding classes of high GC3 group of genes. The results show that in each of the protein secondary structural unit there exist some synonymous family that shows class specific codonusage pattern. Moreover, there is an increased non-random behaviour of synonymous codons in sheet structure of all secondary structural classes in high GC3 group of genes. Biological implications of these results have been discussed.

  20. 42 CFR 421.505 - Termination and extension of non-random prepayment complex medical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... a provider or supplier must be on non-random prepayment complex medical review. There is no minimum... section, a contractor must terminate a provider or supplier from non-random prepayment complex medical... complex medical review if a provider or supplier stops billing the code under review, shifts billing...

  1. Medicare Program; termination of non-random prepayment complex medical review. Final rule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-09-26

    This final rule implements requirements regarding the termination of non-random prepayment complex medical review as required under the Medicare Prescription Drug, Improvement and Modernization Act of 2003. This final rule sets forth the criteria CMS contractors will use for terminating a provider or supplier from non-random prepayment complex medical review.

  2. 26 CFR 1.414(b)-1 - Controlled group of corporations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Controlled group of corporations. 1.414(b)-1... Controlled group of corporations. (a) Defintion of controlled group of corporations. For purposes of this section, the term “controlled group of corporations” has the same meaning as is assigned to the term...

  3. Consensus definitions and application guidelines for control groups in cerebrospinal fluid biomarker studies in multiple sclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Teunissen, Charlotte; Menge, Til; Altintas, Ayse

    2013-01-01

    definitions and nomenclature for the following groups: healthy controls (HCs), spinal anesthesia subjects (SASs), inflammatory neurological disease controls (INDCs), peripheral inflammatory neurological disease controls (PINDCs), non-inflammatory neurological controls (NINDCs), symptomatic controls (SCs...

  4. Effects of Group-Based Exercise on Range of Motion, Muscle Strength, Functional Ability, and Pain During the Acute Phase After Total Knee Arthroplasty: A Controlled Clinical Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiyama, Yoshinori; Kamitani, Tsukasa; Wada, Osamu; Mizuno, Kiyonori; Yamada, Minoru

    2016-09-01

    Study Design Prospective observational study including a historical control group. Background The extent to which group-based exercise (G-EXE) improves knee range of motion (ROM), quadriceps strength, and gait ability is similar to that of individualized exercise (I-EXE) at 6 weeks and 8 months after total knee arthroplasty (TKA). However, the benefits of G-EXE for patients during the acute recovery phase after TKA remain unclear. Objective To determine the effects of G-EXE during the acute recovery phase after TKA on knee ROM, quadriceps strength, functional ability, and knee pain. Methods Two hundred thirty-one patients participated in G-EXE in addition to regular ambulation and activities-of-daily-living exercises twice daily during the hospital stay. Outcomes were compared to those of a retrospectively identified, historical control group (I-EXE group [n = 206]) that included patients who performed exercises identical to those performed by the G-EXE group. The outcomes included knee ROM, quadriceps strength, pain intensity, and timed up-and-go test score at 1 month before surgery and at discharge. Analyses were adjusted for age, body mass index, sex, length of hospital stay, and preoperative values. Results Changes in ROM of knee flexion and extension (Pexercises demonstrated greater changes in knee ROM, quadriceps strength, and knee pain than those performing I-EXE in addition to regular ambulation and activities-of-daily-living exercises. The nonrandomized, asynchronous design decreases certainty of these findings. Level of Evidence Therapy, level 2b. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther 2016;46(9):742-748. Epub 5 Aug 2016. doi:10.2519/jospt.2016.6409.

  5. Did Evolution Select a Nonrandom "Alphabet" of Amino Acids?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philip, Gayle K.; Freeland, Stephen J.

    2011-04-01

    The last universal common ancestor of contemporary biology (LUCA) used a precise set of 20 amino acids as a standard alphabet with which to build genetically encoded protein polymers. Considerable evidence indicates that some of these amino acids were present through nonbiological syntheses prior to the origin of life, while the rest evolved as inventions of early metabolism. However, the same evidence indicates that many alternatives were also available, which highlights the question: what factors led biological evolution on our planet to define its standard alphabet? One possibility is that natural selection favored a set of amino acids that exhibits clear, nonrandom properties - a set of especially useful building blocks. However, previous analysis that tested whether the standard alphabet comprises amino acids with unusually high variance in size, charge, and hydrophobicity (properties that govern what protein structures and functions can be constructed) failed to clearly distinguish evolution's choice from a sample of randomly chosen alternatives. Here, we demonstrate unambiguous support for a refined hypothesis: that an optimal set of amino acids would spread evenly across a broad range of values for each fundamental property. Specifically, we show that the standard set of 20 amino acids represents the possible spectra of size, charge, and hydrophobicity more broadly and more evenly than can be explained by chance alone.

  6. From Victim to Taking Control: Support Group for Bullied Schoolchildren

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kvarme, Lisbeth Gravdal; Aabø, Liv Sandnes; Saeteren, Berit

    2016-01-01

    School bullying is a serious problem affecting the victims in their daily lives at school. The aim of this study was to investigate whether support groups were able to help the victims of bullying to overcome their victim status and to explore what it means to be a member of a support group. An exploratory qualitative design, with individual and…

  7. The Effect of Nonrandom Distribution of Molecules on the Equation of State for Gases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Haeyoung [DukSung Women' s Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-10-15

    Using the free volume of van der Waals equation, Carnahan-Starling equation for hard spheres, Wilson equation for nonrandom mixing of solution, NRTL equation and our equation, several new equations of states for pure gases are derived. Using these equations, compressibility factors for pure gases are calculated and compared with Nelson-Obert generalized compressibility factor charts. The equation of states using the concept of molecular nonrandom distribution gave better results than those of molecular random distribution. This shows that the molecular nonrandom distribution makes considerable effect on the equation of states.

  8. Effectiveness of a mindfulness-based intervention on oncology nurses' burnout and compassion fatigue symptoms: A non-randomized study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duarte, Joana; Pinto-Gouveia, José

    2016-12-01

    Job stress and burnout are highly frequent in healthcare professionals, and prevalence in nurses can be as high as 40%. Mindfulness-based interventions have been shown to be effective in reducing stress and increasing well-being in a wide range of populations and contexts. However, controlled studies with healthcare professionals, and especially nurses, are scarce. The aim of this study was to explore the effectiveness of an on-site, abbreviated mindfulness-based intervention for nurses, using a nonrandomized, wait-list comparison design. The effectiveness of the intervention was measured through several validated self-report measures that participants completed before and after the intervention, assessing burnout, compassion fatigue, psychological symptoms, mindfulness, self-compassion, experiential avoidances, rumination, and satisfaction with life. A sample of 94 oncology nurses agreed to participate in the study and self-selected into an experimental (n=45) and comparison condition (n=48). Complete data was obtained for 48 of the initial 94 participants, mainly due to poor follow-up data rather than high drop-out rate. Statistical analyses included a series of 2×2 ANOVAs and ANCOVAs. Results indicated that nurses in the intervention reported significant decreases in compassion fatigue, burnout, stress, experiential avoidance, and increases in satisfaction with life, mindfulness and self-compassion, with medium to large effect sizes. Nurses in the comparison group didn't present significant changes in these variables. Results also pointed to a high degree of acceptability of the intervention. This study provides preliminary evidence that mindfulness-based interventions may be efficacious in reducing oncology nurses' psychological symptoms and improving their overall well-being, and thus may be worthy of further study in this population. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Motion Control for Nonholonomic Systems on Matrix Lie Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-01-01

    exponentially stabilizing control law uSO(3) = H(x)ucfs(t, T (x)) (6.12) = H(x) =  cosx2 cosx3 − sec x2 sinx3 − cos x2 sinx3 − sec x2 cosx3  given ω is...nilpotentization, we constructed exponentially stabilizing control laws for non-nilpotent systems by extending the region of attraction of otherwise only locally...California Institute of Technology. Morin, P., Pomet, J.-B., & Samson, C. 1996. Design of Homogeneous Time- Varying Stabilizing Control Laws for Driftless

  10. Group Theoretical Approach for Controlled Quantum Mechanical Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-06

    evolution equation with Hamiltonians which may possess discrete , continuous, and mixed spectrum. For such a quantum system, the Hamiltonian operator...study of classical linear and nonlinear systems, which proves to be very useful in understanding the design problems such as disturbance decoupling...developed by Kunita can then be implemented to establish controllability conditions for the original time-dependent Schrodinger control problem. The end

  11. Control Group Design, Contamination and Drop-Out in Exercise Oncology Trials : A Systematic Review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bisschop, Charlotte N. Steins; Courneya, Kerry S.; Velthuis, Miranda J.; Monninkhof, Evelyn M.; Jones, Lee W.; Friedenreich, Christine; van der Wall, Elsken; Peeters, Petra H. M.; May, Anne M.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Important considerations for exercise trials in cancer patients are contamination and differential drop-out among the control group members that might jeopardize the internal validity. This systematic review provides an overview of different control groups design characteristics of

  12. Control of group of mobile autonomous agents via local strategies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lixin GAO; Daizhan CHENG; Yiguang HONG

    2008-01-01

    This paper considers the formation control problem of multi-agent systems in a distributed fashion.Two cases of the information propagating topologies among multiple agents,characterized by graphics model,are considered.One is fixed topology.The other is switching topology which represents the limited and less reliable information exchange.The local formation control strategies established in this paper are based on a simple modification of the existing consensus control strategies.Moreover,some existing convergence conditions ale shown to be a special case of our model even in the continuous-time consensus case.Therefore.the results of this paper extend the existing results about the consensus problem.

  13. Self-interest versus group-interest in antiviral control.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michiel van Boven

    Full Text Available Antiviral agents have been hailed to hold considerable promise for the treatment and prevention of emerging viral diseases like H5N1 avian influenza and SARS. However, antiviral drugs are not completely harmless, and the conditions under which individuals are willing to participate in a large-scale antiviral drug treatment program are as yet unknown. We provide population dynamical and game theoretical analyses of large-scale prophylactic antiviral treatment programs. Throughout we compare the antiviral control strategy that is optimal from the public health perspective with the control strategy that would evolve if individuals make their own, rational decisions. To this end we investigate the conditions under which a large-scale antiviral control program can prevent an epidemic, and we analyze at what point in an unfolding epidemic the risk of infection starts to outweigh the cost of antiviral treatment. This enables investigation of how the optimal control strategy is moulded by the efficacy of antiviral drugs, the risk of mortality by antiviral prophylaxis, and the transmissibility of the pathogen. Our analyses show that there can be a strong incentive for an individual to take less antiviral drugs than is optimal from the public health perspective. In particular, when public health asks for early and aggressive control to prevent or curb an emerging pathogen, for the individual antiviral drug treatment is attractive only when the risk of infection has become non-negligible. It is even possible that from a public health perspective a situation in which everybody takes antiviral drugs is optimal, while the process of individual choice leads to a situation where nobody is willing to take antiviral drugs.

  14. Incomplete categorical data design non-randomized response techniques for sensitive questions in surveys

    CERN Document Server

    Tian, Guo-Liang

    2013-01-01

    Respondents to survey questions involving sensitive information, such as sexual behavior, illegal drug usage, tax evasion, and income, may refuse to answer the questions or provide untruthful answers to protect their privacy. This creates a challenge in drawing valid inferences from potentially inaccurate data. Addressing this difficulty, non-randomized response approaches enable sample survey practitioners and applied statisticians to protect the privacy of respondents and properly analyze the gathered data.Incomplete Categorical Data Design: Non-Randomized Response Techniqu

  15. Effect of Nigella sativa supplementation over a one-year period on lipid levels, blood pressure and heart rate in type-2 diabetic patients receiving oral hypoglycemic agents: nonrandomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badar, Ahmed; Kaatabi, Huda; Bamosa, Abdullah; Al-Elq, Abdulmohsen; Abou-Hozaifa, Bodour; Lebda, Fatma; Alkhadra, Akram; Al-Almaie, Sameeh

    2017-01-01

    Diabetic patients with hypertension and dyslipidemia are at a high risk of cardiovascular complications. To determine the effect of Nigella sativa supplementation on the lipid profile, mean arterial pressure, and heart rate in persons with type 2 diabetes on oral hypoglycemic agents (OHA). Single-blind, nonrandomized. Diabetes clinic of a university hospital in Saudi Arabia. Type-2 diabetic patients were recruited by purposive sampling and assigned to treatment or control at the discretion of the investigator with the patient blinded to treatment. Before the in.tervention and every 3 months thereafter until the end of the treatment period, the following parameters were measured: triglycerides (TG), total cholesterol (TC), low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP), mean arterial pressure (MAP), heart rate (HR), and body mass index (BMI). Results at the baseline and each subsequent visit were compared between the two groups. Lipid and cardiovascular parameters, and BMI. Fifty-seven patients were assigned to receive N sativa 2 g daily for one year and 57 were assigned to receive an identical regimen of placebo, along with OHA. A significant decrease in HDL-C and increase in the TC/HDL-C and LDL-C/HDL-C ratios were seen in the control group. The N sativa group had a signifi.cant decline in TC, LDL-C, TC/HDL-C and LDL-C/HDL-C ratios, compared with the respective baseline data and the control group. HDL-C was significantly elevated in the N sativa group. The control group showed a significant elevation in MAP. The N sativa group had a significant reduction in SBP, DBP, MAP and HR and a significant decrease in DBP, MAP and HR as compared with the control group. N sativa supplementation improves total cholesterol, mean arterial pressure and heart rate in type 2 diabetes patients on oral hypoglycemic agents. There were 9 subjects in each group lost to follow up

  16. A fluorescence switch based on a controllable photochromic naphthopyran group

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen Lizhen [Faculty of Chemistry, Northeast Normal University, Changchun 130024 (China); Wang Guang, E-mail: wangg923@nenu.edu.cn [Faculty of Chemistry, Northeast Normal University, Changchun 130024 (China); Zhao Xiancai [Faculty of Chemistry, Northeast Normal University, Changchun 130024 (China)

    2011-08-15

    A fluorescence switch based on photoisomerization of naphthopyran (NP) has been designed by employing 2-(pyridin-2-yl)-benzimidazole (BPI) and the naphthopyran containing two pyran rings (NP) as fluorescent dye and photochromic compound, respectively. The fluorescence switch of benzimidazole derivative can be modulated either by controlling the irradiation time of UV light or by adjusting the amount ratio of fluorescent benzimidazole derivative to photochromic naphthopyran in both solution and polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) film. The experimental results indicated that the decrease of fluorescence intensity of benzimidazole derivative is attributed to the interaction of benzimidazole with naphthopyran. - Highlights: > Naphthopyran was first used to fabricate fluorescence switch with benzimidazole derivative. > Fluorescence intensity can be modulated by controlling the UV irradiation time. > Fluorescence intensity can be adjusted by changing the ratio of benzimidazole derivative to naphthopyran. > Decrease of fluorescence intensity is attributed to the interaction of benzimidazole derivative and naphthopyran.

  17. A meta-analysis of nonrandomized effectiveness studies on outpatient cognitive behavioral therapy for adult anxiety disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hans, Eva; Hiller, Wolfgang

    2013-12-01

    The primary aim of this study was to assess the overall effectiveness of individual and group outpatient cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) for adults with a primary anxiety disorder in routine clinical practice. We conducted a random effects meta-analysis of 71 nonrandomized effectiveness studies on outpatient individual and group CBT for adult anxiety disorders. Standardized mean gain effect sizes pre- to posttreatment, and posttreatment to follow-up are reported for disorder-specific symptoms, depression, and general anxiety. The mean dropout from CBT is reported. Outpatient CBT was effective in reducing disorder-specific symptoms in completer (d=0.90-1.91) and intention-to-treat samples (d=0.67-1.45). Moderate to large (d=0.54-1.09) and small to large effect sizes (d=0.42-0.97) were found for depressive and general anxiety symptoms posttreatment. Across all anxiety disorders, the weighted mean dropout rate was 15.06%. Posttreatment gains for disorder-specific anxiety were maintained 12months after completion of therapy. CBT for adult anxiety disorders is very effective and widely accepted in routine practice settings. However, the methodological and reporting quality of nonrandomized effectiveness studies must be improved. © 2013.

  18. Control of Block Copolymer Morphology through End-functional Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jo, Gyuha; Park, Moon Jeong

    2014-03-01

    Recently, poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO)-containing polymer electrolytes have attracted significant attention to be applied for lithium batteries. As the realization of high mechanical strength from the polymer electrolyte becomes of critical importance in high-energy lithium batteries, much effort has been devoted to developing PEO-based block copolymers comprising mechanically robust polymer chains. Interest in this topic has been further stimulated by multiple observations of significant electrolytic conductivity enhancement imparted by microphase separation of block copolymers. In the present study, we report an intriguing methodology for modulating the morphology of poly(styrene-ethylene oxide) (PS-PEO) block copolymers with a single ionic group tethered at the chain end of PEO. Unique intra- and inter-chain interactions deduced from the end functional group afforded enriched nanostructures, i.e. disorder, lamellae, hexagonal cylinder, and gyroid, with significant differences in conductivities depending on lithium salt concentration. In particular, a gyorid morphology with a twofold-enhanced lithium ion transport efficiency was found for the end-functionalized PS-PEO block copolymer, attributed to the structural advantages of the gyroid having co-continuous ionic channels.

  19. Reducing bias in survival under non-random temporary emigration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peñaloza, Claudia L.; Kendall, William L.; Langtimm, Catherine Ann

    2014-01-01

    Despite intensive monitoring, temporary emigration from the sampling area can induce bias severe enough for managers to discard life-history parameter estimates toward the terminus of the times series (terminal bias). Under random temporary emigration unbiased parameters can be estimated with CJS models. However, unmodeled Markovian temporary emigration causes bias in parameter estimates and an unobservable state is required to model this type of emigration. The robust design is most flexible when modeling temporary emigration, and partial solutions to mitigate bias have been identified, nonetheless there are conditions were terminal bias prevails. Long-lived species with high adult survival and highly variable non-random temporary emigration present terminal bias in survival estimates, despite being modeled with the robust design and suggested constraints. Because this bias is due to uncertainty about the fate of individuals that are undetected toward the end of the time series, solutions should involve using additional information on survival status or location of these individuals at that time. Using simulation, we evaluated the performance of models that jointly analyze robust design data and an additional source of ancillary data (predictive covariate on temporary emigration, telemetry, dead recovery, or auxiliary resightings) in reducing terminal bias in survival estimates. The auxiliary resighting and predictive covariate models reduced terminal bias the most. Additional telemetry data was effective at reducing terminal bias only when individuals were tracked for a minimum of two years. High adult survival of long-lived species made the joint model with recovery data ineffective at reducing terminal bias because of small-sample bias. The naïve constraint model (last and penultimate temporary emigration parameters made equal), was the least efficient, though still able to reduce terminal bias when compared to an unconstrained model. Joint analysis of several

  20. Spin-Orbit Twisted Spin Waves: Group Velocity Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez, F.; Baboux, F.; Ullrich, C. A.; D'Amico, I.; Vignale, G.; Karczewski, G.; Wojtowicz, T.

    2016-09-01

    We present a theoretical and experimental study of the interplay between spin-orbit coupling (SOC), Coulomb interaction, and motion of conduction electrons in a magnetized two-dimensional electron gas. Via a transformation of the many-body Hamiltonian we introduce the concept of spin-orbit twisted spin waves, whose energy dispersions and damping rates are obtained by a simple wave-vector shift of the spin waves without SOC. These theoretical predictions are validated by Raman scattering measurements. With optical gating of the density, we vary the strength of the SOC to alter the group velocity of the spin wave. The findings presented here differ from that of spin systems subject to the Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction. Our results pave the way for novel applications in spin-wave routing devices and for the realization of lenses for spin waves.

  1. HIERARCHICAL ACCESS CONTROL IN DYNAMIC PEER GROUPS USING SYMMETRIC POLYNOMIAL AND TREE BASED GROUP ELLIPTIC CURVE DIFFIE HELLMAN SCHEME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nafeesa Begum Jeddy

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Hierarchical Access Control in group communication is an active area of research which is difficult to achieve it. Its primary objective is to allow users of a higher authority group to access information or resource held by lower group users and preventing the lower group users to access information held by higher class users. Large collection of collaborative applications in organizations inherently has hierarchical structures for functioning, where providing security by efficient group key management is a big challenging issue. While preserving centralized methods for hierarchical access control, it is difficult to achieve efficiency as a single membership change will result in lot of changes which are difficult to maintain. So, using distributed key agreement techniques is more appropriate for this scenario. This study explore on novel group key agreement approach, which combines both the symmetric polynomial scheme and Tree Based Group elliptic Curve key exchange. Also, it yields a secure protocol suite that is good in fault-tolerant and simple. The efficiency of SP-TGECDH is better than many other schemes. Using TGECDH makes the scheme suitable small Low powered devices.

  2. Gestalt Intervention Groups for Anxious Parents in Hong Kong: A Quasi-Experimental Design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Grace Suk Man; Khor, Su Hean

    2017-01-01

    This study examined the impact of gestalt intervention groups for anxious Chinese parents in Hong Kong. A non-randomized control group pre-test/post-test design was adopted. A total of 156 parents participated in the project. After 4 weeks of treatment, the intervention group participants had lower anxiety levels, less avoidance of inner experiences, and more kindness towards oneself and mindfulness when compared to control group participants. However, the dimension of self-judgment remained unchanged. The adaptation of gestalt intervention to suit the Chinese culture was discussed.

  3. Interaction of Polycomb-group proteins controlling flowering in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chanvivattana, Yindee; Bishopp, Anthony; Schubert, Daniel; Stock, Christine; Moon, Yong-Hwan; Sung, Z Renee; Goodrich, Justin

    2004-11-01

    In Arabidopsis, the EMBYRONIC FLOWER2 (EMF2), VERNALISATION2 (VRN2) and FERTILISATION INDEPENDENT ENDOSPERM2 (FIS2) genes encode related Polycomb-group (Pc-G) proteins. Their homologues in animals act together with other Pc-G proteins as part of a multimeric complex, Polycomb Repressive Complex 2 (PRC2), which functions as a histone methyltransferase. Despite similarities between the fis2 mutant phenotype and those of some other plant Pc-G members, it has remained unclear how the FIS2/EMF2/VRN2 class Pc-G genes interact with the others. We have identified a weak emf2 allele that reveals a novel phenotype with striking similarity to that of severe mutations in another Pc-G gene, CURLY LEAF (CLF), suggesting that the two genes may act in a common pathway. Consistent with this, we demonstrate that EMF2 and CLF interact genetically and that this reflects interaction of their protein products through two conserved motifs, the VEFS domain and the C5 domain. We show that the full function of CLF is masked by partial redundancy with a closely related gene, SWINGER (SWN), so that null clf mutants have a much less severe phenotype than emf2 mutants. Analysis in yeast further indicates a potential for the CLF and SWN proteins to interact with the other VEFS domain proteins VRN2 and FIS2. The functions of individual Pc-G members may therefore be broader than single mutant phenotypes reveal. We suggest that plants have Pc-G protein complexes similar to the Polycomb Repressive Complex2 (PRC2) of animals, but the duplication and subsequent diversification of components has given rise to different complexes with partially discrete functions.

  4. Group Cognitive Behavioural Therapy and Group Recreational Activity for Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorders: A Preliminary Randomized Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hesselmark, Eva; Plenty, Stephanie; Bejerot, Susanne

    2014-01-01

    Although adults with autism spectrum disorder are an increasingly identified patient population, few treatment options are available. This "preliminary" randomized controlled open trial with a parallel design developed two group interventions for adults with autism spectrum disorders and intelligence within the normal range: cognitive…

  5. Group Cognitive Behavioural Therapy and Group Recreational Activity for Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorders: A Preliminary Randomized Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hesselmark, Eva; Plenty, Stephanie; Bejerot, Susanne

    2014-01-01

    Although adults with autism spectrum disorder are an increasingly identified patient population, few treatment options are available. This "preliminary" randomized controlled open trial with a parallel design developed two group interventions for adults with autism spectrum disorders and intelligence within the normal range: cognitive…

  6. Cytogenetic aberrations in osteosarcomas. Nonrandom deletions, rings, and double-minute chromosomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fletcher, J A; Gebhardt, M C; Kozakewich, H P

    1994-10-01

    Relatively few karyotypes have been reported from short-term cultures and/or direct harvests of osteosarcomas. We describe clonal aberrations in 17 high-grade osteosarcoma specimens and in one low-grade osteosarcoma. The high-grade osteosarcomas were karyotyped after direct harvest (four cases) or after short-term culture periods of osteosarcoma and two lung metastases, were from the same patient and shared a number of clonal aberrations. No consistent chromosome translocations were identified in the overall group of high-grade osteosarcomas, but potential nonrandom deletions involved 6q21-->qter, 9p21-->pter, chromosome 10, chromosome 13, 17p12-pter, and chromosome 20. Ring chromosomes were detected in three cases, and double-minute (dmin) chromosomes were detected in six. All high-grade osteosarcomas had numerous nonclonal chromosome aberrations superimposed on complex clonal events. The single low-grade osteosarcoma was characterized by a balanced, nonconstitutional, t(5;10) (p13;p14-15), together with an addition to the short arm of chromosome X. This is the first translocation reported in low-grade osteosarcoma, and the simplicity of the karyotype contrasts strikingly with those in the high-grade osteosarcomas.

  7. Assessing the impacts of nonrandom seed dispersal by multiple frugivore partners on plant recruitment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razafindratsima, Onja H; Dunham, Amy E

    2015-01-01

    Directed dispersal is defined as enhanced dispersal of seeds into suitable microhabitats, resulting in higher recruitment than if seeds were dispersed randomly. While this constitutes one of the main explanations for the adaptive value of frugivore-mediated seed dispersal, the generality of this advantage has received little study, particularly when multiple dispersers are involved. We used probability recruitment models of a long-lived rainforest tree in Madagascar to compare recruitment success under dispersal by multiple frugivores, no dispersal, and random dispersal. Models were parameterized using a three-year recruitment experiment and observational data of dispersal events by three frugivorous lemur species that commonly disperse its seeds. Frugivore-mediated seed dispersal was nonrandom with respect to canopy cover and increased modeled per-seed sapling recruitment fourfold compared to no dispersal. Seeds dispersed by one frugivore, Eulemur rubriventer, had higher modeled recruitment probability than seeds dispersed randomly. However, as a group, our models suggest that seeds dispersed by lemurs would have lower recruitment than if dispersal were random. Results demonstrate the importance of evaluating the contribution of multiple frugivores to plant recruitment for understanding plant population dynamics and the ecological and evolutionary significance of seed dispersal.

  8. Molecular cloaking of H2A.Z on mortal DNA chromosomes during nonrandom segregation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huh, Yang Hoon; Sherley, James L

    2011-10-01

    Although nonrandom sister chromatid segregation is a singular property of distributed stem cells (DSCs) that are responsible for renewing and repairing mature vertebrate tissues, both its cellular function and its molecular mechanism remain unknown. This situation persists in part because of the lack of facile methods for detecting and quantifying nonrandom segregating cells and for identifying chromosomes with immortal DNA strands, the cellular molecules that signify nonrandom segregation. During nonrandom segregation, at each mitosis, asymmetrically self-renewing DSCs continuously cosegregate to themselves the set of chromosomes that contain immortal DNA strands, which are the oldest DNA strands. Here, we report the discovery of a molecular asymmetry between segregating sets of immortal chromosomes and opposed mortal chromosomes (i.e., containing the younger set of DNA template strands) that constitutes a new convenient biomarker for detection of cells undergoing nonrandom segregation and direct delineation of chromosomes that bear immortal DNA strands. In both cells engineered with DSC-specific properties and ex vivo-expanded mouse hair follicle stem cells, the histone H2A variant H2A.Z shows specific immunodetection on immortal DNA chromosomes. Cell fixation analyses indicate that H2A.Z is present on mortal chromosomes as well but is cloaked from immunodetection, and the cloaking entity is acid labile. The H2A.Z chromosomal asymmetry produced by molecular cloaking provides a first direct assay for nonrandom segregation and for chromosomes with immortal DNA strands. It also seems likely to manifest an important aspect of the underlying mechanism(s) responsible for nonrandom sister chromatid segregation in DSCs.

  9. Discovering non-random segregation of sister chromatids: The naïve treatment of a premature discovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karl G. Lark

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The discovery of non-random chromosome segregation is discussed from the perspective of what was known in1965 and1966. The distinction between daughter, parent or grandparent strands of DNA was developed in a bacterial system and led to the discovery that multiple copies of DNA elements of bacteria are not distributed randomly with respect to the age of the template strand. Experiments with higher eukaryotic cells demonstrated that during mitosis Mendel’s laws were violated; and the initial serendipitous choice of eukaryotic cell system led to the striking example of non-random segregation of parent and grand-parent DNA template strands in primary cultures of cells derived from mouse embryos. Attempts to extrapolate these findings to established TC lines demonstrated that the property could be lost. Experiments using plant root tips demonstrated that the phenomenon exists in plants and that it was, at some level, under genetic control. Despite publication in major journals and symposia (Lark et al. (1966a; Lark (1967a; 1967b; 1969, 1969a; 1969b the potential implications of these findings were ignored for several decades. Here we explore possible reasons for the pre-maturity (Stent, 1972 of this discovery.

  10. Roentgenographic findings in hyaline membrane disease treated with exogenous surfactant: comparison with control group

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Sun Kyoung; Lim, Chae Ha; Lim, Woo Young; Kim, Young Sook; Byen, Ju Nam; Oh, Jae Hee; Kim, Young Chul [Chosun Univ. College of Medicine, Kwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-01-01

    To compare, with the use of chest radiographic findings, improvement and complications in newborns treated with exogenous surfactant for hyaline membrane disease (HMD), and an untreated control group. Thirty-six patients with HMD were randomly assigned to a control group (n=18) or surfactant treated group (n=18). As part of an initial evaluation of their pulmonary status, we then performed a retrospective statistical analysis of chest radiographic findings obtained in exogenous surfactant treated and untreated infants within the first 90 minutes of life. Subsequent examinations were performed at less than 24 hours of age. Chest radiograph before treatment showed no significant differences between the two groups, but significant improvement was noted in the surfactant treated group, in contrast to the control group. The most common chest radiographic finding after surfactant administration was uniform (n=15) or disproportionate (n=2) improvement of pulmonary aeration. Patent ductus arteriosus developed in three treated neonates and in four cases in the control group. Air leak occurred in three cases in the treated group and in five cases in the control group. In one treated patient pulmonary hemorrhage developed and intracranial hemorrhage occurred in three treated neonates and in four cases in the control group. Bronchopulmonary dysplasia was developed in 6 cases of treated group and 3 cases of control group. A chest radiograph is considered to be helpful in the evaluation of improvement and complications of HMD in infants treated with surfactant.

  11. Group Lidcombe Program Treatment for Early Stuttering: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnott, Simone; Onslow, Mark; O'Brian, Sue; Packman, Ann; Jones, Mark; Block, Susan

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: This study adds to the Lidcombe Program evidence base by comparing individual and group treatment of preschoolers who stutter. Method: A randomized controlled trial of 54 preschoolers was designed to establish whether group delivery outcomes were not inferior to the individual model. The group arm used a rolling group model, in which a…

  12. Involvement of Consumer Groups in Tobacco Control: Russia and Belarus Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dmitry Yanin

    2017-05-01

    5. Cooperation of consumer organizations from Russia (KONFOP and Belarus (Belarus Consumer Society, launched to promote best Tobacco Control practices, according to FCTC provisions, is a success story of involvement of consumer groups in Tobacco Control.

  13. Demanda por grupos, psicologia e controle Group demand, psychology and control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abrahão de Oliveira Santos

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo traz uma reflexão sobre uma capacitação para o trabalho grupal, destinado às equipes das UBSs (Unidades Básica de Saúde do SUS (Sistema Único de Saúde e agentes comunitários de saúde de um município do interior do Estado de São Paulo. Trata-se de analisar o pedido explicitado pela equipe, de mostrar a reflexão a respeito desse pedido, as circunstâncias dos problemas colocados, a experiência dos vários trabalhadores da equipe e a escuta do que se passa do lado da população. Parar para ouvir os parceiros do trabalho e refletir sobre a intervenção fez a equipe trabalhar sua sensibilidade diante das questões da população, do que vem a ser saúde e poder assumir outra postura que não seja a de servir ao controle da população e trabalhar para a construção da sociedade de controle.This article brings a reflection about a training for group work developed with UBSs (Basic Units of Health technical staff from SUS (Unified System of Health and agents of health from a county in the State of São Paulo, Brazil. The procedure involves: (1 to analyze the explicit demand form the crew, (2 to show a reflection about this demand, (3 to show the context of the problems, (4 to consider the experience of workers on the crew, and (5 to listen to what happens from population's standpoint. Stop listening to the job partners and reflecting about the intervention made the crew work.

  14. Annual report of the Summit Members' Working Group on Controlled Thermonuclear Fusion (Fusin Working Group (FWG))

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    1987-04-01

    The Summit Members' Working Group on Controlled Thermonuclear Fusion (Fusion Working Group (FWG)) was established in 1983 in response to the Declaration of the Heads of State and Government at the Versailles Economic Summit meeting of 1982, and in response to the subsequent report of the Working Group in Technology, Growth and Employment (TGE) as endorsed at the Williamsburg Summit meeting, 1983. This document contains the complete written record of each of the three FWG meetings which include the minutes, lists of attendees, agendas, statements, and summary conclusions as well as the full reports of the Technical Working Party. In addition, there is a pertinent exchange of correspondence between FWG members on the role of the Technical Working Party and a requested background paper on the modalities associated with a possible future ETR project.

  15. Fault-tolerant control of electric vehicles with in-wheel motors using actuator-grouping sliding mode controllers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Boyuan; Du, Haiping; Li, Weihua

    2016-05-01

    Although electric vehicles with in-wheel motors have been regarded as one of the promising vehicle architectures in recent years, the probability of in-wheel motor fault is still a crucial issue due to the system complexity and large number of control actuators. In this study, a modified sliding mode control (SMC) is applied to achieve fault-tolerant control of electric vehicles with four-wheel-independent-steering (4WIS) and four-wheel-independent-driving (4WID). Unlike in traditional SMC, in this approach the steering geometry is re-arranged according to the location of faulty wheels in the modified SMC. Three SMC control laws for longitudinal velocity control, lateral velocity control and yaw rate control are designed based on specific vehicle motion scenarios. In addition the actuator-grouping SMC method is proposed so that driving actuators are grouped and each group of actuators can be used to achieve the specific control target, which avoids the strong coupling effect between each control target. Simulation results prove that the proposed modified SMC can achieve good vehicle dynamics control performance in normal driving and large steering angle turning scenarios. In addition, the proposed actuator-grouping SMC can solve the coupling effect of different control targets and the control performance is improved.

  16. Control group design, contamination and drop-out in exercise oncology trials: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steins Bisschop, Charlotte N; Courneya, Kerry S; Velthuis, Miranda J; Monninkhof, Evelyn M; Jones, Lee W; Friedenreich, Christine; van der Wall, Elsken; Peeters, Petra H M; May, Anne M

    2015-01-01

    Important considerations for exercise trials in cancer patients are contamination and differential drop-out among the control group members that might jeopardize the internal validity. This systematic review provides an overview of different control groups design characteristics of exercise-oncology trials and explores the association with contamination and drop-out rates. Randomized controlled exercise-oncology trials from two Cochrane reviews were included. Additionally, a computer-aided search using Medline (Pubmed), Embase and CINAHL was conducted after completion date of the Cochrane reviews. Eligible studies were classified according to three control group design characteristics: the exercise instruction given to controls before start of the study (exercise allowed or not); and the intervention the control group was offered during (any (e.g., education sessions or telephone contacts) or none) or after (any (e.g., cross-over or exercise instruction) or none) the intervention period. Contamination (yes or no) and excess drop-out rates (i.e., drop-out rate of the control group minus the drop-out rate exercise group) were described according to the three design characteristics of the control group and according to the combinations of these three characteristics; so we additionally made subgroups based on combinations of type and timing of instructions received. 40 exercise-oncology trials were included based on pre-specified eligibility criteria. The lowest contamination (7.1% of studies) and low drop-out rates (excess drop-out rate -4.7±9.2) were found in control groups offered an intervention after the intervention period. When control groups were offered an intervention both during and after the intervention period, contamination (0%) and excess drop-out rates (-10.0±12.8%) were even lower. Control groups receiving an intervention during and after the study intervention period have lower contamination and drop-out rates. The present findings can be

  17. Control Group Design, Contamination and Drop-Out in Exercise Oncology Trials : A Systematic Review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bisschop, Charlotte N. Steins; Courneya, Kerry S.; Velthuis, Miranda J.; Monninkhof, Evelyn M.; Jones, Lee W.; Friedenreich, Christine; van der Wall, Elsken; Peeters, Petra H. M.; May, Anne M.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Important considerations for exercise trials in cancer patients are contamination and differential drop-out among the control group members that might jeopardize the internal validity. This systematic review provides an overview of different control groups design characteristics of exercise-

  18. Meta-analysis of non-randomized studies in interventional cardiology: a critical appraisal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliano Pio Navarese

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Utilisation of meta-analysis is becoming more and more common in interventional cardiology. The aim of this statistical approach is to collect a large number of patients from randomized clinical studies and nonrandomized registries in order to obtain a pooled estimate of the results. Nevertheless, simply pooling these results without a correct methodological approach can easily lead to biased conclusions. In this report we analyse the possible methodological drawbacks of such an approach and we suggest a simplified check-list of items to be considered in the effort of building-up a meta-analysis from non-randomized studies.

  19. Non-random structures in universal compression and the Fermi paradox

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurzadyan, A. V.; Allahverdyan, A. E.

    2016-02-01

    We study the hypothesis of information panspermia assigned recently among possible solutions of the Fermi paradox ("where are the aliens?"). It suggests that the expenses of alien signaling can be significantly reduced, if their messages contained compressed information. To this end we consider universal compression and decoding mechanisms ( e.g. the Lempel-Ziv-Welch algorithm) that can reveal non-random structures in compressed bit strings. The efficiency of the Kolmogorov stochasticity parameter for detection of non-randomness is illustrated, along with the Zipf's law. The universality of these methods, i.e. independence from data details, can be principal in searching for intelligent messages.

  20. Non-random structures in universal compression and the Fermi paradox

    CERN Document Server

    Gurzadyan, A V

    2016-01-01

    We study the hypothesis of information panspermia assigned recently among possible solutions of the Fermi paradox ("where are the aliens?"). It suggests that the expenses of alien signaling can be significantly reduced, if their messages contain compressed information. To this end we consider universal compression and decoding mechanisms (e.g. the Lempel-Ziv-Welch algorithm) that can reveal non-random structures in compressed bit strings. The efficiency of Kolmogorov stochasticity parameter for detection of non-randomness is illustrated, along with the Zipf's law. The universality of these methods, i.e. independence on data details, can be principal in searching for intelligent messages.

  1. Distribution of ABO and Rh Blood Groups in Patients With Keratoconus: A Case-Control Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naderan, Mohammad; Rajabi, Mohammad Taher; Shoar, Saeed; Kamaleddin, Mohammad Amin; Naderan, Morteza; Rezagholizadeh, Farzaneh; Zolfaghari, Masoome; Pahlevani, Rozhin

    2015-07-01

    Association of keratoconus (KC) with genetic predisposition and environmental factors has been well documented. However, no single study has investigated the possible relationship between ABO and Rh blood groups and KC. A case-control study was designed in a university hospital enrolling 214 patients with KC in the case group and equal number of age- and sex-matched healthy subjects in the control group. Primary characteristics, ABO blood group, and Rh factors were compared between the two groups. Topographic findings of KC eyes and the severity of the diseases were investigated according to the distribution of the blood groups. Blood group O and Rh(+) phenotype were most frequent in both groups. There was no significant difference between the two groups in terms of ABO blood groups or Rh factors. Mean keratometery (K), central corneal thickness, thinnest corneal thickness, flat K, steep K, sphere and cylinder, spherical equivalent, and uncorrected visual acuity were all similar between ABO blood groups and Rh(+) and Rh(-) groups. However, the best spectacle-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) had the highest value in AB blood group (0.35 ± 0.22 logMAR, P=0.005). Moreover, the blood group AB revealed the highest frequency for grade 3 KC, followed by grades 1, 2, and 4 (P=0.003). We observed no significant excess of any particular blood group among KC cases compared with healthy subjects. Except BCVA, none of the keratometric or topographic findings was significantly different between blood groups.

  2. Diabetes self-care behaviors and disease control in support group attenders and nonattenders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiou, Chii-Jun

    2014-12-01

    The prevalence rate and mortality rate of diabetes continue to increase annually. Complications associated with poor control of diabetes include renal dialysis, amputation, heart disease, stroke, retinopathy, and vascular disease, all of which have an impact at the individual, family, and national level. This study compares diabetes self-care behavior and disease control efficacy between attenders and nonattenders of a diabetes support group. We used a questionnaire with good validity and reliability to conduct a cross-sectional survey. Diabetes support groups have been established throughout Taiwan for around 2 years. Participants for this study were recruited randomly from a register of support group participants. Support group instructors were asked to collect questionnaires from those attending and not attending their support groups. Ten groups volunteered to participate in this study. We received 147 valid questionnaires from participants attending support groups (attenders) and 93 questionnaires from participants who did not (nonattenders). There were no statistically significant differences between support group attenders and nonattenders in terms of age, educational level, or time since diagnosis of diabetes. Thus, we assumed these two groups as adequately similar to conduct statistical comparisons. Scores for diabetes self-care behavior, disease control, and use of the diabetes passport were all significantly higher among support group attenders than their nonattender peers. Results indicate that people attending diabetes support groups are more likely to have better self-care behavior and disease control than nonattenders. Therefore, we suggest that the government actively promote policies supportive of diabetes support groups.

  3. Controllability of affine right-invariant systems on solvable Lie groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuri L. Sachkov

    1997-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to present some recent results on controllability of right-invariant systems on Lie groups. From the Lie-theoretical point of view, we study conditions under which subsemigroups generated by half-planes in the Lie algebra of a Lie group coincide with the whole Lie group.

  4. Bias from historical control groups used in orthodontic research: a meta-epidemiological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papageorgiou, Spyridon N; Koretsi, Vasiliki; Jäger, Andreas

    2017-02-01

    The validity of meta-analysis is dependent upon the quality of included studies. Here, we investigated whether the design of untreated control groups (i.e. source and timing of data collection) influences the results of clinical trials in orthodontic research. This meta-epidemiological study used unrestricted literature searching for meta-analyses in orthodontics including clinical trials with untreated control groups. Differences in standardized mean differences (ΔSMD) and their 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated according to the untreated control group through multivariable random-effects meta-regression controlling for nature of the interventional group and study sample size. Effects were pooled with random-effects synthesis, followed by mixed-effect subgroup and sensitivity analyses. Studies with historical control groups reported deflated treatment effects compared to studies with concurrent control groups (13 meta-analyses; ΔSMD = -0.31; 95% CI = -0.53, -0.10; P = 0.004). Significant differences were found according to the type of historical control group (based either on growth study or clinical archive; 11 meta-analyses; ΔSMD = 0.40; 95% CI = 0.21, 0.59; P control groups in orthodontic clinical research was associated with deflation of treatment effects, which was independent from whether the interventional group was prospective or retrospective and from the study's sample size. Caution is warranted when interpreting clinical studies with historical untreated control groups or when interpreting systematic reviews that include such studies. PROSPERO (CRD42015024179). None. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Orthodontic Society. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. A nonrandomized comparison of stapes surgery with and without a vein graft in patients with otosclerosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bittermann, A.J.; Vincent, R.; Rovers, M.M.; Heijden, G.J. van der; Tange, R.A.; Dreschler, W.A.; Grolman, W.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effectiveness of primary stapes surgery with and without a vein graft in patients with otosclerosis and to determine the differences in the postoperative gain in air-bone gap (ABG) and air-conduction (AC). STUDY DESIGN: A nonrandomized multicenter clinical evaluation.

  6. Checklists of Methodological Issues for Review Authors to Consider When Including Non-Randomized Studies in Systematic Reviews

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, George A.; Shea, Beverley; Higgins, Julian P. T.; Sterne, Jonathan; Tugwell, Peter; Reeves, Barnaby C.

    2013-01-01

    Background: There is increasing interest from review authors about including non-randomized studies (NRS) in their systematic reviews of health care interventions. This series from the Ottawa Non-Randomized Studies Workshop consists of six papers identifying methodological issues when doing this. Aim: To format the guidance from the preceding…

  7. Non-random assembly of bacterioplankton communities in the subtropical North Pacific Ocean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander eEiler

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The exploration of bacterial diversity in the global ocean has revealed new taxa and previously unrecognized metabolic potential; however, our understanding of what regulates this diversity is limited. Using terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP data of bacterial small-subunit ribosomal RNA genes we show that, independent of depth and time, a large fraction of bacterioplankton co-occurrence patterns are non-random in the oligotrophic North Pacific subtropical gyre (NPSG. Pair-wise correlations of all identified operational taxonomic units (OTUs revealed a high degree of significance, with 6.6% of the pair-wise co-occurrences being negatively correlated and 20.7% of them being positive. The most abundant OTUs, putatively identified as Prochlorococcus, SAR11 and SAR116 bacteria, were among the most correlated OTUs. As expected, bacterial community composition lacked statistically significant patterns of seasonality in the mostly stratified water column except in a few depth horizons of the sunlit surface waters, with higher frequency variations in community structure apparently related to populations associated with the deep chlorophyll maximum. Communities were structured vertically, with a succession from euphotic, mesopelagic, and bathylopelagic populations. Permutation based statistical analyses of T-RFLP data and their corresponding metadata revealed a broad range of putative environmental drivers controlling bacterioplankton community composition in the NPSG, including concentrations of inorganic nutrients and phytoplankton pigment. Together our results suggest that deterministic forces, such as environmental filtering and interactions among taxa, determine bacterioplankton community patterns, and consequently affect ecosystem functions in the NPSG.

  8. 骨髓血移植结合髓芯减压治疗早期股骨头坏死:非随机对照%Bone marrow transplantation and core decompression for treatment of early necrosis of the femoral head: A non-randomized controlled study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    覃学流; 辛晓东; 王大伟; 陈跃平; 林宗汉; 韩杰; 覃杰

    2012-01-01

    背景:骨髓间充质干细胞移植治疗股骨头缺血性坏死成为近年研究的热门课题,而单纯髓芯减压治疗存在争议,那么当髓芯减压复合自体骨髓血移植联合治疗效果如何呢?目的:探讨髓芯减压复合骨髓移植对治疗早期股骨头坏死的临床疗效.方法:纳入采用髓芯减压复合浓集骨髓血移植治疗早期非创伤性股骨头坏死患者20例25髋设为治疗组,采用单纯髓芯减压20例23髋设为对照组.结果与结论:随访6~36个月,根据蒋协远JOA髋关节功能判定标准及宾夕法尼亚州立大学骨坏死的放射学分期系统判定,治疗组总显效率达84%,对照组总显效率65%.髓芯减压复合骨髓移植治疗股骨头坏死,损伤小、疗效好,对早期股骨头坏死的患者能获得较好的临床疗效,远期疗效有待进一步探讨.%BACKGROUND: Bone marrow transplantation for the treatment of femoral head necrosis becomes a hot research topic in recent years, while the role of core decompression in the treatment is in dispute. The combined therapeutic effect of core decompression and bone marrow transplantation in treatment of femoral head necrosis is unclear.OBJECTIVE: To explore the combined therapeutic effect of core decompression and bone marrow transplantation in treatment of early necrosis of the femoral head.METHODS: Patients with early non-traumatic necrotic femoral head were included. Twenty of them with 25 hips treated by core decompression and concentrated bone marrow transplantation were taken as treatment group. Twenty patients with 23 hips in the control group underwent simple core decompression.RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: Following 6-36 months follow-up, the total efficiency rate of the treatment group was 84% and that was 65% in the control group according to the hip function criteria of Japanese Orthopaedic Association and the Radiology Stage System of bone necrosis of Pennsylvania State University. Core decompression combined with bone

  9. Summary report of working group 5: Beam and radiation generation, monitoring, and control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Church, Mike; /Fermilab; Kim, Ki-Yong; /Maryland U.

    2010-01-01

    This paper summarizes the activities and presentations of Working Group 5 of the Advanced Accelerator Concepts Workshop held at Annapolis, Maryland in June 2010. Working Group 5 touched on a broad range of topics in the fields of beam and radiation generation and their monitoring and control. These topics were not comprehensively covered in this Workshop, but rather the Working Group concentrated on specific new developments and recent investigations. The Working Group divided its sessions into four broad categories: cathodes and electron guns, radiation generation, beam diagnostics, and beam control and dynamics. This summary is divided into the same structure.

  10. Summary report of working group 5: Beam and radiation generation, monitoring, and control

    CERN Document Server

    Church, Mike; 10.1063/1.3520295

    2012-01-01

    This paper summarizes the activities and presentations of Working Group 5 of the Advanced Accelerator Concepts Workshop held at Annapolis, Maryland in June 2010. Working Group 5 touched on a broad range of topics in the fields of beam and radiation generation and their monitoring and control. These topics were not comprehensively covered in this Workshop, but rather the Working Group concentrated on specific new developments and recent investigations. The Working Group divided its sessions into four broad categories: cathodes and electron guns, radiation generation, beam diagnostics, and beam control and dynamics. This summary is divided into the same structure.

  11. The Demand-Control Model: Specific demands, specific Control, and well-defined groups

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jonge, J. de; Dollard, M.F.; Dormann, C.; Blanc, P.M.; Houtman, I.L.D.

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to test the Demand-Control Model (DCM), accompanied by three goals. Firstly, we used alternative, more focused, and multifaceted measures of both job demands and job control that are relevant and applicable to today's working contexts. Secondly, this study intended to

  12. Surface developmental dyslexia is as prevalent as phonological dyslexia when appropriate control groups are employed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wybrow, Dean P; Hanley, J Richard

    2015-01-01

    Previous investigations of the incidence of developmental surface and phonological dyslexia using reading-age-matched control groups have identified many more phonological dyslexics (poor nonword reading relative to irregular-word reading) than surface dyslexics (poor irregular-word reading relative to nonword reading). However, because the measures that have been used to estimate reading age include irregular-word reading ability, they appear inappropriate for assessing the incidence of surface dyslexia. The current study used a novel method for generating control groups whose reading ability was matched to that of the dyslexic sample. The incidence of surface dyslexia was assessed by comparing dyslexic performance with that of a control group who were matched with the dyslexics on a test of nonword reading. The incidence of phonological dyslexia was assessed with reference to a control group who were matched with the dyslexics at irregular-word reading. These control groups led to the identification of an approximately equal number of children with surface and phonological dyslexia. It appeared that selecting control participants who were matched with dyslexics for reading age led to the recruitment of individuals with relatively high nonword reading scores relative to their irregular-word reading scores compared with other types of control group. The theoretical implications of these findings are discussed.

  13. SITUATIONAL CONTROL OF HOT BLAST STOVES GROUP BASED ON DECISION TREE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. I. Kobysh

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper was developed the control system of group of hot blast stoves, which operates on the basis of the packing heating control subsystem and subsystem of forecasting of modes duration in the hot blast stoves APCS of iron smelting in a blast furnace. With the use of multi-criteria optimization methods, implemented the adjustment of control system conduct, which takes into account the current production situation that has arisen in the course of the heating packing of each hot blast stove group. Developed a situation recognition algorithm and the choice of scenarios of control based on a decision tree.

  14. Management of adolescents with very poorly controlled type 1 diabetes by nurses: a parallel group randomized controlled trial

    OpenAIRE

    Kassai, Behrouz; Rabilloud, Muriel; Bernoux, Delphine; Michal, Catherine; Riche, Benjamin; Ginhoux, Tiphanie; Laudy, Valérie; Terral, Daniel; Didier-Wright, Catherine; Maire, Veronique; Dumont, Catherine; Cottancin, Gilles; Plasse, Muriel; Jeannoel, Guy-Patrick; Khoury, Jamil

    2015-01-01

    Backgrounds Fluctuation in glycemia due to hormonal changes, growth periods, physical activity, and emotions make diabetes management difficult during adolescence. Our objective was to show that a close control of patients’ self-management of diabetes by nurse-counseling could probably improve metabolic control in adolescents with type 1 diabetes. Methods We designed a multicenter, randomized controlled, parallel group, clinical trial. Seventy seven adolescents aged 12–17 years with A1C >8 % ...

  15. 29 CFR 4043.29 - Change in contributing sponsor or controlled group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... knowledge of the transaction and of the controlled group relationship; and (3) Press releases; Forms 10Q. If... become effective by the 30th day, Company R has the reporting obligation. (3) Merger/consolidation within...

  16. Glycemic control, compliance, and satisfaction for diabetic gravidas in centering group care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parikh, Laura I; Jelin, Angie C; Iqbal, Sara N; Belna, Sarah L; Fries, Melissa H; Patel, Misbah; Desale, Sameer; Ramsey, Patrick S

    2017-05-01

    To determine if diabetic gravidas enrolled in Centering® group care have improved glycemic control compared to those attending standard prenatal care. To compare compliance and patient satisfaction between the groups. We conducted a prospective cohort study of diabetics enrolled in centering group care from October 2013 to December 2015. Glycemic control, compliance and patient satisfaction (five-point Likert scale) were evaluated. Student's t-test, Chi-Square and mixed effects model were used to compare outcomes. We compared 20 patients in centering to 28 standard prenatal care controls. Mean fasting blood sugar was lower with centering group care (91.0 versus 105.5 mg/dL, p =0.017). There was no difference in change in fasting blood sugar over time between the two groups (p = 0.458). The percentage of time patients brought their blood glucose logs did not differ between the centering group and standard prenatal care (70.7 versus 73.9%, p = 0.973). Women in centering group care had better patient satisfaction scores for "ability to be seen by a physician" (5 versus 4, p = 0.041) and "time in waiting room" (5 versus 4, p =0.001). Fasting blood sugar was lower for patients in centering group care. Change in blood sugar over time did not differ between groups. Diabetic gravidas enrolled in centering group care report improved patient satisfaction.

  17. Spiritual Care Therapy on Quality of Life in Cancer Patients and Their Caregivers: A Prospective Non-randomized Single-Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sankhe, A; Dalal, K; Agarwal, V; Sarve, P

    2017-04-01

    Spiritual care is still in infancy stage all over the globe including India. The present study was an original study evaluating the role of spiritual care in cancer patients and their primary caregivers regarding their spiritual and general well-being. The study was a prospective, non-randomized single-group study involving cancer patients undergoing surgery and their primary caregivers. Functional assessment of cancer therapy-general and functional assessment of chronic illness therapy-spiritual care was evaluated during the admission and at the time of discharge, two, four  and 6 months following discharge from the hospital. Descriptive statistics was used for demographic details and repeated measure ANOVA with Dunn's test was used for analysis of changes in the scores. A total of 107 (63 males and 44 females) patients with a mean (SD) of age 51 (13) years were recruited in the study. Similarly, for each patient one of their primary caregivers was recruited with their mean (SD) age of 39.4 (12.7) years. A total of 11/107 (10.3%) patients died and nine out of 107 (8.4%) were lost to follow-up eventually during the study period. There was a statistically significant (P spiritual care on the basis of MATCH guideline improved the level of not only spiritual well-being but general well-being also in both the patients and their primary caregivers. Control group could have improved scientific validity of study in accessing effect of spiritual care. Authors believe that more robust comparative study on each principle against all five MATCH principles in future will add scientific validity and clear the various ambiguities in spiritual care.

  18. Resource Allocation in Divisionalized Groups : A Study of Investment Manuals and Corporate Means of Control

    OpenAIRE

    Segelod, Esbjörn

    1995-01-01

    How do corporate management in divisionalized groups control the direction of investments? There are many case-studies and postal surveys of capital budgeting procedures. This study represents a different approach, being founded on analyses of investment manuals and interviews with corporate managers of Swedish-based groups. Comparisons are made with UK and US studies throughout the book. The book shows how investment requests are handled and the means of control which corporate managers deem...

  19. The Arabidopsis thaliana MEDEA Polycomb group protein controls expression of PHERES1 by parental imprinting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köhler, Claudia; Page, Damian R; Gagliardini, Valeria; Grossniklaus, Ueli

    2005-01-01

    The maternally expressed Arabidopsis thaliana Polycomb group protein MEDEA (MEA) controls expression of the MADS-box gene PHERES1 (PHE1). Here, we show that PHE1 is mainly paternally expressed but maternally repressed and that this maternal repression of PHE1 breaks down in seeds lacking maternal MEA activity. Because Polycomb group proteins control parental imprinting in mammals as well, the independent recruitment of similar protein machineries for the imprinting of genes is a notable example of convergent evolution.

  20. Collective action control by goals and plans: applying a self-regulation perspective to group performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wieber, Frank; Thürmer, J Lukas; Gollwitzer, Peter M

    2012-01-01

    In celebration of the 125th anniversary of The American Journal of Psychology, this article discusses a seminal publication by Marjorie Shaw (1932) on small group performance in the rational solution of complex problems. We then propose an approach for the effective regulation of group goal striving based on the collective action control perspective. From this perspective, group performance might be hindered by a collective intention-behavior gap: Groups fail to act on their intentions despite being strongly committed to the collective goal, knowing what the necessary actions are, and being capable of performing them. To reduce this gap, we suggest specific if-then plans (implementation intentions) in which groups specify when, where, and how to act toward their collective goal as an easily applicable self-regulation strategy to automate collective action control. Studies in which implementation intentions improved group performance in hidden profile, escalation of commitment, and cooperation task paradigms are reported and discussed.

  1. Quasi-Experiments in Schools: The Case for Historical Cohort Control Groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamara M. Walser

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available There is increased emphasis on using experimental and quasi-experimental methods to evaluate educational programs; however, educational evaluators and school leaders are often faced with challenges when implementing such designs in educational settings. Use of a historical cohort control group design provides a viable option for conducting quasi-experiments in school-based outcome evaluation. A cohort is a successive group that goes through some experience together, such as a grade level or a training program. A historical cohort comparison group is a cohort group selected from pre-treatment archival data and matched to a subsequent cohort currently receiving a treatment. Although prone to the same threats to study validity as any quasi-experiment, issues related to selection, history, and maturation can be particularly challenging. However, use of a historical cohort control group can reduce noncomparability of treatment and control conditions through local, focal matching. In addition, a historical cohort control group design can alleviate concerns about denying program access to students in order to form a control group, minimize resource requirements and disruption to school routines, and make use of archival data schools and school districts collect and find meaningful.

  2. Doing Anger Differently: Two Controlled Trials of Percussion Group Psychotherapy for Adolescent Reactive Aggression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Currie, Michael; Startup, Mike

    2012-01-01

    This study evaluates efficacy and effectiveness of "Doing Anger Differently" (DAD), a group treatment for reactively aggressive 12-15 year old males. DAD uses percussion exercises to aid treatment. Study 1 compared a ten-week treatment with a waitlist control at pre, post and 6 month (treatment group only) follow-up. Study 2 replicated Study 1,…

  3. Improving Student Confidence in Using Group Work Standards: A Controlled Replication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macgowan, Mark J.; Wong, Stephen E.

    2017-01-01

    Objective: This is a replication of a study that examined the effects of teaching foundation competencies in group work to social work students and assessed their self-confidence in applying these skills. This study improves on the first by utilizing a controlled design. Method: Twenty-six master of social work students were taught group work…

  4. Control of individual daily growth in group housed pigs using feeding stations.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ramaekers, P.J.L.

    1996-01-01

    In this thesis, it was examined whether it is possible to control individual daily growth and carcass composition in group-housed pigs using feeding stations. A forelegs weighing system to estimate the daily individual body weight (BW) of group-housed pigs was developed and validated. In two experim

  5. Nurture Groups: A Large-Scale, Controlled Study of Effects on Development and Academic Attainment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Sue; MacKay, Tommy; Kearney, Maura

    2009-01-01

    Nurture groups have contributed to inclusive practices in primary schools in the UK for some time now and have frequently been the subject of articles in this journal. This large-scale, controlled study of nurture groups across 32 schools in the City of Glasgow provides further evidence for their effectiveness in addressing the emotional…

  6. A single blind randomized control trial on support groups for Chinese persons with mild dementia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young DKW

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Daniel KW Young,1 Timothy CY Kwok,2 Petrus YN Ng1 1Department of Social Work, Hong Kong Baptist University, Kowloon Tong, Hong Kong; 2Department of Medicine and Therapeutics, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shatin, Hong Kong Purpose: Persons with mild dementia experience multiple losses and manifest depressive symptoms. This research study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of a support group led by a social worker for Chinese persons with mild dementia. Research methods: Participants were randomly assigned to either a ten-session support group or a control group. Standardized assessment tools were used for data collection at pretreatment and post-treatment periods by a research assistant who was kept blind to the group assignment of the participants. Upon completion of the study, 20 treatment group participants and 16 control group participants completed all assessments. Results: At baseline, the treatment and control groups did not show any significant difference on all demographic variables, as well as on all baseline measures; over one-half (59% of all the participants reported having depression, as assessed by a Chinese Geriatric Depression Scale score ≥8. After completing the support group, the depressive mood of the treatment group participants reduced from 8.83 (standard deviation =2.48 to 7.35 (standard deviation =2.18, which was significant (Wilcoxon signed-rank test; P=0.017, P<0.05, while the control group’s participants did not show any significant change. Conclusion: This present study supports the efficacy and effectiveness of the support group for persons with mild dementia in Chinese society. In particular, this present study shows that a support group can reduce depressive symptoms for participants. Keywords: support group, mild dementia, Chinese, depression

  7. Comparison of two control groups for estimation of oral cholera vaccine effectiveness using a case-control study design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franke, Molly F; Jerome, J Gregory; Matias, Wilfredo R; Ternier, Ralph; Hilaire, Isabelle J; Harris, Jason B; Ivers, Louise C

    2017-10-13

    Case-control studies to quantify oral cholera vaccine effectiveness (VE) often rely on neighbors without diarrhea as community controls. Test-negative controls can be easily recruited and may minimize bias due to differential health-seeking behavior and recall. We compared VE estimates derived from community and test-negative controls and conducted bias-indicator analyses to assess potential bias with community controls. From October 2012 through November 2016, patients with acute watery diarrhea were recruited from cholera treatment centers in rural Haiti. Cholera cases had a positive stool culture. Non-cholera diarrhea cases (test-negative controls and non-cholera diarrhea cases for bias-indicator analyses) had a negative culture and rapid test. Up to four community controls were matched to diarrhea cases by age group, time, and neighborhood. Primary analyses included 181 cholera cases, 157 non-cholera diarrhea cases, 716 VE community controls and 625 bias-indicator community controls. VE for self-reported vaccination with two doses was consistent across the two control groups, with statistically significant VE estimates ranging from 72 to 74%. Sensitivity analyses revealed similar, though somewhat attenuated estimates for self-reported two dose VE. Bias-indicator estimates were consistently less than one, with VE estimates ranging from 19 to 43%, some of which were statistically significant. OCV estimates from case-control analyses using community and test-negative controls were similar. While bias-indicator analyses suggested possible over-estimation of VE estimates using community controls, test-negative analyses suggested this bias, if present, was minimal. Test-negative controls can be a valid low-cost and time-efficient alternative to community controls for OCV effectiveness estimation and may be especially relevant in emergency situations. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  8. Cortical atrophy patterns in multiple sclerosis are non-random and clinically relevant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steenwijk, Martijn D; Geurts, Jeroen J G; Daams, Marita; Tijms, Betty M; Wink, Alle Meije; Balk, Lisanne J; Tewarie, Prejaas K; Uitdehaag, Bernard M J; Barkhof, Frederik; Vrenken, Hugo; Pouwels, Petra J W

    2016-01-01

    Grey matter atrophy is common in multiple sclerosis. However, in contrast with other neurodegenerative diseases, it is unclear whether grey matter atrophy in multiple sclerosis is a diffuse 'global' process or develops, instead, according to distinct anatomical patterns. Using source-based morphometry we searched for anatomical patterns of co-varying cortical thickness and assessed their relationships with white matter pathology, physical disability and cognitive functioning. Magnetic resonance imaging was performed at 3 T in 208 patients with long-standing multiple sclerosis (141 females; age = 53.7 ± 9.6 years; disease duration = 20.2 ± 7.1 years) and 60 age- and sex-matched healthy controls. Spatial independent component analysis was performed on cortical thickness maps derived from 3D T1-weighted images across all subjects to identify co-varying patterns. The loadings, which reflect the presence of each cortical thickness pattern in a subject, were compared between patients with multiple sclerosis and healthy controls with generalized linear models. Stepwise linear regression analyses were used to assess whether white matter pathology was associated with these loadings and to identify the cortical thickness patterns that predict measures of physical and cognitive dysfunction. Ten cortical thickness patterns were identified, of which six had significantly lower loadings in patients with multiple sclerosis than in controls: the largest loading differences corresponded to the pattern predominantly involving the bilateral temporal pole and entorhinal cortex, and the pattern involving the bilateral posterior cingulate cortex. In patients with multiple sclerosis, overall white matter lesion load was negatively associated with the loadings of these two patterns. The final model for physical dysfunction as measured with Expanded Disability Status Scale score (adjusted R(2) = 0.297; P atrophy patterns relevant for multiple sclerosis were found. This suggests that

  9. 76 FR 8353 - Positioning Systems Directorate Will Be Hosting an Interface Control Working Group (ICWG) Meeting...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-14

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Department of the Air Force Positioning Systems Directorate Will Be Hosting an Interface Control Working... Positioning Systems Directorate will be hosting an Interface Control Working Group (ICWG) meeting for...

  10. Control Algorithms Along Relative Equilibria of Underactuated Lagrangian Systems on Lie Groups

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordkvist, Nikolaj; Bullo, F.

    2008-01-01

    We present novel algorithms to control underactuated mechanical systems. For a class of invariant systems on Lie groups, we design iterative small-amplitude control forces to accelerate along, decelerate along, and stabilize relative equilibria. The technical approach is based upon a perturbation...

  11. A Non-Random Walk Down Hollywood Boulevard

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lepori, Gabriele

    affect (i.e. grief, proxied by the death of Hollywood Walk of Fame celebrities) on people’s willingness to invest in risky assets (proxied by the daily performance of the U.S. stock market). Using a sample of 1,374 celebrity deaths over the period 1926-2009 and controlling for seasonalities, economic....../environmental factors, and market liquidity, I find that the death of popular and beloved celebrities is immediately followed by a 16 basis point increase in stock returns, which is consistent with a rise in the net demand for risky instruments. I also find evidence that the size of this celebrity-death effect...... is increasing in the popularity/media coverage of the celebrity in question, and is larger for stocks that are more affected by investor sentiment. Overall, my findings are consistent with the lab research on the affect management model, which maintains that incidental negative affect promotes risk...

  12. Elevator Group-Control Policy Based on Neural Network Optimized by Genetic Algorithm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHEN Hong; WAN Jianru; ZHANG Zhichao; LIU Yingpei; LI Guangye

    2009-01-01

    Aiming at the diversity and nonlinearity of the elevator system control target, an effective group method based on a hybrid algorithm of genetic algorithm and neural network is presented in this paper. The genetic algo-rithm is used to search the weight of the neural network. At the same time, the multi-objective-based evaluation function is adopted, in which there are three main indicators including the passenger waiting time, car passengers number and the number of stops. Different weights are given to meet the actual needs. The optimal values of the evaluation function are obtained, and the optimal dispatch control of the elevator group control system based on neural network is realized. By analyzing the running of the elevator group control system, all the processes and steps are presented. The validity of the hybrid algorithm is verified by the dynamic imitation performance.

  13. International Conference on Harmonisation; choice of control group and related issues in clinical trials; availability. Notice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-05-14

    The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is announcing the availability of a guidance entitled "E10 Choice of Control Group and Related Issues in Clinical Trials." The guidance was prepared under the auspices of the International Conference on Harmonisation of Technical Requirements for Registration of Pharmaceuticals for Human Use (ICH). The guidance sets forth general principles that are relevant to all controlled trials and are especially pertinent to the major clinical trials intended to demonstrate drug (including biological drug) efficacy. The guidance describes the principal types of control groups and discusses their appropriateness in particular situations. The guidance is intended to assist sponsors and investigators in the choice of control groups for clinical trials.

  14. Risk of Bias in Systematic Reviews of Non-Randomized Studies of Adverse Cardiovascular Effects of Thiazolidinediones and Cyclooxygenase-2 Inhibitors: Application of a New Cochrane Risk of Bias Tool.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anja Bilandzic

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Systematic reviews of the effects of healthcare interventions frequently include non-randomized studies. These are subject to confounding and a range of other biases that are seldom considered in detail when synthesizing and interpreting the results. Our aims were to assess the reliability and usability of a new Cochrane risk of bias (RoB tool for non-randomized studies of interventions and to determine whether restricting analysis to studies with low or moderate RoB made a material difference to the results of the reviews.We selected two systematic reviews of population-based, controlled non-randomized studies of the relationship between the use of thiazolidinediones (TZDs and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2 inhibitors and major cardiovascular events. Two epidemiologists applied the Cochrane RoB tool and made assessments across the seven specified domains of bias for each of 37 component studies. Inter-rater agreement was measured using the weighted Kappa statistic. We grouped studies according to overall RoB and performed statistical pooling for (a all studies and (b only studies with low or moderate RoB. Kappa scores across the seven bias domains ranged from 0.50 to 1.0. In the COX-2 inhibitor review, two studies had low overall RoB, 14 had moderate RoB, and five had serious RoB. In the TZD review, six studies had low RoB, four had moderate RoB, four had serious RoB, and two had critical RoB. The pooled odds ratios for myocardial infarction, heart failure, and death for rosiglitazone versus pioglitazone remained significantly elevated when analyses were confined to studies with low or moderate RoB. However, the estimate for myocardial infarction declined from 1.14 (95% CI 1.07-1.24 to 1.06 (95% CI 0.99-1.13 when analysis was confined to studies with low RoB. Estimates of pooled relative risks of cardiovascular events with COX-2 inhibitors compared with no nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug changed little when analyses were confined to studies with

  15. DETERMINATION OF BRAKING OPTIMAL MODE OF CONTROLLED CUT OF DESIGN GROUP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. S. Dorosh

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The application of automation systems of breaking up process on the gravity hump is the efficiency improvement of their operation, absolute provision of trains breaking up safety demands, as well as improvement of hump staff working conditions. One of the main tasks of the indicated systems is the assurance of cuts reliable separation at all elements of their rolling route to the classification track. This task is a sophisticated optimization problem and has not received a final decision. Therefore, the task of determining the cuts braking mode is quite relevant. The purpose of this research is to find the optimal braking mode of control cut of design group. Methodology. In order to achieve the purpose is offered to use the direct search methods in the work, namely the Box complex method. This method does not require smoothness of the objective function, takes into account its limitations and does not require calculation of the function derivatives, and uses only its value. Findings. Using the Box method was developed iterative procedure for determining the control cut optimal braking mode of design group. The procedure maximizes the smallest controlled time interval in the group. To evaluate the effectiveness of designed procedure the series of simulation experiments of determining the control cut braking mode of design group was performed. The results confirmed the efficiency of the developed optimization procedure. Originality. The author formalized the task of optimizing control cut braking mode of design group, taking into account the cuts separation of design group at all elements (switches, retarders during cuts rolling to the classification track. The problem of determining the optimal control cut braking mode of design group was solved. The developed braking mode ensures cuts reliable separation of the group not only at the switches but at the retarders of brake position. Practical value. The developed procedure can be

  16. Laughter yoga versus group exercise program in elderly depressed women: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahidi, Mahvash; Mojtahed, Ali; Modabbernia, Amirhossein; Mojtahed, Mohammad; Shafiabady, Abdollah; Delavar, Ali; Honari, Habib

    2011-03-01

    Laughter Yoga founded by M. Kataria is a combination of unconditioned laughter and yogic breathing. Its effect on mental and physical aspects of healthy individuals was shown to be beneficial. The objective of this study was to compare the effectiveness of Kataria's Laughter Yoga and group exercise therapy in decreasing depression and increasing life satisfaction in older adult women of a cultural community of Tehran, Iran. Seventy depressed old women who were members of a cultural community of Tehran were chosen by Geriatric depression scale (score>10). After completion of Life Satisfaction Scale pre-test and demographic questionnaire, subjects were randomized into three groups of laughter therapy, exercise therapy, and control. Subsequently, depression post-test and life satisfaction post-test were done for all three groups. The data were analyzed using analysis of covariance and Bonferroni's correction. Sixty subjects completed the study. The analysis revealed a significant difference in decrease in depression scores of both Laughter Yoga and exercise therapy group in comparison to control group (p<0.001 and p<0.01, respectively). There was no significant difference between Laughter Yoga and exercise therapy groups. The increase in life satisfaction of Laughter Yoga group showed a significant difference in comparison with control group (p<0.001). No significant difference was found between exercise therapy and either control or Laughter Yoga group. Our findings showed that Laughter Yoga is at least as effective as group exercise program in improvement of depression and life satisfaction of elderly depressed women. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. ABO blood group system and gastric cancer: a case-control study and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhiwei; Liu, Lei; Ji, Jun; Zhang, Jianian; Yan, Min; Zhang, Jun; Liu, Bingya; Zhu, Zhenggang; Yu, Yingyan

    2012-10-17

    This study focuses on the association between the ABO blood group system and the risk of gastric cancer or Helicobacter pylori infection. The data for the ABO blood group was collected from 1045 cases of gastric cancer, whereby the patient underwent a gastrectomy in Ruijin Hospital, Shanghai. The information on the ABO blood group from 53,026 healthy blood donors was enrolled as control. We searched the Pubmed database on the relationship between ABO blood groups and gastric cancer risk for meta-analysis. In our case-control study, the risk of gastric cancer in blood group A was significantly higher than that in non-A groups (O, B and AB) (odd ratio, OR1.34; 95% confidential interval, CI 1.25-1.44). Compared with non-O groups (A, B and AB), individuals with blood group O demonstrated a reduced risk of gastric cancer (OR = 0.80; 95% CI 0.72-0.88). The proportion of H. pylori infection in blood group A individuals was significantly higher than that in non-A blood groups (OR = 1.42; 95% CI 1.05-1.93). We further combined our data with the published data of others, and crossreferenced the risk of gastric cancer with the blood type, finding consistent evidence that gastric cancer risk in the blood A group was higher than that in the non-A groups (OR = 1.11; 95% CI 1.07-1.15), and that blood type O individuals were consistently shown gastric cancer risk reduction (OR = 0.91; 95% CI 0.89-0.94). Our study concluded that there was a slightly increased risk of gastric cancer in blood group A individuals, and people with blood type A are more prone to be infected by H. pylori than other ABO blood type individuals, whereas, a slightly decreased risk of gastric cancer was identified in blood type O individuals.

  18. Positive and Negative Perfectionism in Migrainus Patients Compaired with Control Group

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Afshar

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Introduction & Objective: The positive and negative effects of perfectionism on human cognition, affection and behavior have been emphasized. Perfectionism has been conceptualized as a multidimensional construct, with both adaptive and maladaptive aspects, which is one of the common personality traits that cause lifelong stress in human and results in anxiety, depression and physical and mental distress.The aim of this study was to assess the positive and negative perfectionism in migrainus patients in comparison with control group. Materials & Methods: This is an analytical (Case-control study which was performed on 91 migraine patients and 88 healthy individuals. The pqtients and controls completed a standard 40 item questionnaire for perfectionism – PANPS (20 for positive and 20 for negative perfectionism . The patients in both groups were matched for gender and age. Mean of positive and negative perfectionism scores for two groups was statistically analysed using SPSS software. Results: Mean positive perfectionism score was 83.47±8.5 for migraine group and 65.47±7.54 for control group (p=0.0001. The difference between two groups was significant. Mean of negative perfectionism score was 74.12±10.6 for migraine group and 51.79±7.8 for control group(p=0.0001. Conclusion: The results show that migraine patients have higher mean of perfectionism scores than healthy individuals. Based on this study and other clinical experiences more attention to psychotherapy is necessary for better management of migraine and recognition of personality profile in migraine patient helps to reduce patient’s complaints.

  19. Analysis of postural control and muscular performance in young and elderly women in different age groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matheus M. Gomes

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: muscle strength and power are two factors affecting balance. The impact of muscle strength and power on postural control has not been fully explored among different age strata over sixty. OBJECTIVES: the aim of the present study was to assess the muscle strength and power of elderly women in different age groups and determine their correlation with postural control. METHOD: eighty women were divided into four groups: the young 18-30 age group (n=20; the 60-64 age group (n=20; the 65-69 age group (n=20; and the 70-74 age group (n=20. The participants underwent maximum strength (one repetition maximum or 1-RM and muscle power tests to assess the knee extensor and flexor muscles at 40%, 70%, and 90% 1-RM intensity. The time required by participants to recover their balance after disturbing their base of support was also assessed. RESULTS: the elderly women in the 60-64, 65-69, and 70-74 age groups exhibited similar muscle strength, power, and postural control (p>0.05; however, these values were lower than those of the young group (p<0.05 as expected. There was a correlation between muscle strength and power and the postural control performance (p<0.05. CONCLUSION: despite the age difference, elderly women aged 60 to 74 years exhibited similar abilities to generate strength and power with their lower limbs, and this ability could be one factor that explains the similar postural control shown by these women.

  20. Meteorological Support Interface Control Working Group (MSICWG) Instrumentation, Data Format, and Networks Document

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brenton, James; Roberts, Barry C.

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this document is to provide an overview of instrumentation discussed at the Meteorological Interface Control Working Group (MSICWG), a reference for data formats currently used by members of the group, a summary of proposed formats for future use by the group, an overview of the data networks of the group's members. This document will be updated as new systems are introduced, old systems are retired, and when the MSICWG community necessitates a change to the formats. The MSICWG consists of personnel from the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Kennedy Space Center (KSC), NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC), NASA Johnson Space Center (JSC), National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration National Weather Service Spaceflight Meteorology Group (SMG), and the United States Air Force (USAF) 45th Space Wing and Weather Squadron. The purpose of the group is to coordinate the distribution of weather related data to support NASA space launch related activities.

  1. IMPACTS OF GROUP-BASED SIGNAL CONTROL POLICY ON DRIVER BEHAVIOR AND INTERSECTION SAFETY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keshuang TANG

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Unlike the typical stage-based policy commonly applied in Japan, the group-based control (often called movement-based in the traffic control industry in Japan refers to such a control pattern that the controller is capable of separately allocating time to each signal group instead of stage based on traffic demand. In order to investigate its applicability at signalized intersections in Japan, an intersection located in Yokkaichi City of Mie Prefecture was selected as an experimental application site by the Japan Universal Traffic Management Society (UTMS. Based on the data collected at the intersection before and after implementing the group-based control policy respectively, this study evaluated the impacts of such a policy on driver behavior and intersection safety. To specify those impacts, a few models utilizing cycle-based data were first developed to interpret the occurrence probability and rate of red-light-running (RLR. Furthermore, analyses were performed on the yellow-entry time (Ye of the last cleared vehicle and post encroachment time (PET during the phase switching. Conclusions supported that the group-based control policy, along with certain other factors, directly or indirectly influenced the RLR behavior of through and right-turn traffics. Meanwhile, it has potential safety benefits as well, indicated by the declined Ye and increased PET values.

  2. Implications of nonrandom seed abscission and global stilling for migration of wind-dispersed plant species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Sally E; Katul, Gabriel G

    2013-06-01

    Migration of plant populations is a potential survival response to climate change that depends critically on seed dispersal. Biological and physical factors determine dispersal and migration of wind-dispersed species. Recent field and wind tunnel studies demonstrate biological adaptations that bias seed release toward conditions of higher wind velocity, promoting longer dispersal distances and faster migration. However, another suite of international studies also recently highlighted a global decrease in near-surface wind speeds, or 'global stilling'. This study assessed the implications of both factors on potential plant population migration rates, using a mechanistic modeling framework. Nonrandom abscission was investigated using models of three seed release mechanisms: (i) a simple drag model; (ii) a seed deflection model; and (iii) a 'wear and tear' model. The models generated a single functional relationship between the frequency of seed release and statistics of the near-surface wind environment, independent of the abscission mechanism. An Inertial-Particle, Coupled Eulerian-Lagrangian Closure model (IP-CELC) was used to investigate abscission effects on seed dispersal kernels and plant population migration rates under contemporary and potential future wind conditions (based on reported global stilling trends). The results confirm that nonrandom seed abscission increased dispersal distances, particularly for light seeds. The increases were mitigated by two physical feedbacks: (i) although nonrandom abscission increased the initial acceleration of seeds from rest, the sensitivity of the seed dispersal to this initial condition declined as the wind speed increased; and (ii) while nonrandom abscission increased the mean dispersal length, it reduced the kurtosis of seasonal dispersal kernels, and thus the chance of long-distance dispersal. Wind stilling greatly reduced the modeled migration rates under biased seed release conditions. Thus, species that require

  3. Frugivores bias seed-adult tree associations through nonrandom seed dispersal: a phylogenetic approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razafindratsima, Onja H; Dunham, Amy E

    2016-08-01

    Frugivores are the main seed dispersers in many ecosystems, such that behaviorally driven, nonrandom patterns of seed dispersal are a common process; but patterns are poorly understood. Characterizing these patterns may be essential for understanding spatial organization of fruiting trees and drivers of seed-dispersal limitation in biodiverse forests. To address this, we studied resulting spatial associations between dispersed seeds and adult tree neighbors in a diverse rainforest in Madagascar, using a temporal and phylogenetic approach. Data show that by using fruiting trees as seed-dispersal foci, frugivores bias seed dispersal under conspecific adults and under heterospecific trees that share dispersers and fruiting time with the dispersed species. Frugivore-mediated seed dispersal also resulted in nonrandom phylogenetic associations of dispersed seeds with their nearest adult neighbors, in nine out of the 16 months of our study. However, these nonrandom phylogenetic associations fluctuated unpredictably over time, ranging from clustered to overdispersed. The spatial and phylogenetic template of seed dispersal did not translate to similar patterns of association in adult tree neighborhoods, suggesting the importance of post-dispersal processes in structuring plant communities. Results suggest that frugivore-mediated seed dispersal is important for structuring early stages of plant-plant associations, setting the template for post-dispersal processes that influence ultimate patterns of plant recruitment. Importantly, if biased patterns of dispersal are common in other systems, frugivores may promote tree coexistence in biodiverse forests by limiting the frequency and diversity of heterospecific interactions of seeds they disperse.

  4. A national study of the psychological impact of bank robbery with a randomized control group

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Maj; Armour, Cherie; Shevlin, Mark

    but surprisingly significantly higher than the follow-up robbery group. The results are discussed in relation to existing research and the effect of other factors such as prior traumatic exposure. In conclusion bank robberies are a traumatizing event for the employees, especially when disregarding avoidance...... of bank employees exposed to robbery (response rate: 73.6 %). Several related factors were also investigated including prior traumatic exposure, anxiety, and general traumatic symptoms. The results were compared to a randomized control group of bank employees never exposed to robbery (N= 303......). The estimated ASD rate was 11.1 % (n = 41), and the estimated PTSD rate was 6.2 % (n = 23). Both prevalence rates were limited by the avoidance diagnostic criteria. Preliminary results indicated that the control group scored significantly lower than the acute robbery group on general traumatization and anxiety...

  5. Self-development groups reduce medical school stress: a controlled intervention study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stordal Kirsten I

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background High stress levels and mental health problems are common among medical students and there is a lack of studies on group interventions that aim to reduce such distress during medical school. Methods A full class of students (n = 129 participated in group sessions during their third year of medical school in Bergen, Norway. The subsequent third-year class (n = 152 acted as control group, in order to create a quasi-experimental design. Two types of group intervention sessions were offered to the first class. One option was self-development groups led by trained group psychotherapists. Alternatively, students could choose discussion groups that focused on themes of special relevance to doctors, led by experienced general practitioners. The intervention comprised of 12 weekly group sessions each lasting 90 minutes. Data were gathered before the intervention (T1, and three months post intervention (T2. Distress was measured using the Perceived Medical School Stress (PMSS and Symptom Check List-5 (SCL-5 assessments. Results The intervention group showed a significant reduction in PMSS over the observation period. The subsequent year control group stayed on the same PMSS levels over the similar period. The intervention was a significant predictor of PMSS reduction in a multiple regression analysis adjusted for age and sex, β = -1.93 (-3.47 to -0.38, P = 0.02. When we analysed the effects of self-development and discussion groups with the control group as reference, self-development group was the only significant predictor of PMSS reduction, β = -2.18 (-4.03 to -0.33, P = 0.02. There was no interaction with gender in our analysis. This implicates no significant difference between men and women concerning the effect of the self-development group. There was no reduction in general mental distress (SCL-5 over this period. Conclusion A three-month follow-up showed that the intervention had a positive effect on perceived medical school

  6. Diabetes Support Groups Improve Patient’s Compliance and Control Blood Glucose Levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zamrotul Izzah

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Providing information is not enough to improve diabetic patient’s compliance and achieve goals of therapy. Patient’s good awareness as well as emotional and social supports from family and community may play an important role to improve their compliance and clinical outcomes. Therefore, diabetes support groups were developed and each support group consisted of two pharmacists, two nurses, diabetic patients and their family members. A total of 70 type 2 diabetic patient’s were enrolled and randomized into support group 1 and support group 2. Patients in the group 1 received information leaflets only, while patient in the group 2 received pharmacist counselling and information leaflets at each meeting. Patient’s awareness of diabetes and compliance with medications were assessed by a short questionnaire at baseline and final follow-up. Blood glucose and cholesterol levels were also evaluated in both groups. At the end of study, the overall patient’s awareness and compliance improved by 61.5%. The random and fasting blood glucose levels decreased over than 30% in the group 2 and around 14% in the group 1. This study reveals that collaboration between health care professionals and community in the diabetes support group might help diabetic patients to increase their knowledge and compliance with the diabetes therapy as well as glycaemic control.

  7. Comparison of group motor control training versus individual training for people suffering from back pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Streicher, Heike; Mätzold, Franz; Hamilton, Christine; Wagner, Petra

    2014-07-01

    This study investigated the effects of "motor-control training" (MCT) using the model of deficits in the activation of transversus abdominis (TrA) in people with recurrent back pain. The purpose of this investigation was to establish whether MCT - implemented within a new group intervention (experimental group) - is able to produce results similar to those of a conventional intervention applied individually (control group) to people suffering from back pain. Using the form of an experimental pre-post-test design, the study consisted of an experimental group (N = 18, mean age M = 45.2; SD = 18.4; 9 ♂, 9 ♀) and a comparison group (N = 13; age = 56.6; SD = 18.5; 6 ♂, 7 ♀). The training covered a period of six weeks, with two training sessions per week. The amount of training was the same in both groups. Aside from the same extent of training, the participants in the experimental group completed training content in the group interventions identical to that completed by the comparison group in the individual treatments. To clarify: The difference between the two groups was that the participants in the individual-therapy control group received individual feedback on their exercise performance and correction notes from the instructor. This degree of individual attention was not given within the group therapy. The selective activation of the M. transversus abdominis (TrA) was the main focus of the intervention, with the intent of improving its stabilising corset function, especially within the lumbar region, via increased tension of the thoracolumbar fascia. To record the progress of both groups, the anterolateral abdominal muscle recruitment of the M. transversus abdominis (TrA) was measured as a main influencing factor for anterolateral stabilisation of the spine. For measurements of muscle recruitment, rehabilitative ultrasound imaging (M-Turbo™ SonoSite(®) Erlangen in B-Mode) according to Whittaker (2007) was used. Furthermore, the relationship between pain

  8. Improving Parental Stress Levels Among Mothers Living with HIV: A Randomized Control Group Intervention Study

    OpenAIRE

    Johnson, Erica R.; Davies, Susan L.; Aban, Inmaculada; Mugavero, Michael J.; Shrestha, Sadeep; Kempf, Mirjam-Colette

    2015-01-01

    Limited knowledge exists regarding parenting efficacy interventions for mothers living with HIV (MLH). This study evaluated the impact of a supportive group intervention on lowering parenting stress among MLH. Eighty MLH were randomized to a parenting (N=34) or health focused (control) (N=46) group intervention. Pre- and post-intervention stress levels were assessed using the Parental Stress Index-Short Form (PSI/SF). Differences in PSI/SF scores were examined using ANOVA, and predictors of P...

  9. Group Singing as a Therapy during Diabetes Training--A Randomized Controlled Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groener, J B; Neus, I; Kopf, S; Hartmann, M; Schanz, J; Kliemank, E; Wetekam, B; Kihm, L; Fleming, T; Herzog, W; Nawroth, P P

    2015-11-01

    Comprehensive diabetes treatment has been shown to reduce quality of life in diabetic patients. However, there is evidence to suggest that group singing can have positive effects on quality of life in various clinical settings. In this randomized controlled pilot study, the effect of singing as a therapy to reduce stress and improve quality of life was investigated in insulin-dependent diabetic patients, undergoing a lifestyle intervention program. Patients from the singing group felt less discontented following treatment. This effect, however, was lost after 3 months. No effect on serum cortisol and plasma adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) levels could be seen when comparing the singing group with the control group, although reduced levels of ACTH and cortisol 3 days after treatment could be found and were still present after 3 months within the group of patients who undertook singing as a therapy. Singing led to an increase in bodyweight, which interestingly had no effect on glucose control or methylglyoxal levels. Therefore, singing during a lifestyle intervention program for insulin-dependent diabetic patients had a short lasting and weak effect on patients' mood without affecting glucose control, but no significant effect on stress related hormones. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  10. Output Feedback Control for Couple-Group Consensus of Multiagent Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huanyu Zhao

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the couple-group consensus problem for multiagent systems via output feedback control. Both continuous- and discrete-time cases are considered. The consensus problems are converted into the stability problem of the error systems by the system transformation. We obtain two necessary and sufficient conditions of couple-group consensus in different forms for each case. Two different algorithms are used to design the control gains for continuous- and discrete-time case, respectively. Finally, simulation examples are given to show the effectiveness of the proposed results.

  11. CAG repeat polymorphism in the androgen receptor (AR) gene of SBMA patients and a control group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sułek, Anna; Hoffman-Zacharska, Dorota; Krysa, Wioletta; Szirkowiec, Walentyna; Fidziańska, Elzbieta; Zaremba, Jacek

    2005-01-01

    Spinobulbar muscular atrophy (SBMA) is an X-linked form of motor neuron disease characterized by progressive atrophy of the muscles, dysphagia, dysarthria and mild androgen insensitivity. SBMA is caused by CAG repeat expansion in the androgen receptor gene. CAG repeat polymorphism was analysed in a Polish control group (n = 150) and patients suspected of SBMA (n = 60). Normal and abnormal ranges of CAG repeats were established in the control group and in 21 patients whose clinical diagnosis of SBMA was molecularly confirmed. The ranges are similar to those reported for other populations.

  12. Polycomb-group (Pc-G) Proteins Control Seed Development in Arabidopsis thaliana L.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao-Xue Wang; Li-Geng Ma

    2007-01-01

    Polycomb-group (Pc-G) proteins repress their target gene expression by assemble complexes in Drosophila and mammals. Three groups of Pc-G genes, controlling seed development, flower development and vernalization response, have been identified in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana L.). MEDEA (MEA), FERTIL IZA TION INDEPENDENT SEED2 (FIS2), and FERTILIZATION INDEPENDENT ENDOSPERM (FIE) are Pc-G genes in Arabidopsis. Their functions in seed development have been extensively explored. The advanced findings of molecular mechanism on how MEA, FIS2 and FIE control seed development in Arabidopsis are reviewed in this paper.

  13. Intervention for children with word-finding difficulties: a parallel group randomised control trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Best, Wendy; Hughes, Lucy Mari; Masterson, Jackie; Thomas, Michael; Fedor, Anna; Roncoli, Silvia; Fern-Pollak, Liory; Shepherd, Donna-Lynn; Howard, David; Shobbrook, Kate; Kapikian, Anna

    2017-07-31

    The study investigated the outcome of a word-web intervention for children diagnosed with word-finding difficulties (WFDs). Twenty children age 6-8 years with WFDs confirmed by a discrepancy between comprehension and production on the Test of Word Finding-2, were randomly assigned to intervention (n = 11) and waiting control (n = 9) groups. The intervention group had six sessions of intervention which used word-webs and targeted children's meta-cognitive awareness and word-retrieval. On the treated experimental set (n = 25 items) the intervention group gained on average four times as many items as the waiting control group (d = 2.30). There were also gains on personally chosen items for the intervention group. There was little change on untreated items for either group. The study is the first randomised control trial to demonstrate an effect of word-finding therapy with children with language difficulties in mainstream school. The improvement in word-finding for treated items was obtained following a clinically realistic intervention in terms of approach, intensity and duration.

  14. Control algorithms along relative equilibria of underactuated Lagrangian systems on Lie groups

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordkvist, Nikolaj; Bullo, Francesco

    2007-01-01

    We present novel algorithms to control underactuated mechanical systems. For a class of invariant systems on Lie groups, we design iterative small-amplitude control forces to accelerate along, decelerate along, and stabilize relative equilibria. The technical approach is based upon a perturbation...... analysis and the design of inversion primitives and composition methods. We illustrate the algorithms on an underactuated planar rigid body and on a satellite with two thrusters....

  15. Controlling self-assembly of diphenylalanine peptides at high pH using heterocyclic capping groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Adam D.; Wojciechowski, Jonathan P.; Robinson, Andrew B.; Heu, Celine; Garvey, Christopher J.; Ratcliffe, Julian; Waddington, Lynne J.; Gardiner, James; Thordarson, Pall

    2017-03-01

    Using small angle neutron scattering (SANS), it is shown that the existence of pre-assembled structures at high pH for a capped diphenylalanine hydrogel is controlled by the selection of N-terminal heterocyclic capping group, namely indole or carbazole. At high pH, changing from a somewhat hydrophilic indole capping group to a more hydrophobic carbazole capping group results in a shift from a high proportion of monomers to self-assembled fibers or wormlike micelles. The presence of these different self-assembled structures at high pH is confirmed through NMR and circular dichroism spectroscopy, scanning probe microscopy and cryogenic transmission electron microscopy.

  16. Controlling self-assembly of diphenylalanine peptides at high pH using heterocyclic capping groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Adam D.; Wojciechowski, Jonathan P.; Robinson, Andrew B.; Heu, Celine; Garvey, Christopher J.; Ratcliffe, Julian; Waddington, Lynne J.; Gardiner, James; Thordarson, Pall

    2017-01-01

    Using small angle neutron scattering (SANS), it is shown that the existence of pre-assembled structures at high pH for a capped diphenylalanine hydrogel is controlled by the selection of N-terminal heterocyclic capping group, namely indole or carbazole. At high pH, changing from a somewhat hydrophilic indole capping group to a more hydrophobic carbazole capping group results in a shift from a high proportion of monomers to self-assembled fibers or wormlike micelles. The presence of these different self-assembled structures at high pH is confirmed through NMR and circular dichroism spectroscopy, scanning probe microscopy and cryogenic transmission electron microscopy. PMID:28272523

  17. ROLES OF INTERLOCKING DIRECTORATES IN AN EMERGING COUNTRY: CONTROL AND COORDINATION IN FAMILY BUSINESS GROUPS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aylin Ataay

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Maman (1999 proposed that, in countries in which business groups are dominant forms for organizing economic activities, the interlocking directorate is a managerial tool that can be prioritized to control and coordinate activities of their affiliated firms within the same groups and align their business objectives. This organizational connection appears to be an intentional strategy on the part of the groups‟ headquarters. In order to study the interlocking ties in Turkish family business groups (FBG, this study focused on interlocking directorates among listed firms in Turkey. The findings of preliminary study reveal that almost all of the interlocking ties were within the business groups (BG in our sample. This is the result of assignment of familyaffiliated and/or professional inside directors to the various boards of companies in the BG. We also found that compare to vertical ties; business groups are using more horizontal interlocking connections to bond their affiliated companies together.

  18. The Control Attitudes Scale-Revised: psychometric evaluation in three groups of patients with cardiac illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moser, Debra K; Riegel, Barbara; McKinley, Sharon; Doering, Lynn V; Meischke, Hendrika; Heo, Seongkum; Lennie, Terry A; Dracup, Kathleen

    2009-01-01

    Perceived control is a construct with important theoretical and clinical implications for healthcare providers, yet practical application of the construct in research and clinical practice awaits development of an easily administered instrument to measure perceived control with evidence of reliability and validity. To test the psychometric properties of the Control Attitudes Scale-Revised (CAS-R) using a sample of 3,396 individuals with coronary heart disease, 513 patients with acute myocardial infarction, and 146 patients with heart failure. Analyses were done separately in each patient group. Reliability was assessed using Cronbach's alpha to determine internal consistency, and item homogeneity was assessed using item-total and interitem correlations. Validity was examined using principal component analysis and testing hypotheses about known associations. Cronbach's alpha values for the CAS-R in patients with coronary heart disease, acute myocardial infarction, and heart failure were all greater than .70. Item-total and interitem correlation coefficients for all items were acceptable in the groups. In factor analyses, the same single factor was extracted in all groups, and all items were loaded moderately or strongly to the factor in each group. As hypothesized in the final construct validity test, in all groups, patients with higher levels of perceived control had less depression and less anxiety compared with those of patients who had lower levels of perceived control. This study provides evidence of the reliability and validity of the 8-item CAS-R as a measure of perceived control in patients with cardiac illness and provides important insight into a key patient construct.

  19. Comparative Evaluation of Liposomal Albendazole and Tablet-Albendazole Against Hepatic Cystic Echinococcosis: A Non-Randomized Clinical Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Haitao; Song, Tao; Shao, Yingmei; Aili, Tuergan; Ahan, Ayifuhan; Wen, Hao

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we aimed to compare the clinical efficacy of liposomal albendazole (L-ABZ) and tablet-albendazole (T-ABZ) for the treatment of human hepatic cystic echinococcosis (CE). Sixty patients with single cyst (CE1) or daughter cyst (CE2) were included in this study and were nonrandomly divided into the L-ABZ group (n = 30, 10  mg/kg per day, p.o., b.i.d.) and T-ABZ group (n = 30, 12-20 mg/kg per day, p.o., b.i.d.), respectively. The treatment duration lasted for 6 months, during which dynamic follow-up was carried out to evaluate the clinical efficacy through calculating the total effective rates (TERs). Measurement data and numerous data were analyzed by the chi-square test. Two-sided tests were performed for all the statistical tests. In our study, 2 patients were lost in the follow-up in the L-ABZ group. One patient was lost in the follow-up in the T-ABZ group, and 1 patient was withdrawal from the study due to receiving surgery. Significant difference was identified in the 3-month TERs of L-ABZ group and T-ABZ group (33.3% vs 76.7%, P  0.05). Based on our study, both T-ABZ and L-ABZ are effective for treating human CE. The TER in the L-ABZ group is superior to that of T-ABZ.

  20. A randomised controlled trial of group cognitive behavioural therapy for perfectionism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handley, Alicia K; Egan, Sarah J; Kane, Robert T; Rees, Clare S

    2015-05-01

    Perfectionism is associated with symptoms of anxiety disorders, eating disorders and mood disorders. Treatments targeting perfectionism may reduce the symptoms of these disorders (Egan, Wade, & Shafran, 2011). This study is the first randomised controlled trial to investigate the efficacy of group cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) for perfectionism. Forty-two participants with elevated perfectionism and a range of anxiety, eating and mood disorders were randomised to group CBT for perfectionism or a waitlist control. The treatment group reported significantly greater pre-post reductions in perfectionism, symptoms of depression, eating disorders, social anxiety, anxiety sensitivity and rumination, as well as significantly greater pre-post increases in self-esteem and quality of life compared to the waitlist control group. The impact of treatment on most of these outcomes was mediated by pre-post change in perfectionism (Concern over Mistakes). Treatment gains were reliable and clinically significant, and were maintained at 6-month follow-up. Findings support group CBT for perfectionism being an efficacious treatment for perfectionism and related psychopathology, as well as increasing self-esteem and quality of life.

  1. Group memory rehabilitation for people with multiple sclerosis: a feasibility randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, Sara E; das Nair, Roshan; Schwartz, Annette F; Lincoln, Nadina B

    2014-06-01

    To assess the feasibility and effectiveness of a group memory rehabilitation programme combining compensation and restitution strategies. Randomized controlled trial. Community. People with multiple sclerosis who reported memory difficulties were recruited. A group memory rehabilitation programme, comprising ten 1.5-hour sessions, was compared with a waiting list control. The primary outcome was the Everyday Memory Questionnaire. Secondary outcomes included the General Health Questionnaire 28 and MS Impact Scale administered four and eight months after randomization. In addition, those in the intervention group gave feedback about the intervention. Forty-eight participants were recruited. They were aged 34-72 years (mean 54.3, SD 11.0) and 33 (69%) were women. There were no significant differences between the two groups on the Everyday Memory Questionnaire or MS Impact Scale (P > 0.05) at four or eight months after randomization. However, the intervention group reported significantly better mood than controls on the GHQ-28 at eight months (P = 0.04). Participants showed minimal benefit from the memory rehabilitation programme on quantitative measures but the intervention was well received, as indicated by positive feedback at the end of the intervention. There was no significant effect of the intervention on memory but there was a significant effect on mood. The results suggest a larger scale study is justified. © The Author(s) 2014.

  2. Differences Between Human Figure Drawings of Child Molesters and Control Groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Frances A.; Johnston, Shawn A.

    1986-01-01

    Attempted to identify differences between human figure drawings of adult and juvenile child molesters and adult and juvenile control groups, based on ratings obtained for psychodiagnostic signs. Results revealed, for the molesters, factors of overall quality with a component of gender identity confusion, figure-size only, fingers only, and hidden…

  3. Earliest Deadline Control of a Group of Heat Pumps with a Single Energy Source

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fink, J.; van Leeuwen, Richard Pieter

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we develop and investigate the optimal control of a group of 104 heat pumps and a central Combined Heat and Power unit (CHP). The heat pumps supply space heating and domestic hot water to households. Each house has a buffer for domestic hot water and a floor heating system for space h

  4. Earliest Deadline Control of a Group of Heat Pumps with a Single Energy Source

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fink, J.; van Leeuwen, Richard Pieter

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we develop and investigate the optimal control of a group of 104 heat pumps and a central Combined Heat and Power unit (CHP). The heat pumps supply space heating and domestic hot water to households. Each house has a buffer for domestic hot water and a floor heating system for space

  5. Learning in the tutorial group: a balance between individual freedom and institutional control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAllister, Anita; Aanstoot, Janna; Hammarström, Inger Lundeborg; Samuelsson, Christina; Johannesson, Eva; Sandström, Karin; Berglind, Ulrika

    2014-01-01

    The study investigates factors in problem-based learning tutorial groups which promote or inhibit learning. The informants were tutors and students from speech-language pathology and physiotherapy programmes. Semi-structured focus-group interviews and individual interviews were used. Results revealed three themes: Responsibility. Time and Support. Under responsibility, the delicate balance between individual and institutional responsibility and control was shown. Time included short and long-term perspectives on learning. Under support, supporting documents, activities and personnel resources were mentioned. In summary, an increased control by the program and tutors decreases student's motivation to assume responsibility for learning. Support in tutorial groups needs to adapt to student progression and to be well aligned to tutorial work to have the intended effect. A lifelong learning perspective may help students develop a meta-awareness regarding learning that could make tutorial work more meaningful.

  6. Standard versus prosocial online support groups for distressed breast cancer survivors: a randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Golant Mitch

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Internet can increase access to psychosocial care for breast cancer survivors through online support groups. This study will test a novel prosocial online group that emphasizes both opportunities for getting and giving help. Based on the helper therapy principle, it is hypothesized that the addition of structured helping opportunities and coaching on how to help others online will increase the psychological benefits of a standard online group. Methods/Design A two-armed randomized controlled trial with pretest and posttest. Non-metastatic breast cancer survivors with elevated psychological distress will be randomized to either a standard facilitated online group or to a prosocial facilitated online group, which combines online exchanges of support with structured helping opportunities (blogging, breast cancer outreach and coaching on how best to give support to others. Validated and reliable measures will be administered to women approximately one month before and after the interventions. Self-esteem, positive affect, and sense of belonging will be tested as potential mediators of the primary outcomes of depressive/anxious symptoms and sense of purpose in life. Discussion This study will test an innovative approach to maximizing the psychological benefits of cancer online support groups. The theory-based prosocial online support group intervention model is sustainable, because it can be implemented by private non-profit or other organizations, such as cancer centers, which mostly offer face-to-face support groups with limited patient reach. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01396174

  7. Variation of phytoplankton functional groups modulated by hydraulic controls in Hongze Lake, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Chang; Pei, Haiyan; Hu, Wenrong; Hao, Daping; Doblin, Martina A; Ren, Ying; Wei, Jielin; Feng, Yawei

    2015-11-01

    Hongze Lake is a large, shallow, polymictic, eutrophic lake in the eastern China. Phytoplankton functional groups in this lake were investigated from March 2011 to February 2013, and a comparison was made between the eastern, western, and northern regions. The lake shows strong fluctuations in water level caused by monsoon rains and regular hydraulic controls. By application of the phytoplankton functional group approach, this study aims to investigate the spatial and temporal dynamics and analyze their influencing factors. Altogether, 18 functional groups of phytoplankton were identified, encompassing 187 species. In order to seek the best variable describing the phytoplankton functional group distribution, 14 of the groups were analyzed in detail using redundancy analysis. Due to the turbid condition of the lake, the dominant functional groups were those tolerant of low light. The predominant functional groups in the annual succession were D (Cyclotella spp. and Synedra acus), T (Planctonema lauterbornii), P (Fragilaria crotonensis), X1 (Chlorella vulgaris and Chlorella pyrenoidosa), C (Cyclotella meneghiniana and Cyclotella ocellata), and Y (Cryptomonas erosa). An opposite relationship between water level and the biomass of predominant groups was observed in the present study. Water level fluctuations, caused by monsoonal climate and artificial drawdown, were significant factors influencing phytoplankton succession in Hongze Lake, since they alter the hydrological conditions and influence light and nutrient availability. The clearly demonstrated factors, which significantly influence phytoplankton dynamics in Hongze Lake, will help government manage the large shallow lakes with frequent water level fluctuations.

  8. The sonographic findings of subclinical atherosclerosis in common carotid arteries: Rheumatoid arthritis patients Versus control group

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahmani M

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available "nBackground: High Resolution sonography of common carotid artery is a safe method for rapid diagnosis of atherosclerosis in Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA. The purpose of this study was to compare sonographic findings of subclinical atherosclerosis in rheumatoid arthritis patients and control group and comparing the prevalence of atheromatous plaques and Intima- media thickness in arteries of the groups. "nMethods: Fifty RA patients and fifty non-RA persons were evaluated in a cross- sectional, Descriptive study. The sonographic findings of common carotid artery of these two groups were compared."n "nResults: After analysis of the sonographic findings of common carotid arteries of 100 females in our study (50 patients with the mean age of 48.1y/o [23-61] and 50 control group with the mean age of 47y/o [23-61], the prevalence of RA patients with atheromatous plaques was 32% and in control group was 6%. [OR=7.4, 95%CI=2-27.3, p=0.001]. The mean (SD of the Intima- Media Thickness (IMT in RA patients was 7.76 mm (1, 04 while in control group was 6.10 mm (0.95. From 38 RA patients with less or equal 5 joints involvement in hand radiography, 13.2% had atheromatous plaques and the mean (SD of the IMT was 7.6 (±1.1 mm. From 12 patients with more than 5 joints involvement in radiography, 91.7% had atheromatous plaques and the mean (SD of the IMT was 8.4 (±0.7 mm. [p=0.012]."n "nConclusions: Regarding higher prevalence of vascular problems in RA patients, screening and early diagnosis of vascular pathologies could be of value in reducing morbidity and mortality of these patients.

  9. Psychoeducative groups help control type 2 diabetes in a primary care setting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Ángel Cervantes Cuesta

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The purpose of this study is to measure the impact of a psychoeducational group intervention in diabetes using glycosylated haemoglobin (HbA1c, the body mass index (BMI and cardiovascular risk factors (CVRF compared with conventional educational measures provided individually. Methods: A quasi-experimental study (pre/post-intervention with a non-equivalent control group was conducted, including 72 type 2 individuals with diabetes (mean data: age 63.08 years, HbA1C 6.98%, BMI 30.48 kg/m². The beneficial effect of psychoeducational group therapy in the study group (PGT was compared with conventional diabetes education in the control group (CG. Results: The PGT had a higher mean HbA1c reduction (-0.51 ± 1.7 vs. -0.06 ± 0.53%, p 0.003, met the objectives of optimal control of HbA1c to a higher degree (80% vs. 48%, p 0.005 and greater mean weight reduction (-1.93 ± 3.57 vs. 0.52 ± 1.73 kg, p 0002 than the CG.A significant improvement in total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, triglycerides, systolic and diastolic blood pressure was achieved in PGT (all p < 0.05. Conclusions: PGT patients achieved a significant improvement in HbA1C, BMI and CVRF, and outperformed the conventional diabetes education group in achieving the optimal diabetes control objectives. Structural changes in the assistance programs should be considered to introduce these more efficient therapies for diabetes education in primary care.

  10. Decentralized control algorithms of a group of vehicles in 2D space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pshikhopov, V. K.; Medvedev, M. Y.; Fedorenko, R. V.; Gurenko, B. V.

    2017-02-01

    The problem of decentralized control of group of robots, described by kinematic and dynamic equations of motion in the plane, is considered. Group performs predetermined rectangular area passing at a fixed speed, keeping the line and a uniform distribution. The environment may contain a priori unknown moving or stationary obstacles. Decentralized control algorithms, based on the formation of repellers in the state space of robots, are proposed. These repellers form repulsive forces generated by dynamic subsystems that extend the state space of robots. These repulsive forces are dynamic functions of distances and velocities of robots in the area of operation of the group. The process of formation of repellers allows to take into account the dynamic properties of robots, such as the maximum speed and acceleration. The robots local control law formulas are derived based on positionally-trajectory control method, which allows to operate with non-linear models. Lyapunov function in the form of a quadratic function of the state variables is constructed to obtain a nonlinear closed-loop control system. Due to the fact that a closed system is decomposed into two independent subsystems Lyapunov function is also constructed as two independent functions. Numerical simulation of the motion of a group of five robots is presented. In this simulation obstacles are presented by the boundaries of working area and a movable object of a given radius, moving rectilinear and uniform. Obstacle speed is comparable to the speeds of the robots in a group. The advantage of the proposed method is ensuring the stability of the trajectories and consideration of the limitations on the speed and acceleration at the trajectory planning stage. Proposed approach can be used for more general robots' models, including robots in the three-dimensional environment.

  11. Adalimumab specifically induces CD3+ CD4+ CD25high Foxp3+ CD127− T-regulatory cells and decreases vascular endothelial growth factor plasma levels in refractory immuno-mediated uveitis: a non-randomized pilot intervention study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calleja, S; Cordero-Coma, M; Rodriguez, E; Llorente, M; Franco, M; Ruiz de Morales, J G

    2012-01-01

    Aim To explore immunoregulatory and anti-inflammatory pathways specifically targeted by a subcutaneous anti-TNFαdrug—adalimumab—which might be relevant for controlling refractory uveitis. Design Non-randomized pilot intervention study on the effects of adalimumab on Treg populations and plasma VEGF levels in refractory uveitis patients. Inflammatory and immunological parameters were measured in 12 patients before therapy, and 1 and 6 months after therapy, and analyzed in the context of ophthalmological outcomes. The results were compared with those obtained in 10 systemic prednisone-treated uveitis patients. Results After 1 month of treatment, all patients responded, with 67% of adalimumab group and 80% of the corticosteroid group achieving inactivity (P=0.5). Unlike steroid-treated patients, a significant increase in T-regulatory CD4+ CD25high Foxp3+ CD127− cells was observed in adalimumab patients after 1 month of treatment, and maintained after 6 months (P=0.003). A significant adalimumab-specific drop in plasma VEGF was observed after 1 and 6 months of treatment (P=0.019). In every single patient, Tregs but not VEGF correlated with disease activity. Conclusions In refractory uveitis patients treated with adalimumab, clinical efficacy may be mediated through upregulation of Tregs in addition to modulation of VEGF-mediated inflammatory pathways. These biological properties, which were not observed in patients treated with corticosteroids, may reflect the specificity of TNF-αtargeting. PMID:22222264

  12. Application of photoremovable protecting group for controlled release of plant growth regulators by sunlight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atta, Sanghamitra; Ikbal, Mohammed; Kumar, Ashutosh; Pradeep Singh, N D

    2012-06-01

    We report a novel technique for controlled release of plant growth regulators (PGRs) by sunlight using photoremovable protecting group (PRPG) as a delivery device. In the present work, carboxyl-containing PGRs of the auxin group [indoleacetic acid (IAA) and naphthoxyacetic acid (NOAA)] were chemically caged using PRPGs of coumarin derivatives. Photophysical studies showed that caged PGRs exhibited good fluorescence properties. Irradiation of caged PGRs by sunlight in both aqueous ethanol and soil media resulted in controlled release of PGRs. The results of the bioactivity experiments indicated that caged PGRs showed better enhancement in the root and shoot length growth of Cicer arietinum compared to PGRs after 10days of sunlight exposure. Our results indicated that use of PRPG as a delivery device for controlled release of PGRs by sunlight in soil holds great interest for field application since it can overcome the rapid loss of PGRs in environmental conditions.

  13. Comparison of Value System among a Group of Military Prisoners with Controls in Tehran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Mahmood Mirzamani Ph.D

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Religious values were investigated in a group of Iranian Revolutionary Guards in Tehran .Methods: The sample consisted of official duty troops and conscripts who were in prison due to a crime. One hundred thirty seven individuals cooperated with us in the project (37 Official personnel and 100 conscripts. The instruments used included a demographic questionnaire containing personal data and the Allport, Vernon and Lindzey's Study of Values Test. Most statistical methods used descriptive statistical methods such as frequency, mean, tables and t-test.Results: The results showed that religious value was lower in the criminal group than the control group (p<.001. Discussion: This study showed lower religious value scores in the criminals group, suggesting the possibility that lower religious value increases the probability of committing crimes .

  14. "Rate of Chlamydia trachomatis, Mycoplasma hominis and Ureaplasma urealyticum in Infertile Females and Control Group"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N Badami

    2001-07-01

    Full Text Available Infertility in famale is one of the most important sequela of genital infection with Chlamydia trachomatis, Mycoplasma hominis and Ureaplasma urealyticum. In the present study the frequency of these bacteries was studied in 125 infertile female by direct and indirect immunofluorscence tests and culture method and compared with 250 normal population. Mycoplasma hominis was isolated from 32 (35.6% of infertile females compare with 18 (7.2% of normal population. Ureaplasma urealyticum was isolated from 41 (32.8% of infertile females compare to 48 (19.2% of normal population. Chlamydia trachomatis was detected by direct IF in 11 (8.8% of infertile and 2 (0.8% control group. The antibody titer against D-K serotypes of Chlamydia trachomatis was also measured in both groups of infertile and normal population and a positive titer of 1/16 and above was detected in 26 (20.8% of infertile cases and in 8 (3.2% of control group. The rate of Chlamydia trachomatis, Mycoplasma hominis and Ureaplasma urealyticum in case and control groups was significant (respectively P<0.0001, P<0.0001, p= 0.0018.

  15. A common control group - optimising the experiment design to maximise sensitivity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Bate

    Full Text Available Methods for choosing an appropriate sample size in animal experiments have received much attention in the statistical and biological literature. Due to ethical constraints the number of animals used is always reduced where possible. However, as the number of animals decreases so the risk of obtaining inconclusive results increases. By using a more efficient experimental design we can, for a given number of animals, reduce this risk. In this paper two popular cases are considered, where planned comparisons are made to compare treatments back to control and when researchers plan to make all pairwise comparisons. By using theoretical and empirical techniques we show that for studies where all pairwise comparisons are made the traditional balanced design, as suggested in the literature, maximises sensitivity. For studies that involve planned comparisons of the treatment groups back to the control group, which are inherently more sensitive due to the reduced multiple testing burden, the sensitivity is maximised by increasing the number of animals in the control group while decreasing the number in the treated groups.

  16. [Evaluation of an educational group intervention in the control of patients with cardiovascular risk].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puig-Girbau, M Núria; Lladó-Blanch, M Magdalena; Seco-Salcedo, M Carmen; Gómez-Saldaña, Ana; Medina-Peralta, Manuel; Riera-Torres, Roser; Pera, Guillem

    2011-01-01

    To compare an educational group intervention with individual care to improve clinical and management variables among patients with cardiovascular risk (CVR) in community health care (PC). A randomised controlled experimental study was developed in 7 PC centres of Barcelona (Spain). A total of 2,127 patients included in the chronic diseases protocol of the centres were selected. The intervention group (IG) attended four educative workshops led by their nurses during one year. Clinical and management variables (number of visits, pharmaceutical expenditure, nurse time consumption) were measured at baseline and 3 months after the intervention in the IG and in the control group (CG). Pre-post-intervention and IG vs. CG differences were analysed. Among the 672 patients belonging to the IG, 144 were lost due to failing to attend the workshops. CG (n=824) had no withdrawals. At the end of follow-up there were no significant differences between their clinical variables. The number of visits and pharmaceutical expenditure increased in the IG. However, the annual dedication of nurses per patient per year was 39.59 minutes in the IG and 60 minutes in the CG. Nurse group control of patients with CVR in PC saves nurse-time compared with the usual individual visits. However, further studies are needed to better define what type of patient that is more susceptible to follow cardiovascular control through group workshops and whether this time-saving is related to the use of other health resources. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  17. Comparison of an intermittent and continuous forearm muscles fatigue protocol with motorcycle riders and control group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marina, M; Torrado, P; Busquets, A; Ríos, J G; Angulo-Barroso, R

    2013-02-01

    Motorcycle races' long duration justify the study of forearm muscles fatigue, especially knowing the frequently associated forearm discomfort pathology. Moreover, while continuous fatigue protocols yield unequivocal results, EMG outcomes from an intermittent protocol are quite controversial. This study examined the forearm muscle fatigue patterns produced during these two protocols, comparing riders with a control group, and relating maximal voluntary contraction with EMG parameters (amplitude - NRMS and median frequency - NMF) of both protocols to the forearm discomfort among motorcycle riders. Twenty riders and 39 controls performed in separate days both protocols simulating the braking gesture and posture of a rider. EMG of flexor digitorum superficialis (FS) and carpi radialis (CR) were monitored. CR revealed more differences among protocols and groups compared to FS. The greater CR activation in riders could be interpreted as a neuromotor strategy to improve braking precision. When FS fatigue increased, the control group progressively shift toward a bigger CR activation, adopting an intermuscular activation pattern closer to riders. Despite the absence of NMF decrement throughout the intermittent protocol, which suggest that we should have shorten the recovery times from the actual 1 min, the superior number of rounds performed by the riders proved that this protocol discriminates better riders against controls and is more related to forearm discomfort.

  18. Earliest Deadline Control of a Group of Heat Pumps with a Single Energy Source

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiří Fink

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we develop and investigate the optimal control of a group of 104 heat pumps and a central Combined Heat and Power unit (CHP. The heat pumps supply space heating and domestic hot water to households. Each house has a buffer for domestic hot water and a floor heating system for space heating. Electricity for the heat pumps is generated by a central CHP unit, which also provides thermal energy to a district heating system. The paper reviews recent smart grid control approaches for central and distributed levels. An online algorithm is described based on the earliest deadline first theory that can be used on the aggregator level to control the CHP and to give signals to the heat pump controllers if they should start or should wait. The central controller requires only a limited amount of privacy-insensitive information from the heat pump controllers about their deadlines, which the heat pump controllers calculate for themselves by model predictions. In this way, a robust heat pump and CHP control is obtained, which is able to minimize energy demand and results in the desired thermal comfort for the households. The simulations demonstrate fast computation times due to minor computational and communication overheads.

  19. Closing plenary summary of working group 4 instrumentation and controls for ERL2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gassner, D.; Obina, T.

    2011-10-16

    Working group 4 was charged with presentations and discussions on instrumentation and controls with regards to Energy Recovery Linacs (ERL). There were 4 sessions spanning 3.5 hours in which 7 talks were delivered, the first being an invited plenary presentation. The time allotted for each talk was limited to 20-25 minutes in order to allow 5-10 minutes for discussion. Most of the talks were held in joint session with working group 5 (Unwanted Beam Loss). This format was effective for the purpose of this workshop. A final series of discussion sessions were also held with working group 5. Summary of the working group 4 activities, presented in the closing plenary session. We had a plenary presentation on operational performance, experience, and future plans at the existing ERL injector prototype at Cornell. This included instrumentation data, controls system configurations, as well as description of future needs. This was followed by four talks from KEK and RIKEN/SPring-8 that described electron beam instrumentation already in use or under development that can be applied to ERL facilities. The final talks described the ERLs under construction at KEK and BNL. The format of having joint sessions with working group 5 was beneficial as there were a significant number of common topics and concerns with regards to the causes of beam loss, instrumentation hardware, and techniques used to measure and analyze beam loss.

  20. Comparison of Calcitonin Gene Related Peptide Level between Children with Dilated Cardiomyopathy and Control Group

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noormohammad Noori

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Dilated cardiomyopathy is revealed with left ventricular dilatation and systolic dysfunction. Objectives: This study aimed to compare the children with dilated cardiomyopathy and control group regarding the level of Calcitonin Gene Related Peptide (CGRP and its relationship with echocardiography findings Patients and Methods: This case-control study was conducted on 37 children with dilated cardiomyopathy and free of any clinical symptoms and 37 healthy age- and sex-matched children referring to Ali-e-Asghar and Ali Ebne Abitaleb hospitals in Zahedan, Iran. After taking history, echocardiography was performed for both groups. The data were analyzed using the SPSS statistical software and appropriate statistical tests. Results: The two groups were significantly different regarding most of the echocardiographic parameters (P < 0.05. Also, a significant difference was found between the two groups concerning the mean CGRP levels (P = 0.001. Among echocardiographic parameters, CGRP was directly related to Interventricular Septal dimension in Systole (IVSS (P = 0.022, R = 0.375. However, no significant relationship was observed between CGRP level and Ross classification. Conclusions: The findings of this study showed an increase in CGRP serum levels in the case group. Besides, a direct correlation was observed between CGRP level and IVSS.

  1. A survey of ring-building network protocols suitable for command and control group communications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobeih, Ahmed; Yurcik, William

    2005-05-01

    Multicasting is the enabling technology for group communication. However, network-layer multicasting (e.g., IP multicast) has not been widely adopted more than 10 years of its invention due to the concerns related to deployment, scalability and network management. Application-layer multicast (ALM) has been proposed as an alternative for IP multicast. In ALM, group communications take place on an overlay network in which each edge corresponds to a direct unicast path between two group members. ALM protocols differ in, among other aspects, the topology of the underlying overlay network (e.g., tree, mesh or ring). Ring-based ALM protocols have the advantages of providing a constant node degree, and enabling the implementation of reliable and totally-ordered message delivery through the use of a ring with a token that contains ordering and flow control information. In addition, a ring overlay network topology is inherently reliable to single node failures. In this paper, we provide a survey and a taxonomy of several ring-building group communication protocols. Investigating the major characteristics of ring-building network protocols is an important step towards understanding which of them are suitable for command and control group communications.

  2. A group randomized controlled trial integrating obesity prevention and control for postpartum adolescents in a home visiting program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haire-Joshu, Debra L; Schwarz, Cynthia D; Peskoe, Sarah B; Budd, Elizabeth L; Brownson, Ross C; Joshu, Corinne E

    2015-06-26

    Adolescence represents a critical period for the development of overweight that tracks into adulthood. This risk is significantly heightened for adolescents that become pregnant, many of whom experience postpartum weight retention. The aim of this study was to evaluate Balance Adolescent Lifestyle Activities and Nutrition Choices for Energy (BALANCE), a multicomponent obesity prevention intervention targeting postpartum adolescents participating in a national home visiting child development-parent education program. A group randomized, nested cohort design was used with 1325 adolescents, 694 intervention and 490 control, (mean age = 17.8 years, 52 % underrepresented minorities) located across 30 states. Participatory methods were used to integrate lifestyle behavior change strategies within standard parent education practice. Content targeted replacement of high-risk obesogenic patterns (e.g. sweetened drink and high fat snack consumption, sedentary activity) with positive behaviors (e.g. water intake, fruit and vegetables, increased walking). Parent educators delivered BALANCE through home visits, school based classroom-group meetings, and website activities. Control adolescents received standard child development information. Phase I included baseline to posttest (12 months); Phase II included baseline to follow-up (24 months). When compared to the control group, BALANCE adolescents who were ≥12 weeks postpartum were 89 % more likely (p = 0.02) to maintain a normal BMI or improve an overweight/obese BMI by 12 months; this change was not sustained at 24 months. When compared to the control group, BALANCE adolescents significantly improved fruit and vegetable intake (p = .03). In stratified analyses, water intake improved among younger BALANCE teens (p = .001) and overweight/obese BALANCE teens (p = .05) when compared to control counterparts. There were no significant differences between groups in sweetened drink and snack consumption

  3. Teaching Emotional Intelligence: A Control Group Study of a Brief Educational Intervention for Emergency Medicine Residents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diane L. Gorgas

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Emotional Intelligence (EI is defined as an ability to perceive another’s emotional state combined with an ability to modify one’s own. Physicians with this ability are at a distinct advantage, both in fostering teams and in making sound decisions. Studies have shown that higher physician EI’s are associated with lower incidence of burn-out, longer careers, more positive patient-physician interactions, increased empathy, and improved communication skills. We explored the potential for EI to be learned as a skill (as opposed to being an innate ability through a brief educational intervention with emergency medicine (EM residents. Methods: This study was conducted at a large urban EM residency program. Residents were randomized to either EI intervention or control groups. The intervention was a two-hour session focused on improving the skill of social perspective taking (SPT, a skill related to social awareness. Due to time limitations, we used a 10-item sample of the Hay 360 Emotional Competence Inventory to measure EI at three time points for the training group: before (pre and after (post training, and at six-months post training (follow up; and at two time points for the control group: pre- and follow up. The preliminary analysis was a four-way analysis of variance with one repeated measure: Group x Gender x Program Year over Time. We also completed post-hoc tests. Results: Thirty-three EM residents participated in the study (33 of 36, 92%, 19 in the EI intervention group and 14 in the control group. We found a significant interaction effect between Group and Time (p<0.05. Post-hoc tests revealed a significant increase in EI scores from Time 1 to 3 for the EI intervention group (62.6% to 74.2%, but no statistical change was observed for the controls (66.8% to 66.1%, p=0.77. We observed no main effects involving gender or level of training. Conclusion: Our brief EI training showed a delayed but statistically significant

  4. Teaching Emotional Intelligence: A Control Group Study of a Brief Educational Intervention for Emergency Medicine Residents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorgas, Diane L; Greenberger, Sarah; Bahner, David P; Way, David P

    2015-11-01

    Emotional Intelligence (EI) is defined as an ability to perceive another's emotional state combined with an ability to modify one's own. Physicians with this ability are at a distinct advantage, both in fostering teams and in making sound decisions. Studies have shown that higher physician EI's are associated with lower incidence of burn-out, longer careers, more positive patient-physician interactions, increased empathy, and improved communication skills. We explored the potential for EI to be learned as a skill (as opposed to being an innate ability) through a brief educational intervention with emergency medicine (EM) residents. This study was conducted at a large urban EM residency program. Residents were randomized to either EI intervention or control groups. The intervention was a two-hour session focused on improving the skill of social perspective taking (SPT), a skill related to social awareness. Due to time limitations, we used a 10-item sample of the Hay 360 Emotional Competence Inventory to measure EI at three time points for the training group: before (pre) and after (post) training, and at six-months post training (follow up); and at two time points for the control group: pre- and follow up. The preliminary analysis was a four-way analysis of variance with one repeated measure: Group x Gender x Program Year over Time. We also completed post-hoc tests. Thirty-three EM residents participated in the study (33 of 36, 92%), 19 in the EI intervention group and 14 in the control group. We found a significant interaction effect between Group and Time (p≤0.05). Post-hoc tests revealed a significant increase in EI scores from Time 1 to 3 for the EI intervention group (62.6% to 74.2%), but no statistical change was observed for the controls (66.8% to 66.1%, p=0.77). We observed no main effects involving gender or level of training. Our brief EI training showed a delayed but statistically significant positive impact on EM residents six months after the

  5. Effects of an Integrated ‘Fast Track’ Rehabilitation Service for Multi-Trauma Patients: A Non-Randomized Clinical Trial in the Netherlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouman, Ans I. E.; Hemmen, Bea; Evers, Silvia M. A. A.; van de Meent, Henk; Ambergen, Ton; Vos, Pieter E.; Brink, Peter R. G.; Seelen, Henk A. M.

    2017-01-01

    Objectives The effects on health related outcomes of a newly-developed rehabilitation program, called ‘supported Fast Track multi-trauma rehabilitation service’ (Fast Track), were evaluated in comparison with conventional trauma rehabilitation service (Care as Usual). Methods Prospective, multi-center, non-randomized controlled study. Between 2009 and 2012, 132 adult multi-trauma patients were included: 65 Fast Track and 67 Care as Usual patients with an Injury Severity Score ≥16, complex multiple injuries in several extremities or complex pelvic and/or acetabulum fractures. The Fast Track program involved: integrated coordination between trauma surgeon and rehabilitation physician, shorter stay in hospital with faster transfer to a specialized trauma rehabilitation unit, earlier start of multidisciplinary treatment and ‘non-weight bearing’ mobilization. Primary outcomes were functional status (FIM) and quality of life (SF-36) measured through questionnaires at baseline, 3, 6, 9 and 12 months post-trauma. Outcomes were analyzed using a linear mixed-effects regression model. Results The FIM scores significantly increased between 0 and 3 months (p<0.001) for both groups showing that they had improved overall, and continued to improve between 3 and 6 months for Fast Track (p = 0.04) and between 3 and 9 months for Care as Usual (p = 0.03). SF-36 scores significantly improved in both groups between 3 and 6 months (Fast Track, p<0.001; Care as Usual, p = 0.01). At 12 months, SF-36 scores were still below (self-reported) baseline measurements of patient health prior to the accident. However, the FIM and SF-36 scores differed little between the groups at any of the measured time points. Conclusion Both Fast Track and Care as Usual rehabilitation programs were effective in that multi-trauma patients improved their functional status and quality of life. A faster (maximum) recovery in functional status was observed for Fast Track at 6 months compared to 9 months for

  6. Mentalization and Life Stories among Patients with Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD) and a Control Group

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lind, Majse; Bøye, Rikke; Heinskou, Torben;

    2016-01-01

    been examined in patients with BPD and this was the aim of our ongoing study. 30 patients with BPD and 30 controls will participate in the study. Mentalization is assessed using both self-report and performance measures (Empathic Quotient, Toronto Alexithymia Scale-20 and Mayer, Salovey, Caruso...... Emotional Intelligence Test). Life stories are assessed by having participants describe up to 10 chapters and rate causal coherence of these chapters. We expect that patients with BPD will show poorer mentalization and less causally coherent life stories compared to the control group. Furthermore, we expect...

  7. Revisiting Executive Pay in Family-Controlled Firms: Family Premium in Large Business Groups

    OpenAIRE

    Cheong, Juyoung; Kim, Woochan

    2014-01-01

    According to the prior literature, family executives of family-controlled firms receive lower compensation than non-family executives. One of the key driving forces behind this is the existence of family members who are not involved in management, but own significant fraction of shares and closely monitor and/or discipline those involved in management. In this paper, we show that this assumption falls apart if family-controlled firm is part of a large business group, where most of the family ...

  8. Simultaneous interpreters vs. professional multilingual controls: Group differences in cognitive control as well as brain structure and function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Maxi; Schubert, Torsten; Strobach, Tilo; Gallinat, Jürgen; Kühn, Simone

    2016-07-01

    There is a vast amount of literature indicating that multiple language expertise leads to positive transfer effects onto other non-language cognitive domains possibly due to enhanced cognitive control. However, there is hardly any evidence about underlying mechanisms on how complex behavior like simultaneous interpreting benefits cognitive functioning in other non-language domains. Therefore, we investigated whether simultaneous interpreters (SIs) exhibit cognitive benefits in tasks measuring aspects of cognitive control compared to a professional multilingual control group. We furthermore investigated in how far potential cognitive benefits are related to brain structure (using voxel-based morphometry) and function (using regions-of-interest-based functional connectivity and graph-analytical measures on low-frequency BOLD signals in resting-state brain data). Concerning cognitive control, the results reveal that SIs exhibit less mixing costs in a task switching paradigm and a dual-task advantage compared to professional multilingual controls. In addition, SIs show more gray matter volume in the left frontal pole (BA 10) compared to controls. Graph theoretical analyses revealed that this region exhibits higher network values for global efficiency and degree and is functionally more strongly connected to the left inferior frontal gyrus and middle temporal gyrus in SIs compared to controls. Thus, the data provide evidence that SIs possess cognitive benefits in tasks measuring cognitive control. It is discussed in how far the central role of the left frontal pole and its stronger functional connectivity to the left inferior frontal gyrus represents a correlate of the neural mechanisms for the observed behavioral effects.

  9. Consumption of Cisatracurium in different age groups, using a closed loop computer controlled system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joomye, Shehzaad; Yan, Donglai; Wang, Haiyun; Zhou, Guoqiang; Wang, Guolin

    2014-01-01

    We devised this study to quantify the effect of age on the consumption of cisatracurium under general anaesthesia, using a computer controlled closed loop infusion system. We further investigated this effect on, sufentanil and propofol consumption. 74 patients of physical status I and II, requiring general anaesthesia for elective abdominal surgery, were assigned to three groups. Patients in group 1 were aged from 20 to 45, group 2 were from 46 to 64, and group 3 above 65 years old. General Anesthesia was maintained with propofol and muscle paralysis was maintained using a closed-loop computer controlled infusion of cisatracurium. For analgesia, intermittent bolus of sufentanil 10 μg was given. Cisatracurium consumption in group 1, 2 and 3 were 1.8 ± 0.3, 1.6 ± 0.4 and 1.3 ± 0.4 μg/kg/min respectively. There was significant difference of cisatracurium consumption between group 1 and 3 (P = 0.002), and the consumption of cisatracurium in group 3 was less as compared with group 2 (P = 0.04). The average recovery index of patients in group 1, 2 and 3 were 8.8 ± 2.6, 11.5 ± 2.9 and 12.7 ± 2.5 minutes respectively. There were difference between group 1 and 2 (P = 0.02). As compared with group 1, the recovery index was still longer in group 3 (P = 0.001). Patients in group 1, 2 and 3 consumed an average sufentanil 0.4 ± 0.1, 0.4 ± 0.1 and 0.3 ± 0.1 μg/kg/hr, respectively. There were statistical significant between group 1 and 3 (P < 0.0001), and the same trend was found between group 2 and 3 (P = 0.03). The Consumption of propofol in group 1, 2 and 3 were 5.1 ± 0.4, 4.3 ± 0.6 and 3.1 ± 0.5 mg/kg/hr. The difference in the propofol consumption was found statistically significant when comparing between any two groups. We concluded that the sensitivity of anesthetic agents increased with age. Less medication was required to achieve a desirable effect in older patients specially those

  10. Control groups in paediatric epilepsy research: do first-degree cousins show familial effects?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, Melissa; Morrison, Blaise; Jones, Jana E; Jackson, Daren C; Almane, Dace; Seidenberg, Michael; Zhao, Qianqian; Rathouz, Paul J; Hermann, Bruce P

    2017-03-01

    To determine whether first-degree cousins of children with idiopathic focal and genetic generalized epilepsies show any association across measures of cognition, behaviour, and brain structure. The presence/absence of associations addresses the question of whether and to what extent first-degree cousins may serve as unbiased controls in research addressing the cognitive, psychiatric, and neuroimaging features of paediatric epilepsies. Participants were children (aged 8-18) with epilepsy who had at least one first-degree cousin control enrolled in the study (n=37) and all enrolled cousin controls (n=100). Participants underwent neuropsychological assessment and brain imaging (cortical, subcortical, and cerebellar volumes), and parents completed the Child Behaviour Checklist (CBCL). Data (based on 42 outcome measures) from cousin controls were regressed on the corresponding epilepsy cognitive, behavioural, and imaging measures in a linear mixed model and case/control correlations were examined. Of the 42 uncorrected correlations involving cognitive, behavioural, and neuroimaging measures, only two were significant (p0.25). Similar results held for the cognition/behaviour and brain imaging measures separately. Given the lack of association between cases and first-degree cousin performances on measures of cognition, behaviour, and neuroimaging, the results suggest a non-significant genetic influence on control group performance. First-degree cousins appear to be unbiased controls for cognitive, behavioural, and neuroimaging research in paediatric epilepsy.

  11. Recommendations on multiple testing adjustment in multi-arm trials with a shared control group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Dena R; Brown, Julia M; Todd, Susan; Gregory, Walter M

    2016-09-19

    Multi-arm clinical trials assessing multiple experimental treatments against a shared control group can offer efficiency advantages over independent trials through assessing an increased number of hypotheses. Published opinion is divided on the requirement for multiple testing adjustment to control the family-wise type-I error rate (FWER). The probability of a false positive error in multi-arm trials compared to equivalent independent trials is affected by the correlation between comparisons due to sharing control data. We demonstrate that this correlation in fact leads to a reduction in the FWER, therefore FWER adjustment is not recommended solely due to sharing control data. In contrast, the correlation increases the probability of multiple false positive outcomes across the hypotheses, although standard FWER adjustment methods do not control for this. A stringent critical value adjustment is proposed to maintain equivalent evidence of superiority in two correlated comparisons to that obtained within independent trials. FWER adjustment is only required if there is an increased chance of making a single claim of effectiveness by testing multiple hypotheses, not due to sharing control data. For competing experimental therapies, the correlation between comparisons can be advantageous as it eliminates bias due to the experimental therapies being compared to different control populations.

  12. Self-control of feedback during motor learning: accounting for the absolute amount of feedback using a yoked group with self-control over feedback.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Steve; Pfeiffer, Jacob; Patterson, Jae Todd

    2011-01-01

    A traditional control group yoked to a group that self-controls their reception of feedback receives feedback in the same relative and absolute manner. This traditional control group typically does not learn the task as well as the self-control group. Although the groups are matched for the amount of feedback they receive, the information is provided on trials in which the individual may not request feedback if he or she were provided the opportunity. Similarly, individuals may not receive feedback on trials for which it would be a beneficial learning experience. Subsequently, the mismatch between the provision of feedback and the potential learning opportunity leads to a decrement in retention. The present study was designed to examine motor learning for a yoked group with the same absolute amount of feedback, but who could self-control when they received feedback. Increased mental processing of error detection and correction was expected for the participants in the yoked self-control group because of their choice to employ a limited resource in the form of a decreasing amount of feedback opportunities. Participants in the yoked with self-control group committed fewer errors than the self-control group in retention and the traditional yoked group in both the retention and time transfer blocks. The results suggest that the yoked with self-control group was able to produce efficient learning effects and can be a viable control group for further motor learning studies.

  13. Is There a Relation between ABO Blood Groups and Clinical Outcome in Patients with Pemphigoid? A Case-Control Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sedigheh Bakhtiari

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Relationship between blood groups and dermatologic diseases remains controversial and was not yet fully elucidated nor explained clearly. The aim of this study was to examine if any relation exists between different types of pemphigoid diseases and ABO blood group. Methods. In this case-control study, 159 pemphigoid patients and 152 healthy matched-controls were evaluated. All blood group (including Rh status data for the study was obtained from the hospital medical records. Statistical comparisons were completed with chi-square test and logistic regression. Results. Blood group “O” was found in 32.9% of patients and 38.2% of control group. Blood group “A” was found among 30.8% of patients and 34.2% of control group, while group “B” was reported in 27.4% of cases and 21.1% of controls and “AB” was identified among 8.9% of patients and 6.6% of control group. 84.9% of patients were Rh positive, while in the control group 86.2% of patients were Rh positive. No significant differences were found regarding ABO blood groups (P=0.46 or Rh (P=0.76 between pemphigoid patients and control group. Also, older females had the higher risk of developing bullous pemphigoid. Conclusion. We found no relationship between ABO blood groups and pemphigoid disease.

  14. Aggression and 5HTT polymorphism in females: study of synchronized swimming and control groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sysoeva, Olga V; Maluchenko, Natalia V; Timofeeva, Marina A; Portnova, Galina V; Kulikova, Maria A; Tonevitsky, Alexandr G; Ivanitsky, Alexey M

    2009-05-01

    Aggression is a heterogeneous heritable psychological trait, also influenced by environmental factors. Previous studies, mostly conducted on male population, have found some associations of the aggression with the polymorphisms of genes, regulating the activity of serotonin (5-HT) in the brain. However, psychological as well as biochemical manifestations of the aggression are different in males and females. Our study aimed to investigate the association of 5-HTT gene polymorphism with different facets of aggression (BDHI) in females. Two groups: the synchronized swimming and non-athlete control, - were examined to study the possible modulation effect of sport on the association between 5-HTT gene polymorphism and aggression. It was found that in both groups the low-active 5-HTT polymorphism (SS) was associated with increased scores on Indirect Hostility scale and decreased scores on Negativism scale, compared to LL genotype. No interaction effect between sport and 5-HTT polymorphism was found. The higher percentage of LL-carriers and lower of LS-carriers in the synchronized swimming group compared to the control one was observed. This may be the sign of the importance of LL polymorphism of 5-HTT gene, previously associated with higher resistance to stress factors, for being an athlete, although this result has to be taken cautiously keeping in mind the stratification problem. Synchronized swimmers had lower scores on Assault, Negativism, Irritability and Verbal Hostility compared to age-matched control girls (in general and for each 5-HTT genotype separately), suggesting that they may have more matured emotional system (older control group has also lower scores on these scales).

  15. Screening for autoantibodies in patients with primary fibromyalgia syndrome and a matched control group

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Søren; Høyer-Madsen, M; Danneskiold-Samsøe, B

    1990-01-01

    % had anti-striated muscle antibodies. None of the control subjects had any muscle antibodies. There was no significant difference in frequency of the remaining autoantibodies between the groups investigated. The present study indicates autoimmune responses in PFS against antigens of the diseased tissue...... itself, a finding which may be secondary to the disease or have relevance to the still obscure pathogenesis of the syndrome....

  16. Vibrotactile sense in patients with different upper limb disorders compared with a control group

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Lise Hedegaard; Jepsen, Jørgen Riis; Sjøgaard, Gisela

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Upper limb disorders (ULDs) are common, and so are the difficulties with regard to their specific diagnoses. According to diagnostic consensus criteria, specific diagnoses include neuropathy and muscular- and connective-tissue disorders (MCDs). There is a need for valid objective...... diagnostic tools to reveal underlying mechanisms for specific diagnoses. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the possible differences in vibration perception threshold (VPT) and tolerance to suprathreshold stimulation (STS) between controls and specific diagnostic ULD patient groups with uni- and bilateral neuropathy...

  17. A Simple Approach for Synthesis of TAPO-11 Molecular Sieve with Controllable Space Group

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yue Ming LIU; Huan Yan ZHANG; Hai Jiao ZHANG; Hai Hong WU; Peng WU; Ming Yuan HE

    2006-01-01

    A TAPO-11 molecular sieve with the space group Icm2 was synthesized successfully.The samples with different space group were controlled simply only by adjusting the crystallization temperature (CT) in the hydrothermal system. In the system of gel with a molar composition of 0.7R: xTiO2: P2O5: Al2O3: 30H2O, where x is 0.01-0.10 and the R is a mixture of di-n-propylamine and diisopropylamine as templates. When CT was between 150-160℃, the calcined sample showed the space group of Icm2, while it showed Pna21 at CTlarger than 190℃.The characterizations of UV-Vis and FT-IR confirmed that Ti was incorporated into the AEL framework successfully.

  18. Tunneling induced transparency and controllable group velocity in triple and multiple quantum-dot molecules

    CERN Document Server

    Tian, Si-Cong; Wan, Ren-Gang; Ning, Yong-Qiang; Wang, Li-Jun

    2013-01-01

    We analyze the interaction of a triple quantum dot molecules controlled by the tunneling coupling instead of coupling laser. A general analytic expression for the steady-state linear susceptibility for a probe-laser field is obtained and we show that the system can exhibit two transparency windows. The group velocity of the probe-laser pulse is also analyzed. By changing the tunneling couplings, two laser pulses with different central frequency can propagate with the same group velocity. And the group velocity can be as low as 300 m/s in our system. We extend our analysis to the case of multiple quantum dot molecules (the number of the quantum dots is N) and show that the system can exhibit at most N-1 transparency windows. And at most N-1 laser pulses with different central frequencies can be slowed down.

  19. Comparison of serum levels of copper and zinc among multiple sclerosis patients and control group.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Behnaz Sedighi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available There have been several studies done on the role of metals in the occurrence of multiple sclerosis (MS disease, but their roles have not been confirmed yet. Because of the lack of information on this issue, this study compared the serum level of copper and zinc in MS patients with their levels in a control group.This was an analytical, cross-sectional study conducted in Kerman (a medium size city, Iran. We assessed the serum level of copper and zinc in 58 MS patients and 39 healthy individuals, who were selected from the relatives of cases and matched for age and sex.The average serum level of Copper in cases and controls were 93.7 and 88.9 ml/dl, respectively. The corresponding numbers for Zinc were 36.7 and 40.9 ml/dl, respectively. There was no significant difference between the two groups (copper: P = 0.459; zinc: P = 0.249.The groups were matched for age, sex, and family. However, we did not find a considerable difference between the level of these metals in MS patients and controls.

  20. Analysis of KIR gene frequencies and HLA class I genotypes in prostate cancer and control group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portela, P; Jobim, L F; Salim, P H; Koff, W J; Wilson, T J; Jobim, M R; Schwartsmann, G; Roesler, R; Jobim, M

    2012-10-01

    Prostate cancer is the second most common cancer in men, with a significant increase in incidence and mortality in men over 50 years of age. Natural killer cells (NK) are part of the innate immune system recognizing class I HLA molecules on target cells through their membrane receptors, called killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptors (KIR). The aim of our study is to evaluate the association between the KIR genes and HLA alleles in patients with prostate cancer and healthy controls. Two hundred patients with prostate cancer and 185 healthy controls were typed for HLA class I and KIR genes by PCR-SSP. When both groups were compared, no significant differences were found for HLA-C group 1 and group 2, HLA-Bw4, HLA-A3 and A11. No difference was seen either in KIR frequency between patients with prostate cancer and controls. In conclusion, our data suggest no potential role for the KIR gene system in prostate cancer.

  1. DIVERSIFICATION AND FAMILY CONTROL AS DETERMINANTS OF PERFORMANCE: A STUDY OF LISTED BUSINESS GROUPS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hernández-Trasobares, Alejandro

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The study analyses the individual and joint impact of family control and diversification on the perfor-mance of major Spanish corporations, considering the nature of the ltimate owner of non-family groups.The study uses a sample of ninety-nine Spanish corporations, each comprising a parent company listed onthe stock exchange and a set of subsidiaries. Heckman’s two-step correction is used to eliminate selectionbias and the endogeneity of family ownership. Different models are contemplated in which we alysethe impact of both diversification and the family nature of a business on performance, established asTobin’s q-value. The results show how family control has a egative impact on Tobin’s q-value, and thatdifferences are greater between family groups and non-family groups controlled by banks and/or foreignagents. They also show ow diversification does not affect the creation of value either individually orconsidering the possible moderating effect of family ownership.

  2. Sedimentological and Stratigraphic Controls on Natural Fracture Distribution in Wajid Group, SW Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benaafi, Mohammed; Hariri, Mustafa; Abdullatif, Osman; Makkawi, Mohammed; Korvin, Gabor

    2016-04-01

    The Cambro-Permian Wajid Group, SW Saudi Arabia, is the main groundwater aquifer in Wadi Al-Dawasir and Najran areas. In addition, it has a reservoir potentiality for oil and natural gas in Rub' Al-Khali Basin. Wajid Group divided into four formations, ascending Dibsiyah, Sanamah, Khussyayan and Juwayl. They are mainly sandstone and exposed in an area extend from Wadi Al-Dawasir southward to Najran city and deposited within fluvial, shallow marine and glacial environments. This study aims to investigate the sedimentological and stratigraphic controls on the distribution of natural fractures within Wajid Group outcrops. A scanline sampling method was used to study the natural fracture network within Wajid Group outcrops, where the natural fractures were measured and characterized in 12 locations. Four regional natural fracture sets were observed with mean strikes of 050o, 075o, 345o, and 320o. Seven lithofacies characterized the Wajid Group at these locations and include fine-grained sandstone, coarse to pebbly sandstone, cross-bedded sandstone, massive sandstone, bioturbated sandstone, conglomerate sandstone, and conglomerate lithofacies. We found that the fine-grained and small scale cross-bedded sandstones lithofacies are characterized by high fracture intensity. In contrast, the coarse-grained sandstone and conglomerate lithofacies have low fracture intensity. Therefore, the relative fracture intensity and spacing of natural fractures within Wajid Group in the subsurface can be predicted by using the lithofacies and their depositional environments. In terms of stratigraphy, we found that the bed thickness and the stratigraphic architecture are the main controls on fractures intensity. The outcomes of this study can help to understand and predict the natural fracture distribution within the subsurface fractured sandstone hosting groundwater and hydrocarbon in Wajid and Rub' Al-Khali Basins. Hence, the finding of this study might help to explore and develop the

  3. Terminal groups control self-assembly of amphiphilic block copolymers in solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grzelakowski, M.; Kita-Tokarczyk, K.

    2016-03-01

    The terminal groups of amphiphilic block copolymers are shown to control macromolecular self-assembly in aqueous solutions, in the micellar/lamellar region of the phase diagram. At the same concentration and using the same self-assembly conditions, dramatic differences are observed in polymer hydration and the resulting nano-/microstructure for two series of polymers with identical block chemistry and hydrophilic-lipophilic balance (HLB). This suggests a strong contribution from end groups to the hydration as the initial step of the self-assembly process, and could be conveniently used to guide the particle morphology and size. Additionally, for polymers with those head groups which drive vesicular structures, differences in membrane organization affect their physical properties, such as permeability.The terminal groups of amphiphilic block copolymers are shown to control macromolecular self-assembly in aqueous solutions, in the micellar/lamellar region of the phase diagram. At the same concentration and using the same self-assembly conditions, dramatic differences are observed in polymer hydration and the resulting nano-/microstructure for two series of polymers with identical block chemistry and hydrophilic-lipophilic balance (HLB). This suggests a strong contribution from end groups to the hydration as the initial step of the self-assembly process, and could be conveniently used to guide the particle morphology and size. Additionally, for polymers with those head groups which drive vesicular structures, differences in membrane organization affect their physical properties, such as permeability. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Fig. S1: Particle diameters for hydrated NH2-ABA-NH2 polymers with different degrees of functionalization; Fig. S2: TEM characterization of compound micelles from BA-OH polymer after extrusion; Fig. S3: Cryo-TEM and stopped flow characterization of lipid vesicles; Fig. S4 and S5: NMR spectra for ABA and BA polymers

  4. Eclipse period of R1 plasmids during downshift from elevated copy number: Nonrandom selection of copies for replication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsson, Jan A; Berg, Otto; Nordström, Kurt; Dasgupta, Santanu

    2012-03-01

    The classical Meselson-Stahl density-shift method was used to study replication of pOU71, a runaway-replication derivative of plasmid R1 in Escherichia coli. The miniplasmid maintained the normal low copy number of R1 during steady growth at 30°C, but as growth temperatures were raised above 34°C, the copy number of the plasmid increased to higher levels, and at 42°C, it replicated without control in a runaway replication mode with lethal consequences for the host. The eclipse periods (minimum time between successive replication of the same DNA) of the plasmid shortened with rising copy numbers at increasing growth temperatures (Olsson et al., 2003). In this work, eclipse periods were measured during downshifts in copy number of pOU71 after it had replicated at 39 and 42°C, resulting in 7- and 50-fold higher than normal plasmid copy number per cell, respectively. Eclipse periods for plasmid replication, measured during copy number downshift, suggested that plasmid R1, normally selected randomly for replication, showed a bias such that a newly replicated DNA had a higher probability of replication compared to the bulk of the R1 population. However, even the unexpected nonrandom replication followed the copy number kinetics such that every generation, the plasmids underwent the normal inherited number of replication, n, independent of the actual number of plasmid copies in a newborn cell.

  5. Quantitative electroencephalography in Alzheimer's disease: comparison with a control group, population norms and mental status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knott, V; Mohr, E; Mahoney, C; Ilivitsky, V

    2001-03-01

    Given that quantitative electroencephalography (EEG) has repeatedly shown excessive slow wave activity in dementia of the Alzheimer type (DAT) that increases with disease progression, we assessed the clinical utility of this tool by comparing various approaches used to assess slowing. Cross-sectional study comparing quantitative EEG data from patients with DAT with normative data from an elderly control group and from EEG norms derived from a large population. 35 subjects diagnosed with probable DAT and 30 elderly controls. EEG recorded from 21 scalp sites of each patient and elderly control during vigilance-controlled, eyes-closed, resting conditions was spectrally analyzed to yield measures of absolute and relative power in delta, theta, alpha and beta bands and indices of mean alpha band and total band frequency. Group comparisons of raw or age-regressed z-score population normative values yielded different profiles with respect to direction of frequency band changes, regional topography and clinical rating correlations, but both procedures evidenced overall patterns of EEG slowing in DAT. However, both methodologies yielded only modest (75%) classification rates. Quantitative EEG remains a valuable research tool but, as yet, an unproven diagnostic tool, for DAT.

  6. Self-concept and self-esteem after acquired brain injury: a control group comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponsford, Jennie; Kelly, Amber; Couchman, Grace

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the multidimensional self-concept, global self-esteem and psychological adjustment of individuals with traumatic brain injury (TBI) as compared with healthy controls. Group comparison on self-report questionnaires. Forty-one individuals who had sustained a TBI were compared with an age- and gender-matched sample of 41 trauma-free control participants on the Rosenberg Self Esteem Scale, the Tennessee Self Concept Scale (second edition) and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scales (HADS). Participants with TBI rated significantly lower mean levels of global self-esteem and self-concept on the Rosenberg Self Esteem Scale and Tennessee Self Concept Scale than the control group. Survivors of TBI rated themselves more poorly on a range of self-dimensions, including social, family, academic/work and personal self-concept compared to controls. They also reported higher mean levels of depression and anxiety on the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale. Overall self-concept was most strongly associated with depressive symptoms and anxiety. Self-concept may be lowered following TBI and is associated with negative emotional consequences. Clinicians may improve the emotional adjustment of survivors of TBI by considering particular dimensions of self-concept for intervention focus.

  7. The Interaction Between Control Rods as Estimated by Second-Order One-Group Perturbation Theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Persson, Rolf

    1966-10-15

    The interaction effect between control rods is an important problem for the reactivity control of a reactor. The approach of second order one-group perturbation theory is shown to be attractive due to its simplicity. Formulas are derived for the fully inserted control rods in a bare reactor. For a single rod we introduce a correction parameter b, which with good approximation is proportional to the strength of the absorber. For two and more rods we introduce an interaction function g(r{sub ij}), which is assumed to depend only on the distance r{sub ij} between the rods. The theoretical expressions are correlated with the results of several experiments in R0, ZEBRA and the Aagesta reactor, as well as with more sophisticated calculations. The approximate formulas are found to give quite good agreement with exact values, but in the case of about 8 or more rods higher-order effects are likely to be important.

  8. Cooperative enclosing control for multiple moving targets by a group of agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Y. J.; Li, R.; Teo, K. L.

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, the enclosing control problem of second-order multi-agent systems is considered, where the targets can be either stationary or moving. The objective is to achieve an equidistant circular formation for a group of agents to enclose a team of targets. In order to do so, we first introduce a formal definition explaining certain basic properties of the exploring relation between the agents and the targets. We then construct the estimator of the centre of the targets, which is used to build the control protocol to achieve equidistant circular enclosing. Using a Lyapunov function and Lasalle's Invariance Principle, the convergency of the estimator and control protocol are, respectively, established. We then construct a smooth function to approximate the discontinuous term in the estimator. Finally, the simulations for stationary targets and moving targets are given to verify the validity of the results obtained.

  9. Non-random biodiversity loss underlies predictable increases in viral disease prevalence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacroix, Christelle; Jolles, Anna; Seabloom, Eric W; Power, Alison G; Mitchell, Charles E; Borer, Elizabeth T

    2014-03-06

    Disease dilution (reduced disease prevalence with increasing biodiversity) has been described for many different pathogens. Although the mechanisms causing this phenomenon remain unclear, the disassembly of communities to predictable subsets of species, which can be caused by changing climate, land use or invasive species, underlies one important hypothesis. In this case, infection prevalence could reflect the competence of the remaining hosts. To test this hypothesis, we measured local host species abundance and prevalence of four generalist aphid-vectored pathogens (barley and cereal yellow dwarf viruses) in a ubiquitous annual grass host at 10 sites spanning 2000 km along the North American West Coast. In laboratory and field trials, we measured viral infection as well as aphid fecundity and feeding preference on several host species. Virus prevalence increased as local host richness declined. Community disassembly was non-random: ubiquitous hosts dominating species-poor assemblages were among the most competent for vector production and virus transmission. This suggests that non-random biodiversity loss led to increased virus prevalence. Because diversity loss is occurring globally in response to anthropogenic changes, such work can inform medical, agricultural and veterinary disease research by providing insights into the dynamics of pathogens nested within a complex web of environmental forces.

  10. Non-random mate choice in humans: insights from a genome scan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurent, R; Toupance, B; Chaix, R

    2012-02-01

    Little is known about the genetic factors influencing mate choice in humans. Still, there is evidence for non-random mate choice with respect to physical traits. In addition, some studies suggest that the Major Histocompatibility Complex may affect pair formation. Nowadays, the availability of high density genomic data sets gives the opportunity to scan the genome for signatures of non-random mate choice without prior assumptions on which genes may be involved, while taking into account socio-demographic factors. Here, we performed a genome scan to detect extreme patterns of similarity or dissimilarity among spouses throughout the genome in three populations of African, European American, and Mexican origins from the HapMap 3 database. Our analyses identified genes and biological functions that may affect pair formation in humans, including genes involved in skin appearance, morphogenesis, immunity and behaviour. We found little overlap between the three populations, suggesting that the biological functions potentially influencing mate choice are population specific, in other words are culturally driven. Moreover, whenever the same functional category of genes showed a significant signal in two populations, different genes were actually involved, which suggests the possibility of evolutionary convergences.

  11. A psycho-educational HIV/STI prevention intervention for internally displaced women in Leogane, Haiti: results from a non-randomized cohort pilot study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen H Logie

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Little evidence exists regarding efficacious HIV and sexually transmitted infections (STI prevention interventions with internally displaced populations. Internally displaced women are at elevated risk for HIV/STI due to limited access to health services, heightened poverty and social network breakdown. The FASY (Famn an Aksyon Pou Sante' Yo (Women Taking Action For Their Health study examined the effectiveness of a peer health worker (PHW delivered psycho-educational HIV/STI pilot study with internally displaced women in Leogane, Haiti. METHOD: This was a non-randomized cohort pilot study. Participants completed a computer-assisted pre-test programmed on Android tablet PCs followed by an HIV/STI educational video-based session and a 6-week psycho-educational group program of weekly meetings. Participants completed a post-test upon completion of group sessions. The primary outcome was HIV knowledge; our pre-specified index of clinically significant change was an effect size of 0.30. Secondary outcomes included: STI knowledge, condom use, social support, resilient coping, depression and relationship control. We used mixed-effects regression to calculate mean outcome pre-post score change. This study was registered (clinicaltrials.gov, NCT01492829. RESULTS: Between January 1-April 30, 2012 we assigned 200 participants to the study. The majority of participants (n = 176, 88% completed the study and were followed up at 8 weeks, finishing April 30, 2012. Adjusted for socio-demographic characteristics, HIV knowledge (β = 4.81; 95% CI 4.36-5.26, STI knowledge (β = 0.84; 95% CI 0.70-0.99, condom use (AOR = 4.05, 95% CI 1.86-8.83, and depression (β = -0.63, 95% CI -0.88--0.39 scores showed statistically significant change post-intervention (p<0.05. CONCLUSIONS: This pilot study evaluated a PHW psycho-educational HIV/STI prevention intervention among internally displaced women in post-earthquake Haiti. Pilot studies are an important

  12. Evaluation of periodontal condition of menopause women with osteoporosis and osteopenia and comparison with control group

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khorsand A.

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Several risk factors directly affect the development of periodontal diseases. Also some systemic diseases act indirectly as predisposing and aggrevating factors. Osteoporosis is one of these factors and one of its main causes is lack of physical activity in postmenopause period. The incidence of osteoporosis is increasing in our country. The goal of this study was to evaluate the periodontal condition of women with osteoporosis and osteopenia referred to bone densitometric division of Loghman hospital in 2003 and compare to control group. Materials and Methods: In this case control study based on BMD (Bone Mineral Density measurement of back and thigh using DEXA method, 60 patients referred to bone densitometric division of Loghman hospital, were randomly selected. Cases were divided into three groups, 20 with osteoporosis, 20 with osteopenia and 20 normal cases. Periodontal indices consisting of plaque index (PI, tooth loss (TL, gingival recession (GR, probing pocket depth (PPD and papilla bleeding index (PBI were evaluated by clinical and radiographic examination. Data were analyzed by Kruskall Wallis and Dunn tests with p<0.05 as the limit of significance. Results: PBI, PI and TL were significantly higher in osteoporotic group than osteopenic and normal group. PPD was not different in the three groups. Due to the low prevalence of recession in our study, this parameter was not included in the statistical analysis. Conclusion: It seems that osteoporosis does not increase the incidence of periodontal diseases because it affects bone quality rather than quantity. In osteoporosis calcium deficiency and increasing age lead to decreased physical activity and ultimately affect the patient's oral hygiene performance. Thus, periodontal manifestations are presented as gingival bleeding and gingivitis.

  13. Design of IP Camera Access Control Protocol by Utilizing Hierarchical Group Key

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jungho Kang

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Unlike CCTV, security video surveillance devices, which we have generally known about, IP cameras which are connected to a network either with or without wire, provide monitoring services through a built-in web-server. Due to the fact that IP cameras can use a network such as the Internet, multiple IP cameras can be installed at a long distance and each IP camera can utilize the function of a web server individually. Even though IP cameras have this kind of advantage, it has difficulties in access control management and weakness in user certification, too. Particularly, because the market of IP cameras did not begin to be realized a long while ago, systems which are systematized from the perspective of security have not been built up yet. Additionally, it contains severe weaknesses in terms of access authority to the IP camera web server, certification of users, and certification of IP cameras which are newly installed within a network, etc. This research grouped IP cameras hierarchically to manage them systematically, and provided access control and data confidentiality between groups by utilizing group keys. In addition, IP cameras and users are certified by using PKI-based certification, and weak points of security such as confidentiality and integrity, etc., are improved by encrypting passwords. Thus, this research presents specific protocols of the entire process and proved through experiments that this method can be actually applied.

  14. Group critical incident stress debriefing with emergency services personnel: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuckey, Michelle R; Scott, Jill E

    2014-01-01

    Although single-session individual debriefing is contraindicated, the efficacy of group psychological debriefing remains unresolved. We conducted the first randomized controlled trial of critical incident stress debriefing (CISD) with emergency workers (67 volunteer fire-fighters) following shared exposure to an occupational potentially traumatic event (PTE). The goals of group CISD are to prevent post-traumatic stress and promote return to normal functioning following a PTE. To assess both goals we measured four outcomes, before and after the intervention: post-traumatic stress, psychological distress, quality of life, and alcohol use. Fire brigades were randomly assigned to one of three treatment conditions: (1) CISD, (2) Screening (i.e., no-treatment), or (3) stress management Education. Controlling for pre-intervention scores, CISD was associated with significantly less alcohol use post-intervention relative to Screening, and significantly greater post-intervention quality of life relative to Education. There were no significant effects on post-traumatic stress or psychological distress. Overall, CISD may benefit broader functioning following exposure to work-related PTEs. Future research should focus on individual, group, and organizational factors and processes that can promote recovery from operational stressors. Ultimately, an occupational health (rather than victim-based) approach will provide the best framework for understanding and combating potential threats to the health and well-being of workers at high risk for PTE exposure.

  15. From "we" to "me": Group identification enhances perceived personal control with consequences for health and well-being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenaway, Katharine H; Haslam, S Alexander; Cruwys, Tegan; Branscombe, Nyla R; Ysseldyk, Renate; Heldreth, Courtney

    2015-07-01

    There is growing recognition that identification with social groups can protect and enhance health and well-being, thereby constituting a kind of "social cure." The present research explores the role of control as a novel mediator of the relationship between shared group identity and well-being. Five studies provide evidence for this process. Group identification predicted significantly greater perceived personal control across 47 countries (Study 1), and in groups that had experienced success and failure (Study 2). The relationship was observed longitudinally (Study 3) and experimentally (Study 4). Manipulated group identification also buffered a loss of personal control (Study 5). Across the studies, perceived personal control mediated social cure effects in political, academic, community, and national groups. The findings reveal that the personal benefits of social groups come not only from their ability to make people feel good, but also from their ability to make people feel capable and in control of their lives.

  16. Experience with multiple control groups in a large population-based case–control study on genetic and environmental risk factors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pomp, E.R.; Stralen, van K.J.; Cessie, le S.; Vandenbroucke, J.P.; Rosendaal, F.R.; Doggen, C.J.M.

    2010-01-01

    We discuss the analytic and practical considerations in a large case–control study that had two control groups; the first control group consisting of partners of patients and the second obtained by random digit dialling (RDD). As an example of the evaluation of a general lifestyle factor, we present

  17. Experience with multiple control groups in a large population-based case-control study on genetic and environmental risk factors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E.R. Pomp; K.J. van Stralen; S. le Cessie; J.P. Vandenbroucke; F.R. Rosendaal; C.J.M. Doggen

    2010-01-01

    We discuss the analytic and practical considerations in a large case-control study that had two control groups; the first control group consisting of partners of patients and the second obtained by random digit dialling (RDD). As an example of the evaluation of a general lifestyle factor, we present

  18. Air Traffic Controllers’ Long-Term Speech-in-Noise Training Effects: A Control Group Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaballos, María T.P.; Plasencia, Daniel P.; González, María L.Z.; de Miguel, Angel R.; Macías, Ángel R.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Speech perception in noise relies on the capacity of the auditory system to process complex sounds using sensory and cognitive skills. The possibility that these can be trained during adulthood is of special interest in auditory disorders, where speech in noise perception becomes compromised. Air traffic controllers (ATC) are constantly exposed to radio communication, a situation that seems to produce auditory learning. The objective of this study has been to quantify this effect. Subjects and Methods: 19 ATC and 19 normal hearing individuals underwent a speech in noise test with three signal to noise ratios: 5, 0 and −5 dB. Noise and speech were presented through two different loudspeakers in azimuth position. Speech tokes were presented at 65 dB SPL, while white noise files were at 60, 65 and 70 dB respectively. Results: Air traffic controllers outperform the control group in all conditions [Pcontrol group in all conditions. Thus, this study provides evidence that long-term auditory training is indeed useful in achieving better speech-in-noise understanding even in adverse conditions. PMID:27991470

  19. DSM-5 personality traits discriminate between posttraumatic stress disorder and control groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Lisa M; Anders, Samantha L; Peterson, Carly K; Engdahl, Brian E; Krueger, Robert F; Georgopoulos, Apostolos P

    2015-07-01

    The relevance of personality traits to the study of psychopathology has long been recognized, particularly in terms of understanding patterns of comorbidity. In fact, a multidimensional personality trait model reflecting five higher-order personality dimensions-negative affect, detachment, antagonism, disinhibition, and psychoticism-is included in the fifth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5) and represented in the Personality Inventory for DSM-5 (PID-5). However, evaluation of these dimensions and underlying personality facets within clinical samples has been limited. In the present study, we utilized the PID-5 to evaluate the personality profile elevation and composition of 150 control veterans and 35 veterans diagnosed with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Results indicated that veterans with PTSD endorsed significantly more personality pathology than control veterans, with scores on detachment and psychoticism domains most clearly discriminating between the two groups. When personality domain scores were considered as parts of each subject's personality profile, a slightly different picture emerged. Specifically, the PTSD composition was primarily characterized by detachment and negative affect, followed by disinhibition, psychoticism, and antagonism in that order of relative importance. The profile of the control group was significantly different, mostly accounted for differences in antagonism and psychoticism. Using these complementary analytic strategies, the findings demonstrate the relevance of personality pathology to PTSD, highlight internalizing features of PTSD, and pave the way for future research aimed at evaluating the role of shared maladaptive personality traits in underlying the comorbidity of PTSD and related disorders.

  20. Psychological well-being in a sample of obese patients compared with a control group

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Magallares

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The literature has found that obese patients usually report more depression and anxiety than normal weight individuals. However, not many investigations have studied the relationship between obesity and quality of life from a Positive Psychology approach. Objective: In this study it is analyzed if obese patients have less psychological well-being than a control group (normal weight participants. Method: A total of 221 participants (111 obese individuals and 110 controls were selected to conduct the study. To measure psychological well-being, the Spanish version of the Ryff's Scales was used. To measure mental health, the Spanish version of the mental health component of the Short Form 36 Health Survey (SF-36 was used. Results: It was found that obese participants reported less psychological well-being than normal weight individuals, but that there were not statistically significant differences in the case of mental health measured with the SF-36. Discussion: According to the results, it can be concluded that reports of psychological well-being problems were much more common in participants with weight problems than in the control group.

  1. Superiority of group counseling to individual coaching for parents of children with learning disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danino, Maly; Shechtman, Zippi

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Two interventions for parents of children with learning disabilities (LD)-individual coaching and group counseling-were compared. Participants were 169 parents, non-randomly assigned to three experimental conditions: coaching (n=45), group counseling (n=93) and control (n=31). Variables included outcomes (parental stress and parental coping), personal (perceived social support) and process (bonding with therapist/group). Findings indicated more favorable outcomes for parents in both treatment conditions compared to control, more favorable outcomes on the stress index for parents treated in groups compared to individual coaching, and bonding was the most consistent predictor of outcomes. The discussion focuses on the power of group counseling for parents of children with LD.

  2. Neurodynamic responses in children with migraine or cervicogenic headache versus a control group. A comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Piekartz, Harry J M; Schouten, Sara; Aufdemkampe, Geert

    2007-05-01

    Headache in children with unknown aetiology is an increasing phenomenon in industrial countries, especially during growth spurts. During this growth phase, the Long Sitting Slump (LSS) can be a useful tool for measurement of neurodynamics and management. This study investigated the difference in cervical flexion and sensory responses (intensity and location) during the LSS tests in children (n=123) aged 6-12 years, between a migraine (primary headache group=PG), cervicogenic headache (secondary headache group=SG) and control group (CG). The results indicated that the intensities of the sensory response rate were highest in the PG and SG when compared to CG. The responses in the legs were predominantly found in the PG (81.9%) and responses in the spine in the SG (80%). The sacrum position varied significantly between both headache groups (PG and SG) and the CG (p0.05). No significant difference in the neck flexion range was measured in LSS, nor in standardized knee flexion between the PG and CG (p>0.05). The cervical flexion ranges differed significantly (p<0.0001) between the SG on the one hand and the PG and CG on the other. The biggest difference in neck flexion during knee extension was between the SG and CG.

  3. A Multistage Control Mechanism for Group-Based Machine-Type Communications in an LTE System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Chien Hung

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available When machine-type communication (MTC devices perform the long-term evolution (LTE attach procedure without bit rate limitations, they may produce congestion in the core network. To prevent this congestion, the LTE standard suggests using group-based policing to regulate the maximum bit rate of all traffic generated by a group of MTC devices. However, previous studies on the access point name-aggregate maximum bit rate based on group-based policing are relatively limited. This study proposes a multistage control (MSC mechanism to process the operations of maximum bit rate allocation based on resource-use information. For performance evaluation, this study uses a Markov chain with to analyze MTC application in a 3GPP network. Traffic flow simulations in an LTE system indicate that the MSC mechanism is an effective bandwidth allocation method in an LTE system with MTC devices. Experimental results show that the MSC mechanism achieves a throughput 22.5% higher than that of the LTE standard model using the group-based policing, and it achieves a lower delay time and greater long-term fairness as well.

  4. A Randomized Controlled Trial of a Mindfulness and Acceptance Group Therapy for Residential Substance Use Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shorey, Ryan C; Elmquist, Joanna; Gawrysiak, Michael J; Strauss, Catherine; Haynes, Ellen; Anderson, Scott; Stuart, Gregory L

    2017-09-19

    Substance use disorders are understood as a chronically relapsing condition that is difficult to treat. However, in recent years there have been promising developments in the treatment of substance use disorders, specifically with interventions based on mindfulness and acceptance and commitment therapy. Little research has examined whether these types of interventions may positively impact residential substance use treatment outcomes. Thus, in the current study we developed and examined, in a randomized controlled trial, a 4-week, eight-session, adjunctive mindfulness and acceptance group therapy for patients in residential substance use treatment. Our primary outcomes were substance use cravings, psychological flexibility, and dispositional mindfulness at treatment discharge. Patients (N = 117) from a private residential substance use facility were randomized to receive the adjunctive mindfulness and acceptance group or treatment-as-usual. Patients were assessed at treatment intake and at discharge from a 28-30-day residential program. Although treatment groups did not statistically differ at discharge on any primary outcome, small effect sizes favored the mindfulness and acceptance group on cravings and psychological flexibility. Conclusions/Importance: Continued research is needed to determine whether the addition of mindfulness and acceptance-based interventions improve outcomes long term following residential substance use treatment.

  5. Manometric Biofeedback Effectiveness on Urinary Incontinence and Quality of Life: A Non-Randomized Control Trial

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    Marcos E Fernandez-Cuadros

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Objectives This study aimed at examining if a 6-session protocol of tonic-phasic exercises using manometric biofeedback (BFB is capable of improving quality of life (QoL and muscular strength in patients with urinary incontinence (UI. Methods A prospective quasi-experimental before-after study was performed on 31 patients with Urinary Incontinence (UI referred to the rehabilitation department of Santa Cristina’s University hospital, Madrid, Spain. The study was performed from January to December 2016. At initial evaluation, affiliation of data, predisposing factors, and type of UI were recorded. Patients were given lifestyle recommendations and international consultation on incontinence questionnaire short form (ICIQ-SF/ incontinence quality-of-life measure (I-QOL questionnaires/scales to be fulfilled at the beginning/end of treatment. Manometric evaluation was recorded at initial/final evaluation by MYOMED ® 932. Manometric-BFB protocol consisted of a 30-minute session of tonic/phasic exercises (15 minutes each, 2 times a week for up to 6 sessions, supervised by a physiotherapist. Results Mean age was 52 ± 12.1 years. Overall, 96.7% (n = 31 of the participants were females. Maximum and mean strength of pelvic floor contraction was 24 ± 17.72 and 4.9 ± 4.1 mmHg, and increased significantly after treatment to 35 ± 20.85 and 7.45 ± 4.92 mmHg (P < 0.01. The mean ICIQ-SF score was 9.13 ± 5.18 and decreased significantly to 6.13 ± 4.75 (P = 0.003. The mean I-QoL score increased significantly from 70.33 ± 22.12 to 81.25 ± 16.72 (P = 0.0017. The I-QoL Limiting Behaviour (LB-subscale raised from 68.38 ± 23.33 to 80 ± 16.56 (P = 0.0015; I-QoL Psychosocial Impact (PI-subscale increased from 77.43 ± 24.51 to 80 ± 17.47 (p = 0.0152; and I-QoL social embarrassment (SE-subscale incremented from 60.72 ± 22.37 to 74.37 ± 20.86 (P = 0.0007. Conclusions Manometric-BFB protocol is capable of decreasing UI and to improve QoL and manometric values. This reduced protocol could be applied to other public and private institutions and it could have an economical impact on the health system and on patients’ economy.

  6. Mitochondrial DNA control region analysis of three ethnic groups in the Republic of Macedonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jankova-Ajanovska, Renata; Zimmermann, Bettina; Huber, Gabriela; Röck, Alexander W.; Bodner, Martin; Jakovski, Zlatko; Janeska, Biljana; Duma, Aleksej; Parson, Walther

    2014-01-01

    A total of 444 individuals representing three ethnic groups (Albanians, Turks and Romanies) in the Republic of Macedonia were sequenced in the mitochondrial control region. The mtDNA haplogroup composition differed between the three groups. Our results showed relatively high frequencies of haplogroup H12 in Albanians (8.8%) and less in Turks (3.3%), while haplogroups M5a1 and H7a1a were dominant in Romanies (13.7% and 10.3%, respectively) but rare in the former two. This highlights the importance of regional sampling for forensic mtDNA databasing purposes. These population data will be available on EMPOP under accession numbers EMP00644 (Albanians), EMP00645 (Romanies) and EMP00646 (Turks). PMID:25051224

  7. Mitochondrial DNA control region analysis of three ethnic groups in the Republic of Macedonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jankova-Ajanovska, Renata; Zimmermann, Bettina; Huber, Gabriela; Röck, Alexander W; Bodner, Martin; Jakovski, Zlatko; Janeska, Biljana; Duma, Aleksej; Parson, Walther

    2014-11-01

    A total of 444 individuals representing three ethnic groups (Albanians, Turks and Romanies) in the Republic of Macedonia were sequenced in the mitochondrial control region. The mtDNA haplogroup composition differed between the three groups. Our results showed relatively high frequencies of haplogroup H12 in Albanians (8.8%) and less in Turks (3.3%), while haplogroups M5a1 and H7a1a were dominant in Romanies (13.7% and 10.3%, respectively) but rare in the former two. This highlights the importance of regional sampling for forensic mtDNA databasing purposes. These population data will be available on EMPOP under accession numbers EMP00644 (Albanians), EMP00645 (Romanies) and EMP00646 (Turks).

  8. Group visits in the management of diabetes and hypertension: effect on glycemic and blood pressure control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loney-Hutchinson, Lisel M; Provilus, Alfrede D; Jean-Louis, Girardin; Zizi, Ferdinand; Ogedegbe, Olugbenga; McFarlane, Samy I

    2009-06-01

    Diabetes is a major public health problem that is reaching epidemic proportions in the United States and worldwide. Over 22 million Americans currently have diabetes and it is forecast that over 350 million people worldwide will be affected by 2030. Furthermore, the economic cost of diabetes care is enormous. Despite current efforts on the part of health care providers and their patients, outcomes of care remain largely suboptimal, with only 3% to 7% of the entire diabetes population meeting recommended treatment goals for glycemic, blood pressure, and lipid control. Therefore, alternative approaches to diabetes care are desperately needed. Group visits may provide a viable option for patients and health care providers, with the potential to improve outcomes and cost effectiveness. In this review, we highlight the magnitude of the diabetes epidemic, the barriers to optimal diabetes care, and the utility of the concept of group visits as a chronic disease management strategy for diabetes care.

  9. Group behavioral activation for patients with severe obesity and binge eating disorder: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfonsson, Sven; Parling, Thomas; Ghaderi, Ata

    2015-03-01

    The aim of the present study was to assess whether behavioral activation (BA) is an efficacious treatment for decreasing eating disorder symptoms in patients with obesity and binge eating disorder (BED). Ninety-six patients with severe obesity and BED were randomized to either 10 sessions of group BA or wait-list control. The study was conducted at an obesity clinic in a regular hospital setting. The treatment improved some aspects of disordered eating and had a positive effect on depressive symptoms but there was no significant difference between the groups regarding binge eating and most other symptoms. Improved mood but lack of effect on binge eating suggests that dysfunctional eating (including BED) is maintained by other mechanisms than low activation and negative mood. However, future studies need to investigate whether effects of BA on binge eating might emerge later than at post-assessment, as in interpersonal psychotherapy for bulimia nervosa.

  10. Electromagnetically induced transparency and controllable group velocity in a five-level atomic system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lihui Jin; Shangqing Gong; Yueping Niu; Shiqi Jin

    2006-01-01

    @@ The optical properties of a five-level atomic system composed of a A-type four-level atomic and a tripod four-level atomic systems are investigated. It is found that the behaviors of electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) and group velocity can be controlled by choosing appropriate parameters with the interacting dark resonances. In particular, when all the fields are on resonance, the slow light at the symmetric transparency windows with a much broader EIT width is obtained by tuning the intensity of the coupling field in comparison with its sub-system, which provides potential applications in quantum storage and retrieval of light.

  11. Effectiveness of group body psychotherapy for negative symptoms of schizophrenia: multicentre randomised controlled trial †

    OpenAIRE

    Priebe, S.; Savill, M.; Wykes, T.; Bentall, R P; Reininghaus, U; Lauber, C; Bremner, S; Eldridge, S; Röhricht, F.

    2016-01-01

    Background\\ud Negative symptoms of schizophrenia have a severe impact\\ud on functional outcomes and treatment options are limited.\\ud Arts therapies are currently recommended but more\\ud evidence is required.\\ud \\ud Aims\\ud To assess body psychotherapy as a treatment for negative\\ud symptoms compared with an active control (trial registration:ISRCTN84216587).\\ud \\ud Method\\ud Schizophrenia out-patients were randomised into a\\ud 20-session body psychotherapy or Pilates group. The primary\\ud ou...

  12. Transcription-independent function of Polycomb group protein PSC in cell cycle control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohd-Sarip, Adone; Lagarou, Anna; Doyen, Cecile M; van der Knaap, Jan A; Aslan, Ülkü; Bezstarosti, Karel; Yassin, Yasmin; Brock, Hugh W; Demmers, Jeroen A A; Verrijzer, C Peter

    2012-05-11

    Polycomb group (PcG) proteins control development and cell proliferation through chromatin-mediated transcriptional repression. We describe a transcription-independent function for PcG protein Posterior sex combs (PSC) in regulating the destruction of cyclin B (CYC-B). A substantial portion of PSC was found outside canonical PcG complexes, instead associated with CYC-B and the anaphase-promoting complex (APC). Cell-based experiments and reconstituted reactions established that PSC and Lemming (LMG, also called APC11) associate and ubiquitylate CYC-B cooperatively, marking it for proteosomal degradation. Thus, PSC appears to mediate both developmental gene silencing and posttranslational control of mitosis. Direct regulation of cell cycle progression might be a crucial part of the PcG system's function in development and cancer.

  13. Critical Point Facility (CPE) Group in the Spacelab Payload Operations Control Center (SL POCC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    The primary payload for Space Shuttle Mission STS-42, launched January 22, 1992, was the International Microgravity Laboratory-1 (IML-1), a pressurized manned Spacelab module. The goal of IML-1 was to explore in depth the complex effects of weightlessness of living organisms and materials processing. Around-the-clock research was performed on the human nervous system's adaptation to low gravity and effects of microgravity on other life forms such as shrimp eggs, lentil seedlings, fruit fly eggs, and bacteria. Materials processing experiments were also conducted, including crystal growth from a variety of substances such as enzymes, mercury iodide, and a virus. The Huntsville Operations Support Center (HOSC) Spacelab Payload Operations Control Center (SL POCC) at the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) was the air/ground communication channel used between the astronauts and ground control teams during the Spacelab missions. Featured is the Critical Point Facility (CPE) group in the SL POCC during STS-42, IML-1 mission.

  14. Smallholder group certification in Uganda – Analysis of internal control systems in two organic export companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moritz Reckling

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The organic agricultural sector of Uganda is among the most developed in Africa in terms of its professional institutional network and high growth rates of number of certified farmers and land area. Smallholder farmers are certified organic through contract production for export companies using a group certification scheme (internal control system - ICS. The ICS is a viable and well-accepted tool to certify small-scale producers in developing countries all over the world. Difficulties in certification are still stated to be among the main constraints for Uganda’s organic sector development. Therefore, this paper reports a qualitative case study comprising 34 expert interviews in two organic fresh-produce export companies in central Uganda, aiming to explore the challenges which underlie organic certification with ICS. The study shows that farmers cannot be labelled as ‘organic by default’ but deliberately engage in organic production as a marketing strategy. The small quantities purchased by the organic companies lead to a difficult marketing situation for the farmers, causing production and infiltration risks on the farm level. These risks require increased control that challenges the companies organizationally. The risks and control needs are a reason to involve farmers in ICS procedures and innovatively adapt the ICS by means of a bypass around formal perspective restrictions. The paper discusses different perspectives on risks, risk control and certification.

  15. Comparison of Personality Characteristics and Coping Strategies in Patients With Multiple Sclerosis and Control Group

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    Mohammadi

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background The present study aimed to investigate personality traits and coping strategies in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS who were admitted to Sina hospital compared with healthy individuals. Objectives The aim of the present study was to compare personality characteristics and coping strategies between patients with MS and healthy controls. Materials and Methods The study sample included 55 patients with MS and 57 matched healthy control individuals. The data were gathered via a demographic form, the ways of coping questionnaire, and the NEO five-factor inventory. The data were analyzed by multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA, Pearson’s correlation coefficient, and logistic regression. Results No significant differences in personality characteristics were observed between patients and healthy controls (all P > 0.05. Only the coping strategy subscale of Distancing was significant between patients and healthy controls (P 0.05. Only the Neuroticism personality trait and the Distancing coping strategy were predictive of group membership (i.e., healthy or patient. Conclusions Our study suggests that the personality traits of patients with MS and healthy individuals are not significantly different. Patients with MS are likely to use the same coping strategies as healthy individuals, except in the subscale of Distancing.

  16. Group sequential control of overall toxicity incidents in clinical trials - non-Bayesian and Bayesian approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Jihnhee; Hutson, Alan D; Siddiqui, Adnan H; Kedron, Mary A

    2016-02-01

    In some small clinical trials, toxicity is not a primary endpoint; however, it often has dire effects on patients' quality of life and is even life-threatening. For such clinical trials, rigorous control of the overall incidence of adverse events is desirable, while simultaneously collecting safety information. In this article, we propose group sequential toxicity monitoring strategies to control overall toxicity incidents below a certain level as opposed to performing hypothesis testing, which can be incorporated into an existing study design based on the primary endpoint. We consider two sequential methods: a non-Bayesian approach in which stopping rules are obtained based on the 'future' probability of an excessive toxicity rate; and a Bayesian adaptation modifying the proposed non-Bayesian approach, which can use the information obtained at interim analyses. Through an extensive Monte Carlo study, we show that the Bayesian approach often provides better control of the overall toxicity rate than the non-Bayesian approach. We also investigate adequate toxicity estimation after the studies. We demonstrate the applicability of our proposed methods in controlling the symptomatic intracranial hemorrhage rate for treating acute ischemic stroke patients.

  17. Differentiation of African components of ancestry to stratify groups in a case-control study of a Brazilian urban population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silbiger, Vivian N; Hirata, Mario H; Luchessi, Andre D; Genvigir, Fabiana D V; Cerda, Alvaro; Rodrigues, Alice C; Willrich, Maria A V; Arazi, Simone S; Dorea, Egidio L; Bernik, Marcia M S; Faludi, Andre A; Bertolami, Marcelo C; Santos, Carla; Carracedo, Angel; Salas, Antonio; Freire, Ana; Lareu, Maria Victoria; Phillips, Christopher; Porras-Hurtado, Liliana; Fondevila, Manuel; Hirata, Rosario D C

    2012-06-01

    Balancing the subject composition of case and control groups to create homogenous ancestries between each group is essential for medical association studies. We explored the applicability of single-tube 34-plex ancestry informative markers (AIM) single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) to estimate the African Component of Ancestry (ACA) to design a future case-control association study of a Brazilian urban sample. One hundred eighty individuals (107 case group; 73 control group) self-described as white, brown-intermediate or black were selected. The proportions of the relative contribution of a variable number of ancestral population components were similar between case and control groups. Moreover, the case and control groups demonstrated similar distributions for ACA 0.50 categories. Notably a high number of outlier values (23 samples) were observed among individuals with ACA population. This can be achieved using a straight forward multiplexed AIM-SNPs assay of highly discriminatory ancestry markers.

  18. Benefits of exercise training in the treatment of heart failure: study with a control group

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silva Mário Sérgio Vaz da

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Exercise training programs have been proposed as adjuncts to treatment of heart failure. The effects of a 3-month-exercise-training-program with 3 exercise sessions per week were assessed in patients with stable systolic chronic heart failure. METHODS: We studied 24 patients with final left ventricle diastolic diameter of 70±10mm and left ventricular ejection fraction of 37±4%. Mean age was 52±16 years. Twelve patients were assigned to an exercise training group (G1, and 12 patients were assigned to a control group (G2. Patients underwent treadmill testing, before and after exercise training, to assess distance walked, heart rate, systolic blood pressure, and double product. RESULTS: In G2 group, before and after 3 months, we observed, respectively distance walked, 623±553 and 561± 460m (ns; peak heart rate, 142±23 and 146± 33b/min (ns; systolic blood pressure, 154±36 and 164±26 mmHg (ns; and double product, 22211± 6454 and 24293±7373 (ns. In G1 group, before and after exercise, we observed: distance walked, 615±394 and 970± 537m (p<0.003 peak heart rate, 143±24 and 143±29b/min (ns; systolic blood pressure, 136±33 and 133±24 mmHg (ns; and double product, 19907± 7323 and 19115±5776, respectively. Comparing the groups, a significant difference existed regarding the variation in the double product, and in distance walked. CONCLUSION: Exercise training programs in patients with heart failure can bring about an improvement in physical capacity.

  19. Effectiveness of Group Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy on Anxiety, Depression and Glycemic Control in Children with Type 1 Diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Somaye Ahmadi

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The present study aimed to investigate the effectiveness of group cognitive behavioral therapy in reducing anxiety and depression and glycemic control in children with type I diabetes. Methods and Matherials: The study was quasi- experimental with a pre-test, post-test design with control group. For this purpose, 30 children with diabetes were selected from Imam Reza Hospital in Mashhad. The children were randomly assigned into two experimental group (15 and control group (15. The experimental group was undergone eight 2-hour sessions of cognitive-behavioral training. Before and after the intervention, the Multidimensional Anxiety Scale for Children, which included four components of social anxiety, physical symptoms, harm avoidance, and separation anxiety, and Children Depression Inventory was administrated in both groups. Results: The findings from the covariance analysis test revealed that depression and anxiety and glycemic control in experimental group was controlled at post-test and depression score in experimental group compared to the control group at post-test was decreased. The findings from the multivariate covariance analysis test between components of, physical symptoms, harm avoidance, separation anxiety, and social anxiety revealed meaningful differences between the two groups in social anxiety post-test score. Conclusions: According to the article, cognitive behavior therapy can be effective for depression, anxiety, and blood sugar control in children.

  20. Effectiveness of Group Cognitive Bbehavioral Therapy on Anxiety, Depression and Glycemic Control in Children with Type 1 Diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Ahmadi

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed to investigate the effectiveness of group cognitive behavioral therapy in reducing anxiety and depression and glycemic control in children with type I diabetes. The study was quasi- experimental with a pre-test, post-test design with control group. For this purpose, 30 children with diabetes were selected from Imam Reza Hospital in Mashhad. The children were randomly assigned into two experimental group (15 and control group (15. The experimental group was undergone eight 2-hour sessions of cognitive-behavioral training. Before and after the intervention, the Multidimensional Anxiety Scale for Children, which included four components of social anxiety, physical symptoms, harm avoidance, and separation anxiety, and Children Depression Inventory was administrated in both groups. The findings from the covariance analysis test revealed that depression and anxiety and glycemic control in experimental group was controlled at post-test and depression score in experimental group compared to the control group at post-test was decreased. The findings from the multivariate covariance analysis test between components of, physical symptoms, harm avoidance, separation anxiety, and social anxiety revealed meaningful differences between the two groups in social anxiety post-test score. Thus, cognitive behavior therapy can be effective for depression, anxiety, and blood sugar control in children.

  1. Bifidobacterium bifidum OLB6378 Simultaneously Enhances Systemic and Mucosal Humoral Immunity in Low Birth Weight Infants: A Non-Randomized Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katsunori Tanaka

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Probiotic supplementation has been part of the discussion on methods to enhance humoral immunity. Administration of Bifidobacterium bifidum OLB6378 (OLB6378 reduced the incidence of late-onset sepsis in infants. In this non-randomized study, we aimed to determine the effect of administration of live OLB6378 on infants’ humoral immunity. Secondly, we tried to elucidate whether similar effects would be observed with administration of non-live OLB6378. Low birth weight (LBW infants weighing 1500–2500 g were divided into three groups: Group N (no intervention, Group L (administered live OLB6378 concentrate, and Group H (administered non-live OLB6378 concentrate. The interventions were started within 48 h after birth and continued until six months of age. Serum immunoglobulin G (IgG levels (IgG at one month/IgG at birth were significantly higher in Group L than in Group N (p < 0.01. Group H exhibited significantly higher serum IgG levels (p < 0.01 at one month of age and significantly higher intestinal secretory immunoglobulin A (SIgA levels (p < 0.05 at one and two months of age than Group N. No difference was observed in the mortality or morbidity between groups. Thus, OLB6378 administration in LBW infants enhanced humoral immunity, and non-live OLB6378, which is more useful as a food ingredient, showed a more marked effect than the viable bacteria.

  2. Doing Anger Differently: two controlled trials of percussion group psychotherapy for adolescent reactive aggression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Currie, Michael; Startup, Mike

    2012-08-01

    This study evaluates efficacy and effectiveness of 'Doing Anger Differently' (DAD), a group treatment for reactively aggressive 12-15 year old males. DAD uses percussion exercises to aid treatment. Study 1 compared a ten-week treatment with a waitlist control at pre, post and 6 month (treatment group only) follow-up. Study 2 replicated Study 1, but also followed up controls at 6 months. In study 1 (N = 54) the treatment resulted in lowered trait anger (Cohen's d = -1.3), aggression-reports (d = -1.0) and depression (d = -0.6), and increased self-esteem (d = 0.6), all maintained at six months. In study 2 (N = 65), aggression-reports fell to one fifth of pre-treatment levels at nine months follow-up (d = -1.2), with lowered trait anger (d = -0.4) and anger expression (d = -0.3) post-treatment.

  3. Pathological gamblers and a non-psychiatric control group taking gender differences into account.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Echeburúa, Enrique; González-Ortega, Itxaso; de Corral, Paz; Polo-López, Rocío

    2013-01-01

    The current study aimed to identify personality traits, emotional states and adjustment variables in a sample of pathological gamblers as compared to a non-gambling control group taking gender differences into account. The sample for this study consisted of 206 subjects (103 pathological gamblers and 103 non-psychiatric subjects from the general population matched for age and gender). Pathological gamblers had a lower educational level and a family history of alcohol abuse higher than non-gamblers. In turn, female gamblers were affected by unemployment and a lower socioeconomic status more often than female non-gamblers. Pathological gamblers were more anxious and impulsive and suffered from a poorer self-esteem than non-gamblers. Likewise, pathological gamblers had a greater history of other Axis I psychiatric disorders and were more often affected by anxiety and depression symptoms and showed a more problematic adjustment to everyday life than non-gamblers. Alcohol abuse was not higher in pathological gamblers than in non-gamblers, but, when gender was taken into account, male gamblers were more affected by alcohol abuse than male non-gamblers. Importantly 68.6% of female gamblers versus 9.8% of control group women reported being victims of intimate partner violence. These findings can be used to specifically inform prevention and intervention efforts.

  4. Comparison of Plasma Copper Concentrations in Patients with Brucellosis and Control Group

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.R. Mobaien

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective : There are some reports about influence of the rare nutrients such as copper and zinc on immune system. Serum concentrations of copper alter in patients with brucellosis. Brucellosis is a common and endemic disease and a health problem in Iran. We compared serum concentrations of copper in patients with brucellosis and healthy individuals.Materials & Methods: In a cross sectional study, serum concentrations of copper was measured in patients with brucellosis and control group. Eighty six subjects were enrolled in the study, including 43 patients with brucellosis (34 men and 9 women and 43 healthy individuals. Serum concentrations of copper was measured by automatic absorptive spectrophotometer in patients with brucellosis and compared with control group. We employed a non parametrical test, kolmogrov – smirnov, to determine if data distribution was normal or not. Results: Mean age of patients with brucellosis was 40.1415.10 years with the range of 14-60 years. The most frequent symptoms were arthralgia (86%. Serum concentrations of copper in patients with brucellosis were significantly higher than healthy subjects (160.8454.61, 101.7427.37 g/dl respectively, p<0.001.Conclusion: Serum concentrations of copper in patients with brucellosis showed significant alterations in comparison with healthy subjects. So, we recommend using serum copper concentrations in patients with brucellosis as a marker in brucellosis diagnosis. Also we recommend another study for detection of serum copper concentrations before and during treatment.

  5. Group therapy for adolescents with repeated self harm: randomised controlled trial with economic evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, J M; Wood, A J; Kerfoot, M J; Trainor, G; Roberts, C; Rothwell, J; Woodham, A; Ayodeji, E; Barrett, B; Byford, S; Harrington, R

    2011-04-01

    To examine the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of group therapy for self harm in young people. Two arm, single (assessor) blinded parallel randomised allocation trial of a group therapy intervention in addition to routine care, compared with routine care alone. Randomisation was by minimisation controlling for baseline frequency of self harm, presence of conduct disorder, depressive disorder, and severity of psychosocial stress. Adolescents aged 12-17 years with at least two past episodes of self harm within the previous 12 months. Exclusion criteria were: not speaking English, low weight anorexia nervosa, acute psychosis, substantial learning difficulties (defined by need for specialist school), current containment in secure care. Setting Eight child and adolescent mental health services in the northwest UK. Manual based developmental group therapy programme specifically designed for adolescents who harm themselves, with an acute phase over six weekly sessions followed by a booster phase of weekly groups as long as needed. Details of routine care were gathered from participating centres. Primary outcome was frequency of subsequent repeated episodes of self harm. Secondary outcomes were severity of subsequent self harm, mood disorder, suicidal ideation, and global functioning. Total costs of health, social care, education, and criminal justice sector services, plus family related costs and productivity losses, were recorded. 183 adolescents were allocated to each arm (total n = 366). Loss to follow-up was low (self harm, proportional odds ratio of group therapy versus routine care adjusting for relevant baseline variables was 0.99 (95% confidence interval 0.68 to 1.44, P = 0.95) at 6 months and 0.88 (0.59 to 1.33, P = 0.52) at 1 year. For severity of subsequent self harm the equivalent odds ratios were 0.81 (0.54 to 1.20, P = 0.29) at 6 months and 0.94 (0.63 to 1.40, P = 0.75) at 1 year. Total 1 year costs were higher in the group therapy arm (£21,781) than

  6. Parental interaction patterns in children with attention deficit hyperactive disorder and control group

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mojgan Karahmadi

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available

    BACKGROUND: Parental communication patterns influence children's personality. This study investigated effects of parental interaction patterns on children with attention deficit hyperactive disorder (ADHD.
    METHODS: There were 50 male children, 7-12 years old, selected in two groups. The first group included students with ADHD referred to psychiatry clinics in Isfahan-based on diagnostic scale of DSM-IV (25 subjects. The second group involved healthy boys selected by random cluster multistage sampling from primary schools in five districts of Isfahan (25 subjects from September 2005 to March 2005. Schaffer and Edgerton parental interaction questionnaire was filled for them.
    RESULTS: Mean scores of parental interaction patterns in healthy children were all higher than those in ADHD children except for “aggression control” and “lack of aggressive attachment”.
    CONCLUSIONS: The severity of ADHD signs has negative relationship with parental "admission" and parental "control" patterns. It also has positive relationship with “lack of aggressive/attachment” and “aggressive/control” patterns.
    KEY WORDS: Parental interaction patterns, ADHD.

  7. A randomized controlled trial of a brief versus standard group parenting program for toddler aggression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tully, Lucy A; Hunt, Caroline

    2016-11-17

    Physical aggression (PA) in the toddler years is common and developmentally normal, however, longitudinal research shows that frequent PA is highly stable and associated with long-term negative outcomes. Significant research has demonstrated the efficacy of parenting interventions for reducing externalizing behavior in children yet their typical length may overburden families, leading to low participation rates and high attrition rates. To increase the reach of parenting interventions and impact on the prevalence of externalizing behavior problems, brief interventions are needed. This RCT compared a standard (8 session) group Triple P to a brief (3 session) discussion group and a waitlist control for reducing toddler PA, dysfunctional parenting and related aspects of parent functioning. Sixty-nine self-referred families of toddlers with PA were randomized to the respective conditions. At post-assessment, families in the standard intervention had significantly lower levels of observed child aversive behavior, mother reports of PA and dysfunctional parenting, and higher levels of mother- and partner-rated behavioral self-efficacy than the waitlist control. Families in the standard intervention also had significantly lower levels mother-rated dysfunctional parenting than the brief intervention, and the brief intervention had significantly lower levels of mother-rated dysfunctional parenting than waitlist. There were no significant group differences at post-assessment for measures of parental negative affect or satisfaction with the partner relationship. By 6 month follow-up, families in the brief and standard intervention did not differ significantly on any measure. The implications of the findings to delivery of brief parenting interventions are discussed. Aggr. Behav. 9999:1-13, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Mindfulness Training Improves Attentional Task Performance in Incarcerated Youth: A Group Randomized Controlled Intervention Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noelle R Leonard

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the impact of cognitive behavioral therapy and mindfulness training (CBT/MT on attentional task performance in incarcerated adolescents. Attention is a cognitive system necessary for managing cognitive demands and regulating emotions. Yet persistent and intensive demands, such as those experienced during high-stress intervals like incarceration and the events leading to incarceration, may deplete attention resulting in cognitive failures, emotional disturbances, and impulsive behavior. We hypothesized that CBT/MT may mitigate these deleterious effects of high stress and protect against degradation in attention over the high-stress interval of incarceration. Using a group randomized controlled trial design, we randomly assigned dormitories of incarcerated youth, ages 16 to 18, to a CBT/MT intervention (youth n = 147 or an active control intervention (youth n = 117. Both arms received approximately 750 minutes of intervention in a small-group setting over a 3-5 week period. Youth in the CBT/MT arm also logged the amount of out-of-session time spent practicing MT exercises. The Attention Network Test was used to index attentional task performance at baseline and 4 months post-baseline. Overall, task performance degraded over time in all participants. The magnitude of performance degradation was significantly less in the CBT/MT vs. control arm. Further, within the CBT/MT arm, performance degraded over time in those with no outside-of-class practice time, but remained stable over time in those who practiced mindfulness exercises outside of the session meetings. Thus, these findings suggest that sufficient CBT/MT practice may protect against functional attentional impairments associated with high-stress intervals. Keywords: adolescent development, incarcerated adolescents, detained adolescents, stress, attention, mindfulness meditation.

  9. Non-random food-web assembly at habitat edges increases connectivity and functional redundancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peralta, Guadalupe; Frost, Carol M; Didham, Raphael K; Rand, Tatyana A; Tylianakis, Jason M

    2017-04-01

    Habitat fragmentation dramatically alters the spatial configuration of landscapes, with the creation of artificial edges affecting community structure and dynamics. Despite this, it is not known how the different food webs in adjacent habitats assemble at their boundaries. Here we demonstrate that the composition and structure of herbivore-parasitoid food webs across edges between native and plantation forests are not randomly assembled from those of the adjacent communities. Rather, elevated proportions of abundant, interaction-generalist parasitoid species at habitat edges allowed considerable interaction rewiring, which led to higher linkage density and less modular networks, with higher parasitoid functional redundancy. This was despite high overlap in host composition between edges and interiors. We also provide testable hypotheses for how food webs may assemble between habitats with lower species overlap. In an increasingly fragmented world, non-random assembly of food webs at edges may increasingly affect community dynamics at the landscape level.

  10. Experience with multiple control groups in a large population-based case–control study on genetic and environmental risk factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pomp, E. R.; Van Stralen, K. J.; Le Cessie, S.; Vandenbroucke, J. P.; Doggen, C. J. M.

    2010-01-01

    We discuss the analytic and practical considerations in a large case–control study that had two control groups; the first control group consisting of partners of patients and the second obtained by random digit dialling (RDD). As an example of the evaluation of a general lifestyle factor, we present body mass index (BMI). Both control groups had lower BMIs than the patients. The distribution in the partner controls was closer to that of the patients, likely due to similar lifestyles. A statistical approach was used to pool the results of both analyses, wherein partners were analyzed with a matched analysis, while RDDs were analyzed without matching. Even with a matched analysis, the odds ratio with partner controls remained closer to unity than with RDD controls, which is probably due to unmeasured confounders in the comparison with the random controls as well as intermediary factors. However, when studying injuries as a risk factor, the odds ratio remained higher with partner control subjects than with RRD control subjects, even after taking the matching into account. Finally we used factor V Leiden as an example of a genetic risk factor. The frequencies of factor V Leiden were identical in both control groups, indicating that for the analyses of this genetic risk factor the two control groups could be combined in a single unmatched analysis. In conclusion, the effect measures with the two control groups were in the same direction, and of the same order of magnitude. Moreover, it was not always the same control group that produced the higher or lower estimates, and a matched analysis did not remedy the differences. Our experience with the intricacies of dealing with two control groups may be useful to others when thinking about an optimal research design or the best statistical approach. PMID:20549310

  11. Weight change in control group participants in behavioural weight loss interventions: a systematic review and meta-regression study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waters Lauren

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Unanticipated control group improvements have been observed in intervention trials targeting various health behaviours. This phenomenon has not been studied in the context of behavioural weight loss intervention trials. The purpose of this study is to conduct a systematic review and meta-regression of behavioural weight loss interventions to quantify control group weight change, and relate the size of this effect to specific trial and sample characteristics. Methods Database searches identified reports of intervention trials meeting the inclusion criteria. Data on control group weight change and possible explanatory factors were abstracted and analysed descriptively and quantitatively. Results 85 trials were reviewed and 72 were included in the meta-regression. While there was no change in control group weight, control groups receiving usual care lost 1 kg more than control groups that received no intervention, beyond measurement. Conclusions There are several possible explanations why control group changes occur in intervention trials targeting other behaviours, but not for weight loss. Control group participation may prevent weight gain, although more research is needed to confirm this hypothesis.

  12. Alcohol Habits in Patients with Long-Term Musculoskeletal Pain: Comparison with a Matched Control Group from the General Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thelin Bronner, Kerstin Birgitta; Wennberg, Peter; Kallmen, Hakan; Schult, Marie-Louise Birgitta

    2012-01-01

    This prospective study aimed to describe alcohol habits in patients with chronic pain compared with those in a matched control group from the general Swedish population. In total, 100 consecutive patients enrolled were matched against 100 individuals in a control group on the basis of age and sex. Alcohol habits were measured using the Alcohol Use…

  13. Elevator Group Supervisory Control System Using Genetic Network Programming with Macro Nodes and Reinforcement Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jin; Yu, Lu; Mabu, Shingo; Hirasawa, Kotaro; Hu, Jinglu; Markon, Sandor

    Elevator Group Supervisory Control System (EGSCS) is a very large scale stochastic dynamic optimization problem. Due to its vast state space, significant uncertainty and numerous resource constraints such as finite car capacities and registered hall/car calls, it is hard to manage EGSCS using conventional control methods. Recently, many solutions for EGSCS using Artificial Intelligence (AI) technologies have been reported. Genetic Network Programming (GNP), which is proposed as a new evolutionary computation method several years ago, is also proved to be efficient when applied to EGSCS problem. In this paper, we propose an extended algorithm for EGSCS by introducing Reinforcement Learning (RL) into GNP framework, and an improvement of the EGSCS' performances is expected since the efficiency of GNP with RL has been clarified in some other studies like tile-world problem. Simulation tests using traffic flows in a typical office building have been made, and the results show an actual improvement of the EGSCS' performances comparing to the algorithms using original GNP and conventional control methods. Furthermore, as a further study, an importance weight optimization algorithm is employed based on GNP with RL and its efficiency is also verified with the better performances.

  14. Analysis of KIR gene frequencies and HLA class I genotypes in breast cancer and control group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jobim, Maria Regina; Jobim, Mariana; Salim, Patrícia H; Portela, Pâmela; Jobim, Luiz Fernando; Leistner-Segal, Sandra; Bittelbrunn, Ana Cristina; Menke, Carlos Henrique; Biazús, Jorge Villanova; Roesler, Rafael; Schwartsmann, Gilberto

    2013-09-01

    Breast cancer is the main cause of cancer-related death among women, with a 0.5% increase in incidence per year. Natural killer cells (NK) are part of the innate immune system recognizing class I HLA molecules on target cells through their membrane receptors, called killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptors (KIR). The aim of our study was to evaluate the association between the KIR genes and HLA alleles in patients with breast cancer and healthy controls. Two hundred thirty patients with breast cancer and 272 healthy controls were typed for HLA class I and KIR genes by PCR-SSO. When both groups were compared, the presence of inhibitory KIR2DL2 receptors was significantly higher in breast cancer patients than in healthy controls. No significant differences were found for HLA-C2 and HLA-Bw4. However, a higher frequency of HLA-C1 in breast cancer patients was observed. These findings suggest a potential role for the KIR gene system in breast cancer. Further studies to confirm this observation are warranted.

  15. A randomised controlled trial of caseload midwifery care: M@NGO (Midwives @ New Group practice Options

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tracy Sally K

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Australia has an enviable record of safety for women in childbirth. There is nevertheless growing concern at the increasing level of intervention and consequent morbidity amongst childbearing women. Not only do interventions impact on the cost of services, they carry with them the potential for serious morbidities for mother and infant. Models of midwifery have proliferated in an attempt to offer women less fragmented hospital care. One of these models that is gaining widespread consumer, disciplinary and political support is caseload midwifery care. Caseload midwives manage the care of approximately 35-40 a year within a small Midwifery Group Practice (usually 4-6 midwives who plan their on call and leave within the Group Practice. We propose to compare the outcomes and costs of caseload midwifery care compared to standard or routine hospital care through a randomised controlled trial. Methods/design A two-arm RCT design will be used. Women will be recruited from tertiary women's hospitals in Sydney and Brisbane, Australia. Women allocated to the caseload intervention will receive care from a named caseload midwife within a Midwifery Group Practice. Control women will be allocated to standard or routine hospital care. Women allocated to standard care will receive their care from hospital rostered midwives, public hospital obstetric care and community based general medical practitioner care. All midwives will collaborate with obstetricians and other health professionals as necessary according to the woman's needs. Discussion Data will be collected at recruitment, 36 weeks antenatally, six weeks and six months postpartum by web based or postal survey. With 750 women or more in each of the intervention and control arms the study is powered (based on 80% power; alpha 0.05 to detect a difference in caesarean section rates of 29.4 to 22.9%; instrumental birth rates from 11.0% to 6.8%; and rates of admission to neonatal intensive

  16. A randomised controlled trial of caseload midwifery care: M@NGO (Midwives @ New Group practice Options)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Australia has an enviable record of safety for women in childbirth. There is nevertheless growing concern at the increasing level of intervention and consequent morbidity amongst childbearing women. Not only do interventions impact on the cost of services, they carry with them the potential for serious morbidities for mother and infant. Models of midwifery have proliferated in an attempt to offer women less fragmented hospital care. One of these models that is gaining widespread consumer, disciplinary and political support is caseload midwifery care. Caseload midwives manage the care of approximately 35-40 a year within a small Midwifery Group Practice (usually 4-6 midwives who plan their on call and leave within the Group Practice.) We propose to compare the outcomes and costs of caseload midwifery care compared to standard or routine hospital care through a randomised controlled trial. Methods/design A two-arm RCT design will be used. Women will be recruited from tertiary women's hospitals in Sydney and Brisbane, Australia. Women allocated to the caseload intervention will receive care from a named caseload midwife within a Midwifery Group Practice. Control women will be allocated to standard or routine hospital care. Women allocated to standard care will receive their care from hospital rostered midwives, public hospital obstetric care and community based general medical practitioner care. All midwives will collaborate with obstetricians and other health professionals as necessary according to the woman's needs. Discussion Data will be collected at recruitment, 36 weeks antenatally, six weeks and six months postpartum by web based or postal survey. With 750 women or more in each of the intervention and control arms the study is powered (based on 80% power; alpha 0.05) to detect a difference in caesarean section rates of 29.4 to 22.9%; instrumental birth rates from 11.0% to 6.8%; and rates of admission to neonatal intensive care of all neonates from 9

  17. Electronic Nature of Ketone Directing Group as a Key To Control C-2 vs C-4 Alkenylation of Indoles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanke, Veeranjaneyulu; Bettadapur, Kiran R; Prabhu, Kandikere Ramaiah

    2016-11-04

    A novel mode of achieving site selectivity between C-2 and C-4 positions in the indole framework by altering the property of the ketone directing group is disclosed. Methyl ketone, as directing group, furnishes exclusively C-2 alkenylated product, whereas trifluoromethyl ketone changes the selectivity to C-4, indicating that the electronic nature of the directing group controls the unusual choice between a 5-membered and a 6-membered metallacycle. The screening of other carbonyl-derived directing groups reveals that strong and weak directing groups exhibit opposite selectivity. Experimental controls and deuteration experiments lend support to the proposed mechanism.

  18. Urinary incontinence during pregnancy and 1 year after delivery in primiparous women compared with a control group of nulliparous women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Bent Brandt; Svare, Jens; Viktrup, Lars

    2012-01-01

    AIMS: To investigate the impact of the first pregnancy and delivery on the prevalence and types of urinary incontinence during pregnancy and 1 year after delivery. METHODS: The study was a prospective cohort study with a control group. Primiparous women, who delivered in our department from June......, the prevalence of any type of urinary incontinence in the primiparous group was 32.1%, compared to 13.8% in the control group. Adjusted OR¿=¿3.3 (95%CI¿=¿2.4-4.4). One year after delivery, the prevalence in the primiparous group was 29.3%, compared to 16.6% in the control group. Adjusted OR¿=¿2.5 (95%CI¿=¿1...... in the primiparous group. The symptoms and impact on quality of life seemed to be mild to moderate in both groups. Neurourol. Urodynam. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc....

  19. Does chess instruction improve mathematical problem-solving ability? Two experimental studies with an active control group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sala, Giovanni; Gobet, Fernand

    2017-06-23

    It has been proposed that playing chess enables children to improve their ability in mathematics. These claims have been recently evaluated in a meta-analysis (Sala & Gobet, 2016, Educational Research Review, 18, 46-57), which indicated a significant effect in favor of the groups playing chess. However, the meta-analysis also showed that most of the reviewed studies used a poor experimental design (in particular, they lacked an active control group). We ran two experiments that used a three-group design including both an active and a passive control group, with a focus on mathematical ability. In the first experiment (N = 233), a group of third and fourth graders was taught chess for 25 hours and tested on mathematical problem-solving tasks. Participants also filled in a questionnaire assessing their meta-cognitive ability for mathematics problems. The group playing chess was compared to an active control group (playing checkers) and a passive control group. The three groups showed no statistically significant difference in mathematical problem-solving or metacognitive abilities in the posttest. The second experiment (N = 52) broadly used the same design, but the Oriental game of Go replaced checkers in the active control group. While the chess-treated group and the passive control group slightly outperformed the active control group with mathematical problem solving, the differences were not statistically significant. No differences were found with respect to metacognitive ability. These results suggest that the effects (if any) of chess instruction, when rigorously tested, are modest and that such interventions should not replace the traditional curriculum in mathematics.

  20. [Comparative study of some clinical and laboratory indicators in a group of patients using wells as source of drinking water and a control group using safe water].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasilescu, L; Ciochină, D A

    2011-01-01

    In time, well water, as a source of drinking and coking water, with physical-chemical, bacteriological, and biological indicators suggestive of alteration in water potability, determines complex, sometimes irreversible, metabolic disorders. Sixty individuals residing in a rural community were divided into 2 groups: study group -30 subjects using well water, and control group--30 subjects using safe water. For the study group the selection criteria were: age, sex, use of well water as drinking and cooking water, history suggestive of chronic poisoning (pregnancy course, birth weight, susceptibility to infectious agents, and current chronic diseases). In the study group, gestosis, prematurity, and altered body mass index are more frequent as compared to the subjects in the control group. The identified laboratory changes indicate moderate anemia, hepatic cytolysis, dyslipidemia, presence of nitrites in urine, and positive urine cultures. Long-term use of water with mineral constituents in excess, absent, or inadequate, the direct biological and chemical water pollution, or most frequently the indirect pollution through the soil determine, in time, complex, sometimes irreversible, metabolic disorders.

  1. Non-random associations of graphemes to colours in synaesthetic and non-synaesthetic populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simner, Julia; Ward, Jamie; Lanz, Monika; Jansari, Ashok; Noonan, Krist; Glover, Louise; Oakley, David A

    2005-01-01

    This study shows that biases exist in the associations of letters with colours across individuals both with and without grapheme-colour synaesthesia. A group of grapheme-colour synaesthetes were significantly more consistent over time in their choice of colours than a group of controls. Despite this difference, there were remarkable inter-subject agreements, both within and across participant groups (e.g., a tends to be red, b tends to be blue, c tends to be yellow). This suggests that grapheme-colour synaesthesia, whilst only exhibited by certain individuals, stems in part from mechanisms that are common to us all. In addition to shared processes, each population has its own distinct profile. Synaesthetes tend to associate higher frequency graphemes with higher frequency colour terms. For control participants, choices are influenced by order of elicitation, and by exemplar typicality from the semantic class of colours.

  2. The Self-Made Puzzle: Integrating Self-Assembly and Pattern Formation Under Non-Random Genetic Regulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doursat, René

    On the one hand, research in self-assembling systems, whether natural or artificial, has traditionally focused on pre-existing components endowed with fixed shapes. Biological development, by contrast, dynamically creates new cells that acquire selective adhesion properties through differentiation induced by their neighborhood. On the other hand, pattern formation phenomena are generally construed as orderly states of activity on top of a continuous 2-D or 3-D substrate. Yet, again, the spontaneous patterning of an organism into domains of gene expression arises within a multicellular medium in perpetual expansion and reshaping. Finally, both phenomena are often thought in terms of stochastic events, whether mixed components that randomly collide in self-assembly, or spots and stripes that occur unpredictably from instabilities in pattern formation. Here too, these notions need significant revision if they are to be extended and applied to embryogenesis. Cells are not randomly mixed but pre-positioned where cell division occurs. Genetic identity domains are not randomly distributed but highly regulated in number and position. In this work, I present a computational model of program-mable and reproducible artificial morphogenesis that integrates self-assembly and pattern formation under the control of a nonrandom gene regulatory network. The specialized properties of cells (division, adhesion, migration) are determined by the gene expression domains to which they belong, while at the same time these domains further expand and segment into subdomains due to the self-assembly of specialized cells. Through this model, I also promote a new discipline, embryomorphic engineering to solve the paradox of "meta-designing" decentralized, autonomous systems.

  3. Food groups and the risk of colorectal cancer: results from a Jordanian case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu Mweis, Suhad S; Tayyem, Reema F; Shehadah, Ihab; Bawadi, Hiba A; Agraib, Lana M; Bani-Hani, Kamal E; Al-Jaberi, Tareq; Al-Nusairr, Majed

    2015-07-01

    The role of diet in colorectal cancer (CRC) in Jordan has not been studied previously. This study aimed at examining the association between food groups (including grains, fruits, vegetables, milk, and meat and legumes) and CRC risk in Jordan. We compared intakes of the different food groups among CRC patients (n=167) and matched controls (n=240) by age, sex, occupation, and marital status. A validated food frequency questionnaire was used to collect dietary data. Logistic regression was used to evaluate the association of quartiles of intakes of the different food groups with CRC risk. In addition, the association of selected food items with CRC risk was examined. Odds ratios (ORs) for the fourth versus the first quartile of intake were 2.92 [95% confidence interval (CI): 1.40-6.08] for grains, 1.66 (95% CI: 0.81-3.40) for vegetables, 0.55 (95% CI: 0.26-1.16) for fruits, 0.96 (95% CI: 0.46-1.97) for milk, and 1.43 (95% CI: 0.68-2.98) for meat and legumes. In a comparison of the highest with the lowest weekly frequency of consumption, there was a direct association between the risk of CRC and the frequency of consumption of chicken (OR=2.52, 95% CI: 1.33-4.77). An increase in risk was observed with increased consumption of white bread (OR=3.13, 95% CI: 1.18-9.25), whereas consumption of whole bread was associated with a decreased risk for CRC (OR=0.32, 95% CI: 0.12-0.84). Our results support a role of diet in CRC. Direct associations were found for grains, white bread, and chicken, whereas an inverse relation was reported for whole bread.

  4. Control technology and coordination deformation mechanism of rise entry group with high ground stress

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Qingfeng; Zhu Quanqu

    2012-01-01

    Based on engineering practices of Wuyang Coal Mine,we carried out X-ray diffract researches on No.3 coal; and the rocks of its roof and floor by XRD meter,and simulated the interactive effect of the surrounding rock deformation by FLAC2D5.0 numerical simulation software under the condition of different tunneling method of multimine roadway in parallel.The internal structures of the surrounding rocks of 76 belt roadway were monitored by borehole observation instruments; and then,we analyzed the reason of failure and deformation of surrounding rocks of several rise entry,and proposed the technical measures for controlling interactive effect of several rise entry surrounding rock deformation at last.For the thickness seam rise roadway,two conclusions were drawn:one is that the co-deformation among roadway groups mainly reflecton that both shear failure and deformation in coal pillar among roadways have decreased the width of pillar core region and clamping action of coal pillar to roof strata,increased the actual span of roof strata,intensified the flexural failure of roof strata and prized the bed separation of roof deep rock strata.The other conclusion is that the factors controlling the interactive deformation among roadways is obvious when appropriate re-adjustment in construction sequence of the tunneling of multimine parallel roadways because the construction sequence among roadways also has great effects on deformation of the surrounding rock in roadway.

  5. Schistosomiasis Sustained Control Program in Ethnic Groups Around Ninefescha (Eastern Senegal).

    Science.gov (United States)

    N'Diaye, Monique; Dioukhane, Elhadji M; Ndao, Babacar; Diedhiou, Kemo; Diawara, Lamine; Talla, Idrissa; Vernet, Charlotte; Bessin, François; Barbier, Dominique; Dewavrin, Patrick; Klotz, Francis; Georges, Pierre

    2016-09-07

    Schistosomiasis is the second most significant parasitic disease in children in several African countries. For this purpose, the "Programme National de Lutte contre les Bilharzioses" (PNLB) was developed in partnership with the World Health Organization (WHO) to control this disease in Senegal. However, geographic isolation of Bedik ethnic groups challenged implementation of the key elements of the schistosomiasis program in eastern Senegal, and therefore, a hospital was established in Ninefescha to improve access to health care as well as laboratory support for this population. The program we have implemented from 2008 in partnership with the PNLB/WHO involved campaigns to 1) evaluate schistosomiasis prevalence in children of 53 villages around Ninefescha hospital, 2) perform a mass drug administration following the protocol established by the PNLB in school-aged children, 3) monitor annual prevalence, 4) implement health education campaigns, and 5) oversee the building of latrines. This campaign led to a drop in schistosomiasis prevalence but highlighted that sustainable schistosomiasis control by praziquantel treatment, awareness of the use of latrines, and inhabitants' voluntary commitment to the program are crucial to improve Schistosoma elimination. Moreover, this study revealed that preschool-aged children, for whom praziquantel was not recommended until 2014 in Senegal, constituted a significant reservoir for the parasite.

  6. Epigenome changes in active and inactive Polycomb-group-controlled regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breiling, Achim; O'Neill, Laura P; D'Eliseo, Donatella; Turner, Bryan M; Orlando, Valerio

    2004-01-01

    The Polycomb group (PcG) of proteins conveys epigenetic inheritance of repressed transcriptional states. In Drosophila, the Polycomb repressive complex 1 (PRC1) maintains the silent state by inhibiting the transcription machinery and chromatin remodelling at core promoters. Using immunoprecipitation of in vivo formaldehyde-fixed chromatin in phenotypically diverse cultured cell lines, we have mapped PRC1 components, the histone methyl transferase (HMT) Enhancer of zeste (E(z)) and histone H3 modifications in active and inactive PcG-controlled regions. We show that PRC1 components are present in both cases, but at different levels. In particular, active target promoters are nearly devoid of E(z) and Polycomb. Moreover, repressed regions are trimethylated at lysines 9 and 27, suggesting that these histone modifications represent a mark for inactive PcG-controlled regions. These PcG-specific repressive marks are maintained by the action of the E(z) HMT, an enzyme that has an important role not only in establishing but also in maintaining PcG repression. PMID:15448640

  7. 企业集团财务控制问题探讨%Analysis of Enterprise Group Financial Control

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钟群英

    2011-01-01

    企业集团的财务控制是集团控制的重要手段,财务控制在集团的管理中占重要地位,加强对企业集团财务控制的研究,是提高企业集团管理效率的重要课题。%Enterprise group of financial control is an important means of control group,financial control in the management of the group,which occupies an important position to strengthen financial control of enterprise group,is to improve the efficiency of management of enterprise group as an important issue.

  8. Bifidobacterium bifidum OLB6378 Simultaneously Enhances Systemic and Mucosal Humoral Immunity in Low Birth Weight Infants: A Non-Randomized Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Katsunori; Tsukahara, Takamitsu; Yanagi, Takahide; Nakahara, Sayuri; Furukawa, Ouki; Tsutsui, Hidemi; Koshida, Shigeki

    2017-01-01

    Probiotic supplementation has been part of the discussion on methods to enhance humoral immunity. Administration of Bifidobacterium bifidum OLB6378 (OLB6378) reduced the incidence of late-onset sepsis in infants. In this non-randomized study, we aimed to determine the effect of administration of live OLB6378 on infants’ humoral immunity. Secondly, we tried to elucidate whether similar effects would be observed with administration of non-live OLB6378. Low birth weight (LBW) infants weighing 1500–2500 g were divided into three groups: Group N (no intervention), Group L (administered live OLB6378 concentrate), and Group H (administered non-live OLB6378 concentrate). The interventions were started within 48 h after birth and continued until six months of age. Serum immunoglobulin G (IgG) levels (IgG at one month/IgG at birth) were significantly higher in Group L than in Group N (p food ingredient, showed a more marked effect than the viable bacteria. PMID:28245626

  9. Evaluation of the representativeness of a Dutch non-malformed control group for the general pregnant population : are these controls useful for EUROCAT?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jentink, J.; Zetstra-van der Woude, A.P.; Bos, Jens; De Jong-Van den Berg, L.T.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose A case-control study is the most powerful design to test the risk of specific congenital malformations associated with a specific drug. However, malformation registries often lack non-malformed controls. For the Dutch EUROCAT, we collected a non-malformed control group: the 'Healthy Pregnant

  10. Psychological Aspects in Young Adults with Beta-Thalassemia Major, control group

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. H. Hosseini, M.D.

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Background and purpose: Beta-thalassemia major (TM, a chronic, genetically determined hematological disorder, has received little investigation on the psychological aspects of the disease and the psychosocial adjustment of patients with this anemia. In the present study, the aim was to explore the nature of psychopathology according to age, sex, school performance, severity and complications of the disease in TM patients compared with demographically matched healthy persons.Materials and Methods: A controlled anterograde cohort study was conducted at the Thalassemia Unit of Boo-Ali Hospital from June 2003 to November 2005 in Sari, Iran. Psychological aspects were evaluated by the Persian version of symptoms checklist-90-revised questionnaire. Information on relevant demographic characteristics, school performance, severity and complications of the disease was collected by one of the investigators who had created the questionnaire.Results: 125 persons with TM completed the questionnaires and were compared with 125 controls and 250 totally. The mean age of the participants was 18.51± 2.0 years and with a range of 15-25 years. 132 (52.8% were female with equal family status, social and economic status. Patients group reported a significantly lower level of marital status (P<0.01, education level (P<0.0001, school performance (P<0.0001. TM patients were found to have significantly more psychiatric disorders than the control subjects with GSI: 1.16 ± 0.47 vs. 1.01 ± 0.6; (P<0.03, PSD: 54.99 ± 12.59 vs. 46.42 ± 18.76 (P<0.0001, and PSDI 2.02±1.02 vs 2.45 ± 2.22 (P<0.05. We recorded significant changes in the mean scores of somatization (P<0.0001, interpersonal sensitivity (P<0.0001, depression (P<0.003, anxiety (P<0.05 and psychoticism (P<0.03 in the TM patients as compared to the control subjects.Conclusion: These findings show that beta-thalassemia major patients are at risk for psychiatric symptomatology and need appropriate psychiatric

  11. Group versus individual sessions delivered by a physiotherapist for female urinary incontinence: an interview study with women attending group sessions nested within a randomised controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smith Jan

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim was to explore the concerns and expectations of women invited to attend group physiotherapy sessions for the management of female urinary incontinence and whether the experience changed their views; and to gather recommendations from women attending group sessions on the design and delivery of these sessions Methods An interview study nested within a randomised controlled trial in five British NHS physiotherapy departments, including 22 women who had expressed a preference for an individual physiotherapy session but were randomised to, and attended, group sessions. Results Embarrassment was woven throughout women's accounts of experiencing urinary incontinence and seeking health care. Uncertainty about the nature of group sessions was a source of concern. Attending the first session was seen as a big hurdle by many women. However, a sense of relief was common once the session started, with most women describing some benefit from attendance. Recommendations for design and delivery of the sessions from women focused on reducing embarrassment and uncertainty prior to attendance. Conclusion Taking account of women's embarrassment and providing detailed information about the content of group sessions will enable women to benefit from group physiotherapy sessions for the management of female urinary incontinence. Trial Registration Trial registration number: ISRCTN 16772662

  12. Treatment of periocular hyperpigmentation due to lead of kohl (surma by penicillamine: A single group non-randomized clinical trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El Safoury Omar

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Periocular hyperpigmentation is a condition in which skin of eyelids become darker in color than the normal surrounding skin. Lead and other heavy metals produce increased pigmentation because of deposition of metal particles in the dermis and increased epidermal melanin production. Aims: This study was conducted to evaluate the dual effect of chelation therapy in treating periocular hyperpigmentation and lead toxicity. Methods: The study population consisted of nine females complaining from dark coloration of their eyelids. The nine females were continuously using kohl as eyeliner. Lead levels in conjunctiva and serum before and after D-penicillamine (D-PCN oral administration were estimated in relation to vertical, horizontal length, and degree of hyperpigmentation score. Results: Highly significant P values (0.000 were obtained as regard to the conjunctival lead levels, serum lead levels, horizontal length, and degree of darkness score before and after D-PCN therapy. A less significant P value (0.040 was recorded as regard to the vertical length. Conclusion: Regardless other causes, this study spots the light on a new concept for periocular hyperpigmentation from lead toxicity in adult females using kohl and suggests D-PCN in a low divided dose (750 mg/day for its treatment.

  13. Effectiveness of group reminiscence for improving wellbeing of institutionalized elderly adults: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaggioli, Andrea; Scaratti, Chiara; Morganti, Luca; Stramba-Badiale, Marco; Agostoni, Monica; Spatola, Chiara A M; Molinari, Enrico; Cipresso, Pietro; Riva, Giuseppe

    2014-10-25

    Group reminiscence therapy is a brief and structured intervention in which participants share personal past events with peers. This approach has been shown to be promising for improving wellbeing and reducing depressive symptoms among institutionalized older adults. However, despite the considerable interest in reminiscence group therapy, controlled studies to determine its specific benefits as compared to generic social interactions with peers (group conversations about everyday subjects) are still lacking. We have designed a randomized controlled trial aimed at comparing the effects of group reminiscence therapy with those of group recreational activity on the psychological wellbeing of an institutionalized sample of older adults. The study includes two groups of 20 hospitalized elderly participants: the experimental group and the control group. Participants included in the experimental group will receive six sessions of group reminiscence therapy, while the control group will participate in a recreational group discussion. A repeated-measures design will be used post-intervention and three months post-intervention to evaluate changes in self-reported outcome measures of depressive symptoms, self-esteem, life satisfaction, and quality of life from baseline. The protocol of a study aimed at examining the specific effects of group reminiscence therapy on psychological wellbeing, depression, and quality of life among institutionalized elderly people is described. It is expected that the outcomes of this trial will contribute to our knowledge about the process of group reminiscence, evaluate its effectiveness in improving psychological wellbeing of institutionalized individuals, and identify the best conditions for optimizing this approach. This trial was registered with ClinicalTrials.gov (registration number: NCT02077153) on 31 January 2014.

  14. Group Music Intervention Reduces Aggression and Improves Self-Esteem in Children with Highly Aggressive Behavior: A Pilot Controlled Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ae-Na Choi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the effects of group music intervention on aggression and self-esteem in children with highly aggressive behavior. Forty-eight children were allocated to either a music intervention group or an untreated control group. The music intervention group received 50 min of music intervention twice weekly for 15 consecutive weeks. The outcome measures were Child Behavior Checklist Aggression Problems Scale (Parents, Child Aggression Assessment Inventory (Teachers and Rosenberg Self-esteem Scale. After 15 weeks, the music intervention group showed significant reduction of aggression and improvement of self-esteem compared with the control group. All outcome measures were significantly lower in the music intervention group than prior to treatment, while there was no change in the control group. These findings suggest that music can reduce aggressive behavior and improve self-esteem in children with highly aggressive behavior. Music intervention is an easily accessible therapy for children and as such may be an effective intervention for aggressive behavior. Further more, objective and replicable measures are required from a randomized controlled trial with a larger sample size and active comparable control.

  15. The Daily Lives of People With HIV Infection: A Qualitative Study of the Control Group in an Expressive Writing Intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metaweh, Maria; Ironson, Gail; Barroso, Julie

    2016-01-01

    Emotional disclosure is an expressive writing technique used in psychotherapy to process traumatic and stressful life experiences. While emotional disclosure interventions frequently use control groups, there are few qualitative analyses of these control groups. Our study's purpose was to analyze the control essays written by HIV-infected informants about their daily activities in an augmented written emotional disclosure intervention. Latent and manifest qualitative content analyses revealed prevalent contextual themes within the data. The emergent themes were socioeconomic status (SES), self-care, religiosity/spirituality, and social support. Emotional disclosure control subjects contributed substantial findings in terms of SES, self-care, resiliency, religiosity/spirituality, and social support and altruism.

  16. A COMPARATIVE STUDY OF DERMATOGLYPHICS (FINGER TIP PATTERN IN PATIENTS WITH MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION AND CONTROL GROUP

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    Amit Kumar

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND : Dermatoglyphics is the scientific study of epider mal ridges and their configurations on the palmar region of hand and fingers and planta r region of foot and toes. The myocardial infarction is almost always caused by coronary arte ry disease. Against the genetic background of dermatoglyphic patterns and coronary artery disease , the study was undertaken to determine the correlation between them. AIMS To do a comparative study of the dermatoglyphics (finger tip pattern in patients with myocardial infarction and control group and to assess the usefulness of finger tip pattern in serving as a predictor for my ocardial infarction. SETTING AND DESIGN: The study was done in 200 persons of age between 40 to 75 years . Out of them,100 were confirmed cases of CAD and 100 were normal healthy controls. METHODS AND MATERIAL: The finger and palmar prints of both hands were taken on white pap er by Ink method and kores duplicating ink was used for taking the prints . STATISTICAL ANALYSIS USED: In statistical analysis SPSS software was used and Z test was used. The p value less than .0 01 and .05 was considered statistically significant. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS: It was found that the total number of whorls are s ignificantly higher in patients with myocardial infarction and t otal number of loops are significantly lower in patients with CAD. Such difference was significant only in right thumb, left thumb, right ring fing er and left little finger. Similarly, loops were signi ficantly less in right thumb, right index finger, r ight and left little finger. With regard to high inciden ce of MI, it can be concluded that the knowledge of dermatoglyphics in patients with MI can be utilize d to find out genetic correlation. The existence of such relation might be important in the screenin g program for prevention of MI

  17. Effect of non-random dispersal strategies on spatial coexistence mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amarasekare, Priyanga

    2010-01-01

    1. Random dispersal leads to spatial coexistence via two mechanisms (emigration-mediated and source-sink), both of which involve the movement of organisms from areas of higher to lower fitness. What is not known is whether such coexistence would occur if organisms dispersed non-randomly, using cues such as density and habitat quality to gauge fitness differences between habitats. Here, I conduct a comparative analysis of random and non-random dispersal strategies in a foodweb with a basal resource, top predator, and two intermediate consumers that exhibit a trade-off between competitive ability and predator susceptibility. 2. I find a striking contrast between density- and habitat-dependent dispersal in their effects on spatial coexistence. Dispersal in response to competitor and predator density facilitates coexistence while dispersal in response to habitat quality (resource productivity and predator pressure) inhibits it. Moreover, density-dependent dispersal changes species' distribution patterns from interspecific segregation to interspecific aggregation, while habitat-dependent dispersal preserves the interspecific segregation observed in the absence of dispersal. Under density-dependent dispersal, widespread spatial coexistence results in an overall decline in the abundance of the inferior competitor that is less susceptible to predation and an overall increase in the abundance of the superior competitor that is more susceptible to predation. Under habitat-dependent dispersal, restricted spatial coexistence results in species' abundances being essentially unchanged from those observed in the absence of dispersal. 3. A key outcome is that when the superior competitor moves in the direction of increasing fitness but the inferior competitor does not, spatial coexistence is possible in both resource-poor and resource-rich habitats. However, when the inferior competitor moves in the direction of increasing fitness but the superior competitor does not, spatial

  18. The Trier Social Stress Test for Groups (TSST-G): A new research tool for controlled simultaneous social stress exposure in a group format.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Dawans, Bernadette; Kirschbaum, Clemens; Heinrichs, Markus

    2011-05-01

    Psychological stress is an ubiquitous challenge across human cultures affecting mental and physical health. Recent evidence indicates that performance tasks combining elements of socio-evaluative threat and uncontrollability elicit reliable stress responses. The Trier Social Stress Test (TSST) is the most frequently used psychological protocol in stress research; however, to date it has only been available in a single-subject version. In particular, there is an increasing need in several emerging research fields such as stress research or social neurosciences for a standardized research tool to expose relatively large groups of subjects to controlled simultaneous stress. In search of a laboratory stressor that allows simultaneous stress exposure in a group format, we exposed a total of 25 healthy male participants to the Trier Social Stress Test for Groups (TSST-G; public speaking and mental arithmetic tasks in front of a panel of two evaluators in groups of six participants) and a specific control condition. Results showed that the TSST-G induced significant increases in cortisol, heart rate, and psychological stress responses. The TSST-G provides a novel, effective, and economical protocol for experimental paradigms requiring simultaneous stress induction in multiple participants.

  19. Evaluation of strategies for the control of canola and lupin seedling diseases caused by Rhizoctonia anastomosis groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Several methods with potential for the management of Rhizoctonia diseases of canola and lupin including several methods with potential for the management of Rhizoctonia plant resistance, fungicide seed treatment and biological control using binucleate Rhizoctonia anastomosis groups (AGs) were evalua...

  20. Ongoing quality control in digital radiography: Report of AAPM Imaging Physics Committee Task Group 151.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, A Kyle; Heintz, Philip; Geiser, William; Goldman, Lee; Jerjian, Khachig; Martin, Melissa; Peck, Donald; Pfeiffer, Douglas; Ranger, Nicole; Yorkston, John

    2015-11-01

    Quality control (QC) in medical imaging is an ongoing process and not just a series of infrequent evaluations of medical imaging equipment. The QC process involves designing and implementing a QC program, collecting and analyzing data, investigating results that are outside the acceptance levels for the QC program, and taking corrective action to bring these results back to an acceptable level. The QC process involves key personnel in the imaging department, including the radiologist, radiologic technologist, and the qualified medical physicist (QMP). The QMP performs detailed equipment evaluations and helps with oversight of the QC program, the radiologic technologist is responsible for the day-to-day operation of the QC program. The continued need for ongoing QC in digital radiography has been highlighted in the scientific literature. The charge of this task group was to recommend consistency tests designed to be performed by a medical physicist or a radiologic technologist under the direction of a medical physicist to identify problems with an imaging system that need further evaluation by a medical physicist, including a fault tree to define actions that need to be taken when certain fault conditions are identified. The focus of this final report is the ongoing QC process, including rejected image analysis, exposure analysis, and artifact identification. These QC tasks are vital for the optimal operation of a department performing digital radiography.

  1. Ongoing quality control in digital radiography: Report of AAPM Imaging Physics Committee Task Group 151

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, A. Kyle, E-mail: kyle.jones@mdanderson.org; Geiser, William [Department of Imaging Physics, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas 77030 (United States); Heintz, Philip [Department of Radiology, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87104 (United States); Goldman, Lee [Hartford Hospital, Hartford, Connecticut 06102 (United States); Jerjian, Khachig [Hoag Memorial Hospital, Newport Beach, California 92658 (United States); Martin, Melissa [Therapy Physics, Inc., Gardena, California 90248 (United States); Peck, Donald [Henry Ford Health System, Detroit, Michigan 48202 (United States); Pfeiffer, Douglas [Boulder Community Foothills Hospital, Boulder, Colorado 80303 (United States); Ranger, Nicole [Landauer, Inc., Glenwood, Illinois 60425 (United States); Yorkston, John [Carestream Health, Inc., Rochester, New York 14615 (United States)

    2015-11-15

    Quality control (QC) in medical imaging is an ongoing process and not just a series of infrequent evaluations of medical imaging equipment. The QC process involves designing and implementing a QC program, collecting and analyzing data, investigating results that are outside the acceptance levels for the QC program, and taking corrective action to bring these results back to an acceptable level. The QC process involves key personnel in the imaging department, including the radiologist, radiologic technologist, and the qualified medical physicist (QMP). The QMP performs detailed equipment evaluations and helps with oversight of the QC program, the radiologic technologist is responsible for the day-to-day operation of the QC program. The continued need for ongoing QC in digital radiography has been highlighted in the scientific literature. The charge of this task group was to recommend consistency tests designed to be performed by a medical physicist or a radiologic technologist under the direction of a medical physicist to identify problems with an imaging system that need further evaluation by a medical physicist, including a fault tree to define actions that need to be taken when certain fault conditions are identified. The focus of this final report is the ongoing QC process, including rejected image analysis, exposure analysis, and artifact identification. These QC tasks are vital for the optimal operation of a department performing digital radiography.

  2. Comparison of Masking Level Difference in Patients with Multiple Sclerosis and Healthy Control Group

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soghrat Faghihzadeh

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Multiple sclerosis (MS is a neurological disorder that involves central nervous system. Studies have showed that multiple sclerosis affects behavioral central auditory tests, such as masking release or masking level difference (MLD. The purpose of this study is to compare the masking level difference between multiple sclerosis patients and normal subjects.Methods: This cross sectional and non-interventional study was conducted on 32 multiple sclerosis patients aged between 20-50 years and 32 controls matched for age and gender in Faculty of Rehabilitation, Tehran University of Medical Sciences. masking level difference test was performed on each subject.Results: The mean masking level difference in the two groups was significantly different (p<0.01 however, gender did not prove to play a role in this difference.Conclusion: As part of the multiple sclerosis diagnosis panel, masking level difference test is an efficient modality for evaluation of hearing impairment and monitoring of rehabilitation progress.

  3. [Superficial mycoses: comparative study between type 2 diabetic patients and a non-diabetic control group].

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Humbría, Leila; Richard-Yegres, Nicole; Pérez-Blanco, Maigualida; Yegres, Francisco; Mendoza, Mireya; Acosta, Arnaldo; Hernández, Rosaura; Zárraga, Eluz

    2005-03-01

    Superficial mycoses are considered to affect more frequently patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM-2), specially onychomycosis and Tinea pedis. The purpose of this study was to compare the dermatophytoses, candidiasis and Pitiriasis versicolor frequency between 40 patients with DM-2 and 40 healthy persons of either sex, 40 years old or more. Clinical, metabolic, mycologic and inmunologic studies against Candida albicans, were carried out. Both diabetics 75% (30/40) and controls 65% (26/40) presented a high frequency of superficial mycoses (no significant difference p = 0.329). Pitiriasis versicolor was not detected in diabetic patients. They presented Tinea unguium, concomitant with Tinea pedis, with a higher frequency. The predominant dermatophyte was Trichophyton rubrum 18/23 (78%) in diabetics and 8/16 (50%) in non diabetics. Candida was isolated as commensal from oral mucous: 23/40 (58%) in diabetics and 21/40 (52%) in non diabetics (serotipo A was the more frequent), and from onychomycosis: 11/40 (28%) in diabetics and 12/40 (30%) in non diabetics. The immunological response was the same in both groups: celular 100%, humoral 20%. No statistical correlation among superficial mycoses, blood glucose level, glycosylated hemoglobin values or the time suffering the disease was observed. The high susceptibility to dermatophytes and Candida sp. infection showed to be associated with age and no with the diabetic type 2 condition in those patients.

  4. Non-controlling interests, financial performance and the equity of groups. An empirical study of groups listed on the Warsaw Stock Exchange

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radosław Ignatowski

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to (a analyze IFRS requirements for the recognition and presentation of non-controlling (minority interests in consolidated financial statements in relation to theoretical concepts of consolidation of financial statements, and (b assess the share and importance of non-controlling inter-ests in financial performance and the equity of the groups of companies in practice.For the purpose of the article, selected scientific methods have been used, including: descriptive and analytical ones (for analyzing the theoretical concepts and IFRS requirements, critical analysis, especial-ly used for the literature review, and for the assessment of practice: primary empirical research methods, and quantitative methods, including descriptive statistics, nonparametric tests and correlation analysis. The empirical material collected was used to verify several hypotheses related to non-controlling interests of the groups whose parents are registered in Poland and whose securities are traded on a regulated, Polish capital market (Warsaw Stock Exchange. The empirical evidence is that non-controlling interests represent a very small part of group’s equity (taking the mean of about 3.5%, but the median below 1% and obviously, they are significantly lower than the share of majority interests. Their deviation among the different classes of companies (big, small and banks is negligible. Slightly higher is the share of minority interests in the group’s net profit and total comprehensive income. However, no significant difference is to be found between the shares of non-controlling interests in the group’s equity, net profit and total comprehensive income. Overall, shares of majority (minority interests in a group’s income are in line with their shares in the group’s equity. The hypothesis on comparable returns on non-controlling and majority interests (in terms of ROE cannot be rejected if both net profit and losses are considered

  5. Non-controlling interests, financial performance and the equity of groups. An empirical study of groups listed on the Warsaw Stock Exchange 

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radosław Ignatowski

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to (a analyze IFRS requirements for the recognition and presentation of non-controlling (minority interests in consolidated financial statements in relation to theoretical concepts of consolidation of financial statements, and (b assess the share and importance of non-controlling inter-ests in financial performance and the equity of the groups of companies in practice. For the purpose of the article, selected scientific methods have been used, including: descriptive and analytical ones (for analyzing the theoretical concepts and IFRS requirements, critical analysis, especial-ly used for the literature review, and for the assessment of practice: primary empirical research methods, and quantitative methods, including descriptive statistics, nonparametric tests and correlation analysis. The empirical material collected was used to verify several hypotheses related to non-controlling interests of the groups whose parents are registered in Poland and whose securities are traded on a regulated, Polish capital market (Warsaw Stock Exchange. The empirical evidence is that non-controlling interests represent a very small part of group’s equity (taking the mean of about 3.5%, but the median below 1% and obviously, they are significantly lower than the share of majority interests. Their deviation among the different classes of companies (big, small and banks is negligible. Slightly higher is the share of minority interests in the group’s net profit and total comprehensive income. However, no significant difference is to be found between the shares of non-controlling interests in the group’s equity, net profit and total comprehensive income. Overall, shares of majority (minority interests in a group’s income are in line with their shares in the group’s equity. The hypothesis on comparable returns on non-controlling and majority interests (in terms of ROE cannot be rejected if both net profit and losses are considered

  6. Induced abortion on demand and birth rate in Sami-speaking municipalities and a control group in Finnmark, Norway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Norum

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. The objective of this study was to analyze the birth and induced abortion on demand (IAD rate among women in Sami-speaking communities and a control group in Finnmark County, Norway. Methods. The 6 northern municipalities included in the administration area of the Sami language law (study group were matched with a control group of 9 municipalities. Population data (numbers, sex and age were accessed from Statistics Norway. Data on birth rate and IAD during the time period 1999–2009 were derived from the Medical Birth Registry (MBR of Norway. Data on number of women in fertile age (15–44 years were obtained from Statistics Norway. Between 2001 and 2008, this age group was reduced by 12% (Sami and 23% (controls, respectively. Results. Finnmark County has a high IAD rate and 1 in 4 pregnancies (spontaneous abortions excluded ended in IAD in the study and control groups. The total fertility rate per woman was 1.94 and 1.87 births, respectively. There was no difference between groups with regard to the IAD/birth ratio (P=0.94 or general fertility rate GFR (P=0.82. Conclusions. Women in the Sami-majority area and a control group in Finnmark County experienced a similar frequency of IAD and fertility rate.

  7. Randomized controlled trial of group cognitive behavioral therapy compared to a discussion group for co-morbid anxiety and depression in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wuthrich, V M; Rapee, R M; Kangas, M; Perini, S

    2016-03-01

    Co-morbid anxiety and depression in older adults is associated with worse physical and mental health outcomes and poorer response to psychological and pharmacological treatments in older adults. However, there is a paucity of research focused on testing the efficacy of the co-morbid treatment of anxiety and depression in older adults using psychological interventions. Accordingly, the primary objective of the current study was to test the effects of a group cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) program in treating co-morbid anxiety and depression in a sample of older age adults. A total of 133 community-dwelling participants aged ⩾60 years (mean age = 67.35, s.d. = 5.44, male = 59) with both an anxiety disorder and unipolar mood disorder, as assessed on the Anxiety Disorder Interview Schedule (ADIS), were randomly allocated to an 11-week CBT group or discussion group. Participants with Mini-Mental State Examination scores group × time interaction effects emerged at post-treatment only for diagnostic severity of the primary disorder, mean severity of all anxiety disorders, mood disorders, and all disorders, and recovery rates on primary disorder. Group CBT produced faster and sustained improvements in anxiety and depression on diagnostic severity and recovery rates compared to an active control in older adults.

  8. 75 FR 3901 - Announcement of IS-GPS-200E Interface Control Working Group (ICWG) Teleconference Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-25

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Department of the Air Force Announcement of IS-GPS-200E Interface Control Working Group (ICWG) Teleconference... Working Group (ICWG) teleconference meeting for the document IS-GPS-200E (NAVSTAR GPS Space...

  9. Acceptance and Commitment Therapy and Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy as Treatments for Academic Procrastination: A Randomized Controlled Group Session

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shuo; Zhou, Ya; Yu, Shi; Ran, Li-Wen; Liu, Xiang-Ping; Chen, Yu-Fei

    2017-01-01

    Objective: This study tested the efficacy of Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT), compared with Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy (CBT), in alleviating academic procrastination. Method: A total of 60 (53.3% male) undergraduates suffering from academic procrastination were randomly assigned to two treatment groups (ACT and CBT) and a control group.…

  10. Acceptance and Commitment Therapy and Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy as Treatments for Academic Procrastination: A Randomized Controlled Group Session

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shuo; Zhou, Ya; Yu, Shi; Ran, Li-Wen; Liu, Xiang-Ping; Chen, Yu-Fei

    2017-01-01

    Objective: This study tested the efficacy of Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT), compared with Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy (CBT), in alleviating academic procrastination. Method: A total of 60 (53.3% male) undergraduates suffering from academic procrastination were randomly assigned to two treatment groups (ACT and CBT) and a control group.…

  11. Offender and offense characteristics of a nonrandom sample of adolescent mass murderers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meloy, J R; Hempel, A G; Mohandie, K; Shiva, A A; Gray, B T

    2001-06-01

    The authors conducted a descriptive, archival study of adolescent (mass murderers-subjects who intentionally killed three or more victims in one event-to identify demographic, clinical, and forensic characteristics. A nonrandom sample of convenience of adolescent mass murderers was utilized. Thirty-four subjects, acting alone or in pairs, committed 27 mass murders between 1958 and 1999. The sample consisted of males with a median age of 17. A majority were described as "loners" and abused alcohol or drugs; almost half were bullied by others, preoccupied with violent fantasy, and violent by history. Although 23% had a documented psychiatric history, only 6% were judged to have been psychotic at the time of the mass murder. Depressive symptoms and historical antisocial behaviors were predominant. There was a precipitating event in most cases--usually a perceived failure in love or school--and most subjects made threatening statements regarding the mass murder to third parties. The majority of the sample clustered into three types: the family annihilator, the classroom avenger, and the criminal opportunist. The adolescent mass murderer is often predatorily rather than affectively violent and typically does not show any sudden or highly emotional warning signs. Although the act of mass murder is virtually impossible to predict because of its extremely low frequency, certain clinical and forensic findings can alert the clinician to the need for further, intensified primary care, including family, school, community, law enforcement, and mental health intervention.

  12. A new non-randomized model for analysing sensitive questions with binary outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Guo-Liang; Yu, Jun-Wu; Tang, Man-Lai; Geng, Zhi

    2007-10-15

    We propose a new non-randomized model for assessing the association of two sensitive questions with binary outcomes. Under the new model, respondents only need to answer a non-sensitive question instead of the original two sensitive questions. As a result, it can protect a respondent's privacy, avoid the usage of any randomizing device, and be applied to both the face-to-face interview and mail questionnaire. We derive the constrained maximum likelihood estimates of the cell probabilities and the odds ratio for two binary variables associated with the sensitive questions via the EM algorithm. The corresponding standard error estimates are then obtained by bootstrap approach. A likelihood ratio test and a chi-squared test are developed for testing association between the two binary variables. We discuss the loss of information due to the introduction of the non-sensitive question, and the design of the co-operative parameters. Simulations are performed to evaluate the empirical type I error rates and powers for the two tests. In addition, a simulation is conducted to study the relationship between the probability of obtaining valid estimates and the sample size for any given cell probability vector. A real data set from an AIDS study is used to illustrate the proposed methodologies.

  13. Nonrandom seedling establishment corresponds with distance-dependent decline in mycorrhizal abundance in two terrestrial orchids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waud, Michael; Wiegand, Thorsten; Brys, Rein; Lievens, Bart; Jacquemyn, Hans

    2016-07-01

    In plant species that critically rely on mycorrhizal symbionts for germination and seedling establishment, distance-dependent decline of mycorrhizal fungi in the soil can be hypothesized to lead to significant spatial clustering as a result of nonrandom spatial patterns of seedling establishment. To test this hypothesis, we investigated the abundance and distribution of mycorrhizal fungi in the soil and how they relate to spatial patterns of adults and seedling recruitment in two related orchid species. We combined assessments of spatial variation in fungal abundance using quantitative PCR (qPCR) with spatial point pattern analyses based on long-term demographic data and cluster point process models. qPCR analyses showed that fungal abundance declined rapidly with distance from the adult host plants. Spatial point pattern analyses showed that successful recruitment in both species was clustered significantly around adult plants and that the decline in the neighborhood density of recruits around adults coincided with the decline of fungal abundance around adult plants. Overall, these results indicate that the distribution and abundance of fungal associates in the soil may have a strong impact on the aboveground distribution of its partner.

  14. Next generation sequencing and FISH reveal uneven and nonrandom microsatellite distribution in two grasshopper genomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Ruano, Francisco J; Cuadrado, Ángeles; Montiel, Eugenia E; Camacho, Juan Pedro M; López-León, María Dolores

    2015-06-01

    Simple sequence repeats (SSRs), also known as microsatellites, are one of the prominent DNA sequences shaping the repeated fraction of eukaryotic genomes. In spite of their profuse use as molecular markers for a variety of genetic and evolutionary studies, their genomic location, distribution, and function are not yet well understood. Here we report the first thorough joint analysis of microsatellite motifs at both genomic and chromosomal levels in animal species, by a combination of 454 sequencing and fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) techniques performed on two grasshopper species. The in silico analysis of the 454 reads suggested that microsatellite expansion is not driving size increase of these genomes, as SSR abundance was higher in the species showing the smallest genome. However, the two species showed the same uneven and nonrandom location of SSRs, with clear predominance of dinucleotide motifs and association with several types of repetitive elements, mostly histone gene spacers, ribosomal DNA intergenic spacers (IGS), and transposable elements (TEs). The FISH analysis showed a dispersed chromosome distribution of microsatellite motifs in euchromatic regions, in coincidence with chromosome location patterns previously observed for many mobile elements in these species. However, some SSR motifs were clustered, especially those located in the histone gene cluster.

  15. DNA Repair Profiling Reveals Nonrandom Outcomes at Cas9-Mediated Breaks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Overbeek, Megan; Capurso, Daniel; Carter, Matthew M; Thompson, Matthew S; Frias, Elizabeth; Russ, Carsten; Reece-Hoyes, John S; Nye, Christopher; Gradia, Scott; Vidal, Bastien; Zheng, Jiashun; Hoffman, Gregory R; Fuller, Christopher K; May, Andrew P

    2016-08-18

    The repair outcomes at site-specific DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) generated by the RNA-guided DNA endonuclease Cas9 determine how gene function is altered. Despite the widespread adoption of CRISPR-Cas9 technology to induce DSBs for genome engineering, the resulting repair products have not been examined in depth. Here, the DNA repair profiles of 223 sites in the human genome demonstrate that the pattern of DNA repair following Cas9 cutting at each site is nonrandom and consistent across experimental replicates, cell lines, and reagent delivery methods. Furthermore, the repair outcomes are determined by the protospacer sequence rather than genomic context, indicating that DNA repair profiling in cell lines can be used to anticipate repair outcomes in primary cells. Chemical inhibition of DNA-PK enabled dissection of the DNA repair profiles into contributions from c-NHEJ and MMEJ. Finally, this work elucidates a strategy for using "error-prone" DNA-repair machinery to generate precise edits.

  16. Impact of Integrated Services on HIV Testing: A Nonrandomized Trial among Kenyan Family Planning Clients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Church, Kathryn; Warren, Charlotte E; Birdthistle, Isolde; Ploubidis, George B; Tomlin, Keith; Zhou, Weiwei; Kimani, James; Abuya, Timothy; Ndwiga, Charity; Sweeney, Sedona; Mayhew, Susannah H

    2017-06-01

    The impact of integrated reproductive health and HIV services on HIV testing and counseling (HTC) uptake was assessed among 882 Kenyan family planning clients using a nonrandomized cohort design within six intervention and six "comparison" facilities. The effect of integration on HTC goals (two tests over two years) was assessed using conditional logistic regression to test four "integration" exposures: a training and reorganization intervention; receipt of reproductive health and HIV services at recruitment; a functional measure of facility integration at recruitment; and a woman's cumulative exposure to functionally integrated care across different facilities over time. While recent receipt of HTC increased rapidly at intervention facilities, achievement of HTC goals was higher at comparison facilities. Only high cumulative exposure to integrated care over two years had a significant effect on HTC goals after adjustment (aOR 2.94, 95%CI 1.73-4.98), and programs should therefore make efforts to roll out integrated services to ensure repeated contact over time. © 2017 The Population Council, Inc.

  17. Synaptic signal streams generated by ex vivo neuronal networks contain non-random, complex patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sangmook; Zemianek, Jill M; Shultz, Abraham; Vo, Anh; Maron, Ben Y; Therrien, Mikaela; Courtright, Christina; Guaraldi, Mary; Yanco, Holly A; Shea, Thomas B

    2014-11-01

    Cultured embryonic neurons develop functional networks that transmit synaptic signals over multiple sequentially connected neurons as revealed by multi-electrode arrays (MEAs) embedded within the culture dish. Signal streams of ex vivo networks contain spikes and bursts of varying amplitude and duration. Despite the random interactions inherent in dissociated cultures, neurons are capable of establishing functional ex vivo networks that transmit signals among synaptically connected neurons, undergo developmental maturation, and respond to exogenous stimulation by alterations in signal patterns. These characteristics indicate that a considerable degree of organization is an inherent property of neurons. We demonstrate herein that (1) certain signal types occur more frequently than others, (2) the predominant signal types change during and following maturation, (3) signal predominance is dependent upon inhibitory activity, and (4) certain signals preferentially follow others in a non-reciprocal manner. These findings indicate that the elaboration of complex signal streams comprised of a non-random distribution of signal patterns is an emergent property of ex vivo neuronal networks.

  18. Risky and Cautious Decision Shifts in Small Groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cline, Timothy R.; Cline, Rebecca J.

    1979-01-01

    Identifies and compares the patterns of communication of groups making risky and cautious decision shifts. Risky- and cautious-shift group discussions displayed nonrandom and statistically different distributional and sequential structures. Findings are discussed in terms of two explanations of the risky- shift phenomenon. (JMF)

  19. A randomized clinical trial comparing general exercise, McKenzie treatment and a control group in patients with neck pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kjellman, Görel; Oberg, Birgitta

    2002-07-01

    Seventy-seven patients with neck pain in the primary health care were included in a prospective, randomized clinical trial and randomly assigned to general exercise, McKenzie treatment, or a control group. Seventy patients completed the treatment; response rate 93% at 12-month follow-up. All three groups showed significant improvement regarding the main outcomes, pain intensity and Neck Disability Index, even at 12-month follow-up, but there was no significant difference between the groups. In all, 79% reported that they were better or completely restored after treatment, although 51% reported constant/daily pain. In the McKenzie group compared with the control group, a tendency toward greater improvement was noted for pain intensity at 3 weeks and at 6-month follow-up, and for post-treatment Neck Disability Index. Significant improvement in Distress and Risk Assessment Method scores was shown in the McKenzie group only. The three groups had similar recurrence rates, although after 12 months the McKenzie group showed a tendency toward fewer visits for additional health care. The study did not provide a definite evidence of treatment efficacy in patients with neck pain, however, there was a tendency toward a better outcome with the two active alternatives compared with the control group.

  20. A randomised controlled trial of carer-focussed multi-family group psychoeducation in bipolar disorder.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Madigan, K

    2012-05-01

    In a RCT of family psychoeducation, 47 carers of 34 patients were allocated to one of three groups; Multifamily Group Psychoeducation, Solution Focussed Group Therapy or Treatment as Usual. Carers in both the MFGP intervention and the SFGP arm demonstrated greater knowledge and reduction in burden than those in the TAU arm.

  1. Reducing Aggressive Behavior in Boys With a Social Cognitive Group Treatment: Results of a Randomized, Controlled Trial.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T.G. van Manen; P.J.M. Prins; P.M.G. Emmelkamp

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the effectiveness of a social cognitive intervention program for Dutch aggressive boys and to compare it with a social skills training and a waitlist control group. Method: A randomized, controlled treatment outcome study with 97 aggressive boys (aged 9-13 years) was presented

  2. Reducing Aggressive Behavior in Boys With a Social Cognitive Group Treatment: Results of a Randomized, Controlled Trial.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Manen, T.G.; Prins, P.J.M.; Emmelkamp, P.M.G.

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the effectiveness of a social cognitive intervention program for Dutch aggressive boys and to compare it with a social skills training and a waitlist control group. Method: A randomized, controlled treatment outcome study with 97 aggressive boys (aged 9-13 years) was

  3. Headache : The placebo effects in the control groups in randomized clinical trials; An analysis of systematic reviews

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Groot, Femke M.; Voogt-Bode, Annieke; Passchier, Jan; Berger, Marjolein Y.; Koes, Bart W.; Verhagen, Arianne P.

    Objective: The purpose of this study is to describe the effects in the placebo and "no treatment" arms in trials with headache patients. Method: This is a secondary analysis of randomized controlled trials from 8 systematic reviews and selected trials with a "no treatment" or placebo control group.

  4. Two group A streptococcal peptide pheromones act through opposing Rgg regulators to control biofilm development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Jennifer C; LaSarre, Breah; Jimenez, Juan C; Aggarwal, Chaitanya; Federle, Michael J

    2011-08-01

    Streptococcus pyogenes (Group A Streptococcus, GAS) is an important human commensal that occasionally causes localized infections and less frequently causes severe invasive disease with high mortality rates. How GAS regulates expression of factors used to colonize the host and avoid immune responses remains poorly understood. Intercellular communication is an important means by which bacteria coordinate gene expression to defend against host assaults and competing bacteria, yet no conserved cell-to-cell signaling system has been elucidated in GAS. Encoded within the GAS genome are four rgg-like genes, two of which (rgg2 and rgg3) have no previously described function. We tested the hypothesis that rgg2 or rgg3 rely on extracellular peptides to control target-gene regulation. We found that Rgg2 and Rgg3 together tightly regulate two linked genes encoding new peptide pheromones. Rgg2 activates transcription of and is required for full induction of the pheromone genes, while Rgg3 plays an antagonistic role and represses pheromone expression. The active pheromone signals, termed SHP2 and SHP3, are short and hydrophobic (DI[I/L]IIVGG), and, though highly similar in sequence, their ability to disrupt Rgg3-DNA complexes were observed to be different, indicating that specificity and differential activation of promoters are characteristics of the Rgg2/3 regulatory circuit. SHP-pheromone signaling requires an intact oligopeptide permease (opp) and a metalloprotease (eep), supporting the model that pro-peptides are secreted, processed to the mature form, and subsequently imported to the cytoplasm to interact directly with the Rgg receptors. At least one consequence of pheromone stimulation of the Rgg2/3 pathway is increased biogenesis of biofilms, which counteracts negative regulation of biofilms by RopB (Rgg1). These data provide the first demonstration that Rgg-dependent quorum sensing functions in GAS and substantiate the role that Rggs play as peptide receptors across the

  5. Meningococcal meningitis group A: a successful control of an outbreak by mass vaccination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bushra, H E; Mawlawi, M Y; Fontaine, R E; Afif, H

    1995-11-01

    Jeddah is the main point of entry to the holy places in Saudi Arabia. An outbreak of meningococcal disease (MCD) occurred during the fasting lunar month for Muslims, Ramadan (March-April) of 1992. To assess the threat of local spread of MCD within Jeddah, the effects of previous and a mass vaccination programme against MCD during the outbreak, we reviewed the medical records of confirmed cases (CC) of MCD (defined as a bacteriologically confirmed case or a case diagnosed by latex test) and their vaccination status in the last five years before the outbreak. There were 41 CC of meningitis due to Neisseria meningitidis (group A). The ratio of males to females was 4.1:1. Thirty two percent of the cases were religious visitors. About one fourth (22%) of the cases were Pakistani. More than half (57%) of the cases, who were residents of Jeddah, lived in the north-eastern part of the city, as did half of the Pakistani cases. The case-fatality rate among CC was 19.5%. Persons who visited the Makkah (Mecca) during Ramadan were more likely to get the disease than those who did not (odds ratio [OR] = 6.1; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.4-40.7). Unvaccinated persons were more likely to get the disease than those who were vaccinated against MCD (OR = 13.9; 95% CI 1.8-296). Meningococcal vaccine (MCV) against MCD was effective in preventing the disease. However, MCV was of no protective value if it had been administered more than five years before the outbreak. The reason mentioned most frequently for not being vaccinated by both cases (84%) and controls (57%) was lack of knowledge about the disease. Health education programmes should be strengthened and promoted. A good collaborative surveillance system between Jeddah and other holy cities, especially Makkah, is needed to abort outbreaks among religious visitors and to prevent the spread of MCD outbreaks.

  6. Two group A streptococcal peptide pheromones act through opposing Rgg regulators to control biofilm development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer C Chang

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Streptococcus pyogenes (Group A Streptococcus, GAS is an important human commensal that occasionally causes localized infections and less frequently causes severe invasive disease with high mortality rates. How GAS regulates expression of factors used to colonize the host and avoid immune responses remains poorly understood. Intercellular communication is an important means by which bacteria coordinate gene expression to defend against host assaults and competing bacteria, yet no conserved cell-to-cell signaling system has been elucidated in GAS. Encoded within the GAS genome are four rgg-like genes, two of which (rgg2 and rgg3 have no previously described function. We tested the hypothesis that rgg2 or rgg3 rely on extracellular peptides to control target-gene regulation. We found that Rgg2 and Rgg3 together tightly regulate two linked genes encoding new peptide pheromones. Rgg2 activates transcription of and is required for full induction of the pheromone genes, while Rgg3 plays an antagonistic role and represses pheromone expression. The active pheromone signals, termed SHP2 and SHP3, are short and hydrophobic (DI[I/L]IIVGG, and, though highly similar in sequence, their ability to disrupt Rgg3-DNA complexes were observed to be different, indicating that specificity and differential activation of promoters are characteristics of the Rgg2/3 regulatory circuit. SHP-pheromone signaling requires an intact oligopeptide permease (opp and a metalloprotease (eep, supporting the model that pro-peptides are secreted, processed to the mature form, and subsequently imported to the cytoplasm to interact directly with the Rgg receptors. At least one consequence of pheromone stimulation of the Rgg2/3 pathway is increased biogenesis of biofilms, which counteracts negative regulation of biofilms by RopB (Rgg1. These data provide the first demonstration that Rgg-dependent quorum sensing functions in GAS and substantiate the role that Rggs play as peptide

  7. 集团公司财务控制分析%Financial Control Analysis of Group Companies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩阳

    2011-01-01

    集团公司的财务控制是集团控制的基本手段,有效的财务控制是保证集团公司财务信息质量,提高整个集团经营决策的正确性最直接、最有效的方式之一.本文分析了集团公司财务控制存在的问题和成因,并提出加强集团公司财务控制的对策.%Financial control is an important means for group to control its members. Efficient financial control is the best means to insure the quality of group information, to improve the correctness of group decision-making, and it is also a necessary tool for group keeping financial risk away. This paper analysis the problem in group financial control and why these problems exist, and how to strengthen group financial control.

  8. Association between group A beta-haemolytic streptococci and vulvovaginitis in adult women: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruins, M J; Damoiseaux, R A M J; Ruijs, G J H M

    2009-08-01

    Guidelines for the management of vaginal discharge mention Candida albicans, Trichomonas vaginalis, bacterial vaginosis, Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae as causes and do not recommend full microbiological culture. The role of non-group B beta-haemolytic streptococci in vaginal cultures is unclear, except for group A streptococci that are known to cause vulvovaginitis in children. In a case-control study, we investigated the association between non-group B beta-haemolytic streptococci and vulvovaginitis in adult women. Cases were women with recurrent vaginal discharge from whom a sample was cultured. Controls were asymptomatic women who consented to submitting a vaginal swab. Group A streptococci were isolated from 49 (4.9%) of 1,010 cases and not from the 206 controls (P < 0.01). Isolation rates of group C, F and G streptococci were low and did not differ statistically between cases and controls. Group A beta-haemolytic streptococci are associated with vaginal discharge in adult women. The other non-group B streptococci require more study. For the adequate management of vaginal discharge, culturing is necessary if initial treatment fails. Guidelines should be amended according to these results.

  9. WMS-III Logical Memory performance after a two-week delay in temporal lobe epilepsy and control groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Brian D

    2006-11-01

    Conventional memory assessment may fail to identify memory dysfunction that is characterized by intact recall for a relatively brief period but rapid forgetting thereafter. This study assessed immediate memory and retention after 30-minute and two-week delays in a control group (n = 25) and a group of individuals with temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE, n = 25). For raw free recall, thematic unit, and recognition memory scores from the Wechsler Memory Scale-3rd ed. (WMS-III) Logical Memory (LM) subtest, there were no group x trial interactions and the TLE group performed significantly worse than the controls on all trials. At the individual level, none of the patients (0%) demonstrated isolated free recall impairment at the two-week delay when raw scores were analyzed, and one patient (4%) but also five controls (20%) did so when percent retention scores were examined. In summary, TLE patients did not demonstrate disproportionate forgetting over two weeks on a widely used story memory test.

  10. Group cognitive remediation therapy for chronic schizophrenia: A randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Shuping; Zou, Yizhuang; Wykes, Til; Reeder, Clare; Zhu, Xiaolin; Yang, Fude; Zhao, Yanli; Tan, Yunlong; Fan, Fengmei; Zhou, Dongfeng

    2016-07-28

    Individual-level cognitive remediation therapy (CRT) has been shown to be effective for cognitive improvement and social function amelioration. Here, we aimed to test the efficacy of group-based CRT in Chinese subjects with schizophrenia. One-hundred and four inpatients were randomly assigned to either 40 sessions of small-group CRT therapy or therapeutic contact-matched Musical and Dancing Therapy (MDT). Cognitive and social functioning, as well as clinical symptoms, were evaluated over the course of treatment. Specifically, cognitive function was evaluated using a battery of cognitive measurements, clinical symptoms were evaluated using the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale, and social function was evaluated using the Nurse's Observation Scale for Inpatient Evaluation-30. All patients were evaluated pre- and post-treatment. Forty-four individuals in the CRT group and 46 in the MDT group completed all of the planned treatments and analyses. Cognitive functions, especially cognitive flexibility and memory, showed significant improvement in the CRT group over the course of the study. The MDT group also showed improvement in several cognitive flexibility assessments, but the degree of improvement was significantly greater in the CRT group. Several social-function factors exhibited a significant improvement in the CRT group, but not in the MDT group. Cognitive function improvement correlated positively with social function without predicting social function change. We conclude that group-based CRT is an effective and promising therapy.

  11. Evaluating a community-based early childhood education and development program in Indonesia: study protocol for a pragmatic cluster randomized controlled trial with supplementary matched control group

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Pradhan; S.A. Brinkman; A. Beatty; A. Maika; E. Satriawan; J. de Ree; A. Hasan

    2013-01-01

    Background This paper presents the study protocol for a pragmatic cluster randomized controlled trial (RCT) with a supplementary matched control group. The aim of the trial is to evaluate a community-based early education and development program launched by the Government of Indonesia. The program w

  12. Treatment of posttraumatic stress disorder in postwar Kosovar adolescents using mind-body skills groups: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, James S; Staples, Julie K; Blyta, Afrim; Bytyqi, Murat; Wilson, Amy T

    2008-09-01

    To determine whether participation in a mind-body skills group program based on psychological self-care, mind-body techniques, and self-expression decreases symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Eighty-two adolescents meeting criteria for PTSD according to the Harvard Trauma Questionnaire (which corresponds with 16 of the 17 diagnostic criteria for PTSD in DSM-IV) were randomly assigned to a 12-session mind-body group program or a wait-list control group. The program was conducted by high school teachers in consultation with psychiatrists and psychologists and included meditation, guided imagery, and breathing techniques; self-expression through words, drawings, and movement; autogenic training and biofeedback; and genograms. Changes in PTSD symptoms were measured using the Harvard Trauma Questionnaire. The study was conducted from September 2004 to May 2005 by The Center for Mind-Body Medicine at a high school in the Suhareka region of Kosovo. Students in the immediate intervention group had significantly lower PTSD symptom scores following the intervention than those in the wait-list control group (F = 29.8, df = 1,76; p < .001). Preintervention and postintervention scores (mean [SD]) for the intervention group were 2.5 (0.3) and 2.0 (0.3), respectively, and for the control group, 2.5 (0.3) and 2.4 (0.4), respectively. The decreased PTSD symptom scores were maintained in the initial intervention group at 3-month follow-up. After the wait-list control group received the intervention, there was a significant decrease (p < .001) in PTSD symptom scores compared to the preintervention scores. Mind-body skills groups can reduce PTSD symptoms in war-traumatized high school students and can be effectively led by trained and supervised schoolteachers. Copyright 2008 Physicians Postgraduate Press, Inc.

  13. Mechanisms Controlling Carbon Turnover from Diverse Microbial Groups in Temperate and Tropical Forest Soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Throckmorton, H.; Dane, L.; Bird, J. A.; Firestone, M. K.; Horwath, W. R.

    2010-12-01

    Microorganisms represent an important intermediate along the pathway of plant litter decomposition to the formation of soil organic matter (SOM); yet little is known of the fate and stability of microbial C in soils and the importance of microbial biochemistry as a factor influencing SOM dynamics. This research investigates mechanisms controlling microbial C stabilization in a temperate forest in the Sierra Nevada of California (CA) and a tropical forest in Puerto Rico (PR). Biochemically diverse microbial groups (fungi, actinomycetes, bacteria gram (+), and bacteria gram (-)) were isolated from both sites, grown in the laboratory with C13 media, killed, and nonliving residues were added back to soils as a reciprocal transplant of microbial groups. The native microbial community in CA is dominated by fungi and in PR is dominated by bacteria, which provides an opportunity to asses the metabolic response of distinct microbial communities to the diverse microbial additions. CA and PR soils were sampled five times over a 3 and 2 year period, respectively. In CA there was no significant difference in the mean residence time (MRT) of diverse C13 microbial treatments; whereas in PR there were significant differences, whereby temperate fungi, temperate Gram (+) bacteria, and tropical actinomycetes exhibited a significantly longer MRT as compared with tropical fungi and temperate Gram (-). These results suggest that a bacterial dominated microbial community discriminates more amongst diverse substrates than a fungal-dominated community. MRT for labeled-C in CA was 5.21 ± 1.11 years, and in PR was 2.22 ± 0.45. Despite substantial differences in MRT between sites, physical fractionation of soils into light (LF), aggregated-occluded (OF), and mineral-associated (MF) fractions provided evidence that accelerated decomposition in PR (presumably due to climate) operated primarily on labeled-C unassociated with the mineral matrix (LF); labeled-C occluded within aggregates (OF) or

  14. Non-random crosslinking of polysulphone-polysiloxane alternating block copolymers under irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xinfang, Chen; Chunshan, Zhang

    In this paper the effects of radiation on polysulphone-polysiloxane segmented copolymers have been investigated. The experimental observations indicate that the crosslinking reaction occurs primarily between siloxane segments and the intermolecular crosslinking of isopropylidene groups of adjacent polysulphone segments also takes place after the irradiation of higher doses. From the non-randon radiation crosslinking model which the block copolymer follows, the relationship between sol fraction and crosslink density is derived by a statistical method. The radiation crosslinking structure of block copolymers prepared by polycondensation of prepolymers, polysulphone and polysiloxane, can be controled by changing the average molecular weights of two prepolymers and the ratio of one component to the other.

  15. An open-label, non-randomized comparison of venlafaxine and gabapentin as monotherapy or adjuvant therapy in the management of neuropathic pain in patients with peripheral neuropathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Eardley

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available William Eardley, Cory TothDepartment of Clinical Neurosciences and the University of Calgary, Calgary, AB, CanadaAbstract: Although many therapies are used in the management of neuropathic pain (NeP due to polyneuropathy (PN, few comparison studies exist. We performed a prospective, non-randomized, unblended, efficacy comparison of the serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor venlafaxine, as either monotherapy or adjuvant therapy, with a first-line medication for NeP, gabapentin, in patients with PN-related NeP. VAS pain scores were assessed after 3 and 6 months in intervention groups and in a cohort of patients receiving no pharmacotherapy. In a total of 223 patients, we analyzed pain quantity and quality (visual analogue scale [VAS] score, Brief Pain Inventory [BPI], quality of life and health status measures [EuroQol 5 Domains, EQ-5D], Medical Outcomes Sleep Study Scale [MOSSS], Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale [HADS] and Short Form 36 Health Survey [SF-36] after 6 months of therapy. Significant improvements in VAS pain scores occurred for all treatment groups after 6 months. Improvements in aspects of daily life and anxiety were identified in all treatment groups. Our data suggest that monotherapy or adjuvant therapy with venlafaxine is comparable to gabapentin for NeP management. We advocate for head-to-head, randomized, double-blinded studies of current NeP therapies.Keywords: peripheral neuropathy, neuropathic pain, pharmacotherapy, venlafaxine, gabapentin

  16. Moderating Effect of Negative Peer Group Climate on the Relation Between Men's Locus of Control and Aggression Toward Intimate Partners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Megan R; Lisco, Claire G; Parrott, Dominic J; Tharp, Andra T

    2016-03-01

    The present study sought to examine the interactive effects of an external locus of control and interaction in a negative peer group climate on men's perpetration of physical aggression and infliction of injury toward their female intimate partners. Participants were 206 heterosexual males recruited from the metro-Atlanta community who completed self-report measures of external locus of control, involvement in a negative peer group climate, and physical aggression and infliction of injury against intimate partners during the past 12 months. Negative peer group climate was conceptualized as a peer group that displays behavior which may instigate aggressive norms, attitudes, and behaviors. Results indicated that men with an external locus of control were more likely to perpetrate physical aggression toward and inflict injury on their intimate partners if they reported high, but not low, involvement in a negative peer group climate. These results extend current research suggesting external locus of control as a risk factor for intimate partner aggression by highlighting the impact of negative peer groups. Implications and future intervention research are discussed.

  17. Intake of food groups and idiopathic asthenozoospermia: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eslamian, Ghazaleh; Amirjannati, Naser; Rashidkhani, Bahram; Sadeghi, Mohammad-Reza; Hekmatdoost, Azita

    2012-11-01

    Is there any association between the intake of different food groups and the risk of idiopathic asthenozoospermia? A high intake of processed meat and sweets was positively associated with a higher risk of asthenozoospermia, whereas a high intake of fruits, vegetables, poultry, skim milk and sea foods was associated with a lower risk. A high intake of lipophilic foods like meat products or milk may be negatively associated with semen quality in humans, whereas some fruits or vegetables may maintain or improve semen quality. A case-control study including 72 asthenozoospermic men and 169 normozoospermic men all from infertile couples who underwent face-to-face private interviews, from January 2011 to December 2011. Semen was assessed by volume, sperm concentration, motility and morphology. Usual dietary intakes were assessed using a semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire. Odds ratios (ORs), 95% confidence intervals (CIs) and evaluation of trends were calculated using logistic regression. The first tertile served as the reference category for regression analyses. After adjusting for potential confounders, the risk of asthenozoospermia was significantly higher in the highest tertiles of processed meat (OR: 2.03, 95% CI: 1.70-2.44) and sweets intake (OR: 2.05, 95% CI: 1.09-2.26). Conversely, being in the highest tertile of total fruits and vegetables, the intake of dark green vegetables, skim milk, poultry and sea food intake was associated with a lower risk of asthenozoospermia (P for trend = 0.04, 0.01, 0.02, 0.03 and 0.04, respectively). Recall bias, selection bias and measurement bias are inevitable in this kind of study and residual confounding due to omission or imprecise measurement of important covariates remains possible. Patients with asthenozoospermia should be advised to adhere to a diet rich in fruits, vegetables, poultry, skim milk and sea foods while low in processed meat and sweets. This study was financially supported by the National Nutrition

  18. Psychodynamic/interpersonal group psychotherapy for perfectionism: Evaluating the effectiveness of a short-term treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hewitt, Paul L; Mikail, Samuel F; Flett, Gordon L; Tasca, Giorgio A; Flynn, Carol A; Deng, Xiaolei; Kaldas, Janet; Chen, Chang

    2015-06-01

    This study sought to determine whether clinically significant improvement could be obtained using a psychodynamic/interpersonal group treatment based on a comprehensive conceptualization of perfectionism. A sample of 71 community-recruited perfectionistic individuals participated in the University of British Columbia Perfectionism Treatment Study. Eighteen of these participants were initially nonrandomly assigned to a waitlist control condition. All participants completed measures of perfectionism traits, perfectionistic self-presentation, and automatic perfectionistic thoughts, as well as measures of distress including depression, anxiety, and interpersonal problems at pretreatment, posttreatment, and at a 4-month follow-up. Multilevel modeling demonstrated that perfectionism levels decreased with large effect sizes and that these decreases were associated with reductions in distress measures. Clinically significant decreases were found in all perfectionism components, and posttreatment scores on most variables were significantly lower in the treatment condition versus the waitlist control condition. The findings suggest that psychodynamic/interpersonal group treatment is effective in treating components of perfectionism.

  19. Improvement of functional constipation with kiwifruit intake in a Mediterranean patient population: An open, non-randomized pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oriol Cunillera

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Kiwifruit consumption has shown to improve functional constipation in healthy elderly population, according to studies in New Zealand and China. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of kiwifruit intake on functional constipation in a Mediterranean patient population characterized by its distinctive nutritional habits.Material and Methods: An open, non-controlled and non-randomized longitudinal study was conducted in 46 patients with constipation (Rome III criteria. Patients monitored for five weeks: weeks 1 and 2 no kiwifruit and weeks 3-5 three kiwifruit per day (Green kiwifruit, Actinidia deliciosa var Hayward. Bristol Scale, volume of stools, and ease of defecation was self- reported daily. The evolution of the categorical variables was tested using the Bhapkar test; functional data methodology was used for continuous variables, and Generalized Estimating Equation (GEE models were adjusted.Results: The percentage of patients with ≥3 stools per week increased from 82.61% (95% CI: 69–91.2 at week 1 to 97.78% (95% CI: 87.4–99.9 at week 2 of kiwifruit intake, with 76.09% (95% CI: 61.9–86.2 responding during the first week. The reporting of stable ideal stools increased from 17.39% (95% CI: 8.8–31 at week 2 to 33.33% (95% CI: 21.3–48 at week 5. According to GEE models, the number of depositions increased significantly (p-values<0.001 in 0.398 daily units at week 1 the first week of intake, up to 0.593 daily units at week 5; significant improvements on facility in evacuation and volume of evacuation were found from the firstweek of intake (all p-values<0.001.Conclusions: The intake of three kiwifruits per day significantly improves the quality of evacuation (number of depositions, volume, consistency and ease in a Mediterranean patient population suffering from functional constipation.

  20. The Effect of Group Psychoeducation Program on Medication Adherence in Patients with Bipolar Mood Disorders: a Randomized Controlled Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farnaz Rahmani

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Medication nonadherence is highly prevalent in patients with bipolar disorders and often results in worsening disease prognosis. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of group psychoeducation on medication adherence in female patients with bipolar mood disorder type I. Methods: This randomized controlled trial was conducted on 76 patients with bipolar mood disorder admitted in female psychiatric wards of Razi teaching hospital, Tabriz, Iran. The participants were selected by convenience sampling method and were randomly assigned to experimental and control groups. Patients in experimental group received 10 continuous 90 minutes sessions of psychoeducation, two times a week. Medication adherence was measured using the medicine check list and medication adherence rating scale (MARS before and after intervention. Data analysis was performed with SPSS ver.13. Results: There was no significant difference between two groups regarding medication adherence before the intervention. After the study intervention, the mean scores of medication adherence check list and medication adherence rating scale in the experimental group were significantly higher than the control group. Conclusion: Since group psychoeducation was effective in improving patients' medication adherence, it could be recommended for psychiatric nurses to apply this intervention in the clinical setting.

  1. Functional redundancy patterns reveal non-random assembly rules in a species-rich marine assemblage.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolas Guillemot

    Full Text Available The relationship between species and the functional diversity of assemblages is fundamental in ecology because it contains key information on functional redundancy, and functionally redundant ecosystems are thought to be more resilient, resistant and stable. However, this relationship is poorly understood and undocumented for species-rich coastal marine ecosystems. Here, we used underwater visual censuses to examine the patterns of functional redundancy for one of the most diverse vertebrate assemblages, the coral reef fishes of New Caledonia, South Pacific. First, we found that the relationship between functional and species diversity displayed a non-asymptotic power-shaped curve, implying that rare functions and species mainly occur in highly diverse assemblages. Second, we showed that the distribution of species amongst possible functions was significantly different from a random distribution up to a threshold of ∼90 species/transect. Redundancy patterns for each function further revealed that some functions displayed fast rates of increase in redundancy at low species diversity, whereas others were only becoming redundant past a certain threshold. This suggested non-random assembly rules and the existence of some primordial functions that would need to be fulfilled in priority so that coral reef fish assemblages can gain a basic ecological structure. Last, we found little effect of habitat on the shape of the functional-species diversity relationship and on the redundancy of functions, although habitat is known to largely determine assemblage characteristics such as species composition, biomass, and abundance. Our study shows that low functional redundancy is characteristic of this highly diverse fish assemblage, and, therefore, that even species-rich ecosystems such as coral reefs may be vulnerable to the removal of a few keystone species.

  2. Cortical microtubule arrays are initiated from a nonrandom prepattern driven by atypical microtubule initiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindeboom, Jelmer J; Lioutas, Antonios; Deinum, Eva E; Tindemans, Simon H; Ehrhardt, David W; Emons, Anne Mie C; Vos, Jan W; Mulder, Bela M

    2013-03-01

    The ordered arrangement of cortical microtubules in growing plant cells is essential for anisotropic cell expansion and, hence, for plant morphogenesis. These arrays are dismantled when the microtubule cytoskeleton is rearranged during mitosis and reassembled following completion of cytokinesis. The reassembly of the cortical array has often been considered as initiating from a state of randomness, from which order arises at least partly through self-organizing mechanisms. However, some studies have shown evidence for ordering at early stages of array assembly. To investigate how cortical arrays are initiated in higher plant cells, we performed live-cell imaging studies of cortical array assembly in tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) Bright Yellow-2 cells after cytokinesis and drug-induced disassembly. We found that cortical arrays in both cases did not initiate randomly but with a significant overrepresentation of microtubules at diagonal angles with respect to the cell axis, which coincides with the predominant orientation of the microtubules before their disappearance from the cell cortex in preprophase. In Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) root cells, recovery from drug-induced disassembly was also nonrandom and correlated with the organization of the previous array, although no diagonal bias was observed in these cells. Surprisingly, during initiation, only about one-half of the new microtubules were nucleated from locations marked by green fluorescent protein-γ-tubulin complex protein2-tagged γ-nucleation complexes (γ-tubulin ring complex), therefore indicating that a large proportion of early polymers was initiated by a noncanonical mechanism not involving γ-tubulin ring complex. Simulation studies indicate that the high rate of noncanonical initiation of new microtubules has the potential to accelerate the rate of array repopulation.

  3. Glioma cell line proliferation controlled by different chemical functional groups in vitro

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Su-Ju XU; Fu-Zhai CUI; Xiao-Long YU; Xiang-Dong KONG

    2013-01-01

    Glioma cell line C6 cultured on silicon surfaces modified by different chemical functional groups, including mercapto (-SH), carboxyl (-COOH), amino (-NH2), hydroxyl (-OH) and methyl (-CH3) groups, was studied here to investigate the influence of surface chemistry on the cell proliferation, adhesion and apoptosis. AFM confirmed the similar characteristic of different functional groups occupation. The adhering C6 exhibited morphological changes in response to different chemical functional groups. The C6 adhered to -COOH, -NH2, -OH and -CH3 surfaces and flattened morphology, while those on -SH surface exhibited the smallest contact area with mostly rounded morphology, which led to the death of cancer cells. The results of MTT assay showed that the -COOH and -NH2 groups promoted ceil proliferation, while the -SH significantly inhibited the proliferation. Compared with other chemical functional groups, the -SH group exhibited its unique effect on the fate of cancer cells, which might provide means for the design of biomaterials to prevent and treat glioma.

  4. Comparing Acceptance and Commitment Group Therapy and 12-Steps Narcotics Anonymous in Addict's Rehabilitation Process: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azkhosh, Manoochehr; Farhoudianm, Ali; Saadati, Hemn; Shoaee, Fateme; Lashani, Leila

    2016-10-01

    Objective: Substance abuse is a socio-psychological disorder. The aim of this study was to compare the effectiveness of acceptance and commitment therapy with 12-steps Narcotics Anonymous on psychological well-being of opiate dependent individuals in addiction treatment centers in Shiraz, Iran. Method: This was a randomized controlled trial. Data were collected at entry into the study and at post-test and follow-up visits. The participants were selected from opiate addicted individuals who referred to addiction treatment centers in Shiraz. Sixty individuals were evaluated according to inclusion/ exclusion criteria and were divided into three equal groups randomly (20 participants per group). One group received acceptance and commitment group therapy (Twelve 90-minute sessions) and the other group was provided with the 12-steps Narcotics Anonymous program and the control group received the usual methadone maintenance treatment. During the treatment process, seven participants dropped out. Data were collected using the psychological well-being questionnaire and AAQ questionnaire in the three groups at pre-test, post-test and follow-up visits. Data were analyzed using repeated measure analysis of variance. Results: Repeated measure analysis of variance revealed that the mean difference between the three groups was significant (Pacceptance and commitment therapy group showed improvement relative to the NA and control groups on psychological well-being and psychological flexibility. Conclusion: The results of this study revealed that acceptance and commitment therapy can be helpful in enhancing positive emotions and increasing psychological well-being of addicts who seek treatment.

  5. Self-assembled molecular platforms for bacteria/material biointerface studies: importance to control functional group accessibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Böhmler, Judith; Ponche, Arnaud; Anselme, Karine; Ploux, Lydie

    2013-11-13

    Highly controlled mixed molecular layers are crucial to study the role of material surface chemistry in biointerfaces, such as bacteria and subsequent biofilms interacting with biomaterials. Silanes with non-nucleophilic functional groups are promising to form self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) due to their low sensitivity to side-reactions. Nevertheless, the real control of surface chemistry, layer structure, and organization has not been determined. Here, we report a comprehensive synthesis and analysis of undecyltrichlorosilane- and 11-bromoundecyltrichlorosilane-based mixed SAMs on silicon substrates. The impact of the experimental conditions on the control of surface chemistry, layer structure, and organization was investigated by combining survey and high-resolution X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis, wettability measurements, and ellipsometry. The most appropriate conditions were first determined for elaborating highly reproducible, but easily made, pure 11-bromoundecyltrichlorosilane SAMs. We have demonstrated that the control is maintained on more complex surfaces, i.e., surfaces revealing various chemical densities, which were obtained with different ratios of undecyltrichlorosilane and 11-bromoundecyltrichlorosilane. The control is also maintained after bromine to amine group conversion via SN2 bromine-to-azide reactions. The appropriateness of such highly controlled amino- and methyl-group revealing platforms (NH2-X%/CH3) for biointerface studies was shown by the higher reproducibility of bacterial adhesion on NH2-100%/CH3 SAMs compared to bacterial adhesion on molecular layers of overall similar surface chemistry but less control at the molecular scale.

  6. Metacognitive group training for schizophrenia spectrum patients with delusions : a randomized controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Oosterhout, B.; Krabbendam, L.; de Boer, K.; Ferwerda, J.; van der Helm, M.; Stant, A. D.; van der Gaag, M.

    2014-01-01

    Background. Metacognitive training (MCT) for patients with psychosis is a psychological group intervention that aims to educate patients about common cognitive biases underlying delusion formation and maintenance, and to highlight their negative consequences in daily functioning. Method. In this ran

  7. Testing postural control among various osteoporotic patient groups : A literature review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Groot, Maartje H.; van der Jagt-Willems, Hanna C.; van Campen, Jos P. C. M.; Lems, Willem F.; Lamoth, Claudine J. C.

    2012-01-01

    Aim: Osteoporosis can cause vertebral fractures, which might lead to a flexed posture, impaired postural control and consequently increased fall risk. Therefore, the aim of the present review was to examine whether postural control of patients with osteoporosis, vertebral fractures, thoracic kyphosi

  8. Anger-Control Group Counseling for Women Recovering from Alcohol or Drug Addiction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez-Prendes, A. Antonio

    2008-01-01

    Two experimental conditions, a manualized cognitive-behavioral anger-control treatment incorporating empowerment strategies and a relapse-prevention treatment without the anger-control component, were compared to assess their impact on levels of trait anger and attributional styles of women recovering from alcohol and drug addiction. Participants…

  9. A reply to Cook, "Craftsman versus Professional: Analysis of the Controlled Drinking Controversy".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maltzman, I

    1989-09-01

    I agree with Cook that ideology may influence the selection and presentation of facts in behavioral science. But this is not a primary issue involved in the so-called controlled drinking controversy. A primary issue is my allegation that the Sobells did not do what they said they did and they did not find what they said they found. I believe that the Sobells did not conduct their IBTA study in the manner in which they claimed. On the contrary, they have made mutually contradictory claims concerning the procedures employed. Evidence is also presented suggesting the nonrandom assignment of patients to experimental and control groups.

  10. Efficacy of group psychotherapy for social anxiety disorder: A meta-analysis of randomized-controlled trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barkowski, Sarah; Schwartze, Dominique; Strauss, Bernhard; Burlingame, Gary M; Barth, Jürgen; Rosendahl, Jenny

    2016-04-01

    Group psychotherapy for social anxiety disorder (SAD) is an established treatment supported by findings from primary studies and earlier meta-analyses. However, a comprehensive summary of the recent evidence is still pending. This meta-analysis investigates the efficacy of group psychotherapy for adult patients with SAD. A literature search identified 36 randomized-controlled trials examining 2171 patients. Available studies used mainly cognitive-behavioral group therapies (CBGT); therefore, quantitative analyses were done for CBGT. Medium to large positive effects emerged for wait list-controlled trials for specific symptomatology: g=0.84, 95% CI [0.72; 0.97] and general psychopathology: g=0.62, 95% CI [0.36; 0.89]. Group psychotherapy was also superior to common factor control conditions in alleviating symptoms of SAD, but not in improving general psychopathology. No differences appeared for direct comparisons of group psychotherapy and individual psychotherapy or pharmacotherapy. Hence, group psychotherapy for SAD is an efficacious treatment, equivalent to other treatment formats.

  11. Perceived Family Climate and Self-Esteem in Adolescents With ADHD: A Study With a Control Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uçar, Halit Necmi; Eray, Şafak; Vural, Ayşe Pınar; Kocael, Ömer

    2017-04-01

    In this study, our objective is to assess the perception of family environments by adolescents with ADHD based on perceived expressed emotion (EE) and the self-esteem of the adolescents. Uludag University Medical Faculty Hospital completed this study with 41 adolescents with ADHD and 35 control group participants who were matched based on age and gender. The total scores of perceived EE, described as a lack of emotional support, irritability, and intrusiveness, were significantly higher in ADHD group than in the control group. The group with ADHD also showed significantly lower self-esteem. There was a negative correlation between self-esteem scores and total perceived EE scores in the ADHD group and the control group. This study showed that the adolescents with ADHD perceive less emotional support and higher levels of intrusiveness, with patients also describing their families as more irritating. Other results in this study show that adolescents with less emotional support possess lower self-esteem, as do adolescents with more irritable parents.

  12. Group Control System by PC and PLC%PC-PLC组成的电梯群控系统

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐勇奇; 赵葵银

    2001-01-01

    介绍一种由PC与PLC组成的电梯群控系统,讲述了系统的软件设计方法和PLC与PC之间的通讯方案。%This paper introduced the group control system of an elevator control system with PC and PLC and also described the design of its software and the communication method between PLC and PC.

  13. Control of oxo-group functionalization and reduction of the uranyl ion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, Polly L; Pécharman, Anne-Frédérique; Lord, Rianne M; Jones, Guy M; Hollis, Emmalina; Nichol, Gary S; Maron, Laurent; Fang, Jian; Davin, Thomas; Love, Jason B

    2015-04-01

    Uranyl complexes of a large, compartmental N8-macrocycle adopt a rigid, "Pacman" geometry that stabilizes the U(V) oxidation state and promotes chemistry at a single uranyl oxo-group. We present here new and straightforward routes to singly reduced and oxo-silylated uranyl Pacman complexes and propose mechanisms that account for the product formation, and the byproduct distributions that are formed using alternative reagents. Uranyl(VI) Pacman complexes in which one oxo-group is functionalized by a single metal cation are activated toward single-electron reduction. As such, the addition of a second equivalent of a Lewis acidic metal complex such as MgN″2 (N″ = N(SiMe3)2) forms a uranyl(V) complex in which both oxo-groups are Mg functionalized as a result of Mg-N bond homolysis. In contrast, reactions with the less Lewis acidic complex [Zn(N″)Cl] favor the formation of weaker U-O-Zn dative interactions, leading to reductive silylation of the uranyl oxo-group in preference to metalation. Spectroscopic, crystallographic, and computational analysis of these reactions and of oxo-metalated products isolated by other routes have allowed us to propose mechanisms that account for pathways to metalation or silylation of the exo-oxo-group.

  14. Comparison of pain control medication in three age groups of elderly patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honari, S; Patterson, D R; Gibbons, J; Martin-Herz, S P; Mann, R; Gibran, N S; Heimbach, D M

    1997-01-01

    There are no published reports of burn pain management in the elderly population. To assess the range of requirement and use of opioids among elderly patients with burns of different age categories, a retrospective review of 89 consecutive admissions of patients over 55 years of age (January 1995 through July 1996) was conducted. Complete data were available on 44 patients with a burn mean total body surface area of 17.2%. Patient ages ranged from 55 to 92 years. Individuals were divided into three age categories: Group I (55 to 65) n = 20; Group II (66 to 75) n = 14; and Group III (76 to 92) n = 10. Use of commonly prescribed opioids for procedural pain and breakthrough pain were evaluated. We compared the opioid equivalents of medications prescribed versus the actual amount administered. Paired t tests comparing minimum amount of medication ordered with that given revealed Group I patients received significantly more procedural medication than the minimum prescribed (t = 3.88, p = 0.001), and that Group III patients were given significantly less as needed medication than the minimum prescribed (t = 2.58, p < 0.05).

  15. Group cognitive behavioural treatment for insomnia in primary care: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cape, J; Leibowitz, J; Whittington, C; Espie, C A; Pilling, S

    2016-04-01

    Insomnia disorder is common and often co-morbid with mental health conditions. Cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) for insomnia is effective, but is rarely implemented as a discrete treatment. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of brief CBT groups for insomnia compared to treatment as usual (TAU) for insomnia delivered by mental health practitioners in a primary-care mental health service. A total of 239 participants were randomized to either a five-session CBT group or to TAU. Assessments of sleep and of symptoms of depression and anxiety were carried out at baseline, post-treatment and at 20 weeks. Primary outcome was sleep efficiency post-treatment. Group CBT participants had better sleep outcomes post-treatment than those receiving TAU [sleep efficiency standardized mean difference 0.63, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.34-0.92]. The effect at 20 weeks was smaller with a wide confidence interval (0.27, 95% CI -0.03 to 0.56). There were no important differences between groups at either follow-up period in symptoms of anxiety or depression. Dedicated CBT group treatment for insomnia improves sleep more than treating sleep as an adjunct to other mental health treatment.

  16. DVD training for depression identification and treatment in older adults: a two-group, randomized, wait-list control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lysack, Cathy; Leach, Carrie; Russo, Theresa; Paulson, Daniel; Lichtenberg, Peter A

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE. To test the effectiveness of an educational intervention aimed at improving mental health knowledge and skills in occupational therapists working with older rehabilitation patients. METHOD. The DVD-format educational intervention was evaluated using a two-group randomized wait-list control design. Occupational therapists (n = 75) completed a 32-item knowledge questionnaire at three time points. Patient charts were reviewed (n = 960) at 3 months before and 3 and 6 months after DVD training to evaluate clinical practice change. RESULTS. A two-way analysis of variance showed knowledge scores increased significantly for both groups after DVD training. A significant Group × Time interaction and significant main effects for time and group were found. Chart review data also showed significant increases in desired clinical behaviors in both groups after training. The greatest single item of clinical practice change was use of a standardized depression screen. CONCLUSION. DVD-based training can significantly improve mental health practice.

  17. The role of control groups in mutagenicity studies: matching biological and statistical relevance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauschke, Dieter; Hothorn, Torsten; Schäfer, Juliane

    2003-06-01

    The statistical test of the conventional hypothesis of "no treatment effect" is commonly used in the evaluation of mutagenicity experiments. Failing to reject the hypothesis often leads to the conclusion in favour of safety. The major drawback of this indirect approach is that what is controlled by a prespecified level alpha is the probability of erroneously concluding hazard (producer risk). However, the primary concern of safety assessment is the control of the consumer risk, i.e. limiting the probability of erroneously concluding that a product is safe. In order to restrict this risk, safety has to be formulated as the alternative, and hazard, i.e. the opposite, has to be formulated as the hypothesis. The direct safety approach is examined for the case when the corresponding threshold value is expressed either as a fraction of the population mean for the negative control, or as a fraction of the difference between the positive and negative controls.

  18. Variations of high frequency parameter of heart rate variability following osteopathic manipulative treatment in healthy subjects compared to control group and sham therapy: randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuria eRuffini

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Context: Heart Rate Variability (HRV indicates how heart rate changes in response to inner and external stimuli. HRV is linked to health status and it is an indirect marker of the autonomic nervous system (ANS function. Objective: To investigate the influence of osteopathic manipulative treatment (OMT on ANS activity through changes of High Frequency, a heart rate variability index indicating the parasympathetic activity, in healthy subjects, compared with sham therapy and control group.Methods: Sixty-six healthy subjects, both male and female, were included in the present 3-armed randomized placebo controlled within subject cross-over single blinded study. Participants were asymptomatic adults, both smokers and non-smokers and not on medications. At enrollment subjects were randomized in 3 groups: A, B, C. Standardized structural evaluation followed by a patient need-based osteopathic treatment was performed in the first session of group A and in the second session of group B. Standardized evaluation followed by a protocoled sham treatment was provided in the second session of group A and in the first session of group B. No intervention was performed in the two sessions of group C, acting as a time-control. The trial was registered on clinicaltrials.gov identifier: NCT01908920.Main Outcomes Measures: HRV was calculated from electrocardiography before, during and after the intervention, for a total amount time of 25 minutes.Results: OMT engendered a statistically significant increase of parasympathetic activity, as shown by High Frequency rate (p<0.001, and decrease of sympathetic activity, as revealed by Low Frequency rate (p<0.01; results also showed a reduction of Low Frequency/High Frequency ratio (p<0.001 and Detrended fluctuation scaling exponent (p<0.05. Conclusions: Findings suggested that OMT can influence ANS activity increasing parasympathetic function and decreasing sympathetic activity, compared to sham therapy and control group.

  19. Personalised normative feedback for preventing alcohol misuse in university students: Solomon three-group randomised controlled trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria T Moreira

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Young people tend to over-estimate peer group drinking levels. Personalised normative feedback (PNF aims to correct this misperception by providing information about personal drinking levels and patterns compared with norms in similar aged peer groups. PNF is intended to raise motivation for behaviour change and has been highlighted for alcohol misuse prevention by the British Government Behavioural Insight Team. The objective of the trial was to assess the effectiveness of PNF with college students for the prevention of alcohol misuse. METHODOLOGY: Solomon three-group randomised controlled trial. 1751 students, from 22 British Universities, allocated to a PNF group, a normal control group, or a delayed measurement control group to allow assessment of any measurement effects. PNF was provided by email. Participants completed online questionnaires at baseline, 6- and 12-months (only 12-months for the delayed measurement controls. Drinking behaviour measures were (i alcohol disorders; (ii frequency; (iii typical quantity, (iv weekly consumption; (v alcohol-related problems; (vi perceived drinking norms; and (vii positive alcohol expectancies. Analyses focused on high-risk drinkers, as well as all students, because of research evidence for the prevention paradox in student drinkers. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Follow-up rates were low, with only 50% and 40% responding at 6- and 12-months, respectively, though comparable to similar European studies. We found no evidence for any systematic attrition bias. Overall, statistical analyses with the high risk sub-sample, and for all students, showed no significant effects of the intervention, at either time-point, in a completed case analysis and a multiple imputation analysis. CONCLUSIONS: We found no evidence for the effectiveness of PNF for the prevention of alcohol misuse and alcohol-related problems in a UK student population. REGISTRATION: Controlled-Trials.com ISRCTN30784467.

  20. Lasing oscillation condition and group delay control in gain-assisted plasmon-induced transparency

    CERN Document Server

    Deng, Zi-Lan; Wang, He-Zhou; Cheng, S H; Li, Jensen

    2012-01-01

    A gain-assisted plasmonic waveguide with two detuned resonators is investigated in the plasmon-induced transparency window. Phase map is employed to study power transmittance and group delay for varying gain coefficients and frequency detunings of the two resonators. The gain coefficient for lasing oscillation condition is analytically shown to vary quadratically with the frequency detuning. In the amplification regime below the lasing threshold, the spectrum implies not only large group delay, but also high transmittance and narrow linewidth. This is in contrast to those in the loss-compensation regime and the passive case in which there always exists a trade-off between the linewidth and the peak transmittance.

  1. Hepatic artery injection of {sup 131}I-labelled metuximab combined with chemoembolization for intermediate hepatocellular carcinoma: a prospective nonrandomized study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Lu; Yang, Ye-Fa; Ge, Nai-Jian; Shen, Shu-Qun; Liang, Jun [Second Military Medical University, The First Department of Interventional Radiology, Eastern Hepatobiliary Surgery Hospital, Shanghai (China); Wang, Yi [Second Military Medical University, The Second Department of Hepatic Surgery, Eastern Hepatobiliary Surgery Hospital, Shanghai (China); Zhou, Wei-Ping [Second Military Medical University, The Third Department of Hepatic Surgery, Eastern Hepatobiliary Surgery Hospital, Shanghai (China); Shen, Feng; Wu, Meng-Chao [Second Military Medical University, Eastern Hepatobiliary Surgery Hospital, Shanghai (China)

    2012-08-15

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the fifth and seventh most common cause of cancer in men and women, respectively. Transcatheter arterial chemoembolization (TACE) is the standardized therapy for the intermediate stage of HCC. However, the 3-year overall survival remains low (<30 %) in these patients. Thus, there is a critical need for the development of treatment modalities to improve the survival rate. This study aimed to evaluate whether the combination of {sup 131}I-metuximab with chemoembolization could improve treatment efficiency. Between January 2009 and January 2010, a prospective two-arm nonrandomized study was performed in patients with intermediate HCC. Of 138 patients, 68 (combination therapy group) received 132 courses of intraarterial {sup 131}I-metuximab injections combined with chemoembolization (mean 1.94 per patient, median 2, range 1-2), followed by 152 sessions of TACE (mean 2.24 per patient, median 2, range 0-4). The remaining 70 patients (monotherapy group) received 296 sessions of TACE (mean 4.23 per patient, median 4, range 1-7). The overall median survival times for the combination therapy group and the group treated only with TACE were 26.7 months (95 % CI 20.7-31.3 months) and 20.6 months (95 % CI 15.3-24.7 months), respectively. The combination therapy group had a significantly higher survival rate than the TACE-only group (P = 0.038). Age {>=}65 years, serum albumin {<=}35 g/l, and treatment category (combination therapy or TACE only) were independent prognostic factors for survival according to multivariate analysis. The combination of {sup 131}I-metuximab and chemoembolization extended survival in patients with intermediate HCC compared with TACE only, and was well tolerated by patients with Child-Pugh class A or B disease. This combination seems to be a promising treatment modality for patients with intermediate HCC. (orig.)

  2. Group schema therapy versus group cognitive behavioral therapy for social anxiety disorder with comorbid avoidant personality disorder: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baljé, Astrid; Greeven, Anja; van Giezen, Anne; Korrelboom, Kees; Arntz, Arnoud; Spinhoven, Philip

    2016-10-08

    Social anxiety disorder (SAD) with comorbid avoidant personality disorder (APD) has a high prevalence and is associated with serious psychosocial problems and high societal costs. When patients suffer from both SAD and APD, the Dutch multidisciplinary guidelines for personality disorders advise offering prolonged cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT). Recently there is increasing evidence for the effectiveness of schema therapy (ST) for personality disorders such as borderline personality disorder and cluster C personality disorders. Since ST addresses underlying personality characteristics and maladaptive coping strategies developed in childhood, this treatment might be particularly effective for patients with SAD and comorbid APD. To our knowledge, there are no studies comparing CBT with ST in this particular group of patients. This superiority trial aims at comparing the effectiveness of these treatments. As an additional goal, predictors and underlying mechanisms of change will be explored. The design of the study is a multicentre two-group randomized controlled trial (RCT) in which the treatment effect of group cognitive behavioral therapy (GCBT) will be compared to that of group schema therapy (GST) in a semi-open group format. A total of 128 patients aged 18-65 years old will be enrolled. Patients will receive 30 sessions of GCBT or GST during a period of approximately 9 months. Primary outcome measures are the Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale Self-Report (LSAS-SR) for social anxiety disorder and the newly developed Avoidant Personality Disorder Severity Index (AVPDSI) for avoidant personality disorder. Secondary outcome measures are the MINI section SAD, the SCID-II section APD, the Schema Mode Inventory (SMI-2), the Inventory of Depressive Symptomatology Self-Report (IDS-SR), the World Health Organization Quality of Life-BREF (WHOQOL-BREF), the Difficulties in Emotion Regulation Scale (DERS), the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (RSES) and the Acceptance and Action

  3. Reducing sore throat following laryngeal mask airway insertion: comparing lidocaine gel, saline, and washing mouth with the control group

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehryar Taghavi Gilani

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Laryngeal mask airway is still accompanied by complications such as sore throat. In this study, effects of three methods of reducing postoperative sore throat were compared with the control group. METHODS: 240 patients with ASA I, II candidates for cataract surgery were randomly divided into four same groups. No supplementary method was used in the control group. In the second, third and fourth groups, lidocaine gel, washing cuff before insertion, and washing mouth before removing laryngeal mask airway were applied, respectively. Anesthesia induction was done with fentanyl, atracurium, and propofol and maintained with propofol infusion. The incidence of sore throat was evaluated during the recovery, 3-4 h later and after 24 h using verbal analog scale. The data were analyzed by t-test, analysis of variance and chi-square using SPSS V11.5. RESULTS: Age, gender, duration of surgery and cuff pressure were the same in all the four groups. Incidence of sore throat at recovery room was highest in the control group (43.3% and lowest in the washing mouth group (25%. However, no significant statistical difference was observed between these four groups (recovery, p = 0.30; discharge, p = 0.31; examination, p = 0.52. In this study, increased duration of operation had a significant relationship with the incidence of sore throat (p = 0.041. CONCLUSION: Sore throat is a common postoperative problem, but no special method has been found completely efficient yet. In this study, cuff washing, lidocaine gel, and mouth washing before removing laryngeal mask airway were not helpful for sore throat.

  4. [Reducing sore throat following laryngeal mask airway insertion: comparing lidocaine gel, saline, and washing mouth with the control group].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taghavi Gilani, Mehryar; Miri Soleimani, Iman; Razavi, Majid; Salehi, Maryam

    2015-01-01

    Laryngeal mask airway is still accompanied by complications such as sore throat. In this study, effects of three methods of reducing postoperative sore throat were compared with the control group. 240 patients with ASA I, II candidates for cataract surgery were randomly divided into four same groups. No supplementary method was used in the control group. In the second, third and fourth groups, lidocaine gel, washing cuff before insertion, and washing mouth before removing laryngeal mask airway were applied, respectively. Anesthesia induction was done with fentanyl, atracurium, and propofol and maintained with propofol infusion. The incidence of sore throat was evaluated during the recovery, 3-4h later and after 24h using verbal analog scale. The data were analyzed by t-test, analysis of variance and chi-square using SPSS V11.5. Age, gender, duration of surgery and cuff pressure were the same in all the four groups. Incidence of sore throat at recovery room was highest in the control group (43.3%) and lowest in the washing mouth group (25%). However, no significant statistical difference was observed between these four groups (recovery, p=0.30; discharge, p=0.31; examination, p=0.52). In this study, increased duration of operation had a significant relationship with the incidence of sore throat (p=0.041). Sore throat is a common postoperative problem, but no special method has been found completely efficient yet. In this study, cuff washing, lidocaine gel, and mouth washing before removing laryngeal mask airway were not helpful for sore throat. Copyright © 2013 Sociedade Brasileira de Anestesiologia. Publicado por Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  5. Reducing sore throat following laryngeal mask airway insertion: comparing lidocaine gel, saline, and washing mouth with the control group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taghavi Gilani, Mehryar; Miri Soleimani, Iman; Razavi, Majid; Salehi, Maryam

    2015-01-01

    Laryngeal mask airway is still accompanied by complications such as sore throat. In this study, effects of three methods of reducing postoperative sore throat were compared with the control group. 240 patients with ASA I, II candidates for cataract surgery were randomly divided into four same groups. No supplementary method was used in the control group. In the second, third and fourth groups, lidocaine gel, washing cuff before insertion, and washing mouth before removing laryngeal mask airway were applied, respectively. Anesthesia induction was done with fentanyl, atracurium, and propofol and maintained with propofol infusion. The incidence of sore throat was evaluated during the recovery, 3-4h later and after 24h using verbal analog scale. The data were analyzed by t-test, analysis of variance and chi-square using SPSS V11.5. Age, gender, duration of surgery and cuff pressure were the same in all the four groups. Incidence of sore throat at recovery room was highest in the control group (43.3%) and lowest in the washing mouth group (25%). However, no significant statistical difference was observed between these four groups (recovery, p=0.30; discharge, p=0.31; examination, p=0.52). In this study, increased duration of operation had a significant relationship with the incidence of sore throat (p=0.041). Sore throat is a common postoperative problem, but no special method has been found completely efficient yet. In this study, cuff washing, lidocaine gel, and mouth washing before removing laryngeal mask airway were not helpful for sore throat. Copyright © 2013 Sociedade Brasileira de Anestesiologia. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  6. Can sharing experiences in groups reduce the burden of living with diabetes, regardless of glycaemic control?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Due-Christensen, Mette; Zoffmann, Vibeke; Hommel, Eva

    2012-01-01

    Aims To test whether patients with Type 1 diabetes would join support groups and benefit by improving psychosocial functioning, regardless of their HbA1c levels. Methods A pre-post test with follow-up after 6 and 12 months was conducted as a concurrent mixed-method study. The convenience sample...

  7. Locus of Control and Other Psycho-Social Parameters in Successful American Age-Group Swimmers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Edmund J., Jr.; Straub, William F.

    Psycho-social factors in successful age-group swimmers were explored in this study. The subjects were 50 female and 39 male participants in the 1975 Amateur Athletic Union National Junior Olympics who were asked to answer a set of questions from an open-ended questionnaire. The results support a picture of young persons who invest a great deal of…

  8. Control of olefin geometry in macrocyclic ring-closing metathesis using a removable silyl group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yikai; Jimenez, Miguel; Hansen, Anders S; Raiber, Eun-Ang; Schreiber, Stuart L; Young, Damian W

    2011-06-22

    Introducing a silyl group at one of the internal olefin positions in diolefinic substrates results in E-selective olefin formation in macrocyclic ring-forming metathesis. The application of this method to a range of macrocyclic (E)-alkenylsiloxanes is described. Protodesilylation of alkenylsiloxane products yields novel Z-configured macrocycles.

  9. The effectiveness of peer support groups in psychosis : a randomized controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Castelein, S.; Bruggeman, R.; van Busschbach, J. T.; van der Gaag, M.; Stant, A. D.; Knegtering, H.; Wiersma, D.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the effect of a (minimally) guided peer support group (GPSG) for people with psychosis on social network, social support, self-efficacy, self-esteem, and quality of life, and to evaluate the intervention and its economic consequences. Method: In a multi-center randomized co

  10. Resources Sharing and Access Control in Group-oriented Networks: Fednet and Related Paradigms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ibrohimovna, K.M.; Heemstra de Groot, S.

    2009-01-01

    A Personal Network (PN) is a network composed of devices of a person that can communicate with each other independently from their geographical location. Extra functionality in PNs enables the cooperation amongst different persons forming a group-oriented network called a Federation of Personal Netw

  11. Controlling the emission wavelength in group III-V semiconductor laser diodes

    KAUST Repository

    Ooi, Boon S.

    2016-12-29

    Methods are provided for modifying the emission wavelength of a semiconductor quantum well laser diode, e.g. by blue shifting the emission wavelength. The methods can be applied to a variety of semiconductor quantum well laser diodes, e.g. group III-V semiconductor quantum wells. The group III-V semiconductor can include AlSb, AlAs, Aln, AlP, BN, GaSb, GaAs, GaN, GaP, InSb, InAs, InN, and InP, and group III-V ternary semiconductors alloys such as AlxGai.xAs. The methods can results in a blue shifting of about 20 meV to 350 meV, which can be used for example to make group III-V semiconductor quantum well laser diodes with an emission that is orange or yellow. Methods of making semiconductor quantum well laser diodes and semiconductor quantum well laser diodes made therefrom are also provided.

  12. Light-Triggered Control of Plasmonic Refraction and Group Delay by Photochromic Molecular Switches

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Großmann, Malte; Klick, Alwin; Lemke, Christoph

    2015-01-01

    An interface supporting plasmonic switching is prepared from a gold substrate coated with a polymerfilm doped with photochromic molecular switches. A reversible light-induced change in the surface plasmon polariton dispersion curve of the interface is experimentally demonstrated, evidencing rever...... complex functionalities based on surface plasmon refraction and group delay....

  13. Influence of controlled and uncontrolled interventions on Twitter in different target groups

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maanen, P.P. van; Aarts, O.; Boertjes, E.; Wijn, R.

    2013-01-01

    In this paper the influence of interventions on Twitter users is studied. We define influence in a) number of participants, b) size of the audience, c) amount of activity, and d) reach. Influence is studied for four different target groups: a) politicians, b) journalists, c) employees and d) the gen

  14. Control of Surface Functional Groups on Pertechntate Sorption on Activated Carbon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Y. Wang; H. Gao; R. Yeredla; H. Xu; M. Abrecht; G.D. Stasio

    2006-07-05

    {sup 99}Tc is highly soluble and poorly adsorbed by natural materials under oxidizing conditions, thus being of particular concern for radioactive waste disposal. Activated carbon can potentially be used as an adsorbent for removing Tc from aqueous solutions. We have tested six commercial activated carbon materials for their capabilities for sorption of pertechnetate (TcO{sub 4}{sup -}). The tested materials can be grouped into two distinct types: Type I materials have high sorption capabilities with the distribution coefficients (K{sub d}) varying from 9.5 x 10{sup 5} to 3.2 x 10{sup 3} mL/g as the pH changes from 4.5 to 9.5, whereas type II materials have relatively low sorption capabilities with K{sub d} remaining more or less constant (1.1 x 10{sup 3} - 1.8 x 10{sup 3} mL/g) over a similar pH range. The difference in sorption behavior between the two types of materials is attributed to the distribution of surface functional groups. The predominant surface groups are identified to be carboxylic and phenolic groups. The carboxylic group can be further divided into three subgroups A, B, and C in the order of increasing acidity. The high sorption capabilities of type I materials are found to be caused by the presence of a large fraction of carboxylic subgroups A and B, while the low sorption capabilities of type II materials are due to the exclusive presence of phenolic and carboxylic subgroup C. Therefore, the performance of activated carbon for removing TcO{sub 4}{sup -} can be improved by enhancing the formation of carboxylic subgroups A and B during material processing.

  15. Identity Development as a Buffer of Adolescent Risk Behaviors in the Context of Peer Group Pressure and Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumas, Tara M.; Ellis, Wendy E.; Wolfe, David A.

    2012-01-01

    We examined identity development as a moderator of the relation between peer group pressure and control and adolescents' engagement in risk behaviors. Participants (n = 1070; M[subscript age] = 15.45 years) completed a self-report measure of "identity exploration", the degree to which they have explored a variety of self-relevant values, beliefs…

  16. 75 FR 68401 - Duncan Smith and Gerald Altizer-Continuance in Control Exemption-Eighteen Thirty Group, LLC and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-05

    ... Surface Transportation Board Duncan Smith and Gerald Altizer--Continuance in Control Exemption--Eighteen Thirty Group, LLC and Georges Creek Railway, LLC Duncan Smith and Gerald Altizer (collectively applicants... Georges Creek becoming Class III rail carriers. Mr. Smith owns 80% of Eighteen Thirty and 75% of...

  17. Central model predictive control of a group of domestic heat pumps, case study for a small district

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leeuwen, van R.P.; Fink, J.; Smit, G.J.M.; Helfert, Markus; Krempels, Karl-Heinz; Donnellan, Brian; Klein, Cornel

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we investigate optimal control of a group of heat pumps. Each heat pump provides space heating and domestic hot water to a single household. Besides a heat pump, each house has a buffer for domestic hot water and a floor heating system for space heating. The paper describes models and

  18. Predicting Participation in Group Parenting Education in an Australian Sample: The Role of Attitudes, Norms, and Control Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Katherine M.; Wellington, Larne

    2009-01-01

    We examined the theory of planned behavior (TPB) in predicting intentions to participate in group parenting education. One hundred and seventy-six parents (138 mothers and 38 fathers) with a child under 12 years completed TPB items assessing attitude, subjective norms, perceived behavioral control (PBC), and two additional social influence…

  19. Qualitative Inquiry into Church-Based Assets for HIV/AIDS Prevention and Control: A Forum Focus Group Discussion Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aja, Godwin N.; Modeste, Naomi N.; Montgomery, Susanne B.

    2012-01-01

    Assets church members believed they needed to engage in effective HIV/AIDS prevention and control activities. We used the three-step forum focus group discussion (FFGD) methodology to elicit responses from 32 church leaders and lay members, representing five denominations in Aba, Nigeria. Concrete resources, health expertise, finances,…

  20. Central model predictive control of a group of domestic heat pumps, case study for a small district

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Leeuwen, Richard Pieter; Fink, J.; Smit, Gerardus Johannes Maria; Helfert, Markus; Krempels, Karl-Heinz; Donnellan, Brian; Klein, Cornel

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we investigate optimal control of a group of heat pumps. Each heat pump provides space heating and domestic hot water to a single household. Besides a heat pump, each house has a buffer for domestic hot water and a floor heating system for space heating. The paper describes models and

  1. Identity Development as a Buffer of Adolescent Risk Behaviors in the Context of Peer Group Pressure and Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumas, Tara M.; Ellis, Wendy E.; Wolfe, David A.

    2012-01-01

    We examined identity development as a moderator of the relation between peer group pressure and control and adolescents' engagement in risk behaviors. Participants (n = 1070; M[subscript age] = 15.45 years) completed a self-report measure of "identity exploration", the degree to which they have explored a variety of self-relevant values, beliefs…

  2. Understanding the Association between Maltreatment History and Adolescent Risk Behavior by Examining Popularity Motivations and Peer Group Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Wendy E.; Wolfe, David A.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine how peer group processes of pressure and control and individual motivations for popularity would add to, and moderate the relationship between, childhood maltreatment and risky behavior in adolescence. A total of 1558 youth (804 girls) from three high schools in Ontario, Canada (M age = 15.02 years,…

  3. Regression Artifacts in Nonequivalent Control Group Designs: An Empirical Investigation of Bias in ANCOVA and Matching Designs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vermillion, James E.

    The presence of artifactual bias in analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) and in matching nonequivalent control group (NECG) designs was empirically investigated. The data set was obtained from a study of the effects of a television program on children from three day care centers in Mexico in which the subjects had been randomly selected within centers.…

  4. Disappointment and drop-out rate after being allocated to control group in a smoking cessation trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindström, D; Sundberg-Petersson, I; Adami, J

    2010-01-01

    If a patient agrees to take part in a randomised trial it is reasonable to presume that the patient would prefer to be allocated into the intervention. This study's aim was to investigate how patients react after they have been randomised into control group....

  5. Factors associated with hypertension awareness, treatment and control among ethnic groups in Amsterdam, The Netherlands: The SUNSET study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C. Agyemang; I. van Valkengoed; R. Koopmans; K. Stronks

    2006-01-01

    We sought to determine factors associated with hypertension awareness, pharmacological treatment and control among ethnic groups in Amsterdam, The Netherlands. We analysed data on hypertensive subjects ( Dutch n = 130, Hindustani n = 115 and African Surinamese n 225). After adjustments for important

  6. Optimal Control of a Wind Farm Group Using the WindEx System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr Kacejko

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to present achievements obtained in implementing the framework project N R01 0021 06 in the Power System Department of Lublin University of Technology. The result of the work was “A system of optimal wind farm power control in the conditions of limited transmission capabilities of power networks”, which one of two main modules is a state estimator. The featured wind farm control system was integrated with a SCADA dispatcher system WindEx using the WebSVC service.

  7. The luminescent carbon nanoparticles with controllable oxygen-related functional groups prepared by pulsed laser ablation in water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jun; Gan, Zhixing; Hu, Guang; Tang, Yalu; Zhou, Lei; Jiang, Qingsong; Cui, Yu

    2016-10-01

    Fluorescent carbon nanoparticles (CNPs) are obtained via pulsed laser ablation (PLA) of a carbon target immersed in deionized water. By tuning the laser power for PLA, the density of oxygen-related functional groups at the surfaces is controllable. While the crystallinities, sizes, morphologies and defects are nearly retained, the prepared CNPs show blue fluorescence under UV exposure and the photoluminescence (PL) intensities of the C-dots are dependent on the oxygen contents. Accordingly, the PL is attributed to the transition of electronic states caused by oxygen-related functional groups. This work sheds new light on the PL mechanism of CNPs and proposes an efficient way to prepare CNPs with controllable oxygen-related functional groups.

  8. The Effects of Peer-Controlled or Moderated Online Collaboration on Group Problem Solving and Related Attitudes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ke Zhang

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. This study investigated the relative benefits of peer-controlled and moderated online collaboration during group problem solving. Thirty-five self-selected groups of four or five students were randomly assigned to the two conditions, which used the same online collaborative tool to solve twelve problem scenarios in an undergraduate statistics course. A score for the correctness of the solutions and a reasoning score were analyzed. A survey was administered to reveal differences in students' related attitudes. Three conclusions were reached: 1. Groups assigned to moderated forums displayed significantly higher reasoning scores than those in the peer-controlled condition, but the moderation did not affect correctness of solutions. 2. Students in the moderated forums reported being more likely to choose to use an optional online forum for future collaborations. 3. Students who reported having no difficulty during collaboration reported being more likely to choose to use an optional online forum in the future.

  9. Out of the group, out of control? The brain responds to social exclusion with changes in cognitive control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otten, Marte; Jonas, Kai J

    2013-10-01

    The effects of social exclusion are far-reaching, both on an emotional and behavioral level. The present study investigates whether social exclusion also directly influences basic cognitive functions, specifically the ability to exert cognitive control. Participants were either excluded or included while playing an online game. To test whether exclusion altered cognitive control, we measured the electrophysiological responses to a Go/No Go task. In this task participants had to withhold a response (No Go) on a small number of trials while the predominant tendency was to make an overt (Go) response. Compared to Go trials the event-related potential evoked by No Go trials elicited an increased N2, reflecting the detection of the response conflict, followed by an increased P3, reflecting the inhibition of the predominant response. The N2 effect was larger for participants who had experienced exclusion, while the P3 effect was smaller. This indicates that exclusion leads to an increased ability to detect response conflicts, while at the same time exclusion decreases the neural processes that underlie the inhibition of unwanted behavior.

  10. Distributed Model Predictive Control over Multiple Groups of Vehicles in Highway Intelligent Space for Large Scale System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tang Xiaofeng

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the three time warning distances for solving the large scale system of multiple groups of vehicles safety driving characteristics towards highway tunnel environment based on distributed model prediction control approach. Generally speaking, the system includes two parts. First, multiple vehicles are divided into multiple groups. Meanwhile, the distributed model predictive control approach is proposed to calculate the information framework of each group. Each group of optimization performance considers the local optimization and the neighboring subgroup of optimization characteristics, which could ensure the global optimization performance. Second, the three time warning distances are studied based on the basic principles used for highway intelligent space (HIS and the information framework concept is proposed according to the multiple groups of vehicles. The math model is built to avoid the chain avoidance of vehicles. The results demonstrate that the proposed highway intelligent space method could effectively ensure driving safety of multiple groups of vehicles under the environment of fog, rain, or snow.

  11. Disappointment and adherence among parents of newborns allocated to the control group

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meinich Petersen, Sandra; Zoffmann, Vibeke; Kjærgaard, Jesper

    2014-01-01

    of getting the vaccine elsewhere, and one had actually had their child vaccinated. All parents involved in the focus group and the telephone interviews wanted to participate in the follow-ups planned for the Calmette study. CONCLUSIONS: This study identified an almost universal experience of disappointment......BACKGROUND: When a child participates in a clinical trial, informed consent has to be given by the parents. Parental motives for participation are complex, but the hope of getting a new and better treatment for the child is important. We wondered how parents react when their child is allocated...... the non-specific effects of early BCG-vaccine to healthy neonates. Randomization is performed immediately after birth and parents are not blinded to the allocation. We set up a semi-structured focus group with six parents from four families. Afterwards we telephone-interviewed another 19 mothers...

  12. Accounting for Teamwork: A Critical Study of Group-Based Systems of Organizational Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezzamel, Mahmoud; Willmott, Hugh

    1998-01-01

    Examines the role of accounting calculations in reorganizing manufacturing capabilities of a vertically integrated global retailing company. Introducing teamwork to replace line work extended traditional, hierarchical management control systems. Teamwork's self-managing demands contravened workers' established sense of self-identity as…

  13. Quality of life, treatment adherence, and locus of control: multiple family groups for chronic medical illnesses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Larrosa, Silvia

    2013-12-01

    The Multiple Family Groups (MFGs) approach for patients with a chronic medical illness and their families is a structured psychoeducational program that unfolds in six weekly 90-minute sessions. In the MFGs, patients and family members explore new ways to balance illness and nonillness priorities in family life (Steinglass, 1998; Steinglass, 2000 Cuadernos de Terapia Familiar, 44-45, 11; Steinglass, Ostroff, & Steinglass, 2011 Family Process, 50, 393). © FPI, Inc.

  14. Evaluation of a positive psychotherapy group intervention for people with psychosis: pilot randomised controlled trial

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Aims. Third-wave psychological interventions have gained relevance in mental health service provision but their application to people with psychosis is in its infancy and interventions targeting wellbeing in psychosis are scarce. This study tested the feasibility and preliminary effectiveness of positive psychotherapy adapted for people with psychosis (WELLFOCUS PPT) to improve wellbeing. Methods. WELLFOCUS PPT was tested as an 11-week group intervention in a convenience sample of people w...

  15. Acceptance and commitment group therapy (ACT-G) for health anxiety: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eilenberg, T; Fink, P; Jensen, J S; Rief, W; Frostholm, L

    2016-01-01

    Severe health anxiety is frequent and costly, yet rarely diagnosed or treated. Earlier treatment studies show problems with recruitment, dropout and recovery. In the current study, the authors aimed to test the effect of acceptance and commitment group therapy (ACT-G) compared to waitlist in patients with severe health anxiety. During March 2010 to April 2012, 126 consecutively referred patients meeting research criteria for severe health anxiety were block-randomized (1:1) to ACT-G or a 10 months' waitlist (Clinicaltrials.gov, no. NCT01158430). Patients allocated to ACT-G were treated in seven groups of nine patients between December 2010 and October 2012 and received nine weekly 3-h group sessions and a booster session consisting of ACT techniques. The primary outcome was decided a priori as the mean change in self-reported illness worry on the Whiteley-7 Index (WI) from baseline to 10 months' follow-up. Secondary outcomes were improvement in emotional distress and health-related quality of life at 10 months' follow-up. Intention-to-treat analysis showed a statistically significant mean difference of 20.5 points [95% confidence interval (CI) 11.7-29.4, p accepted by the patients. ACT-G seems feasible, acceptable and effective in treating severe health anxiety.

  16. Multicomponent interdisciplinary group intervention for self-management of fibromyalgia: a mixed-methods randomized controlled trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Bourgault

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the efficacy of the PASSAGE Program, a structured multicomponent interdisciplinary group intervention for the self-management of FMS.A mixed-methods randomized controlled trial (intervention (INT vs. waitlist (WL was conducted with patients suffering from FMS. Data were collected at baseline (T0, at the end of the intervention (T1, and 3 months later (T2. The primary outcome was change in pain intensity (0-10. Secondary outcomes were fibromyalgia severity, pain interference, sleep quality, pain coping strategies, depression, health-related quality of life, patient global impression of change (PGIC, and perceived pain relief. Qualitative group interviews with a subset of patients were also conducted. Complete data from T0 to T2 were available for 43 patients.The intervention had a statistically significant impact on the three PGIC measures. At the end of the PASSAGE Program, the percentages of patients who perceived overall improvement in their pain levels, functioning and quality of life were significantly higher in the INT Group (73%, 55%, 77% respectively than in the WL Group (8%, 12%, 20%. The same differences were observed 3 months post-intervention (Intervention group: 62%, 43%, 38% vs Waitlist Group: 13%, 13%, 9%. The proportion of patients who reported ≥ 50% pain relief was also significantly higher in the INT Group at the end of the intervention (36% vs 12% and 3 months post-intervention (33% vs 4%. Results of the qualitative analysis were in line with the quantitative findings regarding the efficacy of the intervention. The improvement, however, was not reflected in the primary outcome and other secondary outcome measures.The PASSAGE Program was effective in helping FMS patients gain a sense of control over their symptoms. We suggest including PGIC in future clinical trials on FMS as they appear to capture important aspects of the patients' experience.International Standard Randomized Controlled Trial Number

  17. The outcome of control groups in clinical trials of conservative treatments for chronic mechanical neck pain: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hagino Carol

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chronic neck pain is highly prevalent in Western societies, with about 15% of females and 10% of males suffering with it at any time. The course of untreated chronic neck pain patients in clinical trials has not been well-defined and the placebo effect has not been clarified. Methods A systematic review of RCT's of conservative treatments for chronic mechanical neck pain was conducted. Studies were excluded if they did not include a control group, if they involved subjects with whiplash injuries, a predominance of headache or arm pain associated with chronic neck pain and if only one treatment was reported. Only studies scoring 3–5 out of 5 on the Jadad Scale for quality were included in the final analysis. Data on change in pain scores of subjects in both placebo (PL as well as no-treatment (NT control groups were analyzed. Mean changes in pain scores as well as effect sizes were calculated, summarized and compared between these groups. Results Twenty (20 studies, 5 in the NT group and 15 in the PL group, with outcome intervals ranging from 1–52 weeks were included in the final analysis. The mean [95% CI] effect size of change in pain ratings in the no-treatment control studies at outcome points up to 10 weeks was 0.18 [-0.05, 0.41] and for outcomes from 12–52 weeks it was 0.4 [0.12, 0.68]. In the placebo control groups it was 0.50 [0.10, 0.90] at up to 10 weeks and 0.33. [-1.97, 2.66] at 12–24 weeks. None of the comparisons between the no-treatment and placebo groups were statistically significant. Conclusion It appears that the changes in pain scores in subjects with chronic neck pain not due to whiplash who are enrolled in no-treatment and placebo control groups were similarly small and not significantly different. As well, they do not appear to increase over longer-term follow-up.

  18. Mission Operations and Information Management Area Spacecraft Monitoring and Control Working Group

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lokerson, Donald C. (Editor)

    2005-01-01

    Working group goals for this year are: Goal 1. Due to many review comments the green books will be updated and available for re-review by CCSDS. Submission of green books to CCSDS for approval. Goal 2.Initial set of 4 new drafts of the red books as following: SM&C protocol: update with received comments. SM&C common services: update with received comments and expand the service specification. SM&C core services: update with received comments and expand the service the information model. SM&C time services: (target objective): produce initial draft following template of core services.

  19. Thiol groups controls on arsenite binding by organic matter: new experimental and modeling evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catrouillet, Charlotte; Davranche, Mélanie; Dia, Aline; Bouhnik-Le Coz, Martine; Pédrot, Mathieu; Marsac, Rémi; Gruau, Gérard

    2015-12-15

    Although it has been suggested that several mechanisms can describe the direct binding of As(III) to organic matter (OM), more recently, the thiol functional group of humic acid (HA) was shown to be an important potential binding site for As(III). Isotherm experiments on As(III) sorption to HAs, that have either been grafted with thiol or not, were thus conducted to investigate the preferential As(III) binding sites. There was a low level of binding of As(III) to HA, which was strongly dependent on the abundance of the thiols. Experimental datasets were used to develop a new model (the modified PHREEQC-Model VI), which defines HA as a group of discrete carboxylic, phenolic and thiol sites. Protonation/deprotonation constants were determined for each group of sites (pKA=4.28±0.03; ΔpKA=2.13±0.10; pKB=7.11±0.26; ΔpKB=3.52±0.49; pKS=5.82±0.052; ΔpKS=6.12±0.12 for the carboxylic, phenolic and thiols sites, respectively) from HAs that were either grafted with thiol or not. The pKS value corresponds to that of single thiol-containing organic ligands. Two binding models were tested: the Mono model, which considered that As(III) is bound to the HA thiol site as monodentate complexes, and the Tri model, which considered that As(III) is bound as tridentate complexes. A simulation of the available literature datasets was used to validate the Mono model, with logKMS=2.91±0.04, i.e. the monodentate hypothesis. This study highlighted the importance of thiol groups in OM reactivity and, notably, determined the As(III) concentration bound to OM (considering that Fe is lacking or at least negligible) and was used to develop a model that is able to determine the As(III) concentrations bound to OM.

  20. Controlled Synthesis of Polyions of Heavy Main-Group Elements in Ionic Liquids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthias F. Groh

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Ionic liquids (ILs have been proven to be valuable reaction media for the synthesis of inorganic materials among an abundance of other applications in different fields of chemistry. Up to now, the syntheses have remained mostly “black boxes”; and researchers have to resort to trial-and-error in order to establish a new synthetic route to a specific compound. This review comprises decisive reaction parameters and techniques for the directed synthesis of polyions of heavy main-group elements (fourth period and beyond in ILs. Several families of compounds are presented ranging from polyhalides over carbonyl complexes and selenidostannates to homo and heteropolycations.

  1. Habit reversal training and educational group treatments for children with tourette syndrome: A preliminary randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yates, Rachel; Edwards, Katie; King, John; Luzon, Olga; Evangeli, Michael; Stark, Daniel; McFarlane, Fiona; Heyman, Isobel; İnce, Başak; Kodric, Jana; Murphy, Tara

    2016-05-01

    Quality of life of children with Tourette Syndrome (TS) is impacted greatly by its symptoms and their social consequences. Habit Reversal Training (HRT) is effective but has not, until now, been empirically evaluated in groups. This randomised controlled trial evaluated feasibility and preliminary efficacy of eight HRT group sessions compared to eight Education group sessions. Thirty-three children aged 9-13 years with TS or Chronic Tic Disorder took part. Outcomes evaluated were tic severity and quality of life (QoL). Tic severity improvements were found in both groups. Motor tic severity (Yale Global Tic Severity Scale) showed greatest improvements in the HRT group. Both groups showed a strong tendency toward improvements in patient reported QoL. In conclusion, group-based treatments for TS are feasible and exposure to other children with tics did not increase tic expression. HRT led to greater reductions in tic severity than Education. Implications, such as cost-effectiveness of treatment delivery, are discussed.

  2. Effectiveness of interactive discussion group in suicide risk assessment among general nurses in Taiwan: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Chia-Yi; Lin, Yi-Yin; Yeh, Mei Chang; Huang, Lian-Hua; Chen, Shaw-Ji; Liao, Shih-Cheng; Lee, Ming-Been

    2014-11-01

    The evidence of suicide prevention training for nurses is scarce. Strategies to enhance general nurses' ability in suicide risk assessment are critical to develop effective training programs in general medical settings. This study was aimed to examine the effectiveness of an interactive discussion group in a suicide prevention training program for general nurses. In this randomized study with two groups of pre-post study design, the sample was recruited from the Medical, Surgical, and Emergency/Intensive Care Sectors of a 2000-bed general hospital via stratified randomization. Among the 111 nurses, 57 participants randomly assigned to the control group received a two-hour baseline suicide gatekeeper lecture, and 54 participants assigning to the experimental group received an additional five-hour group discussion about suicide risk assessment skills. Using a case vignette, the nurses discussed and assessed suicide risk factors specified in a 10-item Chinese SAD PERSONS Scale during a group discussion intervention. The findings revealed that the nurses achieved significant and consistent improvements of risk identification and assessment after the intervention without influencing their mental health status for assessing suicide risks. The result suggested an effective approach of interactive group discussion for facilitating critical thinking and learning suicide risk assessment skills among general nurses. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Comparative effectiveness of Pilates and yoga group exercise interventions for chronic mechanical neck pain: quasi-randomised parallel controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunleavy, K; Kava, K; Goldberg, A; Malek, M H; Talley, S A; Tutag-Lehr, V; Hildreth, J

    2016-09-01

    To determine the effectiveness of Pilates and yoga group exercise interventions for individuals with chronic neck pain (CNP). Quasi-randomised parallel controlled study. Community, university and private practice settings in four locations. Fifty-six individuals with CNP scoring ≥3/10 on the numeric pain rating scale for >3 months (controls n=17, Pilates n=20, yoga n=19). Exercise participants completed 12 small-group sessions with modifications and progressions supervised by a physiotherapist. The primary outcome measure was the Neck Disability Index (NDI). Secondary outcomes were pain ratings, range of movement and postural measurements collected at baseline, 6 weeks and 12 weeks. Follow-up was performed 6 weeks after completion of the exercise classes (Week 18). NDI decreased significantly in the Pilates {baseline: 11.1 [standard deviation (SD) 4.3] vs Week 12: 6.8 (SD 4.3); mean difference -4.3 (95% confidence interval -1.64 to -6.7); PPilates and yoga group exercise interventions with appropriate modifications and supervision were safe and equally effective for decreasing disability and pain compared with the control group for individuals with mild-to-moderate CNP. Physiotherapists may consider including these approaches in a plan of care. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01999283. Copyright © 2015 Chartered Society of Physiotherapy. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Microstructural descriptors and cellular automata simulation of the effects of non-random nuclei location on recrystallization in two dimensions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Rangel Rios

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available The effect of non-random nuclei location and the efficiency of microstructural descriptors in assessing such a situation are studied. Cellular automata simulation of recrystallization in two dimensions is carried out to simulate microstrutural evolution for nuclei distribution ranging from a periodic arrangement to clusters of nuclei. The simulation results are compared in detail with microstrutural descriptors normally used to follow transformation evolution. It is shown that the contiguity is particularly relevant to detect microstructural deviations from randomness. This work focuses on recrystallization but its results are applicable to any nucleation and growth transformation.

  5. [Whooping cough in Spain. Current epidemiology, prevention and control strategies. Recommendations by the Pertussis Working Group].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campins, Magda; Moreno-Pérez, David; Gil-de Miguel, Angel; González-Romo, Fernando; Moraga-Llop, Fernando A; Arístegui-Fernández, Javier; Goncé-Mellgren, Anna; Bayas, José M; Salleras-Sanmartí, Lluís

    2013-04-01

    A large increase of pertussis incidence has been observed in recent years in countries with high vaccination coverage. Outbreaks of pertussis are increasingly being reported. The age presentation has a bipolar distribution: infants younger 6months that have not initiated or completed a vaccination schedule, and adolescents and adults, due to the lost of natural or vaccine immunity over time. These epidemiological changes justify the need to adopt new vaccination strategies in order to protect young infants and to reduce pertussis incidence in all age groups. Adolescents and adults immunization must be a priority. In the first group, strategy is easy to implement, and with a very low additional cost (to replace dT vaccine by dTap one). Adult vaccination may be more difficult to implement; dT vaccine decennial booster should be replaced by dTap. The immunization of household contacts of newborn infants (cocooning) is the strategy that has a most important impact on infant pertussis. Recently, pregnant women vaccination (after 20weeks of gestation) has been recommended in some countries as the most effective way to protect the newborn.

  6. Wormlike micelles in poly(oxyethylene) surfactant solution: Growth control through hydrophilic-group size variation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Toufiq; Aramaki, Kenji

    2008-11-01

    Viscoelastic micellar solutions are formed in poly(oxyethylene) cholesteryl ether (ChEO(m), m=15, 30) aqueous solutions on addition of tri(ethyleneglycol) mono n-dodecyl ether (C(12)EO(3)). The steady-shear and dynamic rheological behavior of the systems is characteristic of wormlike micellar solution. In either system, the plateau modulus (G(0)) and relaxation time (tau) are found to increase with increasing cosurfactant mixing fractions. The plateau modulus of the ChEO(30)-C(12)EO(3) system at the maximum viscosity region is found to be higher than that in the ChEO(15)-C(12)EO(3) system at the maximum viscosity region, whereas for the relaxation time the opposite relation is found. The maximum viscosities obtained in the two systems are of the same order of magnitude. In the ChEO(30)-C(12)EO(3) system, the maximum viscosity is obtained at a higher cosurfactant mixing fraction than that in the ChEO(15)-C(12)EO(3) system. It is concluded that decreasing the head-group size of the hydrophilic surfactant favors micellar growth. Monolaurin, another hydrophobic surfactant known to induce growth in some systems, is found to cause phase separation before significant micellar growth occurs in ChEO(m) solutions, although the effect of head-group size of ChEO(m) is found to be similar to the ChEO(m)-C(12)EO(3) systems.

  7. Under-represented students' engagement in secondary science learning: A non-equivalent control group design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vann-Hamilton, Joy J.

    conducted. The reliability results prompted exploratory factory analyses, which resulted in two of the three subscale factors, cognitive and behavioral, being retained. One-within one-between subjects ANOVAs, independent samples t-test, and multiple linear regressions were also used to examine the impact of a multicultural science education, multimedia, and individual characteristics on students' engagement in science learning. Results. There were main effects found within subjects on posttest scores for the cognitive and behavioral subscales of student engagement. Both groups, using their respective versions of the multimedia science curriculum, reported increased engagement in science learning. There was also a statistical difference found for the experimental group at posttest on the measure of "online science was more interesting than school science." All five items unique to the posttest related to the multimedia variable were found to be significant predictors of cognitive and/or behavioral engagement. Conclusions. Engagement in science learning increased for both groups of participants; this finding is aligned with other significant research findings that more embracive and relevant pedagogies can potentially benefit all students. The significant difference found for the experimental group in relation to the multimedia usage was moderate and also may have reflected positive responses to other questions about the use of technology in science learning. As all five measures of multimedia usage were found to be significant predictors of student engagement in science learning, the indications were that: (a) technical difficulties did not impede engagement; (b) participants were better able to understand and visualize the physics concepts as they were presented in a variety of ways; (c) participants' abilities to use computers supported engagement; (d) participants in both groups found the online science curriculum more interesting compared to school science learning; and

  8. Effects of different frequencies (2-3 days/week) of aquatic therapy program in adults with chronic low back pain. A non-randomized comparison trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baena-Beato, Pedro Angel; Arroyo-Morales, Manuel; Delgado-Fernández, Manuel; Gatto-Cardia, Maria Claudia; Artero, Enrique G

    2013-01-01

    To study the effects of an aquatic therapy program with different frequencies (2 vs 3 days per week) in chronic low back pain. [corrected] Non-randomized comparison trial. Sport and spa community health club. Fifty-four adults with chronic low back pain (48.9 ± 10.0 years). Eight-week aquatic therapy program. Pain (visual analog scale [VAS]), disability (Oswestry Disability Index), and quality of life (Short-Form Health Survey 36), body composition (weight, body mass index, body fat mass, body fat percentage, and skeletal muscle mass), and health-related fitness (sit and reach, handgrip strength, curl-up, Rockport 1-mile test). Both experimental groups presented significant improvements in low back pain and disability (P aquatic therapy program decrease levels of back pain and disability, increase quality of life, and improve health-related fitness in adults with chronic low back pain without effects in body composition. A dose-response effect was observed in some parameters, with greater benefits when exercising 3 days per week compared with 2 days. Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Efficacy of simple integrated group rehabilitation program for patients with knee osteoarthritis: Single-blind randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Flávio S; de Melo, Flávio E S; do Amaral, Marcelo M G; Caldas, Vinícius V A; Pinheiro, Íria Lúcia D; Abreu, Bento J; Vieira, Wouber H

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the role of an evidence-based integrated group rehabilitation program on the treatment of patients with knee osteoarthritis (KOA). This was a two-group, randomized controlled, 8 wk trial with 41 patients with moderate to very severe KOA. Patients were assigned to an intervention group (IG) or control group (CG). After both groups had received a self-management education program, IG participants underwent a rehabilitation program, including educational aspects about KOA followed by exercises. CG participants received only general health orientation about KOA during this period. The outcome measures were the Lequesne algofunctional index; 36-Item Short Form Health Survey (SF-36); and chair-stand, sit-and-reach, timed up-and-go, and 6-minute walk tests. Analysis of covariance revealed significant postintervention improvements of IG participants compared with CG participants (p program reduced pain and improved quality of life and function in patients with KOA. ClinicalTrials.gov; Progressive Collective-exercise Program on the Knee Osteoarthritis; NCT01850862; https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT01850862?term=NCT01850862&rank=1.

  10. Honey prevents oral mocositis in children undergoing chemotherapy: A quasi-experimental study with a control group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobya Bulut, Hacer; Güdücü Tüfekci, Fatma

    2016-12-01

    There are numerous pharmacological and non-pharmacological treatment options available in the treatment of oral mucositis. However, in spite of so many methods and products, medical professionals have not come to a consensus as to which of these offer the best results. This study was conducted to assess the effect of oral care with honey on children undergoing chemotherapy for the prevention and healing of oral mucositis. This quasi-experimental study was conducted on children undergoing chemotherapy. The study group consisted of 83 children who attended clinics and polyclinics for chemotherapy. All the children were included in the study period. The study was completed with a total of 76 children except for seven patients who were excluded from the study. The data were collected using a form and the World Health Organization Mucositis Assessment Index. The data were analyzed using percentage distributions, means, a chi-square test, a t-test, a variance analysis, and a Friedman test. Ethics approval of the study was obtained from the Institution Ethics Committee. It was found that the severity of oral mucositis in the children in the experimental group was significantly less than the control group. The mucositis recovery period in the experimental group was significantly shorter than the control group. Regular oral care with honey for children undergoing chemotherapy for hematological cancers prevents mucositis and also accelerates recovery of it when started after mucositis onset. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  11. Expanded risk groups help determine which prostate radiotherapy sub-group may benefit from adjuvant androgen deprivation therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Williams Scott G

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Purpose To assess whether an expanded (five level risk stratification system can be used to identify the sub-group of intermediate risk patients with prostate cancer who benefit from combining androgen deprivation therapy (ADT with external beam radiotherapy (EBRT. Materials and methods Using a previously validated 5-risk group schema, a prospective non-randomized data set of 1423 men treated at the British Columbia Cancer Agency was assessed for the primary end point of biochemical control (bNED with the RTOG-ASTRO "Phoenix" definition (lowest PSA to date + 2 ng/mL, both with and without adjuvant ADT. The median follow-up was 5 years. Results There was no bNED benefit for ADT in the low or low intermediate groups but there was a statistically significant bNED benefit in the high intermediate, high and extreme risk groups. The 5-year bNED rates with and without ADT were 70% and 73% respectively for the low intermediate group (p = non-significant and 72% and 58% respectively for the high intermediate group (p = 0.002. Conclusion There appears to be no advantage to ADT where the Gleason score is 6 or less and PSA is 15 or less. ADT is beneficial in patients treated to standard dose radiation with Gleason 6 disease and a PSA greater than 15 or where the Gleason score is 7 or higher.

  12. Brachytherapy versus radical hysterectomy after external beam chemoradiation: a non-randomized matched comparison in IB2-IIB cervical cancer patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flores Vladimir

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A current paradigm in the treatment of cervical cancer with radiation therapy is that intracavitary brachytherapy is an essential component of radical treatment. This is a matched retrospective comparison of the results of treatment in patients treated with external beam chemoradiation (EBRT-CT and radical hysterectomy versus those treated with identical chemoradiation followed by brachytherapy. Methods In this non-randomized comparison EBRT-CT protocol was the same in both groups of 40 patients. In the standard treated patients, EBRT-CT was followed by one or two intracavitary Cesium (low-dose rate applications within 2 weeks of finishing external radiation to reach a point A dose of at least 85 Gy. In the surgically treated patients, radical hysterectomy with bilateral pelvic lymph node dissection and para-aortic lymph node sampling were performed within 7 weeks after EBRT-CT. Response, toxicity and survival were evaluated. Results A total of 80 patients were analyzed. The patients receiving EBRT-CT and surgery were matched with the standard treated cases. There were no differences in the clinicopathological characteristics between groups or in the delivery of EBRT-CT. The pattern of acute and late toxicity differed. Standard treated patients had more chronic proctitis while the surgically treated had acute complications of surgery and hydronephrosis. At a maximum follow-up of 60 months, median follow-up 26 (2–31 and 22 (3–27 months for the surgery and standard therapy respectively, eight patients per group have recurred and died. The progression free and overall survival are the same in both groups. Conclusion The results of this study suggest that radical hysterectomy can be used after EBRT-CT without compromising survival in FIGO stage IB2-IIB cervical cancer patients in settings were brachytherapy is not available. A randomized study is needed to uncover the value of surgery after EBRT-CT.

  13. Distribution automation and control support; Analysis and interpretation of DAC working group results for use in project planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klock, P.; Evans, D.

    1979-01-01

    The Executive Summary and Proceedings of the Working Group Meeting was analyzed to identify specific projects appropriate for Distribution Automation and Control DAC RD&D. Specific projects that should be undertaken in the DAC RD&D program were recommended. The projects are presented under broad categories of work selected based on ESC's interpretation of the results of the Working Group Meeting. Some of the projects are noted as utility industry projects. The ESC recommendations regarding program management are presented. Utility versus Government management responsibilities are noted.

  14. Interleukin-5-producing group 2 innate lymphoid cells control eosinophilia induced by interleukin-2 therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Gool, Frédéric; Molofsky, Ari B; Morar, Malika M; Rosenzwajg, Michelle; Liang, Hong-Erh; Klatzmann, David; Locksley, Richard M; Bluestone, Jeffrey A

    2014-12-04

    Interleukin (IL)-2 promotes regulatory T-cell development and function, and treatment with IL-2 is being tested as therapy for some autoimmune diseases. However, patients receiving IL-2 treatment also experience eosinophilia due to an unknown mechanism. Here, we show that patients receiving low-dose IL-2 have elevated levels of serum IL-5, and this correlates with their degree of eosinophilia. In mice, low-dose IL-2-anti-IL-2 antibody complexes drove group 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2) to produce IL-5 and proliferate. Using genetic approaches in mice, we demonstrate that activation of ILC2 was responsible for the eosinophilia observed with IL-2 therapy. These observations reveal a novel cellular network that is activated during IL-2 treatment. A better understanding of the cross talk between these cell populations may lead to more effective targeting of IL-2 to treat autoimmune disease. © 2014 by The American Society of Hematology.

  15. A Randomized Controlled Trial of Team-Based Learning Versus Lectures with Break-Out Groups on Knowledge Retention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thrall, Grace C; Coverdale, John H; Benjamin, Sophiya; Wiggins, Anna; Lane, Christianne Joy; Pato, Michele T

    2016-10-01

    This goal of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of team-based learning (TBL) on knowledge retention compared to traditional lectures with small break-out group discussion (teaching as usual (TAU)) using a randomized controlled trial. This randomized controlled trial was conducted during a daylong conference for psychiatric educators on attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder and the research literacy topic of efficacy versus effectiveness trials. Learners (n = 115) were randomized with concealed allocation to either TBL or TAU. Knowledge was measured prior to the intervention, immediately afterward, and 2 months later via multiple-choice tests. Participants were necessarily unblinded. Data enterers, data analysts, and investigators were blinded to group assignment in data analysis. Per-protocol analyses of test scores were performed using change in knowledge from baseline. The primary endpoint was test scores at 2 months. At baseline, there were no statistically significant differences between groups in pre-test knowledge. At immediate post-test, both TBL and TAU groups showed improved knowledge scores compared with their baseline scores. The TBL group performed better statistically on the immediate post-test than the TAU group (Cohen's d = 0.73; p < 0.001), although the differences in knowledge scores were not educationally meaningful, averaging just one additional test question correct (out of 15). On the 2-month remote post-test, there were no group differences in knowledge retention among the 42 % of participants who returned the 2-month test. Both TBL and TAU learners acquired new knowledge at the end of the intervention and retained knowledge over 2 months. At the end of the intervention day and after 2 months, knowledge test scores were not meaningfully different between TBL and TAU completers. In conclusion, this study failed to demonstrate the superiority of TBL over TAU on the primary outcome of knowledge retention at 2 months post-intervention.

  16. Association between ABO and Rh Blood Groups and Risk of Preeclampsia: A Case-Control Study from Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aghasadeghi, Firoozeh; Saadat, Mostafa

    2017-04-15

    Preeclampsia (PE) is a major cause of maternal and neonatal morbidity and mortality. There is a genetic component in the development of PE with estimated heritability around 0.47. Several studies have investigated the association between maternal ABO blood groups (OMIM 110300) and risk of PE, with contradictory results have emerged. Considering that there is no study in this filed from Iranian population, the present case-control study was carried out at Shiraz (south-west Iran). In this study 331 women; 121 pregnant with PE and 210 normotensive pregnant women were included. Using blood group O (for ABO blood groups) or Rh+ (for Rh blood groups) as a reference, odds ratios (ORs) and its 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) of PE risk were estimated from logistic regression analysis. Although the A (OR = 0.67, 95% CI = 0.39-1.17, P = 0.165), B (OR = 0.86, 95% CI = 0.48-1.53, P = 0.615) and AB (OR = 1.14, 95% CI = 0.37-3.45, P = 0.812) phenotypes showed lower risks compared with the O blood group, statistical analysis indicated that there was no significant association between ABO phenotypes and risk of PE. The frequency of Rh- phenotype was higher among PE patients compared with the control group. However, the association was not significant (OR = 1.79, 95% CI = 0.69-4.65, P = 0.229). Adjusted ORs for age of participants and parity did not change the above-mentioned associations. Our present findings indicate that there is no association between ABO and Rh blood groups and risk of PE in Iranian population.

  17. Intracorneal Rings (INTACS SK) Might be Beneficial in Keratoconus; A Prospective Nonrandomized Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    A Ibrahim, Tarek; Elmor, Osama

    2013-01-01

    In order to determine the effect of intracorneal rings (Intacs SK), when implanted in keratoconic patients, on corneal curvature, Uncorrected Visual Acuity (UCVA), Best Corrected Visual Acuity (BCVA) and on the progression of the cone through three years follow-up period. In this prospective nonrandomized study 114 eyes of 71 keratoconic patients (38 females and 33 males) were implanted with Intacs SK. Incisions were always made in the steep meridian. UCVA, BCVA, Corneal Topography (TMS) were measured pre and postoperatively and at intervals of 1, 3, 6 & 12 months then yearly for 3 consecutive years. Preoperative mean k-reading was 52.53 and 48.18, 49.56, 49.17, 48.51, 48.15 & 48.01 at 1, 3, 6, 12, 24 & 36 months postoperatively (P‹0.01). In terms of UCVA, 15.64% of patients gained more than 3 lines and 69.73% gained 1-3 lines with a total of 85.37% of patients gaining lines compared to their preoperative UCVA (P‹0.01) while 14.63% of cases did not gain any lines at 1 month postoperative. At three months postoperatively, 12.64% gained more than 3 lines, 71.15% gained 1-3 lines with a total of 83.79% while 16.21% did not gain any lines. Three years postoperative 11.82% of cases gained more than 3 lines, 73.23% gained 1-3 lines with a total of 85.05% while 14.95% did not gain any lines (P‹0.01). With regard to BCVA, 19.73% gained more than 3 lines, 68.26% gained 1-3 lines with a total of 87.99% of cases gaining lines compared to their preoperative BCVA (P‹0.01) while 12.01% did not gained any lines at 1 month postoperative. At three months postoperatively, 14.96% gained more than 3 lines, 70.19% gained 1-3 lines with a total of 85.15% while 14.85% did not gain any lines. Three years postoperative, 12.17% gained more than 3 lines, 71.78% gained 1-3 lines with a total of 83.95% (P‹0.01) while 16.05% did not gain any lines. No eyes lost any lines as it pertained to UCVA & BCVA. Despite the fluctuation of k-readings, UCVA and BCVA in the first 3 months, which

  18. Primary metabolism and its control in streptomycetes: a most unusual group of bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodgson, D A

    2000-01-01

    Streptomycetes are Gram-positive bacteria with a unique capacity for the production of a multitude of varied and complex secondary metabolites. They also have a complex life cycle including differentiation into at least three distinct cell types. Whilst much attention has been paid to the pathways and regulation of secondary metabolism, less has been paid to the pathways and the regulation of primary metabolism, which supplies the precursors. With the imminent completion of the total genome sequence of Streptomyces coelicolor A3(2), we need to understand the pathways of primary metabolism if we are to understand the role of newly discovered genes. This review is written as a contribution to supplying these wants. Streptomycetes inhabit soil, which, because of the high numbers of microbial competitors, is an oligotrophic environment. Soil nutrient levels reflect the fact that plant-derived material is the main nutrient input; i.e. it is carbon-rich and nitrogen- and phosphate-poor. Control of streptomycete primary metabolism reflects the nutrient availability. The variety and multiplicity of carbohydrate catabolic pathways reflects the variety and multiplicity of carbohydrates in the soil. This multiplicity of pathways has led to investment by streptomycetes in pathway-specific and global regulatory networks such as glucose repression. The mechanism of glucose repression is clearly different from that in other bacteria. Streptomycetes feed by secreting complexes of extracellular enzymes that break down plant cell walls to release nutrients. The induction of these enzyme complexes is often coordinated by inducers that bear no structural relation to the substrate or product of any particular enzyme in the complex; e.g. a product of xylan breakdown may induce cellulase production. Control of amino acid catabolism reflects the relative absence of nitrogen catabolites in soil. The cognate amino acid induces about half of the catabolic pathways and half are constitutive

  19. Psychoeducative groups help control type 2 diabetes in a primary care setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cervantes Cuesta, Miguel Ángel; García-Talavera Espín, Noelia Victoria; Brotons Román, Josefa; Núñez Sánchez, M Ángeles; Brocal Ibáñez, Pedro; Villalba Martín, Pilar; Saura García, Carmen; Sánchez Esteban, Tomasa; Romero López-Reinoso, Helena; Delgado Aroca, Ma José; Sánchez Gil, Dolores; Meoro Avilés, Amparo; Soriano Palao, José

    2013-01-01

    Introducción: Los cambios en el estilo de vida mejoran el control de los diabéticos tipo 2, pero no sabemos cuales son las estrategias más eficientes para conseguir estos cambios. Hemos medido el impacto de una intervención psicoeducativa grupal en diabetes mediante hemoglobina glicosilada (HbA1c), índice de masa corporal (IMC) y factores de riesgo cardiovascular (FRCV). Métodos: Se trata de un ensayo clínico controlado, randomizado y multicéntrico, de 72 pacientes diabéticos tipo 2, edad media 63,08 AÑOs, 50% mujeres, HbA1c media 6.98% e IMC medio 30,48 kg/m2. Se comparó el efecto terapéutico de una intervención psicoeducativa grupal(GSE) con una educación diabetológica convencional (GC). Resultados: El GSE presentó una mayor reducción media de HbA1c, -0,51 ± 1,07 vs -0,06 ± 0,53% (p 0,003), un mayor grado de cumplimiento de los objetivos de control óptimo de HbA1c, 80% vs 48% (p 0,005) y una mayor reducción media de peso, -1,93 ± 3,57 vs 0,52 ± 1,73 kg (p 0,002), que el GC. También se objetivó una mejoría significativa de colesterol total, colesterol LDL, triglicéridos, tensión arterial sistólica y diastólica en GSE (todas las p < 0,05). Conclusiones: Los GSE de diabéticos tipo 2 consiguieron una mejoría significativa de HbA1c, IMC y FRCV, y superaron a la educación diabetológica convencional en el grado de cumplimiento de los objetivos de control óptimo de la diabetes. Debemos plantearnos cambios estructurales en nuestros programas asistenciales para introducir estos avances más eficientes en educación terapeútica de diabetes en atención primaria.

  20. Therapeutic effects of acupuncture for neurogenic dysphagia--a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Sze-Ling; Or, Ka-Hang; Sun, Wai-Zhu; Ng, Kwan-Yee; Lo, See-Kit; Lee, Yuet-Sheung

    2012-03-01

    To evaluate the therapeutic effects and long-term efficacy of acupuncture for neurogenic dysphagia. Subjects with neurogenic dysphagia undergoing routine swallowing management were randomized to receive either 20 sessions of true acupuncture (experimental group) or sham acupuncture (control group 1) for approximately one and a half months. A third group (control group 2) comprised of non-randomized subjects with neurogenic dysphagia who received routine care were recruited from separate wards. The outcomes were assessed by the Royal Brisbane Hospital Outcome Measure for Swallowing (RBHOMS), as well as by the consistencies of ingested food and fluid. A total of 87 subjects (experimental group, n = 20; control group 1, n = 19; control group 2, n = 48) were recruited into the trial. The average RBHOMS score showed a greater improvement in the experimental group and in control group 1 than in control group 2. The average levels of food and fluid consistencies displayed greater improvement in the experimental group than in the two control groups. This study demonstrates that acupuncture may have therapeutic effects and long-term efficacy for neurogenic dysphagia. However, due to an insufficient sample size and the lack of follow-up for control group 2, multi-centre trials employing a larger sample size may be required to draw concrete conclusions.

  1. A Comparative study of dermatoglyphic patterns in patients with primary glaucoma and control group

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharmila Pal

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Dermatoglyphics are the dermal ridge configurations on the digits, palms and soles. They are permanent and inherited. A comparative study of the Dermatoglyphic patterns of patients with primary glaucoma and general healthy population was made to ascertain the value of Dermatoglyphics as a diagnostic tool for primary glaucoma. Fifty-seven primary glaucoma patients (24 males, 33 females and fifty normal healthy persons (25 males, 25 females participated in this study. In the present study primary glaucoma subjects were examined in terms of dermatoglyphic characteristics and compared with that of controls. Frequency of loops was decreased in primary glaucoma but in case of whorls and arch increased numbers.Deviation is also observed in a-b ridge count and atd angle. In general tfrc and afrc also increased. These can be considered as useful as a supportive investigation and to some extent knowing the prediction for primary glaucoma

  2. Reducing Delusional Conviction Through a Cognitive-Based Group Training Game: A Multicentre Randomised Controlled Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasser eKhazaal

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available AbstractObjective: Michael’s Game is a card game targeting the ability to generate alternative hypotheses to explain a given experience. The main objective was to evaluate the effect of MG on delusional conviction as measured by the primary study outcome: the change in scores on the conviction subscale of the Peters Delusions Inventory (PDI-21. Other variables of interest were the change in scores on the distress and preoccupation subscales of the PDI-21, the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale, the Beck Cognitive Insight Scale, and belief flexibility assessed with the Maudsley Assessment of Delusions Schedule. Methods: We performed a parallel, assessor-blinded, randomised controlled superiority trial comparing treatment as usual plus participation in Michael’s Game (MG with treatment as usual plus being on a waiting list (TAU in a sample of adult outpatients with psychotic disorders and persistent positive psychotic symptoms at inclusion. Results: The 172 participants were randomised, with 86 included in each study arm. Assessments were performed at inclusion (T1: baseline, at 3 months (T2: post-treatment, and at 6 months after the second assessment (T3: follow-up. At T2, a positive treatment effect was observed on the primary outcome, the PDI-21 conviction subscale (p=0.005. At T3, a sustained effect was observed for the conviction subscale (p=0.002. Further effects were also observed at T3 on the PDI-21 distress (p=0.002 and preoccupation subscales (p=0.001, as well as on one of the MADS measures of belief flexibility (anything against the belief (p=0.001. Conclusions: The study demonstrated some significant beneficial effect of MG. http://www.controlled-trials.com/ISRCTN37178153/Funding: Swiss National Science Foundation Grant 32003B-121038

  3. Doping Level of Boron-Doped Diamond Electrodes Controls the Grafting Density of Functional Groups for DNA Assays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Švorc, Ĺubomír; Jambrec, Daliborka; Vojs, Marian; Barwe, Stefan; Clausmeyer, Jan; Michniak, Pavol; Marton, Marián; Schuhmann, Wolfgang

    2015-09-02

    The impact of different doping levels of boron-doped diamond on the surface functionalization was investigated by means of electrochemical reduction of aryldiazonium salts. The grafting efficiency of 4-nitrophenyl groups increased with the boron levels (B/C ratio from 0 to 20,000 ppm). Controlled grafting of nitrophenyldiazonium was used to adjust the amount of immobilized single-stranded DNA strands at the surface and further on the hybridization yield in dependence on the boron doping level. The grafted nitro functions were electrochemically reduced to the amine moieties. Subsequent functionalization with a succinic acid introduced carboxyl groups for subsequent binding of an amino-terminated DNA probe. DNA hybridization significantly depends on the probe density which is in turn dependent on the boron doping level. The proposed approach opens new insights for the design and control of doped diamond surface functionalization for the construction of DNA hybridization assays.

  4. Complex Dynamical Behaviors in a Predator-Prey System with Generalized Group Defense and Impulsive Control Strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shunyi Li

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A predator-prey system with generalized group defense and impulsive control strategy is investigated. By using Floquet theorem and small amplitude perturbation skills, a local asymptotically stable prey-eradication periodic solution is obtained when the impulsive period is less than some critical value. Otherwise, the system is permanent if the impulsive period is larger than the critical value. By using bifurcation theory, we show the existence and stability of positive periodic solution when the pest eradication lost its stability. Numerical examples show that the system considered has more complicated dynamics, including (1 high-order quasiperiodic and periodic oscillation, (2 period-doubling and halving bifurcation, (3 nonunique dynamics (meaning that several attractors coexist, and (4 chaos and attractor crisis. Further, the importance of the impulsive period, the released amount of mature predators and the degree of group defense effect are discussed. Finally, the biological implications of the results and the impulsive control strategy are discussed.

  5. One-Year Follow-Up of the Effectiveness of Cognitive Behavioral Group Therapy for Patients’ Depression: A Randomized, Single-Blinded, Controlled Study

    OpenAIRE

    Kai-Jo Chiang; Tsai-Hui Chen; Hsiu-Tsu Hsieh; Jui-Chen Tsai; Keng-Liang Ou; Kuei-Ru Chou

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the long-term (one year) effectiveness of a 12-session weekly cognitive behavior group therapy (CBGT) on patients with depression. This was a single-blind randomized controlled study with a 2-arm parallel group design. Eighty-one subjects were randomly assigned to 12 sessions intervention group (CBGT) or control group (usual outpatient psychiatric care group) and 62 completed the study. The primary outcome was depression measured with Beck Depression In...

  6. Group Dynamic Assessment (G-DA: The Case for the Development of Control over the Past Tense

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ehsan Mehri

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The introduction of dynamic assessment within sociocultural theory opened a new door toward looking at the relationship between the teaching and assessment. The dialectic relationship between the two processes provides previously unfound information regarding the assessment and the development of the learners. However, the implementation of the interactionist dynamic assessment has carried some difficulties in class in general and the groups in particular. The current study tries to address the effect of group dynamic assessment on the development of the control over the past tense; therefore, it is two-folded in the aim. Not only does it work as a practical sample of group dynamic assessment in class, but also it seeks to analyze its effect on the development of control over the past tense. To this end, three learners at the levels of elementary, low-intermediate, and intermediate general proficiency were asked to read a novel and retell the story. The dynamic intervention provided by the teacher during the story retelling was later evaluated in the transcendence tasks of writing. The Friedman test indicated that the three learners had significant development in their control over the past tense in their writing. Moreover, the qualitative analysis of the interactions suggests that the learners changed their role from the mere receivers of the teacher's mediator into the active providers of mediation to other group members. Also, they developed their understanding of the concept of the past tense through implementing it in transcendence tasks of writing. Keywords: Sociocultural theory; dynamic assessment; group dynamic assessment; zone of proximal development; interaction

  7. TEACCH-based group social skills training for children with high-functioning autism: a pilot randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ichikawa, Kayoko; Takahashi, Yoshimitsu; Ando, Masahiko; Anme, Tokie; Ishizaki, Tatsuro; Yamaguchi, Hinako; Nakayama, Takeo

    2013-10-01

    Although social skills training programs for people with high-functioning autism (HFA) are widely practiced, the standardization of curricula, the examination of clinical effectiveness, and the evaluation of the feasibility of future trials have yet to be done in Asian countries. To compensate for this problem, a Japanese pilot randomized controlled trial (RCT) of the Treatment and Education of Autistic and Related Communication Handicapped Children (TEACCH)-based group social skills training for children with HFA and their mothers was conducted. Eleven children with HFA, aged 5-6 years, and their mothers were randomly assigned to the TEACCH program (n=5) or a waiting-list control group (n=6). The program involved comprehensive group intervention and featured weekly 2-hour sessions, totaling 20 sessions over six months. The adaptive behaviors and social reciprocity of the children, parenting stress, and parent-child interactions were assessed using the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ), Parenting Stress Index (PSI), Beck depression inventory-II (BDI-II), and Interaction Rating Scale (IRS). Through this pilot trial, the intervention and evaluation of the program has been shaped. There were no dropouts from the program and the mothers' satisfaction was high. The outcome measurements improved more in the program group than in the control group, with moderate effect sizes (SDQ, 0.71; PSI, 0.58; BDI-II, 0.40; and IRS, 0.69). This pilot trial also implied that this program is more beneficial for high IQ children and mothers with low stress than for those who are not. We have standardized the TEACCH program, confirmed the feasibility of a future trial, and successfully estimated the positive effect size. These findings will contribute to a larger trial in the future and to forthcoming systematic reviews with meta-analyses. UMIN000004560.

  8. A cognitive behavioral based group intervention for children with a chronic illness and their parents: a multicentre randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schuengel Carlo

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Coping with a chronic illness (CI challenges children's psychosocial functioning and wellbeing. Cognitive-behavioral intervention programs that focus on teaching the active use of coping strategies may prevent children with CI from developing psychosocial problems. Involvement of parents in the intervention program may enhance the use of learned coping strategies in daily life, especially on the long-term. The primary aim of the present study is to examine the effectiveness of a cognitive behavioral based group intervention (called 'Op Koers' 1 for children with CI and of a parallel intervention for their parents. A secondary objective is to investigate why and for whom this intervention works, in order to understand the underlying mechanisms of the intervention effect. Methods/design This study is a multicentre randomized controlled trial. Participants are children (8 to 18 years of age with a chronic illness, and their parents, recruited from seven participating hospitals in the Netherlands. Participants are randomly allocated to two intervention groups (the child intervention group and the child intervention combined with a parent program and a wait-list control group. Primary outcomes are child psychosocial functioning, wellbeing and child disease related coping skills. Secondary outcomes are child quality of life, child general coping skills, child self-perception, parental stress, quality of parent-child interaction, and parental perceived vulnerability. Outcomes are evaluated at baseline, after 6 weeks of treatment, and at a 6 and 12-month follow-up period. The analyses will be performed on the basis of an intention-to-treat population. Discussion This study evaluates the effectiveness of a group intervention improving psychosocial functioning in children with CI and their parents. If proven effective, the intervention will be implemented in clinical practice. Strengths and limitations of the study design are discussed

  9. Comparison of Right and Left Side Heart Functions in Patients with Thalassemia Major, Patients with Thalassemia Intermedia, and Control Group

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noormohammad Noori

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Heart disease is the main cause of mortality and morbidity in patients with beta thalassemia, rendering its early diagnosis vital. We studied and compared echocardiographic findings in patients with beta thalassemia major, patients with beta thalassemia intermedia, and a control group.Methods: Eighty asymptomatic patients with thalassemia major and 22 asymptomatic cases with thalassemia intermedia (8-25 years old were selected from those referred to Ali Asghar Hospital (Zahedan-Iran between June 2008 and June 2009. Additionally, 80 healthy individuals within the same age and sex groups were used as controls. All the individuals underwent echocardiography, the data of which were analyzed with the Student t-test.Results: The mean value of the pre-ejection period/ejection time ratio of the left ventricle during systole, the diameter of the posterior wall of the left ventricle during diastole, the left and right isovolumic relaxation times, and the right myocardial performance index in the patients with beta thalassemia major and intermedia increased significantly compared to those of the controls, but the other parameters were similar between the two patient groups. The mean values of the left and right pre- ejection periods, left ventricular end systolic dimension, and left isovolumic contraction time in the patients with thalassemia intermedia increased significantly compared to those of the controls. In the left side, myocardial performance index, left ventricular mass index, isovolumic contraction time, and deceleration time exhibited significant changes between the patients with thalassemia major and those with thalassemia intermedia, whereas all the echocardiographic parameters of the right side were similar between these two groups.Conclusion: The results showed that the systolic and diastolic functions of the right and left sides of the heart would be impaired in patients with thalassemia major and thalassemia intermedia

  10. A randomized, controlled, pilot study of dialectical behavior therapy skills in a psychoeducational group for individuals with bipolar disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Dijk, Sheri; Jeffrey, Janet; Katz, Mark R

    2013-03-05

    Bipolar disorder (BD) is a chronic and disabling psychiatric disorder characterized by recurrent episodes of mania/hypomania and depression. Dialectical behavior therapy (DBT) techniques have been shown to effectively treat borderline personality disorder, a condition also marked by prominent affective disturbances. The utility of DBT techniques in treating BD has been largely unexplored. The purpose of this research was to conduct a pilot study of a DBT-based psychoeducational group (BDG) in treating euthymic, depressed, or hypomanic Bipolar I or II patients. In this experiment, 26 adults with bipolar I or II were randomized to intervention or wait-list control groups and completed the Beck depression inventory II, mindfulness-based self-efficacy scale, and affective control scale at baseline and 12 weeks. The BDG intervention consisted of 12 weekly 90-min sessions which taught DBT skills, mindfulness techniques, and general BD psychoeducation. Using RM-ANOVA, subjects in BDG demonstrated a trend toward reduced depressive symptoms, and significant improvement in several MSES subscales indicating greater mindful awareness, and less fear toward and more control of emotional states (ACS). These findings were supported with a larger sample of patients who completed the BDG. Furthermore, group attendees had reduced emergency room visits and mental health related admissions in the six months following BDG. The small sample size in RCT affects power to detect between group differences. How well improvements after the12-week BDG were maintained is unknown. There is preliminary evidence that DBT skills reduce depressive symptoms, improve affective control, and improve mindfulness self-efficacy in BD. Its application warrants further evaluation in larger studies. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Distributed Stable-Group Differentiated Admission Control Algorithm in Mobile Peer-to-Peer Media Streaming System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XUEGuangtao; SHIHua; YOUJinyuan; YAOWensheng

    2003-01-01

    Mobile peer-to-peer media streaming systems are expected to become as popular as the peer-to-peer file sharing systems. In this paper, we study two key problems arising from mobile peer-to-peer media streaming: the stability of interconnection between supplying peers and requesting peers in mobile peer-to-peer streaming system; and fast capacity amplification of the entire mobile peer-to-peer streaming system. We use the Stable group algorithm to characterize user mobility in mobile ad hoc networks. Based on the stable group, we then propose a distributed Stable-group differentiated admission control algorithm (SGDACp2p), which leads to fast amplifying the system's total streaming capacity using its self-growing. At last, the extensive simulation results are presented to compare between the SGDACp2p and traditional methods to prove the superiority of the algorithm.

  12. Control of Blood Pressure and Risk Attenuation: Post Trial Follow-Up of Randomized Groups.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tazeen H Jafar

    Full Text Available Evidence on long term effectiveness of public health strategies for lowering blood pressure (BP is scarce. In the Control of Blood Pressure and Risk Attenuation (COBRA Trial, a 2 x 2 factorial, cluster randomized controlled trial, the combined home health education (HHE and trained general practitioner (GP intervention delivered over 2 years was more effective than no intervention (usual care in lowering systolic BP among adults with hypertension in urban Pakistan. However, it was not clear whether the effect would be sustained after the cessation of intervention. We conducted 7 years follow-up inclusive of 5 years of post intervention period of COBRA trial participants to assess the effectiveness of the interventions on BP during extended follow-up.A total of 1341 individuals 40 years or older with hypertension (systolic BP 140 mm Hg or greater, diastolic BP 90 mm Hg or greater, or already receiving treatment were followed by trained research staff masked to randomization status. BP was measured thrice with a calibrated automated device (Omron HEM-737 IntelliSense in the sitting position after 5 minutes of rest. BP measurements were repeated after two weeks. Generalized estimating equations (GEE were used to analyze the primary outcome of change in systolic BP from baseline to 7- year follow-up. The multivariable model was adjusted for clustering, age at baseline, sex, baseline systolic and diastolic BP, and presence of diabetes.After 7 years of follow-up, systolic BP levels among those randomised to combined HHE plus trained GP intervention were significantly lower (2.1 [4.1-0.1] mm Hg compared to those randomised to usual care, (P = 0.04. Participants receiving the combined intervention compared to usual care had a greater reduction in LDL-cholesterol (2.7 [4.8 to 0.6] mg/dl.The benefit in systolic BP reduction observed in the original cohort assigned to the combined intervention was attenuated but still evident at 7- year follow-up. These

  13. The Historical Origins of Control over Deviant Groups in Malaysia: Official Fatwá and Regulation of Interpretation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuki Shiozaki

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In Malaysia, official fatwá issued in each state played a crucial role in the regulation of ajaran sesat, or ‘deviant’ groups, such as Darul Arqam, Ahmadiyah, Taslim, Shi’a and many Sufi orders. The regulation of groups through official fatwá can be traced back to the 1930s. The development of control over them was deeply concerned with the upheavals in the Islamic world in the 1920s and the rise of the Salafi stream. The muftī in the Malay sultanates took the initiative in the regulation of ‘deviant’ groups. Among them was Sayyid Alawi Tahir al-Haddad, a muftī from Johor, who denounced the Salafism, or Kaum Muda, in Southeast Asia and other new streams through his fatwá. Sayyid Alawi was from Hadhramaut in Yemen, the stronghold of the Shafi‘i school. His attempt to strengthen the Shafi‘i school and regulate the new streams of Islamic thought was, in Malaysia, one of the origins of the efforts to gain control over ‘deviant’ groups through official fatwá.DOI: 10.15408/sdi.v22i2.1917

  14. Hassle Free Mealtimes Triple P: a randomised controlled trial of a brief parenting group for childhood mealtime difficulties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morawska, Alina; Adamson, Michelle; Hinchliffe, Kaitlin; Adams, Tracey

    2014-02-01

    Mealtime difficulties are common in typically developing young children. Easily accessible, wide-reaching, early intervention is needed to meet demand for assistance, and prevent the development of more serious feeding and psychosocial problems. Behavioural parent training is an efficacious intervention for childhood mealtime problems, however, existing programmes are long, intensive, and costly. The current study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of a brief parenting discussion group for young children's mealtime difficulties. Eighty-six parents of 2- to 5-year-old children with mealtime difficulties participated in a randomised controlled trial of Hassle Free Mealtimes Triple P (HFMTP; Morawska & Sanders, 2012), a 2-h discussion group on positive parenting strategies specific to the mealtime context. Results of parent-report measures showed that after intervention, there were significant improvements with large effect sizes in children's mealtime behaviour, parents' mealtime practices and cognitions, and both mealtime and general parenting confidence, compared to a waitlist control group. Parents also reported high satisfaction with the programme and effects were maintained at 6-month follow-up. These results support the efficacy of a brief parenting discussion group for childhood mealtime difficulties. This low intensity format of intervention has the potential to meet the high demand for assistance with young children's mealtime difficulties.

  15. Transdiagnostic group behavioral activation and exposure therapy for youth anxiety and depression: Initial randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Brian C; Crocco, Sofia T; Esseling, Petra; Areizaga, Margaret J; Lindner, Alison M; Skriner, Laura C

    2016-01-01

    Anxiety and depression are debilitating and commonly co-occurring in young adolescents, yet few interventions are designed to treat both disorder classes together. Initial efficacy is presented of a school-based transdiagnostic group behavioral activation therapy (GBAT) that emphasizes anti-avoidance in vivo exposure. Youth (N = 35; ages 12-14; 50.9% male) were randomly assigned to either GBAT (n = 21) or WL (n = 14) after completing a double-gated screening process. Multi-reporter, multi-domain outcomes were assessed at pretreatment, posttreatment, and four-month follow-up (FU). GBAT was associated with greater posttreatment remission rates than WL in principal diagnosis (57.1% vs. 28.6%; X1(2) = 2.76, p = .09) and secondary diagnosis (70.6% vs. 10%; X1(2) = 9.26, p = .003), and greater improvement in Clinical Global Impairment - Severity ratings, B = -1.10 (0.42), p = .01. Symptom outcomes were not significantly different at posttreatment. GBAT produced greater posttreatment behavioral activation (large effect size) and fewer negative thoughts (medium effect), two transdiagnostic processes, both at the trend level. Most outcomes showed linear improvement from pretreatment to FU that did not differ depending on initial condition assignment. Sample size was small, but GBAT is a promising transdiagnostic intervention for youth anxiety and unipolar mood disorders that can feasibly and acceptably be applied in school settings.

  16. Multi-objective optimal design of online PID controllers using model predictive control based on the group method of data handling-type neural networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majdabadi-Farahani, V.; Hanif, M.; Gholaminezhad, I.; Jamali, A.; Nariman-Zadeh, N.

    2014-10-01

    In this paper, model predictive control (MPC) is used for optimal selection of proportional-integral-derivative (PID) controller gains. In conventional tuning methods a history of response error of the system under control in the passed time is measured and used to adjust PID parameters in order to improve the performance of the system in proceeding time. But MPC obviates this characteristic of classic PID. In fact MPC tries to tune the controller by predicting the system's behaviour some time steps ahead. In this way, PID parameters are adjusted before any real error occurs in the system's response. For this purpose, polynomial meta-models based on the evolved group method of data handling neural networks are obtained to simply simulate the time response of the dynamic system. Moreover, a non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm has been used in a multi-objective Pareto optimisation to select the parameters of the MPC which are prediction horizon, control horizon and relation of weight of Δ u and error, to minimise simultaneously two objective functions that are control effort and integral time absolute error of the system response. The results mentioned at the end obviously declare that the proposed method surpasses conventional tuning methods for PID controllers, and Pareto optimal selection of predictive parameters also improves the performance of the introduced method.

  17. [Level at which control objectives are reached in patients in different population groups with type 2 diabetes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrero, A; Pinillos, J; Sabio, P; Martín, J L; Garzón, G; Gil, Á

    2016-11-23

    There is evidence of increased macro- and micro-vascular risk in diabetic patients. The objective of this study was to determine the level of control in patients in different population groups with type 2 diabetes. Descriptive cross-sectional study. Primary care. Madrid Health Service. Year: 2014. Patients over 14 years with type 2 diabetes. Number of patientes: n=6674. Variables on the degree of control (HbA1c, systolic blood pressure [SBP], diastolic blood pressure [DBP], LDL-c) and variables on patient characteristics (demographic, other cardiovascular risk factors, complications). The mean age of patients with controlled HbA1c was 67.8 years vs. 62.9 years in the uncontrolled (P 140mmHg or DBP> 90mmHg. Over 25% of patients with hypertension or DL and uncontrolled levels were not receiving drug treatment. Control was improved in all groups, especially in younger patients, with particularly high cardiovascular risk by the presence of other cardiovascular risk factors or macroangiopathy. A significant percentage of patients with uncontrolled BP and cLDL were not diagnosed or receiving drug treatment. Copyright © 2016 Sociedad Española de Médicos de Atención Primaria (SEMERGEN). Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  18. B lymphocyte depletion with the monoclonal antibody rituximab in Graves' disease: a controlled pilot study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    El Fassi, Daniel; Nielsen, Claus H; Bonnema, Steen Joop

    2007-01-01

    be of benefit in GD. OBJECTIVE/DESIGN: The objective of this prospective, controlled, nonrandomized study was to investigate the effect of RTX in GD. SETTING/PATIENTS: We studied 20 outpatients referred to a university clinic with newly diagnosed (four with relapse) untreated GD. Ten received RTX (+RTX......), whereas 10 did not (-RTX). INTERVENTION: The patients received methimazole (MMI) for a median of 102 d (+RTX) and 110 d (-RTX) before the study. Patients in the +RTX group received 375 mg RTX/m(2) iv on d 1, 8, 15, and 22, and all patients were withdrawn from methimazole (MMI) at d 22. MAIN OUTCOME...

  19. The Effectiveness of a Group Triple P with Chinese Parents Who Have a Child with Developmental Disabilities: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Cynthia; Fan, Angel; Sanders, Matthew R.

    2013-01-01

    The study examined the effectiveness of Group Triple P, a Level 4 variant of the Triple P multilevel system of parenting support, with Chinese parents who had a preschool aged child with a developmental disability, using randomized controlled trial design. Participants (Intervention group: 42; Waitlist Control group: 39) completed measures on…

  20. The Effectiveness of a Group Triple P with Chinese Parents Who Have a Child with Developmental Disabilities: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Cynthia; Fan, Angel; Sanders, Matthew R.

    2013-01-01

    The study examined the effectiveness of Group Triple P, a Level 4 variant of the Triple P multilevel system of parenting support, with Chinese parents who had a preschool aged child with a developmental disability, using randomized controlled trial design. Participants (Intervention group: 42; Waitlist Control group: 39) completed measures on…

  1. Study of On-Ramp PI Controller Based on Dural Group QPSO with Different Well Centers Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao Wu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A novel quantum-behaved particle swarm optimization (QPSO algorithm, dual-group QPSO with different well centers (DWC-QPSO algorithm, is proposed by constructing the master-slave subswarms. The new algorithm was applied in the parameter optimization of on-ramp traffic PI controller combining with nonlinear feedback theory. With the critical information contained in the searching space and results of the basic QPSO algorithm, this algorithm avoids the rapid disappearance of swarm diversity and enhances the global searching ability through collaboration between subswarms. Experiment results on an on-ramp traffic control simulation show that DWC-QPSO can be well applied in the study of on-ramp traffic PI controller and the comparison results illustrate that DWC-QPSO outperforms other evolutionary algorithms with enhancement in both adaptability and stability.

  2. Optimal Dispatch Control Simulation of Elevator Group Control System%电梯群控系统的最优调度仿真

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    付丽君; 周崇

    2012-01-01

    Elevator group control is a multi - objective optimization problem in an open, complicated and dynamical system. But most present elevator group control systems ( EGCS) make use of the principle of the least waiting time to dispatch the elevators without the energy consumption of the comprehensive factors, which reduces the elevator group control system scheduling performance. And the traditional scheduling method is failed in global convergence to get good content. An elevator group control system proposed based on ant colony algorithm was proposed for optimal dispatching elevator scheduling. This algorithm uses the passengers waiting time, the consuming power and elevator crowd of variable data as the variables. Then the controller of the multi - objective evaluation function was setup with its ACA model, The simulation on MATLAB shows the favorable effect of the Ant Colony Algorithm and the improvement in the performance of elevator group control in the dispatching elevator.%在电梯群控节能优化问题的研究中,电梯群控调度是一个开放、动态、复杂系统的多目标优化问题.但是目前大多数群控系统都采用了乘客最少候梯时间的原则来派梯,并没有从电梯的能源消耗等综合因素来调度电梯,从而降低了电梯群控系统的调度性能.并且传统的调度方法在全局收敛性上不能得到很好的满足.为此提出一种蚁群算法的电梯群控系统来进行最佳电梯调度,利用乘客的候梯时间、电梯耗能和电梯拥挤度作为算法的变量数据,并且建立多目标评价函数的蚁群优化模型的控制器,通过蚁群算法进行仿真,验证了蚁群算法对电梯群控得到良好效果,并解决了电梯群控制器对电梯调度单一和全局快速收敛性的问题,为提高电梯群控调度性能提供了参考.

  3. Active placebo control groups of pharmacological interventions were rarely used but merited serious consideration: a methodological overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Jakob Solgaard; Bielefeldt, Andreas Ørsted; Hróbjartsson, Asbjørn

    2017-07-01

    Active placebos are control interventions that mimic the side effects of the experimental interventions in randomized trials and are sometimes used to reduce the risk of unblinding. We wanted to assess how often randomized clinical drug trials use active placebo control groups; to provide a catalog, and a characterization, of such trials; and to analyze methodological arguments for and against the use of active placebo. An overview consisting of three thematically linked substudies. In an observational substudy, we assessed the prevalence of active placebo groups based on a random sample of 200 PubMed indexed placebo-controlled randomized drug trials published in October 2013. In a systematic review, we identified and characterized trials with active placebo control groups irrespective of publication time. In a third substudy, we reviewed publications with substantial methodological comments on active placebo groups (searches in PubMed, The Cochrane Library, G