WorldWideScience

Sample records for nonradioactive hazardous chemicals

  1. Hazardous Chemicals

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    Chemicals are a part of our daily lives, providing many products and modern conveniences. With more than three decades of experience, The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) has been in the forefront of efforts to protect and assess people's exposure to environmental and hazardous chemicals. This report provides information about hazardous chemicals and useful tips on how to protect you and your family from harmful exposure.

  2. Criteria and Processes for the Certification of Non-Radioactive Hazardous and Non-Hazardous Wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dominick, J.

    2008-01-01

    This document details Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory's (LLNL) criteria and processes for determining if potentially volumetrically contaminated or potentially surface contaminated wastes are to be managed as material containing residual radioactivity or as non-radioactive. This document updates and replaces UCRL-AR-109662, Criteria and Procedures for the Certification of Nonradioactive Hazardous Waste (Reference 1), also known as 'The Moratorium', and follows the guidance found in the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) document, Performance Objective for Certification of Non-Radioactive Hazardous Waste (Reference 2). The 1992 Moratorium document (UCRL-AR-109662) is three volumes and 703 pages. The first volume provides an overview of the certification process and lists the key radioanalytical methods and their associated Limits of Sensitivities. Volumes Two and Three contain supporting documents and include over 30 operating procedures, QA plans, training documents and organizational charts that describe the hazardous and radioactive waste management system in place in 1992. This current document is intended to update the previous Moratorium documents and to serve as the top-tier LLNL institutional Moratorium document. The 1992 Moratorium document was restricted to certification of Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA), State and Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) hazardous waste from Radioactive Material Management Areas (RMMA). This still remains the primary focus of the Moratorium; however, this document increases the scope to allow use of this methodology to certify other LLNL wastes and materials destined for off-site disposal, transfer, and re-use including non-hazardous wastes and wastes generated outside of RMMAs with the potential for DOE added radioactivity. The LLNL organization that authorizes off-site transfer/disposal of a material or waste stream is responsible for implementing the requirements of this document. The LLNL Radioactive and

  3. Hazardous Chemicals

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2007-04-10

    Chemicals are a part of our daily lives, providing many products and modern conveniences. With more than three decades of experience, The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) has been in the forefront of efforts to protect and assess people's exposure to environmental and hazardous chemicals. This report provides information about hazardous chemicals and useful tips on how to protect you and your family from harmful exposure.  Created: 4/10/2007 by CDC National Center for Environmental Health.   Date Released: 4/13/2007.

  4. Separation of non-hazardous, non-radioactive components from ICPP calcine via chlorination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nelson, L.O.

    1995-05-01

    A pyrochemical treatment method for separating non-radioactive from radioactive components in solid granular waste accumulated at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant was investigated. The goal of this study was to obtain kinetic and chemical separation data on the reaction products of the chlorination of the solid waste, known as calcine. Thermodynamic equilibrium calculations were completed to verify that a separation of radioactive and non-radioactive calcine components was possible. Bench-scale chlorination experiments were completed subsequently in a variety of reactor configurations including: a fixed-bed reactor (reactive gases flowed around and not through the particle bed), a packed/fluidized-bed reactor, and a packed-bed reactor (reactive gases flowed through the particle bed). Chemical analysis of the reaction products generated during the chlorination experiments verified the predictions made by the equilibrium calculations. An empirical first-order kinetic rate expression was developed for each of the reactor configurations. 20 refs., 16 figs., 21 tabs

  5. Oak Ridge National Laboratory program plan for certification of nonradioactive hazardous waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-05-01

    This document describes Oak Ridge National Laboratory's (ORNL) Program for Certification of Nonradioactive Hazardous Waste (Program). The Program establishes the criteria that will be used by all ORNL divisions, offices, and programs for unrestricted release of hazardous waste to off-site commercial facilities. The certification process meets the requirements given in the Performance Objective for Certification of Non-Radioactive Hazardous Waste. The Program Plan has two main elements: (A) Establishing Radioactive Materials Management Areas (RMMAs). At ORNL, RMMAs are (1) Contamination Areas, High Contamination Areas, and Airborne Radioactivity Areas, (2) Radiological Buffer Areas established for contamination control, and (3) areas posted to prevent loss of control of activated items. (B) Certifying that hazardous waste originating in an RMMA is suitable for commercial treatment, storage, or disposal by process knowledge, surface contamination surveys, sampling and analysis, or a combination of these techniques. If process knowledge is insufficient, the hazardous waste must undergo sampling and analysis in addition to surface contamination surveys. This Program will reduce the impact to current ORNL operations by using current radiological area boundaries and existing plans and procedures to the greatest extent possible. New or revised procedures will be developed as necessary to implement this Program

  6. The Y-12 Plant No Rad-Added Program for off-site shipment of nonradioactive hazardous waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooper, K.H.; Mattie, B.K.; Williams, J.L.; Jacobs, D.G.; Roberts, K.A.

    1994-01-01

    On May 17, 1991, the US Department of Energy (DOE) issued a directive for DOE operations to cease off-site shipments of non-radioactive hazardous waste pending further clarification and approvals. A DOE Performance Objective for Certification of Non-Radioactive Hazardous Waste was issued in November 1991. In response to these directives, the Waste Management Division of Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, with assistance from Roy F. Weston, Inc., has developed a No Rad-Added Program to provide small programmatic guidance and a set of procedures, approved by DOE, which will permit hazardous waste to be shipped from the Y-12 Plant to commercial treatment, storage, or disposal facilities after ensuring and certifying that hazardous waste has no radioactivity added as a result of DOE operations. There are serious legal and financial consequences of shipping waste containing radioactivity to an off-site facility not licensed to receive radioactive materials. Therefore, this program is designed with well-defined responsibilities and stringent documentation requirements

  7. Lessons to be learned from radioactive waste disposal practices for non-radioactive hazardous waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merz, E.R.

    1991-01-01

    The criteria to be set up for any kind of hazardous waste disposal must always be put in perspective: 1. what are the waste characteristics? 2. what time period for safe isolation is of interest? 3. which geological disposal alternatives exist? Different approaches may be used in the short- and long-term perspective. In either case, a general procedure is recommended which involves concentrating, containing and isolating the source of toxicity, both radioactive and chemotoxic substances, as far as practicable. Waste characterization of either chemotoxic or radioactive wastes should be performed applying comparable scientifically based principles. The important question which arises is whether their hazard potential can be quantified on the basis of dose comparison regarding the morbidity effects of radiation and of chemical pollutants. Good control over the consequences of hazardous waste disposal requires threat detailed criteria for tolerable contamination of radioactive as well as chemical pollutants should be established, and that compliance with these criteria can be demonstrated. As yet, there are no well developed principles for assessing the detriment from most types of genotoxic waste other than radioactive material. The time horizon discussed for both categories of waste for their proof of safe isolation differs by a factor of about one hundred. (au)

  8. Emerging concepts and requirements for the long-term management of non-radioactive hazardous wastes - would geological disposal be an appropriate solution for some of these wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rein, K. von

    1994-01-01

    This work deals with the emerging concepts and requirements for the long-term management of non-radioactive hazardous wastes. After some generalities on the pollution of natural environment and the legislations taken by the swedish government the author tries to answer to the question : would geological disposal be an appropriate solution for the non-radioactive hazardous wastes? Then is given the general discussion of the last three articles concerning the background to current environmental policies and their implementation and more particularly the evolution and current thoughts about environmental policies, the managing hazardous activities and substances and the emerging concepts and requirements for the long-term management of non-radioactive hazardous wastes. Comments and questions concerning the similarity or otherwise between the present position of radioactive waste disposal and the background to current environmental policies are indicated. (O.L.)

  9. Nonradioactive Environmental Emissions Chemical Source Term for the Double-Shell Tank (DST) Vapor Space During Waste Retrieval Operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MAY, T.H.

    2000-01-01

    A nonradioactive chemical vapor space source term for tanks on the Phase 1 and the extended Phase 1 delivery, storage, and disposal mission was determined. Operations modeled included mixer pump operation and DST waste transfers. Concentrations of ammonia, specific volatile organic compounds, and quantitative volumes of aerosols were estimated

  10. Chemical process hazards analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-02-01

    The Office of Worker Health and Safety (EH-5) under the Assistant Secretary for the Environment, Safety and Health of the US Department (DOE) has published two handbooks for use by DOE contractors managing facilities and processes covered by the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) Rule for Process Safety Management of Highly Hazardous Chemicals (29 CFR 1910.119), herein referred to as the PSM Rule. The PSM Rule contains an integrated set of chemical process safety management elements designed to prevent chemical releases that can lead to catastrophic fires, explosions, or toxic exposures. The purpose of the two handbooks, ``Process Safety Management for Highly Hazardous Chemicals`` and ``Chemical Process Hazards Analysis,`` is to facilitate implementation of the provisions of the PSM Rule within the DOE. The purpose of this handbook ``Chemical Process Hazards Analysis,`` is to facilitate, within the DOE, the performance of chemical process hazards analyses (PrHAs) as required under the PSM Rule. It provides basic information for the performance of PrHAs, and should not be considered a complete resource on PrHA methods. Likewise, to determine if a facility is covered by the PSM rule, the reader should refer to the handbook, ``Process Safety Management for Highly Hazardous Chemicals`` (DOE- HDBK-1101-96). Promulgation of the PSM Rule has heightened the awareness of chemical safety management issues within the DOE. This handbook is intended for use by DOE facilities and processes covered by the PSM rule to facilitate contractor implementation of the PrHA element of the PSM Rule. However, contractors whose facilities and processes not covered by the PSM Rule may also use this handbook as a basis for conducting process hazards analyses as part of their good management practices. This handbook explains the minimum requirements for PrHAs outlined in the PSM Rule. Nowhere have requirements been added beyond what is specifically required by the rule.

  11. Treatment and storage of radioactive wastes at Institute for Energy Technology, Kjeller, Norway and a short survey of non-radioactive hazardous wastes in Norway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lundby, J.E.

    1988-08-01

    The treatment and storage of low-level and intermediate-level radioactive wastes in Norway is described. A survey of non-radioactive hazardous wastes and planned processing methods for their treatment in Norway is given. It seems that processing methods developed for radioactive wastes to a greater extent could be adopted to hazardous wastes, and that an increased interdisciplinary waste cooperation could be a positive contribution to the solution of the hazardous waste problems

  12. Hazards in the chemical laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bretherick, L.

    1987-01-01

    The contents of this book are: Preface; Introduction; Health and Safety at Work Act 1974; Safety Planning and Management; Fire Protection; Reactive Chemical Hazards; Chemical Hazards and Toxicology; Health Care and First Aid; Hazardous Chemicals; Precautions against Radiations; and An American View

  13. Chemical hazards from decontamination solutions in low level waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leventhal, L.; Miller, A.; Turney, J.; Naughton, M.; IMPELL Corp., Walnut Creek, CA; Electric Power Research Inst., Palo Alto, CA)

    1985-01-01

    Recent regulations are focussing more attention on the non-radioactive matrix materials associated with radioactive wastes. Decontamination of operating facilities is becoming a more significant source of low-level waste. This study reviewed the chemical and biological hazards of over 50 decontamination processes. Seventeen of the most prominent hard and soft decontamination processes were examined in detail. The chemical and biological hazards of these seventeen are presented in this paper. These hazards influence the choice of radwaste processing and packaging operations and methods. Federal, state and local regulations further impact on operations and waste disposal. Hazards to personnel, in plant and off-site, resulting from the decontamination cycle are evaluated. 1 fig., 5 tabs

  14. How to control chemical hazards

    CERN Multimedia

    2012-01-01

    Improving protection against chemical hazards is one of the 2012 CERN safety objectives identified by the Director General. Identifying and drawing up a complete inventory of chemicals, and assessing the associated risks are important steps in this direction.   The HSE Unit has drawn up safety rules, guidelines and forms to help you to meet this objective. We would like to draw your attention to: • safety guidelines C-0-0-1 and C-1-0-2 (now also available in French), which deal with the identification of hazardous chemicals and the assessment of chemical risk; • safety guideline C-1-0-1, which deals with the storage of hazardous chemicals. All safety documents can be consulted at: cern.ch/regles-securite The HSE Unit will be happy to answer any questions you may have. Write to us at: safety-general@cern.ch The HSE Unit

  15. Principles for disposal of radioactive and chemical hazardous wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merz, E. R.

    1991-01-01

    The double hazard of mixed wastes is characterized by several criteria: radioactivity on the one hand, and chemical toxicity, flammability, corrosiveness as well as chemical reactivity on the other hand. Chemotoxic waste normally has a much more complex composition than radioactive waste and appears in much larger quantities. However, the two types of waste have some properties in common when it comes to their long-term impact on health and the environment. In order to minimize the risk associated with mixed waste management, the material assigned for ultimate disposal should be thoroughly detoxified, inertized, or mineralized prior to conditioning and packaging. Good control over the environmental consequence of waste disposal requires that detailed criteria for tolerable contamination should be established, and that compliance with these criteria can be demonstrated. For radioactive waste, there has been an extensive international development of criteria to protect human health. For non-radioactive waste, derived criteria exist only for a limited number of substances

  16. Reactive chemicals and process hazards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Surianarayanan, M.

    2016-01-01

    Exothermic chemical reactions are often accompanied by significant heat release, and therefore, need a thorough investigation before they are taken to a plant scale. Sudden thermal energy releases from exothermic decompositions and runaway reactions have contributed to serious fire and explosions in several chemical process plants. Similarly, thermal runaway had also occurred in storage and transportation of reactive chemicals. The secondary events of thermal runaway reactions can be rupture of process vessel, toxic spills and release of explosive vapor clouds or combination of these also. The explosion hazards are governed by the system thermodynamics and kinetics of the thermal process. Theoretical prediction of limiting temperature is difficult due to process complexities. Further, the kinetic data obtained through classical techniques, at conditions far away from runaway situation, is often not valid for assessing the runaway behavior of exothermic processes. The main focus of this lecture is to discuss the causes and several contributing factors for thermal runaway and instability and present analyses of the methodologies of the new instrumental techniques for assessing the thermal hazards of reactive chemicals during processing, storage and transportation. (author)

  17. Long-term Problems of Land Contaminated by Nonradioactive Hazardous Chemicals: Sources, Impacts, and Countermeasures

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-01-01

    Chromium deficiency in animals produces symptoms similar to those for diabetes . Deficiencies of chromiu,n have also been associated with heart disease...widespread mercury poisonings from environmental sources. In the early 1960s several instances of methyl mercury poisoning occurred in Iraq, Guatemala , and...carbon dioxide, wpter vapor, and ash; minor effluents include sulfur-, nitrogen-, andPi ’:uy,-n -ccntallnhi( products that may be of signifi..ant en ~ron6

  18. Informing Workers of Chemical Hazards: The OSHA Hazard Communication Standard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Chemical Society, Washington, DC.

    Practical information on how to implement a chemical-related safety program is outlined in this publication. Highlights of the federal Occupational Safety and Health Administrations (OSHA) Hazard Communication Standard are presented and explained. These include: (1) hazard communication requirements (consisting of warning labels, material safety…

  19. Process safety management for highly hazardous chemicals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-02-01

    Purpose of this document is to assist US DOE contractors who work with threshold quantities of highly hazardous chemicals (HHCs), flammable liquids or gases, or explosives in successfully implementing the requirements of OSHA Rule for Process Safety Management of Highly Hazardous Chemicals (29 CFR 1910.119). Purpose of this rule is to prevent releases of HHCs that have the potential to cause catastrophic fires, explosions, or toxic exposures.

  20. Non-radioactive waste management in a Nuclear Energy Research Institution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furusawa, Helio A.; Martins, Elaine A.J.; Cotrim, Marycel E.B.; Pires, Maria A. F.

    2013-01-01

    For more than 50 years, non-radioactive materials have been used in processes at IPEN to support the nuclear fuel development and all related activities. Reagents, raw materials, products and by-products have been stored. Many of these are hazardous highly toxic or reactants materials. Some years ago actions sent part of these non-radioactive waste materials to proper disposal (technical incineration) resulting in an Institutional Non-Radioactive Waste Management Program. In 2005, an internal set of procedures and information entitled - Guia de Procedimentos para Armazenamento, Tratamento e Descarte de Residuos de Laboratorio Quimico - (Guide of Procedures for Storage, Treatment, and Disposal of Chemistry Laboratory Wastes) - was published to be used at the IPEN's facilities. A data base managed by software was created in order to allow the Units to input data and information about the routinely generated wastes and those already existing. Even after disposing so huge amount of wastes, a latent demand still exists. Several goals were achieved notably a well-organized and roomy space; safer storage places; local, state, and nationwide laws enforcement (for radioactive and non-radioactive materials); and improvement in chemicals control as hazardous and aged materials are more frequently disposed. A special stress was conducted to know and follow laws, regulations, and technical norms as the entire process is very detailed and this is not a day-by-day routine for the IPEN's technical personnel. The immediate consequence is that the safer the workplace the safer the nuclear related activities are done. (author)

  1. 30 CFR 47.21 - Identifying hazardous chemicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., subpart Z, Toxic and Hazardous Substances. (4) American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Identifying hazardous chemicals. 47.21 Section... TRAINING HAZARD COMMUNICATION (HazCom) Hazard Determination § 47.21 Identifying hazardous chemicals. The...

  2. Computational Approaches to Chemical Hazard Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luechtefeld, Thomas; Hartung, Thomas

    2018-01-01

    Summary Computational prediction of toxicity has reached new heights as a result of decades of growth in the magnitude and diversity of biological data. Public packages for statistics and machine learning make model creation faster. New theory in machine learning and cheminformatics enables integration of chemical structure, toxicogenomics, simulated and physical data in the prediction of chemical health hazards, and other toxicological information. Our earlier publications have characterized a toxicological dataset of unprecedented scale resulting from the European REACH legislation (Registration Evaluation Authorisation and Restriction of Chemicals). These publications dove into potential use cases for regulatory data and some models for exploiting this data. This article analyzes the options for the identification and categorization of chemicals, moves on to the derivation of descriptive features for chemicals, discusses different kinds of targets modeled in computational toxicology, and ends with a high-level perspective of the algorithms used to create computational toxicology models. PMID:29101769

  3. Hazardous chemical tracking system (HAZ-TRAC)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bramlette, J.D.; Ewart, S.M.; Jones, C.E.

    1990-07-01

    Westinghouse Idaho Nuclear Company, Inc. (WINCO) developed and implemented a computerized hazardous chemical tracking system, referred to as Haz-Trac, for use at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP). Haz-Trac is designed to provide a means to improve the accuracy and reliability of chemical information, which enhances the overall quality and safety of ICPP operations. The system tracks all chemicals and chemical components from the time they enter the ICPP until the chemical changes form, is used, or becomes a waste. The system runs on a Hewlett-Packard (HP) 3000 Series 70 computer. The system is written in COBOL and uses VIEW/3000, TurboIMAGE/DBMS 3000, OMNIDEX, and SPEEDWARE. The HP 3000 may be accessed throughout the ICPP, and from remote locations, using data communication lines. Haz-Trac went into production in October, 1989. Currently, over 1910 chemicals and chemical components are tracked on the system. More than 2500 personnel hours were saved during the first six months of operation. Cost savings have been realized by reducing the time needed to collect and compile reporting information, identifying and disposing of unneeded chemicals, and eliminating duplicate inventories. Haz-Trac maintains information required by the Superfund Amendment Reauthorization Act (SARA), the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA) and the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA)

  4. Hazardous chemical tracking system (HAZ-TRAC)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bramlette, J D; Ewart, S M; Jones, C E

    1990-07-01

    Westinghouse Idaho Nuclear Company, Inc. (WINCO) developed and implemented a computerized hazardous chemical tracking system, referred to as Haz-Trac, for use at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP). Haz-Trac is designed to provide a means to improve the accuracy and reliability of chemical information, which enhances the overall quality and safety of ICPP operations. The system tracks all chemicals and chemical components from the time they enter the ICPP until the chemical changes form, is used, or becomes a waste. The system runs on a Hewlett-Packard (HP) 3000 Series 70 computer. The system is written in COBOL and uses VIEW/3000, TurboIMAGE/DBMS 3000, OMNIDEX, and SPEEDWARE. The HP 3000 may be accessed throughout the ICPP, and from remote locations, using data communication lines. Haz-Trac went into production in October, 1989. Currently, over 1910 chemicals and chemical components are tracked on the system. More than 2500 personnel hours were saved during the first six months of operation. Cost savings have been realized by reducing the time needed to collect and compile reporting information, identifying and disposing of unneeded chemicals, and eliminating duplicate inventories. Haz-Trac maintains information required by the Superfund Amendment Reauthorization Act (SARA), the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA) and the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA).

  5. [Chemical hazards arising from shale gas extraction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pakulska, Daria

    2015-01-01

    The development of the shale industry is gaining momentum and hence the analysis of chemical hazards to the environment and health of the local population is extreiely timely and important. Chemical hazards are created during the exploitation of all minerals, but in the case of shale gas production, there is much more uncertainty as regards to the effects of new technologies application. American experience suggests the increasing risk of environmental contamination, mainly groundwater. The greatest, concern is the incomplete knowledge of the composition of fluids used for fracturing shale rock and unpredictability of long-term effects of hydraulic fracturing for the environment and health of residents. High population density in the old continent causes the problem of chemical hazards which is much larger than in the USA. Despite the growing public discontent data on this subject are limited. First of all, there is no epidemiological studies to assess the relationship between risk factors, such as air and water pollution, and health effects in populations living in close proximity to gas wells. The aim of this article is to identify and discuss existing concepts on the sources of environmental contamination, an indication of the environment elements under pressure and potential health risks arising from shale gas extraction.

  6. Chemical hazards arising from shale gas extraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daria Pakulska

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The development of the shale industry is gaining momentum and hence the analysis of chemical hazards to the environment and health of the local population is extremely timely and important. Chemical hazards are created during the exploitation of all minerals, but in the case of shale gas production, there is much more uncertainty as regards to the effects of new technologies application. American experience suggests the increasing risk of environmental contamination, mainly groundwater. The greatest concern is the incomplete knowledge of the composition of fluids used for fracturing shale rock and unpredictability of long-term effects of hydraulic fracturing for the environment and health of residents. High population density in the old continent causes the problem of chemical hazards which is much larger than in the USA. Despite the growing public discontent data on this subject are limited. First of all, there is no epidemiological studies to assess the relationship between risk factors, such as air and water pollution, and health effects in populations living in close proximity to gas wells. The aim of this article is to identify and discuss existing concepts on the sources of environmental contamination, an indication of the environment elements under pressure and potential health risks arising from shale gas extraction. Med Pr 2015;66(1:99–117

  7. 1992 Tier Two emergency and hazardous chemical inventory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-03-01

    This report is a compilation of data on emergency and hazardous chemicals stored at the Hanford Reservation. The report lists name or chemical description, physical and health hazards, inventories and storage location

  8. Hazardous chemical and radioactive wastes at Hanford

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keller, J.F.; Stewart, T.L.

    1991-07-01

    The Hanford Site was established in 1944 to produce plutonium for defense. During the past four decades, a number of reactors, processing facilities, and waste management facilities have been built at Hanford for plutonium production. Generally, Hanford's 100 Area was dedicated to reactor operation; the 200 Area to fuel reprocessing, plutonium recovery, and waste management; and the 300 Area to fuel fabrication and research and development. Wastes generated from these operations included highly radioactive liquid wastes, which were discharged to single- and double-shell tanks; solid wastes, including both transuranic (TRU) and low-level wastes, which were buried or discharged to caissons; and waste water containing low- to intermediate-level radioactivity, which was discharged to the soil column via near-surface liquid disposal units such as cribs, ponds, and retention basins. Virtually all of the wastes contained hazardous chemical as well as radioactive constituents. This paper will focus on the hazardous chemical components of the radioactive mixed waste generated by plutonium production at Hanford. The processes, chemicals used, methods of disposition, fate in the environment, and actions being taken to clean up this legacy are described by location

  9. Hazardous chemical and radioactive wastes at Hanford

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keller, J.F.; Stewart, T.L.

    1993-01-01

    The Hanford Site was established in 1944 to produce plutonium for defense. During the past four decades, a number of reactors, processing facilities, and waste management facilities were built at Hanford for plutonium production. Generally, Hanford's 100 Area was dedicated to reactor operation; the 200 Areas to fuel reprocessing, plutonium recovery, and waste management; and the 300 Area to fuel fabrication and research and development. Wastes generated from these operations included highly radioactive liquid wastes, which were discharged to single- and double-shell tanks; solid wastes, including both transuranic and low-level wastes, which were buried or discharged to caissons; and waste water containing low- to intermediate-level radioactivity, which was discharged to the soil column via near-surface liquid disposal units such as cribs, ponds, and retention basins. Virtually all of the wastes contained hazardous chemicals as well as radioactive constituents. This paper focuses on the hazardous chemical components of the radioactive mixed waste generated by plutonium production at Hanford. The processes, chemicals used, methods of disposition, fate in the environment, and actions being taken to clean up this legacy are described by location

  10. Underground storage tanks containing hazardous chemicals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wise, R.F.; Starr, J.W.; Maresca, J.W. Jr.; Hillger, R.W.; Tafuri, A.N.

    1991-01-01

    The regulations issued by the United States Environmental Protection Agency in 1988 require, with several exceptions, that underground storage tank systems containing petroleum fuels and hazardous chemicals be routinely tested for releases. This paper summarizes the release detection regulations for tank systems containing chemicals and gives a preliminary assessment of the approaches to release detection currently being used. To make this assessment, detailed discussions were conducted with providers and manufacturers of leak detection equipment and testing services, owners or operators of different types of chemical storage tank systems, and state and local regulators. While these discussions were limited to a small percentage of each type of organization, certain observations are sufficiently distinctive and important that they are reported for further investigation and evaluation. To make it clearer why certain approaches are being used, this paper also summarizes the types of chemicals being stored, the effectiveness of several leak detection testing systems, and the number and characteristics of the tank systems being used to store these products

  11. Emergency Evacuation of Hazardous Chemical Accidents Based on Diffusion Simulation

    OpenAIRE

    Jiang-Hua Zhang; Hai-Yue Liu; Rui Zhu; Yang Liu

    2017-01-01

    The recent rapid development of information technology, such as sensing technology, communications technology, and database, allows us to use simulation experiments for analyzing serious accidents caused by hazardous chemicals. Due to the toxicity and diffusion of hazardous chemicals, these accidents often lead to not only severe consequences and economic losses, but also traffic jams at the same time. Emergency evacuation after hazardous chemical accidents is an effective means to reduce the...

  12. Non-radioactive waste management in a Nuclear Energy Research Institution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furusawa, Helio A.; Martins, Elaine A.J.; Cotrim, Marycel E.B.; Pires, Maria A. F., E-mail: helioaf@ipen.br, E-mail: elaine@ipen.br, E-mail: mecotrim@ipen.br, E-mail: mapires@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEM-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Centro de Quimica e Meio Ambiente

    2013-07-01

    For more than 50 years, non-radioactive materials have been used in processes at IPEN to support the nuclear fuel development and all related activities. Reagents, raw materials, products and by-products have been stored. Many of these are hazardous highly toxic or reactants materials. Some years ago actions sent part of these non-radioactive waste materials to proper disposal (technical incineration) resulting in an Institutional Non-Radioactive Waste Management Program. In 2005, an internal set of procedures and information entitled - Guia de Procedimentos para Armazenamento, Tratamento e Descarte de Residuos de Laboratorio Quimico - (Guide of Procedures for Storage, Treatment, and Disposal of Chemistry Laboratory Wastes) - was published to be used at the IPEN's facilities. A data base managed by software was created in order to allow the Units to input data and information about the routinely generated wastes and those already existing. Even after disposing so huge amount of wastes, a latent demand still exists. Several goals were achieved notably a well-organized and roomy space; safer storage places; local, state, and nationwide laws enforcement (for radioactive and non-radioactive materials); and improvement in chemicals control as hazardous and aged materials are more frequently disposed. A special stress was conducted to know and follow laws, regulations, and technical norms as the entire process is very detailed and this is not a day-by-day routine for the IPEN's technical personnel. The immediate consequence is that the safer the workplace the safer the nuclear related activities are done. (author)

  13. 1993 Tier Two emergency and hazardous chemical inventory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-03-01

    This document comprises the following (January 1 to December 31, 1993) data for chemicals at Hanford Site, for Washington community right-to-know purposes: Chemical name, physical and health hazards, inventory, and storage code/locations

  14. Chemical incidents resulted in hazardous substances releases in the context of human health hazards.

    OpenAIRE

    Palaszewska-Tkacz, Anna; Czerczak, Sławomir; Konieczko, Katarzyna

    2017-01-01

    Objectives: The research purpose was to analyze data concerning chemical incidents in Poland collected in 1999–2009 in terms of health hazards. Material and Methods: The data was obtained, using multimodal information technology (IT) system, from chemical incidents reports prepared by rescuers at the scene. The final analysis covered sudden events associated with uncontrolled release of hazardous chemical substances or mixtures, which may potentially lead to human exposure. Releases of uniden...

  15. Waste management and chemical inventories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gleckler, B.P.

    1995-06-01

    This section of the 1994 Hanford Site Environmental Report summarizes the classification and handling of waste at the Hanford Site. Waste produced at the Hanford Site is classified as either radioactive, nonradioactive, or mixed waste. Radioactive wastes are further categorized as transuranic, high-level, and low-level. Mixed waste may contain both radioactive and hazardous nonradioactive substances. This section describes waste management practices and chemical inventories at the site.

  16. Waste management and chemical inventories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gleckler, B.P.

    1995-01-01

    This section of the 1994 Hanford Site Environmental Report summarizes the classification and handling of waste at the Hanford Site. Waste produced at the Hanford Site is classified as either radioactive, nonradioactive, or mixed waste. Radioactive wastes are further categorized as transuranic, high-level, and low-level. Mixed waste may contain both radioactive and hazardous nonradioactive substances. This section describes waste management practices and chemical inventories at the site

  17. Hazard assessment and risk management of offshore production chemicals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schobben, H.P.M.; Scholten, M.C.T.; Vik, E.A.; Bakke, S.

    1994-01-01

    There is a clear need for harmonization of the regulations with regard to the use and discharge of drilling and production chemicals in the North Sea. Therefore the CHARM (Chemical Hazard Assessment and Risk Management) model was developed. Both government (of several countries) and industry (E and P and chemical suppliers) participated in the project. The CHARM model is discussed and accepted by OSPARCON. The CHARM model consists of several modules. The model starts with a prescreening on the basis of hazardous properties like persistency, accumulation potential and the appearance on black lists. The core of the model.consists of modules for hazard assessment and risk analysis. Hazard assessment covers a general environmental evaluation of a chemical on the basis of intrinsic properties of that chemical. Risk analysis covers a more specific evaluation of the environmental impact from the use of a production chemical, or a combination of chemicals, under actual conditions. In the risk management module the user is guided to reduce the total risk of all chemicals used on a platform by the definition of measures in the most cost-effective way. The model calculates the environmental impact for the marine environment. Thereto three parts are distinguished: pelagic, benthic and food chain. Both hazard assessment and risk analysis are based on a proportional comparison of an estimated PEC with an estimated NEC. The PEC is estimated from the use, release, dilution and fate of the chemical and the NEC is estimated from the available toxicity data of the chemicals

  18. Haz-Map: Information on Hazardous Chemicals and Occupational Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Help Glossary References About Us Search Hazardous Agents Occupational Diseases High Risk Jobs Non-Occupational Activities Industries Job ... Findings Haz-Map®: Information on Hazardous Chemicals and Occupational Diseases by Jay A. Brown, M.D., M.P. ...

  19. Controlling organic chemical hazards in food manufacturing: a hazard analysis critical control points (HACCP) approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ropkins, K; Beck, A J

    2002-08-01

    Hazard analysis by critical control points (HACCP) is a systematic approach to the identification, assessment and control of hazards. Effective HACCP requires the consideration of all hazards, i.e., chemical, microbiological and physical. However, to-date most 'in-place' HACCP procedures have tended to focus on the control of microbiological and physical food hazards. In general, the chemical component of HACCP procedures is either ignored or limited to applied chemicals, e.g., food additives and pesticides. In this paper we discuss the application of HACCP to a broader range of chemical hazards, using organic chemical contaminants as examples, and the problems that are likely to arise in the food manufacturing sector. Chemical HACCP procedures are likely to result in many of the advantages previously identified for microbiological HACCP procedures: more effective, efficient and economical than conventional end-point-testing methods. However, the high costs of analytical monitoring of chemical contaminants and a limited understanding of formulation and process optimisation as means of controlling chemical contamination of foods are likely to prevent chemical HACCP becoming as effective as microbiological HACCP.

  20. Zeolite Vitrification Demonstration Program nonradioactive-process operations summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bryan, G.H.; Knox, C.A.; Goles, R.G.; Ethridge, L.J.; Siemens, D.H.

    1982-09-01

    The Submerged Demineralizer System is a process developed to decontaminate high-activity level water at Three Mile Island by sorbing the activity (primarily Cs and Sr) onto beds of zeolite. Pacific Northwest Laboratory's Zeolite Vitrification Demonstration Program has the responsibility of demonstrating the full-scale vitrification of this zeolite material. The first phase of this program has been to develop a glass formulation and demonstrate the vitrification process with the use of nonradioactive materials. During this phase, four full-scale nonradioactive demonstration runs were completed. The same zeolite mixture being used in the SDS system was loaded with nonradioactive isotopes of Cs and Sr, dried, blended with glass-forming chemicals and fed to a canister in an in-can melter furnace. During each run, the gaseous effluents were sampled. After each run, glass samples were removed and analyzed

  1. 1990 Tier Two emergency and hazardous chemical inventory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-03-01

    This document contains the 1990 Two Tier Emergency and Hazardous Chemical Inventory. Submission of this Tier Two form (when requested) is required by Title 3 of the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act of 1986, Section 312, Public Law 99--499, codified at 42 U.S.C. Section 11022. The purpose of this Tier Two form is to provide State and local officials and the public with specific information on hazardous chemicals present at your facility during the past year

  2. Limits of the comparison between radiological and chemical hazards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maximilien, R.; Bounolleau, B.

    2003-01-01

    The primary reason for comparing radiological and chemical hazards is, in the absence of knowledge of similarities between underlying mechanisms, the comparability of the methods used to evaluate their long-term consequences, especially at low doses: carcinogenicity, mutagenicity and effects on reproduction. For radiations, the evaluation is performed above all in terms of risk quantification while for chemicals hazard identification is the main concern. (authors)

  3. Safety, health and environmental committee (JKSHE): Establishing chemical hazard management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shyen, A.K.S.; Noriah Mod Ali; Sangau, J.K.

    2012-01-01

    Most of the laboratories in Malaysian Nuclear Agency are using chemicals in their research activities. However, it is known that using of chemicals without proper knowledge especially on the material characteristics as well as safe handling procedure may cause great harm to the workers. Therefore, Safety, Health and Environmental Committee (JKSHE) sees the need to establish a good chemical hazard management to ensure that a safe and healthy workplace and environment is provided. One of the elements in chemical hazard management is to carry out Chemical Hazard Risk Assessment (CHRA). The assessment was done so that decision can be made on suitable control measures upon use of such chemicals, such as induction and training courses to be given to the workers and health surveillance activities that may be needed to protect the workers. For this, JKSHE has recommended to conduct CHRA for one of the laboratories at Secondary Standard Dosimetry Laboratory (SSDL) namely Film Dosimeter Processing Room (dark room) as the initial effort towards a better chemical hazard management. This paper presents the case study where CHRA was conducted to identify the chemical hazards at the selected laboratory, the adequacy of existing control measures and finally the recommendation for more effective control measures. (author)

  4. Chemical hazards analysis of resilient flooring for healthcare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lent, Tom; Silas, Julie; Vallette, Jim

    2010-01-01

    This article addresses resilient flooring, evaluating the potential health effects of vinyl flooring and the leading alternatives-synthetic rubber, polyolefin, and linoleum-currently used in the healthcare marketplace. The study inventories chemicals incorporated as components of each of the four material types or involved in their life cycle as feedstocks, intermediary chemicals, or emissions. It then characterizes those chemicals using a chemical hazard-based framework that addresses persistence and bioaccumulation, human toxicity, and human exposures.

  5. Hazard ranking systems for chemical wastes and chemical waste sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waters, R.D.; Parker, F.L.; Crutcher, M.R.

    1991-01-01

    Hazardous materials and substances have always existed in the environment. Mankind has evolved to live with some degree of exposure to toxic materials. Until recently the risk has been from natural toxins or natural background radiation. While rapid technological advances over the past few decades have improved the lifestyle of our society, they have also dramatically increased the availability, volume and types of synthetic and natural hazardous materials. Many of their effects are as yet uncertain. Products and manufacturing by-products that no longer serve a useful purpose are deemed wastes. For some waste products land disposal will always be their ultimate fate. Hazardous substances are often included in the waste products. One needs to classify wastes by degree of hazard (risk). Risk (degree of probability of loss) is usually defined for risk assessment as probability of an occurrence times the consequences of the occurrence. Perhaps even more important than the definition of risk is the choice of a risk management strategy. The choice of strategy will be strongly influenced by the decision criteria used. Those decision criteria could be utility (the greatest happiness of the greatest number), rights or technology based or some combination of the three. It is necessary to make such choices about the definition of risks and criteria for management. It is clear that these are social (i.e., political) and value choices and science has little to say on this matter. This is another example of what Alvin Weinberg has named Transcience where the subject matter is scientific and technical but the choices are social, political and moral. This paper shall deal only with the scientific and technical aspects of the hazardous waste problem to create a hazardous substances classification system

  6. Chemical Hazards and Safety Issues in Fusion Safety Design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cadwallader, L.C.

    2003-01-01

    Radiological inventory releases have dominated accident consequences for fusion; these consequences are important to analyze and are generally the most severe result of a fusion facility accident event. However, the advent of, or plan for, large-scale usage of some toxic materials poses the additional hazard of chemical exposure from an accident event. Examples of toxic chemicals are beryllium for magnetic fusion and fluorine for laser fusion. Therefore, chemical exposure consequences must also be addressed in fusion safety assessment. This paper provides guidance for fusion safety analysis. US Department of Energy (DOE) chemical safety assessment practices for workers and the public are reviewed. The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has published some guidance on public exposure to releases of mixtures of chemicals, this guidance has been used to create an initial guideline for treating mixed radiological and toxicological releases in fusion; for example, tritiated hazardous dust from a tokamak vacuum vessel. There is no convenient means to judge the hazard severity of exposure to mixed materials. The chemical fate of mixed material constituents must be reviewed to determine if there is a separate or combined radiological and toxicological carcinogenesis, or if other health threats exist with radiological carcinogenesis. Recommendations are made for fusion facility chemical safety evaluation and safety guidance for protecting the public from chemical releases, since such levels are not specifically identified in the DOE fusion safety standard

  7. Emergency Evacuation of Hazardous Chemical Accidents Based on Diffusion Simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiang-Hua Zhang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The recent rapid development of information technology, such as sensing technology, communications technology, and database, allows us to use simulation experiments for analyzing serious accidents caused by hazardous chemicals. Due to the toxicity and diffusion of hazardous chemicals, these accidents often lead to not only severe consequences and economic losses, but also traffic jams at the same time. Emergency evacuation after hazardous chemical accidents is an effective means to reduce the loss of life and property and to smoothly resume the transport network as soon as possible. This paper considers the dynamic changes of the hazardous chemicals’ concentration after their leakage and simulates the diffusion process. Based on the characteristics of emergency evacuation of hazardous chemical accidents, we build a mixed-integer programming model and design a heuristic algorithm using network optimization and diffusion simulation (hereafter NODS. We then verify the validity and feasibility of the algorithm using Jinan, China, as a computational example. In the end, we compare the results from different scenarios to explore the key factors affecting the effectiveness of the evacuation process.

  8. 76 FR 72216 - Occupational Exposure to Hazardous Chemicals in Laboratories Standard; Extension of the Office of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-22

    ... accordance with the Standard's definitions for ``laboratory use of hazardous chemicals'' and ``laboratory... using hazardous chemicals; hazard-control techniques; equipment- reliability measures; worker... burden (time and costs) of the information collection requirements, including the validity of the...

  9. Chemical hazards from acid crater lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Bergen, M. J.; Sumarti, S.; Heikens, A.; Bogaard, T. A.; Hartiyatun, S.

    2003-04-01

    Acid crater lakes, which are hosted by a considerable number of active volcanoes, form a potential threat for local ecosystems and human health, as they commonly contain large amounts of dissolved chemicals. Subsurface seepage or overflow can lead to severe deterioration of the water quality of rivers and wells, as observations around several of these volcanoes have shown. The Ijen crater lake in East Java (Indonesia) is a striking example, as this reservoir of hyperacid (pHfluoride-rich water is the source of a ca. 50 km long acid river that transports substantial quantities of potentially toxic elements. A downstream trend of increasing pH from fluoride levels pose some of the most severe environmental threats. Its concentration decreases from ca. 1300 mg/kg in the lake to ca. 10 mg/kg in a coastal area downstream, where virtually all of the river water is used for irrigating rice fields and other cropland. Apart from serious problems for agriculture, our survey of 55 drinking water wells in the irrigation area shows that 50% contain fluoride above the 1.5 ppm WHO limit, in line with the observation that dental fluorosis is widespread among the ca. 100,000 residents of the area. A conspicuous spatial correlation between fluoride concentrations and the irrigation system suggest that long-term (century) infiltration of irrigation water may have affected the quality of groundwater. Fluorosis is also a problem in some villages within the caldera, where well water sources may have a more direct subsurface connection with the lake system. From our observations we conclude that water-quality monitoring is especially needed for health reasons in volcanic areas where volatile elements, derived from passively degassing magma, are intercepted by (sub) surface water bodies.

  10. Groundwater Monitoring Plan for the Nonradioactive Dangerous Waste Landfill

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindberg, J.S.; Hartman, M.J.

    1999-01-01

    The Nonradioactive Dangerous Waste Landfill (NRDWL), which received nonradioactive hazardous waste between 1975 and 1985, is located in the central Hanford Site (Figure 1.1) in southeastern Washington State. The Solid Waste Landfill, which is regulated and monitored separately, is adjacent to the NRDWL. The NRDWL is regulated under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 (RCRA) and monitored by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. Monitoring is done under interim-status, indicator-evaluation requirements (WAC 173-303 and by reference, 40 CFR 265.92). The well network includes three upgradient wells (one shared with the Solid Waste Landfill) and six downgradient wells. The wells are sampled semiannually for contaminant indicator parameters and site-specific parameters and annually for groundwater quality parameters

  11. 2727-S Nonradioactive Dangerous Waste Storage Facility Closure Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilczek, T.A.; Laws, J.R.; Izatt, R.D.

    1992-01-01

    This closure plan describes the activities for final closure of the 2727-S Nonradioactive Dangerous Waste Storage (NRDWS) Facility at the Hanford Site. The 2727-S NRDWS Facility provided container storage for nonradioactive dangerous and extremely hazardous wastes generated in the research and development laboratories, process operations, and maintenance and transportation functions throughout the Hanford Site. Storage operations began at the 2727-S NRDWS Facility March 14, 1983, and continued until December 30, 1986, when the last shipment of materials from the facility took place. These storage operations have been moved to the new 616 NRDWS Facility, which is an interim status unit located between the 200 East and 200 West Areas of the Hanford Site

  12. Hazardous chemicals in marine mammals from the western North Pacific

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyazaki, N.; Tanabe, S.

    1999-01-01

    Marine mammals have long-term life and occupy the highest ecological niche in the marine ecosystem. Thus, higher concentration of hazardous chemicals are expected in marine mammals. In the present study, we review contamination of organochlorine compounds (DDTs, PCBs, HCHs, etc.), heavy metals (Hg, Cd, Pb, etc.) and butyltin (TBT, DBT and MBT) in marine mammals collected from the western North Pacific, and discuss the worldwide contamination of these chemicals

  13. Chemical incidents resulted in hazardous substances releases in the context of human health hazards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Pałaszewska-Tkacz

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The research purpose was to analyze data concerning chemical incidents in Poland collected in 1999–2009 in terms of health hazards. Material and Methods: The data was obtained, using multimodal information technology (IT system, from chemical incidents reports prepared by rescuers at the scene. The final analysis covered sudden events associated with uncontrolled release of hazardous chemical substances or mixtures, which may potentially lead to human exposure. Releases of unidentified substances where emergency services took action to protect human health or environment were also included. Results: The number of analyzed chemical incidents in 1999–2009 was 2930 with more than 200 different substances released. The substances were classified into 13 groups of substances and mixtures posing analogous risks. Most common releases were connected with non-flammable corrosive liquids, including: hydrochloric acid (199 cases, sulfuric(VI acid (131 cases, sodium and potassium hydroxides (69 cases, ammonia solution (52 cases and butyric acid (32 cases. The next group were gases hazardous only due to physico-chemical properties, including: extremely flammable propane-butane (249 cases and methane (79 cases. There was no statistically significant trend associated with the total number of incidents. Only with the number of incidents with flammable corrosive, toxic and/or harmful liquids, the regression analysis revealed a statistically significant downward trend. The number of victims reported was 1997, including 1092 children and 18 fatalities. Conclusions: The number of people injured, number of incidents and the high 9th place of Poland in terms of the number of Seveso establishments, and 4 times higher number of hazardous industrial establishments not covered by the Seveso Directive justify the need for systematic analysis of hazards and their proper identification. It is advisable enhance health risk assessment, both qualitative and

  14. The OSHA hazardous chemical occupational exposure standard for laboratories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armbruster, D A

    1991-01-01

    OSHA's chemical occupational exposure standard for laboratories is an outgrowth of the previously issued Hazard Communication Standard. The standard relieves laboratories from complying with general industry standards but does require compliance with specific laboratory guidelines. The heart of the standard is the creation of a Chemical Hygiene Plan (CHP). The CHP addresses major issues such as safety equipment and procedures, work practices, training, the designation of a chemical hygiene officer, and the provision of medical consultation and examination for affected employees. This new standard, in full effect as of January 31, 1991, presents yet another regulatory challenge to laboratory managers but also ensures a safer environment for laboratory workers.

  15. Base catalyzed decomposition of toxic and hazardous chemicals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rogers, C.J.; Kornel, A.; Sparks, H.L.

    1991-01-01

    There are vast amounts of toxic and hazardous chemicals, which have pervaded our environment during the past fifty years, leaving us with serious, crucial problems of remediation and disposal. The accumulation of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), ''dioxins'' and pesticides in soil sediments and living systems is a serious problem that is receiving considerable attention concerning the cancer-causing nature of these synthetic compounds.US EPA scientists developed in 1989 and 1990 two novel chemical Processes to effect the dehalogenation of chlorinated solvents, PCBs, PCDDs, PCDFs, PCP and other pollutants in soil, sludge, sediment and liquids. This improved technology employs hydrogen as a nucleophile to replace halogens on halogenated compounds. Hydrogen as nucleophile is not influenced by steric hinderance as with other nucleophile where complete dehalogenation of organohalogens can be achieved. This report discusses catalyzed decomposition of toxic and hazardous chemicals

  16. Delisting efforts for mixed radioactive and chemically hazardous waste at the Oak Ridge Gaseous Diffusion Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goodpasture, S.T.

    1987-01-01

    Presently, there are four hazardous wastes at the Oak Ridge Gaseous Diffusion Plant that are candidates for the delisting from the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) hazardous waste regulations. These candidates are the sludges from K-1407-B and C ponds, Central Neutralization Facility sludges, mixed sludges from Y-12 and the ash generated by the RCRA/Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) Incinerator. All of these hazardous wastes contain radioactive constituents as well as hazardous constituents. The delisting will be based upon the nonradioactive constituents. Whether the delisting petition is granted or not, the wastes will be handled according to the Department of Energy guidelines for radioactive wastes. The presentation discusses the methodologies for delisting these wastes and the rationale behind the processes

  17. Waste Issues Associated with the Safe Movement of Hazardous Chemicals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dare, J. H.; Cournoyer, M. E.

    2002-01-01

    Moving hazardous chemicals presents the risk of exposure for workers engaged in the activity and others that might be in the immediate area. Adverse affects are specific to the chemicals and can range from minor skin, eye, or mucous membrane irritation, to burns, respiratory distress, nervous system dysfunction, or even death. A case study is presented where in the interest of waste minimization; original shipping packaging was removed from a glass bottle of nitric acid, while moving corrosive liquid through a security protocol into a Radiological Control Area (RCA). During the transfer, the glass bottle broke. The resulting release of nitric acid possibly exposed 12 employees with one employee being admitted overnight at a hospital for observation. This is a clear example of administrative controls to reduce the generation of suspect radioactive waste being implemented at the expense of employee health. As a result of this event, material handling procedures that assure the safe movement of hazardous chemicals through a security protocol into a radiological control area were developed. Specifically, hazardous material must be transferred using original shipping containers and packaging. While this represents the potential to increase the generation of suspect radioactive waste in a radiological controlled area, arguments are presented that justify this change. Security protocols for accidental releases are also discussed. In summary, the 12th rule of ''Green Chemistry'' (Inherently Safer Chemistry for Accident Prevention) should be followed: the form of a substance used in a chemical process (Movement of Hazardous Chemicals) should be chosen to minimize the potential for chemical accidents, including releases

  18. Waste Issues Associated with the Safe Movement of Hazardous Chemicals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dare, J. H.; Cournoyer, M. E.

    2002-02-26

    Moving hazardous chemicals presents the risk of exposure for workers engaged in the activity and others that might be in the immediate area. Adverse affects are specific to the chemicals and can range from minor skin, eye, or mucous membrane irritation, to burns, respiratory distress, nervous system dysfunction, or even death. A case study is presented where in the interest of waste minimization; original shipping packaging was removed from a glass bottle of nitric acid, while moving corrosive liquid through a security protocol into a Radiological Control Area (RCA). During the transfer, the glass bottle broke. The resulting release of nitric acid possibly exposed 12 employees with one employee being admitted overnight at a hospital for observation. This is a clear example of administrative controls to reduce the generation of suspect radioactive waste being implemented at the expense of employee health. As a result of this event, material handling procedures that assure the safe movement of hazardous chemicals through a security protocol into a radiological control area were developed. Specifically, hazardous material must be transferred using original shipping containers and packaging. While this represents the potential to increase the generation of suspect radioactive waste in a radiological controlled area, arguments are presented that justify this change. Security protocols for accidental releases are also discussed. In summary, the 12th rule of ''Green Chemistry'' (Inherently Safer Chemistry for Accident Prevention) should be followed: the form of a substance used in a chemical process (Movement of Hazardous Chemicals) should be chosen to minimize the potential for chemical accidents, including releases.

  19. OSHA safety requirements for hazardous chemicals in the workplace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dohms, J

    1992-01-01

    This article outlines the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) requirements set forth by the Hazard Communication Standard, which has been in effect for the healthcare industry since 1987. Administrators who have not taken concrete steps to address employee health and safety issues relating to hazardous chemicals are encouraged to do so to avoid the potential of large fines for cited violations. While some states administer their own occupational safety and health programs, they must adopt standards and enforce requirements that are at least as effective as federal requirements.

  20. Managing hazardous activities and substances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morgenroth, V.H.

    1994-01-01

    The primary purpose of this paper is to provide background information on the process, principles and policies being employed in OECD Member Countries for managing hazardous activities (non-nuclear) and products involving chemicals (non-radioactive). In addition, the author highlights certain areas in the risk management process where certain assumptions and conclusions may be of particular relevance to the goal of a review, reconsideration and restatement of the strategy of geological disposal of radioactive wastes. (O.L.)

  1. Hazard Assessment of Chemical Air Contaminants Measured in Residences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Logue, J.M.; McKone, T.E.; Sherman, M. H.; Singer, B.C.

    2010-05-10

    Identifying air pollutants that pose a potential hazard indoors can facilitate exposure mitigation. In this study, we compiled summary results from 77 published studies reporting measurements of chemical pollutants in residences in the United States and in countries with similar lifestyles. These data were used to calculate representative mid-range and upper bound concentrations relevant to chronic exposures for 267 pollutants and representative peak concentrations relevant to acute exposures for 5 activity-associated pollutants. Representative concentrations are compared to available chronic and acute health standards for 97 pollutants. Fifteen pollutants appear to exceed chronic health standards in a large fraction of homes. Nine other pollutants are identified as potential chronic health hazards in a substantial minority of homes and an additional nine are identified as potential hazards in a very small percentage of homes. Nine pollutants are identified as priority hazards based on the robustness of measured concentration data and the fraction of residences that appear to be impacted: acetaldehyde; acrolein; benzene; 1,3-butadiene; 1,4-dichlorobenzene; formaldehyde; naphthalene; nitrogen dioxide; and PM{sub 2.5}. Activity-based emissions are shown to pose potential acute health hazards for PM{sub 2.5}, formaldehyde, CO, chloroform, and NO{sub 2}.

  2. Perspectives on the chemical and radiological hazards of uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stansbury, P.S.

    1987-01-01

    Uranium is unique among the elements because it presents chemical and radiological hazards of comparable magnitude. Although the biological effects of a heavy metal damaging the kidneys are vastly different from the actions of an alpha-emitting nuclide in the lung or bone tissues, there are some perceptual and phenomenological similarities of note to health physicists. In a broad sense, the amount of uranium that could cause chemical kidney damage or pose a radiation hazard could go unnoticed in the work place. Once taken into the body, the chemical action or the radiological insult progresses without any warning signals. Ultrasensitive bioassay techniques could detect the presence of uranium in the body and quantify an intake that is known to have occurred. The adverse health effect of either the chemical or radiological mode of action is catastrophic: kidney failure on one hand, cancer on the other. Two other parallelisms should be noted. The natural loss of nephrons is part of the aging process. Similarly 15 to 20% of the population die of naturally caused cancer. Thus, the effects of uranium exposure mimic natural effects in unexposed populations. There are suspected adverse health effects at low levels of exposure to uranium. Even though there may be good reasons for suspecting low-level effects, both chemical and radiological, there is very little definitive evidence that these effects occur in human populations. 7 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab

  3. Toxics Release Inventory Chemical Hazard Information Profiles (TRI-CHIP) Dataset

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Toxics Release Inventory (TRI) Chemical Hazard Information Profiles (TRI-CHIP) dataset contains hazard information about the chemicals reported in TRI. Users can...

  4. Nonradioactive demonstration of the Alpha D and D Pilot Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wobser, J.K.

    1983-01-01

    The Alpha-Contained Decontamination and Disassembly (AD and D) pilot facility was designed to demonstrate the process flowsheet under conditions typical to those expected in a production facility. To achieve this, nonradioactive waste items similar to those in retrievable storage at the Savannah River Plant burial ground (e.g. gloveboxes), were chemically sprayed and size reduced. During process runs, parameters such as feed rate, oxide removal, etching rate, and secondary waste generation were determined. The exhaust system was monitored during operation to ensure that exhaust from the facility was sufficiently filtered before release to the atmosphere. The strategy for decontamination techniques required development during the nonradioactive testing period. Under investigation during process runs were both once-through and recirculating washes, and their correlation to oxide removal and etching rates on the stainless steel feed items. Wash products of the decontamination process were analyzed for concentration of Ni, Cr, Fe, Mn, and Si, major components of stainless steel. Size reduction techniques were also developed during the nonradioactive testing period. An array of conventional power and pneumatic tools were tested and evaluated. Plasma arc torch operating parameters; standoff distance, ampere setting, and cutting angle were determined

  5. [Exposure to hazardous chemical substances in furniture industry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pośniak, Małgorzata; Kowalska, Joanna; Makhniashvili, Ivan

    2005-01-01

    The aim of the study was to assess the exposure to organic solvents in plants of the furniture industry. Studies were conducted in five furniture plants. Hazardous chemicals present in the air at workposts were determined by capillary gas chromatography with mass spectrometry and flame ionization detection. The analysis of air samples collected at the workposts allowed to identify the following chemicals occurring during varnishing and cleaning of furniture surface elements: acetone, butan-2-one, ethyl, isobutyl and methoxypropyl acetate, 4-methylpentan-2-on, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylenes. Indices characteristic of combined exposure ranged from 0.13 to 1.67 and exceeded the limit value at 21% of workposts. The results of the study indicate that chemicals present at representative workposts during the furniture production are harmful to health of workers, especially those involved in varnishing and cleaning of furniture elements.

  6. Transport and Reactivity of Decontaminants to Provide Hazard Mitigation of Chemical Warfare Agents from Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-01

    2013 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Transport and Reactivity of Decontaminants to Provide Hazard Mitigation of Chemical Warfare Agents from Materials 5a...directions for future decontamination formulation approaches. 15. SUBJECT TERMS GD HD Decontamination Hazard mitigation VX Chemical warfare agent... DECONTAMINANTS TO PROVIDE HAZARD MITIGATION OF CHEMICAL WARFARE AGENTS FROM MATERIALS 1. INTRODUCTION Decontamination of materials is the

  7. Comparative biological hazards of chemical pollutants and radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mukherjee, R.N.

    1978-01-01

    Chemical pollutants from conventional energy and industrial sources released to the environment presumably pose a hazard to man's health and environmental resources. Insufficient knowledge of their detailed mechanisms of interaction with the biological systems seems to provide the greatest drawback in current attempts for realistic assessment of the health risks of chemical pollutants in the short and long terms. Nevertheless, their detrimental health consequences are becoming more and more apparent as a result of recent epidemiological surveys of workers in conventional energy installations and of the chronically exposed general public. So far nuclear power has succeeded in achieving a remarkable health safety record. In view of its projected expansion, research on biological effects of low-level radiation and radionuclides should continue to re-evaluate the health safety consequences. However, a projection from past experiences together with continued efforts to improvements of health safety aspects seem to justify an expectation that the proposed expansions in the nuclear power programme should not have an unfavourable impact on the environment. The potential hazards and challenges from the associated radiation in man's environment have proved manageable. More attention now needs to be paid urgently to safeguard human health and environment against the chemical pollutants

  8. Comparative biological hazards of chemical pollutants and radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mukherjee, R N [International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna (Austria). Div. of Life Sciences

    1978-06-01

    Chemical pollutants from conventional energy and industrial sources released to the environment presumably pose a hazard to man's health and environmental resources. Insufficient knowledge of their detailed mechanisms of interaction with the biological systems seems to provide the greatest drawback in current attempts for realistic assessment of the health risks of chemical pollutants in the short and long terms. Nevertheless, their detrimental health consequences are becoming more and more apparent as a result of recent epidemiological surveys of workers in conventional energy installations and of the chronically exposed general public. So far nuclear power has succeeded in achieving a remarkable health safety record. In view of its projected expansion, research on biological effects of low-level radiation and radionuclides should continue to re-evaluate the health safety consequences. However, a projection from past experiences together with continued efforts to improvements of health safety aspects seem to justify an expectation that the proposed expansions in the nuclear power programme should not have an unfavourable impact on the environment. The potential hazards and challenges from the associated radiation in man's environment have proved manageable. More attention now needs to be paid urgently to safeguard human health and environment against the chemical pollutants.

  9. Survey of awareness about hazardous chemicals of residents living near chemical plants in South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Don-Hee; Park, Min Soo

    2018-02-10

    With economic growth, the use of chemicals has continually increased, resulting in an increase of chemical accidents. Chemical accidents pose a life threat and can lead to many health problems among the residents living in close proximity to chemical plants. This study aimed to investigate the awareness of the residents living near chemical plants about hazardous chemicals, as well as to survey the awareness of workers who do not directly handle chemicals at chemical plants (WNHCs). To this end, a questionnaire survey was conducted among a total of 600 residents and 160 WNHCs. The questionnaire was composed of three items: awareness of chemical risk, awareness of countermeasures in chemical accidents, and imperious necessity of PPE (personal protective equipment). Statistical analysis of the data was performed with the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 18.0. The results show that the government needs to complement the notification system of chemical risk for residents who live close to chemical plants. The highest priority of PPE which residents want to prepare for chemical accidents was respiratory protective equipment (RPE). They responded that, if necessary to purchase PPE, they could bear a portion of the expenses (up to US $30). This study provides basic data for the development of programs and policies on chemical safety relevant for the residents living in close proximity to chemical plants in South Korea.

  10. Integrative Chemical-Biological Read-Across Approach for Chemical Hazard Classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Low, Yen; Sedykh, Alexander; Fourches, Denis; Golbraikh, Alexander; Whelan, Maurice; Rusyn, Ivan; Tropsha, Alexander

    2013-01-01

    Traditional read-across approaches typically rely on the chemical similarity principle to predict chemical toxicity; however, the accuracy of such predictions is often inadequate due to the underlying complex mechanisms of toxicity. Here we report on the development of a hazard classification and visualization method that draws upon both chemical structural similarity and comparisons of biological responses to chemicals measured in multiple short-term assays (”biological” similarity). The Chemical-Biological Read-Across (CBRA) approach infers each compound's toxicity from those of both chemical and biological analogs whose similarities are determined by the Tanimoto coefficient. Classification accuracy of CBRA was compared to that of classical RA and other methods using chemical descriptors alone, or in combination with biological data. Different types of adverse effects (hepatotoxicity, hepatocarcinogenicity, mutagenicity, and acute lethality) were classified using several biological data types (gene expression profiling and cytotoxicity screening). CBRA-based hazard classification exhibited consistently high external classification accuracy and applicability to diverse chemicals. Transparency of the CBRA approach is aided by the use of radial plots that show the relative contribution of analogous chemical and biological neighbors. Identification of both chemical and biological features that give rise to the high accuracy of CBRA-based toxicity prediction facilitates mechanistic interpretation of the models. PMID:23848138

  11. Chemical dependency: An occupational hazard in the field of anaesthesia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ismail, S.

    2010-01-01

    The medical personnel are vulnerable to substance abuse and dependence due to ready access to substance of abuse. Addiction is considered as an occupational hazard for those involved in the practice of anaesthesia for the same reason. Substance abuse is defined as a psychosocial biogenetic disease, which results from dynamic interplay between a susceptible host and favourable environment. According to the fifth and the last National Survey on Drug Abuse (NSDA) in 1993 by Pakistan Narcotic Control, there are nearly three million drug dependants Review Article Chemical dependency: An occupational hazard in the field of anaesthesia Samina Ismail Department of Anaesthesia, Aga Khan University Hospital, Karachi. in Pakistan, but no data is available to determine the prevalence among medical or anaesthesia personnel. In order to handle the rising trend of chemical abuse, we need to have more surveys and studies on this subject, written policy and educational programme in postgraduate training with proper control and frequent checking of narcotic dispensing. Reporting of drug abuse and rehabilitation of affected doctors are areas which need to be worked upon. (author)

  12. Occupational health hazards in veterinary medicine: physical, psychological, and chemical hazards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epp, Tasha; Waldner, Cheryl

    2012-02-01

    This paper reports physical, psychological, and chemical hazards relevant to western Canadian veterinarians as obtained by a self-administered mailed questionnaire. Nine-three percent (750/806) of veterinarians reported some form of injury during the previous 5 years; 17% of respondents (131/791) indicated injuries that resulted in 1 or more days off work. Median stress levels were similar across work environments; overall, 7% (57/813) indicated either no stress or severe stress, while 53% (428/813) indicated moderate stress. Twenty percent (3/15) of food animal practitioners and 37% (114/308) of companion animal practitioners who took X-rays reported accidental exposure. Accidental exposure to gas anesthetic was reported by 69% (394/570) of those in private practice. Exposure to chemicals occurred in all work environments. Veterinarians in western Canada are at risk of minor to severe injury due to both animal and non-animal related causes.

  13. Final Hazard Categorization for the Remediation of the 116-C-3 Chemical Waste Tanks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    T. M. Blakley; W. D. Schofield

    2007-09-10

    This final hazard categorization (FHC) document examines the hazards, identifies appropriate controls to manage the hazards, and documents the commitments for the 116-C-3 Chemical Waste Tanks Remediation Project. The remediation activities analyzed in this FHC are based on recommended treatment and disposal alternatives described in the Engineering Evaluation for the Remediation to the 116-C-3 Chemical Waste Tanks (BHI 2005e).

  14. [Comprehension of hazard pictograms of chemical products among cleaning workers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martí Fernández, Francesc; van der Haar, Rudolf; López López, Juan Carlos; Portell, Mariona; Torner Solé, Anna

    2015-01-01

    To assess the comprehension among cleaning workers of the hazard pictograms as defined by the Globally Harmonized System (GHS) of the United Nations, concerning the classification, labeling and packaging of substances and mixtures. A sample of 118 workers was surveyed on their perception of the GHS hazard pictograms. Comprehensibility was measured by the percentage of correct answers and the degree to which they reflected International Organization for Standardization and American National Standards Institute standards for minimum level of comprehension. The influence of different variables to predict comprehension capacity was assessed using a logistic regression model. Three groups of pictograms could be distinguished which were statistically differentiated by their comprehensibility. Pictograms reflecting "acute toxicity" and "flammable", were described correctly by 94% and 95% of the surveyed population, respectively. For pictograms reflecting "systemic toxicity", "corrosive", "warning", "environment" and "explosive" the frequency of correct answers ranged from 48% to 64%, whereas those for pictograms "oxidizing" and "compressed gas" were interpreted correctly by only 7% of respondents. Prognostic factors for poor comprehension included: not being familiar with the pictograms, not having received training on safe use of chemical products, being an immigrant and being 54 years of age or older. Only two pictograms exceeded minimum standards for comprehension. Training, a tool proven to be effective to improve the correct interpretation of danger symbols, should be encouraged, especially in those groups with greater comprehension difficulties. Copyright belongs to the Societat Catalana de Salut Laboral.

  15. Chemical dependency: an occupational hazard in the field of anaesthesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, Samina

    2010-10-01

    The medical personnel are vulnerable to substance abuse and dependence due to ready access to substance of abuse. Addiction is considered as an occupational hazard for those involved in the practice of anaesthesia for the same reason. Substance abuse is defined as a psychosocial biogenetic disease, which results from dynamic interplay between a susceptible host and favourable environment. According to the 5th and the last National Survey on Drug Abuse (NSDA) in 1993 by Pakistan Narcotic Control, there are nearly three million drug dependants in Pakistan, but no data is available to determine the prevalence among medical or anaesthesia personnel. In order to handle the rising trend of chemical abuse, we need to have more surveys and studies on this subject, written policy and educational programme in postgraduate training with proper control and frequent checking of narcotic dispensing. Reporting of drug abuse and rehabilitation of affected doctors are areas which need to be worked upon.

  16. Survey of knowledge of hazards of chemicals potentially associated with the advanced isotope separation processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chester, R.O.; Kirkscey, K.A.; Randolph, M.L.

    1979-09-01

    Hazards of chemical potentially associated with the advanced isotope separation processes are estimated based on open literature references. The tentative quantity of each chemical associated with the processes and the toxicity of the chemical are used to estimate this hazard. The chemicals thus estimated to be the most potentially hazardous to health are fluorine, nitric acid, uranium metal, uranium hexafluoride, and uranium dust. The estimated next most hazardous chemicals are bromine, hydrobromic acid, hydrochloric acid, and hydrofluoric acid. For each of these chemicals and for a number of other process-associated chemicals the following information is presented: (1) any applicable standards, recommended standards and their basis; (2) a brief discussion to toxic effects including short exposure tolerance, atmospheric concentration immediately hazardous to life, evaluation of exposures, recommended control procedures, chemical properties, and a list of any toxicology reviews; and (3) recommendations for future research

  17. Survey of knowledge of hazards of chemicals potentially associated with the advanced isotope separation processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chester, R.O.; Kirkscey, K.A.; Randolph, M.L.

    1979-09-01

    Hazards of chemical potentially associated with the advanced isotope separation processes are estimated based on open literature references. The tentative quantity of each chemical associated with the processes and the toxicity of the chemical are used to estimate this hazard. The chemicals thus estimated to be the most potentially hazardous to health are fluorine, nitric acid, uranium metal, uranium hexafluoride, and uranium dust. The estimated next most hazardous chemicals are bromine, hydrobromic acid, hydrochloric acid, and hydrofluoric acid. For each of these chemicals and for a number of other process-associated chemicals the following information is presented: (1) any applicable standards, recommended standards and their basis; (2) a brief discussion to toxic effects including short exposure tolerance, atmospheric concentration immediately hazardous to life, evaluation of exposures, recommended control procedures, chemical properties, and a list of any toxicology reviews; and (3) recommendations for future research.

  18. Nanostructure Engineered Chemical Sensors for Hazardous Gas and Vapor Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jing; Lu, Yijiang

    2005-01-01

    A nanosensor technology has been developed using nanostructures, such as single walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) and metal oxides nanowires or nanobelts, on a pair of interdigitated electrodes (IDE) processed with a silicon based microfabrication and micromachining technique. The IDE fingers were fabricated using thin film metallization techniques. Both in-situ growth of nanostructure materials and casting of the nanostructure dispersions were used to make chemical sensing devices. These sensors have been exposed to hazardous gases and vapors, such as acetone, benzene, chlorine, and ammonia in the concentration range of ppm to ppb at room temperature. The electronic molecular sensing in our sensor platform can be understood by electron modulation between the nanostructure engineered device and gas molecules. As a result of the electron modulation, the conductance of nanodevice will change. Due to the large surface area, low surface energy barrier and high thermal and mechanical stability, nanostructured chemical sensors potentially can offer higher sensitivity, lower power consumption and better robustness than the state-of-the-art systems, which make them more attractive for defense and space applications. Combined with MEMS technology, light weight and compact size sensors can be made in wafer scale with low cost.

  19. SRS: Site ranking system for hazardous chemical and radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rechard, R.P.; Chu, M.S.Y.; Brown, S.L.

    1988-05-01

    This report describes the rationale and presents instructions for a site ranking system (SRS). SRS ranks hazardous chemical and radioactive waste sites by scoring important and readily available factors that influence risk to human health. Using SRS, sites can be ranked for purposes of detailed site investigations. SRS evaluates the relative risk as a combination of potentially exposed population, chemical toxicity, and potential exposure of release from a waste site; hence, SRS uses the same concepts found in a detailed assessment of health risk. Basing SRS on the concepts of risk assessment tends to reduce the distortion of results found in other ranking schemes. More importantly, a clear logic helps ensure the successful application of the ranking procedure and increases its versatility when modifications are necessary for unique situations. Although one can rank sites using a detailed risk assessment, it is potentially costly because of data and resources required. SRS is an efficient approach to provide an order-of-magnitude ranking, requiring only readily available data (often only descriptive) and hand calculations. Worksheets are included to make the system easier to understand and use. 88 refs., 19 figs., 58 tabs

  20. Standing operating procedures for developing acute exposure guideline levels for hazardous chemicals

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    National Research Council (U.S.). Subcommittee on Acute Exposure Guideline Levels

    2001-01-01

    Standing Operating Procedures for Developing Acute Exposure Guideline Levels for Hazardous Chemicals contains a detailed and comprehensive methodology for developing acute exposure guideline levels (AEGLs...

  1. Environmental Risk Assessment: Spatial Analysis of Chemical Hazards and Risks in South Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, H.; Heo, S.; Kim, M.; Lee, W. K.; Jong-Ryeul, S.

    2017-12-01

    This study identified chemical hazard and risk levels in Korea by analyzing the spatial distribution of chemical factories and accidents. The number of chemical factories and accidents in 5-km2 grids were used as the attribute value for spatial analysis. First, semi-variograms were conducted to examine spatial distribution patterns and to identify spatial autocorrelation of chemical factories and accidents. Semi-variograms explained that the spatial distribution of chemical factories and accidents were spatially autocorrelated. Second, the results of the semi-variograms were used in Ordinary Kriging to estimate chemical hazard and risk level. The level values were extracted from the Ordinary Kriging result and their spatial similarity was examined by juxtaposing the two values with respect to their location. Six peaks were identified in both the hazard and risk estimation result, and the peaks correlated with major cities in Korea. Third, the estimated hazard and risk levels were classified with geometrical interval and could be classified into four quadrants: Low Hazard and Low Risk (LHLR), Low Hazard and High Risk (LHHR), High Hazard and Low Risk (HHLR), and High Hazard and High Risk (HHHR). The 4 groups identified different chemical safety management issues in Korea; relatively safe LHLR group, many chemical reseller factories were found in HHLR group, chemical transportation accidents were in the LHHR group, and an abundance of factories and accidents were in the HHHR group. Each quadrant represented different safety management obstacles in Korea, and studying spatial differences can support the establishment of an efficient risk management plan.

  2. Application of a hazard and operability study method to hazard evaluation of a chemical unit of the power station.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habibi, E; Zare, M; Barkhordari, A; Mirmohammadi, Sj; Halvani, Ghh

    2008-12-28

    The aim of this study was to identify the hazards, evaluate their risk factors and determine the measure for promotion of the process and reduction of accidents in the chemical unit of the power station. In this case and qualitative study, HAZOP technique was used to recognize the hazards and problems of operations on the chemical section at power station. Totally, 126 deviations were documented with various causes and consequences. Ranking and evaluation of identified risks indicate that the majority of deviations were categorized as "acceptable" and less than half of that were "unacceptable". The highest calculated risk level (1B) related to both the interruption of acid entry to the discharge pumps and an increased density of the acid. About 27% of the deviations had the lowest risk level (4B). The identification of hazards by HAZOP indicates that it could, systemically, assess and criticize the process of consumption or production of acid and alkali in the chemical unit of power plant.

  3. An open framework for automated chemical hazard assessment based on GreenScreen for Safer Chemicals: A proof of concept.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wehage, Kristopher; Chenhansa, Panan; Schoenung, Julie M

    2017-01-01

    GreenScreen® for Safer Chemicals is a framework for comparative chemical hazard assessment. It is the first transparent, open and publicly accessible framework of its kind, allowing manufacturers and governmental agencies to make informed decisions about the chemicals and substances used in consumer products and buildings. In the GreenScreen® benchmarking process, chemical hazards are assessed and classified based on 18 hazard endpoints from up to 30 different sources. The result is a simple numerical benchmark score and accompanying assessment report that allows users to flag chemicals of concern and identify safer alternatives. Although the screening process is straightforward, aggregating and sorting hazard data is tedious, time-consuming, and prone to human error. In light of these challenges, the present work demonstrates the usage of automation to cull chemical hazard data from publicly available internet resources, assign metadata, and perform a GreenScreen® hazard assessment using the GreenScreen® "List Translator." The automated technique, written as a module in the Python programming language, generates GreenScreen® List Translation data for over 3000 chemicals in approximately 30 s. Discussion of the potential benefits and limitations of automated techniques is provided. By embedding the library into a web-based graphical user interface, the extensibility of the library is demonstrated. The accompanying source code is made available to the hazard assessment community. Integr Environ Assess Manag 2017;13:167-176. © 2016 SETAC. © 2016 SETAC.

  4. Guidelines for generators of hazardous chemical waste at LBL and guidelines for generators of radioactive and mixed waste at LBL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-10-01

    The purpose of this document is to provide the acceptance criteria for the transfer of hazardous chemical waste to LBL's Hazardous Waste Handling Facility (HWHF). Hazardous chemical waste is a necessary byproduct of LBL's research and technical support activities. This waste must be handled properly if LBL is to operate safely and provide adequate protection to staff and the environment. These guidelines describe how you, as a generator of hazardous chemical waste, can meet LBL's acceptance criteria for hazardous chemical waste

  5. The development of the globally harmonized system (GHS) of classification and labelling of hazardous chemicals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winder, Chris; Azzi, Rola; Wagner, Drew

    2005-01-01

    The hazards of chemicals can be classified using classification criteria that are based on physical, chemical and ecotoxicological endpoints. These criteria may be developed be iteratively, based on scientific or regulatory processes. A number of national and international schemes have been developed over the past 50 years, and some, such as the UN Dangerous Goods system or the EC system for hazardous substances, are in widespread use. However, the unnecessarily complicated multiplicity of existing hazard classifications created much unnecessary confusion at the user level, and a recommendation was made at the 1992 Rio Earth summit to develop a globally harmonized chemical hazard classification and compatible labelling system, including material safety data sheets and easily understandable symbols, that could be used for manufacture, transport, use and disposal of chemical substances. This became the globally harmonized system for the Classification and Labelling of Chemicals (GHS). The developmental phase of the GHS is largely complete. Consistent criteria for categorising chemicals according to their toxic, physical, chemical and ecological hazards are now available. Consistent hazard communication tools such as labelling and material safety data sheets are also close to finalisation. The next phase is implementation of the GHS. The Intergovernmental Forum for Chemical Safety recommends that all countries implement the GHS as soon as possible with a view to have the system fully operational by 2008. When the GHS is in place, the world will finally have one system for classification of chemical hazards

  6. Hemijski udesi i procena rizika / Chemical accidents and hazard assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rade Biočanin

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Brojni su udesi vezani za transport i upotrebu hemijskih materija. Ova činjenica je važna i zbog toga što se naša zemlja nalazi na raskrsnici značajnih svetskih komunikacija kojima se ovakvi tereti prevoze. Veliki broj vrsta hemijskih materija može znatno da naruši životnu sredinu za duži period. Ovaj rad, kroz različite parametre, nastoji da prouči takvu mogućnost i ukaže na načine za prevenciju sličnih događaja i zaštitu stanovništva u miru i tokom ratnih dejstava. Ostvarenje projekta jedinstvenog sistema ABHO daje mogućnost da se, korišćenjem savremene opreme za komunikaciju i efikasnih jedinica za brzo reagovanje u realnom vremenu, uspešno obavi monitoring opasnosti, uzbunjivanje, zaštita i dekontaminacija. / There is a growing number of accidents involving hazardous chemical substances during transportation. Serbia and Montenegro are at the crossroads of numerous important European transport links where a lot of such transports pass through. A great number of such substances can considerably damage environment for a very long period of time. This paper studies such events applying different parameters; it tries to point at successful prevention and protection from this threat at peace, as well as during war operations. The realization of the universal and united system of the NBCD of the Army of Serbia and Montenegro, together with modern communication equipment and very effective mobile units, enables on - time reaction and successful monitoring, alarming, protection and decontamination.

  7. Radioactive acid digestion test unit nonradioactive startup operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allen, C.R.; Cowan, R.G.; Crippen, M.D.; Divine, J.R.

    1978-05-01

    The Radioactive Acid Digestion Test Unit (RADTU) will process 5 kg/hour of combustible solid waste and is designed to handle almost all solid combustible waste found in plutonium processing with plutonium contamination levels up to scrap. The RADTU is designed with special safety features to safely contain high masses of fissile materials and to safely handle unusual materials and reactive chemicals which may find their way into the waste. Nonradioactive operating experience to date has been very satisfactory. RADTU has been operated for extended runs on both a 24-hour per day basis as well as on a one shift per day basis. Some minor operating problems have been encountered as expected in a shakedown operation. In general, solutions to these have been readily found. 12 figures

  8. Knowledge acquisition on hazards in chemical and process industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vojnovic, D.; Kozuh, M.

    1992-01-01

    The knowledge acquisition for probabilistic risk assessment and operational safety improvements are described. The procedure HazOp (Hazard and Operability Study) are used for hazard identification. The acquainted knowledge is condensed in the form of cause-consequence matrix which is very convenient for plant logic model start point definition. At the end, the possibility for HazOp performance support by use of Artificial Intelligence approach is considered. (author) [sl

  9. Nonradioactive Dangerous Waste Landfill supplemental information to the Hanford Facility Contingency Plan (DOE/RL-93-75)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ingle, S.J.

    1996-05-01

    This document is a unit-specific contingency plan for the Nonradioactive Dangerous Waste Landfill and is intended to be used as a supplement to DOE/RL-93-75, 'Hanford Facility Contingency Plan.' This unit-specific plan is to be used to demonstrate compliance with the contingency plan requirements of the Washington Administrative Code, Chapter 173-303 for certain Resource, Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 waste management units. The Nonradioactive Dangerous Waste Landfill (located approximately 3.5 miles southeast of the 200 East Area at the Hanford Site) was used for disposal of nonradioactive dangerous waste from January 1975 to May 1985. Currently, there are no dangerous waste streams disposed in the Nonradioactive Dangerous Waste Landfill. Dangerous waste management activities are no longer required at the landfill. The landfill does not present a significant hazard to adjacent units, personnel, or the environment. It is unlikely that incidents presenting hazards to public health or the environment would occur at the Nonradioactive Dangerous Waste Landfill

  10. Chemical hazard evaluation of material disposal area (MDA) B closure project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laul, Jagdish C [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2010-04-19

    TA-21, MDA-B (NES) is the 'contaminated dump,' landfill with radionuclides and chemicals from process waste disposed in 1940s. This paper focuses on chemical hazard categorization and hazard evaluation of chemicals of concern (e.g., peroxide, beryllium). About 170 chemicals were disposed in the landfill. Chemicals included products, unused and residual chemicals, spent, waste chemicals, non-flammable oils, mineral oil, etc. MDA-B was considered a High hazard site. However, based on historical records and best engineering judgment, the chemical contents are probably at best 5% of the chemical inventory. Many chemicals probably have oxidized, degraded or evaporated for volatile elements due to some fire and limited shelf-life over 60 yrs, which made it possible to downgrade from High to Low chemical hazard site. Knowing the site history and physical and chemical properties are very important in characterizing a NES site. Public site boundary is only 20 m, which is a major concern. Chemicals of concern during remediation are peroxide that can cause potential explosion and beryllium exposure due to chronic beryllium disease (CBD). These can be prevented or mitigated using engineering control (EC) and safety management program (SMP) to protect the involved workers and public.

  11. 78 FR 4324 - Occupational Exposure to Hazardous Chemicals in Laboratories (Non-Mandatory Appendix); Technical...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-22

    ... variety of physical and chemical reasons, reaction scale-ups pose special risks, which merit additional.... Engineering controls, such as chemical hoods, physically separate the employee from the hazard. Administrative..., engineering controls and apparel; (d) Laboratory equipment; (e) Safety equipment; (f) Chemical management; (g...

  12. University program in hazardous chemical and radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parker, F.L.

    1987-01-01

    The three main functions of a university program are education, training, and research. At Vanderbilt University, there is a Solid and Hazardous Waste option in the Master of Science in Engineering Program. The two main foci are treatment of wastes and environmental transport and transformation of the wastes. Courses in Hazardous Waste Engineering and Radioactive Waste Disposal present a synoptic view of the field, including legal, economic, and institutional aspects as well as the requisite technical content. The training is accomplished for some of the students through the aegis of an internship program sponsored by the US Department of Energy. In the summer between the two academic years of the program, the study works at a facility where decontamination and/or decommissioning and/or remedial actions are taking place. Progress in understanding the movement, transformation, and fate of hazardous materials in the environment is so rapid that it will not be possible to be current in the field without participating in that discovery. Therefore, their students are studying these processes and contributing to new knowledge. Some recent examples are the study of safety factors implicit in assuming a saturated zone below a hazardous waste landfill when an unsaturated zone exists, application of probabilistic risk assessment to three National Priority List sites in Tennessee, and the explanation of why certain organics precede pH, conductivity and nitrates through a clay liner at a hazardous waste disposal site

  13. Applicability of federal and state hazardous waste regulatory programs to waste chemical weapons and chemical warfare agents.; TOPICAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haffenden, R.; Kimmell, T.

    2002-01-01

    This report reviews federal and state hazardous waste regulatory programs that govern the management of chemical weapons or chemical warfare agents. It addresses state programs in the eight states with chemical weapon storage facilities managed by the U.S. Army: Alabama, Arkansas, Colorado, Indiana, Kentucky, Maryland, Oregon, and Utah. It also includes discussions on 32 additional states or jurisdictions with known or suspected chemical weapons or chemical warfare agent presence (e.g., disposal sites containing chemical agent identification sets): Alaska, Arizona, California, Florida, Georgia, Hawaii, Idaho, Illinois, Iowa, Kansas, Louisiana, Massachusetts, Michigan, Mississippi, Missouri, Nebraska, Nevada, New Jersey, New Mexico, New York, North Carolina, Ohio, Pennsylvania, South Carolina, South Dakota, Tennessee, Texas, the U.S. Virgin Islands, Virginia, Washington, Washington, D.C., and Wyoming. Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) hazardous waste programs are reviewed to determine whether chemical weapons or chemical warfare agents are listed hazardous wastes or otherwise defined or identified as hazardous wastes. Because the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) military munitions rule specifically addresses the management of chemical munitions, this report also indicates whether a state has adopted the rule and whether the resulting state regulations have been authorized by EPA. Many states have adopted parts or all of the EPA munitions rule but have not yet received authorization from EPA to implement the rule. In these cases, the states may enforce the adopted munitions rule provisions under state law, but these provisions are not federally enforceable

  14. Non-radioactive stand-in for radioactive contamination. I. Non-radioactive tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rohe, M.J.; Rankin, W.N.; Postles, R.L.

    1985-01-01

    Candidate non-radioactive materials for use as a stand-in for radioactive contamination during application of a high-pressure, hot water decontamination were identified and evaluated. A stand-in for radioactive contamination is needed to evaluate the decontaminability of replacement canyon cranes at the manufacturers location where actual radioactive contamination cannot be used. This evaluation was conducted using high-pressure, hot-water at 420 psi, 190 0 F, and 20 gal/min through a 1/8-in.-diam nozzle, the decontamination technique preferred by SRP Separations Department for this application. A non-radioactive stand-in for radioactive contamination was desired that would be removed by direct blast stream contact but would remain intact on surfaces where direct contact does not occur. This memorandum describes identification of candidate non-radioactive stand-in materials and evaluation of these materials in screening tests and tests with high-pressure, hot-water blasting. The following non-radioactive materials were tested: carpenter's line chalk; typing correction fluid; dye penetrant developer; latex paint with attapulyite added; unaltered latex paint; gold enamel; layout fluid; and black enamel. Results show that blue layout fluid and gold enamel have similar adherence that is within the range expected for actual radioactive contamination. White latex paint has less adherence than expected for actual radioactive contamination. The film was removed at a rate of 2 . Black enamel has more adherence than expected from actual radioactive contamination. In these tests ASTM No. 2B surfaces were harder to clean than either ASTM No. 1 or electropolished surfaces which had similar cleaning properties. A 90 0 blast angle was more effective than a 45 0 blast angle. In these tests there was no discernible effect of blast distance between 1 and 3 ft

  15. ASSESSING CHEMICAL HAZARDS AT THE PLUTONIUM FINISHING PLANT FOR PLANNING FUTURE DECONTAMINATION AND DECOMMISSIONING

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    HOPKINS, A.M.; KLOS, D.B.; MINETT, M.J.

    2007-01-01

    This paper documents the fiscal year (FY) 2006 assessment to evaluate potential chemical and radiological hazards associated with vessels and piping in the former plutonium process areas at Hanford's Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP). Evaluations by PFP engineers as design authorities for specific systems and other subject-matter experts were conducted to identify the chemical hazards associated with transitioning the process areas for the long-term layup of PFP before its eventual final decontamination and decommissioning (D and D). D and D activities in the main process facilities were suspended in September 2005 for a period of between 5 and 10 years. A previous assessment conducted in FY 2003 found that certain activities to mitigate chemical hazards could be deferred safely until the D and D of PFP, which had been scheduled to result in a slab-on-grade condition by 2009. As a result of necessary planning changes, however, D and D activities at PFP will be delayed until after the 2009 time frame. Given the extended project and plant life, it was determined that a review of the plant chemical hazards should be conducted. This review to determine the extended life impact of chemicals is called the ''Plutonium Finishing Plant Chemical Hazards Assessment, FY 2006''. This FY 2006 assessment addresses potential chemical and radiological hazard areas identified by facility personnel and subject-matter experts who reevaluated all the chemical systems (items) from the FY 2003 assessment. This paper provides the results of the FY 2006 chemical hazards assessment and describes the methodology used to assign a hazard ranking to the items reviewed

  16. Hazard characterisation of chemicals in food and diet : dose response, mechanisms and extrapolation issues

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dybing, E.; Doe, J.; Groten, J.; Kleiner, J.; O'Brien, J.; Renwick, A.G.; Schlatter, J.; Steinberg, P.; Tritscher, A.; Walker, R.; Younes, M.

    2002-01-01

    Hazard characterisation of low molecular weight chemicals in food and diet generally use a no-observed-adverse-effect level (NOAEL) or a benchmark dose as the starting point. For hazards that are considered not to have thresholds for their mode of action, low-dose extrapolation and other modelling

  17. Development of hazard analysis by critical control points (HACCP) procedures to control organic chemical hazards in the agricultural production of raw food commodities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ropkins, Karl; Ferguson, Andrew; Beck, Angus J

    2003-01-01

    Hazard Analysis by Critical Control Points (HACCP) is a systematic approach to the identification, assessment, and control of hazards in the food chain. Effective HACCP requires the consideration of all chemical microbiological, and physical hazards. However, current procedures focus primarily on microbiological and physical hazards, while chemical aspects of HACCP have received relatively little attention. In this article we discuss the application of HACCP to organic chemical contaminants and the problems that are likely to be encountered in agriculture. We also present generic templates for the development of organic chemical contaminant HACCP procedures for selected raw food commodities, that is, cereal crops,raw meats, and milk.

  18. Prioritization of the Oral (Ingestive) Hazard of Industrial Chemicals

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-28

    or Respiration - respiratory obstruction VCVN1* "Vrednie chemichescie veshestva. Neorganicheskie soedinenia elementov I-IV groopp" (Hazardous...section Lungs, Thorax, or Respiration - respiratory depression Gastrointestinal - changes in structure or function of esophagus MJAUAJ Medical Journal...impaired Nutritional and Gross Metabolic - metabolic alkalosis JTCTDW Journal of Toxicology, Clinical Toxicology. 33 Sodium chloride #(T3) 7647-14-5 LD50

  19. Use of Putative Adverse Outcome Pathways for Chemical Hazard Identification

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Adverse Outcome Pathway (AOP) framework provides a knowledge infrastructure for evaluating health effects of environmental chemicals. In this work we are examining proof-of-concept issues in the development and prospective application of AOPs in chemical safety. Key outputs i...

  20. Identification of suspected hazardous chemical contaminants in recycled pastry packaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmadkhaniha, Reza; Rastkari, Noushin

    2017-01-01

    The safe use of recycled paper and cardboard material for food packaging applications is     an important area of investigation. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine which hazardous chemi- cal pollutants were found in paper and cardboard samples used for pastry packaging, and to measure the migration of pollutants over time into the pastries. In this study, the presence of some organic pollutants in common confectionery packaging, and the effects of storage time and type of pastry on pollutant migration, were investigated. The results of the study indicate that harmful compounds such as benzophenone, pentachlorophenol, bis(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate and dibutyl phthalate are present at high concentrations in most recycled boxes used for pastry packaging. Since the migration of some of the hazardous compounds from the packaging materials into the pastries under normal conditions was indicated, it is recommended that the procedure for preparing pastry packaging materials should be reconsidered and improved.

  1. Knowledge acquisition on hazards in chemical and process industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vojnovic, D; Kozuh, M [Inst. Jozef Stefan, Ljubljana (Slovenia)

    1992-07-01

    The knowledge acquisition for probabilistic risk assessment and operational safety improvements are described. The procedure HazOp (Hazard and Operability Study) are used for hazard identification. The acquainted knowledge is condensed in the form of cause-consequence matrix which is very convenient for plant logic model start point definition. At the end, the possibility for HazOp performance support by use of Artificial Intelligence approach is considered. (author) [Slovenian] V clanku se obravnava zbiranje znanja za potrebe verjetnostne ocene tveganja in izboljsanja obratovalne varnosti. Opisan je postopek za razpoznavanje nevarnosti po metodi HazOp. Zbrano znanje je predstavljeno v obliki vzrocno posledicne matrike, kar je primerna oblika za nadaljno uporabo pri logicnem modeliranju objekta. Ravno tako je obravnavana moznost uporabe diagnosticnih metod (umetna inteligenca) pri HazOp analizi. [author].

  2. Impacts on health and safety from transfer/consolidation of nuclear materials and hazardous chemicals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gallucci, R.H.V.

    1994-11-01

    Environmental restoration plans at the US Department of Energy (USDOE) Hanford Site calls for transfer/consolidation of ''targets/threats,'' namely nuclear materials and hazardous chemicals. Reductions in the health and safety hazards will depend on the plans implemented. Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) estimated these potential impacts, assuming implementation of the current reference plan and employing ongoing risk and safety analyses. The results indicated the potential for ''significant'' reductions in health and safety hazards in the long term (> 25 years) and a potentially ''noteworthy'' reduction in health hazard in the short term (≤ 25 years)

  3. Sea-dumped chemical weapons: environmental risk, occupational hazard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenberg, M I; Sexton, K J; Vearrier, D

    2016-01-01

    Chemical weapons dumped into the ocean for disposal in the twentieth century pose a continuing environmental and human health risk. In this review we discuss locations, quantity, and types of sea-dumped chemical weapons, related environmental concerns, and human encounters with sea-dumped chemical weapons. We utilized the Ovid (http://ovidsp.tx.ovid.com) and PubMed (http://www.pubmed.org) search engines to perform MEDLINE searches for the terms 'sea-dumped chemical weapons', 'chemical warfare agents', and 'chemical munitions'. The searches returned 5863 articles. Irrelevant and non-English articles were excluded. A review of the references for these articles yielded additional relevant sources, with a total of 64 peer-reviewed articles cited in this paper. History and geography of chemical weapons dumping at sea: Hundreds of thousands of tons of chemical munitions were disposed off at sea following World War II. European, Russian, Japanese, and United States coasts are the areas most affected worldwide. Several areas in the Baltic and North Seas suffered concentrated large levels of dumping, and these appear to be the world's most studied chemical warfare agent marine dumping areas. Chemical warfare agents: Sulfur mustard, Lewisite, and the nerve agents appear to be the chemical warfare agents most frequently disposed off at sea. Multiple other type of agents including organoarsenicals, blood agents, choking agents, and lacrimators were dumped at sea, although in lesser volumes. Environmental concerns: Numerous geohydrologic variables contribute to the rate of release of chemical agents from their original casings, leading to difficult and inexact modeling of risk of release into seawater. Sulfur mustard and the organoarsenicals are the most environmentally persistent dumped chemical agents. Sulfur mustard in particular has a propensity to form a solid or semi-solid lump with a polymer coating of breakdown products, and can persist in this state on the ocean floor

  4. An approach to quantitate and control the mutagenic hazards of environmental chemical and radioactive pollutants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murthy, M.S.S.

    1977-01-01

    Human population, both at the occupational and non-occupational levels, is exposed to the environment polluted by man-made chemicals and radiation sources. The parameters required for quantitating mutagenic hazards of any agent are listed and it has been pointed out that though sufficient information of this nature is available in the case of radiations, it is almost impossible to collect similar information for chemical substances due to their number running into astronomical figures. A short-cut approach, therefore, is suggested to quantitate and control the mutagenic hazards of these pollutants. It is to express the mutagenic hazards of a chemical substance in terms of equivalent radiation units. The unit proposed for this purpose is called as Rem-Equivalent Chemical (REC). Total mutagenic burden to the society should take account of exposure from both chemicals and radiations. Advantages and limitation of this approach are discussed. (M.G.B.)

  5. Toxic chemical hazard classification and risk acceptance guidelines for use in DOE facilities. Revision 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Craig, D.K.; Davis, J.S.; Prowse, J.; Hoffman, P.W.

    1995-01-01

    The concentration-limit guidelines presented in this document apply to airborne releases of chemicals evaluated with respect to human health effects for the purposes of hazard classification and categorization, risk assessment and safety analysis. They apply to all DOE facilities and operations involving the use of potentially hazardous chemicals. The guidelines do not address other nonradiological hazards such as fire, pressure releases (including explosions), and chemical reactivity, but the guidelines are applicable to hazardous chemical releases resulting from these events. This report presents the subcommittee's evaluation and recommendations regarding analyses of accidentally released toxic chemicals. The premise upon which these recommendations are based is that the mechanism of action of toxic chemicals is fundamentally different from that associated with radionuclides, with the exception of carcinogens. The recommendations reported herein are restricted to the airborne pathway because in an accident scenario this typically represents the most immediately significant route of public exposure. However, the subcommittee recognizes that exposure to chemicals through other pathways, in particular waterborne, can have significant impacts on human health and the environment. Although there are a number of chemicals for which absorption through the skin can contribute measurably to the total dose in chronic (e.g., occupational) exposure situations, this pathway has not been considered for the acute exposure scenarios considered in this report. Later studies. will address these issues if it appears desirable

  6. Hazards of chemical weapons release during war: new perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reutter, S

    1999-01-01

    The two major threat classes of chemical weapons are mustard gas and the nerve agents, and this has not changed in over 50 years. Both types are commonly called gases, but they are actually liquids that are not remarkably volatile. These agents were designed specifically to harm people by any route of exposure and to be effective at low doses. Mustard gas was used in World War I, and the nerve agents were developed shortly before, during, and after World War II. Our perception of the potency of chemical weapons has changed, as well as our concern over potential effects of prolonged exposures to low doses and potential target populations that include women and children. Many of the toxicologic studies and human toxicity estimates for both mustard and nerve agents were designed for the purpose of quickly developing maximal casualties in the least sensitive male soldier. The "toxicity" of the chemical weapons has not changed, but our perception of "toxicity" has. PMID:10585902

  7. Guidelines for generators of hazardous chemical waste at LBL and Guidelines for generators of radioactive and mixed waste at LBL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-07-01

    The purpose of this document is to provide the acceptance criteria for the transfer of hazardous chemical, radioactive, and mixed waste to Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory's (LBL) Hazardous Waste Handling Facility (HWHF). These guidelines describe how a generator of wastes can meet LBL's acceptance criteria for hazardous chemical, radioactive, and mixed waste. 9 figs

  8. Assessment of chemical loadings to Newark Bay, New Jersey from petroleum and hazardous chemical accidents occurring from 1986 to 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gunster, D.G.; Bonnevie, N.L.; Gillis, C.A.; Wenning, R.J.

    1993-01-01

    Newark Bay, New Jersey, is particularly vulnerable to ecological damage from accidental petroleum and chemical spills due to the enclosed nature of the bay and the large volume of chemical and petroleum commerce within the region. A review of the New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection and Energy's database of hazardous chemical spills in New Jersey waterways was conducted to determine the frequency and volume of chemical and petroleum spills in Newark Bay and its major tributaries. Accidents reported from 1986 to 1991 were extracted from the database and summarized. The compilation of records indicated that 1400 incidents, resulting in the release of more than 18 million gallons of hazardous materials to the estuary had been reported to state officials. The bulk of the chemicals released to the aquatic environment were petroleum products, specifically No. 2 Fuel Oil (4,636,512 gallons) and No. 6 Fuel Oil (12,600,683 gallons). The majority of the reported incidents occurred in the Arthur Kill and its tributaries. The results indicate that accidental discharge of petroleum and other hazardous chemicals to Newark Bay represents a significant ongoing source of chemical pollution

  9. Environmental and health hazard ranking and assessment of plastic polymers based on chemical composition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lithner, Delilah, E-mail: delilah.lithner@gmail.com; Larsson, Ake; Dave, Goeran

    2011-08-15

    Plastics constitute a large material group with a global annual production that has doubled in 15 years (245 million tonnes in 2008). Plastics are present everywhere in society and the environment, especially the marine environment, where large amounts of plastic waste accumulate. The knowledge of human and environmental hazards and risks from chemicals associated with the diversity of plastic products is very limited. Most chemicals used for producing plastic polymers are derived from non-renewable crude oil, and several are hazardous. These may be released during the production, use and disposal of the plastic product. In this study the environmental and health hazards of chemicals used in 55 thermoplastic and thermosetting polymers were identified and compiled. A hazard ranking model was developed for the hazard classes and categories in the EU classification and labelling (CLP) regulation which is based on the UN Globally Harmonized System. The polymers were ranked based on monomer hazard classifications, and initial assessments were made. The polymers that ranked as most hazardous are made of monomers classified as mutagenic and/or carcinogenic (category 1A or 1B). These belong to the polymer families of polyurethanes, polyacrylonitriles, polyvinyl chloride, epoxy resins, and styrenic copolymers. All have a large global annual production (1-37 million tonnes). A considerable number of polymers (31 out of 55) are made of monomers that belong to the two worst of the ranking model's five hazard levels, i.e. levels IV-V. The polymers that are made of level IV monomers and have a large global annual production (1-5 million tonnes) are phenol formaldehyde resins, unsaturated polyesters, polycarbonate, polymethyl methacrylate, and urea-formaldehyde resins. This study has identified hazardous substances used in polymer production for which the risks should be evaluated for decisions on the need for risk reduction measures, substitution, or even phase out

  10. Modeling Exposure to Persistent Chemicals in Hazard and Risk Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cowan-Ellsberry, Christina E.; McLachlan, Michael S.; Arnot, Jon A.; MacLeod, Matthew; McKone, Thomas E.; Wania, Frank

    2008-11-01

    Fate and exposure modeling has not thus far been explicitly used in the risk profile documents prepared to evaluate significant adverse effect of candidate chemicals for either the Stockholm Convention or the Convention on Long-Range Transboundary Air Pollution. However, we believe models have considerable potential to improve the risk profiles. Fate and exposure models are already used routinely in other similar regulatory applications to inform decisions, and they have been instrumental in building our current understanding of the fate of POP and PBT chemicals in the environment. The goal of this paper is to motivate the use of fate and exposure models in preparing risk profiles in the POP assessment procedure by providing strategies for incorporating and using models. The ways that fate and exposure models can be used to improve and inform the development of risk profiles include: (1) Benchmarking the ratio of exposure and emissions of candidate chemicals to the same ratio for known POPs, thereby opening the possibility of combining this ratio with the relative emissions and relative toxicity to arrive at a measure of relative risk. (2) Directly estimating the exposure of the environment, biota and humans to provide information to complement measurements, or where measurements are not available or are limited. (3) To identify the key processes and chemical and/or environmental parameters that determine the exposure; thereby allowing the effective prioritization of research or measurements to improve the risk profile. (4) Predicting future time trends including how quickly exposure levels in remote areas would respond to reductions in emissions. Currently there is no standardized consensus model for use in the risk profile context. Therefore, to choose the appropriate model the risk profile developer must evaluate how appropriate an existing model is for a specific setting and whether the assumptions and input data are relevant in the context of the application

  11. Modeling exposure to persistent chemicals in hazard and risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowan-Ellsberry, Christina E; McLachlan, Michael S; Arnot, Jon A; Macleod, Matthew; McKone, Thomas E; Wania, Frank

    2009-10-01

    Fate and exposure modeling has not, thus far, been explicitly used in the risk profile documents prepared for evaluating the significant adverse effect of candidate chemicals for either the Stockholm Convention or the Convention on Long-Range Transboundary Air Pollution. However, we believe models have considerable potential to improve the risk profiles. Fate and exposure models are already used routinely in other similar regulatory applications to inform decisions, and they have been instrumental in building our current understanding of the fate of persistent organic pollutants (POP) and persistent, bioaccumulative, and toxic (PBT) chemicals in the environment. The goal of this publication is to motivate the use of fate and exposure models in preparing risk profiles in the POP assessment procedure by providing strategies for incorporating and using models. The ways that fate and exposure models can be used to improve and inform the development of risk profiles include 1) benchmarking the ratio of exposure and emissions of candidate chemicals to the same ratio for known POPs, thereby opening the possibility of combining this ratio with the relative emissions and relative toxicity to arrive at a measure of relative risk; 2) directly estimating the exposure of the environment, biota, and humans to provide information to complement measurements or where measurements are not available or are limited; 3) to identify the key processes and chemical or environmental parameters that determine the exposure, thereby allowing the effective prioritization of research or measurements to improve the risk profile; and 4) forecasting future time trends, including how quickly exposure levels in remote areas would respond to reductions in emissions. Currently there is no standardized consensus model for use in the risk profile context. Therefore, to choose the appropriate model the risk profile developer must evaluate how appropriate an existing model is for a specific setting and

  12. Chemical Warfare Agent Operational Exposure Hazard Assessment Research: FY07 Report and Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    agent migration rates. As stated by Armour and Sturgeon (1992), the extent of the contact hazard depends on the initial degree of contamination, the...with a contaminated surface. 2.1.5 Literature Cited 1. Armour , S.J; Sturgeon, W.R. Liquid Hazard from Chemical Warfare Agents for Pilots of High...the neck area was clipped and prepped with betadine, and the animal covered with a sterile surgical drape . The planned incision areas in the

  13. Quality assurance when documenting chemical hazards to health and environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guttormsen, R.; Modahl, S.I.; Tufto, P.A.; Buset, H.

    1991-01-01

    In a joint project between The Norwegian Petroleum Directorate (NPD), the State Pollution Control Agency (SFT) and Conoco Norway Inc. (CNI) we have evaluated the use of quality assurance principles in connection with development and distribution of information about chemicals. Assuring quality of the documentation is first of all depending on: the work in international organizations; the content of national and international guidelines and criteria documents; the use of product registers; activities in manufacturers' organizations; the role of importers and agents. These are aspects which have been evaluated. Recommendations are given in this paper concerning: definition of responsibilities in regulations, standards and guidelines; feedback of experience and coordination through international work; application of quality assurance principles in the use of information technology in international organizations and in manufacturers' organizations; use of quality assurance principles in validation of data

  14. The situation of hazardous chemical accidents in China between 2000 and 2006

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duan Weili [Institute of Safety Science and Engineering, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510640, Guangdong (China); Chen Guohua, E-mail: scut.safetycenter@gmail.com [Institute of Safety Science and Engineering, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510640, Guangdong (China); Ye Qing; Chen Qingguang [Institute of Safety Science and Engineering, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510640, Guangdong (China)

    2011-02-28

    From the aspects of the total quantity of accidents, regional inequality, enterprises scale and environmental pollution accidents, this study makes an analysis of hazardous chemical accidents in China for the period spanning from 2000 to 2006. The following results are obtained: firstly, there were lots of accidents and fatalities in hazardous chemical business, i.e., the number of casualty accidents fluctuated between 200 and 600/year, the number of fatality fluctuated between 220 and 1100/year. Secondly, the accident rate in developed southeast coastal areas, e.g., Guangdong, Zhejiang and Jiangsu, was far higher than that in the northwest regions, e.g., Xizang, Xinjiang, and Qinghai. Thirdly, nearly 80% of dangerous chemical accidents had occurred in small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs). Finally, various sudden environmental pollution accidents resulted from hazardous chemicals were frequent in recent years, causing a huge damage to human and property. Then, based on the readjustment of economic structure in the last decades, the development status of Occupational Health and Safety (OHS) in SMEs and other factors, the paper explores the main causes, which offers valuable insight into measures that should be taken to reduce hazardous chemical accidents.

  15. The situation of hazardous chemical accidents in China between 2000 and 2006

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duan Weili; Chen Guohua; Ye Qing; Chen Qingguang

    2011-01-01

    From the aspects of the total quantity of accidents, regional inequality, enterprises scale and environmental pollution accidents, this study makes an analysis of hazardous chemical accidents in China for the period spanning from 2000 to 2006. The following results are obtained: firstly, there were lots of accidents and fatalities in hazardous chemical business, i.e., the number of casualty accidents fluctuated between 200 and 600/year, the number of fatality fluctuated between 220 and 1100/year. Secondly, the accident rate in developed southeast coastal areas, e.g., Guangdong, Zhejiang and Jiangsu, was far higher than that in the northwest regions, e.g., Xizang, Xinjiang, and Qinghai. Thirdly, nearly 80% of dangerous chemical accidents had occurred in small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs). Finally, various sudden environmental pollution accidents resulted from hazardous chemicals were frequent in recent years, causing a huge damage to human and property. Then, based on the readjustment of economic structure in the last decades, the development status of Occupational Health and Safety (OHS) in SMEs and other factors, the paper explores the main causes, which offers valuable insight into measures that should be taken to reduce hazardous chemical accidents.

  16. Application of hazard analysis critical control points (HACCP) to organic chemical contaminants in food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ropkins, K; Beck, A J

    2002-03-01

    Hazard Analysis Critical Control Points (HACCP) is a systematic approach to the identification, assessment, and control of hazards that was developed as an effective alternative to conventional end-point analysis to control food safety. It has been described as the most effective means of controlling foodborne diseases, and its application to the control of microbiological hazards has been accepted internationally. By contrast, relatively little has been reported relating to the potential use of HACCP, or HACCP-like procedures, to control chemical contaminants of food. This article presents an overview of the implementation of HACCP and discusses its application to the control of organic chemical contaminants in the food chain. Although this is likely to result in many of the advantages previously identified for microbiological HACCP, that is, more effective, efficient, and economical hazard management, a number of areas are identified that require further research and development. These include: (1) a need to refine the methods of chemical contaminant identification and risk assessment employed, (2) develop more cost-effective monitoring and control methods for routine chemical contaminant surveillance of food, and (3) improve the effectiveness of process optimization for the control of chemical contaminants in food.

  17. Conversion of hazardous plastic wastes into useful chemical products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddiqui, Mohammad Nahid

    2009-08-15

    Azoisobutylnitrile (AIBN) initiator was used in the treatment of most widely used domestic plastics in lieu of catalysts. The pyrolysis of low-density polyethylene (LDPE), high-density polyethylene (HDPE), polypropylene (PP), poly-ethylene terephthalate (PET) and polystyrene (PS) plastics with azoisobutylnitrile was carried out individually under nitrogen atmosphere. A series of single (plastic/AIBN) and binary (mixed plastics/AIBN) reactions were carried out in a 25-cm(3) micro-autoclave reactor. The optimum conditions selected for this study were: 5% AIBN by weight of total plastics, 60 min, 650 psi and 420 degrees C. It was found that HDPE, LDPE, PP underwent to a maximum cracking and produced highest amounts of liquid and gaseous products. Pyrolysis of PET and PS plastics with AIBN afforded comparatively significant amount of insoluble organic materials. In other reactions, fixed ratios of mixed plastics were pyrolyzed with AIBN that afforded excellent yields of liquid hydrocarbons. This result shows a very significant increase in the liquid portions of the products on using AIBN in the pyrolysis of plastics. The use of AIBN in the pyrolysis of plastics is seems to be feasible and an environmental friendly alternative to catalytic process for maximizing the liquid fuels or chemical feed stocks in higher amounts.

  18. Conversion of hazardous plastic wastes into useful chemical products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siddiqui, Mohammad Nahid

    2009-01-01

    Azoisobutylnitrile (AIBN) initiator was used in the treatment of most widely used domestic plastics in lieu of catalysts. The pyrolysis of low-density polyethylene (LDPE), high-density polyethylene (HDPE), polypropylene (PP), poly-ethylene terephthalate (PET) and polystyrene (PS) plastics with azoisobutylnitrile was carried out individually under nitrogen atmosphere. A series of single (plastic/AIBN) and binary (mixed plastics/AIBN) reactions were carried out in a 25-cm 3 micro-autoclave reactor. The optimum conditions selected for this study were: 5% AIBN by weight of total plastics, 60 min, 650 psi and 420 o C. It was found that HDPE, LDPE, PP underwent to a maximum cracking and produced highest amounts of liquid and gaseous products. Pyrolysis of PET and PS plastics with AIBN afforded comparatively significant amount of insoluble organic materials. In other reactions, fixed ratios of mixed plastics were pyrolyzed with AIBN that afforded excellent yields of liquid hydrocarbons. This result shows a very significant increase in the liquid portions of the products on using AIBN in the pyrolysis of plastics. The use of AIBN in the pyrolysis of plastics is seems to be feasible and an environmental friendly alternative to catalytic process for maximizing the liquid fuels or chemical feed stocks in higher amounts.

  19. Environmental Product Development Combining the Life Cycle Perspective with Chemical Hazard Information

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Askham, Cecilia

    in the design or redesign process. This thesis concerns marrying the life cycle perspective with chemical hazard information, in order to advance the practice of environmental product development, and hence takes further steps towards sustainable development. The need to consider the full value chain...... for the life cycle of products meant that systems theory and systems engineering principles were important in this work. Life cycle assessment methodology was important for assessing environmental impacts for case products. The new European regulation for chemicals (REACH) provided the main driver......Concerns regarding the short- and long-term detrimental effects of chemicals on human health and ecosystems have made the minimisation of chemical hazards a vitally important issue. If sustainable development is to be achieved, environmental efficient products (and product life cycles...

  20. Environmental impact of industrial sludge stabilization/solidification products: chemical or ecotoxicological hazard evaluation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Marcos A R; Testolin, Renan C; Godinho-Castro, Alcione P; Corrêa, Albertina X R; Radetski, Claudemir M

    2011-09-15

    Nowadays, the classification of industrial solid wastes is not based on risk analysis, thus the aim of this study was to compare the toxicity classifications based on the chemical and ecotoxicological characterization of four industrial sludges submitted to a two-step stabilization/solidification (S/S) processes. To classify S/S products as hazardous or non-hazardous, values cited in Brazilian chemical waste regulations were adopted and compared to the results obtained with a battery of biotests (bacteria, alga and daphnids) which were carried out with soluble and leaching fractions. In some cases the hazardous potential of industrial sludge was underestimated, since the S/S products obtained from the metal-mechanics and automotive sludges were chemically classified as non-hazardous (but non-inert) when the ecotoxicity tests showed toxicity values for leaching and soluble fractions. In other cases, the environmental impact was overestimated, since the S/S products of the textile sludges were chemically classified as non-inert (but non-hazardous) while ecotoxicity tests did not reveal any effects on bacteria, daphnids and algae. From the results of the chemical and ecotoxicological analyses we concluded that: (i) current regulations related to solid waste classification based on leachability and solubility tests do not ensure reliable results with respect to environmental protection; (ii) the two-step process was very effective in terms of metal immobilization, even at higher metal-concentrations. Considering that S/S products will be subject to environmental conditions, it is of great interest to test the ecotoxicity potential of the contaminants release from these products with a view to avoiding environmental impact given the unreliability of ecotoxicological estimations originating from chemical analysis. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. High-risk facilities. Emergency management in nuclear, chemical and hazardous waste facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kloepfer, Michael

    2012-01-01

    The book on emergency management in high-risk facilities covers the following topics: Change in the nuclear policy, risk management of high-risk facilities as a constitutional problem - emergency management in nuclear facilities, operational mechanisms of risk control in nuclear facilities, regulatory surveillance responsibilities for nuclear facilities, operational mechanism of the risk control in chemical plants, regulatory surveillance responsibilities for chemical facilities, operational mechanisms of the risk control in hazardous waste facilities, regulatory surveillance responsibilities for hazardous waste facilities, civil law consequences in case of accidents in high-risk facilities, criminal prosecution in case of accidents in high-risk facilities, safety margins as site risk for emission protection facilities, national emergency management - strategic emergency management structures, warning and self-protection of the public in case of CBRN hazards including aspects of the psych-social emergency management.

  2. Assessing food safety concepts on the dairy farm: the case of chemical hazards

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Valeeva, N.I.; Meuwissen, M.P.M.; Oude Lansink, A.G.J.M.; Bergevoet, R.H.M.; Huirne, R.B.M.

    2004-01-01

    Adaptive conjoint analysis was used to elicit farmers' and experts' preferences for attributes of improving food safety with respect to chemical hazards on the dairy farm. Groups of respondents were determined by cluster analysis based on similar farmers' and experts' perceptions of food safety

  3. An investigation of the health hazards of some of the chemical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This short piece takes a limited look at the health hazards of the chemical contents of seven fruit juices sold in The Gambia. All of them have very negative effects on health. The following additives were considered: sweeteners, coloring agents, flavoring agents and acidifiers vis-à-vis established studies. [African Journal of ...

  4. How synergistic or antagonistic effects may influence the mutual hazard ranking of chemicals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lars Carlsen

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The presence of various agents, including humic materials, nanomaterials, microplastics, or simply specific chemical compounds, may cause changes in the apparent persistence, bioaccumulation, and/or toxicity (PBT of a chemical compound leading to an either increased or decreased PBT characteristics and thus an increased or decreased hazard evaluation. In the present paper, a series chloro-containing obsolete pesticides is studied as an illustrative example. Partial order methodology is used to quantify how changed P, B, or T characteristics of methoxychlor (MEC influences the measure of the hazard of MEC, relative to the other 11 compounds in the series investigated. Not surprisingly, an increase in one of the three indicators (P, B, or T lead to an increased average order and thus an increased relative hazard as a result of a synergistic effect. A decrease in one of the indicator values analogously causes a decreased average order/relative hazard through an antagonistic effect; the effect, however, being less pronounced. It is further seen that the effect of changing the apparent value of the three indicators is different. Thus, persistence apparently is more important that bioaccumulation which again appears more important than toxicity, which is in agreement with previous work. The results are discussed with reference to the European chemicals framework on registration, evaluation and authorization of chemicals (REACH framework.

  5. Savannah River Site TIER TWO report 1992: Emergency and Hazardous Chemical Inventory report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Still, G.O.

    1993-03-01

    This report is a compilation of data on emergency and hazardous chemicals stored at the Savannah River Site. The report lists quantities of materials, general types of storage containment, types of storage conditions (pressure and temperature), and other information of relevance for particular materials

  6. an investigation of the health hazards of some of the chemical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Temechegn

    This short piece takes a limited look at the health hazards of the chemical contents of ... With this in mind, the researchers purchased all the powdered fruit juices sold in ... Administration (FDA) or some other regulatory body for low toxicity, ...

  7. 76 FR 25376 - Occupational Exposure to Hazardous Chemicals in Laboratories Standard; Extension of the Office of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-04

    ...'') applies to laboratories that use hazardous chemicals in accordance with the Standard's definitions for...-reliability measures; worker information-and-training programs; conditions under which the employer must... validity of the methodology and assumptions used; The quality, utility, and clarity of the information...

  8. 16 CFR 1500.231 - Guidance for hazardous liquid chemicals in children's products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ..., distributors, and retailers to protect children from exposure to hazardous chemicals found in liquid-filled... purchasing products for resale, importers, distributors, and retailers obtain assurances from manufacturers... subsequent hand-to-mouth or hand-to-eye activity. The specific type and frequency of behavior that a child...

  9. Standing operating procedures for developing acute exposure guideline levels for hazardous chemicals

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    National Research Council (U.S.). Subcommittee on Acute Exposure Guideline Levels

    2001-01-01

    ... Exposure Guideline Levels for Hazardous Chemicals Subcommittee on Acute Exposure Guideline Levels Committee on Toxicology Board on Environmental Studies and Toxicology Commission on Life Sciences National Research Council NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS Washington, D.C. i Copyrightthe cannot be not from book, paper however, version for formatting, origina...

  10. Instructions for the Tier I Emergency and Hazardous Chemical Inventory Form

    Science.gov (United States)

    The purpose of the Emergency Planning and Community Right-to-Know Act Tier I form is to provide State and local officials and the public with information on the general chemical hazard types and locations at your facility, if above reporting thresholds.

  11. Hazard Assessment on Chlorine Distribution Use of Chemical Transportation Risk Index

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jeong Gon; Byun, Hun Soo

    2014-01-01

    Chlorine is one of the most produced and most used non-flammable chemical substances in the world even though its toxicity and high reactivity cause the ozone layer depletion. However, in modern life, it is impossible to live a good life without using Chlorine and its derivatives since they are being used as an typical ingredient in more than 40 percent of the manufactured goods including medicines, detergents, deodorant, fungicides, herbicides, insecticides, and plastic, etc. Even if Chlorine has been handled and distributed in various business (small and medium-sized businesses, water purification plants, distribution company, etc.), there have been few researches about its possible health hazard and transportation risks. Accordingly, the purpose of this paper is to make a detailed assessment of Chlorinerelated risks and to model an index of chemicals transportation risks that is adequate for domestic circumstances. The assessment of possible health hazard and transportation risks was made on 13 kinds of hazardous chemicals, including liquid chlorine. This research may be contributed to standardizing the risk assessment of Chlorine and other hazardous chemicals by using an index of transportation risks

  12. Hazard Assessment on Chlorine Distribution Use of Chemical Transportation Risk Index

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jeong Gon [Hanwha Chemical Ulsan Site, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of); Byun, Hun Soo [Chonnam National University, Yeosu (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-12-15

    Chlorine is one of the most produced and most used non-flammable chemical substances in the world even though its toxicity and high reactivity cause the ozone layer depletion. However, in modern life, it is impossible to live a good life without using Chlorine and its derivatives since they are being used as an typical ingredient in more than 40 percent of the manufactured goods including medicines, detergents, deodorant, fungicides, herbicides, insecticides, and plastic, etc. Even if Chlorine has been handled and distributed in various business (small and medium-sized businesses, water purification plants, distribution company, etc.), there have been few researches about its possible health hazard and transportation risks. Accordingly, the purpose of this paper is to make a detailed assessment of Chlorinerelated risks and to model an index of chemicals transportation risks that is adequate for domestic circumstances. The assessment of possible health hazard and transportation risks was made on 13 kinds of hazardous chemicals, including liquid chlorine. This research may be contributed to standardizing the risk assessment of Chlorine and other hazardous chemicals by using an index of transportation risks.

  13. Classification of solid wastes as non-radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Masahiro; Tomioka, Hideo; Kamike, Kozo; Komatu, Junji

    1995-01-01

    The radioactive wastes generally include nuclear fuels, materials contaminated with radioactive contaminants or neutron activation to be discarded. The solid wastes arising from the radiation control area in nuclear facilities are used to treat and stored as radioactive solid wastes at the operation of nuclear facilities in Japan. However, these wastes include many non-radioactive wastes. Especially, a large amount of wastes is expected to generate at the decommissioning of nuclear facilities in the near future. It is important to classify these wastes into non-radioactive and radioactive wastes. The exemption or recycling criteria of radioactive solid wastes is under discussion and not decided yet in Japan. Under these circumstances, the Nuclear Safety Committee recently decided the concept on the category of non-radioactive waste for the wastes arising from decommissioning of nuclear facilities. The concept is based on the separation and removal of the radioactively contaminated parts from radioactive solid wastes. The residual parts of these solid wastes will be treated as non-radioactive waste if no significant difference in radioactivity between the similar natural materials and materials removed the radioactive contaminants. The paper describes the procedures of classification of solid wastes as non-radioactive wastes. (author)

  14. 1995 Tier Two emergency and hazardous chemical inventory. Emergency Planning and Community Right-To-Know Act, Section 312

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-03-01

    Tier Two reports are required as part of the Superfund compliance. The purpose is to provide state and local officials and the public with specific information on hazardous chemicals present at a facility during the past year. The facility is required to provide specific information on description, hazards, amounts, and locations of all hazardous materials. This report compiled such information for the Hanford Reservation

  15. Chemical inventory control program for mixed and hazardous waste facilities at SRS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ades, M.J.; Vincent, A.M. III.

    1997-01-01

    Mixed Waste (MW) and Hazardous Waste (HW) are being stored at the Savannah River Site (SRS) pending onsite and/or offsite treatment and disposal. The inventory control for these wastes has recently been brought under Technical Safety Requirements (TSR) in accordance with DOE Order 5480.22. With the TSRs was the question of the degree of rigor with which the inventory is to be tracked, considering that the variety of chemicals present, or that could be present, numbers in the hundreds. This paper describes the graded approach program to track Solid Waste (SW) inventories relative to TSRs. The approach uses a ratio of the maximum anticipated chemical inventory to the permissible inventory in accordance with Emergency Response Planning Guideline (ERPG) limits for on- and off-site receptors. A specific threshold ratio can then be determined. The chemicals above this threshold ratio are to be included in the chemical inventory control program. The chemicals that fall below the threshold ratio are managed in accordance with existing practice per State and RCRA hazardous materials requirements. Additionally, the facilities are managed in accordance with process safety management principles, specifically using process hazards analyses, which provides safety assurance for even the small quantities that may be excluded from the formal inventory control program. The method yields a practical approach to chemical inventory control, while maintaining appropriate chemical safety margins. The resulting number of specific chemicals that require inclusion in a rigorous inventory control program is greatly reduced by about 80%, thereby resulting in significant reduction in chemical data management while preserving appropriate safety margins

  16. Evaluation of Hazardous Material Management Safety in the Chemical Laboratory in BATAN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nur-Rahmah-Hidayati

    2005-01-01

    The management safety of the hazardous material (B3) in the chemical laboratory of BATAN was evaluated. The evaluation is necessary to be done because B3 is often used together with radioactive materials in the laboratory, but the attention to the safety aspect of B3 is not paid sufficiently in spite of its big potential hazard. The potential hazard generated from the nature of B3 could be flammable, explosive, oxidative, corrosive and poisonous. The handling of B3 could be conducted by enforcing the labelling and classification in the usage and disposal processes. Some observations of the chemical laboratory of BATAN show that the management safety of hazardous material in compliance with the government regulation no. 74 year 2001 has not been dully conducted. The management safety of B3 could be improved by, designating one who has adequate skill in hazardous material safety specially as the B3 safety officer, providing the Material Safety Data Sheet that is updated periodically to use in the laboratory and storage room, updating periodically the inventory of B3, performing training in work safety periodically, and monitoring the ventilation system intensively in laboratory and storage room. (author)

  17. KNOWLEDGE DATABASE ON CHEMICAL AND AEROSOL HAZARDS CHEMPYŁ AVAILABLE IN CIOP-PIB PORTAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elżbieta Dobrzyńska

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available CHEMPYŁ database, which is available on the website of the Central Institute for Labour Protection – National Research Institute, is a source of information for employers, employees and specialists of health and safety in the field of chemical and aerosol hazards at the workplace. The most useful materials in this field, collected in one place in the database are aimed to help in the efficient management of occupational risks associated with the presence of hazardous chemical substances and its mixtures in the working environment. The online CHEMPYŁ database contains sets of definitions, legal acts, database of hazardous chemicals and dusts, as well as the measurement results in form of sixteen separate sections and subsections. The database of measurement results is a collection of practical information on exposure to harmful chemical substances, the results of their qualitative and quantitative measurements in air at the exemplary workplaces or exemplary technological processes from various economy sectors and occupational risk assessment connected with it. The database on hazardous chemicals covers over five hundred and sixty substances, mainly with fixed values of maximum admissible concentrations in Poland, but also more than a thousand substances classified as carcinogenic and mutagenic according to the CLP Regulation, and this material is continuously expanded. Extensive materials are collected in the sections on assessment of occupational exposure to chemicals and dust, as well as risk assessment associated with their use and/or presence at the workplace. Apart from the materials on risk assessment in inhalation and dermal exposure or risk of explosion and fire, data were complemented with non-measurement methods for assessing exposure and occupational risk for carcinogenic and mutagenic substances, and methods to assess the risks associated with chemical substances of nanometric dimensions. Forum, which was created in 2015, allows

  18. Decontamination and management of human remains following incidents of hazardous chemical release.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauschild, Veronique D; Watson, Annetta; Bock, Robert

    2012-01-01

    To provide specific guidance and resources for systematic and orderly decontamination of human remains resulting from a chemical terrorist attack or accidental chemical release. A detailed review and health-based decision criteria protocol is summarized. Protocol basis and logic are derived from analyses of compound-specific toxicological data and chemical/physical characteristics. Guidance is suitable for civilian or military settings where human remains potentially contaminated with hazardous chemicals may be present, such as sites of transportation accidents, terrorist operations, or medical examiner processing points. Guidance is developed from data-characterizing controlled experiments with laboratory animals, fabrics, and materiel. Logic and specific procedures for decontamination and management of remains, protection of mortuary affairs personnel, and decision criteria to determine when remains are sufficiently decontaminated are presented. Established procedures as well as existing materiel and available equipment for decontamination and verification provide reasonable means to mitigate chemical hazards from chemically exposed remains. Unique scenarios such as those involving supralethal concentrations of certain liquid chemical warfare agents may prove difficult to decontaminate but can be resolved in a timely manner by application of the characterized systematic approaches. Decision criteria and protocols to "clear" decontaminated remains for transport and processing are also provided. Once appropriate decontamination and verification have been accomplished, normal procedures for management of remains and release can be followed.

  19. 77 FR 66638 - The Standard on Process Safety Management of Highly Hazardous Chemicals; Extension of the Office...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-06

    ... Standard on Process Safety Management of Highly Hazardous Chemicals; Extension of the Office of Management...) approval of the information collection requirements specified in the Standard on Process Safety Management...: The Standard on Process Safety Management of Highly Hazardous Chemicals (29 CFR 1910.119). OMB Number...

  20. Sensitive non-radioactive detection of HIV-1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Teglbjærg, Lars Stubbe; Nielsen, C; Hansen, J E

    1992-01-01

    This report describes the use of the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for the non-radioactive detection of HIV-1 proviral genomic sequences in HIV-1 infected cells. We have developed a sensitive assay, using three different sets of nested primers and our results show that this method is superior...... to standard PCR for the detection of HIV-1 DNA. The assay described features the use of a simple and inexpensive sample preparation technique and a non-radioactive hybridization procedure for confirmation of results. To test the suitability of the assay for clinical purposes, we tested cell samples from 76...

  1. The dilemma in prioritizing chemicals for environmental analysis: known versus unknown hazards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anna, Sobek; Sofia, Bejgarn; Christina, Rudén; Magnus, Breitholtz

    2016-08-10

    A major challenge for society is to manage the risks posed by the many chemicals continuously emitted to the environment. All chemicals in production and use cannot be monitored and science-based strategies for prioritization are essential. In this study we review available data to investigate which substances are included in environmental monitoring programs and published research studies reporting analyses of chemicals in Baltic Sea fish between 2000 and 2012. Our aim is to contribute to the discussion of priority settings in environmental chemical monitoring and research, which is closely linked to chemical management. In total, 105 different substances or substance groups were analyzed in Baltic Sea fish. Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were the most studied substances or substance groups. The majority, 87%, of all analyses comprised 20% of the substances or substance groups, whereas 46 substance groups (44%) were analyzed only once. Almost three quarters of all analyses regarded a POP-substance (persistent organic pollutant). These results demonstrate that the majority of analyses on environmental contaminants in Baltic Sea fish concern a small number of already regulated chemicals. Legacy pollutants such as POPs pose a high risk to the Baltic Sea due to their hazardous properties. Yet, there may be a risk that prioritizations for chemical analyses are biased based on the knowns of the past. Such biases may lead to society failing in identifying risks posed by yet unknown hazardous chemicals. Alternative and complementary ways to identify priority chemicals are needed. More transparent communication between risk assessments performed as part of the risk assessment process within REACH and monitoring programs, and information on chemicals contained in consumer articles, would offer ways to identify chemicals for environmental analysis.

  2. Controlled air incineration of hazardous chemical and mixed waste at Los Alamos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borduin, L.C.; Hutchins, D.A.; Vavruska, J.J.; Warner, C.L.

    1987-01-01

    The Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) Controlled Air Incineration (CAI) system, originally developed for transuranic (TRU) waste volume reduction studies, is currently being qualified for hazardous chemical and mixed waste treatment under provisions of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). The objective is to obtain a permanent RCRA Part B permit for thermal disposal of hazardous and mixed wastes generated by LANL. Constructed in the mid-1970s as a demonstration project for incineration of TRU solid wastes, the CAI process was substantially modified and tested in 1980-1983 for acceptance of both liquid and solid hazardous chemicals. Successful demonstration of TRU solid waste processing objectives in 1979 and later chemical waste incineration studies have been documented in several publications. In 1984, the LANL CAI became the first US Dept. of Energy (DOE) incinerator to be permitted for polychlorinated biphenyl disposal under the Toxic Substances Control Act. Following establishment of Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) jurisdiction over DOE chemical waste management in 1984, LANL sought and was granted interim status for the CAI and applied for a trial burn permit in the overall laboratory RCRA Part B application. A trial burn and final report have been completed; results have been submitted to EPA and the New Mexico Environmental Improvement Division. This paper provides an overview of trial burn planning and results together with the operational status of LANL's CAI

  3. Reducing aquatic hazards of industrial chemicals: probabilistic assessment of sustainable molecular design guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connors, Kristin A; Voutchkova-Kostal, Adelina M; Kostal, Jakub; Anastas, Paul; Zimmerman, Julie B; Brooks, Bryan W

    2014-08-01

    Basic toxicological information is lacking for the majority of industrial chemicals. In addition to increasing empirical toxicity data through additional testing, prospective computational approaches to drug development aim to serve as a rational basis for the design of chemicals with reduced toxicity. Recent work has resulted in the derivation of a "rule of 2," wherein chemicals with an octanol-water partition coefficient (log P) less than 2 and a difference between the lowest unoccupied molecular orbital and the highest occupied molecular orbital (ΔE) greater than 9 (log P9 eV) are predicted to be 4 to 5 times less likely to elicit acute or chronic toxicity to model aquatic organisms. The present study examines potential reduction of aquatic toxicity hazards from industrial chemicals if these 2 molecular design guidelines were employed. Probabilistic hazard assessment approaches were used to model the likelihood of encountering industrial chemicals exceeding toxicological categories of concern both with and without the rule of 2. Modeling predicted that utilization of these molecular design guidelines for log P and ΔE would appreciably decrease the number of chemicals that would be designated to be of "high" and "very high" concern for acute and chronic toxicity to standard model aquatic organisms and end points as defined by the US Environmental Protection Agency. For example, 14.5% of chemicals were categorized as having high and very high acute toxicity to the fathead minnow model, whereas only 3.3% of chemicals conforming to the design guidelines were predicted to be in these categories. Considerations of specific chemical classes (e.g., aldehydes), chemical attributes (e.g., ionization), and adverse outcome pathways in representative species (e.g., receptor-mediated responses) could be used to derive future property guidelines for broader classes of contaminants. © 2014 SETAC.

  4. Chemical Contaminants Associated with Palm Wine from Nigeria Are Potential Food Safety Hazards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ogueri Nwaiwu

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Recent analysis of palm wine, a traditional drink fermented mainly by yeasts, revealed the presence of several chemicals that were not products of yeast fermentation. The chemicals included styrene, benzene, trimethyldioxolane, dichloromethane, methylene fluoride, dichloroethanol, benzylisoquinoline and tetraacetyl-d-xylonic nitrile. A review of the concentrations of these compounds in palm wine found that the benzene concentrations in all samples reviewed ranged from 56–343 ppm and were within permissible limits, whereas the styrene values (1505–5614 ppm in all the palm wine samples evaluated were well over the recommended concentration that is immediately dangerous to life or health. Other chemical compounds evaluated varied according to location or sample source. The concentrations obtained are estimates only and a quantitative study needs to be carried out before the impact of these chemicals on health is evaluated. A search on The PubChem Project, the open chemical database, showed the description, properties and uses of these chemicals. Further searches carried out within other databases like PubMed, Scopus and Google Scholar, using each chemical’s name as a search term, showed possible hazards and adverse health conditions caused by these chemicals, especially styrene, benzene and dichloromethane. The point at which the chemicals are introduced into the drink is still not clear and requires further investigation. The chemicals can be hazardous to humans and there is need to establish and maintain a system that can guarantee permissible levels in the drink. This can be carried out using concentrations of the chemicals that are already known to be immediately dangerous to life or health as a reference point.

  5. Beyond low-level activity: On a 'non-radioactive' gas mantle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poljanc, Karin; Steinhauser, Georg; Sterba, Johannes H.; Buchtela, Karl; Bichler, Max

    2007-01-01

    Gas mantles for camping gas lanterns sometimes contain thorium compounds. During the last years, the use of thorium-free gas mantles has become more and more popular due to the avoidance of a radioactive heavy metal. We investigated a gas mantle type that is declared to be 'non-radioactive' and that can be bought in Austria at the moment. Methods used were Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA), γ-spectroscopy, and Liquid Scintillation Counting (LSC). We found massive thorium contents of up to 259 mg per gas mantle. Leaching experiments showed that only 0.4% of the Th but approximately 90% of the decay products of 232 Th can be leached under conditions simulating sucking and chewing with human saliva. In this paper, the investigation of these gas mantles including the consideration of the environmental hazard caused by disposed mantles and the health hazard for unsuspecting consumers is presented and legal consequences are discussed for this fraud

  6. Hanford facility dangerous waste permit application, 616 Nonradioactive Dangerous Waste Storage Facility. Revision 2, Chapter 3.0, Waste characteristics supplemental information; Volume 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    This report contains supplemental information concerning waste characteristics for numerous nonradioactive waste materials. Uniform hazardous waste manifests are included for routine as well as nonroutine waste streams. The manifests contain the following information: waste disposal analysis; general instructions; waste destination; and transportation representatives

  7. Hanford facility dangerous waste permit application, 616 Nonradioactive Dangerous Waste Storage Facility. Revision 2, Chapter 3.0, Waste characteristics supplemental information; Volume 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    This report contains supplemental information concerning waste characteristics for numerous nonradioactive waste materials. Uniform hazardous waste manifests are included for routine as well as nonroutine waste streams. The manifests contain the following information: waste disposal analysis; general instructions; waste destination; and transportation representatives

  8. Hanford facility dangerous waste permit application, 616 Nonradioactive Dangerous Waste Storage Facility. Revision 2, Chapter 3.0, Waste characteristics supplemental information; Volume 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    This report contains supplemental information concerning waste characteristics for numerous nonradioactive waste materials. Uniform hazardous waste manifests are included for routine as well as nonroutine waste streams. The manifests contain the following information: waste disposal analysis; general instructions; waste destination; and transportation representatives

  9. Treatment of oil spill fire hazards with chemical dispersants: a case history

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaufmann, S.

    1982-10-01

    Federal contingency plans include the use of chemical dispersants to ameliorate hazardous situations caused by spills of flammable or explosive petroleum products. The closing of the Williamsburg Bridge in New York City, when a gasoline tanker exploded and sank under it, was nearly overshadowed by the leakage of 7 750 000 L (2 000 000 gal) of gasoline from a storage facility in Boston. The threat to a densely populated neighborhood of six-family tenement houses and a large racetrack that stabled hundreds of Thoroughbred horses led to the use of a chemical dispersant to neutralize the fire hazard. Favorable results by fire departments in recent years, as a result of training, have established dispersants as the method of choice to handle nonburning spill incidents. Even though the teams that responded to several such emergencies of course held the protection of life and property as paramount, no toxicological environmental effects were noted during subsequent observations.

  10. DOE underground storage tank waste remediation chemical processing hazards. Part I: Technology dictionary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DeMuth, S.F.

    1996-10-01

    This document has been prepared to aid in the development of Regulating guidelines for the Privatization of Hanford underground storage tank waste remediation. The document has been prepared it two parts to facilitate their preparation. Part II is the primary focus of this effort in that it describes the technical basis for established and potential chemical processing hazards associated with Underground Storage Tank (UST) nuclear waste remediation across the DOE complex. The established hazards involve those at Sites for which Safety Analysis Reviews (SARs) have already been prepared. Potential hazards are those involving technologies currently being developed for future applications. Part I of this document outlines the scope of Part II by briefly describing the established and potential technologies. In addition to providing the scope, Part I can be used as a technical introduction and bibliography for Regulatory personnel new to the UST waste remediation, and in particular Privatization effort. Part II of this document is not intended to provide examples of a SAR Hazards Analysis, but rather provide an intelligence gathering source for Regulatory personnel who must eventually evaluate the Privatization SAR Hazards Analysis

  11. Chemical health risk assessment for hazardous and mixed waste management units at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-09-01

    The waste characterization for each treatment unit or process is based on treatment records from LLNL's computerized Hazardous Waste Management Inventory System (HWMIS). In 1990, these data were compiled into a single database comprising both hazardous waste and mixed waste data. Even though these data originate from the same source used in the previous HRA, the database was modified to set quantities and concentrations to a consistent set of units. This allowed an analysis of waste types by Hazardous Waste Management unit that was more accurate and did not rely upon many of the conservative assumptions used in the Phase II HRA waste characterization. Finally, the current waste characterizations are considered more representative of potential long-term wastes because they were developed by combining all wastes that could be treated in each unit, as opposed to the wastes treated only during 1988 to 1989. This final step more appropriately accounts for the variability in waste types likely to be seen by the Hazardous Waste Management Division. The quantities of each waste listed in the characterization tables represent the sum of all chemical quantities belonging to hazardous and mixed waste types potentially handled by each area

  12. Chemical laboratory hazardous waste management at a DOE multiprogram national laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turner, P.J.

    1990-03-01

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL), a United States Department of Energy (DOE) Multiprogram Energy Laboratory, is establishing a program for management of diverse small-quantity laboratory waste generated on site. Although the main emphasis of this program is ''cradle-to-grave'' tracking and treatment of hazardous chemical waste and mixed waste, low-level radioactive and transuranic (TRU) waste is also being included. With the program in operation, more than 95% of all regulated waste will be treated or destroyed on site. The cost savings will return the original investment in under six years and decrease the liability to PNL and DOE -- a benefit with a potentially greater economic value. Tracking of hazardous waste will be mediated by a computer-based inventory and tracking system. The system will track all hazardous materials from receipt through final disposition, whether the material is destroyed or treated for disposal. It will allow user access to handling and hazards information as well as provide an updated inventory by location, user, and hazard type. Storage and treatment of waste will be performed by at least four facilities, made operational in three phases. 6 figs

  13. Effectuality of Cleaning Workers' Training and Cleaning Enterprises' Chemical Health Hazard Risk Profiling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulqadir M. Suleiman

    2015-12-01

    Conclusion: Training of cleaning workers lacks the prerequisite for suitability and effectiveness to counter risks of chemical health hazards. There is dereliction of duty by management in the sector resulting in a lack of competence among the cleaning workers. Instituting acceptable easily attainable safety competence level for cleaners will conduce to risk reduction, and enforcement of attainment of the competence level would be a positive step.

  14. The substitution of hazardous chemicals in the international context - Opportunity for promoting sustainable chemistry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weber, R.; Lissner, L.; Fantke, Peter

    While a wide range of sustainable/green chemicals for various applications is available, often only certain types of hazardous or unsustainably produced chemicals are continued to be used out of different reasons (“lock-in problem”) 1,2. One challenge is that policy makers and industries...... in the alternatives assessment process on international level. The POPs phase out document links also to the web-platform SUBSPORT (www.subsport.eu) which has been developed in the frame of an EU project for safer alternatives to toxic chemicals. In this presentation the Stockholm Convention alternatives assessment...... in particular in developing and transition countries do not know about more sustainable and green alternatives for a chemical in a particular application. Methodologies and tools are, hence, needed for the communication and dissemination of information on more sustainable alternatives. The substitution...

  15. Monitoring and trace detection of hazardous waste and toxic chemicals using resonance Raman spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sedlacek, A.J. III; Dougherty, D.R.; Chen, C.L.

    1993-01-01

    Raman scattering is a coherent, inelastic, two-photon process, which shifts the frequency of an outgoing photon according to the vibrational structure of the irradiated species, thereby providing a unique fingerprint of the molecule. When involving an allowed electronic transition (resonance Raman), this scattering cross section can be enhanced by 10 4 to 10 6 and provides the basis for a viable technique that can monitor and detect trace quantities of hazardous wastes and toxic chemicals. Resonance Raman spectroscopy (RRS) possesses many of the ideal characteristics for monitoring and detecting of hazardous waste and toxic chemicals. Some of these traits are: (1) very high selectivity (chemical specific fingerprints); (2) independence from the excitation wavelength (ability to monitor in the solar blind region); (3) chemical mixture fingerprints are the sum of its individual components (no spectral cross-talk); (4) near independence of the Raman fingerprint to its physical state (very similar spectra for gas, liquid, solid and solutions -- either bulk or aerosols); and (5) insensitivity of the Raman signature to environmental conditions (no quenching). Data from a few chemicals will be presented which illustrate these features. In cases where background fluorescence accompanies the Raman signals, an effective frequency modulation technique has been developed, which can completely eliminate this interference

  16. Assessment and management of cancer risks from radiological and chemical hazards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    A Joint Working Group was established in April 1995 by the President of the Atomic Energy Control Board (AECB) and the Assistant Deputy Minister of the Health Protection Branch of Health Canada to examine the similarities, disparities and inconsistencies between the levels of risk considered acceptable for regulating ionizing radiation and those considered acceptable for regulating chemical and microbiological hazards. During the process of collecting, analysing and interpreting information, the Joint Working Group realized that its terms of reference as written presented a major difficulty because of the lack of consensus on acceptable levels of risk. Consequently it decided that the most reasonable way to proceed was to compare the risk assessment and management processes used to protect the public from radiation, chemicals and microbiological hazards. This report concentrates on the assessment and management of ionizing radiation and genotoxic chemicals (which both cause cancer by damaging the DNA in cells) and pays less attention to non-genotoxic effects and microbiological hazards. The report also examines public more than occupational exposures and exposures from man-made rather than naturally occurring agents. (author)

  17. Endocrine effects of chemicals: aspects of hazard identification and human health risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dekant, Wolfgang; Colnot, Thomas

    2013-12-16

    Hazard and risk assessment of chemicals with endocrine activity is hotly debated due to claimed non-monotonous dose-response curves in the low-dose region. In hazard identification a clear definition of "endocrine disruptors" (EDs) is required; this should be based on the WHO/IPCS definition of EDs and on adverse effects demonstrated in intact animals or humans. Therefore, endocrine effects are a mode of action potentially resulting in adverse effects; any classification should not be based on a mode of action, but on adverse effects. In addition, when relying on adverse effects, most effects reported in the low-dose region will not qualify for hazard identification since most have little relation to an adverse effect. Non-monotonous dose-response curves that had been postulated from limited, exploratory studies could also not be reproduced in targeted studies with elaborate quality assurance. Therefore, regulatory agencies or advisory bodies continue to apply the safety-factor method or the concept of "margin-of-exposure" based on no observed adverse effect levels (NOAELs) in the risk assessment of chemicals with weak hormonal activity. Consistent with this approach, tolerable levels regarding human exposure have been defined for such chemicals. To conclusively support non-monotonous dose-response curves, targeted experiments with a sufficient number of animals, determination of adverse endpoints, adequate statistics and quality control would be required. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Effectuality of Cleaning Workers' Training and Cleaning Enterprises' Chemical Health Hazard Risk Profiling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suleiman, Abdulqadir M; Svendsen, Kristin V H

    2015-12-01

    Goal-oriented communication of risk of hazards is necessary in order to reduce risk of workers' exposure to chemicals. Adequate training of workers and enterprise priority setting are essential elements. Cleaning enterprises have many challenges and the existing paradigms influence the risk levels of these enterprises. Information on organization and enterprises' prioritization in training programs was gathered from cleaning enterprises. A measure of enterprises' conceptual level of importance of chemical health hazards and a model for working out the risk index (RI) indicating enterprises' conceptual risk level was established and used to categorize the enterprises. In 72.3% of cases, training takes place concurrently with task performances and in 67.4% experienced workers conduct the trainings. There is disparity between employers' opinion on competence level of the workers and reality. Lower conceptual level of importance was observed for cleaning enterprises of different sizes compared with regional safety delegates and occupational hygienists. Risk index values show no difference in risk level between small and large enterprises. Training of cleaning workers lacks the prerequisite for suitability and effectiveness to counter risks of chemical health hazards. There is dereliction of duty by management in the sector resulting in a lack of competence among the cleaning workers. Instituting acceptable easily attainable safety competence level for cleaners will conduce to risk reduction, and enforcement of attainment of the competence level would be a positive step.

  19. Risk assessment of chemicals in food and diet: Hazard identification by methods of animal-based toxicology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barlow, S. M.; Greig, J. B.; Bridges, J. W.

    2002-01-01

    the current state of the science of risk assessment of chemicals in food and diet, by consideration of the four stages of risk assessment, that is. hazard identification. hazard characterisation, exposure assessment and risk characterisation. The contribution of animal-based methods in toxicology to hazard......, on hazard identification for food chemicals, such as new measurement techniques, the use of transgenic animals, assessment of hormone balance and the possibilities for conducting studies in which common human diseases have been modelled. is also considered. (C) 2002 ILSI. Published by Elsevier Science Ltd....... All rights reserved....

  20. Incineration of Non-radioactive Simulated Waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, A.Z.; Abdelrazek, I.D.

    1999-01-01

    An advanced controlled air incinerator has been investigated, developed and put into successful operation for both non radioactive simulated and other combustible solid wastes. Engineering efforts concentrated on providing an incinerator which emitted a clean, easily treatable off-gas and which produced minimum amounts of secondary waste. Feed material is fed by gravity into the gas reactor without shredding or other pretreatment. The temperature of the waste is gradually increased in a reduced oxygen atmosphere as the resulting products are introduced into the combustion chamber. Steady burning is thus accomplished under easily controlled excess air conditions with the off-gas then passing through a simple dry cleaning-up system. Experimental studies showed that, at lower temperature, CO 2 , and CH 4 contents in gas reactor effluent increase by the increase of glowing bed temperature, while H 2 O, H 2 and CO decrease . It was proved that, a burn-out efficiency (for ash residues) and a volume reduction factor appeared to be better than 95.5% and 98% respectively. Moreover, high temperature permits increased volumes of incinerated material and results in increased gasification products. It was also found that 8% by weight of ashes are separated by flue gas cleaning system as it has chemical and size uniformity. This high incineration efficiency has been obtained through automated control and optimization of process variables like temperature of the glowing bed and the oxygen feed rate to the gas reactor

  1. Onshore preparedness for hazardous chemical marine vessel accidents: A case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faisel T. Illiyas

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Hazardous and noxious substances (HNS are widely transported in marine vessels to reach every part of the world. Bulk transportation of hazardous chemicals is carried out in tank container–carrying cargo ships or in designed vessels. Ensuring the safety of HNS containers during maritime transportation is critically important as the accidental release of any substance may be lethal to the on-board crew and marine environment. A general assumption in maritime accidents in open ocean is that it will not create any danger to the coastal population. The case study discussed in this article throws light on the dangers latent in maritime HNS accidents. An accident involving an HNS-carrying marine vessel in the Arabian Sea near the coast of Yemen became a safety issue to the coastal people of Kasargod District of Kerala, India. The ship carried more than 4000 containers, which were lost to the sea in the accident. Six HNS tank containers were carried by the waves and shored at the populated coast of Kasargod, more than 650 nautical miles east from the accident spot. The unanticipated sighting of tank containers in the coast and the response of the administration to the incident, the hurdles faced by the district administration in handling the case, the need for engaging national agencies and lessons learned from the incident are discussed in the article. This case study has proven that accidents in the open ocean have the potential to put the coastal areas at risk if the on-board cargo contains hazardous chemicals. Littoral nations, especially those close to the international waterlines, must include hazardous chemical spills to their oil spill contingency plans.

  2. Radioactive and hazardous chemical wastes. Impact on man and his environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parker, F.L.; Suess, M.J.

    1984-01-01

    The main objective of the various safety measures in all fields of human activities is to prevent deleterious effects of various agents on human health. Preventive health and safety measures therefore play an important role in achieving the main goal of the World Health Organization (WHO): 'Health for all by the year 2000'. The present WHO programme on environmental health emphasizes the prevention of chemical hazards as one of the most important environmental factors affecting human health. At the same time, protection from physical factors, including radiological protection, is part of this programme. Therefore, WHO compares health detriments from both physical and chemical agents. The paper describes the hazardous waste problems of great concern in industrialized countries. For instance, the Commission of the European Communities countries produce about 2x10 9 tonnes of waste per year, a rate which grows by 2 to 3% annually. This poses serious problems of pollution, particularly where the toxic ingredients do not decay. Special attention will also be given to the safe handling of high-level radioactive waste from the peaceful use of nuclear technology. These wastes have to be stored in safe storage facilities, or be disposed of without causing damage to man and his environment. The international measures to contain and control these wastes are described, including the activities of WHO within the Global Environmental Monitoring System and Regional Sea programmes of the United Nations Environment Programme. Guidelines and methodologies for the management of hazardous chemical and radioactive wastes are being developed through WHO to assist national authorities in this task. The paper pays special attention to a comparative assessment of environmental and public health impacts of toxic chemical and radioactive wastes. (author)

  3. Journal of NIRE, Vol. 5, No. 1, January 1996. Special issue: Behavior in the environment and countermeasure technology of hazardous chemicals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-01-01

    Contents: Technique for Management of Hazardous Chemical Substances --Risk Assessment; Behaviors of Chemicals in the Aquatic Environment; Numerical Model of Chemical Fate in an Environment; Source Characterization and Chemical Processes of Volatile Organic Compounds in the Atmosphere; Development of Sensor for Hazardous Substances; Removal of Chemical Substances from the Atmosphere by Photocatalysis; Microbial Degradation of Organic Xenobiotics in Environment.

  4. European alerting and monitoring data as inputs for the risk assessment of microbiological and chemical hazards in spices and herbs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Banach, J.L.; Stratakou, I.; Fels, van der Ine; Besten, den H.M.W.; Zwietering, M.H.

    2016-01-01

    Food chains are susceptible to contaminations from food-borne hazards, including pathogens and chemical contaminants. An assessment of the potential product-hazard combinations can be supported by using multiple data sources. The objective of this study was to identify the main trends of food

  5. Notification: FY 2012 Management Challenges and Internal Control Weaknesses for the Chemical Safety and Hazard Investigation Board

    Science.gov (United States)

    February 1, 2012. The EPA Office of Inspector General is beginning work to update our list of areas we consider to be the key management challenges confronting the Chemical Safety and Hazard Investigation Board.

  6. Recovery of nonradioactive palladium and rhodium from high-level radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McDuffie, H.F.

    1979-01-01

    A possible method for recovering significant quantities of nonradioactive palladium from fission-product wastes requires essentially complete separation of the fission-product (radioactive) palladium from fission-product ruthenium. After the decay of 106 Ru via 106 Rh to 106 Pd, this nonradioactive palladium is recovered for normal commercial use. The U.S. production of palladium has never been above 1000 kg per year vs consumption of about 46,000 kg per year. Most of the supply comes from Russia and South Africa. It has been estimated that a 400-GW(e) nuclear reactor economy will make available 2000 kg per year of 106 Ru at reactor fuel discharge. A substantial increase might be achieved if plutonium were recycled as fissionable material because of the higher yields of the 106 chain from plutonium. A literature search has uncovered support for three promising approaches to the required separation of palladium from ruthenium: (1) recrystallization from solution in bismuth or in zinc; (2) selective precipitation of a titanium--ruthenium intermetallic compound from bismuth, followed by precipitation of a zinc--palladium intermetallic compound; and (3) dissolution in molten magnesium followed by partitioning between molten magnesium and a molten uranium-5 wt % chromium eutectic at a temperature above 870 0 C. Liquid-liquid extraction appears to be the most promising method from a technological point of view, although intermetallic compound formation is much more interesting chemically. Recovery of some nonradioactive 103 Rh may be possible by liquid-liquid extraction of the fuel before the decay of the 39.8-d 103 Ru has gone substantially to completion. Demonstration of the practicality of these separations will contribute a positive factor to the evaluation of resumption in the United States of nuclear fuel reprocessing and plutonium recycle in light-water-moderated reactors

  7. Measurements and models for hazardous chemical and mixed wastes. 1998 annual progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holcomb, C.; Louie, B.; Mullins, M.E.; Outcalt, S.L.; Rogers, T.N.; Watts, L.

    1998-01-01

    'Aqueous waste of various chemical compositions constitutes a significant fraction of the total waste produced by industry in the US. A large quantity of the waste generated by the US chemical process industry is waste water. In addition, the majority of the waste inventory at DoE sites previously used for nuclear weapons production is aqueous waste. Large quantities of additional aqueous waste are expected to be generated during the clean-up of those sites. In order to effectively treat, safely handle, and properly dispose of these wastes, accurate and comprehensive knowledge of basic thermophysical property information is paramount. This knowledge will lead to huge savings by aiding in the design and optimization of treatment and disposal processes. The main objectives of this project are: Develop and validate models that accurately predict the phase equilibria and thermodynamic properties of hazardous aqueous systems necessary for the safe handling and successful design of separation and treatment processes for hazardous chemical and mixed wastes. Accurately measure the phase equilibria and thermodynamic properties of a representative system (water + acetone + isopropyl alcohol + sodium nitrate) over the applicable ranges of temperature, pressure, and composition to provide the pure component, binary, ternary, and quaternary experimental data required for model development. As of May, 1998, nine months into the first year of a three year project, the authors have made significant progress in the database development, have begun testing the models, and have been performance testing the apparatus on the pure components.'

  8. The Problem of Assessment for Radionuclide and Chemical Hazard to People Heredity and Health

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suskov, Igor I.; Glouchtchenko, Alexandre I.

    2003-01-01

    In the 21th century the assessment of the hazard to human heredity and health from the radionuclide and chemical environmental pollution becomes of prime social importance since it is related to the problems of utilization of great amounts of radioactive and chemical wastes, spent nuclear fuel, weapon plutonium, nuclear reactors and emergency discharges of isotopes which in total is higher than 1 billion Ci. Long-term cytogenetic monitoring of nuclear and chemical plant workers, local human populations of radioactive waste areas and radionuclide polluted territories has revealed that the level and spectrum of induced chromosome aberrations in blood lymphocytes correlate with the type, dose and duration of exposure. There is very strong evidence that the yield of chromosome aberrations (Y) is related to the dose (D) by the equation: Y=Ao+aD+bD 2 . Therefore the radiation/radionuclide risk (R(D) ) will correspond to a absorbed dose and its aberrational/mutational consequences ('doubling dose' coefficient). Increased levels of chromosome aberrations in the human body very often precede the development of several syndromes: chronic fatigue, secondary immune deficiency, early aging, reproductive dysfunction, oncological diseases and etc. The increased levels of chromosome aberrations in blood lymphocytes can serve as objective bio indicators of radiation and chemical risk to human heredity and health. Thus, monitoring of chromosome and genome aberrations must be of strategical importance in the system of governmental service for minimization of radionuclide and chemical hazard to human heredity and health the necessity of organization of which has already matured. The above mentioned confirms the necessity of founding a European network for ecological-genetic monitoring with 'Internet' translation of information on radionuclide composition and chromosome aberration levels in people, inhabiting polluted areas

  9. Sanitary Assessment of Hazardous Materials Exposed To Highly Toxic Chemical Compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rembovskiy, V.; Ermolaeva, E.

    2007-01-01

    Industrial or terroristic accidents in which toxic chemicals (TC) are the main or attendant damaging factors should be regarded as a new challenge for experts, because of little knowledge on the methodology to estimating the long-term risk for humans due to contamination of the building materials and environment. In the Russian Federation, there appeared to be a kind of model systems for developing an algorithm for solving these or similar problems. Under dismantling and liquidation of the former facilities for chemical weapon production (FCWP) the building materials are regarded as potential waste products the fate of which (processing, warehousing, utilization, and destruction) is dependent on their possible hazard for human population and environment. The standard approaches for hazard assessment of waste products of the FCWP turned out to be insufficient. When conducting the present work, the following problems have been solved: 1. Selection of representative samples taking into consideration a diversity of construction materials, great quantities of potentially toxic waste materials, information on the production conditions, breakdowns in the process of production, accidents, composition of the decontaminators used, decontamination frequency, etc. 2. Analysis of TC in composite matrixes complicated by the following problems: extraction, masking effects of concomitant components during indirect analysis, lack of certified methods of direct analysis of TC, discrepancy of results of GC and direct GCMS analysis, low sensitivity of GCMS analysis, big volume of samples (more than 0.5 kg), heterogeneity of physical-chemical properties of different matrixes influencing the process of degradation of TC. 3. Hazard assessment of the wastes in toxic-and-sanitary experiment relying on non-specific signs of intoxication due to relatively low percentage of TC and masking effects of various matrix components. Application of the integral toxicity tests with soil

  10. Numerical Simulations as Tool to Predict Chemical and Radiological Hazardous Diffusion in Case of Nonconventional Events

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.-F. Ciparisse

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics simulations are widely used nowadays to predict the behaviour of fluids in pure research and in industrial applications. This approach makes it possible to get quantitatively meaningful results, often in good agreement with the experimental ones. The aim of this paper is to show how CFD calculations can help to understand the time evolution of two possible CBRNe (Chemical-Biological-Radiological-Nuclear-explosive events: (1 hazardous dust mobilization due to the interaction between a jet of air and a metallic powder in case of a LOVA (Loss Of Vacuum Accidents that is one of the possible accidents that can occur in experimental nuclear fusion plants; (2 toxic gas release in atmosphere. The scenario analysed in the paper has consequences similar to those expected in case of a release of dangerous substances (chemical or radioactive in enclosed or open environment during nonconventional events (like accidents or man-made or natural disasters.

  11. Los Alamos Controlled Air Incinerator for hazardous chemical and mixed radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vavruska, J.S.; Borduin, L.C.; Hutchins, D.A.; Koenig, R.A.; Warner, C.L.

    1986-01-01

    The Los Alamos Controlled Air Incinerator (CAI) is currently the only radioactive waste incineration facility in the US permitted to treat polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). The CAI was developed in the mid-1970's as a demonstration system for volume reduction of transuranic (TRU) contaminated combustible solid wastes. It has since undergone additions and modifications to accommodate hazardous chemical wastes in response to a need within the Department of Energy (DOE) to treat mixed radioactive/chemical wastes. An overview of these additions which include a liquid feed system, a high intensity liquid injection burner, and an activated carbon adsorption unit is presented here. Also included is a discussion of the procedures required for Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) and Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) permitting of the CAI

  12. Investigation of radioactive contamination at non-radioactive drains of the Tsuruga Nuclear Power Station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koide, Hiroaki; Imanaka, Tetsuji; Ebisawa, Toru; Kawano, Shinji; Kobayashi, Keiji.

    1982-05-01

    In April, 1981, it was disclosed that a drainage area at the Tsuruga Nuclear Power Station was so much contaminated with radioactivites. Although Ministry of International Trade and Industry (MITI) officially provided an explanation of a process that resulted in the contamination, many problems remain unsolved on account of insufficient and limited investigations. The authors collected mud samples from contaminated manholes and examined radioactivities in them through the measurement of #betta#- and #betta#-spectra. Chemical separation of the samples was carried out in order to obtain precise concentration of radioactive cesium. Results are as follows: i) the concentration of radioactivities does not show monotonous decrease along the stream line but an anomalous peak at downstream manholes, ii) at the manhole specified No. 6 located rather downstream, 137 Cs concentration is significantly high and the composition of radioactive nuclides is quite different from that in the other manholes, and iii) additional radioactive contamination was observed in other manholes of non-radioactive drains which would not be influenced by the accident explained by MITI. Our present work has provided much more data than by MITI and made it clear that the overall data cnnot be consistent with the simple MITI explanation; a single radioactive release accident caused the disclosed contamination. It is concluded that non-radioactive water drains at the Tsuruga Nuclear Power Station had been under continual contamination. (author)

  13. Experimental outgassing of toxic chemicals to simulate the characteristics of hazards tainting globally shipped products.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lygia Therese Budnik

    Full Text Available Ambient monitoring analyses may identify potential new public health hazards such as residual levels of fumigants and industrial chemicals off gassing from products and goods shipped globally. We analyzed container air with gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (TD-2D-GC-MS/FPD and assessed whether the concentration of the volatiles benzene and 1,2-dichloroethane exceeded recommended exposure limits (REL. Products were taken from transport containers and analyzed for outgassing of volatiles. Furthermore, experimental outgassing was performed on packaging materials and textiles, to simulate the hazards tainting from globally shipped goods. The mean amounts of benzene in analyzed container air were 698-fold higher, and those of ethylene dichloride were 4.5-fold higher than the corresponding REL. More than 90% of all containers struck with toluene residues higher than its REL. For 1,2-dichloroethane 53% of containers, transporting shoes exceeded the REL. In standardized experimental fumigation of various products, outgassing of 1,2-dichloroethane under controlled laboratory conditions took up to several months. Globally produced transported products tainted with toxic industrial chemicals may contribute to the mixture of volatiles in indoor air as they are likely to emit for a long period. These results need to be taken into account for further evaluation of safety standards applying to workers and consumers.

  14. Chemical health risk assessment for hazardous and mixed waste management units at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-09-01

    The Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) operates three Hazardous Waste Management Facilities with 24 associated waste management units for the treatment and storage of hazardous and mixed wastes. These wastes are generated by research programs and support operations. The storage and treatment units are presently operated under interim status in accordance with the requirements of the US Envirorunental Protection Agency (US EPA) and the Department of Toxic Substances Control (DTSC), a division of the California Envirorunental Protection Agency (Cal/EPA). As required by the California Hazardous Waste Control Act and the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA), LLNL ha s applied for a Part B permit to continue operating the storage and waste treatment facilities. As part of this permitting process, LLNL is required to conduct a health risk assessment (HRA) to examine the potential health impacts to the surrounding community from continued storage and treatment of hazardous and mixed wastes. analysis document presents the results of this risk assessment. An analysis of maximum credible chemical accidents is also included in Section 7.0. This HRA was prepared in accordance with procedures set forth by the California Air Pollution Control Officers Association (CAPCOA) ''Air Toxics Assessment Manual,'' CAPCOA guidelines for preparing risk assessments under the Air Toxic ''Hot Spots'' Act (AB 2588) and requirements of the US EPA. By following these procedures, this risk assessment presents a conservative analysis of a hypothetical Maximally Exposed Individual (MEI) using many worst-case assumptions that will not apply to an actual individual. As such, the risk estimates presented should be regarded as a worst-case estimate of any actual risk that may be present

  15. Recommendations for sampling for prevention of hazards in civil defense. On analytics of chemical, biological and radioactive contaminations. Brief instruction for the CBRN (chemical, biological, radioactive, nuclear) sampling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bachmann, Udo; Biederbick, Walter; Derakshani, Nahid

    2010-01-01

    The recommendation for sampling for prevention of hazards in civil defense is describing the analytics of chemical, biological and radioactive contaminations and includes detail information on the sampling, protocol preparation and documentation procedures. The volume includes a separate brief instruction for the CBRN (chemical, biological, radioactive, nuclear) sampling.

  16. Quality checking of radioactive and hazardous waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Billington, D.M.; Burgoyne, S.M.J.; Dale, C.J.

    1992-01-01

    This report describes the work of the HMIP Waste Quality Checking Laboratory (WQCL) for the period September 1989 -August 1991. The WQCL has conducted research and development of procedures for the receipt, sampling and analysis of low level solid radioactive waste (LLW), intermediate level radioactive waste (ILW) and hazardous chemical waste (HW). Operational facilities have been commissioned for quality checking both LLW and HW. Waste quality checking has been completed on LLW packages seized from the UK waste disposal route by HMIP Inspectors. Packages have ranged in size from the 200 litre steel drum to half-height ISO freight container. Development work was continued on methods of sample extraction and radio-chemical analysis for cement encapsulated ILW in the form of magnox, graphite and stainless steel. This work was undertaken on non-radioactive simulants. (author)

  17. In vitro methods for hazard assessment of industrial chemicals – opportunities and challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chin Lin eWong

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Allergic contact dermatitis (ACD is a delayed-type hypersensitivity immune reaction mediated by T-lymphocytes as a result of repeated exposure of an allergen primarily on skin. ACD accounts for up to 95% of occupational skin diseases (OSDs, with epoxy resins implicated as one of the most common causes of ACD. Efficient high-throughput in vitro screening for accurate identification of compounds and materials that may pose hazardous risks in the workplace is crucial. At present, the murine local lymph node assay (LLNA is the ‘method of choice’ for predicting the sensitizing potency of contact allergens. As the 3Rs principles of reduction, refinement and replacement in animal testing has gained political and economic momentum, several in vitro screening methods have been developed for identifying potential contact allergens. To date, these latter methods have been utilized primarily to assess the skin sensitizing potential of the chemical components of cosmetic products with scant research attention as to the applicability of these methods to industrial chemicals, particularly epoxy resins. Herein we review the currently utilized in vitro methods and identify the knowledge gaps with regard to assessing the generalizability of in vitro screening methods for assessing the skin sensitizing potential of industrial chemicals.

  18. Reproductive hazards in the workplace: what the practitioner needs to know about chemical exposures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, M; Himmelstein, J

    1988-06-01

    A growing body of scientific evidence implicates occupational chemical exposures in the etiology of human adverse reproductive outcomes. Most reproductive toxins that have been investigated in sufficient detail have been shown to exert multiple effects on and through both men and women. In the face of growing public awareness, it is essential that clinicians develop a knowledgeable and effective approach to patient concerns about reproductive hazards in the workplace. Of vital importance is the accurate characterization of exposure at the worksite. Intervention strategies for worrisome situations include amelioration of worksite exposure or, as a last resort, temporary, compensated job modification or transfer. The clinician can obtain assistance in addressing the problem from several resources, including local regulatory agencies and occupational health clinics. Widespread involvement of knowledgeable health professionals can have a dramatic impact on improving this important contemporary public health problem.

  19. 616 Nonradioactive Dangerous Waste Storage Facility dangerous waste permit application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-10-01

    The 616 Nonradioactive Dangerous Waste Storage Facility Dangerous Waste Permit Application consists of both a Part A and a Part B permit application. An explanation of the Part A revisions associated with this storage unit, including the Part A included with this document, is provided at the beginning of the Part A Section. The Part B consists of 15 chapters addressing the organization and content of the Part B Checklist prepared by the Washington State Department of Ecology (Ecology 1987). For ease of reference, the checklist section numbers, in brackets, follow chapter headings and subheadings. The 616 Nonradioactive Dangerous Waste Storage Facility Dangerous Waste Permit Application (Revision 0) was submitted to the Washington State Department of Ecology and the US Environmental Protection Agency on July 31, 1989. Revision 1, addressing Washington State Department of Ecology review comments made on Revision 0 dated November 21, 1989, and March 23, 1990, was submitted on June 22, 1990. This submittal, Revision 2, addresses Washington State Department of Ecology review comments made on Revision 1, dated June 22, 1990, August 30, 1990, December 18, 1990, and July 8, 1991

  20. Influence of non-radioactive payload parameters on radioactive shipping packages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drez, P.E.; Murthy, D.V.S.; Temus, C.J.; Quinn, G.J.; Ozaki, C.

    1989-01-01

    The transport of radioactive waste materials in radioactive material (RAM) packages involves two components: the packaging used for transportation, and the waste which forms the payload. The payload is usually comprised of non-radioactive materials contaminated with radionuclides. The non-radionuclide payload characteristics can often be a controlling factor in determining the restrictions imposed on the certification of the package. This paper describes these package/payload interactions and the limiting parameters for the Transuranic Package Transporter-II (TRUPACT-II), designed for the transportation of Contact Handled Transuranic (CH-TRU) waste. The parameters discussed include the physical and chemical form of the payload, the configuration of the waste, and resulting gas generation and gas release phenomena. Brief descriptions of the TRUPACT-II package and its payload are presented initially

  1. Disposal of radioactive and other hazardous wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boge, R.; Bergman, C.; Bergvall, S.; Gyllander, C.

    1989-01-01

    The purpose of the workshop was discuss legal, scientific and practical aspects of disposal of low- and intermediate-level radioactive waste and other types of hazardous waste. During the workshop the non-radioactive wastes discussed were mainly wastes from energy production, but also industrial, chemical and household wastes. The workshop gave the participants the opportunity to exchange information on policies, national strategies and other important matters. A number of invited papers were presented and the participants brought background papers, describing the national situation, that were used in the working groups. One of the main aims of the workshop was to discuss if the same basic philosophy as that used in radiation protection could be used in the assessment of disposal of non-radioactive waste, as well as to come up with identifications of areas for future work and to propose fields for research and international cooperation. The main text of the report consists of a summary of the discussions and the conclusions reached by the workshop

  2. The Global Food System as a Transport Pathway for Hazardous Chemicals: The Missing Link between Emissions and Exposure

    OpenAIRE

    Ng, Carla A.; von Goetz, Natalie

    2016-01-01

    Background: Food is a major pathway for human exposure to hazardous chemicals. The modern food system is becoming increasingly complex and globalized, but models for food-borne exposure typically assume locally derived diets or use concentrations directly measured in foods without accounting for food origin. Such approaches may not reflect actual chemical intakes because concentrations depend on food origin, and representative analysis is seldom available. Processing, packaging, storage, and ...

  3. Safety in the Chemical Laboratory: Certifications for Professional Hazardous Materials and Waste Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Kenneth E.

    1988-01-01

    Discusses the need for determining a curriculum to provide qualified hazardous waste personnel. Describes the needed role of colleges and universities and current hazardous materials certification requirements. Lists requirements for 18 professional certifications. (MVL)

  4. The response of local residents to a chemical hazard warning: Prediction of behavioral intentions in France, Greece and the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wiegman, O.; Komilis, Egli; Cadet, Bernard; Boer, Hendrik; Gutteling, Jan M.

    1993-01-01

    In this study Greek, French and Dutch residents of a hazardous chemical complex were confronted with a simulated warning scenario for an industrial accident and intended functional and dysfunctional behaviours were measured. Intended functional behaviours were poorly predicted by our model, while

  5. Use of short-term test systems for the prediction of the hazard represented by potential chemical carcinogens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glass, L.R.; Jones, T.D.; Easterly, C.E.; Walsh, P.J.

    1990-10-01

    It has been hypothesized that results from short-term bioassays will ultimately provide information that will be useful for human health hazard assessment. Historically, the validity of the short-term tests has been assessed using the framework of the epidemiologic/medical screens. In this context, the results of the carcinogen (long-term) bioassay is generally used as the standard. However, this approach is widely recognized as being biased and, because it employs qualitative data, cannot be used to assist in isolating those compounds which may represent a more significant toxicologic hazard than others. In contrast, the goal of this research is to address the problem of evaluating the utility of the short-term tests for hazard assessment using an alternative method of investigation. Chemicals were selected mostly from the list of carcinogens published by the International Agency for Research on Carcinogens (IARC); a few other chemicals commonly recognized as hazardous were included. Tumorigenicity and mutagenicity data on 52 chemicals were obtained from the Registry of Toxic Effects of Chemical Substances (RTECS) and were analyzed using a relative potency approach. The data were evaluated in a format which allowed for a comparison of the ranking of the mutagenic relative potencies of the compounds (as estimated using short-term data) vs. the ranking of the tumorigenic relative potencies (as estimated from the chronic bioassays). Although this was a preliminary investigation, it offers evidence that the short-term tests systems may be of utility in ranking the hazards represented by chemicals which may contribute to increased carcinogenesis in humans as a result of occupational or environmental exposures. 177 refs., 8 tabs

  6. Use of short-term test systems for the prediction of the hazard represented by potential chemical carcinogens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glass, L.R.; Jones, T.D.; Easterly, C.E.; Walsh, P.J.

    1990-10-01

    It has been hypothesized that results from short-term bioassays will ultimately provide information that will be useful for human health hazard assessment. Historically, the validity of the short-term tests has been assessed using the framework of the epidemiologic/medical screens. In this context, the results of the carcinogen (long-term) bioassay is generally used as the standard. However, this approach is widely recognized as being biased and, because it employs qualitative data, cannot be used to assist in isolating those compounds which may represent a more significant toxicologic hazard than others. In contrast, the goal of this research is to address the problem of evaluating the utility of the short-term tests for hazard assessment using an alternative method of investigation. Chemicals were selected mostly from the list of carcinogens published by the International Agency for Research on Carcinogens (IARC); a few other chemicals commonly recognized as hazardous were included. Tumorigenicity and mutagenicity data on 52 chemicals were obtained from the Registry of Toxic Effects of Chemical Substances (RTECS) and were analyzed using a relative potency approach. The data were evaluated in a format which allowed for a comparison of the ranking of the mutagenic relative potencies of the compounds (as estimated using short-term data) vs. the ranking of the tumorigenic relative potencies (as estimated from the chronic bioassays). Although this was a preliminary investigation, it offers evidence that the short-term tests systems may be of utility in ranking the hazards represented by chemicals which may contribute to increased carcinogenesis in humans as a result of occupational or environmental exposures. 177 refs., 8 tabs.

  7. Engineering Rugged Field Assays to Detect Hazardous Chemicals Using Spore-Based Bacterial Biosensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wynn, Daniel; Deo, Sapna; Daunert, Sylvia

    2017-01-01

    Bacterial whole cell-based biosensors have been genetically engineered to achieve selective and reliable detection of a wide range of hazardous chemicals. Although whole-cell biosensors demonstrate many advantages for field-based detection of target analytes, there are still some challenges that need to be addressed. Most notably, their often modest shelf life and need for special handling and storage make them challenging to use in situations where access to reagents, instrumentation, and expertise are limited. These problems can be circumvented by developing biosensors in Bacillus spores, which can be engineered to address all of these concerns. In its sporulated state, a whole cell-based biosensor has a remarkably long life span and is exceptionally resistant to environmental insult. When these spores are germinated for use in analytical techniques, they show no loss in performance, even after long periods of storage under harsh conditions. In this chapter, we will discuss the development and use of whole cell-based sensors, their adaptation to spore-based biosensors, their current applications, and future directions in the field. © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Degradation of hazardous chemicals in liquid radioactive wastes from biomedical research using a mixed microbial population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolfram, J.H.; Radtke, M.; Wey, J.E.; Rogers, R.D.; Rau, E.H.

    1997-10-01

    As the costs associated with treatment of mixed wastes by conventional methods increase, new technologies will be investigated as alternatives. This study examines the potential of using a selected mixed population of microorganisms to treat hazardous chemical compounds in liquid low level radioactive wastes from biomedical research procedures. Microorganisms were isolated from various waste samples and enriched against compounds known to occur in the wastes. Individual isolates were tested for their ability to degrade methanol, ethanol, phenol, toluene, phthalates, acetonitrile, chloroform, and trichloroacetic acid. Following these tests, the organisms were combined in a media with a mixture of the different compounds. Three compounds: methanol, acetonitrile, and pseudocumene, were combined at 500 microliter/liter each. Degradation of each compound was shown to occur (75% or greater) under batch conditions with the mixed population. Actual wastes were tested by adding an aliquot to the media, determining the biomass increase, and monitoring the disappearance of the compounds. The compounds in actual waste were degraded, but at different rates than the batch cultures that did not have waste added. The potential of using bioprocessing methods for treating mixed wastes from biomedical research is discussed

  9. Aqueous media treatment and decontamination of hazardous chemical and biological substances by contact plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pivovarov, A.; Kravchenko, A.; Kublanovsky, V.

    2009-01-01

    Usage of non-equilibrium contact plasma for processes of decontamination and neutralization in conditions of manifestation of chemical, biological and radiation terrorism takes on special significance due to portability of equipment and its mobility in places where toxic liquid media hazardous for people's health are located. Processes of decontamination of aqueous media, seminated with pathogenic microorganisms and viruses, treatment of water containing toxic heavy metals, cyanides, surface-active substances, and heavy radioactive elements, are investigated. Examples of activation processes in infected water and toxic aqueous solutions present convincing evidence of the way, how new quality technological approach for achievement of high enough degree of the said media treatment is used in each specific case. Among new properties of water activated as a result of action of non-equilibrium contact plasma, it is necessary to mention presence of cluster structure, confirmed by well-known spectral and physical-chemical methods, presence of peroxide compounds, active particles and radicals. Anti-microbial activity which is displayed under action of plasma in aqueous media (chemically pure water, drinking water, aqueous solutions of sodium chloride, potassium iodide, as well as other inorganic compounds) towards wide range of pathogenic and conventionally pathogenic microorganisms allows use them as reliable, accessible and low-cost preparations for increasing the degree of safety of food products. Combination of such processes with known methods of filtration and ultra-filtration gives an efficient and available complex capable of withstanding any threats, which may arise for population and living organisms. Present-day level of machine-building, electrical engineering, and electronics allows predict creation of industrial plasma installations, adapted to conditions of various terrorist threats, with minimized power consumption and optimized technological parameters

  10. Aqueous media treatment and decontamination of hazardous chemical and biological substances by contact plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pivovarov, A; Kravchenko, A [Ukrainian State University of Chemical Engineering, Dnepropetrovsk (Ukraine); Kublanovsky, V [V. I. Vernadsky Institute of General and Inorganic Chemistry of National Academy of Science, Kiev (Ukraine)

    2009-07-01

    Usage of non-equilibrium contact plasma for processes of decontamination and neutralization in conditions of manifestation of chemical, biological and radiation terrorism takes on special significance due to portability of equipment and its mobility in places where toxic liquid media hazardous for people's health are located. Processes of decontamination of aqueous media, seminated with pathogenic microorganisms and viruses, treatment of water containing toxic heavy metals, cyanides, surface-active substances, and heavy radioactive elements, are investigated. Examples of activation processes in infected water and toxic aqueous solutions present convincing evidence of the way, how new quality technological approach for achievement of high enough degree of the said media treatment is used in each specific case. Among new properties of water activated as a result of action of non-equilibrium contact plasma, it is necessary to mention presence of cluster structure, confirmed by well-known spectral and physical-chemical methods, presence of peroxide compounds, active particles and radicals. Anti-microbial activity which is displayed under action of plasma in aqueous media (chemically pure water, drinking water, aqueous solutions of sodium chloride, potassium iodide, as well as other inorganic compounds) towards wide range of pathogenic and conventionally pathogenic microorganisms allows use them as reliable, accessible and low-cost preparations for increasing the degree of safety of food products. Combination of such processes with known methods of filtration and ultra-filtration gives an efficient and available complex capable of withstanding any threats, which may arise for population and living organisms. Present-day level of machine-building, electrical engineering, and electronics allows predict creation of industrial plasma installations, adapted to conditions of various terrorist threats, with minimized power consumption and optimized technological parameters

  11. Guidelines for generators of hazardous chemical waste at LBL and guidelines for generators of radioactive and mixed waste at LBL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-09-01

    In part one of this document the Governing Documents and Definitions sections provide general guidelines and regulations applying to the handling of hazardous chemical wastes. The remaining sections provide details on how you can prepare your waste properly for transport and disposal. They are correlated with the steps you must take to properly prepare your waste for pickup. The purpose of the second part of this document is to provide the acceptance criteria for the transfer of radioactive and mixed waste to LBL's Hazardous Waste Handling Facility (HWHF). These guidelines describe how you, as a generator of radioactive or mixed waste, can meet LBL's acceptance criteria for radioactive and mixed waste

  12. Performance Assessment of Hazardous Air Pollutant (HAP)Free Chemical Paint Strippers on Military Coatings for Validation to Federal Specification TT-R-2918A

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-01

    ARL-TN-0742 ● MAR 2016 US Army Research Laboratory Performance Assessment of Hazardous Air Pollutant (HAP)–Free Chemical Paint...the originator. ARL-TN-0742 ● MAR 2016 US Army Research Laboratory Performance Assessment of Hazardous Air Pollutant (HAP...COVERED (From - To) 1–30 April 2014 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Performance Assessment of Hazardous Air Pollutant (HAP)–Free Chemical Paint Strippers

  13. Hazardous Waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... chemicals can still harm human health and the environment. When you throw these substances away, they become hazardous waste. Some hazardous wastes come from products in our homes. Our garbage can include such hazardous wastes as old batteries, bug spray cans and paint thinner. U.S. residents ...

  14. Immobilization of hazardous and radioactive waste into glass structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wicks, G.G.

    1997-01-01

    As a result of more than three decades of international research, glass has emerged as the material of choice for immobilization of a wide range of potentially hazardous radioactive and non-radioactive materials. The ability of glass structures to incorporate and then immobilize many different elements into durable, high integrity, waste glass products is a direct function of the unique random network structure of the glassy state. Every major country involved with long-term management of high-level radioactive waste (HLW) has either selected or is considering glass as the matrix of choice for immobilizing and ultimately, disposing of the potentially hazardous, high-level radioactive material. There are many reasons why glass is preferred. Among the most important considerations are the ability of glass structures to accommodate and immobilize the many different types of radionuclides present in HLW, and to produce a product that not only has excellent technical properties, but also possesses good processing features. Good processability allows the glass to be fabricated with relative ease even under difficult remote-handling conditions necessary for vitrification of highly radioactive material. The single most important property of the waste glass produced is its ability to retain hazardous species within the glass structure and this is reflected by its excellent chemical durability and corrosion resistance to a wide range of environmental conditions. In addition to immobilization of HLW glass matrices are also being considered for isolation of many other types of hazardous materials, both radioactive as well as nonradioactive. This includes vitrification of various actinides resulting from clean-up operations and the legacy of the cold war, as well as possible immobilization of weapons grade plutonium resulting from disarmament activities. Other types of wastes being considered for immobilization into glasses include transuranic wastes, mixed wastes, contaminated

  15. Evaluation of hazardous chemicals in edible insects and insect-based food intended for human consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poma, Giulia; Cuykx, Matthias; Amato, Elvio; Calaprice, Chiara; Focant, Jean Francois; Covaci, Adrian

    2017-02-01

    Due to the rapid increase in world population, the waste of food and resources, and non-sustainable food production practices, the use of alternative food sources is currently strongly promoted. In this perspective, insects may represent a valuable alternative to main animal food sources due to their nutritional value and sustainable production. However, edible insects may be perceived as an unappealing food source and are indeed rarely consumed in developed countries. The food safety of edible insects can thus contribute to the process of acceptance of insects as an alternative food source, changing the perception of developed countries regarding entomophagy. In the present study, the levels of organic contaminants (i.e. flame retardants, PCBs, DDT, dioxin compounds, pesticides) and metals (As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, Sn, Zn) were investigated in composite samples of several species of edible insects (greater wax moth, migratory locust, mealworm beetle, buffalo worm) and four insect-based food items currently commercialized in Belgium. The organic chemical mass fractions were relatively low (PCBs: 27-2065 pg/g ww; OCPs: 46-368 pg/g ww; BFRs: up to 36 pg/g ww; PFRs 783-23800 pg/g ww; dioxin compounds: up to 0.25 pg WHO-TEQ/g ww) and were generally lower than those measured in common animal products. The untargeted screening analysis revealed the presence of vinyltoluene, tributylphosphate (present in 75% of the samples), and pirimiphos-methyl (identified in 50% of the samples). The levels of Cu and Zn in insects were similar to those measured in meat and fish in other studies, whereas As, Co, Cr, Pb, Sn levels were relatively low in all samples (consume these insect species with no additional hazards in comparison to the more commonly consumed animal products. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Ascorbic acid: Nonradioactive extracellular space marker in canine heart

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reil, G.H.; Frombach, R.; Kownatzki, R.; Quante, W.; Lichtlen, P.R.

    1987-01-01

    The distribution pattern of ascorbic acid and L-[ 14 C]ascorbic acid in myocardial tissue was compared with those of the classical radioactive extracellular space markers [ 3 H]-inulin, [ 3 H]sucrose, and Na 82 Br. A new polarographic techniques was developed for analogue registration of ascorbic acid concentration in coronary venous blood. The kinetic data of the markers were studied in an open-chest canine heart preparation during a constant tracer infusion of up to 9 min. Distribution volumes were calculated based on the mean transit time method of Zierler. The distribution volume of ascorbic acid as well as of L-[ 14 C]ascorbic acid in myocardial tissue agreed closely with those of [ 3 H]inulin and [ 3 H]sucrose as well as 82 Br. The obtained kinetic data confirmed that ascorbic acid exhibits the physicochemical properties of an extracellular space marker, though this compound was shown to leak slowly into myocardial cells. Favorable attributes of this indicator are its low molecular weight, high diffusibility in interstitial fluid, low binding affinity to macromolecules, and high transcapillary as well as low transplasmalemmal penetration rate. Therefore, this nonradioactive marker can be applied in a safe and simple fashion, and without untoward side effects in experimental animals as well as in patients

  17. Superfund at work: Hazardous waste cleanup efforts nationwide, spring 1993 (Radium Chemical Site profile, Queens, New York)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    The Radium Chemical hazardous waste site in Queens, New York was contaminated with radium, posing a grave potential threat to the community. The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) used the Superfund program to design a long-term cleanup for the site using input from citizens and the business community. Superfund staff: Mobilized a quick cleanup action to remove 10,000 small containers of radium; Developed a streamlined approach to long-term cleanup; Secured the site to reduce the possibility of radiation exposure to the local residents; Cooperated with the community to design a well-organized emergency response plan; and Educated local citizens about site hazards, incorporating community concerns into the cleanup process. The Radium Chemical site is a clear example of EPA's effective management and problem-solving strategies at Superfund sites

  18. Assessing potential health hazards from radiation generated at the tailings management facilities of the Prydniprovsky chemical plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kovalenko, G.; Durasova, N.

    2015-01-01

    The study has involved the assessment of the tailings management facilities operated at the Prydniprovsky Chemical Plant. The authors have estimated individual and collective exposure doses that may be caused by the emissions of radon, radon decay products and radioactive dust, for each human settlement located within the area of impact of the tailings management facilities. These tailings management facilities have been ranked to describe their relative hazard based on their estimated contribution to the collective exposure dose levels and associated risks

  19. Safety Culture: Lessons Learned from the US Chemical Safety and Hazard Investigations Board

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Griffon, M.

    2016-01-01

    The U.S. Chemical Safety and Hazard Investigation Board (CSB) investigation of the 2005 BP Texas City Refinery disaster as well as the Baker Panel Report have set the stage for the consideration of human and organizational factors and safety culture as contributing causes of major accidents in the oil and gas industry. The investigation of the BP Texas City tragedy in many ways started a shift in the way the oil and chemical industry sectors looked at process safety and the importance of human and organizational factors in improving safety. Since the BP Texas City incident the CSB has investigated several incidents, including the 2010 Macondo disaster in the Gulf of Mexico, where organizational factors and safety culture, once again, were contributing causes of the incidents. In the Texas City incident the CSB found that “while most attention was focused on the injury rate, the overall safety culture and process safety management (PSM) program had serious deficiencies.” The CSB concluded that “safety campaigns, goals, and rewards focused on improving personal safety metrics and worker behaviors rather than on process safety and management safety systems.” The Baker panel, established as a result of a CSB recommendation, did a more extensive review of BPs safety culture. The Baker panel found that ‘while BP has aspirational goals of “no accidents, no harm to people” BP has not provided effective leadership in making certain it’s management and US refining workforce understand what is expected of them regarding process safety performance.’ This may have been in part due to a misinterpretation of positive trends in personal injury rates as an indicator of effective process safety. The panel also found that “at some of its US refineries BP has not established a positive, trusting and open environment with effective lines of communication between management and the workforce, including employee representatives.” In 2010 when the CSB began to

  20. Chemical gel barriers as low-cost alternative to containment and in situ cleanup of hazardous wastes to protect groundwater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    Chemical gel barriers are being considered as a low-cost alternative for containment and in situ cleanup of hazardous wastes to protect groundwater. Most of the available gels in petroleum application are non-reactive and relative impermeable, providing a physical barriers for all fluids and contaminants. However, other potential systems can be envisioned. These systems could include gels that are chemically reactive and impermeable such that most phase are captured by the barriers but the contaminants could diffuse through the barriers. Another system that is chemically reactive and permeable could have potential applications in selectivity capturing contaminants while allowing water to pass through the barriers. This study focused on chemically reactive and permeable gel barriers. The gels used in experiment are DuPont LUDOX SM colloidal silica gel and Pfizer FLOPAAM 1330S hydrolyzed polyacrylamide (HPAM) gel

  1. 29 CFR 1910.119 - Process safety management of highly hazardous chemicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... B to this section); (B) Process chemistry; (C) Maximum intended inventory; (D) Safe upper and lower... with process chemistry information including runaway reaction and over pressure hazards if applicable... American Society of Mechanical Engineers, American Petroleum Institute, American National Standards...

  2. Assessment of local wood species used for the manufacture of cookware and the perception of chemical benefits and chemical hazards associated with their use in Kumasi, Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mensah John Kenneth

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Historical proven wood species have no reported adverse health effect associated with its past use. Different historical proven species have traditionally been used to manufacture different wooden food contact items. This study uses survey questionnaires to assess suppliers’, manufacturers’, retailers’ and consumers’ (end-users’ preferences for specific wood species, to examine the considerations that inform these preferences and to investigate the extent of awareness of the chemical benefits and chemical hazards associated with wooden food contact material use. Methods Through the combined use of a cross sectional approach and a case study design, 25 suppliers, 25 manufacturers, 25 retailers and 125 consumers (end-users of wooden food contact materials in four suburbs in Kumasi Metropolitan Area (Anloga junction, Ahinsan Bus Stop, Ahwia-Pankrono and Race Course and Ashanti Akyim Agogo in the Ashanti Akyim North District of the Ashanti Region were administered with closed ended questionnaires. The questionnaires were prepared in English, but local language, Twi, was used to translate and communicate the content of the questionnaire where necessary. Results Suppliers’, manufacturers’ and retailers’ preferences for specific wood species for most wooden cookware differed from that of consumers (end-users. But all respondent groups failed to indicate any awareness of chemical benefits or chemical hazards associated with either the choice of specific wood species for specific wooden cookware or with the general use of wooden food contact materials. The lack of appreciation of chemical benefits or hazards associated with active principles of wooden cookware led to heavy reliance of consumers (end-users on the wood density, price, attractive grain pattern and colour or on the judgement of retailers in their choice of specific species for a wooden cookware. Conclusion This study contributes some practical suggestions

  3. Hanford Site background: Part 1, Soil background for nonradioactive analytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-04-01

    The determination of soil background is one of the most important activities supporting environmental restoration and waste management on the Hanford Site. Background compositions serve as the basis for identifying soil contamination, and also as a baseline in risk assessment processes used to determine soil cleanup and treatment levels. These uses of soil background require an understanding of the extent to which analytes of concern occur naturally in the soils. This report documents the results of sampling and analysis activities designed to characterize the composition of soil background at the Hanford Site, and to evaluate the feasibility for use as Sitewide background. The compositions of naturally occurring soils in the vadose Zone have been-determined for-nonradioactive inorganic and organic analytes and related physical properties. These results confirm that a Sitewide approach to the characterization of soil background is technically sound and is a viable alternative to the determination and use of numerous local or area backgrounds that yield inconsistent definitions of contamination. Sitewide soil background consists of several types of data and is appropriate for use in identifying contamination in all soils in the vadose zone on the Hanford Site. The natural concentrations of nearly every inorganic analyte extend to levels that exceed calculated health-based cleanup limits. The levels of most inorganic analytes, however, are well below these health-based limits. The highest measured background concentrations occur in three volumetrically minor soil types, the most important of which are topsoils adjacent to the Columbia River that are rich in organic carbon. No organic analyte levels above detection were found in any of the soil samples

  4. Hanford facility dangerous waste permit application, 616 Nonradioactive Dangerous Waste Storage Facility. Revision 2A

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bowman, R.C.

    1994-04-01

    This permit application for the 616 Nonradioactive Dangerous Waste Storage Facility consists for 15 chapters. Topics of discussion include the following: facility description and general provisions; waste characteristics; process information; personnel training; reporting and record keeping; and certification

  5. On policies to regulate long-term risks from hazardous waste disposal sites under both intergenerational equity and intragenerational equity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shu, Zhongbin

    In recent years, it has been recognized that there is a need for a general philosophic policy to guide the regulation of societal activities that involve long-term and very long-term risks. Theses societal activities not only include the disposal of high-level radioactive wastes and global warming, but also include the disposal of non-radioactive carcinogens that never decay, such as arsenic, nickel, etc. In the past, attention has been focused on nuclear wastes. However, there has been international recognition that large quantities of non-radioactive wastes are being disposed of with little consideration of their long-term risks. The objectives of this dissertation are to present the significant long-term risks posed by non-radioactive carcinogens through case studies; develop the conceptual decision framework for setting the long-term risk policy; and illustrate that certain factors, such as discount rate, can significantly influence the results of long-term risk analysis. Therefore, the proposed decision-making framework can be used to systematically study the important policy questions on long-term risk regulations, and then subsequently help the decision-maker to make informed decisions. Regulatory disparities between high-level radioactive wastes and non-radioactive wastes are summarized. Long-term risk is rarely a consideration in the regulation of disposal of non-radioactive hazardous chemicals; and when it is, the matter has been handled in a somewhat perfunctory manner. Case studies of long-term risks are conducted for five Superfund sites that are contaminated with one or more non-radioactive carcinogens. Under the same assumptions used for the disposal of high-level radioactive wastes, future subsistence farmers would be exposed to significant individual risks, in some cases with lifetime fatality risk equal to unity. The important policy questions on long-term risk regulation are identified, and the conceptual decision-making framework to regulate

  6. 化工企业危化品安全管理解析%Analysis on Safety Management of Hazardous Chemicals in Chemical Enterprises

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩宇

    2016-01-01

    With the development of economy in our country,chemical enterprises in our country are developing rapidly.The dangerous chemicals produced by chemical enterprises have certain function under specific environment.The chemical enterprise must make good safety management measures,To develop clear safety rules and sound rules and regulations to enhance the safety awareness of chemical workers,the use of hazardous chemicals and the use of good norms,enhance the safety of chemical enterprises,hazardous chemicals,and effectively prevent the occurrence of accidents,On the current chemical enterprises in China's chemical safety supervision and management of the existing problems,and in accordance with existing problems to develop a clear safety management measures to enhance the safety of chemical companies.%随着我国经济的不断发展,我国化工企业也在飞速的发展,在化工企业生产的危险化学品在特定的环境下有着特定的作用,化工企业一定要制定良好的安全管理措施,制定明确的安全准则和健全的规章制度,提升工作人员的安全意识,对危险化学品的使用范围和使用过程进行良好的规范,提升化工企业危险化学品的安全性,有效防止安全事故的发生。对现今我国化工企业危险化学品安全管理监督存在的问题进分析,并根据存在的问题制定明确的安全管理措施,以提升化工企业的安全性。

  7. ASSESSMENT OF RADIOACTIVE AND NON-RADIOACTIVE CONTAMINANTS FOUND IN LOW LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTE STREAMS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    R.H. Little, P.R. Maul, J.S.S. Penfoldag

    2003-01-01

    This paper describes and presents the findings from two studies undertaken for the European Commission to assess the long-term impact upon the environment and human health of non-radioactive contaminants found in various low level radioactive waste streams. The initial study investigated the application of safety assessment approaches developed for radioactive contaminants to the assessment of nonradioactive contaminants in low level radioactive waste. It demonstrated how disposal limits could be derived for a range of non-radioactive contaminants and generic disposal facilities. The follow-up study used the same approach but undertook more detailed, disposal system specific calculations, assessing the impacts of both the non-radioactive and radioactive contaminants. The calculations undertaken indicated that it is prudent to consider non-radioactive, as well as radioactive contaminants, when assessing the impacts of low level radioactive waste disposal. For some waste streams with relatively low concentrations of radionuclides, the potential post-closure disposal impacts from non-radioactive contaminants can be comparable with the potential radiological impacts. For such waste streams there is therefore an added incentive to explore options for recycling the materials involved wherever possible

  8. Comparison of the rationale used in setting occupational exposure standards for ionizing radiation and hazardous chemical substances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halton, D.M.

    1986-12-01

    Ten chemicals which create significant occupational hazard are reviewed. They are toluene diisocyanate, hydrogen fluoride, n-hexane, carbon disulphide, cadmium, inorganic mercury, cobalt, nitroglycerol, silica and vinyl chloride. Each is discussed under the headings of physiological intake and elimination in humans, characteristics of acute and chronic toxicity, sites of occupational exposure and rationale for limits of such exposure. Since radioactive substances yield ionizing radiation as the common hazard the treatment of the current permissible levels of exposure is somewhat simpler. Having set out industrial standards for exposure to hazardous substances and radionuclides, a detailed comparison is made. Exposure limits to ioninzing radiation are sufficiently low to remove the appearance of directly related injury. It is expected however that low level exposure may have a stochastic effect, that is, there is the possibility of a slightly increased incidence of neoplasms in a large exposed population, but numbers will be too small to be able to attribute any particular case to the exposure. TLVs on the other hand, depending on the particular chemical, may be high enough in the workplace to permit some directly related signs or symptoms in the exposed individual. 244 refs

  9. Further experience with the local lymph node assay using standard radioactive and nonradioactive cell count measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolle, Susanne N; Basketter, David; Schrage, Arnhild; Gamer, Armin O; van Ravenzwaay, Bennard; Landsiedel, Robert

    2012-08-01

    In a previous study, the predictive capacity of a modified local lymph node assay (LLNA) based on cell counts, the LNCC, was demonstrated to be closely similar to that of the original assay. In addition, a range of substances, including some technical/commercial materials and a range of agrochemical formulations (n = 180) have also been assessed in both methods in parallel. The results in the LNCC and LLNA were generally consistent, with 86% yielding an identical classification outcome. Discordant results were associated with borderline data and were evenly distributed between the two methods. Potency information derived from each method also demonstrated good consistency (n = 101), with 93% of predictions being close. Skin irritation was observed only infrequently and was most commonly associated with positive results; it was not associated with the discordant results. Where different vehicles were used with the same test material, the effect on sensitizing activity was modest, consistent with historical data. Analysis of positive control data indicated that the LNCC and LLNA displayed similar levels of biological variation. When taken in combination with the previously published results on LLNA Performance Standard chemicals, it is concluded that the LNCC provides a viable non-radioactive alternative to the LLNA for the assessment of substances, including potency predictions, as well as for the evaluation of preparations. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. Food contamination with environmentally hazardous chemical substances. Kontamination von Lebensmitteln mit Umweltchemikalien

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petz, M [Wuppertal Univ. (Gesamthochschule) (Germany, F.R.). Fachbereich 9 - Naturwissenschaften 2 - Chemie - Biologie

    1990-01-01

    The author explains the difference between residues and contaminants in food. Of the contaminants, the heavy metals lead, cadmium and mercury are discussed at length, e.g. their pathway through the food chain and their accumulation in plants, animals, and humans etc. PCB in food and in mother's milk are gone into, as are the consequences of this contamination. Finally, dibenzofuranes and dibenzodioxins are mentioned, again with a view to the contamination of mother's milk. The health hazards from contaminated food is related to the health hazards of malnutrition and overeating. (MG).

  11. Food contamination with environmentally hazardous chemical substances. Kontamination von Lebensmitteln mit Umweltchemikalien

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petz, M. (Wuppertal Univ. (Gesamthochschule) (Germany, F.R.). Fachbereich 9 - Naturwissenschaften 2 - Chemie - Biologie)

    1990-01-01

    The author explains the difference between residues and contaminants in food. Of the contaminants, the heavy metals lead, cadmium and mercury are discussed at length, e.g. their pathway through the food chain and their accumulation in plants, animals, and humans etc. PCB in food and in mother's milk are gone into, as are the consequences of this contamination. Finally, dibenzofuranes and dibenzodioxins are mentioned, again with a view to the contamination of mother's milk. The health hazards from contaminated food is related to the health hazards of malnutrition and overeating. (MG).

  12. Controlled air incineration of hazardous chemical waste at the Los Alamos National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stretz, L.A.; Borduin, L.C.; Draper, W.E.; Koenig, R.A.; Vavruska, J.S.

    1982-01-01

    An incineration system, originally demonstrated as a transuranic (TRU) waste volume-reduction process, is described. The production-scale controlled air incinerator using commercially available equipment and technology was modified for solid radioactive waste service. The same incinerator and offgas treatment system has been modified further for use in evaluating the destruction of hazardous liquid wastes such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and hazardous solid wastes such as pentachlorophenol (PCP)-treated wood. Results of a PCP-treated wood incineration test show a PCP destruction efficiency of greater than 99.99% in the primary chamber for the operating conditions investigated. Conditions and results for this test are described

  13. The association of the original OSHA chemical hazard communication standard with reductions in acute work injuries/illnesses in private industry and the industrial releases of chemical carcinogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oleinick, Arthur

    2014-02-01

    OSHA predicted the original chemical Hazard Communication Standard (HCS) would cumulatively reduce the lost workday acute injury/illness rate for exposure events by 20% over 20 years and reduce exposure to chemical carcinogens. JoinPoint trend software identified changes in the rate of change of BLS rates for days away from work for acute injuries/illnesses during 1992-2009 for manufacturing and nonmanufacturing industries for both chemical, noxious or allergenic injury exposure events and All other exposure events. The annual percent change in the rates was used to adjust observed numbers of cases to estimate their association with the standard. A case-control study of EPA's Toxic Release Inventory 1988-2009 data compared carcinogen and non-carcinogens' releases. The study estimates that the HCS was associated with a reduction in the number of acute injuries/illnesses due to chemical injury exposure events over the background rate in the range 107,569-459,395 (Hudson method/modified BIC model) depending on whether the HCS is treated as a marginal or sole factor in the decrease. Carcinogen releases have declined at a substantially faster rate than control non-carcinogens. The previous HCS standard was associated with significant reductions in chemical event acute injuries/illnesses and chemical carcinogen exposures. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Occupational hazards in hospitals: accidents, radiation, exposure to noxious chemicals, drug addiction and psychic problems, and assault

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gestal, J.J.

    1987-08-01

    Except for infectious diseases all the main occupational hazards affecting health workers are reviewed: accidents (explosions, fires, electrical accidents, and other sources of injury); radiation (stochastic and non-stochastic effects, protective measures, and personnel most at risk); exposure to noxious chemicals, whose effects may be either local (allergic eczema) or generalised (cancer, mutations), particular attention being paid to the hazards presented by formol, ethylene oxide, cytostatics, and anaesthetic gases; drug addiction (which is more common among health workers than the general population) and psychic problems associated with promotion, shift work, and emotional stress; and assault (various types of assault suffered by health workers, its causes, and the characterisation of the most aggressive patients).

  15. Occupational hazards in hospitals: accidents, radiation, exposure to noxious chemicals, drug addiction and psychic problems, and assault

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gestal, J.J.

    1987-01-01

    Except for infectious diseases all the main occupational hazards affecting health workers are reviewed: accidents (explosions, fires, electrical accidents, and other sources of injury); radiation (stochastic and non-stochastic effects, protective measures, and personnel most at risk); exposure to noxious chemicals, whose effects may be either local (allergic eczema) or generalised (cancer, mutations), particular attention being paid to the hazards presented by formol, ethylene oxide, cytostatics, and anaesthetic gases; drug addiction (which is more common among health workers than the general population) and psychic problems associated with promotion, shift work, and emotional stress; and assault (various types of assault suffered by health workers, its causes, and the characterisation of the most aggressive patients). (author)

  16. Notification: FY 2017 Update of Proposed Key Management Challenges and Internal Control Weaknesses Confronting the U.S. Chemical Safety and Hazard Investigation Board

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jan 5, 2017. The EPA OIG is beginning work to update for fiscal year 2017 its list of proposed key management challenges and internal control weaknesses confronting the U.S. Chemical Safety and Hazard Investigation Board (CSB).

  17. 40 CFR 156.78 - Precautionary statements for physical or chemical hazards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Hazards” warning statement. The graphic symbol must be no smaller than twice the size of the first... (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS LABELING REQUIREMENTS FOR PESTICIDES AND DEVICES Human Hazard and...) A total release fogger is defined as a pesticide product in a pressurized container designed to...

  18. Ingested plastic transfers hazardous chemicals to fish and induces hepatic stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rochman, Chelsea M.; Hoh, Eunha; Kurobe, Tomofumi; Teh, Swee J.

    2013-01-01

    Plastic debris litters aquatic habitats globally, the majority of which is microscopic (plastic and accumulated pollutants are largely unknown. Here, we show that fish, exposed to a mixture of polyethylene with chemical pollutants sorbed from the marine environment, bioaccumulate these chemical pollutants and suffer liver toxicity and pathology. Fish fed virgin polyethylene fragments also show signs of stress, although less severe than fish fed marine polyethylene fragments. We provide baseline information regarding the bioaccumulation of chemicals and associated health effects from plastic ingestion in fish and demonstrate that future assessments should consider the complex mixture of the plastic material and their associated chemical pollutants. PMID:24263561

  19. Physical and toxic properties of hazardous chemicals regularly stored and transported in the vicinity of nuclear installations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-03-01

    This report gives a compilation of data based on information assembled by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission and completed by the Safety and Reliability Directorate of the UK AEA, the Dutch Reactor Safety Commission, the French Atomic Energy Commission, and the CSNI Secretariat. Data sheets for a large number of hazardous chemicals are presented (from acetaldehyde to xylene), giving details of their physical and toxic properties such as: molecular weight, boiling point, vapor density, heat of vaporization, toxic concentration in air, flammability limits, toxic effects, vapor pressure data, etc.

  20. The Neutron Personal Dosimetry Service of the Centre for Radiation, Chemical and Environmental Hazards, PHE-UK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campo Blanco, X.

    2015-01-01

    The Centre for Radiation, Chemical and Environmental Hazards (CRCEH), that belongs to Public Health England (PHE), hosts the official Neutron Personal Dosimetry Service of the United Kingdom. They use etched-track detectors, made of a material called PADC (poly-allyl diglycol carbonate), to determinate de neutron personal dose. A two weeks visit has been made to this center, in order to learn about the facilities, the methods employed and the legislative framework of the Neutron Personal Dosimetry Service. In this work the main results of this visits are shown, which are interesting for the future development of an official neutron personal dosimetry service in Spain.

  1. Hazard classification methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brereton, S.J.

    1996-01-01

    This document outlines the hazard classification methodology used to determine the hazard classification of the NIF LTAB, OAB, and the support facilities on the basis of radionuclides and chemicals. The hazard classification determines the safety analysis requirements for a facility

  2. Quantitative structure-activity relationships for predicting potential ecological hazard of organic chemicals for use in regulatory risk assessments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comber, Mike H I; Walker, John D; Watts, Chris; Hermens, Joop

    2003-08-01

    The use of quantitative structure-activity relationships (QSARs) for deriving the predicted no-effect concentration of discrete organic chemicals for the purposes of conducting a regulatory risk assessment in Europe and the United States is described. In the United States, under the Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA), the TSCA Interagency Testing Committee and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA) use SARs to estimate the hazards of existing and new chemicals. Within the Existing Substances Regulation in Europe, QSARs may be used for data evaluation, test strategy indications, and the identification and filling of data gaps. To illustrate where and when QSARs may be useful and when their use is more problematic, an example, methyl tertiary-butyl ether (MTBE), is given and the predicted and experimental data are compared. Improvements needed for new QSARs and tools for developing and using QSARs are discussed.

  3. Seveso II directive in prevention and mitigation of consequences of chemical terrorism, safety management systems in hazardous installations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klicek, M.

    2009-01-01

    Mayor accidents caused by hazardous substances are great threat to public. The consequences are often very severe with great number of injured people or even deaths and a great material damage. Statistic data shows that the main cause of accidents in hazardous installations is 'human factor', including the possibility of terrorist attack, or classic military operations. In order to ensure effective chemical safety, the actions should be taken by industry, public authorities, communities and other stake holders to prevent industrial accidents. Safety should be an integral part of the business activities of an enterprise, and all hazardous installations should strive to reach the ultimate goal of zero incidents. Safety management systems (SMS) should include appropriate technology and processes, as well as establishing an effective organisational structure. To mitigate consequences of accidents, emergency planning, land-use planning and risk communication is necessary. Adequate response in the event of accident should limit adverse consequences to health, environment and property. Follow-up actions are needed to learn from the accidents and other unexpected events, in order to reduce future incidents. In this paper the author will discus the implementing of SEVESO II directive in obtaining two main goals: major accident prevention and mitigation of consequences for men and environment in case of possible terrorist actions or military activities. Some Croatian experiences in implementing of UNEP APELL Programme, and its connection with SEVESO II directive will be shown.(author)

  4. [Preparation of the database and the homepage on chemical accidents relating to health hazard].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, M; Morita, M; Kaminuma, T

    1998-01-01

    We collected the data on accidents due to chemicals occurred in Japan, and prepared the database. We also set up the World Wide Web homepage containing the explanation on accidents due to chemicals and the retrieval page for the database. We designed the retrieval page so that users can search the data from keywords such as chemicals (e.g. chlorine gas, hydrogen sulfide, pesticides), places (e.g. home, factory, vehicles, tank), causes (e.g. reaction, leakage, exhaust gas) and others (e.g. cleaning, painting, transportation).

  5. Hazardous Waste Cleanup: Fisher Scientific Chemical Division in Fair Lawn, New Jersey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher Scientific Chemical Division occupies a 10-acre site at 1 Reagent Lane in the Fair Lawn Industrial Park, New Jersey. Since 1955, Fisher has formulated, distilled, repackaged and distributed high-purity, laboratory-grade reagents and solvents.

  6. Lessons learned from joint working group report on assessment and management of cancer risks from radiological and chemical hazards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Myers, D.K.

    1997-01-01

    Regulation of radiological hazards to humans is greatly simplified by the existence of the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP). The average RBE values or radiation weighting factors recommended by the ICRP are based on non-human data. The ICRP has also indicated that 'the standard of environmental control needed to protect man to the degree currently thought desirable will ensure that other species are not put at risk.' This statement appears to be supported by technical publications from other organizations. Two published objections by AECB staff to the scientific technical background of the ICRP statement do not offer any good reason to reject this ICRP statement. A brief summary is given of the joint working group report on the topic indicated in the title. It is noted that regulators of cancer-causing chemicals have in general paid less attention to natural sources than have the regulators of radiological hazards. Most non-human species are exposed to about 1 millisievert (mSv) equivalent dose of radiation per year from natural sources. Caribou and organisms living underground are noted as examples where radiation exposures from natural sources are considerably higher. The natural biota is in general remarkably resistant, both in the laboratory and in field studies, to the effects of high doses of radiation. A recent review by the International Atomic Agency concluded that dose rates below the equivalent of 400 mSv per year are unlikely to after the survival of non-human species. It is recommended that caution and common sense be applied in any future research on radiological protection of non-human species in the environment in Canada. Many of the proposed U.S. regulations to control chemical and radiation in the environment are not cost-effective. It is to be hoped that efforts to protect non-human species from potential radiological hazards in Canada do not slide into a similar kind of irrational quagmire. (author)

  7. The new equation of steam quality and the evaluation of nonradioactive tracer method in PWR steam generators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ki Bang, Sung; Young Jin, Chang

    2001-01-01

    The performance of steam turbines is tested as ANSI/ASME-PTC 6. This code provides rules for the accurate testing of steam turbines for the purpose of obtaining the level of performance with a minimum uncertainty. Only the relevant portion of this code needs to process any individual case, In some case the procedure is simple. However, in complex turbines or complex operation modes, more procedures are required to test the involved provisions. Anyway, to measure the steam quality in the Wolsong PHWR with 4 SGs in Korea by the methods in the section ''Measure of steam quality methods'' of ANSI/ASME PTC 6, the result was not good though the steam generators are efficient. So, the new testing method was developed and the sophisticated equation of steam quality was introduced and uses the nonradioactive chemical tracer, Lithium hydroxide(LiOH) instead of the radioactive tracer, Na-24. (author)

  8. Chemical Emergencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    When a hazardous chemical has been released, it may harm people's health. Chemical releases can be unintentional, as in the case of an ... the case of a terrorist attack with a chemical weapon. Some hazardous chemicals have been developed by ...

  9. Potential hazards to embryo implantation: A human endometrial in vitro model to identify unwanted antigestagenic actions of chemicals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fischer, L.; Deppert, W.R.; Pfeifer, D.; Stanzel, S.; Weimer, M.; Hanjalic-Beck, A.; Stein, A.; Straßer, M.; Zahradnik, H.P.; Schaefer, W.R.

    2012-01-01

    Embryo implantation is a crucial step in human reproduction and depends on the timely development of a receptive endometrium. The human endometrium is unique among adult tissues due to its dynamic alterations during each menstrual cycle. It hosts the implantation process which is governed by progesterone, whereas 17β-estradiol regulates the preceding proliferation of the endometrium. The receptors for both steroids are targets for drugs and endocrine disrupting chemicals. Chemicals with unwanted antigestagenic actions are potentially hazardous to embryo implantation since many pharmaceutical antiprogestins adversely affect endometrial receptivity. This risk can be addressed by human tissue-specific in vitro assays. As working basis we compiled data on chemicals interacting with the PR. In our experimental work, we developed a flexible in vitro model based on human endometrial Ishikawa cells. Effects of antiprogestin compounds on pre-selected target genes were characterized by sigmoidal concentration–response curves obtained by RT-qPCR. The estrogen sulfotransferase (SULT1E1) was identified as the most responsive target gene by microarray analysis. The agonistic effect of progesterone on SULT1E1 mRNA was concentration-dependently antagonized by RU486 (mifepristone) and ZK137316 and, with lower potency, by 4-nonylphenol, bisphenol A and apigenin. The negative control methyl acetoacetate showed no effect. The effects of progesterone and RU486 were confirmed on the protein level by Western blotting. We demonstrated proof of principle that our Ishikawa model is suitable to study quantitatively effects of antiprogestin-like chemicals on endometrial target genes in comparison to pharmaceutical reference compounds. This test is useful for hazard identification and may contribute to reduce animal studies. -- Highlights: ► We compare progesterone receptor-mediated endometrial effects of chemicals and drugs. ► 4-Nonylphenol, bisphenol A and apigenin exert weak

  10. Potential hazards to embryo implantation: A human endometrial in vitro model to identify unwanted antigestagenic actions of chemicals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fischer, L.; Deppert, W.R. [Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University Hospital Freiburg (Germany); Pfeifer, D. [Department of Hematology and Oncology, University Hospital Freiburg (Germany); Stanzel, S.; Weimer, M. [Department of Biostatistics, German Cancer Research Center, Heidelberg (Germany); Hanjalic-Beck, A.; Stein, A.; Straßer, M.; Zahradnik, H.P. [Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University Hospital Freiburg (Germany); Schaefer, W.R., E-mail: wolfgang.schaefer@uniklinik-freiburg.de [Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University Hospital Freiburg (Germany)

    2012-05-01

    Embryo implantation is a crucial step in human reproduction and depends on the timely development of a receptive endometrium. The human endometrium is unique among adult tissues due to its dynamic alterations during each menstrual cycle. It hosts the implantation process which is governed by progesterone, whereas 17β-estradiol regulates the preceding proliferation of the endometrium. The receptors for both steroids are targets for drugs and endocrine disrupting chemicals. Chemicals with unwanted antigestagenic actions are potentially hazardous to embryo implantation since many pharmaceutical antiprogestins adversely affect endometrial receptivity. This risk can be addressed by human tissue-specific in vitro assays. As working basis we compiled data on chemicals interacting with the PR. In our experimental work, we developed a flexible in vitro model based on human endometrial Ishikawa cells. Effects of antiprogestin compounds on pre-selected target genes were characterized by sigmoidal concentration–response curves obtained by RT-qPCR. The estrogen sulfotransferase (SULT1E1) was identified as the most responsive target gene by microarray analysis. The agonistic effect of progesterone on SULT1E1 mRNA was concentration-dependently antagonized by RU486 (mifepristone) and ZK137316 and, with lower potency, by 4-nonylphenol, bisphenol A and apigenin. The negative control methyl acetoacetate showed no effect. The effects of progesterone and RU486 were confirmed on the protein level by Western blotting. We demonstrated proof of principle that our Ishikawa model is suitable to study quantitatively effects of antiprogestin-like chemicals on endometrial target genes in comparison to pharmaceutical reference compounds. This test is useful for hazard identification and may contribute to reduce animal studies. -- Highlights: ► We compare progesterone receptor-mediated endometrial effects of chemicals and drugs. ► 4-Nonylphenol, bisphenol A and apigenin exert weak

  11. Health effects of occupational exposure to hazardous chemicals: a comparative assessment with notes on ionizing radiation. Executive summary. Vol. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zanetos, M.A.; Warling, J.C.; Marsh, G.M.

    1983-09-01

    This three-part report provides quantitative estimates of the risk of cancer and other diseases among persons exposed to hazardous substances in the workplace. The risk estimates presented are based on a comprehensive review of recent epidemiologic studies. Primary emphasis was placed on studies of workers exposed to hazardous chemicals under conditions typical of a given industry over a working lifetime. Despite finding over 100 chemicals associated with increased incidence of disease, convincing dose-response trends existed for only a few. Although there were notable exceptions (arsenic, asbestos, PAH's, etc.), it was generally impossible to estimate risk-per-unit of dose in a manner analogous to calculations which exist for radiation exposure. The principal reason for this is the lack of adequate environmental monitoring data for the specific chemicals, locations, and time periods needed to estimate individual cumulative doses. In addition to analyzing risk in terms of increased incidence of specific diseases, we also examined life expectancy and years of life lost due to cancer in four selected occupational groups via a life table model which allowed for competing risks. The resulting estimates indicated that the overall life expectancy of these groups was generally greater than that of the general population but that the workers suffered greater loss of life expectancy (LLE) due to cancer than their counterparts in the general population. Published estimates of LLE due to radiation induced cancer indicate that at doses of less than or equal to 0.5 rem/y, radiation workers are projected to suffer less LLE than any of the four non-nuclear cohorts examined. At 5 rem/y (the MPD) or higher, LLE may be greater than one or more of the cohorts examined. This is Volume I of a three volume series. 12 references

  12. Experience with local lymph node assay performance standards using standard radioactivity and nonradioactive cell count measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basketter, David; Kolle, Susanne N; Schrage, Arnhild; Honarvar, Naveed; Gamer, Armin O; van Ravenzwaay, Bennard; Landsiedel, Robert

    2012-08-01

    The local lymph node assay (LLNA) is the preferred test for identification of skin-sensitizing substances by measuring radioactive thymidine incorporation into the lymph node. To facilitate acceptance of nonradioactive variants, validation authorities have published harmonized minimum performance standards (PS) that the alternative endpoint assay must meet. In the present work, these standards were applied to a variant of the LLNA based on lymph node cell counts (LNCC) run in parallel as a control with the standard LLNA with radioactivity measurements, with threshold concentrations (EC3) being determined for the sensitizers. Of the 22 PS chemicals tested in this study, 21 yielded the same results from standard radioactivity and cell count measurements; only 2-mercaptobenzothiazole was positive by LLNA but negative by LNCC. Of the 16 PS positives, 15 were positive by LLNA and 14 by LNCC; methylmethacrylate was not identified as sensitizer by either of the measurements. Two of the six PS negatives tested negative in our study by both LLNA and LNCC. Of the four PS negatives which were positive in our study, chlorobenzene and methyl salicylate were tested at higher concentrations than the published PS, whereas the corresponding concentrations resulted in consistent negative results. Methylmethacrylate and nickel chloride tested positive within the concentration range used for the published PS. The results indicate cell counts and radioactive measurements are in good accordance within the same LLNA using the 22 PS test substances. Comparisons with the published PS results may, however, require balanced analysis rather than a simple checklist approach. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  13. Hazardous Waste Cleanup: Chemical Waste Management of NJ in Newark, New Jersey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chemical Waste Management of NJ is located at 100 Lister Avenue in Newark, New Jersey. This section of Newark has been industrial since the late 1800s when the marshlands of the Passaic River were filled in with a mixture of coal ash, construction debris

  14. Hazardous Waste Cleanup: Akzo Nobel Polymer Chemicals, LLC, Burt, New York

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akzo Nobel Polymer Chemicals, LLC is located in northern Niagara County, south of Lake Ontario. The facility encompasses 350 acres, of which 30 acres are used for the production of organic peroxides. Eighteen Mile Creek is located immediately west of the

  15. Hazard classification of chemicals inducing haemolytic anaemia: An EU regulatory perspective.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Muller, Andre; Jacobsen, Helene; Healy, Edel; McMickan, Sinead; Istace, Fréderique; Blaude, Marie-Noëlle; Howden, Peter; Fleig, Helmut; Schulte, Agnes

    2006-01-01

    Haemolytic anaemia is often induced following prolonged exposure to chemical substances. Currently, under EU Council Directive 67/548/EEC, substances which induce such effects are classified as dangerous and assigned the risk phrase R48 'Danger of serious damage to health by prolonged exposure.'

  16. The Study of Implement of HCS Program at Hazardous Chemicals Knowledge and Safety performance in Tehran refinery, s laboratory unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Hassanzadeh-Rangi

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Background and aims   The HCS standard includes listing of chemicals, labeling of chemical  containers, preparation of material safety data sheets, writing plan and employee training  programs. The aim of this study was to determine the influence of implemented program to enhance the knowledge and safety performance level of employees.   Methods   The knowledge level and unsafe act ratio were measured using both questionnaire  and behavior checklist (with safety sampling method before and after enforcing this interface.   Results   In this study, the mean and standard deviation of the knowledge level of employees  related to chemical safety before enforcing the interface was 46% and 14%. However, after  enforcing the interface, mean and standard deviation was 88% and 12%. The paired-t-test result   in this parameter was significant (p-value <0.0001. The mean and standard deviation of  knowledge level of employees related to warning labels before to enforcing the interface was 29%  and 22%. After enforcing the interface, mean and standard deviation was 80% and 16%. The paired-t-test result in this parameter was significant (p-value <0.0001. The mean and standard  deviation of the knowledge level of employees related to hazard communication methods before enforcing the interface was 25% and 11%. After enforcing the interface, mean and standard deviation was 79% and 16%. The paired-t-test result in this parameter was significant (p-value   <0.001.   Conclusion   The obtained result revealed that enhancement of the knowledge related to chemical safety, hazard communication methods and warning labels was significant. Statistical paired-t-test and control chart methods was used to comparison between unsafe act ratio before  and after enforcing the interface. The mean and standard deviation of unsafe act ratio before implementation of HCS program was 23.6% and 5.49%. However, mean and standard deviation of unsafe act ratio

  17. Developing Navy Capability to Recover Forces in Chemical, Biological, and Radiological Hazard Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    damage control; LHD flight deck and well deck operations; fleet surgical team; Afloat Training Group; Assault Craft Unit; Naval Surface Warfare Center ...Biological, Radiological and Nuclear School, and U.S. Army Edgewood Chemical Biological Center , Guidelines for Mass Casualty Decontamination During a HAZMAT...Policy Center of the RAND National Defense Research Institute, a federally funded research and development center sponsored by OSD, the Joint Staff

  18. Biological and environmental hazards associated with exposure to chemical warfare agents: arsenicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Changzhao; Srivastava, Ritesh K; Athar, Mohammad

    2016-08-01

    Arsenicals are highly reactive inorganic and organic derivatives of arsenic. These chemicals are very toxic and produce both acute and chronic tissue damage. On the basis of these observations, and considering the low cost and simple methods of their bulk syntheses, these agents were thought to be appropriate for chemical warfare. Among these, the best-known agent that was synthesized and weaponized during World War I (WWI) is Lewisite. Exposure to Lewisite causes painful inflammatory and blistering responses in the skin, lung, and eye. These chemicals also manifest systemic tissue injury following their cutaneous exposure. Although largely discontinued after WWI, stockpiles are still known to exist in the former Soviet Union, Germany, Italy, the United States, and Asia. Thus, access by terrorists or accidental exposure could be highly dangerous for humans and the environment. This review summarizes studies that describe the biological, pathophysiological, toxicological, and environmental effects of exposure to arsenicals, with a major focus on cutaneous injury. Studies related to the development of novel molecular pathobiology-based antidotes against these agents are also described. © 2016 New York Academy of Sciences.

  19. Biological and environmental hazards associated with exposure to chemical warfare agents: arsenicals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Changzhao; Srivastava, Ritesh K.; Athar, Mohammad

    2016-01-01

    Arsenicals are highly reactive inorganic and organic derivatives of arsenic. These chemicals are very toxic and produce both acute and chronic tissue damage. Based on these observations, and considering the low cost and simple methods of their bulk syntheses, these agents were thought to be appropriate for chemical warfare. Among these, the most known agent synthesized and weaponized during World War I (WWI) is Lewisite. Exposure to Lewisite causes painful inflammatory and blistering responses in the skin, lung, and eye. These chemicals also manifest systemic tissue injury following their cutaneous exposure. Although largely discontinued after WWI, their stockpiles are still known to exist in the former Soviet Union, Germany, Italy, the United States, and Asia. Thus, their access by terrorists or accidental exposure could be highly dangerous for humans and the environment. This review summarizes studies which describe the biological, pathophysiological, toxicological, and environmental effects of exposure to arsenicals, with a major focus on cutaneous injury. Studies related to the development of novel molecular pathobiology–based antidotes against these agents are also described. PMID:27636894

  20. Elimination of micropollutants and hazardous substances at the source in the chemical and pharmaceutical industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blöcher, C

    2007-01-01

    Industrial wastewater, especially from chemical and pharmaceutical production, often contains substances that need to be eliminated before being discharged into a biological treatment plant and following water bodies. This can be done within the production itself, in selected waste water streams or in a central treatment plant. Each of these approaches has certain advantages and disadvantages. Furthermore, a variety of wastewater treatment processes exist that can be applied at each stage, making it a challenging task to choose the best one in economic and ecological terms. In this work a general approach for that and examples from practice are discussed.

  1. 1998 Tier two emergency and hazardous chemical inventory - emergency planning and community right-to-know act section 312

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ZALOUDEK, D.E.

    1999-01-01

    The Hanford Site covers approximately 1,450 square kilometers (560 square miles) of land that is owned by the U.S, Government and managed by the U.S. Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office (DOE-RL). The Hanford Site is located northwest of the city of Richland, Washington. The city of Richland adjoins the southeastern portion of the Hanford Site boundary and is the nearest population center. Activities on the Hanford Site are centralized in numerically designated areas. The 100 Areas, located along the Columbia River, contain deactivated reactors. The processing units are in the 200 Areas, which are on a plateau approximately 11 kilometers (7 miles) from the Columbia River. The 300 Area, located adjacent to and north of Richland, contains research and development laboratories. The 400 Area, 8 kilometers (5 miles) northwest of the 300 Area, contains the Fast Flux Test Facility previously used for testing liquid metal reactor systems. Adjacent to the north of Richland, the 1100 Area contains offices associated with administration, maintenance, transportation, and materials procurement and distribution. The 600 Area covers all locations not specifically given an area designation. This Tier Two Emergency and Hazardous Chemical Inventory report contains information pertaining to hazardous chemicals managed by DOE-RL and its contractors on the Hanford Site. It does not include chemicals maintained in support of activities conducted by others on lands covered by leases, use permits, easements, and other agreements whereby land is used by parties other than DOE-RL. For example, this report does not include chemicals stored on state owned or leased lands (including the burial ground operated by US Ecology, Inc.), lands owned or used by the Bonneville Power Administration (including the Midway Substation and the Ashe Substation), lands used by the National Science Foundation (the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory), lands leased to the Washington

  2. Hanford 1999 Tier 2 Emergency and Hazardous Chemical Inventory Emergency Planning and Community Right-to-Know Act Section 312

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ZALOUDEK, D.E.

    2000-01-01

    The Hanford Site covers approximately 1,450 square kilometers (560 square miles) of land that is owned by the U.S. Government and managed by the U.S. Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office (DOE-RL). The Hanford Site is located northwest of the city of Richland, Washington. The city of Richland adjoins the southeastern portion of the Hanford Site boundary and is the nearest population center. Activities on the Hanford Site are centralized in numerically designated areas. The 100 Areas, located along the Columbia River, contain deactivated reactors. The processing units are in the 200 Areas, which are on a plateau approximately 11 kilometers (7 miles) from the Columbia River. The 300 Area, located adjacent to and north of Richland, contains research and development laboratories. The 400 Area, 8 kilometers (5 miles) northwest of the 300 Area, contains the Fast Flux Test Facility previously used for testing liquid metal reactor systems. Adjacent to the north of Richland, the 1100 Area contains offices associated with administration, maintenance, transportation, and materials procurement and distribution. The 600 Area covers all locations not specifically given an area designation. This Tier Two Emergency and Hazardous Chemical Inventory report contains information pertaining to hazardous chemicals managed by DOE-RL and its contractors on the Hanford Site. It does not include chemicals maintained in support of activities conducted by others on lands covered by leases, use permits, easements, and other agreements whereby land is used by parties other than DOE-RL. For example, this report does not include chemicals stored on state owned or leased lands (including the burial ground operated by US Ecology, Inc.), lands owned or used by the Bonneville Power Administration (including the Midway Substation and the Ashe Substation), lands used by the National Science Foundation (the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory), lands leased to the Washington

  3. Radioactive and non-radioactive polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) management at Hanford

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leonard, W.W.; Gretzinger, R.F.; Cox, G.R.

    1986-01-01

    Conformance to all state and federal regulations is the goal of Rockwell in the management of both radioactive and non-radioactive PCB's at Hanford. A continuing effort is being made to locate, remove, and properly dispose of all PCB's. As improved methods of management are developed, consideration will be given to them for their adaptation into the Hanford Site PCB Management Plan

  4. Nonradioactive Dangerous Waste Landfill sampling and analysis plan and data quality objectives process summary report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, R.C.

    1997-08-01

    This sampling and analysis plan defines the sampling and analytical activities and associated procedures that will be used to support the Nonradioactive Dangerous Waste Landfill soil-gas investigation. This SAP consists of three sections: this introduction, the field sampling plan, and the quality assurance project plan. The field sampling plan defines the sampling and analytical methodologies to be performed

  5. Pollution-Induced Community Tolerance To Diagnose Hazardous Chemicals in Multiple Contaminated Aquatic Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rotter, Stefanie; Gunold, Roman; Mothes, Sibylle; Paschke, Albrecht; Brack, Werner; Altenburger, Rolf; Schmitt-Jansen, Mechthild

    2015-08-18

    Aquatic ecosystems are often contaminated with large numbers of chemicals, which cannot be sufficiently addressed by chemical target analyses. Effect-directed analysis (EDA) enables the identification of toxicants in complex contaminated environmental samples. This study suggests pollution-induced community tolerance (PICT) as a confirmation tool for EDA to identify contaminants which actually impact on local communities. The effects of three phytotoxic compounds local periphyton communities, cultivated at a reference (R-site) and a polluted site (P-site), were assessed to confirm the findings of a former EDA study on sediments. The sensitivities of R- and P-communities to prometryn, tributyltin (TBT) and N-phenyl-2-naphthylamine (PNA) were quantified in short-term toxicity tests and exposure concentrations were determined. Prometryn and PNA concentrations were significantly higher at the P-site, whereas TBT concentrations were in the same range at both sites. Periphyton communities differed in biomass, but algal class composition and diatom diversity were similar. Community tolerance of P-communities was significantly enhanced for prometryn, but not for PNA and TBT, confirming site-specific effects on local periphyton for prometryn only. Thus, PICT enables in situ effect confirmation of phytotoxic compounds at the community level and seems to be suitable to support confirmation and enhance ecological realism of EDA.

  6. Hazard classification of chemicals inducing haemolytic anaemia: An EU regulatory perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Muller, A.; Jacobsen, Helene; Healy, E.

    2006-01-01

    Haemolytic anaemia is often induced following prolonged exposure to chemical substances. Currently, under EU Council Directive 67/548/EEC, substances which induce such effects are classified as dangerous and assigned the risk phrase R48 'Danger of serious damage to health by prolonged exposure......! Whilst the general classification criteria for this endpoint are outlined in Annex VI of this Directive, they do not provide specific information to assess haemolytic anaemia. This review produced by the EU Working Group on Haemolytic Anaemia provides a toxicological assessment of haemolytic anaemia...... and proposes criteria that can be used in the assessment for classification of substances which induce such effects. An overview of the primary and secondary effects of haemolytic anaemia which can occur in rodent repeated dose toxicity studies is given. A detailed analysis of the toxicological significance...

  7. A comparison of mandatory and voluntary approaches to the implementation of Globally Harmonized System of Classification and Labelling of Chemicals (GHS) in the management of hazardous chemicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ta, Goh Choo; Mokhtar, Mazlin Bin; Peterson, Peter John; Yahaya, Nadzri Bin

    2011-01-01

    The European Union (EU) and the World Health Organization (WHO) have applied different approaches to facilitate the implementation of the UN Globally Harmonized System of Classification and Labelling of Chemicals (GHS). The EU applied the mandatory approach by gazetting the EU Regulation 1272/2008 incorporating GHS elements on classification, labelling and packaging of substances and mixtures in 2008; whereas the WHO utilized a voluntary approach by incorporating GHS elements in the WHO guidelines entitled 'WHO Recommended Classification of Pesticides by Hazard' in 2009. We report on an analysis of both the mandatory and voluntary approaches practised by the EU and the WHO respectively, with close reference to the GHS 'purple book'. Our findings indicate that the mandatory approach practiced by the EU covers all the GHS elements referred to in the second revised edition of the GHS 'purple book'. Hence we can conclude that the EU has implemented the GHS particularly for industrial chemicals. On the other hand, the WHO guidelines published in 2009 should be revised to address concerns raised in this paper. In addition, both mandatory and voluntary approaches should be carefully examined because the classification results may be different.

  8. Top five industries resulting in injuries from acute chemical incidents—Hazardous Substance Emergency Events Surveillance, nine states, 1999-2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Ayana R; Wu, Jennifer

    2015-04-10

    Because industries using and/or producing chemicals are located in close proximity to populated areas, U.S. residents are at risk for unintentional chemical exposures. 1999-2008. The Hazardous Substances Emergency Events Surveillance (HSEES) system was operated by the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry during January 1991-September 2009 to collect data that would enable researchers to describe the public health consequences of chemical releases and to develop activities aimed at reducing the harm from such releases. This report summarizes data for the top five industries resulting in injuries from an acute chemical incident (lasting truck transportation, educational services, chemical manufacturing, utilities, and food manufacturing) accounted for approximately one third of all incidents in which persons were injured as a result of unintentional release of chemicals; the same five industries were responsible for approximately one third of all persons injured as a result of such releases. Acute chemical incidents in these five industries resulted in serious public health implications including the need for evacuations, morbidity, and mortality. PUBLIC HEALTH IMPLICATIONS: Targeting chemical incident prevention and preparedness activities towards these five industries provides an efficient use of resources for reducing chemical exposures. A variety of methods can be used to minimize chemical releases in industries. One example is the Occupational Safety and Health Administration's hierarchy of controls model, which focuses on controlling exposures to occupational hazards. The hierarchy includes elimination, substitution, engineering controls, administrative controls, and use of personal protective equipment.

  9. CHEMICALS

    CERN Multimedia

    Medical Service

    2002-01-01

    It is reminded that all persons who use chemicals must inform CERN's Chemistry Service (TIS-GS-GC) and the CERN Medical Service (TIS-ME). Information concerning their toxicity or other hazards as well as the necessary individual and collective protection measures will be provided by these two services. Users must be in possession of a material safety data sheet (MSDS) for each chemical used. These can be obtained by one of several means : the manufacturer of the chemical (legally obliged to supply an MSDS for each chemical delivered) ; CERN's Chemistry Service of the General Safety Group of TIS ; for chemicals and gases available in the CERN Stores the MSDS has been made available via EDH either in pdf format or else via a link to the supplier's web site. Training courses in chemical safety are available for registration via HR-TD. CERN Medical Service : TIS-ME :73186 or service.medical@cern.ch Chemistry Service : TIS-GS-GC : 78546

  10. Iron-montmorillonite clays as active sorbents for the decontamination of hazardous chemical warfare agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carniato, F; Bisio, C; Evangelisti, C; Psaro, R; Dal Santo, V; Costenaro, D; Marchese, L; Guidotti, M

    2018-02-27

    A class of heterogeneous catalysts based on commercial bentonite from natural origin, containing at least 80 wt% of montmorillonite clay, was designed to transform selectively and under mild conditions toxic organosulfur and organophosphorus chemical warfare agents into non-noxious products with a reduced impact on health and environment. The bentonite from the natural origin was modified by introducing iron species and acid sites in the interlayer space, aiming to obtain a sorbent with strong catalytic oxidising and hydrolytic properties. The catalytic performance of these materials was evaluated in the oxidative abatement of (2-chloroethyl)ethyl sulfide (CEES), a simulant of sulfur mustard, in the presence of aqueous hydrogen peroxide as an oxidant. A new decontamination formulation was, moreover, proposed and obtained by mixing sodium perborate, as a solid oxidant, to iron-bentonite catalysts. Solid-phase decontamination tests, performed on a cotton textile support contaminated with organosulfide and organophosphonate simulant agents revealed the good activity of the solid formulation, especially in the in situ detoxification of blistering agents. Tests carried out on the real blistering warfare agent, sulfur mustard (HD agent), showed that, thanks to the co-presence of the iron-based clay together with the solid oxidant component, a good decontamination of the test surface from the real warfare agent could be achieved (80% contaminant degradation, under ambient conditions, in 24 h).

  11. Protection against genetic hazards from environmental chemical mutagens: experience with ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sankaranarayanan, K.

    1977-01-01

    In radiation protection, the recurrent theme is, and always has been, dose limitation whether it is for occupational workers, individual members of the public or the population as a whole. The key words are 'dose' and 'limitation'. The quantitative system of dose limitation has been achieved because of a number of conceptual developments in our understanding of the mechanism of radiation action, development of radiation dosimetry, the accumulation of a vast body of quantitative information on dose-effect relationships and the effects of various biological and physical variables that affect these relationships of data on patterns and levels of exposures likely to be encountered to make estimates of the effects expected to result from such exposures, and balancing of risks to society against the benefits derived, the latter a matter of informed judgement. The philosophy has always been to avoid all unnecessary exposures and to limit the necessary exposures (justified by the benefits expected) to as low a level as reasonably achievable, social and economic factors being taken into acccount. The introduction of the concept that the system of dose limitation to the population should be based on genetic risks has stressed the need for careful planning to ensure that our genetic heritage is not endangered. Transfer of this knowledge to the field of chemical protection is discussed. (Auth.)

  12. Chemical and microbiological hazards associated with recycling of anaerobic digested residue intended for agricultural use

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Govasmark, Espen; Staeb, Jessica; Holen, Borge; Hoornstra, Douwe; Nesbakk, Tommy; Salkinoja-Salonen, Mirja

    2011-01-01

    In the present study, three full-scale biogas plants (BGP) were investigated for the concentration of heavy metals, organic pollutants, pesticides and the pathogenic bacteria Bacillus cereus and Escherichia coli in the anaerobically digested residues (ADR). The BGPs mainly utilize source-separated organic wastes and industrial food waste as energy sources and separate the ADR into an ADR-liquid and an ADR-solid fraction by centrifugation at the BGP. According to the Norwegian standard for organic fertilizers, the ADR were classified as quality 1 mainly because of high zinc (132-422 mg kg -1 DM) and copper (23-93 mg kg -1 DM) concentrations, but also because of high cadmium (0.21-0.60 mg kg -1 DM) concentrations in the liquid-ADR. In the screening of organic pollutants, only DEHP (9.7-62.1 mg kg -1 ) and Σ PAH 16 (0.2-1.98 mg kg -1 DM) were detected in high concentrations according to international regulations. Of the 250 pesticides analyzed, 11 were detected, but only imazalil ( -1 DM) and thiabendazol ( -1 DM) were frequently detected in the ADR-fiber. Concentrations of imazalil and thiabendazol were highest during the winter months, due to a high consumption of citrus fruits in Norway in this period. Ten percent of the ADR-liquid samples contained cereulide-producing B. cereus, whereas no verotoxigenic E. coli was detected. The authors conclude that the risk of chemical and bacterial contamination of the food chain or the environment from agricultural use of ADR seems low.

  13. Hazardous air pollutant emissions from process units in the synthetic organic chemical manufacturing industry: Background information for proposed standards. Volume 1B. Control technologies. Draft report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-11-01

    A draft rule for the regulation of emissions of organic hazardous air pollutants (HAP's) from chemical processes of the synthetic organic chemical manufacturing industry (SOCMI) is being proposed under the authority of Sections 112, 114, 116, and 301 of the Clean Air Act, as amended in 1990. The volume of the Background Information Document presents discussions of control technologies used in the industry and the costs of those technologies

  14. Hazardous air pollutant emissions from process units in the synthetic organic chemical manufacturing industry: Background information for proposed standards. Volume 1A. National impacts assessment. Draft report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-11-01

    A draft rule for the regulation of emissions of organic hazardous air pollutants (HAP's) from chemical processes of the synthetic organic chemical manufacturing industry (SOCMI) is being proposed under the authority of Sections 112, 114, 116, and 301 of the Clean Air Act, as amended in 1990. The volume of the Background Information Document presents the results of the national impacts assessment for the proposed rule

  15. Objective and subjective evaluation of power plants and their non-radioactive emissions using the analytic hierarchy process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chatzimouratidis, Athanasios I.; Pilavachi, Petros A.

    2007-01-01

    Non-nuclear power plant emissions are of great concern to the public and to scientists alike. As energy demand tends to rise rapidly, especially in the developing countries, the negative effects to human health and to the environment from gaseous emissions together with hazardous particulate matter released by power plants can no longer be ignored. In this study, the impact of non-radioactive emissions is evaluated with the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) by synthesizing objective and subjective criteria. There are five main emissions to be evaluated, non-methane volatile organic compounds (NMVOC), carbon dioxide equivalent (CO 2 -eq), nitrogen oxides (NO x ), sulphur dioxide (SO 2 ) and particulates or particulate matter (PM). Objective evaluation is achieved by expressing the impact of each emission released in monetary terms following generally accepted market rules, international agreements and protocols. That is, the Euro per kilogram of each emission exceeding a specific limit that should be paid as a penalty for environmental pollution and human health damage. Subjective assessment requires an intuitive expression of the percentage of damage to human health and to the ecosystem that each emission causes. Sensitivity analysis is then used in order to examine how change of input data affects final results. Finally, 10 main types of power plant are evaluated according to the level and kind of emissions they release. These types are coal/lignite, oil, natural gas turbine, natural gas combined cycle (NGCC), nuclear, hydro, wind, photovoltaic, biomass and geothermal

  16. Working group 6: Health. 3. Biological effects of nonradioactive pollutants associated with nuclear and conventional power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lauwerys, R.

    1976-01-01

    The major air pollutants released from conventional power plants have been found to be sulfur dioxide (SO 2 ), nitrogen oxides (NOx) and suspended particulates beside these three major pollutants other substances (CO, O 3 , hydrocarbons, vanadium...) occur in air or in water. Origin and extent of these pollutants as well as their main health hazards, especially for the respiratory system, have been evaluated. Other risks connected with the whole fuel cycle (coal extraction, petrol refining...) have been considered to be significant for human health. A mathematical model has been set up by the C.E.N. of Mol (Belgium) in order to predict the content of pollutants at the soil level, especially for SO 2 . A relationship between SO 2 content and the concentration of the other pollutants has been found by assuming certain hypothesis. Epidemiological and toxicological data connected with the SO 2 release have been given. As for nonradioactive pollutants released from nuclear power plants their amount has been considered to be negligible. (G.C.)

  17. Hazardous waste treatment facility and skid-mounted treatment systems at Los Alamos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lussiez, G.W.; Zygmunt, S.J.

    1993-01-01

    To centralize treatment, storage, and staging areas for hazardous wastes, Los Alamos National Laboratory has designed a 12,000-ft 2 hazardous waste treatment facility. The facility will house a treatment room for each of four kinds of wastes: nonradioactive characteristic wastes, nonradioactive listed wastes radioactive characteristic wastes, and radioactive listed wastes. The facility will be used for repacking labpacks, bulking small organic waste volumes, processing scintillation vials, treating reactives such as lithium hydride and pyrophoric uranium, treating contaminated solids such as barium sand, and treating plating wastes. The treated wastes will then be appropriately disposed of. This report describes the integral features of the hazardous waste treatment facility

  18. Evaluation of In Vitro Biotransformation Using HepaRG Cells to Improve High-Throughput Chemical Hazard Prediction: A Toxicogenomics Analysis (SOT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The US EPA’s ToxCast program has generated a wealth of data in >600 in vitro assayson a library of 1060 environmentally relevant chemicals and failed pharmaceuticals to facilitate hazard identification. An inherent criticism of many in vitro-based strategies is the inability of a...

  19. Estimation of the acute inhalation hazards of chemicals based on route-to-route and local endpoint extrapolation: Experience from Bulk Maritime Transport

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Höfer, T.; James, D.; Syversen, T.; Bowmer, T.

    2011-01-01

    Data on acute lethal inhalation toxicity from animal studies are commonly required for assessing the hazards to human health of volatile, gaseous and dusty chemicals or their mixtures. The International Maritime Organisation (IMO) made the provision of acute inhalation toxicity data a mandatory

  20. Can the same principles be used for the management of radioactive and non-radioactive waste?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bengtsson, Gunnar.

    1989-01-01

    Non-radioactive waste has a much more complex composition than radioactive waste and appears in much larger quantities. The two types of waste have, however, some properties in common when it comes to their longterm impact on health and the environment. The occurrence in both of substances that may exist for generations and may cause cancer provides one example. Both types of waste also always occur together. It is therefore proposed that the same basic principles could be applied for the management of radioactive and non-radioactive waste. By doing so one may increase the efficiency of policy development, research and practical management. This is particurlarly importand for the very costly restoration of old disposal sites which have earlier been poorly managed. (author)

  1. U.S. Department of Energy Workers' mental models of radiation and chemical hazards in the workplace

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quadrel, M.J.; Blanchard, K.A.; Lundgren, R.E.; McMakin, A.H.; Mosley, M.T.; Strom, D.J.

    1994-05-01

    A pilot study was performed to test the mental models methodology regarding knowledge and perceptions of U.S. Department of Energy contractor radiation workers about ionizing radiation and hazardous chemicals. The mental models methodology establishes a target population's beliefs about risks and compares them with current scientific knowledge. The ultimate intent is to develop risk communication guidelines that address information gaps or misperceptions that could affect decisions and behavior. In this study, 15 radiation workers from the Hanford Site in Washington State were interviewed about radiation exposure processes and effects. Their beliefs were mapped onto a science model of the same topics to see where differences occurred. In general, workers' mental models covered many of the high-level parts of the science model but did not have the same level of detail. The following concepts appeared to be well understood by most interviewees: types, form, and properties of workplace radiation; administrative and physical controls to reduce radiation exposure risk; and the relationship of dose and effects. However, several concepts were rarely mentioned by most interviewees, indicating potential gaps in worker understanding. Most workers did not discuss the wide range of measures for neutralizing or decontaminating individuals following internal contamination. Few noted specific ways of measuring dose or factors that affect dose. Few mentioned the range of possible effects, including genetic effects, birth defects, or high dose effects. Variables that influence potential effects were rarely discussed. Workers rarely mentioned how basic radiation principles influenced the source, type, or mitigation of radiation risk in the workplace

  2. A nonradioactive assay for poly(a)-specific ribonuclease activity by methylene blue colorimetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Yuan; Liu, Wei-Feng; Yan, Yong-Bin; Zhou, Hai-Meng

    2006-01-01

    A simple nonradioactive assay, which was based on the specific shift of the absorbance maximum of methylene blue induced by its intercalation into poly(A) molecules, was developed for poly(A)-specific ribonuclease (PARN). A good linear relationship was found between the absorbance at 662 nm and the poly(A) concentration. The assay conditions, including the concentration of methylene blue, the incubation temperature and time, and the poly(A) concentration were evaluated and optimized.

  3. ''Hazardous'' terminology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Powers, J.

    1991-01-01

    A number of terms (e.g., ''hazardous chemicals,'' ''hazardous materials,'' ''hazardous waste,'' and similar nomenclature) refer to substances that are subject to regulation under one or more federal environmental laws. State laws and regulations also provide additional, similar, or identical terminology that may be confused with the federally defined terms. Many of these terms appear synonymous, and it easy to use them interchangeably. However, in a regulatory context, inappropriate use of narrowly defined terms can lead to confusion about the substances referred to, the statutory provisions that apply, and the regulatory requirements for compliance under the applicable federal statutes. This information Brief provides regulatory definitions, a brief discussion of compliance requirements, and references for the precise terminology that should be used when referring to ''hazardous'' substances regulated under federal environmental laws. A companion CERCLA Information Brief (EH-231-004/0191) addresses ''toxic'' nomenclature

  4. A suggested approach to the selection of chemical and biological protective clothing--meeting industry and emergency response needs for protection against a variety of hazards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stull, Jeffrey O

    2004-01-01

    The paper describes the development of a comprehensive decision logic for selection and use of biological and chemical protective clothing (BCPC). The decision logic recognizes the separate areas of BCPC use among emergency, biological, and chemical hazards. The proposed decision logic provides a system for type classifying BCPC in terms of its compliance with existing standards (for emergency applications), the overall clothing integrity, and the material barrier performance. Type classification is offered for garments, gloves, footwear, and eye/face protection devices. On the basis of multiple, but simply designed flowcharts, the type of BCPC appropriate for specific biological and chemical hazards can be selected. The decision logic also provides supplemental considerations for choosing appropriate BCPC features.

  5. Proposal of threshold levels for the definition of non-radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshida, Yoshikazu

    1979-01-01

    With increasing amounts of radioactive wastes along with the advances of nuclear power generation and radioactive material utilizations, the needs for management cost reduction and resource saving have arisen. Under the situation, the threshold levels for the definition of non-radioactive solid wastes are required. The problem has been studied by an ad hoc committee in Nuclear Safety Research Association, by the request of the Science and Technology Agency. The matters described are the procedures of deriving the threshold levels, the feasibility studies of the management of waste threshold-level with several enterprises, and future subjects of study. The threshold levels are grouped in two, i.e. the unconditional level and the conditional level. According to the unconditional threshold level, solid wastes are separated definitely into radioactive and non-radioactive ones. According to the conditional threshold level, under certain conditions, some radioactive solid wastes according to the unconditional level are regarded as non-radioactive ones. (J.P.N.)

  6. Microplastics as Vehicles of Environmental PAHs to Marine Organisms: Combined Chemical and Physical Hazards to the Mediterranean Mussels, Mytilus galloprovincialis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucia Pittura

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The ubiquitous occurrence of microplastics (MPs in the marine environment is raising concern for interactions with marine organisms. These particles efficiently adsorb persistent organic pollutants from surrounding environment and, due to the small size, they are easily available for ingestion at all trophic levels. Once ingested, MPs can induce mechanical damage, sub-lethal effects, and various cellular responses, further modulated by possible release of adsorbed chemicals or additives. In this study, ecotoxicological effects of MPs and their interactions with benzo(apyrene (BaP, chosen as a model compound for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs were investigated in Mediterranean mussels, Mytilus galloprovincialis. Organisms were exposed for 4 weeks to 10 mg/L of low-density polyethylene (LDPE microparticles (2.34 * 107 particles/L, size range 20–25 μm, both virgin and pre-contaminated with BaP (15 μg/g. Organisms were also exposed for comparison to BaP dosed alone at 150 ng/L, corresponding to the amount adsorbed on microplastics. Tissue localization of microplastics was histologically evaluated; chemical analyses and a wide battery of biomarkers covering molecular, biochemical and cellular levels allowed to evaluate BaP bioaccumulation, alterations of immune system, antioxidant defenses, onset of oxidative stress, peroxisomal proliferation, genotoxicity, and neurotoxicity. Obtained data were elaborated within a quantitative weight of evidence (WOE model which, using weighted criteria, provided synthetic hazard indices, for both chemical and cellular results, before their integration in a combined index. Microplastics were localized in hemolymph, gills, and especially digestive tissues where a potential transfer of BaP from MPs was also observed. Significant alterations were measured on the immune system, while more limited effects occurred on the oxidative status, neurotoxicity, and genotoxicity, with a different susceptibility of

  7. Genetic k-means clustering approach for mapping human vulnerability to chemical hazards in the industrialized city: a case study of Shanghai, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Weifang; Zeng, Weihua

    2013-06-20

    Reducing human vulnerability to chemical hazards in the industrialized city is a matter of great urgency. Vulnerability mapping is an alternative approach for providing vulnerability-reducing interventions in a region. This study presents a method for mapping human vulnerability to chemical hazards by using clustering analysis for effective vulnerability reduction. Taking the city of Shanghai as the study area, we measure human exposure to chemical hazards by using the proximity model with additionally considering the toxicity of hazardous substances, and capture the sensitivity and coping capacity with corresponding indicators. We perform an improved k-means clustering approach on the basis of genetic algorithm by using a 500 m × 500 m geographical grid as basic spatial unit. The sum of squared errors and silhouette coefficient are combined to measure the quality of clustering and to determine the optimal clustering number. Clustering result reveals a set of six typical human vulnerability patterns that show distinct vulnerability dimension combinations. The vulnerability mapping of the study area reflects cluster-specific vulnerability characteristics and their spatial distribution. Finally, we suggest specific points that can provide new insights in rationally allocating the limited funds for the vulnerability reduction of each cluster.

  8. Genetic k-Means Clustering Approach for Mapping Human Vulnerability to Chemical Hazards in the Industrialized City: A Case Study of Shanghai, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weihua Zeng

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Reducing human vulnerability to chemical hazards in the industrialized city is a matter of great urgency. Vulnerability mapping is an alternative approach for providing vulnerability-reducing interventions in a region. This study presents a method for mapping human vulnerability to chemical hazards by using clustering analysis for effective vulnerability reduction. Taking the city of Shanghai as the study area, we measure human exposure to chemical hazards by using the proximity model with additionally considering the toxicity of hazardous substances, and capture the sensitivity and coping capacity with corresponding indicators. We perform an improved k-means clustering approach on the basis of genetic algorithm by using a 500 m × 500 m geographical grid as basic spatial unit. The sum of squared errors and silhouette coefficient are combined to measure the quality of clustering and to determine the optimal clustering number. Clustering result reveals a set of six typical human vulnerability patterns that show distinct vulnerability dimension combinations. The vulnerability mapping of the study area reflects cluster-specific vulnerability characteristics and their spatial distribution. Finally, we suggest specific points that can provide new insights in rationally allocating the limited funds for the vulnerability reduction of each cluster.

  9. CHRIS: Hazardous Chemical Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-10-01

    CPLORD-O-TOLUICIfE FAST RED Z& BASE = ’-1-ITRCAMILINE FERMENTAITION ALCOH!OL - ETHYL ALCOHOL FERMENTATION AMYL ALCOHCL -ISCANYL ALCOJIGI FERMENTATION BUTYL...ACID ETHYLENEDIAMINE IETRACETIC ACID VIC-H-XYLENOL XYLENOL VIENNA GREEN COPPER ACETOARSE1ITE VILRATHANE 4300 -CIPHENYLETHAME01ISOCYANATE (MDIl VINEGAR

  10. Countermeasures to Hazardous Chemicals,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-04-01

    car carring 27,871 gal (i of 1u ilied pro pane gas ruptured, causing a boiling liquid expanding vapor explosion ( BLEVE ) in do;,nlo, n Waerlv...fire department poured 100,00) gal of w\\atcr on the car, fearing a BLEVE (boiling liquid expanding vapor explosion). In another instance, a half-mile...devices are: Mine Safety Appliances, Scott, Survivair, and Globe. "Open-circuit" means that the air you breathe comes from a compressed air source and

  11. Hazardous chemicals desk reference

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lewis, Richard J., Sr

    2008-01-01

    ... of the entries have been revised for t h s edition. Most of the new entries were selected because they are on the EPA TSCA Inventory. These are reported to be used in commerce in the United States. Emphasis was placed on adding and updating physical properties and updating all DOT Classifications. The information was extracted from Dangerous Propedes Of...

  12. Ultrastructural localization of human papilloma virus by nonradioactive in situ hybridization on tissue of human cervical intraepithelial neoplasia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Multhaupt, H A; Rafferty, P A; Warhol, M J

    1992-01-01

    BACKGROUND: A nonradioactive in situ hybridization was developed to localize human papilloma virus (HPV) at the ultrastructural level. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: Cervical biopsies from human uterine cervices clinically suspicious of condyloma were embedded in Lowicryl K4M at low temperature...

  13. Public control of environmental health hazards (clinical and experimental studies of distal axonopathy--a frequent form of brain and nerve damage produced by environmental chemical hazards)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schaumburg, H.H.; Spencer, P.S.

    1979-01-01

    Clinical and pathological studies of the peripheral and central nervous system degeneration (distal dying-back axonopathy) in humans and experimental animals produced by acrylamide monomer and certain hydrocarbon compounds are summarized. The human distal axonopathies include: many of the naturally occurring, genetically determined system disorders/ certain nutritional disorders/ uremic neuropathy/ the neuropathies associated with some malignancies/ and the toxic neuropathies induced by industrial chemicals. The irreversible, subclinical, and clinical effects of distal axonopathies on the human central nervous system are examined. A morphological rationale for previously enigmatic clinical phenomena in the human toxic neuropathies is presented. Neuropathology is potentially useful in the screening of chemicals for neurotoxicity. (7 photos, 24 references)

  14. The Chemistry Scoring Index (CSI: A Hazard-Based Scoring and Ranking Tool for Chemicals and Products Used in the Oil and Gas Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tim Verslycke

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available A large portfolio of chemicals and products is needed to meet the wide range of performance requirements of the oil and gas industry. The oil and gas industry is under increased scrutiny from regulators, environmental groups, the public, and other stakeholders for use of their chemicals. In response, industry is increasingly incorporating “greener” products and practices but is struggling to define and quantify what exactly constitutes “green” in the absence of a universally accepted definition. We recently developed the Chemistry Scoring Index (CSI which is ultimately intended to be a globally implementable tool that comprehensively scores and ranks hazards to human health, safety, and the environment for products used in oil and gas operations. CSI scores are assigned to products designed for the same use (e.g., surfactants, catalysts on the basis of product composition as well as intrinsic hazard properties and data availability for each product component. As such, products with a lower CSI score within a product use group are considered to have a lower intrinsic hazard compared to other products within the same use group. The CSI provides a powerful tool to evaluate relative product hazards; to review and assess product portfolios; and to aid in the formulation of products.

  15. Expert systems for the transportation of hazardous and radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luce, C.E.; Clover, J.C.; Ferrada, J.J.

    1994-01-01

    Under the supervision of the Transportation Technologies Group which is in the Chemical Technology Division at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, an expert system prototype for the transportation and packaging of hazardous and radioactive materials has been designed and developed. The development of the expert system prototype focused on using the combination of hypermedia elements and the Visual Basic trademark programming language. Hypermedia technology uses software that allows the user to interact with the computing environment through many formats: text, graphics, audio, and full-motion video. With the use of hypermedia, a user-friendly prototype has been developed to sort through numerous transportation regulations, thereby leading to the proper packaging for the materials. The expert system performs the analysis of regulations that an expert in shipping information would do; only the expert system performs the work more quickly. Currently, enhancements in a variety of categories are being made to the prototype. These include further expansion of non-radioactive materials, which includes any material that is hazardous but not radioactive; and the addition of full-motion video, which will depict regulations in terms that are easy to understand and which will show examples of how to handle the materials when packaging them

  16. A simple method for the verification of clearance levels for non-radioactive solid waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holland, B.

    1997-01-01

    ANSTO's radiopharmaceutical production laboratories generate 25 m 3 of solid waste per month. Most of this waste is not radioactive. Up until recently the non-radioactive waste was cleared from the controlled area and stored for 10 halflives prior to disposal as normal solid refuse. To eliminate the storage and ''double handling'' of the large quantities of non-radioactive waste a simple clearance method was devised to allow direct disposal. This paper describes how clearance levels were determined. Here the term ''clearance level'' is used as a general term for the release of material regardless of whether it was previously subject to regulatory control. This contrasts with the IAEA definition of a clearance level and highlights a potential problem with the implementation of exemption levels to keep material out of regulatory control and the use of clearance levels to allow removal of materials from regulatory control. Several common hand held contamination monitors were tested to determine their limits of detection and ability to meet these clearance levels. The clearance method includes waste segregation and size limitation features to ensure the waste is monitored in a consistent manner, compatible with the limits of detection. The clearance levels achieved were subsequently found to be compatible with some of the unconditional clearance levels in IAEA-TECDOC-855 and the measurement method also meets the required features of that document. The ANSTO non-radioactive waste clearance system has been in operation for more than 12 months and has proved simple and effective to operate. Approximately 12m 3 of the solid waste is now been treated directly as normal solid refuse. This paper describes the ANSTO clearance system, the contamination monitor tests and details practical problems associated with the direct monitoring of solid waste, including averaging of the activity in the package. The paper also briefly highlights the potential problem with the use of

  17. 616 Nonradioactive Dangerous Waste Storage Facility -- Essential/support drawing list. Revision 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Busching, K.R.

    1994-01-01

    This document identifies the essential and supporting engineering drawings for the 616 Nonradioactive Dangerous Waste Storage Facility. The purpose of the documents is to describe the criteria used to identify and the plan for updating and maintaining their accuracy. Drawings are designated as essential if they relate to safety systems, environmental monitoring systems, effluents, and facility HVAC, electrical, and plumbing systems. Support drawings are those which are frequently used or describe a greater level of detail for equipment, components, or systems shown on essential drawings. A listing of drawings identified as essential or support is provided in Table A

  18. The underground diposal of hazardous wastes - necessity, possibilities and limitations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herrmann, A.G.; Brumsack, H.J.; Heinrichs, H.

    1985-01-01

    The natural geochemical cycles of many elements in the atmosphere, hydrosphere, and pedosphere have been changed during the past decades by anthropogenic activities. To put a stop to this development, a drastic reduction of the uncontrolled dispersal of potentially hazardous substances into our environment is necessary, compelling the need for the safe disposal of radioactive and nonradioactive hazardous wastes far away from the biosphere. The amount of potentially hazardous waste produced annually in West Germany is larger by a factor of at least 20 than the volume of hazardous material for which suitable underground disposal sites are planned and available at present. (orig.)

  19. Predicting chemically-induced skin reactions. Part I: QSAR models of skin sensitization and their application to identify potentially hazardous compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alves, Vinicius M. [Laboratory of Molecular Modeling and Design, Faculty of Pharmacy, Federal University of Goiás, Goiânia, GO 74605-220 (Brazil); Laboratory for Molecular Modeling, Division of Chemical Biology and Medicinal Chemistry, Eshelman School of Pharmacy, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC 27599 (United States); Muratov, Eugene [Laboratory for Molecular Modeling, Division of Chemical Biology and Medicinal Chemistry, Eshelman School of Pharmacy, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC 27599 (United States); Laboratory of Theoretical Chemistry, A.V. Bogatsky Physical-Chemical Institute NAS of Ukraine, Odessa 65080 (Ukraine); Fourches, Denis [Laboratory for Molecular Modeling, Division of Chemical Biology and Medicinal Chemistry, Eshelman School of Pharmacy, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC 27599 (United States); Strickland, Judy; Kleinstreuer, Nicole [ILS/Contractor Supporting the NTP Interagency Center for the Evaluation of Alternative Toxicological Methods (NICEATM), P.O. Box 13501, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709 (United States); Andrade, Carolina H. [Laboratory of Molecular Modeling and Design, Faculty of Pharmacy, Federal University of Goiás, Goiânia, GO 74605-220 (Brazil); Tropsha, Alexander, E-mail: alex_tropsha@unc.edu [Laboratory for Molecular Modeling, Division of Chemical Biology and Medicinal Chemistry, Eshelman School of Pharmacy, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC 27599 (United States)

    2015-04-15

    Repetitive exposure to a chemical agent can induce an immune reaction in inherently susceptible individuals that leads to skin sensitization. Although many chemicals have been reported as skin sensitizers, there have been very few rigorously validated QSAR models with defined applicability domains (AD) that were developed using a large group of chemically diverse compounds. In this study, we have aimed to compile, curate, and integrate the largest publicly available dataset related to chemically-induced skin sensitization, use this data to generate rigorously validated and QSAR models for skin sensitization, and employ these models as a virtual screening tool for identifying putative sensitizers among environmental chemicals. We followed best practices for model building and validation implemented with our predictive QSAR workflow using Random Forest modeling technique in combination with SiRMS and Dragon descriptors. The Correct Classification Rate (CCR) for QSAR models discriminating sensitizers from non-sensitizers was 71–88% when evaluated on several external validation sets, within a broad AD, with positive (for sensitizers) and negative (for non-sensitizers) predicted rates of 85% and 79% respectively. When compared to the skin sensitization module included in the OECD QSAR Toolbox as well as to the skin sensitization model in publicly available VEGA software, our models showed a significantly higher prediction accuracy for the same sets of external compounds as evaluated by Positive Predicted Rate, Negative Predicted Rate, and CCR. These models were applied to identify putative chemical hazards in the Scorecard database of possible skin or sense organ toxicants as primary candidates for experimental validation. - Highlights: • It was compiled the largest publicly-available skin sensitization dataset. • Predictive QSAR models were developed for skin sensitization. • Developed models have higher prediction accuracy than OECD QSAR Toolbox. • Putative

  20. Predicting chemically-induced skin reactions. Part I: QSAR models of skin sensitization and their application to identify potentially hazardous compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alves, Vinicius M.; Muratov, Eugene; Fourches, Denis; Strickland, Judy; Kleinstreuer, Nicole; Andrade, Carolina H.; Tropsha, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    Repetitive exposure to a chemical agent can induce an immune reaction in inherently susceptible individuals that leads to skin sensitization. Although many chemicals have been reported as skin sensitizers, there have been very few rigorously validated QSAR models with defined applicability domains (AD) that were developed using a large group of chemically diverse compounds. In this study, we have aimed to compile, curate, and integrate the largest publicly available dataset related to chemically-induced skin sensitization, use this data to generate rigorously validated and QSAR models for skin sensitization, and employ these models as a virtual screening tool for identifying putative sensitizers among environmental chemicals. We followed best practices for model building and validation implemented with our predictive QSAR workflow using Random Forest modeling technique in combination with SiRMS and Dragon descriptors. The Correct Classification Rate (CCR) for QSAR models discriminating sensitizers from non-sensitizers was 71–88% when evaluated on several external validation sets, within a broad AD, with positive (for sensitizers) and negative (for non-sensitizers) predicted rates of 85% and 79% respectively. When compared to the skin sensitization module included in the OECD QSAR Toolbox as well as to the skin sensitization model in publicly available VEGA software, our models showed a significantly higher prediction accuracy for the same sets of external compounds as evaluated by Positive Predicted Rate, Negative Predicted Rate, and CCR. These models were applied to identify putative chemical hazards in the Scorecard database of possible skin or sense organ toxicants as primary candidates for experimental validation. - Highlights: • It was compiled the largest publicly-available skin sensitization dataset. • Predictive QSAR models were developed for skin sensitization. • Developed models have higher prediction accuracy than OECD QSAR Toolbox. • Putative

  1. Exposure assessment of chemical hazards in pork meat, liver, and kidney, and health impact implication in Hung Yen and Nghe An provinces, Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuyet-Hanh, Tran Thi; Sinh, Dang Xuan; Phuc, Pham Duc; Ngan, Tran Thi; Van Tuat, Chu; Grace, Delia; Unger, Fred; Nguyen-Viet, Hung

    2017-02-01

    This study assesses the risk of exposure to hazardous chemical residues in pork meat, liver, and kidney collected at wet markets in Nghe An and Hung Yen provinces and discusses health impact implication. 514 pig feed, kidney, liver, and pork samples were pooled and qualitatively and quantitatively analyzed for tetracyclines, fluoroquinolones, sulphonamide, chloramphenicol, β-agonists, and heavy metals. We compare the results with current regulations on chemical residues and discuss health implications. Legal antibiotics were found in feed. Tetracycline and fluoroquinolones were not present in pork, but 11% samples were positive with sulfamethazine above maximum residue limits (MRL); 11% of packaged feed and 4% of pork pooled samples were positive for chloramphenicol, a banned substance; two feed, two liver, and one pork samples were positive for β-agonists but did not exceed current MRL; 28% of pooled samples had lead, but all were below MRL; and all samples were negative for cadmium and arsenic. Thus, the health risks due to chemical hazards in pork in Hung Yen and Nghe An seemed not as serious as what were recently communicated to the public on the mass media. There is potential exposure to sulphonamide, chloramphenicol, and β-agonists from pork. Risk communication needs to focus on banned chemicals, while informing the public about the minimal risks associated with heavy metals.

  2. Recommendations on chemicals management policy and legislation in the framework of the Egyptian-German twinning project on hazardous substances and waste management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Burkhard O; Aziz, Elham Refaat Abdel; Schwetje, Anja; Shouk, Fatma Abou; Koch-Jugl, Juliane; Braedt, Michael; Choudhury, Keya; Weber, Roland

    2013-04-01

    The sustainable management of chemicals and their associated wastes-especially legacy stockpiles-is always challenging. Developing countries face particular difficulties as they often have insufficient treatment and disposal capacity, have limited resources and many lack an appropriate and effective regulatory framework. This paper describes the objectives and the approach of the Egyptian-German Twinning Project under the European Neighbourhood Policy to improve the strategy of managing hazardous substances in the Egyptian Environmental Affairs Agency (EEAA) between November 2008 and May 2011. It also provides an introduction to the Republic of Egypt's legal and administrative system regarding chemical controls. Subsequently, options for a new chemical management strategy consistent with the recommendations of the United Nations Chemicals Conventions are proposed. The Egyptian legal and administrative system is discussed in relation to the United Nations' recommendations and current European Union legislation for the sound management of chemicals. We also discuss a strategy for the EEAA to use the existing Egyptian legal system to implement the United Nations' Globally Harmonized System of Classification and Labelling of Chemicals, the Stockholm Convention and other proposed regulatory frameworks. The analysis, the results, and the recommendations presented may be useful for other developing countries in a comparable position to Egypt aspiring to update their legislation and administration to the international standards of sound management of chemicals.

  3. Effects of non-radioactive material around radioactive material on PET image quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toshimitsu, Shinya; Yamane, Azusa; Hirokawa, Yutaka; Kangai, Yoshiharu

    2015-01-01

    Subcutaneous fat is a non-radioactive material surrounding the radioactive material. We developed a phantom, and examined the effect of subcutaneous fat on PET image quality. We created a cylindrical non-radioactive mimic of subcutaneous fat, placed it around a cylindrical phantom in up to three layers with each layer having a thickness of 20 mm to reproduce the obesity caused by subcutaneous fat. In the cylindrical phantom, hot spheres and cold spheres were arranged. The radioactivity concentration ratio between the hot spheres and B.G. was 4:1. The radioactivity concentration of B.G. was changed as follows : 1.33, 2.65, 4.00, and 5.30 kBq/mL. 3D-PET image were collected during 10 minutes. When the thickness of the mimicked subcutaneous fat increased from 0 mm to 60 mm, noise equivalent count decreased by 58.9-60.9% at each radioactivity concentration. On the other hand, the percentage of background variability increased 2.2-5.2 times. Mimic subcutaneous fat did not decrease the percentage contrast of the hot spheres, and did not affect the cold spheres. Subcutaneous fat decreases the noise equivalent count and increases the percentage of background variability, which degrades PET image quality. (author)

  4. How can we avoid the lock-in problem in the substitution of hazardous chemicals used in consumer products?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scheringer, Martin; Fantke, Peter; Weber, R.

    2014-01-01

    A wide range of chemical substances is used in consumer products for various purposes, including plastic softeners, dyestuffs and colorants, flame retardants, impregnation agents, antioxidants and UV absorbers, preservation agents and biocides, and many others. Among these chemicals, there is a c......A wide range of chemical substances is used in consumer products for various purposes, including plastic softeners, dyestuffs and colorants, flame retardants, impregnation agents, antioxidants and UV absorbers, preservation agents and biocides, and many others. Among these chemicals...

  5. Use of a New Method Involving Labelling with Non-Radioactive Elements and Activation Analysis to Investigate Wear

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radvan, M.; Reven'ska-Kos'tsjuk, B.; Vez'ranovski, E

    1967-01-01

    In view of the considerable difficulties in using the labelled-atom method to investigate the wear of bearings in agricultural machines under operating conditions, and also to investigate the wear of fire-proof materials in steel production (owing to the occurrence of exogenous non-metallic inclusions), the authors turned their attention to labelling these parts with nonradioactive elements, which were then determined by activation analysis. In the work carried out by this method either mixtures of rare-earth oxides or lanthanum oxide alone were used as tracers, because of their useful nuclear properties. The use of rare-earth elements is also justified by the fact that their chemical properties differ from those of the remaining elements in the material investigated, which means that they can be separated from the respective carriers. In investigations of the wear of agricultural machine bearings made from cast-iron modified with rare-earth elements in an amount too low to cause structural changes, the authors used the modifier as a tracer. The wear of polyamide bearings was also investigated. The use of activation analysis is particularly interesting in this case, since certain properties of the polyamide make standard methods of investigation completely impossible. The products of wear were separated from the oil or grease by extraction or combustion. In determinations of non-metallic exogenous inclusions in ball-bearing steel, caused by certain fireproof materials, the wear of these materials was investigated using modem steel production technology. The aim of these investigations was to determine the effect of vacuum extraction and the use of induction mixers on the passage of fire-resistant particles into the steel. A method of determination was developed based on chemical separation of the tracer after activation with an appropriate surplus of non-radioactive carrier, and also a method of separating it before activation with a calcium carrier. The authors

  6. Handbook of hazardous waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Metry, A.A.

    1980-01-01

    The contents of this work are arranged so as to give the reader a detailed understanding of the elements of hazardous waste management. Generalized management concepts are covered in Chapters 1 through 5 which are entitled: Introduction, Regulations Affecting Hazardous Waste Management, Comprehensive Hazardous Waste Management, Control of Hazardous Waste Transportation, and Emergency Hazardous Waste Management. Chapters 6 through 11 deal with treatment concepts and are entitled: General Considerations for Hazardous Waste Management Facilities, Physical Treatment of Hazardous Wastes, Chemical Treatment of Hazardous Wastes, Biological Treatment of Hazardous Wastes, Incineration of Hazardous Wastes, and Hazardous Waste Management of Selected Industries. Chapters 12 through 15 are devoted to ultimate disposal concepts and are entitled: Land Disposal Facilities, Ocean Dumping of Hazardous Wastes, Disposal of Extremely Hazardous Wastes, and Generalized Criteria for Hazardous Waste Management Facilities

  7. Micro structured reactors for synthesis/decomposition of hazardous chemicals. Challenging prospects for micro structured reaction architectures (4)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rebrov, E.V.; Croon, de M.H.J.M.; Schouten, J.C.

    2004-01-01

    A review. This paper completes a series of four publications dealing with the different aspects of the applications of micro reactor technol. This article focuses on the application of micro structured reactors in the processes for synthesis/decompn. of hazardous chems., such as unsym.

  8. Cumulative Index to Chemicals and to Common and Scientific Names of Species Listed in Contaminant Hazard Reviews 1 Through 34.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-03-01

    Wildlife Research Center- synthesizes ecotoxicological data for selected environmental contaminants, with emphasis on hazards to native species of flora...series-—sponsored by the U.S. Geological Survey Patuxent Wildlife Research Center—synthesizes ecotoxicological data for selected environmental...7 37. Macronectes giganteus: 32 16; 33 26; 34 27. Macrophytes , aquatic, Cabomba spp., Chara sp., Elodea, Lemna, Myriophyllum, Polygonum sp

  9. 40 CFR 370.10 - Who must comply with the hazardous chemical reporting requirements of this part?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Hazardous Substance (EHS) is present at your facility at any one time in an amount equal to or greater than... (For purposes of this part, retail gas station means a retail facility engaged in selling gasoline and... facility engaged in selling gasoline and/or diesel fuel principally to the public, for motor vehicle use on...

  10. Host Response to Environmental Hazards: Using Literature, Bioinformatics, and Computation to Derive Candidate Biomarkers of Toxic Industrial Chemical Exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-01

    military threat chemicals with adverse health effects and clinical outcomes to improve diagnostic potential after exposure to toxic industrial...end organ injury following chemical exposures in the field. Markers of end-organ injury and toxicity and other health effects markers, particularly...Biomarkers of Toxic Industrial Chemical Exposure Major Jonathan D. Stallings *1 , Danielle L. Ippolito 1 , Anders Wallqvist 2 , B. Claire McDyre 3 , and

  11. Computational toxicology as implemented by the U.S. EPA: providing high throughput decision support tools for screening and assessing chemical exposure, hazard and risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavlock, Robert; Dix, David

    2010-02-01

    Computational toxicology is the application of mathematical and computer models to help assess chemical hazards and risks to human health and the environment. Supported by advances in informatics, high-throughput screening (HTS) technologies, and systems biology, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency EPA is developing robust and flexible computational tools that can be applied to the thousands of chemicals in commerce, and contaminant mixtures found in air, water, and hazardous-waste sites. The Office of Research and Development (ORD) Computational Toxicology Research Program (CTRP) is composed of three main elements. The largest component is the National Center for Computational Toxicology (NCCT), which was established in 2005 to coordinate research on chemical screening and prioritization, informatics, and systems modeling. The second element consists of related activities in the National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory (NHEERL) and the National Exposure Research Laboratory (NERL). The third and final component consists of academic centers working on various aspects of computational toxicology and funded by the U.S. EPA Science to Achieve Results (STAR) program. Together these elements form the key components in the implementation of both the initial strategy, A Framework for a Computational Toxicology Research Program (U.S. EPA, 2003), and the newly released The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Strategic Plan for Evaluating the Toxicity of Chemicals (U.S. EPA, 2009a). Key intramural projects of the CTRP include digitizing legacy toxicity testing information toxicity reference database (ToxRefDB), predicting toxicity (ToxCast) and exposure (ExpoCast), and creating virtual liver (v-Liver) and virtual embryo (v-Embryo) systems models. U.S. EPA-funded STAR centers are also providing bioinformatics, computational toxicology data and models, and developmental toxicity data and models. The models and underlying data are being made publicly

  12. Detection of adenovirus in nasopharyngeal specimens by radioactive and nonradioactive DNA probes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hyypiae, T.

    1985-01-01

    The presence of adenovirus DNA in clinical specimens was analyzed by nucleic acid hybridization assays by both radioactive and enzymatic detection systems. The sensitivity of the hybridization tests was in the range of 10 to 100 pg of homologous adenovirus DNA. Minimal background was noticed with unrelated viral and nonviral DNA. Twenty-four nasopharyngeal mucus aspirate specimens, collected from children with acute respiratory infection, were assayed in the hybridization tests and also by an enzyme immunoassay for adenovirus hexon antigen which was used as a reference test. Sixteen specimens positive by the enzyme immunoassay also were positive in the two nucleic acid hybridization tests, and the remaining eight specimens were negative in all of the tests. The results indicate that nucleid acid hybridization tests with both radioactive and nonradioactive probes can be used for diagnosis of microbial infections

  13. Evaluation of nonradioactive, colored microspheres for measurement of regional myocardial blood flow in dogs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hale, S.L.; Alker, K.J.; Kloner, R.A.

    1988-01-01

    Measurement of regional myocardial blood flow (RMBF) is crucial in experimental studies of myocardial ischemia and reperfusion in dogs. The standard measurement technique uses radioactive microspheres; however, not all institutions are able to dispose of radioactive waste and therefore cannot make use of this method. We tested a new, nonradioactive microsphere, labeled with colors instead of nuclides. Simultaneous blood flow measurements with two nuclide-labeled and two colored microspheres were performed after coronary occlusion in dogs. Both techniques show a within-method correlation of r greater than 0.98. Duplicate variability for paired RMBF values in 80 samples was 8.7 +/- 0.1% when computed with radioactive microspheres and 13.2 +/- 1.8% when computed with colored microspheres. There was a good correlation in the measurement of RMBF between the radioactive- and colored-microsphere methods (r = 0.98). The best-fitting linear regression line was expressed by the formula: Colored-microsphere RMBF = 1.11 (radioactive-microsphere RMBF)-0.02. When measured by colored microspheres, RMBF was approximately 8% higher than when computed with radioactive microspheres for blood flow values of 0-2 ml/min/g. When blood flow was increased pharmacologically to levels of 2-7.5 ml/min/g, colored microspheres yielded blood flow values 39% higher than the values computed by radioactive microspheres. We conclude that the nonradioactive, colored-microsphere method correlates with the radioactive technique, but at high flows, it yields values greater than those obtained with radioactive microspheres

  14. Screening for mutations in human alpha-globin genes by nonradioactive single-strand conformation polymorphism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge S.B.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Point mutations and small insertions or deletions in the human alpha-globin genes may produce alpha-chain structural variants and alpha-thalassemia. Mutations can be detected either by direct DNA sequencing or by screening methods, which select the mutated exon for sequencing. Although small (about 1 kb, 3 exons and 2 introns, the alpha-globin genes are duplicate (alpha2 and alpha1 and highy G-C rich, which makes them difficult to denature, reducing sequencing efficiency and causing frequent artifacts. We modified some conditions for PCR and electrophoresis in order to detect mutations in these genes employing nonradioactive single-strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP. Primers previously described by other authors for radioactive SSCP and phast-SSCP plus denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis were here combined and the resultant fragments (6 new besides 6 original per alpha-gene submitted to silver staining SSCP. Nine structural and one thalassemic mutations were tested, under different conditions including two electrophoretic apparatus (PhastSystem(TM and GenePhor(TM, Amersham Biosciences, different polyacrylamide gel concentrations, run temperatures and denaturing agents, and entire and restriction enzyme cut fragments. One hundred percent of sensitivity was achieved with four of the new fragments formed, using the PhastSystem(TM and 20% gels at 15ºC, without the need of restriction enzymes. This nonradioactive PCR-SSCP approach showed to be simple, rapid and sensitive, reducing the costs involved in frequent sequencing repetitions and increasing the reliability of the results. It can be especially useful for laboratories which do not have an automated sequencer.

  15. Criteria for long-term hazard assessment of chemotoxic and radiotoxic waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merz, E.R.

    1988-01-01

    Present-day human activities generate chemotoxic as well as radiotoxic wastes. They must likewise be considered as extremely hazardous. If wastes are composed simultaneously of both kinds, as may occur in nuclear facility operations or nuclear medical applications, the material is called mixed waste. Whereas radioactive waste management and disposal have received considerable attention in the past, less care has been devoted to chemotoxic wastes. Also, mixed wastes may pose problems diverging from singly composed materials. The disposal of mixed wastes is not sufficiently well regulated in the Federal Republic of Germany. Currently, non-radioactive hazardous wastes are mostly disposed of by shallow land burial. Much more rigorous safety precautions are applied with regard to radioactive wastes. According to the orders of the German Federal Government, their disposal is only permitted in continental underground repositories. These repository requirements for radioactive waste disposal should be superior to the near-surface disposal facilities. At present, federal and state legislation do not permit hazardous chemical and radioactive wastes to be deposited simultaneously. It is doubtful whether this instruction is always suitable and also justified. This paper presents a modified strategy

  16. CON4EI: Bovine Corneal Opacity and Permeability (BCOP) test for hazard identification and labelling of eye irritating chemicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verstraelen, Sandra; Maglennon, Gareth; Hollanders, Karen; Boonen, Francis; Adriaens, Els; Alépée, Nathalie; Drzewiecka, Agnieszka; Gruszka, Katarzyna; Kandarova, Helena; Willoughby, Jamin A; Guest, Robert; Schofield, Jane; Van Rompay, An R

    2017-10-01

    Assessment of ocular irritation potential is an international regulatory requirement in the safety evaluation of industrial and consumer products. None in vitro ocular irritation assays are capable of fully categorizing chemicals as stand-alone. Therefore, the CEFIC-LRI-AIMT6-VITO CON4EI consortium assessed the reliability of eight in vitro test methods and computational models as well as established a tiered-testing strategy. One of the selected assays was Bovine Corneal Opacity and Permeability (BCOP). In this project, the same corneas were used for measurement of opacity using the OP-KIT, the Laser Light-Based Opacitometer (LLBO) and for histopathological analysis. The results show that the accuracy of the BCOP OP-KIT in identifying Cat 1 chemicals was 73.8% while the accuracy was 86.3% for No Cat chemicals. BCOP OP-KIT false negative results were often related to an in vivo classification driven by conjunctival effects only. For the BCOP LLBO, the accuracy in identifying Cat 1 chemicals was 74.4% versus 88.8% for No Cat chemicals. The BCOP LLBO seems very promising for the identification of No Cat liquids but less so for the identification of solids. Histopathology as an additional endpoint to the BCOP test method does not reduce the false negative rate substantially for in vivo Cat 1 chemicals. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Risk assessment and ranking methodologies for hazardous chemical defense waste: a state-of-the-art review and evaluation. Task 1 report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chu, M.S.Y.; Rodricks, J.V.; St Hilaire, C.; Bras, R.L.

    1986-06-01

    This report summarizes the work performed under Task 1 of the Risk Assessment Evaluation Task under the Hazardous Chemical Defense Waste Management Program of the Department of Energy (DOE). The objective of Task 1 was to identify, review, and evaluate the state-of-the-art tools and techniques available for ranking and evaluating disposal facilities. These tools were evaluated for their applicability to DOE's mixed hazardous chemical and radioactive waste sites. Various ranking methodologies were reviewed and three were evaluated in detail. Areas that were found to be deficient in each ranking methodology were presented in the report. Recommendations were given for the development of an improved ranking methodology for use on DOE's sites. A literature review was then performed on the various components of a risk assessment methodology. They include source term evaluation, geosphere transport models, exposure pathways models, dose effects models, and sensitivity/uncertainty techniques. A number of recommendations have been made in the report based on the review and evaluation for the development of a comprehensive risk assessment methodology in evaluating mixed waste disposal sites

  18. A brief introduction to chemical hazards in the life cycle of building products with floor coverings as a case study

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Ampofo-Anti, NL

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available concentration in indoor air poses three types of health hazard, namely (Jönsson, 2000):  Perception of odours which affects comfort levels7;  Irritation of the mucous membranes – eyes, nose and throat8; and  Long-term toxic reactions9 Some... Mercury Possibly CMR Heavy metal Filler, ordinary sand None N/A Inert Urethane (pre- mixed grout) Acetaldehyde CMR VOC Ethylbenzene CMR VOC Epoxy mortar/grout (solid) 100% solid epoxy systems dry with a smooth surface, and are more...

  19. Standard test methods for determining chemical durability of nuclear, hazardous, and mixed waste glasses and multiphase glass ceramics: The product consistency test (PCT)

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2002-01-01

    1.1 These product consistency test methods A and B evaluate the chemical durability of homogeneous glasses, phase separated glasses, devitrified glasses, glass ceramics, and/or multiphase glass ceramic waste forms hereafter collectively referred to as “glass waste forms” by measuring the concentrations of the chemical species released to a test solution. 1.1.1 Test Method A is a seven-day chemical durability test performed at 90 ± 2°C in a leachant of ASTM-Type I water. The test method is static and conducted in stainless steel vessels. Test Method A can specifically be used to evaluate whether the chemical durability and elemental release characteristics of nuclear, hazardous, and mixed glass waste forms have been consistently controlled during production. This test method is applicable to radioactive and simulated glass waste forms as defined above. 1.1.2 Test Method B is a durability test that allows testing at various test durations, test temperatures, mesh size, mass of sample, leachant volume, a...

  20. Recommendations for sampling for prevention of hazards in civil defense. On analytics of chemical, biological and radioactive contaminations. 2. ed.; Empfehlungen fuer die Probenahme zur Gefahrenabwehr im Bevoelkerungsschutz. Zur Analytik von chemischen, biologischen und radioaktiven Kontaminationen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bachmann, Udo; Derakshani, Nahid; Drobig, Matthias; Koenig, Mario; Mentfewitz, Joachim; Prast, Hartmut; Uelpenich, Gerhard; Vidmayer, Marc; Wilbert, Stefan; Wolf, Manfred

    2016-07-01

    The recommendations for sampling for prevention of hazards in civil defense (analytics of chemical, biological and radioactive contaminations) cover the following topics: Requirements for sampling, description of the materials (chemical, biological and radioactive contaminated materials), decontamination, sample transport and protocol documents.

  1. Comparison of the concepts used to develop and apply occupational exposure limits for ionizing radiation and hazardous chemical substances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halton, D.M.

    1988-01-01

    The rationales used by the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (AC-GIH) to recommend exposure limits for 10 chemicals were reviewed. The 10 chemicals chosen were known to produce chronic disease after prolonged overexposure in the workplace. The chemicals were toluene diisocyanate, hydrogen fluoride, n-hexane, carbon disulfide, cadmium, inorganic mercury, cobalt, nitroglycerol, silica, and vinyl chloride. The rationales used by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) to recommend limits for workplace exposure to ionizing radiation were reviewed. The rationales used in occupational health by ACGIH were then compared with those used by ICRP in health physics. The comparison revealed a significant divergence in the underlying concepts and philosophies of the two approaches. This divergence cannot be solely attributed to differences in scientific knowledge about toxicological and radiological effects. In areas of scientific uncertainty, exposure limits for ionizing radiation are based on worst case or conservative assumptions. This approach favors human safety. Parallel approaches could not be found for any of the 10 chemicals reviewed. Other factors such as the costs incurred by industry in meeting the proposed standards played a more significant role in establishing limits for workplace chemicals than for ionizing radiation

  2. Hazard Communication Guidelines for Compliance

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2000-01-01

    OSHA's Hazard Communication Standard (HCS) is based on a simple concept that employees have both a need and a right to know the hazards and identities of the chemicals they are exposed to when working...

  3. Predicting chemically-induced skin reactions. Part I: QSAR models of skin sensitization and their application to identify potentially hazardous compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, Vinicius M.; Muratov, Eugene; Fourches, Denis; Strickland, Judy; Kleinstreuer, Nicole; Andrade, Carolina H.; Tropsha, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    Repetitive exposure to a chemical agent can induce an immune reaction in inherently susceptible individuals that leads to skin sensitization. Although many chemicals have been reported as skin sensitizers, there have been very few rigorously validated QSAR models with defined applicability domains (AD) that were developed using a large group of chemically diverse compounds. In this study, we have aimed to compile, curate, and integrate the largest publicly available dataset related to chemically-induced skin sensitization, use this data to generate rigorously validated and QSAR models for skin sensitization, and employ these models as a virtual screening tool for identifying putative sensitizers among environmental chemicals. We followed best practices for model building and validation implemented with our predictive QSAR workflow using random forest modeling technique in combination with SiRMS and Dragon descriptors. The Correct Classification Rate (CCR) for QSAR models discriminating sensitizers from non-sensitizers were 71–88% when evaluated on several external validation sets, within a broad AD, with positive (for sensitizers) and negative (for non-sensitizers) predicted rates of 85% and 79% respectively. When compared to the skin sensitization module included in the OECD QSAR toolbox as well as to the skin sensitization model in publicly available VEGA software, our models showed a significantly higher prediction accuracy for the same sets of external compounds as evaluated by Positive Predicted Rate, Negative Predicted Rate, and CCR. These models were applied to identify putative chemical hazards in the ScoreCard database of possible skin or sense organ toxicants as primary candidates for experimental validation. PMID:25560674

  4. Evaluation of semi-generic PBTK modeling for emergency risk assessment after acute inhalation exposure to volatile hazardous chemicals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Olie, J Daniël N; Bessems, Jos G; Clewell, Harvey J; Meulenbelt, Jan; Hunault, Claudine C

    BACKGROUND: Physiologically Based Toxicokinetic Models (PBTK) may facilitate emergency risk assessment after chemical incidents with inhalation exposure, but they are rarely used due to their relative complexity and skill requirements. We aimed to tackle this problem by evaluating a semi-generic

  5. Evaluation of semi-generic PBTK modeling for emergency risk assessment after acute inhalation exposure to volatile hazardous chemicals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Olie, J. Daniël N; Bessems, Jos G.; Clewell, Harvey J.; Meulenbelt, Jan; Hunault, Claudine C.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Physiologically Based Toxicokinetic Models (PBTK) may facilitate emergency risk assessment after chemical incidents with inhalation exposure, but they are rarely used due to their relative complexity and skill requirements. We aimed to tackle this problem by evaluating a semi-generic

  6. Radon and its hazards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang Guilan

    2002-01-01

    The author describes basic physical and chemical properties of radon and the emanation, introduces methods of radon measurement, expounds the hazards of non-mine radon accumulation to the health of human being and the protection, as well as the history how the human being recognizes the hazards of radon through the specific data and examples, and finally proposes protecting measures to avoid the hazards of radon to the health of human being, and to do ecologic evaluation of environments

  7. Evaluation of semi-generic PBTK modeling for emergency risk assessment after acute inhalation exposure to volatile hazardous chemicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olie, J Daniël N; Bessems, Jos G; Clewell, Harvey J; Meulenbelt, Jan; Hunault, Claudine C

    2015-08-01

    Physiologically Based Toxicokinetic Models (PBTK) may facilitate emergency risk assessment after chemical incidents with inhalation exposure, but they are rarely used due to their relative complexity and skill requirements. We aimed to tackle this problem by evaluating a semi-generic PBTK model built in MS Excel for nine chemicals that are widely-used and often released in a chemical incident. The semi-generic PBTK model was used to predict blood concentration-time curves using inhalation exposure scenarios from human volunteer studies, case reports and hypothetical exposures at Emergency Response Planning Guideline, Level 3 (ERPG-3) levels.(2) Predictions using this model were compared with measured blood concentrations from volunteer studies or case reports, as well as blood concentrations predicted by chemical-specific models. The performances of the semi-generic model were evaluated on biological rationale, accuracy, and ease of use and range of application. Our results indicate that the semi-generic model can be easily used to predict blood levels for eight out of nine parent chemicals (dichloromethane, benzene, xylene, styrene, toluene, isopropanol trichloroethylene and tetrachloroethylene). However, for methanol, 2-propanol and dichloromethane the semi-generic model could not cope with the endogenous production of methanol and of acetone (being a metabolite of 2-propanol) nor could it simulate the formation of HbCO, which is one of the toxic end-points of dichloromethane. The model is easy and intuitive to use by people who are not so familiar with toxicokinetic models. A semi-generic PBTK modeling approach can be used as a 'quick-and-dirty' method to get a crude estimate of the exposure dose. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Biocompatibility, Inflammatory Response, and Recannalization Characteristics of Nonradioactive Resin Microspheres: Histological Findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bilbao, Jose I.; Martino, Alba de; Luis, Esther de; Diaz-Dorronsoro, Lourdes; Alonso-Burgos, Alberto; Martinez de la Cuesta, Antonio; Sangro, Bruno; Garcia de Jalon, Jose A.

    2009-01-01

    Intra-arterial radiotherapy with yttrium-90 microspheres (radioembolization) is a therapeutic procedure exclusively applied to the liver that allows the direct delivery of high-dose radiation to liver tumors, by means of endovascular catheters, selectively placed within the tumor vasculature. The aim of the study was to describe the distribution of spheres within the precapillaries, inflammatory response, and recannalization characteristics after embolization with nonradioactive resin microspheres in the kidney and liver. We performed a partial embolization of the liver and kidney vessels in nine white pigs. The left renal and left hepatic arteries were catheterized and filled with nonradioactive resin microspheres. Embolization was defined as the initiation of near-stasis of blood flow, rather than total occlusion of the vessels. The hepatic circulation was not isolated so that the effects of reflux of microspheres into stomach could be observed. Animals were sacrificed at 48 h, 4 weeks, and 8 weeks, and tissue samples from the kidney, liver, lung, and stomach evaluated. Microscopic evaluation revealed clusters of 10-30 microspheres (15-30 μm in diameter) in the small vessels of the kidney (the arciform arteries, vasa recti, and glomerular afferent vessels) and liver. Aggregates were associated with focal ischemia and mild vascular wall damage. Occlusion of the small vessels was associated with a mild perivascular inflammatory reaction. After filling of the left hepatic artery with microspheres, there was some evidence of arteriovenous shunting into the lungs, and one case of cholecystitis and one case of marked gastritis and ulceration at the site of arterial occlusion due to the presence of clusters of microspheres. Beyond 48 h, microspheres were progressively integrated into the vascular wall by phagocytosis and the lumen recannalized. Eight-week evaluation found that the perivascular inflammatory reaction was mild. Liver cell damage, bile duct injury, and

  9. Rapid screening and identification of chemical hazards in surface and drinking water using high resolution mass spectrometry and a case-control filter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaserzon, Sarit L; Heffernan, Amy L; Thompson, Kristie; Mueller, Jochen F; Gomez Ramos, Maria Jose

    2017-09-01

    Access to clean, safe drinking water poses a serious challenge to regulators, and requires analytical strategies capable of rapid screening and identification of potentially hazardous chemicals, specifically in situations when threats to water quality or security require rapid investigations and potential response. This study describes a fast and efficient chemical hazard screening strategy for characterising trace levels of polar organic contaminants in water matrices, based on liquid chromatography high resolution mass spectrometry with post-acquisition 'case-control' data processing. This method allowed for a rapid response time of less than 24 h for the screening of target, suspect and non-target unknown chemicals via direct injection analysis, and a second, more sensitive analysis option requiring sample pre-concentration. The method was validated by fortifying samples with a range of pesticides, pharmaceuticals and personal care products (n = 46); with >90% of target compounds positively screened in samples at 1 ng mL -1 , and 46% at 0.1 ng mL -1 when analysed via direct injection. To simulate a contamination event samples were fortified with compounds not present in the commercial library (designated 'non-target compounds'; fipronil and fenitrothion), tentatively identified at 0.2 and 1 ng mL -1 , respectively; and a compound not included in any known commercial library or public database (designated 'unknown' compounds; 8Cl - perfluorooctanesulfonic acid), at 0.8 ng mL -1 . The method was applied to two 'real-case' scenarios: (1) the assessment of drinking water safety during a high-profile event in Brisbane, Australia; and (2) to screen treated, re-circulated drinking water and pre-treated (raw) water. The validated workflow was effective for rapid prioritisation and screening of suspect and non-target potential hazards at trace levels, and could be applied to a wide range of matrices and investigations where comparison of organic contaminants

  10. Hazardous Air Pollutants

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Search Main menu Environmental Topics Air Bed Bugs Chemicals and Toxics Environmental Information by Location Greener Living Health Land, ... regulate toxic air pollutants, also known as air toxics, from categories of industrial facilities in two phases . About Hazardous Air Pollutants ...

  11. Chemical Speciation and Quantitative Evaluation of Heavy Metal Pollution Hazards in Two Army Shooting Range Backstop Soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Mohammad Nazrul; Nguyen, Xuan Phuc; Jung, Ho-Young; Park, Jeong-Hun

    2016-02-01

    The chemical speciation and ecological risk assessment of heavy metals in two shooting range backstop soils in Korea were studied. Both soils were highly contaminated with Cd, Cu, Pb, and Sb. The chemical speciation of heavy metals reflected the present status of contamination, which could help in promoting management practices. We-rye soil had a higher proportion of exchangeable and carbonate bound metals and water-extractable Cd and Sb than the Cho-do soil. Bioavailable Pb represented 42 % of the total Pb content in both soils. A significant amount of Sb was found in the two most bioavailable fractions, amounting to ~32 % in the soil samples, in good agreement with the batch leaching test using water. Based on the values of ecological risk indices, both soils showed extremely high potential risk and may represent serious environmental problems.

  12. Fluorescent X-ray computed tomography using synchrotron radiation for imaging nonradioactive tracer materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akiba, Masahiro; Yuasa, Tetsuya; Uchida, Akira; Akatsuka, Takao [Yamagata Univ., Yonezawa (Japan). Electrical and Information of Engineering; Takeda, Tohoru; Hyodo, Kazuyuki; Itai, Yuji

    1997-09-01

    We describe a system of fluorescent X-ray computed tomography using synchrotron radiation (SR-FXCT) to image nonradioactive contrast materials. The system operates on the basis of computed tomography (CT) scanned by the pencil beam. In the previous experiment, we have imaged an acrylic cylindrical phantom with cross-shaped channel, filled with a diluted iodine-based tracer material of 200 {mu}g/ml. This research is aimed to improve image quality, to select the optimum energy of the incident X-ray, to confirm quantitative evaluation of the image, and to demonstrate FXCT image for living body. First, we simulated output energy profile by the Monte Carlo simulation and confirmed to predetermine the incident X-ray energy at 37 keV, in order to separate the fluorescent photons from background scattering components. Next, the imaging experiment was performed by using conventional CT algorithm under the optimum parameter at the Tristan Accumulation Ring, KEK, Japan. An acrylic phantom containing five paraxial channels of 5 and 4 mm in diameter, could be imaged; where each channel was respectively filled with diluted iodine-based contrast materials of 50, 100, 200 and 500 {mu}g/ml. From the reconstructed image, we confirmed quantitativity in the FXCT image. Finally, a rat`s brain was imaged in vitro by FXCT and monochromatic transmission CT. The comparison between these results showed that the iodine-rich region in the FXCT image corresponded with that in the monochromatic transmission CT image. (author)

  13. A versatile non-radioactive assay for DNA methyltransferase activity and DNA binding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frauer, Carina; Leonhardt, Heinrich

    2009-01-01

    We present a simple, non-radioactive assay for DNA methyltransferase activity and DNA binding. As most proteins are studied as GFP fusions in living cells, we used a GFP binding nanobody coupled to agarose beads (GFP nanotrap) for rapid one-step purification. Immobilized GFP fusion proteins were subsequently incubated with different fluorescently labeled DNA substrates. The absolute amounts and molar ratios of GFP fusion proteins and bound DNA substrates were determined by fluorescence spectroscopy. In addition to specific DNA binding of GFP fusion proteins, the enzymatic activity of DNA methyltransferases can also be determined by using suicide DNA substrates. These substrates contain the mechanism-based inhibitor 5-aza-dC and lead to irreversible covalent complex formation. We obtained covalent complexes with mammalian DNA methyltransferase 1 (Dnmt1), which were resistant to competition with non-labeled canonical DNA substrates, allowing differentiation between methyltransferase activity and DNA binding. By comparison, the Dnmt1C1229W catalytic site mutant showed DNA-binding activity, but no irreversible covalent complex formation. With this assay, we could also confirm the preference of Dnmt1 for hemimethylated CpG sequences. The rapid optical read-out in a multi-well format and the possibility to test several different substrates in direct competition allow rapid characterization of sequence-specific binding and enzymatic activity. PMID:19129216

  14. Overview of programmes for the assessment of risks to the environment from ionising radiation and hazardous chemicals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, C; Gilek, M

    2004-01-01

    Within the FASSET project, a review of existing programmes for the assessment of environmental risks from radioactive or hazardous substances was carried out in order to identify appropriate aspects that could be incorporated into the FASSET framework. The review revealed a number of different approaches, arising from the need to balance the information value of the assessment against the availability of data and the need to keep the assessment manageable. Most of the existing assessment programmes fit into a three-phase approach to environmental risk assessment: problem formulation, assessment and risk characterisation. However, the emphasis on particular assessment phases varies between programmes. The main differences between the different programmes are: the degree of specificity to a particular site, the level of detail of the assessment, the point at which a comparison is made between a criterion intended to represent 'what is acceptable' and a measured or predicted quantity, the choice of end-point for the assessment and the relationship between measurement end-points and assessment end-points. The existing assessment programmes are based on a similar general structure, which is suitable for use as a basis for the FASSET framework. However, certain aspects of the assessment of exposure and effects of ionising contaminants, e.g. dosimetry, require further development before incorporation into such a framework

  15. Environmental effects and potential hazards of chemical substances used in waste water purification; Umweltvertraeglichkeit und Gefaehrdungspotentiale von Abwasserbehandlungschemikalien

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schumann, H. [Umweltbundesamt, Berlin (Germany). Inst. fuer Wasser-, Boden- und Lufthygiene

    1999-07-01

    Waste water purification in sewage systems would be impossible without additions of chemical substances for coagulation, flocculation and neutralisation. However, these substances also pollute the purified waste water and the freshwater supplies. In addition, the non-reactive fraction of toxic substances originally contained in the waste water is discharged with the purified waste water and adds to the pollution of freshwater reservoirs. Detailed investigations are required for defining the state of the art in the use of chemical substances for waste water purification. [German] Um Schadstoffe aus dem Abwasser zu entfernen, werden in der Klaeranlage bestimmte Hilfsstoffe zugesetzt, ohne die eine Reinigung des Abwassers nicht in dieser Qualitaet moeglich waere und unverhaeltnismaessig teuer wuerde. Die Hilfsstoffe unterstuetzen den Reinigungsprozess durch Faellung, Flockung und Neutralisation. Durch den Einsatz dieser Chemikalien zur Behandlung von Abwaessern gelangen jedoch auch - Verunreinigungen durch die Nebenstoff-Matrix der eingesetzten Behandlungschemikalien in das behandelte Abwasser und in die Gewaesser und - durch ueberstoechiometrische Dosierung oder Additive tritt der nicht reagierende Teil toxischer Substanzen ebenfalls im behandelten Abwasserablauf und im Gewaesser auf. Detaillierte Untersuchungen erscheinen geboten, um auf dieser Grundlage den Stand der Technik beim Einsatz von Chemikalien zur Abwasserbehandlung zu formulieren. (orig./SR)

  16. Population-Based in Vitro Hazard and Concentration–Response Assessment of Chemicals: The 1000 Genomes High-Throughput Screening Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdo, Nour; Xia, Menghang; Brown, Chad C.; Kosyk, Oksana; Huang, Ruili; Sakamuru, Srilatha; Zhou, Yi-Hui; Jack, John R.; Gallins, Paul; Xia, Kai; Li, Yun; Chiu, Weihsueh A.; Motsinger-Reif, Alison A.; Austin, Christopher P.; Tice, Raymond R.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Understanding of human variation in toxicity to environmental chemicals remains limited, so human health risk assessments still largely rely on a generic 10-fold factor (10½ each for toxicokinetics and toxicodynamics) to account for sensitive individuals or subpopulations. Objectives: We tested a hypothesis that population-wide in vitro cytotoxicity screening can rapidly inform both the magnitude of and molecular causes for interindividual toxicodynamic variability. Methods: We used 1,086 lymphoblastoid cell lines from the 1000 Genomes Project, representing nine populations from five continents, to assess variation in cytotoxic response to 179 chemicals. Analysis included assessments of population variation and heritability, and genome-wide association mapping, with attention to phenotypic relevance to human exposures. Results: For about half the tested compounds, cytotoxic response in the 1% most “sensitive” individual occurred at concentrations within a factor of 10½ (i.e., approximately 3) of that in the median individual; however, for some compounds, this factor was > 10. Genetic mapping suggested important roles for variation in membrane and transmembrane genes, with a number of chemicals showing association with SNP rs13120371 in the solute carrier SLC7A11, previously implicated in chemoresistance. Conclusions: This experimental approach fills critical gaps unaddressed by recent large-scale toxicity testing programs, providing quantitative, experimentally based estimates of human toxicodynamic variability, and also testable hypotheses about mechanisms contributing to interindividual variation. Citation: Abdo N, Xia M, Brown CC, Kosyk O, Huang R, Sakamuru S, Zhou YH, Jack JR, Gallins P, Xia K, Li Y, Chiu WA, Motsinger-Reif AA, Austin CP, Tice RR, Rusyn I, Wright FA. 2015. Population-based in vitro hazard and concentration–response assessment of chemicals: the 1000 Genomes high-throughput screening study. Environ Health Perspect 123:458

  17. Electron capture detector based on a non-radioactive electron source: operating parameters vs. analytical performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Bunert

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Gas chromatographs with electron capture detectors are widely used for the analysis of electron affine substances such as pesticides or chlorofluorocarbons. With detection limits in the low pptv range, electron capture detectors are the most sensitive detectors available for such compounds. Based on their operating principle, they require free electrons at atmospheric pressure, which are usually generated by a β− decay. However, the use of radioactive materials leads to regulatory restrictions regarding purchase, operation, and disposal. Here, we present a novel electron capture detector based on a non-radioactive electron source that shows similar detection limits compared to radioactive detectors but that is not subject to these limitations and offers further advantages such as adjustable electron densities and energies. In this work we show first experimental results using 1,1,2-trichloroethane and sevoflurane, and investigate the effect of several operating parameters on the analytical performance of this new non-radioactive electron capture detector (ECD.

  18. Development and Application of Computational/In Vitro Toxicological Methods for Chemical Hazard Risk Reduction of New Materials for Advanced Weapon Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frazier, John M.; Mattie, D. R.; Hussain, Saber; Pachter, Ruth; Boatz, Jerry; Hawkins, T. W.

    2000-01-01

    The development of quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) is essential for reducing the chemical hazards of new weapon systems. The current collaboration between HEST (toxicology research and testing), MLPJ (computational chemistry) and PRS (computational chemistry, new propellant synthesis) is focusing R&D efforts on basic research goals that will rapidly transition to useful products for propellant development. Computational methods are being investigated that will assist in forecasting cellular toxicological end-points. Models developed from these chemical structure-toxicity relationships are useful for the prediction of the toxicological endpoints of new related compounds. Research is focusing on the evaluation tools to be used for the discovery of such relationships and the development of models of the mechanisms of action. Combinations of computational chemistry techniques, in vitro toxicity methods, and statistical correlations, will be employed to develop and explore potential predictive relationships; results for series of molecular systems that demonstrate the viability of this approach are reported. A number of hydrazine salts have been synthesized for evaluation. Computational chemistry methods are being used to elucidate the mechanism of action of these salts. Toxicity endpoints such as viability (LDH) and changes in enzyme activity (glutahoione peroxidase and catalase) are being experimentally measured as indicators of cellular damage. Extrapolation from computational/in vitro studies to human toxicity, is the ultimate goal. The product of this program will be a predictive tool to assist in the development of new, less toxic propellants.

  19. Electrostatic hazards

    CERN Document Server

    Luttgens, Günter; Luttgens, Gnter; Luttgens, G Nter

    1997-01-01

    In the US, UK and Europe there is in excess of one notifiable dust or electrostatic explosion every day of the year. This clearly makes the hazards associated with the handling of materials subject to either cause or react to electrostatic discharge of vital importance to anyone associated with their handling or industrial bulk use. This book provides a comprehensive guide to the dangers of static electricity and how to avoid them. It will prove invaluable to safety managers and professionals, as well as all personnel involved in the activities concerned, in the chemical, agricultural, pharmaceutical and petrochemical process industries. The book makes extended use of case studies to illustrate the principles being expounded, thereby making it far more open, accessible and attractive to the practitioner in industry than the highly theoretical texts which are also available. The authors have many years' experience in the area behind them, including the professional teaching of the content provided here. Günte...

  20. DOE Hazardous Waste Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eyman, L.D.; Craig, R.B.

    1985-01-01

    The goal of the DOE Hazardous Waste Program is to support the implementation and improvement of hazardous-chemical and mixed-radioactive-waste management such that public health, safety, and the environment are protected and DOE missions are effectively accomplished. The strategy for accomplishing this goal is to define the character and magnitude of hazardous wastes emanating from DOE facilities, determine what DOE resources are available to address these problems, define the regulatory and operational constraints, and develop programs and plans to resolve hazardous waste issues. Over the longer term the program will support the adaptation and application of technologies to meet hazardous waste management needs and to implement an integrated, DOE-wide hazardous waste management strategy. 1 reference, 1 figure

  1. Hazardous Substances Data Bank (HSDB)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Comprehensive, peer-reviewed toxicology data for about 5,000 chemicals. The data bank focuses on the toxicology of potentially hazardous chemicals. It is enhanced...

  2. Chemiprobe, a nonradioactive system for labeling nucleic acid. Principles and applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nur, I; Reinhartz, A; Hyman, H C; Razin, S; Herzberg, M

    1989-01-01

    The Chemiprobe Kit provides a complete system for nonradioactive labeling of DNA probes and their detection in hybridization studies. The system is highly sensitive, permitting the detection of 0.2-0.4 pg DNA which allows detection of a single gene sequence in 0.5-1 microgram of bacterial DNA or in 3-5 micrograms of mammalian DNA. In this paper the authors show that the rRNA genes of M. capricolum can be detected by using only 50 ng/ml of sulfonated probe cloned from another mycoplasma, M. pneumoniae. The Chemiprobe system has been successfully used in the detection of the single copy human gene for glucocerobrosidase from total embryonic DNA by hybridization to a specific sulfonated cDNA. 5 x 10(4) M. pneumoniae cells can be detected either free or mixed with sputum using a standard dot blot technique: mycoplasma cells were lysed by a mucolytic agent, denaturated by NaOH, immobilized on a nylon membrane filter, and then hybridized with pPN4, a plasmid DNA probe specific for M. pneumoniae. The resulting hybrids were then detected by the standard Chemiprobe procedure. A new kit based on the Chemiprobe system has been designed especially for the detection of mycoplasmas in tissue culture. This kit has been tested on 70 random samples collected from tissue culture fluids from 11 different sources. Of these, 42 were found to be contaminated by the Chemiprobe procedure, whereas 41 were found to be contaminated by classical microbiological methods. No false negatives were found.

  3. Status of the WAND (Waste Assay for Nonradioactive Disposal) project as of July 1997

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arnone, G.J.; Foster, L.A.; Foxx, C.L.; Hagan, R.C.; Martin, E.R.; Myers, S.C.; Parker, J.L.

    1998-03-01

    The WAND (Waste Assay for Nonradioactive Disposal) system can scan thought-to-be-clean, low-density waste (mostly paper and plastics) to determine whether the levels of any contaminant radioactivity are low enough to justify their disposal in normal public landfills or similar facilities. Such a screening would allow probably at least half of the large volume of low-density waste now buried at high cost in LANL's Rad Waste Landfill (Area G at Technical Area 54) to be disposed of elsewhere at a much lower cost. The WAND System consists of a well-shielded bank of six 5-in.-diam. phoswich scintillation detectors; a mechanical conveyor system that carries a 12-in.-wide layer of either shredded material or packets of paper sheets beneath the bank of detectors; the electronics needed to process the outputs of the detectors; and a small computer to control the whole system and to perform the data analysis. WAND system minimum detectable activities (MDAs) for point sources range from ∼20 dps for 241 Am to approximately 10 times that value for 239 Pu, with most other nuclides of interest being between those values, depending upon the emission probabilities of the radiations emitted (usually gamma rays and/or x-rays). The system can also detect beta particles that have energies ≥100 keV, but it is not easy to define an MDA based on beta radiation detection because of the greater absorption of beta particles relative to photons in low Z-materials. The only radioactive nuclides not detectable by the WAND system are pure alpha emitters and very-low-energy beta emitters. At this time, operating procedures and quality assurance procedures are in place and training materials are available to operators. The system is ready to perform useful work; however, it would be both possible and desirable to upgrade the electronic components and the analysis algorithms

  4. Sensitive non-radioactive determination of aminotransferase stereospecificity for C-4' hydrogen transfer on the coenzyme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jomrit, Juntratip; Summpunn, Pijug; Meevootisom, Vithaya; Wiyakrutta, Suthep

    2011-02-25

    A sensitive non-radioactive method for determination of the stereospecificity of the C-4' hydrogen transfer on the coenzymes (pyridoxal phosphate, PLP; and pyridoxamine phosphate, PMP) of aminotransferases has been developed. Aminotransferase of unknown stereospecificity in its PLP form was incubated in (2)H(2)O with a substrate amino acid resulted in PMP labeled with deuterium at C-4' in the pro-S or pro-R configuration according to the stereospecificity of the aminotransferase tested. The [4'-(2)H]PMP was isolated from the enzyme protein and divided into two portions. The first portion was incubated in aqueous buffer with apo-aspartate aminotransferase (a reference si-face specific enzyme), and the other was incubated with apo-branched-chain amino acid aminotransferase (a reference re-face specific enzyme) in the presence of a substrate 2-oxo acid. The (2)H at C-4' is retained with the PLP if the aminotransferase in question transfers C-4' hydrogen on the opposite face of the coenzyme compared with the reference aminotransferase, but the (2)H is removed if the test and reference aminotransferases catalyze hydrogen transfer on the same face. PLP formed in the final reactions was analyzed by LC-MS/MS for the presence or absence of (2)H. The method was highly sensitive that for the aminotransferase with ca. 50 kDa subunit molecular weight, only 2mg of the enzyme was sufficient for the whole test. With this method, the use of radioactive substances could be avoided without compromising the sensitivity of the assay. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Identification of five novel FBN1 mutations by non-radioactive single-strand conformation analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, W.; Qian, C.; Comeau, K.; Francke, U. [Stanford Univ. Medical Center, Stanford, CA (United States)

    1994-09-01

    Marfan syndrome (MFS), one of the most common genetic disorders of connective tissue, is characterized by variable manifestations in skeletal, cardiovascular and ocular systems. Mutations in the fibrillin gene on chromosome 15 (FBN1) have been shown to cause MFS. To examine the relationship between FBN1 gene mutations, fibrillin protein function and MFS phenotypes, we screened for alternations in the fibrillin coding sequence in fibroblast derived cDNA from MFS patients. To date, abnormally migrating bands in more than 20 unrelated MFS patients have been identified by using non-radioactive single-strand conformation analysis and silver staining. Five altered bands have been directly sequenced. Two missense mutations and three splice site mutations have been identified. Both missense mutations substitute another amino acid for a cysteine residue (C1402W and C1672R) in EGF-like motifs of the fibrillin polypeptide chain. The two splice site mutations are at nucleotide positions 6994+1 (G{yields}A), and 7205-2 (A{yields}G) and result in in-frame skipping of exon 56 and 58, respectively. Skipping of exon 56 occurs in 50% of mutant transcripts. Use of a cryptic splice site 51 bp upstream of the normal donor site results in half of the mutant transcripts containing part of exon 56. Both products contain in-frame deletions. Another splice site mutation, identified by exon screening from patient genomic DNA using intron primers, is at nucleotide position 2293+2 (T{yields}A), but the predicted exon skipping has not been detected at the RT-PCR level. This may be due to instability of the mutant transcript. Including the mutations reported here, a total of 8 out of 36 published FBN1 gene mutations involve exon skipping. It may be inferred that FBN1 exon skipping plays an important pathogenic role in MFS.

  6. Pilot Study of a New Nonradioactive Surgical Guidance Technology for Locating Nonpalpable Breast Lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Charles E; Garcia-Henriquez, Norbert; Glancy, M Jordan; Whitworth, Pat; Cox, John M; Themar-Geck, Melissa; Prati, Ronald; Jung, Michelle; Russell, Scott; Appleton, Kristie; King, Jeff; Shivers, Steven C

    2016-06-01

    The current technique for locating nonpalpable breast lesions is wire localization (WL). Radioactive seed localization and intraoperative ultrasound were developed to improve difficulties with WL. The SAVI SCOUT surgical guidance system was developed to improve these methods. The SCOUT system is a non-radioactive, FDA-cleared medical device that uses electromagnetic wave technology to provide real-time guidance during excisional breast procedures. Consenting patients underwent localization and excision using an implantable electromagnetic wave reflective device (reflector) and a detector handpiece with a console. Using image guidance, the reflector was placed up to 7 days before the surgical procedure. The primary end points of the study were successful reflector placement, localization, and retrieval. The secondary end points were percentage of clear margins, reexcision rates, days of placement before excision, and physician comparison with WL. This study analyzed 50 patients. The reflectors were placed under mammographic guidance (n = 18, 36 %) or ultrasound guidance (n = 32, 64 %). Of the 50 patients, 10 (20 %) underwent excisional biopsy and 40 (80 %) had a lumpectomy. The lesion and reflector were successfully removed in all 50 patients, and no adverse events occurred. Of the 41 patients who had in situ and/or invasive carcinoma identified, 38 (93 %) had clear margins and 3 (7 %) were recommended for reexcision. These data suggest that the SCOUT system is safe and effective for guiding the excision of nonpalpable breast lesions and a viable alternative to standard localization options. A larger prospective, multi-institution trial of SCOUT currently is underway to validate these findings.

  7. Spectral K-edge subtraction imaging of experimental non-radioactive barium uptake in bone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panahifar, Arash; Samadi, Nazanin; Swanston, Treena M; Chapman, L Dean; Cooper, David M L

    2016-12-01

    To evaluate the feasibility of using non-radioactive barium as a bone tracer for detection with synchrotron spectral K-edge subtraction (SKES) technique. Male rats of 1-month old (i.e., developing skeleton) and 8-month old (i.e., skeletally mature) were orally dosed with low dose of barium chloride (33mg/kg/day Ba 2+ ) for 4weeks. The fore and hind limbs were dissected for imaging in projection and computed tomography modes at 100μm and 52μm pixel sizes. The SKES method utilizes a single bent Laue monochromator to prepare a 550eV energy spectrum to encompass the K-edge of barium (37.441keV), for collecting both 'above' and 'below' the K-edge data sets in a single scan. The SKES has a very good focal size, thus limits the 'crossover' and motion artifacts. In juvenile rats, barium was mostly incorporated in the areas of high bone turnover such as at the growth plate and the trabecular surfaces, but also in the cortical bone as the animals were growing at the time of tracer administration. However, the adults incorporated approximately half the concentration and mainly in the areas where bone remodeling was predominant and occasionally in the periosteal and endosteal layers of the diaphyseal cortical bone. The presented methodology is simple to implement and provides both structural and functional information, after labeling with barium, on bone micro-architecture and thus has great potential for in vivo imaging of pre-clinical animal models of musculoskeletal diseases to better understand their mechanisms and to evaluate the efficacy of pharmaceuticals. Copyright © 2016 Associazione Italiana di Fisica Medica. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Maintenance and hazardous substances

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuhl, K.; Terwoert, J.; Cabecas, J.J.M.

    2012-01-01

    Maintenance workers come into close contact with a broad variety of often hazardous chemicals. Depending on the specific type, these chemicals may not only cause diseases like skin sores or cancer, but many of them are highly flammable and explosive. This e-facts focuses on the specific risks

  9. K Basins fuel encapsulation and storage hazard categorization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Porten, D.R.

    1994-12-01

    This document establishes the initial hazard categorization for K-Basin fuel encapsulation and storage in the 100 K Area of the Hanford site. The Hazard Categorization for K-Basins addresses the potential for release of radioactive and non-radioactive hazardous material located in the K-Basins and their supporting facilities. The Hazard Categorization covers the hazards associated with normal K-Basin fuel storage and handling operations, fuel encapsulation, sludge encapsulation, and canister clean-up and disposal. The criteria categorizes a facility based on total curies per radionuclide located in the facility. Tables 5-3 and 5-4 display the results in section 5.0. In accordance with DOE-STD-1027 and the analysis provided in section 5.0, the K East Basin fuel encapsulation and storage activity and the K West Basin storage are classified as a open-quotes Category 2close quotes Facility

  10. Recommendations for sampling for prevention of hazards in civil defense. On analytics of chemical, biological and radioactive contaminations. Brief instruction for the CBRN (chemical, biological, radioactive, nuclear) sampling; Empfehlungen fuer die Probenahme zur Gefahrenabwehr im Bevoelkerungsschutz. Zur Analytik von chemischen, biologischen und radioaktiven Kontaminationen. Kurzanleitung fuer die CBRN-Probenahme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bachmann, Udo; Biederbick, Walter; Derakshani, Nahid (and others)

    2010-07-01

    The recommendation for sampling for prevention of hazards in civil defense is describing the analytics of chemical, biological and radioactive contaminations and includes detail information on the sampling, protocol preparation and documentation procedures. The volume includes a separate brief instruction for the CBRN (chemical, biological, radioactive, nuclear) sampling.

  11. Hazardous waste: cleanup and prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandas, Stephen; Cronin, Nancy L.; Farrar, Frank; Serrano, Guillermo Eliezer Ávila; Yajimovich, Oscar Efraín González; Muñoz, Aurora R.; Rivera, María del C.

    1996-01-01

    Our lifestyles are supported by complex Industrial activities that produce many different chemicals and chemical wastes. The Industries that produce our clothing, cars, medicines, paper, food, fuels, steel, plastics, and electric components use and discard thousands of chemicals every year. At home we may use lawn chemicals, solvents, disinfectants, cleaners, and auto products to Improve our quality of life. A chemical that presents a threat or unreasonable risk to people or the environment Is a hazardous material. When a hazardous material can no longer be used, It becomes a hazardous waste. Hazardous wastes come from a variety of sources, from both present and past activities. Impacts to human health and the environment can result from Improper handling and disposal of hazardous waste.

  12. Preliminary hazard classification for Building 107-N

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kloster, G.L.; Smith, R.L.

    1997-06-01

    Deactivation activities are planned for Building 107-N (Basin Recirculation Building). This document establishes the preliminary hazard classification (PHC) for the 100-N Area facility segment that includes this building.To establish the PHC, the inventories of radioactive and nonradioactive hazardous materials present within Building 107-N are identified and then compared to the corresponding threshold quantity values in DOE (1992) and reportable quantity values in 40 CFR 302.4. In this evaluation, no credit is taken for the form, location, and dispersibility of the materials; for their interaction with available energy sources; or for safety features that could prevent or mitigate a radioactive release. The result of this effort concluded that the PHC for Building 107-N is Nuclear Category 3

  13. Design of Laser Based Monitoring Systems for Compliance Management of Odorous and Hazardous Air Pollutants in Selected Chemical Industrial Estates at Hyderabad, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudhakar, P.; Kalavathi, P.; Ramakrishna Rao, D.; Satyanarayna, M.

    2014-12-01

    Industrialization can no longer sustain without internalization of the concerns of the receiving environment and land-use. Increased awareness and public pressure, coupled with regulatory instruments and bodies exert constant pressure on industries to control their emissions to a level acceptable to the receiving environment. However, when a group of industries come-up together as an industrial estate, the cumulative impacts of all the industries together often challenges the expected/desired quality of receiving environment, requiring stringent pollution control and monitoring measures. Laser remote sensing techniques provide powerful tools for environmental monitoring. These methods provide range resolved measurements of concentrations of various gaseous pollutants and suspended particulate matter (SPM) not only in the path of the beam but over the entire area. A three dimensional mapping of the pollutants and their dispersal can be estimated using the laser remote sensing methods on a continuous basis. Laser Radar (Lidar) systems are the measurements technology used in the laser remote sensing methods. Differential absorption lidar (DIAL) and Raman Lidar technologies have proved to be very useful for remote sensing of air pollutants. DIAL and Raman lidar systems can be applied for range resolved measurements of molecules like SO2, NO2, O3 Hg, CO, C2H4, H2O, CH4, hydrocarbons etc. in real time on a continuous basis. This paper describes the design details of the DAIL and Raman lidar techniques for measurement of various hazardous air pollutants which are being released into the atmosphere by the chemical industries operating in the Bachupally industrial Estate area at Hyderabad, India. The relative merits of the two techniques have been studied and the minimum concentration of pollutants that can be measured using these systems are presented. A dispersion model of the air pollutants in the selected chemical industrial estates at Hyderabad has been developed.

  14. Potential toxicological hazard due to endocrine-disrupting chemicals on Mediterranean top predators: State of art, gender differences and methodological tools

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fossi, M.C.; Casini, S.; Marsili, L.

    2007-01-01

    Man-made endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) range across all continents and oceans. Some geographic areas are potentially more threatened than others: one of these is the Mediterranean Sea. Levels of some xenobiotics are much higher here than in other seas and oceans. In this paper we review the final results of a project supported by the Italian Ministry of the Environment, in which the hypothesis that Mediterranean top predator species (such as large pelagic fish and marine mammals) are potentially at risk due to EDCs was investigated. We illustrate the need to develop and apply sensitive methodological tools, such as biomarkers (Vitellogenin, Zona Radiata proteins and CYP1A activities) for evaluation of toxicological risk in large pelagic fish top predators (Swordfish (Xiphias gladius), Bluefin Tuna (Thunnus thynnus thynnus)) and nondestructive biomarkers (CYP1A activities and fibroblast cell culture in skin biopsy), for the hazard assessment of threatened marine mammals species (Striped Dolphin, (Stenella coeruleoalba), Bottlenose Dolphin (Tursiops truncatus), Common Dolphin (Delphinus delphis) and Fin Whale (Balaenoptera physalus))exposed to EDCs. Differential gender susceptibility to EDCs is also explored both in large pelagic fish and in cetaceans. In cetaceans, male specimens showed higher cytochrome P450 induction (BPMO in skyn biopsies, CYP2B in fibroblasts cell cultures) by xenobiotics with respect to females

  15. Hazardous factories: Nigerian evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oloyede, Olajide

    2005-06-01

    The past 15 years have seen an increasing governmental and corporate concern for the environment worldwide. For governments, information about the environmental performance of the industrial sector is required to inform macro-level decisions about environmental targets such as those required to meet UN directives. However, in many African, Asian, and Latin American countries, researching and reporting company environmental performance is limited. This article serves as a contribution to filling the gap by presenting evidence of physical and chemical risk in Nigerian factories. One hundred and three factories with a total of 5,021 workers were studied. One hundred and twenty physical and chemical hazards were identified and the result shows a high number of workers exposed to such hazards. The study also reveals that workers' awareness level of chemical hazards was high. Yet the danger was perceived in behavioral terms, especially by manufacturing firms, which tend to see environmental investment in an increasingly global economy as detrimental to profitability.

  16. 75 FR 44920 - National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan; National Priorities List...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-30

    ... State Registry of Inactive Hazardous Waste Disposal Sites as a ``Class 2 Inactive Hazardous Waste Site..., Chemicals, Hazardous waste, Hazardous substances, Intergovernmental relations, Natural resources, Oil... and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan; National Priorities List: Deletion of the SMS...

  17. The regulations for radionuclides and chemicals in the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kocher, D.C.

    1991-01-01

    This presentation detail information on current and proposed standards, recommendations, and guidances for limiting routine and accidental radiation exposures of the public. It also reviews certain laws and regulations intended primarily for limiting exposures of the public to non-radioactive hazardous materials. Limits on risk to the public embodied in laws and regulations are emphasized. It considers the only basis for comparing potential impacts from exposure to radionuclides and other hazardous materials

  18. Chemical studies on the synthesis and characterization of some ion- exchange materials and its use in the treatment of hazardous wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Deeb, A.B.I.

    2013-01-01

    Now inorganic ion exchange materials play an important role in analytical chemistry, based originally on their thermal and radiation resistance as well as their stability to chemical attack.Vanadate salts are one of the main categories of inorganic ion exchange materials widely used in separation and preconcentration of some toxic and hazardous elements from different waste media. Attempts in this study are focused on the preparation of two inorganic ion exchange materials ,Tin Vanadate (SnV) and Titanium Potassium Vanadate(TiKV) for treatment of hazardous waste.These material were characterized using X-ray spectra (XRD and XRF), IR, TGA-DTA and total elemental analysis studies. On the basis of distribution studies, the materials have been found that they are highly selective for Pb(II) and Cs(I)ions. Thermodynamic parameters (i.e. ΔG, ΔS and ΔH) have also been calculated for the adsorption of Pb 2+ , Cs + , Fe 3+ , Cd 2+ , Cu +2 , Zn 2+ and Co 2+ ions on Tin Vanadate (SnV) and Titanium Potassium Vanadate(TiKV) showing that the overall adsorption process is spontaneous and endothermic. The mechanism of diffusion of Fe 3+ , Co 2+ , Cu 2+ , Zn 2+ , Cd 2+ , Cs + and Pb 2+ ions for Tin Vanadate (SnV) and Titanium Potassium Vanadate(TiKV) as cation exchangers were studied as a function of particle size, concentration of the exchanging ions, reaction temperatures and drying temperatures. The exchange rate was controlled by a particle diffusion mechanism as a limited batch technique and is confirmed from straight lines of B versus 1/r 2 plots. The values of diffusion coefficients, activation energies and entropies of activation were calculated and their significance was discussed. The data obtained have been compared with that reported for other inorganic exchangers. Exchange isotherms for Cs + ,Co 2+ and Cd 2+ ions were determined at 25, 45 and 65±1 degree C. These isotherms showed that Cs + ,Co 2+ and Cd 2+ are physically adsorbed. Finally, separations of the above

  19. Riscos químicos ambientais à saúde da criança Environmental chemical hazards and child health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Augusto Mello-da-Silva

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Rever, na literatura médica recente, as informações disponíveis sobre os riscos da exposição de crianças a agentes químicos no meio ambiente. FONTES DOS DADOS: Foi realizada uma busca de artigos publicados sobre o tema na base de dados bibliográficos MEDLINE entre os anos de 1999 e 2005 e também em livros, manuais e recomendações publicados nos últimos anos por instituições como a Academia Americana de Pediatria e a Organização Mundial da Saúde, abordando saúde ambiental com foco na criança. SÍNTESE DE DADOS: Nos últimos anos, observa-se uma preocupação crescente em todo o mundo com os riscos relacionados à exposição de crianças a agentes químicos presentes no meio ambiente. Em torno de 85.000 produtos químicos sintéticos são produzidos nos dias de hoje, dos quais 2.800 são considerados de alto volume de produção. Sabe-se ainda muito pouco a respeito de seus efeitos sobre organismos em desenvolvimento. Crianças, por conta de suas características fisiológicas (maior demanda de água e alimentos e hábitos (como engatinhar, levar objetos a boca, brincar próximo ao solo estão particularmente expostas à contaminação por agentes químicos presentes em água, ar e solo. Agentes como metais pesados, pesticidas, poluentes orgânicos persistentes e contaminantes do ambiente doméstico, como a fumaça do tabaco, têm sido cada vez mais relacionados ao aumento da ocorrência de doenças como asma, distúrbios neurológicos e comportamentais e câncer infantil. CONCLUSÃO: Estimula-se a identificação de situações de risco utilizando instrumentos como a anamnese ou história ambiental, bem como o envolvimento dos pediatras na busca da redução da exposição de crianças e adolescentes a agentes químicos.OBJECTIVES:To review the recent medical literature on environmental chemical hazards to child health. SOURCES OF DATA: Articles published on this subject between 1999 and 2005 were searched in the

  20. Hazard Communication Standard

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sichak, S.

    1991-01-01

    The current rate of technological advances has brought with it an overwhelming increase in the usage of chemicals in the workplace and in the home. Coupled to this increase has been a heightened awareness in the potential for acute and chronic injuries attributable to chemical insults. The Hazard Communication Standard has been introduced with the desired goal of reducing workplace exposures to hazardous substances and thereby achieving a corresponding reduction in adverse health effects. It was created and proclaimed by the US Department of Labor and regulated by the Occupational Safety and Health Administration. 1 tab

  1. Systematic Review of Methods to Determine the Cost-Effectiveness of Monitoring Plans for Chemical and Biological Hazards in the Life Sciences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Focker, M.; Fels-Klerx, van der H.J.; Oude Lansink, A.G.J.M.

    2018-01-01

    This study reviews the methods used to determine the cost-effectiveness of monitoring plans for hazards in animals (diseases), plants (pests), soil, water, food, and animal feed, and assesses their applicability to food safety hazards. The review describes the strengths and weaknesses of each

  2. Hanford facility dangerous waste permit application, 616 Nonradioactive dangerous waste storage facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Price, S.M.

    1997-04-30

    This chapter provides information on the physical, chemical, and biological characteristics of the waste stored at the 616 NRDWSF. A waste analysis plan is included that describes the methodology used for determining waste types.

  3. Hanford facility dangerous waste permit application, 616 Nonradioactive dangerous waste storage facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Price, S.M.

    1997-01-01

    This chapter provides information on the physical, chemical, and biological characteristics of the waste stored at the 616 NRDWSF. A waste analysis plan is included that describes the methodology used for determining waste types

  4. Allergenicity evaluation of p-chloro-m-cresol and p-chloro-m-xylenol by non-radioactive murine local lymph-node assay and multiple-dose guinea pig maximization test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamano, Tetsuo; Shimizu, Mitsuru; Noda, Tsutomu

    2003-01-01

    p-Chloro-m-cresol (PCMC) and p-chloro-m-xylenol (PCMX) are known to cause allergic contact dermatitis. For risk assessment of skin sensitizers, information on dose-response profiles in the induction and elicitation phases and cross-reactivity with analogous chemicals are important. In the non-radioactive local lymph-node assay (LLNA) using 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine instead of 3 H-methyl thymidine, significant effect on lymph node cell proliferation was detected at 10% PCMC and 25% PCMX, while in the multiple-dose guinea pig maximization test (GPMT) at least one animal tested in the group was sensitized at a 5 ppm induction dose of either chemical. When mean skin reaction score in an animal group maximally sensitized with each allergen with the GPMT was plotted against log challenge concentration, linear regression lines with high correlations were obtained in both cases. The calculated elicitation threshold was lower for PCMC than PCMX. The area under the linear regression line between the threshold point and 1% of the elicitation concentration, another index of relative elicitation potency, was also greater for PCMC. Bidirectional cross-reactivity between PCMX and PCMC was detected in the GPMT. PCMC was thus identified in both LLNA and GPMT as a stronger sensitizer than PCMX in both the induction and elicitation phases. These results suggest that the non-radioactive LLNA is a simple and useful method for evaluating allergenicity in the induction phase, while the GPMT using a maximally sensitized animal group is more suitable for assessing the dose-response profile and cross-reactivity in the elicitation phase

  5. Process for improving the separation efficiency in the isolation of radioactive isotopes in elementary or chemically bonded form from liquids and gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmidberger, R.; Kirch, R.; Kock, W.

    1986-01-01

    In the process for the improvement of the separation efficiency in the isolation of radioactive isotopes in elementary or chemically bonded form from liquids or gases by ion exchange and adsorption, non-radioactive isotopes of the element to be isolated are added to the fluid before the isolation, whereas at the same time a large surplus of the non-radioactive isotopes to the radioactive isotopes is achieved by addition of only small quantities of compounds of the non-radioactive isotopes. (orig./RB) [de

  6. Radiation hazards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rausch, L.

    1979-01-01

    On a scientific basis and with the aid of realistic examples, the author gives a popular introduction to an understanding and judgment of the public discussion over radiation hazards: Uses and hazards of X-ray examinations, biological radiation effects, civilisation risks in comparison, origins and explanation of radiation protection regulations. (orig.) [de

  7. Support for the Delisting of Decontaminated Liquid Chemical Surety Materials as Listed Hazardous Waste from Specific Sources (STATE) MD02 in COMAR 10.51.02.16-1

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-11-01

    radiography , and clear’y stated in I 160.81(c), EPA test systems without also bearing the handling of biohazardous materials." considers the inclusion of this...treatment, and necropsy, histology, radiography , and proper conduct of the study. control of disease. Additionally, EPA handling of bimazardous materials...inhalation Pa1 Page 8-77 hazard test reccgnizes that both volatility and toxicity affect the hazard potential in the workplace . To address these two

  8. Detection of Sleeping Beauty transposition in the genome of host cells by non-radioactive Southern blot analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aravalli, Rajagopal N., E-mail: aravalli@umn.edu [Department of Radiology, University of Minnesota Medical School, MMC 292, 420 Delaware Street SE, Minneapolis, MN 55455 (United States); Park, Chang W. [Department of Medicine, University of Minnesota Medical School, MMC 36, 420 Delaware Street SE, Minneapolis, MN 55455 (United States); Steer, Clifford J., E-mail: steer001@umn.edu [Department of Medicine, University of Minnesota Medical School, MMC 36, 420 Delaware Street SE, Minneapolis, MN 55455 (United States); Department of Genetics, Cell Biology and Development, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55455 (United States)

    2016-08-26

    The Sleeping Beauty transposon (SB-Tn) system is being used widely as a DNA vector for the delivery of therapeutic transgenes, as well as a tool for the insertional mutagenesis in animal models. In order to accurately assess the insertional potential and properties related to the integration of SB it is essential to determine the copy number of SB-Tn in the host genome. Recently developed SB100X transposase has demonstrated an integration rate that was much higher than the original SB10 and that of other versions of hyperactive SB transposases, such as HSB3 or HSB17. In this study, we have constructed a series of SB vectors carrying either a DsRed or a human β-globin transgene that was encompassed by cHS4 insulator elements, and containing the SB100X transposase gene outside the SB-Tn unit within the same vector in cis configuration. These SB-Tn constructs were introduced into the K-562 erythroid cell line, and their presence in the genomes of host cells was analyzed by Southern blot analysis using non-radioactive probes. Many copies of SB-Tn insertions were detected in host cells regardless of transgene sequences or the presence of cHS4 insulator elements. Interestingly, the size difference of 2.4 kb between insulated SB and non-insulated controls did not reflect the proportional difference in copy numbers of inserted SB-Tns. We then attempted methylation-sensitive Southern blots to assess the potential influence of cHS4 insulator elements on the epigenetic modification of SB-Tn. Our results indicated that SB100X was able to integrate at multiple sites with the number of SB-Tn copies larger than 6 kb in size. In addition, the non-radioactive Southern blot protocols developed here will be useful to detect integrated SB-Tn copies in any mammalian cell type.

  9. Detection of Sleeping Beauty transposition in the genome of host cells by non-radioactive Southern blot analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aravalli, Rajagopal N.; Park, Chang W.; Steer, Clifford J.

    2016-01-01

    The Sleeping Beauty transposon (SB-Tn) system is being used widely as a DNA vector for the delivery of therapeutic transgenes, as well as a tool for the insertional mutagenesis in animal models. In order to accurately assess the insertional potential and properties related to the integration of SB it is essential to determine the copy number of SB-Tn in the host genome. Recently developed SB100X transposase has demonstrated an integration rate that was much higher than the original SB10 and that of other versions of hyperactive SB transposases, such as HSB3 or HSB17. In this study, we have constructed a series of SB vectors carrying either a DsRed or a human β-globin transgene that was encompassed by cHS4 insulator elements, and containing the SB100X transposase gene outside the SB-Tn unit within the same vector in cis configuration. These SB-Tn constructs were introduced into the K-562 erythroid cell line, and their presence in the genomes of host cells was analyzed by Southern blot analysis using non-radioactive probes. Many copies of SB-Tn insertions were detected in host cells regardless of transgene sequences or the presence of cHS4 insulator elements. Interestingly, the size difference of 2.4 kb between insulated SB and non-insulated controls did not reflect the proportional difference in copy numbers of inserted SB-Tns. We then attempted methylation-sensitive Southern blots to assess the potential influence of cHS4 insulator elements on the epigenetic modification of SB-Tn. Our results indicated that SB100X was able to integrate at multiple sites with the number of SB-Tn copies larger than 6 kb in size. In addition, the non-radioactive Southern blot protocols developed here will be useful to detect integrated SB-Tn copies in any mammalian cell type.

  10. Skin sensitization potency and cross-reactivity of p-phenylenediamine and its derivatives evaluated by non-radioactive murine local lymph node assay and guinea-pig maximization test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamano, Tetsuo; Shimizu, Mitsuru

    2009-04-01

    p-Phenylenediamine (PPD)-related chemicals have been used as antioxidants in rubber products, and many cases of contact dermatitis caused by these chemicals have been reported. The aim of this study was to investigate relative sensitizing potency and cross-reactivity among PPD derivatives. Five PPD derivatives, p-aminodiphenylamine (PADPA), N,N'-diphenyl-p-phenylenediamine (DPPD), N-isopropyl-N'-phenyl-p-phenylenediamine (IPPD), N-(1,3-dimethylbutyl)-N'-phenyl-p-phenylenediamine (DMBPPD), N-(1-methylheptyl)-N'-phenyl-p-phenylenediamine (MHPPD), and the core chemical PPD were evaluated for their sensitizing potency and cross-reactivity using the non-radioactive murine local lymph node assay (LLNA) and the guinea-pig maximization test (GPMT). PPD and all the derivatives were identified as primary sensitizers in both tests. The order of potency in the LLNA was as follows: IPPD and PADPA > PPD > DMBPPD and MHPPD > DPPD. In the GPMT, all six groups of animals sensitized with one of these chemicals cross-reacted to four other derivatives. Specifically, the five groups that have a common basic PADPA structure, that is PADPA, DPPD, IPPD, DMBPPD, and MHPPD, all reacted to each other at almost the same scores, while none of them reacted to PPD. The cross-reactivity profile found in the study was to some extent different from that in previous human data, where distinction between cross-reaction and concomitant primary sensitization is not always clear.

  11. Nuclear techniques and the disposal of non-radioactive solid wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Landsberger, S.; Buchholz, B.

    1993-01-01

    One of the most vital and persistent public health challenges facing local, state, and national governments is the disposal of solid waste produced from industrial, utility, and municipal sources. There is a growing interest in the monitoring, control, and safe disposal of the chemical constituents arising from these sources. For instance, it is now well known that the release of by products from coal-fired power plants - namely airborne particulates, bottom ash, and fly ash - can have adverse effects on air and water quality. It is therefore important that reliable chemical analytical techniques are readily available to assess the impact of widespread disposal practices of organic and inorganic chemicals. The use of nuclear and nuclear-related analytical techniques - such as neutron activation analysis, energy dispersive x-ray fluorescence and particle induced X-ray emission - have become widespread in major areas of science and technology. These methods and techniques have important applications in such work since they can be used for both the determination of specific individual pollutants (e.g. toxic heavy metals) and multi-elemental analyses for source identification and apportionment purposes. Other nuclear techniques, such as isotope tracers, have also had wide acceptance in characterizing diffusion patterns for metals in soil and aqueous environments and water pollution flows. 1 graph., 1 tab

  12. Hazardous materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... substances that could harm human health or the environment. Hazardous means dangerous, so these materials must be ... M. is also a founding member of Hi-Ethics and subscribes to the principles of the Health ...

  13. Contribution to the study of several chemical hazards in the Centre d'Etudes Nucleaires of Fontenay-aux-Roses; Contribution a l'etude de quelques nuisances chimiques au centre d'etudes nucleaires de Fontenay-aux-Roses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Megemont, C; Grau, C [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Fontenay-aux-Roses (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1968-10-01

    From the checking of 2750 index cards of hazards, the study relates the distribution of the chemical hazards in the Centre d'Etudes Nucleaires of Fontenay-aux-Roses. Those concerning the greatest number of agents in the Centre are classified according to the categories corresponding to the different conditions of working. Thus, the most important are put forward. Then, the authors rapidly make a review of hazards which may have some special interest because they appear more specific of the nuclear energy or because they are the most frequently noted on the index cards of hazards. The case of the tributylphosphate is studied more precisely. (authors) [French] A partir de l'examen de 2750 fiches de nuisances, l'etude porte sur la repartition des nuisances chimiques au Centre d'Etudes Nucleaires de Fontenay-aux-Roses. Celles qui concernent le plus grand nombre d'agents du Centre sont classees selon les categories correspondant aux differentes conditions de travail. Les plus importantes d'entre elles sont ainsi mises en evidence. | Les auteurs passent ensuite en revue, rapidement, les nuisances qui peuvent presenter un interet particulier soit parce qu'elles semblent plus specifiques de l'Energie Nucleaire, soit parce qu'on les rencontre le plus frequemment sur les fiches de nuisances. Le cas du tributylphosphate est envisage de facon plus detaillee. (auteurs)

  14. Welding hazards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, M.A.

    1992-01-01

    Welding technology is advancing rapidly in the developed countries and has converted into a science. Welding involving the use of electricity include resistance welding. Welding shops are opened in residential area, which was causing safety hazards, particularly the teenagers and children who eagerly see the welding arc with their naked eyes. There are radiation hazards from ultra violet rays which irritate the skin, eye irritation. Welding arc light of such intensity could damage the eyes. (Orig./A.B.)

  15. Ultrastructural localisation of intramuscular expression of BDNF mRNA by silver-gold intensified non-radioactive in situ hybridisation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liem, RSB; Brouwer, N; Copray, JCVM

    2001-01-01

    A non-radioactive in situ hybridisation method is described for the detection of low intramuscular levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) mRNA at the electron microscope level. Application of high-grade silver-gold intensification of the diaminobenzidine end product of in situ

  16. A critical appraisal of the process of regulatory implementation of novel in vivo and in vitro methods for chemical hazard and risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piersma, Aldert H; Ezendam, Janine; Luijten, Mirjam; Muller, J J Andre; Rorije, Emiel; van der Ven, Leo T M; van Benthem, Jan

    2014-11-01

    Regulatory toxicology urgently needs applicable alternative test systems that reduce animal use, testing time, and cost. European regulation on cosmetic ingredients has already banned animal experimentation for hazard identification, and public awareness drives toward additional restrictions in other regulatory frameworks as well. In addition, scientific progress stimulates a more mechanistic approach of hazard identification. Nevertheless, the implementation of alternative methods is lagging far behind their development. In search for general bottlenecks for the implementation of alternative methods, this manuscript reviews the state of the art as to the development and implementation of 10 diverse test systems in various areas of toxicological hazard assessment. They vary widely in complexity and regulatory acceptance status. The assays are reviewed as to parameters assessed, biological system involved, standardization, interpretation of results, extrapolation to human hazard, position in testing strategies, and current regulatory acceptance status. Given the diversity of alternative methods in many aspects, no common bottlenecks could be identified that hamper implementation of individual alternative assays in general. However, specific issues for the regulatory acceptance and application were identified for each assay. Acceptance of one-in-one replacement of complex in vivo tests by relatively simple in vitro assays is not feasible. Rather, innovative approaches using test batteries are required together with metabolic information and in vitro to in vivo dose extrapolation to convincingly provide the same level of information of current in vivo tests. A mechanistically based alternative approach using the Adverse Outcome Pathway concept could stimulate further (regulatory) acceptance of non-animal tests.

  17. Leaching assessment of radioactive and non-radioactive elements from Brazilian phosphogypsum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, N.C.; De Nadai Fernandes, E.A.; Cipriani, M.; Taddei, M.H.T.

    2002-01-01

    Phosphogypsum is a high volume by-product from phosphoric acid industries. Due to presence of certain impurities, mainly naturally-occurring radionuclides, this material has restriction for its use as building material and soil amendment. Then, phosphogypsum currently produced has been stacked near industries. To obtain more detailed information about the physico-chemical availability of heavy metals and radionuclides (Al, Ba, Cr, Fe, Mn, Th, U, Zn, Ra-226, Ra-228, Pb-210) in Brazilian phosphogypsum, three leaching procedures (sequential extraction, toxicity characteristic leaching procedure and soil fertility) were applied in samples from two phosphoric acid industries. Results indicated that the major fraction of heavy metals and radionuclides is associated with phosphogypsum lattice structure. (author)

  18. Regulatory inspection practices for radioactive and non-radioactive waste management facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roy, Amitava

    2017-01-01

    Management of nuclear waste plays an important role in the nuclear energy programme of the country. India has adopted the Closed Fuel Cycle option, where the spent nuclear fuel is treated as a material of resource and the nuclear waste is wealth. Closed fuel cycle aims at recovery and recycle of valuable nuclear materials in to reactors as fuel and also separation of useful radio isotopes for the use in health care, agriculture and industry. India has taken a lead role in the waste management activities and has reached a level of maturity over a period of more than forty decades. The nuclear waste management primarily comprises of waste characterization, segregation, conditioning, treatment, immobilization of radionuclides in stable and solid matrices and interim retrievable storage of conditioned solid waste under surveillance. The waste generated in a nuclear facility is in the form of liquid and solid, and it's classification depends on the content of radioactivity. The liquid waste is characterized as Low level (LLW), Intermediate level (ILW) and High Level (HLW). The LLW is relatively large in volume and much lesser radioactive. The LLW is subjected to chemical precipitation using various chemicals based on the radionuclides present, followed by filtration, settling, ion exchange and cement fixation. The conditioning and treatment processes of ILW uses ion exchange, alkali hydrolysis for spent solvent, phase separation and immobilization in cement matrix. The High Level Waste (HLW), generated during spent fuel reprocessing and containing more than 99 percent of the total radioactivity is first subjected to volume reduction/concentration by evaporation and then vitrified in a meIter using borosilicate glass. Presently, Joule Heated Ceramic Meter is used in India for Vitrification process. Vitrified waste products (VWP) are stored for interim period in a multibarrier, air cooled facility under surveillance

  19. Tier II Chemical Storage Facilities

    Data.gov (United States)

    Iowa State University GIS Support and Research Facility — Facilities that store hazardous chemicals above certain quantities must submit an annual emergency and hazardous chemical inventory on a Tier II form. This is a...

  20. Commandant’s International Technical Series. Volume 9. International Regulations on the Prevention of Pollution from Ships Carrying Hazardous Chemicals in Bulk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-12-01

    Isopropyl alcohol 1219 Lard MEPC 22/21 ANNEX 2 Page 56 Substance UN Number Latex (carboxylated styrene/butadiene copoLymer) *1 Lignin sulphonic acid...persons required to enter cargo tanks or siop tanks for any purpose should be carefully considered. 1.7.5 Reactivity hazards The water washing of cargo...anhydrides (e.g. formic, acetic); .3 halogenated carboxylic acids (e.g. chloracetic); .4 sulpnonic acids (e.g. benzene sulphonic); .5 caustic alkalis

  1. Current Chemical Risk Management Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA's existing chemicals programs address pollution prevention, risk assessment, hazard and exposure assessment and/or characterization, and risk management for chemicals substances in commercial use.

  2. Nonradioactive Ambient Air Monitoring at Los Alamos National Laboratory 2001--2002

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    E. Gladney; J.Dewart, C.Eberhart; J.Lochamy

    2004-09-01

    During the spring of 2000, the Cerro Grande forest fire reached Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) and ignited both above-ground vegetation and disposed materials in several landfills. During and after the fire, there was concern about the potential human health impacts from chemicals emitted by the combustion of these Laboratory materials. Consequently, short-term, intensive air-monitoring studies were performed during and shortly after the fire. Unlike the radiological data from many years of AIRNET sampling, LANL did not have an adequate database of nonradiological species under baseline conditions with which to compare data collected during the fire. Therefore, during 2001 the Meteorology and Air Quality Group designed and implemented a new air-monitoring program, entitled NonRadNET, to provide nonradiological background data under normal conditions. The objectives of NonRadNET were to: (1) develop the capability for collecting nonradiological air-monitoring data, (2) conduct monitoring to develop a database of typical background levels of selected nonradiological species in the communities nearest the Laboratory, and (3) determine LANL's potential contribution to nonradiological air pollution in the surrounding communities. NonRadNET ended in late December 2002 with five quarters of data. The purpose of this paper is to organize and describe the NonRadNET data collected over 2001-2002 to use as baseline data, either for monitoring during a fire, some other abnormal event, or routine use. To achieve that purpose, in this paper we will: (1) document the NonRadNET program procedures, methods, and quality management, (2) describe the usual origins and uses of the species measured, (3) compare the species measured to LANL and other area emissions, (4) present the five quarters of data, (5) compare the data to known typical environmental values, and (6) evaluate the data against exposure standards.

  3. Hazards from radioactive waste in perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohen, B.L.

    1979-01-01

    This paper compares the hazards from wastes from a 1000-MW(e) nuclear power plant to these from wastes from a 1000-MW(e) coal fueled power plant. The latter hazard is much greater than the former. The toxicity and carcinogenity of the chemicals prodcued in coal burning is emphasized. Comparisions are also made with other toxic chemicals and with natural radioactivity

  4. Review of hazardous chemical regulation at nuclear facilities by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission and other federal agencies. Hearing before a Subcommittee of the Committee on Government Operations, House of Representatives, Ninety-Ninth Congress, Second Session, March 14, 1986

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1986-01-01

    Seven witnesses from agencies and the nuclear industry testified on the status of chemical regulation at nuclear facilities, the potential for accidents, and the quality of emergency plans in the event of a release of chemical substances. Impetus for the review came from incidents at Kerr-McGhee's Sequoyah plant in Oklahoma and the release of uranium hexafluoride, as well as a pattern of accidents which occur after the potential hazard has already been identified. The witnesses included Richard Krimm of the Federal Emergency Management Agency, James Makris of the Environmental Protection Agency, John Miles of the Occupational Safety and Health Administration, Nunxio Palladino of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission, and representatives of DOE and Kerr-McGee. Additional materials submitted for the record follows the testimony

  5. A quantification method for peroxyacetyl nitrate (PAN) using gas chromatography (GC) with a non-radioactive pulsed discharge detector (PDD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lei; Jaffe, Daniel A.; Gao, Xin; McClure, Crystal D.

    2018-04-01

    In this study, we developed a method for continuous PAN measurements by gas chromatography (GC) with a non-radioactive pulsed discharge detector (PDD). Operational parameters were optimized based on the ratio of peak height over baseline noise (P/N ratio). The GC/PDD system was compared with a traditional radioactive electron-capture detector (ECD). In the lab, the method detection limit (MDL) of the new GC/PDD method (9 pptv) was lower than the radioactive GC/ECD method (15 pptv), demonstrating its excellent potential. The MDL of GC/PDD in the field campaign at the Mt. Bachelor Observatory (MBO) was 23 pptv, higher than in the lab. This was caused in part by the decreased slope of the calibration curve resulting from the low air pressure level at MBO. However, the MDL level of GC/PDD at MBO is still low enough for accurate PAN measurements, although special attention should be paid to its application at high-elevation sites. Observations of PAN were conducted at MBO in the summer of 2016 with the GC/PDD system, and provided more evidence of the performance of the system. PAN was found to be highly correlated with CO. The promising performance of GC/PDD which does not require a radioactive source makes it a useful approach for accurate PAN measurements in the field.

  6. PET/CT alignment calibration with a non-radioactive phantom and the intrinsic 176Lu radiation of PET detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei, Qingyang; Ma, Tianyu; Wang, Shi; Liu, Yaqiang; Gu, Yu; Dai, Tiantian

    2016-01-01

    Positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) is an important tool for clinical studies and pre-clinical researches which provides both functional and anatomical images. To achieve high quality co-registered PET/CT images, alignment calibration of PET and CT scanner is a critical procedure. The existing methods reported use positron source phantoms imaged both by PET and CT scanner and then derive the transformation matrix from the reconstructed images of the two modalities. In this paper, a novel PET/CT alignment calibration method with a non-radioactive phantom and the intrinsic 176 Lu radiation of the PET detector was developed. Firstly, a multi-tungsten-alloy-sphere phantom without positron source was designed and imaged by CT and the PET scanner using intrinsic 176 Lu radiation included in LYSO. Secondly, the centroids of the spheres were derived and matched by an automatic program. Lastly, the rotation matrix and the translation vector were calculated by least-square fitting of the centroid data. The proposed method was employed in an animal PET/CT system (InliView-3000) developed in our lab. Experimental results showed that the proposed method achieves high accuracy and is feasible to replace the conventional positron source based methods.

  7. PET/CT alignment calibration with a non-radioactive phantom and the intrinsic 176Lu radiation of PET detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Qingyang; Ma, Tianyu; Wang, Shi; Liu, Yaqiang; Gu, Yu; Dai, Tiantian

    2016-11-01

    Positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) is an important tool for clinical studies and pre-clinical researches which provides both functional and anatomical images. To achieve high quality co-registered PET/CT images, alignment calibration of PET and CT scanner is a critical procedure. The existing methods reported use positron source phantoms imaged both by PET and CT scanner and then derive the transformation matrix from the reconstructed images of the two modalities. In this paper, a novel PET/CT alignment calibration method with a non-radioactive phantom and the intrinsic 176Lu radiation of the PET detector was developed. Firstly, a multi-tungsten-alloy-sphere phantom without positron source was designed and imaged by CT and the PET scanner using intrinsic 176Lu radiation included in LYSO. Secondly, the centroids of the spheres were derived and matched by an automatic program. Lastly, the rotation matrix and the translation vector were calculated by least-square fitting of the centroid data. The proposed method was employed in an animal PET/CT system (InliView-3000) developed in our lab. Experimental results showed that the proposed method achieves high accuracy and is feasible to replace the conventional positron source based methods.

  8. Occupational health hazards in mining: an overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donoghue, A.M. [Alcoa World Alumina Australia, Perth, WA (Australia)

    2004-08-01

    This review article outlines the physical, chemical, biological, ergonomic and psychosocial occupational health hazards of mining and associated metallurgical processes. Mining remains an important industrial sector in many parts of the world and although substantial progress has been made in the control of occupational health hazards, there remains room for further risk reduction. This applies particularly to traumatic injury hazards, ergonomic hazards and noise. Vigilance is also required to ensure exposures to coal dust and crystalline silica remain effectively controlled.

  9. An Intervention Study on the Implementation of Control Banding in Controlling Exposure to Hazardous Chemicals in Small and Medium-sized Enterprises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeroen Terwoert

    2016-09-01

    Conclusion: Active training and coaching helped the participating companies to improve their chemical risk management, and to avoid making mistakes when using and applying Stoffenmanager. The use of validated tools embedded in a community platform appears to support companies to organize and structure their chemical risk management in a business-wise manner, but much depends upon motivated occupational health and safety (OHS professionals, management support, and willingness to invest time and means.

  10. Reprint of "CON4EI: Bovine Corneal Opacity and Permeability (BCOP) test for hazard identification and labelling of eye irritating chemicals".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verstraelen, Sandra; Maglennon, Gareth; Hollanders, Karen; Boonen, Francis; Adriaens, Els; Alépée, Nathalie; Drzewiecka, Agnieszka; Gruszka, Katarzyna; Kandarova, Helena; Willoughby, Jamin A; Guest, Robert; Schofield, Jane; Van Rompay, An R

    2018-06-01

    Assessment of ocular irritation potential is an international regulatory requirement in the safety evaluation of industrial and consumer products. None in vitro ocular irritation assays are capable of fully categorizing chemicals as stand-alone. Therefore, the CEFIC-LRI-AIMT6-VITO CON4EI consortium assessed the reliability of eight in vitro test methods and computational models as well as established a tiered-testing strategy. One of the selected assays was Bovine Corneal Opacity and Permeability (BCOP). In this project, the same corneas were used for measurement of opacity using the OP-KIT, the Laser Light-Based Opacitometer (LLBO) and for histopathological analysis. The results show that the accuracy of the BCOP OP-KIT in identifying Cat 1 chemicals was 73.8% while the accuracy was 86.3% for No Cat chemicals. BCOP OP-KIT false negative results were often related to an in vivo classification driven by conjunctival effects only. For the BCOP LLBO, the accuracy in identifying Cat 1 chemicals was 74.4% versus 88.8% for No Cat chemicals. The BCOP LLBO seems very promising for the identification of No Cat liquids but less so for the identification of solids. Histopathology as an additional endpoint to the BCOP test method does not reduce the false negative rate substantially for in vivo Cat 1 chemicals. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Preliminary hazard classification for buildings 1310-N and 1314-N

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kloster, G.L.; Smith, R.I.

    1997-01-01

    This document establishes the preliminary hazard classification (PHC) for the 100-N Area facility segment comprised of the 1310-N ''silo'' building and the 1314-N Liquid Waste Disposal Building. To establish the PHC, the inventories of radioactive and nonradioactive hazardous materials present within the segment are identified and then compared to the corresponding threshold quantity values in DOE-STD-1027-92 and reportable quantity values in 40 CFR 302.4. In this evaluation, no credit is taken for the form, location, and dispersibility of the materials; for their interaction with available energy sources; or for safety features that could prevent or mitigate a radiological release. The result of the PHC determined that the 1310-N and 1314-N building segments are classified as radiological

  12. Radioactive hazards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gill, J.R.

    1980-01-01

    The use of radioactive substances in hospital laboratories is discussed and the attendant hazards and necessary precautions examined. The new legislation under the Health and Safety at Work Act which, it is proposed, will replace existing legal requirements in the field of health and safety at work by a system of regulations and approved codes of practice designed to maintain or improve the standards of health, safety and welfare already established, is considered with particular reference to protection against ionising radiations. (UK)

  13. CON4EI: EpiOcular™ Eye Irritation Test (EpiOcular™ EIT) for hazard identification and labelling of eye irritating chemicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandarova, H; Letasiova, S; Adriaens, E; Guest, R; Willoughby, J A; Drzewiecka, A; Gruszka, K; Alépée, Nathalie; Verstraelen, Sandra; Van Rompay, An R

    2018-06-01

    Assessment of the acute eye irritation potential is part of the international regulatory requirements for testing of chemicals. The objective of the CON4EI project was to develop tiered testing strategies for eye irritation assessment. A set of 80 reference chemicals (38 liquids and 42 solids) was tested with eight different methods. Here, the results obtained with the EpiOcular™ Eye Irritation Test (EIT), adopted as OECD TG 492, are shown. The primary aim of this study was to evaluate of the performance of the test method to discriminate between chemicals not requiring classification for serious eye damage/eye irritancy (No Category) and chemicals requiring classification and labelling. In addition, the predictive capacity in terms of in vivo drivers of classification (i.e. corneal opacity, conjunctival redness and persistence at day 21) was investigated. EpiOcular™ EIT achieved a sensitivity of 97%, a specificity of 87% and accuracy of 95% and also confirmed its excellent reproducibility (100%) from the original validation. The assay was applicable to all chemical categories tested in this project and its performance was not limited to the particular driver of the classification. In addition to the existing prediction model for dichotomous categorization, a new prediction model for Cat 1 is suggested. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  14. Hazardous solvent substitution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Twitchell, K.E.

    1995-01-01

    Eliminating hazardous solvents is good for the environment, worker safety, and the bottom line. However, even though we are motivated to find replacements, the big question is 'What can we use as replacements for hazardous solvents?'You, too, can find replacements for your hazardous solvents. All you have to do is search for them. Search through the vendor literature of hundreds of companies with thousands of products. Ponder the associated material safety data sheets, assuming of course that you can obtain them and, having obtained them, that you can read them. You will want to search the trade magazines and other sources for product reviews. You will want to talk to users about how well the product actually works. You may also want to check US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and other government reports for toxicity and other safety information. And, of course, you will want to compare the product's constituent chemicals with the many hazardous constituency lists to ensure the safe and legal use of the product in your workplace

  15. Building 6630 hazards assessment document

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, M.; Banda, Z.

    1996-10-01

    The Department of Energy Order 5500.3A requires facility-specific hazards assessments be prepared, maintained, and used for emergency planning purposes. This hazards assessment document describes the chemical and radiological hazards associated with Building 6630. The entire inventory was subjected to the screening criteria for potential airborne impact to onsite and offsite individuals out of which one chemical was kept for further evaluation. The air dispersion model, ALOHA, estimated pollutant concentrations downwind from the source of a release, taking into consideration the toxicological and physical characteristics of the chemical release site, the atmospheric conditions, and the circumstances of the release. The greatest distance at which a postulated facility event will produce consequences exceeding the Early Severe Health Effects threshold is 76 meters. The highest emergency classification is an Alert. The Emergency Planning Zone is a nominal 100 meter area that conforms to DOE boundaries and physical/jurisdictional boundaries such as fence lines and streets

  16. Development of an immobilisation technique by cementation for non-radioactive simulated liquid waste, from Mo-99 production process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arva, E A; Marabini, S G; Varani, J L

    2012-01-01

    The Argentine Atomic Energy Commission (CNEA) is the responsible for developing a management nuclear waste disposal programme. This programme contemplates the strictly environmental safe and efficient management of the radioactive waste from different sources. Since 1985, CNEA has been producing commercially Mo-99 for medical use. In this process two types of liquid waste are produced. One of them has high alkaline (NaOH 3,5M) and aluminate contents. Since Mo-99 production started, such liquid waste was stored in specially designed containers during production, and after a decay period in smaller containers in interim storage conditions. As this waste is still a liquid, development of an immobilisation technique is required. Immobilisation of radioactive liquid waste by cementation is a frequently used technique, and will be studied in the present work using Mo-99 non-radioactive simulated liquid waste. In this second stage, a full scale (200 liters drum) cementation test using simulated non radioactive waste was carried out. Such test included: using the BEBA 201 mixing machine - the same that will be used with real waste in the future for 'tuning up' the process, construction of a specially designed temperature sensor for measuring the maximum temperature value (five different positions, four inside the drum and one outside) and the time elapsed after all components mixing. Finally, standard specimens (IRAM 1622) were made for mechanical resistance tests after cement setting at 28 days. The results show values of temperature not above 40 o C with the maximum at 12 hours before component mixing and compression strength of 14 MPa. Such values are compatible for a waste immobilisation process by cementation (author)

  17. Nonradioactive heteroduplex tracking assay for the detection of minority-variant chloroquine-resistant Plasmodium falciparum in Madagascar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juliano, Jonathan J; Randrianarivelojosia, Milijaona; Ramarosandratana, Benjamin; Ariey, Frédéric; Mwapasa, Victor; Meshnick, Steven R

    2009-01-01

    Background Strains of Plasmodium falciparum genetically resistant to chloroquine (CQ) due to the presence of pfcrt 76T appear to have been recently introduced to the island of Madagascar. The prevalence of such resistant genotypes is reported to be low (chloroquine resistant parasites were described in Malawian patients using an isotopic heteroduplex tracking assay (HTA), which can detect pfcrt 76T-bearing P. falciparum minority variants in individual patients that were undetectable by conventional PCR. However, as this assay required a radiolabeled probe, it could not be used in many resource-limited settings. Methods This study describes a digoxigenin (DIG)-labeled chemiluminescent heteroduplex tracking assay (DIG-HTA) to detect pfcrt 76T-bearing minority variant P. falciparum. This assay was compared to restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis and to the isotopic HTA for detection of genetically CQ-resistant parasites in clinical samples. Results Thirty one clinical P. falciparum isolates (15 primary isolates and 16 recurrent isolates) from 17 Malagasy children treated with CQ for uncomplicated malaria were genotyped for the pfcrt K76T mutation. Two (11.7%) of 17 patients harboured genetically CQ-resistant P. falciparum strains after therapy as detected by HTA. RFLP analysis failed to detect any pfcrt K76T-bearing isolates. Conclusion These findings indicate that genetically CQ-resistant P. falciparum are more common than previously thought in Madagascar even though the fitness of the minority variant pfcrt 76T parasites remains unclear. In addition, HTAs for malaria drug resistance alleles are promising tools for the surveillance of anti-malarial resistance. The use of a non-radioactive label allows for the use of HTAs in malaria endemic countries. PMID:19291288

  18. A chemical basis for the partitioning of radionuclides in incinerator operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burger, L.L.

    1995-01-01

    Incineration as a method of treating radioactive or mixed waste is attractive because of volume reduction, but may result in high concentrations of some hazardous components. For safety reasons during operation, and because of the environmental impact of the plant, it is important to know how these materials partition between the furnace slay, the fly ash, and the stack emission. The chemistry of about 50 elements is discussed and through consideration of high temperature thermodynamic equilibria, an attempt is made to provide a basis for predicting how various radionuclides and heavy metals behave in a typical incinerator. The chemistry of the individual elements is first considered and a prediction of the most stable chemical species in the typical incinerator atmosphere is made. The treatment emphasizes volatility and the parameters considered are temperature, acidity, oxygen, sulfur, and halogen content, and the presence of several other key non-radioactive elements. A computer model is used to calculate equilibrium concentrations of many species in several systems at temperatures ranging from 500 to 1600 degrees K. It is suggested that deliberate addition of various feed chemicals can have a major impact on the fate of many radionuclides and heavy metals. Several problems concerning limitations and application of the data are considered

  19. Hazard analysis in uranium hexafluoride production facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marin, Maristhela Passoni de Araujo

    1999-01-01

    The present work provides a method for preliminary hazard analysis of nuclear fuel cycle facilities. The proposed method identify both chemical and radiological hazards, as well as the consequences associated with accident scenarios. To illustrate the application of the method, a uranium hexafluoride production facility was selected. The main hazards are identified and the potential consequences are quantified. It was found that, although the facility handles radioactive material, the main hazards as associated with releases of toxic chemical substances such as hydrogen fluoride, anhydrous ammonia and nitric acid. It was shown that a contention bung can effectively reduce the consequences of atmospheric release of toxic materials. (author)

  20. Tsunami hazard

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-08-15

    Tohoku Earthquake Tsunami on 11 March, 2011 has led the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant to a serious accident, which highlighted a variety of technical issues such as a very low design tsunami height and insufficient preparations in case a tsunami exceeding the design tsunami height. Lessons such as to take measures to be able to maintain the important safety features of the facility for tsunamis exceeding design height and to implement risk management utilizing Probabilistic Safety Assessment are shown. In order to implement the safety assessment on nuclear power plants across Japan accordingly to the back-fit rule, Nuclear Regulatory Commission will promulgate/execute the New Safety Design Criteria in July 2013. JNES has positioned the 'enhancement of probabilistic tsunami hazard assessment' as highest priority issue and implemented in order to support technically the Nuclear Regulatory Authority in formulating the new Safety Design Criteria. Findings of the research had reflected in the 'Technical Review Guidelines for Assessing Design Tsunami Height based on tsunami hazards'. (author)

  1. Tsunami hazard

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    Tohoku Earthquake Tsunami on 11 March, 2011 has led the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant to a serious accident, which highlighted a variety of technical issues such as a very low design tsunami height and insufficient preparations in case a tsunami exceeding the design tsunami height. Lessons such as to take measures to be able to maintain the important safety features of the facility for tsunamis exceeding design height and to implement risk management utilizing Probabilistic Safety Assessment are shown. In order to implement the safety assessment on nuclear power plants across Japan accordingly to the back-fit rule, Nuclear Regulatory Commission will promulgate/execute the New Safety Design Criteria in July 2013. JNES has positioned the 'enhancement of probabilistic tsunami hazard assessment' as highest priority issue and implemented in order to support technically the Nuclear Regulatory Authority in formulating the new Safety Design Criteria. Findings of the research had reflected in the 'Technical Review Guidelines for Assessing Design Tsunami Height based on tsunami hazards'. (author)

  2. CON4EI: SkinEthic™ Human Corneal Epithelium Eye Irritation Test (SkinEthic™ HCE EIT) for hazard identification and labelling of eye irritating chemicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Rompay, A R; Alépée, N; Nardelli, L; Hollanders, K; Leblanc, V; Drzewiecka, A; Gruszka, K; Guest, R; Kandarova, H; Willoughby, J A; Verstraelen, S; Adriaens, E

    2018-06-01

    Assessment of ocular irritancy is an international regulatory requirement and a necessary step in the safety evaluation of industrial and consumer products. Although a number of in vitro ocular irritation assays exist, none are capable of fully categorizing chemicals as a stand-alone assay. Therefore, the CEFIC-LRI-AIMT6-VITO CON4EI (CONsortium for in vitro Eye Irritation testing strategy) project was developed with the goal of assessing the reliability of eight in vitro/alternative test methods as well as establishing an optimal tiered-testing strategy. One of the in vitro assays selected was the validated SkinEthic™ Human Corneal Epithelium Eye Irritation Test method (SkinEthic™ HCE EIT). The SkinEthic™ HCE EIT has already demonstrated its capacity to correctly identify chemicals (both substances and mixtures) not requiring classification and labelling for eye irritation or serious eye damage (No Category). The goal of this study was to evaluate the performance of the SkinEthic™ HCE EIT test method in terms of the important in vivo drivers of classification. For the performance with respect to the drivers all in vivo Cat 1 and No Cat chemicals were 100% correctly identified. For Cat 2 chemicals the liquids and the solids had a sensitivity of 100% and 85.7%, respectively. For the SkinEthic™ HCE EIT test method, 100% concordance in predictions (No Cat versus No prediction can be made) between the two participating laboratories was obtained. The accuracy of the SkinEthic™ HCE EIT was 97.5% with 100% sensitivity and 96.9% specificity. The SkinEthic™ HCE EIT confirms its excellent results of the validation studies. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  3. A Review of Hazardous Chemical Species Associated with CO2 Capturefrom Coal-Fired Power Plants and Their Potential Fate in CO2 GeologicStorage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Apps, J.A.

    2006-02-23

    Conventional coal-burning power plants are major contributors of excess CO2 to the atmospheric inventory. Because such plants are stationary, they are particularly amenable to CO2 capture and disposal by deep injection into confined geologic formations. However, the energy penalty for CO2 separation and compression is steep, and could lead to a 30-40 percent reduction in useable power output. Integrated gas combined cycle (IGCC) plants are thermodynamically more efficient, i.e.,produce less CO2 for a given power output, and are more suitable for CO2 capture. Therefore, if CO2 capture and deep subsurface disposal were to be considered seriously, the preferred approach would be to build replacement IGCC plants with integrated CO2 capture, rather than retrofit existing conventional plants. Coal contains minor quantities of sulfur and nitrogen compounds, which are of concern, as their release into the atmosphere leads to the formation of urban ozone and acid rain, the destruction of stratospheric ozone, and global warming. Coal also contains many trace elements that are potentially hazardous to human health and the environment. During CO2 separation and capture, these constituents could inadvertently contaminate the separated CO2 and be co-injected. The concentrations and speciation of the co-injected contaminants would differ markedly, depending on whether CO2 is captured during the operation of a conventional or an IGCC plant, and the specific nature of the plant design and CO2 separation technology. However, regardless of plant design or separation procedures, most of the hazardous constituents effectively partition into the solid waste residue. This would lead to an approximately two order of magnitude reduction in contaminant concentration compared with that present in the coal. Potential exceptions are Hg in conventional plants, and Hg and possibly Cd, Mo and Pb in IGCC plants. CO2 capture and injection disposal could afford an opportunity to deliberately capture

  4. Hazard classification of environmental restoration activities at the INEL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peatross, R.G.

    1996-04-01

    The following documents require that a hazard classification be prepared for all activities for which US Department of Energy (DOE) has assumed environmental, safety, and health responsibility: the DOE Order 5481.1B, Safety Analysis and Review System and DOE Order 5480.23, Nuclear Safety Analysis Reports. A hazard classification defines the level of hazard posed by an operation or activity, assuming an unmitigated release of radioactive and nonradioactive hazardous material. For environmental restoration activities, the release threshold criteria presented in Hazard Baseline Documentation (DOE-EM-STD-5502-94) are used to determine classifications, such as Radiological, Nonnuclear, and Other Industrial facilities. Based upon DOE-EM-STD-5502-94, environmental restoration activities in all but one of the sites addressed by the scope of this classification (see Section 2) can be classified as ''Other Industrial Facility''. DOE-EM-STD-5502-94 states that a Health and Safety Plan and compliance with the applicable Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) standards are sufficient safety controls for this classification

  5. Signal transduction profile of chemical sensitisers in dendritic cells: An endpoint to be included in a cell-based in vitro alternative approach to hazard identification?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neves, Bruno Miguel; Goncalo, Margarida; Figueiredo, Americo; Duarte, Carlos B.; Lopes, Maria Celeste; Cruz, Maria Teresa

    2011-01-01

    The development of non-animal testing methods for the assessment of skin sensitisation potential is an urgent challenge within the framework of existing and forthcoming legislation. Efforts have been made to replace current animal tests, but so far no alternative methods have been developed. It is widely recognised that alternatives to animal testing cannot be accomplished with a single approach, but rather will require the integration of results obtained from different in vitro and in silico assays. The argument subjacent to the development of in vitro dendritic cell (DC)-based assays is that sensitiser-induced changes in the DC phenotype can be differentiated from those induced by irritants. This assumption is derived from the unique capacity of DC to convert environmental signals encountered at the skin into a receptor expression pattern (MHC class II molecules, co-stimulatory molecules, chemokine receptors) and a soluble mediator release profile that will stimulate T lymphocytes. Since signal transduction cascades precede changes in surface marker expression and cytokine/chemokine secretion, these phenotypic modifications are a consequence of a signal transduction profile that is specifically triggered by sensitisers and not by irritants. A limited number of studies have addressed this subject and the present review attempts to summarise and highlight all of the signalling pathways modulated by skin sensitisers and irritants. Furthermore, we conclude this review by focusing on the most promising strategies suitable for inclusion into a cell-based in vitro alternative approach to hazard identification.

  6. Eye Irritation Test (EIT) for Hazard Identification of Eye Irritating Chemicals using Reconstructed Human Cornea-like Epithelial (RhCE) Tissue Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaluzhny, Yulia; Kandárová, Helena; d'Argembeau-Thornton, Laurence; Kearney, Paul; Klausner, Mitchell

    2015-08-23

    To comply with the Seventh Amendment to the EU Cosmetics Directive and EU REACH legislation, validated non-animal alternative methods for reliable and accurate assessment of ocular toxicity in man are needed. To address this need, we have developed an eye irritation test (EIT) which utilizes a three dimensional reconstructed human cornea-like epithelial (RhCE) tissue model that is based on normal human cells. The EIT is able to separate ocular irritants and corrosives (GHS Categories 1 and 2 combined) and those that do not require labeling (GHS No Category). The test utilizes two separate protocols, one designed for liquid chemicals and a second, similar protocol for solid test articles. The EIT prediction model uses a single exposure period (30 min for liquids, 6 hr for solids) and a single tissue viability cut-off (60.0% as determined by the MTT assay). Based on the results for 83 chemicals (44 liquids and 39 solids) EIT achieved 95.5/68.2/ and 81.8% sensitivity/specificity and accuracy (SS&A) for liquids, 100.0/68.4/ and 84.6% SS&A for solids, and 97.6/68.3/ and 83.1% for overall SS&A. The EIT will contribute significantly to classifying the ocular irritation potential of a wide range of liquid and solid chemicals without the use of animals to meet regulatory testing requirements. The EpiOcular EIT method was implemented in 2015 into the OECD Test Guidelines as TG 492.

  7. Human hazards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delpla, M.; Vignes, S.; Wolber, G.

    1976-01-01

    Among health hazards from ionizing radiations, a distinction is made of observed, likely and theoretical risks. Theoretical risks, derived from extrapolation of observations on sublethal exposures to low doses may frighten. However, they have nothing in common with reality as shown for instance, by the study of carcinogenesis risks at Nagasaki. By extrapolation to low doses, theoretical mutation risks are derived by geneticians from the observation of some characters especially deleterious in the progeny of parents exposed to sublethal doses. One cannot agree when by calculation they express a population exposure by a shift of its genetic balance with an increase of the proportion of disabled individuals. As a matter of fact, experimental exposure of successive generations of laboratory animals shows no accumulation of deleterious genes, sublethal doses excepted. Large nuclear plants should not be overwhelmed by horrible charges on sanitary grounds, whereas small sources have but too often shown they may originate mortal risks [fr

  8. Mutation analysis of the human CYP3A4 gene 5' regulatory region: population screening using non-radioactive SSCP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamzeiy, Hossein; Vahdati-Mashhadian, Nasser; Edwards, Helen J; Goldfarb, Peter S

    2002-03-20

    Human CYP3A4 is the major cytochrome P450 isoenzyme in adult human liver and is known to metabolise many xenobiotic and endogenous compounds. There is substantial inter-individual variation in the hepatic levels of CYP3A4. Although, polymorphic mutations have been reported in the 5' regulatory region of the CYP3A4 gene, those that have been investigated so far do not appear to have any effect on gene expression. To determine whether other mutations exist in this region of the gene, we have performed a new population screen on a panel of 101 human DNA samples. A 1140 bp section of the 5' proximal regulatory region of the CYP3A4 gene, containing numerous regulatory motifs, was amplified from genomic DNA as three overlapping segments. The 300 bp distal enhancer region at -7.9kb containing additional regulatory motifs was also amplified. Mutation analysis of the resulting PCR products was carried out using non-radioactive single strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP) and confirmatory sequencing of both DNA strands in those samples showing extra SSCP bands. In addition to detection of the previously reported CYP3A4*1B allele in nine subjects, three novel alleles were found: CYP3A4*1E (having a T-->A transversion at -369 in one subject), CYP3A4*1F (having a C-->G tranversion at -747 in 17 subjects) and CYP3A4*15B containing a nine-nucleotide insertion between -845 and -844 linked to an A-->G transition at -392 and a G-->A transition in exon 6 (position 485 in the cDNA) in one subject. All the novel alleles were heterozygous. No mutations were found in the upstream distal enhancer region. Our results clearly indicate that this rapid and simple SSCP approach can reveal mutant alleles in drug metabolising enzyme genes. Detection and determination of the frequency of novel alleles in CYP3A4 will assist investigation of the relationship between genotype, xenobiotic metabolism and toxicity in the CYP3A family of isoenzymes.

  9. Decommissioning nuclear and radiation hazardous facilities at the Mining and Chemical Combine: International cooperation in assessment of impact on the environment and population health

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lebedev, V.A.; Revenko, Y.A.; Zhidkov, V.V.

    2002-01-01

    The discharge of radionuclides to the Yenisei River has substantially reduced after shutdown of direct cycle reactors at the Mining and Chemical Combine; currently exposure dose rate above water surface and radionuclide concentration in sewage water flows do not exceed the levels set by existing sanitary rules. The results of other protection measures connected with decommissioning of nuclear- and radiation-dangerous facilities and environment restoration activity are considered in the paper. Recently, the workers of the Mining and Chemical Combine, together with specialists from other Russian institutions and with international participation, made significant progress in investigation and monitoring of the radiological impact, primarily in the Yenisei River floodplain and around the 'Severnyi' radwaste disposal site. The inventory of man-made radionuclides in flood-plain deposits of the Yenisei River was assessed and long-term radionuclide transport into the Kara Sea forecasted. New local information on radionuclide pathways to man and environment was the basis for the development of an original dosimetric model. The models of radionuclide migration in the underground liquid radwaste disposal sites have been created and associated human doses predicted. A GIS project has been developed for Yenisei River floodplain contamination. Future work will include development of M and CC ecological geoinformation cadastre and assessments of the impact of radionuclide exposure on the environment, agriculture, fishing, and water quality, as well as identification of necessary rehabilitation measures. (author)

  10. Endocrine-disrupting environmental chemicals - hazards to man and animal; Hormonell wirksame Umweltchemikalien - Gefahr fuer Mensch und Tier? Seminarband der Zentralen Informationsstelle Umweltberatung Bayern. Bd. 12

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Behling, G; Koller, U; Klemmer, A; Haury, H J [comps.

    1998-08-01

    The spectrum of problems relating to endocrine-disrupting environmental chemicals was presented by competent experts from public authorities and scientific institutions. The lecturers described the current stage and future tasks of research. Their lectures focused on effects of hormone-like substances on humans and animals and an assessment of risk factors on the basis of data from scientific tests and current environmental exposure. There was also a contribution presenting the chemical industry`s view of the matter. [Deutsch] Kompetente Sachverstaendige aus Behoerden und wissenschaftlichen Einrichtungen stellten das Themenspektrum vor, fuehrten in den Forschungsstand ein und zeigten den Forschungsbedarf auf. Der Schwerpunkt lag in der Darstellung der der Auswirkungen hormonell wirksamer Substanzen, wie z.B. DDT, Dioxinen und PCBs, auf Mensch und Tier sowie in der Abschaetzung der Risikofaktoren anhand der bekannten Daten aus wissenschaftlichen Tests sowie der aktuellen Exposition in der Umwelt. Mit einem Beitrag der chemischen Industrie wurde auch deren Einschaetzung der Umweltproblematik aufgezeigt. (orig./MG) m9

  11. Novel technologies and an overall strategy to allow hazard assessment and risk prediction of chemicals, cosmetics, and drugs with animal-free methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leist, Marcel; Lidbury, Brett A; Yang, Chihae; Hayden, Patrick J; Kelm, Jens M; Ringeissen, Stephanie; Detroyer, Ann; Meunier, Jean R; Rathman, James F; Jackson, George R; Stolper, Gina; Hasiwa, Nina

    2012-01-01

    Several alternative methods to replace animal experiments have been accepted by legal bodies. An even larger number of tests are under development or already in use for non-regulatory applications or for the generation of information stored in proprietary knowledge bases. The next step for the use of the different in vitro methods is their combination into integrated testing strategies (ITS) to get closer to the overall goal of predictive "in vitro-based risk evaluation processes." We introduce here a conceptual framework as the basis for future ITS and their use for risk evaluation without animal experiments. The framework allows incorporation of both individual tests and already integrated approaches. Illustrative examples for elements to be incorporated are drawn from the session "Innovative technologies" at the 8th World Congress on Alternatives and Animal Use in the Life Sciences, held in Montreal, 2011. For instance, LUHMES cells (conditionally immortalized human neurons) were presented as an example for a 2D cell system. The novel 3D platform developed by InSphero was chosen as an example for the design and use of scaffold-free, organotypic microtissues. The identification of critical pathways of toxicity (PoT) may be facilitated by approaches exemplified by the MatTek 3D model for human epithelial tissues with engineered toxicological reporter functions. The important role of in silico methods and of modeling based on various pre-existing data is demonstrated by Altamira's comprehensive approach to predicting a molecule's potential for skin irritancy. A final example demonstrates how natural variation in human genetics may be overcome using data analytic (pattern recognition) techniques borrowed from computer science and statistics. The overall hazard and risk assessment strategy integrating these different examples has been compiled in a graphical work flow.

  12. Building 894 hazards assessment document

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banda, Z.; Williams, M.

    1996-07-01

    The Department of Energy Order 5500.3A requires facility-specific hazards assessments be prepared, maintained, and used for emergency planning purposes. This hazards assessment document describes the chemical and radiological hazards associated with Building 894. The entire inventory was subjected to the screening criteria for potential airborne impact to onsite and offsite individuals out of which 9 chemicals were kept for further evaluation. The air dispersion model, ALOHA, estimated pollutant concentrations downwind from the source of a release, taking into consideration the toxicological and physical characteristics of the release site, the atmospheric conditions, and the circumstances of the release. The greatest distance at which a postulated facility event will produce consequences exceeding the Early Severe Health Effects threshold is 130 meters. The highest emergency classification is a General Emergency. The Emergency Planning Zone is a nominal 130 meter area that conforms to DOE boundaries and physical/jurisdictional boundaries such as fence lines and streets

  13. Toxic State–Corporate Crimes, Neo-liberalism and Green Criminology: The Hazards and Legacies of the Oil, Chemical and Mineral Industries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincenzo Ruggiero

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper uses examples from the history and practices of multi-national and large companies in the oil, chemical and asbestos industries to examine their legal and illegal despoiling and destruction of the environment and impact on human and non-human life. The discussion draws on the literature on green criminology and state-corporate crime and considers measures and arrangements that might mitigate or prevent such damaging acts. This paper is part of ongoing work on green criminology and crimes of the economy. It places these actions and crimes in the context of a global neo-liberal economic system and considers and critiques the distorting impact of the GDP model of ‘economic health’ and its consequences for the environment.

  14. 77 FR 17573 - Hazard Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-26

    ... far as possible, safe and healthful working conditions for all working men and women. Section 3(8) of the OSH Act (29 U.S.C. 652(8)) empowers the Secretary of Labor to promulgate standards that are... final rule and in this preamble. All employers with hazardous chemicals in their workplaces are required...

  15. 76 FR 56294 - National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan National Priorities List

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-13

    ... and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan National Priorities List AGENCY: Environmental... pollution control, Chemicals, Hazardous Waste, Hazardous substances, Intergovernmental relations, Penalties... error in processing the direct- final rule. The online Federal Document Management System (FDMS) did not...

  16. 76 FR 56362 - National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan National Priorities List

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-13

    ... and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan National Priorities List AGENCY: Environmental... protection, Air pollution control, Chemicals, Hazardous Waste, Hazardous substances, Intergovernmental... processing the deletion notice. The online Federal Document Management System (FDMS) did not include required...

  17. 40 CFR 68.50 - Hazard review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CHEMICAL ACCIDENT PREVENTION PROVISIONS Program 2 Prevention Program § 68.50 Hazard review. (a) The owner or operator shall conduct a review of the hazards associated with the regulated substances, process, and...

  18. Transportation of Hazardous Evidentiary Material.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Osborn, Douglas.

    2005-06-01

    This document describes the specimen and transportation containers currently available for use with hazardous and infectious materials. A detailed comparison of advantages, disadvantages, and costs of the different technologies is included. Short- and long-term recommendations are also provided.3 DraftDraftDraftExecutive SummaryThe Federal Bureau of Investigation's Hazardous Materials Response Unit currently has hazardous material transport containers for shipping 1-quart paint cans and small amounts of contaminated forensic evidence, but the containers may not be able to maintain their integrity under accident conditions or for some types of hazardous materials. This report provides guidance and recommendations on the availability of packages for the safe and secure transport of evidence consisting of or contaminated with hazardous chemicals or infectious materials. Only non-bulk containers were considered because these are appropriate for transport on small aircraft. This report will addresses packaging and transportation concerns for Hazardous Classes 3, 4, 5, 6, 8, and 9 materials. If the evidence is known or suspected of belonging to one of these Hazardous Classes, it must be packaged in accordance with the provisions of 49 CFR Part 173. The anthrax scare of several years ago, and less well publicized incidents involving unknown and uncharacterized substances, has required that suspicious substances be sent to appropriate analytical laboratories for analysis and characterization. Transportation of potentially hazardous or infectious material to an appropriate analytical laboratory requires transport containers that maintain both the biological and chemical integrity of the substance in question. As a rule, only relatively small quantities will be available for analysis. Appropriate transportation packaging is needed that will maintain the integrity of the substance, will not allow biological alteration, will not react chemically with the substance being

  19. chemical studies and sorption behavior of some hazardous metal ions on polyacrylamide stannic (IV) molybdophosphate as 'organic - inorganic' composite cation - exchanger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdel-Galil, E.A.M.

    2010-01-01

    compsite materials formed by the combination of multivalent metal acid salts and organic polymers provide a new class of (organic-inorganic) hypride ion exchangers with better mechanical and granulometric properties, good ion-exchange capacity, higher chemical and radiation stabilites, reproducibility and selectivity for heavy metals. this material was characterized using X-ray (XRD and XRF), IR, TGA-DTA and total elemental analysis studies. on the basis of distribution studies, the material has been found to be highly selective for pb(II). thermodynamic parameters (i.e δG 0 , δ S 0 and δH 0 ) have also been calculated for the adsorption of Pb 2+ , Cs + , Fe 3+ , Cd 2+ , Cu +2 , Zn 2+ , Co 2+ and Eu 3+ ions on polyacrylamide Sn(IV) molybdophosphate showing that the overall adsorption process is spontaneous endothermic. the mechanism of diffusion of Fe 3+ , Co 2+ , Cu +2 , Zn 2+ , Cd 2+ , Cs + , Pb 2+ and Eu 3+ in the H-form of polyacrylamide Sn(IV) molybdophosphate composite as cation exchanger was studied as a function of particle size, concentration of the exchanging ions, reaction temperature, dring temperature and pH. the exchange rate was controlled by particle diffusion mechanism as a limited batch techneque and is confirmed from straight lines of B versus 1/r 2 polts. the values of diffusion coefficients, activation energy and entropy of activation were calculated and their significance was discussed. the data obtained have been comared with that reported for other organic and inorganic exchangers.

  20. A framework for the use of single-chemical transcriptomics data in predicting the hazards associated with complex mixtures of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labib, Sarah; Williams, Andrew; Kuo, Byron; Yauk, Carole L; White, Paul A; Halappanavar, Sabina

    2017-07-01

    The assumption of additivity applied in the risk assessment of environmental mixtures containing carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) was investigated using transcriptomics. MutaTMMouse were gavaged for 28 days with three doses of eight individual PAHs, two defined mixtures of PAHs, or coal tar, an environmentally ubiquitous complex mixture of PAHs. Microarrays were used to identify differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in lung tissue collected 3 days post-exposure. Cancer-related pathways perturbed by the individual or mixtures of PAHs were identified, and dose-response modeling of the DEGs was conducted to calculate gene/pathway benchmark doses (BMDs). Individual PAH-induced pathway perturbations (the median gene expression changes for all genes in a pathway relative to controls) and pathway BMDs were applied to models of additivity [i.e., concentration addition (CA), generalized concentration addition (GCA), and independent action (IA)] to generate predicted pathway-specific dose-response curves for each PAH mixture. The predicted and observed pathway dose-response curves were compared to assess the sensitivity of different additivity models. Transcriptomics-based additivity calculation showed that IA accurately predicted the pathway perturbations induced by all mixtures of PAHs. CA did not support the additivity assumption for the defined mixtures; however, GCA improved the CA predictions. Moreover, pathway BMDs derived for coal tar were comparable to BMDs derived from previously published coal tar-induced mouse lung tumor incidence data. These results suggest that in the absence of tumor incidence data, individual chemical-induced transcriptomics changes associated with cancer can be used to investigate the assumption of additivity and to predict the carcinogenic potential of a mixture.

  1. The EpiOcular Eye Irritation Test (EIT) for hazard identification and labelling of eye irritating chemicals: protocol optimisation for solid materials and the results after extended shipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaluzhny, Yulia; Kandárová, Helena; Handa, Yuki; DeLuca, Jane; Truong, Thoa; Hunter, Amy; Kearney, Paul; d'Argembeau-Thornton, Laurence; Klausner, Mitchell

    2015-05-01

    The 7th Amendment to the EU Cosmetics Directive and the EU REACH Regulation have reinforced the need for in vitro ocular test methods. Validated in vitro ocular toxicity tests that can predict the human response to chemicals, cosmetics and other consumer products are required for the safety assessment of materials that intentionally, or inadvertently, come into contact with the eye. The EpiOcular Eye Irritation Test (EIT), which uses the normal human cell-based EpiOcular™ tissue model, was developed to address this need. The EpiOcular-EIT is able to discriminate, with high sensitivity and accuracy, between ocular irritant/corrosive materials and those that require no labelling. Although the original EpiOcular-EIT protocol was successfully pre-validated in an international, multicentre study sponsored by COLIPA (the predecessor to Cosmetics Europe), data from two larger studies (the EURL ECVAM-COLIPA validation study and an independent in-house validation at BASF SE) resulted in a sensitivity for the protocol for solids that was below the acceptance criteria set by the Validation Management Group (VMG) for eye irritation, and indicated the need for improvement of the assay's sensitivity for solids. By increasing the exposure time for solid materials from 90 minutes to 6 hours, the optimised EpiOcular-EIT protocol achieved 100% sensitivity, 68.4% specificity and 84.6% accuracy, thereby meeting all the acceptance criteria set by the VMG. In addition, to satisfy the needs of Japan and the Pacific region, the EpiOcular-EIT method was evaluated for its performance after extended shipment and storage of the tissues (4-5 days), and it was confirmed that the assay performs with similar levels of sensitivity, specificity and reproducibility in these circumstances. 2015 FRAME.

  2. A new concept for risk assessment of the hazards of non-genotoxic chemicals--electronmicroscopic studies of the cell surface. Evidence for the action of lipophilic chemicals on the Ca2+ signaling system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gartzke, J; Lange, K; Brandt, U; Bergmann, J

    1997-06-20

    Recently, we presented evidence for the localization of components of the cellular Ca2+ signaling pathway in microvilli. On stimulation of this pathway, microvilli undergo characteristic morphological changes which can be detected by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) of the cell surface. Here we show that both receptor-mediated (vasopressin) and unspecific stimulation of the Ca2+ signaling system by the lipophilic tumor promoters thapsigargin (TG) and phorbolmyristateacetate (PMA) are accompanied by the same type of morphological changes of the cell surface. Since stimulated cell proliferation accelerates tumor development and sustained elevation of the intracellular Ca2+ concentrations is a precondition for stimulated cell proliferation, activated Ca2+ signaling is one possible mechanism of non-genomic tumor promotion. Using isolated rat hepatocytes we show that all tested lipophilic chemicals with known tumor promoter action, caused characteristic microvillar shape changes. On the other hand, lipophilic solvents that were used as differentiating agents in cell cultures such as dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) and dimethylformamide also, failed to change the microvillar shapes. Instead DMSO stabilized the original appearance of microvilli. The used technique provides a convenient method for the evaluation of non-genomic carcinogenicity of chemicals prior to their industrial application.

  3. Evaluation of non-radioactive endpoints of ex vivo local lymph node assay-BrdU to investigate select contact sensitizers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulker, Ozge Cemiloglu; Ates, Ilker; Atak, Aysegul; Karakaya, Asuman

    2013-01-01

    The present study sought to verify the utility of the non-radioactive endpoints LLNA BrdU (5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine) ex vivo incorporation and cytokine release using auricular lymph node cells isolated from BALB/c mice topically treated with a strong (formaldehyde or p-phenylene-diamine [PPD]), moderate sensitizer (cinnamal), or weak sensitizer (eugenol). Stimulation index (SI) and EC₃ values were calculated for each agent. Based on the results of ex vivo LLNA-BrdU assays, EC₃ values were calculated to be 0.29, 0.09, 1.91, and 16.60% for formaldehyde, PPD, cinnamal, and eugenol, respectively. These results were in good agreement with data from previous standard radioactive LLNA. Cytokine analyses indicated T(H)1 and T(H)2 cytokine involvement in the regulation of murine contact allergy and these could be utilized as endpoints in assessments of contact allergy in mice. In conclusion, the current study provided evidence that the non-radioactive endpoint LLNA BrdU ex vivo incorporation could be of use as a viable alternative approach to assess the skin sensitization potential of test compound with respect to improving animal welfare. This is of particular importance in the case of any laboratory where it might be difficult to handle and/or readily employ radioisotopes. Further studies will be required to confirm--across test agents--the reproducibility as well as the limits of utility of this new ex vivo BrdU method.

  4. Letter report: Pre-conceptual design study for a pilot-scale Non-Radioactive Low-Level Waste Vitrification Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, R.A.; Morrissey, M.F.

    1996-03-01

    This report presents a pre-conceptual design study for a Non-Radioactive Low-Level Waste, Pilot-Scale Vitrification System. This pilot plant would support the development of a full-scale LLW Vitrification Facility and would ensure that the full-scale facility can meet its programmatic objectives. Use of the pilot facility will allow verification of process flowsheets, provide data for ensuring product quality, assist in scaling to full scale, and support full-scale start-up. The facility will vitrify simulated non-radioactive LLW in a manner functionally prototypic to the full-scale facility. This pre-conceptual design study does not fully define the LLW Pilot-Scale Vitrification System; rather, it estimates the funding required to build such a facility. This study includes identifying all equipment necessary. to prepare feed, deliver it into the melter, convert the feed to glass, prepare emissions for atmospheric release, and discharge and handle the glass. The conceived pilot facility includes support services and a structure to contain process equipment

  5. A conceptual chemical solidification/stabilization system to remediate radioactive raffinate sludge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carpenter, D.J.; Ansted, J.P.; Foldyna, J.T.

    1994-01-01

    Past operations at the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Weldon Spring, Missouri, Superfund Site included the manufacture of nitroaromatic-based munitions and the production of uranium and thorium metal from ore concentrates. These operations generated a large quantity of diverse contaminated waste media including raffinate sludge, soil, sediment, and building debris. These various waste media are contaminated with varying amounts of radionuclides nitroaromatics, metals, metalloids, non-metals, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and asbestos. The volumes and diversity of contaminants and waste media pose significant challenges in identifying applicable remedial technologies, particularly for the excavation and treatment of the water-rich raffinate sludge. This paper presents the results of comprehensive efforts to develop a conceptual chemical solidification/stabilization (CSS) system to treat a variety of waste media. The emphasis of this paper is the treatment of a water-rich refractory raffinate sludge and site contaminated soils both radioactive and nonradioactive. The conceptual system design includes raffinate sludge excavation, dewatering, and CSS processing (reagent selection and formulation, reagent and waste storage and metering, and product mixing). Many innovations were incorporated into the design, producing a system that can process the various waste types. Additionally, the radioactive and hazardous constituents are sufficiently immobilized to allow the secured disposal in a waste cell of the treated product. The conceptual CSS system can also produce a variety of treated product types, ranging from a monolithic form to a compactible soil-like medium. The advantages of this system flexibility are also presented

  6. Hazardous waste operational plan for site 300

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roberts, R.S.

    1982-01-01

    This plan outlines the procedures and operations used at LLNL's Site 300 for the management of the hazardous waste generated. This waste consists primarily of depleted uranium (a by-product of U-235 enrichment), beryllium, small quantities of analytical chemicals, industrial type waste such as solvents, cleaning acids, photographic chemicals, etc., and explosives. This plan details the operations generating this waste, the proper handling of this material and the procedures used to treat or dispose of the hazardous waste. A considerable amount of information found in this plan was extracted from the Site 300 Safety and Operational Manual written by Site 300 Facility personnel and the Hazards Control Department

  7. Household hazardous waste

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fjelsted, Lotte; Christensen, Thomas Højlund

    2007-01-01

    .) comprised 15-25% and foreign items comprised 10-20%. Water-based paint was the dominant part of the paint waste. The chemical composition of the paint waste and the paint-like waste was characterized by an analysis of 27 substances in seven waste fractions. The content of critical substances was tow......'Paint waste', a part of the 'household hazardous waste', amounting to approximately 5 tonnes was collected from recycling stations in two Danish cities. Sorting and analyses of the waste showed paint waste comprised approximately 65% of the mass, paint-like waste (cleaners, fillers, etc...... and the paint waste was less contaminated with heavy metals than was the ordinary household waste. This may suggest that households no longer need to source-segregate their paint if the household waste is incinerated, since the presence of a small quantity of solvent-based paint will not be harmful when...

  8. Identify alkylation hazards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scott, B.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that extensive experience shows that alkylation plants regardless of acid catalyst choice, can be operated safely, and with minimum process risk to employees or neighbors. Both types of plants require a comprehensive and fully supported hazard management program that accounts for differing physical properties of the acids involved. Control and mitigation cost to refiners will vary considerably from plant to plant and location to location. In the author's experience, the order of magnitude costs will be about $1 to $2 million for a sulfuric acid (SA) alkylation plant, and about $10 to $15 million for a hydrofluoric acid (HF) plant. These costs include water supply systems and impoundment facilities for contaminated runoff water. The alkylation process, which chemically reacts isobutane and light olefins in the presence of a strong acid catalyst into a premium gasoline component is described

  9. More About Hazard-Response Robot For Combustible Atmospheres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Henry W.; Ohm, Timothy R.

    1995-01-01

    Report presents additional information about design and capabilities of mobile hazard-response robot called "Hazbot III." Designed to operate safely in combustible and/or toxic atmosphere. Includes cameras and chemical sensors helping human technicians determine location and nature of hazard so human emergency team can decide how to eliminate hazard without approaching themselves.

  10. Hazardous Waste Treatment Facility and skid-mounted treatment systems at Los Alamos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lussiez, G.W.; Zygmunt, S.J.

    1994-01-01

    To centralize treatment, storage, and areas for hazardous wastes, Los Alamos National Laboratory has designed a 1115 m2 hazardous waste treatment facility. The facility will house a treatment room for each of four kinds of wastes: nonradioactive characteristic wastes, nonradioactive listed wastes, radioactive characteristic wastes, and radioactive listed wastes. The facility will be used for repacking labpacks; bulking small organic waste volumes; processing scintillation vials; treating reactives such as lithium hydride and pyrophoric uranium; treating contaminated solids such as barium sand; treating plating wastes and other solutions with heavy metals and oxidizing organics: Separate treatment rooms will allow workers to avoid mixing waste types and prevent cross-contamination. The ventilation air from the treatment areas may contain hazardous or radioactive dust. Gas may also leak from process equipment. The gas treatment process includes separating solids and gases and neutralization or adsorption of the hazardous gases. The ventilation air from each room will first be filtered before being scrubbed in a common gas caustic scrubber on an outside pad. There are two levels of exhaust in each treatment room, one for heavy gases and another for light gases. Several features help mitigate or eliminate hazards due to spills and releases: each treatment room is sealed and under slight negative pressure; each room has its own HEPA filtration; to avoid mixing of incompatible wastes and reagents, portable individual spill-containment trays are used for skids, to limit the danger of spills, the waste is directly transferred from outside storage to the treatment room; to mitigate the consequences of a gas release in the room, mobile hoods are connected to the exhaust-air treatment system; the floor, walls, ceilings, fixtures, ducts, and piping are made of acid-resistant material or are coated

  11. Apparatus for sampling hazardous media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gardner, J.F.; Showalter, T.W.

    1984-01-01

    An apparatus for sampling a hazardous medium, such as radioactive or chemical waste, selectively collects a predetermined quantity of the medium in a recess of an end-over-end rotatable valving member. This collected quantity is deposited in a receiving receptacle located in a cavity while the receiving receptacle is in a sealed relationship with a recess to prevent dusting of the sampled media outside the receiving receptacle. The receiving receptacle is removably fitted within a vehicle body which is, in turn, slidably movable upon a track within a transport tube. The receiving receptacle is transported in the vehicle body from its sample receiving position within a container for the hazardous medium to a sample retrieval position outside the medium container. The receiving receptacle may then be removed from the vehicle body, capped and taken to a laboratory for chemical analysis. (author)

  12. [Occupational hazards and bladder cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nizamova, R S

    1991-01-01

    Occupational exposure to health hazards was studied in 258 industrial workers who had developed cancer of the bladder against 454 matched controls. All the test subjects and controls were residents of the Tambov Province centers of chemical industry. Statistical significance (relative risk-4.7) was established for exposure to aromatic amines. For those contacting with aniline dyes the relative risk (RR) made up 2.4. The risk to develop bladder cancer in powder shops (RR-3.2) was attributed to the hazards of dyes and diphenylamine. In leather-shoe and textile industry the exposure to dyes was not safe (RR-6.1), neither was it to chemicals, oil products, pesticides, overheating (RR-3.2, 1.6, 3.2 and 2.9, respectively). It is stated that in line with a significant risk to develop bladder cancer at exposure to aromatic amines there exist a number of occupational factors contributing to this risk.

  13. 75 FR 58346 - Hazardous Waste Management System; Identification and Listing of Hazardous Waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-24

    ... Waste Management System; Identification and Listing of Hazardous Waste AGENCY: Environmental Protection... Chemical Company-Texas Operations (Eastman) to exclude (or delist) certain solid wastes generated by its Longview, Texas, facility from the lists of hazardous wastes. EPA used the Delisting Risk Assessment...

  14. [Chemical hazards when working with solvent glues].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domański, Wojciech; Makles, Zbigniew

    2012-01-01

    Solvent glues are used in a wide variety of industries, e.g., textile, footwear and rubber. The problem of workers' exposure to solvent vapors is rarely tackled within the area of occupational safety and health in small and medium-sized enterprises. In order to assess exposure to solvents, organic solvents emitted by glues were identified in the samples of workplace air. The concentration of acetone, benzene, cyclohexane, ethylbenzene, n-hexane, methylcyclohexane, butyl acetate and toluene were determined. The obtained results evidenced the presence of cyclohexane, ethylbenzene, ethylcyclohexane, heptane, n-hexane, o-xylene, methylcyclohexane, methylcyclopentane, butyl acetate and toluene in workplace air. The concentration of those compounds in workplace air was low, usually below 0.15 of MAC. At some workstations the presence of benzene was also observed. Occupational risk was assessed at workstations where gluing took place. It showed that the risk at those workstations was medium or low.

  15. The Impact of Hazardous Chemicals on Macrophages

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-01

    8217MetBis) * Parathion solution (Parat) * Perchloromethyl mercaptan CChSCl (PClMM) * Propyl chloroformate ClCOzCHzCHzCH3 (PropClF) * *Abbreviation...0.53 (J.!M) 3.4nM 13 Perchloromethyl mercaptan 9.05 1.81 9.05 14 Propyl chloroformate 8.7 5.53 87 22 DTRA Basic Research Grant HDTRAI-07- 1-0027...production of semiconductor devices like integrated circuits and also used in laser and light-emitting diodes (LEOs). Butyl chloroformate (ButCIF

  16. Hazard function theory for nonstationary natural hazards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Read, L.; Vogel, R. M.

    2015-12-01

    Studies from the natural hazards literature indicate that many natural processes, including wind speeds, landslides, wildfires, precipitation, streamflow and earthquakes, show evidence of nonstationary behavior such as trends in magnitudes through time. Traditional probabilistic analysis of natural hazards based on partial duration series (PDS) generally assumes stationarity in the magnitudes and arrivals of events, i.e. that the probability of exceedance is constant through time. Given evidence of trends and the consequent expected growth in devastating impacts from natural hazards across the world, new methods are needed to characterize their probabilistic behavior. The field of hazard function analysis (HFA) is ideally suited to this problem because its primary goal is to describe changes in the exceedance probability of an event over time. HFA is widely used in medicine, manufacturing, actuarial statistics, reliability engineering, economics, and elsewhere. HFA provides a rich theory to relate the natural hazard event series (x) with its failure time series (t), enabling computation of corresponding average return periods and reliabilities associated with nonstationary event series. This work investigates the suitability of HFA to characterize nonstationary natural hazards whose PDS magnitudes are assumed to follow the widely applied Poisson-GP model. We derive a 2-parameter Generalized Pareto hazard model and demonstrate how metrics such as reliability and average return period are impacted by nonstationarity and discuss the implications for planning and design. Our theoretical analysis linking hazard event series x, with corresponding failure time series t, should have application to a wide class of natural hazards.

  17. Complex nuclear geophysical methods and apparatus to increase the efficiency of prospecting extracting and processing nonradioactive minerals as examplified by tin ores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baldin, S.A.; Voloshchuk, S.N.; Egiazarov, B.G.; Zernov, L.V.; Luchin, I.A.; Matveev, V.V.; Pukhal'skij, L.Ch.; Chesnokov, N.I.

    1979-01-01

    Described is the complex of nuclear geophysical methods and apparatus, with the help of which the problem of the industrial control at all stages of ore concentrating industry are being solved. γ resonance and X-ray radiometric methods and apparatus providing express and not less accurate determination of general tin and tin in the form of cassiterite are used in the complex. The devices developed on the base of semiconductor spectrometers and used both under industrial conditions and in production regimes are used for the first time in the practice of ore concentrating industry. The essential positive effect of the complex on technical economical indices of the industry is found out; it allows to use more effective methods of extracting and processing technology. The similar complexes may be developed for other kinds of nonradioactive minerals

  18. Contaminant Hazard Reviews (compilation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisler, R.; Munro, R.E.; Loges, L.M.; Boone, K.; Paul, M.M.; Garrett, L.J.

    2000-01-01

    This compact disc (CD) contains the 35 reports in the Contaminant Hazard Reviews (CHR) that were published originally between 1985 and 1999 in the U.S. Department of the Interior Biological Report series. The CD was produced because printed supplies of these reviews--a total of 105,000--became exhausted and demand remained high. Each review was prepared at the request of environmental specialists of the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service and each contained specific information on the following: mirex, cadmium, carbofuran, toxaphene, selenium, chromium, polychlorinated biphenyls, dioxins, diazinon, mercury, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, arsenic, chlorpyrifos, lead, tin, index issue, pentachlorophenol, atrazine, molybdenum, boron, chlordane, paraquat, cyanide, fenvalerate, diflubenzuron, zinc, famphur, acrolein, radiation, sodium monofluoroacetate, planar PCBs, silver, copper, nickel, and a cumulative index to chemicals and species. Each report reviewed and synthesized the technical literature on a single contaminant and its effects on terrestrial plants and invertebrates, aquatic plants and animals, avian and mammalian wildlife, and other natural resources. The subtopics include contaminant sources and uses; physical, chemical, and metabolic properties; concentrations in field collections of abiotic materials and living organisms; deficiency effects, where appropriate; lethal and sublethal effects, including effects on survival, growth, reproduction, metabolism, mutagenicity, teratogenicity, and carcinogenicity; proposed criteria for the protection of human health and sensitive natural resources; and recommendations for additional research.

  19. Assessment for the management of NORM wastes in conventional hazardous and nonhazardous waste landfills

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mora, Juan C., E-mail: jc.mora@ciemat.es [Unit for Radiation Protection of the Public and the Environment (PRPYMA), CIEMAT, Avda. Complutense, 40, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Energy Engineering Department, Power Engineering, Nuclear Area, ETSII, UNED (Spain); Baeza, Antonio [LARUEX, Dpt. Applied Physics, Faculty of Veterinary Science, University of Extremadura, Avda. Universidad, s/n, 10071 Cáceres (Spain); Robles, Beatriz [Unit for Radiation Protection of the Public and the Environment (PRPYMA), CIEMAT, Avda. Complutense, 40, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Sanz, Javier [Energy Engineering Department, Power Engineering, Nuclear Area, ETSII, UNED (Spain)

    2016-06-05

    Highlights: • Before 2010 NORM waste is managed as non-radioactive, disposed in landfills. • After 2010 radiological impact of the management of NORM wastes must be assessed. • Quantities that can be disposed in hazardous or non-hazardous landfills are given. • Uncertainty analysis is included to provide consistency to the calculations. - Abstract: Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials (NORM) wastes are generated in huge quantities in several industries and their management has been carried out under considerations of industrial non-radioactive wastes, before the concern on the radioactivity content was included in the legislation. Therefore these wastes were conditioned using conventional methods and the waste disposals were designed to isolate toxic elements from the environment for long periods of time. Spanish regulation for these conventional toxic waste disposals includes conditions that assure adequate isolation to minimize the impact of the wastes to the environment in present and future conditions. After 1996 the radiological impact of the management of NORM wastes is considered and all the aspects related with natural radiations and the radiological control regarding the management of residues from NORM industries were developed in the new regulation. One option to be assessed is the disposal of NORM wastes in hazardous and non-hazardous waste disposals, as was done before this new regulation. This work analyses the management of NORM wastes in these landfills to derive the masses that can be disposed without considerable radiological impact. Generic dose assessments were carried out under highly conservative hypothesis and a discussion on the uncertainty and variability sources was included to provide consistency to the calculations.

  20. Assessment for the management of NORM wastes in conventional hazardous and nonhazardous waste landfills

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mora, Juan C.; Baeza, Antonio; Robles, Beatriz; Sanz, Javier

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Before 2010 NORM waste is managed as non-radioactive, disposed in landfills. • After 2010 radiological impact of the management of NORM wastes must be assessed. • Quantities that can be disposed in hazardous or non-hazardous landfills are given. • Uncertainty analysis is included to provide consistency to the calculations. - Abstract: Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials (NORM) wastes are generated in huge quantities in several industries and their management has been carried out under considerations of industrial non-radioactive wastes, before the concern on the radioactivity content was included in the legislation. Therefore these wastes were conditioned using conventional methods and the waste disposals were designed to isolate toxic elements from the environment for long periods of time. Spanish regulation for these conventional toxic waste disposals includes conditions that assure adequate isolation to minimize the impact of the wastes to the environment in present and future conditions. After 1996 the radiological impact of the management of NORM wastes is considered and all the aspects related with natural radiations and the radiological control regarding the management of residues from NORM industries were developed in the new regulation. One option to be assessed is the disposal of NORM wastes in hazardous and non-hazardous waste disposals, as was done before this new regulation. This work analyses the management of NORM wastes in these landfills to derive the masses that can be disposed without considerable radiological impact. Generic dose assessments were carried out under highly conservative hypothesis and a discussion on the uncertainty and variability sources was included to provide consistency to the calculations.

  1. Hazard Baseline Downgrade Effluent Treatment Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blanchard, A.

    1998-01-01

    This Hazard Baseline Downgrade reviews the Effluent Treatment Facility, in accordance with Department of Energy Order 5480.23, WSRC11Q Facility Safety Document Manual, DOE-STD-1027-92, and DOE-EM-STD-5502-94. It provides a baseline grouping based on the chemical and radiological hazards associated with the facility. The Determination of the baseline grouping for ETF will aid in establishing the appropriate set of standards for the facility

  2. Hazard Analysis Database Report

    CERN Document Server

    Grams, W H

    2000-01-01

    The Hazard Analysis Database was developed in conjunction with the hazard analysis activities conducted in accordance with DOE-STD-3009-94, Preparation Guide for U S . Department of Energy Nonreactor Nuclear Facility Safety Analysis Reports, for HNF-SD-WM-SAR-067, Tank Farms Final Safety Analysis Report (FSAR). The FSAR is part of the approved Authorization Basis (AB) for the River Protection Project (RPP). This document describes, identifies, and defines the contents and structure of the Tank Farms FSAR Hazard Analysis Database and documents the configuration control changes made to the database. The Hazard Analysis Database contains the collection of information generated during the initial hazard evaluations and the subsequent hazard and accident analysis activities. The Hazard Analysis Database supports the preparation of Chapters 3 ,4 , and 5 of the Tank Farms FSAR and the Unreviewed Safety Question (USQ) process and consists of two major, interrelated data sets: (1) Hazard Analysis Database: Data from t...

  3. Global Landslide Hazard Distribution

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Global Landslide Hazard Distribution is a 2.5 minute grid of global landslide and snow avalanche hazards based upon work of the Norwegian Geotechnical Institute...

  4. Job Hazard Analysis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1998-01-01

    .... Establishing proper job procedures is one of the benefits of conducting a job hazard analysis carefully studying and recording each step of a job, identifying existing or potential job hazards...

  5. Hazard function theory for nonstationary natural hazards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Read, Laura K.; Vogel, Richard M.

    2016-04-01

    Impact from natural hazards is a shared global problem that causes tremendous loss of life and property, economic cost, and damage to the environment. Increasingly, many natural processes show evidence of nonstationary behavior including wind speeds, landslides, wildfires, precipitation, streamflow, sea levels, and earthquakes. Traditional probabilistic analysis of natural hazards based on peaks over threshold (POT) generally assumes stationarity in the magnitudes and arrivals of events, i.e., that the probability of exceedance of some critical event is constant through time. Given increasing evidence of trends in natural hazards, new methods are needed to characterize their probabilistic behavior. The well-developed field of hazard function analysis (HFA) is ideally suited to this problem because its primary goal is to describe changes in the exceedance probability of an event over time. HFA is widely used in medicine, manufacturing, actuarial statistics, reliability engineering, economics, and elsewhere. HFA provides a rich theory to relate the natural hazard event series (X) with its failure time series (T), enabling computation of corresponding average return periods, risk, and reliabilities associated with nonstationary event series. This work investigates the suitability of HFA to characterize nonstationary natural hazards whose POT magnitudes are assumed to follow the widely applied generalized Pareto model. We derive the hazard function for this case and demonstrate how metrics such as reliability and average return period are impacted by nonstationarity and discuss the implications for planning and design. Our theoretical analysis linking hazard random variable X with corresponding failure time series T should have application to a wide class of natural hazards with opportunities for future extensions.

  6. Development of a novel non-radioactive cell-based method for the screening of SGLT1 and SGLT2 inhibitors using 1-NBDG.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Hung-Chi; Yang, Su-Fu; Huang, Ching-Chun; Lin, Tzung-Sheng; Liang, Pi-Hui; Lin, Chun-Jung; Hsu, Lih-Ching

    2013-08-01

    Sodium-coupled glucose co-transporters SGLT1 and SGLT2 play important roles in intestinal absorption and renal reabsorption of glucose, respectively. Blocking SGLT2 is a novel mechanism for lowering the blood glucose level by inhibiting renal glucose reabsorption and selective SGLT2 inhibitors are under development for treatment of type 2 diabetes. Furthermore, it has been reported that perturbation of SGLT1 is associated with cardiomyopathy and cancer. Therefore, both SGLT1 and SGLT2 are potential therapeutic targets. Here we report the development of a non-radioactive cell-based method for the screening of SGLT inhibitors using COS-7 cells transiently expressing human SGLT1 (hSGLT1), CHO-K1 cells stably expressing human SGLT2 (hSGLT2), and a novel fluorescent d-glucose analogue 1-NBDG as a substrate. Our data indicate that 1-NBDG can be a good replacement for the currently used isotope-labeled SGLT substrate, (14)C-AMG. The Michaelis constant of 1-NBDG transport (0.55 mM) is similar to that of d-glucose (0.51 mM) and AMG (0.40 mM) transport through hSGLT1. The IC50 values of a SGLT inhibitor phlorizin for hSGLT1 obtained using 1-NBDG and (14)C-AMG were identical (0.11 μM) in our cell-based system. The IC50 values of dapagliflozin, a well-known selective SGLT2 inhibitor, for hSGLT2 and hSGLT1 determined using 1-NBDG were 1.86 nM and 880 nM, respectively, which are comparable to the published results obtained using (14)C-AMG. Compared to (14)C-AMG, the use of 1-NBDG is cost-effective, convenient and potentially more sensitive. Taken together, a non-radioactive system using 1-NBDG has been validated as a rapid and reliable method for the screening of SGLT1 and SGLT2 inhibitors.

  7. Hazardous substances in Europe's fresh and marine waters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Collins, Robert; Brack, Werner; Lützhøft, Hans-Christian Holten

    Chemicals are an essential part of our daily lives. They are used to produce consumer goods, to protect or restore our health and to boost food production, to name but a few examples — and they are also involved in a growing range of environmental technologies. Europe's chemical and associated...... on their pattern of use and the potential for exposure. Certain types of naturally occurring chemicals, such as metals, can also be hazardous. Emissions of hazardous substances to the environment can occur at every stage of their life cycle, from production, processing, manufacturing and use in downstream...... regarding chemical contamination arising from the exploitation of shale gas has grown recently. Hazardous substances in water affect aquatic life… Hazardous substances are emitted to water bodies both directly and indirectly through a range of diffuse and point source pathways. The presence of hazardous...

  8. Runoff inundation hazard cartography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pineux, N.; Degré, A.

    2012-04-01

    Between 1998 and 2004, Europe suffered from more than hundred major inundations, responsible for some 700 deaths, for the moving of about half a million of people and the economic losses of at least 25 billions Euros covered by the insurance policies. Within this context, EU launched the 2007/60/CE directive. The inundations are natural phenomenon. They cannot be avoided. Nevertheless this directive permits to better evaluate the risks and to coordinate the management measures taken at member states level. In most countries, inundation maps only include rivers' overflowing. In Wallonia, overland flows and mudflows also cause huge damages, and must be included in the flood hazard map. Indeed, the cleaning operations for a village can lead to an estimated cost of 11 000 €. Average construction cost of retention dams to control off-site damage caused by floods and muddy flows was valued at 380 000€, and yearly dredging costs associated with these retention ponds at 15 000€. For a small city for which a study was done in a more specific way (Gembloux), the mean annual cost for the damages that can generate the runoff is about 20 000€. This cost consists of the physical damages caused to the real estate and movable properties of the residents as well as the emergency operations of the firemen and the city. On top of damages to public infrastructure (clogging of trenches, silting up of retention ponds) and to private property by muddy flows, runoff generates a significant loss of arable land. Yet, the soil resource is not an unlimited commodity. Moreover, sediments' transfer to watercourses alters their physical and chemical quality. And that is not to mention the increased psychological stress for people. But to map overland flood and mud flow hazard is a real challenge. This poster will present the methodology used to in Wallonia. The methodology is based on 3 project rainfalls: 25, 50 and 100 years return period (consistency with the cartography of the

  9. Occupational hazards to health of port workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yukun; Zhan, Shuifen; Liu, Yan; Li, Yan

    2017-12-01

    The aim of this article is to reduce the risk of occupational hazards and improve safety conditions by enhancing hazard knowledge and identification as well as improving safety behavior for freight port enterprises. In the article, occupational hazards to health and their prevention measures of freight port enterprises have been summarized through a lot of occupational health evaluation work, experience and understanding. Workers of freight port enterprises confront an equally wide variety of chemical, physical and psychological hazards in production technology, production environment and the course of labor. Such health hazards have been identified, the risks evaluated, the dangers to health notified and effective prevention measures which should be put in place to ensure the health of the port workers summarized. There is still a long way to go for the freight port enterprises to prevent and control the occupational hazards. Except for occupational hazards and their prevention measures, other factors that influence the health of port workers should also be paid attention to, such as age, work history, gender, contraindication and even the occurrence and development rules of occupational hazards in current production conditions.

  10. Civil nuclear: which hazards?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    This document briefly indicates and describes the various hazards of exposure to radioactivity in relationship with the different stages of exploitation of nuclear energy: mining, exploitation, fuel reprocessing and waste management. It briefly presents and describes the scenarios associated with major risks in the exploitation phase: core fusion (description, possible origins, consequences in terms of possible releases), formation of hydrogen (chemical reaction, risk of explosion with releases, failure modes for the containment enclosure). It proposes a brief overview of consequences for mankind and for the environment due to irradiation and contamination. A brief assessment of major nuclear accidents is given, with an indication of their severity INES classification (Kyshtym, Three Mile Island, Chernobyl, Fukushima). It evokes incidents which occurred in France, and outlines the main challenges and stakes in terms of risk prevention, of plant control, of nuclear material and waste management, of public information, and of struggle against nuclear weapon proliferation. Actors and their roles are indicated: operator (EDF in France), control authority (ASN), actors in charge of waste management (ANDRA), research and information institutions (CEA, IRSN, CRIIRAD), international scientific bodies (UNSCEAR)

  11. 49 CFR 195.4 - Compatibility necessary for transportation of hazardous liquids or carbon dioxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... hazardous liquids or carbon dioxide. 195.4 Section 195.4 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to... necessary for transportation of hazardous liquids or carbon dioxide. No person may transport any hazardous liquid or carbon dioxide unless the hazardous liquid or carbon dioxide is chemically compatible with both...

  12. Hazard Analysis Database Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    GAULT, G.W.

    1999-10-13

    The Hazard Analysis Database was developed in conjunction with the hazard analysis activities conducted in accordance with DOE-STD-3009-94, Preparation Guide for US Department of Energy Nonreactor Nuclear Facility Safety Analysis Reports, for the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) Final Safety Analysis Report (FSAR). The FSAR is part of the approved TWRS Authorization Basis (AB). This document describes, identifies, and defines the contents and structure of the TWRS FSAR Hazard Analysis Database and documents the configuration control changes made to the database. The TWRS Hazard Analysis Database contains the collection of information generated during the initial hazard evaluations and the subsequent hazard and accident analysis activities. The database supports the preparation of Chapters 3,4, and 5 of the TWRS FSAR and the USQ process and consists of two major, interrelated data sets: (1) Hazard Evaluation Database--Data from the results of the hazard evaluations; and (2) Hazard Topography Database--Data from the system familiarization and hazard identification.

  13. Evaluating the Effects of Chemicals on Nervous System Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    There are thousands of chemicals that lack data on their potential effects on neurodevelopment. EPA is developing New Approach Methods to evaluate these chemicals for developmental neurotoxicity hazard.

  14. Essential Principles for Reform of Chemicals Management Legislation

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA's existing chemicals programs address pollution prevention, risk assessment, hazard and exposure assessment and/or characterization, and risk management for chemicals substances in commercial use.

  15. tRNA-mediated labelling of proteins with biotin. A nonradioactive method for the detection of cell-free translation products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurzchalia, T V; Wiedmann, M; Breter, H; Zimmermann, W; Bauschke, E; Rapoport, T A

    1988-03-15

    We have developed a new method for the rapid and sensitive detection of cell-free translation products. Biotinylated lysine is incorporated into newly synthesized proteins by means of lysyl-tRNA that is modified in the epsilon-position. After electrophoresis in a dodecyl sulfate gel and blotting onto nitrocellulose, the translation products can be identified by probing with streptavidin and biotinylated alkaline phosphatase, followed by incubation with a chromogenic enzyme substrate. The non-radioactive labelling by biotin approaches in its sensitivity that obtained by radioactive amino acids. The products are absolutely stable and can be rapidly identified. The new method has been tested with different mRNAs in the cell-free translation systems of wheat germ and reticulocytes. Neither the interaction of secretory proteins with the signal recognition particle nor the in vitro translocation across the endoplasmic reticulum membrane or core glycosylation of nascent polypeptides are prevented by the incorporation of biotinylated lysine residues. The results indicate that both the ribosome and the endoplasmic reticulum membrane permit the passage of polypeptides carrying bulky groups attached to the amino acids (by atomic models it was estimated that the size of the side chain of lysine changes from approximately equal to 0.8 nm to approximately equal to 2 nm after modification.

  16. PET/CT alignment calibration with a non-radioactive phantom and the intrinsic {sup 176}Lu radiation of PET detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wei, Qingyang [School of Automation and Electrical Engineering, University of Science & Technology Beijing, Beijing 100083 (China); Ma, Tianyu; Wang, Shi; Liu, Yaqiang [Department of Engineering Physics, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Gu, Yu, E-mail: guyu@ustb.edu.cn [School of Automation and Electrical Engineering, University of Science & Technology Beijing, Beijing 100083 (China); Dai, Tiantian, E-mail: maxinedtt@163.com [Department of Radiation Oncology, China-Japan Friendship Hospital, Beijing 100029 (China)

    2016-11-01

    Positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) is an important tool for clinical studies and pre-clinical researches which provides both functional and anatomical images. To achieve high quality co-registered PET/CT images, alignment calibration of PET and CT scanner is a critical procedure. The existing methods reported use positron source phantoms imaged both by PET and CT scanner and then derive the transformation matrix from the reconstructed images of the two modalities. In this paper, a novel PET/CT alignment calibration method with a non-radioactive phantom and the intrinsic {sup 176}Lu radiation of the PET detector was developed. Firstly, a multi-tungsten-alloy-sphere phantom without positron source was designed and imaged by CT and the PET scanner using intrinsic {sup 176}Lu radiation included in LYSO. Secondly, the centroids of the spheres were derived and matched by an automatic program. Lastly, the rotation matrix and the translation vector were calculated by least-square fitting of the centroid data. The proposed method was employed in an animal PET/CT system (InliView-3000) developed in our lab. Experimental results showed that the proposed method achieves high accuracy and is feasible to replace the conventional positron source based methods.

  17. Radiant-heat spray-calcination process for the solid fixation of radioactive waste. Part 1, Non-radioactive pilot unit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allemann, R.T.; Johnson, B.M. Jr.

    1960-11-14

    The fixation of radioactive waste in a stable solid media by means of calcination of these aqueous solutions has been the subject of considerable-effort throughout the U. S. Atomic Energy Commission and by atomic energy organizations in other countries. Several methods of doing this on a continuous or semi-continuous basis have been devised, and a fev have been demonstrated to be feasible for the handling of non-radioactive, or low-activity, simulated wastes. Notable among methods currently under development are: (a) batch-operated pot calcination of waste generated from reprocessing stainless steel clad fuel elements (Darex process) and Purex waste, (b) combination rotary kiln and ball mill calcination of aluminum nitrate (TBP-25 and Redox process), and (c) fluidized bed calcination of TBP-25 and Purex wastes. Although a considerable amount of engineering experience has been obtained on the calcination of dissolved salts in a fluidized bed, and the other methods have been the subjects of a great deal of study, none of them have been developed to-the extent which would rule out the desirability of further investigation of other possible methods of calcination.

  18. Software safety hazard analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lawrence, J.D.

    1996-02-01

    Techniques for analyzing the safety and reliability of analog-based electronic protection systems that serve to mitigate hazards in process control systems have been developed over many years, and are reasonably well understood. An example is the protection system in a nuclear power plant. The extension of these techniques to systems which include digital computers is not well developed, and there is little consensus among software engineering experts and safety experts on how to analyze such systems. One possible technique is to extend hazard analysis to include digital computer-based systems. Software is frequently overlooked during system hazard analyses, but this is unacceptable when the software is in control of a potentially hazardous operation. In such cases, hazard analysis should be extended to fully cover the software. A method for performing software hazard analysis is proposed in this paper

  19. Transport of hazardous goods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    The course 'Transport of hazardous goods' was held in Berlin in November 1988 in cooperation with the Bundesanstalt fuer Materialforschung und -pruefung. From all lecturs, two are recorded separately: 'Safety of tank trucks - requirements on the tank, development possibiities of active and passive safety' and 'Requirements on the transport of radioactive materials - possible derivations for other hazardous goods'. The other lectures deal with hazardous goods law, requirements on packinging, risk assessment, railroad transport, hazardous goods road network, insurance matters, EC regulations, and waste tourism. (HSCH) [de

  20. Disposal of hazardous wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnhart, B.J.

    1978-01-01

    The Fifth Life Sciences Symposium entitled Hazardous Solid Wastes and Their Disposal on October 12 through 14, 1977 was summarized. The topic was the passage of the National Resources Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 will force some type of action on all hazardous solid wastes. Some major points covered were: the formulation of a definition of a hazardous solid waste, assessment of long-term risk, list of specific materials or general criteria to specify the wastes of concern, Bioethics, sources of hazardous waste, industrial and agricultural wastes, coal wastes, radioactive wastes, and disposal of wastes

  1. Potential hazards in smoke-flavored fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Hong; Jiang, Jie; Li, Donghua

    2008-08-01

    Smoking is widely used in fish processing for the color and flavor. Smoke flavorings have evolved as a successful alternative to traditional smoking. The hazards of the fish products treated by liquid-smoking process are discussed in this review. The smoke flavoring is one important ingredient in the smoke-flavored fish. This paper gives the definition of smoke flavorings and the hazard of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) residue in the smoke flavorings on the market. It gives also an assessment of chemical hazards such as carcinogenic PAHs, especially Benzo-[ a]pyrene, as well as biological hazards such as Listeria monocytogenes, Clostridium botulinum, histamine and parasites in smoke-flavored fish. The limitations in regulations or standards are discussed. Smoke flavored fish have lower content of PAHs as compared with the traditional smoking techniques if the PAHs residue in smoke flavorings is controlled by regulations or standards.

  2. Hazardous and mixed waste transportation program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hohnstreiter, G.F.; Glass, R.E.; McAllaster, M.E.; Nigrey, P.J.; Trennel, A.J.; Yoshimura, H.R.

    1993-01-01

    Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) has developed a program to address the packaging needs associated with the transport of hazardous and mixed waste during the United States' Department of Energy (DOE) remediation efforts. The program addresses the technology needs associated with the transport of materials which have components that are radioactive and chemically hazardous. The mixed waste transportation activities focus on on-site specific applications of technology to the transport of hazardous and mixed wastes. These activities were identified at a series of DOE-sponsored workshops. These activities will be composed of the following: (1) packaging concepts, (2) chemical compatibility studies, and (3) systems studies. This paper will address activities in each of these areas. (J.P.N.)

  3. Hazardous and Mixed Waste Transportation Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hohnstreiter, G.F.; Glass, R.E.; McAllaster, M.E.; Nigrey, P.J.; Trennel, A.J.; Yoshimura, H.R.

    1991-01-01

    Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) has developed a program to address the packaging needs associated with the transport of hazardous and mixed waste during the United States' Department of Energy (DOE) remediation efforts. The program addresses the technology needs associated with the transport of materials which have components that are radioactive and chemically hazardous. The mixed waste transportation activities focus on on-site specific applications of technology to the transport of hazardous and mixed wastes. These activities were identified at a series of DOE-sponsored workshops. These activities will be composed of the following: (1) packaging concepts, (2) chemical compatibility studies, and (3) systems studies. This paper will address activities in each of these areas

  4. 76 FR 2388 - National Toxicology Program (NTP); NTP Interagency Center for the Evaluation of Alternative...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-13

    ... Nonradioactive Versions of the Murine Local Lymph Node Assay (LLNA) for Assessing Allergic Contact Dermatitis (ACD) Hazard Potential of Chemicals and Products, and Expanded Uses of the LLNA for Pesticide.... Federal agency responses to ICCVAM test method recommendations on two nonradioactive versions of the LLNA...

  5. Radiation hazards and their effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lunu, Shyam; Kumar, Hemant; Joshi, Pankaj Kumar; Songara, Venkteshwer

    2012-01-01

    Radiation can be classified into ionizing radiation and non-ionizing radiation, based on whether it is capable of ionizing atoms and breaking chemical bonds. Ultraviolet and higher frequency such as X-rays, gamma rays are ionizing. These pose their own special hazards. Non ionizing radiation is associated with two major potential hazards. i.e. electrical and biological. Additionally includes electric current caused by radiation can generate sparks and create a fire or explosive hazards. Strong radiation can induce current capable of delivering an electric shock. Extremely high power electromagnetic radiation can cause electric currents strong enough to create sparks when an induced voltage exceeds the breakdown voltage of surrounding mediums. A 2009 study at the University of Basal in Switzerland found that intermitted exposure of human cells to a 50 Hz electromagnetic field at a flux density of 10 Gy induced a slight but significant increase of DNA fragmentation in the comet assay. Mobile phones radiation and health concerns have been raised, especially following the enormous increase in the use of wireless mobile telephony throughout the world. Mobile phones use electromagnetic radiation in the microwaves range and some believes this may be harmful to human health. (author)

  6. Avoiding the Hazards of Hazardous Waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiller, Richard

    1996-01-01

    Under a 1980 law, colleges and universities can be liable for cleanup of hazardous waste on properties, in companies, and related to stocks they invest in or are given. College planners should establish clear policy concerning gifts, investigate gifts, distance university from business purposes, sell real estate gifts quickly, consult a risk…

  7. 77 FR 41300 - Hazardous Chemical Reporting: Revisions to the Emergency and Hazardous Chemical Inventory Forms...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-13

    ... telecommunication industry stated that their substations or cell towers may be unmanned. Thus, these commenters...) 424-9346 or (703) 412-9810 (in the Washington, DC metropolitan area). The Telecommunications Device... from various organizations, including industry, NASTTPO, as well as other state and local agencies...

  8. Hazardous solvent substitution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Twitchell, K.E.

    1995-01-01

    This article is an overview of efforts at INEL to reduce the generation of hazardous wastes through the elimination of hazardous solvents. To aid in their efforts, a number of databases have been developed and will become a part of an Integrated Solvent Substitution Data System. This latter data system will be accessible through Internet

  9. Relative Hazard Calculation Methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DL Strenge; MK White; RD Stenner; WB Andrews

    1999-01-01

    The methodology presented in this document was developed to provide a means of calculating the RH ratios to use in developing useful graphic illustrations. The RH equation, as presented in this methodology, is primarily a collection of key factors relevant to understanding the hazards and risks associated with projected risk management activities. The RH equation has the potential for much broader application than generating risk profiles. For example, it can be used to compare one risk management activity with another, instead of just comparing it to a fixed baseline as was done for the risk profiles. If the appropriate source term data are available, it could be used in its non-ratio form to estimate absolute values of the associated hazards. These estimated values of hazard could then be examined to help understand which risk management activities are addressing the higher hazard conditions at a site. Graphics could be generated from these absolute hazard values to compare high-hazard conditions. If the RH equation is used in this manner, care must be taken to specifically define and qualify the estimated absolute hazard values (e.g., identify which factors were considered and which ones tended to drive the hazard estimation)

  10. Hazardous Waste Manifest System

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA’s hazardous waste manifest system is designed to track hazardous waste from the time it leaves the generator facility where it was produced, until it reaches the off-site waste management facility that will store, treat, or dispose of the waste.

  11. Offsite transportation hazards assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burnside, M.E.

    1997-01-01

    This report documents the emergency preparedness Hazards Assessment for the offsite transportation of hazardous material from the Hanford Site. The assessment is required by the US Department of Energy (DOE) Order 151.1. Offsite transportation accidents are categorized using the DOE system to assist communication within the DOE and assure that appropriate assistance is provided to the people in charge at the scene. The assistance will initially include information about the load and the potential hazards. Local authorities will use the information to protect the public following a transportation accident. This Hazards Assessment will focus on the material being transported from the Hanford Site. Shipments coming to Hanford are the responsibility of the shipper and the carrier and, therefore, are not included in this Hazards Assessment, unless the DOE elects to be the shipper of record

  12. The Belgian approach and status on the radiological surveillance of radioactive substances in metal scrap and non-radioactive waste and the financing of orphan sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braeckeveldt, Marnix; Preter, Peter De; Michiels, Jan; Pepin, Stephane; Schrauben, Manfred; Wertelaers, An

    2007-01-01

    Numerous facilities in the non-nuclear sector in Belgium (e.g. in the non-radioactive waste processing and management sector and in the metal recycling sector) have been equipped with measuring ports for detecting radioactive substances. These measuring ports prevent radioactive sources or radioactive contamination from ending up in the material fluxes treated by the sectors concerned. They thus play an important part in the protection of the workers and the people living in the neighbourhood of the facilities, as well as in the protection of the population and the environment in general. In 2006, Belgium's federal nuclear control agency (FANC/AFCN) drew up guidelines for the operators of non-nuclear facilities with a measuring port for detecting radioactive substances. These guidelines describe the steps to be followed by the operators when the port's alarm goes off. Following the publication of the European guideline 2003/122/EURATOM of 22 December 2003 on the control of high-activity sealed radioactive sources and orphan sources, a procedure has been drawn up by FANC/AFCN and ONDRAF/NIRAS, the Belgian National Agency for Radioactive Waste and Enriched Fissile Materials, to identify the responsible to cover the costs relating to the further management of detected sealed sources and if not found to declare the sealed source as an orphan source. In this latter case and from mid-2006 the insolvency fund managed by ONDRAF/NIRAS covers the cost of radioactive waste management. At the request of the Belgian government, a financing proposal for the management of unsealed orphan sources as radioactive waste was also established by FANC/AFCN and ONDRAF/NIRAS. This proposal applies the same approach as for sealed sources and thus the financing of unsealed orphan sources will also be covered by the insolvency fund. (authors)

  13. An advanced design of non-radioactive image capturing and management system for applications in non-invasive skin disorder diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Carol Y. B.; Luk, David C. K.; Zhou, Kany S. Y.; So, Bryan M. K.; Louie, Derek C. H.

    2015-03-01

    Due to the increasing incidences of malignant melanoma, there is a rising demand for assistive technologies for its early diagnosis and improving the survival rate. The commonly used visual screening method is with limited accuracy as the early phase of melanoma shares many clinical features with an atypical nevus, while conventional dermoscopes are not user-friendly in terms of setup time and operations. Therefore, the development of an intelligent and handy system to assist the accurate screening and long-term monitoring of melanocytic skin lesions is crucial for early diagnosis and prevention of melanoma. In this paper, an advanced design of non-invasive and non-radioactive dermoscopy system was reported. Computer-aided simulations were conducted for optimizing the optical design and uniform illumination distribution. Functional prototype and the software system were further developed, which could enable image capturing at 10x amplified and general modes, convenient data transmission, analysis of dermoscopic features (e.g., asymmetry, border irregularity, color, diameter and dermoscopic structure) for assisting the early detection of melanoma, extract patient information (e.g. code, lesion location) and integrate with dermoscopic images, thus further support long term monitoring of diagnostic analysis results. A clinical trial study was further conducted on 185 Chinese children (0-18 years old). The results showed that for all subjects, skin conditions diagnosed based on the developed system accurately confirmed the diagnoses by conventional clinical procedures. Besides, clinical analysis on dermoscopic features and a potential standard approach by the developed system to support identifying specific melanocytic patterns for dermoscopic examination in Chinese children were also reported.

  14. Establishment of a non-radioactive cleavage assay to assess the DNA repair capacity towards oxidatively damaged DNA in subcellular and cellular systems and the impact of copper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamann, Ingrit; Schwerdtle, Tanja; Hartwig, Andrea

    2009-01-01

    Oxidative stress is involved in many diseases, and the search for appropriate biomarkers is one major focus in molecular epidemiology. 8-Oxoguanine (8-oxoG), a potentially mutagenic DNA lesion, is considered to be a sensitive biomarker for oxidative stress. Another approach consists in assessing the repair capacity towards 8-oxoG, mediated predominantly by the human 8-oxoguanine DNA glycosylase 1 (hOGG1). With respect to the latter, during the last few years so-called cleavage assays have been described, investigating the incision of 32 P-labelled and 8-oxoG damaged oligonucleotides by cell extracts. Within the present study, a sensitive non-radioactive test system based on a Cy5-labelled oligonucleotide has been established. Sources of incision activity are isolated proteins or extracts prepared from cultured cells and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC). After comparing different oligonucleotide structures, a hairpin-like structure was selected which was not degraded by cell extracts. Applying this test system the impact of copper on the activity of isolated hOGG1 and on hOGG activity in A549 cells was examined, showing a distinct inhibition of the isolated protein at low copper concentration as compared to a modest inhibition of hOGG activity in cells at beginning cytotoxic concentrations. For investigating PBMC, all reaction conditions, including the amounts of oligonucleotide and cell extract as well as the reaction time have been optimized. The incision activities of PBMC protein extracts obtained from different donors have been investigated, and inter-individual differences have been observed. In summary, the established method is as sensitive and even faster than the radioactive technique, and additionally, offers the advantage of reduced costs and low health risk.

  15. Brain uptake of a non-radioactive pseudo-carrier and its effect on the biodistribution of [18 F]AV-133 in mouse brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Xianying; Zhou, Xue; Zhang, Shuxian; Zhang, Yan; Deng, Aifang; Han, Jie; Zhu, Lin; Kung, Hank F.; Qiao, Jinping

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: 9-[ 18 F]Fluoropropyl-(+)-dihydrotetrabenazine ([ 18 F]AV-133) is a new PET imaging agent targeting vesicular monoamine transporter type II (VMAT2). To shorten the preparation of [ 18 F]AV-133 and to make it more widely available, a simple and rapid purification method using solid-phase extraction (SPE) instead of high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) was developed. The SPE method produced doses containing the non-radioactive pseudo-carrier 9-hydroxypropyl-(+)-dihydrotetrabenazine (AV-149). The objectives of this study were to evaluate the brain uptake of AV-149 by UPLC-MS/MS and its effect on the biodistribution of [ 18 F]AV-133 in the brains of mice. Methods: The mice were injected with a bolus including [ 18 F]AV-133 and different doses of AV-149. Brain tissue and blood samples were harvested. The effect of different amounts of AV-149 on [ 18 F]AV-133 was evaluated by quantifying the brain distribution of radiolabelled tracer [ 18 F]AV-133. The concentrations of AV-149 in the brain and plasma were analyzed using a UPLC-MS/MS method. Results: The concentrations of AV-149 in the brain and plasma exhibited a good linear relationship with the doses. The receptor occupancy curve was fit, and the calculated ED 50 value was 8.165 mg/kg. The brain biodistribution and regional selectivity of [ 18 F]AV-133 had no obvious differences at AV-149 doses lower than 0.1 mg/kg. With increasing doses of AV-149, the brain biodistribution of [ 18 F]AV-133 changed significantly. Conclusion: The results are important to further support that the improved radiolabelling procedure of [ 18 F]AV-133 using an SPE method may be suitable for routine clinical application

  16. Systems approach to chemical spill response information needs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parnarouskis, M.C.; Flessner, M.F.; Potts, R.G.

    1980-01-01

    The Chemical Hazards Response Information System (CHRIS) has been specifically designed to meet the emergency needs of US Coast Guard field personnel, currently providing them with information on 900 hazardous chemicals, with methods of predicting hazards resulting from accidental discharges, and with procedures for selecting and implementing response to accident discharges. The major components of CHRIS and the computerized hazard assessment models within the Hazard Assessment Computer System are described in detail.

  17. Natural hazards science strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, Robert R.; Jones, Lucile M.; Eidenshink, Jeffery C.; Godt, Jonathan W.; Kirby, Stephen H.; Love, Jeffrey J.; Neal, Christina A.; Plant, Nathaniel G.; Plunkett, Michael L.; Weaver, Craig S.; Wein, Anne; Perry, Suzanne C.

    2012-01-01

    The mission of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in natural hazards is to develop and apply hazard science to help protect the safety, security, and economic well-being of the Nation. The costs and consequences of natural hazards can be enormous, and each year more people and infrastructure are at risk. USGS scientific research—founded on detailed observations and improved understanding of the responsible physical processes—can help to understand and reduce natural hazard risks and to make and effectively communicate reliable statements about hazard characteristics, such as frequency, magnitude, extent, onset, consequences, and where possible, the time of future events.To accomplish its broad hazard mission, the USGS maintains an expert workforce of scientists and technicians in the earth sciences, hydrology, biology, geography, social and behavioral sciences, and other fields, and engages cooperatively with numerous agencies, research institutions, and organizations in the public and private sectors, across the Nation and around the world. The scientific expertise required to accomplish the USGS mission in natural hazards includes a wide range of disciplines that this report refers to, in aggregate, as hazard science.In October 2010, the Natural Hazards Science Strategy Planning Team (H–SSPT) was charged with developing a long-term (10-year) Science Strategy for the USGS mission in natural hazards. This report fulfills that charge, with a document hereinafter referred to as the Strategy, to provide scientific observations, analyses, and research that are critical for the Nation to become more resilient to natural hazards. Science provides the information that decisionmakers need to determine whether risk management activities are worthwhile. Moreover, as the agency with the perspective of geologic time, the USGS is uniquely positioned to extend the collective experience of society to prepare for events outside current memory. The USGS has critical statutory

  18. Chemical Waste Management and Disposal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armour, Margaret-Ann

    1988-01-01

    Describes simple, efficient techniques for treating hazardous chemicals so that nontoxic and nonhazardous residues are formed. Discusses general rules for management of waste chemicals from school laboratories and general techniques for the disposal of waste or surplus chemicals. Lists specific disposal reactions. (CW)

  19. The Neutron Personal Dosimetry Service of the Centre for Radiation, Chemical and Environmental Hazards, PHE-UK; Servicio de Dosimetría Personal Neutrónica del Centro para Emergencias Radiológicas, Químicas y Medioambientales, PHE-UK

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campo Blanco, X.

    2015-07-01

    The Centre for Radiation, Chemical and Environmental Hazards (CRCEH), that belongs to Public Health England (PHE), hosts the official Neutron Personal Dosimetry Service of the United Kingdom. They use etched-track detectors, made of a material called PADC (poly-allyl diglycol carbonate), to determinate de neutron personal dose. A two weeks visit has been made to this center, in order to learn about the facilities, the methods employed and the legislative framework of the Neutron Personal Dosimetry Service. In this work the main results of this visits are shown, which are interesting for the future development of an official neutron personal dosimetry service in Spain.

  20. Hazard screening application guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-06-01

    The basic purpose of hazard screening is to group precesses, facilities, and proposed modifications according to the magnitude of their hazards so as to determine the need for and extent of follow on safety analysis. A hazard is defined as a material, energy source, or operation that has the potential to cause injury or illness in human beings. The purpose of this document is to give guidance and provide standard methods for performing hazard screening. Hazard screening is applied to new and existing facilities and processes as well as to proposed modifications to existing facilities and processes. The hazard screening process evaluates an identified hazards in terms of the effects on people, both on-site and off-site. The process uses bounding analyses with no credit given for mitigation of an accident with the exception of certain containers meeting DOT specifications. The process is restricted to human safety issues only. Environmental effects are addressed by the environmental program. Interfaces with environmental organizations will be established in order to share information

  1. An OSHA based approach to safety analysis for nonradiological hazardous materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yurconic, M.

    1992-08-01

    The PNL method for chemical hazard classification defines major hazards by means of a list of hazardous substances (or chemical groups) with associated trigger quantities. In addition, the functional characteristics of the facility being classified is also be factored into the classification. In this way, installations defined as major hazard will only be those which have the potential for causing very serious incidents both on and off site. Because of the diversity of operations involving chemicals, it may not be possible to restrict major hazard facilities to certain types of operations. However, this hazard classification method recognizes that in the industrial sector major hazards are most commonly associated with activities involving very large quantities of chemicals and inherently energetic processes. These include operations like petrochemical plants, chemical production, LPG storage, explosives manufacturing, and facilities which use chlorine, ammonia, or other highly toxic gases in bulk quantities. The basis for this methodology is derived from concepts used by OSHA in its proposed chemical process safety standard, the Dow Fire and Explosion Index Hazard Classification Guide, and the International Labor Office's program on chemical safety. For the purpose of identifying major hazard facilities, this method uses two sorting criteria, (1) facility function and processes and (2) quantity of substances to identify facilities requiringclassification. Then, a measure of chemical energy potential (material factor) is used to identify high hazard class facilities

  2. Radiometric enrichment of nonradioactive ores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mokrousov, V.A.; Lileev, V.A.

    1979-01-01

    Considered are the methods of mineral enrichment based on the use of the radioation of various types. The physical essence of enrichment processes is presented, their classification is given. Described are the ore properties influencing the efficiency of radiometric enrichment, methods of the properties study and estimation of ore enrichment. New possibilities opened by radiometric enrichment in the technology of primary processing of mineral raw materials are elucidated. A considerable attention is paid to the main and auxiliary equipment for radiometric enrichment. The foundations of the safety engineering are presented in a brief form. Presented are also results of investigations and practical works in the field of enrichment of ores of non-ferrous, ferrous and non-metallic minerals with the help of radiometric methods

  3. 78 FR 69745 - Safety and Security Plans for Class 3 Hazardous Materials Transported by Rail

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-20

    ... material (considering the material's underlying chemical properties, corrosivity, and other characteristics) is fundamental to ensuring the selection of proper packaging and that the hazards of the materials...

  4. Review of occupational hazards associated with aquaculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Melvin L

    2010-10-01

    Aquaculture is an emerging sector that is associated with most of the same hazards that are present in agriculture generally, but many fish farming tasks entail added danger, including working around water and working at night. Comprehensive studies of these hazards have not been conducted, and substantial uncertainty exists as to the extent of these hazards. The question addressed in this investigation was, "What is known about potential hazardous occupational exposures to aquatic plant and animal farmers?" In this review, causes of death included drowning, electrocution, crushing-related injury, hydrogen sulfide poisoning, and fatal head injury. Nonfatal injuries were associated with slips, trips, and falls; machines; strains and sprains; chemicals; and fires. Risk factors included cranes (tip over and power line contact), tractors and sprayer-equipped all-terrain vehicles (overturn), heavy loads (lifting), high-pressure sprayers, slippery surfaces, rotting waste (hydrogen sulfide production), eroding levees (overturn hazard), storm-related rushing water, diving conditions (bends and drowning), nighttime conditions, working alone, lack of training, lack of or failure to use personal flotation devices, and all-terrain vehicle speeding. Other hazards included punctures or cuts from fish teeth or spines, needlesticks, exposure to low temperatures, and bacterial and parasitic infections .

  5. Assessment of LANL hazardous waste management documentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, K.D.; Hoevemeyer, S.S.; Stirrup, T.S.; Jennrich, E.A.; Lund, D.M.

    1991-04-01

    The objective of this report is to present findings from evaluating the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) ''Hazardous Waste Acceptance Criteria Receipt at TA-54, Area L'' to determine if it meets applicable DOE requirements. The guidelines and requirements for the establishment of a Hazardous Waste Acceptance Criteria (HW-WAC) are found in 40 CFR 260 to 270 and DOE Order 5820.2A. Neither set of requirements specifically require a WAC for the management of hazardous waste; however, the use of such documentation is logical and is consistent with the approach required for the management of radioactive waste. The primary purpose of a HW-WAC is to provide generators and waste management with established criteria that must be met before hazardous waste can be acceptable for treatment, storage and/or disposal. An annotated outline for a generic waste acceptance criteria was developed based on the requirements of 40 CFR 260 to 270 and DOE Order 5820.2A. The outline contains only requirements for hazardous waste, it does not address the radiological components of low-level mixed waste. The outline generated from the regulations was used for comparison to the LANL WAC For Chemical and Low-level Mixed Waste Receipt at TA-54, Area L. The major elements that should be addressed by a hazardous waste WAC were determined to be as follows: Waste Package/Container Requirements, Waste Forms, Land Disposal Restrictions, and Data Package-Certification ampersand Documentation

  6. Chemical carcinogenesis and chemoprevention: Scientific priority ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Occupational cancers are now a serious concern in industrializing developing countries where exposure levels to hazardous chemicals considerably exceed regulatory limits established in industrialized countries. The association between increasing use of chemicals and associated disorders and chemoprevention or ...

  7. Flood Hazard Area

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The National Flood Hazard Layer (NFHL) data incorporates all Digital Flood Insurance Rate Map(DFIRM) databases published by FEMA, and any Letters Of Map Revision...

  8. Flood Hazard Boundaries

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The National Flood Hazard Layer (NFHL) data incorporates all Digital Flood Insurance Rate Map(DFIRM) databases published by FEMA, and any Letters Of Map Revision...

  9. Introduction: Hazard mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baum, Rex L.; Miyagi, Toyohiko; Lee, Saro; Trofymchuk, Oleksandr M

    2014-01-01

    Twenty papers were accepted into the session on landslide hazard mapping for oral presentation. The papers presented susceptibility and hazard analysis based on approaches ranging from field-based assessments to statistically based models to assessments that combined hydromechanical and probabilistic components. Many of the studies have taken advantage of increasing availability of remotely sensed data and nearly all relied on Geographic Information Systems to organize and analyze spatial data. The studies used a range of methods for assessing performance and validating hazard and susceptibility models. A few of the studies presented in this session also included some element of landslide risk assessment. This collection of papers clearly demonstrates that a wide range of approaches can lead to useful assessments of landslide susceptibility and hazard.

  10. Natural Hazards Image Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Photographs and other visual media provide valuable pre- and post-event data for natural hazards. Research, mitigation, and forecasting rely on visual data for...

  11. Hazardous Waste Research Center

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The U.S. Army Engineer Waterways Experiment Station (WES) is playing a major role in development of technologies for cleanup of toxic and hazardous waste in military...

  12. Health Hazard Evaluations

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... May 1, 2018 Content source: National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health Division of Surveillance, Hazard Evaluation, and Field Studies ... Fear Act OIG 1600 Clifton Road Atlanta , GA 30329-4027 ...

  13. What Are Volcano Hazards?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Sheet 002-97 Revised March 2008 What Are Volcano Hazards? Volcanoes give rise to numerous geologic and ... as far as 15 miles from the volcano. Volcano Landslides A landslide or debris avalanche is a ...

  14. Hazards from aircraft

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grund, J.E.; Hornyik, K.

    1975-01-01

    The siting of nuclear power plants has created innumerable environmental concerns. Among the effects of the ''man-made environment'' one of increasing importance in recent nuclear plant siting hazards analysis has been the concern about aircraft hazards to the nuclear plant. These hazards are of concern because of the possibility that an aircraft may have a malfunction and crash either near the plant or directly into it. Such a crash could be postulated to result, because of missile and/or fire effects, in radioactive releases which would endanger the public health and safety. The majority of studies related to hazards from air traffic have been concerned with the determination of the probability associated with an aircraft striking vulnerable portions of a given plant. Other studies have focused on the structural response to such a strike. This work focuses on the problem of strike probability. 13 references

  15. Probabilistic Tsunami Hazard Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thio, H. K.; Ichinose, G. A.; Somerville, P. G.; Polet, J.

    2006-12-01

    The recent tsunami disaster caused by the 2004 Sumatra-Andaman earthquake has focused our attention to the hazard posed by large earthquakes that occur under water, in particular subduction zone earthquakes, and the tsunamis that they generate. Even though these kinds of events are rare, the very large loss of life and material destruction caused by this earthquake warrant a significant effort towards the mitigation of the tsunami hazard. For ground motion hazard, Probabilistic Seismic Hazard Analysis (PSHA) has become a standard practice in the evaluation and mitigation of seismic hazard to populations in particular with respect to structures, infrastructure and lifelines. Its ability to condense the complexities and variability of seismic activity into a manageable set of parameters greatly facilitates the design of effective seismic resistant buildings but also the planning of infrastructure projects. Probabilistic Tsunami Hazard Analysis (PTHA) achieves the same goal for hazards posed by tsunami. There are great advantages of implementing such a method to evaluate the total risk (seismic and tsunami) to coastal communities. The method that we have developed is based on the traditional PSHA and therefore completely consistent with standard seismic practice. Because of the strong dependence of tsunami wave heights on bathymetry, we use a full waveform tsunami waveform computation in lieu of attenuation relations that are common in PSHA. By pre-computing and storing the tsunami waveforms at points along the coast generated for sets of subfaults that comprise larger earthquake faults, we can efficiently synthesize tsunami waveforms for any slip distribution on those faults by summing the individual subfault tsunami waveforms (weighted by their slip). This efficiency make it feasible to use Green's function summation in lieu of attenuation relations to provide very accurate estimates of tsunami height for probabilistic calculations, where one typically computes

  16. Nitrous Oxide Explosive Hazards

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-05-01

    concentrations of N2O. A test program is suggested that could answer questions about decomposition propagation control in large N2O systems and hazards...accident. OSHA fined Scaled Composites for not training their workers informing them about N2O hazards, instructing them on safe procedures, and...seemed present that could produce temperatures in excess of the autogeneous ignition temperature (AIT) for the polymers? Autogeneous ignition

  17. K Basin Hazard Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    PECH, S.H.

    2000-01-01

    This report describes the methodology used in conducting the K Basins Hazard Analysis, which provides the foundation for the K Basins Final Safety Analysis Report. This hazard analysis was performed in accordance with guidance provided by DOE-STD-3009-94, Preparation Guide for U. S. Department of Energy Nonreactor Nuclear Facility Safety Analysis Reports and implements the requirements of DOE Order 5480.23, Nuclear Safety Analysis Report

  18. K Basin Hazard Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    PECH, S.H.

    2000-08-23

    This report describes the methodology used in conducting the K Basins Hazard Analysis, which provides the foundation for the K Basins Final Safety Analysis Report. This hazard analysis was performed in accordance with guidance provided by DOE-STD-3009-94, Preparation Guide for U. S. Department of Energy Nonreactor Nuclear Facility Safety Analysis Reports and implements the requirements of DOE Order 5480.23, Nuclear Safety Analysis Report.

  19. K Basins Hazard Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    WEBB, R.H.

    1999-01-01

    This report describes the methodology used in conducting the K Basins Hazard Analysis, which provides the foundation for the K Basins Safety Analysis Report (HNF-SD-WM-SAR-062/Rev.4). This hazard analysis was performed in accordance with guidance provided by DOE-STD-3009-94, Preparation Guide for U. S. Department of Energy Nonreactor Nuclear Facility Safety Analysis Reports and implements the requirements of DOE Order 5480.23, Nuclear Safety Analysis Report

  20. Chemical Accident Prevention: Site Security

    Science.gov (United States)

    This chemical safety alert assists facilities that routinely handle extremely hazardous substances, along with SERCs, LEPCs, and emergency responders, in their efforts to reduce criminally caused releases and vulnerability to terrorist activity.

  1. Hazardous Materials Hazard Analysis, Portland, Oregon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-06-01

    poisons and flammables are found in all agriculture and garden supply shops, automotive repair facilities, retail paint and hardware stores, etc...Peroxide rompressed Gases and Welding 4 NON-FLAMMABLE GAS: Surpplies Liquid Nitrogen FLAMMABLE GAS: Acetylene Hydrogen Propane Propylene Oxide OTHER...this small community said Sunday and where the water and the chemicals and 16,000 bags of chemicals were de- that he was upset with the way officials

  2. HAZARD ANALYSIS SOFTWARE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sommer, S; Tinh Tran, T.

    2008-01-01

    Washington Safety Management Solutions, LLC developed web-based software to improve the efficiency and consistency of hazard identification and analysis, control selection and classification, and to standardize analysis reporting at Savannah River Site. In the new nuclear age, information technology provides methods to improve the efficiency of the documented safety analysis development process which includes hazard analysis activities. This software provides a web interface that interacts with a relational database to support analysis, record data, and to ensure reporting consistency. A team of subject matter experts participated in a series of meetings to review the associated processes and procedures for requirements and standard practices. Through these meetings, a set of software requirements were developed and compiled into a requirements traceability matrix from which software could be developed. The software was tested to ensure compliance with the requirements. Training was provided to the hazard analysis leads. Hazard analysis teams using the software have verified its operability. The software has been classified as NQA-1, Level D, as it supports the analysis team but does not perform the analysis. The software can be transported to other sites with alternate risk schemes. The software is being used to support the development of 14 hazard analyses. User responses have been positive with a number of suggestions for improvement which are being incorporated as time permits. The software has enforced a uniform implementation of the site procedures. The software has significantly improved the efficiency and standardization of the hazard analysis process

  3. Carbon Structure Hazard Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoder, Tommy; Greene, Ben; Porter, Alan

    2015-01-01

    Carbon composite structures are widely used in virtually all advanced technology industries for a multitude of applications. The high strength-to-weight ratio and resistance to aggressive service environments make them highly desirable. Automotive, aerospace, and petroleum industries extensively use, and will continue to use, this enabling technology. As a result of this broad range of use, field and test personnel are increasingly exposed to hazards associated with these structures. No single published document exists to address the hazards and make recommendations for the hazard controls required for the different exposure possibilities from damaged structures including airborne fibers, fly, and dust. The potential for personnel exposure varies depending on the application or manipulation of the structure. The effect of exposure to carbon hazards is not limited to personnel, protection of electronics and mechanical equipment must be considered as well. The various exposure opportunities defined in this document include pre-manufacturing fly and dust, the cured structure, manufacturing/machining, post-event cleanup, and post-event test and/or evaluation. Hazard control is defined as it is applicable or applied for the specific exposure opportunity. The carbon exposure hazard includes fly, dust, fiber (cured/uncured), and matrix vapor/thermal decomposition products. By using the recommendations in this document, a high level of confidence can be assured for the protection of personnel and equipment.

  4. Ultra-violet radiation - hazard in workplaces? (part I)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohd Yusof Mohd Ali

    2003-01-01

    Not many workers are aware that apart from chemicals, physical agents, noise and machines which are known to be hazardous in workplaces, there exist another source of hazard which is equally important to be recognised and respected, that is hazard due to ultrviolet radiation (UV). This article presents some basics information on UV hazard and various protective measures that could be taken so that any workplace where UV source are present can be ensured safe for general public to enter and for workers to work in. (Author)

  5. Ultra-violet radiation: hazard in workplaces? (part II)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohd Yusof Mohd Ali

    2003-01-01

    Not many workers are aware that apart from chemicals, physical agents, noise and machines which are known to be hazardous in workplaces, there exist another source of hazard which is equally important to be recognised and respected, that is hazard due to ultrviolet radiation (UV). This is the continuation of part I, which was discussed in the later issue. In this part, hazard of ultraviolet radiation were briefly discused i.e. effects on the skin and the eyes. Other subjects discussed are exposure limits, how to assess the radiation, protection against ultraviolet radiation

  6. Proceedings of emerging technologies for hazardous waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tedder, D.W.

    1992-01-01

    This book contains proceedings of emerging technologies for hazardous waste management. Topics covered include: Low-temperature oxidation of organic chemical wastes; Advanced waste minimization strategies; Treatment of manufactured gas plant (MGP) and similar wastes; Bioremediation of soils and sediments; Advances in radioactive waste treatment; Computer aides approaches to hazardous waste management; Advances in soil remediation; Low-temperature oxidation of organic chemical waste; Boremediation: Micro, meso, and macro-scale processes; In situ remediation techniques; Treatment of hazardous organics with radiation or solar energy; Technologies for management of municipal waste combustion residues; Environmental restoration and waste management; and Advanced separation and stabilization technologies

  7. Hazardous waste status of discarded electronic cigarettes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krause, Max J.; Townsend, Timothy G., E-mail: ttown@ufl.edu

    2015-05-15

    Highlights: • Electronic cigarettes were tested using TCLP and WET. • Several electronic cigarette products leached lead at hazardous waste levels. • Lead was the only element that exceeded hazardous waste concentration thresholds. • Nicotine solution may cause hazardous waste classification when discarded unused. - Abstract: The potential for disposable electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) to be classified as hazardous waste was investigated. The Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP) was performed on 23 disposable e-cigarettes in a preliminary survey of metal leaching. Based on these results, four e-cigarette products were selected for replicate analysis by TCLP and the California Waste Extraction Test (WET). Lead was measured in leachate as high as 50 mg/L by WET and 40 mg/L by TCLP. Regulatory thresholds were exceeded by two of 15 products tested in total. Therefore, some e-cigarettes would be toxicity characteristic (TC) hazardous waste but a majority would not. When disposed in the unused form, e-cigarettes containing nicotine juice would be commercial chemical products (CCP) and would, in the United States (US), be considered a listed hazardous waste (P075). While household waste is exempt from hazardous waste regulation, there are many instances in which such waste would be subject to regulation. Manufactures and retailers with unused or expired e-cigarettes or nicotine juice solution would be required to manage these as hazardous waste upon disposal. Current regulations and policies regarding the availability of nicotine-containing e-cigarettes worldwide were reviewed. Despite their small size, disposable e-cigarettes are consumed and discarded much more quickly than typical electronics, which may become a growing concern for waste managers.

  8. Hazardous waste status of discarded electronic cigarettes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krause, Max J.; Townsend, Timothy G.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Electronic cigarettes were tested using TCLP and WET. • Several electronic cigarette products leached lead at hazardous waste levels. • Lead was the only element that exceeded hazardous waste concentration thresholds. • Nicotine solution may cause hazardous waste classification when discarded unused. - Abstract: The potential for disposable electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) to be classified as hazardous waste was investigated. The Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP) was performed on 23 disposable e-cigarettes in a preliminary survey of metal leaching. Based on these results, four e-cigarette products were selected for replicate analysis by TCLP and the California Waste Extraction Test (WET). Lead was measured in leachate as high as 50 mg/L by WET and 40 mg/L by TCLP. Regulatory thresholds were exceeded by two of 15 products tested in total. Therefore, some e-cigarettes would be toxicity characteristic (TC) hazardous waste but a majority would not. When disposed in the unused form, e-cigarettes containing nicotine juice would be commercial chemical products (CCP) and would, in the United States (US), be considered a listed hazardous waste (P075). While household waste is exempt from hazardous waste regulation, there are many instances in which such waste would be subject to regulation. Manufactures and retailers with unused or expired e-cigarettes or nicotine juice solution would be required to manage these as hazardous waste upon disposal. Current regulations and policies regarding the availability of nicotine-containing e-cigarettes worldwide were reviewed. Despite their small size, disposable e-cigarettes are consumed and discarded much more quickly than typical electronics, which may become a growing concern for waste managers

  9. Nonradioactive Air Emissions Notice of Construction use of a portable exhauster on 241-A-101 tank during salt well pumping and other routine activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hays, C.B.

    1996-01-01

    The 241-A-101 tank, a 22.9 meter 3,785,400 liter capacity SST, was constructed from the fourth generation of tank designs, which were capable of holding boiling or self-concentrating waste. Construction features a reinforced concrete shell, dome, and base with a mild steel liner covering the bottom and sidewalls. The tank has a flat bottom with a usable waste depth of approximately 9.4 meters. The tank was put into service in 1956 to store plutonium-uranium extraction (PUREX) high-level waste and organic wash waste. The waste was allowed to self-concentrate up until 1968. Tank sluicing was performed in 1969 and again in 1976 to reduce the amount of strontium and cesium, the two isotopes found to be the main heat generating sources in the tank. In 1978, the tank was reassigned for saltcake storage. The tank was taken out of service in November 1980 and partially isolated in 1982. Salt well pumping is a method used to interim stabilize SSTS. Interim stabilization is commenced once all the liquid above the solids has been removed (primary stabilization). Interim stabilization removes the gravity drainable liquid and the interstitial liquid between the solids from the SST and transfers the liquid to a double-shell tank (DST) or to a staging double-contained receiver tank (DCRT), which is subsequently transferred to a DST. Pumping is accomplished at very low flow rates, 15.1 liters per minute or less. Normally, salt well pumping is performed without the need of an exhauster. However, recent safety evaluations concluded that a minimum exhaust flow rate of 7.1 cubic meters per minute would be required to enhance the safety of the tank. Therefore, active ventilation will be part of this process for the 241-A-101 tank. This document details the Nonradioactive Air Emissions Notice of Construction for the use of a portable exhauster on Tank 241-A-101 during salt well pumping and other routine activities

  10. Hazardous waste minimization report for CY 1986

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kendrick, C.M.

    1990-12-01

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) is a multipurpose research and development facility. Its primary role is the support of energy technology through applied research and engineering development and scientific research in basic and physical sciences. ORNL also is a valuable resource in the solution of problems of national importance, such as nuclear and chemical waste management. In addition, useful radioactive and stable isotopes which are unavailable from the private sector are produced at ORNL. As a result of these activities, hazardous, radioactive, and mixed wastes are generated at ORNL. A formal hazardous waste minimization program for ORNL was launched in mid 1985 in response to the requirements of Section 3002 of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). During 1986, a task plan was developed. The six major tasks include: planning and implementation of a laboratory-wide chemical inventory and the subsequent distribution, treatment, storage, and/or disposal (TSD) of unneeded chemicals; establishment and implementation of a distribution system for surplus chemicals to other (internal and external) organizations; training and communication functions necessary to inform and motivate laboratory personnel; evaluation of current procurement and tracking systems for hazardous materials and recommendation and implementation of improvements; systematic review of applicable current and proposed ORNL procedures and ongoing and proposed activities for waste volume and/or toxicity reduction potential; and establishment of criteria by which to measure progress and reporting of significant achievements. 8 refs., 1 fig., 5 tabs

  11. Transportation of Hazardous Materials Emergency Preparedness Hazards Assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blanchard, A.

    2000-01-01

    This report documents the Emergency Preparedness Hazards Assessment (EPHA) for the Transportation of Hazardous Materials (THM) at the Department of Energy (DOE) Savannah River Site (SRS). This hazards assessment is intended to identify and analyze those transportation hazards significant enough to warrant consideration in the SRS Emergency Management Program

  12. Transportation of Hazardous Materials Emergency Preparedness Hazards Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blanchard, A.

    2000-02-28

    This report documents the Emergency Preparedness Hazards Assessment (EPHA) for the Transportation of Hazardous Materials (THM) at the Department of Energy (DOE) Savannah River Site (SRS). This hazards assessment is intended to identify and analyze those transportation hazards significant enough to warrant consideration in the SRS Emergency Management Program.

  13. Transportation of hazardous materials emergency preparedness hazards assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blanchard, A.

    2000-01-01

    This report documents the Emergency Preparedness Hazards Assessment (EPHA) for the Transportation of Hazardous Materials (THM) at the Department of Energy (DOE) Savannah River Site (SRS). This hazards assessment is intended to identify and analyze those transportation hazards significant enough to warrant consideration in the SRS Emergency Management Program

  14. Advanced Materials Laboratory hazards assessment document

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnett, B.; Banda, Z.

    1995-10-01

    The Department of Energy Order 55OO.3A requires facility-specific hazards assessments be prepared, maintained, and used for emergency planning purposes. This hazards assessment document describes the chemical and radiological hazards associated with the AML. The entire inventory was screened according to the potential airborne impact to onsite and offsite individuals. The air dispersion model, ALOHA, estimated pollutant concentrations downwind from the source of a release, taking into consideration the toxicological and physical characteristics of the release site, the atmospheric conditions, and the circumstances of the release. The greatest distance at which a postulated facility event will produce consequences exceeding the Early Severe Health Effects threshold is 23 meters. The highest emergency classification is a General Emergency. The Emergency Planning Zone is a nominal area that conforms to DOE boundaries and physical/jurisdictional boundaries such as fence lines and streets.

  15. The transportation of hazardous materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hillman, J.C.

    1981-04-01

    The increasing use of dangerous chemicals and petroleum products by S.A. industry makes it necessary for some form of control to be introduced to regulate the transport of these materials before a major disaster occurs, such as has occurred overseas. This report examines all the aspects that could increase the likelihood of such a disaster occurring, including the preparedness of emergency services. It also recommends the improvements or changes required to minimize this possibility. It is apparent that the training and ability of vehicle drivers are key areas in this respect and they are discussed at length. Forthcoming regulations under the Hazardous Substances Act No. 15 of 1973 are examined and the effects of over-restrictive legislation considered. The report concludes that legislation promulgated gradually to reinforce voluntary industrial practices will ultimately restrict this type of transport to the safety-conscious and competent operator, therefore minimizing the risk as much as possible

  16. The California Hazards Institute

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rundle, J. B.; Kellogg, L. H.; Turcotte, D. L.

    2006-12-01

    California's abundant resources are linked with its natural hazards. Earthquakes, landslides, wildfires, floods, tsunamis, volcanic eruptions, severe storms, fires, and droughts afflict the state regularly. These events have the potential to become great disasters, like the San Francisco earthquake and fire of 1906, that overwhelm the capacity of society to respond. At such times, the fabric of civic life is frayed, political leadership is tested, economic losses can dwarf available resources, and full recovery can take decades. A patchwork of Federal, state and local programs are in place to address individual hazards, but California lacks effective coordination to forecast, prevent, prepare for, mitigate, respond to, and recover from, the harmful effects of natural disasters. Moreover, we do not know enough about the frequency, size, time, or locations where they may strike, nor about how the natural environment and man-made structures would respond. As California's population grows and becomes more interdependent, even moderate events have the potential to trigger catastrophes. Natural hazards need not become natural disasters if they are addressed proactively and effectively, rather than reactively. The University of California, with 10 campuses distributed across the state, has world-class faculty and students engaged in research and education in all fields of direct relevance to hazards. For that reason, the UC can become a world leader in anticipating and managing natural hazards in order to prevent loss of life and property and degradation of environmental quality. The University of California, Office of the President, has therefore established a new system-wide Multicampus Research Project, the California Hazards Institute (CHI), as a mechanism to research innovative, effective solutions for California. The CHI will build on the rich intellectual capital and expertise of the Golden State to provide the best available science, knowledge and tools for

  17. Identification of Aircraft Hazards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    K. Ashley

    2006-12-08

    Aircraft hazards were determined to be potentially applicable to a repository at Yucca Mountain in ''Monitored Geological Repository External Events Hazards Screening Analysis'' (BSC 2005 [DIRS 174235], Section 6.4.1). That determination was conservatively based upon limited knowledge of flight data in the area of concern and upon crash data for aircraft of the type flying near Yucca Mountain. The purpose of this report is to identify specific aircraft hazards that may be applicable to a monitored geologic repository (MGR) at Yucca Mountain, using NUREG-0800, ''Standard Review Plan for the Review of Safety Analysis Reports for Nuclear Power Plants'' (NRC 1987 [DIRS 103124], Section 3.5.1.6), as guidance for the inclusion or exclusion of identified aircraft hazards. The intended use of this report is to provide inputs for further screening and analysis of identified aircraft hazards based upon the criteria that apply to Category 1 and Category 2 event sequence analyses as defined in 10 CFR 63.2 [DIRS 176544] (Section 4). The scope of this report includes the evaluation of military, private, and commercial use of airspace in the 100-mile regional setting of the repository at Yucca Mountain with the potential for reducing the regional setting to a more manageable size after consideration of applicable screening criteria (Section 7).

  18. IDENTIFICATION OF AIRCRAFT HAZARDS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    K.L. Ashley

    2005-01-01

    Aircraft hazards were determined to be potentially applicable to a repository at Yucca Mountain in the ''Monitored Geological Repository External Events Hazards Screening Analysis'' (BSC 2004, Section 6.4.1). That determination was conservatively based on limited knowledge of flight data in the area of concern and on crash data for aircraft of the type flying near Yucca Mountain. The purpose of this report is to identify specific aircraft hazards that may be applicable to a Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR) at Yucca Mountain using NUREG-0800, ''Standard Review Plan for the Review of Safety Analysis Reports for Nuclear Power Plants'' (NRC 1987, Section 3.5.1.6), as guidance for the inclusion or exclusion of identified aircraft hazards. NUREG-0800 is being used here as a reference because some of the same considerations apply. The intended use of this report is to provide inputs for further screening and analysis of the identified aircraft hazards based on the criteria that apply to Category 1 and 2 event sequence analyses as defined in 10 CFR 63.2 (see Section 4). The scope of this technical report includes the evaluation of military, private, and commercial use of airspace in the 100-mile regional setting of the MGR at Yucca Mountain with the potential for reducing the regional setting to a more manageable size after consideration of applicable screening criteria (see Section 7)

  19. Natural Hazards, Second Edition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouhban, Badaoui

    Natural disaster loss is on the rise, and the vulnerability of the human and physical environment to the violent forces of nature is increasing. In many parts of the world, disasters caused by natural hazards such as earthquakes, floods, landslides, drought, wildfires, intense windstorms, tsunami, and volcanic eruptions have caused the loss of human lives, injury, homelessness, and the destruction of economic and social infrastructure. Over the last few years, there has been an increase in the occurrence, severity, and intensity of disasters, culminating with the devastating tsunami of 26 December 2004 in South East Asia.Natural hazards are often unexpected or uncontrollable natural events of varying magnitude. Understanding their mechanisms and assessing their distribution in time and space are necessary for refining risk mitigation measures. This second edition of Natural Hazards, (following a first edition published in 1991 by Cambridge University Press), written by Edward Bryant, associate dean of science at Wollongong University, Australia, grapples with this crucial issue, aspects of hazard prediction, and other issues. The book presents a comprehensive analysis of different categories of hazards of climatic and geological origin.

  20. Barrow hazards survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-06-01

    Following a series of public meetings at which PERG presented the results of a literature review and site specific accident study of the hazards of the maritime transport of spent nuclear reactor fuel to Barrow (en route to the Windscale reprocessing works), PERG was requested by the Planning Committee of Barrow Town Council to prepare an assessment of the interaction of the hazards arising from the concentration of nuclear activities in the area with those of a proposed gas-terminal. This report presents a preliminary review of the Environmental Impact Assessments prepared by the Borough Surveyor and a critical appraisal of the hazard analyses undertaken by the Health and Safety Executive, and the consultants to Cumbria County Council on this matter, the Safety and Reliability Directorate of the United Kingdom Atomic Energy Authority. After a general and historical introduction, the document continues under the following headings: a description of the hazards (BNFL spent fuel shipments; the gas terminal; gas condensate storage; the Vickers shipyard (involving nuclear powered submarines)); the interaction of hazards; planning implications and democratic decisions; recommendations. (U.K.)