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Sample records for nonpsychotic group suicide

  1. Risk factors for suicide among 34,671 patients with psychotic and non-psychotic severe depression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leadholm, Anne Katrine K; Rothschild, Anthony J; Nielsen, Jimmi

    2014-01-01

    -PD and PD separately, and to investigate if the presence of psychotic symptoms is an independent risk factor for suicide in severe depression. METHODS: This register-based, nationwide, historical prospective cohort study used logistic regression analyses to ascertain risk factors for suicide among all......BACKGROUND: Severe unipolar depression is associated with increased risk of suicide, but it remains unknown whether the same risk factors are present in the non-psychotic (non-PD) and psychotic (PD) subtypes respectively. Therefore, this study aimed to identify risk factors for suicide in non...... adults diagnosed with severe depression at Danish psychiatric hospitals between January 1, 1994 and December 31, 2010. The risk for suicide was expressed as adjusted odds ratios (AOR). RESULTS: A total of 34,671 individuals with severe depression (non-PD: n=26,106 and PD: n=12,101) were included...

  2. Hallucinations in Nonpsychotic Children and Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simonds, John F.

    1975-01-01

    Case histories of ten nonpsychotic patients revealed significant anxiety and depression in a majority of the patients, with five expressing suicidal ideas. Stress factors were primarily family and school. Eight patients had combined auditory and visual hallucinations. The purposes of the hallucinations were multiple, but escape mechanisms were…

  3. The clinical and cost effectiveness of group art therapy for people with non-psychotic mental health disorders: a systematic review and cost-effectiveness analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uttley, Lesley; Stevenson, Matt; Scope, Alison; Rawdin, Andrew; Sutton, Anthea

    2015-07-07

    The majority of mental health problems are non-psychotic (e.g., depression, anxiety, and phobias). For some people, art therapy may be a more acceptable alternative form of psychological therapy than standard forms of treatment, such as talking therapies. This study was part of a health technology assessment commissioned by the National Institute for Health Research, UK and aimed to systematically appraise the clinical and cost-effective evidence for art therapy for people with non-psychotic mental health disorders. Comprehensive literature searches for studies examining art therapy in populations with non-psychotic mental health disorders were performed in May 2013. A quantitative systematic review of clinical effectiveness and a systematic review of studies evaluating the cost-effectiveness of group art therapy were conducted. Eleven randomised controlled trials were included (533 patients). Meta-analysis was not possible due to clinical heterogeneity and insufficient comparable data on outcome measures across studies. The control groups varied between studies but included: no treatment/wait-list, attention placebo controls and psychological therapy comparators. Art therapy was associated with significant positive changes relative to the control group in mental health symptoms in 7 of the 11 studies. A de novo model was constructed and populated with data identified from the clinical review. Scenario analyses were conducted allowing comparisons of group art therapy with wait-list control and group art therapy with group verbal therapy. Group art-therapy appeared cost-effective compared with wait-list control with high certainty although generalisability to the target population was unclear; group verbal therapy appeared more cost-effective than art therapy but there was considerable uncertainty and a sizeable probability that art therapy was more cost effective. From the limited available evidence art therapy was associated with positive effects compared with

  4. Recommendations from the EGAPP Working Group: testing for cytochrome P450 polymorphisms in adults with nonpsychotic depression treated with selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-12-01

    This statement summarizes the Evaluation of Genomic Applications in Practice and Prevention (EGAPP) Working Group recommendations regarding CYP450 genetic testing in adult patients beginning treatment with selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), and the supporting scientific evidence. EGAPP is a project developed by the National Office of Public Health Genomics at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention to support a rigorous, evidence-based process for evaluating genetic tests and other genomic applications that are in transition from research to clinical and public health practice in the United States. A key goal of the EGAPP Working Group is to develop conclusions and recommendations regarding clinical genomic applications and to establish clear linkage to the supporting scientific evidence. The Working Group members are nonfederal experts in genetics, laboratory medicine, and clinical epidemiology convened to establish methods and processes; set priorities for review topics; participate in technical expert panels for commissioned evidence reviews; publish recommendations; and provide guidance and feedback on other project activities. The EGAPP Working Group found insufficient evidence to support a recommendation for or against use of CYP450 testing in adults beginning SSRI treatment for non-psychotic depression. In the absence of supporting evidence, and with consideration of other contextual issues, EGAPP discourages use of CYP450 testing for patients beginning SSRI treatment until further clinical trials are completed. The EGAPP Working Group found no evidence linking testing for CYP450 to clinical outcomes in adults treated with SSRIs. While some studies of a single SSRI dose in healthy patients report an association between genotypic CYP450 drug metabolizer status and circulating SSRI levels, this association was not supported by studies of patients receiving ongoing SSRI treatment. Further, CYP450 genotypes are not consistently associated

  5. A suicide prevention advisory group at an academic medical center.

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    Hough, David; Lewis, Philip

    2010-05-01

    During a 15-month period, there were seven suicides among patients who were in active treatment or who had been seen recently by providers in the Department of Psychiatry of Tripler Army Medical Center, Honolulu, Hawaii. As a result, a Suicide Prevention Advisory Group (SPAG) was formed to identify possible causes and make recommendations aimed at improving the identification and treatment of suicidal patients. The group made 11 specific recommendations. No known suicides occurred during the 22 months after the implementation of the Suicide Prevention Advisory Group's recommendations.

  6. Prevention of suicide and attempted suicide in Denmark. Epidemiological studies of suicide and intervention studies in selected risk groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordentoft, Merete

    2007-11-01

    The suicide rates in Denmark have been declining during the last two decades. The decline was relatively larger among women than among men. All age groups experienced a decline except the very young with stable rates and the very old with increasing rates. The Universal, Selective, Indicated (USI) model recommended by Institute of Medicine was used as a framework for the thesis. Universal preventive interventions are directed toward the entire population; selective interventions are directed toward individuals who are at greater risk for suicidal behaviour; and indicated preventions are targeted at individuals who have already begun self-destructive behaviour. At the universal level, a review was carried out to highlight the association between availability of methods for suicide and suicide rate. There were mostly studies of firearms, and the conclusion of the review was that there was clear indication of restricted access to lethal means was associated with decline in suicide with that specific method, and in many cases also with overall suicide mortality. Restricting access is especially important for methods with high case fatality rate. Our own study indicated a beneficial effect on suicide rates of restrictions in access to barbiturates, dextropropoxyphen, domestic gas and car exhaust with high content of carbon monoxide. Although a range of other factors in the society might also be of importance, it was concluded that restrictions in access to dangerous means for suicide were likely to play an important role in reducing suicide rates in Denmark, especially for women. At the selective level, there are several important risk groups such as psychiatric patients, persons with alcohol and drug abuse, persons with newly diagnosed severe physical illness, all who previously attempted suicide, and groups of homeless, institutionalized, prisoners and other socially excluded persons. The thesis focused on homeless persons and psychiatric patients, especially patients

  7. Religious commitment, attitudes toward suicide, and suicidal behaviors among college students of different ethnic and religious groups in Malaysia.

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    Foo, Xiang Yi; Alwi, Muhd Najib Mohd; Ismail, Siti Irma Fadhillah; Ibrahim, Normala; Osman, Zubaidah Jamil

    2014-06-01

    The variation in suicide patterns across ethnic groups with different religious background is a puzzling social phenomenon. This study sought to examine the impact of religious commitment and attitudes toward suicide on suicidal behaviors of college students across major ethnic and religious groups in a multicultural society of Malaysia. A total of 139 college students completed Religious Commitment Inventory-10, Attitudes Toward Suicide Scale, and Suicidal Behavior Questionnaire-Revised. Findings showed significant discrepancies in attitudes toward suicide, but not suicidal behaviors across ethnic and religious groups. Suicide acceptance significantly affected suicidal behaviors as well. Although religious commitment is not associated with suicidal behaviors, its deviation is reflected in students' acceptance of suicide. Additionally, college students' suicide risk, lifetime, and recent suicide ideation, as well as their likelihood of future suicide attempt can be associated with their acceptance of suicide. The influence of attitudes toward suicide and religion, therefore, should be taken into consideration while implementing suicide prevention programs as it helps shape the norms about suicide among youths.

  8. On the Relationship Between Suicide-Prevention and Suicide-Advocacy Groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battin, Margaret Pabst

    Numerous advocacy groups concerned with "death with dignity" have formed in response to medical advances which extend the process of dying. Natural death legislation and the Living Will are but two examples of suicide advocacy for the terminally ill. These groups are emerging world-wide and range from conservative insistence on passive…

  9. [Nonfatal suicidal acts in a group of psychiatric inpatients. Situation of Mediterranean immigrants].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grube, M

    2004-07-01

    We investigated the correlation of belonging to an ethnic cultural minority and nonfatal suicidal acts (suicide attempts), suicidal ideation, and self-injurious behavior in a group of 494 psychiatric inpatients at the time of admission. The frequency of nonfatal suicidal acts was 15.3% in the group of immigrants ( n=111) and 8.9% in the group of German patients. This difference is significant, but the impact of belonging to the immigration group covaries with the impact of female gender and young age (below 45 years). If all three factors come together the risk of suicide attempts increases threefold. In the immigrant group alone, nonfatal suicidal acts were correlated with "transcultural conflicts". In the group of suicide attempters, we tried to assess the risk of suicide with the help of the "suicide risk list" (Pöldinger) and the suicidal intention with the help of the "suicide intention scale" (Pierce). Additionally, we investigated the method of suicide attempts and categorized them into two groups: "hard" and "weak" methods. We did not find any significant difference between immigrants and German patients concerning suicide risk, suicide intention, and choice of the method. Although there are some methodological shortcomings, we interpret our findings as an indication that immigrant inpatients are more involved in managing the additional stress which results from their immigration. Perhaps nonfatal suicidal behavior represents a risky, but insufficient attempt at "solving" transcultural problems in the immigrant group.

  10. Deliberate self-harm: A search for distinct group of suicide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amit Kumar Bhattacharya

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Some persons attempt suicide with a strong intention to die and some are not. Presently, no distinctive grouping has been done on the basis of the suicidal intention, though there is a significant variation in the psycho-socio-demographic profile, suicidal ideation, and intent within the persons making suicidal attempt. The aim of our study was to find the psycho-socio-demographic profile, suicide intent in survivors of suicide attempt, categorizing them by suicide intent, and finally to define the deliberate self-harm (DSH group. Materials and Methods: It was a cross-sectional study. Two hundred patients who survived suicide attempt were evaluated by a psychiatrist. The data were recorded for sociodemographic variables, psychiatric disorder, suicide intent, and lethality of suicide attempt. Grouping was done by using suicide intent as the determining dimension. The DSH group was defined by psycho-socio-demographic characteristics of the patient. Results: The mean age of the DSH group was 26.72 years, mostly females (50.5%, semiskilled workers (43.43% and housewives (32.32%, from nuclear family (60.6% with no psychiatric disorder (35.35%. Most of them attempted a nonlethal suicide attempt (87.87% by organophosphorus poisoning (87.87%. Conclusions: The DSH group is a distinct group among suicide attempters, having different psycho-socio-demographic characteristics.

  11. Social outcome compared in psychotic and nonpsychotic bipolar I patients.

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    Rosen, L N; Rosenthal, N E; Dunner, D L; Fieve, R R

    1983-05-01

    Eighty-nine bipolar I patients were given a structured interview, the Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia. Those who had experienced delusions or hallucinations at some time during the course of their illness were designated "psychotic," and those who had not were designated "nonpsychotic." The two groups were compared with regard to a number of outcome variables as well as age, age at first treatment, and duration of illness. The psychotic group had significantly poorer outcome in terms of social functioning. Although age, age at first treatment, and duration of illness distinguished between the two groups of patients, statistical analyses indicated that these variables did not account for differences in social outcome.

  12. Prevention of suicide and attempted suicide in Denmark. Epidemiological studies of suicide and intervention studies in selected risk groups

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordentoft, Merete

    2007-01-01

    percent as previously accepted, but lower. Risk factors for suicide among patients with schizophrenia were evaluated in case control studies, in nested case control studies, and in prospective studies. The following risk factors were the most important and frequently observed predictors: male gender...... patients in the integrated treatment. There were four suicides and one probable suicide (drowning) in standard treatment and one suicide in integrated treatment at two-year follow-up, but the study did not have sufficient power to detect these differences in proportion to who committed suicide; more than......-up of persons who attempted suicide. It was concluded that the risk of repetition in short- and medium-term follow-up studies was approximately 16 percent, with lower risk among "first-evers" compared to repeaters. There was a large variation in repetition rate. The proportion who committed suicide in medium...

  13. Prevention of suicide and attempted suicide in Denmark. Epidemiological studies of suicide and intervention studies in selected risk groups

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordentoft, Merete

    2007-01-01

    percent as previously accepted, but lower. Risk factors for suicide among patients with schizophrenia were evaluated in case control studies, in nested case control studies, and in prospective studies. The following risk factors were the most important and frequently observed predictors: male gender...... patients in the integrated treatment. There were four suicides and one probable suicide (drowning) in standard treatment and one suicide in integrated treatment at two-year follow-up, but the study did not have sufficient power to detect these differences in proportion to who committed suicide; more than......-up of persons who attempted suicide. It was concluded that the risk of repetition in short- and medium-term follow-up studies was approximately 16 percent, with lower risk among "first-evers" compared to repeaters. There was a large variation in repetition rate. The proportion who committed suicide in medium...

  14. Suicide

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... suicide attempts occur when someone is under the influence of alcohol or drugs. This doesn't mean ... coach, a relative, a school counselor, a religious leader, or a teacher. Call a suicide crisis line ( ...

  15. Suicide

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Scott B Patten

    2016-01-01

    ....3 Research into suicide and suicide attempts must use large, available data sets such as the National Mortality Database, Hospital Discharge Abstracts, and data from the National Ambulatory Care Reporting System...

  16. Clinically relevant risk factors for suicide: Comparison between clinical group with passive suicidal ideation, active suicidal ideation and without suicidal ideation

    OpenAIRE

    Miloseva, Lence; Cuijpers, Pim; Stojcev, Saso; Niklewski, Gunter; Richter, Kneginja; Jovevska, Svetlana; Arsova, Roza; Serafimov, Aleksandar

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: In recent years, researchers and clinicians do not treat passive suicidal ideation as a clinically relevant risk factor for suicide, while underestimating the strength of this desire to die, compared with making a plan for suicide in individuals having active suicidal ideation. This research study is clinically prospective, cross-sequential, but also partly retrospective because it involves also variables from the past, such as patients’ history data (number of suicidal attempts...

  17. Suicide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suicide is the tenth most common cause of death in the United States. People may consider suicide when they are hopeless and can't see ... event. People who have the highest risk of suicide are white men. But women and teens report ...

  18. Community-based suicide prevention through group activity for the elderly successfully reduced the high suicide rate for females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyama, Hirofumi; Watanabe, Naoki; Ono, Yutaka; Sakashita, Tomoe; Takenoshita, Yuka; Taguchi, Manabu; Takizawa, Tohru; Miura, Reiko; Kumagai, Keiko

    2005-06-01

    The lack of social support is the most common risk factor for late-life suicide. Few previous community-based interventions against the lack of social relationships reduced suicide. This study aims to evaluate outcomes of a community-based prevention program against suicide amongst the elderly in rural Japan. During 1995-2002, the program based on population strategy including group activity, psychoeducation and self-assessment of depression but no screening for depression, was implemented for elderly residents in Yuri town, Japan (5-year average population 6817; 5-year average suicide rate [> or =65 years old] 291.4/10(5)). Changes in the relative risk of suicide for individuals (> or =65 years old) before and after the 8-year implementation were estimated by the incidence rate ratio (IRR), using a quasi-experimental design with a neighboring reference, Chokai town, Japan (5-year average population 8136; 5-year average suicide rate [> or =65 years old] 216.5/10(5)). The risk of elderly females in Yuri completing suicide was reduced by 76% (age-adjusted IRR, 0.24; 95% CI, 0.10-0.58), while there was no change in the risks for Yuri's elderly males and both Chokai's elderly males and females. General loglinear analysis estimated a ratio of the female IRR in Yuri to that in its Akita prefecture of 0.35 (95% CI, 0.14-0.84), showing that the reduction of the risk in the intervention area was greater than a historical trend. A community-based suicide prevention through a group intervention designed to increase knowledge and to cultivate social relationships would be effective for elderly females but not males.

  19. Attitudes of Professional and Community Groups toward Male and Female Suicide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeRose, Nancy; Page, Stewart

    In order to explore attitudes toward female and male suicidal behaviors, psychologists (N=38), social workers (N=45), registered nurses (N=44), and lay persons (N=41) were asked to complete the Suicide Opinion Questionnaire (Domino et al., 1982). Half of the questionnaires for each group referred to a female target person and half referred to a…

  20. Suicide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerregaard, Peter; Lynge, Inge

    2006-01-01

    The incidence of youth suicides has increased dramatically among the Inuit in Greenland since the modernization started in the 1950s. Suicides currently peak at age 15-24 Men: 400-500, Women: 100-150 per 100,000 person-years. The methods are drastic: shooting or hanging. An early peak was seen...... in the capital, a later peak in the rest of West Greenland, and high and increasing rates in remote East Greenland. Suicidal thoughts occur more often in young people who grew up in homes with a poor emotional environment, alcohol problems and violence. There is a definite correlation with several aspects...... of the modernization process but it is hard to pinpoint causal relationships. It is rather the "modernization package" that should be regarded as risk factors for suicides....

  1. A Call for Research: The Need to Better Understand the Impact of Support Groups for Suicide Survivors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerel, Julie; Padgett, Jason H.; Conwell, Yeates; Reed, Gerald A., Jr.

    2009-01-01

    Support groups for suicide survivors (those individuals bereaved following a suicide) are widely used, but little research evidence is available to determine their efficacy. This paper outlines the pressing public health need to conduct research and determine effective ways to identify and meet the needs of suicide survivors, particularly through…

  2. Suicide prevention by online support groups: an action theory-based model of emotional first aid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilat, Itzhak; Shahar, Golan

    2009-01-01

    In the last two decades, online support groups have become a valuable source of help for individuals in suicidal crisis. Their attractiveness is attributed to features that enhance help-seeking and self-disclosure such as availability, anonymity, and use of written communication. However, online support groups also suffer from limitations and potential risks as agents of suicide prevention. The Israeli Association for Emotional First Aid (ERAN) has developed a practical model that seeks to maximize the benefits and minimize the risks of online suicide prevention. The model applies the Action Theory concepts whereby individuals shape their own environment. The present paper presents the model, which is based on an online support group combined with personal chat and a telephonic help line. The online support group is moderated by paraprofessionals who function as both process regulators and support providers. The principles and practice of the model are described, the theoretical rationale is presented, and directions for future research are suggested.

  3. A comparison study of early non-psychotic deviant behavior in Afrikaner and US patients with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobin, Christina; Roos, J Louw; Pretorius, Herman; Lundy, Laura S; Karayiorgou, Maria

    2003-02-15

    In a previous study early non-psychotic deviant behaviors in US adult schizophrenic patients recruited for a large-scale genetic study were examined (Psychiatry Research, 101, 101). Early deviance characterized a distinct subgroup of patients at rates that were consistent with earlier reports. In addition, specific early non-psychotic deviant behaviors were meaningfully associated with later disease outcomes. In the present study, we examined the demographic, syndrome course, symptom and early deviant behavior history of 109 Afrikaner probands who met criteria for DSM schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder, and compared them to 109 age- and gender-matched US probands. Consistent with past findings, 68% of Afrikaner probands, as compared to 67% of age- and gender-matched US probands, reported one or more forms of early non-psychotic deviance, including poor socialization, extreme fears/chronic sadness, and/or attention/learning impairment. The remaining 32 and 33% of probands, respectively, were without behavioral deviance until the onset of schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder. The frequency and distribution of individual deviant behaviors were strikingly consistent between the samples. However, logistic regression analyses revealed different patterns of associations between the early deviant behaviors manifested and disease outcome. Afrikaner participants with early fears/chronic sadness were 3 times more likely to attempt suicide, while among US participants, this form of early deviance conferred 3.5 times more risk for later schizoaffective disorder, and 3 times greater likelihood of later sensory (tactile and/or olfactory) hallucinations. Afrikaner participants with attention/learning impairment were 2.5 times more likely to experience later auditory hallucinations, while US participants with these early difficulties were 3 times more likely to experience thought disorder. We concluded that early non-psychotic childhood deviance in this independently

  4. Study of the outcome of suicide attempts: characteristics of hospitalization in a psychiatric ward group, critical care center group, and non-hospitalized group

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kemuyama Nobuo

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The allocation of outcome of suicide attempters is extremely important in emergency situations. Following categorization of suicidal attempters who visited the emergency room by outcome, we aimed to identify the characteristics and potential needs of each group. Methods The outcomes of 1348 individuals who attempted suicide and visited the critical care center or the psychiatry emergency department of the hospital were categorized into 3 groups, "hospitalization in the critical care center (HICCC", "hospitalization in the psychiatry ward (HIPW", or "non-hospitalization (NH", and the physical, mental, and social characteristics of these groups were compared. In addition, multiple logistic analysis was used to extract factors related to outcome. Results The male-to-female ratio was 1:2. The hospitalized groups, particularly the HICCC group, were found to have biopsychosocially serious findings with regard to disturbance of consciousness (JCS, general health performance (GAS, psychiatric symptoms (BPRS, and life events (LCU, while most subjects in the NH group were women who tended to repeat suicide-related behaviors induced by relatively light stress. The HIPW group had the highest number of cases, and their symptoms were psychologically serious but physically mild. On multiple logistic analysis, outcome was found to be closely correlated with physical severity, risk factor of suicide, assessment of emergent medical intervention, and overall care. Conclusion There are different potential needs for each group. The HICCC group needs psychiatrists on a full-time basis and also social workers and clinical psychotherapists to immediately initiate comprehensive care by a medical team composed of multiple professionals. The HIPW group needs psychological education to prevent repetition of suicide attempts, and high-quality physical treatment and management skill of the staff in the psychiatric ward. The NH group subjects need a

  5. The Effect of Spiritual and Religious Group Psychotherapy on Suicidal Ideation in Depressed Patients: A Randomized Clinical Trial

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    Hossein Ebrahimi

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Suicide is a great economical, social and public health problem. It is prevalent worldwide and has a lot of negative effects on individuals, families and society. Depression is often prelude to Suicide. An important part of the treatment of the mentally ill patients is spiritual-religious psychotherapy which should be done after physical treatment. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of spiritual and religious group psychotherapy on suicidal ideation in depressed patients. Methods: 51 depressed patients with suicidal ideation from Razi hospital (Tabriz, Iran participated in this clinical trial. To collect Data questionnaire was used which included demographic and Beck Suicide Scale Ideation. Experimental group participated in 10 sessions of group psychotherapy. Each section lasted 1 hour. Two weeks after the last section post test was done. Statistical software SPSS ver 13 was used for data analysis. Results: Results of independent t-test revealed no difference between two groups in terms of suicidal ideation before intervention but after study there is a statistical difference. Also the results of ANCOVA test showed a significant relationship between spiritual group therapy and decrease in suicidal ideation, so that this intervention can make 57% of variance in suicidal ideation of experimental group.Conclusion: Regarding positive effect of spiritual and religious group psychotherapy on decreasing suicidal ideation of depressed patients, we suggest this intervention to be held in Psychiatric Wards and also more study on depression and other psychiatric patients with greater sample size would be helpful.

  6. Symptom Profile and Severity in a Sample of Nigerians with Psychotic versus Nonpsychotic Major Depression

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    Increase Ibukun Adeosun

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The therapeutic strategies in managing patients with psychotic major depression (PMD differ from those with non-psychotic major depression (NMD, because of differences in clinical profile and outcome. However, there is underrecognition of psychotic symptoms in depressed patients. Previous studies in Western population suggest that certain symptom patterns, apart from psychosis which may be concealed, can facilitate the discrimination of PMD from NMD. These studies may have limited applicability to sub-Saharan Africa due to cross-cultural differences in the phenomenology of depression. This study compared the rates and severity of depressive symptoms in outpatients with PMD (n=129 and NMD (n=117 using the Structured Clinical Interview for Depression (SCID and Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAM-D. Patients with PMD had statistically significantly higher rates of suicidal ideation, suicidal attempt, psychomotor agitation, insomnia, and reduced appetite. Patients with NMD were more likely to manifest psychomotor retardation and somatic symptoms. PMD was associated with greater symptom severity. On logistic regression analysis, suicidal ideation, psychomotor disturbances, insomnia, and somatic symptoms were predictive of diagnostic status. The presence of these symptoms clusters may increase the suspicion of occult psychosis in patients with depression, thereby informing appropriate intervention strategies.

  7. Clinically relevant risk factors for suicide: Comparison between clinical group with passive suicidal ideation, active suicidal ideation and without suicidal ideation

    OpenAIRE

    Miloseva, Lence; Cuijeprs, Pim; Stojcev, Saso; Niklewski, Günter; Richter, Kneginja

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: The main aim of this presentation is to introduce project supported by Goce Delcev University, Stip, R. Macedonia, which will be realize during 2015-2016 year. This research study is clinically prospective, cross-sequential, but also partly retrospective because it involves also variables from the past, such as patients’ history data (number of suicidal attempts, stressful life events, etc.). Research objective: This research clinical study is aimed at exploring the differen...

  8. Effectiveness of interactive discussion group in suicide risk assessment among general nurses in Taiwan: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Chia-Yi; Lin, Yi-Yin; Yeh, Mei Chang; Huang, Lian-Hua; Chen, Shaw-Ji; Liao, Shih-Cheng; Lee, Ming-Been

    2014-11-01

    The evidence of suicide prevention training for nurses is scarce. Strategies to enhance general nurses' ability in suicide risk assessment are critical to develop effective training programs in general medical settings. This study was aimed to examine the effectiveness of an interactive discussion group in a suicide prevention training program for general nurses. In this randomized study with two groups of pre-post study design, the sample was recruited from the Medical, Surgical, and Emergency/Intensive Care Sectors of a 2000-bed general hospital via stratified randomization. Among the 111 nurses, 57 participants randomly assigned to the control group received a two-hour baseline suicide gatekeeper lecture, and 54 participants assigning to the experimental group received an additional five-hour group discussion about suicide risk assessment skills. Using a case vignette, the nurses discussed and assessed suicide risk factors specified in a 10-item Chinese SAD PERSONS Scale during a group discussion intervention. The findings revealed that the nurses achieved significant and consistent improvements of risk identification and assessment after the intervention without influencing their mental health status for assessing suicide risks. The result suggested an effective approach of interactive group discussion for facilitating critical thinking and learning suicide risk assessment skills among general nurses. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Local community intervention through depression screening and group activity for elderly suicide prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyama, Hirofumi; Ono, Yutaka; Watanabe, Naoki; Tanaka, Eriko; Kudoh, Seijiro; Sakashita, Tomoe; Sakamoto, Shinji; Neichi, Keiko; Satoh, Kyoko; Nakamura, Kenji; Yoshimura, Kimio

    2006-02-01

    This study aims to evaluate outcomes of a community-based program to prevent suicide among the elderly (>or=65 years old) using a quasi-experimental design with two neighboring references. During 1999-2004, the program including depression screening and group activity was conducted by the public health nurses in the Minami district (population 1685) of Nagawa town, rural Japan. Pre-post changes in the risk of completing suicide were estimated by the incidence rate ratios (IRR). The risk for Minami's elderly females was reduced by 74% (age-adjusted IRR, 0.26; 90% CI, 0.07-0.98) more than the historical trend, while there was no change in the risk of Minami's males and nor in the male or female references. The local intervention using public health nursing would be effective against suicide for elderly females without diffusing to the surroundings.

  10. Suicide and suicidal behaviour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turecki, Gustavo; Brent, David A.

    2017-01-01

    Summary Suicide is a complex public health problem of global dimension. Suicidal behaviour (SB) shows marked differences between genders, age groups, geographic regions and socio-political realities, and variably associates with different risk factors, underscoring likely etiological heterogeneity. Although there is no effective algorithm to predict suicide in clinical practice, improved recognition and understanding of clinical, psychological, sociological, and biological factors may facilitate the detection of high-risk individuals and assist in treatment selection. Psychotherapeutic, pharmacological, or neuromodulatory treatments of mental disorders can often prevent SB; additionally, regular follow-up of suicide attempters by mental health services is key to prevent future SB. PMID:26385066

  11. Suicide by age, ethnic group, coroners' verdicts and country of birth - A three-year survey in inner London

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Neeleman, J; Mak, [No Value; Wessely, S

    1997-01-01

    Background information on suicide in ethnic and immigrant groups in England and Wales is limited. Method A three-year (1991-1993) survey was conducted of all unnatural deaths of residents of an urban area. True likely and 'official' age-adjusted suicide rates were compared by ethnicity and, for Whit

  12. Relationship of optimism and suicidal ideation in three groups of patients at varying levels of suicide risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huffman, Jeff C; Boehm, Julia K; Beach, Scott R; Beale, Eleanor E; DuBois, Christina M; Healy, Brian C

    2016-06-01

    Optimism has been associated with reduced suicidal ideation, but there have been few studies in patients at high suicide risk. We analyzed data from three study populations (total N = 319) with elevated risk of suicide: (1) patients with a recent acute cardiovascular event, (2) patients hospitalized for heart disease who had depression or an anxiety disorder, and (3) patients psychiatrically hospitalized for suicidal ideation or following a suicide attempt. For each study we analyzed the association between optimism (measured by the Life-Orientation Test-Revised) and suicidal ideation, and then completed an exploratory random effects meta-analysis of the findings to synthesize this data. The meta-analysis of the three studies showed that higher levels of self-reported optimism were associated with a lower likelihood of suicidal ideation (odds ratio [OR] = .89, 95% confidence interval [CI] = .85-.95, z = 3.94, p optimism (OR = .84, 95% CI = .76-.92, z = 3.57, p optimism may be associated with a lower risk of suicidal ideation, above and beyond the effects of depressive symptoms, for a wide range of patients with clinical conditions that place them at elevated risk for suicide. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. A linguistic comparison between auditory verbal hallucinations in patients with a psychotic disorder and in nonpsychotic individuals: Not just what the voices say, but how they say it.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Boer, J N; Heringa, S M; van Dellen, E; Wijnen, F N K; Sommer, I E C

    2016-11-01

    Auditory verbal hallucinations (AVH) in psychotic patients are associated with activation of right hemisphere language areas, although this hemisphere is non-dominant in most people. Language generated in the right hemisphere can be observed in aphasia patients with left hemisphere damage. It is called "automatic speech", characterized by low syntactic complexity and negative emotional valence. AVH in nonpsychotic individuals, by contrast, predominantly have a neutral or positive emotional content and may be less dependent on right hemisphere activity. We hypothesize that right hemisphere language characteristics can be observed in the language of AVH, differentiating psychotic from nonpsychotic individuals. 17 patients with a psychotic disorder and 19 nonpsychotic individuals were instructed to repeat their AVH verbatim directly upon hearing them. Responses were recorded, transcribed and analyzed for total words, mean length of utterance, proportion of grammatical utterances, proportion of negations, literal and thematic perseverations, abuses, type-token ratio, embeddings, verb complexity, noun-verb ratio, and open-closed class ratio. Linguistic features of AVH overall differed between groups F(13,24)=3.920, p=0.002; Pillai's Trace 0.680. AVH of psychotic patients compared with AVH of nonpsychotic individuals had a shorter mean length of utterance, lower verb complexity, and more verbal abuses and perseverations (all p<0.05). Other features were similar between groups. AVH of psychotic patients showed lower syntactic complexity and higher levels of repetition and abuses than AVH of nonpsychotic individuals. These differences are in line with a stronger involvement of the right hemisphere in the origination of AVH in patients than in nonpsychotic voice hearers. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. [Neuropsychological syndromes of non-psychotic mental disorders of youthful age].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pluzhnikov, I V; Omelchenko, M A; Krylova, E S; Kaleda, V G

    2013-01-01

    Seventy male patients with non-psychotic mental disorders of youthful age (mean age 19.2±3.7), were studied using A.R. Luria neuropsychological syndrome analysis. Patients were stratified into 3 groups by diagnosis: cyclothymia (20 patients), pubertal decompensation of schizoid personality disorder (30 patients) and schizotypal personality disorder (20 patients). It has been shown that the neuropsychological changes indicate the dysfunction of the amygdale/temporal region in patients of the first group and frontal/thalamic/parietal connections in the patients of two other groups. There were interhemispheric differences between patients with personality disorder and schizotypal personality disorder: left hemisphere dysfunction was characteristic of schizotypal disorder and right hemisphere deficit (neurocognitive deficit) was found in patients with personality disorder.

  15. "Suicide Machine" Seekers: Transgressing Suicidal Taboos Online

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seko, Yukari

    2008-01-01

    Internet-mediated joint suicides or "Net group suicides" ("Net shinju") has become a significant social problem in Japan since 2002. Despite a privileged view of suicide-related cyberspaces as a murky underworld, there has been little study about how the participants of such spaces interact and perform their "suicidal" identity. Viewing cyberspace…

  16. APPROACH AND TREATMENT OF SUICIDAL BEHAVIOR IN THE CLINICAL PRACTICE OF DIFFERENT GROUPS OF HEALTH PROFESSIONALS IN SPAIN: RESULTS OF THE PROJECT EUREGENA.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Luis Muñoz

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available According to the WHO (World Health Organization and the European Union, suicide is considered to be a health problem of prime importance and to be one of the principal causes of unnatural death. In Spain, the number of suicides has increased 12% since 2005 . The Research Project “European Regions Enforcing Actions against Suicide (EUREGENAS, funded by the Health Program 2008-2013, has as main objective the description of an integrated model of Mental Health orientated to the prevention of suicide. The differences that allow distinguishing the meaning of prevention in suicide behavior are described and explained through a qualitative methodological strategy and through the creation of discussion groups formed by different groups of health professionals. The results highlight the existing differences between the diverse health professionals who come more in contact with this problem and it shows as well the coincidence of meaning that suicide has to be considered as a priority in the field of health.

  17. Suicide Ideation and Peers Group: Analysis of a Venezuelan Adolescents Sample

    OpenAIRE

    Rodríguez Ramírez, Juan Antonio; Universidad de Los Andes, Mérida, Venezuela. Escuela de Criminología.; Oduber, Jesús Angel; Universidad de Los Andes, Mérida, Venezuela. Escuela de Criminología.

    2015-01-01

    The goal of this study was to determine a model of relationship in order to predict school-age adolescents suicide ideation. A model based on peers’ suicidal behavior, father and mother’s support, family violence and depression was proposed. A sample of 912 subjects was used. The results through path analysis suggest that teenagers with depression symptoms prefer relating with friends who show suicidal behavior. El objetivo de este estudio fue determinar un modelo de relaciones para predec...

  18. Association between neurological soft signs, temperament and character in patients with schizophrenia and non-psychotic relatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pastoriza, Francisco; Bergé, Daniel; Mané, Anna; Picado, Marisol; Bulbena, Antonio; Robledo, Patricia; Pérez, Victor; Vilarroya, Oscar; Cloninger, Claude Robert

    2016-01-01

    The heritability of schizophrenia and most personality traits has been well established, but the role of personality in susceptibility to schizophrenia remains uncertain. The aim of this study was to test for an association between personality traits and Neurological Soft Signs (NSS), a well-known biological marker of schizophrenia, in non-psychotic relatives of patients with schizophrenia. For this purpose, we evaluated the NSS scale and personality measured by the Temperament and Character inventory (TCI-R) in three groups of subjects: 29 patients with schizophrenia, 24 unaffected relatives and 37 controls. The results showed that patients with schizophrenia were more asocial (higher harm avoidance and lower reward dependence), more perseverative (higher persistence), and more schizotypal (lower self-directedness and cooperativeness, higher self-transcendence). The unaffected relatives showed higher harm avoidance, lower self-directedness and cooperativeness than the healthy controls. Higher NSS scores and sub-scores were found in patients and non-psychotic relatives compared with the controls. Among all the patients, total NSS scores were positively correlated with harm avoidance but negatively correlated with novelty seeking and persistence. Total NSS were also correlated with low scores on self-directedness and cooperativeness, which are indicators of personality disorder. Our results show that susceptibility to NSS and to schizophrenia are both related to individual differences in the temperament and character features in non-psychotic relatives of patients with schizophrenia. High harm avoidance, low persistence, low self-directedness and low cooperativeness contribute to both the risk of NSS and schizophrenia. These findings highlight the value of using both assessments to study high risk populations. PMID:27168955

  19. Differential associations between Social Anxiety Disorder, family cohesion, and suicidality across racial/ethnic groups: Findings from the National Comorbidity Survey-Adolescent (NCS-A).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rapp, Amy M; Lau, Anna; Chavira, Denise A

    2016-09-20

    The proposed research seeks to introduce a novel model relating Social Anxiety Disorder (SAD) and suicide outcomes (i.e., passive suicidal ideation, active suicidal ideation, and suicide attempts) in diverse adolescents. This model posits that family cohesion is one pathway by which suicide risk is increased for socially anxious youth, and predicts that the relationships between these variables may be of different strength in Latino and White subgroups and across gender. Data from a sample of Latino (n=1922) and non-Hispanic White (hereafter referred to as White throughout) (n=5648) male and female adolescents who participated in the National Comorbidity Survey-Adolescent were used for this study. Analyses were conducted using generalized structural equation modeling. Results showed that the mediation model held for White females. Further examination of direct pathways highlighted SAD as a risk factor unique to Latinos for active suicidal ideation and suicide attempt, over and above comorbid depression and other relevant contextual factors. Additionally, family cohesion showed a strong association with suicide outcomes across groups, with some inconsistent findings for White males. Overall, it appears that the mechanism by which SAD increases risk for suicidality is different across groups, indicating further need to identify relevant mediators, especially for racial/ethnic minority youth.

  20. Are There Gender-Specific Risk Factors for Suicidal Activity among Patients with Schizophrenia and Depression?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, Kalman J.; Harrow, Martin; Faull, Robert N.

    2012-01-01

    Are there gender-specific risk factors for suicidal activity among patients with schizophrenia and depression? A total of 74 schizophrenia patients (51 men, 23 women) and 77 unipolar nonpsychotic depressed patients (26 men, 51 women) from the Chicago Follow-up Study were studied prospectively at 2 years posthospitalization and again at 7.5 years.…

  1. [Relation between suicidal ideation and parenting styles among a group of Chilean adolescents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Florenzano U, Ramón; Valdés C, Macarena; Cáceres C, Eugenio; Santander R, Sylvia; Aspillaga H, Carolina; Musalem A, Claudia

    2011-12-01

    In Chile, there has been an increase in suicide rates from 1.1 to 2.6 per 100,000 among adolescents aged 10 to 14 years and from 4.4 to 8.9 per 100,000 among those aged 15 to 19 years To identify protective factors for suicidal ideation according to parenting styles, as described by Barber et al. The relation between suicidal ideation and parenting styles was assessed in a random sample of 2,346 Chilean school attending adolescents aged 13 to 20 years old (59% women) from three cities: Antofagasta (Northern Chile, II Region), Santiago (Central, Metropolitan Region) and Concepción (Southern, VIII Region). Participants were tested with the Chilean adaptation of the Cross National Adolescents Program (CNAP) Plus questionnaire developed by Barber et al. The relation between suicidal ideation and parenting styles was assessed using regression analyses. Correlations between suicidal ideation and parenting styles were mostly significant, yet weak. High odds ratios were observed among parents who had a strong psychological control, inconsistent control, lack of expression of affection and covered marital hostility. High adolescent self-esteem, a good relationship with parents, psychological parental autonomy, expression of physical affection, social support and paternal monitoring were protective factors against suicidal ideation.

  2. Suicidal changes in patients with first episode psychosis: clinical predictors of increasing suicidal tendency in the early treatment phase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Trine; Nordentoft, Merete

    2012-01-01

    in the first year of treatment of psychosis. Patients were grouped and ranked according to their highest suicidal tendency in the year before treatment: not suicidal, suicidal thoughts, suicidal plans or suicide attempt(s). Predictors for becoming more suicidal in the first year of treatment were examined...... with suicidal thoughts, plans or suicide attempt. In first year of treatment of psychosis, hallucinations increased the risk for becoming more suicidal, whereas delusions reduced this risk in already suicidal patients....

  3. Associations among Substance Use, Mental Health Disorders, and Self-Harm in a Prison Population: Examining Group Risk for Suicide Attempt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madison L. Gates

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Substance use disorders (SUD and mental health disorders are significant public health issues that co-occur and are associated with high risk for suicide attempts. SUD and mental health disorders are more prevalent among offenders (i.e., prisoners or inmates than the non-imprisoned population, raising concerns about the risk of self-harm. This cross-sectional study examined the population of a state prison system (10,988 out of 13,079 to identify associations among SUD (alcohol, cannabis, intravenous drugs, narcotics, and tobacco smoking, mental health disorders (anxiety, bipolar, depression, and psychotic disorders, and suicide attempts. The primary aim was to determine which groups (SUD, mental health disorders, and co-occurrences were strongly association with suicide attempts. Groups with a documented SUD or mental health disorders compared to peers without these issues had 2.0 and 9.2 greater odds, respectively, for attempting suicide, which was significant at p < 0.0001 for both conditions. There were also significant differences within SUD and mental health disorders groups in regard to suicide attempts. Groups with the greatest odds for suicide attempts were offenders with comorbid bipolar comorbid and anxiety, alcohol combined with depression, and cannabis co-occurring with depression. Documentation of suicide attempts during imprisonment indicates awareness, but also suggest a need to continue enhancing screening and evaluating environmental settings.

  4. [Suicide and suicide tendencies in adolescent detainees].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radeloff, Daniel; Lempp, Thomas; Rauf, Amna; Bennefeld-Kersten, Katharina; Kettner, Mattias; Freitag, Christine M

    2016-01-01

    Following accidents, suicide is the second leading cause of death in adolescence. This stage of life has the most suicide attempts of all age groups. In addition to mentally ill juveniles, adolescent delinquents represent a high-risk group for suicidal behavior and completed suicide. In particular, the population of detainees, an extreme form of juvenile delinquency, have a 16- to 18-fold higher risk of suicidal behavior and suicide compared to the general population. Because the composition of juvenile detainees differs greatly from that of detained adults, age-specific scientific approaches and prevention programs are needed. This task cannot be addressed by juvenile detention staff alone, but rather demands close cooperation between adolescent psychiatrists, psychologists, prison medical staff, legal experts and prison officers to use the opportunity for suicide prevention in juvenile detention facilities.

  5. I Would Rather Just Go Through With It Than Be Called a Wussy: An Exploration of How a Group of Young South African Men Think and Talk About Suicide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meissner, Birte; Bantjes, Jason; Kagee, Ashraf

    2016-07-01

    Worldwide suicide is a deeply gendered phenomenon. In South Africa, approximately 80% of suicide completers are male. This study aimed to investigate how a group of young South African men understand and think about suicidal behavior. In-depth semistructured interviews and thematic analysis using a grounded theory approach revealed that this group of young South African men had permissive attitudes to suicide and viewed suicide as a morally defensible alternative in specific situations. They spoke of suicide as a goal-directed behavior that provides a means of regaining control, asserting power, communicating, and rendering oneself visible. From this perspective, suicide was understood as a brave act requiring strength and determination. These data have congruence with the Theory of Gender and Health, which proposes that constructions of masculinity may be implicated in the attitudes and beliefs young men in South Africa hold toward suicide.

  6. Suicide methods in Asia: implications in suicide prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Kevin Chien-Chang; Chen, Ying-Yeh; Yip, Paul S F

    2012-04-01

    As the largest continent in the World, Asia accounts for about 60% of World suicides. Preventing suicide by restricting access to suicide methods is one of the few evidence-based suicide prevention strategies. However, there has been a lack of systematic exploration of suicide methods in Asian countries. To amend this shortage, the current review examines the leading suicide methods in different Asian countries, their trend, their age- and sex- specific characteristics, and their implications for suicide prevention. In total, 42 articles with leading suicide methods data in 17 Asian countries/regions were retrieved. The epidemiologic characteristics and recent trends of common suicide methods reflect specific socio-cultural, economic, and religious situations in the region. Common suicide methods shift with the introduction of technologies and constructions, and have specific age- or sex-characteristics that may render the restriction of suicide methods not equally effective for all sex and age sub-groups. Charcoal burning, pesticide poisoning, native plant poisoning, self-immolation, and jumping are all prominent examples. In the information society, suicide prevention that focuses on suicide methods must monitor and control the innovation and spread of knowledge and practices of suicide "technologies". It may be more cost-effective to design safety into technologies as a way of suicide prevention while there is no rash of suicides yet by the new technologies. Further research on suicide methods is important for public health approaches to suicide prevention with sensitivity to socio-cultural, economic, and religious factors in different countries.

  7. Evidence that the presence of psychosis in non-psychotic disorder is environment-dependent and mediated by severity of non-psychotic psychopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guloksuz, S; van Nierop, M; Lieb, R; van Winkel, R; Wittchen, H-U; van Os, J

    2015-08-01

    Evidence suggests that in affective, non-psychotic disorders: (i) environmental exposures increase risk of subthreshold psychotic experiences (PEs) and strengthen connectivity between domains of affective and subthreshold psychotic psychopathology; and (ii) PEs are a marker of illness severity. In 3021 adolescents from the Early Developmental Stages of Psychopathology cohort, we tested whether the association between PEs and presence of DSM-IV mood disorder (MD)/obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) would be moderated by risk factors for psychosis (cannabis use, childhood trauma and urbanicity), using the interaction contrast ratio (ICR) method. Furthermore, we analysed whether the interaction between environment and PEs was mediated by non-psychotic psychopathology. The association between PEs and MD/OCD was moderated by urbanicity (ICR = 2.46, p = 0.005), cannabis use (ICR = 3.76, p = 0.010) and, suggestively, trauma (ICR = 1.91, p = 0.063). Exposure to more than one environmental risk factor increased the likelihood of co-expression of PEs in a dose-response fashion. Moderating effects of environmental exposures were largely mediated by the severity of general non-psychotic psychopathology (percentage explained 56-68%, all p < 0.001). Within individuals with MD/OCD, the association between PEs and help-seeking behaviour, as an index of severity, was moderated by trauma (ICR = 1.87, p = 0.009) and urbanicity (ICR = 1.48, p = 0.005), but not by cannabis use. In non-psychotic disorder, environmental factors increase the likelihood of psychosis admixture and help-seeking behaviour through an increase in general psychopathology. The findings are compatible with a relational model of psychopathology in which more severe clinical states are the result of environment-induced disturbances spreading through a psychopathology network.

  8. Emile Durkheim and altruistic suicide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stack, Steven

    2004-01-01

    Altruistic suicides are marked by cultural approval and benefit the social order. They occur in social groups where there is a low value placed on the individual. The principle loci of altruistic suicide are primitive societies and the modern military. Subtypes of altruistic suicide (obligatory, optional, acute) are delineated and evaluated. Military suicide rates are seen as being inversely related to civilian suicide rates. Key limitations of Durkheim's model are discussed including his exaggerating the prevalence of obligatory suicide. Suggested points of departure for future research on altruistic suicide include comparative analyses of suicide in the modern military, and application of the concept of optional altruistic suicide to the impact of suicide acceptability on national suicide rates.

  9. Suicide and suicidal behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... use Emotional trauma Serious physical illness Unemployment or money problems Risk factors for suicide in teenagers include: Access to guns Family member who completed suicide History of hurting themselves on purpose History of being ...

  10. Suicide and Personality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Nahit Ozmenler

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Many factors may play role in the emergence of suicidal behavior. Familial tendency including some features of personality structure, hopelessness, affective disorder, and suicide behavior have attracted close attention recently. Personality disorders seem to be prevalent in individuals who attempt suicide. Beside it has been reported that personality disorders and other psychiatric disorder comorbidity increase the risk of suicide. To present the relationship between suicide and personality is quite important for developing strategies in order to prevent suicide attempt. In this field, the data show variability based on scales used for the evaluation of personality, its definition and classification in the research. For example, while some authors used DSM criteria or ICD criteria, others preferred to focus on the temperament and character dimensions of personality. In studies based on diagnostic criteria; B group personality disorders, such as antisocial and borderline personality disorders were found to be most common comorbid personality disorder diagnosis. In studies aiming to investigate the relationship among suicide attempt, temperament and character features, the suicide attempters were found to have lower levels of self directedness, cooperativeness, and higher scores for self transcendence. Suicidal patients were inclined to have higher scores in several temperament groups like harm avoidance, novelty seeking, and reward dependence. Tendency to impulsive behavior is reported as a common denominator for suicidal patients. Individuals, who have familial or acquired tendency of impulsivity, could react more dramatically and present with depressive and pessimistic mood when they have difficulties and encounter stress factors in their daily routine and could easily develop depressive disorders. These factors as a whole could lead to self destructive actions like suicide. Individual or familial history of suicide attempts or completed

  11. Predictors of Suicide Attempts in Clinically Depressed Korean Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Ahye; Song, Jungeun; Yook, Ki-Hwan; Jon, Duk-In; Jung, Myung Hun; Hong, Narei; Hong, Hyun Ju

    2016-01-01

    We examined predictors of suicide attempts in clinically depressed adolescents in Korea and gender differences in suicidal behavior. In total, 106 adolescents diagnosed with depressive disorder were recruited in South Korea. We assessed various variables that might affect suicide attempts, and used a structured interview for the diagnosis of depression and comorbidities and to evaluate suicidality. Demographic and clinical characteristics of the subjects were compared between suicide attempt and non-suicide attempt groups and we examined significant predictors of suicide attempts. Gender differences in suicidal ideation and suicidal behavior were also analyzed. Among 106 depressed participants, 50 (47.2%) adolescents were classified in the suicide attempt group. Generally, the suicide attempt and non-suicide attempt group shared similar clinical characteristics. The suicide attempt group had more females, more major depressive disorder diagnoses, more depressive episodes, and higher suicidal ideation than the non-suicide attempt group. Suicidal ideation was the only significant predictor of suicidal attempt, regardless of gender. Higher suicidal ideation frequency scores and more non-suicidal self-injurious behaviors were shown in the female suicide attempt group than the male suicide attempt group. It is recommended that suicidal ideation be assessed regularly and managed rigorously to decrease suicide risks in depressive adolescents. PMID:27776392

  12. Sleep spindle deficits in antipsychotic-naïve early course schizophrenia and in non-psychotic first-degree relatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dara S Manoach

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Chronic medicated patients with schizophrenia have marked reductions in sleep spindle activity and a correlated deficit in sleep-dependent memory consolidation. Using archival data, we investigated whether antipsychotic-naïve early course patients with schizophrenia and young non-psychotic first-degree relatives of patients with schizophrenia also show reduced sleep spindle activity and whether spindle activity correlates with cognitive function and symptoms.Method: Sleep spindles during Stage 2 sleep were compared in antipsychotic-naïve adults newly diagnosed with psychosis, young non-psychotic first-degree relatives of schizophrenia patients and two samples of healthy controls matched to the patients and relatives. The relations of spindle parameters with cognitive measures and symptom ratings were examined.Results: Early course schizophrenia patients showed significantly reduced spindle activity relative to healthy controls and to early course patients with other psychotic disorders. Relatives of schizophrenia patients also showed reduced spindle activity compared with controls. Reduced spindle activity correlated with measures of executive function in early course patients, positive symptoms in schizophrenia and IQ estimates across groups.Conclusions: Like chronic medicated schizophrenia patients, antipsychotic-naïve early course schizophrenia patients and young non-psychotic relatives of individuals with schizophrenia have reduced sleep spindle activity. These findings indicate that the spindle deficit is not an antipsychotic side-effect or a general feature of psychosis. Instead, the spindle deficit may predate the onset of schizophrenia, persist throughout its course and be an endophenotype that contributes to cognitive dysfunction.

  13. Suicide Terrorists: Are They Suicidal?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Townsend, Ellen

    2007-01-01

    Are suicide terrorists suicidal? A review of the worldwide literature on suicide terrorism uncovered five published empirical studies describing data collected from potential suicide terrorists or the surviving friends and families of deceased terrorists. The many discrepancies uncovered between suicide terrorists and other suicides on key factors…

  14. [Double-blind study of clobazam (Odipam) and diazepam in non-psychotic anxiety states].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostrogonac, S; Vuckovic, S

    1989-01-01

    Clobazam (Odipam) and Diazepam were investigated by the double blind study method in patients with nonpsychotic anxiety. It was found out that both drugs had equal anxiolytic and tranquilizing effect with the same adverse effects. Greater frequency of excellent marks concerning the final therapeutic effect of Odipam in respect to other marks pointed to its better clinical tolerance, so that this drug was recommended as daily tranquilizer.

  15. Experience in using sulpiride in non-psychotic endogenous depressive-hypochondriacal disorders

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Objective: to study the efficacy of sulpiride in different types of non-psychotic types of endogenous depressive-hypochondriacal syndrome. Patients and methods. Forty-seven patients (36 women and 11 men) with a depressive episode (n = 15), recurrent depressive disorder (n = 14), and slowly progressive schizophrenia (SPS) (n = 18) were examined clinically and using the psychometric scales: the Clinical Global Impression Scale; Montgomery-Esberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS), the Hamilton Anx...

  16. Suicide Methods in Asia: Implications in Suicide Prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul S. F. Yip

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available As the largest continent in the World, Asia accounts for about 60% of World suicides. Preventing suicide by restricting access to suicide methods is one of the few evidence-based suicide prevention strategies. However, there has been a lack of systematic exploration of suicide methods in Asian countries. To amend this shortage, the current review examines the leading suicide methods in different Asian countries, their trend, their age- and sex- specific characteristics, and their implications for suicide prevention. In total, 42 articles with leading suicide methods data in 17 Asian countries/regions were retrieved. The epidemiologic characteristics and recent trends of common suicide methods reflect specific socio-cultural, economic, and religious situations in the region. Common suicide methods shift with the introduction of technologies and constructions, and have specific age- or sex-characteristics that may render the restriction of suicide methods not equally effective for all sex and age sub-groups. Charcoal burning, pesticide poisoning, native plant poisoning, self-immolation, and jumping are all prominent examples. In the information society, suicide prevention that focuses on suicide methods must monitor and control the innovation and spread of knowledge and practices of suicide “technologies”. It may be more cost-effective to design safety into technologies as a way of suicide prevention while there is no rash of suicides yet by the new technologies. Further research on suicide methods is important for public health approaches to suicide prevention with sensitivity to socio-cultural, economic, and religious factors in different countries.

  17. Suicide Methods in Asia: Implications in Suicide Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Kevin Chien-Chang; Chen, Ying-Yeh; Yip, Paul S. F.

    2012-01-01

    As the largest continent in the World, Asia accounts for about 60% of World suicides. Preventing suicide by restricting access to suicide methods is one of the few evidence-based suicide prevention strategies. However, there has been a lack of systematic exploration of suicide methods in Asian countries. To amend this shortage, the current review examines the leading suicide methods in different Asian countries, their trend, their age- and sex- specific characteristics, and their implications for suicide prevention. In total, 42 articles with leading suicide methods data in 17 Asian countries/regions were retrieved. The epidemiologic characteristics and recent trends of common suicide methods reflect specific socio-cultural, economic, and religious situations in the region. Common suicide methods shift with the introduction of technologies and constructions, and have specific age- or sex-characteristics that may render the restriction of suicide methods not equally effective for all sex and age sub-groups. Charcoal burning, pesticide poisoning, native plant poisoning, self-immolation, and jumping are all prominent examples. In the information society, suicide prevention that focuses on suicide methods must monitor and control the innovation and spread of knowledge and practices of suicide “technologies”. It may be more cost-effective to design safety into technologies as a way of suicide prevention while there is no rash of suicides yet by the new technologies. Further research on suicide methods is important for public health approaches to suicide prevention with sensitivity to socio-cultural, economic, and religious factors in different countries. PMID:22690187

  18. Elderly Suicide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elderly Suicide Fact Sheet Based on 2012 Data (2014) Overview • The elderly (ages 65 and older) made up 13. ... population; they accounted for 16.37% of all suicides in the US. • The rate of suicides for ...

  19. Subcortical grey matter alterations in cocaine dependent individuals with substance-induced psychosis compared to non-psychotic cocaine users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willi, Taylor S; Lang, Donna J; Honer, William G; Smith, Geoff N; Thornton, Allen E; Panenka, William J; Procyshyn, Ric M; Vila-Rodriguez, Fidel; Su, Wayne; Vertinsky, A Talia; Leonova, Olga; Rauscher, Alexander; MacEwan, G William; Barr, Alasdair M

    2016-10-01

    After prolonged psychostimulant abuse, transient psychotic symptoms referred to as "substance-induced psychosis" (SIP) can develop - closely resembling symptoms observed in schizophrenia spectrum disorders. The comparability in psychotic presentation between SIP and schizophrenias suggests that similar underlying neural deficits may contribute to the expression of psychosis across these disorders. To date, neuroanatomical characterization of grey matter structural alterations in SIP has been limited to methamphetamine associated psychosis, with no studies controlling for potential neurotoxic effects of the psychostimulant that precipitates psychosis. To investigate grey matter subcortical alterations in SIP, a voxel-based analysis of magnetic resonance images (MRI) was performed between a group of 74 cocaine dependent nonpsychotic individuals and a group of 29 individuals with cocaine-associated psychosis. The cocaine-associated psychosis group had significantly smaller volumes of the thalamus and left hippocampus, controlling for age, total brain volume, current methamphetamine dependence, and current marijuana dependence. No differences were present in bilateral caudate structures. The findings of reduced thalamic and hippocampal volumes agree with previous reports in the schizophrenia literature, suggesting alterations of these structures are not specific to schizophrenia, but may be common to multiple forms of psychosis.

  20. Psychopharmacological treatment of psychotic mania and psychotic bipolar depression compared to non-psychotic mania and non-psychotic bipolar depression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørklund, Louise B; Horsdal, Henriette T; Mors, Ole

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: An evidence base for the treatment of mania and bipolar depression with psychotic symptoms is lacking. Nevertheless, clinicians may have a preference for treating episodes of bipolar disorder with or without psychotic symptoms in different ways, which is likely to reflect notions...... of differential efficacy of treatments between these subtypes. This study aimed to investigate whether the psychopharmacological treatment of psychotic and non-psychotic episodes of mania and bipolar depression, respectively, differs in clinical practice. METHODS: We conducted a register-based study assessing...... the psychopharmacological treatment of all individuals receiving their first diagnosis of mania or bipolar depression between 2010 and 2012. The psychopharmacological treatment within 3 months following the time of diagnosis was considered. Potential differences in psychopharmacological treatment between the psychotic...

  1. Suicide among Preadolescents: A Call to Action

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westefeld, John S.; Bell, Allison; Bermingham, Charles; Button, Christopher; Shaw, Kari; Skow, Christine; Stinson, Rebecca D.; Woods, Tamara

    2010-01-01

    Suicide among preadolescents is a relatively rare phenomenon. Due to the infrequency of suicide among this population, this area of study has received limited investigation relative to suicide in other age groups and populations. This article reviews research related to suicide among preadolescents, defined as children under the age of 13. The…

  2. Psychopharmacological treatment of psychotic mania and psychotic bipolar depression compared to non-psychotic mania and non-psychotic bipolar depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjørklund, Louise B; Horsdal, Henriette T; Mors, Ole; Gasse, Christiane; Østergaard, Søren D

    2017-06-08

    An evidence base for the treatment of mania and bipolar depression with psychotic symptoms is lacking. Nevertheless, clinicians may have a preference for treating episodes of bipolar disorder with or without psychotic symptoms in different ways, which is likely to reflect notions of differential efficacy of treatments between these subtypes. This study aimed to investigate whether the psychopharmacological treatment of psychotic and non-psychotic episodes of mania and bipolar depression, respectively, differs in clinical practice. We conducted a register-based study assessing the psychopharmacological treatment of all individuals receiving their first diagnosis of mania or bipolar depression between 2010 and 2012. The psychopharmacological treatment within 3 months following the time of diagnosis was considered. Potential differences in psychopharmacological treatment between the psychotic and non-psychotic subtypes of mania and bipolar depression, respectively, were investigated by means of Pearson's χ(2) test and logistic regression adjusted for sex and age at diagnosis of bipolar disorder. A total of 827 patients were included in the analyses. The adjusted odds ratio (aOR) for treatment with an antipsychotic was 1.71 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.18-2.48, Pbipolar depression. The aOR for treatment with the combination of an antipsychotic and an anticonvulsant was 1.60 (95% CI: 1.06-2.43, Pbipolar psychotic depression. It would be of interest to conduct studies evaluating whether antipsychotics represent the superior pharmacological treatment for psychotic mania and psychotic bipolar depression. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. DST non-suppression predicts suicide after attempted suicide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jokinen, Jussi; Carlborg, Andreas; Mårtensson, Björn; Forslund, Kaj; Nordström, Anna-Lena; Nordström, Peter

    2007-04-15

    Most prospective studies of HPA axis have found that non-suppressors in the dexamethasone suppression test (DST) are more likely to commit suicide during the follow-up. Attempted suicide is a strong clinical predictor of suicide. The aim of this study was to assess the predictive value of DST for suicide in a group of depressed inpatients with and without an index suicide attempt. Historical cohort of 382 psychiatric inpatients with mood disorder admitted to the department of Psychiatry at the Karolinska University Hospital between 1980 and 2000 were submitted to the DST and followed up for causes of death. During the follow-up (mean 18 years), 36 suicides (9.4%) occurred, 20 of these were non-suppressors and 16 were suppressors. There was no statistically significant difference in suicide risk between the suppressors and non-suppressors for the sample as a whole. An index suicide attempt predicted suicide. In suicide attempters with mood disorder, the non-suppressor status was significantly associated with suicide indicating that HPA axis hyperactivity is a risk factor for suicide in this group. The dexamethasone suppression test may be a useful predictor within this population.

  4. Examining suicide-risk individuals who go online for suicide-related purposes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Keith M; McLean, John P; Sheffield, Jeanie

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this study was to better help those in suicidal crisis by examining the types of suicide-risk individuals who make use of the Internet in relation to their suicidal problems. An anonymous online survey examined suicide-risk individuals who went online for suicide-related purposes (n = 165) and a reference group of suicide-risk individuals with no such experience (n = 125). Suicide-risk individuals who went online for suicide-related purposes, compared with online users who did not, reported greater suicide-risk symptoms, were less likely to seek help, and perceived less social support. Online, many reported more support, felt less alienated, believed they reduced their suicidality, but also sought suicide methods and were likely to visit "pro suicide" sites. Implications include designing help sites that allow peer-to-peer communications and anonymous professional support.

  5. Cultural aspects of suicide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maharajh, Hari D; Abdool, Petal S

    2005-09-08

    Undefined cultural factors cannot be dismissed and significantly contribute to the worldwide incidence of death by suicide. Culture is an all embracing term and defines the relationship of an individual to his environment. This study seeks to investigate the effect of culture on suicide both regionally and internationally. Culture-bound syndrome with suicidal behaviours specific to a particular culture or geographical region are discussed. Opinions are divided as to the status of religious martyrs. The law itself is silent on many aspects of suicidal behaviour and despite decriminalization of suicide as self-murder, the latter remains on the statutes of many developing countries. The Caribbean region is of concern due to its steady rise in mean suicide rate, especially in Trinidad and Tobago where socio-cultural factors are instrumental in influencing suicidal behaviour. These include transgenerational cultural conflicts, psycho-social problems, media exposure, unemployment, social distress, religion and family structure. The methods used are attributed to accessibility and lethality. Ingestion of poisonous substances is most popular followed by hanging. The gender differences seen with regard to suicidality can also be attributed to gender related psychopathology and psychosocial differences in help-seeking behaviour. These are influenced by the cultural environment to which the individual is exposed. Culture provides coping strategies to individuals; as civilization advances many of these coping mechanisms are lost unclothing the genetic predisposition of vulnerable groups. In the management of suicidal behaviour, a system of therapeutic re-culturation is needed with an emphasis on relevant culture- based therapies.

  6. Completed suicide in childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dervic, Kanita; Brent, David A; Oquendo, Maria A

    2008-06-01

    Suicide in children and young adolescents up to 14 years of age has increased in many countries, warranting research and clinical awareness. International reported suicide rates per 100,000 in this young population vary between 3.1 and 0 (mean rate worldwide, approximately 0.6/100.000; male-female ratio, 2:1). Suicide occurs only in vulnerable children; this vulnerability begins with parental mood disorder and impulsive aggression, and family history of suicide. Childhood affective and disruptive disorders and abuse are the most often reported psychiatric risk factors. Suicide becomes increasingly common after puberty, most probably because of pubertal onset of depression and substance abuse, which substantially aggravate suicide risk. Biologic findings are scarce; however, serotonergic dysfunction is assumed. The most common precipitants are school and family problems and may include actual/anticipated transitions in these environments. Suicides in children and young adolescents up to 14 years of age often follow a brief period of stress. Cognitive immaturity/misjudgment, age-related impulsivity, and availability of suicide methods play an important role. Psychologic autopsy studies that focus on suicides in this age group are needed.

  7. Suicide and Suicidal Thoughts

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... an underlying psychiatric disorder, such as major depression, post-traumatic stress disorder or bipolar disorder Have a family history of mental disorders, substance abuse, suicide, or violence, including physical or sexual abuse Have ...

  8. Identification and Prevention on High-risk Suicide Groups%自杀高危人群的识别及预防研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张胜洪; 胡胜

    2013-01-01

    自杀是由严重心理危机导致的行为.通过描述自杀高危人群存在的时代状况,从社会学与心理-精神病学的维度分析了高危人群的自杀成因,进而对其自杀前的异常言行表现、自杀的方式及当前各种预防措施进行讨论.同时,对中国文化语境下的自杀及其预防展开了反思与展望.%Suicide is a behavior which caused by serious psychological crisis.In this article,status of high-risk groups were described.Suicide causes were explained in the perspectives of sociology,psychology and psychiatry.Then abnormal behaviors,suicide methods and its prevention were discussed.Meanwhile,the suicide and its prevention were reflected and prospected in the perspective of Chinese cultural context.

  9. Rational Suicide?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayo, David J.

    1998-01-01

    The rational suicide paradigm is contrasted with the traditional view of the mental health professions. Historical background on suicide in western civilization is supplied and the concept of rationality elucidated. Parallels between the questions of refusing life-prolonging therapy and rational suicide are discussed, as are reasons for suicide.…

  10. Mentally disordered non-psychotic criminal offenders--treatment instead of punishment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gottlieb, Peter; Gabrielsen, Gorm; Kørner, Ejnar Alex

    2013-01-01

    By including §69 into the Danish Penal Code, it has since 1975 been possible to use psychiatric measures as legal sanctions for even non-psychotic offenders-if the measure is believed to be preventive of future crime. To be able to decide on the applicability of treatment measures as sanctions in...... in criminal cases, the court will request a psychiatric report. They may furthermore ask a medical expert consultation board, the Danish Medico-Legal Council, for an opinion on the mental status of the defendant....

  11. Systematic review and economic modelling of the clinical effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of art therapy among people with non-psychotic mental health disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uttley, Lesley; Scope, Alison; Stevenson, Matt; Rawdin, Andrew; Taylor Buck, Elizabeth; Sutton, Anthea; Stevens, John; Kaltenthaler, Eva; Dent-Brown, Kim; Wood, Chris

    2015-03-01

    Mental health problems account for almost half of all ill health in people under 65 years. The majority are non-psychotic (e.g. depression, anxiety and phobias). For some people, art therapy may provide more profound and long-lasting healing than more standard forms of treatment, perhaps because it can provide an alternative means of expression and release from trauma. As yet, no formal evaluation of art therapy for non-psychotic mental health disorders has been conducted. This review aimed to evaluate evidence for the clinical effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of art therapy for non-psychotic mental health disorders. Comprehensive literature searches for studies examining art therapy in populations with non-psychotic mental health disorders were performed in major health-related and social science bibliographic databases including MEDLINE, EMBASE, The Cochrane Library, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL), PsycINFO, Allied and Complementary Medicine Database (AMED) and Applied Social Sciences Index and Abstracts (ASSIA) from inception up to May 2013. A quantitative systematic review of clinical effectiveness, a qualitative review to explore the acceptability, relative benefits and potential harms, and a cost-utility analysis of studies evaluating cost-effectiveness of art therapy were conducted. In the quantitative review, 15 randomised controlled trials (RCTs) were included (n = 777). Meta-analysis was not possible because of clinical heterogeneity and insufficient comparable data on outcome measures across studies. A narrative synthesis reports that art therapy was associated with significant positive changes relative to the control group in mental health symptoms in 10 out of the 15 studies. The control groups varied between studies but included wait-list/no treatment, attention placebo controls and psychological therapy comparators. Four studies reported improvement from baseline but no significant difference between groups

  12. A newly identified group of adolescents at “invisible” risk for psychopathology and suicidal behavior: findings from the SEYLE study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carli, Vladimir; Hoven, Christina W; Wasserman, Camilla; Chiesa, Flaminia; Guffanti, Guia; Sarchiapone, Marco; Apter, Alan; Balazs, Judit; Brunner, Romuald; Corcoran, Paul; Cosman, Doina; Haring, Christian; Iosue, Miriam; Kaess, Michael; Kahn, Jean Pierre; Keeley, Helen; Postuvan, Vita; Saiz, Pilar; Varnik, Airi; Wasserman, Danuta

    2014-01-01

    This study explored the prevalence of risk behaviors (excessive alcohol use, illegal drug use, heavy smoking, reduced sleep, overweight, underweight, sedentary behavior, high use of Internet/TV/videogames for reasons not related to school or work, and truancy), and their association with psychopathology and self-destructive behaviors, in a sample of 12,395 adolescents recruited in randomly selected schools across 11 European countries. Latent class analysis identified three groups of adolescents: a low-risk group (57.8%) including pupils with low or very low frequency of risk behaviors; a high-risk group (13.2%) including pupils who scored high on all risk behaviors, and a third group (“invisible” risk, 29%) including pupils who were positive for high use of Internet/TV/videogames for reasons not related to school or work, sedentary behavior and reduced sleep. Pupils in the “invisible” risk group, compared with the high-risk group, had a similar prevalence of suicidal thoughts (42.2% vs. 44%), anxiety (8% vs. 9.2%), subthreshold depression (33.2% vs. 34%) and depression (13.4% vs. 14.7%). The prevalence of suicide attempts was 5.9% in the “invisible” group, 10.1% in the high-risk group and 1.7% in the low-risk group. The prevalence of all risk behaviors increased with age and most of them were significantly more frequent among boys. Girls were significantly more likely to experience internalizing (emotional) psychiatric symptoms. The “invisible” group may represent an important new intervention target group for potentially reducing psychopathology and other untoward outcomes in adolescence, including suicidal behavior. PMID:24497256

  13. Comparison of completed and attempted suicide in Akita, Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fushimi, Masahito; Sugawara, Junya; Saito, Seiji

    2006-06-01

    To determine the factors underlying suicide in Akita prefecture, a questionnaire survey was conducted among members of the Akita Prefectural Medical Association (APMA), regarding suicide cases they attended. During the investigation period (1 July 2001-30 June 2002), the total number of suicide cases was 243 (138 completed, 105 attempted). Significant differences were identified between completed and attempted suicide groups in terms of gender, age distribution, and suicidal methods. Specifically, in the completed suicide group, the number of male completers exceeded that of female completers, the number of middle-aged or elderly completers was high, and the majority of completed suicide cases involved hanging as the suicide method. Conversely, in the attempted suicide group, the number of female attempters exceeded that of male attempters, younger attempters were frequent, hanging was rare, and drug overdose or cutting was common. In addition, the number of cases involving a history of previous suicide attempts was significantly higher in the attempted suicide group than in the completed suicide group. The results of the present study support the concept that the completed and attempted suicide groups are essentially of a different nature. Furthermore, the number of cases involving a history of previous suicide attempts was found to be significantly lower in the completed suicide group than in the attempted suicide group. This result indicates the difficulty in decreasing the number of completed suicides by simply providing intervention and care for individuals who have attempted suicide.

  14. Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and suicide: A systematic review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balazs, Judit; Kereszteny, Agnes

    2017-01-01

    AIM To investigate suicidality and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), this paper aims to systematically review the literature as an extension of previous reviews. METHODS We searched five databases (Ovid MEDLINE, Psychinfo, PubMed, Scopus, Web of Science) with two categories of search terms: (1) suicide; suicidal; suicide behavior; suicide attempt; suicidal thought; and (2) ADHD. RESULTS The search resulted 26 articles. There is a positive association between ADHD and suicidality in both sexes and in all age groups. Comorbid disorders mediate between suicidality and ADHD. CONCLUSION Recognizing ADHD, comorbid conditions and suicidality is important in prevention. PMID:28401048

  15. A Comparison of Suicide Note Writers with Suicides Who Did Not Leave Notes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callanan, Valerie J.; Davis, Mark S.

    2009-01-01

    There is disagreement in the suicide literature on the value of suicide notes as a data source, particularly regarding the extent to which suicide decedents who write notes differ from those who do not. Using 10 years of suicide cases from Summit County, Ohio, these two groups were compared on 40 variables including sociodemographic…

  16. Religion and Suicide Risk: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, Ryan E; Oquendo, Maria A; Stanley, Barbara

    2016-01-01

    Although religion is reported to be protective against suicide, the empirical evidence is inconsistent. Research is complicated by the fact that there are many dimensions to religion (affiliation, participation, doctrine) and suicide (ideation, attempt, completion). We systematically reviewed the literature on religion and suicide over the last 10 years (89 articles) with a goal of identifying what specific dimensions of religion are associated with specific aspects of suicide. We found that religious affiliation does not necessarily protect against suicidal ideation, but does protect against suicide attempts. Whether religious affiliation protects against suicide attempts may depend on the culture-specific implications of affiliating with a particular religion, since minority religious groups can feel socially isolated. After adjusting for social support measures, religious service attendance is not especially protective against suicidal ideation, but does protect against suicide attempts, and possibly protects against suicide. Future qualitative studies might further clarify these associations.

  17. Understanding help-seeking amongst university students: The role of group identity, stigma and exposure to suicide and help-seeking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle eKearns

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Despite a high prevalence of suicide ideation and mental health issues amongst university students, the stigma of help-seeking remains a barrier to those who are in real need of professional support. Social identity theory states that help received from an ingroup source is more welcome and less threatening to one’s identity than that from a source perceived as outgroup. Therefore, we hypothesized that students' stigma towards seeking help from their university mental health service would differ based on the strength of their identification with the university.Method: An online survey including measures of stigma of suicide, group identification, experience with help-seeking and exposure to suicide was administered to Irish university students (N = 493.Results: Group identification was a significant predictor of help-seeking attitudes after controlling for already known predictors. Contrary to our expectations, those who identified more strongly with their university demonstrated a higher stigma of seeking help from their university mental health service.Conclusions: Results are discussed in relation to self-categorization theory and the concept of normative fit. Practical implications for mental health service provision in universities are also addressed, specifically the need for a range of different mental health services both on and off-campus.

  18. Depressed suicide attempters with posttraumatic stress disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramberg, Maria; Stanley, Barbara; Ystgaard, Mette; Mehlum, Lars

    2015-01-01

    Posttraumatic stress disorder and major depressive disorder are well-established risk factors for suicidal behavior. This study compared depressed suicide attempters with and without comorbid posttraumatic stress disorder with respect to additional diagnoses, global functioning, depressive symptoms, substance abuse, history of traumatic exposure, and suicidal behavior. Adult patients consecutively admitted to a general hospital after a suicide attempt were interviewed and assessed for DSM-IV diagnosis and clinical correlates. Sixty-four patients (71%) were diagnosed with depression; of them, 21 patients (32%) had posttraumatic stress disorder. There were no group differences in social adjustment, depressive symptoms, or suicidal intent. However, the group with comorbid depression and posttraumatic stress disorder had more additional Axis I diagnoses, a higher degree of childhood trauma exposure, and more often reported previous suicide attempts, non-suicidal self-harm, and vengeful suicidal motives. These findings underline the clinical importance of diagnosis and treatment of posttraumatic stress disorder in suicide attempters.

  19. Teaching clinical interviewing skills using role-playing: conveying empathy to performing a suicide assessment: a primer for individual role-playing and scripted group role-playing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shea, Shawn Christopher; Barney, Christine

    2015-03-01

    This article provides a useful introduction to the art of role-playing in both the individual format and the group format using scripted group role-playing (SGRP). Role-playing can provide powerful learning opportunities, but to do so it must be done well. This article imparts guidance toward this goal. SGRP may greatly enhance the acquisition of critical complex interviewing skills, such as suicide assessment and uncovering domestic violence, in health care providers across all disciplines, an educational goal that has not been achievable to date. Although research is at an early stage of development, the hope represented by SGRP is tangible.

  20. PROBLEMATIC ISSUES OF DIAGNOSTICS AND THERAPY OF NON-PSYCHOTIC MENTAL DISORDERS IN FEMALE PATIENTS OF CLIMACTERIC AGE WITH HYSTERICAL SYMPTOM COMPLEX (LITERATURE REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ye. V. Lukiyanova

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In the article, problematic questions of diagnostics and therapy of non-psychotic mental disorders (NPMD in female patients of climacteric age with hysterical symptom complex are considered. Efficacy of psychotherapy (PT in NPMD, hypnopsychotherapy in hysterical states: hysterical neurosis, neurasthenia and obsessive-compulsive neurosis is indicated. In treatment of NPMD, PT by creative selfexpression is successfully used. It is highlighted that PT forms conscious-critical attitude of patients toward themselves. Combination of PT with physiotherapy in hysterical conversional symptoms has been described. In hysterical manifestations neuroleptics are recommended, in neurotic depressions – antidepressants of mild action. In severe hysterical state, psychopharmacotherapy (PPhT with tranquilizers and neuroleptics is applied on long-term basis. Stable recovery in dissociative and hysterical disorders has been shown. In vegetovascular disorders in structure of climacteric syndrome (CS vinpocetine, in psychoemotional manifestations phenibut was administered. In therapy of hysterical neurosis, “minor neuroleptics”, hypnosuggestive therapy, social rehabilitation were applied. Effective group PT of psychogenically conditioned disorders in asthenicand anxiety-depressive symptoms is effective. Complex therapy of NPMD in hysterical and asthenic neurosis, obsessive-compulsive neurosis has been suggested. Organization of specialized preventive examinations for early revealing of persons with personality pathology is based. Efficacy of a number of medications in periand post-menopause – SSRIs and gabapentin, during menopause paroxetine, in depressions of non-psychotic level – pyrazidol, coaxil, in neurotic hypochondriasis sulpiride and quetiapine, diazepam, in climacteric vegetative and mental disorders hormone replacement therapy (HRT, hormonal therapy, PPhT and PT, in neurovegetative symptoms of CS – antidepressants, in psychovegetative syndromes

  1. Pattern of outcome with sertraline, imipramine, and des-venlafaxine in unipolar nonpsychotic depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abhishek Kapoor

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: There is a scarcity of research on the temporal sequence of improvement with antidepressants and the differential effect of different antidepressants. Aims: To study the temporal sequence of improvement and differential pattern of outcome with antidepressants from different classes. Methods: 132 males and females from 18 to 65 years suffering from the first depressive episode were followed up at baseline, 3 rd day, 7 th day, 10 th day, 14 th day, 21 st day, 1 month, and 3 months using the 17 item Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression. Patients were randomized into three groups namely (1 sertraline (2 des-venlafaxine and (3 imipramine. Appropriate statistical analyses were applied. Results: The pattern of improvement was similar across the groups. The earliest improvement was seen in early insomnia (at day 3 followed by suicidal ideas and psychological anxiety (by day 7. Middle insomnia, late insomnia, and agitation improved by the 14 th day. Depressed mood improved significantly at day 14 th in the sertraline and imipramine groups and day 21 st in the des-venlafaxine group. Work and activities and retardation improved significantly in the sertraline and imipramine groups at 1 month. The last symptoms to improve were general somatic symptoms, genital symptoms, and guilt feeling. Conclusions: It is important to know the temporal sequence of symptomatic improvement with antidepressants as it will guide us to make important management decisions. It also helps to improve compliance as patients can be appropriately guided regarding expected course of treatment.

  2. Suicidal behaviour

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Neeleman, J

    2001-01-01

    -Prevention of suicidal behaviour remains difficult, despite increasing knowledge of its determinants. Health service efforts hardly affect suicide rates. -Recent shifts in the epidemiology of suicidal behaviour are rising rates among the young and increasing use of violent methods. these can be lin

  3. Suicide, Suicide Attempts, and Suicidal Ideation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klonsky, E David; May, Alexis M; Saffer, Boaz Y

    2016-01-01

    Suicidal behavior is a leading cause of death and disability worldwide. Fortunately, recent developments in suicide theory and research promise to meaningfully advance knowledge and prevention. One key development is the ideation-to-action framework, which stipulates that (a) the development of suicidal ideation and (b) the progression from ideation to suicide attempts are distinct phenomena with distinct explanations and predictors. A second key development is a growing body of research distinguishing factors that predict ideation from those that predict suicide attempts. For example, it is becoming clear that depression, hopelessness, most mental disorders, and even impulsivity predict ideation, but these factors struggle to distinguish those who have attempted suicide from those who have only considered suicide. Means restriction is also emerging as a highly effective way to block progression from ideation to attempt. A third key development is the proliferation of theories of suicide that are positioned within the ideation-to-action framework. These include the interpersonal theory, the integrated motivational-volitional model, and the three-step theory. These perspectives can and should inform the next generation of suicide research and prevention.

  4. Social modeling in the transmission of suicidality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Leo, Diego; Heller, Travis

    2008-01-01

    Evidence from twin, adoption, and family studies suggests that there is strong aggregation of suicidal behaviors in some families. By comparison, the role of social modeling through peers has yet to be convincingly established. This paper uses data from four large studies (the WHO/EURO Multicentre Study on Suicidal Behaviour, the WHO/SUPRE-MISS, the CASE study, and the Queensland Suicide Register) to compare the effects of exposure to fatal and nonfatal suicidal behavior in family members and nonfamilial associates on the subsequent suicidal behavior of male and female respondents of different ages. Across all studies, we found that prior suicidal behaviors among respondents' social groups were more important predictors of suicidal behavior in the respondents themselves than previous research had indicated. Community-based suicide attempters in the WHO SUPRE-MISS had higher rates of exposure to prior suicide in nonfamilial associates than in family members. In an adolescent population, exposure to prior fatal suicidal behavior did not predict deliberate self-harm when exposure to nonfatal suicidal behavior (both familial and social) were controlled for, but exposure to nonfatal suicidal behaviors in family and friends was predictive of deliberate self-harm and suicide ideation, even after controlling for exposure to fatal suicidal behavior. The potential impact of "containment" of information regarding suicidal behaviors as a prevention initiative is discussed, in light of information behavior principles of social marketing.

  5. Counterfactual Reasoning in Non-psychotic First-Degree Relatives of People with Schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Auria eAlbacete

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Counterfactual thinking (CFT is a type of conditional reasoning that enables the generation of mental simulations of alternatives to past factual events. Previous research has found this cognitive feature to be disrupted in schizophrenia. At the same time, the study of cognitive deficits in unaffected relatives of people with schizophrenia has significantly increased, supporting its potential endophenotypic role in this disorder. Using an exploratory approach, the current study examined CFT for the first time in a sample of non-psychotic first-degree relatives of schizophrenia patients (N=43, in comparison with schizophrenia patients (N=54 and healthy controls (N=44. A series of tests that assessed the causal order effect in CFT and the ability to generate counterfactual thoughts and counterfactually derive inferences using the Counterfactual Inference Test was completed. Associations with variables of basic and social cognition, levels of schizotypy and psychotic-like experiences in addition to clinical and sociodemographic characteristics were also explored. Findings showed that first-degree relatives generated a lower number of counterfactual thoughts than controls, and were more adept at counterfactually deriving inferences, specifically in the scenarios related to regret and to judgements of avoidance in an unusual situation. No other significant results were found. These preliminary findings suggest that non-psychotic first-degree relatives of schizophrenia patients show a subtle disruption of global counterfactual thinking compared with what is normally expected in the general population. Because of the potential impact of such deficits, new treatments targeting CFT improvement might be considered in future management strategies.

  6. [Civil status and suicide].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaxiola-Robles, Ramón; Bitzer-Quintero, Oscar Kurt; García-González, Adolfo; Celis-de la Rosa, Alfredo

    2009-01-01

    To determine if civil status acts as a risk factor in suicide and how it modifies according to gender, age and population size. A retrospective study which analyzes information from the mortality data from the National Institute of Statistics, Geography and Information, from 1998 to 2002. Variables like suicides age, sex, cause of death, federal entity, population size and civil status were registered. Single men showed twofold risk for committing suicide. Women did not show any associated risk for suicide according to civil status. The risk of married men for committing suicide increased gradually with age. Medium-sized communities with less than 19,999 habitants presented the highest risk for habitants to commit suicide. Suicide is associated to gender especially to men who are not married and living in small and medium-sized communities. One explanation could be the lack of integrated behavior as defined by Emile Durkheim, where the physical density of society will determine behavior and ideas. This social structure phenomenon is called the "moral cocoon." This works around the individual being less individualistic and granting him/her the feeling of belonging to a group.

  7. Surviving a Suicide Attempt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Al-Harrasi

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Suicide is a global phenomenon in all regions of the world affecting people of all age groups. It has detrimental consequences on patients, their families, and the community as a whole. There have been numerous risk factors described for suicide including mental illness, stressful life situations, loss of social support, and general despair. The association of suicide with Islam has not been extensively studied. The common impression from clinical practice is that being a practicing Muslim reduces the risk of suicide. Another factor associated with suicide is starting a patient on antidepressants. However, this has been questioned recently. This report describes a middle-aged man with depression and multiple social stressors who survived a serious suicide attempt. The discussion will focus on the factors that lead him to want to end his life and the impact of the assumed protective factors such as religious belief and family support on this act of self-harm. Such patients can be on the edge when there is an imbalance between risk factors (such as depression, insomnia, and psychosocial stressors and protective factors (like religious affiliation and family support. All physicians are advised to assess the suicide risk thoroughly in patients with depression regardless of any presumed protective factor.

  8. Family history of suicide and interpersonal functioning in suicide attempters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajalin, Mia; Hirvikoski, Tatja; Salander Renberg, Ellinor; Åsberg, Marie; Jokinen, Jussi

    2017-01-01

    Difficulties in interpersonal relationships are associated with a wide range of psychiatric diagnoses and have been reported as a trigger for suicidal behavior, too. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between interpersonal problems and family history of suicide in suicide attempters and to describe relevant patterns of interpersonal problems in this patient group. The study involves 181 patients having their clinical follow-up after a suicide attempt. Family history of suicide was assessed by using the Karolinska Self Harm History Interview or retrieved in patient records. The Inventory of Interpersonal Problems was used to assess personal style in an interpersonal context. Suicide attempters with a family history of suicide had significantly more often an intrusive personal style. The results remained significant after adjustment for personality disorder. The specific interpersonal patterns associated with family history of suicide may interfere with the ability to create stable, long-lasting relationships. In regards to treatment, these personal qualities could cause difficulties in the alliance with health care personnel and make it harder for suicide attempters to accept or benefit from treatment. Attention to suicide attempters' interpersonal problems is of importance to lower their distress.

  9. Suicide in the World

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peeter Värnik

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Over the past 20 years the WHO has considerably improved world mortality data. There are still shortcomings but more countries now report data and world-wide estimates are regularly made. Methods: Data about mortality have been retrieved from the WHO world database. Worldwide injury mortality estimates for 2008 as well as trends of the suicide rate from 1950 to 2009 were analysed. Results: Suicides in the world amount to 782 thousand in 2008 according to the WHO estimate, which is 1.4% of total mortality and 15% of injury mortality. The suicide rate for the world as a whole is estimated at 11.6 per 100,000 inhabitants. The male–female rate ratio of suicide is estimated to be highest in the European Region (4.0 and the lowest in the Eastern Mediterranean region (1.1. Among males the highest suicide rate in the 15–29 age group is in the SE Asian region, in the 45–59 age group in European males and for ages above 60 in the Western Pacific region. Females from SE Asia have a remarkably high suicide rate among 15–29-year-olds and from age 45 in the Western Pacific region. The leading country is currently Lithuania, with a suicide rate of 34.1 per 100,000 inhabitants. Also among males the suicide rate is the highest in Lithuania at 61.2. Among females South Korea with 22.1 is at the top of world suicide rates. Conclusions: During the past six decades, according to the WHO Japan, Hungary, and Lithuania have topped the list of world countries by suicide rate, but if the current trends continue South Korea will overtake all others in a few years. The heart of the problem of suicide mortality has shifted from Western Europe to Eastern Europe and now seems to be shifting to Asia. China and India are the biggest contributors to the absolute number of suicides in the world.

  10. Suicide among Arab-Americans

    OpenAIRE

    El-Sayed, Abdulrahman M.; Melissa Tracy; Peter Scarborough; Sandro Galea

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Arab-American (AA) populations in the US are exposed to discrimination and acculturative stress-two factors that have been associated with higher suicide risk. However, prior work suggests that socially oriented norms and behaviors, which characterize recent immigrant ethnic groups, may be protective against suicide risk. Here we explored suicide rates and their determinants among AAs in Michigan, the state with the largest proportion of AAs in the US. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDIN...

  11. Cultural Aspects of Suicide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hari D. Maharajh

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Undefined cultural factors cannot be dismissed and significantly contribute to the worldwide incidence of death by suicide. Culture is an all embracing term and defines the relationship of an individual to his environment. This study seeks to investigate the effect of culture on suicide both regionally and internationally. Culture-bound syndrome with suicidal behaviours specific to a particular culture or geographical region are discussed. Opinions are divided as to the status of religious martyrs. The law itself is silent on many aspects of suicidal behaviour and despite decriminalization of suicide as self-murder, the latter remains on the statutes of many developing countries. The Caribbean region is of concern due to its steady rise in mean suicide rate, especially in Trinidad and Tobago where socio-cultural factors are instrumental in influencing suicidal behaviour. These include transgenerational cultural conflicts, psycho-social problems, media exposure, unemployment, social distress, religion and family structure. The methods used are attributed to accessibility and lethality. Ingestion of poisonous substances is most popular followed by hanging. The gender differences seen with regard to suicidality can also be attributed to gender related psychopathology and psychosocial differences in help-seeking behaviour. These are influenced by the cultural environment to which the individual is exposed. Culture provides coping strategies to individuals; as civilization advances many of these coping mechanisms are lost unclothing the genetic predisposition of vulnerable groups. In the management of suicidal behaviour, a system of therapeutic re-culturation is needed with an emphasis on relevant culture- based therapies.

  12. The Experience of Sexual Stigma and the Increased Risk of Attempted Suicide in Young Brazilian People from Low Socioeconomic Group

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandelli Costa, Angelo; Pasley, Andrew; Machado, Wagner de Lara; Alvarado, Ernesto; Dutra-Thomé, Luciana; Koller, Silvia Helena

    2017-01-01

    This study was intended to analyze the intersection of experience of sexual stigma low-socioeconomic status, and suicide attempt amongst young Brazilians (11–24 years old). In each of the data collection periods (2004–2006: n = 7185; 2010–2012: n = 2734), participants completed a questionnaire-based instrument. Network analysis provided support for a Minority Stress Model, oriented around whether participants had experienced sexual stigma. Although suicide attempts decreased by 20% for participants who had not experienced sexual stigma, there was a 60% increase for those who had experienced sexual stigma. Of particular note were the increases in rates of reported community and familial physical assault, molestation, and rape for those who had experienced sexual stigma. An analysis of centrality statistics demonstrated that both experiences of this Minority Stress Model were fundamentally different, and that those disparities increased over the time frame observed in this study. At the center of this model, shortest paths statistics exhibited a direct conditioned connection between experiencing sexual stigma and suicide attempts. We discuss the social and historical contexts that contributed to these dynamics, and emphasize the need for policy change. PMID:28275356

  13. The Experience of Sexual Stigma and the Increased Risk of Attempted Suicide in Young Brazilian People from Low Socioeconomic Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandelli Costa, Angelo; Pasley, Andrew; Machado, Wagner de Lara; Alvarado, Ernesto; Dutra-Thomé, Luciana; Koller, Silvia Helena

    2017-01-01

    This study was intended to analyze the intersection of experience of sexual stigma low-socioeconomic status, and suicide attempt amongst young Brazilians (11-24 years old). In each of the data collection periods (2004-2006: n = 7185; 2010-2012: n = 2734), participants completed a questionnaire-based instrument. Network analysis provided support for a Minority Stress Model, oriented around whether participants had experienced sexual stigma. Although suicide attempts decreased by 20% for participants who had not experienced sexual stigma, there was a 60% increase for those who had experienced sexual stigma. Of particular note were the increases in rates of reported community and familial physical assault, molestation, and rape for those who had experienced sexual stigma. An analysis of centrality statistics demonstrated that both experiences of this Minority Stress Model were fundamentally different, and that those disparities increased over the time frame observed in this study. At the center of this model, shortest paths statistics exhibited a direct conditioned connection between experiencing sexual stigma and suicide attempts. We discuss the social and historical contexts that contributed to these dynamics, and emphasize the need for policy change.

  14. Shame-proneness in attempted suicide patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wiklander Maria

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It has been suggested that shame may be an important feature in suicidal behaviors. The disposition to react with shame, “shame-proneness”, has previously not been investigated in groups of attempted suicide patients. We examined shame-proneness in two groups of attempted suicide patients, one group of non-suicidal patients and one group of healthy controls. We hypothesized that the attempted suicide patients would be more shame-prone than non-suicidal patients and healthy controls. Methods The Test of Self-Conscious Affect (TOSCA, which is the most used measure of shame-proneness, was completed by attempted suicide patients (n = 175: 105 women and 3 men with borderline personality disorder [BPD], 45 women and 22 men without BPD, non-suicidal psychiatric patients (n = 162, and healthy controls (n = 161. The participants were convenience samples, with patients from three clinical research projects and healthy controls from a fourth research project. The relationship between shame-proneness and attempted suicide was studied with group comparisons and multiple regressions. Men and women were analyzed separately. Results Women were generally more shame-prone than men of the same participant group. Female suicide attempters with BPD were significantly more shame-prone than both female suicide attempters without BPD and female non-suicidal patients and controls. Male suicide attempters without BPD were significantly less shame-prone than non-suicidal male patients. In multiple regressions, shame-proneness was predicted by level of depression and BPD (but not by attempted suicide in female patients, and level of depression and non-suicidality in male patients. Conclusions Contrary to our hypothesis and related previous research, there was no general relationship between shame-proneness and attempted suicide. Shame-proneness was differentially related to attempted suicide in different groups of suicide attempters

  15. Psychotic experiences and incident suicidal ideation and behaviour: Disentangling the longitudinal associations from connected psychopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honings, Steven; Drukker, Marjan; van Nierop, Martine; van Winkel, Ruud; Wittchen, Hans-Ulrich; Lieb, Roselind; Ten Have, Margreet; de Graaf, Ron; van Dorsselaer, Saskia; van Os, Jim

    2016-11-30

    This study examines the longitudinal associations between psychotic experiences (PE) and incident suicidal ideation and behaviour in the general population, and to what degree the association may be confounded by non-psychotic psychopathology. Data from three prospective, general population cohorts were combined into one dataset (n=15,837) and analysed using logistic regression, controlling for continuous measures of depression, anxiety and mania symptoms. Analyses were conducted in the entire sample, and in subsamples stratified by presence or absence of mental disorders. The presence of PE at baseline increased the risk of incident suicidal ideation and behaviour. However, adjustment for dimensional measures of psychopathology reduced effect sizes, although PE remained significantly associated with suicide attempts. Further examination of the associations revealed that PE were only associated with suicide attempts in individuals with at least one mental disorder. Similarly, in individuals without mental disorders, the risk of suicidal ideation increased as PE co-occurred with more symptom domains. The results of this study confirm that individuals with PE are at increased risk of suicidal ideation and behaviour. However, these associations are not specific, but reflect the increased risk of suicidal ideation in individuals with subthreshold multidimensional psychopathology and suicide attempts in individuals with co-occurring mental disorders. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Suicidal mothers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salvatore Gentile

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Epidemiological research has demonstrated that suicidal ideation is a relatively frequent complication of pregnancy in both developed and developing countries. Hence, the aims of this study are: to assess whether or not pregnancy may be considered a period highly susceptible to suicidal acts; to recognize potential contributing factors to suicidal behaviors; to describe therepercussions of suicide attempts on maternal, fetal, and neonatal outcome; to identify a typical profile of women at high risk of suicide during pregnancy.Methods: Medical literature information published in any language since 1950 was identified using MEDLINE/PubMed, Scopus, and Google Scholar databases. Search terms were: “pregnancy”,(antenatal “depression”, “suicide”. Searches were last updated on 28 September 2010. Forty-six articles assessing the suicidal risk during pregnancy and obstetrical outcome of pregnancies complicated by suicide attempts were analyzed, without methodological limitations.Results: Worldwide, frequency of suicidal attempts and the rate of death by suicidal acts are low. Although this clinical event is rare, the consequences of a suicidal attempt are medically andpsychologically devastating for the mother-infant pair. We also found that common behaviors exist in women at high risk for suicide during pregnancy. Review data indeed suggest that a characteristicprofile can prenatally identify those at highest risk for gestational suicide attempts.Conclusions: Social and health organizations should make all possible efforts to identify women at high suicidal risk, in order to establish specific programs to prevent this tragic event. The available data informs health policy makers with a typical profile to screen women at high risk ofsuicide during pregnancy. Those women who have a current or past history of psychiatric disorders,are young, unmarried, unemployed, have incurred an unplanned pregnancy (eventually terminated with an

  17. Geographic distribution of suicide and railway suicide in Belgium, 2008-2013: a principal component analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strale, Mathieu; Krysinska, Karolina; Overmeiren, Gaëtan Van; Andriessen, Karl

    2017-06-01

    This study investigated the geographic distribution of suicide and railway suicide in Belgium over 2008--2013 on local (i.e., district or arrondissement) level. There were differences in the regional distribution of suicide and railway suicides in Belgium over the study period. Principal component analysis identified three groups of correlations among population variables and socio-economic indicators, such as population density, unemployment, and age group distribution, on two components that helped explaining the variance of railway suicide at a local (arrondissement) level. This information is of particular importance to prevent suicides in high-risk areas on the Belgian railway network.

  18. Characteristics of schizophrenia suicides compared with suicides by other diagnosed psychiatric disorders and those without a psychiatric disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyu, Juncheng; Zhang, Jie

    2014-05-01

    There has been much literature on schizophrenia, but very little is known about the characteristics of suicides with schizophrenia in comparison with the suicides with other diagnosed psychiatric disorders and without psychiatric disorders. Thirty-eight suicides with schizophrenia, 150 suicides with other psychiatric disorder, and 204 suicides without a psychiatric disorder were entered in current study. Psychological autopsy (PA) was applied to collect information of the suicides. Social demographic factors and clinical characteristics of the suicides were measured. The well validated standard scales were applied: Beck Hopelessness Scale (BHS), Landerman's Social Support Scale (DSSI), Dickman's Impulsivity Inventory (DII), Spielberger State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) and Hamilton Depression Scale (HAMD). Suicide intents were appraised by the Beck Suicide Intent Scale (SIS). The SCID based on the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-IV (DSM-IV) was applied to assess the psychiatric status of individuals. Demographic characteristics, clinical characteristics, method of suicide and suicide intents of suicides were compared among the three groups (schizophrenia group, other psychiatric disorders group, and none psychiatric disorders group). There were 9.7% of suicides who suffered schizophrenia. The current study found that being female was the risk factor for suicides with schizophrenia in rural China, which was opposite to the previous studies. The suicides with psychiatric disorder scored higher on hopelessness, anxiety, and depression, but lower on social support and impulsivity than suicides without psychiatric disorder. The suicides with psychiatric disorder were less impulsive than none psychiatric disorders group, too. The schizophrenia group did not show more violence than other psychiatric disorders group. This research compared the demographic characteristics, clinical characteristics, method of suicide and suicide intents among the

  19. Suicide neurobiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ernst, Carl; Mechawar, Naguib; Turecki, Gustavo

    2009-12-01

    In this review, we examine the history of the neurobiology of suicide, as well as the genetics, molecular and neurochemical findings in suicide research. Our analysis begins with a summary of family, twin, and adoption studies, which provide support for the investigation of genetic variation in suicide risk. This leads to an overview of neurochemical findings restricted to neurotransmitters and their receptors, including recent findings in whole genome gene expression studies. Next, we look at recent studies investigating lipid metabolism, cell signalling with a particular emphasis on growth factors, stress systems with a focus on the role of polyamines, and finally, glial cell pathology in suicide. We conclude with a description of new ideas to study the neurobiology of suicide, including subject-specific analysis, protein modification assessment, neuroarchitecture studies, and study design strategies to investigate the complex suicide phenotype.

  20. Dependent Children and Suicide of Married Parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozak, Conrad M.; Gibbs, James O.

    1979-01-01

    Single suicides and married suicides with dependent children were compared to similar groups in the general population. Married people with dependent children experienced the lowest average suicide rate, but had a larger mean number of children than the population as a whole. (Author)

  1. The broken heart : suicidal ideation in bereavement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stroebe, Margaret; Stroebe, Wolfgang; Abakoumkin, Georgios

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: This report examined suicidal behavior during bereavement. METHOD: Suicidal ideation was examined in a group of 60 recently bereaved widows and widowers compared to 60 individually matched married comparison subjects. RESULTS: Suicidal ideation was higher among widowed people than married

  2. The broken heart : suicidal ideation in bereavement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stroebe, Margaret; Stroebe, Wolfgang; Abakoumkin, Georgios

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: This report examined suicidal behavior during bereavement. METHOD: Suicidal ideation was examined in a group of 60 recently bereaved widows and widowers compared to 60 individually matched married comparison subjects. RESULTS: Suicidal ideation was higher among widowed people than married

  3. [Suicidal ideation and completed suicide in The Decameron].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pridmore, Saxby; Walter, Garry

    2014-01-01

    To extend our understanding of suicidal ideation and completed suicide via examination of a medieval Italian text-in particular, examination of the role of social and environmental triggers in such events. Previous studies have successfully examined the texts of ancient Greco-Roman, Old Norse, and Finnish civilizations to better understand the circumstances associated with suicidal ideation and completed suicide. Those texts included depictions of suicide by people without any apparent mental disorder in response to painful social/environmental circumstances. The Decameron, a collection of 100 short stories written by Giovanni Boccaccio in 1349-51, was examined in detail. The setting of The Decameron is during the Black Death and concerns a group of 10 people that leave plague-ridden Florence for a holiday in the countryside. On each of the 10 days of their trip, each individual tells a story, which in total form the 100 stories of Boccaccio's work. For the present study, all mentions of suicidal ideation and completed suicide were listed and arranged with appropriate headings. In total, 9 accounts of suicidal ideation and 4 accounts of completed suicide were identified, all of which were in response to social stressors, particularly romantic problems. Suicidal ideation and completed suicide in response to social stressors was a feature of The Decameron and it is feasible that this may have been a feature of medieval Italian culture. This would be in agreement with the findings of other studies that suggest that although commonly occurring in response to mental disorder, suicide can occur independently of such disorder as a result of a predicament in which an individual finds him/herself.

  4. Quality of life in patients with non-psychotic mental disorders, suffering from acute and chronic pancreatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shevchenko Y.M.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to examine the quality of life and clinical features of non-psychotic mental disorders in patients with acute and chronic pancreatitis. Polymorphic mental disorders of different clinical content and severity in most cases not only comorbid diseases of the pancreas, but often are the first earliest clinical manifestations of the disease. The data on clinical and psychopathological features of non-psychotic mental disorders in patients with acute and chronic pancreatitis are given. The share of cardinal syndromes such as asthenic-neurotic and anxious-depressive was established and described. The study was conducted using the following methods: clinical psychiatric questionnaire of common type MOS Short Form-36 Health Survey (SF-36 and methods of mathematical processing. The sample included 131 patients with acute and chronic pancreatitis. Clinical variant of acute and chronic pancreatitis debut were the features of mental disorders and psychotic-pathologic structure of non-psychotic mental disorders. Various indicators of quality of life in acute and chronic pancreatitis in presence of psychotic disorders were revealed.

  5. Rx for the Suicide Epidemic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stupple, Donna-Marie

    1987-01-01

    Discusses the gradual rise in teenage suicides since the 1950s, and offers some pointers for using writing (with "Romeo and Juliet" as source literature) as a basis for group discussion. Adds that suicide is a theme and a reality that can be addressed in the English classroom. (NKA)

  6. Suicide among Arab-Americans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulrahman M El-Sayed

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Arab-American (AA populations in the US are exposed to discrimination and acculturative stress-two factors that have been associated with higher suicide risk. However, prior work suggests that socially oriented norms and behaviors, which characterize recent immigrant ethnic groups, may be protective against suicide risk. Here we explored suicide rates and their determinants among AAs in Michigan, the state with the largest proportion of AAs in the US. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: ICD-9/10 underlying cause of death codes were used to identify suicide deaths from among all deaths in Michigan between 1990 and 2007. Data from the 2000 U.S. Census were collected for population denominators. Age-adjusted suicide rates among AAs and non-ethnic whites were calculated by gender using the direct method of standardization. We also stratified by residence inside or outside of Wayne County (WC, the county with the largest AA population in the state. Suicide rates were 25.10 per 100,000 per year among men and 6.40 per 100,000 per year among women in Michigan from 1990 to 2007. AA men had a 51% lower suicide rate and AA women had a 33% lower rate than non-ethnic white men and women, respectively. The suicide rate among AA men in WC was 29% lower than in all other counties, while the rate among AA women in WC was 20% lower than in all other counties. Among non-ethnic whites, the suicide rate in WC was higher compared to all other counties among both men (12% and women (16%. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Suicide rates were higher among non-ethnic white men and women compared to AA men and women in both contexts. Arab ethnicity may protect against suicide in both sexes, but more so among men. Additionally, ethnic density may protect against suicide among Arab-Americans.

  7. Hispanic Suicide

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for Disease Control and Prevention reported that the suicide rate for all Hispanic Americans was 5.24 per ... males and females • Hispanic adolescents may also experience stress with ... help because they feel that suicide should be dealt with by the family or ...

  8. Suicide risk in primary care: identification and management in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raue, Patrick J; Ghesquiere, Angela R; Bruce, Martha L

    2014-09-01

    The National Strategy for Suicide Prevention (2012) has set a goal to reduce suicides by 20% within 5 years. Suicide rates are higher in older adults compared to most other age groups, and the majority of suicide completers have visited their primary care physician in the year before suicide. Primary care is an ideal setting to identify suicide risk and initiate mental health care. We review risk factors for late-life suicide; methods to assess for different levels of suicidality; and recent research developments regarding both effective assessment and management of suicide risk among older primary care patients. We highlight that broader scale screening of suicide risk may be considered in light of findings that suicidality can occur even in the absence of major risk factors like depression. We also highlight collaborative care models targeting suicide risk, and recent innovative interventions that aim to prevent the development of suicidal ideation and suicidal behavior.

  9. Suicide in Guyana: Nurses' Perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anthony, Maureen; Groh, Carla; Gash, Jean

    Guyana, an English-speaking country on the north coast of South America, has the highest suicide rate in the world. Nurses are an integral part of the healthcare team working with patients experiencing psychological distress and are uniquely qualified to add to the discourse on factors contributing to the high suicide rate in Guyana. The purpose of this study was to explore the attitudes and experiences of nurses and nurse assistants in Guyana related to suicide. Nine registered nurses and nurse assistants who worked at a private hospital in Georgetown, Guyana, were recruited to participate in a focus group. The focus group lasted approximately 70 minutes and was recorded. The audio recordings were later transcribed word for word. Four themes emerged from the data: family issues as they relate to the high suicide rate, suicide attempts as a cry for help, lack of support, and coping mechanisms used by nurses when caring for victims of attempted suicide. Nurses are uniquely positioned to intervene with families in crisis, whether it be suicide, suicide attempts, or the underlying factors of family dysfunction, child maltreatment, poverty, or alcoholism. Establishing forensic nursing as a specialty in Guyana would validate this important role through education and certification of nurses.

  10. [Suicidal poisoning with benzodiazepines].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chodorowski, Z; Sein Anand, J

    1997-01-01

    In the period from 1987 to 1996, 103 patients with suicidal benzodiazepines poisoning were treated, including 62 women and 41 men from 16 to 79 (mean 34) years old. 23 persons were poisoned only by benzodiazepines, in 80 remaining cases intoxications were mixed eg. including benzodiazepines and alcohol, tricyclic antidepressants, barbiturates, opioids, phenothiazines. The main causes of suicides were mainly depression, drug addiction and alcoholism. Nobody died in the benzodiazepines group, while mortality rate in the group of mixed poisoning was 4%. Prescribing benzodiazepines by physicians was quite often not justified and facilitated, among others, accumulation of the dose sufficient for suicide attempt. Flumazenil was efficient for leading out from coma in 86% of cases with poisoning only by benzodiazepines and 13% of cases with mixed intoxications mainly containing benzodiazepines and alcohol or carbamazepine.

  11. Communication of suicide intent by schizophrenic subjects: data from the Queensland Suicide Register

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    De Leo Diego

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Suicide in mentally ill subjects, like schizophrenics, remains unbearably frequent in Australia and elsewhere. Since these patients are known to constitute a high-risk group, suicide in them should be amongst the most preventable ones. The objective of this study is to investigate the frequency of suicide communication in subjects with reported history of schizophrenia who completed suicide. Method The Queensland Suicide Register (QSR was utilised to identify suicide cases. Frequency of suicide communication was examined in subjects with schizophrenia, and compared with persons with other psychiatric conditions and with subjects with no reported diagnosis. Socio-demographic variables, history of suicidal behaviour, pharmacological treatment and mental health service utilisation were also compared among the three groups. Results and discussion Subjects with a reported diagnosis of schizophrenia comprised 7.2% (n = 135 of the 1,863 suicides included in this study. Subjects with schizophrenia and those with other psychiatric disorders communicated their suicide intent more frequently than those with no psychiatric diagnosis, and persons with schizophrenia communicated their intent more than those with other psychiatric diagnoses. Seventy one per cent of schizophrenia subjects had contact with a mental health professional within the three months prior to suicide. Conclusion The fact that subjects with schizophrenia had the highest prevalence of suicide intent communication could offer concrete opportunities for suicide prevention.

  12. An empirical investigation of suicide schemas in individuals with Posttraumatic Stress Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panagioti, Maria; Gooding, Patricia A; Pratt, Daniel; Tarrier, Nicholas

    2015-06-30

    Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) has been strongly associated with suicidality. Despite the growing evidence suggesting that suicidality is heightened by the presence of an elaborated suicide schema, investigations of suicide schemas are sparse. Using novel methodologies, this study aimed to compare the suicide schema of PTSD individuals with and without suicidal ideation in the past year. Fifty-six participants with a diagnosis of PTSD (confirmed via the Clinician Administered PTSD Scale) completed questionnaires to assess suicidality, depressive severity and hopelessness. A series of direct and indirect cognitive tasks were used to assess suicide schemas. The pathfinder technique was employed to construct graphical representations of the groups׳ suicide schemas. The suicidal group reported significantly more severe PTSD symptoms, depressive symptoms, hopelessness and suicidality. The suicide schema of the suicidal group was significantly more extensive compared to the non-suicidal group even after taking into account in the analyses group differences in clinical measures. Moreover, the suicide schemas of the two groups were qualitatively distinct from each other. These findings provide support for contemporary theories of suicide which view suicide schemas as an important indicator of suicide risk. The investigation of schema constructs opens a new avenue of research for understanding suicide.

  13. Attempted suicide and completed suicide among young people

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christoffersen, Mogens

    The study explore risk factors associated with the onset of suicidal behavior in young people aged 15 to 24. The study survey possible risk factors and protective factors in order to evaluate if altering the conditions of children’s upbringing, structural factors, geographical segregation......, or individual resource deficits could reduce their suicidal behavior (first time suicide attempts and completed suicides). These issues are being examined using data gathered during a 10-year longitudinal study of two births cohorts of more than 145,000 young people born in 1966 or 1980. In the Nordic welfare...... model it is an ambition to level-out inequalities and give children the same opportunities despite parental income or educational resources. The paper focuses on suicidal behavior as an extreme indicator of individual disadvantage and social disintegration in order to disentangle groups of risk factors...

  14. Attempted suicide and completed suicide among young people

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christoffersen, Mogens

    The study explore risk factors associated with the onset of suicidal behavior in young people aged 15 to 24. The study survey possible risk factors and protective factors in order to evaluate if altering the conditions of children’s upbringing, structural factors, geographical segregation......, or individual resource deficits could reduce their suicidal behavior (first time suicide attempts and completed suicides). These issues are being examined using data gathered during a 10-year longitudinal study of two births cohorts of more than 145,000 young people born in 1966 or 1980. In the Nordic welfare...... model it is an ambition to level-out inequalities and give children the same opportunities despite parental income or educational resources. The paper focuses on suicidal behavior as an extreme indicator of individual disadvantage and social disintegration in order to disentangle groups of risk factors...

  15. Clinical comparison of psychotic major depression and non-psychotic major depression%伴与不伴精神病性症状重度抑郁症的临床对照研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王学峰; 宋晓; 谭兰

    2011-01-01

    目的 观察不伴精神病性症状的重度抑郁症(NMD)与伴精神病性症状的重度抑郁症(PMD)的临床表现、治疗方法和治疗效果的异同.方法 选取重度抑郁症患者150例,其中PMD组100例、NMD组50例,并设健康组60例作为对照.将PMD组随机分为PMD联合用药组59例、PMD单药组41例;NMD组和PMD单药组服用帕罗西汀,PMD联用组联合服用帕罗西汀、奥氮平,在初次就医、治疗后1、3、9个月四个时刻时进行汉密尔顿抑郁量表(HAMD)评分.结果 ①初次就医时NMD与PMD的HAMD量表总分分别为(53.22±6.00)分和(58.30±5.20)分(P>0.05);PMD组自杀、迟滞、认知障碍因子评分较高;②9个月后联用组PMD的HAMD评分低于PMD单药组,NMD组低于PMD单药组;③入组时进行第一次测评,此时PMD组与NMD组的睡眠障碍严重性无统计学差异(P>0.05),但均重于健康组(P<0.05);经过9个月治疗,NMD组和PMD组评分总分、主因子因子评分均有提高(P<0.05);但在一级因子的“主观睡眠质量”和“白天功能紊乱”、二级因子的“夜间醒来或早醒”上仍有差异.结论 ①PMD与NMD病情严重程度相当;PMD患者迟滞、认知障碍、自杀念头较重,而NMD患者抑郁症状较重;②帕罗西汀加奥氮平治疗PMD好于单用帕罗西汀;单用帕罗西汀治疗NMD患者较合适;③重度抑郁症或者睡眠功能严重受损,经过适当的治疗其睡眠功能可明显恢复,但仍残留部分睡眠障碍;精神症状不影响睡眠功能的障碍程度和恢复程度.%Objective To compare psychotic major depression (PMD) and non-psychotic major depression (NMD) in clinical features, and treatment methods and effects. Methods' 150 cases of severe depression were divided into the PMD group(100 cases) and the NMD group(50 cases). In the PMD group, 41 patients were treated with a single a-gent, and the other 59 patients were treated with combined agents. The NMD group and PMD

  16. [Expected direction of Japan's suicide prevention].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeshima, Tadashi

    2011-01-01

    The development of Japan's suicide prevention after 1998 can be broken down into three phases. Firstly, some local governments started suicide prevention activities under the support of the Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare (1998-2005). Secondly, the government organized a liaison committee of related ministries and agencies for comprehensive suicide prevention measures (2005-2006). Thirdly, the passage of the Basic Act on Suicide Countermeasures raised great change (2006-). The Basic Act says suicide countermeasures should be implemented as a society-wide effort and the government established the Comprehensive Suicide Prevention Initiative (CSPI) in June 2007 under the Basic Act. In Japan, the number of suicides increased dramatically in 1998. This has led the society to treat the increase as the result of socio-economic problems and high-risk group approach hasn't been paid enough attention. The issue confronting us is to focus on more effective measures, including high-risk group approach.

  17. National Suicide Prevention Lifeline

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... About Suicide Prevention We Can All Prevent Suicide Mental Health & Suicide Prevention Glossary Stories of Hope and Recovery Get Involved Participate Social Media Hub Promote National Suicide Prevention Month Providers & Professionals ...

  18. Suicide by Insulin?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_165701.html Suicide by Insulin? Self-harm and suicidal behavior may ... higher rates of depression, the researchers explained. And suicide or suicide attempts using insulin or other diabetes ...

  19. Preventing suicide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, William H

    2010-03-01

    About 35,000 people commit suicide every year in the United States. Almost all are seriously, but treatably, mentally ill. Most come to the attention of a physician, in an emergency room, primary practice setting, or psychiatric hospital or office, during the days, weeks or months before they die. Since 1995, suicide has been the second most commonly reported of all Joint Commission hospital sentinel events (not just psychiatric events). Suicide is involved in the majority of psychiatric malpractice lawsuits. It takes life from patients, parents from children, children from families, and valuable people from society. Suicide is a terrible way to lose a relative or friend, leaving much greater damage than most natural or accidental death. This paper discusses four points to be considered by those who want to improve this situation: 1) Suicide is rarely "voluntary" in any clinical sense of the term; 2) A great many suicides are preventable once a clinician becomes involved; 3) Suicide is worth preventing; 4) There are practical approaches to prevention that work.

  20. Suicide among older psychiatric inpatients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Erlangsen, Annette; Zarit, Steven H; Tu, Xin;

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Older adults have elevated suicide rates, especially in the presence of a psychiatric disorder, yet not much is known about predictors for suicide within this high-risk group. The current study examines the characteristics associated with suicide among older adults who are admitted...... to a psychiatric hospital. METHOD: All persons aged 60 and older living in Denmark who were hospitalized with psychiatric disorders during 1990-2000 were included in the study. Using a case-control design and logistic regression analysis, the authors calculated the suicide risk associated with specific patient...... characteristics. RESULTS: Affective disorders were found to be associated with an almost twofold higher risk of suicide among psychiatric inpatients than other types of disorders (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.5-2.6). Patients with dementia had a significantly lower risk ratio of 0.2 (95% CI: 0...

  1. DSM-IV Axis II personality disorders and suicide and attempted suicide in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Yongsheng; Phillips, Michael R; Conner, Kenneth R

    2016-10-01

    There are meagre data on Axis II personality disorders and suicidal behaviour in China. To describe the prevalence of Axis II personality disorders in suicides and suicide attempts in China and to estimate risk for these outcomes associated with personality disorders. People who died by suicide (n = 151), people who attempted suicide (n = 118) and living community controls (n = 140) were randomly sampled from four Chinese counties and studied using the Structured Clinical Interviews for DSM-IV-TR Axis I Disorders (SCID-I) and Axis II Personality Disorders (SCID-II). We also determined the prevalence of subthreshold versions of ten DSM-IV personality disorders. Axis II personality disorders were present in 7% of the suicide group, 6% of the suicide attempt group and 1% of the control group. Threshold and subthreshold personality disorders had adjusted odds ratios (point estimates) in the range of 2.7-8.0 for suicide and for suicide attempts. Axis II personality disorders may confer increased risk for suicidal behaviour in China, but their low prevalence in the community and among people with suicidal behaviour suggests that other personality constructs such as select dimensional traits may be a more fruitful avenue for understanding and preventing suicide in China. © The Royal College of Psychiatrists 2016.

  2. Experience in using sulpiride in non-psychotic endogenous depressive-hypochondriacal disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina Arkadyevna Tyuvina

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to study the efficacy of sulpiride in different types of non-psychotic types of endogenous depressive-hypochondriacal syndrome. Patients and methods. Forty-seven patients (36 women and 11 men with a depressive episode (n = 15, recurrent depressive disorder (n = 14, and slowly progressive schizophrenia (SPS (n = 18 were examined clinically and using the psychometric scales: the Clinical Global Impression Scale; Montgomery-Esberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS, the Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale (HARS, and Udvalg for Kliniske Undersшgelser Side Effect Rating Scale. Sulpiride was given in an initial dose of50—100 mg/day; the dose was, if required, increased up to 400—600 mg/day. Results. After 2 months of treatment in the patients with affective disorders, the MADRS and HARS scores showed reductions from 28.7+2.3 to 14.3+1.7 and from 14.8+2.1 to 7.4+2.7, respectively. The reductions in the symptoms of depression and anxiety were 50.2 and 50.0%, respectively. In SPS, the mean MADRS and HARS scores decreased from 21.4+3.7 to 13.7ё1.8 and from 10.2+1.5 to 6.4+3.2, respectively. There were generally 40 and 37.3% reductions in the symptoms of depression and anxiety, respectively. Conclusion. In patients with affective disorders, the efficacy of sulpiride is predominantly due to its antidepressant and anti-anxiety activities in depressive-hypochondriacal syndrome and to its antipsychotic and activating activities in SPS.

  3. Dostoevsky and suicide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foy, J L; Rojcewicz, S J

    1979-01-01

    Fyodor Dostoevsky has continued to grow in stature and influence among modern writers. His modernity is based, among other things, upon his psychological penetration of character and motive. Suicide received considerable attention and analysis in his novels and stories. Although dynamic psychiatry has always held Dostoevsky in high regard, practically all psychiatrists have tended to ignore Dostoevsky's valuable insights into the subject of suicide. This paper offers a total view of the author's contributions to suicidology, through a study of suicidal behavior in his fiction, journalism and in his own life experiences. Dostoevsky's writings are testimony to the continuous and brilliant interrelations between his fictional and journalistic narratives, his understanding of individual, family and group dynamics, his intellectual search for the roots of ideology, and the authentic experience and spiritual quest of his life.

  4. Comparison of changes in physical self-concept, global self-esteem, depression and anxiety following two different psychomotor therapy programs in nonpsychotic psychiatric inpatients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knapen, Jan; Van de Vliet, Peter; Van Coppenolle, Herman; David, Ans; Peuskens, Joseph; Pieters, Guido; Knapen, Koen

    2005-01-01

    The first objective of this study was to compare the changes in physical self-concept, global self-esteem, depression and anxiety after participation in one of two 16-week psychomotor therapy programs for nonpsychotic psychiatric inpatients. The second objective was to study the relationship between changes in these variables. One hundred and ninety-nine inpatients were randomly assigned to either a personalized psychomotor fitness program, consisting of aerobic exercise and weight training, or a general program of psychomotor therapy, consisting of different forms of physical exercises and relaxation training. Physical self-concept was evaluated using the Dutch version of the Physical Self-Perception Profile at baseline, after 8 weeks, and after completion of the 16-week interventions. At the same time points, additional variables of global self-esteem, depression and anxiety were assessed by means of the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Inventory, the Beck Depression Inventory and the Trait Anxiety Inventory, respectively. After 16 weeks, both groups showed significant improvements in all outcome measures (p values ranged from 0.01 to self-esteem and decreased depression and anxiety levels (p programs are equally effective in enhancing physical self-concept. The relationship between improvements in physical self-concept and enhancements in global self-esteem, depression and anxiety supports the potential role of the physical self-concept in the recovery process of depressed and anxious psychiatric inpatients. Copyright (c) 2005 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  5. Six year follow-up of health status changes in Danish adults with suicide tendency in 1994

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Norlev, Jeanette; Davidsen, Michael; Kjøller, Mette

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether suicidal ideation and/ or suicide attempts have any long-term health effects. The relationship between suicidal thoughts and/or a previous suicide attempt in 1994 and the presence of suicidal ideation in 2000 was analyzed. We found that health...... status in 1994 differed significantly between the groups with and without suicidal ideation or a previous suicide attempt and that the differences persisted or even deepened (not significant) after 6 years. Further, people who had suicidal ideation or a suicide attempt in 1994 had a significantly greater...... risk (OR = 7.4) of having suicidal ideation in 2000 than people who had not....

  6. Effectiveness of the Surviving the Teens® Suicide Prevention and Depression Awareness Program: An Impact Evaluation Utilizing a Comparison Group

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strunk, Catherine M.; King, Keith A.; Vidourek, Rebecca A.; Sorter, Michael T.

    2014-01-01

    Youth suicide is a serious public health issue in the United States. It is currently the third leading cause of death for youth aged 10 to 19. School-based prevention programs may be an effective method of educating youth and enhancing their help-seeking. Most school-based suicide prevention programs have not been rigorously evaluated for their…

  7. Age as a risk factor for suicide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kocić Sanja S.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. World Health Organization (WHO in its plan for health policy until the year 2010, has taken reduction of risk factors of suicide as its 12th aim. Because of the fact that the problem of suicide is also significant health problem in our society, the aim of this study was to examine the influence of life period as a risk factor for suicide in the area of the town of Kragujevac. Methods. In total 211 persons, both sexes, aged between 17 and 91 years, from the area of the town of Kragujevac, who had been committed a suicide during the period from 1996 to 2005, were included in a retrospective study. This study included the analysis of: conditions prior to suicide, locations of suicide, motives for suicide, the ways of committing suicide. For statistical analysis χ2 test and univariante regression model were used. Results. Average rate of suicide, in analyzed period, moved from 8.7 to 27 with a mean value of 14.6± 6.9. Suicide rates were the lowest in the age group from 15 to 24 years and the highest in the age group above 65 years (p < 0.05. Among the presuicidal conditions, within any age groups the presence of mental disease dominated as a factor for suicide, but within the oldest one in which organic diseases prevailed as a factor for suicide (p < 0.05. Statistically significant fact is that a house (flat was the main location for committing suicide in any age groups. Motives for suicide were significantly different within the groups and they were mostly unknown. Committing suicide by hanging was the most frequent way of suicide among any age groups. Univariant regression analysis failed to show any impact of age on the analyzed factors. Conclusion. Because of the fact that an average rate of suicide in elderly increases it is obligatory to primarily determine risk factors for suicide among people more than 65 years of age. Physicians should play the most important role in that.

  8. Suicides of the Marginalised: Cultural Approaches to Suicide, Minorities and Relationality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rob Cover

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Suicides among marginalised groups are one of the few occasions in which self-harm and suicide are framed as having cultural, social, environental, historical or structural causes. Suicidology, psychology and public discourse typically understand suicide causality to be grounded in individualised psychic pain and pathology, disavowing the social, cultural, environmental and linguistic contexts. However, public discourse on suicides of ‘marginalised’ groups such as asylum seekers, Indigenous persons and queer/LGBT youth are ‘authorised’ to be discussed from social perspectives, informing opportunities to re-think suicidality, identity and liveability. Building on recent critical challenges to dominant theories, this article examines some of the ways in which the suicides of marginalised groups are described in social terms, demonstrating how cultural approaches to relationality, aspiration, performativity and mobility can expand current thinking on suicide cause and prevention.

  9. Suicide risk among persons with foreign background in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sundaram, V; Qin, Ping; Zøllner, L.

    2006-01-01

    There is a dearth of knowledge about factors correlated with suicide risk among minority groups in Western societies. In the present study we compared suicide risk among persons with foreign background with that of the majority population to determine whether certain minority groups...... are at a particular risk for suicide, as well as to illuminate gender differences herein. Suicide risk was generally higher among persons with foreign background compared with the majority population and the risk was highest among Nordic-born persons. Overall, suicide risk was significantly lower among Asian......-born persons; however, there were gender differences in correlations between ethnicity and suicide risk...

  10. Risk factors that influence suicidal behavior in affective disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanojević Albina

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available It is known in the literature that the incidence and prevalence of suicide and attempted suicide in psychiatric patients is significantly higher than in the general population. The paper examined risk factors for suicidal behavior in the category of admitted patients hospitalized with the diagnosis of sleep disorders and affective (Unipolar resp. Bipolar depression. Study activated by 80 patients, 40 in both diagnostic groups received treatment at the Special Psychiatric Hospital in Gornja Toponica near Nis. The work methodology used are: psychiatric interview, Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAMD, and the C-SSRS (Columbia-Suicide Severity Rating Scale- assessment tool that assesses suicidal ideation and behavior. The study results show that there is a relationship between suicidal behavior (suicide attempts and suicidal ideation and the diagnosis of bipolar affective disorder, positive history of previous suicide attempts, so that these factors are stronger, to the degree of suicidality higher. On this sample, clearly suicidal behavior, with the same purpose, intensity of suicidal thoughts and medical impairment after suicide attempts were significantly more frequent in patients with Bipolar Affective Disorder in the depressive phase of the illness. Patients with a previous suicide attempt, and poor personal and social circumstances had a higher rate of attempted suicide.

  11. Characteristics of the Schizophrenic Suicides in Comparison with the Suicides with Other Diagnosed Psychiatric Disorder and without a Psychiatric Disorder1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyu, Juncheng; Zhang, Jie

    2014-01-01

    Background There has been much literature on schizophrenia, but very little is known about the characteristics of suicides with schizophrenia in comparison with the suicides with other diagnosed psychiatric disorder and without psychiatric disorders. Methods Thirty-eight suicides with schizophrenia, 150 suicides with other psychiatric disorder, and 204 suicides without a psychiatric disorder were entered in current study. Psychological Autopsy (PA) was applied to collect information of the suicides. Social demographic factors and clinical characteristics of the suicides were measured. The well validated standard scales were applied: Beck Hopelessness Scale (BHS), Landerman’s Social Support Scale (DSSI), Dickman’s Impulsivity Inventory (DII), Spielberger State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) and Hamilton Depression Scale (HAMD). Suicide intents were appraised by the Beck Suicide Intent Scale (SIS). The SCID based on the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-IV (DSM-IV) was applied to assess the psychiatric status of individuals. Demographic characteristics, clinical characteristics, method of suicide and suicide intents of suicides were compared among the three groups (Schizophrenia group, Other psychiatric disorders group, and None psychiatric disorders group). Results There were 9.7% of suicides who suffered schizophrenia. The current study found being female was the risk factor for suicides with schizophrenia in rural China, which was opposite to the previous studies. The suicides with psychiatric disorder scored higher on hopelessness, anxiety, and depression, but lower on social support and impulsivity than suicides without psychiatric disorder. The suicides with psychiatric disorder were less impulsive than none psychiatric disorders group, too. The schizophrenia group did not show more violence than other psychiatric disorders group. Conclusions This research compared the demographic characteristics, clinical characteristics, method of

  12. Randomized Trial of Suicide Gatekeeper Training for Social Work Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, Jodi M.; Osteen, Phillip J.; Sharpe, Tanya L.; Pastoor, Jennifer B.

    2012-01-01

    Problem: Education and research on social work's role in preventing client suicide is limited. Method: Seventy advanced master of social work students were randomly assigned to either the training group (Question, Persuade, and Referral suicide gatekeeper training) or the control group. Outcomes measured over time included suicide knowledge,…

  13. Suicide and euthanasia in late life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Leo, Diego; Spathonis, Kym

    2003-04-01

    Epidemiological studies of suicide in the elderly indicate that, in the last few decades, there has been a relevant increase in suicide rates in old age in a number of Asian and Latin nations, with an almost parallel decrease in Anglo-Saxon counties. Mental disorders, particularly depression, physical illness, personality traits such as hostility, hopelessness, the inability to verbally express psychological pain and dependency on others, recent life events and losses are all factors that may contribute to suicide in later life. Compared with suicide in other age groups, mors voluntaris in late life is associated with the use of highly lethal methods, less ambivalence and impulsivity, and more determination and intent to die. Accordingly, elderly suicidal individuals are more likely than younger subjects to complete rather than attempt suicide. Some evidence suggests also that the characteristics of elderly individuals who attempt suicide may not overlap with those who complete suicide. Death thoughts and suicidal ideations are relatively rare among mentally healthy elderly adults, and are less predominant in this age bracket. However, whether elderly suicidal behaviour exists along a continuum, progressing in severity from death thoughts and suicidal ideation to suicide attempts and completed suicide, remains unclear. Assisted suicide and euthanasia in the elderly have been associated with the desire to escape chronic physical pain and suffering caused by terminal illness, and to relieve mental anguish and feelings of hopelessness, depression and extreme "tiredness of life." The role of the family and those treating chronically ill members is crucial in the final stages of life, particularly when autonomy and the ability of the elderly individual to make end-of-life decisions are compromised. The main aspects associated with these controversial phenomena, particularly from a transcultural perspective, are reviewed in this article.

  14. Suicides among persons with psychiatric hospitalizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberger, Nehama; Haklai, Ziona; Pugachova, Inna; Levav, Itzhak

    2015-01-01

    Persons with severe mental disorders have higher suicide rates than the general population. Their risk profile needs to be fully explored to better guide suicide preventive efforts. Downsizing the number of beds in psychiatric hospitals and high bed turnover may also affect the suicide risk. To investigate 1) Suicide rates among persons who were ever hospitalized in psychiatric facilities compared to the general population, 2) Associated sociodemographic and psychiatric factors, 3) Changes in rate over time, and 4) Timing of suicide deaths. We linked the National Psychiatric Case Register (NPCR) with the national database on causes of death. Suicides in the years 1981-2009 were analyzed for the study group of Israelis aged 18 and over ever hospitalized (N= 158,800). Suicide rates were computed by age, gender, psychiatric diagnosis and year of death, as well as agestandardized rates and rate ratios (RR) for persons in the NPCR compared with those never hospitalized. The proportion of suicides committed by the ever hospitalized from all suicides in the population was calculated. Standardized mortality ratios (SMR) for suicide were computed for the ever hospitalized based on the total suicide rates of the population. A multivariate logistic model investigated risk factors associated with suicide in the ever-hospitalized population. The age-standardized suicide rate of Jews and Others with a psychiatric hospitalization was 17.6 times higher than that of the non-hospitalized (95% CI 16.7-18.6) and 29.7 times higher for Arabs (95% CI 23.4- 37.9). The rates were higher among females and younger persons. In the years 2007-2009, 30% of all suicides of Jews and Others were committed by persons who had been hospitalized in psychiatric facilities. The SMRs of Jews and Others, which increased at the beginning of the study period, fell steadily until 1995. In recent years they have been rising since 2000 and 2005 among females and males, respectively. One fifth (19%) of suicides

  15. A Subcultural Theory of Teenage Suicide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lester, David

    1987-01-01

    The concept of "subcultures" is applied to depressed and suicidal teenagers. A case example is presented of a group of five teenagers, three of whom killed themseles. The characteristics of the group members are described in order to pinpoint the defining values of a teenage suicidal subculture. (Author)

  16. Suicide and Suicidal Behavior among Transgender Persons

    OpenAIRE

    Virupaksha, H. G.; Daliboyina Muralidhar; Jayashree Ramakrishna

    2016-01-01

    Background: Suicide rate and suicidal tendencies among transgender persons are considerably high compared to general population. Hence, this review is an attempt to understand the issues around the suicide and suicidal behavior among transgender persons. Methodology: The literature search conducted using three sources, i.e., electronic databases (PubMed, ProQuest, Google Scholar, PsycInfo), manual search (library catalog), and gray literature (consultation with experts). Results: The suicide ...

  17. The Newsworthiness of Suicide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirkis, Jane; Burgess, Philip; Blood, R. Warwick; Francis, Catherine

    2007-01-01

    There is a paucity of studies examining which suicides are considered newsworthy. By combining data on media reports of individuals' suicides with routinely collected suicide data, it was found that 1% of Australian suicides were reported over a 1-year period. There was evidence of over-reporting of suicides by older people and females, and those…

  18. Depressive episodes with suicide attempts in severe depression: suicides and controls differ only in the later episodes of unipolar depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brådvik, Louise; Berglund, Mats

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the distribution of suicide attempts across the depressive episodes in suicides and controls with a severe depression. A blind record evaluation was performed of 100 suicide victims and matched controls admitted to the Department of Psychiatry between 1956 and 1969 and monitored to 2006. There was a similar number of episodes in suicides and controls and in the early episodes a similar number of suicide attempts in both groups. However, in the later episodes future suicides showed more suicide attempts as compared to controls. This was found for unipolar depression only. This difference was found despite previously shown similar rates of adequate treatment and improvement. In conclusion, more depressive episodes including suicide attempts appeared to be related to suicide.

  19. Interpersonal Community Psychiatric Treatment for non-psychotic chronic patients and nurses in outpatient mental health care : A controlled pilotstudy on feasibility and effects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koekkoek, Bauke; Meijel, B. van; Schene, A.; Kaasenbrood, A.; Hutschemaekers, G.; Smit, A.

    2012-01-01

    In psychiatric care professionals perceive some patients as ‘difficult’, especially patients with long-term non-psychotic disorders. For these patients few evidence-based treatments exist. An intervention program, Interpersonal Community Psychiatric Treatment (ICPT), was developed by the authors. It

  20. Interpersonal Community Psychiatric Treatment for non-psychotic chronic patients and nurses in outpatient mental health care: A controlled pilot study on feasibility and effects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koekkoek, B.; Meijel, B. van; Schene, A.; Smit, A.; Kaasenbrood, A.; Hutschemaekers, G.

    2011-01-01

    In psychiatric care professionals perceive some patients as 'difficult', especially patients with long-term non-psychotic disorders. For these patients few evidence-based treatments exist. An intervention program, Interpersonal Community Psychiatric Treatment (ICPT), was developed by the authors. It

  1. Are UN peacekeepers at risk for suicide?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, A; Escobar, M; Lesage, A; Loyer, M; Vanier, C; Sakinofsky, I

    2001-01-01

    Media reports connecting UN peacekeeping duties by Canadian soldiers to their subsequent suicide prompted this study of peacekeeping as suicide risk. In a case-control design we retrospectively compared 66 suicides in the Canadian military between 1990 and 1995 with two control groups: (a) 2,601 controls randomly selected from the electronic military database and (b) 66 matched controls with complete personnel and medical data. We found no increased risk of suicide in peacekeepers except among a subgroup of air force personnel. Here confounding individual factors, isolation from supports, and possibly inadequate preparation for deployment elucidated their suicides. Theater of deployment (e.g., Bosnia) did not affect the suicide rate. Military suicides experienced psychosocial stresses and psychiatric illness more often than their matched controls. We conclude that although peacekeeping per se does not increase overall suicide risk, military life-styles may strain interpersonal relationships, encourage alcohol abuse, and contribute to psychiatric illness and suicide in a minority of vulnerable individuals irrespective of peacekeeping assignment. Careful selection, and preparatory military training that encourages intragroup bonding and mutual support, may protect against suicide risk.

  2. Time trend by region of suicides and suicidal thoughts among Greenland Inuit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjerregaard, Peter; Larsen, Christina Viskum Lytken

    2015-01-01

    Suicides remain a major public health problem in Greenland. Their increase coincides with the modernization since 1950. Serious suicidal thoughts are reported by a significant proportion of participants in countrywide surveys. To analyze the time trend by region of suicides and suicidal thoughts among the Inuit in Greenland. Data included the Greenland registry of causes of death for 1970-2011 and 2 cross-sectional health surveys carried out in 1993-1994 and 2005-2010 with 1,580 and 3,102 Inuit participants, respectively. Suicide rates were higher among men than women while the prevalence of suicidal thoughts was higher among women. Suicide rates for men and women together increased from 1960 to 1980 and have remained around 100 per 100,000 person-years since then. The regional pattern of time trend for suicide rates varied with an early peak in the capital, a continued increase to very high rates in remote East and North Greenland and a slow increase in villages relative to towns on the West Coast. Suicidal thoughts followed the regional pattern for completed suicides. Especially for women there was a noticeable increasing trend in the villages. The relative risk for suicide was highest among those who reported suicidal thoughts, but most suicides happened outside this high-risk group. Suicide rates and the prevalence of suicidal thoughts remain high in Greenland but different regional trends point towards an increased marginalization between towns on the central West Coast, villages and East and North Greenland. Different temporal patterns call for different regional strategies of prevention.

  3. A comparison of suicides in psychiatric in-patients, after discharge and in not recently hospitalized individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deisenhammer, Eberhard A; Behrndt, Elisa-Marie; Kemmler, Georg; Haring, Christian; Miller, Carl

    2016-08-01

    Time of in-patient treatment and the first weeks after hospital discharge have repeatedly been described as periods of increased suicide risk. This study compared demographic, clinical and suicide related factors between in-patient, post-discharge and not recently hospitalized suicides. Suicide data from the Tyrol Suicide Register were linked with registers of three psychiatric hospitals in the state of Tyrol, Austria. Suicide cases then were categorized as in-patient suicides, post-discharge suicides (suicide within 12weeks after discharge) or never/not within 12weeks before death hospitalized suicides. Data were collected between 2004 and 2011. Of the total of 711 cases, 30 were in-patient, 89 post-discharge and 592 not recently hospitalized suicides. The three groups differed with regard to male-to-female ratio (lower in both hospitalized groups), marital status, suicide method used (jumping in in-patients, hanging in not recently hospitalized suicides), history of attempted suicide and suicide threats (highest in in-patients) and whether suicides had been in psychiatric or general practitioner treatment shortly before death. In most variables with significant differences there was a gradual increase/decrease with post-discharge suicides taking the middle place between the two other groups. The three suicide populations differed in a number of variables. Varying factors appear to influence suicide risk and choice of method differently in in-patient, post-discharge and not hospitalized suicides. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. The psychology of suicide terrorism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Post, Jerrold M; Ali, Farhana; Henderson, Schuyler W; Shanfield, Steven; Victoroff, Jeff; Weine, Stevan

    2009-01-01

    This paper reviews current understandings of the psychology of suicide terrorism for psychiatrists and other mental health professionals to help them better understand this terrifying phenomenon. After discussing key concepts and definitions, the paper reviews both group and individual models for explaining the development of suicide terrorists, with an emphasis on "collective identity." Stressing the importance of social psychology, it emphasizes the "normality" and absence of individual psychopathology of the suicide bombers. It will discuss the broad range of terrorisms, but will particularly emphasize terrorism associated with militant Islam. The article emphasizes that comprehending suicide terrorism requires a multidisciplinary approach that includes anthropological, economic, historical, and political factors as well as psychological ones. The paper concludes with a discussion of implications for research, policy, and prevention, reviewing the manner in which social psychiatric knowledge and understandings applied to this phenomenon in an interdisciplinary framework can assist in developing approaches to counter this deadly strategy.

  5. Suicides in men with IDDM

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kyvik, K O; Stenager, E N; Green, A

    1994-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the occurrence of suicide in men with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM). RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: A cohort of all Danish men born between 1949 and 1964 (including 1964) who were diagnosed with IDDM before age 20 (n = 1,682) was ascertained earlier. Follow...... ratios (SMRs), adjusted for age and calendar time, were calculated. RESULTS: Among the 168 deaths recorded during follow-up, 15 took place in connection with the onset of IDDM and have been excluded. Of the remaining 153 deaths, 12 were officially classified as suicides (SMR 12/7.48 = 1.6, 0.05 ....1); as for the age-group of 20-24 years, SMR was 2.98, P suicides; as for deaths of unknown causes, three could be reclassified as probable suicides...

  6. National Suicide Prevention Lifeline

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Initiatives Best Practices Our Network Media Resources National Suicide Prevention Lifeline We can all help prevent suicide. ... About The Lifeline Anyone could be struggling with suicide. Find more specific resources below. I'm Struggling ...

  7. Attempted suicide, suicidal intent, and alcohol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, A S; Stenager, E; Brahe, U B

    1993-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to relate suicidal intent to the suicide method chosen and the medical lethality of the suicidal act, and to discuss how ingestion of alcohol impacts these three factors. The study was based upon interviews with 139 suicidal patients admitted to the Department of Psychiatry of Odense University Hospital. The results indicated a tendency for suicide attempters using wrist-cutting to score low on the Suicidal Intent Scale. Patients using kinds of self-injury other than self-poisoning or wrist-cutting scored high. In the case of self-poisoning, suicidal intent did not influence the choice of toxic agent, nor was the choice of method and/or choice of toxic agent affected by alcohol ingestion. A correlation between suicidal intent and the lethality of the suicide attempt was seen only among patients without a diagnosis of alcohol dependence. Alcohol-dependent patients who made highly lethal attempts scored relatively low on the Suicidal Intent Scale. The results indicate that the lethality of the suicidal act is only an incomplete guide to a patient's suicidal intent. However, it should be stressed that, despite the fact that alcohol-dependent suicide attempters may not strongly wish to die, they are nonetheless at high risk for making fatal suicide attempts.

  8. Adolescent self-injurers: Comparing non-ideators, suicide ideators, and suicide attempters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Jeremy G.; Esposito, Erika C.; Glenn, Catherine R.; Gilman, Stephen E.; Pridgen, Bryan; Gold, Joseph; Auerbach, Randy P.

    2016-01-01

    Adolescent non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI) and suicidality are serious health concerns; however, factors that contribute to the transition from NSSI to suicide ideation and suicide attempts are unclear. To address this gap, we investigated whether demographic characteristics, child maltreatment, and psychiatric factors are associated with the level suicidality among adolescents with a history of self-injury. Participants were three groups of adolescent inpatient self-injurers (n = 397, 317 female), aged 13–18 years (M = 15.44, SD = 1.36): (a) non-ideators (n = 96; no current suicide ideation and no lifetime suicide attempts), (b) suicide ideators (n = 149; current ideation and no lifetime attempts), and (c) suicide attempters (n = 152; current ideation and at least one lifetime attempt). Participants completed interviews assessing psychiatric diagnoses, suicidality, and NSSI characteristics, as well as questionnaires on childhood trauma, psychiatric symptoms, and risky behavior engagement. Depression severity was associated with greater odds being a suicide ideator (p adolescent self-injurers and determine the clinical utility of using risk markers for screening and intervention. PMID:27716512

  9. Suicide in police--a critical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hem, E; Berg, A M; Ekeberg, A O

    2001-01-01

    Police officers are commonly referred to as a high-risk group for suicide. So far no comprehensive review has been published about epidemiologic studies among police. This article systematically explores the worldwide literature on suicide in police. None of the recent nationwide studies show elevated suicide rates among police. Other studies show inconsistent results. Conclusively, it is not documented that there is an elevated suicide rate in police. A particular problem in previous research has been methodological shortcomings. There is need for further systematic research, and this review points out some strategies of research.

  10. Antidepressant Prescription and Suicide Rates: Effect of Age and Gender

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalmar, Sandor; Szanto, Katalin; Rihmer, Zoltan; Mazumdar, Sati; Harrison, Katrin; Mann, J. John

    2008-01-01

    To determine whether the effect of antidepressant exposure on suicide rate is modified by age and gender in Hungary, annual antidepressant prescription rates and suicide rates of about 10 million inhabitants between 1999-2005 were analyzed by age and gender groups. The suicide rate was inversely related to the increased use of antidepressants in…

  11. Risk Factors for Attempting Suicide in Heroin Addicts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Alec

    2010-01-01

    In order to examine risk factors for attempting suicide in heroin dependent patients, a group of 527 abstinent opiate dependent patients had a psychiatric interview and completed the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire. Patients who had or had never attempted suicide were compared on putative suicide risk factors. It was found that 207 of the 527…

  12. Desperation and Other Affective States in Suicidal Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendin, Herbert; Maltsberger, John T.; Haas, Ann Pollinger; Szanto, Katalin; Rabinowicz, Heather

    2004-01-01

    Data collected from 26 therapists who were treating patients when they died by suicide were used to identify intense affective states in such patients preceding the suicide. Eleven therapists provided comparable data on 26 patients they had treated who were seriously depressed but not suicidal. Although the two groups had similar numbers diagnosed…

  13. Stress, Self-Esteem, and Suicidal Ideation in Late Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilburn, Victor R.; Smith, Delores E.

    2005-01-01

    The relationships among stress, self-esteem, and suicidal ideation in late adolescents were examined in a group of college students. Multiple regression analysis indicated that both stress and self-esteem were significantly related to suicidal ideation; low self-esteem and stressful life events significantly predicted suicidal ideation. The…

  14. Changes in Scottish suicide rates during the Second World War.

    OpenAIRE

    2006-01-01

    Abstract Background It is believed that total reported suicide rates tend to decrease during wartime. However, analysis of suicide rates during recent conflicts suggests a more complex picture, with increases in some age groups and changes in method choice. As few age and gender specific analyses of more distant conflicts have been conducted, it is not clear if these findings reflect a change in the epidemiology of suicide in wartime. Therefore, we examined suicide rates in Scotland before, d...

  15. Motivational dynamics of suicide terrorism: organizational and individual perspectives

    OpenAIRE

    Üstünel Yırcalı, Ayşe; Ustunel Yircali, Ayse

    2004-01-01

    There is no abundance in the quantity and quality of research realized in the area of suicide terrorism. Although suicide terrorism is as old a phenomenon as terrorism, the scope of research investigating the latter outweighs and usually encloses the former as a subtopic. The increasing trend in suicide terrorism and the high rate of casualties it inflicts on its target enemy raises significant questions such as what accounts for the rise in suicide terrorism, what kind of people and groups a...

  16. Evaluation of geriatric suicides in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özer, Erdal; Gümüş, Burak; Balandiz, Hüseyin; Kırcı, Güven Seçkin; Aydoğdu, Halil İlhan; Tetikçok, Ramazan

    2016-11-01

    Suicide is defined as an individual taking action towards themselves with the intention of terminating their own life. According to the World Health Organisation (WHO), 800,000 deaths per year worldwide are due to suicide. In 2012, suicide cases constituted 1.4% of all the deaths worldwide. In most countries throughout the world, the suicide rates of the elderly are higher than those of other age groups. Epidemiological studies have concluded that suicide rates increase with advancing age in all societies, this increase accelerates after the age of 65 years and the highest rates are reached after the age of 75 years. The aim of this study was to evaluate the demographic features, suicide methods and reasons for suicide in geriatric suicide cases between 2009 and 2013 using the data of the Turkish Statistics Institute (TUIK). A retrospective evaluation was made of the TUIK data related to proven suicide cases aged 65 years and older in the 5-year period of 2009-2013. A total of 1723 geriatric suicides were determined in Turkey between 2009 and 2013. These comprised 1284 (74.5%) males and 439 (25.5%) females, showing a rate of males approximately 3 times higher than that of females. An increase of approximately 10% was seen in the deaths by suicide in 2013 compared to 2009. The highest rate of geriatric suicides within total geriatric deaths was observed to be in 2012 (15.2%) and the lowest rate was in 2010 (12.4%). The most common method of suicide in both genders was hanging. In the majority of cases of geriatric suicide of both genders, the reason could not be determined. In those cases where the reason was known, the most common reason was illness. It has been reported that the most significant factors in suicide prevention are friends and family. As there continues to be an extensive family structure and family connections are strong in Turkey, this can be considered to be one of the reasons for lower rates of geriatric suicide compared to other countries. As

  17. [Suicide risk in somatoform disorders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giupponi, Giancarlo; Maniscalco, Ignazio; Mathà, Sandra; Ficco, Carlotta; Pernther, Georg; Sanna, Livia; Pompili, Maurizio; Kapfhammer, Hans-Peter; Conca, Andreas

    2017-09-22

    The somatoform disorders include a group of complex disorders consist of somatic symptoms for which there are no identifiable organic cause or pathogenetic mechanisms. Given the importance of these disorders and the need to clarify the diagnosis of somatoform disorder affecting the suicide risk, we took into consideration the scientific literature to investigate the correlation between the two conditions. We performed a bibliographic search through Medline, Embase, PsycINFO, Scopus, SciELO, ORCID, Google Scholar, DOAJ using the following terms: somatoform, somatization disorder, pain disorder AND psychological factor, suicide, parasuicide, suicidality. In all studies reported in our review, the suicidal behavior risk is high. But in the majority, the data are relatively unreliable because it takes into account the category nosographic "Neurotic, stress-related and somatoform disorders", too wide to be able to identify the clinical characteristics of patients at risk of only somatoform disorder. Several studies conclude that psychiatric comorbidity increases the suicide risk: patients with two or more psychiatric disorders are more likely to commit a suicide attempt; in particular if there is a axis I diagnosis, the risk reduplicate. The somatization disorder seems to have a significant psychiatric comorbidity in particular with anxious and affective disorders spectrum.

  18. Self-Injurious Behavior and Suicide Attempts among Indonesian College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tresno, Fiona; Ito, Yoshimi; Mearns, Jack

    2012-01-01

    This study reports the prevalence of self-injurious behavior and suicide attempts among college students in Indonesia and examines risk factors distinguishing between 3 groups: self-injury with suicide attempt, non-suicidal self-injury, and non-self-injury. Self-report questionnaires measuring self-injury and suicide attempts, negative mood…

  19. Suicide Ideation In a College Population: A Test of a Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schotte, David E.; Clum, George A.

    1982-01-01

    Examined a model of suicide behavior in college-aged suicide ideators. Results indicate that college-student suicide ideators are under higher levels of negative life stress, are more hopeless, and have higher levels of depression. Poor problem-solvers under high stress were higher on suicide intent than other groups. (Author)

  20. Outcomes of a Suicide Prevention Gatekeeper Training on a University Campus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Indelicato, Natalie Arce; Mirsu-Paun, Anca; Griffin, Wayne D.

    2011-01-01

    A university-wide suicide prevention program was implemented to provide students, faculty, and staff tools to identify, assist, and refer distressed and suicidal individuals. The study examined participant self-reports of suicide-related knowledge and prevention skills, group differences in suicide prevention knowledge and skills, group…

  1. Non-suicidal self-injury and suicidal ideation in relation to eating and general psychopathology among college-age women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eichen, Dawn M; Kass, Andrea E; Fitzsimmons-Craft, Ellen E; Gibbs, Elise; Trockel, Mickey; Barr Taylor, C; Wilfley, Denise E

    2016-01-30

    Non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI) and suicidal ideation are potent risk factors for suicide and are associated with general and eating disorder-specific psychopathology. Limited research has examined the effects of combined NSSI+suicidal ideation thus concurrent examination is needed to understand potential differential effects on psychopathology. College-aged women (N=508) completed self-report measures of NSSI, suicidal ideation, general psychopathology, and Eating Disorder-specific psychopathology. MANOVAs determined whether the NSSI/SI status groups differed on general and eating disorder pathology measures as a set. Significant MANOVAs were followed up with univariate ANOVAs and posthoc tests. Thirteen women endorsed NSSI+Suicidal Ideation, 70 endorsed NSSI-only, 25 endorsed Suicidal Ideation-only, and 400 endorsed no NSSI/Suicidal Ideation. Both general and eating disorder-specific psychopathology differed across groups. NSSI+Suicidal Ideation and Suicidal Ideation-only groups typically endorsed higher general psychopathology than the no NSSI/Suicidal Ideation and NSSI-only groups. Regarding eating disorder pathology, the NSSI+Suicidal Ideation group was more pathological than no NSSI/Suicidal Ideation and NSSI-only, except on the weight concerns scale, where NSSI+Suicidal Ideation only differed from no NSSI/Suicidal Ideation. The NSSI+Suicidal Ideation group was only greater than Suicidal Ideation-only on measures of depression and eating concern. Results highlight the importance of screening for both NSSI and suicidal ideation, especially for individuals with eating disorder symptoms. Likewise, screening for eating disorder pathology may be beneficial for individuals presenting with NSSI and suicidal ideation.

  2. Military Suicide

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-05-01

    CDYA) programs. (S) Evaluate the appropriateness and, if appropriate, the Feasibility of operating a crisis hot line in all Army MTFs which maintain...Affairs), Washington, D.C., July 1985. 2. Deparatment of Health and Human Services, Helth Unitgd States. 1584, December 1S8’*. 3. Wood, Major Billy R...James E., Jr. "Suicide Prevention in the Air Force: A Training Guide For Crisis Intervention Service Volunteer Counselors". Unpublished Air Command

  3. Gender differences in characteristics of suicide attempts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ljušić Dragana

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Suicide attempt denotes activities directed towards one's own death which do not end in death. The ratio between attempted and realized suicides is expressed by the index called hazard ratio. Risk factors which contribute to suicidal behavior are: various emotional conditions, personality traits, stressful life events, substance misuse etc. The purpose of the study was to explore the frequencies and epidemiological and demographic characteristics of suicide attempts separately in men and women. The study sample involved 56 patients with the diagnosis suicide attempt (Tentamen suicidii treated on the Psychiatric department of the Clinical Center Priština, Gračanica. The data have been analyzed in respect to gender, age, profession/employment, mental disorder diagnosis, motivation (reason and the way of performing a suicide attempt. Results: suicide has been attempted by 42 women (75% and 14 men (25% of the sample. The prevalent age group of our sample (26.8% represents the patients below 20. The most prevalent are also unemployed patients, 33.3% of women and 50% of men. The most prevalent diagnosis is anxiety disorder (61.9% of women and 57.1% of men. The prevailing reason for attempting suicide in women was couple conflict (54.8% and existential problems in men (50%. Fifty one patients of the sample (91.1% have attempted suicide by intoxication with sedative drugs (anxiolytics. The majority of suicide attempts happened during afternoon and evening hours, i.e. in the period 12-24h. Conclusion: women have attempted suicide more frequently than men (ratio 3:1. Unemployment has been the prevailing professional characteristic in both genders. The most prevailing diagnosis is anxiety disorder. The chief motive in women is couple conflict and in men existential difficulties. In both genders the most frequent way of attempting suicide is poisoning, mostly in the period 12-24h.

  4. STUDY OF SUICIDE ATTEMPTS IN SCHIZOPHRENIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jagadeesan Madras Sundararajan

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Schizophrenia is a major mental illness whose sufferers have been found to have lesser longevity than general population. The most common cause for premature death in schizophrenia is suicide. There are very few Indian studies on suicide in persons suffering from schizophrenia. OBJECTIVES The objectives were to study the frequency of suicide attempt in schizophrenia to compare and study the clinical and sociodemographic profile of suicide attempters and non-attempters in schizophrenia and to analyse and study the various risk factors of suicide attempts in persons suffering from schizophrenia. METHODS A sample of 100 consecutive patients attending review OPD of a government tertiary care hospital in Chennai were selected. Those who had a diagnosis of schizophrenia were screened for past suicide attempts. They were divided into two groups as suicide attempters and non-attempters and analysed using the SAPS (Scale for Assessment of Positive Symptoms, SANS (Scale for Assessment of Negative Symptoms, Calgary depression scale, and Beck’s suicide intent scale. RESULTS People suffering from schizophrenia are at a high risk for making suicidal attempts (27% especially when the illness is acute and severe in early stages when accompanied by depressive symptoms. Demographic profile such as age, sex, education, occupation, socio-economic status, marital status, and family type were not significantly related to suicide attempts. Family history of suicide was a significant factor in patients with suicide attempts. Majority of the attempts were of medium-to-high intent, hanging being the commonest method, and were attributed to most commonly delusions and depressive symptoms.

  5. Body mass index and suicide methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wingren, Carl Johan; Ottosson, Anders

    2016-08-01

    Overweight and obesity is associated with lower rates of suicide. However, little is known about the association with different suicide methods. We studied the association between groups of body mass index and suicide methods. We identified all medicolegal autopsy cases with a cause of death due to external causes in Sweden during 1999-2013 (N = 39,368) and included 11,715 suicides and 13,316 accidents or homicides as controls. We applied multinomial regression models adjusted for age, sex, year and season of death. Obesity was associated with suicidal intoxication, OR 1.15 [95% confidence interval (CI) 1.02, 1.30] and negatively associated with all other suicide methods studied. Underweight showed a negative association with suicidal drowning and there was an indication towards a negative association with hanging in men OR 0.81 (95% CI 0.65, 1.01). We conclude that body mass index (BMI) is associated with the choice of suicide method. This may be of importance in a public health perspective, e.g. potential for prevention of intoxications. In the practice of forensic medicine, the physician's level of suspicion may rise if the apparent suicidal method is less common for the individual characteristics of the deceased, such as BMI.

  6. Friendships and suicidality among Mexican American adolescent girls and boys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winterrowd, Erin; Canetto, Silvia Sara; Chavez, Ernest L

    2010-08-01

    Friendship factors have been implicated in adolescent suicidality, but this relationship has not been verified across ethnicities. This study examined suicidality and friendship problems (i.e., social isolation, poor friendship quality, friends' school disconnection, and friends' delinquency) among Mexican American adolescents, an understudied, vulnerable group in terms of suicidality. Three hundred thirty-eight community adolescents, two-thirds of whom were educationally at-risk, participated in the study. Suicidal ideation and behavior rates were high, particularly among girls. Friends' school disconnectedness increased girls' odds for suicidal ideation by 13%. This association was even greater for girls in good academic standing. Friendship problems were not associated with suicidality in boys. Ethnic identity was a minor factor in suicidal ideation, and only for girls. These findings confirm, among Mexican American adolescents, the role of gender in the relationship between friendship and suicidality.

  7. HOMICIDE FOLLOWED BY SUICIDE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SAMANTHA DUBUGRAS

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Homicide followed by suicide (H/S is a complex and poorly studied phenomenon. This research aims at identifyingH/S cases occurred in Porto Alegre from 1996 throughout 2004. Information on H/S was extracted from newspapers,police reports and interviews with the informants. From the 14 identified cases, men were the killers/suicides andwomen and children their victims. The most frequently used weapons were firearms. In general, the aggressor was animpulsive, aggressive individual showing problems within its primary supporting group, possibly suffering depressionand alcohol-addicted with criminal backgrounds (violence against the family. Events were mainly triggered by jealousy,threats or the end of a love relationship.

  8. "Suicide shall cease to be a crime": suicide and undetermined death trends 1970-2000 before and after the decriminalization of suicide in Ireland 1993.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osman, Mugtaba; Parnell, Andrew C; Haley, Clifford

    2017-02-01

    Suicide is criminalized in more than 100 countries around the world. A dearth of research exists into the effect of suicide legislation on suicide rates and available statistics are mixed. This study investigates 10,353 suicide deaths in Ireland that took place between 1970 and 2000. Irish 1970-2000 annual suicide data were obtained from the Central Statistics Office and modelled via a negative binomial regression approach. We examined the effect of suicide legislation on different age groups and on both sexes. We used Bonferroni correction for multiple modelling. Statistical analysis was performed using the R statistical package version 3.1.2. The coefficient for the effect of suicide act on overall suicide deaths was -9.094 (95 % confidence interval (CI) -34.086 to 15.899), statistically non-significant (p = 0.476). The coefficient for the effect suicide act on undetermined deaths was statistically significant (p suicide is not associated with a significant increase in subsequent suicide deaths. However, undetermined death verdict rates have significantly dropped following legalization of suicide.

  9. Associations between family suicide and personal suicidal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2011-05-16

    May 16, 2011 ... Method: Grade 8 students were asked to participate with parental consent and child assent. ... were low scores for having a sense of mastery, self-esteem and ... Keywords: family suicide, personal suicide, youth suicidal behaviour, associations ... to which situations in one's life are appraised as being.

  10. The Ethics of Suicide and Suicide Prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lester, David; Leenaars, Antoon A.

    1996-01-01

    Debates the question of suicide as a defensible choice, particularly for the terminally ill, examining the relevance of such issues as the mortality, rationality, and dynamics of the suicidal act, and the legitimacy of physician-assisted suicide. Contrasting perspectives are articulated by two prominent suicidologists as a spur to the reader's…

  11. Memes and suicide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lester, David

    2009-08-01

    The concept of memes is analyzed, and its applicability to suicidology explored. Proposals are made for possible memes implicated in suicidal behavior. A classification of suicidal memes is proposed and the relationship between memes and archetypes of suicide is discussed. It is suggested that the terminology of meme theory can sharpen research into imitation effects in suicide.

  12. Rethinking Impulsivity in Suicide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klonsky, E. David; May, Alexis

    2010-01-01

    Elevated impulsivity is thought to facilitate the transition from suicidal thoughts to suicidal behavior. Therefore, impulsivity should distinguish those who have attempted suicide (attempters) from those who have only considered suicide (ideators-only). This hypothesis was examined in three large nonclinical samples: (1) 2,011 military recruits,…

  13. Surviving After Suicide

    Science.gov (United States)

    A survivor of suicide is a family member or friend of a person who died by suicide. Some Facts: Survivors of suicide represent “the largest mental ... experience relief. There is a stigma attached to suicide, partly due to the ... it. As such, family members and friends of the surivior may not ...

  14. Health Professionals' Explanations of Suicidal Behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothes, Inês Areal; Henriques, Margarida Rangel

    2017-01-01

    In a help relation with a suicidal person, the theoretical models of suicidality can be essential to guide the health professional's comprehension of the client/patient. The objectives of this study were to identify health professionals' explanations of suicidal behaviors and to study the effects of professional group, theoretical intervention models, and patient suicide experience in professionals' representations. Two hundred and forty-two health professionals filled out a self-report questionnaire. Exploratory principal components analysis was used. Five explanatory models were identified: psychological suffering, affective cognitive, sociocommunicational, adverse life events, and psychopathological. Results indicated that the psychological suffering and psychopathological models were the most valued by the professionals, while the sociocommunicational was seen as the least likely to explain suicidal behavior. Differences between professional groups were found. We concluded that training and reflection on theoretical models in general and in communicative issues in particular are needed in the education of health professionals.

  15. Suicidal Ideation and Attempt among Adolescents Reporting "Unsure" Sexual Identity or Heterosexual Identity Plus Same-Sex Attraction or Behavior: Forgotten Groups?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yue; Montoro, Richard; Igartua, Karine; Thombs, Brett D.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To compare risk of suicide ideation and attempts in adolescents with 1) gay, lesbian, or bisexual (GLB) identity, 2) "unsure" identity, or 3) heterosexual identity with same-sex attraction/fantasy or behavior, to heterosexual identity without same-sex attraction/fantasy or behavior. Method: A total of 1,856 students 14 years…

  16. Time to hospitalization for suicide attempt by the timing of parental suicide during offspring early development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuramoto, S Janet; Runeson, Bo; Stuart, Elizabeth A; Lichtenstein, Paul; Wilcox, Holly C

    2013-02-01

    CONTEXT Previous studies have suggested that children who experience parental suicide at earlier ages are at higher risk of future hospitalization for suicide attempt. However, how the trajectories of risk differ by offspring age at the time of parental suicide is currently unknown. OBJECTIVE To study time at risk to suicide attempt hospitalization among offspring of suicide decedents as compared with offspring of unintentional injury decedents by their developmental period at the time of parental death. DESIGN Population-based retrospective cohort study. SETTING Sweden. PARTICIPANTS Twenty-six thousand ninety-six offspring who experienced parental suicide and 32 395 offspring of unintentional injury decedents prior to age 25 years between the years 1973 and 2003. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE Parametric survival analysis was used to model the time to hospitalization for suicide attempt among offspring who lost a parent during early childhood (0-5 years old), later childhood (6-12 years old), adolescence (13-17 years old), and young adulthood (18-24 years old). RESULTS The risk in offspring who lost a parent to suicide or an unintentional injury during childhood surpassed the other age groups' risk approximately 5 years after the origin and, for the youngest group, continued to rise over decades. Offspring who lost a parent during adolescence or young adulthood were at greatest risk within 1 to 2 years after parental death, and risk declined over time. Offspring who lost a parent to suicide in childhood and young adulthood had earlier onset of hospitalization for suicide attempt compared with offspring who lost a parent to an unintentional injury. CONCLUSIONS The hospitalization risk for suicide attempt in offspring who lost a parent during their childhood is different from those who lost a parent later in development. The results suggest critical windows for careful monitoring and intervention for suicide attempt risk, especially 1 to 2 years after parental death for the

  17. Suicide in U.S. Workplaces, 2003-2010: a comparison with non-workplace suicides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiesman, Hope M; Konda, Srinivas; Hartley, Dan; Chaumont Menéndez, Cammie; Ridenour, Marilyn; Hendricks, Scott

    2015-06-01

    Suicide rates have risen considerably in recent years. National workplace suicide trends have not been well documented. The aim of this study is to describe suicides occurring in U.S. workplaces and compare them to suicides occurring outside of the workplace between 2003 and 2010. Suicide data originated from the Census of Fatal Occupational Injury database and the Web-Based Injury Statistics Query and Reporting System. Suicide rates were calculated using denominators from the 2013 Current Population Survey and 2000 U.S. population census. Suicide rates were compared among demographic groups with rate ratios and 95% CIs. Suicide rates were calculated and compared among occupations. Linear regression, adjusting for serial correlation, was used to analyze temporal trends. Analyses were conducted in 2013-2014. Between 2003 and 2010, a total of 1,719 people died by suicide in the workplace. Workplace suicide rates generally decreased until 2007 and then sharply increased (p=0.035). This is in contrast with non-workplace suicides, which increased over the study period (p=0.025). Workplace suicide rates were highest for men (2.7 per 1,000,000); workers aged 65-74 years (2.4 per 1,000,000); those in protective service occupations (5.3 per 1,000,000); and those in farming, fishing, and forestry (5.1 per 1,000,000). The upward trend of suicides in the workplace underscores the need for additional research to understand occupation-specific risk factors and develop evidence-based programs that can be implemented in the workplace. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  18. Suicide death and hospital-treated suicidal behaviour in asylum seekers in the Netherlands: a national registry-based study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Several suicide and suicidal behaviour risk factors are highly prevalent in asylum seekers, but there is little insight into the suicide death rate and the suicidal behaviour incidence in this population. The main objective of this study is to assess the burden of suicide and hospital-treated non-fatal suicidal behaviour in asylum seekers in the Netherlands and to identify factors that could guide prevention. Methods We obtained data on cases of suicide and suicidal behaviour from all asylum seeker reception centres in the Netherlands (period 2002-2007, age 15+). The suicide death rates in this population and in subgroups by sex, age and region of origin were compared with the rate in the Dutch population; the rates of hospital-treated suicidal behaviour were compared with that in the population of The Hague using indirect age group standardization. Results The study included 35 suicide deaths and 290 cases of hospital-treated suicidal behaviour. The suicide death rate and the incidence of hospital-treated suicidal behaviour differed between subgroups by sex and region of origin. For male asylum seekers, the suicide death rate was higher than that of the Dutch population (N = 32; RR = 2.0, 95%CI 1.37-2.83). No difference was found between suicide mortality in female asylum seekers and in the female general population of the Netherlands (N = 3; RR = 0.73; 95%CI 0.15-2.07). The incidence of hospital-treated suicidal behaviour was high in comparison with the population of The Hague for males and females from Europe and the Middle East/South West Asia, and low for males and females from Africa. Health professionals knew about mental health problems prior to the suicidal behaviour for 80% of the hospital-treated suicidal behaviour cases in asylum seekers. Conclusions In this study the suicide death rate was higher in male asylum seekers than in males in the reference population. The incidence of hospital-treated suicidal behaviour was higher in several

  19. Suicide death and hospital-treated suicidal behaviour in asylum seekers in the Netherlands: a national registry-based study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van Oostrum Irene EA

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Several suicide and suicidal behaviour risk factors are highly prevalent in asylum seekers, but there is little insight into the suicide death rate and the suicidal behaviour incidence in this population. The main objective of this study is to assess the burden of suicide and hospital-treated non-fatal suicidal behaviour in asylum seekers in the Netherlands and to identify factors that could guide prevention. Methods We obtained data on cases of suicide and suicidal behaviour from all asylum seeker reception centres in the Netherlands (period 2002-2007, age 15+. The suicide death rates in this population and in subgroups by sex, age and region of origin were compared with the rate in the Dutch population; the rates of hospital-treated suicidal behaviour were compared with that in the population of The Hague using indirect age group standardization. Results The study included 35 suicide deaths and 290 cases of hospital-treated suicidal behaviour. The suicide death rate and the incidence of hospital-treated suicidal behaviour differed between subgroups by sex and region of origin. For male asylum seekers, the suicide death rate was higher than that of the Dutch population (N = 32; RR = 2.0, 95%CI 1.37-2.83. No difference was found between suicide mortality in female asylum seekers and in the female general population of the Netherlands (N = 3; RR = 0.73; 95%CI 0.15-2.07. The incidence of hospital-treated suicidal behaviour was high in comparison with the population of The Hague for males and females from Europe and the Middle East/South West Asia, and low for males and females from Africa. Health professionals knew about mental health problems prior to the suicidal behaviour for 80% of the hospital-treated suicidal behaviour cases in asylum seekers. Conclusions In this study the suicide death rate was higher in male asylum seekers than in males in the reference population. The incidence of hospital-treated suicidal behaviour

  20. Schizophrenia and Suicide

    OpenAIRE

    Ozlem Cetin; Salih Saygin Eker

    2011-01-01

    Suicide is one of the major causes of premature death among patients with schizophrenia. Follow-up studies have estimated that 4-5% of these patients die by suicide. Reducing the high rates of suicide in schizophrenia is possible with understanding of predictive risk factors. Various studies have identified risk factors for suicide in schizophrenia patients. Clinical risk factors include previous suicide attempts, comorbid depression, feelings of hopelessness, concept of insight and substance...

  1. IMF-lending programs and suicide mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goulas, Eleftherios; Zervoyianni, Athina

    2016-03-01

    While the economic consequences of IMF programs have been extensively analyzed in the literature, much less is known about how key welfare indicators, including suicide-mortality rates, correlate with countries' participation in such programs. This paper examines the impact of IMF lending on suicide mortality, using data from 30 developing and transition countries that received non-concessionary IMF loans during 1991-2008. Our results support the hypothesis of a positive causal relationship between suicide mortality and participation in IMF programs but reveal no systematic suicide-increasing effect from the size of IMF loans. This holds after accounting for self-selection into programs, resulting from the endogeneity of a country's decision to resort to the IMF for funding, and after controlling for standard socio-economic influences on suicidal behaviour. In particular, we find a positive aggregate suicide-mortality differential due to IMF-program participation of between 4 and 14 percentage points. We also find that the positive association between suicides and program participation is stronger and more robust among males. Comparing age groups, individuals belonging to the age group 45-to-64 exhibit the highest increase in suicide due to program-participation, which amounts to over 18 percentage points. Overall, our results imply that when countries are exposed to IMF programs in an attempt to resolve their economic problems, social-safety nets need to be designed to protect the adversely-affected part of the population.

  2. Epidemic suicide among Micronesian adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubinstein, D H

    1983-01-01

    Suicide rates since 1960 in Micronesia (the U.S. Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands) have undergone an epidemic-like increase. This phenomenon is focused narrowly within the 15--24-year male age-group. Extremely high rates and culturally patterned motives and methods are now characteristic of this group. Survey research throughout Micronesia suggests that the epidemic increase in adolescent male suicide is a cohort effect among the first post-war generation. Traditional adolescent socialization in pre-war Micronesia largely involved village-level subsistence activities organized around communal lineage-houses. This extra-familial level of socialization served as a cultural solution to the residential and psychological distance post-pubertal males maintained from their domestic families. With the post-war social change in Micronesia, the communal village-level of organization has largely disintegrated, causing adolescent socialization functions to be absorbed by the nuclear family. The resulting situations of intergenerational domestic discord appear the primary social triggers for adolescent suicide. At the same time, suicides have acquired subcultural significance among male youth, giving rise to fad-like and imitative acts. A 3-year research project is now being undertaken to conduct an ethnographic study of factors contributing to adolescent stress and suicide in one Micronesian community.

  3. A systematic review of social factors and suicidal behavior in older adulthood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fässberg, Madeleine Mellqvist; van Orden, Kimberly A; Duberstein, Paul

    2012-01-01

    Suicide in later life is a global public health problem. The aim of this review was to conduct a systematic analysis of studies with comparison groups that examined the associations between social factors and suicidal behavior (including ideation, non-fatal suicidal behavior, or deaths) among...... indicated that at least in industrialized countries, limited social connectedness is associated with suicidal ideation, non-fatal suicidal behavior, and suicide in later life. Primary prevention programs designed to enhance social connections as well as a sense of community could potentially decrease...... suicide risk, especially among men....

  4. Increase in Suicide Rates by Hanging in the Population of Tabasco, Mexico between 2003 and 2012

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Background: Worldwide, the suicide rate is decreasing. To examine changes in the rates of completed suicide in the Mexican population from 2003 to 2012, we analyzed these changes according to: (i) the method of suicide; (ii) age group and (iii) gender. Methods: The data analyzed were obtained from governmental organizations from the State of Tabasco, Mexico. The data provided 1836 cases of subjects born and residing in Tabasco, who completed suicide in this state. Results: Suicide by hanging ...

  5. Increased use of antidepressants and decreasing suicide rates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Erlangsen, Annette; Canudas-Romo, V; Conwell, Y

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The objective of the present study was to examine if the change in the suicide rate is associated with individuals' use of antidepressants as has been suggested by ecological studies. DESIGN: Decomposition of suicide rates by antidepressant treatment group. SETTING: Population......-based record linkage. PARTICIPANTS: All individuals aged 50 years and older living in Denmark between 1 January 1996 and 31 December 2000 (N = 2,100,808). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Suicide rates are calculated according to current antidepressant treatment status (no treatment, tricyclic antidepressants (TCA......), selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRI), other antidepressants). The change in the suicide rate during 1996-2000 was decomposed by treatment group. RESULTS: Only one in five older adults dying by suicide was in treatment at the time of death. Whereas the male suicide rate declined by 9.7 suicides per...

  6. Blunted HPA Axis Activity in Suicide Attempters Compared to those at High Risk for Suicidal Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melhem, Nadine M; Keilp, John G; Porta, Giovanna; Oquendo, Maria A; Burke, Ainsley; Stanley, Barbara; Cooper, Thomas B; Mann, J John; Brent, David A

    2016-05-01

    Studies looking at the relationship of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis to suicidal behavior and its risk factors, such as depression, childhood abuse, and impulsive aggression, report inconsistent results. These studies also do not always differentiate between subjects who go on to attempt suicide, suicidal subjects who never attempted suicide, and non-suicidal subjects with psychiatric disorders. In this study, we examined cortisol responses to an experimental stressor, the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST), in 208 offspring of parents with mood disorder. Offspring suicide attempters showed lower total cortisol output (β=-0.47, 95% CI (-0.83, -0.11), p=0.01) compared with offspring with suicide-related behavior (SRB) but never attempted, non-suicidal offspring, and a healthy control group. The result remained significant even after controlling for sex, age, race, ethnicity, site, socio-economic status, and hour of the day when the TSST was conducted. Suicide attempters also showed lower baseline cortisol before the TSST (β=-0.45, 95% CI (-0.74, -0.17), p=0.002). However, there were no significant differences between the groups on cortisol reactivity to stress (β=4.5, 95% CI (-12.9, 22), p=0.61). Although subjects with suicide attempt and SRB have similar clinical and psychosocial characteristics, this is the first study to differentiate them biologically on HPA axis indices. Blunted HPA axis activity may increase risk for suicide attempt among individuals with psychopathology by reducing their ability to respond adaptively to ongoing stressors. These results may help better identify subjects at high risk for suicidal behavior for targeted prevention and intervention efforts.

  7. Suicidality, psychopathology, and the internet: Online time vs. online behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Keith M; Starcevic, Vladan; Ma, Jing; Zhang, Wei; Aboujaoude, Elias

    2017-09-01

    This study investigated whether several psychopathology variables, including suicidality, could predict the time people spend using the internet (hours online). Next, we examined a specific at-risk population (suicidal individuals) by their online behaviors, comparing suicidal individuals who went online for suicide-related purposes with suicidal individuals who did not go online for suicide-related purposes. An anonymous online sample of 713 (aged 18-71) reported hours online, psychiatric histories, and completed several standardized scales. After accounting for age and education, hierarchical regression modeling showed that the assessed psychopathology variables, including suicidality, did not explain significant variance in hours online. Hours online were better predicted by younger age, greater willingness to develop online relationships, higher perceived social support, higher curiosity, and lower extraversion. Suicidal participants, who did or did not go online for suicide-related purposes, did not differ on hours online. Multiple regression modeling showed that those who went online for suicide-related purposes were likely to be younger, more suicidal, and more willing to seek help from online mental health professionals. These findings revealed that hours online are not a valid indicator of psychopathology. However, studying online behaviors of specific at-risk groups could be informative and useful, including for suicide prevention efforts. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  8. Current Suicide Proneness and Past Suicidal Behavior in Adjudicated Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langhinrichsen-Rohling, Jennifer; Lamis, Dorian A.

    2008-01-01

    Youth recently assigned to probation (n = 233) were assessed for current suicide proneness, depression, and hopelessness, as well as for recent suicide ideation, previous suicide ideation, or suicide attempt(s). The Life Attitudes Schedule-Short Form (LAS-SF) was used to assess suicide proneness. As per the LAS-SF, suicide proneness was defined…

  9. Comparison of Families with and without a Suicide Prevention Plan Following a Suicidal Attempt by a Family Member.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Heung-Don; Kim, Nam-Young; Gil, Hyo-wook; Jeong, Du-shin; Hong, Sae-yong

    2015-07-01

    The frequency and extent of the existence of a familial suicide prevention plan may differ across cultures. The aim of this work was, therefore, to determine how common it was for families to develop a suicide prevention plan and to compare the main measures used by families with and without such a plan, after an attempt to commit suicide was made by a member of a family living in a rural area of Korea. On the basis of the presence or absence of a familial suicide prevention plan, we compared 50 recruited families that were divided into 2 groups, with Group A (31 families) employing a familial suicide prevention plan after a suicide attempt by a family member, and Group B (19 families) not doing so. The strategy that was employed most frequently to prevent a reoccurrence among both populations was promoting communication among family members, followed by seeking psychological counseling and/or psychiatric treatment. Contrary to our expectation, the economic burden from medical treatment after a suicide attempt did not influence the establishment of a familial suicide prevention plan. It is a pressing social issue that 38% (19 of 50) of families in this study did not employ a familial suicide prevention plan, even after a family member had attempted suicide. Regional suicide prevention centers and/or health authorities should pay particular attention to these patients and their families.

  10. Suicides and Medically Serious Attempters Are of the Same Population in Chinese Rural Young Adults1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jie; Sun, Long; Conwell, Yeates; Qin, Ping; Jia, Cun-Xian; Xiao, Shuiyuan; Tu, Xin-Ming

    2015-01-01

    Background Suicide rates in China are among the highest in the world, although there has been a decreasing trend in the past few years. One practical approach to study the characteristics and risk factors of suicide is to interview the suicide attempters. Aims It was to compare completed suicides with serious attempters that may shed lights on suicide prevention strategies. Method This is a combination of two case control studies for suicide completers and suicide attempters respectively. After a sample of suicides (n=392) and community living controls (n=416) were obtained and studied in rural China, we collected in the same rural areas data of suicide attempt and studied 507 medically serious attempters and 503 community counterparts. Results Characteristics and previously observed risk factors were compared between the suicides and the attempters, and we found that the demographic characteristics and risk factors for the suicides were also for the medically serious attempters but at some lesser degrees for the attempters than for the suicides. It was especially true of suicide intent, deficient coping, negative life events, and impulsivity. While most of the demographic characteristics were not significantly different between the suicides and the attempters, most of the clinical variables could distinguish the two groups. Conclusions The suicide victims and the serious attempters could be of the same group of people who were at the edge of fatal self-injury, and the same clinical risk factors but of different degrees have divided them into the life and death groups. PMID:25723561

  11. Suicides and medically serious attempters are of the same population in Chinese rural young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jie; Sun, Long; Conwell, Yeates; Qin, Ping; Jia, Cun-Xian; Xiao, Shuiyuan; Tu, Xin-Ming

    2015-05-01

    Suicide rates in China are among the highest in the world, although there has been a decreasing trend in the past few years. One practical approach to study the characteristics and risk factors of suicide is to interview the suicide attempters. It was to compare completed suicides with serious attempters that may shed lights on suicide prevention strategies. This is a combination of two case control studies for suicide completers and suicide attempters respectively. After a sample of suicides (n=392) and community living controls (n=416) were obtained and studied in rural China, we collected in the same rural areas data of suicide attempt and studied 507 medically serious attempters and 503 community counterparts. Characteristics and previously observed risk factors were compared between the suicides and the attempters, and we found that the demographic characteristics and risk factors for the suicides were also for the medically serious attempters but at some lesser degrees for the attempters than for the suicides. It was especially true of suicide intent, deficient coping, negative life events, and impulsivity. While most of the demographic characteristics were not significantly different between the suicides and the attempters, most of the clinical variables could distinguish the two groups. The suicide victims and the serious attempters could be of the same group of people who were at the edge of fatal self-injury, and the same clinical risk factors but of different degrees have divided them into the life and death groups. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. [Causes, diagnosis and treatment of suicidality].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Althaus, D; Hegerl, U

    2004-11-01

    In Germany, each year more than 11,000 people commit suicide. Rates of attempted suicide are estimated to be tenfold higher. Psychosocial as well as biological causes play an important role in the etiology of suicidality. Patients suffering from affective disorders, alcohol and drug abuse, and psychotic disorders are considered to be the most important high-risk groups. Careful diagnosis of suicidality is a precondition for successful therapy. Acute treatment is based on psychopharmacological as well as on psychotherapeutic strategies. In the case of acute danger, short-term goals consist in gaining time and actively providing direct support. In the long run, treatment of the underlying psychiatric disorder and stabilisation of the daily life situation become more important. There is no scientific evidence for the hypothesis that selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) increase the risk of suicide.

  13. Suicide rate among former Swedish peacekeeping personnel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michel, Per-Olof; Lundin, Tom; Larsson, Gerry

    2007-03-01

    Increased suicide rates for military personnel suffering from post-traumatic stress disorders have been reported in various countries. Although it is known that some peacekeepers are exposed to potentially traumatic events and are thus at risk of suffering from post-traumatic stress reactions, only a few studies have examined suicide rates in this group. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the suicide rate among former Swedish peacekeeping personnel. We compared 39,768 former Swedish peacekeepers to the general population in the National General Population Registry and the Cause-of-Death Registry. A lower number of suicides was found among former Swedish peacekeepers than in the general population. In conclusion, Swedish personnel serving in international peace-keeping operations do not show a higher suicide rate than the general population. Unique problems associated with this research area are discussed.

  14. [Depression and suicide prevention].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Mitsuhiko

    2007-09-01

    Suicide is a major public health problem and the number of suicide victims has exceeded 30,000 a year since 1998 in Japan. The rates of depression are extremely high in suicide victims. Social and environmental factors, such as the slow recovery of Japanese economy, could have a strong effect on depression and suicide, especially in middle-aged men. To reduce the number of suicide victims, we need to use both population-based and high-risk approaches, targeting individuals with high psychological and socioeconomic risks of suicide, especially depressed patients. On the other hand, the role of antidepressants in suicide prevention is a major question given the high prevalence of both depression and depression-related suicidality. Because treatment and prevention of suicide are complex and encompass many factors, success will need multi-sector collaboration.

  15. Differences in Non-Suicidal Self-Injury and Suicide Attempts in Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brausch, Amy M.; Gutierrez, Peter M.

    2010-01-01

    As suicide attempts and self-injury remain predominant health risks among adolescents, it is increasingly important to be able to distinguish features of self-harming adolescents from those who are at risk for suicidal behaviors. The current study examined differences between groups of adolescents with varying levels of self-harmful behavior in a…

  16. Personality Differences in Attempted Suicide versus Suicide in Adults 50 Years of Age or Older

    Science.gov (United States)

    Useda, J. David; Duberstein, Paul R.; Conner, Kenneth R.; Beckman, Anthony; Franus, Nathan; Tu, Xin; Conwell, Yeates

    2007-01-01

    The authors tested hypotheses concerning personality differences in treatment-seeking suicide attempters (AT; n = 60) and a community sample of suicides (SU; n = 43) over age 50. On the basis of prior research, the authors hypothesized that SU would be lower in Neuroticism and Openness and higher in Conscientiousness. A 2-group (AT vs. SU)…

  17. Suicide in the Middle Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coombs, David W.; Hodges, Debra K.; Kohler, Connie

    2012-01-01

    This article presents an overview of adult suicide in the United States and Alabama. This includes the latest available information on the prevalence of suicide in the US and Alabama, demographic characteristics of suicide victims, trends in suicide, and known reasons behind adult suicide. With respect to adult suicide in Alabama, it focuses on…

  18. Rational suicide: philosophical perspectives on schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hewitt, Jeanette

    2010-02-01

    Suicide prevention is a National Health Service priority in the United Kingdom. People with mental illness are seen to represent one of the most vulnerable groups for suicide and recent British Government policy has focused on prevention and management of perceived risk. This approach to suicide prevention is constructed under a biomedical model of psychiatry, which maintains that suicidal persons suffer from some form of disease or irrational drive towards self-destruction. Many react to the idea of self-inflicted death with instinctive revulsion, which has prevented serious discussion of the concept of rational suicide, particularly in relation to those with schizophrenia. The idea that there may be circumstances in which suicide can be viewed as rational is discussed within the biomedical approach to ethics and wider literature primarily in relation to physical disease, terminal states and chronic pain. It is not deemed a viable choice for those who are considered 'non-autonomous' due to the controlling forces of mental illness. I propose that suicide is not a consequence of mental illness per se, and that it may be seen as a rational response to a realistic perspective on the course and consequences of living with schizophrenia. The denial of dialogue about the validity of suicidal ideation for people with schizophrenia has led to negative consequences for people with serious mental illness in terms of justice and recognition of person-hood.

  19. Appraisal of suicidal risk among adolescents and young adults through the Rorschach test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blasczyk-Schiep, Sybilla; Kazén, Miguel; Kuhl, Julius; Grygielski, Michał

    2011-01-01

    The aims of this study are to investigate suicidal behaviors among adolescents and young adults and to test an index composed using Rorschach test responses related to an increased risk of suicide. Using a cross-sectional design, 4 groups were studied (according to criteria of the Columbia Classification Algorithm of Suicide Assessment [Posner, Oquendo, Gould, Stanley, & Davies, 2007]): A group with suicidal ideation (n = 30), a group with parasuicidal behavior (n = 30), a group with near-lethal suicide attempts (n = 26), and a control group (n = 30). Responses to the Rorschach test yielded 6 potential indicators of suicidal behavior (scored according to Exner's Comprehensive System and the Suicidal Index for Adolescents; Silberg & Armstrong, 1992 ). Rorschach scores including at least 4 of these 6 indicators selected 69% of the people who had committed serious suicide attempts. The Rorschach Suicidal Index reached an acceptable reliability and was related to other criteria of suicide risk, such as the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI; Beck, Ward, Mendelsohn, Mock, & Erbaugh, 1961) and Linehan Reasons for Living Inventory (RFL-I; Linehan, Goodstein, Nielsen, & Chiles, 1983). Moreover, the Rorschach Suicidal Index showed incremental validity over the BDI and the RFL-I to predict suicidal behavior. A path analysis additionally showed that low social support was an important mediator between the Rorschach Suicidal Index and the number of suicide attempts committed by participants.

  20. Suicide attempts and suicides in Bolivia from 2007 to 2012: pesticides are the preferred method - females try but males commit suicide!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jørs, Erik; Christoffersen, Mette; Veirum, Nikoline Høgsgaard; Aquilar, Guido Condarco; Morant, Rafael Cervantes; Konradsen, Flemming

    2014-01-01

    Suicide attempts and suicides constitute a significant burden on communities and health systems, especially in low income countries. However, many low income countries lack epidemiological information on which to base future preventive strategies. This study reports on gender and age profiles as well as the likely background and means used for suicide attempts and suicides in Bolivia. This study presents 1124 cases from four different sources of information: (i) emergency ward data with suicide attempts by poisoning from the year 2007, (ii) psychiatric ward data including suicide attempts from July 2011 to July 2012, (iii) newspaper articles reporting attempted suicides and suicides from 2009 to 2011, and (iv) the National Statistics on Crime reporting suicides from the years 2010-2011. Data on age was stratified into three age groups: adolescents aged 10-19 years, young adults aged 20-29 years, and older adults aged above 29 years. Data from the hospital wards and Crime Statistics were pooled to compare characteristics of suicide attempts with suicides concerning age and gender. Data on age, gender, methods used, and reasons were analyzed using IBM SPSS version 21. Hospital data showed that more females (403/657, 61%) than males (254/657, 39%) attempted suicide, and females attempted suicide at a younger age than males (psuicide, and furthermore it was most prevalent among young adults aged 20-29 years of both genders, as observed from the Crime Statistics. The dominant method was pesticide poisoning varying from 400 out of 657 (70.5%) of the hospital poisoning cases to 65 out of 172 (37.8%) of the newspaper cases. Newspaper data showed a higher mortality rate (65/77, 85.1%) among those using violent methods such as hanging and jumping compared to non-violent methods (43/84, 50.9%) such as ingesting chemicals and drugs (psuicide seemed to be hidden due to cultural and religious reasons. More females attempted suicide, whereas more males realized suicide. Suicide

  1. Surviving relatives after suicide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørrelykke, Helle; Cohrt, Pernille

    2008-01-01

    We would like to focus on the surviving relatives after suicides, because it is generally accepted that it is especially difficult to recover after the loss from suicide and because we know as a fact that one suicide affects five persons on average. Every year approximately 700 people commit...... suicide in Denmark. This means that at least 400 people undergo the trauma it is when one of their near relatives commits suicide. We also know that the loss from suicide involves a lot of conflicting feelings - like anger, shame, guilt and loss and that the lack of therapy/treatment of these difficult...

  2. Understanding Homicide-Suicide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knoll, James L

    2016-12-01

    Homicide-suicide is the phenomenon in which an individual kills 1 or more people and commits suicide. Research on homicide-suicide has been hampered by a lack of an accepted classification scheme and reliance on media reports. Mass murder-suicide is gaining increasing attention particularly in the United States. This article reviews the research and literature on homicide-suicide, proposing a standard classification scheme. Preventive methods are discussed and sociocultural factors explored. For a more accurate and complete understanding of homicide-suicide, it is argued that future research should use the full psychological autopsy approach, to include collateral interviews. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Season of birth in suicides: excess of births during the summer among schizophrenic suicide victims.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karhumaa, Tuomo; Hakko, Helinä; Nauha, Rauno; Räsänen, Pirkko

    2013-01-01

    Season of birth is associated with several psychiatric disorders and suicidal behavior. We explored the association between the season of birth and suicide among schizophrenic and psychotic suicide victims. The study sample consisted of all suicides in the province of Oulu in Northern Finland from 1989 to 2010. Causes of death were extracted from death certificates, and psychiatric diagnoses associated with the hospital treatments were obtained from the Finnish Hospital Discharge Register. The seasons were defined as follows: winter (from November to January), spring (from February to April), summer (from May to July), and autumn (from August to October). Suicide victims (n = 1,902) were categorized as having either schizophrenia (n = 228) or psychosis other than schizophrenia (n = 240). Suicide victims without any hospital-treated mental disorder (n = 1,434) were used as a comparison group. The distribution of births among suicide victims with schizophrenia differed statistically significantly from that observed in the general population, with a peak in summer (OR 1.2, 95% CI 1.0-1.5). Birth during summer may predispose schizophrenic persons to suicide. The putative roles of serotonin, dopamine, and vitamin D status in the season of birth of psychotic suicide victims are discussed. © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  4. An analysis of adolescent suicide attempts: the expendable child.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woznica, J G; Shapiro, J R

    1990-12-01

    Assessed the concept of the "expendable child" syndrome proposed by Sabbath (1969) as a contributing factor in adolescent suicide attempts. It was hypothesized that suicidal adolescents would be rated higher on a measure of "expendability" than would a psychiatric control group of adolescents with no known history of suicide attempts or ideation. Forty adolescents, ages 13-24, who had been seen in psychotherapy at a teen-age health clinic, were rated by their psychotherapists on suicidality and a 12-item scale of expendability (a sense of being unwanted and/or a burden on the family). As predicted, suicidal adolescents received significantly higher ratings on the expendability measure than nonsuicidal adolescents. Results support the concept that feeling expendable is a characteristic of suicidal adolescents. Implications for prevention and treatment of adolescent suicidality are discussed.

  5. Suicide: current trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Rahn K; Patel, Tejas C; Avenido, Jaymie; Patel, Milapkumar; Jaleel, Mohammad; Barker, Narviar C; Khan, Jahanzeb Ali; Ali, Shahid; Jabeen, Shagufta

    2011-07-01

    Suicide is the act of a human being intentionally causing his or her own death. More than 1 million people commit suicide every year. It is the 13th leading cause of death worldwide, with China, India, and Japan accounting for almost half of all suicides. In less than 50 years, the rate of suicide among Sri Lankans has risen from a modest level to one of the highest in the world (118 per 100,000). Suicide is a major preventable cause of premature death. It is influenced by psychosocial, cultural, and environmental risk factors. The impact of suicide can be devastating for all concerned. It is common in people who are living with chronic mental illness. Individuals with severe clinical depression and alcohol use disorders are at highest risk if untreated. On an interpersonal level, friends and families of suicide victims require social support. On a national level, governments need to recognize the causes of suicide and protect those most vulnerable. If governments commit to defining national responses to prevent suicide, significant progress can be made. On a global scale, research and health organizations can identify global trends and encourage the sharing of information in effective prevention activities. In September 2010, World Suicide Prevention Day, with a theme of "Many faces, many places: suicide prevention across the world," encouraged public awareness worldwide to unite in commitment and action to promote understanding about suicide and removal of stigmatization'. There is compelling evidence that adequate prevention and awareness can reduce suicide rates.

  6. Risk and protective factors that distinguish adolescents who attempt suicide from those who only consider suicide in the past year.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taliaferro, Lindsay A; Muehlenkamp, Jennifer J

    2014-02-01

    Data from the 2010 Minnesota Student Survey was analyzed to identify risk and protective factors that distinguished adolescents across three groups: no suicidality, suicidal ideation only, and suicide attempt. The population-based sample included 70,022 students in grades 9 and 12. Hopelessness and depressive symptoms emerged as important risk factors to distinguish youth who reported suicidal ideation or behavior from those without a history of suicidality. However, these factors were not as important in differentiating adolescents who attempted suicidal from those who considered suicide but did not act on their thoughts. Instead, for both genders, self-injury represented the most important factor to distinguish these youth. Other risk factors that differentiated the latter groups, but not the former groups, for males were dating violence victimization and cigarette smoking, and for females was a same-sex sexual experience. Running away from home also seemed to increase the risk of a suicide attempt among youth in this study. Parent connectedness and academic achievement emerged as important protective factors to differentiate all the groups, yet neighborhood safety appeared to protect against the transition from suicidal thoughts to behavior. Findings from this study suggest risk and protective factors practitioners should target in clinical assessments and intervention programs to help prevent suicidal behavior among youth at greatest risk.

  7. Suicide, stress and serotonin receptor 1A promoter polymorphism -1019C>G in Slovenian suicide victims.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Videtic, Alja; Zupanc, Tomaz; Pregelj, Peter; Balazic, Joze; Tomori, Martina; Komel, Radovan

    2009-06-01

    Implication of serotonergic system in suicide and suicide attempts has been discussed for several years. One of the most abundant serotonin receptors in the mammalian brain is the receptor 1A (5-HT1A); studies of its polymorphisms and suicide have provided very inconsistent results so far. The suggestion that the G allele depresses HTR1A autoreceptor expression, and therefore reduces serotonergic neurotransmission that might predispose to depression and suicide, made the promoter polymorphism -1019C>G a very promising candidate gene. In our study we analyzed promoter polymorphism -1019C>G on 323 suicide victims and 190 controls (all of Slovenian origin), taking into account sex, suicide method, and in case of suicide victims also stressful life events. Differences in the distributions of genotype and allele frequencies were not statistically significant between suicide victims and control group, and the same was found for distributions according to sex and suicide method. For 62 suicide victims information about stressful life events in the month prior to the suicide and in childhood was provided. For analysis we combined CG/GG genotypes and compared them to the CC genotype. More stressful life events in the month prior to the suicide were reported for the subgroup with CC genotype (mean number of events = 2.53; SD = 1.50) in comparison to subgroup with CG/GG genotypes (mean number of events = 1.58; SD = 1.32; P suicide victims with CC or CG/GG genotypes did not differ regarding numbers of reported stressful life events in childhood (P > 0.05). Our study provides no evidence for the implication of HTR1A promoter polymorphism in suicide in general, but it suggests further studies that would take into account the interconnected network of suicide completion, genetic background and stress, beside other risk factors.

  8. Socio-demographic profile and suicidal intent of attempted suicide cases: A hospital based study in West Bengal, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subhadip Bharati

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Suicide is one of the ten major causes of death in India. Suicidal intent score has been found to be a good predictor of a subsequent completed suicide. The present study was conducted to find out the socio-demographic profile and the suicidal intent score of the cases of attempted suicide as well as to determine the association of suicidal intent score with various factors. Methodology: We conducted the present hospital based observational cross sectional study at a rural hospital of Eastern India. 156 admitted cases with history of self-poisoning were interviewed after obtaining the informed consent. Socio-demographic information and suicidal intent score were recorded and analyzed. Results: 55.1% patients were in the age group of below 20 years, 69.2% were females, 58.3% belonged to socioeconomic class V and 17.3% patients were illiterate. 43.6% were students and 28.8% housewives. 17.3% patients had history of suicidal attempts in the past and in 23.1 % cases stress factor was present in the family. Suicidal intent score was medium in 63.5% patients, 10.3% patients had low score and 26.2% had high score. Different factors like age of 20 years and above, male sex, married people, people having addiction habit, previous suicidal attempt, positive family history and stress factors in family increased the suicidal intent score whereas aged less than 20 years, female sex, unmarried people, people having no previous attempt of suicide, negative family history and absence of stress factor in the family decreased the suicidal intent score. Conclusion: The present study highlighted the influencing factors of suicidal intent score based on a hospital set up. A larger community based study with follow up of study subjects is required to get a detailed idea about the influencing factors of suicidal intent score. [Natl J Med Res 2013; 3(2.000: 122-125

  9. Cognitive Inhibition in Elderly High-Lethality Suicide Attempters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard-Devantoy, Stéphane; Szanto, Katalin; Butters, Meryl A.; Kalkus, Jan; Dombrovski, Alexandre Y.

    2014-01-01

    Background People who attempt suicide often display cognitive impairments, particularly poor cognitive control. Could poor cognitive control contribute to high suicide rates in old age? A component of cognitive control, cognitive inhibition – active suppression of task-irrelevant processing – is very sensitive to aging and has been linked to attempted suicide. We investigated cognitive inhibition in older high-lethality suicide attempters, closely resembling suicide victims, as well as low-lethality attempters, and control groups with and without depression and suicidal ideation. Methods 102 participants aged 60+ (17 psychiatrically healthy control subjects, 38 depressed control subjects, 16 suicide ideators, 14 low-lethality suicide attempters, and 17 high-lethality suicide attempters) underwent comprehensive clinical and cognitive assessments. They completed the Delis–Kaplan Executive Function System Color-Word Interference Test, a validated modification of the Stroop test. Results High-lethality suicide attempters demonstrated a distinct pattern of cognitive inhibition deficits. Compared to psychiatrically healthy control subjects and suicide ideators, high-lethality attempters took longer to complete inhibition trials, even after accounting for potential confounding factors (age, education, MMSE score, information processing speed, and accuracy). Compared to non-suicidal depressed and healthy control subjects, low-lethality suicide attempters committed more uncorrected errors; however, this difference was not specific to the inhibition condition. Conclusions Older suicide attempters are a cognitively heterogeneous group. Poor cognitive control in high-lethality attempters may undermine their ability to solve real-life problems, precipitating a catastrophic accumulation of stressors. Meanwhile, low-lethality attempters' poor performance may reflect a careless approach to the task or faulty monitoring. PMID:24816626

  10. Teen Suicide and Guns

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Issues Listen Text Size Email Print Share Teen Suicide and Guns Page Content Article Body Protect Your ... of a passing problem, not the outcome! Teen Suicide—A Big Problem Suicide is one of the ...

  11. Schizophrenia and Suicide

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    Ozlem Cetin

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Suicide is one of the major causes of premature death among patients with schizophrenia. Follow-up studies have estimated that 4-5% of these patients die by suicide. Reducing the high rates of suicide in schizophrenia is possible with understanding of predictive risk factors. Various studies have identified risk factors for suicide in schizophrenia patients. Clinical risk factors include previous suicide attempts, comorbid depression, feelings of hopelessness, concept of insight and substance abuse. Biopsychosocial factors, such as a high intelligence quotient and high level of premorbid functioning, have also been associated with an increased risk of suicide in patients with schizophrenia. The risk of suicide is considered to be highest in the early course of illness. Antipsychotic drugs, in particular clozapine and antidepressants may be helpful in reducing the risk of suicide in schizophrenia.

  12. Research to reduce the suicide rate among older adults: methodology roadblocks and promising paradigms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szanto, Katalin; Lenze, Eric J; Waern, Margda; Duberstein, Paul; Bruce, Martha L; Epstein-Lubow, Gary; Conwell, Yeates

    2013-06-01

    The National Institute of Mental Health and the National Action Alliance for Suicide Prevention have requested input into the development of a national suicide research agenda. In response, a working group of the American Association for Geriatric Psychiatry has prepared recommendations to ensure that the suicide prevention dialogue includes older adults, a large and fast-growing population at high risk of suicide. In this Open Forum, the working group describes three methodology roadblocks to research into suicide prevention among elderly persons and three paradigms that might provide directions for future research into suicide prevention strategies for older adults.

  13. Suicide in Sorocaba-SP: an epidemiological study

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    Melissa Nobrega Vasques de Freitas

    2013-09-01

    Introduction: suicide is a major worldwide public health issue and appears as one of the ten most frequent causes of death in all ages. Objective: to perform an epidemiological analysis of suicide rates recorded between 2000 and 2009 in the city of Sorocaba-SP and compare them to national epidemiological data. Methods: We performed a descriptive analysis of suicide data in Sorocaba-SP in the period 2000 to 2009 collected by the Surveillance of Violence and Injuries (VIVA and the Municipal Health Secretariat of Sorocaba-SP. Results: a total of 229 suicide cases were recorded between 2000 and 2009. Total suicide rate suffered an increase of 3.8% in 2005, as compared to previous years, and remained constant in subsequent years. The highest average rates were recorded in 2005 and 2007. Men are more likely to commit suicide. The highest rates of suicide were recorded in the age group 35-44 years. Being single was the most common sociodemographic characteristic of suicides during the study period. The most common methods of suicide were hanging and firearms. Conclusion: The rate of suicide in Sorocaba-SP, despite low, is consistent with the national and international growth trends. Members of the younger population are killing themselves with increasing frequency, although the highest rates of suicide are still found among those aged 35 - 44 years

  14. Risk Factors and Mediators of Suicidal Ideation Among Korean Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yi Jin; Moon, Sung Seek; Lee, Jang Hyun; Kim, Joon Kyung

    2016-11-21

    A significant number of Korean adolescents have suicidal ideations and it is more prevalent among adolescents than any other age group in Korea. This study was conducted to attain a better understanding of the contributing factors to suicidal ideation among Korean adolescents. We recruited 569 high school students in Grades 10 and 11 in Pyeongtaek, Korea. The Beck Scale for Suicidal Ideation was used to measure suicidal ideation as the outcome variable. The Interpersonal Needs Questionnaire, the Beck Hopelessness Scale, the School Related Stress Scale, the Olweus Bully/Victim Questionnaire, and the Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance questions were used to measure thwarted belongingness and perceived burdensomeness, hopelessness, school-related stress, bullying, and previous suicidal behaviors, respectively. Data analyses included descriptive statistics and structural equation modeling. The findings suggest that perceived burdensomeness, hopelessness, school-related stress, and previous suicidal behaviors have significant direct effects on suicidal ideation. Hopelessness fully mediated the relation between thwarted belongingness and suicidal ideation, and partially mediated between perceived burdensomeness, school-related stress, and suicidal ideation. These findings provide more specific directions for a multidimensional suicide prevention program in order to be successful in reducing suicide rates among Korean adolescents.

  15. Train suicide in the county of Fyn 1979-82

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindekilde, K; Wang, A G

    1985-01-01

    The phenomenon of suicide by train in the county of Fyn is examined for the period 1979-82. The reference population comprised all suicides in the county, minus suicide by train, for the period 1979-82, totalling 505 events. The data is based on the death certificates and the relevant psychiatric...... journals in the region for the period under study. Sixteen suicides by train took place in the investigation period and these differed significantly from the reference population on the following points: distribution by age: 44% of the suicide by train population belong to the age group 15-29 years......, whereas in the reference population only 11% were found in this age group; psychiatric or non-psychiatric patient: in the group of train suicides 81% were classifiable as psychiatric patients (inpatient, outpatient, former inpatient), in the reference population 38% were thus classifiable. Of the 13...

  16. Are sedatives and hypnotics associated with increased suicide risk of suicide in the elderly?

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    Waern Margda

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background While antidepressant-induced suicidality is a concern in younger age groups, there is mounting evidence that these drugs may reduce suicidality in the elderly. Regarding a possible association between other types of psychoactive drugs and suicide, results are inconclusive. Sedatives and hypnotics are widely prescribed to elderly persons with symptoms of depression, anxiety, and sleep disturbance. The aim of this case-control study was to determine whether specific types of psychoactive drugs were associated with suicide risk in late life, after controlling for appropriate indications. Methods The study area included the city of Gothenburg and two adjacent counties (total 65+ population 210 703 at the start of the study. A case controlled study of elderly (65+ suicides was performed and close informants for 85 suicide cases (46 men, 39 women mean age 75 years were interviewed by a psychiatrist. A population based comparison group (n = 153 was created and interviewed face-to-face. Primary care and psychiatric records were reviewed for both suicide cases and comparison subjects. All available information was used to determine past-month mental disorders in accordance with DSM-IV. Results Antidepressants, antipsychotics, sedatives and hypnotics were associated with increased suicide risk in the crude analysis. After adjustment for affective and anxiety disorders neither antidepressants in general nor SSRIs showed an association with suicide. Antipsychotics had no association with suicide after adjustment for psychotic disorders. Sedative treatment was associated with an almost fourteen-fold increase of suicide risk in the crude analyses and remained an independent risk factor for suicide even after adjustment for any DSM-IV disorder. Having a current prescription for a hypnotic was associated with a four-fold increase in suicide risk in the adjusted model. Conclusion Sedatives and hypnotics were both associated with increased

  17. A perspective in epidemiology of suicide in Japan

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    Yamamura Takehiko

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. According to the information about deaths from any causes, provided by the vital statistics based on the WHO Member Countries mortality and morbidity, suicide rate in Japan has been ranking high among the causes of death. The number of suicides goes on increasing every year in Japan. In fact, suicide rates per 100 000 population have already reached the sixth place among the leading causes of death. The aim of this study was to perform epidemiological surveys of suicide rates, obtained from the official vital statistics provided by the WHO on mortality and morbidity during several past decades in Japan. Methods. Completed suicide data were collected via the vital statistics by the Health, Labor and Welfare Ministry (MHLW, Japan and the attempted suicide data were extracted from the Annual Report of the Ambulance and Rescue Activities by the Fire Prevention and Control Office (FPCO in Kobe City. The data were examined on the basis of social factors including economic trends, gender differences, modus operandi of suicide, age group, and physical and mental disorders in suicidal behavior and compared to international data. Results. Male suicide rates have gradually increased with the four temporal steep risings during the 20th century, while those of females have generally reached the stabilization with no fluctuations. Suicides are not always under the influence of economic trends in Japan. Suicide rate was the highest in the Akita and Iwate prefectures, known for the low population density. Suicide rate increases with aging, reaching a peak in the age of 80 and over. The trends of completed suicide rates are elevating by males about twice the suicide rate of females which keeps on stable. On the other hand, female attempted suicide rates greatly increase from two to five times more than those in males which are generally close to the constant. The majority of suicides are caused by their physical and/or mental disorders including

  18. Meta-analysis of the association between suicidal ideation and later suicide among patients with either a schizophrenia spectrum psychosis or a mood disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, C L; Mullin, K; Ryan, C J; Kuffel, A; Nielssen, O; Large, M M

    2015-03-01

    Recent studies of patients with a mix of psychiatric diagnoses have suggested a modest or weak association between suicidal ideation and later suicide. The aim of this study was to examine the extent to which the association between expressed suicidal ideation and later suicide varies according to psychiatric diagnosis. A systematic meta-analysis of studies that report the association between suicidal ideation and later suicide in patients with 'mood disorders', defined to include major depression, dysthymia and bipolar disorder, or 'schizophrenia spectrum psychosis', defined to include schizophrenia, schizophreniform disorder and delusional disorder. Suicidal ideation was strongly associated with suicide among patients with schizophrenia spectrum psychosis [14 studies reporting on 567 suicides, OR = 6.49, 95% confidence interval (CI) 3.82-11.02]. The association between suicidal ideation and suicide among patients with mood disorders (11 studies reporting on 860 suicides, OR = 1.49, 95% CI 0.92-2.42) was not significant. Diagnostic group made a significant contribution to between-study heterogeneity (Q-value = 16.2, df = 1, P disorders over periods of follow-up of schizophrenia spectrum psychosis than in mood disorders this result should be interpreted cautiously due to the high degree of between-study heterogeneity and because studies that used stronger methods of reporting had a weaker association between suicidal ideation and suicide. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. IDEACIÓN SUICIDA Y FACTORES ASOCIADOS EN UN GRUPO DE POLICÍAS DE PEREIRA-COLOMBIA. SUICIDAL IDEATION AND ASSOCIATED FACTORS IN A GROUP OF POLICEMEN FROM PEREIRA, COLOMBIA.

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    Adalberto Rodríguez Escobar.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de la presente investigación fue identificar la ideación suicida en un grupo de policías de Pereira. Para ello se realizó una investigación cuantitativa con análisis transversal; se aplicó el cuestionario ISO 30, y una encuesta de caracterización en ciento treinta y siete policías. El 2,9% presentó ideación alta. Los mayores porcentajes de ideación alta se presentaron entre los que vivían solos -11,1% y los que tenían intento previo de suicidio 25,0%, aunque solo en los primeros se encontró una asociación estadísticamente significativa (p= 0,048 y rp 12,2. A pesar de encontrarse niveles de ideación inferiores a los hallados en población general, se recomienda que la institución fortalezca sus programas de intervención y acompañamiento. Abstract The objective of this research was to identify the suicidal ideation in a group of policemen from Pereira. That is why it was conducted a cross-sectional analysis quantitative research; the ISO 30 questionnaire was given, and a survey of characterization in one hundred and thirtyseven policemen were given. Those who presented high ideation corresponded to 2.9%. The highest percentages of high ideation arose among those who lived alone, corresponded to 11.1% and those who had previous suicide attempt, corresponded to 25.0% suicide attempt, although a statistically significant association was found only in the former (p= 0,048 and rp 12.2. Despite having found ideation levels lower than those in the general population, it is recommended that the institution strengthened its intervention and support programs.

  20. Suicide Clusters and Contagion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zenere, Frank J.

    2009-01-01

    Youth suicide is one of the most serious preventable health problems in the United States. It is the third leading cause of death among adolescents. According to a recent national survey of students in grades 9-12, nearly 15% of respondents had seriously considered suicide and 7% actually had attempted suicide in the previous 12 months. Moreover,…

  1. African American Suicide

    Science.gov (United States)

    African American Suicide Fact Sheet Based on 2012 Data (2014) Overview • In 2012, 2,357 African Americans completed suicide in the U.S. Of these, 1,908 (80. ... rate of 9.23 per 100,000). The suicide rate for females was 1.99 per 100, ...

  2. Suicide and Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Essie E.

    1978-01-01

    Suicide among young people is increasing at phenomenal rates. This article examines the problem of adolescent suicide and suicide attempts in relation to cultural factors, sex differences, and probable causes. The importance of parents, teachers, and counselors in becoming alert to conflict and stress situations in youths is delineated. (Author)

  3. College Student Suicide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taub, Deborah J.; Thompson, Jalonda

    2013-01-01

    Suicide is the second-leading cause of death among college students, and it is estimated that 1,088 college students die by suicide each year (National Mental Health Association and the Jed Foundation, 2002). This chapter presents the context of college student mental health within which the problem of college student suicide is situated. Because…

  4. Suicide in Northwest Alaska.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Travis, Robert

    1983-01-01

    Between 1975 and 1979 the Alaskan Native suicide rate (90.9 per 100,000) in Northwest Alaska was more than seven times the national average. Alienation, loss of family, low income, alcohol abuse, high unemployment, and more education were factors related to suicidal behavior. Average age for suicidal behavior was 22.5. (Author/MH)

  5. College Student Suicide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taub, Deborah J.; Thompson, Jalonda

    2013-01-01

    Suicide is the second-leading cause of death among college students, and it is estimated that 1,088 college students die by suicide each year (National Mental Health Association and the Jed Foundation, 2002). This chapter presents the context of college student mental health within which the problem of college student suicide is situated. Because…

  6. [Mental Health and Prevention of Suicide in Japanese Workplaces Based on a Pilot Study of Job Stress and Suicide Ideation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakagami, Yu

    2016-01-01

    The Japanese suicide rate is still high compared with other countries. Worker suicide especially leads to marked social and economic losses and severely affects the bereaved. There is an urgent need to devise a system to prevent suicide at a very early stage. Generally, it is considered very difficult to intervene and prevent suicide in cases in which individuals kill themselves suddenly. However, according to some studies on suicide attempts, even those who killed themselves suddenly had experienced some kind of conflict or a desire to die for a long period. Therefore, it is essential to analyze the risk factors at an early stage when individuals have vague thoughts of suicide. This will help reduce the risk of suicide in such cases. In this article, I first survey the data related to workers' mental health in Japan. Second, I introduce the results of our pilot study in which we investigated mental health issues related to suicide among workers who have taken leave from work for more than two months. In this study, workers who do not exhibit help-seeking behavior are suggested to be a high-risk group for suicide. It is speculated that this behavior is related to several factors such as the sex, age, social status, education, personal stigma, and perceived stigma. Therefore, we must focus on both clinical and social solutions for the prevention of suicide. I believe that psychiatrists will come to play a more important role as liaisons between workplaces and social resources for the prevention of suicide.

  7. Adolescent suicide in New York City: plenty of room for new research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganz, Debora; Sher, Leo

    2012-01-01

    The act of adolescent suicide continues to threaten adolescent populations in New York City (NYC). Consistent positive correlations have been found between a plethora of risk factors present in NYC adolescent populations and suicidal ideations and behaviors. Psychiatric conditions that may contribute to the rate of adolescent suicide in NYC include depression, bipolar disorder, substance abuse and schizophrenia. Unique factors that have been found to contribute to increased rates of completed suicides in NYC include the phenomena of railway suicides and suicide tourism. Homelessness and income inequality in NYC have also been consistently correlated with increased suicidality; with one study finding suicide attempts reported by a significant percentage of new admissions to homeless shelters. Adolescent populations in NYC that have been identified as particularly vulnerable to suicidality include runaway youth, homosexual youth, victimized adolescents and adolescents with a recent history of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Longitudinal studies in NYC have found that physical and sexual abuse is highly predictive of adolescent suicidality, with variations by ethnic group. Currently, there is a disturbing lack of sufficient research on adolescent suicide in NYC, specifically regarding causal factors, the effects of television on suicide, comorbid suicidality and drug abuse, and cultural factors contributing to suicide. This dearth of literature may be related to the ethical problems inherent in suicide research, self reports and/or post mortem analyses.

  8. Treatment of suicide attempters with bipolar disorder: a randomized clinical trial comparing lithium and valproate in the prevention of suicidal behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oquendo, Maria A; Galfalvy, Hanga C; Currier, Dianne; Grunebaum, Michael F; Sher, Leo; Sullivan, Gregory M; Burke, Ainsley K; Harkavy-Friedman, Jill; Sublette, M Elizabeth; Parsey, Ramin V; Mann, J John

    2011-10-01

    Bipolar disorder is associated with high risk for suicidal acts. Observational studies suggest a protective effect of lithium against suicidal behavior. However, testing this effect in randomized clinical trials is logistically and ethically challenging. The authors tested the hypothesis that lithium offers bipolar patients with a history of suicide attempt greater protection against suicidal behavior compared to valproate. Patients with bipolar disorder and past suicide attempts (N=98) were randomly assigned to treatment with lithium or valproate, plus adjunctive medications as indicated, in a double-blind 2.5-year trial. An intent-to-treat analysis was performed using the log-rank test for survival data. Two models were fitted: time to suicide attempt and time to suicide event (attempt or hospitalization or change in medication in response to suicide plans). There were 45 suicide events in 35 participants, including 18 suicide attempts made by 14 participants, six from the lithium group and eight from the valproate group. There were no suicides. Intent-to-treat analysis using the log-rank test showed no differences between treatment groups in time to suicide attempt or to suicide event. Post hoc power calculations revealed that the modest sample size, reflective of challenges in recruitment, only permits detection of a relative risk of 5 or greater. Despite the high frequency of suicide events during the study, this randomized controlled trial detected no difference between lithium and valproate in time to suicide attempt or suicide event in a sample of suicide attempters with bipolar disorder. However, smaller clinically significant differences between the two drugs were not ruled out.

  9. Natural disasters and suicide: evidence from Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsubayashi, Tetsuya; Sawada, Yasuyuki; Ueda, Michiko

    2013-04-01

    Previous research shows no consensus as to whether and how natural disasters affect suicide rates in their aftermath. Using prefecture-level panel data of natural disasters and suicide in Japan between 1982 and 2010, we estimate both contemporaneous and lagged effects of natural disasters on the suicide rates of various demographic groups. We find that when the damage caused by natural disasters is extremely large, as in the case of the Great Hanshin-Awaji Earthquake in 1995, suicide rates tend to increase in the immediate aftermath of the disaster and several years later. However, when the damage by natural disasters is less severe, suicide rates tend to decrease after the disasters, especially one or two years later. Thus, natural disasters affect the suicide rates of affected populations in a complicated way, depending on the severity of damages as well as on how many years have passed since the disaster. We also find that the effects of natural disasters on suicide rates vary considerably across demographic groups, which suggests that some population subgroups are more vulnerable to the impact of natural disasters than others. We then test the possibility that natural disasters enhance people's willingness to help others in society, an effect that may work as a protective factor against disaster victims' suicidal risks. We find that natural disasters increase the level of social ties in affected communities, which may mitigate some of the adverse consequence of natural disasters, resulting in a decline in suicide rates. Our findings also indicate that when natural disasters are highly destructive and disruptive, such protective features of social connectedness are unlikely to be enough to compensate for the severe negative impact of disasters on health outcomes.

  10. Suicide and suicidal behavior among transgender persons

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    H G Virupaksha

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Suicide rate and suicidal tendencies among transgender persons are considerably high compared to general population. Hence, this review is an attempt to understand the issues around the suicide and suicidal behavior among transgender persons. Methodology: The literature search conducted using three sources, i.e., electronic databases (PubMed, ProQuest, Google Scholar, PsycInfo, manual search (library catalog, and gray literature (consultation with experts. Results: The suicide attempt rate among transgender persons ranges from 32% to 50% across the countries. Gender-based victimization, discrimination, bullying, violence, being rejected by the family, friends, and community; harassment by intimate partner, family members, police and public; discrimination and ill treatment at health-care system are the major risk factors that influence the suicidal behavior among transgender persons. Conclusion: In spite of facing a number of hardships in their day-to-day life, the transgender community holds a number of resiliency factors. Further, this community needs to be supported to strengthen their resiliency factors and draw culturally sensitive and transgender-inclusive suicide prevention strategies and increase protective factors to tackle this high rate of suicidality.

  11. CHOLESTEROL LEVELS AND SUICIDAL BEHAVIOR: A CASE CONTROL STUDY

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    Nikhil

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In modern psychiatry, there is a movement to understand mental health, not solely based on behaviors and subjective report, but also based on objective markers of illness. Several studies have focused on a relationship between serum cholesterol levels and aggressive behaviors including suicide. AIM: To identify a potential link between cholesterol and suicidal behavior. MATERIAL AND METHODS: 150 patients with psychiatry diagnosis were divided into three equal groups (50 each: those who had a recent suicidal attempt, those who had suicidal ideations but no attempts and those with psychiatry diagnosis but no suicidal ideations and attempts. Blood sample for total cholesterol level was on IPD or OPD basis. The study was started after taking approval from institute ethical committee. Analysis was done using Chi square test. OBSERVATIONS AND RESULTS: It was found that maximum patients who attempted suicide belonged to major depression and schizophrenia followed by substance dependence and bipolar affective disorder (BPAD with major depression and there was statistical difference in cholesterol levels of patients with suicide attempt, with suicidal ideations and control group. 42% and 44% of major depression and schizophrenia cases respectively had low total serum cholesterol levels (below 160 mg%. CONCLUSION: There is a potential link between serum total cholesterol levels and suicidal behavior. Taking the literature as a whole there is substantial evidence that low cholesterol levels are found in suicidal behaviors of various psychiatric illnesses especially major depressive disorder, schizophrenia, substance dependence and bipolar depressive disorder

  12. Trends of attempted suicide in Albanian children and adolescents

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    Kola, Vuksan

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Background. Attempted suicides and suicides are becoming pertinent social phenomena in Albania, with increasing trend in the last years, exceeding the road traffic accident numbers. Our objective was to examine suicide attempts trends among Albanian children and adolescents. Methods. We conducted a retrospective analysis of standardized suicide attempts rates in Statistic Department at University Hospital Center “Mother Theresa”; epidemiology data for the period spanning from 2006 to 2012. We analyzed the data by age, sex and by suicide attempts method over time for two age groups: 10–14 year old (children and 15–19 year old (adolescents. Results. We found an average annual increase of the suicide attempts rate for children and adolescents (p<0.001, but stratification by age and sex showed significant variation. By comparing the two age groups it came out that the suicidal phenomena is more present at adolescence age (p<0.001. According to the statistic data and by analyzing the cases on yearly bases it resulted that female gender is more attempt to commit suicide that male gender, with a significant statistical variation of (p<0.001. From the study it was noted that the suicidal attempt methods, in the most of cases, were drug overdose (97.6% and 2.4% hang themselves (suffocation or cut their vein. Conclusions. The increasing cases of suicidal tendency among children and adolescents necessitate further studies to identify the causes and risk factors, and to develop suitable preventive programs .

  13. Spatiotemporal study of elderly suicide in Korea by age cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joo, Y

    2017-01-01

    This study analyzed the spatiotemporal pattern and spatial diffusion of elderly suicide by age cohort, in Korea. The research investigated the elderly suicide rates of the 232 municipal units in South Korea between 2001 and 2011. The Gi* score, which is a spatially weighted indicator of area attributes, was used to identify hot spots and the spatiotemporal pattern of elderly suicide in the nation during the last 10 years. The spatial Markov matrix and spatial dynamic panel data model were employed to identify and estimate the diffusion effect. The suicide rate among elderly individuals 75 years and older was substantially higher than the rate for those between 65 and 74 years of age; however, the spatial patterns of the suicide clusters were similar between the two groups. From 2001 to 2011, the spatial distribution of elderly suicide hot spots differed each year. For both age cohorts, elderly suicide hot spots developed around the north area of South Korea in 2001 and moved to the mid-east area and the mid-western coastal area over 10 years. The spatial Markov matrix indicates that the change in the suicide rate of one area was affected by the suicide rates of neighbouring areas from the previous year, which suggests that suicide increase in one area inflates a neighbouring area's suicide rate over time. Using a spatial dynamic panel data model, elderly suicide diffusion effects were found to be statistically significant for both age cohorts even after economic and demographic indicators and a time variable are included. For individuals 75 years and older, the diffusion effect appeared to be larger. This study demonstrates that elderly suicide can spread spatially over time in both age cohorts. Thus, it is necessary to design a place-based and age-differentiated intervention policy that precisely considers the spatial diffusion of elderly suicide. Copyright © 2016 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Suicide voices: testimonies of trauma in the French workplace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waters, Sarah

    2017-03-01

    Workplace suicide has become an urgent social concern internationally with rising numbers of employees choosing to kill themselves in the face of extreme pressures at work. Yet, research on this phenomenon is hampered by fragmentary statistical data and the sheer contentiousness of this issue. This paper presents the preliminary findings of a research project on workplace suicides in France, where there has been a 'suicide epidemic' across a wide range of companies. I draw on an analysis of suicide letters linked to 23 suicide cases across three French companies during the period 2005-2015. My methodological approach is informed by the work of suicide sociologist, Jack D Douglas, who emphasised the importance of narrative, testimony and voice to our understanding of the causes of suicide. Douglas argued that an analysis of the 'social meanings' of suicide should start with a consideration of the motivations attributed to self-killing by suicidal individuals themselves and those close to them. Why does work or conditions of work push some individuals to take their own lives? What can the 'suicide voices' articulated in recent testimonies tell us about the causes of workplace suicide? In this paper, I treat suicide letters as a unique mode of testimony that can reveal some of the profound effects of workplace transformations on subjective, intimate and lived experiences of work. By examining French suicide testimonies, my aim is to deepen our understanding of the nature and causes of suicide in today's globalised workplaces. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  15. STUDY OF FACTORS AFFECTING SUICIDE ATTEMPTS IN PERSONS WITH SCHIZOPHRENIA

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    Ottilingam Somasundaram Ravindran

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Schizophrenia has been called a ‘Life-shortening disease’, because many sufferers die early than general population and suicide accounts for a significant proportion of those dying prematurely. Suicide attempts in schizophrenia has been an intriguing area of research work for mental health professionals. Indian research on suicide attempts in schizophrenia have been few. OBJECTIVES The objectives were to study the suicidal behaviour in schizophrenia, to compare and study the positive and negative symptoms, depressive symptoms, hopelessness and suicide intent in schizophrenic population with suicide attempt compared to nonattempters, along with socio-demographic parameters. METHODS A sample of 60 consecutive patients attending OPD of a Private tertiary care Hospital in Chennai were selected. Those who had a diagnosis of schizophrenia were screened for the presence of past suicide attempts. They were divided into two groups as suicide attempters and non-attempters, and analysed using the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS, Calgary Depression Scale for Schizophrenia (CDSS, Beck’s hopelessness scale (BHS, and Suicide intent scale (SIS. RESULTS Among the disorders schizophrenia is rated the second most common reason for suicide attempts (53.3%, especially when associated with positive symptoms, depressive features and significant hopelessness. Demographic parameters like age, sex, educational status, occupation, economic status, and marital status were not found to be significant factors linked to the suicide attempts, however family history of suicide had a significant association in schizophrenic suicide attempts. Suicidal intent severity was medium to high among most of the attempters; poisoning was the commonest method; and were found to be due to positive symptoms and depressive symptoms in the schizophrenic illness course.

  16. Suicide and Suicide Prevention: Greek versus Biblical Perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, Kalman J.

    1992-01-01

    Compares suicide in Greek tragedy and Hebrew Bible, concentrating on life situations portrayed in two sets of narratives promoting or preventing suicide. Notes frequency of suicides in Greek tragedy and infrequency of suicides in Bible. Compares stories of Narcissus and Jonah in attempt to pinpoint what is suicide-promoting in Greek narratives and…

  17. Suicide and perfectionism: a psychological autopsy study of non-clinical suicides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiamanesh, Parvin; Dyregrov, Kari; Haavind, Hanne; Dieserud, Gudrun

    2014-01-01

    This study explores suicide in relation to perfectionism among individuals who died by suicide with no history of treatment in mental health care or of suicide attempts. The study is part of an ongoing psychological autopsy study (PA-study). It aimed to produce a phenomenological understanding of the dynamics/processes from perfectionism to suicide among 6 men aged 22 to 58. Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis (IPA) was used to analyze the interview data of 41 key informants. Based on the informants' narratives, it seemed that perfectionism left these men less able to cope with their (self-perceived) inability to meet their high expectations. Four themes emerged from analysis: 1) striving for success; 2) fear of failure; 3) keeping up the façade; and 4) rigidity. The results may be important in the prevention of nonclinical suicides, a group that is particularly difficult to identify, especially if the deceased have been regarded as very successful in many areas.

  18. A comparison of complex sleep behaviors with two short-acting Z-hypnosedative drugs in nonpsychotic patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen LF

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Li-Fen Chen,1 Ching-En Lin,1–3 Yu-Ching Chou,4 Wei-Chung Mao,1,5 Yi-Chyan Chen,1–3 Nian-Sheng Tzeng1,6 1Department of Psychiatry, Tri-Service General Hospital, School of Medicine, National Defense Medical Center, Taipei City, Taiwan; 2Taipei Tzu Chi Hospital, The Buddhist Medical Foundation, Taipei, Taiwan; 3School of Medicine, Tzu Chi University, Hualien, Taiwan; 4School of Public Health, National Defense Medical Center, Taipei City, Taiwan; 5Institute of Brain Science, School of Medicine, National Yang-Ming University, Taipei City, Taiwan; 6Student Counseling Center, National Defense Medical Center, Taipei City, Taiwan Objective: Complex sleep behaviors (CSBs are classified as “parasomnias” in the International Classification of Sleep Disorders, Second Edition (ICSD-2. To realize the potential danger after taking two short-acting Z-hypnosedative drugs, we estimated the incidence of CSBs in nonpsychotic patients in Taiwan. Methods: Subjects (N = 1,220 using zolpidem or zopiclone were enrolled from the psychiatric outpatient clinics of a medical center in Taiwan over a 16-month period in 2006–2007. Subjects with zolpidem (N = 1,132 and subjects with zopiclone (N = 88 were analyzed. All subjects completed a questionnaire that included demographic data and complex sleep behaviors after taking hypnotics. Results: Among zolpidem and zopiclone users, 3.28% of patients reported incidents of somnambulism or amnesic sleep-related behavior problems. The incidence of CSBs with zolpidem and zopiclone were 3.27%, and 3.41%, respectively, which was significantly lower than other studies in Taiwan. Conclusion: These results serve as a reminder for clinicians to make inquiries regarding any unusual performance of parasomnic activities when prescribing zolpidem or zopiclone. Keywords: parasomnia, somnambulism, amnesic sleep-related behavior, sleepwalking, zolpidem, zopiclone

  19. A suicide education programme for nurses to educate the family caregivers of suicidal individuals: a longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Fan-Ko; Chiang, Chun-Ying; Yu, Pei-Jane; Lin, Ching-Hsing

    2013-10-01

    Family members lack the ability to care for suicidal relatives. Nurses have a responsibility to improve family members' ability to care for their suicidal relatives. The aims of this study were to design a suicide education programme for nurses to educate family caregivers and to evaluate the longitudinal (12 months after the educational programme) effects of a suicide care education programme on the ability of families to care for suicidal relatives. A randomised controlled trial was conducted. The study population (n=61) was composed of the family caregivers of suicidal individuals. Several caregivers (n=26) were randomly allocated to an experimental group who attended a two-hour suicide care education programme, and the other caregivers (n=35) represented a control group who did not attend the education programme. All of the participants were given a questionnaire at baseline, 3 months, and 12 months during the period from 2009 to 2011. The results of the longitudinal effects of the suicide care education programme demonstrated that there were statistically significant differences after the educational programme as compared to before the programme with regard to "seeking assistance from resources" and the ability to care for those who were once suicidal. The longitudinal results of both groups showed that there was a significant difference in terms of "caring ability" at 12 months. The results of a multiple linear regression analysis indicated that evaluations performed at the three-month time point were able to effectively predict success in "seeking assistance from resources", "caring ability"; caring ability was also significantly improved among those who engaged in the educational programme at the 12-month time point. The suicide care education programme had long-term effects for family caregivers caring for their suicidal relatives. Nurses could employ this suicide care education programme to improve the ability of family caregivers to care for their

  20. Violent sex and suicide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danto, B M

    1978-01-01

    Early literature on sexual disorders and suicidiology are reviewed in this paper in the light of relationships between sexual problems, especially violent sexual ones, and suicide. The relationship between guilt feelings and suicide is viewed from the standpoint of current observations about sexually violent behavior and suicide. It was postulated that sexual perversions constitute a defensive means of coping with internal stress. Suicide is viewed as serving the same aim. Specific violent sexual behaviors such as sexual asphyxia and rape are discussed in terms of suicide. Transsexuality and transvestism are treated similarly. It is concluded that sexual violence and preversion in general are forms of self-destruction in themselves.

  1. Features of common representations of suiciders in young people

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    I. B. Bovina

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available We discuss the first phase results of a research project dedicated to study of suicide representations in youth. In the framework of structural approach to social representations, we study features of structure and content of social representations of suiciders in two groups of young people (the criterion for group allocation was their acquaintance with people who has suicide attempts. Our sample (N = 106 consisted of representatives of several youth groups (students and working youths with specialized secondary, higher or incomplete higher education, aged 18 to 35 years (M = 23,48 years, SD = 4,36 years: 67 women and 39 men. The 1st group includes respondents personally acquainted with suicide attempters (44 respondents, the 2nd group – respondents without such experience. The subject of research were common representations of suiciders. We tested assumptions about the specificity of protective functions of social representations, as well as consistency of representations in the two groups of respondents.

  2. Characterization of Suicidal Behaviour with Self-Organizing Maps

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    José M. Leiva-Murillo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The study of the variables involved in suicidal behavior is important from a social, medical, and economical point of view. Given the high number of potential variables of interest, a large population of subjects must be analysed in order to get conclusive results. In this paper, we describe a method based on self-organizing maps (SOMs for finding the most relevant variables even when their relation to suicidal behavior is strongly nonlinear. We have applied the method to a cohort with more than 8,000 subjects and 600 variables and discovered four groups of variables involved in suicidal behavior. According to the results, there are four main groups of risk factors that characterize the population of suicide attempters: mental disorders, alcoholism, impulsivity, and childhood abuse. The identification of specific subpopulations of suicide attempters is consistent with current medical knowledge and may provide a new avenue of research to improve the management of suicidal cases.

  3. Trajectories of Suicidal Ideation in People Seeking Web-Based Help for Suicidality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Trine; van Spijker, Bregje; Karstoft, Karen-Inge;

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Suicidal ideation (SI) is a common mental health problem. Variability in intensity of SI over time has been linked to suicidal behavior, yet little is known about the temporal course of SI. OBJECTIVE: The primary aim was to identify prototypical trajectories of SI in the general...... trial comparing a Web-based self-help for SI group with a control group. We assessed participants at inclusion and at 2, 4, and 6 weeks. The Beck Scale for Suicide Ideation was applied at all assessments and was included in latent growth mixture modeling analysis to empirically identify trajectories...

  4. Suicide among eminent artists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preti, A; Miotto, P

    1999-02-01

    To evaluate suicide risk by profession among eminent artists data from Garzanti's Encyclopedia, a broad biographical repertory, were used. Six categories in the visual and literary arts were compared: architects, painters, sculptors, writers, poets, and playwrights. Only people whose deaths occurred in the 1800s or 1900s were included since it is likely that underestimation of suicide has been lower in the more recent centuries. A total of 59 suicides were observed in a sample of 3,093 people: this corresponds to a ratio of 1.90%. Suicides were 51 among men (ratio 1.75%) and 8 among women (ratio 4.30%). The comparison by profession indicates that poets and writers exceed the mean suicide ratio of the sample. Painters and architects, conversely, have a clearly lower risk than the mean. Mean age of suicides was 44 yr. (SD = 12), with writers being slightly older (48 yr., SD = 12) than other artists. Artists who died of causes other than suicide reach a mean of 65 yr. (SD = 10). Suicide among artists seems to have a peculiar pattern, clearly different from the pattern of the general population, wherein suicide risk is higher among men and older people. Adverse financial circumstances and the stress attributed to rejection of personal products may contribute to the specific risk of suicide among artists. The link between mental disorders, such as manic-depression, which imply a higher risk of suicide, and creativeness is discussed as a contributing factor.

  5. Prevention of suicide

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    Rajiv Gupta

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Suicide is a major public health problem in India, probably even bigger than in the West. Suicidal behavior is the best conceptualized as a multifaceted complex problem involving social factors and mental illnesses. Broadly, there are two approaches to suicide prevention; population preventive strategies and high-risk preventive strategies. Population preventive strategies include reducing availability of means for suicide, education of primary care physicians, influencing media portrayal of suicidal behavior, education of the public, telephone helplines, and addressing economic issues associated with suicidal behavior. High-risk preventive strategy includes identifying individuals with high risk of committing suicide, intensively treating mental illness if present, and providing psychosocial support. Thus, prevention requires a multipronged effort with collaboration from various sectors including mental health professionals, social justice department, and macroeconomic policy makers.

  6. Suicide letters in Singapore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chia, Boon-Hock; Chia, Audrey; Tai, Bee-Choo

    2008-01-01

    The contents of suicide letters provide insight into the reasons for suicide and the mental states of victims. Coroner court records of 1,721 Singaporean suicides occurring between 2000 and 2004 were reviewed, 398 (23%) of whom left suicide letters. Letter writers tended to be younger, single, and less likely to have mental or physical illness. A reason for suicide was evident in 58%. Major reasons included school and relationship problems in the young, financial and marital problems in adults and physical illnesses in the elderly. Positive sentiment (care/concern) was expressed in 59%. Negative emotions in 45% of which despondency/agony (60%) was the most common, followed by emptiness (25%), guilt/shame (15%), hopelessness (10%), and anger (3%). The study of these letters suggests that there are combinations of social, psychological and physical factors that influence a person to suicide, all of which are important in the prevention, assessment, and management of suicide.

  7. Transgenerational Patterns of Suicide Attempt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorenson, Susan B.; Rutter, Carolyn M.

    1991-01-01

    Using data from 2,304 community residents, found self-reports of suicide attempts were more common among persons with than without family history of suicide. Nearly one in four suicide attempters reported family history of suicide. Being female and unmarried, respondent mental disorder, parent mental disorder, and parent suicide attempt exerted…

  8. Non-suicidal self-injury and suicidal ideation as predictors of suicide attempts in adolescent girls: a multi-wave prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Lori N; Pilkonis, Paul A; Hipwell, Alison E; Keenan, Kate; Stepp, Stephanie D

    2015-04-01

    Although both suicide ideation (SI) and non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI) are known risk factors for suicidal behavior, few longitudinal studies have examined whether having a history of one or both of these factors prospectively predicts increased risk for suicide attempts. According to the theory of acquired capability for suicide, engagement in NSSI may reduce inhibitions around self-inflicted violence, imparting greater risk for suicide attempts among those with SI than would be observed in those with SI who do not have a history of NSSI. We used prospective data from the Pittsburgh Girls Study, a large community sample, to compare groups of girls reporting no SI or NSSI, SI only, or both NSSI and SI between early to late adolescence on any lifetime or recent suicide attempts in late adolescence and early adulthood. As compared to girls with no SI or NSSI history and those with only an SI history, girls with a history of both NSSI and SI were significantly more likely to subsequently report both lifetime and recent suicide attempts. Results are consistent with the acquired capability theory for suicide and suggest that adolescent girls who have engaged in NSSI and also report SI represent a particularly high-risk group in need of prevention and intervention efforts.

  9. Perspectives on Suicide in the Army National Guard

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-22

    emphasis on individual perceptions in rela- tion to social groups, this perspective is labeled ‘‘social cognitive.’’ Joiner’s interper- sonal theory of... egoism and anomie-generated suicide. At the same time, the risk of altruistic suicide is potentially higher, although the US military arguably lacks the...intentions after deployment. The connection between such a loss and Joiner’s46 interpersonal theory of suicide is clear, in particular among men who

  10. Cognition and Social Cognition in non-psychotic siblings of patients with schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cella, Matteo; Hamid, Sobia; Butt, Kate; Wykes, Til

    2015-01-01

    Deficits in Social Cognition are common in people with schizophrenia. However, it is not clear if these deficits are a vulnerability marker and whether they are independent to cognitive difficulties. This study investigates these two issues in individuals with a genetic liability to psychosis. Twenty-one healthy siblings of patients with schizophrenia were compared with 21 healthy individuals on a range of cognitive and social cognitive measures. Significant differences in cognitive domains were controlled for when comparing the two groups on measures of social cognition. Siblings of people with schizophrenia performed significantly worst on tests of theory of mind and social perception but not on affect recognition. Scores on tests of executive function, processing speed and general IQ were also lower in the sibling group. When controlled for differences in cognitive tests, the two groups still retained significant differences in theory of mind and social perception. However, executive function significantly contributed to theory of mind and processing speed to social perception differences. These results further suggest that difficulties in some domains of social cognition are associated with a genetic vulnerability for schizophrenia. In these areas, cognitive difficulties account only partially for social cognition problems suggesting that these two domains may represent relatively independent liability factors.

  11. Putative Effect of Alcohol on Suicide Attempters: An Evaluative Study in a Tertiary Medical College

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    Subir Bhattacharjee

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Alcohol abuse is a known risk factor for suicide. Alcohol increases aggression and impulsivity, which are strongly related to suicidal behavior. Sociocultural factors influence both alcohol use and suicide rates. Studies, conducted in one population, are not applicable to other and the results cannot be generalized. Aims: The aim was to study the putative role of alcohol in suicide cases in the rural Indian population by analysis of various sociodemographic variables. Settings and Design: This was a cross-sectional study in conducted in a tertiary medical college. Materials and Methods: Two hundred consecutive patients who survived a suicide attempt were evaluated by a psychiatrist. The data were recorded for sociodemographic variables, psychiatric disorders, suicide intent, lethality of the suicide attempt, and history of alcohol intake prior to the suicide attempt. Using alcohol intake prior to the suicide attempt as a determining dimension, various sociodemographic variables were analyzed for their statistical significance and the role of alcohol in suicide cases was assessed. Results: Seventeen percent suicide attempt survivors had a history of alcohol intake prior to the suicide attempt. Fifteen percent had a history of alcohol use disorder. Alcohol use affected the suicide rate in the male population in the late twenties to mid-thirties age group, illiterate and people with high school education, semiskilled workers, shop owners, and student population. Alcohol dependence, bipolar II disorder, intermittent explosive disorder, and dysthymic disorder had higher rate of suicide attempt with the use of alcohol prior to the suicide attempt. Alcohol users attempted a more lethal suicide attempt and were found to have problems with primary support group and occupational problem as precipitating stressor for suicide attempt. Conclusions: Alcohol use increases the suicide rate, in the specific rural Indian population.

  12. Individuals at high risk for suicide are categorically distinct from those at low risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witte, Tracy K; Holm-Denoma, Jill M; Zuromski, Kelly L; Gauthier, Jami M; Ruscio, John

    2017-04-01

    Although suicide risk is often thought of as existing on a graded continuum, its latent structure (i.e., whether it is categorical or dimensional) has not been empirically determined. Knowledge about the latent structure of suicide risk holds implications for suicide risk assessments, targeted suicide interventions, and suicide research. Our objectives were to determine whether suicide risk can best be understood as a categorical (i.e., taxonic) or dimensional entity, and to validate the nature of any obtained taxon. We conducted taxometric analyses of cross-sectional, baseline data from 16 independent studies funded by the Military Suicide Research Consortium. Participants (N = 1,773) primarily consisted of military personnel, and most had a history of suicidal behavior. The Comparison Curve Fit Index values for MAMBAC (.85), MAXEIG (.77), and L-Mode (.62) all strongly supported categorical (i.e., taxonic) structure for suicide risk. Follow-up analyses comparing the taxon and complement groups revealed substantially larger effect sizes for the variables most conceptually similar to suicide risk compared with variables indicating general distress. Pending replication and establishment of the predictive validity of the taxon, our results suggest the need for a fundamental shift in suicide risk assessment, treatment, and research. Specifically, suicide risk assessments could be shortened without sacrificing validity, the most potent suicide interventions could be allocated to individuals in the high-risk group, and research should generally be conducted on individuals in the high-risk group. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  13. Cortisol levels and suicidal behavior: A meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, Daryl B; Ferguson, Eamonn; Green, Jessica A; O'Carroll, Ronan E; O'Connor, Rory C

    2016-01-01

    Suicide is a major cause of death worldwide, responsible for 1.5% of all mortality. The causes of suicidal behavior are not fully understood. Dysregulated hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activity, as measured by cortisol levels, is one potential risk factor. This meta-analytic review aimed (i) to estimate the strength and variability of the association between naturally fluctuating cortisol levels and suicidal behavior and (ii) to identify moderators of this relationship. A systematic literature search identified 27 studies (N=2226; 779 suicide attempters and 1447 non-attempters) that met the study eligibility criteria from a total of 417 unique records initially examined. Estimates of effect sizes (r) obtained from these studies were analysed using Comprehensive Meta-Analysis. In these analyses, we compared participants identified as having a past history of suicide attempt(s) to those with no such history. Study quality, mean age of sample and percentage of male participants were examined as potential moderators. Overall, there was no significant effect of suicide group on cortisol. However, significant associations between cortisol and suicide attempts were observed as a function of age. In studies where the mean age of the sample was below 40 years the association was positive (i.e., higher cortisol was associated with suicide attempts; r=.234, pcortisol was associated with suicide attempts; r=-.129, pcortisol levels, is associated with suicidal behavior. The challenge for theory and clinical practice is to explain the complete reversal of the association with age and to identify its clinical implications.

  14. [Suicide in psychiatric hospitals : Results, risk factors and therapeutic measures].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfersdorf, M; Vogel, R; Vogl, R; Grebner, M; Keller, F; Purucker, M; Wurst, F M

    2016-05-01

    Suicide prevention is a core responsibility of psychiatry and psychotherapy. Periods of change in psychiatric inpatient treatment concepts are usually also accompanied by an increase in psychopathological behavior and with increased suicide rates in psychiatric hospitals, as seen in the 1970s and 1980s in Germany. That this represented a real increase of inpatient suicides during those years was confirmed and subsequently the number and rate of inpatient suicides has decreased from approximately 280 out of 100,000 admissions of patients in 1980 to approximately 50 in 2014. Death can also occur in psychiatric hospitals and an absolute prevention is not possible even under optimal conditions of therapy and nursing, communication and security. The suicide rate has clearly decreased over the last two decades in relation to admissions. The group of young male schizophrenic patients newly identified as having a high clinical suicide risk has decreased among the suicide victims whereas the percentage of severely depressed patients with delusions has increased. This reduction could be associated with the comprehensive improvements in educational and training programs in the field of suicide and suicide prevention, objectification of coping methods, development of diagnostic and therapeutic strategies, improvements in therapy and relationship possibilities and a general reduction in the number of suicides in Germany.

  15. Suicide among the youth in Malaysia: What do we know?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahar, Norharlina; Ismail, Wan Salwina Wan; Hussain, Nurulwafa; Haniff, Jamaiyah; Bujang, Mohamad Adam; Hamid, Abdul Muneer; Yusuff, Yusni; Nordin, Norhayati; Ali, Nor Hayati

    2015-06-01

    This article aims to study the pattern of youth suicide cases in Malaysia, following which preventive actions can then be planned and practiced to reduce these suicide cases. This is a cross-sectional study looking at notifications of all suicides involving members of the youth population, as had been reported to National Suicide Registry Malaysia from January 1, 2009 to December 31, 2009. Information such as profile demographics and methods of suicide were utilized accordingly. There were 53 youths between the ages of 15 and 24 years reported to have undergone completed suicides. The suicide rate among youths was 1.03 per 100,000 populations in 2009, accounting for the male gender (66.0%), with Indians being the highest suicide completers (40.4% and 5.6 per 100,000 populations). The most common method of suicide was hanging (56.6%) followed by self-poisoning (15.1%). The suicide rate among Malaysian youth is relatively lower compared with other countries in the Asian region. Majority were male, of Indian descent, and were still in secondary school. Preventive actions need to be taken especially for specific groups such as the Indian youth. © 2014 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  16. Suicide: an existentialist reconceptualization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, M; Lamont, E

    2014-12-01

    The phenomenon of suicide is one of the primary concerns for mental health professions. The health-care literature is dominated by discussions that focus variously on local and national suicide prevention policies, on the assessment of those individuals judged to be at risk of committing suicide as well as the appropriateness and efficacy of interventions for those who express suicidal ideation and display suicidal behaviours. What appear less frequently in the literature, however, are critical analyses of the concept of suicide and, in particular, critical reflections on the manner in which the concept of suicide has been, and continues to be, understood or 'framed'. In an attempt to respond to this apparent omission, this paper will suggest that the work of Albert Camus, and his philosophical work The Myth of Sisyphus in particular, can be understood as providing a significant reconceptualization and reframing of suicide. In doing so, it will be suggested that Camus's work not only challenges how the concept of suicide has traditionally been situated within the context of mental illness, but can also be understood as challenging the efficacy of the interventions that have been associated with an understanding of suicide within that context.

  17. Suicide of Japanese Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iga, M

    1981-01-01

    The uniquely intense stress due to the Examination Hell (shiken jigoku) not only generates a basic drive for Japan's economic success but also contributes to a high rate of young people's suicide. This paper discusses the major factors in the intensity of Japanese stress on both institutional and psychological levels. The social structural factors which convert stress to suicide are analyzed in terms of weak ego; restraint on aggression; a lack of social resources; and views of life, death and suicide. Japanese views of life, death and suicide are treated in terms of Absolute phenomenalism, the original form of Shintoism, to which Buddhism and Confucianism have been adjusted in Japan. Japanese phenomenalism affects suicide through its three aspects: animism, present-time oriented small groupism, and the absolute acceptance of the established social order. Confusion and conflict since World War II have increased anomic suicides; however, elements of fatalistic suicide (due to excessive formal or informal social regulations) and altruistic suicide (due to excessive formal or informal social regulations) and altruistic suicide (due to strong social integration) are evident. Suicide is still a highly institutionalized adjustment mechanism in Japan.

  18. Identifying probable suicide clusters in wales using national mortality data.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phillip Jones

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Up to 2% of suicides in young people may occur in clusters i.e., close together in time and space. In early 2008 unprecedented attention was given by national and international news media to a suspected suicide cluster among young people living in Bridgend, Wales. This paper investigates the strength of statistical evidence for this apparent cluster, its size, and temporal and geographical limits. METHODS AND FINDINGS: The analysis is based on official mortality statistics for Wales for 2000-2009 provided by the UK's Office for National Statistics (ONS. Temporo-spatial analysis was performed using Space Time Permutation Scan Statistics with SaTScan v9.1 for suicide deaths aged 15 and over, with a sub-group analysis focussing on cases aged 15-34 years. These analyses were conducted for deaths coded by ONS as: (i suicide or of undetermined intent (probable suicides and (ii for a combination of suicide, undetermined, and accidental poisoning and hanging (possible suicides. The temporo-spatial analysis did not identify any clusters of suicide or undetermined intent deaths (probable suicides. However, analysis of all deaths by suicide, undetermined intent, accidental poisoning and accidental hanging (possible suicides identified a temporo-spatial cluster (p = 0.029 involving 10 deaths amongst 15-34 year olds centred on the County Borough of Bridgend for the period 27(th December 2007 to 19(th February 2008. Less than 1% of possible suicides in younger people in Wales in the ten year period were identified as being cluster-related. CONCLUSIONS: There was a possible suicide cluster in young people in Bridgend between December 2007 and February 2008. This cluster was smaller, shorter in duration, and predominantly later than the phenomenon that was reported in national and international print media. Further investigation of factors leading to the onset and termination of this series of deaths, in particular the role of the media, is

  19. Suicide in U.S. Workplaces, 2003–2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiesman, Hope M.; Konda, Srinivas; Hartley, Dan; Chaumont Menéndez, Cammie; Ridenour, Marilyn; Hendricks, Scott

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Suicide rates have risen considerably in recent years. National workplace suicide trends have not been well documented. The aim of this study is to describe suicides occurring in U.S. workplaces and compare them to suicides occurring outside of the workplace between 2003 and 2010. Methods Suicide data originated from the Census of Fatal Occupational Injury database and the Web-Based Injury Statistics Query and Reporting System. Suicide rates were calculated using denominators from the 2013 Current Population Survey and 2000 U.S. population census. Suicide rates were compared among demographic groups with rate ratios and 95% CIs. Suicide rates were calculated and compared among occupations. Linear regression, adjusting for serial correlation, was used to analyze temporal trends. Analyses were conducted in 2013–2014. Results Between 2003 and 2010, a total of 1,719 people died by suicide in the workplace. Workplace suicide rates generally decreased until 2007 and then sharply increased (p=0.035). This is in contrast with non-workplace suicides, which increased over the study period (p=0.025). Workplace suicide rates were highest for men (2.7 per 1,000,000); workers aged 65–74 years (2.4 per 1,000,000); those in protective service occupations (5.3 per 1,000,000); and those in farming, fishing, and forestry (5.1 per 1,000,000). Conclusions The upward trend of suicides in the workplace underscores the need for additional research to understand occupation-specific risk factors and develop evidence-based programs that can be implemented in the workplace. PMID:25794471

  20. What Interrupts Suicide Attempts in Men: A Qualitative Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael J Player

    Full Text Available Despite higher rates of suicide in men, there is a dearth of research examining the perspectives and experiences of males at risk of suicide, particularly in terms of understanding how interventions can be tailored to men's specific needs. The current study aimed to examine factors assisting, complicating or inhibiting interventions for men at risk, as well as outlining the roles of family, friends and others in male suicide prevention. Thirty-five male suicide survivors completed one-to-one interviews, and forty-seven family and friends of male suicide survivors participated in eight focus groups. Thematic analysis revealed five major themes: (1 development of suicidal behaviours tends to follow a common path associated with specific types of risk factors (disrupted mood, unhelpful stoic beliefs and values, avoidant coping strategies, stressors, (2 men at risk of suicide tend to systematically misinterpret changes in their behaviour and thinking, (3 understanding mood and behavioural changes in men enables identification of opportunities to interrupt suicide progression, (4 distraction, provision of practical and emotional supports, along with professional intervention may effectively interrupt acute risk of harm, and (5 suicidal ideation may be reduced through provision of practical help to manage crises, and helping men to focus on obligations and their role within families. Findings suggest that interventions for men at risk of suicidal behaviours need to be tailored to specific risk indicators, developmental factors, care needs and individuals' preferences. To our knowledge this is the first qualitative study to explore the experiences of both suicidal men and their family/friends after a suicide attempt, with the view to improve understanding of the processes which are effective in interrupting suicide and better inform interventions for men at risk.

  1. An Exploratory Study of Non-Suicidal Self-Injury and Suicidal Behaviors in Adolescent Latinas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulbas, Lauren E.; Hausmann-Stabile, Carolina; De Luca, Susan M.; Tyler, Tee R.; Zayas, Luis H.

    2015-01-01

    To date, there is little research to validate empirically differences between non-suicidal self-injurious behavior (NSSI) and attempted suicide among Latina adolescents. Understanding the characteristics and contextual features of self-harmful behaviors among Latina teens is a critical public health and social justice matter given the disproportionate rates of attempted suicide and anticipated population growth of this vulnerable group. In this article, we draw on an ecodevelopmental model to focus attention on factors in the sociocultural environment that shape suicidal and non-suicidal self-injurious behaviors. Through analysis of qualitative interviews conducted with girls who used NSSI (n = 18), attempted suicide (n = 29), used NSSI and attempted suicide (n = 8,) and had no reported lifetime history of self-harm (n = 28), we describe the sociocultural factors that shaped psychosocial vulnerabilities and gave rise to decisions to use NSSI or attempt suicide. Our analysis revealed that adolescents who engaged in NSSI perceived their negative feelings as something that could be controlled through self-injurious acts, whereas powerlessness was a theme underlying the emotional states of girls who attempted suicide. When NSSI ceased to function as a mechanism for control, girls came to sudden decisions to attempt suicide. Most teens identified specific, and often multiple, situations that induced these intense affective states and shaped decisions to inflict self-harm. Two situational experiences emerged as particularly salient and promising for subsequent studies on self-harmful behaviors among Latina adolescents: transnational stress and bullying. We describe each of these and offer suggestions for future research and practice. PMID:26052816

  2. [Comparative double-blind study of bromazepam versus prazepam in non-psychotic anxiety].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guelfi, J D; Lancrenon, S; Millet, V

    1993-01-01

    The efficacy of bromazepam and prazepam for the different components of anxiety: inhibition, asthenia and somatisation is evaluated in a multi-centric, comparative and randomised study, conducted as double blind and in parallel groups in 159 adult patients showing a manifest anxiety according to the F.D.A. criteria. After a 7 day wash-out period, the patients receive either bromazepam in a 12 mg/d dose or prazepam in a 40 mg/d dose, over 4 weeks (D0-D28), then in a decreasing dose from D28 to D43; follow-up is carried out using the anxious inhibition scale W.P.2, auto-questionnaire A.D.A., the Hamilton anxiety scale and the Tyrer questionnaire (benzodiazepine withdrawal symptoms questionnaire). Patients are evaluated seven times during the study: at day 7 for inclusion, day 0 for randomisation, then day 7 and day 14 for following visits, at day 28 for efficacy and tolerance evaluation, and at day 50 for utilisation and withdrawal evaluation. The major efficacy criteria are the evolution of inhibition, asthenia and somatisation as compounds of anxiety respectively evaluated by W.P.2 scale, asthenic partial score of autoquestionnaire A.D.A. and somatic partial score of Hamilton anxiety scale. The analysis of results don't show any significant difference between the two groups on the evolution of the components asthenia and inhibition. However the evolution of the somatic component clearly makes a significant difference in favour of bromazepam. There is also a significant difference in terms of global anxiolytic action efficacy, in favour of bromazepam.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  3. Ventral anterior cingulate connectivity distinguished nonpsychotic bipolar illness from psychotic bipolar disorder and schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anticevic, Alan; Savic, Aleksandar; Repovs, Grega; Yang, Genevieve; McKay, D Reese; Sprooten, Emma; Knowles, Emma E; Krystal, John H; Pearlson, Godfrey D; Glahn, David C

    2015-01-01

    Bipolar illness is a debilitating neuropsychiatric disorder associated with alterations in the ventral anterior cingulate cortex (vACC), a brain region thought to regulate emotional behavior. Although recent data-driven functional connectivity studies provide evidence consistent with this possibility, the role of vACC in bipolar illness and its pattern of whole brain connectivity remain unknown. Furthermore, no study has established whether vACC exhibits differential whole brain connectivity in bipolar patients with and without co-occurring psychosis and whether this pattern resembles that found in schizophrenia. We conducted a human resting-state functional connectivity investigation focused on the vACC seed in 73 remitted bipolar I disorder patients (33 with psychosis history), 56 demographically matched healthy comparison subjects, and 73 demographically matched patients with chronic schizophrenia. Psychosis history within the bipolar disorder group corresponded with significant between-group connectivity alterations along the dorsal medial prefrontal surface when using the vACC seed. Patients with psychosis history showed reduced connectivity (Cohen's d = -0.69), whereas those without psychosis history showed increased vACC coupling (Cohen's d = 0.8) relative to controls. The vACC connectivity observed in chronic schizophrenia patients was not significantly different from that seen in bipolar patients with psychosis history but was significantly reduced compared with that in bipolar patients without psychosis history. These robust findings reveal complex vACC connectivity alterations in bipolar illness, which suggest differences depending on co-occurrence of lifetime psychosis. The similarities in vACC connectivity patterns in schizophrenia and psychotic bipolar disorder patients may suggest the existence of common mechanisms underlying psychotic symptoms in the two disorders. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Maryland

  4. Risk factors of suicide among patients admitted with suicide attempt in Tata main hospital, Jamshedpur

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manoj Kumar Sahoo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: More than one lakh lives are lost every year due to suicide in India. In the last three decades (from 1975 to 2005, the suicide rate has increased by 43%. Jamshedpur is an Industrial town, which is rapidly growing and having population with mixed cultural background. Recently, there has been increasing trend in a number of suicide attempt across various age groups; there are around 300 cases of suicide attempt admitted to Tata Main Hospital each year. Objective: To study the risk factors associated with suicide attempts. Methods: The study was carried out in the Tata Main Hospital, Jamshedpur. Over a period of 6 months, we gathered data of 101 suicide attempters referred from medical, surgical departments and casualties and taken up for the study. Data were collected on specific pro forma was prepared to collect various others risk factors. Results: More number of female patients compared to male, younger age, lower-middle income group, urban background, school educated, and unemployed were more represented in this study. In 70% of patients, psychiatric disorder was found, but few among them had prior treatment. Increased family conflicts, marital problems, financial difficulties, and perceived humiliations are some of the risk factors. Conclusion: The early identification and treatment of vulnerable populations with risk factors for suicide across the lifespan will help in planning and implementing strategies for prevention.

  5. Questions of culture, age and gender in the epidemiology of suicide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webster Rudmin, Floyd; Ferrada-Noli, Marcello; Skolbekken, John-Arne

    2003-09-01

    Cultural values were examined as predictors of suicide incidence rates compiled for men and women in six age groups for 33 nations for the years 1965, 1970, 1975, 1980, and 1985. Hofstede's cultural values of Power-Distance, Uncertainty Avoidance, and Masculinity (i.e., social indifference) were negative correlates of reported suicide, and Individualism was a strong positive correlate. The proportion of variance in suicide reports generally related to these four cultural values was R2 = 0.25. Suicide by women and by middle-aged people was most related to cultural values, even though international variance in suicide is greater for men and for the elderly. Suicide incidence for girls and young women showed unique negative correlations with Individualism. For all age groups, Individualism predicted a greater preponderance of male suicides, and Power-Distance predicted more similar male and female suicide rates. Social alienation and Gilligan's feminist theory of moral judgment were hypothesized to explain some gender differences.

  6. Changes in Scottish suicide rates during the Second World War

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Humphry Roger W

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It is believed that total reported suicide rates tend to decrease during wartime. However, analysis of suicide rates during recent conflicts suggests a more complex picture, with increases in some age groups and changes in method choice. As few age and gender specific analyses of more distant conflicts have been conducted, it is not clear if these findings reflect a change in the epidemiology of suicide in wartime. Therefore, we examined suicide rates in Scotland before, during and after the Second World War to see if similar features were present. Methods Data on deaths in Scotland recorded as suicide during the period 1931 – 1952, and population estimates for each of these years, were obtained from the General Register Office for Scotland. Using computer spreadsheets, suicide rates by gender, age and method were calculated. Forward stepwise logistic regression was used to assess the effect of gender, war and year on suicide rates using SAS V8.2. Results The all-age suicide rate among both men and women declined during the period studied. However, when this long-term decline is taken into account, the likelihood of suicide during the Second World War was higher than during both the pre-War and post-War periods. Suicide rates among men aged 15–24 years rose during the Second World War, peaking at 148 per million (41 deaths during 1942 before declining to 39 per million (10 deaths by 1945, while the rate among men aged 25–34 years reached 199 per million (43 deaths during 1943 before falling to 66 per million (23 deaths by 1946. This was accompanied by an increase in male suicides attributable to firearms and explosives during the War years which decreased following its conclusion. Conclusion All age male and female suicide rates decreased in Scotland during World War II. However, once the general background decrease in suicide rates over the whole period is accounted for, the likelihood of suicide among the entire

  7. Suicidal behaviour among alcohol-dependent Danes attending outpatient treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørk Petersen, Christina; Grønbæk, Morten; Bussey Rask, Marie;

    2009-01-01

    . Characteristics of, predictors for and outcome among suicidal patients were studied. Alcohol-dependent patients with a history of suicide attempts were found to constitute a highly selected group in alcohol abuse treatment as they often had a more severe course of alcohol dependence, were unemployed, younger......, were more often lowly educated, and had more physical and psychiatric problems. Traumatic childhood experience related to physical or sexual abuse was found as a major predictor for suicidal behaviour among alcohol-dependent patients. We found no significant difference in the effect of treatment...... that suicidal patients in treatment for alcohol abuse are treated effectively within the present treatment settings....

  8. Trends in Adolescent Suicide in Hong Kong for the Period 1980 to 2003

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel T.L. Shek

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper utilizes existing statistics on adolescent suicide to examine adolescent suicide trends and patterns in Hong Kong for the period 1980 to 2003. Several trends and patterns could be revealed from the analyses. First, there was a gradual rising trend where adolescent suicide rates in the 1990's and the early 2000's were higher than those in the 1980's. Second, suicide rates for adolescents aged 10-24 years were lower than those of other adult age groups. Third, although adolescent suicide rates in Hong Kong were lower than those reported in some English-speaking countries and Mainland China, the figures were higher than those reported in Taiwan. Fourth, suicide rates among teenagers in early adolescence were lower than those among adolescents in late adolescence. Fifth, although male adolescent suicide rates were in general higher than female adolescent suicide rates (10-24 age group, gender differences in suicide rates appeared to be moderated by age. Sixth, there was a gradual rising trend in adolescent proportional mortality rates for suicide since the 1990's. Seventh, proportional mortality rates for suicide among teenagers in early adolescence were lower than those among adolescents in late adolescence. Finally, although jumping from a height was a common method of adolescent suicide, there was a rising trend of using other methods, such as taking drugs, hanging and charcoal burning. The observed adolescent suicide phenomena are discussed in this study with reference to the socio-cultural context of Hong Kong.

  9. Self-report of basic symptoms among psychotic and nonpsychotic subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciani, N; Pezzarossa, B; Curini, A; Rubino, I A

    1999-10-01

    Basic symptoms, as defined and described by the Bonn Scale, were assessed by means of a new self-report inventory, the Rome Basic Disorders Scale. On all the subscales, psychiatric outpatients (n = 105; most frequent diagnoses: Schizophrenia, Anxiety Disorders, and Mood Disorders) scored significantly higher (p < .001) than nonclinical controls (n = 105). Psychiatric patients with at least one diagnosis on the psychotic sets of Foulds' hierarchical inventory (n = 45), compared with the rest of the psychiatric sample (n = 60), had significantly higher scores on nearly all subscales. Two groups of inpatients with Schizophrenia (n = 20) and Mood Disorders (n = 20) were tested on Day 2 and 9 of hospitalization in an emergency ward. Schizophrenic patients had significantly higher scores on most of the subscales, but only on Day 9; on Day 2 depressed and manic patients scored significantly higher on four subscales. Until now basic symptoms had not been studied during the intrapsychotic phase, mainly because of their transformation into first-rank symptoms; present findings suggest that basic symptoms are active also at the height of the psychotic breakdown and that they are more responsive to treatment in Depression and Mania than in Schizophrenia.

  10. Cortisol reactivity and suicidal behavior: Investigating the role of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis responses to stress in suicide attempters and ideators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, Daryl B; Green, Jessica A; Ferguson, Eamonn; O'Carroll, Ronan E; O'Connor, Rory C

    2017-01-01

    Every 40s a person dies by suicide somewhere in the world. The causes of suicidal behavior are not fully understood. Dysregulated hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activity, as measured by cortisol levels, is one potential risk factor. The current study aimed to investigate whether cortisol reactivity to a laboratory stress task differentiated individuals who had previously made a suicide attempt from those who had thought about suicide (suicide ideators) and control participants. One hundred and sixty participants were recruited to a previous attempt, a suicidal ideation or a control group. Participants completed background questionnaires before completing the Maastricht Acute Stress Test (MAST). Cortisol levels were assessed throughout the stress task. Measures of suicide behavior were measured at baseline, 1 month and 6 month follow-up. Participants who had made a previous suicide attempt exhibited significantly lower aggregate cortisol levels during the MAST compared to participants in the control group; suicide ideators were intermediate to both groups. This effect, however, was driven by participants who made an attempt within the past year, and to some degree by those with a family history of attempt. Participants who made a suicide attempt and had a family history of suicide exhibited the lowest levels of cortisol in response to stress. Finally, lower levels of cortisol in response to the MAST were associated with higher levels of suicidal ideation at 1-month follow-up in the suicide attempter group. These results are consistent with other findings indicating that blunted HPA axis activity is associated with some forms of suicidal behavior. The challenge for researchers is to elucidate the precise causal mechanisms linking stress, cortisol and suicide risk.

  11. Comparative Analysis of Suicide, Accidental, and Undetermined Cause of Death Classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Douglas; Coon, Hilary; McGlade, Erin; Callor, W; Byrd, Josh; Viskochil, Joseph; Bakian, Amanda; Yurgelun-Todd, Deborah; Grey, Todd; McMahon, William

    2015-01-01

    Suicide determination is not standardized across medical examiners, and many suspected suicides are later classified as accidental or undetermined. The present study investigated patterns between these three groups using a Medical Examiner database and 633 structured interviews with next of kin. There were similarities across all three classification groups, including rates of mental illness and psychiatric symptoms. Those classified suicide were more likely to be male, to have died in a violent fashion, and have a stronger family history of suicide. Physical pain was very common, but acute pain vs. chronic pain distinguished the suicide group. PMID:25057525

  12. Duration of suicide process among suicide attempters and characteristics of those providing window of opportunity for intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kattimani, Shivanand; Sarkar, Siddharth; Menon, Vikas; Muthuramalingam, Avin; Nancy, Premkumar

    2016-01-01

    Background: There is limited cross-cultural literature on the duration of suicide process among attempters. Aims: The primary aim was to assess the duration of suicide process among suicide attempters attending the Crisis Intervention Clinic. We also aimed to identify the characteristics of those who reported a longer duration for this process. Methods: In this retrospective record-based study, we collected the duration of the suicidal process from the records of all the suicide attempters evaluated over a 3-year period (n = 319). Attempters were divided into four groups based on the quartile value of the duration of the suicidal process. For analysis, the characteristics of those in the last quartile with suicide process time of >120 min (n = 75) were compared with those in the first three (n = 244). Those in the last quartile were considered to provide a window of opportunity for intervention. Results: The median time for the suicidal process was 30 min (interquartile range of 5 min to 120 min). Seventy-five (23.5%) subjects belonged to the fourth quartile (duration of suicide process >120 min). A significant proportion of them came from urban areas (P = 0.011), had a diagnosis of mood disorder (P = 0.028), had visited a health professional in the recent past (P = 0.015), and had lower rates of attempt under intoxication (P = 0.005). A lesser proportion of them showed problem-focused disengagement style of coping strategy (P = 0.015). Conclusions: The suicide process time among Indian suicide attempters is short. However, a quarter of them has suicide process duration of 2 h which provides some scope for intervention. Individual and community level interventions need further evaluation for their potential efficacy in preventing the progress of the suicidal process. PMID:27695238

  13. Paraquat prohibition and change in the suicide rate and methods in South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myung, Woojae; Lee, Geung-Hee; Won, Hong-Hee; Fava, Maurizio; Mischoulon, David; Nyer, Maren; Kim, Doh Kwan; Heo, Jung-Yoon; Jeon, Hong Jin

    2015-01-01

    The annual suicide rate in South Korea is the highest among the developed countries. Paraquat is a highly lethal herbicide, commonly used in South Korea as a means for suicide. We have studied the effect of the 2011 paraquat prohibition on the national suicide rate and method of suicide in South Korea. We obtained the monthly suicide rate from 2005 to 2013 in South Korea. In our analyses, we adjusted for the effects of celebrity suicides, and economic, meteorological, and seasonal factors on suicide rate. We employed change point analysis to determine the effect of paraquat prohibition on suicide rate over time, and the results were verified by structural change analysis, an alternative statistical method. After the paraquat prohibition period in South Korea, there was a significant reduction in the total suicide rate and suicide rate by poisoning with herbicides or fungicides in all age groups and in both genders. The estimated suicide rates during this period decreased by 10.0% and 46.1% for total suicides and suicides by poisoning of herbicides or fungicides, respectively. In addition, method substitution effect of paraquat prohibition was found in suicide by poisoning by carbon monoxide, which did not exceed the reduction in the suicide rate of poisoning with herbicides or fungicides. In South Korea, paraquat prohibition led to a lower rate of suicide by paraquat poisoning, as well as a reduction in the overall suicide rate. Paraquat prohibition should be considered as a national suicide prevention strategy in developing and developed countries alongside careful observation for method substitution effects.

  14. Paraquat prohibition and change in the suicide rate and methods in South Korea.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Woojae Myung

    Full Text Available The annual suicide rate in South Korea is the highest among the developed countries. Paraquat is a highly lethal herbicide, commonly used in South Korea as a means for suicide. We have studied the effect of the 2011 paraquat prohibition on the national suicide rate and method of suicide in South Korea. We obtained the monthly suicide rate from 2005 to 2013 in South Korea. In our analyses, we adjusted for the effects of celebrity suicides, and economic, meteorological, and seasonal factors on suicide rate. We employed change point analysis to determine the effect of paraquat prohibition on suicide rate over time, and the results were verified by structural change analysis, an alternative statistical method. After the paraquat prohibition period in South Korea, there was a significant reduction in the total suicide rate and suicide rate by poisoning with herbicides or fungicides in all age groups and in both genders. The estimated suicide rates during this period decreased by 10.0% and 46.1% for total suicides and suicides by poisoning of herbicides or fungicides, respectively. In addition, method substitution effect of paraquat prohibition was found in suicide by poisoning by carbon monoxide, which did not exceed the reduction in the suicide rate of poisoning with herbicides or fungicides. In South Korea, paraquat prohibition led to a lower rate of suicide by paraquat poisoning, as well as a reduction in the overall suicide rate. Paraquat prohibition should be considered as a national suicide prevention strategy in developing and developed countries alongside careful observation for method substitution effects.

  15. Temporal Lobe Structures and Facial Emotion Recognition in Schizophrenia Patients and Nonpsychotic Relatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goghari, Vina M.; MacDonald, Angus W.; Sponheim, Scott R.

    2011-01-01

    Temporal lobe abnormalities and emotion recognition deficits are prominent features of schizophrenia and appear related to the diathesis of the disorder. This study investigated whether temporal lobe structural abnormalities were associated with facial emotion recognition deficits in schizophrenia and related to genetic liability for the disorder. Twenty-seven schizophrenia patients, 23 biological family members, and 36 controls participated. Several temporal lobe regions (fusiform, superior temporal, middle temporal, amygdala, and hippocampus) previously associated with face recognition in normative samples and found to be abnormal in schizophrenia were evaluated using volumetric analyses. Participants completed a facial emotion recognition task and an age recognition control task under time-limited and self-paced conditions. Temporal lobe volumes were tested for associations with task performance. Group status explained 23% of the variance in temporal lobe volume. Left fusiform gray matter volume was decreased by 11% in patients and 7% in relatives compared with controls. Schizophrenia patients additionally exhibited smaller hippocampal and middle temporal volumes. Patients were unable to improve facial emotion recognition performance with unlimited time to make a judgment but were able to improve age recognition performance. Patients additionally showed a relationship between reduced temporal lobe gray matter and poor facial emotion recognition. For the middle temporal lobe region, the relationship between greater volume and better task performance was specific to facial emotion recognition and not age recognition. Because schizophrenia patients exhibited a specific deficit in emotion recognition not attributable to a generalized impairment in face perception, impaired emotion recognition may serve as a target for interventions. PMID:20484523

  16. Suicides in late life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Orden, Kimberly; Conwell, Yeates

    2011-06-01

    Suicide in late life is an enormous public health problem that will likely increase in severity as adults of the baby boom generation age. Data from psychological autopsy studies supplemented with recent studies of suicidal ideation and attempts point to a consistent set of risk factors for the spectrum of suicidal behaviors in late life (suicide ideation, attempts, and deaths). Clinicians should be vigilant for psychiatric illness (especially depression), physical illness, pain, functional impairment, and social disconnectedness. Recent advances in late-life suicide prevention have in common collaborative, multifaceted intervention designs. We suggest that one mechanism shared by all preventive interventions shown to reduce the incidence of late-life suicide is the promotion of connectedness. For the clinician working with older adults, our recommendation is to not only consider risk factors, such as depression, and implement appropriate treatments but to enhance social connectedness as well.

  17. The Impact of Suicide on Co-patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seeman, Mary V

    2015-12-01

    While there is a large literature on the impact of patient suicide on care providers and on family members, and a small literature on the impact of hospital suicide on inpatients and on surviving members of a therapy group, nothing has been written about the effect of a suicide on patients in a community mental health facility. This paper discusses the potential for ripple effects and the need for extra care and surveillance when a patient commits suicide in an outpatient program for the seriously mentally ill. The paper draws on related literature (suicide in groups, hospitals, schools, and college campuses) and, using examples from a clinic for women with psychosis, makes recommendations for psychiatric intervention post suicide. After the trauma of suicide, staff needs protected time to inform and support survivors, taking special care with those seen as most vulnerable. Following a trauma such as suicide, patients tend to stay near a source of comfort, and may require extra staff time. Survivors need to make sense of what happened and to honor the dead. This brings privacy concerns to the fore, as well as staff ambivalence about the respect due to a person who should be remembered, but should not serve as a role model to fellow patients who are susceptible to contagion effects. The review that follows a suicide can lead to closure for staff and patients and to the development of a protocol to follow should similar incidents recur.

  18. Epidemiologic Characteristics and Trends of Fatal Suicides among the Elderly in Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hui-Li

    2009-01-01

    Taiwan has one of the highest suicide rates in the world, especially among its elderly. The epidemiologic characteristics and trends of the surging elderly suicide rates from 1993 to 2003 are described, with a special emphasis on the risk groups, the methods used in suicide, and their geographical variations. Data on annual mortality for persons…

  19. Religious Views on Suicide among the Baganda, Uganda: A Qualitative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mugisha, James; Hjelmeland, Heidi; Kinyanda, Eugene; Knizek, Birthe Loa

    2013-01-01

    Relatively little research has been conducted on religion and suicide in Africa, yet religion has a lot of influence on people's way of life in Africa. To study religious views on suicide among the Baganda, Uganda, we used grounded theory and discourse analysis on a total of 28 focus groups and 30 key informant interviews. Suicide is largely seen…

  20. Youth Suicide in the United States: A Fact Sheet for Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Office of Safe and Healthy Students, US Department of Education, 2017

    2017-01-01

    Suicide is a major public health issue that affects people of all ages, backgrounds, and racial and ethnic groups throughout the country. When a student commits suicide, it is not only a tragedy for his or her family, but it can also significantly affect other students and disrupt school learning environments. While the causes of youth suicide are…

  1. Suicidal Ideation in College Students Varies across Semesters: The Mediating Role of Belongingness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Orden, Kimberly A.; Witte, Tracy K.; James, Lisa M.; Castro, Yessenia; Gordon, Kathryn H.; Braithwaite, Scott R.; Hollar, Daniel L.; Joiner, Thomas E., Jr.

    2008-01-01

    The interpersonal-psychological theory of suicidal behavior (Joiner, 2005) proposes that the need to belong is fundamental; when met it can prevent suicide and when thwarted it can substantially increase the risk for suicide. We investigate one source of group-wide variation in belongingness among college students--changes in the social…

  2. Why We Need to Enhance Suicide Postvention: Evaluating a Survey of Psychiatrists' Behaviors after the Suicide of a Patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erlich, Matthew D; Rolin, Stephanie A; Dixon, Lisa B; Adler, David A; Oslin, David W; Levine, Bruce; Berlant, Jeffrey L; Goldman, Beth; Koh, Steve; First, Michael B; Pabbati, Chaitanya; Siris, Samuel G

    2017-07-01

    Suicide prevention efforts are increasing to enhance capabilities and better understand risk factors and etiologies. Postvention, or how clinicians manage the postsuicide aftermath, strengthens suicide prevention, destigmatizes the tragedy, operationalizes the confusing aftermath, and promotes caregiver recovery. However, studies regarding its efficacy are minimal. The Psychopathology Committee of the Group for the Advancement for Psychiatry surveyed a convenience sample of psychiatrists to better understand postvention activities. Ninety psychiatrists completed the survey; they were predominantly men (72%) with an average of 24.6 years of experience (SD, 16.7 years). Most had contact with the patient's family within 6 months of the suicide, and most psychiatrists sought some form of support. Few psychiatrists used a suicide postvention procedure or toolkit (9%). No psychiatrists stopped clinical practice after a patient suicide, although 10% stopped accepting patients they deemed at risk of suicide. Postvention efforts, therefore, should be improved to better address survivor care.

  3. Coping Card Usage can Further Reduce Suicide Reattempt in Suicide Attempter Case Management Within 3-Month Intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ying-Chuan; Hsieh, Ling-Yu; Wang, Ming-Yu; Chou, Cheng-Hsiang; Huang, Min-Wei; Ko, Huei-Chen

    2016-02-01

    This randomized controlled trial was designed to evaluate the effectiveness of using crisis coping cards (n = 32) in the case management of suicide prevention compared with case management without the use of coping cards (n = 32) over a 3-month intervention period. The generalized estimating equation was used to examine the interaction effect between treatments and time on suicide risk, depression, anxiety, and hopelessness. Results indicated that subsequent suicidal behaviors, severity of suicide risk, depression, anxiety, and hopelessness were reduced more in the coping card intervention group compared to the case management only group. Moreover, for the survival curves of time to suicide reattempt, the coping card group showed a significantly longer time to reattempt than the case management only group at 2-month and 3-month intervention periods.

  4. [Suicide, a social fact].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baudelot, Christian

    2017-04-01

    Treating suicide as a social fact means disregarding its individual and dramatic dimensions. Sociologists do not reason on the basis of specific cases but by studying the variations, in space and time, of suicide rates. Their contribution relates essentially to a renewed perspective on society: suicide is in fact a very accurate indicator of the intensity and quality of the bonds which unite or isolate individuals in a society. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  5. Gender differences in suicide in Serbia within the period 2006-2010

    OpenAIRE

    Dedić Gordana

    2014-01-01

    Background/Aim. The complex multifactorial etiology of suicide suggests the need to consider gender differences when developing effective strategies for suicide prevention. The aim of this study was to examine the suicide rates and/or trends obtained for population as a whole, including gender differences in cases of committed suicide and to consider factors (age groups, education, employment, marital status, nationality and methods) associated with it in S...

  6. Retrospective analysis of suicidality in patients treated with the antidepressant desvenlafaxine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tourian, Karen A; Padmanabhan, Krishna; Groark, Jim; Ninan, Philip T

    2010-08-01

    The objective of this analysis was to assess the risk of increased suicidal thoughts and behavior (suicidality) with desvenlafaxine (administered as desvenlafaxine succinate) in patients with major depressive disorder (MDD). Data from 9 double-blind, 8-week studies in outpatients with MDD were analyzed retrospectively. Patients were randomly assigned to desvenlafaxine (n = 1834) or placebo (n = 1116). Adverse events (AEs) related to suicidality were identified by searching the AE database for text strings possibly related to suicidality; false positives were excluded. Narratives for each case were prepared and blinded for review. Events were classified according to the Columbia Classification Algorithm of Suicide Assessment. Odds ratios were calculated; chi tests were used to compare treatment groups. Occurrence of emerging or worsening suicidality, based on the 17-item Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression suicide item, was compared for desvenlafaxine and placebo using chi tests. In all, 17 (0.93%) of 1834 patients receiving desvenlafaxine and 8 (0.72%) of 1116 receiving placebo reported possible suicidality-related AEs. Events were relatively evenly distributed across treatment groups. One patient randomly assigned to desvenlafaxine treatment died of completed suicide during the on-therapy period. There were no significant differences between groups in the risk for any class of suicide-related events, including completed suicide or suicide attempt. Odds of emergence or worsening of suicidality 17-item (Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression suicide item) did not differ significantly between treatment groups. No evidence of a signal for increased suicidality was detected in adult patients treated with desvenlafaxine in short-term MDD trials. As suicidal events were extremely rare, a true increased risk cannot be ruled out.

  7. Relationship of Myers Briggs type indicator personality characteristics to suicidality in affective disorder patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janowsky, David S; Morter, Shirley; Hong, Liyi

    2002-01-01

    The current study characterized the Myers Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) personality profiles of 64 suicidal and 30 non-suicidal psychiatric inpatients with affective disorder diagnoses. The MBTI divides individuals categorically into eight personality preferences (Extroverted and Introverted, Sensing and Intuitive, Thinking and Feeling, and Judging and Perceiving). Compared to the group of non-suicidal affective disorder patients, suicidal affective disorder patients were significantly more Introverted and Perceiving using ANCOVA analyses, and significantly more Introverted alone using Chi Square analyses.

  8. The Great Recession, unemployment and suicide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norström, Thor; Grönqvist, Hans

    2015-02-01

    How have suicide rates responded to the marked increase in unemployment spurred by the Great Recession? Our paper puts this issue into a wider perspective by assessing (1) whether the unemployment-suicide link is modified by the degree of unemployment protection, and (2) whether the effect on suicide of the present crisis differs from the effects of previous economic downturns. We analysed the unemployment-suicide link using time-series data for 30 countries spanning the period 1960-2012. Separate fixed-effects models were estimated for each of five welfare state regimes with different levels of unemployment protection (Eastern, Southern, Anglo-Saxon, Bismarckian and Scandinavian). We included an interaction term to capture the possible excess effect of unemployment during the Great Recession. The largest unemployment increases occurred in the welfare state regimes with the least generous unemployment protection. The unemployment effect on male suicides was statistically significant in all welfare regimes, except the Scandinavian one. The effect on female suicides was significant only in the eastern European country group. There was a significant gradient in the effects, being stronger the less generous the unemployment protection. The interaction term capturing the possible excess effect of unemployment during the financial crisis was not significant. Our findings suggest that the more generous the unemployment protection the weaker the detrimental impact on suicide of the increasing unemployment during the Great Recession. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  9. The effects of religious versus secular education on suicide ideation and suicidal attitudes in adolescents in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eskin, Mehmet

    2004-07-01

    Religion is associated with lower rates of self-killing, but the mechanism underlying religion-suicide association is not clear. To better understand this relationship, the present study investigated the impact of religious versus secular education on suicidal ideation and attitudes towards suicide and a suicidal close friend in Turkish adolescents. Deduced from religious commitment, social integration, networking and stigma perspectives, the study tested five specific predictions. A questionnaire was used to collect the data in a group of adolescents (n = 206) undergoing religious education and a group of adolescents (n = 214) undergoing secular education (N = 420). Suicide ideation was more frequent in adolescents undergoing secular education than in those undergoing religious education. The secular group was more accepting of suicide than the religious group. Those from the religious group, however, were more accepting of a suicidal close friend than their secular counterparts. It seems that self-killing finds accepting attitudes in secular segments of societies and,hence, people consider self-killing as an option during times of personal crises. People from religious communities, however, seem not to accept self-killing as an option, but they are more positive toward persons who have considered suicide for one reason or another.

  10. Psychological models of suicide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barzilay, Shira; Apter, Alan

    2014-01-01

    Suicidal behavior is highly complex and multifaceted. Consequent to the pioneering work of Durkheim and Freud, theoreticians have attempted to explain the biological, social, and psychological nature of suicide. The present work presents an overview and critical discussion of the most influential theoretical models of the psychological mechanisms underlying the development of suicidal behavior. All have been tested to varying degrees and have important implications for the development of therapeutic and preventive interventions. Broader and more in-depth approaches are still needed to further our understanding of suicidal phenomena.

  11. Masculinity and suicidal thinking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirkis, Jane; Spittal, Matthew J; Keogh, Louise; Mousaferiadis, Tass; Currier, Dianne

    2017-03-01

    Males feature prominently in suicide statistics, but relatively little work has been done to date to explore whether endorsement of dominant masculinity norms heightens the risk of or is protective against suicidal thinking. This paper aimed to further knowledge in this area. We used baseline data from 13,884 men (aged 18-55) in the Australian Longitudinal Study on Male Health (Ten to Men) cohort. These men filled in self-complete questionnaires in 2013/14 which covered a range of topics, including conformity to dominant masculinity norms and suicidal thinking. We conducted logistic regression analyses to estimate the strength of association between these two variables. After controlling for other key predictors of suicidal thinking, one characteristic of dominant masculinity-self-reliance-stood out as a risk factor for suicidal thinking (AOR 1.34; 95% CI 1.26-1.43). It suggests that one particular element of dominant masculinity-being self-reliant-may place men at increased risk of suicidal thinking. This finding resonates with current theories of how suicidal thinking develops and leads to action. It also has implications for the full gamut of suicide prevention approaches that target males in clinical settings and in the general population, and for our broader society. Further work is needed, however, to confirm the direction of the relationship between self-reliance and suicidality, and to unpack the means through which self-reliance may exert an influence.

  12. Is Suicide Predictable?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Asmaee

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Background:The current study aimed to test the hypothesis: Is suicide predictable? And try to classify the predictive factors in multiple suicide attempts.Methods:A cross-sectional study was administered to 223 multiple attempters, women who came to a medical poison centre after a suicide attempt.The participants were young, poor, and single.A Logistic Regression Analiysis was used to classify the predictive factors of suicide.Results:Women who had multiple suicide attempts exhibited a significant tendency to attempt suicide again. They had a history for more than two years of multiple suicide attempts, from three to as many as 18 times, plus mental illnesses such as depression and substance abuse.They also had a positive history of mental illnesses.Conclusion:Results indicate that contributing factors for another suicide attempt include previous suicide attempts, mental illness (depression,or a positive history of mental illnesses in the family affecting them at a young age, and substance abuse.

  13. Trajectories of suicidal ideation in people seeking web-based help for suicidality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Trine; Van Spijker, Bregje; Karstoft, Karen Inge

    2016-01-01

    Background: Suicidal ideation (SI) is a common mental health problem. Variability in intensity of SI over time has been linked to suicidal behavior, yet little is known about the temporal course of SI.  Objective: The primary aim was to identify prototypical trajectories of SI in the general...... controlled trial comparing a Web-based self-help for SI group with a control group. We assessed participants at inclusion and at 2, 4, and 6 weeks. The Beck Scale for Suicide Ideation was applied at all assessments and was included in latent growth mixture modeling analysis to empirically identify...... to a very low score. The third trajectory, high increasing (12/236, 5.1%), also had high initial SI score, followed by an increase to the highest level of SI at 6 weeks. The fourth trajectory, low stable (52/236, 22.0%) had a constant low level of SI. Previous attempted suicide and having received Web...

  14. Suicide among childhood cancer survivors in Slovenia

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    Mojca Čižek Sajko

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Suicide is one of the causes of late mortality among childhood cancer survivors. The aim of our study was to analyse the risk of suicide among childhood cancer survivors compared with that ofthe general population of Slovenia. Patients and methods. This retrospective study included patients with childhood cancer registeredat the Cancer Registry of Slovenia between 1978-2008, with an observation period of 1978-2010. Childhood cancer patients and controlsubjects from the general population of Slovenia were matched by sex,year and age at the beginning of follow-up and time of follow-up inyears. Data on the general population of Slovenia were obtained fromthe Statistical Office of the Republic of Slovenia. Results. A total of 1647 patients were recorded in the Cancer Registry as having cancerduring childhood, with 3 patients committing suicide. All three weremale. Their age at diagnosis of cancer was 12, 13 and 2 years old; their age at suicide was 19, 32 and 28 years old. The mechanism of death was asphyxiation in all three deaths. The calculation of the expected number of suicides in the group of individuals with childhood cancer from the general Slovene population revealed the number of 3.16persons. Conclusion. The comparison of the observed and expectedprobability showed that there was no statistically significant difference in the suicide rate between childhood cancer survivors and the general population of Slovenia.

  15. Factors related to attempted suicide in Davanagere

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    Nagendra Gouda M

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Research Question: What are the factors responsible for suicidal attempts? Objectives: To study the socio-demographic factors, methods and reasons for suicidal attempts. Type of Study: Cross-sectional study. Setting: Bapuji and C.G. Hospitals attached to J.J.M. Medical College, Davanagere. Participants: A total of 540 suicidal attempters admitted to emergency wards. Methodology: A pretested proforma was administered to the subjects relating the factors responsible for the attempt. The data thus obtained was compiled and analyzed. Statistical Analysis: Proportions, Z -test and Chi-square test. Results: In this study, 61.3% were males and 38.7% were females. Peak occurrence of suicidal attempts was found in the second and third decades (15-29 years. Hindus constituted about 94.6% of the total suicidal attempters. Almost half (52.2% of the subjects had education below or up to matriculation and 83% of them were from the lower (classes IV and V socio-economic groups. Agriculturists, housewives and unskilled workers represented 75% of the total subjects. Fifty-five percent of the subjects were from nuclear families and most (62.4% of them were married; frequent mode of attempting suicides was by organo-phosphorus compounds (66.3% followed by overdosage of tablets (17.8%. Common cause was family problem (27.2% followed by illness (27%.

  16. Presence of suicidality as a prognostic indicator

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    Malhotra K

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Suicidal symptoms in depression are often thought to predict a higher severity of illness and a worse prognosis. Aims: To determine if suicidal ideation at the time of treatment for major depression can predict response to antidepressant medication in primary care. Settings and Design: A retrospective analysis of subjects receiving anti-depressant drugs in a primary care setting Methods and Material: Nine depressed patients (14% who acknowledged suicidality on the PHQ-9 depression scale were followed up for and compared to a group of 54 (86% depressed patients (controls who did not have suicidal thoughts for four months. All were given treatment with antidepressants and followed with a disease management protocol where the PHQ-9 was used as a systematic outcome measure. Statistical Analysis: Descriptive measures and t-tests were utilized to show statistical significance. Results: There were no statistical differences in remission from depressive symptoms based on the PHQ-9 scale after antidepressant treatment, between patients with suicidal thoughts (56% and those without (44%. Conclusion: The presence of suicidality as a depressive symptom did not predict poorer clinical outcome when treating depression in the primary care setting in the patients studied.

  17. Risk Factors and Prevention Strategies for Suicide among the Elderly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franks, Rebecca; Burnett, Donna O.; Evans, Retta R.

    2012-01-01

    Suicide is a preventable public health concern affecting the nation as the 10th leading cause of death. The prevalence of suicide among the elderly is higher than any other group. Risk factors attributed to this phenomenon are depression, social isolation, substance abuse, poor physical health or function, financial stress, and access to lethal…

  18. Loss of partner and suicide risks among oldest old

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Erlangsen, Annette; Jeune, Bernard; Bille-Brahe, Unni

    2004-01-01

    the impact that loss of a partner has on the suicide risks of the oldest old (80+) compared to younger age groups. SUBJECTS: the entire Danish population aged 50 during 1994-1998 (n = 1,978,527). METHODS: we applied survival analysis to calculate the changes in relative risk of suicide after a loss by using...

  19. Understanding suicide among older adults: a review of psychological and sociological theories of suicide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanley, Ian H; Hom, Melanie A; Rogers, Megan L; Hagan, Christopher R; Joiner, Thomas E

    2016-01-01

    Older adults die by suicide at a higher rate than any other age group in nearly every country globally. Suicide among older adults has been an intractable clinical and epidemiological problem for decades, due in part to an incomplete understanding of the causes of suicide, as well as imprecision in the prediction and prevention of suicidal thoughts and behaviors in later life. Theory-driven investigations hold promise in addressing these gaps by systematically identifying testable, and thus falsifiable, mechanisms that may better explain this phenomenon and also point to specific interventions. In this article, we comprehensively review key extant psychological and sociological theories of suicide and discuss each theory's applicability to the understanding and prevention of suicide among older adults. Despite a modest number of theories of suicide, few have undergone extensive empirical investigation and scrutiny, and even fewer have been applied specifically to older adults. To advance the science and contribute findings with a measurable clinical and public health impact, future research in this area, from conceptual to applied, must draw from and integrate theory.

  20. Influence of Sex on Suicidal Phenotypes in Affective Disorder Patients with Traumatic Childhood Experiences.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra Bernegger

    Full Text Available In the current study, we aimed to investigate the impact of childhood trauma on suicidal behaviour phenotypes in a group of patients with diagnosed affective disorder (unipolar or bipolar affective disorder.Patients with and without a history of childhood abuse, measured by Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ, were assessed to explore risks for suicidal behaviour (including suicide attempt, self-harm and non-suicidal self-injury. The tested sample consisted of 258 patients (111 males and 147 females, in-patients and out-patients at the Department of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, Medical University of Vienna and University Hospital Tulln, Lower Austria. Psychiatric diagnoses were derived from the SCAN (Schedules for Clinical Assessment in Neuropsychiatry interview. In addition, patients were administered the Lifetime Parasuicidal Count (LPC, Suicidal Behaviour Questionnaire (SBQ-R, and Viennese Suicide Risk Assessment Scale (VISURIAS questionnaires.In contrast to male suicide attempters, female suicide attempters showed both significantly higher total CTQ scores (p<0.001, and higher CTQ subscores (emotional, physical and sexual abuse, as well as emotional and physical neglect in comparison to the non-suicidal control group. Besides, females with a history of self-harming behaviour (including suicidal intention and Non-Suicidal-Self Injury (NSSI had significantly higher CTQ total scores (p<0.001 than the control group.These findings suggest gender differences in suicidal behaviour after being exposed to childhood trauma.

  1. Mindfulness-based cognitive therapy (MBCT) reduces the association between depressive symptoms and suicidal cognitions in patients with a history of suicidal depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnhofer, Thorsten; Crane, Catherine; Brennan, Kate; Duggan, Danielle S; Crane, Rebecca S; Eames, Catrin; Radford, Sholto; Silverton, Sarah; Fennell, Melanie J V; Williams, J Mark G

    2015-12-01

    In patients with a history of suicidal depression, recurrence of depressive symptoms can easily reactivate suicidal thinking. In this study, we investigated whether training in mindfulness, which is aimed at helping patients "decenter" from negative thinking, could help weaken the link between depressive symptoms and suicidal cognitions. Analyses were based on data from a recent randomized controlled trial, in which previously suicidal patients were allocated to mindfulness-based cognitive therapy (MBCT), an active control treatment, cognitive psychoeducation (CPE), which did not include any meditation practice, or treatment as usual (TAU). After the end of the treatment phase, we compared the associations between depressive symptoms, as assessed through self-reports on the Beck Depression Inventory-II (Beck, Steer, & Brown, 1996), and suicidal thinking, as assessed through the Suicidal Cognitions Scale (Rudd et al., 2001). In patients with minimal to moderate symptoms at the time of assessment, comparisons of the correlations between depressive symptoms and suicidal cognitions showed significant differences between the groups. Although suicidal cognitions were significantly related to levels of symptoms in the 2 control groups, there was no such relation in the MBCT group. The findings suggest that, in patients with a history of suicidal depression, training in mindfulness can help to weaken the association between depressive symptoms and suicidal thinking, and thus reduce an important vulnerability for relapse to suicidal depression. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  2. Effects of educating local government officers and healthcare and welfare professionals in suicide prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaniwa, Isao; Kawanishi, Chiaki; Suda, Akira; Hirayasu, Yoshio

    2012-03-01

    Suicide is a major public health issue. In Japan, local governments are responsible for suicide prevention, and local government officers are therefore expected to act as gatekeepers for suicide prevention. In this study, through a questionnaire survey, the authors examined the current knowledge and attitudes concerning suicide prevention among local government officers and healthcare and welfare professionals, and the effects of providing suicide prevention education on their knowledge of and attitudes toward suicide and its prevention. One hundred eighty-three local government officers and 432 healthcare/welfare professionals completed the survey before and after a single education session. Before the session, the local government officers and healthcare/welfare professionals showed mainly positive attitudes toward suicide prevention efforts, with little difference between the two groups. After the training, knowledge and attitudes were further improved for most questionnaire items. Respondents with one or more experiences of suicide prevention training showed significantly more knowledge and positive attitudes before the training than those with no such experience. Moreover, knowledge of depression and having a sympathetic attitude were found to be especially associated with the overall attitude that "suicide can be prevented". Training in suicide prevention was shown to be effective in promoting appropriate knowledge and attitudes among local government officers and healthcare/welfare professionals who are gatekeepers for preventing suicide. Our findings confirm the importance of suicide prevention education, and will contribute to creating a standard educational program on suicide prevention in Japan.

  3. Effects of Educating Local Government Officers and Healthcare and Welfare Professionals in Suicide Prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshio Hirayasu

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Suicide is a major public health issue. In Japan, local governments are responsible for suicide prevention, and local government officers are therefore expected to act as gatekeepers for suicide prevention. In this study, through a questionnaire survey, the authors examined the current knowledge and attitudes concerning suicide prevention among local government officers and healthcare and welfare professionals, and the effects of providing suicide prevention education on their knowledge of and attitudes toward suicide and its prevention. One hundred eighty-three local government officers and 432 healthcare/welfare professionals completed the survey before and after a single education session. Before the session, the local government officers and healthcare/welfare professionals showed mainly positive attitudes toward suicide prevention efforts, with little difference between the two groups. After the training, knowledge and attitudes were further improved for most questionnaire items. Respondents with one or more experiences of suicide prevention training showed significantly more knowledge and positive attitudes before the training than those with no such experience. Moreover, knowledge of depression and having a sympathetic attitude were found to be especially associated with the overall attitude that “suicide can be prevented”. Training in suicide prevention was shown to be effective in promoting appropriate knowledge and attitudes among local government officers and healthcare/welfare professionals who are gatekeepers for preventing suicide. Our findings confirm the importance of suicide prevention education, and will contribute to creating a standard educational program on suicide prevention in Japan.

  4. Attempted suicide in Denmark. III. Assessment of repeated suicidal behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, A G; Bille-Brahe, U; Hansen, W;

    1985-01-01

    features for the repeaters were previous suicidal behaviour and suicidal behaviour among relatives. Many had a psychiatric record and expressed chronic somatic complaints. Around the time of the attempt, many expressed hopelessness, isolation and suicidal ideation. Pierce's Suicide Intent Scale performed...

  5. The efficacy of telephonic follow up in prevention of suicidal reattempt in patients with suicide attempt history

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    Seyed Ghafur Mousavi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: prevention of suicide is one of priority world health. Suicide is one of the preventable causes of death. The aim of this study is evaluation of telephone follow up on suicide reattempt. Materials and Methods : This randomized controlled clinical trial is a prospective study which has been done in Noor Hospital of Isfahan-Iran, at 2010. 139 patients who have suicide attempt history divided in one of two groups, randomly, 70 patients in" treatment as usual (TAU" and 69 patients in "brief interventional control (BIC. Seven telephone contact with BIC group patients have been done "during six months" and two questionnaires have been filled in each session. The data has been analyzed by descriptive and Chi-square test, under SPSS. Results : No significant differences of suicide reattempt has been found between two groups (P = 0.18, but significant reduction in frequency of suicidal thoughts (P = 0.007 and increase in hope at life (P = 0.001 was shown in intervention group. Conclusion : Telephones follow up in patients with suicide history decrease suicidal thought frequency" and increase hope in life, significantly.

  6. Impact of acute alcohol consumption on lethality of suicide methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, C Hyung Keun; Yoo, Seong Ho; Lee, Jaewon; Cho, Sung Joon; Shin, Min-Sup; Kim, Eun Young; Kim, Se Hyun; Ham, Keunsoo; Ahn, Yong Min

    2017-05-01

    The influence of acute alcohol consumption on the factors related to suicide remains understudied. Thus, the present study investigated the relationship between blood alcohol content (BAC) and the lethality of suicide methods. Autopsy data on 315 South Korean suicide completers with a positive BAC were collected from a nationwide pool between May 2015 and November 2015, and the methods were dichotomised as suicide methods of low lethality (SMLL; drug/chemical overdose and sharp objects, n=67) and suicide methods of high lethality (SMHL; everything else, n=243). BAC at the time of autopsy and various suicide-related factors of these two groups were compared with logistic regression analyses. Compared to suicide completers with a BAC in the lowest range of 0.011-0.049%, suicide completers with a BAC in the range of 0.150-0.199% were more likely to use SMHL (odds ratio [OR]: 3.644, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.221-10.874). Additionally, the adoption of SMHL was significantly associated with the absence of a psychiatric illness (OR: 0.433, 95% CI: 0.222-0.843) and a younger age; the OR for high BAC among subjects in their 40s was 0.266 (95% CI: 0.083-0.856); in their 50s, 0.183 (95% CI: 0.055-0.615); and in their 60s, 0.057 (95% CI: 0.015-0.216). The relationship between BAC and suicide method lethality was represented by a bell-shaped pattern in which suicide methods of high lethality were more likely to be used by suicide completers with mid-range BAC levels. The increased impulsivity and impairments in particular executive functions, including planning and organization, associated with acute alcohol use may influence the selection of a particular suicide method based on its lethality. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Mental Health Workers’ Views About Their Suicide Prevention Role

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virginia Ross

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available AimMental Health workers bear responsibility for preventing suicide in their client group. Survey studies have indicated that staff can be seriously adversely affected when a client suicides. The aim of the current study is to describe and evaluate the effects on mental health (MH workers of their ongoing role in managing suicidal behaviours and to identify the thoughts and feelings associated with this role.MethodA survey was administered to 135 MH workers via an on-line self-report vehicle. The survey comprised standardised measures of anxiety and burnout as well as a questionnaire developed for this study concerning perceptions and attitudes to suicide and suicide prevention.ResultsFactor analysis of 12 retained items of the questionnaire identified three factors: 1 preventability beliefs (beliefs about suicide being always and/or permanently preventable; 2 associated distress (stress/anxiety about managing suicidal behaviour; and 3 the prevention role (covering views about personal roles and responsibilities in preventing suicidal behaviours. Analysis of these factors found that many MH workers experience an elevation of stress/anxiety in relation to their role in managing suicidal behaviours. This distress was associated with the emotional exhaustion component of burnout. Measures showed adverse responses were higher for outpatient than inpatient workers; for those who had received generic training in suicide prevention: and for those who had experienced a workplace related client suicide.ConclusionThere is a need for the development of appropriate self-care strategies to alleviate stress in MH workers exposed to suicide.

  8. Adolescent attachment security, family functioning, and suicide attempts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheftall, Arielle H; Mathias, Charles W; Furr, R Michael; Dougherty, Donald M

    2013-01-01

    Theories of suicidal behavior suggest that the desire to die can arise from disruption of interpersonal relationships. Suicide research has typically studied this from the individual's perspective of the quality/frequency of their social interactions; however, the field of attachment may offer another perspective on understanding an individual's social patterns and suicide risk. This study examined attachment along with broader family functioning (family adaptability and cohesion) among 236 adolescent psychiatric inpatients with (n = 111) and without (n = 125) histories of suicide attempts. On average, adolescents were 14 years of age and Hispanic (69%). Compared to those without suicide attempts, adolescent attempters had lower self-reported maternal and paternal attachment and lower familial adaptability and cohesion. When comparing all three types of attachment simultaneously in the logistic regression model predicting suicide attempt status, paternal attachment was the only significant predictor. Suicide attempt group was also significantly predicted by self-rated Cohesion and Adaptability; neither of the parent ratings of family functioning were significant predictors. These findings are consistent with the predictions of the Interpersonal Theory of Suicide about social functioning and support the efforts to develop attachment-based interventions as a novel route towards suicide prevention.

  9. Clinical Characteristics of the Suicide Attempters Who Refused to Participate in a Suicide Prevention Case Management Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Soyoung; Choi, Kyoung Ho; Oh, Youngmin; Lee, Hae-Kook; Kweon, Yong-Sil; Lee, Chung Tai; Lee, Kyoung-Uk

    2015-10-01

    Case management interventions for suicide attempters aimed at helping adjust their social life to prevent reattempts have high nonparticipation and dropout rates. We analyzed the clinical characteristics of the group who refused to participate in the suicide prevention program in Korea. A total of 489 patients with a suicide attempt who visited Uijeongbu St. Mary's Hospital, the Catholic University of Korea, from December 2009 to December 2013 were analyzed. All patients were divided into the participation group (n = 262) and the refusal group (n = 227) according to their participation in the case management program. Demographic and clinical characteristics of each group were examined. Results showed that the refusal group had low risks for suicide in terms of risk factors related with psychopathologies and presenting suicide behavior. That is, the refusal group had less patients with co-morbid medical illnesses and more patients with mild severity of depression compared to the participation group. However, the refusal group had more interpersonal conflict, more isolation of social integrity, and more impaired insight about suicide attempt. The results suggest that nonparticipation in the case management program may depend upon the patient's impaired insight about the riskiness of suicide and lack of social support.

  10. Suicide Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of Personal Stories Peers Celebrating Art Peers Celebrating Music Be Vocal Support Group Locator DBSA In-Person ... you or someone you know is living with depression or bipolar disorder, you understand all too well ...

  11. Poststroke suicide attempts and completed suicides: a socioeconomic and nationwide perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eriksson, Marie; Glader, Eva-Lotta; Norrving, Bo; Asplund, Kjell

    2015-04-28

    We examined attempted and completed suicides after stroke to determine whether they were associated with socioeconomic status, other patient characteristics, or time after stroke. This nationwide cohort study included stroke patients from Riksstroke (the Swedish Stroke Register) from 2001 to 2012. We used personal identification numbers to link the Riksstroke data with other national registers. Suicide attempts were identified by a record of hospital admission for intentional self-harm (ICD-10: X60-X84), and completed suicides were identified in the national Cause of Death Register. We used multiple Cox regression to analyze time from stroke onset to first suicide attempt. We observed 220,336 stroke patients with a total follow-up time of 860,713 person-years. During follow-up, there were 1,217 suicide attempts, of which 260 were fatal. This was approximately double the rate of the general Swedish population. Patients with lower education or income (hazard ratio [HR] 1.37, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.11-1.68) for primary vs university and patients living alone (HR 1.73, 95% CI 1.52-1.97) had an increased risk of attempted suicide, and patients born outside of Europe had a lower risk compared to patients of European origin. Male sex, young age, severe stroke, and poststroke depression were other factors associated with an increased risk of attempted suicide after stroke. The risk was highest during the first 2 years after stroke. Both clinical and socioeconomic factors increase the risk of poststroke suicide attempts. This suggests a need for psychosocial support and suicide preventive interventions in high-risk groups of stroke patients. © 2015 American Academy of Neurology.

  12. Evaluating the SOS suicide prevention program: a replication and extension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glanovsky Jaime

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Suicide is a leading cause of death for children and youth in the United States. Although school based programs have been the principal vehicle for youth suicide prevention efforts for over two decades, few have been systematically evaluated. This study examined the effectiveness of the Signs of Suicide (SOS prevention program in reducing suicidal behavior. Methods 4133 students in 9 high schools in Columbus, Georgia, western Massachusetts, and Hartford, Connecticut were randomly assigned to intervention and control groups during the 2001–02 and 2002–03 school years. Self-administered questionnaires were completed by students in both groups approximately 3 months after program implementation. Results Significantly lower rates of suicide attempts and greater knowledge and more adaptive attitudes about depression and suicide were observed among students in the intervention group. Students' race/ethnicity, grade, and gender did not alter the impact of the intervention on any of the outcomes assessed in this analysis. Conclusion This study has confirmed preliminary analysis of Year 1 data with a larger and more racially and socio-economically diverse sample. SOS continues to be the only universal school-based suicide prevention program to demonstrate significant effects of self-reported suicide attempts in a study utilizing a randomized experimental design. Moreover, the beneficial effects of SOS were observed among high school-aged youth from diverse racial/ethnic backgrounds, highlighting the program's utility as a universal prevention program. Trial registration clinicaltrials.gov NCT000387855.

  13. Criminal social identity and suicide ideation among Pakistani young prisoners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shagufta, Sonia; Boduszek, Daniel; Dhingra, Katie; Kola-Palmer, Derrol

    2015-01-01

    Suicidal behaviour is a common in prisoners, yet little is known about the factors that may protect against thoughts of ending one's life. The purpose of this paper is to specify and test a structural model to examine the relationship between three criminal social identity (CSI) dimensions (in-group affect, in-group ties, and cognitive centrality) and suicide ideation while controlling for period of confinement, age, criminal friends, and offense type (violent vs non-violent). Participants were 415 male juvenile offenders incarcerated in prisons in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Pakistan. A structural model was specified and tested using Mplus to examine the relationships between the three factors of CSI and suicidal thoughts, while controlling for age, offender type, period of confinement, and substance dependence. The model provided an adequate fit for the data, explaining 22 per cent of variance in suicidal thoughts. In-group affect (the level of personal bonding with other criminals) was found to exert a strong protective effect against suicide ideation. The research contributes important information on suicide ideation in Pakistan, an Islamic country in which suicide is considered a sin and subsequently a criminal offence. Results indicate that Juvenile offenders' sense of shared identity may help to prevent the development of thoughts of death by suicide. Consequently, separating and isolating young prisoners may be ill advised.

  14. Suicide and Ethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battin, Margaret P., Ed.; Maris, Ronald W., Ed.

    1983-01-01

    Presents five articles by philosophers and a psychiatrist on the ethics of suicide, as well as comments and a literature review. Discusses the rationality and morality of suicide from several philosophical viewpoints including self-ownership, Kant's theories, and a libertarian perspective. (JAC)

  15. Suicide and religion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Christopher C H

    2014-01-01

    Much of the evidence that religion provides a protective factor against completed suicide comes from cross-sectional studies. This issue of the Journal includes a report of a new prospective study. An understanding of the relationship between spirituality, religion and suicide is important in assessing and caring for those at risk.

  16. The Adolescent Suicide Problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maris, Ronald

    1985-01-01

    The suicide rate of young people in the United States rose 237 percent between 1960 and 1980. This paper addresses three related issues: epidemic versus artifact; stress in adolescence; and the distinctive traits of the lifestyles or careers of a random sample of young Chicago suicides. (Author/BL)

  17. Register for Suicide Attempts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Erik; Jensen, Børge Frank

    2004-01-01

    The Register for Suicide Attempts (RSA) is a product of the WHO research project "WHO/Euro Multicentre Study on Parasuicide", which, among other things, had the purpose of collecting data on suicide attempts from 13 European countries. Data is collected in order to calculate trends and identify...

  18. Register for Suicide Attempts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Erik; Jensen, Børge Frank

    2004-01-01

    The Register for Suicide Attempts (RSA) is a product of the WHO research project "WHO/Euro Multicentre Study on Parasuicide", which, among other things, had the purpose of collecting data on suicide attempts from 13 European countries. Data is collected in order to calculate trends and identify...

  19. Suicide of Japanese Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iga, Mamoru

    1981-01-01

    Discusses the uniquely intense stress in Japan due to the "Examination Hell" which contributes to a high rate of young suicide. The social structural factors are analyzed in terms of weak ego; restraint on aggression; lack of social resources; and views of life, death, and suicide. (Author)

  20. Suicide and Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fish, William C.; Waldhart-Letzel, Edith

    1981-01-01

    Presents statistics on the extent of child and adolescent suicide. Symptoms and causes are suggested including ego weakness, child rearing attitudes and practices, and social influences. Considers the ethics of interfering with the attempt to commit suicide and makes recommendations for prevention. (RC)

  1. Youth Suicidal Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... be prevented. Youth across America are affected by suicide, be it in families, at school, or in their own lives. The ... viii Nonsuicidal self-injury x Exposure to friends’/family members’ suicide xii Low self-esteem xiii Protective Factors Family ...

  2. Suicide in Batman, Southeastern Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altindag, Abdurrahman; Ozkan, Mustafa; Oto, Remzi

    2005-01-01

    The southeastern part of Turkey has comparatively high female suicide rates. We aimed to research social, economic, cultural, and psychiatric reasons of suicides in Batman in a case-controlled psychological autopsy study comparing suicides with matched community controls. The female suicide rate was 9.3 per 100.000 and the female/male ratio was…

  3. Suicide in Relation to AIDS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beckerman, Nancy L.

    1995-01-01

    Explores many dimensions of suicide among the terminally ill, including preemptive, surcease, and rational suicide. The critical issues addressed are the incidence of suicide in HIV-positive individuals, contributing factors associated with the risk of suicide among people with HIV/AIDS, and the clinical and ethical implications of this issue for…

  4. Suicidality and unhealthy weight control behaviors among female underaged psychiatric inpatients.

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    Laakso, Ella; Hakko, Helinä; Räsänen, Pirkko; Riala, Kaisa

    2013-02-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether unhealthy weight control behaviors, fear of becoming obese, binge eating, impulsivity, and body mass index are associated with suicide ideation, repetitive self-mutilative behavior (SMB), suicide attempts, or both suicide attempts and SMB among female adolescent psychiatric inpatients. Data were drawn from a clinical inpatient cohort of female adolescents (N = 300, aged 12-17 years) consecutively admitted for psychiatric hospitalization between April 2001 and March 2006. Information on adolescents' suicidal behavior, psychiatric Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition (DSM-IV), diagnoses and weight control behaviors was obtained using the Schedule for Affective Disorder and Schizophrenia for School-Age Children Present and Lifetime (K-SADS-PL). Even after adjustment with DSM-IV, affective, anxiety and eating disorders self-induced vomiting was significantly associated with SMB and suicide attempts with SMB. Impulsivity was related to suicide attempts with SMB. Excessive exercising was a significant finding only in those girls who had attempted suicide. Girls who had attempted suicide were more often overweight compared with girls without suicidal behavior. Unhealthy weight control behaviors among adolescent girls were found to be strongly associated with suicidal behavior. Girls with a history of both suicide attempts and SMB seem to be the most disturbed group, with multiple weight loss methods and impulsivity. Girls who are overweight or exercise excessively may represent risk groups for attempted suicide. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Suicide of a cyclist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Ulrike; Rost, Thomas; Jungmann, Lara; Pollak, Stefan

    2011-04-15

    The rate of suicides in road traffic fatalities is estimated at 1-8% depending on the investigated study material. Especially single-car accidents, for which no technical reason or driving error is apparent, are considered suspicious. The elucidation of suicides in road traffic is difficult if there are no relevant clues such as the announcement of suicide plans shortly before the event or a suicide note. Individuals who intentionally kill themselves in road traffic often have a history of mental illness. The authors report on a suicide using a bicycle. A 71-year-old man intentionally drove into the wall of a house situated at the end of a hill road and suffered an open craniocerebral trauma and an aortic rupture. The pattern of findings and the circumstances of the case are described.

  6. Suicide in Greece: 2001-2011.

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    Kontaxakis, V; Papaslanis, Th; Havaki-Kontaxaki, B; Tsouvelas, G; Giotakos, O; Papadimitriou, G Ν

    2013-01-01

    Since 2008 several European countries have fallen into a financial crisis. This crisis has mainly affected the Greek population. The lower of income and the increase of unemployment as consequences of crisis lead to negative effects on people's mental health. Usually, in periods of economic crisis there is an increase of suicidality of population. The aim of this study is to examine the changes of suicide rates in Greece during the last decade (2001-2011) with particular consideration in the recent period of economic crisis (2008-2011). Data regarding the greek general population and the crude data on suicides were obtained from the Hellenic Statistical Authority (ELSTAT). We assessed the specific suicide rate, i.e. the number of suicide cases per 100.000 inhabitants (SSR) using population data on the 2001 and 2011 census. Yearly and mean total, age and sex-SSR were calculated in five years age groups. There were no suicide cases among children under the age of fifteen. We compared total and male, female SSR during the period before the crisis (2001-2007) and during the crisis (2008-2011). During the decade 2001-2011 a total number of 4133 suicide cases were recorded. There were 3423 (82.8%) male suicides and 710 (17.2%) female suicides. During the decade 2001-2011 total SSR increased by 38.4%. In males increased by 33.1% and in females by 69.6%. In the period before the crisis (2001-2007) total SSR decreased by 3.9%. In males decreased by 8.4% but in females increased by 22.3%. During the period of crisis (2008-2011) total SSR increased by 27.2%. In males increased by 26.9% and in females by 28.5%. There was a statistically significant increase in total SSR during the crisis regarding subjects 50-54 years old (t=3.43, p=0.007) and in total SSR of males (t=2.31, p=0.047) as well as of the males age groups 50-54 (t=3.56, p=0.006), 45-49 (t=2.87, p=0.02), 30-34 (t=2.96, p=0.02). There were no statistically significant differences both in total SSR and in SSR of all

  7. [Concurrent validation of the suicidal risk assessment scale (R.S.D.) with the Beck's suicidal ideation scale].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ducher, J-L; Daléry, J

    2004-01-01

    The prevention of suicide is a top priority in mental health. The determination of high risk suicidal groups is not sufficient. The expressing suicidal ideas is not a protective factor, but in contrary a risk factor to take into account, or even to search and to quantify: 80% of the subjects who attempt to commit suicide or commit suicide express such ideas months before. Several evaluation instruments try to help the practitioners or the research workers in this reasoning. The suicidal risk assessment scale RSD can be cited in particular. It is composed of eleven sections. The 0 level corresponds to the absence of particular ideas of death or suicide. Levels 1 and 2, the presence of ideas of death. Levels 3-4-5, the presence of suicidal ideas. The difference compared to the majority of the other scales consecrated to the same subject, the passif desire of death, occupies a place totally particular in the RSD (level 6). From the level 7, the risk of acting out seems to become more important. It stops being a simple idea of suicide, but becomes a real will of dying, firstly retained by something or someone (level 7), the fear of causing suffering to dear ones or a religious belief., then determined (level 8). Finally, the patient has elaborated a concrete plan (level 9) or he has already started the preparation of acting out (level 10). It is just necessary to evaluate and to note the highest level of the scale. The inclusion of the suicidal risk assessment scale RSD and of the Suicidal Ideation Scale by Beck in an international multicenters, phase IV, double-blind study, according to two parallel groups, with a fixed dose of fluoxétine or fluvoxamine for six weeks, allowed to search correlations which could exist between the two scales. The ana-lysis before the beginning of the treatment was done on 108 outpatients depressive, male and female, aged 18 or over. It finds a satisfactory concurrent validity between the suicidal risk assessment scale RSD and the

  8. Suicide in New Zealand

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    Said Shahtahmasebi

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores and questions some of the notions associated with suicide including mental illness. On average, about two-thirds of suicide cases do not come into contact with mental health services, therefore, we have no objective assessment of their mental status or their life events. One method of improving our objective understanding of suicide would be to use data mining techniques in order to build life event histories on all deaths due to suicide. Although such an exercise would require major funding, partial case histories became publicly available from a coroner's inquest on cases of suicide during a period of three months in Christchurch, New Zealand. The case histories were accompanied by a newspaper article reporting comments from some of the families involved. A straightforward contextual analysis of this information suggests that (i only five cases had contact with mental health services, in two of the cases this was due to a previous suicide attempt and in the other three it was due to drug and alcohol dependency; (ii mental illness as the cause of suicide is fixed in the public mindset, (iii this in turn makes psychological autopsy type studies that seek information from families and friends questionable; (iv proportionally more females attempt, but more men tend to complete suicide; and (v not only is the mental health-suicide relationship tenuous, but suicide also appears to be a process outcome. It is hoped that this will stimulate debate and the collaboration of international experts regardless of their school of thought.

  9. Suicide in deaf populations: a literature review

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    Kapur Navneet

    2007-10-01

    %. Little evidence was found to suggest that risk factors for suicide in deaf people differed systematically from those in the general population. However, studies did report higher levels of depression and higher levels of perceived risk among deaf individuals than hearing control groups. No firm evidence was found regarding the effectiveness of suicide prevention strategies in deaf people, but suggested strategies include developing specific screening tools, training clinical staff, promoting deaf awareness, increasing the availability of specialist mental health services for deaf people. Conclusion There is a significant gap in our understanding of suicide in deaf populations. Clinicians should be aware of the possible association between suicide and deafness. Specialist mental health services should be readily accessible to deaf individuals and specific preventative strategies may be of benefit. However, further research using a variety of study designs is needed to increase our understanding of this issue.

  10. Suicide bombing: a psychodynamic view.

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    Khalid, Uday; Olsson, Peter

    2006-01-01

    The horror and macabre images of suicide bombings appear regularly on television news programs around the world. A focused literature review of psychiatric interview and demographic data about suicide bombers is presented. Of particular clinical interest are the findings from the study of potential suicide bombers who were apprehended before they could act on their suicide bombing plans. The authors offer psychodynamic and social self-psychological theories explaining the phenomenon of suicide bombing behavior.

  11. Suicidal expressions in young Swedish Sami, a cross-sectional study

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    Lotta Omma

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. To investigate the experience of suicidal expressions (death wishes, life weariness, ideation, plans and attempts in young Swedish Sami, their attitudes toward suicide (ATTS, and experience of suicidal expressions and completed suicide in significant others and to compare with Swedes in general. Methods. A cross-sectional study comprising 516 Swedish Sami, 18–28 years of age together with an age and geographically matched reference group (n=218. Parts of the ATTS questionnaire have been used to cover different aspects of the suicidal complex.Data were analysed with regard to gender, occupation, counties and experience of negative societal treatment due to Sami background. Results. Both young Sami and young Swedes reported suicidal ideation, life weariness, and death wishes in a high degree (30–50%, but it was more common among the Sami. Having had plans to commit suicide showed a significant gender difference only in the Sami. The prevalence of suicide attempts did not differ significantly between Sami and Swedes. Subgroups of the Sami reported a higher degree of suicidal behaviour, Sami women and reindeer herders reported a 3, 5-fold higher odds of suicide attempts and a 2-fold higher odds having had plans committing suicide. Sami living in Vasterbotten/Jamtland/Vasternorrland and Sami with experience of ethnicity related bad treatment 2-fold higher odds of suicidal plans compared to those living in other counties. Conclusion. An increased occurrence of suicidal ideation/death wishes/life weariness in young Sami compared to young majority Swedes was found, but not an increased prevalence of suicide attempts and positive attitudes together with an increased awareness to handle suicide problems could be a contributing factor. Severe circumstances and experience of ethnicity-related bad treatment seems to contribute to increased levels of suicidal plans and attempts in subgroups of Sami.

  12. Gender Differences in Suicidal Behaviors: Mediation Role of Psychological Distress Between Alcohol Abuse/Dependence and Suicidal Behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yi Jin; Burlaka, Viktor

    2017-08-14

    Suicide is the second leading cause of death among emerging adults ages 18 to 25. To examine gender differences on the mediation effect of psychological distress between alcohol abuse or dependence (AAD) and suicidal behaviors (ideation, plan, and attempt). The current study used the 2014 NSDUH public use data. Young adults aged 18 to 25 years (M = 21.02) old were selected as study participants. The three outcome variables were suicide ideation, plan, and attempt. AAD was an independent variable. As a mediation variable, psychological distress was used to test the research questions. The mediation effect was tested by using bootstrapping methods with the SPSS version of the macro (PROCESS version 2.16) developed by Preacher and Hayes. Six separate mediation analyses (three for a male and three for a female group) were conducted for different types of suicidal behaviors including ideation, plan, and attempt. Overall, psychological distress mediated the association between AAD and suicidal behaviors, except the relationship between AAD and suicide attempts among the male young adults group. The findings of the current study provide specific directions for practitioners to reduce suicide rates among young adults who are at risk for suicidal behavior.

  13. Prioritizing research to reduce youth suicide and suicidal behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bridge, Jeffrey A; Horowitz, Lisa M; Fontanella, Cynthia A; Grupp-Phelan, Jackie; Campo, John V

    2014-09-01

    The goal of the National Action Alliance for Suicide Prevention is to reduce suicide and suicide attempts in the U.S. by 40% in the next decade. In this paper, a public health approach is applied to suicide prevention to illustrate how reductions in youth suicide and suicidal behavior might be achieved by prioritizing research in two areas: (1) increasing access to primary care-based behavioral health interventions for depressed youth and (2) improving continuity of care for youth who present to emergency departments after a suicide attempt. Finally, some scientific, clinical, and methodologic breakthroughs needed to achieve rapid, substantial, and sustained reductions in youth suicide and suicidal behavior are discussed. Copyright © 2014 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Getting better, getting well: understanding and managing partial and non-response to pharmacological treatment of non-psychotic major depression in old age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Driscoll, Henry C; Karp, Jordan F; Dew, Mary Amanda; Reynolds, Charles F

    2007-01-01

    In general, the pharmacological treatment of non-psychotic major depressive disorder in old age is only partially successful, with only approximately 50% of older depressed adults improving with initial antidepressant monotherapy. Many factors may predict a more difficult-to-treat depression, including coexisting anxiety, low self-esteem, poor sleep and a high coexisting medical burden. Being aware of these and other predictors of a difficult-to-treat depression gives the clinician more reasonable expectations about a patient's likely treatment course. If an initial antidepressant trial fails, the clinician has two pharmacological options: switch or augment/combine antidepressant therapies. About 50% of patients who do not improve after initial antidepressant therapy will respond to either strategy. Switching has several advantages including fewer adverse effects, improved treatment adherence and reduced expense. However, as a general guideline, if patients are partial responders at 6 weeks, they will likely be full responders by 12 weeks. Thus, changing medication is not indicated in this context. However, if patients are partial responders at 12 weeks, switching to a new agent is advised. If the clinician treats vigorously and if the patient and clinician persevere, up to 90% of older depressed patients will respond to pharmacological treatment. Furthermore, electroconvulsive therapy is a safe and effective non-pharmacological strategy for non-psychotic major depression that fails to respond to pharmacotherapy. Getting well and staying well is the goal; thus, clinicians should treat to remission, not merely to response. Subsequently, maintenance treatment with the same regimen that has been successful in relieving the depression strongly improves the patient's chances of remaining depression free.

  15. Suicide inside: a systematic review of inpatient suicides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowers, Len; Banda, Tumi; Nijman, Henk

    2010-05-01

    The literature on inpatient suicides was systematically reviewed. English, German, and Dutch articles were identified by means of the electronic databases PsycInfo, Cochrane, Medline, EMBASE psychiatry, CINAHL, and British Nursing Index. In total, 98 articles covering almost 15,000 suicides were reviewed and analyzed. Rates and demographic features connected to suicides varied substantially between articles, suggesting distinct subgroups of patients committing suicide (e.g., depressed vs. schizophrenic patients) with their own suicide determinants and patterns. Early in the admission is clearly a high-risk period for suicide, but risk declines more slowly for patients with schizophrenia. Suicide rates were found to be associated with admission numbers, and as expected, previous suicidal behavior was found to be a robust predictor of future suicide. The methods used for suicide are linked to availability of means. Timing and location of suicides seem to be associated with absence of support, supervision, and the presence of family conflict. Although there is a strong notion that suicides cluster in time, clear statistical evidence for this is lacking. For prevention of suicides, staff need to engage with patients' family problems, and reduce absconding without locking the door. Future research should take into account the heterogeneous subgroups of patients who commit suicide, with case-control studies addressing these separately.

  16. Suicide as social logic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kral, M J

    1994-01-01

    Although suicide is not viewed as a mental disorder per se, it is viewed by many if not most clinicians, researchers, and lay people as a real or natural symptom of depression. It is at least most typically seen as the unfortunate, severe, yet logical end result of a chain of negative self-appraisals, negative events, and hopelessness. Extending an approach articulated by the early French sociologist Gabriel Tarde, in this paper I argue that suicide is merely an idea, albeit a very bad one, having more in common with societal beliefs and norms regarding such things as divorce, abortion, sex, politics, consumer behavior, and fashion. I make a sharp contrast between perturbation and lethality, concepts central to Edwin S. Shneidman's theory of suicide. Evidence supportive of suicide as an idea is discussed based on what we are learning from the study of history and culture, and about contagion/cluster phenomena, media/communication, and choice of method. It is suggested that certain individuals are more vulnerable to incorporate the idea and act of suicide into their concepts of self, based on the same principles by which ideas are spread throughout society. Just as suicide impacts on society, so does society impact on suicide.

  17. Suicide research before Durkheim.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldney, Robert D; Schioldann, Johan A; Dunn, Kirsten I

    2008-01-01

    The casual reader could be forgiven for assuming that there had been little systematic research on suicide before the work of the French sociologist, Emile Durkheim, published in 1897. This historical review demonstrates that there had been extensive studies in the preceding centuries, addressing not only the importance of social factors, but also those factors which are now subsumed in the medical model. In fact, some earlier reviews can now be seen as more balanced and comprehensive than that of Durkheim. In the twentieth century. the predominant focus of suicide research was on the importance of psychosocial factors, a focus which was undoubtedly a legacy of the influential work of Durkheim. Indeed, in 1971 Alvin Alvarez stated that the study of suicide had become the subject of intensive scientific research. The change began in 1897 with the publication of Emile Durkheim's classic Suicide: A Study in Sociology, and more recently Alexander Murray noted that, if the study of suicide had its own era it would divide into two ages, before and after that book ... Le Suicide ... which, more than any other, established its subject as a specialization. Therefore it is not unexpected that many believe that there had not been any substantial suicide research before Durkheim, let alone any which had addressed illness and biological factors and their inter-relationship with society.

  18. Risk of completed suicide after bariatric surgery: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterhänsel, C; Petroff, D; Klinitzke, G; Kersting, A; Wagner, B

    2013-05-01

    Bariatric surgery is one of the most effective treatments for morbid obesity, and a large body of research indicates significant long-term weight loss. While overall mortality decreases in patients who received bariatric surgery, a number of studies have shown that suicide rates are higher in bariatric patients than in control groups. The objective of this study was to present a systematic review of suicide mortality after bariatric surgery and calculate an estimate for the suicide rate. Literature researches of the databases PubMed, Web of Knowledge, PsychInfo, ScienceDirect and Google Scholar were conducted. Thirty studies concerning bariatric surgery and completed suicides met the inclusion criteria. We included 28 studies in the estimation of a suicide rate for the bariatric population. Only one study (Tindle et al.) put a main focus on suicide after bariatric surgery; this was therefore chosen as an adequate reference figure for comparison. The other 27 chosen studies were compared with World Health Organization data and the suicide rate reported by Tindle et al. Twenty-three thousand eight hundred eighty-five people were included in the analysis. In the literature, we found a total of 95 suicides when examining 190,000 person-years of post-bariatric surgery data. Little information was provided describing the reasons for suicide and the time-point of these events after surgery. We estimated a suicide rate of 4.1/10,000 person-years (95% confidence interval [3.2, 5.1]/10,000 person-years). A comparison with Tindle et al. demonstrates that their rate is significantly higher than our estimate (P = 0.03). Bariatric surgery patients show higher suicide rates than the general population. Therefore, there is a great need to identify persons at risk and post-operative psychological monitoring is recommended.

  19. Promising strategies for advancement in knowledge of suicide risk factors and prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sareen, Jitender; Isaak, Corinne; Katz, Laurence Y; Bolton, James; Enns, Murray W; Stein, Murray B

    2014-09-01

    Suicide is an important public health problem. Although there have been advances in our knowledge of suicide, gaps remain in knowledge about suicide risk factors and prevention. Here, we discuss research pathways that have the potential to rapidly advance knowledge in suicide risk assessment and reduction of suicide deaths over the next decade. We provide a concise overview of the methodologic approaches that have the capacity to rapidly increase knowledge and change practice, which have been successful in past work in psychiatry and other areas of medicine. We suggest three specific pathways to advance knowledge of suicide risk factors and prevention. First, analysis of large-scale epidemiologic surveys and administrative data sets can advance the understanding of suicide. Second, given the low base rate of suicide, there is a need for networks/consortia of investigators in the field of suicide prevention. Such consortia have the capacity to analyze existing epidemiologic data sets, create multi-site cohort studies of high-risk groups to increase knowledge of biological and other risk factors, and create a platform for multi-site clinical trials. Third, partnerships with policymakers and researchers would facilitate careful scientific evaluation of policies and programs aimed at reducing suicide. Suicide intervention policies are often multifaceted, expensive, and rarely evaluated. Using quasi-experimental methods or sophisticated analytic strategies such as propensity score-matching techniques, the impact of large-scale interventions on suicide can be evaluated. Furthermore, such partnerships between policymakers and researchers can lead to the design and support of prospective RCTs (e.g., cluster randomized trials, stepped wedge designs, waiting list designs) in high-risk groups (e.g., people with a history of suicide attempts, multi-axial comorbidity, and offspring of people who have died by suicide). These research pathways could lead to rapid knowledge uptake

  20. Asphyxial suicide by inhalation of chloroform inside a plastic bag.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zorro, Andres Rodriguez

    2014-01-01

    Asphyxia suicide by placing a plastic bag over the head in addition with inhalation of gases or use of sedative substances is an unusual method of committing suicide, but frequently referenced by right to die groups in the Internet. This article reports 2 suicides in which chloroform was used to induce unconsciousness and subsequent asphyxia by placing the head in a plastic bag. Case histories of 2 males, ages 23 and 28, are described with special emphasis on characteristics death related to suffocation using plastic bags and chloroform. The final remarkable point in both cases is that the victims previously searched the WEB for instructions of suicide methods. The importance of the phenomenon of misuse of Internet by young people who commit suicide is stressed.

  1. Dietary tryptophan intake and suicide rate in industrialized nations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voracek, Martin; Tran, Ulrich S

    2007-03-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the ecological association of dietary tryptophan intake and suicide rates across industrialized nations. Tryptophan, an essential amino acid, is the rate-limiting precursor of serotonin biosynthesis. The serotonergic system has been strongly implicated in the neurobiology of suicide. Contemporary male and female suicide rates for the general population (42 countries) and the elderly (38 countries) were correlated with national estimates of dietary tryptophan intake. Measures of tryptophan intake were significantly negatively associated to national suicide rates. Controlling for national affluence, total alcohol consumption and happiness levels slightly attenuated these associations, but left all of them negative. The effect is an ecological (group-level) finding. Estimated per capita tryptophan supply is only a proxy for actual consumption. Developed nations ranking high in dietary tryptophan intake rank low in suicide rates, independent of national wealth, alcohol intake and happiness.

  2. Short-term cost of suicides in India

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    Gopala Sarma Poduri

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: India is experiencing increasing suicides that have much economic impact. Objective: To calculate the short-term costs of suicide in India. Materials and Methods: All the official data of suicides in India in 2014 formed the base of computation. Both direct and indirect costs were computed basing on market rates and official estimates. Perceived gains were deducted to arrive at the total cost. Results: The contribution of middle age group in the loss was high. Each suicide costs ' 2.65 L and the total cost of suicide in 2014 amounts to ' 348842.65 L in the first year. Conclusion: Much suffering and burden on individuals, family, and society can be reduced if adequate treatment facilities for psychiatry patients are made available at affordable rates everywhere. This should be complemented by much needed public education.

  3. [Suicide in the prime of life: current data].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrian, J

    1996-01-01

    Suicide of people aged 25-59 years old is fastly increasing in France, especially for males, to 38.4 per 100,000 population in 1992 from 37.0 per 100,000 a decade earlier. In fact the suicide rate is decreasing among male adults having an occupation or a job (to 32.3 in 1992 from 33.8 in 1982). On the contrary, the economically inactive and the jobless are experiencing a tremendous growth in their suicide rate (to 74.9 per 100,000 population in 1992 from 60.9 a decade earlier). The trend is observed also among females aged 25-59 years old but the "employed/unemployed" gap is less pronounced. Marital status and occupational groups have also an influence upon the frequency of adult suicide. Since the work of Emile Durkheim a century ago, the profile of suicide has changed in France, due to societal upheavals.

  4. [Biological review of completed suicide].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otsuka, Ikuo; Sora, Ichiro; Hishimoto, Akitoyo

    2016-06-01

    Family, twin and adoption studies have revealed genetic factors involved in suicide, while the accumulation of stress and mental illnesses are major contributing factors of suicide. Since higher lethality of suicidal behavior is considered to increase familial liability to suicidal behavior, we believe biological research of completed suicide is most important for a better understanding of the pathophysiology in suicide. Dysregulated hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis has gained a special interest in the neurobiology of suicide, mostly because of the findings using a dexamethasone suppression test (DST), in which DST non-suppressors show a nearly 10-fold higher risk of completed suicide than DST suppressors in a depressed cohort. Other data mainly from postmortem brain studies indicate abnormalities of the noradrenergic-locus coeruleus system, serotonergic system, endogenous opioid system, brain-derived neurotrophic factor, inflammatory cytokines and omega-3 fatty acid in completed suicide. However, genetic research of complete suicide is behind other mental problems because it is extremely difficult to obtain tissue samples of completed suicide. Under the difficult situation, we now retain over 800 blood samples of suicide completers thanks to bereaved families' cooperation. We are actively working on the research of suicide, for instance, by performing a GWAS using 500 samples of suicide completers.

  5. Why Do We Report Suicides and How Can We Facilitate Suicide Prevention Efforts?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Qijin; Fu, King-wa; Caine, Eric; Yip, Paul S. F.

    2014-01-01

    Background The Hong Kong news media report suicide-related events more frequently and sensationally than Western countries. Little is known about Hong Kong media professionals’ experiences and thoughts about such reporting. Aims To understand Hong Kong media professionals’ experiences and perceptions of suicide reporting and whether the news media can be better engaged into suicide prevention. Method We conducted three focus groups of journalists from both the Cantonese and English language news media. Data were analyzed using grounded theory methods. Results We discerned three rationales from participants regarding their intense coverage of suicide-related events: (1) satisfying commercial competitiveness, (2) addressing social problems, and (3) responding to readers’ interests. The first rationale was a dominant and vigorous motivating factor, and often influenced suicide reporting among local Cantonese media. Media professionals recommended engagement strategies targeted at frontline journalists, media managers, and general media consumers. Conclusion We see potential to involve news media professionals in Hong Kong as working partners in suicide prevention. To succeed, this effort requires engagement in a proactive, consistent, and sustained fashion. PMID:24322824

  6. Reducing a suicidal person's access to lethal means of suicide: a research agenda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barber, Catherine W; Miller, Matthew J

    2014-09-01

    Reducing the availability of highly lethal and commonly used suicide methods has been associated with declines in suicide rates of as much as 30%-50% in other countries. The theory and evidence underlying means restriction is outlined. Most evidence of its efficacy comes from population-level interventions and natural experiments. In the U.S., where 51% of suicides are completed with firearms and household firearm ownership is common and likely to remain so, reducing a suicidal person's access to firearms will usually be accomplished not by fiat or other legislative initiative but rather by appealing to individual decision, for example, by counseling at-risk people and their families to temporarily store household firearms away from home or otherwise making household firearms inaccessible to the at-risk person until they have recovered. Providers, gatekeepers, and gun owner groups are important partners in this work. Research is needed in a number of areas: communications research to identify effective messages and messengers for "lethal means counseling," clinical trials to identify effective interventions, translational research to ensure broad uptake of these interventions across clinical and community settings, and foundational research to better understand method choice and substitution. Approaches to suicide methods other than firearms are discussed. Means restriction is one of the few empirically based strategies to substantially reduce the number of suicide deaths. Copyright © 2014 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Suicides in the Canton of Lucerne over 5 years: subjects with and without psychiatric history and diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frei, Andreas; Bucher, Toralf; Walter, Marc; Ajdacic-Gross, Vladeta

    2013-03-25

    The majority of suicides had never had contact with the mental health care system. The aim of this study is to investigate the specific characteristics of this particular group. Coroners' files were examined for all 256 suicide victims in the Canton of Lucerne between 2002 and 2006, together with the data from the files of the public psychiatric institutions for individuals who had been registered as patients. The sociodemographic, suicidological and clinical variables of suicides who had been psychiatric patients were compared with those of other suicides. Within the latter group, suicides with remarks on their mental state in the coroner's files ("police diagnosis") were compared with suicides without such remarks. Assisted suicides (24/256 [9.4%]) were excluded from the comparative analysis. 151 (65.1%) of the remaining 232 suicides had never been registered by a public psychiatric service; 40 (26.5%) of these had a "police diagnosis". In the regression analysis intoxication as a suicide method, announcement of suicide and impaired health characterised suicides with an established psychiatric diagnosis, whereas suicides without a psychiatric diagnosis were more likely to be retired. Among the latter, those without a "police diagnosis" were more likely to have left a suicide note. Unexpectedly, the only difference between suicide methods with and without former contact with the mental health system was poisoning. Within the latter group, the subgroup without "police diagnosis" left more suicide notes. Further qualitative analyses of suicide notes might be useful in improving understanding of the motives of suicides without a manifest psychiatric history.

  8. Effect of acute alcohol use on the lethality of suicide attempts in patients with mood disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sher, Leo; Oquendo, Maria A; Richardson-Vejlgaard, Randall; Makhija, Nita M; Posner, Kelly; Mann, J John; Stanley, Barbara H

    2009-07-01

    Acute alcohol use is an important risk factor for attempted and completed suicide. We evaluated the effect of acute alcohol intake on the lethality of suicide attempts to test the hypothesis that acute alcohol intoxication is associated with more lethal suicide attempts. This retrospective study included 317 suicide attempters enrolled in mood disorders protocols. Demographic and clinical parameters were assessed. The use of alcohol at the time of the most lethal suicide attempt was determined. On the basis of their responses participants were classified into three groups: participants who reported "Enough alcohol intake to impair judgment, reality testing and diminish responsibility" or "Intentional intake of alcohol in order to facilitate implementation of attempt" were included in the group "Alcohol" (A); participants who reported "Some alcohol intake prior to but not related to attempt, reportedly not enough to impair judgment, reality testing" were included in the group "Some Alcohol" (SA); and participants who reported "No alcohol intake immediately prior to attempt" were included in the group "No Alcohol" (NA). Lethality of the most lethal suicide attempts was higher in the A group compared to the SA and NA groups. Prevalence of patients with alcohol use disorders was higher in the A group compared to the SA and NA groups. SA participants reported more reasons for living and lower suicide intent scores at the time of their most lethal suicide attempt compared to the A and NA groups. Acute alcohol use increases the lethality of suicide attempts in individuals with mood disorders.

  9. Men's depression and suicide literacy: a nationally representative Canadian survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliffe, John L; Hannan-Leith, Madeline N; Ogrodniczuk, John S; Black, Nick; Mackenzie, Corey S; Lohan, Maria; Creighton, Genevieve

    2016-12-01

    Male suicide prevention strategies include diagnosis and effective management of men's depression. Fundamental to suicide prevention efforts is public awareness, which in turn, is influenced by literacy levels about men's depression and suicide. The aim of this study is to examine sex differences in mental health literacy with respect to men's depression and suicide among a cohort of Canadian respondents. About 901 English-speaking Canadian men and women completed online survey questionnaires to evaluate mental health literacy levels using 10-item D-Lit and 8-item LOSS questionnaires, which assess factual knowledge concerning men's depression and suicide. Statistical tests (Chi-square, z-test) were used to identify significant differences between sex sub-groups at 95% confidence. Overall, respondents correctly identified 67% of questions measuring literacy levels about male depression. Respondents' male suicide literacy was significantly poorer at 53.7%. Misperceptions were especially evident in terms of differentiating men's depressive symptoms from other mental illnesses, estimating prevalence and identifying factors linked to male suicide. Significant sex differences highlighted that females had higher literacy levels than men in regard to male depression. Implementing gender sensitive and specific programs to target and advance literacy levels about men's depression may be key to ultimately reducing depression and suicide among men in Canada.

  10. [Experiences of Individuals With Suicidal Ideation and Attempts].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rendón-Quintero, Eduardo; Rodríguez-Gómez, Rodolfo

    2016-01-01

    Suicide is a major public health problem. It covers about half of violent deaths and results in approximately one million deaths annually. Although completed suicide rates in Colombia are relatively low when compared with other countries, suicidal behavior, represented not only by completed suicide, is a significant mental health problem. To understand life experiences of a group of subjects related to the phenomenon of ideation and suicide attempt. A qualitative study with a psychodynamic approach. In-depth interviews were conducted in order to explore thought processes, emotions, motivations and experiences that underlie and accompany the suicide attempt. Five women and 3 men were interviewed. The average age was 29 years. The exploration of subjective experiences in the present study showed that loneliness and psychic pain were linked to hopelessness, pessimism and discouragement. Also, the illusion of death represents an invitation to suicide attempt. It is important to consider the subjective assessment that patients with suicidal risk make of their depression and stressful life situations. Additionally, the concepts of loneliness and psychic pain have a leading role in the interaction between discourse and the experiences of the participants interviewed. Copyright © 2015 Asociación Colombiana de Psiquiatría. Publicado por Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  11. Suicidal ideation among Canadian youth: a multivariate analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter, Tracey; Roberts, Lance W; Buzdugan, Raluca

    2008-01-01

    A multivariate model was developed incorporating various socio-demographic, social-environmental, and social-psychological factors in an attempt to predict suicidal ideation among Canadian youth. The main research objective sought to determine what socially based factors elevate or reduce suicidal ideation within this population. Using data from the National Longitudinal Study of Children and Youth-Cycle 5 (2003), a cross-sectional sample of 1,032 was used to empirically identify various social determinants of suicidal ideation among youth between the ages of 12 and 15. Results reveal statistically significant correlations between suicide ideation and some lesser examined socially based measures. In particular, ability to communicate feelings, negative attachment to parents/guardians, taunting/bullying or abuse, and presence of deviant peers were significant predictors of suicidal ideation. As expected, depression/anxiety, gender, and age were also correlated with thoughts of suicide. Research findings should help foster a better understanding toward the social elements of suicide and provide insight into how suicide prevention strategies may be improved through an increased emphasis on substance use education, direct targeting of dysfunctional families and deviant peer groups, and exploring more avenues of self-expression for youth.

  12. Suicide in Dubai, United Arab Emirates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koronfel, Abbas A

    2002-03-01

    The annual rate of suicide in Dubai between 1992 and 2000 was 6.2/100,000. There was a non- significant peak incidence in November while July recorded the lowest incidence. Fridays showed the lowest incidence with no significant difference between Muslims and non-Muslims. Victims were predominantly male expatriates with no significant difference between Muslims and non-Muslims. However, a significant increase in the number of non-Indian female expatriates was recorded. The majority of victims were of the age group 21-40 with a significant increase in teenaged females and teenaged citizens. Hanging was the commonest method for committing suicide. Females and non-Indian expatriates resorted significantly to jumping from a high and self-poisoning. The age of the victim had no effect on the choice of the method used to commit suicide. The majority of incidents took place in the victim's own house. A suicide note was left behind in 5% of cases. History of psychological illness or trauma was available in 9.7% of cases. In these cases, depressive illness and recent unemployment were the major triggers for suicidal impulse. A total of 27.7% of screened victims tested positive for alcohol and were predominantly males with no significant difference between Muslims and non-Muslims.

  13. Assessment of suicidality in children and adolescents with diagnosis of high functioning autism spectrum disorder in a Turkish clinical sample

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karakoç Demirkaya S

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Sevcan Karakoç Demirkaya,1 Mustafa Deniz Tutkunkardaş,2 Nahit Motavalli Mukaddes3 1Department of Child Psychiatry, Adnan Menderes University School of Medicine, Aydin, 2Department of Child Psychiatry, Istanbul School of Medicine, Istanbul University, Istanbul, 3Istanbul Institute of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Istanbul, Turkey Objectives: Considering that suicide is one of the most common reasons of adolescent death worldwide, there is a lack of clinical awareness on suicidal behaviors of children and adolescents with autism spectrum disorder (ASD. The present study aims to assess the rate of suicidality (suicidal ideation, behaviors and attempts and associated risk factors for suicidality in high functioning ASD.Methods: Medical records of 55 adolescents (six girls, 49 boys, aged between 7–20 years, with diagnosis of ASD were reviewed. The participants were all able to speak fluently and had no significant limitations in intellectual functioning. Clinical assessment of participants was carried out on the basis of Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders 4th Edition, Text Revision criteria and Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia for School-Age Children-Present and Lifetime Version. Eskin’s Suicide Screening Questionnaire and sociodemographic data form including detailed history of suicidal behaviors were used. The study group was also divided into suicidal and non-suicidal groups for the purpose of comparing the results.Results: The rate of suicidal behaviors was 29% and suicide attempt was 12.7%. Types of suicidality were behaviors (43.7%, thoughts (37.5%, and verbal declarations (18.7%. A number of bizarre acts were recorded. Rates of comorbid psychiatric disorders such as mood disorders, anxiety disorders and disruptive behaviors were 23.6%, 43.6% and 65.4% respectively. Groups with the psychotic features, positive family history for suicidal behaviors and completed suicide showed more suicidality than

  14. Did the Great Recession increase suicides in the USA? Evidence from an interrupted time-series analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harper, Sam; Bruckner, Tim A

    2017-07-01

    Research suggests that the Great Recession of 2007-2009 led to nearly 5000 excess suicides in the United States. However, prior work has not accounted for seasonal patterning and unique suicide trends by age and gender. We calculated monthly suicide rates from 1999 to 2013 for men and women aged 15 and above. Suicide rates before the Great Recession were used to predict the rate during and after the Great Recession. Death rates for each age-gender group were modeled using Poisson regression with robust variance, accounting for seasonal and nonlinear suicide trajectories. There were 56,658 suicide deaths during the Great Recession. Age- and gender-specific suicide trends before the recession demonstrated clear seasonal and nonlinear trajectories. Our models predicted 57,140 expected suicide deaths, leading to 482 fewer observed than expected suicides (95% confidence interval -2079, 943). We found little evidence to suggest that the Great Recession interrupted existing trajectories of suicide rates. Suicide rates were already increasing before the Great Recession for middle-aged men and women. Future studies estimating the impact of recessions on suicide should account for the diverse and unique suicide trajectories of different social groups. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Depression and Suicide Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Depression and Suicide Risk (2014) Definition: A mood disorder that causes a persistent feeling of sadness and ... i Prevalence: 1. Ranges of lifetime risk for depression: from 6.7% overall to 40% in men, ...

  16. Mental Pain and Suicide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Verrocchio, Maria Cristina; Carrozzino, Danilo; Marchetti, Daniela

    2016-01-01

    a systematic review analyzing the relationship between mental pain and suicide by providing a qualitative data synthesis of the studies. Methods: We have conducted, in accordance with PRISMA guidelines, a systematic search for the literature in PubMed, Web Of Science, and Scopus. Search terms were "mental pain......" "OR" "psychological pain" OR "psychache" combined with the Boolean "AND" operator with "suicid*." In addition, a manual search of the literature, only including the term "psychache," was performed on Google Scholar for further studies not yet identified. Results: Initial search identified 1450...... citations. A total of 42 research reports met the predefined inclusion criteria and were analyzed. Mental pain was found to be a significant predictive factor of suicide risk, even in the absence of a diagnosed mental disorder. Specifically, mental pain is a stronger factor of vulnerability of suicidal...

  17. Settings for Suicide Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... out more about suicide prevention in particular settings. American Indian/Alaska Native Settings Behavioral Health Care Inpatient Mental Health Outpatient Mental Health Substance Abuse Treatment Colleges and Universities Communities Crisis Centers/ ...

  18. Suicide in patients with genitourinary malignancies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Lima, M M; Tobias-Machado, M

    2017-01-30

    Genitourinary cancers are significant causes of morbidity and mortality around the world. The present review summarises the current literature on suicide and its risk factors among patients with genitourinary cancers. The review was based on relevant articles published in MEDLINE, ProQuest, PsycINFO, Science Direct and Scopus databases. Patients with prostate cancer represented the most important risk group for suicide, among patients with urogenital cancers. Other risk factors are male gender, older age, white race, advanced disease, living alone and co-existing psychological comorbidities. Findings from the review call for a greater caregiver awareness on psychosocial morbidity and suicidality among genitourinary cancer patients pre- and post-treatment and their early identification, adoption of risk-reduction strategies and prompt referral for expert mental health care.

  19. Suicide Risk Assessment in Adolescents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Ida Skytte; Larsen, Kim Juul; Horwood, John

    2016-01-01

    a general psychological "Resilience Scale for Adolescents" (READ) is associated with a validated suicide rating scale (C-SSRS). Method: An observational study of self-reported suicidality (C-SSRS), psychological distress (K10) and resiliency (READ) in three adolescent samples: suicide clinic (N=147...... was significantly lower in the suicide clinic sample. READ was predictive of levels of suicidality within all samples independently of general psychological distress (K10). Limitations: The study did not examine other early childhood factors that may contribute to individual resiliency or suicidality. Conclusions......); general psychiatric clinic (N=85); and a non-clinical sample (N=92) Results: Resiliency scores were significantly higher (p

  20. Rational choice theory and suicide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lester, D

    1988-12-01

    The implications of viewing the decision to kill oneself as a rational choice, based on an analysis of the costs and benefits, were explored. Suicide is but one symptom for an individual in distress to choose, and if suicide is prevented, other symptoms may appear in its place. Similarly, a critical question to be asked in suicide prevention is whether restriction of the availability of one method for suicide (such as detoxifying domestic gas or car exhaust) will result in suicidal individuals switching to a different method for suicide or to a different symptom of distress.

  1. Does the interpersonal-Psychological theory of suicide provide a useful framework for understanding suicide risk among eating disorder patients? A test of the validity of the IPTS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, April R; Dodd, Dorian R; Forrest, Lauren N; Witte, Tracy K; Bodell, Lindsay; Ribeiro, Jessica D; Goodwin, Natalie; Siegfried, Nicole; Bartlett, Mary

    2016-12-01

    The current study tested whether the Interpersonal-Psychological Theory of Suicide (IPTS) provides a useful framework for understanding elevated suicide rates among individuals with eating disorders (EDs). Based on predictions of the IPTS, we tested whether the combination of thwarted belongingness and perceived burdensomeness was associated with suicidal desire, and whether the combination of thwarted belongingness, perceived burdensomeness, and fearlessness about death was associated with past suicide attempts in an ED sample (n = 100). We also compared these IPTS constructs in an ED sample versus general psychiatric inpatients (n = 85) and college students (i.e., non-clinical comparison group; n = 93). Within the ED sample, no hypothesized interactions were found, but perceived burdensomeness was associated with suicidal desire, and perceived burdensomeness and fearlessness about death were associated with past suicide attempts. The ED and psychiatric samples had greater thwarted belongingness, perceived burdensomeness, and suicidal desire than the non-clinical comparison group. The IPTS constructs of perceived burdensomeness and fearlessness about death appear to explain some facets of suicidality among people with EDs, but overall, support for the IPTS was limited. Future research on EDs and suicidality should look beyond the IPTS and consider other biological and sociocultural factors for suicide. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. (Int J Eat Disord 2016; 49:1082-1086). © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. [Depression in epileptic patients with and without history of suicidal attempts: preliminary report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motta, E; Miller, K; Rościszewska, D; Kłosińska, E

    1998-01-01

    Depression is a significant problem in epilepsy. Suicides occur in epileptic patients five times more often than in general population. Material included 34 epileptics with 76 suicidal attempts and 24 patients with no history of suicide. Psychical state was studied with Beck Depression Inventory and Hamilton Depression Rating Scale. In the group with suicidal attempts 65% of patients had depression (54.5% of them had major depression) and in group without suicide attempts depression was noted in 54% (23% with major depression). Patients with depression were divided into two groups: group I with suicidal attempts and group II without history of suicide. In group I more patients were alcohol abusers (50% vs 31%), more were treated because of epilepsy longer than 10 years (59% vs 46%) and more had tonic-clonic seizures (82% vs 46%). In group I, 54% of patients were on polytherapy (more than half of them with fenobarbital). In group II, 31% of epileptics were on polytherapy (no one with fenobarbital). Major depression was significantly more frequent in epileptics with suicidal attempts. The severity of depression may influence the risk of suicide. Major depression may be associated with late age of onset of epilepsy, longer treatment duration, tonic-clonic seizures, polytherapy (mainly with fenobarbital) and alcohol abuse.

  3. Suicide among War Veterans

    OpenAIRE

    Vsevolod Rozanov; Vladimir Carli

    2012-01-01

    Studies aiming to identify if war veterans are at higher risk of suicide have often produced inconsistent results; this could be due to the complexity of comparisons and different methodological approaches. It should be noted that this contingent has many risk factors, such as stressful exposures, wounds, brain trauma and pain syndrome. Most recent observations confirm that veterans are really more likely to die of suicide as compared to the general population; they are also more likely to ex...

  4. Does a Gatekeeper Suicide Prevention Program Work in a School Setting? Evaluating Training Outcome and Moderators of Effectiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tompkins, Tanya L.; Witt, Jody; Abraibesh, Nadia

    2009-01-01

    The current study sought to evaluate the suicide prevention gatekeeper training program QPR (Question, Persuade, and Refer) among school personnel using a non-equivalent control group design. Substantial gains were demonstrated from pre- to post-test for attitudes, knowledge, and beliefs regarding suicide and suicide prevention. Exploratory…

  5. Immigrant suicide rates as a function of ethnophaulisms: hate speech predicts death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullen, Brian; Smyth, Joshua M

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether suicide rates among ethnic immigrant groups were predicted by the ethnophaulisms, or the hate speech, used to refer to those ethnic immigrant groups. Data were obtained for 10 European ethnic immigrant groups during the 1950s. These 10 European ethnic immigrant groups accounted for approximately 40% of all immigration into the United States during this time period. Both the suicide rates for these ethnic immigrant groups in the United States and suicide rates for those ethnic immigrant groups in their countries of origin were derived. The complexity and valence of ethnophaulisms used to refer to these ethnic immigrant groups were derived from the historical record of hate speech in the United States. Consistent with previous research, immigrant suicide rates were strongly correlated with origin suicide rates. As expected, the suicide rates for ethnic immigrant groups in the United States were significantly predicted by the negativity of the ethnophaulisms used to refer to those ethnic immigrant groups. This pattern was obtained even after taking into account the suicide rates for those ethnic immigrant groups in their countries of origin, and even after taking into account the size of those ethnic immigrant groups. This study found support for the expectation that suicide rates among ethnic immigrant groups would be predicted by the hate speech directed toward those ethnic immigrant groups.

  6. Evaluation of pregnant patients admitted to the emergency department with suicide attempt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yılmaz Zengin

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: In the pregnancy period, the incidence of suicide attempt is lower compared to other life-periods. However, according to the recent studies, suicide attempts may lead life-threatening consequences in high-risk pregnant women. The aim of this study is to compare pregnant patients admitted to the emergency department for suicide attempt in terms of their sociodemographic and clinical properties and suicide attempt methods. Methods: In this study, 56 patients admitted to the emergency department of university for suicide attempt between January 1, 2009, and December 31, 2014, were included and they were classified according to suicide attempt methods into 2 groups as violent ones. Group 1 included violent methods as hanging, jumping, shooting and Group 2 included non-violent method as drugs. The study was a retrospective cross-sectional study. The sociodemographic, psychiatric and clinical properties of the patients were identified by patient registry system and patient files, and inter-group differences were compared. Results: In this study, 15 (26.7% patients in the violent suicide attempt group, and 41 (73.3% patients in the non-violent suicide attempt group, totally 56 patients were included. In the non-violent suicide attempt group, cigarette smoking, suicide attempt due to boredom, and live birth was significantly higher as compared to violent group; hospitalization period and fetal death was lower (p=0.04; p=0.006; p=0.004; p=0.004, respectively. Conclusion: Most of our pregnant suicide attempt patients are in the non-violent group, however, violent suicide attempt increased hospitalization period and fetal mortality significantly. J Clin Exp Invest 2015; 6 (2: 115-120

  7. Suicidal behavior in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tandon, Rajiv

    2005-01-01

    There is a high prevalence of suicidal behavior in individuals suffering from schizophrenia and recent investigations substantially elucidate this problem and provide useful insights about clinical risk factors, neurobiologic underpinnings and the impact of various treatments on reducing such behavior. The risk of suicide is greatest early in the course of schizophrenic illness but continues throughout life; risk factors for suicidal behavior include psychosis, depression and substance abuse. Effectively treating positive symptoms and depression, reducing substance abuse, avoiding akathisia, addressing demoralization and instilling hope are important elements in this treatment approach. The newer generation of atypical antipsychotics (particularly clozapine) and new psychologic approaches (particularly cognitive behavioral therapy) appear to be useful in reducing suicidality in schizophrenia. The significant advances in defining the neurobiologic basis of suicidality may enable the development of more effective treatments. The renewed emphasis on resilience and recovery as desired outcomes in schizophrenia and the accompanying sense of hope encourage optimism about effectively reducing suicidality in schizophrenia. Over the past 10 years, much has been learnt and hopefully this momentum will be translated into increasingly better outcomes.

  8. Bullying, cyberbullying, and suicide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinduja, Sameer; Patchin, Justin W

    2010-01-01

    Empirical studies and some high-profile anecdotal cases have demonstrated a link between suicidal ideation and experiences with bullying victimization or offending. The current study examines the extent to which a nontraditional form of peer aggression--cyberbullying--is also related to suicidal ideation among adolescents. In 2007, a random sample of 1,963 middle-schoolers from one of the largest school districts in the United States completed a survey of Internet use and experiences. Youth who experienced traditional bullying or cyberbullying, as either an offender or a victim, had more suicidal thoughts and were more likely to attempt suicide than those who had not experienced such forms of peer aggression. Also, victimization was more strongly related to suicidal thoughts and behaviors than offending. The findings provide further evidence that adolescent peer aggression must be taken seriously both at school and at home, and suggest that a suicide prevention and intervention component is essential within comprehensive bullying response programs implemented in schools.

  9. Suicide and schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siris, S G

    2001-06-01

    Suicide and suicide attempts occur at a significantly greater rate in schizophrenia than in the general population. Common estimates are that 10% of people with schizophrenia will eventually have a completed suicide, and that attempts are made at two to five times that rate. Demographically associated with suicidality in schizophrenia are being young, being early in the course of the illness, being male, coming from a high socioeconomic family background, having high intelligence, having high expectations, not being married, lacking social supports, having awareness of symptoms, and being recently discharged from the hospital. Also associated are reduced self-esteem, stigma, recent loss or stress, hopelessness, isolation, treatment non-compliance and substance abuse. Clinically, the most common correlates of suicidality in schizophrenia are depressive symptoms and the depressive syndrome, although severe psychotic and panic-like symptoms may contribute as well. This review specifically explores the issue of depression in schizophrenia, in relation to suicide, by organizing the differential diagnosis of this state and highlighting their potentially treatable or correctable causes. This differential diagnosis includes both acute and chronic disappointment reactions, the prodrome of an acute psychotic episode, neuroleptic induced akinesia and akathisia, the possibility of direct neuroleptic-induced depression, negative symptoms of schizophrenia, and the possible co-occurrence of an independent depressive diathesis. The potential beneficial roles of 'atypical' antipsychotic agents, including both clozapine and more novel agents, and adjunctive treatment with other psychopharmacological medications are considered, and the important roles of psychosocial factors and interventions are recognized.

  10. SIAM (Suicide intervention assisted by messages): the development of a post-acute crisis text messaging outreach for suicide prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berrouiguet, Sofian; Alavi, Zarrin; Vaiva, Guillaume; Courtet, Philippe; Baca-García, Enrique; Vidailhet, Pierre; Gravey, Michel; Guillodo, Elise; Brandt, Sara; Walter, Michel

    2014-11-18

    Suicidal behaviour and deliberate self-harm are common among adults. Research indicates that maintaining contact either via letter or postcard with at-risk adults following discharge from care services can reduce reattempt risk. Feasibility trials demonstrated that intervention through text message was also effective in preventing suicide repetition amongst suicide attempters. The aim of the current study is to investigate the effect of text message intervention versus traditional treatment on reducing the risk of suicide attempt repetition among adults after self-harm. The study will be a 2-year multicentric randomized controlled trial conducted by the Brest University Hospital, France. Participants will be adults discharged after self-harm, from emergency services or after a short hospitalization. Participants will be recruited over a 12-month period. The intervention is comprised of an SMS that will be sent at h48, D7, D15 and monthly. The text message enquires about the patients' well-being and includes information regarding individual sources of help and evidence-based self help strategies. Participants will be assessed at the baseline, month 6 and 13. As primary endpoint, we will assess the number of patients who reattempt suicide in each group at 6 months. As secondary endpoints, we will assess the number of patients who reattempt suicide at 13 month, the number of suicide attempts in the intervention and control groups at 6 and 13 month, the number of death by suicide in the intervention and control groups at month 6 and 13. In both groups, suicidal ideations, will be assessed at the baseline, month 6 and 13. Medical costs and satisfaction will be assessed at month 13. This paper describes the design and deployment of a trial SIAM; an easily reproducible intervention that aims to reduce suicide risk in adults after self-harm. It utilizes several characteristics of interventions that have shown a significant reduction in the number of suicide reattempts. We

  11. Non-Suicidal Self-Injury and Interpersonal Violence in Suicide Attempters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahlin, Hanna; Moberg, Tomas; Hirvikoski, Tatja; Jokinen, Jussi

    2015-01-01

    The current study compared characteristics of suicidal behavior and interpersonal violence in suicide attempters with and without a history of non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI). A total of 100 suicide attempters were assessed with Karolinska Interpersonal Violence Scale (KIVS) and Karolinska Suicide History Interview concerning interpersonal violence and NSSI. There was a high degree of comorbid NSSI in suicide attempters (44%). Suicide attempters with NSSI-history reported more interpersonal violence as adults and more severe suicidal behavior compared to suicide attempters without NSSI. Comorbid NSSI was related to severity of suicidal behavior in a gender specific manner. Comorbid NSSI in suicide attempters may increase suicide and violence risk.

  12. [Clinical psychiatry and suicide prevention].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Yoshinori

    2012-01-01

    People do not commit suicide all of a sudden. There is a suicidal process where negative life events are there in the beginning, and social support and help-seeking behavior play an important role in impeding the progress of the process. Mental disturbance would be deeply associated with the suicidal process around the final stage, thinking of the fact that approximately 90% of the suicides suffered from mental disorders at the time of suicide. In considering the strategies for suicide prevention, there are two perspectives: a community model and a medical model. A community model is thought to be related mainly to the first half of the suicidal process and a medical model to the latter half. It is an ideal that both community and medical approaches are put into practice simultaneously. However, if resources available for suicide prevention are limited, a medical-model approach would be more efficient and should be given priority. Starting from a medical model and considering treatment and social resources necessary for suicidal people, the range of suicide prevention activities would be expand more efficiently than starting from a community-model approach. Clinical psychiatry plays a greatly important role in preventing suicide. It is found that approximately 20% of seriously injured suicide attempters were diagnosed as adjustment disorder in Japan, which means that even the mildly depressed can commit suicide. Therefore, no one can take a hands-off approach to suicidality as long as he/she works in the field of clinical psychiatry. It is earnestly desired to detect and treat properly the suicidal patients, but there is no perfect method. It would be helpful to pay attention to patients' personality development, stress-coping style and present suicidal ideation. Besides, as suicide prevention is not completed only in a consulting room, it is important for psychiatrists to look for teamwork.

  13. A ‘systems’ approach to suicide prevention: radical change or doing the same things better?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott J Fitzpatrick

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Suicide is a significant public health concern. Continued high suicide rates, coupled with emerging international evidence, have led to the development of a ‘systems’ approach to suicide prevention, which is now being trialled as part of a proposed Suicide Prevention Framework for NSW (New South Wales, Australia. The Framework replicates successful international approaches. It is organised around nine components, ranging from individual to population-level approaches, to improve coordination and integration of existing services. If implemented fully, the Framework may lead to a significant reduction in suicide. However, to ensure its long-term success, we must attend to underlying structures within the system and their interrelationships. Such an approach will also ensure that policy makers and local suicide prevention action groups, particularly in rural areas, are able to respond to local challenges and incorporate multiple perspectives into their practice, including evidence for the broader social determinants of suicide.

  14. The characteristics of borderline personality, anger, hostility and aggression in addicts with and without suicide ideas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Ali Mohammadifar

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The present study was conducted to compare the characteristics of borderline personality, anger, hostility and aggression in addicts with and without suicide ideation. Method: This research was and the causal-comparative research method which is categorized in descriptive one. Sample in this study was included 300 addicts referred to the addiction treatment clinic in Semnan province. By convenience sampling with considering of entry criteria 300 addicts selected and based on the suicidal ideation scores were categorized to two groups with and without suicide ideation. Suicide ideation, buss and Perry’s aggression and borderline personality questionnaires administered among selected sample. Findings: Borderline personality traits, anger, hostility and aggression were higher in suicidal addicts in comparison of non-suicidal. Conclusion: Seems essential screening and identifying addicts which features high aggression and borderline personality for prevention of suicide.

  15. Suicide in ancient Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laios, K; Tsoukalas, G; Kontaxaki, M-I; Karamanou, M; Androutsos, G

    2014-01-01

    The theme of suicide appears several times in ancient Greek literature. However, each such reference acquires special significance depending on the field from which it originates. Most of the information found in mythology, but the suicide in a mythological tale, although in terms of motivation and mental situation of heroes may be in imitation of similar incidents of real life, in fact is linked with the principles of the ancient Greek religion. In ancient drama and mainly in tragedies suicide conduces to the tragic hypostasis of the heroes and to the evolution of the plot and also is a tool in order to be presented the ideas of poets for the relations of the gods, the relation among gods and men and the relation among the men. In ancient Greek philosophy there were the deniers of suicide, who were more concerned about the impact of suicide on society and also these who accepted it, recognizing the right of the individual to put an end to his life, in order to avoid personal misfortunes. Real suicides will be found mostly from historical sources, but most of them concern leading figures of the ancient world. Closer to the problem of suicide in the everyday life of antiquity are ancient Greek medicines, who studied the phenomenon more general without references to specific incidents. Doctors did not approve in principal the suicide and dealt with it as insane behavior in the development of the mental diseases, of melancholia and mania. They considered that the discrepancy of humors in the organ of logic in the human body will cause malfunction, which will lead to the absurdity and consequently to suicide, either due to excessive concentration of black bile in melancholia or due to yellow bile in mania. They believed that greater risk to commit suicide had women, young people and the elderly. As therapy they used the drugs of their time with the intention to induce calm and repression in the ill person, therefore they mainly used mandragora. In general, we would say

  16. Homicide Followed by Suicide: A Comparison with Homicide and Suicide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liem, Marieke; Nieuwbeerta, Paul

    2010-01-01

    Homicide-suicides are a rare yet very serious form of lethal violence which mainly occurs in partnerships and families. The extent to which homicide-suicide can be understood as being primarily a homicide or a suicide event, or rather a category of its own is examined. In total, 103 homicide-suicides were compared to 3,203 homicides and 17,751…

  17. Homicide Followed by Suicide: A Comparison with Homicide and Suicide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liem, Marieke; Nieuwbeerta, Paul

    2010-01-01

    Homicide-suicides are a rare yet very serious form of lethal violence which mainly occurs in partnerships and families. The extent to which homicide-suicide can be understood as being primarily a homicide or a suicide event, or rather a category of its own is examined. In total, 103 homicide-suicides were compared to 3,203 homicides and 17,751…

  18. Measuring severe adverse events and medication selection using a “PEER Report” for nonpsychotic patients: a retrospective chart review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoffman DA

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Daniel A Hoffman,1 Charles DeBattista,2 Rob J Valuck,3 Dan V Iosifescu41Neuro-Therapy Clinic, Inc, Denver, CO, USA; 2Stanford University School of Medicine, Palo Alto, CA, USA; 3University of Colorado, SKAGES School of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Aurora, CO, USA; 4Mood and Anxiety Disorders Program, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York, NY, USAAbstract: We previously reported on an objective new tool that uses quantitative electroencephalography (QEEG normative- and referenced-electroencephalography sampling databases (currently called Psychiatric EEG Evaluation Registry [PEER], which may assist physicians in determining medication selection for optimal efficacy to overcome trial-and-error prescribing. The PEER test compares drug-free QEEG features for individual patients to a database of patients with similar EEG patterns and known outcomes after pharmacological interventions. Based on specific EEG data elements and historical outcomes, the PEER Report may also serve as a marker of future severe adverse events (eg, agitation, hostility, aggressiveness, suicidality, homicidality, mania, hypomania with specific medications. We used a retrospective chart review to investigate the clinical utility of such a registry in a naturalistic environment.Results: This chart review demonstrated significant improvement on the global assessment scales Clinical Global Impression – Improvement and Quality of Life Enjoyment and Satisfaction – Short Form as well as time to maximum medical improvement and decreased suicidality occurrences. The review also showed that 54.5% of previous medications causing a severe adverse event would have been raised as a caution had the PEER Report been available at the time the drug was prescribed. Finally, due to the significant amount of off-label prescribing of psychotropic medications, additional, objective, evidence-based data aided the prescriber toward better choices.Conclusion: The PEER Report may be

  19. Suicide in the farming community: methods used and contact with health services

    OpenAIRE

    2000-01-01

    Farmers have a high rate of suicide (1% of suicides in England and Wales). This study sought to test whether farmers would be less likely to have been in contact with primary or mental health services before death due to their reluctance to seek help. The study also sought to identify other characteristics that differentiated suicide among male farmers from other professional groups. A retrospective case-control design was used comparing male farmers with an age and sex matched control group....

  20. Suicide attempts and suicides in Bolivia from 2007 to 2012

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørs, Erik; Christoffersen, Mette; Veirum, Nikoline Høgsgaard

    2014-01-01

    profiles as well as the likely background and means used for suicide attempts and suicides in Bolivia. METHOD: This study presents 1124 cases from four different sources of information: (i) emergency ward data with suicide attempts by poisoning from the year 2007, (ii) psychiatric ward data including...

  1. [Characteristics of suicides in Navarra by gender (2010-2013)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azcárate, L; Peinado, R; Blanco, M; Goñi, A; Cuesta, M J; Pradini, I; López Goñí, J J

    2015-01-01

    To determine the number of suicides and the main social and demographic characteristics, time frames and methods involved during the period 2010-2013 in Navarra by gender. A study of the Electronic Clinical Records provided by Navarra's Healthcare Service in which suicides in Navarra are detailed. One hundred and eighty individuals committed suicide. The number of suicides remained stable: 41 in 2010, 51 in 2011 and 44 in 2012 and 2013. Seventy-five point four percent were males (n=136) and 24.6 % (n=44) were females. In the 13 to 26 age group, 12 (92.3%) out of 13 suicides were committed by males. In terms of employment status, 49.3% (n=70) were pensioners. The highest rate of suicides was reached in summer (n=71) and spring (n=39). Monday was the day with the highest rate of suicides (n=37) and the time period between 8:00 and 12:00 hours was when the highest number of suicides (n=80) took place. The most usual ways of committing suicide were hanging (n=80), falling from a height (n=41) and pharmacological overdose (n=23). Males used violent methods more frequently. It is necessary to highlight the fact that in some of the sociodemographic characteristics there was up to 60% of cases without enough information. The results obtained show some specific features of the phenomenon of suicide in Navarra that should be considered for its prevention. Furthermore, the implementation of effective protocols of data collection is recommended to develop prevention strategies.

  2. Suicide in paradise: aftermath of the Bali bombings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suryani, L K; Page, A; Lesmana, C B J; Jennaway, M; Basudewa, I D G; Taylor, R

    2009-08-01

    The relationship between the Bali (Indonesia) bombings of October 2002 and suicide has not previously been investigated, despite anecdotal evidence of the economic and psychological consequences of these attacks. Suicide rates were calculated over the period 1994-2006 in three Bali regencies to determine whether suicide increased in the period following the first Bali bombings. Poisson regression and time-series models were used to assess the change in suicide rates by sex, age and area in the periods before and after October 2002. Suicide rates (age-adjusted) increased in males from an average of 2.84 (per 100 000) in the period pre-2002 to 8.10 in the period post-2002, and for females from 1.51 to 3.68. The greatest increases in suicide in the post-2002 period were in the age groups 20-29 and 60 years, for both males and females. Tourist arrivals fell significantly after the bombings, and addition of tourism to models reduced relative risk estimates of suicide, suggesting that some of the increase may be attributable to the socio-economic effects of declines in tourism. There was an almost fourfold increase in male suicide risk and a threefold increase in female suicide risk in the period following the 2002 bombings in Bali. Trends in tourism did not account for most of the observed increases. Other factors such as indirect socio-economic effects and Balinese notions of collective guilt and anxieties relating to ritual neglect are important in understanding the rise in suicide in the post-2002 period.

  3. Suicides in Serbia at the beginning of the 21st century and trends in the past fifty years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Penev Goran

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available In 2006 in Serbia, 1444 persons committed suicide (19.5 per 100.000 population. Compared to the early 50s of the 20th century, the number of suicides has nearly doubled, but there has been a moderate decrease in the last 15 years. Similar, but somewhat more moderate tendencies are noted in the change of the value of the suicide rates. The lowest suicide rates were recorded during the 1950s, around 12 per 100.000, and the highest in the last decade of the 20th century when the rate reached 20 suicides per 100.000 inhabitants. The highest suicide rate is among the elderly, and there is also a noticeable tendency of increase in the share of the elderly in the total number of suicides, which is primarily the consequence of intense demographic aging. With youth, the last thirty years note a decline of both the number of suicides and the value of the suicide rates. The number of young people aged 15-24 who have committed suicide in 2006 is less than half of the number from 1971 (decreased from 150 to 66, and the values of suicide rates are also significantly low (decreased from 11.5 to 6.9 per 100.000. Despite certain changes in the values of age-specific suicide rates achieved in the last 50 years, their age patterns of suicide mortality can be characterized as stable. Men are dominant among persons who have committed suicide, with double the number of women, and the highest recorded value of the suicide rate of women never surpassed the value of the lowest suicide rate in men. In terms of marital status, the total rate of suicides is highest with widowers then divorced persons, married persons, and lowest rates are with celibates. In all four groups, suicide rates are at least 3 times higher for men. There is also a clear connection between the level of education and suicide rates for both sexes, with the suicide rate decreasing with higher educational level. In terms of total suicide rate, Serbia is currently in the top half of the European list of

  4. NIMH Answers Questions about Suicide

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Prior suicide attempt Family history of suicide Family violence, including physical or sexual abuse Firearms in the ... products or services, or medical treatments or services. Images used in publications are of models and are ...

  5. End of Life: Suicide Grief

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healthy Lifestyle End of life A loved one's suicide can be emotionally devastating. Use healthy coping strategies — ... Clinic Staff When a loved one dies by suicide, overwhelming emotions can leave you reeling. Your grief ...

  6. Suicide bereavement and complicated grief.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tal Young, Ilanit; Iglewicz, Alana; Glorioso, Danielle; Lanouette, Nicole; Seay, Kathryn; Ilapakurti, Manjusha; Zisook, Sidney

    2012-06-01

    Losing a loved to suicide is one is one of life's most painful experiences. The feelings of loss, sadness, and loneliness experienced after any death of a loved one are often magnified in suicide survivors by feelings of quilt, confusion, rejection, shame, anger, and the effects of stigma and trauma. Furthermore, survivors of suicide loss are at higher risk of developing major depression, post-traumatic stress disorder, and suicidal behaviors, as well as a prolonged form of grief called complicated grief. Added to the burden is the substantial stigma, which can keep survivors away from much needed support and healing resources. Thus, survivors may require unique supportive measures and targeted treatment to cope with their loss. After a brief description of the epidemiology and circumstances of suicide, we review the current state of research on suicide bereavement, complicated grief in suicide survivors, and grief treatment for survivors of suicide.

  7. About Teen Suicide (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... bullying are at greater risk of suicidal thoughts. Factors that increase the risk of suicide among teens include: a psychological disorder, especially depression , bipolar disorder , and alcohol and drug use (in ...

  8. Train suicides in The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Houwelingen, Cornelis A. J.; Kerkhof, Ad J. F. M.; Beersma, Domien G. M.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Little is known about train suicide and factors influencing its prevalence. This study tests the hypotheses that railway density, railway transportation volume, familiarity with railway transportation and population density contribute to train suicide. It also tests the relationship

  9. History of suicide attempts in adults with Asperger syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paquette-Smith, Melissa; Weiss, Jonathan; Lunsky, Yona

    2014-01-01

    Individuals with Asperger syndrome (AS) may be at higher risk for attempting suicide compared to the general population. This study examines the issue of suicidality in adults with AS. An online survey was completed by 50 adults from across Ontario. The sample was dichotomized into individuals who had attempted suicide (n = 18) and those who had not (n = 32). We examined the relationship between predictor variables and previous attempts, and compared the services that both groups are currently receiving. Over 35% of individuals with AS reported that they had attempted suicide in the past. Individuals who attempted suicide were more likely to have a history of depression and self-reported more severe autism symptomatology. Those with and without a suicidal history did not differ in terms of the services they were currently receiving. This study looks at predictors retrospectively and cannot ascertain how long ago the attempt was made. Although efforts were made to obtain a representative sample, there is the possibility that the individuals surveyed may be more or less distressed than the general population with AS. The suicide attempt rate in our sample is much higher than the 4.6% lifetime prevalence seen in the general population. These findings highlight a need for more specialized services to help prevent future attempts and to support this vulnerable group.

  10. Nursing personnel attitudes towards suicide: the development of a measure scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Botega Neury José

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To describe the construction of the Suicide Behavior Attitude Questionnaire (SBAQ which measures attitudes of nursing personnel towards suicide, and verify attitude differences among these professionals. METHODS: The Suicide Behavior Attitude Questionnaire comprises 21 visual analogue scale items (beliefs, feelings and reactions on suicidal patients selected from a pool of attitude statements generated by focal groups and experts' judgement. The questionnaire was completed by 317 nursing professionals who worked in a teaching hospital. Factor analysis and internal consistency were calculated. RESULTS: Three interpretable factors were extracted, accounting jointly for 40% of the total variance: Feelings when caring for the patient, Professional Capacity and Right to Suicide, comprising 7, 4 and 5 items, respectively. The Cronbach's alpha coefficients were 0.7, 0.6 and 0.5, respectively. Greater Professional Capacity was reported by nursing assistants and those who had already took care of suicidal patients. The belief that a person does not have the right to commit suicide was stronger among older professionals, those who had never taken care of suicidal patients, those who had a family history of suicide, those who were Protestants and that used to go more frequently to church services. CONCLUSIONS: The Suicide Behavior Attitude Questionnaire proved to be user-friendly and quite a simple instrument to assess attitude towards suicide among nursing personnel.

  11. Evaluation of Cholesterol as a Biomarker for Suicidality in a Veteran Sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reuter, Chuck; Caldwell, Barbara; Basehore, Heather

    2017-08-01

    A reduction in total cholesterol may alter the microviscosity of the brain-cell-membrane, reducing serotonin receptor exposure. The resulting imbalance between serotonin and dopamine may lead to an increased risk for suicidality. The objective of this research was to evaluate total cholesterol as a biological marker for suicidality in a sample of US military veterans. The study population consisted of veterans who received care at the Coatesville Veterans Affairs Medical Center (VAMC) and were included in the Suicide Prevention Coordinator's database for having suicidal ideation with evidence of escalating intent, a documented suicide attempt, or committed suicide between 2009 and 2015. The veterans' medical data were obtained from the facility's computerized patient record system. The final sample was 188 observations from 128 unique veterans. Veterans with total cholesterol levels below 168 mg/dl appeared to have a higher suicide risk than those with higher levels. The cholesterol levels of veterans reporting suicidal ideation or attempt were significantly lower than the group reporting neither [F(2, 185) = 30.19, p cholesterol levels from an earlier visit in which they did not report suicidality. A latent class analysis revealed that among other differences, suicidal veterans were younger, leaner, and had more anxiety, sleep problems, and higher education than those being seen for an issue unrelated to suicidality. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Characteristics of suicide attempts in anorexia and bulimia nervosa: a case-control study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sébastien Guillaume

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Compared to other eating disorders, anorexia nervosa (AN has the highest rates of completed suicide whereas suicide attempt rates are similar or lower than in bulimia nervosa (BN. Attempted suicide is a key predictor of suicide, thus this mismatch is intriguing. We sought to explore whether the clinical characteristics of suicidal acts differ between suicide attempters with AN, BN or without an eating disorders (ED. METHOD: Case-control study in a cohort of suicide attempters (n = 1563. Forty-four patients with AN and 71 with BN were compared with 235 non-ED attempters matched for sex, age and education, using interview measures of suicidal intent and severity. RESULTS: AN patients were more likely to have made a serious attempt (OR = 3.4, 95% CI 1.4-7.9, with a higher expectation of dying (OR = 3.7,95% CI 1.1-13.5, and an increased risk of severity (OR = 3.4,95% CI 1.2-9.6. BN patients did not differ from the control group. Clinical markers of the severity of ED were associated with the seriousness of the attempt. CONCLUSION: There are distinct features of suicide attempts in AN. This may explain the higher suicide rates in AN. Higher completed suicide rates in AN may be partially explained by AN patients' higher desire to die and their more severe and lethal attempts.

  13. Suicide Risk Among College Student. The Intersection of Sexual Orientation and Race.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shadick, Richard; Backus Dagirmanjian, Faedra; Barbot, Baptiste

    2015-01-01

    Research on young adults in the general population has identified a relationship between sexual minority identification and risk for suicide. Differential rates of suicidal ideation and attempts have also been found across racial and ethnic groups. This study examined risk for suicide among university students, based on membership in one or more marginalized groups (sexual minority and racial minority identification). Data were collected from first-year college students (N = 4,345) at an urban university. Structural equation modeling was employed to model a suicidality construct, based on which a "risk for suicide" category system was derived. Chi-square and logistic regression analyses were then conducted to estimate the relationship between the background variables of interest and suicide risk. Students who identified as lesbian, gay, or bisexual (LGB) were associated with higher suicide risk than their heterosexual peers. Students of color were slightly less at risk than their heterosexual peers. However, LGB students of color were associated with elevated suicide risk relative to heterosexual peers. Results indicate that belonging to multiple marginalized groups may increase one's risk for suicide, though these effects are not simply additive. Findings highlight the complexity of the intersection between marginalized identities and suicidality.

  14. Suicide bereavement and complicated grief

    OpenAIRE

    Tal Young, Ilanit; Iglewicz, Alana; Glorioso, Danielle; Lanouette, Nicole; Seay, Kathryn; Ilapakurti, Manjusha; Zisook, Sidney

    2012-01-01

    Losing a loved to suicide is one is one of life's most painful experiences. The feelings of loss, sadness, and loneliness experienced after any death of a loved one are often magnified in suicide survivors by feelings of quilt, confusion, rejection, shame, anger, and the effects of stigma and trauma. Furthermore, survivors of suicide loss are at higher risk of developing major depression, post-traumatic stress disorder, and suicidal behaviors, as well as a prolonged form of grief called compl...

  15. Train suicides in The Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Houwelingen, Cornelis A J; Kerkhof, Ad J F M; Beersma, Domien G M

    2010-12-01

    Little is known about train suicide and factors influencing its prevalence. This study tests the hypotheses that railway density, railway transportation volume, familiarity with railway transportation and population density contribute to train suicide. It also tests the relationship between train suicide and general population suicide and examines the prevalence and the characteristics of high-risk locations and their contribution to the grand total of train suicides. Trends in train suicides were compared with trends in railway track length, train kilometres, passenger kilometres and national suicide figures over the period 1950-2007. The geographical distribution over the national network over the period 1980-2007 was studied. Data were obtained from The Netherlands Railways, Prorail and Statistics Netherlands. 1. The incidence of train suicides is unrelated to railway parameters. 2. Being familiar with railway transportation as a passenger is not a contributory factor. 3. Train suicide rates are unrelated to regional population density. 4. The incidence of train suicides parallels that of general population suicides. 5. Half of the train suicides took place at a limited number of locations, the most important of which were situated within a village or town and were close to a psychiatric hospital. Most conclusions are based on correlational relationships between variables. 1. Train suicide trends reflect trends in general population suicides. 2. Increased train transportation does not lead to more train suicides. 3. The prevention of train suicide at high-risk locations (HRLs) in built-up areas and near psychiatric hospitals deserves first priority. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Suicidal ideation and suicide attempts among asthma

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Background The present study aimed to investigate the mental health status in patients with asthma and assess the effects of asthma on suicidal ideation and attempts using a representative sample from Korea. Methods Individual-level data were obtained from 228,744 participants (6372 with asthma and 222,372 without asthma) of the 2013 Korean Community Health Survey. Demographic characteristics, socioeconomic status, physical health status, and mental health status were compared between patient...

  17. Endogamy and suicide: An observation-based hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jollant, F; Macdonald, C

    2015-11-01

    Suicide is a complex and multifactorial behavior, which is likely the result of distinct pathways in different individuals or groups. Endogamy has been associated with numerous diseases, including behavioral disorders. Here, we discuss the hypothesis of endogamy as one mechanism facilitating high rates of suicide in some small and isolated groups of people across the world. To support our hypothesis, we describe four geographically and culturally distinct populations (the Aguarunas of Peru, the Vaqueiros of Spain, the Baruyas of New Guinea, and the Palawans of the Philippines), which present the following characteristics: (1) a high level of isolation and endogamy; (2) very high rates of suicide restricted to one group with (3) adjacent groups of similar origin and culture displaying low rates of suicide. Within these four distinct populations, endogamy could act in one isolated group as the amplifier of both selected genetic risk alleles and microcultural values (e.g. suicide as an acceptable solution), beyond cultural and genetic traits shared by the whole population (and therefore found in all groups). Genetic and microcultural risk factors are transmitted through close kinship and imitation/modeling, and could interact to increase the frequency of vulnerable individuals leading, in turn, to heightened rates of suicide. Culture could sometimes additionally act by generating stressful conditions for some individuals (e.g. lower social status and maltreatment). In contrast to endogamy, suicide motives (notably interpersonal conflicts) and mental disorders appear to be universal risk factors. More investigation of this endogamy hypothesis is necessary, which could represent a singular case of gene-culture co-transmission and shed light on particular conditions of suicide genesis.

  18. Suicides among lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender populations in Australia: an analysis of the Queensland Suicide Register.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skerrett, Delaney Michael; Kõlves, Kairi; De Leo, Diego

    2014-12-01

    Sexual orientation is seldom recorded at death in Australia, and to date there have been no studies on the relationship between those that have died by suicide and sexuality or minority gender identity in Australia. The aim of the present study is to determine whether or not lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender (LGBT), and intersex individuals who die by suicide constitute a unique subpopulation of those who die by suicide, when compared with non-lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and intersex suicide deaths. The Queensland Suicide Register holds records of all suicides in Queensland since 1990. All cases from 2000 to 2009 (inclusive; a total of 5,966 cases) were checked for potential indicators of individuals' sexual orientation and gender identification. A total of 35 lesbian (n = 10), gay (n = 22), bisexual (n = 2), and transgender (n = 1) suicide cases were identified. Three comparison cases of non-LGBT suicides for each LGBT suicide were then located, matched by age and gender. Conditional logistic regression was used to calculate odds ratios with 95% confidence intervals. It was significantly more likely that depression was mentioned in the cases of LGBT suicides than in non-LGBT cases. While 12.4% of the comparison group had been diagnosed with psychotic disorders, there were no such diagnoses among LGBT individuals. LGBT individuals experienced relationship problems more often, with relationship conflict also being more frequent than in non-LGBT cases. Despite its limitations, this study - the first of its kind in Australia - seems to indicate that LGBT people would require targeted approaches in mental and general health services. © 2014 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  19. Four studies on how past and current suicidality relate even when "everything but the kitchen sink" is covaried.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joiner, Thomas E; Conwell, Yeates; Fitzpatrick, Kathleen Kara; Witte, Tracy K; Schmidt, Norman B; Berlim, Marcelo T; Fleck, Marcelo P A; Rudd, M David

    2005-05-01

    T. E. Joiner's (2004, in press) theory of suicidal behavior suggests that past suicidal behavior plays an important role in future suicidality. However, the mechanism by which this risk is transferred and the causal implications have not been well studied. The current study provides evaluation of the nature and limits of this relationship across 4 populations, with varying degrees of suicidal behavior. Across settings, age groups, and impairment levels, the association between past suicidal behavior and current suicidal symptoms held, even when controlling for strong covariates like hopelessness and symptoms of various Axis I and II syndromes. Results provide additional support for the importance of past suicidality as a substantive risk factor for later suicidal behavior.

  20. Suicide among immigrants in Europe—a systematic literature review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spallek, Jacob; Reeske, Anna; Nørredam, Marie Louise

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Concerns about increased suicide risk among immigrants to European countries have been raised. We review the scientific literature on differences in suicide among immigrants compared with the majority populations in Europe's major immigration countries. METHODS: We searched...... the databases PubMed and PsycINFO for peer-reviewed epidemiological studies published in 1990-2011, which compared suicide risks of adult immigrant groups with the risks of the majority population in European countries. Hits were screened by two researchers. RESULTS:: We included 24 studies in the review...

  1. International and Domestic Students, Perceived Burdensomeness, Belongingness, and Suicidal Ideation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Servaty-Seib, Heather L; Lockman, Jennifer; Shemwell, Dan; Reid Marks, Laura

    2016-04-01

    Suicide is the second leading cause of death for traditional-age college students, and the interpersonal theory of suicide (ITS; Joiner, 2005) provides a cogent framework for predicting which students may be at highest risk. However, little is known about how constructs of ITS operate in cross-cultural contexts. Findings, based on a sample of international and domestic undergraduate students (N = 254), indicated that the ITS construct of perceived burdensomeness was positively associated with suicidal ideation (SI) for both groups. However, campus belongingness emerged as connected with SI for international students, whereas family belongingness emerged as connected with SI for domestic students. © 2015 The American Association of Suicidology.

  2. Responding to and treating negative interpersonal processes in suicidal depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stellrecht, Nadia E; Joiner, Thomas E; Rudd, M David

    2006-09-01

    The authors discuss the active engagement of suicidally depressed individuals in several interpersonal processes that elicit the rejection of others and withdrawal of interpersonal support. In addition, such processes may increase future risk for suicidal behavior. These processes include ways in which suicidal individuals group themselves (e.g., assortative relationship formation) and relate to others (e.g., help negation, negative feedback seeking, excessive reassurance seeking). Implications of these behaviors for the therapeutic setting are discussed, as well as potential ways to respond to and treat them.

  3. The Ethics of Assisted Suicide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callahan, Jay

    1994-01-01

    From social work perspective, considers ethics of assisted suicide. Discusses traditional social work value of client self-determination and identifies tensions in this ideal and conflicts with value of client well-being. Finds assisted suicide unethical, arguing that studies have shown judgment of most suicidal people to be impaired as result of…

  4. Suicide Prevention for LGBT Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, R. Bradley; Oxendine, Symphony; Taub, Deborah J.; Robertson, Jason

    2013-01-01

    Extensive media coverage of the suicide deaths of several gay and lesbian youth has highlighted lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) youth as a population at-risk for suicide. In addition, it has caused colleges and universities to address mental health and suicide behavior among this very diverse college population. One issue that…

  5. Suicide Prevention for LGBT Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, R. Bradley; Oxendine, Symphony; Taub, Deborah J.; Robertson, Jason

    2013-01-01

    Extensive media coverage of the suicide deaths of several gay and lesbian youth has highlighted lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) youth as a population at-risk for suicide. In addition, it has caused colleges and universities to address mental health and suicide behavior among this very diverse college population. One issue that…

  6. Exploring the Phenomenology of Suicide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pompili, Maurizio

    2010-01-01

    Phenomenology studies conscious experience as experienced from the subjective or first-person point of view. This paper was developed with the aim of shedding light on the phenomenology of suicide; that is, to focus on suicide as a phenomenon affecting a unique individual with unique motives for the suicidal act. To explore this topic, the author…

  7. Teenage Suicide: A Critical Issue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    NJEA Review, 1982

    1982-01-01

    Suicide and attempted suicide among teenagers has risen dramatically since 1960, especially among girls. Three theories of the causes of suicide (emotional crises, brain chemistry and nonexpression of grief) are discussed. Depression and other first stage warning signals, and the nature of second stage "cries for help," are considered. (CM)

  8. Suicide Attempts among Drug Abusers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrsi, Rachel; And Others

    1979-01-01

    The relationship between substance abuse and suicide is indicated by high rate of attempted suicide among alcoholics and drug abusers, as well as increased likelihood of repeated attempts in these populations. This study reports on psychological characteristics of male drug suicide attempters who are in treatment for their addiction problem.…

  9. The Interpersonal Theory of Suicide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Orden, Kimberly A.; Witte, Tracy K.; Cukrowicz, Kelly C.; Braithwaite, Scott R.; Selby, Edward A.; Joiner, Thomas E., Jr.

    2010-01-01

    Suicidal behavior is a major problem worldwide and, at the same time, has received relatively little empirical attention. This relative lack of empirical attention may be due in part to a relative absence of theory development regarding suicidal behavior. The current article presents the interpersonal theory of suicidal behavior. We propose that…

  10. Suicidal Adolescents: Factors in Evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gispert, Maria; And Others

    1985-01-01

    Examined factors (family structure, functioning in school, suicidal risk, depression, and stressful life events) related to suicide attempts in 82 adolescents. Suicide risk correlated with current stress, while depression correlated with life-long and current stress. Results indicated most were depressed, angry, and experienced family disruption,…

  11. The Ethics of Assisted Suicide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callahan, Jay

    1994-01-01

    From social work perspective, considers ethics of assisted suicide. Discusses traditional social work value of client self-determination and identifies tensions in this ideal and conflicts with value of client well-being. Finds assisted suicide unethical, arguing that studies have shown judgment of most suicidal people to be impaired as result of…

  12. Suicide in obsessive-compulsive disorder: a population-based study of 36 788 Swedish patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández de la Cruz, L; Rydell, M; Runeson, B; D'Onofrio, B M; Brander, G; Rück, C; Lichtenstein, P; Larsson, H; Mataix-Cols, D

    2016-07-19

    The risk of death by suicide in individuals with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is largely unknown. Previous studies have been small and methodologically flawed. We analyzed data from the Swedish national registers to estimate the risk of suicide in OCD and identify the risk and protective factors associated with suicidal behavior in this group. We used a matched case-cohort design to estimate the risk of deaths by suicide and attempted suicide in individuals diagnosed with OCD, compared with matched general population controls (1:10). Cox regression models were used to study predictors of suicidal behavior. We identified 36 788 OCD patients in the Swedish National Patient Register between 1969 and 2013. Of these, 545 had died by suicide and 4297 had attempted suicide. In unadjusted models, individuals with OCD had an increased risk of both dying by suicide (odds ratio (OR)=9.83 (95% confidence interval (CI), 8.72-11.08)) and attempting suicide (OR=5.45 (95% CI, 5.24-5.67)), compared with matched controls. After adjusting for psychiatric comorbidities, the risk was reduced but remained substantial for both death by suicide and attempted suicide. Within the OCD cohort, a previous suicide attempt was the strongest predictor of death by suicide. Having a comorbid personality or substance use disorder also increased the risk of suicide. Being a woman, higher parental education and having a comorbid anxiety disorder were protective factors. We conclude that patients with OCD are at a substantial risk of suicide. Importantly, this risk remains substantial after adjusting for psychiatric comorbidities. Suicide risk should be carefully monitored in patients with OCD.Molecular Psychiatry advance online publication, 19 July 2016; doi:10.1038/mp.2016.115.

  13. Suicide in Obsessive Compulsive and Related Disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Gonca Karakus; Lut Tamam

    2015-01-01

    Suicide is a complex term. Suicide attempts are common in women, but completed suicide rates are higher in men. Several demographic factors, stressful life events, previous suicide attempts, childhood abuse, physical or psychiatric disorders are risk factors for suicide. Suicide rates in a variety of mental disorders is more than the normal population. Data on rates and risk factors of suicide in patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder and related disorders are limited. Present data are o...

  14. Effect of phone call versus face-to-face follow-up on recurrent suicide attempts prevention in individuals with a history of multiple suicide attempts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mousavi, Seyed Ghafur; Amini, Mohsen; Mahaki, Behzad; Bagherian-Sararoudi, Reza

    2016-01-01

    Background: To evaluate the efficacy of different ways of communications on prevention of suicidal reattempt, we compared the efficacy of phone call versus face-to-face follow-up in patients with previous attempt. Materials and Methods: In a randomized controlled clinical trial, 55 suicide reattempters who were admitted to the poisoning emergency were divided into phone call (29 patients) and face-to-face (26 patients) groups randomly. They were followed at 8 occasions: 2nd and 4th weeks, and the 2nd, 3rd, 4th, 5th, 6th, and 8th months. The suicidal reattempt, suicidal thought, hope, and interest of the patients were assessed on each occasion, and the patients were guided to visit by a therapist, if needed. The findings were analyzed by Mann–Whitney, Chi-square, Cochran, Friedman, and independent t-tests using SPSS 20. Results: The status of “hope” and “interest” improved in both groups, but it showed more significant difference in the face-to-face group. Suicidal thoughts in both groups decreased over time, and this was more significant in the face-to-face group. However, we did not found any significant difference in the frequency of the suicidal reattempts between two groups. Conclusion: Face-to-face versus phone call follow-up of suicide attempters can significantly alleviate suicidal thoughts and improve hopes and interests. PMID:28028524

  15. Risk of repetition of suicide attempt, suicide or all deaths after an episode of attempted suicide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Erik; Jensen, Børge Frank

    2007-01-01

    This study was undertaken in order to estimate the incidence of repetition of suicide attempt, suicide and all deaths, and to analyse the influence of psychiatric illness and socio-demographic factors on these.......This study was undertaken in order to estimate the incidence of repetition of suicide attempt, suicide and all deaths, and to analyse the influence of psychiatric illness and socio-demographic factors on these....

  16. Attempted suicide in manic-depressive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldring, N; Fieve, R R

    1984-07-01

    Structured interviews were used to study rates of past suicide attempts among 123 outpatients treated for affective disorders. Subjects met the Feighner criteria for major affective illness, and bipolar and unipolar groups were identified in accordance with the Fieve-Dunner criteria. Although a small group (N = 6), the women with a history of hospitalization for depression and outpatient treatment for hypomania (BP II) had the highest rate of past suicide attempts. (66 percent). This confirms previous findings. Women showed higher rates overall (39 percent vs. 28 percent for men). Suicide attempters were found to be significantly younger than nonattempters, which is in line with previous reports that suicide risk is high early in the course of bipolar illness. A trend for attempters to have received their first treatment at a younger age suggests that early onset may be a risk factor. No differences in marital status were found between attempters and nonattempters. Males and females did not differ in number, seriousness, or lethality of attempts.

  17. Re-Vitalizing Worthiness: A theory of overcoming suicidality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evelyn Gordon, RPN, Reg. Fam. Ther. & Sup. (FTAI, MSc, Ph.D.

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Rates of suicide and suicidality have risen in many countries in recent years and in Ireland this trend has been particularly evident among young men (NOSP, 2005, focusing attention on how best to respond to this group. Although mental health professionals have been identified as a key group to respond to the suicidal person, it has been suggested that they are ill-prepared for working in this area (Maltsberger & Goldblatt, 1996; Ting et al., 2006; Cutcliffe & Stevenson, 2007. This study aimed to address these issues by developing a theoretical understanding of suicidality among young men to inform professional practice. Using Classic Grounded Theory (Glaser & Strauss, 1967, in-depth one-to-one interviews were conducted with 17 young men who had been suicidal and had been in contact with the mental health services. The substantive theory that emerged, re-vitalizing worthiness in overcoming suicidality, describes the psychosocial process that young men go through to resolve their main concern, which centres on their painful pull between life and death. Overcoming suicidality involves moving from a death orientation to a life orientation while incorporating the inevitability of death into their new sense of being. This transition entails identity re-configuration whereby young men emerge as individuals of value who are deserving of life. The process is influenced significantly by personal insights and interpersonal interactions that influence their suicide trajectories and life pathways. The theory contributes to the fields of suicidology and mental health by providing a theoretical understanding of overcoming suicidality and identifying professional and social practices that facilitate and impede this process.

  18. Suicidal tendency in a sample of adolescent outpatients with adjustment disorder: gender differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrer, Laia; Kirchner, Teresa

    2014-08-01

    Although Adjustment Disorder (AD) is a prevalent diagnosis in adolescent mental health services and linked to suicidal tendency in adolescence, little research exists examining prevalence and gender differences of suicidal symptoms among AD patients using standardized instruments. The present study aims to assess the presence of suicidal tendency in a clinical sample of Spanish adolescents with AD analyzing gender differences. Ninety-seven adolescents with AD were recruited at a public mental health center and included in the AD sample; they were administered the Inventario de Riesgo Suicida para Adolescentes (Suicide Risk Inventory for Adolescents-IRIS) and the Millon Adolescent Clinical Inventory (MACI). Ninety-nine community adolescents were recruited and administered the IRIS inventory. The community sample works as a contrast group. Girls with AD show higher levels of suicidal symptoms than boys on both the IRIS Suicidal Ideation and Intention scale (t=8.15, p<.001) and the MACI Suicidal Tendency scale (t=6.6, p<.001). Girls with AD scored significantly higher than girls from the community contrast group sample in the IRIS Suicidal Ideation and Intention scale, but boys with AD presented no differences with regard to boys form the community contrast group sample. Compared with normative clinical samples of the MACI, no differences in the Suicidal Tendency scale scores were found between AD and normative girls, but AD boys showed significantly lower mean scores than normative boys. Suicidal symptoms were presented by 27% of girls and 18% of boys, although only 6% of the girls and none of the boys presented clear suicidal tendencies. Considering suicidal tendencies in adolescents with Adjustment Disorder is important-especially in girls, who present high suicidal tendencies in relation both to boys and to community peers and the normative clinical population. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Time-trends in assisted and unassisted suicides completed with different methods: Swiss National Cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steck, Nicole; Zwahlen, Marcel; Egger, Matthias

    2015-01-01

    The number of suicides assisted by right-to-die associations has increased in recent years in Switzerland. The aim of our study was to compare time trends in rates of assisted and unassisted suicide from 1991-2008. The Swiss National Cohort is a longitudinal study of mortality in the Swiss population; based on linkage of census data with mortality records up to 2008. The Federal Statistical Office coded suspected assisted suicides from 1998 onwards; and from 2003 onwards right-to-die associations reported the suicides they assisted. We used Poisson regression to analyse trends in rates of suicide per 100'000 person-years, by gender and age groups (15-34, 35-64, 65-94 years). A total of 7'940'297 individuals and 24'842 suicides were included. In women, rates changed little in the younger age groups but increased in 65-94-year-olds, due to an increase in suicide by poisoning (from 5.1 to 17.2 per 100'000; p suicides by poisoning was also observed in older men (from 8.6 to 18.2; psuicides by poisoning were assisted. In men, suicide rates declined in all age groups, driven by declines in suicide with firearms. Research is needed to gain a better understanding of the reasons for the tripling of assisted suicide rates in older women, and the doubling of rates in older men, of attitudes and vulnerabilities of those choosing assisted suicide, and of access to palliative care. Rates of assisted suicide should be monitored; including data on patient characteristics and underlying comorbidities.

  20. Hume on suicide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frey, R G

    1999-08-01

    Anyone interested in the morality of suicide reads David Hume's essay on the subject even today. There are numerous reasons for this, but the central one is that it sets up the starting point for contemporary debate about the morality of suicide, namely, the debate about whether some condition of life could present one with a morally acceptable reason for autonomously deciding to end one's life. We shall only be able to have this debate if we think that at least some acts of suicide can be moral, and we shall only be able to think this if we give up the blanket condemnation of suicide that theology has put in place. I look at this strategy of argument in the context of the wider eighteenth-century attempt to develop a non-theologically based ethic. The result in Hume's case is a very modern tract on suicide, with voluntariness and autonomy to the fore and with reflection on the condition of one's life and one's desire to carry on living a life in that condition the motivating circumstance.

  1. [Family, Suicide and Mourning].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garciandía Imaz, José Antonio

    2013-01-01

    Death is an event that always breaks into family life in a surprising way. Of all the deaths, suicide is the one which more strongly questions the functionality of a family and increases the risk of difficulties in the mourning process. Families in which a suicide has occurred are exposed to a greater possibility of disintegration, disorganization and pathological expressions in their members. To present a reduced and circumscribed narrative revision, restricted to examine the relationship between suicide and the mourning process in the family. The suicide of a loved one is an event that may contribute to pathological grief and mental dysfunctions in surviving relatives. Death in the family is a natural phenomenon. However, death by suicide is one of the phenomena that can generate more alterations in the structure and organization of the family, due to the difficulty related to the mourning process. Copyright © 2013 Asociación Colombiana de Psiquiatría. Publicado por Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  2. Depression and exposure to suicide predict suicide attempt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanayakkara, Sonali; Misch, Diane; Chang, Laura; Henry, David

    2013-10-01

    To examine the role of depression and exposure to peer or family suicide and their interaction as risk factors for adolescent suicide attempts. The study used the public-use data set of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health), which is a nationally representative stratified sample of U.S. high school students. Sample size was 4,719. Analyses predicted suicide attempts from preexisting depression and exposure to suicide of a friend or family member, controlling for previous suicide attempts, exposure, and depression. The greatest risk for future suicide attempts (relative risk = 3.3), was attributable to an attempt in the preceding year, controlling for preexisting and current depression and exposure. There was a main effect of exposure with the next highest relative risk of 3.2. A similar risk ratio, 3.2, was found for the difference between no depression and current severe depression, controlling for past depression and attempts. There was no evidence of an interaction between exposure to a peer or family member suicide attempt and depression. Supplementary analyses found that exposure to a friend or family member suicide attempt or completed suicide each added significantly to risk for adolescents regardless of depression levels. Exposure to suicidal behavior in a friend or family member poses risk equivalent to the risk posed by becoming severely depressed. Attending to such risks could benefit clinical practice with adolescence and public health suicide prevention efforts. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Attempted suicide in Denmark. III. Assessment of repeated suicidal behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, A G; Nielsen, B; Bille-Brahe, U;

    1985-01-01

    features for the repeaters were previous suicidal behaviour and suicidal behaviour among relatives. Many had a psychiatric record and expressed chronic somatic complaints. Around the time of the attempt, many expressed hopelessness, isolation and suicidal ideation. Pierce's Suicide Intent Scale performed......Ninety-nine patients, randomly chosen among hospital admitted suicide attempters, were initially interviewed at the Department of Psychiatry, Odense University Hospital, Denmark, and then followed up for a period of about 3 years. Half of the patients repeated the attempt in the follow-up period......, mostly in the first year. Ten patients committed suicide, half of them in the first 3 months after the interview, shortly after discharge from hospital. The majority of the repeaters were living alone, while those that committed suicide were mostly married women aged 50-60 years. Other characteristic...

  4. Controlling Access to Suicide Means

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miriam Iosue

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Restricting access to common means of suicide, such as firearms, toxic gas, pesticides and other, has been shown to be effective in reducing rates of death in suicide. In the present review we aimed to summarize the empirical and clinical literature on controlling the access to means of suicide. Methods: This review made use of both MEDLINE, ISI Web of Science and the Cochrane library databases, identifying all English articles with the keywords “suicide means”, “suicide method”, “suicide prediction” or “suicide prevention” and other relevant keywords. Results: A number of factors may influence an individual’s decision regarding method in a suicide act, but there is substantial support that easy access influences the choice of method. In many countries, restrictions of access to common means of suicide has lead to lower overall suicide rates, particularly regarding suicide by firearms in USA, detoxification of domestic and motor vehicle gas in England and other countries, toxic pesticides in rural areas, barriers at jumping sites and hanging, by introducing “safe rooms” in prisons and hospitals. Moreover, decline in prescription of barbiturates and tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs, as well as limitation of drugs pack size for paracetamol and salicylate has reduced suicides by overdose, while increased prescription of SSRIs seems to have lowered suicidal rates. Conclusions: Restriction to means of suicide may be particularly effective in contexts where the method is popular, highly lethal, widely available, and/or not easily substituted by other similar methods. However, since there is some risk of means substitution, restriction of access should be implemented in conjunction with other suicide prevention strategies.

  5. Epidemiology of Suicide in Cuba, 1987-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corona-Miranda, Beatriz; Hernández-Sánchez, Mariela; Lomba-Acevedo, Paula

    2016-07-01

    INTRODUCTION Suicide is a health problem influenced by biological, genetic, psychological, social and economic factors. It is responsible for 50% of violent deaths in the male population, worldwide, and 71% in the female. In the Americas, 65,000 deaths by suicide occur every year. It is the ninth most frequent cause of death in Cuba, and third among people aged 10-19. OBJECTIVE Characterize the epidemiology of suicide in Cuba from 1987 to 2014. METHODS A retrospective descriptive study was conducted. The information comprised all records of death by suicide from January 1, 1987 to December 31, 2014, in the Cuban Ministry of Public Health's National Statistics Division database. The variables were sex, age, skin color, employment status/occupation, marital status, and method of suicide. Crude and age-standardized mortality rates and age-sex specific mortality rates were calculated, all per 100,000 population, as well as the sex ratio. Relative change over the series was calculated as a percentage. Distribution of suicides by variable was calculated and proportions expressed as percentages. RESULTS A total of 51,113 deaths by suicide were reported (annual average 1825), of which 34,671 (67.8%) were among men. The sex ratio was 2.1:1 for the entire study period, and 3.9:1 for 2011-2014. Over the course of the period studied, age-standardized suicide rates decreased from 23.9 to 10.8 per 100,000 population (54.8% reduction). The group aged ≥60 years had the highest average age-standardized rate, 44.6 per 100,000 population. The highest suicide burden by age was in the group aged 20-59 years (60.5%). By skin color, the highest burden was in those recorded as white, 68.9%. By marital status, the highest burden was in persons with a stable partner (46.7%), and by employment status/occupation, in retired (25.9%). The most commonly used method was hanging (59.4%). CONCLUSIONS Over the course of about three decades, suicide mortality rates have declined by almost half and

  6. Anomie and United States Suicide rates, 1973--1976.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boor, M

    1979-10-01

    Related annual variations in United States suicide rates between 1973 and 1976 to concomitant annual variations in expressions of anomie obtained on the 5-item Srole anomie scale by a representative sample of the United States population. Expressions of anomie increased significantly for persons in the age groups (15--24 and 25--34 year) that displayed increases in suicide rates, annual variations in endorsement of anomie statements were correlated significantly with the concomitant annual variations in the suicide rates of the 15--24 year age group, and there was a nonsignificant tendency toward this relationship in the other (25--34 year) age group with increasing suicide rates. However, expressions of anomie also increased significantly for persons in the older age groups that showed no increases in suicide rates. Thus, Durkheim's hypothesis was not supported among older persons as it was among younger persons. Previous studies suggest that measures of anomie that focus explicitly on perceptions of internal-external control may be related more closely to suicidal behavior (especially for older persons) than measures that focus on other components of anomie.

  7. What has happened to suicides during the Greek economic crisis? Findings from an ecological study of suicides and their determinants (2003-2012).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rachiotis, George; Stuckler, David; McKee, Martin; Hadjichristodoulou, Christos

    2015-03-25

    There is a controversy about the impact of economic crisis on suicide rates in Greece. We analysed recent suicide data to identify who has been most affected and the relationships to economic and labour market indicators. Greece. Age-specific and sex-specific suicide rates in Greece for the period 2003-2012 were calculated using data provided by the Hellenic Statistical Authority. We performed a join-point analysis to identify discontinuities in suicide trends between 2003 and 2010, prior to austerity, and in 2011-2012, during the period of austerity. Regression models were used to assess relationships between unemployment, Gross Domestic Product (GDP) and suicide rates for the entire period by age and sex. The mean suicide rate overall rose by 35% between 2010 and 2012, from 3.37 to 4.56/100,000 population. The suicide mortality rate for men increased from 5.75 (2003-2010) to 7.43/100,000 (2011-2012; psuicide rate also rose, albeit less markedly, from 1.17 to 1.55 (p=0.03). When differentiated by age group, suicide mortality increased among both sexes in the age groups 20-59 and >60 years. We found that each additional percentage point of unemployment was associated with a 0.19/100,000 population rise in suicides (95% CI 0.11 to 0.26) among working age men. We found a clear increase in suicides among persons of working age, coinciding with austerity measures. These findings corroborate concerns that increased suicide risk in Greece is a health hazard associated with austerity measures. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  8. The Relationship between Attitudes toward Suicide and Family History of Suicide in Nagano Prefecture, Japan

    OpenAIRE

    Teruomi Tsukahara; Hiroaki Arai; Tomoko Kamijo; Yoshikiyo Kobayashi; Shinsuke Washizuka; Heihachiro Arito; Tetsuo Nomiyama

    2016-01-01

    Certain attitudes toward suicide may be a risk factor for suicide among the bereaved. To explore this possibility, we examined the relationship between attitudes toward suicide and family history of suicide. We focused on two specific attitudes indicating resignation in a survey: #1 “When a person chooses to die by suicide, the suicide is inevitable” (i.e., inevitability belief); and #2 “A suicide cannot be stopped by any person, because suicide is unpreventable” (i.e., unpreventable belief)....

  9. [Homicide-suicide: Clinical review and psychological assumptions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandevoorde, J; Estano, N; Painset, G

    2017-08-01

    Suicide-homicide could be defined as a "suicidal" behaviour, which also includes the death of at least one other individual and sometimes up to hundreds. This literature review intends to highlight some characteristic features that might be found amongst the various types of suicide-homicide. It is a complex phenomenon which can occur in different situations, from a familial and somehow intimate setting (filicide, uxoricide, marital homicide…) to a public one (workplace shooting, school shooting), including a wide range of victims, from a single victim in marital cases of suicide-homicide to hundreds of victims in certain types, such as suicide by aircraft or warrior-like multi-homicids in terrorist acts. This literature review offers a combination of data emanating from scientific publications and case studies from our practices in an attempt to insulate some common factors. A thorough examination of the offenses unravels complex processes, ideations, M.O and peculiar cognitive impairments in which the familial suicide-homicide could be rooted. Mass murders might be caused also by a psychopathological alloy, made of Grandiose Self and sub-depressive and even paranoid ideations. Concerning the terrorism and multi-homicide-suicide, this is far more complex phenomenon and is defined by a group-process enrolment and ideological conviction. Beyond epidemiological studies, both descriptive and statistical, this paper's objective is to isolate a hypothesis about a psychopathological ground from which a criminological mechanism could emerge. Despite the lack of blatant psychosis, some traits might be identified in suicide-homicide cases - such as paranoid, psychopathic, narcissistic, melancholic - which can intertwine, potentiate one with another forming a distorted view of the world. The offense dynamic is possibly composed of preparatory behaviours, triggers, the use of death as a narcissistic support, identity choices… METHODS: The data were collected from

  10. Advancing suicide prevention research with rural American Indian and Alaska Native populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wexler, Lisa; Chandler, Michael; Gone, Joseph P; Cwik, Mary; Kirmayer, Laurence J; LaFromboise, Teresa; Brockie, Teresa; O'Keefe, Victoria; Walkup, John; Allen, James

    2015-05-01

    As part of the National Action Alliance for Suicide Prevention's American Indian and Alaska Native (AI/AN) Task Force, a multidisciplinary group of AI/AN suicide research experts convened to outline pressing issues related to this subfield of suicidology. Suicide disproportionately affects Indigenous peoples, and remote Indigenous communities can offer vital and unique insights with relevance to other rural and marginalized groups. Outcomes from this meeting include identifying the central challenges impeding progress in this subfield and a description of promising research directions to yield practical results. These proposed directions expand the alliance's prioritized research agenda and offer pathways to advance the field of suicide research in Indigenous communities and beyond.

  11. Suicide: Across the Life Span.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez, Jeffery

    2016-06-01

    Suicide remains a major public health issue. There have been more than 40,000 deaths by suicide in 2014. Understanding both the neuroscience and psychological development is key for nursing care so adequate interventions and treatment strategies are developed when working with people thinking about suicide. It is critical to assess and recognize risk and protective factors to ensure patient safety. The older adult, children, and adolescent populations remain vulnerable to suicide. A discussion regarding the psychiatric, psychosocial, and treatment considerations for these populations is included. An overview of communication, suicide assessment, and safety planning is discussed.

  12. Suicide bomber detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Naomi; Callejero, Carlos; Fiore, Franco; Gómez, Ignacio; Gonzalo, Ramón; Enríquez de Luna, Álvaro; Ederra, Iñigo; Palacios, Inés

    2009-05-01

    The chance of suicide bomber attacks against troops in the Theatre of Operations is currently quite high. Most of the time checkpoints and compound gates are not equipped with the appropriate equipment to screen for potential suicide bombers. The ultimate solution would be to be able to perform stand-off screening under various weather conditions whilst avoiding contact between Force Protection personnel and potential suicide bombers. Radiation in the millimeterwave and the lower Terahertz range, having the useful property of being able to penetrate clothing in addition to fog and rain, makes it a clear candidate for imaging in this situation. A study has been made simulating real case scenarios to test practical detection performance and stand-off distances at a range of frequencies in this band, the results of which will be presented.

  13. [Suicide in the Elderly].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velásquez Suarez, Juliana María

    2013-01-01

    Suicide is a public health problem worldwide, with multiple features and risk factors. It has some common and unique trends in each phase across the lifespan. To review the medical literature related to suicide in the elderly, in order to determine the current status of this problem in the world, and especially in Colombia. Literature review. There is a high volume of articles about suicide in general, even in Colombia, with many papers describing the problem in a comprehensive manner, but there is a need for more studies and publications on the scope of this problem in the elderly. Copyright © 2013 Asociación Colombiana de Psiquiatría. Publicado por Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  14. Suicide in centenarians

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shah, Ajit; Zarate-Escudero, Sofia; Bhat, Ravi;

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The elderly population size is growing worldwide due increased life expectancy and decreased mortality in the elderly. This has lead to an increase in the number of centenarians, and their numbers are predicted to increase further. Little is known about suicide rates in centenarians....... METHODS: Data on the number of suicides (ICD-10 codes, X60-84) in entenarians of both gender for as many years as possible from 2000 were ascertained from three sources: colleagues, national statisics office websites and e-mail contact with the national statistics offices of as many countries as possible....... The number of centernarians for the corresponding years was estimated for each country using data provided by the United Nations website. RESULTS: Data were available from 17 countries. The suicide rate was 57 (95% confidence interval 45-69) per 100, 000 person years in men and 6.8 (95% confidence interval 5...

  15. Suicidal ideation and behaviour among persons seeking HIV testing in peri-urban areas of Cape Town, South Africa: a lost opportunity for suicide prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bantjes, Jason; Kagee, Ashraf; Saal, Wylene

    2016-12-28

    Suicidal ideation and behaviour (SIB) are among the psychiatric sequela of HIV/AIDS. Few studies have however examined the prevalence and correlates of SIB among persons seeking HIV testing. We set out to document the prevalence and correlates of SIB among people seeking HIV testing in peri-urban areas of Cape Town, South Africa (SA). A cross-sectional research design was used to recruit a sample (n = 500) of individuals seeking HIV testing. Self-report measures were used to assess two-week prevalence of SIB as well as life-time prevalence of suicide attempt. A structured clinical interview was used to assess common mental disorders (CMDs). Regression analysis was used to determine if CMD and socio-demographic variables predicted suicidal ideation. The mean age of the sample was 36 years, 51.6% were female and 46.6% were unemployed. The two-week prevalence of suicidal ideation was 24.27% while the two-week prevalence of suicide attempt and suicide plans was 2.8%. Suicidal ideation was not associated with age, gender, employment status, family income or household food insecurity. CMDs were significantly associated with suicidal ideation; individuals with depressive disorders were approximately 5.5 times more likely to report suicidal ideation, while those with generalised anxiety disorder, trauma-related disorders and alcohol use disorder were approximately 7, 4.7 and 2.8 times more likely to report suicidal ideation, respectively. Results suggest that persons seeking HIV testing may be a well-delineated group of persons at risk of suicide in this region of SA. Contact with the health care system during HIV testing provides an opportunity for targeted suicide prevention interventions in what appears to be a high risk group.

  16. Pharmacotherapy of suicidal behaviour in major depression, schizophrenia and bipolar disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filaković, Pavo; Erić, Anamarija Petek

    2013-09-01

    The psychopathological dynamics in suicidality overcomes actual diagnostic distribution therefore pharmacotherapy has restricted role in overall prevention of suicidal behaviour among mentally ill and is demanding for clinician. This role is achieved through reduction and alleviation of suicidal risk with rational and individual pharmacotherapeutic approach emphasising effective, safe and tolerable treatment. The genetic and epigenetic factors, dysfunction of neurotransmitter, neuroendocrine system and stress response system has been determining for neurobiology of suicidality. Therefore, pharmacotherapeutic approach should be focused, not only on prevention and reduction of suicidality, but adjusted for general and diagnosis-specific risk factors. Suicidality represents trans-diagnostic issue, however making the correct diagnosis is of great importance. Identical group of psychiatric medications or even the same drug, could be palliating for suicidal behaviour in one diagnostic category and in other aggravating concerning suicidal ideations. Clinician should be reserved towards epidemiological studies about reducing suicidal rate due to increased consumption of antidepressants. Detailed data analysis showed there is no relevancy which antidepressants were given to specific patient, in what age and phase of illness. The FDA has issued warnings about possible increased risk of suicidal behaviour in children and adolescents when given antidepressant therapy. In general, serotoninergic drugs have neutral or mildly protective effect on potential suicidal behaviour while noradrenergic drugs may have activating effect or could even worsen suicidal ideation in certain phase of the illness. When given in appropriate dose and the right time, dual or noradrenergic antidepressants, could also have good protective impact on specific patient. In patients with bipolar disorder, antidepressive drug could be trigger for suicidal behaviour. Greater susceptibility when diagnosing

  17. Prediction by data mining, of suicide attempts in Korean adolescents: a national study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bae SM

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Sung Man Bae,1 Seung A Lee,2 Seung-Hwan Lee2,3 1Department of Counseling Psychology, The Cyber University of Korea, Seoul, South Korea; 2Clinical Emotion and Cognition Research Laboratory, Goyang, South Korea; 3Department of Psychiatry, Ilsan Paik Hospital, Inje University College of Medicine, Goyang, South Korea Objective: This study aimed to develop a prediction model for suicide attempts in Korean adolescents.Methods: We conducted a decision tree analysis of 2,754 middle and high school students nationwide. We fixed suicide attempt as the dependent variable and eleven sociodemographic, intrapersonal, and extrapersonal variables as independent variables.Results: The rate of suicide attempts of the total sample was 9.5%, and severity of depression was the strongest variable to predict suicide attempt. The rates of suicide attempts in the depression and potential depression groups were 5.4 and 2.8 times higher than that of the non-depression group. In the depression group, the most powerful factor to predict a suicide attempt was delinquency, and the rate of suicide attempts in those in the depression group with higher delinquency was two times higher than in those in the depression group with lower delinquency. Of special note, the rate of suicide attempts in the depressed females with higher delinquency was the highest. Interestingly, in the potential depression group, the most impactful factor to predict a suicide attempt was intimacy with family, and the rate of suicide attempts of those in the potential depression group with lower intimacy with family was 2.4 times higher than that of those in the potential depression group with higher intimacy with family. And, among the potential depression group, middle school students with lower intimacy with family had a 2.5-times higher rate of suicide attempts than high school students with lower intimacy with family. Finally, in the non-depression group, stress level was the most powerful factor to

  18. Suicides among Family Members of Elderly Suicide Victims: An Exploratory Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waern, Margda

    2005-01-01

    This exploratory study compares elderly suicides with (n = 13) and without (n = 72) family member suicide. Previous episodes of suicidal behavior were more common among suicides who lost first-degree relatives by suicide (100% vs. 65%, p = 0.009). Six persons had lost an offspring by suicide prior to their own deaths. Substance use disorder was…

  19. [Lipids, depression and suicide].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colin, A; Reggers, J; Castronovo, V; Ansseau, M

    2003-01-01

    fatty acids contained in fish, game and vegetables have been largely replaced by polyunsatured omega 6 fatty acids of cereal oils. Some epidemiological data support the hypothesis of a relation between lower depression and/or suicide rates and a higher consumption of fish. These data do not however prove a relation of causality. Several cohort studies (on nondepressed subjects) have assessed the relationship between plasma cholesterol and depressive symptoms with contradictory results. Though some results found a significant relationship between a decrease of total cholesterol and high scores of depression, some other did not. Studies among patients suffering from major depression signalled more constantly an association between low cholesterol and major depression. Besides, some trials showed that clinical recovery may be associated with a significant increase of total cholesterol. The hypothesis that a low cholesterol level may represent a suicidal risk factor was discovered accidentally following a series of epidemiological studies which revealed an increase of the suicidal risk among subjects with a low cholesterol level. Though some contradictory studies do exist, this relationship has been confirmed by several subsequent cohort studies. These findings have challenged the vast public health programs aimed at promoting the decrease of cholesterol, and even suggested to suspend the administration of lipid lowering drugs. Recent clinical studies on populations treated with lipid lowering drugs showed nevertheless a lack of significant increase of mortality, either by suicide or accident. In addition, several controlled studies among psychiatric patients revealed a decrease of the concentrations of plasma cholesterol among patients who had attempted suicide in comparison with other patients. In major depression, all studies revealed a significant decrease of the polyunsaturated omega 3 fatty acids and/or an increase of the omega 6/omega 3 ratio in plasma and/or in the

  20. Suicides in the midnight sun--a study of seasonality in suicides in West Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Björkstén, Karin Sparring; Bjerregaard, Peter; Kripke, Daniel F

    2005-01-01

    Greenland is the most extreme of human habitats in regard to annual changes in natural light. From being very low, the rate of suicides in Greenland has increased during the past few decades to be among the highest in the world. Several studies have shown seasonality in suicides with spring...... or summer peaks, but this has not been previously shown in Greenland. Official data from 1968 to 1995 from West Greenland were pooled. A significant seasonality in the 833 suicides was found using Rayleigh's test, a peak in June and a trough in the winter. Suicides increased during the period, and reached...... high rates in most age groups, up to 577 per 100,000 person-years in men aged 15-24 years in 1990, and up to 147 per 100,000 person-years in women aged 15-24 years in 1995. Violent methods of suicide were used by 93%. Depression has been reported uncommonly. High alcohol intake and extended periods...

  1. Suicidal ideation among Malaysian adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, NoorAni; Cheong, Siew Man; Ibrahim, Nurashikin; Rosman, Azriman

    2014-09-01

    Adolescence is the time of greatest risk for the first onset of suicidal behaviors. This study aimed to identify the risk and protective factors associated with suicidal ideation among Malaysian adolescents. Data from the 2012 Malaysia Global School-based Student Health Survey, a nationwide study using a 2-stage cluster sampling design, were analyzed. The survey used a self-administered validated bilingual questionnaire and the Depression Anxiety and Stress Scale. The prevalence of suicidal ideation was 7.9%. Analysis revealed that suicidal ideation was positively associated with depression, anxiety, stress, substance use, being bullied, and being abused at home, either physically or verbally. In addition, suicidal ideation was significantly higher among females and among the Indians and Chinese. Having close friends and married parents were strongly protective against suicidal ideation. Understanding the risk and protective factors is important in providing comprehensive management for suicidal ideation. © 2014 APJPH.

  2. Understanding suicide in the elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanni, Guido R; Wick, Jeannette Y

    2010-02-01

    One suicide occurs every 16 minutes. Intentionally killing oneself is distinctly human; other species don't commit suicide. Suicide is an exceedingly complex phenomenon stemming from intolerable stress and the inability to cope. Elders tend to plan their suicides well, choose means of killing themselves that are more violent than younger people do, and are less likely to survive the attempt than others. Numerous factors increase risk for elder suicide: recent bereavement, pain, chronic illness, hopelessness, and despair. Identifying and treating depression early is essential to avoid tragedy. Regardless, many elders are treated with anxiolytics and analgesics in lieu of antidepressants, and some medications may increase suicide risk. Consultant pharmacists need to be aware that suicide is a serious concern for elders. When depression seems to be worsening in an elder, aggressive action is needed.

  3. [Phenomenological exploration of suicidal ideation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bordeleau, D

    1994-01-01

    Death fuels the idea of suicide with a strong emotional charge that often turns suicidal tendencies and suicide into one and the same. The idea of suicide, at times linked with depression and personality disorders, is nonetheless full of a meaning which deserves further research. Suicide can appear as a solution to a problem which the idea of suicide helps to identify and resolve. When it is a conscious realization, the idea of suicide can lead the patient to consult. As a danger signal, it allows to determine whether the individual's defense mechanism functions. Also, it attracts attention to a situation, reveals a form of repressed self-hate and even helps in passing from one life state to another, as in transition rituals described by anthropology.

  4. Detecting suicidality on Twitter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bridianne O'Dea

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Twitter is increasingly investigated as a means of detecting mental health status, including depression and suicidality, in the population. However, validated and reliable methods are not yet fully established. This study aimed to examine whether the level of concern for a suicide-related post on Twitter could be determined based solely on the content of the post, as judged by human coders and then replicated by machine learning. From 18th February 2014 to 23rd April 2014, Twitter was monitored for a series of suicide-related phrases and terms using the public Application Program Interface (API. Matching tweets were stored in a data annotation tool developed by the Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO. During this time, 14,701 suicide-related tweets were collected: 14% were randomly (n = 2000 selected and divided into two equal sets (Set A and B for coding by human researchers. Overall, 14% of suicide-related tweets were classified as ‘strongly concerning’, with the majority coded as ‘possibly concerning’ (56% and the remainder (29% considered ‘safe to ignore’. The overall agreement rate among the human coders was 76% (average κ = 0.55. Machine learning processes were subsequently applied to assess whether a ‘strongly concerning’ tweet could be identified automatically. The computer classifier correctly identified 80% of ‘strongly concerning’ tweets and showed increasing gains in accuracy; however, future improvements are necessary as a plateau was not reached as the amount of data increased. The current study demonstrated that it is possible to distinguish the level of concern among suicide-related tweets, using both human coders and an automatic machine classifier. Importantly, the machine classifier replicated the accuracy of the human coders. The findings confirmed that Twitter is used by individuals to express suicidality and that such posts evoked a level of concern that warranted

  5. Does the environment affect suicide rates in Spain? A spatiotemporal analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santurtún, Maite; Santurtún, Ana; Zarrabeitia, María T

    2017-06-05

    Suicide is an important public health problem, it represents one of the major causes of unnatural death, and there are many factors that affect the risk of suicidal behaviour. The present study analyzes the temporal and spatial variations of mortality by suicide in Spain and its relationship with gross domestic product (GDP) per capita. A retrospective study was performed, in which deaths by suicide, sex and age group in 50 Spanish provinces between 2000 and 2012 were analyzed. The annual trend of suicide mortality was assessed using Kendall's tau-b correlation coefficient. Seasonality and monthly and weekly behaviour were evaluated by performing the ANOVA test and the Bonferroni adjustment. Finally, the relationship between GDP per capita and suicide was studied. Between 2000 and 2012, 42,905adult people died by suicide in Spain. The annual average incidence rate was 95 suicides per million population. The regions located in the south and in the northwest of the country registered the highest per capita mortality rates. There is a decreasing trend in mortality by suicide over the period studied (CC=-.744; P=.0004) in adults over the age of 64, and a seasonal behaviour was identified with summer maximum and autumn minimum values (f=.504; P<.0001). The regions with the highest GDP per capita showed the lowest mortality by suicide (r=-.645; P<.0001) and the relationship is stronger among older age groups. Mortality by suicide does not follow a homogenous geographical distribution in Spain. Mortality in men was higher than in women. Over the period of study, there has been a decrease in mortality by suicide in Spain in adults over the age of 64. The seasonal cycle of suicides and the inverse relationship with GDP per capita found in this study, provide information which may be used as a tool for developing prevention and intervention strategies. Copyright © 2017 SEP y SEPB. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  6. Integrating the interpersonal psychological theory of suicide into the depression/suicidal ideation relationship: a short-term prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleiman, Evan M; Liu, Richard T; Riskind, John H

    2014-03-01

    We examined the hypothesis that depressive symptoms are associated with increased beliefs about perceived burdensomeness and thwarted belongingness identified in the interpersonal psychological theory of suicide and that these beliefs are associated with changes in suicidal ideation. Participants with clinical levels of depressive symptoms (n=299) were selected from a larger group (n=508) and completed measures of depressive symptoms, perceived burdensomeness and thwarted belongingness, and suicidal ideation twice over a period of 2 months. Results of a structural equation model found that depressive symptoms were associated with increases in burdensomeness and lack of belonging, which were associated with suicidal ideation. Moreover, this hypothesized integrated model demonstrated a significantly better fit than an alternative model that assumed burdensomeness and lack of belonging were associated with changes in depressive symptoms, which were associated with suicidal ideation. Our findings suggest that the well-established relationship between depressive symptoms and suicidal ideation is associated with changes in beliefs that one is a burden on others and lacks belonging. More generally, these results suggest that it may be fruitful to integrate theories of suicide risk to form a comprehensive model that can inform future research and clinical interventions.

  7. The Heavy Metal Subculture and Suicide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stack, Steven; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Assessed relationship between heavy metal music and suicide with data on heavy metal magazine subscriptions and youth suicide in 50 states. Found that, controlling for other predictors of suicide, greater strength of metal subculture, higher youth suicide rate, suggests that music perhaps nurtures suicidal tendencies already present in subculture.…

  8. Suicide surveillance and health systems in Nepal: a qualitative and social network analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Hagaman, Ashley K; Maharjan, Uden; Kohrt, Brandon A

    2016-01-01

    Background Despite increasing recognition of the high burden of suicide deaths in low- and middle-income countries, there is wide variability in the type and quality of data collected and reported for suspected suicide deaths. Suicide data are filtered through reporting systems shaped by social, cultural, legal, and medical institutions. Lack of systematic reporting may underestimate public health needs or contribute to misallocation of resources to groups most at risk. Methods The goal of th...

  9. Distancing: a traditional mechanism of dealing with suicide among the Baganda, Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mugisha, James; Hjelmeland, Heidi; Kinyanda, Eugene; Knizek, Birthe Loa

    2011-11-01

    This qualitative study investigated attitudes and cultural responses to suicide among the Baganda in Uganda using both focus group discussions and key-informant interviews. Interviews indicate that suicide is perceived as dangerous to the whole family and the entire community. Communities and family members adopt various ritual practices to distance themselves both symbolically and socially from the suicide. These rituals are characterized by broad themes: the regulation of affect and the attempt to secure future generations.

  10. Psychological and Family Factors Associated with Suicidal Ideation in Pre-Adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Viñas i Poch, Ferran; Canals Sans, Josepa; Gras Pérez, María Eugenia; Ros, Claudia; Domènech, Edelmira

    2002-01-01

    To assess the psychological and family factors associated with suicidal ideation in preadolescent children, we studied a sample of 361 students, average age 9 years old. Two groups were formed, on the basis of the presence (n = 34) or absence (n = 44) of suicidal ideation. Suicidal ideation was assessed with the Children’s Depression Inventory and the Children’s Depression Rating Scale-Revised. Depression, hopelessness, self-esteem, and perceived family environment were compared in both th...

  11. [Epidemiology of suicide in Mexico, 1970-1984].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borges, G; Rosovsky, H; Gómez, C; Gutiérrez, R

    1996-01-01

    This paper reports data of suicide as a cause of death in Mexico from 1970 to 1994. Death certificates and census data were used as the main sources for this study. In 1970 554 suicide deaths were reported for both genders. In 1994 there were 2 603 deaths. During this period the suicide death rate increased from 1.13 per 100 000 inhabitants to 2.89 per 100 000 inhabitants, which represents an increase of 156% in 24 years. Nevertheless, a higher increase was seen among males; 169% for this period as compared to 98% among females. In 1970 the proportional suicide mortality rate was 0.11% of total deaths; in 1994, an increase to 0.62% was observed. During the study period, the highest increase in the suicide rate was seen in the older groups (65 years and over). Nevertheless, an increase was also seen among the younger population (those aged under 19 years). In 1994, the last year of the series, the highest rates were found among males, especially among those aged 65 and over. Differences were found also in the suicide rates among the states of the Mexican Republic. In 1994 the State of Tlaxcala and the State of Mexico reported the lowest rates. The highest rates were found in Tabasco and Campeche. Thus, the highest suicide rates were seen in the southeast and the lowest rates in the central part of the country. Suicide is a growing problem in Mexico, mainly occurring among male older adults. Nevertheless, growing rates among young adults call for suicide prevention and care programs.

  12. Suicide tourism: a pilot study on the Swiss phenomenon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gauthier, Saskia; Mausbach, Julian; Reisch, Thomas; Bartsch, Christine

    2015-08-01

    While assisted suicide (AS) is strictly restricted in many countries, it is not clearly regulated by law in Switzerland. This imbalance leads to an influx of people-'suicide tourists'-coming to Switzerland, mainly to the Canton of Zurich, for the sole purpose of committing suicide. Political debate regarding 'suicide tourism' is taking place in many countries. Swiss medicolegal experts are confronted with these cases almost daily, which prompted our scientific investigation of the phenomenon. The present study has three aims: (1) to determine selected details about AS in the study group (age, gender and country of residence of the suicide tourists, the organisation involved, the ingested substance leading to death and any diseases that were the main reason for AS); (2) to find out the countries from which suicide tourists come and to review existing laws in the top three in order to test the hypothesis that suicide tourism leads to the amendment of existing regulations in foreign countries; and (3) to compare our results with those of earlier studies in Zurich. We did a retrospective data analysis of the Zurich Institute of Legal Medicine database on AS of non-Swiss residents in the last 5 years (2008-2012), and internet research for current legislation and political debate in the three foreign countries most concerned. We analysed 611 cases from 31 countries all over the world. Non-terminal conditions such as neurological and rheumatic diseases are increasing among suicide tourists. The unique phenomenon of suicide tourism in Switzerland may indeed result in the amendment or supplementary guidelines to existing regulations in foreign countries.

  13. Suicidal ideation and the risk of suicide in patients with fibromyalgia: a comparison with non-pain controls and patients suffering from low-back pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jimenez-Rodriguez I

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Irene Jimenez-Rodríguez,1 Juan Miguel Garcia-Leiva,1 Beatriz M Jimenez-Rodriguez,2 Emilia Condés-Moreno,3 Fernando Rico-Villademoros,1 Elena P Calandre11Instituto de Neurociencias, Universidad de Granada, Granada, Spain; 2Servicio de Neumología, Hospital Universitario Virgen de las Nieves, Granada, Spain; 3Departamento de Especialidades Biomédicas, Universidad Europea de Madrid, Villaviciosa de Odón, SpainAbstract: Fibromyalgia is associated with an increased rate of mortality from suicide. In fact, this disease is associated with several characteristics that are linked to an increased risk of suicidal behaviors, such as being female and experiencing chronic pain, psychological distress, and sleep disturbances. However, the literature concerning suicidal behaviors and their risk factors in fibromyalgia is sparse. The objectives of the present study were to evaluate the prevalence of suicidal ideation and the risk of suicide in a sample of patients with fibromyalgia compared with a sample of healthy subjects and a sample of patients with chronic low-back pain. We also aimed to evaluate the relevance of pain intensity, depression, and sleep quality as variables related to suicidal ideation and risks. Logistic regression was applied to estimate the likelihood of suicidal ideation and the risk of suicide adjusted by age and sex. We also used two logistic regression models using age, sex, pain severity score, depression severity, sleep quality, and disease state as independent variables and using the control group as a reference. Forty-four patients with fibromyalgia, 32 patients with low-back pain, and 50 controls were included. Suicidal ideation, measured with item 9 of the Beck Depression Inventory, was almost absent among the controls and was low among patients with low-back pain; however, suicidal ideation was prominent among patients with fibromyalgia (P<0.0001. The risk of suicide, measured with the Plutchik Suicide Risk Scale, was also

  14. Measuring the suicidal mind: implicit cognition predicts suicidal behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nock, Matthew K; Park, Jennifer M; Finn, Christine T; Deliberto, Tara L; Dour, Halina J; Banaji, Mahzarin R

    2010-04-01

    Suicide is difficult to predict and prevent because people who consider killing themselves often are unwilling or unable to report their intentions. Advances in the measurement of implicit cognition provide an opportunity to test whether automatic associations of self with death can provide a behavioral marker for suicide risk. We measured implicit associations about death/suicide in 157 people seeking treatment at a psychiatric emergency department. Results confirmed that people who have attempted suicide hold a significantly stronger implicit association between death/suicide and self than do psychiatrically distressed individuals who have not attempted suicide. Moreover, the implicit association of death/suicide with self was associated with an approximately 6-fold increase in the odds of making a suicide attempt in the next 6 months, exceeding the predictive validity of known risk factors (e.g., depression, suicide-attempt history) and both patients' and clinicians' predictions. These results provide the first evidence of a behavioral marker for suicidal behavior and suggest that measures of implicit cognition may be useful for detecting and predicting sensitive clinical behaviors that are unlikely to be reported.

  15. Permissive attitude toward suicide and future intent in individuals with and without depression: results from a nationwide survey in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, Hong Jin; Park, Jae-Hyun; Shim, Eun-Jung

    2013-04-01

    Many previous studies have revealed that individuals with depression have higher thought of suicide, although not always exhibiting intent. We investigated the associated factors with respect to intent for suicide in the future. A total of 1584 adults were selected through a nationwide multistage probability sampling, randomly one person per household, and through face-to-face interviews (response rate was 63.4%) using the suicidality module of the Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview and the Patient Health Questionnaire-9. The group with depression (n = 152) revealed a significantly higher level of future suicide intent (t = 4.65, p suicide as free from life suffering, a personal right, and a solution to a difficult situation. After adjusting for all variables in the multiple logistic regression models, permissive attitude (adjusted odds ratio, 3.69; 95% confidence interval, 1.97-6.89) was the only factor significantly associated with future suicide intent, whereas age; sex; education years; monthly income; financial, job, and family stress; physical illness; lifetime suicide attempt; and depression showed no statistical significance. The group with depression showed significantly higher levels of future suicide intent than did the group without depression in those who had a higher permissive attitude (t = 4.18, p suicide was associated with intent for suicide in the future in individuals with depression. Permissive attitude could be evaluated and corrected to prevent suicide.

  16. Is lymphocytic (hashimoto) thyroiditis associated with suicide?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cina, Stephen J; Perper, Joshua A

    2009-09-01

    The histologic diagnosis of lymphocytic (Hashimoto) thyroiditis requires lymphocytic inflammation of the thyroid gland in combination with Hourthle cell metaplasia of follicular epithelial cells. Clinically, this autoimmune process has been associated with hypothyroidism and psychiatric conditions including depression. This retrospective study was designed to quantify the incidence and severity of lymphocytic thyroiditis in a series of nonconsecutive suicides compared with a cohort of motor vehicle accident victim controls. Eighty-one suicide victims (61 male, 20 female; age range 13-79 years, average 43) were compared with 88 age and gender matched controls (64 males, 24 females; age range 19-85 years, average 36). The degree of lymphocytic inflammation of the thyroid gland was graded on a scale of 0 to 3 (0 = no inflammation, 1 = mild inflammation, 2-3 moderate-to-marked inflammation with Hourthle cell metaplasia). Slides from each case were reviewed while blinded to the cause and manner of death in each case. Of these 169 total cases, 8 (4.7%) received a score of 3, whereas additional 7 (4.1%) received a grade of 2. Eighty-six percent of all of the cases showed no significant inflammation and recorded a score of 0. Of the 81 suicides, 3 had a score of 3, and 3 had a score of 2 (combined incidence of 7.4%). Within the control group, 5 of 88 cases scored 3 and another 4 scored 2 (combined incidence = 10.2%). Three males and 5 females scored 3 with an age range of 23 to 63 years, average 42. Incidental data tabulated showed that 19% of suicide victims were on psychoactive medications compared with 6% in the motor vehicle accident control group. No one on this study was on thyroid hormone replacement therapy. Depression is strongly linked to suicide and lymphocytic thyroiditis may be a cause of depression. Based on this study, however, the presence of lymphocytic thyroiditis cannot be used as a histologic adjunct to discriminate between suicide and accident in

  17. High prevalence of medicine-induced attempted suicides among females in Nuuk, Greenland, 2008–2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lars Heymann Bloch

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Background . The suicide rate in Greenland, especially among men, is among the highest in the world. Attempted suicide rates may be high also. However, the rates of attempted suicide are unknown. Objective . We aimed to estimate the age- and gender-specific incidence of attempted suicide using medicine in Nuuk in 2008–2009. Design . An observational retrospective study of consecutive medical records on patients admitted to Dronning Ingrids Hospital in Nuuk in 2008–2009 with possible medicine intoxication. Results . Seventy-four (60 females and 14 men cases of attempted suicide using medicine were included. Of those, 43 used paracetamol alone or in combination with other medicine. The incidence of attempted suicide using medicine was higher among females than males (p<0.001. The highest incidence of attempted suicide with paracetamol was found among women aged 20–24 years (0.84%. The highest incidence of suicide with medication (1.31 per 100 inhabitants per year was among women aged 15–19 years. Conclusions . The incidence of attempted suicide using medicine was high in Nuuk, Greenland, especially among women. The highest incidence of suicide attempts with medication was observed among women in the age group 15–19 years (1.31%. This may reflect psychosocial vulnerability among young people in Greenland. Initiatives to improve living conditions for children and adolescents are highly recommended to be initiated immediately.

  18. Test of the depression distress amplification model in young adults with elevated risk of current suicidality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capron, Daniel W; Lamis, Dorian A; Schmidt, Norman B

    2014-11-30

    Suicide is a leading cause of death among young adults and the rate of suicide has been increasing for decades. A depression distress amplification model posits that young adults with comorbid depression and anxiety have elevated suicide rates due to the intensification of their depressive symptoms by anxiety sensitivity cognitive concerns. The current study tested the effects of anxiety sensitivity subfactors as well as the depression distress amplification model in a very large sample of college students with elevated suicide risk. Participants were 721 college students who were at elevated risk of suicidality (scored>0 on the Beck Scale for Suicide Ideation). Consistent with prior work, anxiety sensitivity cognitive concerns, but not physical or social concerns, were associated with suicidal ideation. Consistent with the depression distress amplification model, in individuals high in depression, anxiety sensitivity cognitive concerns predicted elevated suicidal ideation but not among those with low depression. The results of this study corroborate the role of anxiety sensitivity cognitive concerns and the depression distress amplification model in suicidal ideation among a large potentially high-risk group of college students. The depression distress amplification model suggests a specific mechanism, anxiety sensitivity cognitive concerns, that may be responsible for increased suicide rates among those with comorbid anxiety and depression.

  19. Examining Accumulated Emotional Traits in Suicide Blogs With an Emotion Topic Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Fuji; Kang, Xin; Quan, Changqin

    2016-09-01

    Suicide has been a major cause of death throughout the world. Recent studies have proved a reliable connection between the emotional traits and suicide. However, detection and prevention of suicide are mostly carried out in the clinical centers, which limit the effective treatments to a restricted group of people. To assist detecting suicide risks among the public, we propose a novel method by exploring the accumulated emotional information from people's daily writings (i.e., Blogs), and examining these emotional traits that are predictive of suicidal behaviors. A complex emotion topic model is employed to detect the underlying emotions and emotion-related topics in the Blog streams, based on eight basic emotion categories and five levels of emotion intensities. Since suicide is caused through an accumulative process, we propose three accumulative emotional traits, i.e., accumulation, covariance, and transition of the consecutive Blog emotions, and employ a generalized linear regression algorithm to examine the relationship between emotional traits and suicide risk. Our experiment results suggest that the emotion transition trait turns to be more discriminative of the suicide risk, and that the combination of three traits in linear regression would generate even more discriminative predictions. A classification of the suicide and nonsuicide Blog articles in our additional experiment verifies this result. Finally, we conduct a case study of the most commonly mentioned emotion-related topics in the suicidal Blogs, to further understand the association between emotions and thoughts for these authors.

  20. Factors related to childhood suicides: analysis of the Queensland Child Death Register.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soole, Rebecca; Kõlves, Kairi; De Leo, Diego

    2014-01-01

    Suicide among children under the age of 15 years is a leading cause of death. The aim of the current study is to identify demographic, psychosocial, and psychiatric factors associated with child suicides. Using external causes of deaths recorded in the Queensland Child Death Register, a case-control study design was applied. Cases were suicides of children (10-14 years) and adolescents (15-17 years); controls were other external causes of death in the same age band. Between 2004 and 2012, 149 suicides were recorded: 34 of children aged 10-14 years and 115 of adolescents aged 15-17 years. The gender asymmetry was less evident in child suicides and suicides were significantly more prevalent in indigenous children. Children residing in remote areas were significantly more likely to die by suicide than other external causes compared with children in metropolitan areas. Types of precipitating events differed between children and adolescents, with children more likely to experience family problems. Disorders usually diagnosed during infancy, childhood, and adolescence (e.g., ADHD) were significantly more common among children compared with adolescents who died by suicide. Psychosocial and environmental aspects of children, in addition to mental health and behavioral difficulties, are important in the understanding of suicide in this age group and in the development of targeted suicide prevention.

  1. Characteristics of and trends in subgroups of prisoner suicides in England and Wales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humber, N; Piper, M; Appleby, L; Shaw, J

    2011-11-01

    The suicide rate is higher in prisoners compared with the general population. The aim was to describe the characteristics of and longitudinal trends in prisoner suicides in England and Wales. A case series was ascertained from the Safer Custody and Offender Policy Group at the Ministry of Justice and included a 9-year (1999-2007) national census of prisoner suicides. Questionnaires were completed by prison staff on sociodemographic, custodial, clinical and service-level characteristics of the suicides. There was a fall in the number of prison suicides and a decline in the proportion of young prisoner (18-20 years) suicides over time. Females were over-represented. Upward trends were found in prisoners with a history of violence and with previous mental health service contact. A downward trend was found in those with a primary psychiatric diagnosis of drug dependence. Drug dependence was found to be significant in explaining suicides within the first week of custody. The findings provide an important insight to aid a target set in the National Suicide Prevention Strategy in England to reduce suicides in the prisoner population by 20% and highlight an important area for policy development in mental health services. Examining trends identified subgroups that may require improved mental healthcare and recognized those that appeared to be having their treatment needs more adequately met. Evidence suggests that targeted suicide prevention strategies for subgroups of prisoners are required.

  2. A qualitative systematic review of service user and service provider perspectives on the acceptability, relative benefits, and potential harms of art therapy for people with non-psychotic mental health disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scope, Alison; Uttley, Lesley; Sutton, Anthea

    2017-03-01

    This systematic review aimed to synthesize qualitative evidence relating to user and service provider perspective on the acceptability and relative benefits and potential harms of art therapy for people with non-psychotic mental disorders. A comprehensive literature search was conducted in 13 major bibliographic databases from May to July 2013. A qualitative evidence synthesis was conducted using thematic framework synthesis. The searches identified 10,270 citations from which 12 studies were included. Ten studies included data from 183 service users, and two studies included data from 16 service providers. The evidence demonstrated that art therapy was an acceptable treatment. The benefits associated with art therapy included the following: the development of relationships with the therapist and other group members; understanding the self/own illness/the future; gaining perspective; distraction; personal achievement; expression; relaxation; and empowerment. Small numbers of patients reported varying reasons for not wanting to take part, and some highlighted potentially negative effects of art therapy which included the evoking of feelings which could not be resolved. The findings suggest that for the majority of respondents art therapy was an acceptable intervention, although this was not the case for all respondents. Therefore, attention should be focussed on both identifying those who are most likely to benefit from art therapy and ensuring any potential harms are minimized. The findings provide evidence to commissioners and providers of mental health services about the value of future art therapy services. Art therapy was reported to be an acceptable treatment for the majority of respondents. Art therapy may not be a preferred treatment option for a small number of patients, emphasizing the importance of considering patient preference in choice of treatment, and selection of the most suitable patients for art therapy. Consideration should be made of adjustments

  3. Increase in Suicide Rates by Hanging in the Population of Tabasco, Mexico between 2003 and 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Alvarado, Mervyn Manuel; González-Castro, Thelma Beatriz; Tovilla-Zárate, Carlos Alfonso; Fresán, Ana; Juárez-Rojop, Isela E.; López-Narváez, María Lilia; Villar-Soto, Mario; Genis-Mendoza, Alma

    2016-01-01

    Background: Worldwide, the suicide rate is decreasing. To examine changes in the rates of completed suicide in the Mexican population from 2003 to 2012, we analyzed these changes according to: (i) the method of suicide; (ii) age group and (iii) gender. Methods: The data analyzed were obtained from governmental organizations from the State of Tabasco, Mexico. The data provided 1836 cases of subjects born and residing in Tabasco, who completed suicide in this state. Results: Suicide by hanging was a common choice of suicide method for Mexicans. The rate of suicide by hanging increased from 5.80 to 6.49 per 100,000 persons between 2003 and 2012, a rate percentage increase of 11.89%. Conclusions: Hanging was found to be the most common choice of suicide in the Mexican population, probably because the materials required are easily available and the method does not require complicated techniques, especially in the 55–64 age group. Strategies for prevention and intervention should be developed for the Mexican population considering suicide rates by age group and gender. PMID:27258292

  4. Increase in Suicide Rates by Hanging in the Population of Tabasco, Mexico between 2003 and 2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mervyn Manuel Hernández-Alvarado

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Worldwide, the suicide rate is decreasing. To examine changes in the rates of completed suicide in the Mexican population from 2003 to 2012, we analyzed these changes according to: (i the method of suicide; (ii age group and (iii gender. Methods: The data analyzed were obtained from governmental organizations from the State of Tabasco, Mexico. The data provided 1836 cases of subjects born and residing in Tabasco, who completed suicide in this state. Results: Suicide by hanging was a common choice of suicide method for Mexicans. The rate of suicide by hanging increased from 5.80 to 6.49 per 100,000 persons between 2003 and 2012, a rate percentage increase of 11.89%. Conclusions: Hanging was found to be the most common choice of suicide in the Mexican population, probably because the materials required are easily available and the method does not require complicated techniques, especially in the 55–64 age group. Strategies for prevention and intervention should be developed for the Mexican population considering suicide rates by age group and gender.

  5. Depression, desperation, and suicidal ideation in college students: results from the American Foundation for Suicide Prevention College Screening Project at Emory University.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garlow, Steven J; Rosenberg, Jill; Moore, J David; Haas, Ann P; Koestner, Bethany; Hendin, Herbert; Nemeroff, Charles B

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this investigation was to examine suicidal ideation and depression in undergraduate college students who participated in the American Foundation for Suicide Prevention-sponsored College Screening Project at Emory University. The principal measure of depressive symptoms was the nine-item depression module from the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9). Additional questions were focused on current suicidal ideation, past suicide attempts, and episodes of deliberate self-harm and on symptoms of anxiety and distress. Seven hundred and twenty-nine students participated over a 3-school-year interval (2002-2005). Most notably, 11.1% of the students endorsed current (past 4 weeks) suicidal ideation and 16.5% had a lifetime suicide attempt or self-injurious episode. Students with current suicidal ideation had significantly higher depression symptom severity than those without suicidal ideation (t = -9.34, df = 706, Pstudents with PHQ-9 scores of 15 or higher reported suicidal ideation compared to 5.7% of those with lower scores (chi(2) = 56.29, df = 1, Pstudents with moderately severe to severe depression (85%) or current suicidal ideation (84%) were not receiving any psychiatric treatment at the time of assessment. These results suggest that there is a strong relationship between severity of depressive symptoms and suicidal ideation in college students, and that suicidal feelings and actions are relatively common in this group. This underscores the need to provide effective mental health outreach and treatment services to this vulnerable population. As this analysis was based on data collected at a single institution, the results may not be representative of all college students or young adults.

  6. Suicide and multiple sclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stenager, E N; Stenager, Egon; Koch-Henriksen, N

    1992-01-01

    In a nationwide investigation the risk of death by suicide for patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) was assessed using records kept at the Danish Multiple Sclerosis Registry (DMSR) and the Danish National Register of Cause of Death. The investigation covers all MS patients registered with DSMR...

  7. Suicide: Neurochemical Approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ritabrata Banerjee

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Despite the devastating effect of suicide on numerous lives, there is still a dearthof knowledge concerning its neurochemical aspects. There is increasing evidence that brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF and Nerve growth factor (NGF are involved in the pathophysiology and treatment of depression through binding and activating their cognate receptors trk B and trk A respectively. The present study was performed to examine whether the expression profiles of BDNF and/or trk B as well as NGF and/or trk A were altered in postmortem brain in subjects who commitsuicide and whether these alterations were associated with specific psychopathologic conditions. These studies were performed in hippocampus obtained 21 suicide subjects and 19 non-psychiatric control subjects. The protein and mRNA levels of BDNF, trk B and NGF, trk A were determined with Sandwich ELISA, Western Blot and RT PCR respectively. Given the importance of BDNFand NGF along with their cognate receptors in mediating physiological functions, including cell survival and synaptic plasticity, our findings of reduced expression of BDNF, Trk B and NGF, Trk A in both protein and mRNA levels of postmortem brain in suicide subjects suggest that these molecules may play an important role in the pathophysiological aspects of suicidal behavior.

  8. Psychotherapy for Suicidal Clients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lester, David

    1994-01-01

    Reviews various systems of psychotherapy for suitability for suicidal clients. Discusses psychoanalysis, cognitive therapy, primal therapy, transactional analysis, Gestalt therapy, reality therapy, person-centered therapy, existential analysis, and Jungian analysis in light of available treatment options. Includes 36 citations. (Author/CRR)

  9. Suicide and multiple sclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stenager, E N; Stenager, Egon; Koch-Henriksen, Nils

    1992-01-01

    In a nationwide investigation the risk of death by suicide for patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) was assessed using records kept at the Danish Multiple Sclerosis Registry (DMSR) and the Danish National Register of Cause of Death. The investigation covers all MS patients registered with DSMR...

  10. Military Suicide Research Consortium

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-01

    Relationship Satisfaction and Self-Directed Violence in Veterans, Dr. Amanda Stoeckel, Salt Lake City VAMC, $40,160 5 | P a g e o Longitudinal Assessment of...Significant Contributions to Suicide Research, American Association of Suicidology 2003 Outstanding Young Alumni , Winona State University

  11. Electroconvulsive Therapy and Suicide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanney, Bryan L.

    1986-01-01

    When the effectiveness and mortality-morbidity of electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) are compared with those of drug therapies, it appears that ECT is an effective and preferred treatment strategy. It remains underutilized as a modality of suicide prevention. Addresses controversies that presently limit the use of this treatment. (Author/ABB)

  12. Is Hamlet Contemplating Suicide?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚皓然

    2014-01-01

    Does the question to be or not to be for Hamlet is whether to continue to exist or not? Is Hamlet contemplating sui-cide? The meaning of this famous speech in Shakespeare’s Hamlet has been given numerous interpretations. This essay focuses on the paradoxical emotion of Hamlet and intends to make a comprehensive analysis of this soliloquy.

  13. Suicide in serial killers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lester, David; White, John

    2010-02-01

    In a sample of 248 killers of two victims in America from 1900 to 2005, obtained from an encyclopedia of serial killers by Newton (2006), those completing suicide did not differ in sex, race, or the motive for the killing from those who were arrested.

  14. Clusters of suicides and suicide attempts: detection, proximity and correlates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Too, L S; Pirkis, J; Milner, A; Spittal, M J

    2017-10-01

    A suicide cluster is defined as a higher number of observed cases occurring in space and/or time than would typically be expected. Previous research has largely focused on identifying clusters of suicides, while there has been comparatively limited research on clusters of suicide attempts. We sought to identify clusters of both types of behaviour, and having done that, identify the factors that distinguish suicide attempts inside a cluster from those that were outside a cluster. We used data from Western Australia from 2000 to 2011. We defined suicide attempts as admissions to hospital for deliberate self-harm and suicides as deaths due to deliberate self-harm. Using an analytic strategy that accounted for the repetition of attempted suicide within a cluster, we performed spatial-temporal analysis using Poisson discrete scan statistics to detect clusters of suicide attempts and clusters of suicides. Logistic regression was then used to compare clustered attempts with non-clustered attempts to identify risk factors for an attempt being in a cluster. We detected 350 (1%) suicide attempts occurring within seven spatial-temporal clusters and 12 (0.6%) suicides occurring within two spatial-temporal clusters. Both of the suicide clusters were located within a larger but later suicide attempt cluster. In multivariate analysis, suicide attempts by individuals who lived in areas of low socioeconomic status had higher odds of being in a cluster than those living in areas of high socioeconomic status [odds ratio (OR) = 29.1, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 6.3-135.5]. A one percentage-point increase in the proportion of people who had changed address in the last year was associated with a 60% increase in the odds of the attempt being within a cluster (OR = 1.60, 95% CI = 1.29-1.98) and a one percentage-point increase in the proportion of Indigenous people in the area was associated with a 7% increase in the suicide being within a cluster (OR = 1.07, 95% CI = 1.00-1.13). Age

  15. Suicide and patients with neurologic diseases. Methodologic problems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stenager, E N; Stenager, Egon

    1992-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The suicide risk in patients with many neurologic diseases has been reported to be greater than that in the general population. Studies on the subject are, however, often encumbered with methodologic problems. We appraised these problems and, based on an evaluation, reappraised knowledge...... of the suicide risk in patients with specific neurologic diseases. DATA SOURCE: Using the computerized database MEDLINE, we identified all published reports with the key words suicide, attempted suicide, and neurologic diseases. STUDY SELECTION: We assessed and reviewed studies concerning the most common...... neurologic diseases for methodologic problems in the study design. DATA EXTRACTION: The following methodologic problems emerged during our review: (1) choice of study type, ie, autopsy study or follow-up study; (2) choice of study population; (3) choice of control groups; (4) epidemiologic...

  16. [Out of hopelessness--problem solving training in suicide prevention].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perczel Forintos, Dóra; Póos, Judit

    2008-01-01

    Psychological studies have great importance in suicide prevention since psychological factors belong to the modifiable risk factors in suicide. These are the negative cognitive triad and hopelessness which are related to vague, over-generalized autobiographical memory and lead to poor problem solving abilities. In this paper we review the most relevant clinical psychology studies and models such as the cognitive model of suicide as well as the entrapment theory by Williams (2004). In the second part we describe the frequently used method of problem solving training/therapy which can be used in either individual or group format. We hope that the problem solving skill training will soon become a part of suicide prevention in Hungary also, since short,focused and evidence based interventions are much needed in psychiatric care.

  17. Discerning reported suicide attempts within a youthful offender population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallett, Christopher; De Rigne, Lea A; Quinn, Linda; Stoddard-Dare, Patricia

    2012-02-01

    With suicide being the third leading cause of death among young people, early identification of risk is critical, particularly for those involved with the juvenile courts. In this study of court-involved youth (N = 433) in two Midwest counties, logistic regression analysis identified some expected and unexpected findings of important demographic, educational, mental health, child welfare, and juvenile court-related variables that were linked to reported suicide attempts. Some of the expected suicide attempt risk factors for these youth included prior psychiatric hospitalization and related mental health services, residential placement, and diagnoses of depression and alcohol dependence. However, the most unexpected finding was that a court disposition to shelter care (group home) was related to a nearly tenfold increased risk in reported suicide attempt. These findings are of importance to families, mental health professionals, and juvenile court personnel to identify those youth who are most at risk and subsequently provide appropriate interventions to prevent such outcomes.

  18. Suicidal Behavior and Alcohol Abuse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurizio Pompili

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Suicide is an escalating public health problem, and alcohol use has consistently been implicated in the precipitation of suicidal behavior. Alcohol abuse may lead to suicidality through disinhibition, impulsiveness and impaired judgment, but it may also be used as a means to ease the distress associated with committing an act of suicide. We reviewed evidence of the relationship between alcohol use and suicide through a search of MedLine and PsychInfo electronic databases. Multiple genetically-related intermediate phenotypes might influence the relationship between alcohol and suicide. Psychiatric disorders, including psychosis, mood disorders and anxiety disorders, as well as susceptibility to stress, might increase the risk of suicidal behavior, but may also have reciprocal influences with alcohol drinking patterns. Increased suicide risk may be heralded by social withdrawal, breakdown of social bonds, and social marginalization, which are common outcomes of untreated alcohol abuse and dependence. People with alcohol dependence or depression should be screened for other psychiatric symptoms and for suicidality. Programs for suicide prevention must take into account drinking habits and should reinforce healthy behavioral patterns.

  19. Suicidal Behavior and Alcohol Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pompili, Maurizio; Serafini, Gianluca; Innamorati, Marco; Dominici, Giovanni; Ferracuti, Stefano; Kotzalidis, Giorgio D.; Serra, Giulia; Girardi, Paolo; Janiri, Luigi; Tatarelli, Roberto; Sher, Leo; Lester, David

    2010-01-01

    Suicide is an escalating public health problem, and alcohol use has consistently been implicated in the precipitation of suicidal behavior. Alcohol abuse may lead to suicidality through disinhibition, impulsiveness and impaired judgment, but it may also be used as a means to ease the distress associated with committing an act of suicide. We reviewed evidence of the relationship between alcohol use and suicide through a search of MedLine and PsychInfo electronic databases. Multiple genetically-related intermediate phenotypes might influence the relationship between alcohol and suicide. Psychiatric disorders, including psychosis, mood disorders and anxiety disorders, as well as susceptibility to stress, might increase the risk of suicidal behavior, but may also have reciprocal influences with alcohol drinking patterns. Increased suicide risk may be heralded by social withdrawal, breakdown of social bonds, and social marginalization, which are common outcomes of untreated alcohol abuse and dependence. People with alcohol dependence or depression should be screened for other psychiatric symptoms and for suicidality. Programs for suicide prevention must take into account drinking habits and should reinforce healthy behavioral patterns. PMID:20617037

  20. Suicide in autism spectrum disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richa, Sami; Fahed, Mario; Khoury, Elias; Mishara, Brian

    2014-01-01

    This review focuses on suicide in patients with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) as well as risk factors and comorbidities of persons with ASD who have attempted suicide. Research was conducted by searching PubMed and Psychinfo for articles. Suicide in ASD is largely understudied. Although suicide is common in clinical samples, we have little knowledge of suicide in persons with ASD in the general population. Comorbidity, particularly with depression and other affective disorders or schizoid disorders and psychotic symptoms, is often reported, so it is difficult to determine if suicidality is associated with ASD or the comorbid disorder. Clinical samples suggest that suicide occurs more frequently in high functioning autism. Physical and sexual abuse, bullying, and changes in routine are precipitating events associated with suicide risk. Persons with ASD present risk factors inherent to their diagnosis (deficit in expression of feelings and thoughts), along with risk factors pertaining to the general population (abuse, depression, anxiety, etc.). The inability of persons with Pervasive Developmental Disorder (PDD) to express emotions and thoughts makes the diagnosis of suicidal ideation difficult and demands important adjustments to traditional psychotherapeutic interventions. More research is needed to determine the incidence of suicidal behaviors in persons with ASD, to identify risk and protective factors, as well as to assess the effectiveness of prevention strategies and interventions.

  1. Untended wounds: Non-suicidal self-injury in adults with autism spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maddox, Brenna B; Trubanova, Andrea; White, Susan W

    2016-05-12

    Recent studies have examined non-suicidal self-injury in community and clinical samples, but there is no published research on non-suicidal self-injury in individuals with autism spectrum disorder. This lack of research is surprising, since individuals with autism spectrum disorder have high rates of risk factors for non-suicidal self-injury, including depression and poor emotion regulation skills. Using an online survey, we examined non-suicidal self-injury methods, frequency, severity, functions, and initial motivations in adults with autism spectrum disorder (n = 42). We also compared their non-suicidal self-injury characteristics to those of a gender-matched group of adults without autism spectrum disorder (n = 42). Of the participants with autism spectrum disorder, 50% reported a history of non-suicidal self-injury. This proportion is higher than non-suicidal self-injury rates previously reported for college students, adult community samples, and adolescents with autism spectrum disorder, which suggests that adults with autism spectrum disorder have increased risk for engaging in non-suicidal self-injury. Women with autism spectrum disorder were significantly more likely to endorse non-suicidal self-injury, relative to men with autism spectrum disorder. A history of non-suicidal self-injury was not related to current depression or emotion dysregulation for the participants with autism spectrum disorder. Non-suicidal self-injury characteristics among the adults with autism spectrum disorder were similar to non-suicidal self-injury in adults without autism spectrum disorder. These preliminary findings highlight the need for increased awareness and further research about non-suicidal self-injury within autism spectrum disorder.

  2. Profile of young suicide attempt survivors in a tertiary care hospital in Puducherry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anand Lingeswaran

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Puducherry has the highest suicide prevalence rate in India by 2014, predominantly among the 14-30 years age group. Aims: The aim of the present study is to study the characteristics of adolescent and youth suicide attempters in Puducherry and measure the suicide intent. Settings and Design: An observational study of 6 months duration was conducted in the Department of Psychiatry, at Sri Manakula Vinayagar Medical College and Hospital, Puducherry, India. Materials and Methods: Modified version of World Health Organizations SUicide PREvention Multisite Intervention Study on Suicidal questionnaire was used to collect sociodemographic data and Beck's suicide intent scale was used to measure the suicide intent scores. International Classification of Diseases-10 was used for diagnosis. Statistical Analysis: Statistical Package for the Social Sciences version 13 was used for descriptive analysis and correlation statistics. P value was set as <0.05. Results: Of 56 eligible participants, 40 formed the sample, their mean age was 18. 13 (±2.50, more females (1.1:1, rural, literate, lower socioeconomic status (67.5%, mostly single (90%, living in nuclear (95%, and Hindu (87.5%. One hundred percent had psychosocial stressors before suicide attempt. Acute stress disorder/adjustment disorder was the most common diagnosis. Emotionally unstable and anankastic personality traits were seen in 12%. Pesticide ingestion (45% was the most common suicide method. Sixty percent attempted suicide within <30 min of suicidal contemplation. Statistical associations were found between the alleged purpose, seriousness, attitude toward living/dying, conception about medical rescuability, and the overall suicide intent. Conclusions: Adolescent and youth suicide attempts occur due to psychosocial stressors rather than due to the past or on-going mental health disorders with above personality traits suggest poor coping skills and resilience taken to deal with stressful

  3. Effects of suicide bereavement on mental health and suicide risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pitman, Alexandra; Osborn, David; King, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Between 48 million and 500 million people are thought to experience suicide bereavement every year. Over the past decade, increased policy attention has been directed towards suicide bereavement, but with little evidence to describe the effect of exposure or to provide appropriate responses. We...... used a systematic approach to carry out a narrative review of studies of the effect of suicide bereavement on mortality, mental health, and social functioning, and compared them with effects from other bereavements. We found 57 studies that satisfied strict inclusion criteria. Results from...... these studies suggested that exposure to suicide of a close contact is associated with several negative health and social outcomes, depending on an individual's relationship to the deceased. These effects included an increased risk of suicide in partners bereaved by suicide, increased risk of required admission...

  4. Family history of suicide and high motor impulsivity distinguish suicide attempters from suicide ideators among college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yong-Guang; Chen, Shen; Xu, Zhi-Ming; Shen, Zhi-Hua; Wang, Yi-Quan; He, Xiao-Yan; Cao, Ri-Fang; Roberts, David L; Shi, Jian-Fei; Wang, Yi-Qiang

    2017-02-08

    Suicide in college students has become an important public health issue in China. The aim of this study was to identify the differences between suicide attempters and suicide ideators based on a cross-sectional survey. Our results indicate that although female gender, positive screening for psychiatric illness, positive family history of suicide, elevated overall impulsivity, and elevated motor impulsivity were correlated with suicidal ideation, only positive family history of suicide and high motor impulsivity could differentiate suicide attempters from suicidal ideators. Future research with a longitudinal and prospective study design should be conducted to confirm these findings.

  5. Experiences of parents whose sons or daughters have (had) attempted suicide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buus, Niels; Caspersen, Jimmy; Hansen, Rasmus

    2014-01-01

    problem and relatives are understood as playing an important role in suicide prevention; however, suicide and suicidal behaviour affect the relatives' lives profoundly, both emotionally and socially, and the psychosocial impact on families is underresearched. DESIGN: Focus groups with parents of sons...... in the conversational interactions. The findings were interpreted and discussed within an interactionist framework. FINDINGS: The participants in the study described their experiences as a double trauma, which included the trauma of the suicide attempt(s) and the subsequent psychosocial impact on the family's well......-being. The pressure on the parents was intense and the fundamentally unpredictable character of suicide attempts was frequently emphasized. CONCLUSION: Being the parent of a child who attempts suicide meant managing a life-threatening situation and the additional moral stigma. In part, the participants did...

  6. Suicide in Canada: impact of injuries with undetermined intent on regional rankings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auger, Nathalie; Burrows, Stephanie; Gamache, Philippe; Hamel, Denis

    2016-02-01

    The impact of underreporting or misclassifying suicides as injuries with undetermined intent is rarely evaluated. We assessed whether undetermined injury deaths influenced provincial rankings of suicide in Canada, using 2 735 152 Canadians followed for mortality from 1991 to 2001. We found that suicide rates increased by up to 26.5% for men and 37.7% for women after including injuries with undetermined intent, shifting provincial rankings of suicide. Attention to the stigma of suicide and to coding suicides as injuries with undetermined intent is merited for surveillance and prevention. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  7. Attempted Suicide, Self-Harm, and Psychological Disorder Among Young Offenders in Custody.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Elizabeth; Gaskin, Claire; Indig, Devon

    2015-07-01

    This study aims to identify risk factors for suicide and self-harm among young offenders. The data are from the 2009 New South Wales Young People in Custody Health Survey. The sample (N = 313) were 88% male and 48% Aboriginal. Sixteen percent reported ever having suicidal thoughts and 10% reported a suicide attempt. Twenty-one percent reported thoughts of self-harm and 16% reported actual self-harm. Female young offenders reported higher rates of suicidal behavior and self-harm compared to males. Significant correlates of attempted suicide and self-harm included childhood adversity and psychiatric disorder. This study finds that young offenders are at high risk of suicidal and self-harm behaviors. Early identification and support among this vulnerable group are critical.

  8. Suicide risk and suicide method in patients with personality disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Björkenstam, Charlotte; Ekselius, Lisa; Berlin, Marie; Gerdin, Bengt; Björkenstam, Emma

    2016-12-01

    The influence of psychopathology on suicide method has revealed different distributions among different psychiatric disorders. However, evidence is still scarce. We hypothesized that having a diagnosis of personality disorder (PD) affect the suicide method, and that different PD clusters would influence the suicide method in different ways. In addition, we hypothesized that the presence of psychiatric and somatic co-morbidity also affects the suicide method. We examined 25,217 individuals aged 15-64 who had been hospitalized in Sweden with a main diagnosis of PD the years 1987-2013 (N = 25,217). The patients were followed from the date of first discharge until death or until the end of the follow-up period, i.e. December 31, 2013, for a total of 323,508.8 person-years, with a mean follow up time of 11.7 years. The SMR, i.e. the ratio between the observed number of suicides and the expected number of suicides, was used as a measure of risk. Overall PD, different PD-clusters, and comorbidity influenced the suicide method. Hanging evidenced highest SMR in female PD patients (SMR 34.2 (95% CI: 29.3-39.8)), as compared to non-PD patients and jumping among male PD patients (SMR 24.8 (95% CI: 18.3-33.6)), as compared to non PD-patients. Furthermore, the elevated suicide risk was related to both psychiatric and somatic comorbidity. The increased suicide risk was unevenly distributed with respect to suicide method and type of PD. However, these differences were only moderate and greatly overshadowed by the overall excess suicide risk in having PD. Any attempt from society to decrease the suicide rate in persons with PD must take these characteristics into account. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. The leading methods of suicide in Taiwan, 2002-2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Jin-Jia; Chang, Shu-Sen; Lu, Tsung-Hsueh

    2010-08-13

    Diverse socioeconomic and cultural developments between geographic regions and cities/counties have resulted in different physical availability and socio-cultural acceptability of certain methods of suicide. This study examined the changes in distribution of the leading methods of suicide across cities/counties in Taiwan between 2002-04 and 2006-08. Mortality data for all deaths classified as suicide or as of undetermined intent from 2002 through 2008 were extracted for analysis. The number of deaths and proportion of completed suicides by four main methods were calculated in order to identify the leading lethal methods in each city/county. Hanging was the leading method of suicide in 18 out of 22 cities/counties in 2002-04 but decreased to 10 out of 22 in 2006-08. On the other hand, charcoal burning was not the leading method in any city/county in 2002-04 but increased to 10 out of 22 in 2006-08. The younger the age of the deceased, the more likely the leading method of suicide changed from 2002-04 to 2006-08. Charcoal burning was the most often used method in most cities/counties among those aged 15-44; however, hanging was most frequent for those aged 45 or above. Pesticides were the leading method for the elderly in five counties with a high percentage of agricultural population in 2006-08. The leading method of suicide varied by age group and changed from 2002-04 to 2006-08 in Taiwan. This was due primarily to changes in socio-cultural acceptability of the use of charcoal burning as a method for suicide by younger age groups.

  10. The leading methods of suicide in Taiwan, 2002-2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Jin-Jia

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Diverse socioeconomic and cultural developments between geographic regions and cities/counties have resulted in different physical availability and socio-cultural acceptability of certain methods of suicide. This study examined the changes in distribution of the leading methods of suicide across cities/counties in Taiwan between 2002-04 and 2006-08. Methods Mortality data for all deaths classified as suicide or as of undetermined intent from 2002 through 2008 were extracted for analysis. The number of deaths and proportion of completed suicides by four main methods were calculated in order to identify the leading lethal methods in each city/county. Results Hanging was the leading method of suicide in 18 out of 22 cities/counties in 2002-04 but decreased to 10 out of 22 in 2006-08. On the other hand, charcoal burning was not the leading method in any city/county in 2002-04 but increased to 10 out of 22 in 2006-08. The younger the age of the deceased, the more likely the leading method of suicide changed from 2002-04 to 2006-08. Charcoal burning was the most often used method in most cities/counties among those aged 15-44; however, hanging was most frequent for those aged 45 or above. Pesticides were the leading method for the elderly in five counties with a high percentage of agricultural population in 2006-08. Conclusion The leading method of suicide varied by age group and changed from 2002-04 to 2006-08 in Taiwan. This was due primarily to changes in socio-cultural acceptability of the use of charcoal burning as a method for suicide by younger age groups.

  11. Bullying and suicidal behavior in jails.

    OpenAIRE

    Blaauw, E.; Winkel, F.W.; Kerkhof, A.J.F.M.

    2001-01-01

    Relationships between bullying features and suicidal behavior of inmates were examined. The files of 95 suicide victims in jails and prisons in the Netherlands were examined for reports of bullying. In addition, 221 nonsuicidal jail inmates and 53 suicidal jail inmates were interviewed. The files of 34% of the suicide victims noted that the suicide victim had felt bullied. Bullying, especially serious bullying, was relatively often reported by suicidal inmates and by vulnerable inmates. Diffe...

  12. Gender differences in adolescent coping behaviors and suicidal ideation: findings from a sample of 73,238 adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sun Mi; Han, Doug Hyun; Trksak, George H; Lee, Young Sik

    2014-01-01

    Suicide among adolescents is an emerging global public health problem as well as a socioeconomic problem. Stress-coping strategies have been shown to be associated with suicidal ideation. We examined coping behaviors related to suicidal ideation and gender differences in adolescents using the data from the 2010 Korea Youth Risk Behavior Survey (ages 12-19 years; N = 73,238). Logistic regression analysis was used to evaluate associations between suicidal ideation and specific coping behaviors while controlling for potentially confounding variables. In both male and female groups, the coping behavior "drinking alcoholic beverages" and "smoking cigarettes" were positively associated with suicidal ideation. "Watching TV," "playing online/mobile games," and "sleeping" were negatively associated with suicidal ideation in both groups. In males, "engaging in sports" was negatively related to suicidal ideation. In females, "venting by talking to others" and "eating" were negatively related to suicidal ideation. The results indicate that there are gender differences in the effects of coping behaviors on adolescent suicidal ideation, and that developing adaptive coping strategies may function to reduce suicidality. Future studies are needed to examine whether improving coping skills can reduce suicidal ideation in a gender-specific manner.

  13. Suicide Following Deliberate Self-Harm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olfson, Mark; Wall, Melanie; Wang, Shuai; Crystal, Stephen; Gerhard, Tobias; Blanco, Carlos

    2017-08-01

    The authors sought to identify risk factors for repeat self-harm and completed suicide over the following year among adults with deliberate self-harm. A national cohort of Medicaid-financed adults clinically diagnosed with deliberate self-harm (N=61,297) was followed for up to 1 year. Repeat self-harm per 1,000 person-years and suicide rates per 100,000 person-years (based on cause of death information from the National Death Index) were determined. Hazard ratios of repeat self-harm and suicide were estimated by Cox proportional hazard models. During the 12 months after nonfatal self-harm, the rate of repeat self-harm was 263.2 per 1,000 person-years and the rate of completed suicide was 439.1 per 100,000 person-years, or 37.2 times higher than in a matched general population cohort. The hazard of suicide was higher after initial self-harm events involving violent as compared with nonviolent methods (hazard ratio=7.5, 95% CI=5.5-10.1), especially firearms (hazard ratio=15.86, 95% CI=10.7-23.4; computed with poisoning as reference), and to a lesser extent after events of patients who had recently received outpatient mental health care (hazard ratio=1.6, 95% CI=1.2-2.0). Compared with self-harm patients using nonviolent methods, those who used violent methods were at significantly increased risk of suicide during the first 30 days after the initial event (hazard ratio=17.5, 95% CI=11.2-27.3), but not during the following 335 days. Adults treated for deliberate self-harm frequently repeat self-harm in the following year. Patients who use a violent method for their initial self-harm, especially firearms, have an exceptionally high risk of suicide, particularly right after the initial event, which highlights the importance of careful assessment and close follow-up of this group.

  14. [Characterisation of Suicide in Colombia, 2000 2010].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardona Arango, Doris; Medina-Pérez, Óscar Adolfo; Cardona Duque, Deisy Viviana

    2016-01-01

    Suicide is a serious public health problem worldwide, affecting all population groups, regardless of age, gender, or area of residence. The aim of this investigation was to characterise the recorded suicides in Colombia, between the years 2000 and 2010, according to the variables of the person, time and place. Descriptive quantitative study with information from secondary sources, from the death certificates of deceased people by suicide registered with the National Bureau of Statistics. The behaviour of the deaths and mortality, were determined using the denominator population projections of Colombia and the Amazon, Andean, Atlantic Coast, Eastern Plains and Pacific regions. Descriptive measurements and mortality rates were calculated using these. A total of 24,882 suicides were recorded in the eleven years studied, with a mean of 6.2 people per day, which increased to 8.0 during holidays The mean age of death was 34.5 years (men 36.4, women 27.7), with male deaths (78.1%) and urban areas (66%) predominating. The greatest risk of dying from this cause was recorded in the Eastern Plains, in young adults and seniors, and residents in rural areas. Suicide rates in Colombia show a downward trend, with a mean of 5.3/100,000 inhabitants, and with an increased risk in men (3.7 times the risk in women, in young adults (9/100,000). A higher death rate was recorded in single people in the months of December and January, and at weekends. Copyright © 2015 Asociación Colombiana de Psiquiatría. Publicado por Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  15. An association study of suicide and candidate genes in the serotonergic system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buttenschøn, Henriette N; Flint, Tracey J; Foldager, Leslie

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Strong evidence demonstrates a genetic susceptibility to suicidal behaviour and a relationship between suicide and mental disorders. The aim of this study was to test for association between suicide and five selected genetic variants, which had shown association with suicide in other...... genotype (with and without rs25531) in SLC6A4. The long allele or high expression allele tends to have a protective effect in the middle age-group. Limitation: We only analysed a limited number of genetic variants. Conclusion: None of the analysed variants are strong risk factors. To reveal a better...

  16. Attitudes toward suicide: the effect of suicide death in the family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jie; Jia, Cun-Xian

    There have been few reports on the effect of suicide death on family members' attitudes toward suicide. In order to estimate the extent to which suicide death affects attitudes toward suicide among family members of suicides, data of 264 informants from a case-control psychological autopsy study were analyzed. The results showed that there were no significant differences in attitudes toward suicide, measured by the General Social Survey's (GSS) four questions, between informants of suicides and informants of living controls, between family members of suicides and family members of living controls, or between family members of suicides and non-family members of suicides. Our findings did not support the hypothesis that suicide death affects the attitudes toward suicide in suicides' family members. However, some factors were found to be related to the pro-suicide attitudes measured by the four questions included in the GSS.

  17. Aggressiveness across development and suicidal behavior in depressed patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carballo, Juan J; García-Nieto, Rebeca; Harkavy-Friedman, Jill; de Leon-Martinez, Victoria; Baca-García, Enrique

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine differences in the pathway of aggressiveness across development between depressive subjects and normal controls, and to examine males and females separately with regard to level of aggression and suicidal behavior among depressed subjects. Participants were classified into 5 groups: depressed suicide attempters (DSA; n = 339), depressed non-suicide attempters (DNSA; n = 92), psychiatric controls who had attempted suicide (PSA; n = 188), psychiatric controls who had not attempted suicide (PNSA; n = 222), and normal controls (NC; n = 532). The level of aggressiveness across development in the different groups was examined using a 5 (DSA vs. DNSA vs. PSA vs. PNSA vs. NC)×3 (Childhood, Adolescence, and Adulthood) MANCOVA. Adjusted and separate models for males and females were conducted. Depressed subjects differed in severity of aggressiveness. The level of aggressiveness in individuals in the NC group remained stable across development, while subjects in the DSA and DNSA groups showed significantly higher levels of aggressiveness. This finding was also observed in subjects of the PSA and PNSA groups. The level of aggressiveness in males with depression significantly increased over time. In women, increasing levels of aggressiveness across development were only observed in depressed suicide attempters. Limitations of this study included use of semi-structured interview for the assessment of risk factors. We found significant differences in severity and in the pathway of aggressiveness across development between depressive subjects and normal controls. In addition, sex differences regarding level of aggression and suicidal behavior among depressed subjects were found.

  18. A closer look at the increase in suicide rates in South Korea from 1986–2005

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun Heeran

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Suicide rates have recently been decreasing on average among OECD countries, but increasing trends have been detected in South Korea, particularly since the 1997 economic crisis. There have been no detailed analyses about the changes of the suicide rates over time periods in Korea. We examined trends in both absolute and proportional suicide rates over the time period of economic development, crisis, and recovery (1986 – 2005 as well as in birth cohorts from 1924 to 1978. Methods We used data on total mortality and suicide rates from 1986 to 2005 published online by the Korean National Statistical Office (NSO and extracted data for individuals under 80 years old. The analyses of the trends for 1 the sex-age-specific total mortality rate, 2 the sex-age-specific suicide rate, and 3 the sex-age-specific proportional suicide rate in 1986–2005 were conducted. To demonstrate the birth cohort effect on the proportional suicide rate, the synthetic birth cohort from 1924 to 1978 from the successive cross-sectional data was constructed. Results Age standardized suicide rates in South Korea increased by 98% in men (from 15.3 to 30.3 per 100,000 and by 124% in women (from 5.8 to 13.0 per 100,000. In both genders, the proportional increase in suicide rates was more prominent among the younger group aged under 45, despite the absolute increase being attributed to the older group. There were distinct cohort effects underlying increasing suicide rates particularly among younger age groups. Conclusion Increasing suicide rates in Korea was composed of a greater absolute increase in the older group and a greater proportional increase in the younger group.

  19. The InterSePT suicide scale for prediction of imminent suicidal behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayer, David W; Jayathilake, Karu; Meltzer, Herbert Y

    2008-10-30

    The present study examined the ability of the International Suicide Prevention Trial (InterSePT) Scale for Suicidal Thinking (ISST) and the Calgary Depression Scale (CDS) to predict suicide attempts or hospitalizations to prevent attempts (referred to as Type 1 events) during the InterSePT trial [Meltzer, H.Y., Alphs, L., Green, A.I., Altamura, A.C., Anand, R., Bertoldi, A., Bourgeois, M., Chouinard, G., Islam, M.Z., Kane, J., Krishman, R., Lindenmayer, J.P., Potkin, S., 2003. Clozapine treatment for suicidality in schizophrenia. Archive of General Psychiatry 60, 82-91]. The primary goal of this analysis was to determine if the ISST and CDS ratings indicated that the raters, an unblinded (UP) and a blinded psychiatrist (BP) using the ISST, and a blinded rater using the CDS, were able to identify those patients who had a Type 1 event. The ratings of patients adjudged to have experienced a Type 1 event (Group 1) were compared with patients who did not (Group 2). The ISST and the CDS ratings obtained 2-8 weeks prior to a Type 1 event (Pre-1) and Pre-2, the rating immediately prior to Pre-1, obtained 2-12 weeks before Pre-1, were analyzed to test the hypothesis that the difference between Pre-2 and Pre-1 ratings for the Group 1 patients was significantly greater than the difference in the comparable ratings for Group 2 patients. The prediction that patients with Type 1 events would show greater worsening in ISST and CDS ratings between Pre-2 and Pre-1 than the Group 2 patients was confirmed. However, the sensitivity and specificity of a worsening in ratings was not sufficient to provide definitive warning of an impending Type 1 event. Other characteristics of the patients with Type 1 events provide additional warning: e.g. overall higher ratings on these scales, slower improvement in suicidality during treatment, and previous number of suicide attempts. These results indicate that the ISST and CDS may provide some additional information that can assist clinical

  20. Rates and risk factors for suicide, suicidal ideation, and suicide attempts in chronic epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Jana E; Hermann, Bruce P; Barry, John J; Gilliam, Frank G; Kanner, Andres M; Meador, Kimford J

    2003-10-01

    Studies of causes of death among people with epilepsy suggest that the lifetime prevalence rate of suicide is elevated. Although not all of the studies have reported an increased risk for suicide, the collective data yield an average rate of approximately 12% among people with epilepsy, compared with 1.1-1.2% in the general population. The increased risk for suicide appears to affect children and adolescents as well as adults. Rates of suicide attempts have also been reported to be elevated among people with epilepsy. A suicide attempt is a significant risk factor for completed suicide. Certain psychiatric disorders, including primary mood disorders, also increase the risk for suicide. Among people with epilepsy, psychiatric comorbidity is common, and rates of mood disorders, particularly major depression, have consistently been reported to be elevated. Other potential risk factors are family issues, physical health, personality, life stress, previous suicidal behavior, and access to firearms. Assessing severity of risk helps to determine the appropriate level of intervention. The suicidality module of the Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview is a practical tool to help quantify current suicide risk.