WorldWideScience

Sample records for nonpsychotic first-degree relatives

  1. Counterfactual Reasoning in Non-psychotic First-Degree Relatives of People with Schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Auria eAlbacete

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Counterfactual thinking (CFT is a type of conditional reasoning that enables the generation of mental simulations of alternatives to past factual events. Previous research has found this cognitive feature to be disrupted in schizophrenia. At the same time, the study of cognitive deficits in unaffected relatives of people with schizophrenia has significantly increased, supporting its potential endophenotypic role in this disorder. Using an exploratory approach, the current study examined CFT for the first time in a sample of non-psychotic first-degree relatives of schizophrenia patients (N=43, in comparison with schizophrenia patients (N=54 and healthy controls (N=44. A series of tests that assessed the causal order effect in CFT and the ability to generate counterfactual thoughts and counterfactually derive inferences using the Counterfactual Inference Test was completed. Associations with variables of basic and social cognition, levels of schizotypy and psychotic-like experiences in addition to clinical and sociodemographic characteristics were also explored. Findings showed that first-degree relatives generated a lower number of counterfactual thoughts than controls, and were more adept at counterfactually deriving inferences, specifically in the scenarios related to regret and to judgements of avoidance in an unusual situation. No other significant results were found. These preliminary findings suggest that non-psychotic first-degree relatives of schizophrenia patients show a subtle disruption of global counterfactual thinking compared with what is normally expected in the general population. Because of the potential impact of such deficits, new treatments targeting CFT improvement might be considered in future management strategies.

  2. Sleep spindle deficits in antipsychotic-naïve early course schizophrenia and in non-psychotic first-degree relatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dara S Manoach

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Chronic medicated patients with schizophrenia have marked reductions in sleep spindle activity and a correlated deficit in sleep-dependent memory consolidation. Using archival data, we investigated whether antipsychotic-naïve early course patients with schizophrenia and young non-psychotic first-degree relatives of patients with schizophrenia also show reduced sleep spindle activity and whether spindle activity correlates with cognitive function and symptoms.Method: Sleep spindles during Stage 2 sleep were compared in antipsychotic-naïve adults newly diagnosed with psychosis, young non-psychotic first-degree relatives of schizophrenia patients and two samples of healthy controls matched to the patients and relatives. The relations of spindle parameters with cognitive measures and symptom ratings were examined.Results: Early course schizophrenia patients showed significantly reduced spindle activity relative to healthy controls and to early course patients with other psychotic disorders. Relatives of schizophrenia patients also showed reduced spindle activity compared with controls. Reduced spindle activity correlated with measures of executive function in early course patients, positive symptoms in schizophrenia and IQ estimates across groups.Conclusions: Like chronic medicated schizophrenia patients, antipsychotic-naïve early course schizophrenia patients and young non-psychotic relatives of individuals with schizophrenia have reduced sleep spindle activity. These findings indicate that the spindle deficit is not an antipsychotic side-effect or a general feature of psychosis. Instead, the spindle deficit may predate the onset of schizophrenia, persist throughout its course and be an endophenotype that contributes to cognitive dysfunction.

  3. Subjective experiences in first-degree relatives of schizophrenic subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loas, Gwenolé; Dimassi, Hajer; Yon, Valérie; Monestes, Jean Louis

    2012-10-01

    First-degree relatives of patients with schizophrenia may score higher on the Frankfurt Complaint Questionnaire (FCQ) than controls. The present study was designed to provide evidence of validity for the French version of the 24-item subscale of the Frankfurt Complaint Questionnaire (FCQ-24). In 27 first-degree relatives of patients with schizophrenia (high-risk group) and 30 controls, the high-risk group scored significantly higher on the FCQ, as expected.

  4. Celiac disease in first degree relatives of celiac children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreia Oliveira

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available CONTEXT - The first degree relatives of celiac patients represent a high risk group for the development of this disorder, so their screening may be crucial in the prevention of long-term complications. OBJECTIVE - In order to determine the prevalence of celiac disease in a group of first degree relatives of children with proven gluten intolerance, we conducted a prospective study that consisted in the screening of celiac disease, using a capillary immunoassay rapid test that allows a qualitative detection of IgA antibody to human recombinant tissue transglutaminase (IgA-TTG. METHODS - When the screening test was positive subjects were advised to proceed with further investigation. The screening test was performed in 268 first degree relatives (143 mothers, 89 fathers, 36 siblings corresponding to 163 children with celiac disease. RESULTS - Screening test was positive in 12 relatives (4.5%, of which 1 refused to continue the investigation. In the remaining 11 relatives celiac disease was diagnosed in 7 cases (2.6%, 5 mothers, 2 fathers who had a median age of 39 years (27-56 years, mild gastrointestinal symptoms, high titre of IgA-TTG and histology abnormalities confirming the diagnosis. All these patients are currently on a gluten-free diet. CONCLUSION - The prevalence of celiac disease among first degree relatives (2.6% was 5 times higher than that in the general population. Although the recommendations for screening asymptomatic high risk groups, such as first degree relatives, are not unanimous the early diagnosis is crucial in preventing complications, including nutritional deficiency and cancer.

  5. Familial clustering of myocardial infarction in first-degree relatives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Mia; Andersson, Charlotte; Gerds, Thomas A

    2013-01-01

    case with MI at an age years was associated with an RR of 3.30 (2.92–3.72) while a case >50 years was associated with a risk of 1.83 (1.73–1.93). For maternal cases below and above 50 years of age the risks were 3.23 (2.56–4.10) and 2.31 (2.11–2.52), respectively. Conclusion First-degree relatives...... of a patient with myocardial infarction themselves have a substantial higher risk of myocardial infarction. The risk is particularly elevated when the MI case is the mother or a sibling, and when the MI case has the infarction before the age of 50 years....

  6. SALT INTAKE IN FIRST DEGREE RELATIONS OF l-IYPERTENSIVE ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2004-10-10

    Oct 10, 2004 ... Design: A comparative study of STT and salt intake in the first degree offspring of hypertensive and ... of both(3). Meyer et al (7) have demonstrated erythrocyte .... Table 1 shows the baseline characteristics of participants.

  7. Autoimmune Disease in First-Degree Relatives and Spouses of Individuals With Celiac Disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Emilsson, Louise; Wijmenga, Cisca; Murray, Joseph A.; Ludvigsson, Jonas F.

    BACKGROUND & AIMS: First-degree relatives of individuals with celiac disease are at increased risk for this disorder, but little is known about their risk for other autoimmune diseases. We assessed the risk of nonceliac autoimmune disease in first-degree relatives and spouses of people with celiac

  8. Autoimmune Disease in First-Degree Relatives and Spouses of Individuals With Celiac Disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Emilsson, Louise; Wijmenga, Cisca; Murray, Joseph A.; Ludvigsson, Jonas F.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND & AIMS: First-degree relatives of individuals with celiac disease are at increased risk for this disorder, but little is known about their risk for other autoimmune diseases. We assessed the risk of nonceliac autoimmune disease in first-degree relatives and spouses of people with celiac d

  9. Prevalence of open angle glaucoma in accompanying first degree relatives of patients with glaucoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franciele Vegini

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of open angle glaucoma in first-degree relatives accompanying POAG patients during routine examination in a reference hospital. METHOD: First-degree relatives of primary open angle glaucoma patients who accompanied their relatives to the glaucoma service of a reference hospital were screened for glaucoma. RESULTS: One-hundred and one first-degree relatives were examined, of which 56.4% had never had their intraocular pressure measured. 10.9% had previously been diagnosed with glaucoma, and 5.9% were newly diagnosed during this study. CONCLUSIONS: The eye examination of first-degree relatives identified a significant percentage of individuals with glaucoma. Despite being first-degree relatives of glaucoma patients, 56.4% of the companions had never had their eye pressure measured, demonstrating a lack of awareness about this disease.

  10. Endothelial dysfunction in normoglycaemic first-degree relatives of type 2 diabetes mellitus complicated with hyperuricaemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Junxia; Xiang, Lin; Zhang, Bilin; Cheng, Yangyang

    2017-03-01

    To reveal the effect of hyperuricaemia on endothelial function in normoglycaemic first-degree relatives of type 2 diabetes mellitus. In all, 40 first-degree relatives of type 2 diabetes mellitus with hyperuricaemia, 40 first-degree relatives of type 2 diabetes mellitus with normouricaemia and 35 healthy subjects without diabetic family history were recruited in this study. Anthropometric parameters as well as blood pressure, blood lipids, fasting blood glucose, fasting insulin, C-reactive protein, tumour necrosis factor-α and interleukin-6 were measured. Insulin resistance was assessed with homoeostasis model assessment index-insulin resistance index. To assess endothelial function, high-resolution ultrasonography was used for measuring flow- and nitroglycerine-mediated brachial artery vasodilation. When compared with control, flow-mediated dilation was lower in first-degree relatives with or without hyperuricaemia (both p diabetes mellitus (β = -0.677, p diabetes mellitus complicated with hyperuricaemia.

  11. Increased expression of survivin in gastric cancer patients and in first degree relatives

    OpenAIRE

    J. Yu; Leung, W K; Ebert, M P A; Ng, E K W; Go, M Y Y; Wang, H.B.; Chung, S C S; Malfertheiner, P; Sung, J. J. Y.

    2002-01-01

    Survivin was recently described as an apoptosis inhibitor. Its pathogenic role in gastric cancer is largely unknown. Expression of survivin in gastric cancer and non-cancer first-degree relatives, and its association with apoptosis and cyclo-oxygenase-2 expression was investigated. Fifty gastric cancer, 30 non-cancer first-degree relatives, 20 normal controls and five gastric cancer cell lines were studied. Survivin and cyclo-oxygenase-2 were evaluated by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chai...

  12. Risk of subarachnoid haemorrhage in first degree relatives of patients with subarachnoid haemorrhage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gaist, D; Vaeth, M; Tsiropoulos, I

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To estimate the risk of occurrence of subarachnoid haemorrhage in first degree relatives (parents, siblings, children) of patients with subarachnoid haemorrhage. DESIGN: Population based cohort study using data from the Danish National Discharge Registry and the Central Person Registry....... SUBJECTS: Incident cases of subarachnoid haemorrhage admitted to hospital from 1977 to 1995 (9367 patients) and their first degree relatives (14 781). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The incidence rate of subarachnoid haemorrhage was determined for the relatives and compared with that of the entire population......, standardised for age, sex, and calendar period. This process was repeated for patients discharged from neurosurgery units, as diagnoses from these wards had high validity (93%). RESULTS: 18 patients had a total of 19 first degree relatives with subarachnoid haemorrhage during the study period, corresponding...

  13. Risk of leukemia in first degree relatives of patients with nonsyndromic cleft lip and palate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo GONÇALVES

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the frequency of leukemia in parents of patients with nonsyndromic cleft lip and/or cleft palate (NSCL/P. This case-control study evaluated first-degree family members of 358 patients with NSCL/P and 1,432 subjects without craniofacial alterations or syndromes. Statistical analysis was carried out using Fisher’s test. From the 358 subjects with NSCL/P, 3 first-degree parents had history of leukemia, while 2 out of 1,432 subjects from the unaffected group had a family history of leukemia. The frequency of positive family history of leukemia was not significantly increased in first-degree relatives of patients with NSCL/P.

  14. Ischaemic heart disease in first-degree relatives to coeliac patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emilsson, Louise; James, Stefan; Ludvigsson, Jonas F

    2014-04-01

    Coeliac disease (CD) has been linked to an increased risk of ischaemic heart disease (IHD). We examined the risk of IHD in first-degree relatives and spouses to coeliac patients to ascertain the genetic contribution to IHD excess risk. Coeliac disease was defined as having a biopsy-verified villous atrophy (Marsh grade 3) in 1969-2008 (n = 29,096). Coeliac patients were matched to 144,522 controls. Through Swedish registers, we identified all first-degree relatives and spouses to coeliac patients and their controls, in total 87,622 unique coeliac relatives and 432,655 unique control relatives. Our main outcome measure was IHD defined according to relevant international classification of disease codes in the Swedish Inpatient Registry or in the Cause of Death Registry. Hazard ratios (HR) and confidence intervals (CI) were estimated through Cox regression adjusted for sex, age-group and calendar year at study entry of the relative. During a median follow-up of 10·8 years, 2880 coeliac relatives and 13,817 control relatives experienced IHD. First-degree relatives of coeliac patients were at increased risk of IHD (HR = 1·05; 95% CI = 1·00-1·09, P-value = 0·04), while spouses were at no increased risk (HR = 0·99; 95% CI = 0·87-1·12). The excess risk of IHD in coeliac first-degree relatives aged 40-59 years was 70/100,000 person-years. First-degree relatives to coeliac patients seem to be at an increased risk of IHD but the excess risk is so small that it has little clinical relevance. © 2014 Stichting European Society for Clinical Investigation Journal Foundation.

  15. Neurocognition in Unaffected First-Degree Relatives of Patients With Bipolar Disorder Type I From India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raman Deep Pattanayak

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The study aims to evaluate the neuropsychological functions of unaffected first-degree relatives of patients with bipolar disorder Type I (BD-I in comparison with healthy controls. The method was a cross-sectional assessment of 20 first-degree relatives of patients with BD-I and 20 healthy controls. Inclusion criteria for all participants included age between 18 and 55 years, ≥5 years of formal education, right-handedness as per Edinburgh handedness inventory, absence of color blindness as per Ishihara’s isochromatic charts, and a score of >24 on Hindi mental state examination. None of the participants had a current or lifetime diagnosis of a mental disorder on Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV, Clinician Version. Neuropsychological assessment was conducted with Trail Making Test A and B, Stroop color and word test, N-Back Verbal Memory Test, and Post Graduate Institute (PGI Memory Scale. Both the groups were comparable in age, gender distribution, and education. The unaffected first-degree relatives performed poorly on Trail Making Test B and (B-A, indicating a poor cognitive flexibility and set-shifting. The relative group also performed poorly on Mental Balance subtest of PGI Memory Scale. The unaffected first-degree relatives of patients with BD display certain impairments in dorsal prefrontal executive functions which can serve as vulnerability markers for BD.

  16. Dental anomalies in first-degree relatives of transposed canine probands

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Adriana Bartolo; Neville Calleja; Fraser McDonald; Simon Camilleri

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate and compare the inheritance pattern and prevalence of inheritable dental anomalies in a sample of patients with maxillary canine—first premolar transposition and their first-degree relatives with a sample of palatally displaced canine families. Thirty-five consecutive maxillary canine—first premolar transposition probands and 111 first-degree relatives were matched to 35 consecutive palatally displaced canine probands and 115 first-degree relatives. These were assessed for palatally displaced canines and incisor-premolar hypodontia. Parental age at birth of the proband was also noted. The results revealed that (i) there is no difference in the overall prevalence of palatally displaced canine or incisor-premolar hypodontia between the groups of relatives; (ii) first-degree relatives of bilateral palatally displaced canine probands have a higher prevalence of palatally displaced canine and incisor-premolar hypodontia than those with unilateral palatally displaced canine; and (iii) maternal age at birth of the maxillary canine—first premolar transposition probands was significantly higher than that of the palatally displaced canine probands. The results suggest that maxillary canine—first premolar transposition and palatally displaced canine are unlikely to be different genetic entities and also indicate environmental or epigenetic influences on dental development.

  17. Dental anomalies in first-degree relatives of transposed canine probands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartolo, Adriana; Calleja, Neville; McDonald, Fraser; Camilleri, Simon

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate and compare the inheritance pattern and prevalence of inheritable dental anomalies in a sample of patients with maxillary canine—first premolar transposition and their first-degree relatives with a sample of palatally displaced canine families. Thirty-five consecutive maxillary canine—first premolar transposition probands and 111 first-degree relatives were matched to 35 consecutive palatally displaced canine probands and 115 first-degree relatives. These were assessed for palatally displaced canines and incisor-premolar hypodontia. Parental age at birth of the proband was also noted. The results revealed that (i) there is no difference in the overall prevalence of palatally displaced canine or incisor-premolar hypodontia between the groups of relatives; (ii) first-degree relatives of bilateral palatally displaced canine probands have a higher prevalence of palatally displaced canine and incisor-premolar hypodontia than those with unilateral palatally displaced canine; and (iii) maternal age at birth of the maxillary canine—first premolar transposition probands was significantly higher than that of the palatally displaced canine probands. The results suggest that maxillary canine—first premolar transposition and palatally displaced canine are unlikely to be different genetic entities and also indicate environmental or epigenetic influences on dental development. PMID:25634123

  18. Neurocognitive functions in obsessive-compulsive disorder patients and their unaffected first-degree relatives

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张龙

    2012-01-01

    Objective To find the common neurocognitive deficits in patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and their unaffected first-degree relatives (UFDR) and to identify neurocognitive endophenotypes for OCD. Methods Forty patients with OCD,forty UFDR of OCD probands and forty healthy

  19. PSYCHIATRIC MORBIDITY PATTERN OF THE FIRST-DEGREE RELATIVES OF SCHIZOPHRENICS: CROSS-SECTIONAL STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Gnana Durai

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available : CONTEXT: Family, Twin and Adoption studies show the inheritance patterns of schizophrenia. The findings from these studies provide support to the claim that familial clustering of schizophrenia is a combined expression of genetic and environmental factors. AIMS: Following the line of previous research, this study attempts to find out any difference in the psychiatric morbidity pattern among the first-degree relatives of familial and sporadic schizophrenics. SETTINGS AND DESIGN: We conducted a cross-sectional survey among a convenience sample of 100 first-degree relatives (age between 18 to 55 years of familial (n=22 and sporadic (n=29 schizophrenics from psychiatric outpatient clinic, of a Government Hospital, India. The schizophrenics satisfied the DSM-IV criteria and all the first degree relatives interviewed never had any psychiatric consultation before or were abusing alcohol or other substances or having any organic pathology. METHODS AND MATERIAL: Informed consent from the patients and relatives was obtained. Survey questionnaires were administered and no personal identifying information was collected. Middle Sex Hospital Questionnaire (MHQ, Eysenck's Personality Questionnaire (EPQ, Multi-Phasic Personality Questionnaire (MPQ and Screening Test for Co-Morbid Personality Disorders (STCPD were administered to the participants.

  20. Facial emotion recognition in euthymic patients with bipolar disorder and their unaffected first-degree relatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Brito Ferreira Fernandes, Francy; Gigante, Alexandre Duarte; Berutti, Mariangeles; Amaral, José Antônio; de Almeida, Karla Mathias; de Almeida Rocca, Cristiana Castanho; Lafer, Beny; Nery, Fabiano Gonçalves

    2016-07-01

    Facial emotion recognition (FER) is an important task associated with social cognition because facial expression is a significant source of non-verbal information that guides interpersonal relationships. Increasing evidence suggests that bipolar disorder (BD) patients present deficits in FER and these deficits may be present in individuals at high genetic risk for BD. The aim of this study was to evaluate the occurrence of FER deficits in euthymic BD patients, their first-degree relatives, and healthy controls (HC) and to consider if these deficits might be regarded as an endophenotype candidate for BD. We studied 23 patients with DSM-IV BD type I, 22 first-degree relatives of these patients, and 27 HC. We used the Penn Emotion Recognition Tests to evaluate tasks of FER, emotion discrimination, and emotional acuity. Patients were recruited from outpatient facilities at the Institute of Psychiatry of the University of Sao Paulo Medical School, or from the community through media advertisements, had to be euthymic, with age above 18years old and a diagnosis of DSM-IV BD type I. Euthymic BD patients presented significantly fewer correct responses for fear, and significantly increased time to response to recognize happy faces when compared with HC, but not when compared with first-degree relatives. First-degree relatives did not significantly differ from HC on any of the emotion recognition tasks. Our results suggest that deficits in FER are present in euthymic patients, but not in subjects at high genetic risk for BD. Thus, we have not found evidence to consider FER as an endophenotype candidate for BD. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Depression spectrum disease with and without depression in first-degree relatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rush, A J; Feldman-Koffler, F; Weissenburger, J E; Giles, D E; Roffwarg, H P; Orsulak, P J

    1995-12-13

    Family history was assessed in 211 outpatients with unipolar major depression and diagnoses were rendered according to Winokur et al. (Winokur et al. (1978) J. Nerv. Ment. Dis. 166, 764-768) family history typology. The subclassification of Depression Spectrum Disease with Alcoholism and Depression (DSDA + D) was applied to those patients reporting at least one first-degree relative suffering from alcoholism and another first-degree relative suffering from depression (n = 103), while Depression Spectrum Disease with Alcoholism (DSDA) was applied to those patients with at least one first-degree relative suffering from alcoholism, but none suffering from depression (n = 108). These two groups were compared on demographic, clinical and biological characteristics. They were also compared with 162 patients who reported the presence of depression and absence of alcoholism in first-degree relatives, designated as Familial Pure Depressive Disease (FPDD) by the Winokur et al. (1978) classification. Results revealed that the DSDA + D group was younger, had an earlier age at onset of depression and experienced more episodes of depression than did the DSDA group. No differences were found between the two groups on biological measures. The FPDD group was more similar to the DSDA + D group than the DSDA group in terms of age at onset and number of depressives episodes. However, the FPDD group had a longer length of illness than either of the DSD groups. These data suggest that the DSD group should be more narrowly defined (excluding those with a positive family history of depression) in future clinical research studies.

  2. Increased expression of cyclooxygenase-2 in first-degree relatives of gastric cancer patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jin-Ting Zhang; Ming-Wei Wang; Zhen-Long Zhu; Xiao-Hui Huo; Jian-Kun Chu; Dong-Sheng Cui; Liang Qiao; Jun Yu

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To study the expression of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2)in human gastric cancer tissues and their paired adjacent mucosa, as well as mucosa from gastric antrum and corpus of the first-degree relatives of the recruited cancer patients.METHODS: The expression of COX-2 mRNA in 38 patients with gastric cancer and their 29 first-degree relatives and 18 healthy controls was assessed by the real time RT-PCR.The expression of COX-2 protein was determined by Western blot.RESULTS: A marked increase in COX-2 mRNA expression was found in 20 of 37 (54%) cancerous tissues compared to their respective paired normal mucosa (P<0.001).Interestingly, increased COX-2 mRNA expression was also found in mucosa of the corpus (6/29) and antrum (13/29)of their first-degree relatives. Increased COX-2 mRNA expression was more frequently observed in the antrum biopsies from cancer patients than in the antrum biopsies from healthy controls (P<0.05). In addition, 3 of 23 (13%)patients with atrophic mucosa and 6 of 35 (17%) patients with intestinal metaplasia showed increased COX-2 mRNA expression. Furthermore, COX-2 expression increased in H pylori-positive tissues, especially in antrum mucosa.CONCLUSION: Increased COX-2 expression is involved in gastric carcinogenesis, and may be necessary for maintenance of the malignant phenotype and contribute to Helicobacterpylori-associated malignant transformation.

  3. Celiac disease in children from Madeira island and its prevalence in first degree relatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Joana Raquel Henriques; Cabral, António Jorge; Ferreira, Elena; Capelinha, Filipa; Spínola, Hélder; Gonçalves, Rute

    2014-01-01

    It is well recognized that celiac disease is an immune-mediated systemic disorder highly prevalent among relatives of celiac patients. The aim of this study is to determine the prevalence of celiac disease in a group of first degree relatives of celiac children, and to access the frequency of human leukocyte antigen HLA-DQ2 and DQ8 in celiac disease patients and their affected relatives. A survey was conducted of 39 children with celiac disease with follow-up in the Pediatric outpatient's clinic of Dr. Nélio Mendonça Hospital, in Madeira Island, Portugal. Were invited 110 first degree relatives to undergo serological screen for celiac disease with IgA antibody to human recombinant tissue transglutaminase (IgA-TGG) quantification. In all seropositive relatives, small intestinal biopsy and HLA typing was recommended. HLA- typing was performed in 38 celiac patients, 28/74% DQ2 positive, 1/2% DQ8 positive and 9/24% incomplete DQ2. Positive IgA-TGG was found in five out of the 95 relatives, and CD was diagnosed in three of them. Three relatives had the presence of HLA-DQ2, two were DQ2 incomplete (DQB1*02). The prevalence of celiac disease among first degree celiac patients´ relatives was 3.1%, 4.5 times higher than the general Portuguese population (0,7%) witch reinforces the need of extensive diagnostic screening in this specific group. HLA-DQ2 typing may be a tool in the diagnostic approach.

  4. Emotion processing and theory of mind in schizophrenia patients and their unaffected first-degree relatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Achával, Delfina; Costanzo, Elsa Y; Villarreal, Mirta; Jáuregui, Ignacio O; Chiodi, Araceli; Castro, Mariana N; Fahrer, Rodolfo D; Leiguarda, Ramón C; Chu, Elvina M; Guinjoan, Salvador M

    2010-04-01

    Previous studies have suggested that social cognition is affected in individuals with schizophrenia. The purpose of this study was to explore to what extent social cognition deficits are shared by unaffected first-degree relatives, and the nature of the relationship between performance in different paradigms of social cognition. 20 Schizophrenia patients (7 females, 31+/-10 years), 20 healthy age- and gender-matched individuals, 20 unaffected first-degree relatives of the schizophrenia patients (11 females, 50+/-20 years), and 20 healthy individuals matched for age and gender were recruited. Patients showed deficits in the detection of social Faux Pas (0.80+/-0.17 vs. controls: 0.94+/-0.09, p=0.025) and the correct identification of Theory of Mind stories (0.71+/-0.13 vs. controls: 0.82+/-0.12, p=0.038). Relatives performed poorly in the Faces Test (0.83+/-0.14 vs. controls: 0.9+/-0.08, p=0.048), the Reading the Mind in the Eyes Test (0.59+/-0.17 vs. controls: 0.71+/-0.14, p=0.046) and the detection of social Faux Pas (0.8+/-0.2 vs. controls: 0.93+/-0.09, p=0.024). Abnormalities were independent of age, years of education, and general cognitive performance in patients and their relatives. Performance in an Emotion Processing task (Faces Test) was correlated with performance in theory of mind tests in healthy individuals and relatives of patients with schizophrenia only. These results suggest that schizophrenia patients and their unaffected first-degree relatives display similar but nonidentical patterns of social cognition processing. (c) 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Familial Clustering of Staphylococcus aureus Bacteremia in First-Degree Relatives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oestergaard, Louise B.; Christiansen, Mia N.; Schmiegelow, Michelle D.

    2016-01-01

    the rate of the disease, and whether this rate is affected by the type of family relationship (that is, parent or sibling) or by how the relative acquired the infection. DESIGN: Register-based nationwide cohort study (1992 to 2011). SETTING: Denmark. PARTICIPANTS: First-degree relatives (children.......85; interaction P for siblings = 0.92). Stratifying by disease acquisition revealed the highest rates in individuals exposed to index case patients with non-hospital-acquired infection. Few were infected with genetically identical bacteremia isolates. LIMITATION: The rarity of the outcome limited the number...

  6. Reading in schizophrenic subjects and their nonsymptomatic first-degree relatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Eryl O; Proudlock, Frank A; Martin, Kate; Reveley, Michael A; Al-Uzri, Mohammed; Gottlob, Irene

    2013-07-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated eye movement abnormalities during smooth pursuit and antisaccadic tasks in schizophrenia. However, eye movements have not been investigated during reading. The purpose of this study was to determine whether schizophrenic subjects and their nonsymptomatic first-degree relatives show eye movement abnormalities during reading. Reading rate, number of saccades per line, amplitudes of saccades, percentage regressions (reverse saccades), and fixation durations were measured using an eye tracker (EyeLink, SensoMotoric Instruments, Germany) in 38 schizophrenic volunteers, 14 nonaffected first-degree relatives, and 57 control volunteers matched for age and National Adult Reading Test scores. Parameters were examined when volunteers read full pages of text and text was limited to progressively smaller viewing areas around the point of fixation using a gaze-contingent window. Schizophrenic volunteers showed significantly slower reading rates (P = .004), increase in total number of saccades (P ≤ .001), and a decrease in saccadic amplitude (P = .025) while reading. Relatives showed a significant increase in total number of saccades (P = .013) and decrease in saccadic amplitude (P = .020). Limitation of parafoveal information by reducing the amount of visible characters did not change the reading rate of schizophrenics but controls showed a significant decrease in reading rate with reduced parafoveal information (P < .001). Eye movement abnormalities during reading of schizophrenic volunteers and their first-degree relatives suggest that visual integration of foveal and parafoveal information may be reduced in schizophrenia. Reading abnormalities in relatives suggest a genetic influence in reading ability in schizophrenia and rule out confounding effects of medication.

  7. Cancer in first-degree relatives and risk of testicular cancer in Denmark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordsborg, Rikke Baastrup; Meliker, Jaymie R; Wohlfahrt, Jan; Melbye, Mads; Raaschou-Nielsen, Ole

    2011-11-15

    Familial aggregation of testicular cancer has been reported consistently, but it is less clear if there is any association between risk of testicular cancer and other cancers in the family. We conducted a population-based case-control study to examine the relationship between risk of testicular cancer and 22 different cancers in first-degree relatives. We included 3,297 cases of testicular cancer notified to the Danish Cancer Registry between 1991 and 2003. A total of 6,594 matched controls were selected from the Danish Civil Registration System, which also provided the identity of 40,104 first-degree relatives of case and controls. Familial cancer was identified by linkage to the Danish Cancer Registry, and we used conditional logistic regression to analyze whether cancer among first-degree relatives was associated with higher risk of testicular cancer. Rate ratio for testicular cancer was 4.63 (95% CI: 2.41-8.87) when a father, 8.30 (95% CI: 3.81-18.10) when a brother and 5.23 (95% CI: 1.35-20.26) when a son had testicular cancer compared to no familial testicular cancer. Results were similar when analyses were stratified by histologic subtypes of testicular cancer. Familial non-Hodgkin lymphoma and esophageal cancer were associated with testicular cancer; however, these may be chance findings. The familial aggregation of testicular and possibly other cancers may be explained by shared genes and/or shared environmental factors, but the mutual importance of each of these is difficult to determine.

  8. Impaired automatization of a cognitive skill in first-degree relatives of patients with schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagshal, Dana; Knowlton, Barbara Jean; Cohen, Jessica Rachel; Poldrack, Russell Alan; Bookheimer, Susan Yost; Bilder, Robert Martin; Asarnow, Robert Franklin

    2014-02-28

    We studied healthy, first-degree relatives of patients with schizophrenia to test the hypothesis that deficits in cognitive skill learning are associated with genetic liability to schizophrenia. Using the Weather Prediction Task (WPT), 23 healthy controls and 10 adult first-degree Relatives Of Schizophrenia (ROS) patients were examined to determine the extent to which cognitive skill learning was automated using a dual-task paradigm to detect subtle impairments in skill learning. Automatization of a skill is the ability to execute a task without the demand for executive control and effortful behavior and is a skill in which schizophrenia patients possess a deficit. ROS patients did not differ from healthy controls in accuracy or reaction time on the WPT either during early or late training on the single-task trials. In contrast, the healthy control and ROS groups were differentially affected during the dual-task trials. Our results demonstrate that the ROS group did not automate the task as well as controls and continued to rely on controlled processing even after extensive practice. This suggests that adult ROS patients may engage in compensatory strategies to achieve normal levels of performance and support the hypothesis that impaired cognitive skill learning is associated with genetic risk for schizophrenia.

  9. Corticomuscular coherence in asymptomatic first-degree relatives of patients with essential tremor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raethjen, Jan; Muthuraman, Muthuraman; Kostka, Achim; Nahrwold, Martin; Hellriegel, Helge; Lorenz, Delia; Deuschl, Günther

    2013-05-01

    Essential tremor (ET) follows an autosomal dominant type of inheritance in the majority of patients, yet its genetic basis has not been identified. Its exact origin is still elusive, but coherence measurements between electromyography tremor bursts and electroencephalography unequivocally demonstrate a correlation. We tested these measurements in 37 healthy first-degree relatives (children) of patients with essential tremor (ET) and a group of 37 age-matched and sex-matched controls. Pooled coherence spectra of the maximally coherent electroencephalogram electrodes were computed for ET relatives and controls. The maximal coherence and its frequency were significantly higher in ET relatives than in controls during the pinch grip task and during slow hand movements. Electromyography amplitude (root-mean-square) was slightly but significantly greater in ET relatives, whereas 2-Hz to 40-Hz power and spectral peak frequency were not different. The presymptomatic alteration in corticomuscular interaction may reflect a role of genetic factors. Copyright © 2013 Movement Disorder Society.

  10. Auditory steady state response in the schizophrenia, first-degree relatives, and schizotypal personality disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rass, Olga; Forsyth, Jennifer K; Krishnan, Giri P; Hetrick, William P; Klaunig, Mallory J; Breier, Alan; O'Donnell, Brian F; Brenner, Colleen A

    2012-04-01

    The power and phase synchronization of the auditory steady state response (ASSR) at 40 Hz stimulation is usually reduced in schizophrenia (SZ). The sensitivity of the 40 Hz ASSR to schizophrenia spectrum phenotypes, such as schizotypal personality disorder (SPD), or to familial risk has been less well characterized. We compared the ASSR of patients with SZ, persons with schizotypal personality disorder, first degree relatives of patients with SZ, and healthy control participants. ASSRs were obtained to 20, 30, 40 and 50 Hz click trains, and assessed using measures of power (mean trial power or MTP) and phase consistency (phase locking factor or PLF). The MTP to 40 Hz stimulation was reduced in relatives, and there was a trend for MTP reduction in SZ. The 40 Hz ASSR was not reduced in SPD participants. PLF did not differ among groups. These data suggest the 40 Hz ASSR is sensitive to familial risk factors associated with schizophrenia.

  11. Subtle deficits of cognitive theory of mind in unaffected first-degree relatives of schizophrenia patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montag, Christiane; Neuhaus, Kathrin; Lehmann, Anja; Krüger, Katja; Dziobek, Isabel; Heekeren, Hauke R; Heinz, Andreas; Gallinat, Jürgen

    2012-04-01

    Alterations of theory of mind (ToM) and empathy were implicated in the formation of psychotic experiences, and deficits in psychosocial functioning of schizophrenia patients. Inspired by concepts of neurocognitive endophenotypes, the existence of a distinct, potentially neurobiologically based social-cognitive vulnerability marker for schizophrenia is a matter of ongoing debate. The fact that previous research on social-cognitive deficits in individuals at risk yielded contradictory results may partly be due to an insufficient differentiation between qualitative aspects of ToM. Thirty-four unaffected first-degree relatives of schizophrenia patients (21 parents, 8 siblings, 5 children; f/m: 30/4; mean age: 48.1 ± 12.7 years) and 34 controls subjects (f/m: 25/9; mean age: 45.9 ± 10.9 years) completed the 'Movie for the Assessment of Social Cognition'-a video-based ToM test-and an empathy questionnaire (Interpersonal Reactivity Index, IRI). Outcome parameters comprised (1) 'cognitive' versus 'emotional' ToM, (2) error counts representing 'undermentalizing' versus 'overmentalizing', (3) empathic abilities and (4) non-social neurocognition. MANCOVA showed impairments in cognitive but not emotional ToM in the relatives' group, when age, gender and neurocognition were controlled for. Relatives showed elevated error counts for 'undermentalizing' but not for 'overmentalizing'. No alterations were detected in self-rated dimensions of empathy. Of all measures of ToM and empathy, only the IRI subscale 'fantasy' was associated with measures of psychotic risk, i.e. a history of subclinical delusional ideation. The present study confirmed subtle deficits in cognitive, but not emotional ToM in first-degree relatives of schizophrenia patients, which were not explained by global cognitive deficits. Findings corroborate the assumption of distinct social-cognitive abilities as an intermediate phenotype for schizophrenia.

  12. Prevalence of gallstone disease in first-degree relatives of patients with cholelithiasis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Adolfo Francesco Attili; Adriano De Santis; Fabia Attili; Enrico Roda; Davide Festi; Nicola Carulli

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the influence of familiality on the prevalence of gallstone disease (GD) in Italy.METHODS: Families of 79 subjects with gallstones (cases) and of 79 subjects without gallstones (controls)were investigated for the presence of gallstones by ultrasonography. Index cases and index controls were matched for age, sex, and operative unit. Sixty-three and sixty-two husbands and wives of index cases and index controls, respectively, were also studied.RESULTS: Overall,the prevalence of GD was significantly higher (X2=14.52, P<0.001) in the 202 first-degree relatives of subjects with gallstones than that in the 201 first-degree relatives of subjects without gallstones (28.6% vs 12.4%, relative risk (RR) 1.80, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.29-2.63). In particular,prevalence of GD was significantly higher in mothers,fathers, and sisters of index cases than that in the respective family members of index controls. The highest RR was observed in mothers (RR=2.35, 95%CI 1.38-4.3).Prevalence of GD was not obviously different in brothers and also in husbands and wives of index cases and index controls. Family members of index cases did not differ from family members of control cases with respect to the most important risk factors for gallstones (age, diabetes,BMI, and number of pregnancies) with an exception of a higher prevalence of diabetes in fathers of index controls than in fathers of index cases.CONCLUSION: This study confirms that familiality plays a very important role in the pathogenesis of gallstones.

  13. Daytime triglyceridemia in normocholesterolemic patients with premature atherosclerosis and in their first-degree relatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geluk, Christiane A; Halkes, Constantijn J M; De Jaegere, Peter P T; Plokker, Thijs W M; Cabezas, Manuel Castro

    2004-01-01

    Postprandial hypertriglyceridemia tested under metabolic ward conditions with unphysiological high fat loads has been reported in CAD patients and their relatives even in the presence of normal fasting lipids. It is unclear whether this also occurs in the daytime situation. Twenty-seven normocholesterolemic, non-obese and nondiabetic patients with premature coronary artery disease (CAD) and 56 first-degree relatives without CAD measured daytime capillary triglyceride profiles (TGc-AUC) as an estimate of postprandial lipemia. Fasting capillary triglycerides (TGc) were not significantly different between CAD index patients and their relatives (1.68 +/- 0.63 and 1.54 +/- 0.71 mmol/L, respectively). In contrast, daytime triglyceridemia was significantly higher in CAD patients (30.7 +/- 13.6 mmol. h/L) compared to their relatives (24.4 +/- 9.4 mmol. h/L) and this was also the case after correction for fasting TGc (7.24 +/- 7.41 and 2.79 +/- 6.89 mmol. h/L; P <.05). The best predictors of TGc-AUC by multiple regression analysis in CAD families were fasting TGc, systolic blood pressure, and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), which are all components of the metabolic syndrome, explaining 65% of the variation. Since there were no major differences in nutritional intake between index patients and their relatives, this could not explain the differences Daytime triglyceridemia, measured under physiological conditions, is increased in patients with premature atherosclerosis and normal fasting TG levels, when compared to their non-CAD relatives. This study confirms previous observations using standardized oral fat loading tests and underlines the importance of postprandial hyperlipidemia in CAD.

  14. Interpretation of Melanoma Risk Feedback in First-Degree Relatives of Melanoma Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer L. Hay

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Little is known about how individuals might interpret brief genetic risk feedback. We examined interpretation and behavioral intentions (sun protection, skin screening in melanoma first-degree relatives (FDRs after exposure to brief prototypic melanoma risk feedback. Using a 3 by 2 experimental pre-post design where feedback type (high-risk mutation, gene environment, and nongenetic and risk level (positive versus negative findings were systematically varied, 139 melanoma FDRs were randomized to receive one of the six scenarios. All scenarios included an explicit reminder that melanoma family history increased their risk regardless of their feedback. The findings indicate main effects by risk level but not feedback type; positive findings led to heightened anticipated melanoma risk perceptions and anticipated behavioral intentions. Yet those who received negative findings often discounted their family melanoma history. As such, 25%, 30%, and 32% of those who received negative mutation, gene-environment, and nongenetic feedback, respectively, reported that their risk was similar to the general population. Given the frequency with which those who pursue genetic testing may receive negative feedback, attention is needed to identify ideal strategies to present negative genetic findings in contexts such as direct to consumer channels where extensive genetic counseling is not required.

  15. Intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy is common among patients' first-degree relatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turunen, Kaisa; Helander, Kristiina; Mattila, Kari J; Sumanen, Markku

    2013-09-01

    Intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy has been shown to have a genetic predisposition. We studied whether Finnish women who had suffered from the disorder reported their first-degree relatives to have had liver dysfunction during their pregnancies. Questionnaires were sent in autumn 2010 to a total of 544 former intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy patients and 1235 controls, all having delivered during 1969-1988. The response rate was 66.2%. The incidence of intrahepatic cholestasis is 0.5-1.5% of pregnancies in Finland. In our survey, altogether 12.8% of mothers (odds ratio 9.2), 15.9% of sisters (odds ratio 5.3) and 10.3% of daughters (odds ratio 4.8) of women who had suffered from intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy had had liver dysfunction during pregnancy. Our findings strengthen the earlier knowledge of the genetic component in intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy. We suggest that all pregnant women are asked about their family history regarding liver dysfunction during pregnancy. © 2013 Nordic Federation of Societies of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  16. Anti-glomerular basement membrane glomerulonephritis and thrombotic microangiopathy in first degree relatives; a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Idorn Thomas

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Anti-glomerular basement membrane glomerulonephritis and thrombotic microangiopathy are rare diseases with no known coherence. Case Presentation A daughter and her biological mother were diagnosed with pregnancy-induced thrombotic microangiopathy and anti-glomerular basement membrane glomerulonephritis, respectively. Both developed end-stage renal disease. Exploration of a common aetiology included analyses of HLA genotypes, functional and genetic aspects of the complement system, ADAMTS13 activity and screening for autoantibodies. The daughter was heterozygous carrier of the complement factor I G261D mutation, previously described in patients with membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis and atypical haemolytic uremic syndrome. The mother was non-carrier of this mutation. They shared the disease associated complement factor H silent polymorphism Q672Q (79602A>G. Conclusion An unequivocal functional or molecular association between these two family cases was not found suggesting that the patients probably share another, so far undiagnosed and unknown, predisposing factor. It seems highly unlikely that two infrequent immunologic diseases would occur by unrelated pathophysiological mechanisms within first degree relatives.

  17. Electrocardiographic alteration among first degree relatives with serologic evidence of Trypanosoma cruzi infection: a sibship study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio C. Morini

    1994-09-01

    Full Text Available To analyze whether electrocardiographic alterations (ECGA in patients with antibodies to Trypanosoma cruzi showed a patttern of familial aggregation, a sample of 379 young adults (166 men and 213 women distributed in sibships, were assessed for the presence of anti-T.cruzi antibodies, and subjected to a complete clinical examination and a standard resting electrocardiogram (ECG. Positive T. cruzi serology was detected in 165 individuals, 48 of them showing an abnormal ECG (overall prevalence 29 por cento. One hundred and eleven seropositive individuals were distributed in 45 sibships, each of them constituted by more than one seropositive sib, with ECGA being present in 34 out of these patients. Seropositive subjects with ECGA were detected in 27 sibships. Since the index case within each sibship is counted exactly once, affected individuals selected at random as propositi were extracted to calculate the prevalence of ECGA among first degree relatives of probands. Abnormal ECGs were recorded in 7 out of 45 sibs yielding a prevalence that did not differ from estimations registered in the general population or seropositive sibs. Data from the present sample show no familial aggregation for the occurrence of ECGA in patients with T.cruzi infection.

  18. Differences in gluten metabolism among healthy volunteers, coeliac disease patients and first-degree relatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caminero, Alberto; Nistal, Esther; Herrán, Alexandra R; Pérez-Andrés, Jénifer; Ferrero, Miguel A; Vaquero Ayala, Luis; Vivas, Santiago; Ruiz de Morales, José M G; Albillos, Silvia M; Casqueiro, Francisco Javier

    2015-10-28

    Coeliac disease (CD) is an immune-mediated enteropathy resulting from exposure to gluten in genetically predisposed individuals. Gluten proteins are partially digested by human proteases generating immunogenic peptides that cause inflammation in patients carrying HLA-DQ2 and DQ8 genes. Although intestinal dysbiosis has been associated with patients with CD, bacterial metabolism of gluten has not been studied in depth thus far. The aim of this study was to analyse the metabolic activity of intestinal bacteria associated with gluten intake in healthy individuals, CD patients and first-degree relatives of CD patients. Faecal samples belonging to twenty-two untreated CD patients, twenty treated CD patients, sixteen healthy volunteers on normal diet, eleven healthy volunteers on gluten-free diet (GFD), seventy-one relatives of CD patients on normal diet and sixty-nine relatives on GFD were tested for several proteolytic activities, cultivable bacteria involved in gluten metabolism, SCFA and the amount of gluten in faeces. We detected faecal peptidasic activity against the gluten-derived peptide 33-mer. CD patients showed differences in faecal glutenasic activity (FGA), faecal tryptic activity (FTA), SCFA and faecal gluten content with respect to healthy volunteers. Alterations in specific bacterial groups metabolising gluten such as Clostridium or Lactobacillus were reported in CD patients. Relatives showed similar parameters to CD patients (SCFA) and healthy volunteers (FTA and FGA). Our data support the fact that commensal microbial activity is an important factor in the metabolism of gluten proteins and that this activity is altered in CD patients.

  19. A study of the risk for Alzheimer’s disease in first-degree relatives of patients with affective disorders

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐文炜

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate the prevalence of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) in first-degree relatives of patients with affective disorders,and to evaluate the risk of AD in firstdegree relatives of the patients with affective disorders.Methods Patients with affective disorders meeting"DSM-Ⅳ-TR"criteria (affective disorders group) and their healthy spouses (conrol group) were recruited in this study (n=109 each) .The first-degree relatives in-

  20. Is uric acid an indicator of metabolic syndrome in the first-degree relatives of patients with type 2 diabetes?

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Salehidoost, Rezvan; Aminorroaya, Ashraf; Zare, Maryam; Amini, Massoud

    2012-01-01

    ...) first-degree relatives of type 2 diabetic patients during 2007-2011 were enrolled. The height, weight, waist circumference, blood pressure, fasting plasma glucose, lipid profile and uric acid concentrations were measured...

  1. Coeliac Disease and Gastrointestinal Symptom Screening in Adult First-degree Relatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaquero, Luis; Rodríguez-Martín, Laura; Alvarez-Cuenllas, Begoña; Hernando, Mercedes; Iglesias-Blazquez, Cristina; Menéndez-Arias, Cristina; Vivas, Santiago

    2017-04-07

    The first-degree relatives (FDRs) of patients with coeliac disease are the main risk group for disease development. To evaluate the screening strategy in FDRs with negative coeliac serology based on human leukocyte antigen (HLA) genotyping, followed by duodenal biopsy, and to analyze the prevalence of gastrointestinal symptoms and the influence of gluten intake. Adult FDRs with negative coeliac serology were invited to participate (n = 205), and a total of 139 completed the study protocol. HLA genotyping, transglutaminase antibody assessment, and duodenal biopsy were performed. Symptomatology was assessed using questionnaires during the various phases of dietary modification (baseline diet, gluten-free diet, and gluten overload). The study included 139 participants (mean age, 42 years; 53.2% women). HLA-DQ2/8 was positive in 78.4% of the participants (homozygous, 15.1%; heterozygous, 63.3%). Histopathological alterations were noted in 37.1% of participants who underwent duodenal biopsy (Marsh I, 32.7%; Marsh IIIa, 4.4%). At baseline, symptoms were observed in 45.7% of the participants, and the proportion decreased to 24.5% after the gluten-free diet (p < 0.001). Symptoms were not associated with the presence of histological alterations or genetic risk. However, younger age (odds ratio [OR] = 0.91), female sex (OR = 2.9), and the presence of autoimmune disorders (OR = 2.8) were independently associated with a significant symptom response to the gluten-free diet. Duodenal lymphocytosis and atrophy are frequently noted in FDRs, despite negative serological markers. In addition, gastrointestinal symptoms are commonly present and associated with gluten intake regardless of the histological pathology. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  2. Autoimmune diseases and autoantibodies in the first degree relatives of patients with systemic sclerosis☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arora-Singh, Rajpreet K.; Assassi, Shervin; del Junco, Deborah J.; Arnett, Frank C.; Perry, Marilyn; Irfan, Uzma; Sharif, Roozbeh; Mattar, Tony; Mayes, Maureen D.

    2010-01-01

    Objective To determine aggregation of autoimmune diseases in the first degree relatives (FDR) of patients with systemic sclerosis (SSc) and to investigate frequencies of antinuclear antibodies (ANA) and other autoantibodies in the FDRs and spouses of patients with SSc. Methods Information on FDRs including history of autoimmune disease was obtained from unrelated SSc probands in the Scleroderma Family Registry and DNA Repository. FDRs were contacted to verify any reported autoimmune diseases. The prevalence of autoimmune disease in probands’ families was compared with the corresponding prevalence in controls’ families as reported in the literature. Furthermore, sera from probands’ FDRs and spouses in addition to unrelated controls were investigated for the presence of autoantibodies (ANA). Results We investigated 4612 FDRs of 1071 SSc probands. SSc probands with anti-centromere antibodies (ACA) and limited disease type were more likely to report familial autoimmunity (p = 0.022 and p = 0.041, respectively). The four most prevalent autoimmune diseases among SSc probands’ FDRs were hypothyroidism (4%), Rheumatoid arthritis (1.5%), hyperthyroidism (1.3%) and systemic lupus erythematosus-SLE (0.4%). Compared to control families, SLE, hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism were more common in SSc probands’ families. The most striking increase for familial prevalence was observed in SLE (OR = 16.98, 95% CI = 1.02–227.82, p = 0.004). ANA was present in 14.2% of probands’ FDR’s and 8.6% of spouses and did not differ from the prevalence of ANA among controls (p = 0.124 and p = 0.477, respectively). Only two FDRs of probands had ACA while none had anti-topoisomerase antibodies. Conclusion Our study implies varying degrees of risk for familial autoimmunity among subtypes of SSc and provides further support for common genetic and potentially environmental factors leading to SSc and SLE. PMID:20223638

  3. Antiendomysium antibodies in brazilian patients with celiac disease and their first-degree relatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KOTZE Lorete Maria da Silva

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Background - Literature data have shown high specificity of antiendomysial antibodies (EmA IgA in celiac disease. The scarcity of Brazilian reports concerning this subject motivated the present study. Objectives - To determine the sensitivity and specificity of antiendomysial IgA antibodies in Brazilian celiac patients at diagnosis and after treatment, to confirm patient adherence to a gluten-free diet and to screen first-degree relatives. Methods - An extensive clinical and serological study was performed by investigating the presence of these antibodies in 392 individuals from Southern Brazil. Indirect immunofluorescence using human umbilical cord as substrate was employed and the total levels of IgA were determined by turbidimetry in all groups. The study was conducted on 57 celiac patients (18 at diagnosis, 24 who adhered to a gluten-free diet and 15 with marked or slight transgression of the diet, 115 relatives of celiac patients (39 families, 94 patients with other gastrointestinal diseases, and 126 healthy individuals from the general population. Results - The results demonstrated 100% positivity for the recently diagnosed patients and for those consuming gluten, in contrast to the patients who complied with the diet (0%. In the control group one individual was positive, but refused to undergo a biopsy. In the group of other gastrointestinal diseases, one positive patient presented ulcerative colitis, Down's syndrome and epilepsy, and the intestinal biopsy was diagnostic for celiac disease. These data showed 99.3% specificity for the test. Eighteen relatives were positive for antiendomysial antibodies IgA (15.65%, and comparison with the healthy population revealed a significant difference. An intestinal biopsy was obtained from seven subjects (one with total villous atrophy and six withouth alterations in the mucosal architecture, but all with a high number of intra-epithelial lymphocytes. Conclusions - The method revealed 100

  4. Primary biliary cirrhosis-specific autoantibodies in first degree relatives of Greek primary biliary cirrhosis patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Theodoros A Zografos; Nikolaos Gatselis; Kalliopi Zachou; Christos Liaskos; Stella Gabeta; George K Koukoulis; George N Dalekos

    2012-01-01

    AIM:To determine the prevalence and significance of primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC)-specific autoantibodies in first-degree relatives (FDRs) of Greek PBC patients.METHODS:The presence of antimitochondrial antibodies (AMA) and PBC-specific antinuclear antibodies (ANA) were determined using indirect immunofluorescence assays,dot-blot assays,and molecularly based enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays in 101 asymptomatic for liver-related symptoms FDRs of 44 PBC patients.In order to specify our results,the same investigation was performed in 40 healthy controls and in a disease control group consisting of 40 asy.mptomatic for liver-related symptoms FDRs of patients with other autoimmune liver diseases namely,autoimmune hepatitis-1 or primary sclerosing cholangitJs (AIH-1/PSC).RESULTS:AMA positivity was observed in 19 (only 4 with abnormal liver function tests) FDRs of PBC patients and none of the healthy controls.The prevalence of AMA was significantly higher in FDRs of PBC patients than in AIH-1/PSC FDRs and healthy controls [18.8%,95% confidence interval (CI):12%-28.1% vs 2.5%,95% CI:0.1%-14.7%,P =0.01; 18.8%,95% CI:12%-28.1% vs 0%,95% CI:0%-10.9%,P =0.003,respectively].PBC-specific ANA positivity was observed in only one FDR from a PSC patient.Multivariate analysis showed that having a proband with PBC independently associated with AMA positivity (odds ratio:11.24,95% CI:1.27-25.34,P =0.03) whereas among the investigated comorbidities and risk factors,a positive past history for urinary tract infections (UTI)was also independently associated with AMA detection in FDRs of PBC patients (odds ratio:3.92,95% CI:1.25-12.35,P =0.02).CONCLUSION:In FDRs of Greek PBC patients,AMA prevalence is significantly increased and independently associated with past UTI.PBC-specific ANA were not detected in anyone of PBC FDRs.

  5. Escitalopram and neuroendocrine response in healthy first-degree relatives to depressed patients--a randomized placebo-controlled trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knorr, Ulla; Vinberg, Maj; Hansen, Allan

    2011-01-01

    Introduction The mechanisms by which selective serotonin re-uptake inhibitors (SSRI) act in depressed patients remain unknown. The serotonergic neurotransmitter system and the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) system may interact. The aim of the AGENDA trial was to investigate whether long......-term intervention with SSRI versus placebo affects the cortisol response in the dexamethasone corticotropin-releasing hormone (DEX-CRH) test in healthy first-degree relatives to patients with major depressive disorder (MDD). Methods Eighty healthy first-degree relatives to patients with MDD were randomized...

  6. Reducing health risk in family members of patients with type 2 diabetes: views of first degree relatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O'Sullivan Bernadette

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Patients with type 2 diabetes can have an important role in discussing health risk within families. This study aimed to establish the acceptability to first degree relatives towards their relative with type 2 diabetes intervening as health promoters in their own families, using the Health Belief Model as a theoretical framework for evaluation. Methods Cross-sectional questionnaire design. Survey questionnaire for first degree relative (sibling or child mailed to a random sample of patients with type 2 diabetes registered with an urban hospital diabetes clinic (n = 607 eligible patients. Patients were asked to pass on questionnaires to one to two first degree relatives. Results Questionnaires were returned from 257 families (42% response rate with two responses provided by 107 families (a total of 364 questionnaires. The majority (94% of first degree relatives of patients with type 2 diabetes would like to be informed about reducing their risk. Half (48% of respondents reported being spoken to by a relative with type 2 diabetes about their risk of diabetes. Those spoken to were more likely to see themselves at risk of diabetes, to worry about developing diabetes and to view diabetes as a serious condition. Conclusions A role for patients with type 2 diabetes in discussing health risk in their family appears to be acceptable to many relatives. Discussion of risk and interventions to reduce health risk with their relatives should be encouraged in patients with type 2 diabetes.

  7. Reducing health risk in family members of patients with type 2 diabetes: views of first degree relatives.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Whitford, David L

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Patients with type 2 diabetes can have an important role in discussing health risk within families. This study aimed to establish the acceptability to first degree relatives towards their relative with type 2 diabetes intervening as health promoters in their own families, using the Health Belief Model as a theoretical framework for evaluation. METHODS: Cross-sectional questionnaire design. Survey questionnaire for first degree relative (sibling or child) mailed to a random sample of patients with type 2 diabetes registered with an urban hospital diabetes clinic (n = 607 eligible patients). Patients were asked to pass on questionnaires to one to two first degree relatives. RESULTS: Questionnaires were returned from 257 families (42% response rate) with two responses provided by 107 families (a total of 364 questionnaires). The majority (94%) of first degree relatives of patients with type 2 diabetes would like to be informed about reducing their risk. Half (48%) of respondents reported being spoken to by a relative with type 2 diabetes about their risk of diabetes. Those spoken to were more likely to see themselves at risk of diabetes, to worry about developing diabetes and to view diabetes as a serious condition. CONCLUSIONS: A role for patients with type 2 diabetes in discussing health risk in their family appears to be acceptable to many relatives. Discussion of risk and interventions to reduce health risk with their relatives should be encouraged in patients with type 2 diabetes.

  8. Adrenomedullary response to hypoglycemia in first-degree relatives of patients with rheumatoid arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rovensky, J; Imrich, R; Penesova, A; Radikova, Z; Scipova, A; Vlcek, M; Vigas, M

    2008-12-01

    Our recent studies showed blunted adrenomedullary responses to insulin-induced hypoglycemia in premenopausal females with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and systemic sclerosis, suggesting dysregulation of the adrenomedullary hormonal system (AMHS). Since no relationship has been found between degree of AMHS dysfunction and clinical or inflammatory parameters in those patients, we hypothesize the presence of an inherited perturbation of the AMHS. To test this hypothesis, we evaluated adrenomedullary responses to insulin-induced hypoglycemia (0.1 IU/kg) in premenopausal female subjects: 17 glucocorticoid-naïve RA patients, 15 healthy first-degree family members (FDR), and 18 age- and body mass index-matched healthy controls. Our results demonstrate that when compared to controls, RA patients had lower baseline epinephrine levels (P= 0.01) and lower area under response curve (AUC) levels of norepinephrine (P < 0.001) and epinephrine (P < 0.003). In contrast, FDR had lower (P= 0.001) AUC levels of norepinephrine compared to controls and higher (P= 0.033) AUC levels of epinephrine compared to RA patients. There were no significant differences in epinephrine response between FDR and controls. Although we found lower norepinephrine responses to hypoglycemia in FDR of RA patients, adrenomedullary responses to hypoglycemia does not appear to be altered to the degree found in RA patients.

  9. Elevated basal intestinal mucosal cytokine levels in asymptomatic first-degree relatives of patients with Crohn's disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Anant VK Indaram; Santa Nandi; Sam Weissman; Sing Lam; Beverly Bailey; Meyer Blumstein; Ronald Greenberg; Simmy Bank

    2000-01-01

    AIM To determine levels of cytokines in colonic mucosa of asymptomatic first degree relatives of Crohn's disease patients.METHODS Cytokines (Interleukin (IL) 1-Beta,IL-2, IL-6 and IL-8) were measured using ELISA in biopsy samples of normal looking colonic mucosa of first degree relatives of Crohn's disease patients (n = 9) and from normal controls (n=10) with no family history of Crohn's disease.RESULTS Asymptomatic first degree relatives of patients with Crohn's disease had significantly higher levels of basal intestinal mucosal cytokines (IL-2, IL-6 and IL-8) than normal controls. Whether these increased cytokine levels serve as phenotypic markers for a genetic predisposition to developing Crohn's disease later on, or whether they indicate early (preclinical) damage has yet to be further defined.CONCLUSION Asymptomatic first degree relatives of Crohn's disease patients have higher levels of cytokines in their normal-looking intestinal mucosa compared to normal controls.This supports the hypothesis that increased cytokines may be a cause or an early event in the inflammatory cascade of Crohn's disease and are not merely a result of the inflammatory process.

  10. Frequency of narcolepsy symptoms and other sleep disorders in narcoleptic patients and their first-degree relatives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ohayon, MM; Ferini-Strambi, L; Plazzi, G; Smirne, S; Castronovo, [No Value

    2005-01-01

    Narcolepsy is a rare neurological sleep disorder affecting around 0.05% of the general population. Genetic factors are known to have an important role in narcolepsy. However, because of its very low prevalence, it is difficult to have groups of comparison between first-degree relatives and general p

  11. Frequency of narcolepsy symptoms and other sleep disorders in narcoleptic patients and their first-degree relatives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ohayon, MM; Ferini-Strambi, L; Plazzi, G; Smirne, S; Castronovo, [No Value

    2005-01-01

    Narcolepsy is a rare neurological sleep disorder affecting around 0.05% of the general population. Genetic factors are known to have an important role in narcolepsy. However, because of its very low prevalence, it is difficult to have groups of comparison between first-degree relatives and general

  12. [Personality dimensions and neuropsychological performance in first-degree relatives of patients with schizophrenia and by affective psychosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurent, A; Gilvarry, C; Russel, A; Mathieu-Cura, C; Murray, R

    2003-01-01

    Several studies have found a significant increase in the prevalence of some personality disorders in the first-degree relatives of patients with schizophrenia; other studies have found subtle neuropsychological deficits in these relatives. However, little is known about the specificity of the personality traits reported or about the relationship between these traits and the neuropsychological deficits. One hundred first-degree relatives of patients with schizophrenia (AS) and 88 first-degree relatives of affective psychotic (APA) patients completed the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire which measures extraversion, neuroticism, psychoticism. They were also administered the National Adult Reading Test (NART), the Trail Making Test (TMT) and a Verbal Fluency Test (VFT). In the AS group, the male relatives scored significantly higher on the psychoticism scale than the male relatives in the APA group. There were no significant differences in personality between female relatives of the 2 patients groups. In the AS group, the NART scores were superior when the psychoticism scores were lower and the TMT performance was better when the extraversion scores were higher. These results seem to indicate some specificity as well as sex differences of the psychoticism dimension. Moreover, the relationship between the personality dimensions and the neuropsychological performance could indicate that psychoticism increases vulnerability to schizophrenia whereas extraversion decreases it.

  13. Personality dimensions and neuropsychological performance in first-degree relatives of patients with schizophrenia and affective psychosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurent, Annie; Gilvarry, Catherine; Russell, Ailsa; Murray, Robin

    2002-06-01

    Several studies have found a significant increase in the prevalence of some personality disorders in the first-degree relatives of patients with schizophrenia; other studies have found subtle neuropsychological deficits in these relatives. However, little is known about the specificity of the personality traits reported or about the relationship between these traits and the neuropsychological deficits.One-hundred first-degree relatives of patients with schizophrenia (SR) and 88 first-degree relatives of affective psychotic patients (APR) completed the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire which measures extraversion, neuroticism, and psychoticism; they were also administered the National Adult Reading Test (NART), the Trail Making Test (TMT) and a Verbal Fluency Test (VFT). The male relatives of patients with schizophrenia scored significantly higher on the psychoticism scale than the male relatives of affective psychotic patients. In the SR group, there were significant correlations between the TMT performance and the extraversion scores and, between the IQ scores and the psychoticism scores. However, when logistical regression analyses were performed, none of the three personality scores predicted any of the neuropsychological performance in either the SR or the APR group. These results indicate some specificity as well as sex differences in the psychoticism dimension. Moreover, the relationship between the personality dimensions and the neuropsychological performance could indicate that psychoticism increases vulnerability to psychosis whereas extraversion decreases it.

  14. Anhedonia is associated with blunted reward sensitivity in first-degree relatives of patients with major depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wen-hua; Roiser, Jonathan P.; Wang, Ling-zhi; Zhu, Yu-hua; Huang, Jia; Neumann, David L.; Shum, David H. K.; Cheung, Eric F.C.; Chan, Raymond C. K.

    2017-01-01

    Background Anhedonia is a cardinal feature of major depression and is hypothesized to be driven by low motivation, in particular blunted reward sensitivity. It has been suggested to be a marker that represents a genetic predisposition to this disorder. However, little is known about the mechanisms underlying this heightened risk in unaffected first-degree relatives of patients with major depression. We previously demonstrated abnormal reward biases in acutely depressed patients. The present study aimed to examine the development of reward bias in first-degree relatives of patients with major depression. Methods Forty-seven first-degree relatives of patients with major depression (26 females, age 18-52) and 60 healthy controls with no family history of depression (34 females, age 21-48) were recruited. A probabilistically rewarded difficult visual discrimination task, in which participants were instructed about the contingencies, was used to assess blunted reward sensitivity. A response bias towards the more frequently rewarded stimulus (termed “reward bias”) was the primary outcome variable in this study. Participants also completed self-reported measures of anhedonia and depressive symptoms. Results Compared with the control group, relatives of patients with major depression with sub-clinical depressive symptoms displayed a blunted reward bias. Relatives without symptoms displayed largely intact motivational processing on both self-report and experimental measures. The degree of anhedonia was associated with attenuated reward bias in first-degree relatives of patients with major depression, especially in those with sub-clinical symptoms. Limitations The study did not include a depressed patient group, which restricted our ability to interpret the observed group differences. Conclusions Blunted reward sensitivity may be largely manifested in a subgroup of relatives with high levels of depressive symptoms. PMID:26590511

  15. Family history of breast cancer in first-degree relatives and triple-negative breast cancer risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phipps, Amanda I; Buist, Diana S M; Malone, Kathleen E; Barlow, William E; Porter, Peggy L; Kerlikowske, Karla; Li, Christopher I

    2011-04-01

    Triple-negative breast cancer accounts for less than 20% of breast cancers overall, but is the predominant subtype among carriers of mutations in BRCA1. However, few studies have assessed the association between breast cancer family history and risk of triple-negative breast cancer. We examined the relationship between having a family history of breast cancer in first-degree relatives and risk of triple-negative breast cancer, and risk of two other breast cancer subtypes defined by tumor marker expression. We evaluated data collected by the Breast Cancer Surveillance Consortium from 2,599,946 mammograms on 1,054,466 women, among whom 15% reported a first-degree family history of breast cancer. Using Cox regression in this cohort, we evaluated subtype-specific associations between family history and risk of triple-negative (N = 705), estrogen receptor-positive (ER+, N = 10,026), and hormone receptor-negative/HER2-expressing (ER-/PR-/HER2+, N = 308) breast cancer among women aged 40-84 years. First-degree family history was similarly and significantly associated with an increased risk of all the subtypes [hazard ratio (HR) = 1.73, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.43-2.09, HR = 1.62, 95% CI: 1.54-1.70, and HR = 1.56, 95% CI: 1.15-2.13, for triple-negative, ER+, and ER-/PR-/HER2+, respectively]. Risk of all the subtypes was most pronounced among women with at least two affected first-degree relatives (versus women with no affected first-degree relatives, HR(triple-negative) = 2.66, 95% CI: 1.66-4.27, HR(ER+) = 2.05, 95% CI: 1.79-2.36, HR(ER)-(/PR)-(/HER2+) = 2.25, 95% CI: 0.99-5.08). Having a first-degree family history of breast cancer was associated with an increased risk of triple-negative breast cancer with a magnitude of association similar to that for the predominant ER+ subtype and ER-/PR-/HER2+ breast cancer.

  16. Alopecia Areata: The Role of Stressful Events and an Estimate of Lifetime Risk in First-Degree Relatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khoshdel

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background Alopecia areata (AA is a common disease in the military population; however, a few studies have calculated the lifetime risk of alopecia areata in first-degree relatives of patients as well as the impact of stress. Objectives The primary aim of this study was to calculate the lifetime risk of alopecia areata in first-degree relatives of index patients. The secondary aim of this study was to assess the role of stressful events in the onset/recurrence of disease. Patients and Methods One hundred and twenty-one patients with alopecia areata and their first-degree relatives, which included 597 subjects in addition to 119 controls, were studied. We considered a gender and age-matched control for each patient. They were investigated for the occurrence of stressful events within the previous six months before the onset/recurrence of the disease. Results More than twenty-six percent of patients had a positive family history, while 6.4 percent of first-degree relatives were affected by alopecia areata. Lifetime risks were estimated at 7.6% for parents, 9.9% for siblings, and 6.4% for children. Eighty-eight patients (73.9% experienced stressful events within six months prior to the onset or recurrences of alopecia areata, while 32 subjects (26.9% of the control group reported such events in the last six months (P value = 0.000. Conclusions Calculated lifetime risks can be used in genetic counseling. It appears that stressful events can be considered to be contributing factors in the development of alopecia areata. Also, according to our results, the role of stress in the recurrence of alopecia areata is more prominent than the primary development of the disease.

  17. Unitary construct of generalized cognitive ability underlying BACS performance across psychotic disorders and in their first-degree relatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hochberger, W C; Hill, S K; Nelson, C L M; Reilly, J L; Keefe, R S E; Pearlson, G D; Keshavan, M S; Tamminga, C A; Clementz, B A; Sweeney, J A

    2016-01-01

    Despite robust evidence of neurocognitive dysfunction in psychotic patients, the degree of similarity in cognitive architecture across psychotic disorders and among their respective first-degree relatives is not well delineated. The present study examined the latent factor structure of the Brief Assessment of Cognition in Schizophrenia (BACS) neuropsychological battery. Analyses were conducted on 783 psychosis spectrum probands (schizophrenia, schizoaffective, psychotic bipolar), 887 of their first-degree relatives, and 396 non-psychiatric controls from the Bipolar-Schizophrenia Network on Intermediate Phenotypes (B-SNIP) consortium. Exploratory factor analysis of BACS subtest scores indicated a single-factor solution that was similar across all groups and provided the best overall data fit in confirmatory analyses. Correlations between the standard BACS composite score and the sum of subscale scores weighted by their loadings on this unitary factor were very high in all groups (r≥.99). Thus, the BACS assesses a similar unitary cognitive construct in probands with different psychotic disorders, in their first-degree relatives, and in healthy controls, and this factor is well measured by the test's standard composite score.

  18. Larger amygdala volume in first-degree relatives of patients with major depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina Romanczuk-Seiferth

    2014-01-01

    Conclusions: Larger gray matter volume in healthy relatives of MDD patients point to a possible vulnerability mechanism in MDD etiology and therefore extend knowledge in the field of high-risk approaches in MDD.

  19. The Discovery of First-Degree Relativity and the Refutation of Gamma

    CERN Document Server

    Mathis, M

    2000-01-01

    In pursuit of the solution to the Pioneer Anomaly, I have returned to Einstein's paper "On the Thermodynamics of Moving Bodies" (Annalen der Physik,1905)and to the book RELATIVITY (1916). I do not question the underlying theory of Special Relativity, meaning that I accept time dilation and length contraction. I assume that there must be transformation equations and that the equations of Einstein are very close to correct, due to experimental confirmation. However, in this paper I put the basic algebra under a microscope, and do a thorough analysis of Einstein's mathematical equations in both places. I show that several errors were made that subtly change the form and content of the necessary transformation equations. I show all my math, and present the corrected equations. These equations yield a tiny fractional correction to Special Relativity, and explain the greater slowing in the Pioneer Anomaly. I show, furthermore, that Einstein's equation for velocity yields two degrees of relativity. I present a veloc...

  20. Risk. Impact of having a first-degree relative with affective disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vinberg, Maj

    2016-01-01

    enhanced risk and thus accelerate the onset of illness. Low-risk individuals seem to experience fewer life events and may exhibit resilience to their adverse psychological effects. Overall, having a 1st-degree relative with affective disorder matters. This thesis demonstrates that high-risk studies...

  1. Memory tests in first-degree adult relatives of schizophrenic patients: a meta-analysis.

    OpenAIRE

    Trandafir, Anca; Méary, Alexandre; Schürhoff, Franck; Leboyer, Marion; Szöke, Andrei

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Memory deficits have been clearly demonstrated in schizophrenic patients. However, studies of memory performances in their relatives compared to normal controls provide conflicting results. A meta-analysis was carried out to synthesize all the published data. Unlike previous meta-analyses, which were based on composite scores, we analyzed each memory test separately. This prevents theoretically questionable choices in grouping variables, leads to results with clearer implications ...

  2. Risk. Impact of having a first-degree relative with affective disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vinberg, Maj

    2016-01-01

    boundaries in order to have an impact on prevention. Furthermore, there is a need to move beyond the notion of ''magic bullets'', instead developing an integrated paradigm encompassing clusters of biomarkers related to behavioural measures of developmental psychopathology. Finally, as most psychiatric......: the high-risk group comprised twins at risk of developing affective disorder (DZ or MZ twin; index co-twin affected); the low risk group (control group) comprised twins at low risk of developing affective disorder (DZ or MZ twin; index co-twin not affected). At baseline 234 participants were divided......-risk twins and 5 low-risk twins) developed a psychiatric disorder during the 7-year follow-up period: 24 developed mood disorder (67%), 7 anxiety disorder (19%) and 5 (14%) substance abuse, schizophrenia or personality disorder. The results showed that familial risk, impaired stress tolerance and discrete...

  3. Coronary risk factors and metabolic disorders in first-degree relatives of normocholesterolaemic patients with premature atherosclerosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geluk, C.A.; Halkes, C.J.M.; De Jaegere, P.P.Th.; Plokker, H.W.M.; Cabezas, M. Castro

    2006-01-01

    Aims Despite agreement on the need for screening for the presence of cardiovascular risk factors in first-degree family members of patients with premature coronary artery disease (CAD), this is not routinely carried out in relatives of normocholesterolaemic patients. We evaluated cardiovascular risk factors in family members of normocholesterolaemic patients with premature CAD. Methods Eligible index subjects were patients with premature CAD (6.5 mmol/l were excluded. Sixteen index subjects were included with a mean age of 49±8 years and total cholesterol levels of 5.5±0.8 mmol/l. Sixty-four first-degree relatives from these 16 pedigrees were screened, namely 18 children, 42 siblings and four parents. National Cholesterol Education Program III guidelines were used to identify candidates for lipid-lowering treatment. Furthermore, the presence of four additional metabolic disorders was investigated: the metabolic syndrome, increased levels of lipoprotein(a) (Lp(a)), hyperhomocysteinaemia and postprandial hyperlipidaemia. Results Of 64 relatives free of CAD, 34 subjects (53%) fulfilled the criteria to receive therapeutic advice, 20 of whom (31% of the relatives) were candidates for drug therapy. Sixty-one relatives were available for a full assessment of metabolic disorders and in 37 relatives (61%) at least one metabolic abnormality was present. Twelve subjects had hyper-Lp(a), seven subjects had postprandial hyperlipidaemia and two had the metabolic syndrome. Furthermore, 16 subjects had a combination of at least two out of four metabolic disorders. Conclusion Careful evaluation of coronary risk factors and metabolic variables in first-degree relatives of normocholesterolaemic CAD patients identifies a significant number of subjects at increased coronary risk in whom primary prevention measures should be initiated. PMID:25696610

  4. Personality Disorders, Impulsiveness, and Novelty Seeking in Persons with DSM-IV Pathological Gambling and Their First-Degree Relatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Donald W; Coryell, William H; Crowe, Raymond R; Shaw, Martha; McCormick, Brett; Allen, Jeff

    2015-12-01

    This study investigates the presence of personality disorders, impulsiveness, and novelty seeking in probands with DSM-IV pathological gambling (PG), controls, and their respective first-degree relatives using a blind family study methodology. Ninety-three probands with DSM-IV PG, 91 controls, and their 395 first-degree relatives were evaluated for the presence of personality disorder with the Structured Interview for DSM-IV Personality. Impulsiveness was assessed with the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale (BIS). Novelty seeking was evaluated using questions from Cloninger's Temperament and Character Inventory. Results were analyzed using logistic regression by the method of generalized estimating equations to account for within family correlations. PG probands had a significantly higher prevalence of personality disorders than controls (41 vs. 7 %, OR = 9.0, P personality disorder had more severe gambling symptoms; earlier age at PG onset; more suicide attempts; greater psychiatric comorbidity; and a greater family history of psychiatric illness than PG probands without a personality disorder. PG relatives had a significantly higher prevalence of personality disorder than relatives of controls (24 vs. 9%, OR = 3.2, P personality disorder and increases along with rising BIS Non-Planning and Total scale scores. Personality disorders, impulsiveness, and novelty seeking are common in people with PG and their first-degree relatives. The presence of a personality disorder appears to be a marker of PG severity and earlier age of onset. Risk for PG in relatives is associated with the presence of personality disorder and trait impulsiveness. These findings suggest that personality disorder and impulsiveness may contribute to a familial diathesis for PG.

  5. Prevalence of hereditary angioedema in untested first-degree blood relatives of known subjects with hereditary angioedema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riedl, Marc A; Lumry, William R; Busse, Paula; Levy, Howard; Steele, Tamara; Dayno, Jeffrey; Li, H Henry

    2015-01-01

    Hereditary angioedema (HAE) is a rare autosomal-dominant disease characterized by recurring attacks of nonpruritic, nonpitting edema caused by an inherited deficiency or dysfunction of C1 esterase inhibitor (C1 INH). Symptoms can present years before an accurate diagnosis is made. The objective of this study, the Angioedema Clinical Epidemiology Testing Initiative for the Study of Hereditary Angioedema, was to determine the prevalence and clinical manifestations of HAE in untested first-degree blood relatives of known patients with HAE. Patients with a confirmed diagnosis of HAE recruited first-degree relatives who had not been evaluated for HAE. Enrolled subjects underwent complement testing (C4, C1 INH antigen, and functional C1 INH). If the lab tests were abnormal, the enrolled subjects returned to the site for a follow-up visit and questionnaire. Overall, 31 patients with HAE and 46 first-degree relatives enrolled in the study. Of 46 enrolled relatives, 30 (65%) had lab test results that ruled out a diagnosis of HAE, two (4%) were categorized as "HAE not ruled out," and 14 (30%) were newly diagnosed with HAE. Of 14 newly diagnosed subjects, nine (64%) reported having experienced symptoms that may have been related to HAE, such as swelling in the throat, face, or extremities or abdominal pain. When reported, median age of symptom onset in these 14 subjects was nine years whereas newly diagnosed asymptomatic subjects had a median chronological age of six years. These 14 subjects reported a historic mean standard deviation rate of 2.51 (5.59) swelling episodes per month with a mean standard deviation duration of 1.6 (0.74) days. This study's findings reinforce the importance of testing family members of patients with HAE to detect this hereditary condition.

  6. Subjective cognitive complaints and functional disability in patients with borderline personality disorder and their nonaffected first-degree relatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruocco, Anthony C; Lam, Jaeger; McMain, Shelley F

    2014-06-01

    To examine the contributions of subjective cognitive complaints to functional disability in patients with borderline personality disorder (BPD) and their nonaffected relatives. Patients with BPD (n = 26), their first-degree biological relatives (n = 17), and nonpsychiatric control subjects (n = 31) completed a self-report measure of cognitive difficulties and rated the severity of their functional disability on the World Health Organization Disability Assessment Schedule 2.0. After accounting for group differences in age and severity of depressive symptoms, patients and relatives endorsed more inattention and memory problems than control subjects. Whereas probands reported greater disability than relatives and control subjects across all functional domains, relatives described more difficulties than control subjects in managing multiple life activities, including domestic activities and occupational and academic functioning, and participating in society. For both probands and relatives, inattention and memory problems were linked primarily to difficulties with life activities, independent of depression and other comorbid psychiatric disorders. Problems with inattention and forgetfulness may lead to difficulties carrying out activities of daily living and occupational or academic problems in patients with BPD, as well as their nonaffected first-degree relatives.

  7. Escitalopram and neuroendocrine response in healthy first-degree relatives to depressed patients--a randomized placebo-controlled trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulla Knorr

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: The mechanisms by which selective serotonin re-uptake inhibitors (SSRI act in depressed patients remain unknown. The serotonergic neurotransmitter system and the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA system may interact. The aim of the AGENDA trial was to investigate whether long-term intervention with SSRI versus placebo affects the cortisol response in the dexamethasone corticotropin-releasing hormone (DEX-CRH test in healthy first-degree relatives to patients with major depressive disorder (MDD. METHODS: Eighty healthy first-degree relatives to patients with MDD were randomized to escitalopram 10 mg versus matching placebo daily for four weeks. The primary outcome measure was the intervention difference in the change of the total area under the curve (CorAUC(total for plasma cortisol in the DEX-CRH test at entry to after four weeks of intervention. RESULTS: Change in CorAUC(total showed no statistically significant difference between the escitalopram and the placebo group, p = 0.47. There were large intra- and inter-individual differences in the results of the DEX-CRH test. There was statistically significant negative correlation between the plasma escitalopram concentration and change in CorAUC(total, rho = -0.41, p = 0.01. Post-hoc analyses showed a statistically significant interaction between age and intervention group and change in log CorAUC(total. CONCLUSION: The present trial does not support an effect of escitalopram 10 mg daily compared with placebo on the HPA-axis in healthy first-degree relatives to patients with MDD. Increasing levels of escitalopram tended to decrease the HPA-response in the DEX-CRH test and this effect increased with age. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00386841.

  8. The immunophenotypic fingerprint of patients with primary antibody deficiencies is partially present in their asymptomatic first-degree relatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogaert, Delfien J A; De Bruyne, Marieke; Debacker, Veronique; Depuydt, Pauline; De Preter, Katleen; Bonroy, Carolien; Philippé, Jan; Bordon, Victoria; Lambrecht, Bart N; Kerre, Tessa; Cerutti, Andrea; Vermaelen, Karim Y; Haerynck, Filomeen; Dullaers, Melissa

    2017-01-01

    The etiology of primary antibody deficiencies is largely unknown. Beside rare monogenic forms, the majority of cases seem to have a more complex genetic basis. Whereas common variable immunodeficiency has been investigated in depth, there are only a few reports on milder primary antibody deficiencies such as idiopathic primary hypogammaglobulinemia and IgG subclass deficiency. We performed flow cytometric immunophenotyping in 33 patients with common variable immunodeficiency, 23 with idiopathic primary hypogammaglobulinemia and 21 with IgG subclass deficiency, as well as in 47 asymptomatic first-degree family members of patients and 101 unrelated healthy controls. All three groups of patients showed decreased memory B- and naïve T-cell subsets and decreased B-cell activating factor receptor expression. In contrast, circulating follicular helper T-cell frequency and expression of inducible T-cell co-stimulator and chemokine receptors were only significantly altered in patients with common variable immunodeficiency. Asymptomatic first-degree family members of patients demonstrated similar, albeit intermediate, alterations in naïve and memory B- and T-cell subsets. About 13% of asymptomatic relatives had an abnormal peripheral B-cell composition. Furthermore, asymptomatic relatives showed decreased levels of CD4(+) recent thymic emigrants and increased central memory T cells. Serum IgG and IgM levels were also significantly lower in asymptomatic relatives than in healthy controls. We conclude that, in our cohort, the immunophenotypic landscape of primary antibody deficiencies comprises a spectrum, in which some alterations are shared between all primary antibody deficiencies whereas others are only associated with common variable immunodeficiency. Importantly, asymptomatic first-degree family members of patients were found to have an intermediate phenotype for peripheral B- and T-cell subsets.

  9. Migraine life-time prevalence in mental disorders: concurrent comparisons with first-degree relatives and the general population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baptista, Trino; Uzcátegui, Euderruh; Arapé, Yinet; Serrano, Ana; Mazzarella, Xiorella; Quiroz, Segundo; Ramirez, Clara Isabel; Padrón de Freytez, Alix

    2012-03-01

    The authors quantified the prevalence of migraine in subjects with mental disorders, first-degree relatives and the adult general population (GP) in Mérida, Venezuela. After validation, a modified, short version of the Lipton's diagnostic scale was administered to consecutively admitted in- and out-patients (n = 1059), their first-degree relatives (n = 445) and a probabilistic sample of the GP (n = 516). In the GP, the frequency of migraine (percentage and 95% confidence interval) was 14.9 (11.8-17.9). The migraine frequencies were (percentage and odd ratio probability against the GP: bipolar disorder (15.7%, p = 0.5), schizophrenia (8.3%, p = 0.08), depression and dysthimia (24.4%, p = 0.2), anxiety disorders (10.0%, p = 0.02), personality disorders (11.4%, p = 0.15), all other disorders (15.5%, p = 0.4), relatives of bipolar patients (4.4%, p < 0.001), relatives of schizophrenia patients (3.5%, p = 0.003), and relatives of patients with all other mental disorders (12.8%, p = 0.4). Migraine was more common in women (p < 0.001), and the bipolar patients presented the highest female to male ratio (8:1). A high variability was observed in migraine prevalence among the diagnostic categories, but it was particularly high in subjects with affective disorders, mainly in women, who thus deserve special attention from clinicians.

  10. Effect of chronic escitalopram versus placebo on personality traits in healthy first-degree relatives of patients with depression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knorr, Ulla; Vinberg, Maj; Mortensen, Erik Lykke

    2012-01-01

    The serotonergic neurotransmitter system is closely linked to depression and personality traits. It is not known if selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRI) have an effect on neuroticism that is independent of their effect on depression. Healthy individuals with a genetic liability...... for depression represent a group of particular interest when investigating if intervention with SSRIs affects personality. The present trial is the first to test the hypothesis that escitalopram may reduce neuroticism in healthy first-degree relatives of patients with major depressive disorder (MD)....

  11. Association between neurological soft signs, temperament and character in patients with schizophrenia and non-psychotic relatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pastoriza, Francisco; Bergé, Daniel; Mané, Anna; Picado, Marisol; Bulbena, Antonio; Robledo, Patricia; Pérez, Victor; Vilarroya, Oscar; Cloninger, Claude Robert

    2016-01-01

    The heritability of schizophrenia and most personality traits has been well established, but the role of personality in susceptibility to schizophrenia remains uncertain. The aim of this study was to test for an association between personality traits and Neurological Soft Signs (NSS), a well-known biological marker of schizophrenia, in non-psychotic relatives of patients with schizophrenia. For this purpose, we evaluated the NSS scale and personality measured by the Temperament and Character inventory (TCI-R) in three groups of subjects: 29 patients with schizophrenia, 24 unaffected relatives and 37 controls. The results showed that patients with schizophrenia were more asocial (higher harm avoidance and lower reward dependence), more perseverative (higher persistence), and more schizotypal (lower self-directedness and cooperativeness, higher self-transcendence). The unaffected relatives showed higher harm avoidance, lower self-directedness and cooperativeness than the healthy controls. Higher NSS scores and sub-scores were found in patients and non-psychotic relatives compared with the controls. Among all the patients, total NSS scores were positively correlated with harm avoidance but negatively correlated with novelty seeking and persistence. Total NSS were also correlated with low scores on self-directedness and cooperativeness, which are indicators of personality disorder. Our results show that susceptibility to NSS and to schizophrenia are both related to individual differences in the temperament and character features in non-psychotic relatives of patients with schizophrenia. High harm avoidance, low persistence, low self-directedness and low cooperativeness contribute to both the risk of NSS and schizophrenia. These findings highlight the value of using both assessments to study high risk populations. PMID:27168955

  12. Clinical utility of copper, ceruloplasmin, and metallothionein plasma determinations in human neurodegenerative patients and their first-degree relatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnal, Nathalie; Cristalli, Diana Olga; de Alaniz, María J T; Marra, Carlos Alberto

    2010-03-10

    The concentration of plasma copper, ceruloplasmin (CRP), non-ceruloplasmin-bound Cu (NCBC), and metallothioneins (MTs) were studied as putative biomarkers for neurodegenerative diseases in patients and in their first-degree relatives. We found increased levels of Cu in the plasma of Alzheimer's disease (AD), Parkinson's disease (PD), and vascular dementia (VD) patients, and the increase observed in VD group was linked to the evolution of the disease. CRP was also elevated in response to the inflammatory component of the diseases, however, a correlation with illness progression was only observed in VD patients. The level of MTs is proportional to the evolution of VD. The Cu/CRP and Cu/MTs ratios are both indicative of disease progression for AD patients but not for those with PD or VD. Moreover, there is a correlation between the NCBC levels and the cognitive impairment estimated through the Mini-mental State Examination (MMSE) scale. This dependence is linear for AD and PD patients and non-linear for the VD ones. The relative values of NCBC showed dependence on the disease duration, especially for AD. Copper measurement and the Cu/CRP ratio may be predictive markers of risk for the first-degree relatives of AD patients. We believe that these results are valuable as a reliable clinical tool.

  13. Dietary intake of micronutrients in first-degree healthy, diabetic and IGT relatives of type II diabetic patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hosein Khosravi-Broojeni

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: To evaluate the dietary content of micronutrients in first-degree relatives of type II diabetic patients, with respect to the influence of dietary composition on the development of diabetes. Methods and Materials: 210 first-degree relatives of type II diabetic patients were divided into 2 groups (normal and IGT+ diabetic, according to the results of OGTT. 3-Day food recall questionnaire was completed by skilled nutritionists from all subjects. The participants’ intake of calorie, magnesium, zinc, calcium, phosphorus, chromium and vitamins B1, B6, C and E was calculated and the results were compared between 2 groups. Results: The mean of age and BMI were 48.9  5.2, 43.6  6.7 years (P=0.373 and 29.3  0.7, 28.7  0.8 kg/m2 in impaired and normal groups, respectively. No significant difference was observed in energy, magnesium, zinc, calcium, phosphorus, chromium and vitamins B1, B6, C and E intake between 2 groups. Conclusion: Although the micronutrient intake between studied groups didn’t differ significantly, the dietary content of chromium, magnesium, zinc and vitamin E was less than recommended daily allowance values. This finding can be taken into consideration with respect to the influence of some micronutrients, including magnesium and chromium, on glucose tolerance and insulin resistance.

  14. Suicide Ideations, Suicide Attempts, and Completed Suicide in Persons with Pathological Gambling and Their First-Degree Relatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Donald W; Coryell, William; Crowe, Raymond; McCormick, Brett; Shaw, Martha; Allen, Jeff

    2015-12-01

    We examined the relationship between suicidal ideations and attempts in 95 probands with pathological gambling (PG), 91 controls, and 1075 first-degree relatives. The results were analyzed using logistic regression with generalized estimating equations. Thirty-four PG probands (35.8%) and 4 controls (4.4%) had attempted suicide (OR = 12.12, p suicidal ideations occurred in 60 PG probands (63.2%) and 12 controls (13.2%) (OR = 11.29, p Suicidality in PG probands is a marker of PG severity and is associated with greater psychiatric comorbidity. Offspring of PG probands had significantly higher rates of suicide attempts than control offspring.

  15. Altered reward processing in the orbitofrontal cortex and hippocampus in healthy first-degree relatives of patients with depression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Macoveanu, J; Knorr, U; Skimminge, A

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Healthy first-degree relatives of patients with major depression (rMD+) show brain structure and functional response anomalies and have elevated risk for developing depression, a disorder linked to abnormal serotonergic neurotransmission and reward processing. METHOD: In a two...... in rMD+ but not in rMD- individuals. The orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) displayed a stronger neural response when subjects missed a large reward after a low-risk choice in the rMD+ group compared to the rMD- group. The enhanced orbitofrontal response to negative outcomes was reversed following escitalopram...... intervention compared to placebo. Conversely, for positive outcomes, the left hippocampus showed attenuated response to high wins in the rMD+ compared to the rMD- group. The SSRI intervention reinforced the hippocampal response to large wins. A subsequent structural analysis revealed that the abnormal neural...

  16. Abnormal glycemic profiles by CGMS in obese first-degree relatives of type 2 diabetes mellitus patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madhu, Sri Venkata; Muduli, Subrat Kumar; Avasthi, Rajnish

    2013-06-01

    The conventionally used oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) has been the mainstay for diagnosis of diabetes and prediabetes. However, recent studies have indicated that a continuous glucose monitoring system (CGMS) could detect impaired glycemia much earlier than OGTT, especially in certain groups. We aimed to study the 24-h glucose profile of high-risk obese first-degree relatives of type 2 diabetes patients by CGMS and ascertain if it was better than OGTT for early detection of type 2 diabetes. CGMS data of 20 subjects each in normal glucose tolerance (NGT), impaired fasting glucose (IFG), impaired glucose tolerance (IGT), and newly detected diabetes mellitus (NDDM) groups were obtained. We considered minimum, maximum, mean, and range of glucose levels as well as number, duration, and area under the curve (AUC) for excursions. We found three (15%) NGT, seven (35%) IFG, and eight (40%) IGT subjects showed excursions in the diabetes range, whereas 18 (90%) NGT and 17 (85%) pure IFG subjects showed excursions in the IGT range. The maximum glucose values for NGT and IFG subjects were 176.0±41.4 mg/dL and 186.5±39.3 mg/dL, respectively, which is much above the present 2-h OGTT cutoff limit of 140 mg/dL. However, the average number of excursions and AUC of excursions did not differ significantly among the NGT, IFG, and IGT groups. The differences in the duration of excursion between NGT subjects with IFG values and NGT subjects with IGT values were statistically significant for an excursion limit of 140 mg/dL. However, this did not differ significantly between the IFG and IGT groups. CGMS indicated the presence of significant dysglycemia in first-degree relatives of diabetes patients without diabetes who were centrally obese. Hence it could be useful for early identification of individuals at greater risk of diabetes. A deranged glycemic profile may precede onset of overt diabetes by a long time, which may partly explain why some patients with new-onset type 2

  17. Theory of mind reasoning in schizophrenia patients and non-psychotic relatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassetta, Briana; Goghari, Vina

    2014-08-15

    Research consistently demonstrates that schizophrenia patients have theory of mind (ToM) impairments. Additionally, there is some evidence that family members of schizophrenia patients also demonstrate impairments in ToM, suggesting a genetic vulnerability for the disorder. This study assessed ToM abilities (i.e., sarcasm comprehension) in schizophrenia patients and their first-degree biological relatives during video-taped social interactions, to be representative of real-world interactions and to assess for disease-specific and/or genetic liability effects. Additionally, we assessed whether ToM abilities predicted social and global functioning in schizophrenia patients, and whether symptoms were associated with ToM deficits. Schizophrenia patients demonstrated impairments in sarcasm comprehension compared to controls and relatives, whereas relatives showed intact comprehension. Symptoms of schizophrenia significantly predicted worse ToM abilities. Furthermore, in schizophrenia patients, impaired ToM reasoning predicted worse social and global functioning. Given schizophrenia patients demonstrated impairments in ToM reasoning in a task that resembles real-life interactions, this might be a key area for remediation.

  18. Convergent evidence from multimodal imaging reveals amygdala abnormalities in schizophrenic patients and their first-degree relatives.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Tian

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Shared neuropathological features between schizophrenic patients and their first-degree relatives have potential as indicators of genetic vulnerability to schizophrenia. We sought to explore genetic influences on brain morphology and function in schizophrenic patients and their relatives. METHODS: Using a multimodal imaging strategy, we studied 33 schizophrenic patients, 55 of their unaffected parents, 30 healthy controls for patients, and 29 healthy controls for parents with voxel-based morphometry of structural MRI scans and functional connectivity analysis of resting-state functional MRI data. RESULTS: Schizophrenic patients showed widespread gray matter reductions in the bilateral frontal cortices, bilateral insulae, bilateral occipital cortices, left amygdala and right thalamus, whereas their parents showed more localized reductions in the left amygdala, left thalamus and right orbitofrontal cortex. Patients and their parents shared gray matter loss in the left amygdala. Further investigation of the resting-state functional connectivity of the amygdala in the patients showed abnormal functional connectivity with the bilateral orbitofrontal cortices, bilateral precunei, bilateral dorsolateral frontal cortices and right insula. Their parents showed slightly less, but similar changes in the pattern in the amygdala connectivity. Co-occurrences of abnormal connectivity of the left amygdala with the left orbitofrontal cortex, right dorsolateral frontal cortex and right precuneus were observed in schizophrenic patients and their parents. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest a potential genetic influence on structural and functional abnormalities of the amygdala in schizophrenia. Such information could help future efforts to identify the endophenotypes that characterize the complex disorder of schizophrenia.

  19. Altered brain processing of decision-making in healthy first-degree biological relatives of suicide completers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Y; Pereira, F; Hoehne, A; Beaulieu, M-M; Lepage, M; Turecki, G; Jollant, F

    2016-12-13

    Suicidal behavior is heritable, with the transmission of risk being related to the transmission of vulnerability traits. Previous studies suggest that risky decision-making may be an endophenotype of suicide. Here, we aimed at investigating brain processing of decision-making in relatives of suicide completers in order to shed light on heritable mechanisms of suicidal vulnerability. Seventeen healthy first-degree biological relatives of suicide completers with no personal history of suicidal behavior, 16 relatives of depressed patients without any personal or family history of suicidal behavior, and 19 healthy controls were recruited. Functional 3 T magnetic resonance imaging scans were acquired while participants underwent the Iowa Gambling Task, an economic decision-making test. Whole-brain analyses contrasting activations during risky vs safe choices were conducted with AFNI and FSL. Individuals with a family history of suicide in comparison to control groups showed altered contrasts in left medial orbitofrontal cortex, and right dorsomedial prefrontal cortex. This pattern was different from the neural basis of familial depression. Moreover, controls in comparison to relatives showed increased contrast in several regions including the post-central gyrus, posterior cingulate and parietal cortices, and cerebellum (culmen) in familial suicide; and inferior parietal, temporal, occipital, anteromedial and dorsolateral prefrontal cortices, and cerebellum (vermis) in familial depression. These findings most likely represent a complex combination of vulnerability and protective mechanisms in relatives. They also support a significant role for deficient risk processing, and ventral and dorsal prefrontal cortex functioning in the suicidal diathesis.Molecular Psychiatry advance online publication, 13 December 2016; doi:10.1038/mp.2016.221.

  20. Reduced iNKT cells numbers in type 1 diabetes patients and their first-degree relatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beristain-Covarrubias, Nonantzin; Canche-Pool, Elsy; Gomez-Diaz, Rita; Sanchez-Torres, Luvia E; Ortiz-Navarrete, Vianney

    2015-12-01

    Type 1 diabetes (T1D) is an autoimmune disease that is characterized by the specific destruction of insulin-producing pancreatic β cells. Invariant natural killer T (iNKT) cells have been associated with development of T1D. Class I MHC-restricted T cell-associated molecule (CRTAM) is expressed on activated iNKT, CD8(+), and CD4(+) T cells, and it is associated with the pro-inflammatory profiles of these cells. Crtam gene expression in CD3(+) lymphocytes from non-obese diabetic (NOD) mice is associated with T1D onset. However, expression of CRTAM on T cells from patients with T1D has not yet been evaluated. We compared iNKT cell (CD3(+)Vα24(+)Vβ11(+)) numbers and CRTAM expression in a Mexican population with recent-onset T1D and their first-degree relatives with control families. Remarkably, we found lower iNKT cell numbers in T1D families, and we identified two iNKT cell populations in some of the families. One iNKT cell population expressed high iTCR levels (iNKT(hi)), whereas another expressed low levels (iNKT(lo)) and also expressed CRTAM. These findings support a probable genetic determinant of iNKT cell numbers and a possible role for these cells in T1D development. This study also suggests that CRTAM identifies recently activated iNKT lymphocytes.

  1. Cancer Worry, Perceived Risk and Cancer Screening in First-Degree Relatives of Patients with Familial Gastric Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jenny; Hart, Tae L; Aronson, Melyssa; Crangle, Cassandra; Govindarajan, Anand

    2016-06-01

    Currently, there is a lack of evidence evaluating the psychological impact of cancer-related risk perception and worry in individuals at high risk for gastric cancer. We examined the relationships between perceived risk, cancer worry and screening behaviors among first-degree relatives (FDRs) of patients with familial gastric cancer. FDRs of patients diagnosed with familial gastric cancer with a non-informative genetic analysis were identified and contacted. Participants completed a telephone interview that assessed socio-demographic information, cancer risk perception, cancer worry, impact of worry on daily functioning, and screening behaviors. Twenty-five FDRs completed the telephone interview. Participants reported high levels of comparative and absolute cancer risk perception, with an average perceived lifetime risk of 54 %. On the other hand, cancer-related worry scores were low, with a significant minority (12 %) experiencing high levels of worry. Study participants exhibited high levels of confidence (median = 70 %) in the effectiveness of screening at detecting a curable cancer. Participants that had undergone screening in the past showed significantly lower levels of cancer-related worry compared to those that had never undergone screening. In conclusion, individuals at high-risk for gastric cancer perceived a very high personal risk of cancer, but reported low levels of cancer worry. This paradoxical result may be attributed to participants' high levels of confidence in the effectiveness of screening. These findings highlight the importance for clinicians to discuss realistic risk appraisals and expectations towards screening with unaffected members of families at risk for gastric cancer, in an effort to help mitigate anxiety and help with coping.

  2. Personality traits in adults with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder and their unaffected first-degree relatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pironti, Valentino Antonio; Lai, Meng-Chuan; Müller, Ulrich; Bullmore, Edward Thomas; Sahakian, Barbara Jacquelyn

    2016-07-01

    Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) shows clear, albeit heterogeneous, cognitive dysfunctions. However, personality traits are not well understood in adults with ADHD, and it is unclear whether they are predisposing factors or phenotypical facets of the condition. To assess whether personality traits of impulsivity, sensation seeking and sensitivity to punishment and reward are predisposing factors for ADHD or aspects of the clinical phenotype. Twenty adults with ADHD, 20 unaffected first-degree relatives and 20 controls completed rating scales assessing traits of impulsivity, sensation seeking and sensitivity to punishment/reward. Compared with relatives and controls, individuals with ADHD showed increased impulsive personality traits, were more susceptible to boredom and presented hypersensitivity to reward but normal sensitivity to punishment. High impulsivity traits, heightened sensitivity to reward and boredom are associated with the phenotype of ADHD, rather than being predisposing factors, as these traits were not shared between ADHD probands and their relatives. E.T.B. is employed part-time by GSK and part-time by the University of Cambridge; he holds stock in GSK. B.J.S. consults for Cambridge Cognition, Servier and Lundbeck; she holds a grant from Janssen/J&J. U.M. has received honoraria for consultancy and speaking at conferences and travel expenses from Bristol-Myers Squibb, Eli Lilly, Janssen-Cilag, Lundbeck, Pharmacia-Upjohn and UCB Pharma. © The Royal College of Psychiatrists 2016. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Non-Commercial, No Derivatives (CC BY-NC-ND) license.

  3. Low rate of cardiac events in first-degree relatives of diagnosis-negative young sudden unexplained death syndrome victims during follow-up

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Werf, Christian; Stiekema, Lotte; Tan, Hanno L.; Hofman, Nynke; Alders, Marielle; van der Wal, Allard C.; van Langen, Irene M.; Wilde, Arthur A. M.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Sudden unexplained death syndrome (SUDS) in young individuals often results from inherited cardiac disease. Accordingly, comprehensive examination in surviving first-degree relatives unmasks such disease in approximately 35% of the families. It is unknown whether individuals from diagnos

  4. Are obesity, ACPAs and periodontitis conditions that influence the risk of developing rheumatoid arthritis in first-degree relatives?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unriza-Puin, Sonia; Bautista-Molano, Wilson; Lafaurie, Gloria I; Valle-Oñate, Rafael; Chalem, Philippe; Chila-Moreno, Lorena; Bello-Gualtero, Juan Manuel; Romero-Sánchez, Consuelo

    2017-04-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the body mass index (BMI), anti-citrullinated protein antibodies (ACPAs) status and the presence of periodontitis and IgG-1/IgG-2 antibodies against Porphyromonas gingivalis (Pg) in the first-degree relatives (FDRs) of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients and compare these variables with a control group of healthy individuals from the general population. In total, 100 FDR individuals and 200 healthy controls matched by age and gender were included. Rheumatologic and periodontal assessment was performed, and the presence of ACPAs and anti-P. gingivalis antibodies was evaluated. Groupwise comparisons were analysed using the McNemar and Wilcoxon tests. A conditional logistic regression analysis was performed to establish the associations between BMI, ACPAs and periodontitis in both groups. In the FDR group, 70% of the subjects were female, with a mean age of 37.3 ± 13 years. Obesity was observed in 17 and 7% of the FDRs and controls, respectively. ACPAs were found in 7% of the FDRs vs. 2.5% of the controls. Periodontitis was diagnosed in 79 and 56% of the FDRs and controls, respectively. Among the FDRs, 15% had severe periodontitis. There were associations in the FDR group related to the presence of obesity (OR 2.93, 95% CI 1.03-8.28), ACPAs (OR 2.45, 95% CI 0.7-8.32) and periodontitis (OR 3.70 95% CI 1.89-7.29). Regarding anti-P. gingivalis antibodies and smoking history, no differences were found between the groups. Obesity, ACPAs and periodontitis (diagnosis and severity) can be considered as relevant conditions associated with the development of RA in FDRs.

  5. Smoking is not associated with autoantibody production in systemic lupus erythematosus patients, unaffected first-degree relatives, nor healthy controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, K A; Terrell, D R; Guthridge, J M; Kamen, D L; Gilkeson, G S; Karp, D R; Ishimori, M L; Weisman, M H; Holers, V M; Harley, J B; Norris, J M; James, J A

    2014-04-01

    The objective of this paper is to examine whether smoking is associated with autoantibody production in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) patients, unaffected first-degree relatives (FDR) of individuals with SLE--a group at increased risk of developing SLE--or unaffected, unrelated controls. Detailed demographic, environmental, clinical, and therapeutic information was collected by questionnaire on 1242 SLE patients, 981 FDRs, and 946 controls in the Lupus Family Registry and Repository; a blood sample was obtained. All sera were tested for multiple lupus autoantibodies by immunofluorescence and luminex bead-based assays. Generalized estimating equations, adjusting for age, gender, and ethnicity and accounting for correlation within families, were used to assess smoking status with the dichotomous outcome variables of positivity for SLE status, positivity of ANA by immunofluorescence (≥1:120), positivity for ≥1 autoantibody by the luminex assay, and positivity for each of the 11 autoantibodies. Current smoking was associated with being positive for ≥1 autoantibody (excluding ANA) (adjusted OR = 1.53, 95% CI 1.04-2.24) in our subjects with SLE. No association was observed in unaffected FDRs or healthy controls. Former smoking was associated with anti-Ro/SS-A60 in our unaffected FDRs. There was an increased association with anti-nRNP A seropositivity, as well as a decreased association with anti-nRNP 68 positivity, in current smokers in SLE subjects. No clear association between smoking status and individual autoantibodies was detected in SLE patients, unaffected FDRs, nor healthy controls within this collection. The association of smoking with SLE may therefore manifest its risk through mechanisms outside of autoantibody production, at least for the specificities tested.

  6. Intergenerational Childhood Maltreatment in Persons with DSM-IV Pathological Gambling and Their First-Degree Relatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shultz, Samuel K; Shaw, Martha; McCormick, Brett; Allen, Jeff; Black, Donald W

    2016-09-01

    This study investigates the characteristics of individuals with DSM-IV pathological gambling (PG) who experienced childhood maltreatment and rates of maltreatment occurring in their first-degree relatives (FDRs). 94 subjects with DSM-IV PG, 91 controls, and 312 FDRs were assessed for childhood maltreatment as part of a family study of PG. Maltreatment was evaluated using the Revised Childhood Experiences Questionnaire. The Family Assessment Device was used to evaluate the functionality of the PG subject's (or control's) family of origin. Data were analyzed using logistic regression by the method of generalized estimating equations. Rates of maltreatment were significantly higher in subjects with PG than controls (61 vs. 25 %, P < 0.001). Subjects with PG who experienced maltreatment were more likely to be female, had more severe PG symptoms, had co-occurring mood and anxiety disorders, and reported greater early family life dysfunction than those with PG who did not experience maltreatment. Rates of maltreatment were higher in FDRs of PG subjects than controls (41 vs. 24 %, P = .002). Rates in FDRs of individuals with PG who experienced maltreatment themselves were still higher that in FDRs of those with PG who did not experience maltreatment (50 vs. 28 %, P = .009). The former were also more likely to have anxiety disorders, substance use disorders, and suicide attempts. The results suggest that childhood maltreatment in persons with PG is common and intergenerational. Rates of maltreatment in FDRs of PG subjects are high, particularly among those who experienced abuse. The implications of the findings are discussed.

  7. Does the age of breast cancer diagnosis in first-degree relatives impact on the risk of breast cancer in BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semple, John; Metcalfe, Kelly A; Lubinski, Jan; Huzarski, Tomasz; Gronwald, Jacek; Armel, Susan; Lynch, Henry T; Karlan, Beth; Foulkes, William; Singer, Christian F; Neuhausen, Susan L; Eng, Charis; Iqbal, Javaid; Narod, Steven A

    2015-11-01

    The purpose of this study is to estimate the age-specific annual risks of breast cancer in a woman with a germline BRCA mutation and an affected first-degree relative according to the age of breast cancer diagnosis in the relative. Women with BRCA mutations with no previous diagnosis of breast cancer and with one first-degree relative with breast cancer were followed for breast cancers for a mean of 5.9 years (minimum 2 years). Age-specific annual breast cancer risks were calculated, according to the age of breast cancer diagnosis in the proband and the first-degree relative. 1114 cancer-free women with a BRCA mutation with a single first-degree relative with breast cancer were eligible for the study. 122 women (11.0 %) were diagnosed with incident breast cancer. The annual risk of breast cancer was 2.0 % for women with BRCA1 mutations and was 1.6 % for women with BRCA2 mutations. The age of breast cancer diagnosis in the first-degree relative did not affect the annual breast cancer risks for BRCA1 mutation carriers. For BRCA2 mutation carriers, the annual breast cancer risk was 4.5 % for women with a first-degree relative diagnosed with breast cancer under the age of 30 years and was 0.7 % for women with a relative diagnosed over the age of 60. Among women with BRCA2 mutations, a family history of early-onset breast cancer is a risk factor for developing breast cancer. Risk assessment for healthy BRCA2 mutation carriers should consider the ages of breast cancers diagnosed in first-degree relatives.

  8. DQ2, DQ7 and DQ8 Distribution and Clinical Manifestations in Celiac Cases and Their First-Degree Relatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Araya

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available HLA-linked genes are relevant to celiac disease (CD; the potential genetic differences present worldwide are not fully understood. Previous results suggest that the distribution of HLA-DQ2/DQ7/DQ8 in Chile may differ from that in Europe and North America. In celiac patients and their first-degree relatives (FDRS, we assessed their clinical, serological and histological characteristics, determined HLA-DQ2, HLA-DQ7 and HLA-DQ8 alleles and genotypes, and evaluated the relations between them. A total of 222 individuals were assessed (56 cases, 166 FDRs. 16.9% of FDRs were tTG positive; 53.6% of them showed overweight/obesity and 3% undernourishment; they spontaneously declared being asymptomatic, but detailed questioning revealed that 60.7% experienced symptoms, which had not been investigated. DQ2 was present in 53.9% and 43.9.0% of cases and FDRs (p < 0.05. The most frequent genotype distribution was DQ2/DQ7 (fr 0.392 (cases and 0.248 (FDRs, respectively, p < 0.02. The next most common genotypes were HLA-DQ2/DQ8 (fr 0.236 in FDRs and 0.176 in cases, p < 0.05. 3.92% cases were not HLA-DQ2/DQ8 carriers. Among tTG positive FDRs, 57.4%, 22.3% and 20.2% carried DQ2, DQ7 and DQ8, respectively. In cases, 72.7% of the biopsies classified Marsh ≥3 carried at least one DQ2; 91.7% of DQ2/DQ2 and 88.3% of DQ2/DQ7 were Marsh ≥3. Thus, DQ2 frequency is lower than reported; the higher frequency found for DQ8 and DQ7 concur with recent publications from Argentine and Brazil. These results suggest that although CD may manifest clinically in ways similar to those described in other populations, some genetic peculiarities in this region deserve further study.

  9. Elevated Properdin and Enhanced Complement Activation in First-Degree Relatives of South Asian Subjects With Type 2 Diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somani, Riyaz; Richardson, Victoria R.; Standeven, Kristina F.; Grant, Peter J.; Carter, Angela M.

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Emerging data implicate activation of the complement cascade in the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes. The objective of the current study was to evaluate the relationships between components of the complement system, metabolic risk factors, and family history of type 2 diabetes in healthy South Asians. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS We recruited 119 healthy, first-degree relatives of South Asian subjects with type 2 diabetes (SARs) and 119 age- and sex-matched, healthy South Asian control subjects (SACs). Fasting blood samples were taken for measurement of complement factors and standard metabolic risk factors. RESULTS SARs were characterized by significantly higher properdin (mean concentration 12.6 [95% CI 12.2–13.1] mg/L vs. SACs 10.1 [9.7–10.5] mg/L, P < 0.0001), factor B (187.4 [180.1–195.0] mg/L vs. SACs 165.0 [158.0–172.2] mg/L, P < 0.0001), and SC5b-9 (92.0 [86.1–98.3] ng/mL vs. SACs 75.3 [71.9–78.9] ng/mL, P < 0.0001) and increased homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (2.86 [2.61–3.13] vs. SACs 2.31 [2.05–2.61], P = 0.007). C-reactive protein did not differ between SARs and SACs (P = 0.17). In subgroup analysis of 25 SARs and 25 SACs with normal oral glucose tolerance tests, properdin, factor B, and SC5b-9 remained significantly elevated in SARs. CONCLUSIONS Increased properdin and complement activation are associated with a family history of type 2 diabetes in South Asians independent of insulin resistance, and predate the development of impaired fasting glucose and impaired glucose tolerance. Properdin and SC5b-9 may be novel biomarkers for future risk of type 2 diabetes in this high-risk population and warrant further investigation. PMID:22338105

  10. Risk of Advanced Neoplasia in First-Degree Relatives with Colorectal Cancer: A Large Multicenter Cross-Sectional Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quintero, Enrique; Gargallo, Carla; Lanas, Angel; Bujanda, Luis; Gimeno-García, Antonio Z.; Hernández-Guerra, Manuel; Nicolás-Pérez, David; Alonso-Abreu, Inmaculada; Morillas, Juan Diego; Balaguer, Francesc; Muriel, Alfonso

    2016-01-01

    Background First-degree relatives (FDR) of patients with colorectal cancer have a higher risk of developing colorectal cancer than the general population. For this reason, screening guidelines recommend colonoscopy every 5 or 10 y, starting at the age of 40, depending on whether colorectal cancer in the index-case is diagnosed at <60 or ≥60 y, respectively. However, studies on the risk of neoplastic lesions are inconclusive. The aim of this study was to determine the risk of advanced neoplasia (three or more non-advanced adenomas, advanced adenoma, or invasive cancer) in FDR of patients with colorectal cancer compared to average-risk individuals (i.e., asymptomatic adults 50 to 69 y of age with no family history of colorectal cancer). Methods and Findings This cross-sectional analysis includes data from 8,498 individuals undergoing their first lifetime screening colonoscopy between 2006 and 2012 at six Spanish tertiary hospitals. Of these individuals, 3,015 were defined as asymptomatic FDR of patients with colorectal cancer (“familial-risk group”) and 3,038 as asymptomatic with average-risk for colorectal cancer (“average-risk group”). The familial-risk group was stratified as one FDR, with one family member diagnosed with colorectal cancer at ≥60 y (n = 1,884) or at <60 y (n = 831), and as two FDR, with two family members diagnosed with colorectal cancer at any age (n = 300). Multiple logistic regression analysis was used for between-group comparisons after adjusting for potential confounders (age, gender, and center). Compared with the average-risk group, advanced neoplasia was significantly more prevalent in individuals having two FDR with colorectal cancer (odds ratio [OR] 1.90; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.36–2.66, p < 0.001), but not in those having one FDR with colorectal cancer diagnosed at ≥60 y (OR 1.03; 95% CI 0.83–1.27, p = 0.77) and <60 y (OR 1.19; 95% CI 0.90–1.58, p = 0.20). After the age of 50 y, men developed advanced

  11. Neurological soft signs and cognitive functions: Amongst euthymic bipolar I disorder cases, non-affected first degree relatives and healthy controls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Srikant; Bhatia, Triptish; Mazumdar, Sati; Deshpande, Smita N.

    2016-01-01

    Both neurological soft signs (NSS) and cognitive deficits are present among euthymic bipolar patients. NSS could be related to neurocognitive performance, but this is not explored thoroughly. Healthy relatives of patients may also suffer from similar deficits. This study compared NSS and cognitive functions in euthymic Bipolar I Disorder (BPI) cases to their non-affected first degree relatives and healthy controls. We also investigated the association between NSS and cognitive functions in these three groups. NSS were assessed in three groups using Neurological Evaluation Scale-revised (NES-r). Eight cognitive domains were assessed in 31 euthymic BPI cases, their 30 non-affected first degree relatives and 30 healthy controls using Computerized Neurocognitive Battery (CNB). Euthymic BPI patients had significantly more NSS than non-affected first degree relatives on 5/7 tests (p-value ranges from 0.042 to p = 0.0001) and healthy controls on all tests (p-value from 0.042 to <0.0001). Non-affected first degree relatives and controls did not have any significant difference. BPI participants performed worse than their non-affected first degree relatives on one neurocognitive domain of CNB (spatial memory accuracy, p = 0.03) and healthy controls on four domains (spatial memory accuracy (p = 0.04), abstraction and mental flexibility efficiency (p = 0.04), spatial memory efficiency (p = 0.04), and emotion efficiency (p = 0.04). Non-affected relatives and healthy controls were similar on neurocognitive domains. Accuracy and efficiency indices of some specific cognitive domains were negatively associated with AV rating and tap copying NSS ratings. PMID:27520894

  12. Secretion of incretin hormones (GIP and GLP-1) and incretin effect after oral glucose in first-degree relatives of patients with type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nauck, Michael A; El-Ouaghlidi, Andrea; Gabrys, Bartholomäus

    2004-01-01

    AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Since insulin secretion in response to exogenous gastric inhibitory polypeptide (GIP) is diminished not only in patients with type 2 diabetes, but also in their normal glucose-tolerant first-degree relatives, it was the aim to investigate the integrity of the entero-insular axis ...

  13. Impact of physical inactivity on adipose tissue low-grade inflammation in first-degree relatives of type 2 diabetic patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Højbjerre, Lise; Sonne, Mette Paulli; Alibegovic, Amra Ciric

    2011-01-01

    First-degree relatives (FDRs) of patients with type 2 diabetes may exhibit a disproportionately elevated risk of developing insulin resistance, obesity, and type 2 diabetes when exposed to physical inactivity, which to some unknown extent may involve low-grade inflammation. We investigated whether...

  14. Dyskinesia and Parkinsonism in Antipsychotic-Naive Patients With Schizophrenia, First-Degree Relatives and Healthy Controls : A Meta-analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koning, Jeroen P. F.; Tenback, Diederik E.; van Os, Jim; Aleman, Andre; Kahn, Rene S.; van Harten, Peter N.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Several studies have reported the presence of dyskinesia and parkinsonism in antipsychotic-naive patients with schizophrenia as well as in their first-degree relatives. These movement disorders may therefore form an integral part of the illness and its (genetic) liability. Method: A syst

  15. Autoimmune Conditions in 235 Hemochromatosis Probands with HFE C282Y Homozygosity and Their First-Degree Relatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James C. Barton

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We performed a retrospective study of autoimmune conditions (ACs in 235 hemochromatosis probands at diagnosis by analyzing age, sex, ACs, history of first-degree family members with ACs (FH, diabetes, heavy ethanol consumption, elevated serum ALT/AST, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, viral hepatitis, cirrhosis, iron removed to achieve iron depletion (QFe, and positivity for human leukocyte antigen (HLA haplotypes A∗01, B∗08; A∗02, B∗44; A∗03, B∗07; A∗03, B∗14; and A∗29, B∗44. There were 138 men (58.7%. Median followup was 19.6 y. One or more of 19 ACs were diagnosed in each of 35 probands (14.9%. Prevalences of Hashimoto’s thyroiditis, rheumatoid arthritis, and ankylosing spondylitis were 8.1% (95% CI: [5.1, 12.5], 1.7% [0.6, 4.6], and 0.0085 [0.0015, 0.0337], respectively. Eighteen probands (7.7% had a FH. Eight probands with ACs had 9 family members with ACs. In a logistic regression, ACs were less likely in men (odds ratio (OR 0.3 [0.1, 0.6] and more likely in probands with a FH (OR 4.1 [1.4, 11.8]. Overall ACs risk was not significantly associated with QFe or HLA haplotypes. Estimated survival of probands with and without ACs did not differ significantly. We conclude that ACs are common in hemochromatosis probands, especially women and probands with a FH.

  16. Autoimmune Conditions in 235 Hemochromatosis Probands with HFE C282Y Homozygosity and Their First-Degree Relatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barton, James C; Barton, J Clayborn

    2015-01-01

    We performed a retrospective study of autoimmune conditions (ACs) in 235 hemochromatosis probands at diagnosis by analyzing age, sex, ACs, history of first-degree family members with ACs (FH), diabetes, heavy ethanol consumption, elevated serum ALT/AST, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, viral hepatitis, cirrhosis, iron removed to achieve iron depletion (QFe), and positivity for human leukocyte antigen (HLA) haplotypes A (∗) 01, B (∗) 08; A (∗) 02, B (∗) 44; A (∗) 03, B (∗) 07; A (∗) 03, B (∗) 14; and A (∗) 29, B (∗) 44. There were 138 men (58.7%). Median followup was 19.6 y. One or more of 19 ACs were diagnosed in each of 35 probands (14.9%). Prevalences of Hashimoto's thyroiditis, rheumatoid arthritis, and ankylosing spondylitis were 8.1% (95% CI: [5.1, 12.5]), 1.7% [0.6, 4.6], and 0.0085 [0.0015, 0.0337], respectively. Eighteen probands (7.7%) had a FH. Eight probands with ACs had 9 family members with ACs. In a logistic regression, ACs were less likely in men (odds ratio (OR) 0.3 [0.1, 0.6]) and more likely in probands with a FH (OR 4.1 [1.4, 11.8]). Overall ACs risk was not significantly associated with QFe or HLA haplotypes. Estimated survival of probands with and without ACs did not differ significantly. We conclude that ACs are common in hemochromatosis probands, especially women and probands with a FH.

  17. Fast sleep spindle reduction in schizophrenia and healthy first-degree relatives: association with impaired cognitive function and potential intermediate phenotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schilling, Claudia; Schlipf, Manuel; Spietzack, Simone; Rausch, Franziska; Eisenacher, Sarah; Englisch, Susanne; Reinhard, Iris; Haller, Leila; Grimm, Oliver; Deuschle, Michael; Tost, Heike; Zink, Mathias; Meyer-Lindenberg, Andreas; Schredl, Michael

    2017-04-01

    Several studies in patients with schizophrenia reported a marked reduction in sleep spindle activity. To investigate whether the reduction may be linked to genetic risk of the illness, we analysed sleep spindle activity in healthy volunteers, patients with schizophrenia and first-degree relatives, who share an enriched set of schizophrenia susceptibility genes. We further investigated the correlation of spindle activity with cognitive function in first-degree relatives and whether spindle abnormalities affect both fast (12-15 Hz) and slow (9-12 Hz) sleep spindles. We investigated fast and slow sleep spindle activity during non-rapid eye movement sleep in a total of 47 subjects comprising 17 patients with schizophrenia, 13 healthy first-degree relatives and 17 healthy volunteers. Groups were balanced for age, gender, years of education and estimated verbal IQ. A subsample of relatives received additional testing for memory performance. Compared to healthy volunteers, fast spindle density was reduced in patients with schizophrenia and healthy first-degree relatives following a pattern consistent with an assumed genetic load for schizophrenia. The deficit in spindle density was specific to fast spindles and was associated with decreased memory performance. Our findings indicate familial occurrence of this phenotype and thus support the hypothesis that deficient spindle activity relates to genetic liability for schizophrenia. Furthermore, spindle reductions predict impaired cognitive function and are specific to fast spindles. This physiological marker should be further investigated as an intermediate phenotype of schizophrenia. It could also constitute a target for drug development, especially with regard to cognitive dysfunction.

  18. The effect of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors in healthy first-degree relatives of patients with major depressive disorder - an experimental medicine blinded controlled trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knorr, Ulla Benedichte

    2012-01-01

    in the dexamethasone corticotropin-releasing hormone (DEX-CRH) test in healthy first-degree relatives to patients with major depressive disorder (MDD). Further, to test the hypothesis that a SSRI may reduce neuroticism in healthy first-degree relatives of patients with MDD. Finally, to test whether SSRI enhance...... in the change of the total area under the curve (CorAUCtotal) for plasma cortisol in the DEX-CRH test at entry to after four weeks of intervention. The secondary outcomes were a) change in self-reported neuroticism scores on the 240-items Revised Neuroticism-Extroversion-Openness-Personality Inventory (NEO...... and the placebo group, p = 0.47. Fur-ther, escitalopram did not significantly affect self-reported neu-roticism compared with placebo, NEO-PI-R (p = 0.09) and EPQ (p = 0.73). Finally, mean change in the general cognition score was not significantly increased with escitalopram compared with placebo, (p = 0...

  19. Evaluation of right and left ventricular function using speckle tracking echocardiography in patients with arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy and their first degree relatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aneq Meriam

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction and aim The identification of right ventricular abnormalities in patients with arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy (ARVC in early stages is still difficult. The aim of this study was to investigate if longitudinal strain based on speckle tracking can detect subtle right (RV or left ventricular (LV dysfunction as an early sign of ARVC. Methods and results Seventeen male patients, fulfilling Task force criteria for ARVC, 49 (32–70 years old, nineteen male first degree relatives 29 (19–73 y.o. and twenty-two healthy male volunteers 36 (24–66 y.o participated in the study. Twelve-lead and signal-averaged electrocardiograms were recorded. All subjects underwent echocardiography. LV and RV diameters, peak systolic velocity from tissue Doppler and longitudinal strain based on speckle tracking were measured from the basal and mid segments in both ventricles. RV longitudinal strain measurement was successful in first degree relatives and controls (95 resp. 86% but less feasible in patients (59%. Results were not systematically different between first degree relatives and controls. Using discriminant analysis, we then developed an index based on echocardiographic parameters. All normal controls had an index  Conclusion Longitudinal strain of LV and RV segments was significantly lower in patients than in relatives and controls. An index was developed incorporating dimensional and functional echocardiographic parameters. In combination with genetic testing this index might help to detect early phenotype expression in mutation carriers.

  20. A survey of obesity and abnormal glucose tolerance in first degree relatives of women with polycystic ovarian syndrome referred to gynaecology clinics of Shiraz university of medical sciences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    marziye Akbarzadeh

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Polycystic ovarian (pco syndrome is one of the most prevalent( 4-8% endocrine glands disorders among premenopause women. Polycystic ovary syndrome as a form of functional ovarian hyperandrogenemia may has characteristics such as choronic anovulation, infertility, abnormal menstruation and android obesity. This diseas has genetic aspect and in different studies similar abnormalities have been seen in their first degree relatives. Materials and Methods: This research is a case-control study carried out on 107 individuals as case group and 107 individuals as control group selected by simple random sampling in 2009. After recognition patients with PCO syndrome , their first degree relatives (Father,mother,sister and brother have been interviewed. BMI and WHR indices of the both blood samples were taken to study their serum glucose tolerance. Results: Case group, from view point of obesity (BMI≥30 and centeral obesity , ITG level and diabetes regarding WHO standards was higher than similar individuals in control group,but this difference was not statistically significant . The mean of fasting blood sugar in fathers , mothers , brothers and sisters of cas group was significantly higher (p=0.001. Regarding Chi-square test there was no significant relation between obesity diabetes in the both groups. , (BMI≥30kg/m2, centeral obesity and lack of impaired glucose tolerance and type2 diabetes in the both groups. Conclusion: The first degree relatives of the women suffering from polycystic ovarian syndrome are exposed to abnormal glucose tolerance and android obesity.

  1. Sympathovagal Imbalance Contributes to Prehypertension Status and Cardiovascular Risks Attributed by Insulin Resistance, Inflammation, Dyslipidemia and Oxidative Stress in First Degree Relatives of Type 2 Diabetics

    OpenAIRE

    Gopal Krushna Pal; Chandrasekaran Adithan; Palghat Hariharan Ananthanarayanan; Pravati Pal; Nivedita Nanda; Thiyagarajan Durgadevi; Venugopal Lalitha; Avupati Naga Syamsunder; Tarun Kumar Dutta

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Though cardiovascular (CV) risks are reported in first-degree relatives (FDR) of type 2 diabetics, the pathophysiological mechanisms contributing to these risks are not known. We investigated the association of sympathovagal imbalance (SVI) with CV risks in these subjects. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Body mass index (BMI), basal heart rate (BHR), blood pressure (BP), rate-pressure product (RPP), spectral indices of heart rate variability (HRV), autonomic function tests, insulin resistan...

  2. N400 Deficits from Semantic Matching of Pictures in Probands and First-Degree Relatives from Multiplex Schizophrenia Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerra, Seidel; Ibanez, Agustin; Martin, Migdyrai; Bobes, Maria Antonieta; Reyes, Adnelys; Mendoza, Raul; Bravo, Tania; Dominguez, Mayelin; Sosa, Mitchell Valdes

    2009-01-01

    Endophenotypes is one emerging strategy in schizophrenia research that is being used to identify the functional importance of genetically transmitted, brain-based deficits present in this disease. Currently, event-related potentials (ERPs) are timely used in this search. Several ERPs, including N400, present deficits in relation to schizophrenia.…

  3. Grief shortly after suicide and natural death : A comparative study among spouses and first-degree relatives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Groot, Marieke; de Keijser, Adrianus; Neeleman, Jan

    2006-01-01

    Chronic dysfunction after complicated grief is not rare and emphasizes the need to identify bereaved individuals at risk. Three months following bereavement, self-reported psychiatric and general health of 153 relatives of 74 suicides was worse than of 70 relatives of 39 natural deaths. Moreover, th

  4. The search for neuroimaging and cognitive endophenotypes: A critical systematic review of studies involving unaffected first-degree relatives of individuals with bipolar disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miskowiak, Kamilla W; Kjærstad, Hanne L; Meluken, Iselin; Petersen, Jeff Zarp; Maciel, Beatriz R; Köhler, Cristiano A; Vinberg, Maj; Kessing, Lars V; Carvalho, André F

    2017-02-01

    The phenomenology and underlying pathophysiology of bipolar disorder (BD) are heterogeneous. The identification of putative endophenotypes for BD can aid in the investigation of unique patho-etiological pathways, which may lead to the development of personalised preventative and therapeutic approaches for this multi-faceted disorder. We included original studies involving unaffected first-degree relatives of BD patients (URs) and a healthy control (HC) comparison group with no first-degree family history of mental disorders, investigating: 'cold' and 'hot' cognition and functional and structural neuroimaging. Seventy-seven cross-sectional studies met the inclusion criteria. The present review revealed that URs in comparison with HCs showed: (i) widespread deficits in verbal memory, sustained attention, and executive function; (ii) abnormalities in the reactivity to and regulation of emotional information along with aberrant reward processing, and heightened attentional interference by emotional stimuli; and (iii) less consistency in the findings regarding structural and resting state neuroimaging, and electrophysiological measures.

  5. Knowledge, attitudes and beliefs of first-degree relatives of patients with chronic kidney disease toward kidney donation in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bello, Babawale T; Raji, Yemi R

    2016-01-01

    In most parts of Sub-Saharan Africa, kidney transplant programs are dependent on the willingness of relatives of patients with kidney failure to donate kidneys. This study assessed the attitudes of relatives of patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) toward kidney donation. This was a cross-sectional survey of relatives of patients with CKD attending the nephrology service of our hospital. The respondents' socio-demographic characteristics and knowledge and beliefs about kidney transplantation, as well as their willingness to donate a kidney, were assessed using a self-administered questionnaire. There were 161 respondents who returned completed questionnaires; the mean age of the respondents was 34.8±12.6 years and 52.2% of them were female. About 85.1% of the respondents were aware that kidney transplantation was a treatment option for end-stage renal failure, while 70% of them believed that kidney transplantation resulted in an improvement in the quality of life of these patients. However, 25.5% of the respondents believed that kidney donors were at risk of developing kidney failure in the future. Overall, 77.6% of the respondents were willing to donate a kidney, especially if the affected individual was their offspring. The majority of the respondents were willing to donate a kidney to a relative with CKD.

  6. Knowledge, attitudes and beliefs of first-degree relatives of patients with chronic kidney disease toward kidney donation in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babawale T Bello

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In most parts of Sub-Saharan Africa, kidney transplant programs are dependent on the willingness of relatives of patients with kidney failure to donate kidneys. This study assessed the attitudes of relatives of patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD toward kidney donation. This was a cross-sectional survey of relatives of patients with CKD attending the nephrology service of our hospital. The respondents′ socio-demographic characteristics and knowledge and beliefs about kidney transplantation, as well as their willingness to donate a kidney, were assessed using a self-administered questionnaire. There were 161 respondents who returned completed questionnaires; the mean age of the respondents was 34.8 ± 12.6 years and 52.2% of them were female. About 85.1% of the respondents were aware that kidney transplantation was a treatment option for end-stage renal failure, while 70% of them believed that kidney transplantation resulted in an improvement in the quality of life of these patients. However, 25.5% of the respondents believed that kidney donors were at risk of developing kidney failure in the future. Overall, 77.6% of the respondents were willing to donate a kidney, especially if the affected individual was their offspring. The majority of the respondents were willing to donate a kidney to a relative with CKD.

  7. "Es como uno bomba de tiempo [It's like a time bomb]": A Qualitative Analysis of Perceptions of Diabetes Among First-Degree Relatives of Latino Patients With Diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro-Rivas, Erida; Boutin-Foster, Carla; Milan, Maria; Kanna, Balavenkatesh

    2014-02-01

    Background. The South Bronx, a largely Latino community, has become an epicenter of the diabetes epidemic in New York City. In this community, nondiabetic first-degree relatives of people with diabetes are prime targets for intervention. Therefore, the objective of this study was to explore the knowledge of diabetes and attitudes toward health behavior modification of Latino adults who are first-degree relatives of people with diabetes. Methods. Participants were recruited from three settings in the South Bronx (a community-based organization, a faith-based organization, and a taxi station). The Common Sense Model was used to develop focus-group items. This model provides a framework for exploring illness representations along five domains: identity, cause, consequences, timeline, and perceptions of curability. Responses were transcribed verbatim, and data analysis proceeded in the following order: data immersion, assignment of codes, grouping of key concepts to form categories, and construction of higher-order themes. Results. Of the 115 potential participants identified, 53 were found to be eligible, and 23 of these participated in the focus group. Of these, 20 were Dominicans, 2 were Puerto Ricans, and 1 was Salvadorian. The mean age was 46.39 years, 35% were women, 61% were married, and 26% had less than a high school education. Qualitative analyses resulted in 547 codes that were grouped into 52 concepts, from which 9 categories and 4 overarching themes emerged. The dominant themes were 1) family, genetics, and culture play a major role in the etiology of diabetes; 2) being Latino and having a first-degree relative with diabetes makes getting diabetes inevitable, and, like a time bomb exploding, it is destined to happen; 3) once one develops diabetes, the physical and emotional consequences are devastating and destructive; and 4) diabetes can be "cured" through healthy eating and with insulin. Conclusions.In this study, first-degree relatives of patients with

  8. Transient and steady-state auditory gamma-band responses in first-degree relatives of people with autism spectrum disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Rojas Donald C; Teale Peter D; Maharajh Keeran; Kronberg Eugene; Youngpeter Katie; Wilson Lisa B; Wallace Alissa; Hepburn Susan

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Stimulus-related γ-band oscillations, which may be related to perceptual binding, are reduced in people with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). The purpose of this study was to examine auditory transient and steady-state γ-band findings in first-degree relatives of people with ASD to assess the potential familiality of these findings in ASD. Methods Magnetoencephalography (MEG) recordings in 21 parents who had a child with an autism spectrum disorder (pASD) and 20 healthy ad...

  9. Temporal Lobe Structures and Facial Emotion Recognition in Schizophrenia Patients and Nonpsychotic Relatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goghari, Vina M.; MacDonald, Angus W.; Sponheim, Scott R.

    2011-01-01

    Temporal lobe abnormalities and emotion recognition deficits are prominent features of schizophrenia and appear related to the diathesis of the disorder. This study investigated whether temporal lobe structural abnormalities were associated with facial emotion recognition deficits in schizophrenia and related to genetic liability for the disorder. Twenty-seven schizophrenia patients, 23 biological family members, and 36 controls participated. Several temporal lobe regions (fusiform, superior temporal, middle temporal, amygdala, and hippocampus) previously associated with face recognition in normative samples and found to be abnormal in schizophrenia were evaluated using volumetric analyses. Participants completed a facial emotion recognition task and an age recognition control task under time-limited and self-paced conditions. Temporal lobe volumes were tested for associations with task performance. Group status explained 23% of the variance in temporal lobe volume. Left fusiform gray matter volume was decreased by 11% in patients and 7% in relatives compared with controls. Schizophrenia patients additionally exhibited smaller hippocampal and middle temporal volumes. Patients were unable to improve facial emotion recognition performance with unlimited time to make a judgment but were able to improve age recognition performance. Patients additionally showed a relationship between reduced temporal lobe gray matter and poor facial emotion recognition. For the middle temporal lobe region, the relationship between greater volume and better task performance was specific to facial emotion recognition and not age recognition. Because schizophrenia patients exhibited a specific deficit in emotion recognition not attributable to a generalized impairment in face perception, impaired emotion recognition may serve as a target for interventions. PMID:20484523

  10. [The Relationship of Verbal Working Memory and Theory of Mind in First Degree Relatives of Patients With Schizophrenia and Bipolar Disorder].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yücel, Mehmet Onur; Devrimci Özgüven, Halise; Sakarya, Ayşegül; Baskak, Bora; Özel Kızıl, Erguvan Tuğba; Sakarya, Direnç; Haran, Seda

    2016-01-01

    We aimed to compare Theory of Mind (ToM) functions and investigate the relationship between ToM functions and verbal working memory (VWM) in first degree relatives of bipolar disorder and schizophrenia patients. The sample consisted of first degree relatives of patients with bipolar disorder (n=22), schizophrenia (n=28), and age, gender, education and total IQ matched healthy volunteers (n=27) without a family history of schizophrenia or bipolar disorder. We administered Auditory Consonants Test (ACT) to evaluate VWM, first and second order false belief tests (ToM-1, ToM-2), Faux Pas Test (FPT), Hinting Test (HT) to evaluate different domains of ToM functions. Both relative groups performed significantly lower in all components of ToM and VWM tests compared to the control group. When VWM scores were employed as covariate in the analyses, the FPT difference between the groups remained significant, HT difference regressed to a marginal level, and the difference between ToM-1 and ToM-2 disappeared. To our knowledge, this is the first study indicating the presence of ToM impairment among first degree relatives of bipolar disorder patients similar to relatives of schizophrenia patients. VWM performance seems to affect first and second order ToM functions in relatives of patients with schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. On the other hand, FPT and HT domains seem to be independent of VWM performances in these groups. FPT and HT impairments may be familial vulnerability markers that are independent from neurocognitive impairment.

  11. The Heart Health Study - increasing cardiovascular risk assessment in family practice for first degree relatives of patients with premature ischaemic heart disease: a randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stocks, Nigel P; Broadbent, Jessica L; Lorimer, Michelle F; Tideman, Philip; Chew, Derek P; Wittert, Gary; Ryan, Philip

    2015-09-03

    This study aimed to increase cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk assessment in adult first degree relatives of patients with premature ischaemic heart disease (PIHD) using written and verbal advice. A prospective, randomised controlled trial. Cardiovascular wards at three South Australian hospitals. Cardiovascular risk assessments were performed in general practice. Patients experiencing PIHD (heart disease in men aged risk assessment or general information about heart disease only, to their first degrees relatives. The primary outcome was the proportion of relatives who attended their GP for CVD risk assessment within 6 months of the patients' PIHD event. One hundred forty four patients were recruited who had 541 eligible relatives; 97/541 (18 %) of relatives agreed to participate. A larger number of intervention 41/55 (75 %) than control group 9/42 (21 %) [difference 53 %, 95 % CI 36 % - 71 %] relatives attended their GP for a CVD assessment, and 34 % of these had moderate to very high 5-year absolute risk for CVD. This low cost intervention demonstrates that individuals who have a family history of PIHD and are at moderate or high risk of CVD can be targeted for early intervention of modifiable risk factors. Further research is required to improve the uptake of the intervention in relatives. The trial was registered with the Australian Clinical Trials Registry (ACTRN), Registration ID 12613000557730 .

  12. Should the first degree relatives of type 2 diabetic patients with isolated impaired fasting glucose be considered for a diabetes primary prevention program?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bijan Iraj

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim of this study is to investigate the need for diabetes primary prevention program in isolated impaired fasting glucose (i-IFG of the first degree relatives of type 2 diabetics. Methods: In a cross sectional study, 793 individuals with prediabetes [543 with i-IFG and 250 with isolated impaired glucose tolerance (i-IGT] who were the first degree relatives of type 2 diabetic patients, were enrolled. Isolated IFG was considered as fasting plasma glucose between 100-125 mg/dl and 2 hour plasma glucose < 140 mg/dl and isolated IGT as FPG < 100 mg/dl and 2 hour plasma glucose between 140-199 mg/dl during an overnight fasting 75 g oral glucose tolerance test. Mean of the age, weight, waist circumference, body mass index, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, plasma glucose, HbA1C, and lipid profile were compared between two groups (i-IFG and i-IGT. The prevalence of cardiometabolic risk factors (BMI ≥ 25 kg/m2, hypertension, cholesterol ≥ 200 mg/dl, LDL-C ≥ 100 mg/dl, HDL-C ≤ 40 mg/dl, and triglyceride ≥ 150 mg/dl adjusted by age, sex and BMI were compared. Results: The prevalence of cardiometabolic risk factors is higher in i-IFG group than i-IGT. The mean level of LDL-C is significantly higher in i-IFG than i-IGT group. Conclusions: First degree relatives of T2DM with isolated impaired fasting glucose should probably be included in the primary preventive program for diabetes. However, longitudinal cohort study is required to show high progression of i-IFG to T2DM.

  13. Theory-of-mind understanding and theory-of-mind use in unaffected first-degree relatives of schizophrenia and bipolar disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yong-Guang; Roberts, David L; Liang, Yan; Shi, Jian-Fei; Wang, Kai

    2015-12-15

    We assessed theory of mind (ToM) in unaffected first-degree relatives (FDR) of patients with schizophrenia (SC) and bipolar disorder (BD) compared to healthy controls with a revised computerized referential communication task. Results showed that FDR of SC performed worse than FDR of BD and controls on a task requiring ToM-use, but not on a task requiring ToM-understanding. This indicates that deficient ToM-use, rather than ToM-understanding impairments, may represent a potential candidate endophenotype for schizophrenia. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. The Cognitive Function in the First-degree Relatives of Schizophrenic Patients%精神分裂症患者一级亲属的认知功能研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张治坤; 秦鹏; 谭立文; 谢光荣

    2003-01-01

    This article summarized the cognitive function in the first - degree relatives of schizophrenic patients including sus-tained attention, intelligence, working memory, and executive functions, and so on.

  15. Family history of cancer other than breast or ovarian cancer in first-degree relatives is associated with poor breast cancer prognosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Jun-Long; Chen, Chuang; Yuan, Jing-Ping; Li, Juan-Juan; Sun, Sheng-Rong

    2017-04-01

    Whether a first-degree family history of others cancers (FHOC) than breast or ovarian cancer (BOC) is associated with breast cancer prognosis remains unknown. Thus, the aim of the present study was to clarify this issue. Women who were diagnosed with invasive breast cancer at the Renmin Hospital of Wuhan University from 2010 to 2013 were included in the study. The demographic and clinicopathological characteristics of these patients were extracted. FHOC was considered positive for any patient who had a relative who had been diagnosed with cancer other than BOC. Disease-free survival (DFS) was calculated based on the date of diagnosis. DFS was analyzed using the Cox proportional hazards model. A total of 434 breast cancer patients were included in this study. Among these patients, 61 (14.06%) had a positive FHOC in first-degree relatives. Patients with a positive FHOC tended to have HER2-positive breast cancer (p = 0.03). In the survival analysis, FHOC was associated with poor DFS in both univariate (HR = 2.21 (1.28-3.83), 95% CI: 1.28-3.83, p breast cancer patients with FHOC, especially in patients with luminal A subtype. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Abnormalities in gamma-band responses to language stimuli in first-degree relatives of children with autism spectrum disorder: an MEG study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McFadden Kristina L

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Synchronous neural oscillatory activity in the gamma range (30–80 Hz has been shown to be abnormal in individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD and their first-degree relatives in response to simple auditory stimuli. Gamma-band abnormalities in ASD probands have been seen in response to language stimuli, but this has not been investigated in first-degree relatives. This is of particular interest given that language impairments are a core symptom of ASD and may be part of the broad autism phenotype (BAP seen in relatives. Methods Magnetoencephalography recordings during a continuous word recognition task were obtained for 23 parents of a child with ASD (pASD and 28 adult control participants. Total and evoked gamma-band activity, as well as inter-trial phase-locking factor (PLF, were measured in response to the task. Beta-band activity was also measured, due to its suggested role in language processing. Participants completed a series of language measures to assess the relationship between brain activity and language function, and lateralization of task-related activity was assessed. Results The pASD group showed increased evoked gamma and beta activity, while controls had decreased evoked activity. Additionally, while both groups showed a reduction in total gamma power (commonly seen in language tasks, this reduction was more prominent in the control group. The pASD group demonstrated significantly worse performance on a measure of phonology compared to controls. Significant but distinct relationships were found between gamma/beta activity and language measures within the two groups. In addition, while the overall task generally elicited left lateralized responses, pASD showed greater left lateralization than controls in some regions of interest. Conclusions Abnormalities in oscillatory responses to language were seen in pASD that are consistent with previous findings in ASD probands. Gamma-band responses to language

  17. Social cognition in patients with schizophrenia, their unaffected first degree relatives and healthy controls. Comparison between groups and analysis of associated clinical and sociodemographic variables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez Sosa, Juana Teresa; Gil Santiago, Hiurma; Trujillo Cubas, Angel; Winter Navarro, Marta; León Pérez, Petra; Guerra Cazorla, Luz Marina; Martín Jiménez, José María

    2013-01-01

    To evaluate and compare the social cognition in patients with schizophrenia, healthy first-degree relatives and controls, by studying the relationship between social cognition and nonsocial cognition, psychopathology, and other clinical and sociodemographic variables. The total sample was comprised of patients diagnosed with paranoid schizophrenia (N = 29), healthy first-degree relatives (N = 21) and controls (N = 28). All groups were assessed with an ad hoc questionnaire and a Social Cognition Scale, which assessed the domains: emotional processing, social perception and attributional style in a Spanish population. The patient group was also assessed with the Scale for the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale and the Mini-mental state examination. Statistical analyses were performed with SPSS version 15.0. Patients scored significantly worse in all domains of social cognition assessed, compared with controls, and mastery attributional style, compared with relatives. The type of psychopathology correlated negatively and statistically significantly with different domains of social cognition: negative symptoms with emotional processing and attributional style, and positive symptoms with social perception. Basic cognition scores correlated positively and statistically significantly with the domains social perception and attributional style. Social cognition has become an interesting object of study, especially in how it relates to non-social cognition, psychopathology and global functioning of patients, bringing new elements to be considered in the early detection, comprehensive treatment and psychosocial rehabilitation of patients. Its conceptualization as trait variable, the consideration of the existence of a continuum between patients and relatives are plausible hypotheses that require further research. Copyright © 2012 SEP y SEPB. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  18. Transient and steady-state auditory gamma-band responses in first-degree relatives of people with autism spectrum disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rojas Donald C

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Stimulus-related γ-band oscillations, which may be related to perceptual binding, are reduced in people with autism spectrum disorders (ASD. The purpose of this study was to examine auditory transient and steady-state γ-band findings in first-degree relatives of people with ASD to assess the potential familiality of these findings in ASD. Methods Magnetoencephalography (MEG recordings in 21 parents who had a child with an autism spectrum disorder (pASD and 20 healthy adult control subjects (HC were obtained. Gamma-band phase locking factor (PLF, and evoked and induced power to 32, 40 and 48 Hz amplitude-modulated sounds were measured for transient and steady-state responses. Participants were also tested on a number of behavioral and cognitive assessments related to the broad autism phenotype (BAP. Results Reliable group differences were seen primarily for steady-state responses. In the left hemisphere, pASD subjects exhibited lower phase-locked steady-state power in all three conditions. Total γ-band power, including the non-phase-locked component, was also reduced in the pASD group. In addition, pASD subjects had significantly lower PLF than the HC group. Correlations were seen between MEG measures and BAP measures. Conclusions The reduction in steady-state γ-band responses in the pASD group is consistent with previous results for children with ASD. Steady-state responses may be more sensitive than transient responses to phase-locking errors in ASD. Together with the lower PLF and phase-locked power in first-degree relatives, correlations between γ-band measures and behavioral measures relevant to the BAP highlight the potential of γ-band deficits as a potential new autism endophenotype.

  19. Elevation in fibroblast growth factor 23 and its value for identifying subclinical atherosclerosis in first-degree relatives of patients with diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Xiang; Ma, Xiaojing; Luo, Yuqi; Xu, Yiting; Xiong, Qin; Pan, Xiaoping; Bao, Yuqian; Jia, Weiping

    2016-01-01

    Accumulating evidence supported an association between diabetes and fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23). The goal of the present study was to explore alteration in serum FGF23 levels and to assess its value for identifying subclinical atherosclerosis in normoglycemic individuals with a first-degree family history of diabetes (FHD). The study enrolled 312 subjects with a first-degree FHD and 1407 subjects without an FHD. Serum FGF23 levels were detected by a sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Serum FGF23 levels were much higher in subjects with a first-degree FHD than in those without an FHD (P = 0.006). A first-degree FHD was positively associated with serum FGF23 levels, independent of C-IMT and cardiovascular factors (both P < 0.05). In subjects with a first-degree FHD, only those with serum FGF23 levels in the upper quartile were more likely to have an increased C-IMT (odds ratio = 2.263, P < 0.05). As conclusions, a first-degree FHD contributes to the increased serum FGF23 levels independently. Subjects with a first-degree FHD need higher serum FGF23 levels to indicate subclinical atherosclerosis. The influence of a first-degree FHD on serum FGF23 levels should be considered to avoid overestimating the risk of cardiovascular disease in normoglycemic individuals with a first-degree FHD. PMID:27698482

  20. A randomized trial of the effect of escitalopram versus placebo on cognitive function in healthy first-degree relatives of patients with depression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knorr, Ulla; Vinberg, Maj; Gade, Anders

    2011-01-01

    The effect of selective serotonin receptor inhibitors (SSRIs) on healthy individuals remains unclear. The aim of the trial was to evaluate the effect of the SSRI escitalopram on cognitive function in healthy first-degree relatives of patients with major depressive disorder (FDRs). A total of 80...... following treatment of depressed patients with SSRIs seems to be related to the effects on depressive symptoms rather than to a direct effect of the SSRI....... cognitive score and the variables age, sex, Hamilton depression score 17 items, Danish Adult Reading Test-45, and plasma escitalopram levels, respectively. These results suggest that treatment with escitalopram does not improve or impair cognitive function in FDRs. Improvement in cognitive function...

  1. Mental Health Status of the First-degree Relatives of Heroin Dependent Patients%海洛因依赖者一级亲属心理状况测查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    戴俊平; 赵振环

    2001-01-01

    Objective:To explore the mental health status of the first-degree relatives of the heroin addicts. Methods: Three hundred twenty first-degree relatives of the heroin addicts were evaluated with SCL-90. Results: The scores of somatization, depression, anxiety, paranoia, and psychiatric factor among the first-degree relatives were significantly higher than the national norm. The first-degree relatives of heroin addicts who had addicted more than 5 years had significantly higher score than the relatives of heroin addicts who had addicts less than 5 years. Conclusion: The mental health condition of the first-degree relatives of heroin addicts was poor, especially those relatives of heroin addicts who have addicted for more than 5 years.

  2. Diabetes risk reduction in overweight first degree relatives of type 2 diabetes patients: Effects of a low-intensive lifestyle education program (DiAlert) A randomized controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heideman, W.H.; de Wit, M.; Middelkoop, B.J.C.; Nierkens, V.; Stronks, K.; Verhoeff, A.P.; Snoek, F.J.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To test the efficacy of a low-intensive lifestyle education program (DiAlert) for overweight first degree relatives of type 2 diabetes patients aimed at reducing diabetes risk. Methods Overweight first degree relatives of type 2 diabetes patients were randomly assigned to the DiAlert

  3. Effect of physical training on insulin secretion and action in skeletal muscle and adipose tissue of first-degree relatives of type 2 diabetic patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dela, Flemming; Stallknecht, Bente Merete

    2010-01-01

    Physical training affects insulin secretion and action, but there is a paucity of data on the direct effects in skeletal muscle and adipose tissue and on the effect of training in first-degree relatives (FDR) of patients with type 2 diabetes. We studied insulin action at the whole body level...... and peripherally in skeletal muscle and adipose tissue as well as insulin-secretory capacity in seven FDR and eight control (CON) subjects before and after 12 wk of endurance training. Training improved physical fitness. Insulin-mediated glucose uptake (GU) increased (whole body and leg; P ... adipose tissue and quadriceps muscle with no difference between FDR and CON. Glucose-stimulated insulin secretion was lower in FDR compared with CON, but no effect of training was seen. Glucagon-like peptide-1 stimulated insulin secretion five...

  4. The effect of escitalopram versus placebo on perceived stress and salivary cortisol in healthy first-degree relatives of patients with depression-A randomised trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knorr, Ulla; Vinberg, Maj; Gether, Ulrik

    2012-01-01

    intervals for the next hour, and at 12:00, 18:00 and 23:00. The salivary cortisol awakening response, all day salivary cortisol, and scale scores on sleep, pain, aggression, quality of life, and perceived stress assessed at entry were compared to values following 4 weeks of intervention. Statistically......The effect of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRI) on healthy individuals remains unclear. We tested the hypothesis that escitalopram decreases perceived stress and salivary cortisol. The trial has a randomised, blinded, placebo-controlled, parallel-group design. After informed consent 80...... healthy first-degree relatives to patients with depression were randomly allocated to receive daily tablets of escitalopram 10mg or placebo for 4 weeks. The area under the curve (AUC) for awakening and all day salivary cortisol was analysed in samples taken immediately after awakening and at 15-min...

  5. Acute effects of monounsaturated fat on postprandial lipemia and gene expression in first-degree relatives of subjects with type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holst, J J; Gregersen, S; Pedersen, S B

    2014-01-01

    Background/Objectives:Subjects with type 2 diabetes (T2D) and their nondiabetic first-degree relatives (REL) have increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Postprandial triglyceridemia (PPL), influenced by diet, is an independent risk factor for CVD. Dietary fat elicits increased PPL in T2D...... compared with nondiabetic controls, but our knowledge of PPL responses to fat in REL is sparse. Our aim was to test the hypothesis that REL respond to a monounsaturated fatty acid (MUFA) challenge with a higher PPL response compared with controls who have no family history of T2D (CON) and that MUFAs exert...... a differential impact on incretin responses and on the expression of genes involved in carbohydrate and lipid metabolism in muscle and adipose tissues of REL and CON.Subjects/Methods:A total of 17 REL and 17 CON consumed a meal with 72 energy percent derived from MUFAs (macadamia nut oil). Plasma triglycerides...

  6. Towards personalized screening: Cumulative risk of breast cancer screening outcomes in women with and without a first-degree relative with a history of breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ripping, Theodora Maria; Hubbard, Rebecca A; Otten, Johannes D M; den Heeten, Gerard J; Verbeek, André L M; Broeders, Mireille J M

    2016-04-01

    Several reviews have estimated the balance of benefits and harms of mammographic screening in the general population. The balance may, however, differ between individuals with and without family history. Therefore, our aim is to assess the cumulative risk of screening outcomes; screen-detected breast cancer, interval cancer, and false-positive results, in women screenees aged 50-75 and 40-75, with and without a first-degree relative with a history of breast cancer at the start of screening. Data on screening attendance, recall and breast cancer detection were collected for each woman living in Nijmegen (The Netherlands) since 1975. We used a discrete time survival model to calculate the cumulative probability of each major screening outcome over 19 screening rounds. Women with a family history of breast cancer had a higher risk of all screening outcomes. For women screened from age 50-75, the cumulative risk of screen-detected breast cancer, interval cancer and false-positive results were 9.0, 4.4 and 11.1% for women with a family history and 6.3, 2.7 and 7.3% for women without a family history, respectively. The results for women 40-75 followed the same pattern for women screened 50-75 for cancer outcomes, but were almost doubled for false-positive results. To conclude, women with a first-degree relative with a history of breast cancer are more likely to experience benefits and harms of screening than women without a family history. To complete the balance and provide risk-based screening recommendations, the breast cancer mortality reduction and overdiagnosis should be estimated for family history subgroups.

  7. Effect of chronic escitalopram versus placebo on personality traits in healthy first-degree relatives of patients with depression: a randomized trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulla Knorr

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: The serotonergic neurotransmitter system is closely linked to depression and personality traits. It is not known if selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRI have an effect on neuroticism that is independent of their effect on depression. Healthy individuals with a genetic liability for depression represent a group of particular interest when investigating if intervention with SSRIs affects personality. The present trial is the first to test the hypothesis that escitalopram may reduce neuroticism in healthy first-degree relatives of patients with major depressive disorder (MD. METHODS: The trial used a randomized, blinded, placebo-controlled parallel-group design. We examined the effect of four weeks escitalopram 10 mg daily versus matching placebo on personality in 80 people who had a biological parent or sibling with a history of MD. The outcome measure on personality traits was change in self-reported neuroticism scores on the Revised Neuroticism-Extroversion-Openness-Personality Inventory (NEO-PI-R and the Eysenck Personality Inventory (EPQ from entry until end of four weeks of intervention. RESULTS: When compared with placebo, escitalopram did not significantly affect self-reported NEO-PI-R and EPQ neuroticism and extroversion, EPQ psychoticism, NEO-PI-R openness, or NEO-PI-R conscientiousness (p all above 0.05. However, escitalopram increased NEO-PI-R agreeableness scores significantly compared with placebo (mean; SD (2.38; 8.09 versus (-1.32; 7.94, p = 0.046, but not following correction for multiplicity. A trend was shown for increased conscientiousness (p = 0.07. There was no significant effect on subclinical depressive symptoms (p = 0.6. CONCLUSION: In healthy first-degree relatives of patients with MD, there is no effect of escitalopram on neuroticism, but it is possible that escitalopram may increase the personality traits of agreeableness and conscientiousness. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Clinicaltrials.gov NCT

  8. Nonalcoholic fatty liver may increase the risk of operation in patients with fatty liver and the frequency of cancer in their first-degree relatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basaranoglu, Metin; Canbakan, Billur; Yildiz, Kemal; Ceylan, Bahadir; Baysal, Birol; Uysal, Omer; Senturk, Hakan

    2016-10-01

    Fatty liver is a common disease in developed countries. We investigated the frequency of operation in patients with fatty liver and the frequency of cancer in their first-degree relatives. In this study, we evaluated 105 patients with biopsy-proven nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), 121 patients with hepatitis C (61 patients with fatty liver and 60 patients without fatty liver), 50 patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), and 109 patients with dyspepsia as a control group. There was no difference for sex, mean age, and marital status among the groups, except that patients with IBD were younger than others (p family was as follows: 18 % in IBD, 9 % in dyspepsia, 28 % in hepatitis C with hepatic steatosis, 21.5 % in hepatitis C without steatosis, and 27 % in NAFLD (p = 0.006). Then, we divided the study group into two groups-group 1: IBD + dyspepsia + hepatitis C without hepatic steatosis, and group 2: hepatitis C with hepatic steatosis + NAFLD-and performed the same analysis. We found that the frequency of cancer in family was 16 % in group 1 (the patients without fatty liver) vs. 24.4 % in group 2 (those with fatty liver; p = 0.037). We also investigated the rate of operation in patients. The results were as follows: 33 % in group 1 vs. 43 % in group 2 (p = 0.043). Independently of the underlying chronic diseases, occurrence of fat in the liver increased the frequency of operation in patients with fatty liver and the rate of cancer in their first-degree relatives. Understanding the underlying causes of fatty liver forms might decrease the cancer frequency in the population and number of operation in patients with fatty liver.

  9. Minor physical anomalies are more common among the first-degree unaffected relatives of schizophrenia patients - Results with the Méhes Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajnal, András; Csábi, Györgyi; Herold, Róbert; Jeges, Sára; Halmai, Tamás; Trixler, Dániel; Simon, Maria; Tóth, Ákos Levente; Tényi, Tamás

    2016-03-30

    Minor physical anomalies are external markers of abnormal brain development,so the more common appearance of these signs among the relatives of schizophrenia patients can confirm minor physical anomalies as intermediate phenotypes. The aim of the present study was to investigate the rate and topological profile of minor physical anomalies in the first-degree unaffected relatives of patients with schizophrenia compared to matched normal control subjects. Using a list of 57 minor physical anomalies (the Méhes Scale), 20 relatives of patients with the diagnosis of schizophrenia and as a comparison 20 matched normal control subjects were examined. Minor physical anomalies were more common in the head and mouth regions among the relatives of schizophrenia patients compared to normal controls. By the differentiation of minor malformations and phenogenetic variants, we have found that only phenogenetic variants were more common in the relatives of schizophrenia patients compared to the control group, however individual analyses showed, that one minor malformation (flat forehead) was more prevalent in the relative group. The results can promote the concept, that minor physical anomalies can be endophenotypic markers of the illness.

  10. Reduced cardiac autonomic response to deep breathing: A heritable vulnerability trait in patients with schizophrenia and their healthy first-degree relatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yu-Wen; Tzeng, Nian-Sheng; Yeh, Chin-Bin; Kuo, Terry B J; Huang, San-Yuan; Chang, Chuan-Chia; Chang, Hsin-An

    2016-09-30

    Reduced resting heart rate variability (HRV) has been observed in patients with schizophrenia and their relatives, suggesting genetic predispositions. However, findings have not been consistent. We assessed cardiac autonomic response to deep breathing in first-degree relatives of patients with schizophrenia (n=45; 26 female; aged 39.69±14.82 years). Data were compared to healthy controls (n=45; 26 female; aged 38.27±9.79 years) matched for age, gender, body mass index and physical activity as well as to unmedicated patients with acute schizophrenia (n=45; 25 female; aged 37.31±12.65 years). Electrocardiograms were recorded under supine resting and deep-breathing conditions (10-12breaths/min). We measured HRV components including variance, low-frequency (LF) power, which may reflect baroreflex function, high-frequency (HF) power, which reflects cardiac parasympathetic activity, and LF/HF ratio, which may reflect sympatho-vagal balance. Patients rather than relatives exhibited lower resting-state HRV (variance, LF, and HF) than controls. As expected, deep breathing induced an increase in variance and HF-HRV in controls. However, such a response was significantly reduced in both patients and their relatives. In conclusion, the diminished cardiac autonomic reactivity to deep breathing seen in patients and their unaffected relatives indicates that this pattern of cardiac autonomic dysregulation may be regarded as a genetic trait marker for schizophrenia.

  11. Sex and Laterality Differences in Parkinsonian Impairment and Transcranial Ultrasound in Never-Treated Schizophrenics and Their First Degree Relatives in an Andean population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamis, Danielle; Stratton, Lee; Calvó, María; Padilla, Eduardo; Florenzano, Néstor; Guerrero, Gonzalo; Rangeon, Beatriz Molina; Molina, Juan; de Erausquin, Gabriel A.

    2015-01-01

    We tested the hypothesis that loss of substantia nigra neurons in subjects at risk of schizophrenia (1), as reflected by midbrain hyperechogenicity (2) and parkinsonian motor impairment (3), is asymmetric and influenced by sex. We evaluated 62 subjects with never-treated chronic schizophrenia, 80 of their adult, unaffected first degree relatives and 62 healthy controls (matched by sex and age to the cases), part of an Andean population of Northern Argentina. Parkinsonism was scored blindly using UPDRS-3 (Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale) on videotaped exams by 2 independent raters. Trancranial ultrasound was performed by an expert sonographist blind to subject condition with a 2.5 MHz transducer through a temporal bone window. Quantification of echogenic area was carried out on saved images by a different evaluator. We found a significant difference in parkinsonian motor impairment between patients, their relatives as well as controls. All three groups showed worse parkinsonism on the left side than the right, corresponding with increased echogenicity on the right substantia nigra compared with the left. Females had significantly more right echogenicity than males, and patients and unaffected relatives were significantly more echogenic than controls on that side. On the left, only female patients had significant echogenicity. Our data supports the notion that unaffected relatives of schizophrenic subjects have increased parkinsonism and concomitant brainstem abnormalities which may represent a vulnerability to the disease. Both motor and brainstem abnormalities are asymmetric and influenced by sex. PMID:25735637

  12. Myeloperoxidase Is Associated with Insulin Resistance and Inflammation in Overweight Subjects with First-Degree Relatives with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anel Gómez García

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundFamily history of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM is one of risk factors for that in future a subject can develop diabetes. Insulin resistance (IR is important in the pathogenesis of T2DM. There is evidence that oxidative stress plays an important role in the etiology and/or progression of diabetes. Myeloperoxidase (MPO participates in developing of inflammation. The objective was to investigate if MPO is associated with IR and inflammation in individuals with first-degree relatives of T2DM.MethodsCross-sectional study in 84 overweight individuals with family history of T2DM divided in two groups according to IR, group with IR (homeostasis model assessment [HOMA] ≥2.5; n=43 and control group (CG; HOMA <2.5; n=41. Complete clinical history and a venous blood sample were collected for measuring glucose and lipids profile, insulin, interleukin-6 (IL-6, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α, MPO, glutathione reductase (GRd, glutathione peroxidase, and superoxide dismutase.ResultsMPO, TNF-α, and IL-6 were higher in patients with IR than in CG (MPO: 308.35 [190.85 to 445.42] vs. 177.35 [104.50 to 279.85], P=0.0001; TNF-α: 13.46 [10.58 to 18.88] vs. 9.39 [7.53 to 11.25], P=0.0001; IL-6: 32.93 [24.93 to 38.27] vs. 15.60 [12.93 to 26.27]; P=0.0001, respectively. MPO was associated with IR (rho de Spearman=0.362, P=0.001. In the analysis of lineal regression, MPO predicts IR (β, 0.263; t, 2.520; P=0.014. In the univariate analysis, MPO had an odds ratio of 9.880 for risk of IR (95% confidence interval, 2.647 to 36.879.ConclusionMPO had relation with IR and inflammation parameters in overweight subjects with first-degree relatives of T2DM. We need studies on a casual relationship and molecular mechanisms among the increased serum MPO levels, inflammation markers, and IR.

  13. High prevalence of abnormal glucose tolerance and metabolic disturbances in first degree relatives of NIDDM patients. A study in Catalonia, a mediterranean community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, A; Rios, M; Casamitjana, R; Gomis, R; Conget, I

    1998-09-01

    Our study aimed to analyse clinical and metabolic characteristics of first degree relatives of patients with non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) in Catalonia. Two hundred and five subjects (39.8 +/- 14.2 year-old, 61% women) were included in the study. An oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) was performed, obtaining basal plasma glucose and insulin, in order to calculate, %B (HOMA beta cell function) and %S (HOMA insulin sensitivity). A 30.7% of subjects showed an abnormal glucose tolerance, either as impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) (20.5%) or as NIDDM (10.2%). Glycaemia after the OGTT (120 min) was independently determined by fasting glycaemia and age (R2 = 0.50; P history of NIDDM (log %S, 3.6 +/- 0.4 vs. 3.9 +/- 0.4; P = 0.000; log-insulin 2.4 +/- 0.4 vs. 2.1 +/- 0.6 mU/l; P history of NIDDM. Interestingly, the rates, of abnormal glucose tolerance in the 55-64 and > 64 year groups in the general population were similar to those seen in relatives two decades younger. Our study not only confirms a high prevalence of impaired glucose tolerance (IGT and NIDDM) in subjects with a family history of NIDDM, but also that these abnormalities can be detected at a very early age. Globally, this piece of information corroborates that special attention and precocious detection programs should be addressed to relatives of NIDDM patients.

  14. An experimental test of the effect of incentives on recruitment of ethnically diverse colorectal cancer cases and their first-degree relatives into a research study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maxwell, Annette E; Bastani, Roshan; Glenn, Beth A; Mojica, Cynthia M; Chang, L Cindy

    2009-10-01

    Optimizing participant response rates is important for obtaining representative samples and the timely completion of studies. It is a common practice to use participant incentives to boost response rates, but few studies have systematically examined their effectiveness, particularly among minority groups. We experimentally tested three incentive strategies for their effectiveness in improving response rates among colorectal cancer cases (n = 3,816) and their relatives (n = 2,353). A 2 x 2 x 2 factorial design compared (a) registered versus first class mail, (b) $5 cash with the initial mailing (yes/no), and (c) $20 promise (yes/no) upon completion of the information form (for cases) or $10 promise (yes/no) upon completion of the baseline survey (for relatives). Outcome measures were provision of contact information on first-degree relatives for cases and completion of the baseline survey for relatives. The response rate among cases was low in all ethnic groups (28-37%) and incentive strategies did not have an effect. Among relatives, the overall baseline survey response rate was 71%, ranging from 66% among Asians to 76% among Whites. Modest absolute increases were observed for payment schedules that included a $5 cash enclosure with the initial mailing in the total sample [odds ratio (OR), 1.65 and 1.47] and among Latinos (OR, 1.94 and 1.74) but not among Asians (OR, 1.61 and 1.55) or African Americans (OR, 1.19 and 1.02). Response rates were not influenced by registered versus first-class mailing. The effects of incentives in this study were modest with some suggestion of differences by ethnic group and type of incentive.

  15. Effect of physical training on insulin secretion and action in skeletal muscle and adipose tissue of first-degree relatives of type 2 diabetic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dela, Flemming; Stallknecht, Bente

    2010-07-01

    Physical training affects insulin secretion and action, but there is a paucity of data on the direct effects in skeletal muscle and adipose tissue and on the effect of training in first-degree relatives (FDR) of patients with type 2 diabetes. We studied insulin action at the whole body level and peripherally in skeletal muscle and adipose tissue as well as insulin-secretory capacity in seven FDR and eight control (CON) subjects before and after 12 wk of endurance training. Training improved physical fitness. Insulin-mediated glucose uptake (GU) increased (whole body and leg; P training in CON but not in FDR, whereas glucose-mediated GU increased (P training, but it was higher (abdominal, P Training increased skeletal muscle lipolysis (P abdominal than in femoral adipose tissue and quadriceps muscle with no difference between FDR and CON. Glucose-stimulated insulin secretion was lower in FDR compared with CON, but no effect of training was seen. Glucagon-like peptide-1 stimulated insulin secretion five- to sevenfold. We conclude that insulin-secretory capacity is lower in FDR than in CON and that there is dissociation between training-induced changes in insulin secretion and insulin-mediated GU. Maximal GU rates are similar between groups and increases with physical training.

  16. Sympathovagal imbalance contributes to prehypertension status and cardiovascular risks attributed by insulin resistance, inflammation, dyslipidemia and oxidative stress in first degree relatives of type 2 diabetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pal, Gopal Krushna; Adithan, Chandrasekaran; Ananthanarayanan, Palghat Hariharan; Pal, Pravati; Nanda, Nivedita; Durgadevi, Thiyagarajan; Lalitha, Venugopal; Syamsunder, Avupati Naga; Dutta, Tarun Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Though cardiovascular (CV) risks are reported in first-degree relatives (FDR) of type 2 diabetics, the pathophysiological mechanisms contributing to these risks are not known. We investigated the association of sympathovagal imbalance (SVI) with CV risks in these subjects. Body mass index (BMI), basal heart rate (BHR), blood pressure (BP), rate-pressure product (RPP), spectral indices of heart rate variability (HRV), autonomic function tests, insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), lipid profile, inflammatory markers, oxidative stress (OS) marker, rennin, thyroid profile and serum electrolytes were measured and analyzed in subjects of study group (FDR of type 2 diabetics, n = 72) and control group (subjects with no family history of diabetes, n = 104). BMI, BP, BHR, HOMA-IR, lipid profile, inflammatory and OS markers, renin, LF-HF (ratio of low-frequency to high-frequency power of HRV, a sensitive marker of SVI) were significantly increased (pcaused by insulin resistance, dyslipidemia, inflammation and oxidative stress in FDR of type 2 diabetics.

  17. The effect of escitalopram versus placebo on perceived stress and salivary cortisol in healthy first-degree relatives of patients with depression-A randomised trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knorr, Ulla; Vinberg, Maj; Gether, Ulrik; Winkel, Per; Gluud, Christian; Wetterslev, Jørn; Kessing, Lars Vedel

    2012-12-30

    The effect of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRI) on healthy individuals remains unclear. We tested the hypothesis that escitalopram decreases perceived stress and salivary cortisol. The trial has a randomised, blinded, placebo-controlled, parallel-group design. After informed consent 80 healthy first-degree relatives to patients with depression were randomly allocated to receive daily tablets of escitalopram 10mg or placebo for 4 weeks. The area under the curve (AUC) for awakening and all day salivary cortisol was analysed in samples taken immediately after awakening and at 15-min intervals for the next hour, and at 12:00, 18:00 and 23:00. The salivary cortisol awakening response, all day salivary cortisol, and scale scores on sleep, pain, aggression, quality of life, and perceived stress assessed at entry were compared to values following 4 weeks of intervention. Statistically significant decreases were found in awakening salivary cortisol (P=0.04) and in all day salivary cortisol (P=0.02) in the escitalopram group compared with the placebo group. There were no statistically significant differences in perceived stress between the intervention groups. These findings from a randomised clinical trial suggest that a long-term escitalopram administration to healthy participants results in a decrease in the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) activity measured by salivary cortisol compared with inert placebo. However, change in salivary cortisol was one out of multiple outcome measures. The results of the present trial do not refute salivary cortisol as a potential endophenotype for depression.

  18. Evaluation of Hs-CRP levels and interleukin 18 (-137G/C) promoter polymorphism in risk prediction of coronary artery disease in first degree relatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    G, Rajesh Kumar; K, Mrudula Spurthi; G, Kishore Kumar; Kurapati, Mohanalatha; M, Saraswati; T, Mohini Aiyengar; P, Chiranjeevi; G, Srilatha Reddy; S, Nivas; P, Kaushik; K, Sanjib Sahu; H, Surekha Rani

    2015-01-01

    Coronary Artery Disease (CAD) is clearly a multifactorial disease that develops from childhood and ultimately leads to death. Several reports revealed having a First Degree Relatives (FDRS) with premature CAD is a significant autonomous risk factor for CAD development. C - reactive protein (CRP) is a member of the pentraxin family and is the most widely studied proinflammatory biomarker. IL-18 is a pleiotrophic and proinflammatory cytokine which is produced mainly by macrophages and plays an important role in the inflammatory cascade. Hs-CRP levels were estimated by ELISA and Genotyping of IL-18 gene variant located on promoter -137 (G/C) by Allele specific PCR in blood samples of 300 CAD patients and 300 controls and 100 FDRS. Promoter Binding sites and Protein interacting partners were identified by Alibaba 2.1 and Genemania online tools respectively. Hs-CRP levels were significantly high in CAD patients followed by FDRS when compared to controls. In IL-18 -137 (G/C) polymorphism homozygous GG is significantly associated with occurrence of CAD and Hs-CRP levels were significantly higher in GG genotype subjects when compared to GC and CC. IL-18 was found to be interacting with 100 protein interactants. Our results indicate that Hs-CRP levels and IL-18-137(G/C) polymorphism may help to identify risk of future events of CAD in asymptomatic healthy FDRS.

  19. Evaluation of Hs-CRP levels and interleukin 18 (-137G/C promoter polymorphism in risk prediction of coronary artery disease in first degree relatives.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajesh Kumar G

    Full Text Available Coronary Artery Disease (CAD is clearly a multifactorial disease that develops from childhood and ultimately leads to death. Several reports revealed having a First Degree Relatives (FDRS with premature CAD is a significant autonomous risk factor for CAD development. C - reactive protein (CRP is a member of the pentraxin family and is the most widely studied proinflammatory biomarker. IL-18 is a pleiotrophic and proinflammatory cytokine which is produced mainly by macrophages and plays an important role in the inflammatory cascade.Hs-CRP levels were estimated by ELISA and Genotyping of IL-18 gene variant located on promoter -137 (G/C by Allele specific PCR in blood samples of 300 CAD patients and 300 controls and 100 FDRS. Promoter Binding sites and Protein interacting partners were identified by Alibaba 2.1 and Genemania online tools respectively. Hs-CRP levels were significantly high in CAD patients followed by FDRS when compared to controls. In IL-18 -137 (G/C polymorphism homozygous GG is significantly associated with occurrence of CAD and Hs-CRP levels were significantly higher in GG genotype subjects when compared to GC and CC. IL-18 was found to be interacting with 100 protein interactants.Our results indicate that Hs-CRP levels and IL-18-137(G/C polymorphism may help to identify risk of future events of CAD in asymptomatic healthy FDRS.

  20. Prediction of Neurocognitive Deficits by Parkinsonian Motor Impairment in Schizophrenia: A Study in Neuroleptic-Naïve Subjects, Unaffected First-Degree Relatives and Healthy Controls From an Indigenous Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molina, Juan L; González Alemán, Gabriela; Florenzano, Néstor; Padilla, Eduardo; Calvó, María; Guerrero, Gonzalo; Kamis, Danielle; Stratton, Lee; Toranzo, Juan; Molina Rangeon, Beatriz; Hernández Cuervo, Helena; Bourdieu, Mercedes; Sedó, Manuel; Strejilevich, Sergio; Cloninger, Claude Robert; Escobar, Javier I; de Erausquin, Gabriel A

    2016-11-01

    Neurocognitive deficits are among the most debilitating and pervasive symptoms of schizophrenia, and are present also in unaffected first-degree relatives. Also, multiple reports reveal parkisonian motor deficits in untreated subjects with schizophrenia and in first-degree relatives of affected subjects. Yet, the relation between motor and cognitive impairment and its value as a classifier of endophenotypes has not been studied. To test the efficacy of midbrain hyperechogenicity (MHE) and parkinsonian motor impairment (PKM) as predictors of neurocognitive impairment in subjects with or at risk for schizophrenia, that could be used to segregate them from first-degree relatives and healthy controls. Seventy-six subjects with chronic schizophrenia never exposed to antipsychotic medication, 106 unaffected first-degree relatives, and 62 healthy controls were blindly assessed for cognitive and motor function, and transcranial ultrasound. Executive function, fluid intelligence, motor planning, and hand coordination showed group differences. PKM and MHE were significantly higher in untreated schizophrenia and unaffected relatives. Unaffected relatives showed milder impairment, but were different from controls. PKM and MHE predict cognitive impairment in neuroleptic-naive patients with schizophrenia and their unaffected first-degree relatives and may be used to segregate them from first-degree relatives and healthy controls. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Maryland Psychiatric Research Center. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. Greater prevalence of seropositivity for anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide antibody in unaffected first-degree relatives in multicase rheumatoid arthritis-affected families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Seong-Kyu; Bae, Jisuk; Lee, Hwajeong; Kim, Ji Hun; Park, Sung-Hoon; Choe, Jung-Yoon

    2013-01-01

    This study determined the prevalence and determinants of seropositivity for rheumatoid factor (RF), anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide (anti-CCP) antibody, and anti-mutated citrullinated vimentin (anti-MCV) antibody in unaffected first-degree relatives (FDRs) of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients. A total of 337 subjects (135 with RA and 202 FDRs) were enrolled in this case-control study. Serum RF, anti-CCP antibody, and anti-MCV antibody were assayed. Subjects in multicase families (≥ 2 affected FDRs within the same family) were identified. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to identify risk factors associated with RA-related autoantibodies. Seropositivity for RF, anti-CCP antibody, or anti-MCV antibody was detected in 14.4%, 5.0%, or 13.4% of unaffected FDRs, respectively. Anti-CCP antibody seropositivity was more prevalent in FDRs in multicase families (17.8%) than in those not in multicase families (1.3%, p autoantibodies were detected in the FDR group (between RF and anti-CCP antibody: r = 0.366, p < 0.0001; between RF and anti-MCV antibody: r = 0.343, p < 0.0001; and between anti-CCP antibody and anti-MCV antibody: r = 0.849, p < 0.0001). After adjustment for age and sex, anti-CCP antibody seropositivity in FDRs was significantly associated with being in a multicase family (odds ratio, 49.8; 95% confidence interval, 5.6 to 441.6). The association between anti-CCP antibody seropositivity in unaffected FDRs and being in a multicase family suggests that genetic and/or environmental factors may increase the risk for RA development in unaffected FDRs.

  2. Sympathovagal imbalance contributes to prehypertension status and cardiovascular risks attributed by insulin resistance, inflammation, dyslipidemia and oxidative stress in first degree relatives of type 2 diabetics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gopal Krushna Pal

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Though cardiovascular (CV risks are reported in first-degree relatives (FDR of type 2 diabetics, the pathophysiological mechanisms contributing to these risks are not known. We investigated the association of sympathovagal imbalance (SVI with CV risks in these subjects. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Body mass index (BMI, basal heart rate (BHR, blood pressure (BP, rate-pressure product (RPP, spectral indices of heart rate variability (HRV, autonomic function tests, insulin resistance (HOMA-IR, lipid profile, inflammatory markers, oxidative stress (OS marker, rennin, thyroid profile and serum electrolytes were measured and analyzed in subjects of study group (FDR of type 2 diabetics, n = 72 and control group (subjects with no family history of diabetes, n = 104. RESULTS: BMI, BP, BHR, HOMA-IR, lipid profile, inflammatory and OS markers, renin, LF-HF (ratio of low-frequency to high-frequency power of HRV, a sensitive marker of SVI were significantly increased (p<0.0001 in study group compared to the control group. SVI in study group was due to concomitant sympathetic activation and vagal inhibition. There was significant correlation and independent contribution of markers of insulin resistance, dyslipidemia, inflammation and OS to LF-HF ratio. Multiple-regression analysis demonstrated an independent contribution of LF-HF ratio to prehypertension status (standardized beta 0.415, p<0.001 and bivariate logistic-regression showed significant prediction (OR 2.40, CI 1.128-5.326, p = 0.002 of LF-HF ratio of HRV to increased RPP, the marker of CV risk, in study group. CONCLUSION: SVI in FDR of type 2 diabetics occurs due to sympathetic activation and vagal withdrawal. The SVI contributes to prehypertension status and CV risks caused by insulin resistance, dyslipidemia, inflammation and oxidative stress in FDR of type 2 diabetics.

  3. Anti-carbamylated protein antibodies in unaffected first-degree relatives of rheumatoid arthritis patients: lack of correlation with anti-cyclic citrullinated protein antibodies and rheumatoid factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alessandri, C; Bartosiewicz, I; Pendolino, M; Mancini, R; Colasanti, T; Pecani, A; Morello, F; Mastrangelo, A; Sabatinelli, D; Riccieri, V; Di Franco, M; Ceccarelli, F; Perricone, C; Conti, F; Valesini, G

    2015-01-01

    To investigate the prevalence of anti-carbamylated protein antibodies (anti-CarP) in the healthy first-degree relatives (HFDRs) of patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). We enrolled 141 HFDRs of 63 patients with RA diagnosed accordingly to the 2010 ACR/EULAR criteria. Fifty-six normal healthy subjects (NHS), sex- and age-matched, served as controls. Anti-CarP IgG, anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide antibody (anti-CCP) IgG and rheumatoid factors (RF) isotypes (IgG, IgA, IgM) were assessed by solid-phase ELISA. Anti-CarP were detectable in 13 HFDRs (9.2%), anti-CCP in 9 (6.3%), IgG-RF in 10 (7%), IgA-RF in 17 (12%), and IgM-RF in 13 (9.2%) HFDRs. Twenty-nine (46%) RA patients were positive for anti-CarP, 31 (49.2%) for anti-CCP, and 34 (53.9%) for RF. One NHS (1.7%) resulted positive for anti-CarP, none for anti-CCP and RF. Anti-CarP showed significantly higher serum levels in RA and HFDRs than in NHS (pautoantibodies tested in the HFDRs. Anti-CarP can be found in the sera of HFDRs of RA patients and their prevalence is significantly higher than in NHS. No correlation of anti-CarP with anti-CCP and RF antibodies in RA HFDRs was found.

  4. High prevalence of spondyloarthritis and ankylosing spondylitis among familial Mediterranean fever patients and their first-degree relatives: further evidence for the connection

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Familial Mediterranean fever (FMF) is an auto-inflammatory disease characterized by recurrent attacks of fever and serositis. Limited data suggest that the prevalence of sacroiliitis is increased in patients with FMF. In our present study, we assessed the prevalence of spondyloarthritis (SpA), including ankylosing spondylitis (AS), among a cohort of FMF patients and their unaffected first-degree relatives (FDRs). Methods The current study cohort comprised a consecutive group of 201 unrelated patients with FMF and 319 FDRs (≥ 16 years old). These subjects were examined according to a standard protocol. Results A total of 157 FMF patients (78.1%) and 233 (73%) unaffected FDRs reported back pain. Fifteen FMF patients (7.5%) and nine unaffected FDRs fulfilled the modified New York (mNY) criteria for AS. One additional FDR with AS was identified after review of the medical records. None of the FMF patients with AS was HLA-B27 positive. The allele frequency of M694V among the FMF patients with radiographic sacroiliitis was significantly higher in comparison with those without sacroiliitis (OR 4.3). When compared with the general population, the risk ratios for SpA and AS among the FDRs of our FMF patients were 3.3 (95% CI; 2.0 to 5.5) and for AS 2.9 (95% CI; 1.3 to 6.4), respectively. Conclusions Our study suggests that a) factors other than HLA-B27 play a role in the association of FMF and SpA/AS; b) MEFV gene variations may be one of the geographic/region-specific potential pathogenetic links between these two disorders in the Turkish population. PMID:23356447

  5. Myeloperoxidase Is Associated with Insulin Resistance and Inflammation in Overweight Subjects with First-Degree Relatives with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

    OpenAIRE

    Anel Gómez García; Mireya Rivera Rodríguez; Carlos Gómez Alonso; Daysi Yazmin Rodríguez Ochoa; Cleto Alvarez Aguilar

    2015-01-01

    Background Family history of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is one of risk factors for that in future a subject can develop diabetes. Insulin resistance (IR) is important in the pathogenesis of T2DM. There is evidence that oxidative stress plays an important role in the etiology and/or progression of diabetes. Myeloperoxidase (MPO) participates in developing of inflammation. The objective was to investigate if MPO is associated with IR and inflammation in individuals with first-degree relati...

  6. Obese First-Degree Relatives of Patients with Type 2 Diabetes with Elevated Triglyceride Levels Exhibit Increased β-Cell Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres-Rasgado, Enrique; Porchia, Leonardo M.; Ruiz-Vivanco, Guadalupe; Gonzalez-Mejia, M. Elba; Báez-Duarte, Blanca G.; Pulido-Pérez, Patricia; Rivera, Alicia; Romero, Jose R.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Background: Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is characterized as a disease continuum that is marked by metabolic changes that are present for several years, sometimes well before frank diagnosis of T2DM. Genetic predisposition, ethnicity, geography, alterations in BMI, and lipid profile are considered important markers for the pathogenesis of T2DM through mechanisms that remain unresolved and controversial. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between triglycerides (TGs) and β-cell function, insulin resistance (IR), and insulin sensitivity (IS) in obese first-degree relatives of patients with T2DM (FDR-T2DM) among subjects from central Mexico with normal glucose tolerance (NGT). Methods: We studied 372 FDR-T2DM subjects (ages,18–65) and determined body mass index (BMI), fasting plasma glucose (FPG), oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT), insulin, and TGs levels. Subjects were categorized based on glycemic control [NGT, prediabetes (PT2DM), or T2DM]. NGT subjects were further categorized by BMI [normal weight (Ob−) or obese (Ob+)] and TGs levels (TG−, <150 mg/dL, or TG+, ≥150 mg/dL). β-cell function, IR, and IS were determined by the homeostasis model assessment of β-cell function (HOMA2-β), homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA2-IR), and Quantitative Insulin Sensitivity Check Index (QUICKI) indices, respectively. Results: The obese subjects with elevated TGs levels had 21%–60% increased β-cell function when compared to all groups (P<0.05). In addition, this group had insulin levels, IS, and IR similar to PT2DM. Furthermore, only in obese subjects did TGs correlate with β-cell function (ρ=0.502, P<0.001). Conclusion: We characterized FDR-T2DM subjects from central Mexico with NGT and revealed a class of obese subjects with elevated TGs and β-cell function, which may precede PT2DM. PMID:25423015

  7. Clinical and Imaging Signs of Spondyloarthritis in First-Degree Relatives of HLA-B27-Positive Ankylosing Spondylitis Patients: The Pre-Spondyloarthritis (Pre-SpA) Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turina, Maureen C; de Winter, Janneke J; Paramarta, Jacky E; Gamala, Mihaela; Yeremenko, Nataliya; Nabibux, Marita N; Landewé, Robert; Baeten, Dominique L

    2016-10-01

    To investigate whether seemingly healthy first-degree relatives of patients with ankylosing spondylitis (AS) have clinical, laboratory, or imaging features of spondyloarthritis (SpA). First-degree relatives (ages 18-40 years) of HLA-B27-positive AS patients were included in the pre-spondyloarthritis (Pre-SpA) cohort, a prospective inception cohort study. Clinical, biologic, and imaging features were recorded. First-degree relatives were classified according to several sets of SpA classification criteria. We report baseline features of 51 first-degree relatives included in this study. Twenty-nine (57%) had back pain, 2 (4%) had psoriasis, 1 (2%) had inflammatory bowel disease, and 1 (2%) had uveitis. Three (6%) had low-grade sacroiliitis, 1 (2%) had cervical syndesmophytes on radiography, and 10 (20%) had bone marrow edema on magnetic resonance imaging of the sacroiliiac joints. Seventeen of 51 first-degree relatives (33%) fulfilled SpA classification criteria: 7 (14%) fulfilled both Assessment of SpondyloArthritis international Society (ASAS) axial SpA and European Spondylarthropathy Study Group (ESSG) classification criteria, 6 (12%) fulfilled only ASAS axial SpA classification criteria, and 4 (8%) fulfilled only ESSG classification criteria; 3 (6%) also fulfilled the Amor criteria. None fulfilled other SpA classification criteria. First-degree relatives fulfilling the ASAS axial SpA and/or ESSG classification criteria had more frequent inflammatory back pain, had a higher level of disease activity, and had more psoriasis. No differences were found in parameters of inflammation, peripheral and extraarticular disease other than psoriasis, and HLA-B27 positivity between those who did and those who did not fulfill the ASAS axial SpA and/or ESSG classification criteria. Four first-degree relatives (12%) who did not fulfill the ASAS axial SpA and/or ESSG classification criteria had imaging abnormalities suggestive of SpA. A substantial proportion of seemingly healthy

  8. The N1 auditory evoked potential component as an endophenotype for schizophrenia: high-density electrical mapping in clinically unaffected first-degree relatives, first-episode, and chronic schizophrenia patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foxe, John J; Yeap, Sherlyn; Snyder, Adam C; Kelly, Simon P; Thakore, Jogin H; Molholm, Sophie

    2011-08-01

    The N1 component of the auditory evoked potential (AEP) is a robust and easily recorded metric of auditory sensory-perceptual processing. In patients with schizophrenia, a diminution in the amplitude of this component is a near-ubiquitous finding. A pair of recent studies has also shown this N1 deficit in first-degree relatives of schizophrenia probands, suggesting that the deficit may be linked to the underlying genetic risk of the disease rather than to the disease state itself. However, in both these studies, a significant proportion of the relatives had other psychiatric conditions. As such, although the N1 deficit represents an intriguing candidate endophenotype for schizophrenia, it remains to be shown whether it is present in a group of clinically unaffected first-degree relatives. In addition to testing first-degree relatives, we also sought to replicate the N1 deficit in a group of first-episode patients and in a group of chronic schizophrenia probands. Subject groups consisted of 35 patients with schizophrenia, 30 unaffected first-degree relatives, 13 first-episode patients, and 22 healthy controls. Subjects sat in a dimly lit room and listened to a series of simple 1,000-Hz tones, indicating with a button press whenever they heard a deviant tone (1,500 Hz; 17% probability), while the AEP was recorded from 72 scalp electrodes. Both chronic and first-episode patients showed clear N1 amplitude decrements relative to healthy control subjects. Crucially, unaffected first-degree relatives also showed a clear N1 deficit. This study provides further support for the proposal that the auditory N1 deficit in schizophrenia is linked to the underlying genetic risk of developing this disorder. In light of recent studies, these results point to the N1 deficit as an endophenotypic marker for schizophrenia. The potential future utility of this metric as one element of a multivariate endophenotype is discussed.

  9. Personalized Risk Estimator for Rheumatoid Arthritis (PRE-RA) Family Study: Rationale and design for a randomized controlled trial evaluating rheumatoid arthritis risk education to first-degree relatives

    OpenAIRE

    Sparks, Jeffrey A.; Iversen, Maura D.; Kroouze, Rachel Miller; Mahmoud, Taysir G.; Triedman, Nellie A.; Kalia, Sarah S.; Atkinson, Michael L.; Lu, Bing; Deane, Kevin D.; Costenbader, Karen H.; Green, Robert C.; Elizabeth W. Karlson

    2014-01-01

    We present the rationale, design features, and protocol of the Personalized Risk Estimator for Rheumatoid Arthritis (PRE-RA) Family Study (ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02046005). The PRE-RA Family Study is an NIH-funded prospective, randomized controlled trial designed to compare the willingness to change behaviors in first-degree relatives of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients without RA after exposure to RA risk educational programs. Consented subjects are randomized to receive education concernin...

  10. Quantitative Autism Traits in First Degree Relatives: Evidence for the Broader Autism Phenotype in Fathers, but Not in Mothers and Siblings

    Science.gov (United States)

    De la Marche, Wouter; Noens, Ilse; Luts, Jan; Scholte, Evert; Van Huffel, Sabine; Steyaert, Jean

    2012-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) symptoms are present in unaffected relatives and individuals from the general population. Results are inconclusive, however, on whether unaffected relatives have higher levels of quantitative autism traits (QAT) or not. This might be due to differences in research populations, because behavioral data and molecular…

  11. Course of bereavement over 8-10 years in first degree relatives and spouses of people who committed suicide : longitudinal community based cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Groot, Marieke; Kollen, Boudewijn J.

    2013-01-01

    Objective To identify factors predicting the long term course of complicated grief, depression, and suicide ideation in a community based sample of relatives bereaved through suicide. Design Longitudinal cohort study. Included in the multilevel regression models were sociodemographic and personality

  12. Course of bereavement over 8-10 years in first degree relatives and spouses of people who committed suicide : longitudinal community based cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Groot, Marieke; Kollen, Boudewijn J.

    2013-01-01

    Objective To identify factors predicting the long term course of complicated grief, depression, and suicide ideation in a community based sample of relatives bereaved through suicide. Design Longitudinal cohort study. Included in the multilevel regression models were sociodemographic and personality

  13. Lack of influence of COMT and NET genes variants on executive functions in schizophrenic and bipolar patients, their first-degree relatives and controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szöke, A; Schürhoff, F; Méary, A; Mathieu, F; Chevalier, F; Trandafir, A; Alter, C; Roy, I; Bellivier, F; Leboyer, M

    2006-07-05

    Abnormal dopaminergic function in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) may be a key factor in the etiopathogeny of schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. Both schizophrenic and bipolar subjects have executive functions (EF) deficits, thought to reflect abnormal PFC function. The main inactivation pathways for dopamine in the PFC are enzymatic cleavage by the Carboxy-O-Methyl-Transferase (COMT) and reuptake by the nor-epinephrine transporter (NET). Our aim in this study was to replicate previous studies that investigated influence of the COMT genotype on EF in schizophrenic subjects, their relatives and controls and extend their scope by including bipolar patients, and their relatives and by exploring NET gene polymorphisms influence on executive performances. We investigated one functional polymorphism of the COMT gene and two polymorphisms of the NET gene. EF were assessed by means of the Trail Making Test (TMT) and the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST). We assessed the effect of each of the three genotypes on EF for the whole sample (N = 318) and separately in schizophrenic (N = 66), bipolar (N = 94) and healthy subjects (i.e., relatives and controls N = 158). Separate analyses were performed because of the presence, in patients samples, of potentially confounding factors, especially medication. Genotype had no significant effect on the cognitive measures in any of the analyses (for the two EF measures, the three polymorphisms, and the four groups). In our sample we found no evidence in favor of a major effect of COMT or NET polymorphisms on the two tests of EF.

  14. Levels of interleukin-6 (IL-6) and its soluble receptor (sIL-6R) in familial Mediterranean fever (FMF) patients and their first degree relatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oktem, S; Yavuzsen, T U; Sengül, B; Akhunlar, H; Akar, S; Tunca, M

    2004-01-01

    Familial Mediterranean Fever (FMF) is a hereditary disease characterized by recurrent inflammatory attacks. A subclinical inflammation may persist in periods between the attacks and heterozygotes may have higher than normal levels of acute phase proteins. We investigated the levels of interleukin-6 (IL-6) and its soluble receptor (sIL-6R) in FMF patients and their obligatory carrier relatives. Serum levels of IL-6 and sIL-6R were measured during acute attacks (n = 18) and in attack-free FMF patients (n = 26), obligatory carriers of FMF (n = 17) and normal controls (n = 11). The median levels of IL-6 were significantly higher (45.71 pg/ mL, p = 0.001) during acute attacks of FMF only, and were normal (0.01 pg/ mL) in the other groups studied. There was no statistically significant difference in the median sIL-6R values between any of the groups (p = 0.22). IL-6 was extremely elevated during FMF attacks but could not detect hypothetical "subclinical" inflammation during attack-free intervals or in the heterozygote relatives of patients. Serum levels of sIL-6R were comparable in all four groups.

  15. Attitudes of physicians and patients towards disclosure of genetic information to spouse and first-degree relatives: a case study from Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akpinar, Aslihan; Ersoy, Nermin

    2014-05-16

    When considering the principle of medical confidentiality, disclosure of genetic information constitutes a special case because of the impact that this information can have on the health and the lives of relatives. The aim of this study is to explore the attitudes of Turkish physicians and patients about sharing information obtained from genetic tests. The study was carried out in Kocaeli, Turkey. Participants were either paediatricians and gynaecologists registered in Kocaeli, or patients coming to the genetic diagnosis centre for karyotype analysis in 2008. A self-administered paper questionnaire was given to the physicians, and face-to-face structured interviews were conducted with patients. We used a case study involving a man who was found to be a balanced chromosome carrier as a result of a test conducted after his first baby was born with Down's syndrome. However, he refused to share this information with his wife or his siblings. Percentages of characteristics and preferences of the participants were calculated, and the results were analysed using Kruskal-Wallis test. A total of 155 physicians (68% response rate) and 104 patients (46% response rate) were participated in the study. Twenty-six percent of physicians and 49% of patients believed that genetic information belongs to the whole family. When participants were asked with whom genetic information should be shared for the case study, most of the physicians and patients thought the physician should inform the spouse (79%, 85%, respectively). They were less likely to support a physician informing a sibling (41%, 53%, respectively); whereas, many thought the testee has an obligation to inform siblings (70%, 94%, respectively). Although Turkey's national regulations certainly protect the right of privacy of the testee, the participants in our study appear to believe that informing the spouse, who is not personally at risk of serious damage, is the physician's responsibility, while informing siblings, is

  16. The effects of vitamin D supplementation on adiponectin level and insulin resistance in first-degree relatives of subjects with type 2 diabetes: a randomized double-blinded controlled trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadi, Seyed Mohammad; Eghbali, Seyed Ahmad; Soheilikhah, Sedighah; Ashkezari, Saeedeh Jam; Salami, Maryam; Afkhami-Ardekani, Mohammad; Afkhami-Ardekani, Arezoo

    2016-01-01

    Background Despite the certain role of both vitamin D and adiponectin in the regulation of insulin sensitivity, the interaction between these two agents has remained uncertain. Objective The present study aimed to determine whether vitamin D is able to change plasma adiponectin and affect glucose homeostasis and insulin sensitivity in first-degree relatives of subjects with type 2 diabetes. Methods This randomized clinical trial was conducted at Clinic of Shahid Sadoughi Hospital in Yazd, Iran, from January 25, 2012 to December 25, 2014. In this randomized, double-blinded controlled trial, 64 first-degree relatives of type 2 diabetic patients were assigned randomly to receive either vitamin D supplement (50000 IU vitamin D tablet weekly) plus lifestyle change as the intervention group (n = 32) or placebo plus lifestyle change as the control group (n = 32) for twelve weeks (three months). Results Fifty-three patients (28 in the intervention group and 25 in the control group) completed the study. Serum levels of vitamin D increased while insulin level and consequently insulin resistance (calculated by HOMA formula) significantly decreased in the case group (p-value <0.001 for all variables). Although the values of these three biomarkers showed a slight increase in control group, the changes were not statistically significant. The levels of the changes in other markers including adiponectin, Fasting Blood Sugar (FBS), triglyceride, and total cholesterol remained insignificant in both study groups after completing interventions compared with before interventions. Conclusion This study showed that decreased insulin resistance is expected by administrating vitamin D supplement in first-degree relatives of the patients with diabetes mellitus. Trial Registration The trial was registered at the Iranian Registry of Clinical Trials (http://www.irct.ir) with the IRCT ID: 201105176430N1. Funding The authors received no financial support for the research or publication of this

  17. Healthy first-degree relatives of patients with type 1 diabetes exhibit significant differences in basal gene expression pattern of immunocompetent cells compared to controls: expression pattern as predeterminant of autoimmune diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stechova, K; Kolar, M; Blatny, R; Halbhuber, Z; Vcelakova, J; Hubackova, M; Petruzelkova, L; Sumnik, Z; Obermannova, B; Pithova, P; Stavikova, V; Krivjanska, M; Neuwirth, A; Kolouskova, S; Filipp, D

    2012-02-01

    Expression features of genetic landscape which predispose an individual to the type 1 diabetes are poorly understood. We addressed this question by comparing gene expression profile of freshly isolated peripheral blood mononuclear cells isolated from either patients with type 1 diabetes (T1D), or their first-degree relatives or healthy controls. Our aim was to establish whether a distinct type of 'prodiabetogenic' gene expression pattern in the group of relatives of patients with T1D could be identified. Whole-genome expression profile of nine patients with T1D, their ten first-degree relatives and ten healthy controls was analysed using the human high-density expression microarray chip. Functional aspects of candidate genes were assessed using the MetaCore software. The highest number of differentially expressed genes (547) was found between the autoantibody-negative healthy relatives and the healthy controls. Some of them represent genes critically involved in the regulation of innate immune responses such as TLR signalling and CCR3 signalling in eosinophiles, humoral immune reactions such as BCR pathway, costimulation and cytokine responses mediated by CD137, CD40 and CD28 signalling and IL-1 proinflammatory pathway. Our data demonstrate that expression profile of healthy relatives of patients with T1D is clearly distinct from the pattern found in the healthy controls. That especially concerns differential activation status of genes and signalling pathways involved in proinflammatory processes and those of innate immunity and humoral reactivity. Thus, we posit that the study of the healthy relative's gene expression pattern is instrumental for the identification of novel markers associated with the development of diabetes.

  18. Study on psychological defensive mechanism for the healthy first-degree relatives of schizophrenics%精神分裂症患者健康一级亲属的心理防御机制研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈祖金; 张旭; 王勇; 聂红; 范红; 赵志雄; 廖英; 袁洪彬; 陈丽; 杨勇

    2016-01-01

    目的::探讨精神分裂症患者健康一级亲属的心理防御机制。方法:对收集的112例精神分裂症患者健康一级亲属作为研究组和100例健康对照者作为对照组。采用防御方式问卷( DSQ)评估比较两组研究对象的心理防御机制。结果:①研究组研究对象的不成熟型和中间型防御机制分数高于对照组(P0.05);②在不成熟防御机制中,研究组研究对象的投射、被动攻击、潜意显现、幻想、分裂、躯体化以及中间型防御机制的反向形成、伴无能之全能、隔离等因子分显著高于对照组(P0.05);在成熟防御机制方面,两组研究对象的各因子差异无显著(P>0.05);③精神分裂症患者的一级亲属中父母、兄弟姐妹和子女在心理防御机制的应用总体相似。结论:本研究提示精神分裂症患者的健康一级亲属存在不成熟防御机制和中间型防御机制,有必要对其进行心理干预,以促进其向成熟防御机制转化。%Objective: To explore psychological defense mechanism for the healthy first-degree relatives of schizophrenics. Methods:The healthy first-degree relatives of 112 schizophrenics ( research group) and 100 normal controls ( control group) were en-tered in the study. The defense styles questionnaire ( DSQ) was used to evaluate the psychological defense mechanisms of the two groups. Results:(1) The scores of immature and intermediate defense mechanisms of research group were significantly higher than those of control group (P0. 05). (2) The scores of projection, passive aggression, subconscious show, fantasy, split and somatization of immature defense mechanism and the scores of reaction formation, all capacity with incapacity and isolation of intermediate defense mechanism of research group were significantly higher than those of control group (P0. 05). Further, there were no significant differences in each factor score of mature defense mechanism between

  19. Steroid-induced insulin resistance and impaired glucose tolerance are both associated with a progressive decline of incretin effect in first-degree relatives of patients with type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, D H; Aaboe, K; Henriksen, J E;

    2012-01-01

    AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: The aim of this study was to evaluate the separate impact of insulin resistance and impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) on the incretin effect. METHODS: Twenty-one healthy glucose-tolerant first-degree relatives of patients with type 2 diabetes underwent a 75 g OGTT, an isoglycaemic i.......v. glucose test and a mixed meal to evaluate the incretin effect before and after treatment with dexamethasone to increase insulin resistance. Beta cell glucose sensitivity, beta cell index and fasting proinsulin were measured as indices of beta cell function. RESULTS: After dexamethasone, ten individuals...... had increased insulin resistance but normal glucose tolerance (NGT), while 11 individuals with an equal increase in insulin resistance developed IGT. In the NGT and IGT groups, the incretin effects were 71¿±¿3.2% and 67¿±¿4.6% (p¿=¿0.4) before treatment, but decreased significantly in both groups...

  20. Personalized Risk Estimator for Rheumatoid Arthritis (PRE-RA) Family Study: rationale and design for a randomized controlled trial evaluating rheumatoid arthritis risk education to first-degree relatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sparks, Jeffrey A; Iversen, Maura D; Miller Kroouze, Rachel; Mahmoud, Taysir G; Triedman, Nellie A; Kalia, Sarah S; Atkinson, Michael L; Lu, Bing; Deane, Kevin D; Costenbader, Karen H; Green, Robert C; Karlson, Elizabeth W

    2014-09-01

    We present the rationale, design features, and protocol of the Personalized Risk Estimator for Rheumatoid Arthritis (PRE-RA) Family Study (ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02046005). The PRE-RA Family Study is an NIH-funded prospective, randomized controlled trial designed to compare the willingness to change behaviors in first-degree relatives of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients without RA after exposure to RA risk educational programs. Consented subjects are randomized to receive education concerning their personalized RA risk based on demographics, RA-associated behaviors, genetics, and biomarkers or to receive standard RA information. Four behavioral factors associated with RA risk were identified from prior studies for inclusion in the risk estimate: cigarette smoking, excess body weight, poor oral health, and low fish intake. Personalized RA risk information is presented through an online tool that collects data on an individual's specific age, gender, family history, and risk-related behaviors; presents genetic and biomarker results; displays relative and absolute risk of RA; and provides personalized feedback and education. The trial outcomes will be changes in willingness to alter behaviors from baseline to 6 weeks, 6 months, and 12 months in the three intervention groups. The design and the execution of this trial that targets a special population at risk for RA, while incorporating varied risk factors into a single risk tool, offer distinct challenges. We provide the theoretical rationale for the PRE-RA Family Study and highlight particular design features of this trial that utilize personalized risk education as an intervention.

  1. Relevamiento de factores de riesgo y de enfermedad renal en familiares de pacientes en diálisis Survey of risk factors and renal disease in first-degree relatives of dialysis patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe Inserra

    2007-02-01

    de enfermedad renal crónica.Background: It has been established that first-degree relatives of patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD have a higher CKD risk than the overall population. This paper deals with the relative frequency of CKD markers and cardiovascular (CV risk factors within first-degree relatives of ESRD patients in Argentina. Methods: 810 family members volunteered to participate; of them 668 over 18 ys. old. Trained nurses interviewed them and completed a questionnaire dealing with family history of renal and cardiovascular disease. Blood pressure, urine and blood analysis and anthropometric data were collected. Selected parameters were: smoking habit, presence of high blood pressure, diabetes, hypercholesterolemia, high plasma creatinine and creatinine clearance estimated by MDRD formula, proteinuria and microalbuminuria. In pediatric population, weight and blood pressure parameters were evaluated as percentiles. CKD were classified in stage (National Kidney Foundation. Results: The relative frequencies were: CKD: 29.6%; proteinuria: 13.9%; microalbuminuria: 8.7%. The prevalence values found for main CV risks factors, adjusted by sex and age, were: high blood pressure= 41.8%; overweight/obesity by BMI= 62.1%, hypercholesterolemia= 42.9% and hyperglycemia= 5.2%. Smoking habit was present in 34.8%. In conclusion: Prevalence of overweight/obesity, hypertension and hypercholesterolemia in first-degree relatives of ESRD patients is higher than previously communicated in studies of national reference populations. Prevalence of CKD is high, estimated as three-fold higher than for a general population as reported in poblational studies. These results support the fact that first-degree relatives of ESRD patients, as has been established elsewhere, constitute a population at high risk for developing ESRD.

  2. Hallucinations in Nonpsychotic Children and Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simonds, John F.

    1975-01-01

    Case histories of ten nonpsychotic patients revealed significant anxiety and depression in a majority of the patients, with five expressing suicidal ideas. Stress factors were primarily family and school. Eight patients had combined auditory and visual hallucinations. The purposes of the hallucinations were multiple, but escape mechanisms were…

  3. 精神分裂症患者一级亲属认知功能调查%Investigation on cognitive function of first-degree relatives of schizophrenic patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张媛; 沈芳

    2015-01-01

    目的:探讨精神分裂症患者一级亲属认知功能。方法选择57名首发精神分裂症患者一级亲属(亲属组)、50名健康人群(对照组)作为研究对象,采用斯特鲁普色词测验(Stroop color word test)、简易视觉空间记忆测验-修订版(BVMT-R)、斯康星卡片分类测验(WCST)对两组受试者认知功能进行评定。结果两组Stroop测试A部分得分相比差异无统计学意义[(88.75±10.31)比(92.13±13.27)分,P >0.05];亲属组 B、C部分得分[(56.73±9.43)、(31.93±6.83)分]显著低于对照组[(65.75±9.94)、(40.06±7.84)分],差异有统计学意义(P 0.05], B, C part scores of relatives group [(56.73±9.43), (31.93±6.83) scores] were significantly lower than those of the control group [(65.75±9.94), (40.06±7.84) scores], with statistically significant differences (P<0.05). In the relatives group, the correct number of complet-ed WCST [(21.90±5.56) scores], number of completed categories [(2.04±0.97) scores] were significantly lower than those in the control group [(25.61±7.62), (2.98±1.04) scores]; number of continuous errors [(17.59±3.04) scores], random errors [(8.79±2.93) scores] were significantly higher than those in the control group [(15.03±3.31), (7.01±2.19) scores], with statistically significant differences (P<0.05). The total number of relatives group completed BVMT-R memory [(21.48±7.49) scores] was also significantly lower than that of control group [(25.61±8.05) scores], with a statistically significant difference (P< 0.05). Conclusion There are attention, memory, executive function damage in first-degree relatives of schizophrenic patients.

  4. 精神病超高危人群及精神分裂症一级亲属的认知功能研究%Cognitive function in ultra high-risk subjects and first degree relatives with schizophrenia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张丽丽; 张云淑; 贾海玲; 李冰; 严保平; 王健; 石贺敏; 栗克清

    2016-01-01

    Marking Test,Symbol Coding(SC),Hopkins Verbal Learning Test-Revised (HVLT-R),Brief Visual spatial Memory Test-Revised(BVMT-R),Continuous Performance Test (CPT) from MATRICS Consensus Cognitive Battery,and Stroop Test in ultra high-risk (UHR) group,unaffected first-degree relatives (FDR)group and health control (HC) group,and 30 cases in each group.The difference among groups was analyzed by SPSS17.0 soft.Results (1)The SC(t=-4.191,P<0.01),HVLT-R(t=0.754,P=0.005),CPT(t=-3.780,P=0.001) and Stroop (Stroop words t=-4.073,P<0.01,Stroop color t=-2.033,P=0.047,Stroop color words t=-3.609,P=0.001) test scores between the UHR and HC groups showed significant differences.(2)SC (t=-2.247,P=0.028),HVLT-R (t=-2.038,P=0.046),BVMT-R (t=-2.209,P=-0.031),CPT(t=-2.687,P=0.011) and Stroop (Stroop words t=-4.655,P<0.01,Stroop color words t=-2.341,P=-0.023)test scores between the FDR and HC groups showed significant differences.(3)UHR group (43.9± 10.7) showed lower scores than FDR group (50.1 ± 11.3) in the SC test,and it showed significant difference (t=-2.188,P=0.033).(4)In the UHR group,there were no significant differences for the cognitive function between the subjects with genetic risk met the criteria for genetic risk and deterioration psychosis-risk syndrome and attenuated positive symptom psychosis-risk syndrome (n=8) and the subjects with pure genetic risk and deterioration psychosis-risk syndrome (n=9).Conclusions Cognitive impairment appeares in the UHR and FDR populations,including the information-processing speed,verbal learning,working memory,attention/vigilance and so on.The UHR subjects present worse in information-processing speed.

  5. A qualitative systematic review of service user and service provider perspectives on the acceptability, relative benefits, and potential harms of art therapy for people with non-psychotic mental health disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scope, Alison; Uttley, Lesley; Sutton, Anthea

    2017-03-01

    This systematic review aimed to synthesize qualitative evidence relating to user and service provider perspective on the acceptability and relative benefits and potential harms of art therapy for people with non-psychotic mental disorders. A comprehensive literature search was conducted in 13 major bibliographic databases from May to July 2013. A qualitative evidence synthesis was conducted using thematic framework synthesis. The searches identified 10,270 citations from which 12 studies were included. Ten studies included data from 183 service users, and two studies included data from 16 service providers. The evidence demonstrated that art therapy was an acceptable treatment. The benefits associated with art therapy included the following: the development of relationships with the therapist and other group members; understanding the self/own illness/the future; gaining perspective; distraction; personal achievement; expression; relaxation; and empowerment. Small numbers of patients reported varying reasons for not wanting to take part, and some highlighted potentially negative effects of art therapy which included the evoking of feelings which could not be resolved. The findings suggest that for the majority of respondents art therapy was an acceptable intervention, although this was not the case for all respondents. Therefore, attention should be focussed on both identifying those who are most likely to benefit from art therapy and ensuring any potential harms are minimized. The findings provide evidence to commissioners and providers of mental health services about the value of future art therapy services. Art therapy was reported to be an acceptable treatment for the majority of respondents. Art therapy may not be a preferred treatment option for a small number of patients, emphasizing the importance of considering patient preference in choice of treatment, and selection of the most suitable patients for art therapy. Consideration should be made of adjustments

  6. Evidence that the presence of psychosis in non-psychotic disorder is environment-dependent and mediated by severity of non-psychotic psychopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guloksuz, S; van Nierop, M; Lieb, R; van Winkel, R; Wittchen, H-U; van Os, J

    2015-08-01

    Evidence suggests that in affective, non-psychotic disorders: (i) environmental exposures increase risk of subthreshold psychotic experiences (PEs) and strengthen connectivity between domains of affective and subthreshold psychotic psychopathology; and (ii) PEs are a marker of illness severity. In 3021 adolescents from the Early Developmental Stages of Psychopathology cohort, we tested whether the association between PEs and presence of DSM-IV mood disorder (MD)/obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) would be moderated by risk factors for psychosis (cannabis use, childhood trauma and urbanicity), using the interaction contrast ratio (ICR) method. Furthermore, we analysed whether the interaction between environment and PEs was mediated by non-psychotic psychopathology. The association between PEs and MD/OCD was moderated by urbanicity (ICR = 2.46, p = 0.005), cannabis use (ICR = 3.76, p = 0.010) and, suggestively, trauma (ICR = 1.91, p = 0.063). Exposure to more than one environmental risk factor increased the likelihood of co-expression of PEs in a dose-response fashion. Moderating effects of environmental exposures were largely mediated by the severity of general non-psychotic psychopathology (percentage explained 56-68%, all p < 0.001). Within individuals with MD/OCD, the association between PEs and help-seeking behaviour, as an index of severity, was moderated by trauma (ICR = 1.87, p = 0.009) and urbanicity (ICR = 1.48, p = 0.005), but not by cannabis use. In non-psychotic disorder, environmental factors increase the likelihood of psychosis admixture and help-seeking behaviour through an increase in general psychopathology. The findings are compatible with a relational model of psychopathology in which more severe clinical states are the result of environment-induced disturbances spreading through a psychopathology network.

  7. Project Work by Students for First Degree: An Appraisal | Ekwenze ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Project Work by Students for First Degree: An Appraisal. ... The proper order, format and form for legal research and writing must be observed. ... law faculties should have websites that will enable supervisors cross-check projects for originality.

  8. Theory of mind impairments in first-episode psychosis, individuals at ultra-high risk for psychosis and in first-degree relatives of schizophrenia: systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bora, Emre; Pantelis, Christos

    2013-03-01

    Theory of mind (ToM) deficit is a well-established feature of schizophrenia and has been suggested as a vulnerability marker of this disorder. However, as most of this evidence is based on studies in chronic patients, it is less clear whether ToM is impaired prior to or following the onset of a first-episode and whether it is evident in unaffected relatives of patients. In this meta-analysis, ToM performance of 3005 individuals with first-episode psychosis (FEP), individuals at ultra-high risk for psychosis (UHR) and unaffected relatives were compared with 1351 healthy controls. ToM was substantially impaired in first-episode psychosis (Cohen d=1.0) and this deficit was comparable to findings in chronic patients. ToM was also impaired in unaffected relatives (d=0.37) and UHR subjects (d=0.45) and performances of these groups were intermediate between FES and healthy controls. Severity of ToM deficits in unaffected relatives and UHR subjects was similar to other cognitive deficits observed in these groups. Longitudinal studies of clinical and genetic high-risk subjects are necessary to investigate the trajectory of development of ToM deficits in schizophrenia. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. A control study on plasma serotonin in autistic probands and their first degree relatives%孤独症儿童及其Ⅰ级亲属血浆五羟色胺水平的对照研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卢建平; 闫小华; 邓小敏; 舒明跃; 杨志伟

    2008-01-01

    Objective To investigate the familial aggregation of 5-HT level in parents of autistic probands. Methods In a sample of 38 autistic subjects and 61 of their parents,compared to age and sex matched controls. 5-HT were measured by HPLC. Results The level of 5-HT in autistic children was significant higher than the controls subjects(t=3.842, P = 0.000). The significant difference of 5-HT level between autism children parents and normal children parents was found(t = -3. 409, P = 0.001). The severity degree of autism was not significant related to the 5-HT level(r=0.142, P=0.041). The 5-HT level of autistic children was significant related to the 5-HT level of their parents (r= - 0.498, P =0. 000 ; r = -0.602, P = 0.000). Conclusion Elevated 5-HT level may be associated with genetic liability to autism and help the search of genetic suscepti-bility factors in autism.%目的 通过测定儿童孤独症核心家系五羟色胺(5-HT)水平,探讨孤独症先证者及其Ⅰ级亲属的5-HT水平的家族聚集性特征.方法 采用高效液相色谱仪测定儿童孤独症组(38例)及其亲生父母组(61例)的5-HT水平,并与年龄和性别相匹配的正常儿童对照组(35例)及正常成人对照组(60例)的5-HT水平相比较.结果 ①儿童孤独症组的血浆5-HT水平为(212.51±127.98)μmol/L,显著高于正常儿童对照组(t=3.842,P=0.000);②孤独症父母组的血浆5-HT水平为(88.15±48.15)μmol/L,显著高于正常成人对照组(t=3.409,P=0.001).③儿童孤独症的病情严重程度与血浆5一HT水平两者之间无显著相关(r=0.142,P=0.041).④孤独症儿童组的血浆5-HT水平与孤独症儿童的父亲和母亲的血浆5-HT水平两者之间均存在显著相关(r=-0.498,P=0.000;r=-0.602,P=0.000).结论 儿童孤独症血浆5-HT增高并与遗传因素相关,可作为中间表型为孤独症遗传易感因子的研究提供线索.

  10. 2型糖尿病家系一级亲属代谢综合征危险因素的分析%Analysis of Risk Factors for Metabolic Sydrome in the First Degree Relatives of Type 2 Diabetes Patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周慧; 吴振; 周素娴; 韦晓谋; 邓婷婷; 韦卉; 李锦华

    2013-01-01

    Objective:To analyse the incidence rate and risk factors of metabolic sydrome in the first degree relatives of type 2 diabetes patients. Methods:First degree relatives of type 2 diabetes patients from 41 diabetes mellitus pedigree were selected as study group(n=98),and first degree relatives without diabetes familial history of their spouses were selected as control group(n=85).High、waist circumference、weight、blood pressure、fasting and 2-hour postprandial blood glucose,tirglyceride,high dersity lipoprotein-cholesterol were measured in two groups,OGTT were measured in those without diabetes.Results:The incidence rate(32.65%) of metabolic sydrome in the first degree relatives of type 2 diabetes patients was significantly higher than that of the first degree relatives of healthy people(12.94%)χ2=9.8365,P<0.01.Central obesity、the familial history of type2 diabetes、diabetes mellitus、hipertension、dyslipidemia was closely related to metabolic sydrome. Conclusion:First degree relatives of type 2 diabetes patients are the high risk populations of metabolic sydrome.central obesity、the familial history of type2 diabetes、diabetes mellitus、hypertension、hyper-tirglyceridemia,low level of high dersity lipoprotein-cholesterol are the high risk factors of metabolic sydrome.%目的::分析2型糖尿病家系一级亲属同胞的代谢综合征发病率及各危险因素情况。方法:以41个2型糖尿病家系中同胞一级亲属为研究组(n=98),以同胞配偶中无糖尿病家族史的一级亲属同胞为对照组(n=85)。测定身高、腰围、体重、血压、空腹血糖、餐后2小时血糖、甘油三酯、高密度脂蛋白胆固醇,非糖尿病者行口服葡萄糖耐量试验。结果:2型糖尿病家系一级亲属同胞的代谢综合征的患病率(32.65%),显著高于无糖尿病家族史的一级亲属同胞(12.94%)χ2=9.8365 P<0.01。中心性肥胖、糖尿病家族史、糖尿病、高血压、血脂异常与

  11. Rationale and design of the participant, investigator, observer, and data-analyst-blinded randomized AGENDA trial on associations between gene-polymorphisms, endophenotypes for depression and antidepressive intervention: the effect of escitalopram versus placebo on the combined dexamethasone, -corticotrophine releasing hormone test and other potential endophenotypes in healthy first-degree relatives of persons with depression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knorr, Ulla; Vinberg, Maj; Klose, Marianne

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Endophenotypes are heritable markers, which are more prevalent in patients and their healthy relatives than in the general population. Recent studies point at disturbed regulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical axis as a possible endophenotype for depression. We hypothes......BACKGROUND: Endophenotypes are heritable markers, which are more prevalent in patients and their healthy relatives than in the general population. Recent studies point at disturbed regulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical axis as a possible endophenotype for depression. We...... hypothesize that potential endophenotypes for depression may be affected by selective serotonin re-uptake inhibitor antidepressants in healthy first-degree relatives of depressed patients. The primary outcome measure is the change in plasma cortisol in the dexamethasone-corticotrophin releasing hormone test...... from baseline to the end of intervention. METHODS: The AGENDA trial is designed as a participant, investigator, observer, and data-analyst-blinded randomized trial. Participants are 80 healthy first-degree relatives of patients with depression. Participants are randomized to escitalopram 10 mg per day...

  12. 急性心肌梗死伴一过性Ⅰ°房室传导阻滞的相关因素分析%Analysis of factors related to temporary first degree atrioventricular block in patients with acute myocardial infarction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马云霞; 王幸

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate the relationship between acute myocardial infarction with temporary first degree atrioventricular block and related factors. Methods 80 cases of hospitalized patients with acute myocardial infarction were retrospectively analyzed. Infarct location, the results of coronary angiography with temporary first degree atrioventricular block were observed and compared; the incidence of the risk factors of coronary heart disease, the incidence of shock and heart failure, and the incidence of second degree or third degree atrioventricular block with temporary first degree atrioventricular block (observation group) and those without first degree atrioventricular block (control group) were observed and compared. Results The incidence of the temporary Ⅰ ° AVB in patients with inferior wal AMI, inferior wal and other parts of the AMI had no significant difference (P>0.01); The incidence of the temporary Ⅰ ° AVB in patients with inferior wal , inferior wal and other parts of the AMI was significantly higher than that in patients with anterior wal AMI (P20.01);下壁及下壁合并其他部位AMI一过性Ⅰ° AVB发生率明显高于前壁AMI患者(P2<0.002,P3<0.01);右冠状动脉病变一过性Ⅰ° AVB明显高于前降支和回旋支(P<0.001);观察组与对照组在冠心病危险因素、发生休克和心衰、出现Ⅱ°或Ⅲ°房室传导阻滞(AVB)方面比较,其发生率无统计学差异。结论急性心肌梗死患者心电图出现一过性Ⅰ°房室传导阻滞与心梗部位及罪犯血管有关且预后较好。

  13. A study on the related factors of juvenile's stigma of the first-degree relatives of patients with mental disorders%精神疾病患者未成年一级亲属病耻感相关因素研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁鑫浩; 曹枫林; 李阳; 姜世霞; 张金玲

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the current situation of juvenile's stigma of the first-degree relatives of patients with mental disor-ders and analyze the influencing factors .Methods:The Link belittle -discrimination perception scale and the general questionnaire were used to conduct a questionnaire survey on 104 juveniles (7 to19 years old) of the first-degree relatives by the convenient sampling meth-od.Results:The stigma of girls was more serious than that of boys;the stigma of non-only child was more serious than that of only child;the stigma of juveniles in the urban school was more serious than that of juveniles in the township school ;the stigma of juveniles living in rural area was more serious than that of juveniles living in urban area (P<0.05).Conclusion:The stigma really exists in the juveniles of the first-degree relatives of patients with mental disorders .Gender,age,residence,location of school and the status of only child are the influential factors of stigma .%目的:探讨精神疾病患者未成年一级亲属病耻感现状及病耻感相关因素。方法:采用方便抽样的方法,对104名7~19岁的精神疾病患者未成年一级亲属采用Link贬低-歧视感知量表、一般情况调查表进行问卷调查。结果:女生的病耻感均分高于男生;非独生子女病耻感均分高于独生子女;城区学校就读的青少年病耻感分高于乡镇学校就读的青少年;居住在农村病耻感均分高于居住在城镇的青少年;父亲学历在高中中专水平病耻感均分高于初中以下水平和大专以上水平;父母或同胞疾病诊断为精神分裂症的病耻感均分高于诊断为双相情感障碍和诊断为癔症(P<0.05)。结论:精神疾病患者未成年一级亲属存在病耻感,性别、年龄、居住地、就读学校和是否独生子女是精神疾病患者未成年一级亲属病耻感相关影响因素。

  14. Rationale and design of the participant, investigator, observer, and data-analyst-blinded randomized AGENDA trial on associations between gene-polymorphisms, endophenotypes for depression and antidepressive intervention: the effect of escitalopram versus placebo on the combined dexamethasone-corticotrophine releasing hormone test and other potential endophenotypes in healthy first-degree relatives of persons with depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulson Olaf

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Endophenotypes are heritable markers, which are more prevalent in patients and their healthy relatives than in the general population. Recent studies point at disturbed regulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical axis as a possible endophenotype for depression. We hypothesize that potential endophenotypes for depression may be affected by selective serotonin re-uptake inhibitor antidepressants in healthy first-degree relatives of depressed patients. The primary outcome measure is the change in plasma cortisol in the dexamethasone-corticotrophin releasing hormone test from baseline to the end of intervention. Methods The AGENDA trial is designed as a participant, investigator, observer, and data-analyst-blinded randomized trial. Participants are 80 healthy first-degree relatives of patients with depression. Participants are randomized to escitalopram 10 mg per day versus placebo for four weeks. Randomization is stratified by gender and age. The primary outcome measure is the change in plasma cortisol in the dexamethasone-corticotrophin releasing hormone test at entry before intervention to after four weeks of intervention. With the inclusion of 80 participants, a 60% power is obtained to detect a clinically relevant difference in the primary outcome between the intervention and the placebo group. Secondary outcome measures are changes from baseline to four weeks in scores of: 1 cognition and 2 neuroticism. Tertiary outcomes measures are changes from baseline to four weeks in scores of: 1 depression and anxiety symptoms; 2 subjective evaluations of depressive symptoms, perceived stress, quality of life, aggression, sleep, and pain; and 3 salivary cortisol at eight different timepoints during an ordinary day. Assessments are undertaken by assessors blinded to the randomization group. Trial registration Local Ethics Committee: H-KF 307413 Danish Medicines Agency: 2612-3162. EudraCT: 2006-001750-28. Danish Data Agency

  15. Anticuerpos antitiroperoxidasa y antitransglutaminasa en familiares de primer grado de personas con diabetes tipo 1 y su relación con algunas características clínicas, bioquímicas e inmunológicas Antithyroperoxidase and antitransglutaminase antibodies in first degree relatives of type 1 diabetes persons and its relation to some clinical, biochemical and immunological features

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Levi González Rivero

    2010-08-01

    antitransglutaminase (tTGAb antibodies are useful markers of autoimmune thyroid disease and celiac disease, respectively. Its presence in first-degree relatives of type 1 diabetes patients has not been described in Cuba. OBJECTIVE: to determine the TPOAb and tTGAb frequencies in first-degree relatives of type 1 diabetes patients and its relation to some clinical, biochemical and immunological features. METHODS: in a group of 285 subjects we measured TPOAb and in 262 subjects we measured tTGAb. The cases included aged between 2 and 65. Data were registered on age, sex, skin color, personal backgrounds, and a family history of obesity, type 2 diabetes, thyroid disease and celiac disease. Symptoms were look for and clinical signs of celiac disease and autoimmune thyroid disease were explored. Fasting glucose, fasting insulin, TPOAb, tTGAb and type 1 diabetes associated autoantibodies (AGAD and AIA-2 were determined as well as the insulin resistance according the HOMA-IR index. RESULTS: the frequencies of positive TPOAb and tTGAb were of 5,3 and 1,9%, respectively. The family history of thyroid disease, slight muscular tremor and exophthalmos are related to presence of TPOAb. Intestinal malabsorption, persistent diarrhea, recurrent abdominal pain and personal background of liver disease were associated with presence of tTGAb. There was an association between tTGAb and AIA-2. Insulin resistance was not associated with the presence of both antibodies. CONCLUSIONS: in first-degree relatives of type 1 diabetes patients, frequencies of TPOAb and tTGAb are low. Some backgrounds, symptoms and signs linked to celiac disease and autoimmune thyroid disease may be practical indicators previous to perform these autoantibodies.

  16. 精神分裂症与轻性精神障碍患者一级亲属心理韧性、应对方式的对照研究%A comparative study on resilience scale and coping style in first degree relatives of schizophrenia and mild mental disorders

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    化继红; 陈允恩; 马文有; 佟久芬; 郭金刚; 袁滨; 郑琳; 王金朋; 孙妍

    2014-01-01

    Objective To explore the correlation between resilience scale and coping style in first degree relatives who diagnosed with schizophrenia or mild mental disorders.Methods 94 first-degree relative of the patients with schizophrenia or mild mental disorders (depression,anxiety disorder,obsessive-compulsive disorder,phobias,somatoform disorders and neurasthenia) who were divided into two groups.45 first-degree relative of the schizophrenia in the serious subject group,and 49 first-degree relative of the mild mental disorders divided into the mild subject group.All participants had completely finished tests of resilience scale for adults (RSA) and simplified Coping Style Questionnaire (SCSQ).Then,the data were compared and analyzed.Results Social competence score significantly increased in the mild subject group when compared to the serious subject group((22.67±4.59),(20.76±4.09),P<0.05),as well as family cohesion score ((25.41±4.34),(22.60±4.90),P<0.01),social resources score((25.35±4.27),(23.24±4.16),P<0.05) and the total score of the RSA((129.22±12.89),(122.60 ± 14.54),P<0.05).For SCSQ,the mild subject group was significant higher than the serious subject group on actively coping score ((27.45±5.22),(23.36±6.46),P<0.05) and the total score((9.92±3.08),(11.64±4.36),P <0.05).But,significant lower than the serious subject group on negative coping score((36.72±5.26),(34.41± 5.61),P<0.05).Two groups of related except mild group of self perception and negative coping without external,mental toughness associated with positive coping (r=0.238-0.434,P<0.01 or P<0.05),and negatively correlated with negative coping (r=-0.274-0.401,P<0.01 or P<0.05).Conclusions Mild subject group is better than the serious subject group of resilience scale when facing adversity people in mild subject group more tend to take a positive coping style.Resilience scale and coping style for adults have a positively correlation in first degree relatives of

  17. Investigation of awareness situation about breast cancer early screening in first-degree relatives of patients with breast cancer%乳腺癌患者一级亲属对乳腺癌早期筛查认知情况调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    夏蜀凤; 李华玉; 刘玲; 陶红竹; 周娜; 熊秀英; 曹鑫

    2016-01-01

    目的:了解乳腺癌患者一级亲属对乳腺癌早期筛查认知情况及探讨其影响因素,为临床针对性开展护理干预和健康教育提供理论依据和指导。方法选取2013年8月至2014年1月本院乳腺治疗中心乳腺癌患者一级亲属213例作为研究对象,采用问卷调查的形式分析乳腺癌患者一级亲属对乳腺癌早期筛查认知情况及其影响因素。结果乳腺癌患者一级亲属对乳腺癌疾病相关知识获取途径主要来源于亲属住院期间的健康教育(29.11%)和医护人员(24.41%);在乳腺癌高危因素认知上主要有认为其发病与乳腺良性疾病史(65.73%)、长期服用激素(64.32%)和家族史(61.03%)有关,在临床表现上,主要认为乳腺癌的临床表现为乳房肿块(88.26%);在早期筛查方法上,主要通过乳房临床检查(52.11%);乳腺癌相关知识认知程度与乳腺癌患者一级亲属居住地、有无职业和文化程度有关(P<0.05),与年龄和婚姻状况无关(P>0.05);乳腺癌患者一级亲属主要希望通过邮寄资料获取相关健康教育知识。结论乳腺癌患者一级亲属对乳腺癌早期筛查认知不足,应加大预防乳腺癌相关知识的健康教育,并注意不同居住地、职业和文化程度的宣传教育方式,努力提高防癌意识。%Objective To investigate the awareness situation about breast cancer early screening in first degree relatives of the patients with breast cancer and the influencing factors to provide the scientific basis and guidance for developing targeted nursing intervention and health education .Methods 213 first‐degree relatives of the patients with breast cancer in the breast cancer treatment center of our hospital from August 2013 to January 2014 were se‐lected and performed the questionnaire survey for analyzing their awareness about breast cancer early screening and the

  18. Polimorfismo da apolipoproteína e nos familiares em primeiro grau de pacientes com doença de Alzheimer familial ou esporádica Apolipoprotein e polymorphism in first-degree relatives of patients with familial or sporadic Alzheimer's disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João de Castilho Cação

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: A apolipoproteína E (apo E é reconhecida como fator de risco para doença de Alzheimer (DA. OBJETIVO: Analisar o polimorfismo da apo E nos familiares em primeiro grau de pacientes com DA familial ou esporádica do tipo tardio, comparando a famílias sem DA. MÉTODO: Foram estudados 40 pacientes com DA familial ou esporádica do tipo tardio, sendo os grupos classificados como provável, segundo critérios da NINCS-ADRDA. RESULTADO: O alelo épsilon3 foi o mais freqüente em todos os grupos. Observou-se freqüência mais elevada de épsilon4 comparando os familiares dos probandos aos do grupo controle (pINTRODUCTION: Apolipoproteín E (apo E has been recognized as a risk factor for Alzheimer disease (AD. OBJECTIVE: To analyze apo E polymorphism in first-degree relatives of patients with familial or sporadic late-onset AD comparing with families without AD. METHOD: Forty patients with familial or sporadic late-onset of AD, being both groups classified as probable, according of NINCS-ADRDA’s criteria. RESULTS: Allele epsilon3 was the most frequent in all of these groups. Higher frequency of epsilon4 when comparing the relatives of the probands with the relatives of the control group (p<0,0001 was observed. Allele epsilon2 showed significant difference only between relatives of familial AD and relatives of control group (p=0,026. CONCLUSION: Apo E polymorphism has not differentiated familial from sporadic AD. The study of families allows to amplify the alelles epsilon2 and epsilon4 representativity, revealing, their value as protecting factor and of risk for AD, respectively.

  19. Researches on reproductive and metabolic aspects of first-degree relatives of patients with PCOS%多囊卵巢综合征患者一级亲属生殖和代谢异常的相关研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    涂彬彬

    2011-01-01

    多囊卵巢综合征(Polycystic Ovary Syndrome,PCOS)是生育年龄妇女常见的内分泌和代谢异常性疾病,发病率为5%~10%.PCOS不仅影响患者的生殖功能,而且还可产生多方面的代谢障碍.目前许多研究认为PCOS存在家族聚集性,其生殖和代谢方面的异常具有一定的遗传基础.本文主要综述了近年来关于PCOS患者一级亲属生殖和代谢方面的研究.%Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a common endocrine and metabolic disease in reproductive-age women, with the incidence of 5% to 10%. PCOS affects not only the reproductive function of patients, but also produces a wide range of metabolic disturbances. Many studies demonstrated that PCOS was familial aggregative, and there was genetic basis in its reproductive and metabolic abnormalities. This paper reviews recent researches on reproductive and metabolic aspects of' first-degree relatives of patients with PCOS.

  20. The comparative study on cognitive function between the unaffected first degree relatives of schizophrenia and those of bipolar disorder%精神分裂症和双相障碍的健康一级亲属认知功能的对照研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    老帼慧; 杨蝉娟; 关力杰; 吴逢春; 老洪尧; 李一兰; 林鄞; 曹莉萍

    2012-01-01

    目的 探讨精神分裂症和双相障碍患者的健康一级亲属的认知功能缺陷的异同点.方法 纳入精神分裂症和双相障碍两类患者的健康一级亲属各50名、正常对照组50名.采用数字符号、连线测验( trail marking test,TMT)A和B、数字广度、图形视觉再生、言语流畅性、威斯康星卡片、汉诺塔(Hanoi tower,HOT)评估被试者的注意、记忆和执行功能,比较3组间的差异.结果 3组间数字符号总分、TMT-A时间、数字广度(总分及倒背)、视觉图形再生总分、言语流畅性总分、WSCT持续错误数、HOT总分及完成任务数等成绩的差异均有统计学意义(P<0.05).两两比较显示,精神分裂症亲属组上述所有指标的成绩均差于正常对照组(P<0.05),而双相障碍亲属组仅数字符号、TMT-A时间、数字广度总分及倒背、言语流畅性总分均差于正常对照组(P<0.05),精神分裂症亲属组的图形视觉再生、HOT总分及完成任务数均比双相障碍亲属组差(均P<0.05).结论 两类患者的健康一级亲属均存在注意、记忆和执行功能等认知缺陷,精神分裂症亲属的认知缺陷更显著,提示认知缺陷既是两类精神疾病共同的遗传易感因素,但又在两类疾病的家系中的遗传负荷有所不同.%Objective To examine the cognitive function in unaffected first-degree relatives of patient of schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. Methods Cognitive function studied in 50 unaffected first-degree relatives of patient of schizophrenia and bipolar disorder and 50 healthy individuals. Digital symbol, trail marking test (TMT), digital span, visual reproduction, verbal fluency, Wisconsin card sorting test (WSCT), Hanoi tower (HOT) were used to assess the attention, memory and execution functions. Result Compare with healthy individuals, relatives from both families of schizophrenia and bipolar disorder showed significant impairment in digital symbol, TMT-A digital span

  1. Social outcome compared in psychotic and nonpsychotic bipolar I patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosen, L N; Rosenthal, N E; Dunner, D L; Fieve, R R

    1983-05-01

    Eighty-nine bipolar I patients were given a structured interview, the Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia. Those who had experienced delusions or hallucinations at some time during the course of their illness were designated "psychotic," and those who had not were designated "nonpsychotic." The two groups were compared with regard to a number of outcome variables as well as age, age at first treatment, and duration of illness. The psychotic group had significantly poorer outcome in terms of social functioning. Although age, age at first treatment, and duration of illness distinguished between the two groups of patients, statistical analyses indicated that these variables did not account for differences in social outcome.

  2. 注意缺陷多动障碍患者一级亲属的注意功能研究%Study of attention functions in the first degree relatives of children with symptoms of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张君; 赵长印; 张莉莉; 崔玉霞

    2016-01-01

    目的 探讨注意缺陷多动障碍(attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder,ADHD)患者一级亲属的注意功能特点.方法 将80例ADHD患者一级亲属(first degree relative,FDR)及与其人口学资料相匹配的80例健康对照(healthy controls,HC)组采用连线测试、Stroop色词测试,GO/Nogo任务进行注意功能测定.结果 FDR组在连线测试-B反应时、GO/No-go任务反应时与错误数,Stroop-C反应时[分别为(89.98±23.77)s,(1172.41±427.16) ms,(2.25±2.05)次,(1114.15±463.02) ms]差于HC组[分别为(983.50±13.51)s,(834.66±306.52) ms,(1.63±1.47)次,(1006.51±338.92) ms],差异有统计学意义(分别t=2.118,P=0.018;t=5.752,P<0.001;t=2.214,P=0.014;t=1.678,P=0.048).结论 ADHD患者一级亲属有不同程度的注意功能损害.

  3. Study of cognitive function in child-adolescent with schizophrenia and their first degree relatives%儿童少年期精神分裂症患者及其一级亲属认知功能的对照研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王秀珍; 李坚; 陈桂兵; 辜卫红; 王建文; 陈刚; 孙太鹏; 张莉

    2013-01-01

    目的:探讨儿童少年期精神分裂症患者及其一级亲属的认知功能状况. 方法:对40例儿童少年期精神分裂症患者(患者组)、80名父母(患者父母组)及22名同胞(患者同胞组)采用注意力测验、WMS-R-逻辑记忆、数字广度、连线测验A和B、词汇流畅性测验、Stroop色词测验及威斯康星卡片分类测验(WCST)评定其认知功能,并与59名健康儿童(健康儿童对照组)及其父母(健康儿童父母组)80名进行比较. 结果:患者组除词汇流畅性测验以外,其他测验成绩差于健康儿童对照组;患者同胞组除数字顺背、词汇流畅性测验、连线测验-A、WCST正确应答数、WCST完成第1个分类应答数以外,其他测验成绩差于健康儿童对照组(P均<0.001);患者父母组除数字顺背、词汇流畅性测验、连线测验-A以外,其他测验成绩差于健康儿童父母组(P<0.01或P<0.001).儿童精神分裂症患者与其父母在注意力测验、WMS-R-逻辑记忆、数字倒背、彩色文字阅读和彩色文字颜色阅读、WCST完成分数上呈正相关(r =0.350~0.615,P<0.05或P<0.001). 结论:儿童少年期精神分裂症患者及其一级亲属均存在广泛的认知功能缺陷,但患者的认知功能障碍更为严重.%Objective:To explore the condition of the coguitive function in child-adolescent patients with schizophrenia and their first degree relatives.Method:Cognitive function was assessed using attention test,WMS-R-logical memory,digital span,trail making test (TMT-A,B),verbal fluency test (VFT),Stroop colorword test and Wisconsin card sorting test (WCST) in 40 child-adolescent patients with schizophrenia (case group),their 22 siblings (case siblings group) and 80 parents (case parents group).The results were compared with 59 health children (health children group) and their 80 parents (health children parents group).Results:Except VFT,the results of other tests in case group were lower than health

  4. Pseudopacemaker syndrome and marked first-degree atrioventricular block: Case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panić Miloš

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Pacemaker syndrome consists of the symptoms and signs present in the single chamber (VVI pacemaker patient with electrode placed in the right ventricular apex. It is caused by inadequate timing of atrial and ventricular contractions. Pacemaker syndrome without a pacemaker (or pseudopacemaker syndrome refers to occurrence of symptoms in the presence of marked first-degree atrioventricular (AV block, when P wave is too close to the preceding QRS complex producing the same haemodynamic disturbance as artificial pacemaker cardiac stimulation with retrograde VA conduction. Case Outline. We present the patient with acute inferior myocardial infarction due to late bare metal stent thrombosis, treated with primary pectutaneous coronary intervention. Hospital course was complicated by complete heart block which was treated with temporary pacing. During the stand-by mode of temporary pacing, sinus rhythm with marked first-degree AV block (PQ interval 480 ms was observed while the patients re-experienced the symptoms that were present prior to pacemaker implantation. Temporary pacing was continued for the next 24 hours when spontaneous shorteninig of PQ interval (250-270 ms was noticed; since the patient was asymptomatic during the stand-by mode, the pacemaker electrodes were removed and the patient discharged 11 days after admission. Conclusion. Conduction disturbances, such as the varying degrees of AV blocks, are relatively common in acute inferior myocardial infarction. The first degree AV blok is usually asymptomatic and does not require treatment, unless when it is associated with pseudopacemaker syndrome. In that case, temporary pacing provides haemodynamic stability until conduction system recovers.

  5. 2型糖尿病家系非糖尿病正常体重一级亲属脂联素水平5年随访%Study on adiponectin levels in non-obese first-degree relatives of patients with type 2 diabetes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王芳; 刘军; 丁和远; 盛励; 陈灶萍; 郭瑜琳; 廖晓寰

    2010-01-01

    目的探讨2型糖尿病患者非糖尿病正常体重一级亲属脂联素水平变化及脂联素与胰岛素敏感性和颈动脉内膜中层厚度(IMT)之间的关系.方法入选2型糖尿病非糖尿病正常体重一级亲属53名和对照组37名,入组时检测了脂联素、血脂、血糖、血压及空腹胰岛素水平.用高频B超检测IMT及内皮依赖性血管舒张功能(EDVD).采用稳态模式(HOMA)评价胰岛素抵抗(HOMA-IR)和评价胰岛β细胞功能(HOMA-β).一级亲属组29名和对照组20名完成了5年随访.结果基线时一级亲属组血浆脂联素水平明显低于对照组[(10.06±5.79)对(14.43±7.91)mg/L,P<0.05].5年后一级亲属组脂联素水平降低24.0%(P<0.05),对照组脂联素水平降低36.7%(P<0.05).一级亲属组脂联素与腰臀比(r=-0.397)、空腹血糖(r=-0.373)、IMT(r=-0.372)和HOMA-IR(r=-0.40)负相关(均P<0.05).校正相关因素后,多元逐步回归分析显示一级亲属组脂联素与年龄,高密度脂蛋白胆固醇(HDL-C),IMT独立相关.对照组脂联素与低密度脂蛋白胆周醇(LDL-C)和IMT独立相关.结论 5年后一级亲属组和对照组脂联素水平均明显降低,脂联素降低可能与IMT增加相关.%Objective To investigate the adiponectin levels in non-obese first-degree relatives (FDR)of type 2 diabetic subjects and its relation to insulin sensitivity and the intima-media thickness of the common carotid artery (IMT) during 5-year follow-up. Methods Fifty-three FDR subjects and 37 control subjects who were free of type 2 diabetes were enrolled. Plasma adipenectin, lipid profile, blood glucose, fasting insulin, and blood pressure were determined at baseline and after 5-year follow-up. IMT and endothelial-dependent vasodilation (EDVD) were measured by high-resolution B-mode ultrasound imaging. Homeostasis model assessment was used to evaluate insulin resistance (HOMA-IR)and β-cell function (HOMA-β). 29 FDR subjects and 20 control subjects completed the follow

  6. Student Perceptions of the Employability of the First Degree in Portugal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sin, Cristina; Tavares, Orlanda; Amaral, Alberto

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The paper presents and analyses quantitative data on student perceptions about the employability of the first degree, and their trajectory choices on graduation. The purpose of this paper is to assess the value of the first degree as a positional good in Portugal, further to the degree's reduced duration after the implementation of the…

  7. Frecuencia y caracterización del síndrome metabólico según criterios de la Federación Internacional de Diabetes en familiares de primer grado de personas con diabetes tipo 1 Frequency and characterization of metabolic syndrome according to the criteria of the International Federation of Diabetes in first degree relatives of persons with type 1 diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judith Parlá Sardiñas

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: el síndrome metabólico se ha definido como la asociación de varios factores precursores de enfermedad cardiovascular y de diabetes mellitus tipo 2. Objetivo: determinar la frecuencia de síndrome metabólico, según los criterios de la Federación Internacional de Diabetes en familiares de primer grado de diabéticos tipo 1. Métodos: se seleccionaron 96 adultos y 97 adolescentes, se les aplicó un cuestionario, y se les realizó un examen físico general. Además, se les realizaron determinaciones en ayunas de glucosa, insulina, colesterol, triglicéridos y HDL colesterol, y se calculó el índice de resistencia a la insulina. Resultados: la frecuencia del síndrome metabólico fue mayor en los adultos 17,7 % (17/96 que en los adolescentes 3,09 % (3/97, y la resistencia a la insulina en los adultos fue similar en los sujetos con y sin síndrome metabólico. La historia familiar de enfermedad cardiovascular, diabetes mellitus tipo 2, obesidad, dislipidemia e hipertensión arterial no está asociada con la presencia del síndrome metabólico en los familiares de primer grado de diabéticos tipo 1. Conclusiones: el síndrome metabólico, según los criterios de la Federación Internacional de Diabetes, es más frecuente en los adultos que en los adolescentes familiares de primer grado de diabéticos tipo 1, y la resistencia a la insulina en estos sujetos no está exclusivamente asociada al síndrome metabólico.Introduction: the metabolic syndrome is defined as the association of some factors causing cardiovascular disease and of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Objective: to determine the frequency of the metabolic syndrome according to the criteria of the International Federation of Diabetes in first degree relatives of persons with type 1diabetes. Methods: ninety six adults and 97 adolescents were selected to apply a questionnaire and a general physical examination. Also, assessment of fast glucose, insulin, cholesterol

  8. 化痰利湿方改善2型糖尿病患者非糖尿病一级亲属痰湿体质者胰岛素抵抗的临床研究%Clinical Research of Huatan Lishi Prescription on Improving IR in First-degree Non-Diabetic Relatives with Phlegm-dampness Constitution of Type 2 Diabetes Patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王体敬; 李婷

    2013-01-01

    目的:观察化痰利湿方改善2型糖尿病患者非糖尿病一级亲属痰湿体质者胰岛素抵抗的疗效.方法:收集2型糖尿病患者既往无糖尿病一级亲属痰湿体质者共44例,随机分为治疗组(23例),对照组(21例),两组均采用饮食、运动治疗,治疗组在饮食、运动的基础上加服中药,观察治疗前后症状、体征和实验室检查指标的变化.结果:治疗组症状、体征显著改善,治愈率优于对照组,在降低空腹胰岛素(FINS)、胰岛素抵抗指数(IR)、甘油三酯(TG)方面取得较好的疗效,组间差异有统计学意义(P<0.05);总胆固醇(TC)、低密度脂蛋白胆固醇(LDL-C)、高密度脂蛋白胆固醇(HDL-C)有改善趋势,未达到统计学意义(P>0.05).结论:在饮食、运动的基础上加用中药化痰利湿治疗,能进一步改善2型糖尿病患者非糖尿病一级亲属痰湿体质者的胰岛素抵抗和脂代谢紊乱.%Objective: To observe the insulin resistance of first-degree relatives with phlegm-dampness constitution but without diabetes of type 2 diabetes patients. Methods ;44 cases of the first-degree relatives without diabetes but with phlegm-dampness constitution of type 2 diabetic patients were randomly assigned to the treatment group and the control group,23 in treatment group,21 in the control group. Both the two groups used dietotherapy and exercise therapy. The treatment group took Huatan Lishi prescription in the base of dietotherapy and exercise therapy. The changes of the symptoms, signs and index association were observed. Results : The symptoms and signs of the treatment group were improved obviously and the cured rate was better than that in the control group. The treatment group made a good effect on reducing fasting insulin (FINS) , insulin resistance (IR) index and triglycerides (TG). The difference between the two groups was statistically significant(P 0. 05) . Conclusion: Huatan Lishi Prescription in the base of dietotherapy and

  9. Control groups in paediatric epilepsy research: do first-degree cousins show familial effects?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, Melissa; Morrison, Blaise; Jones, Jana E; Jackson, Daren C; Almane, Dace; Seidenberg, Michael; Zhao, Qianqian; Rathouz, Paul J; Hermann, Bruce P

    2017-03-01

    To determine whether first-degree cousins of children with idiopathic focal and genetic generalized epilepsies show any association across measures of cognition, behaviour, and brain structure. The presence/absence of associations addresses the question of whether and to what extent first-degree cousins may serve as unbiased controls in research addressing the cognitive, psychiatric, and neuroimaging features of paediatric epilepsies. Participants were children (aged 8-18) with epilepsy who had at least one first-degree cousin control enrolled in the study (n=37) and all enrolled cousin controls (n=100). Participants underwent neuropsychological assessment and brain imaging (cortical, subcortical, and cerebellar volumes), and parents completed the Child Behaviour Checklist (CBCL). Data (based on 42 outcome measures) from cousin controls were regressed on the corresponding epilepsy cognitive, behavioural, and imaging measures in a linear mixed model and case/control correlations were examined. Of the 42 uncorrected correlations involving cognitive, behavioural, and neuroimaging measures, only two were significant (p0.25). Similar results held for the cognition/behaviour and brain imaging measures separately. Given the lack of association between cases and first-degree cousin performances on measures of cognition, behaviour, and neuroimaging, the results suggest a non-significant genetic influence on control group performance. First-degree cousins appear to be unbiased controls for cognitive, behavioural, and neuroimaging research in paediatric epilepsy.

  10. Quality of life and personality traits in patients with malignant pleural mesothelioma and their first-degree caregivers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Granieri A

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Antonella Granieri,1 Stella Tamburello,2 Antonino Tamburello,2 Silvia Casale,3 Chiara Cont,1 Fanny Guglielmucci,1 Marco Innamorati21Università degli Studi di Torino, Turin, Italy; 2Università Europea di Roma, Rome, Italy; 3Università di Firenze, Firenze, ItalyAbstract: Asbestos exposure causes significant pleural diseases, including malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM. Taking into account the impact of MPM on emotional functioning and wellbeing, this study aimed to evaluate the quality of life and personality traits in patients with MPM and their first-degree caregivers through the World Health Organization Quality of Life–BREF (WHOQOL-BREF and the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2 Restructured Form (MMPI-2-RF. The sample was composed of 27 MPM patients, 55 first-degree relatives enrolled in Casale Monferrato and Monfalcone (Italy, and 40 healthy controls (HC. Patients and relatives reported poorer physical health than the HC. Patients had a higher overall sense of physical debilitation and poorer health than relatives and the HC, more numerous complaints of memory problems and difficulties in concentrating, and a greater belief that goals cannot be reached or problems solved, while often claiming that they were more indecisive and inefficacious than the HC. First-degree relatives reported lower opinions of others, a greater belief that goals cannot be reached or problems solved, support for the notion that they are indecisive and inefficacious, and were more likely to suffer from fear that significantly inhibited normal activities than were HC. In multinomial regression analyses, partial models indicated that sex, physical comorbidities, and the True Response Inconsistency (TRIN-r, Malaise (MLS, and Behavior-Restricting Fears (BRF dimensions of the MMPI-2-RF had significant effects on group differences. In conclusion, health care providers should assess the ongoing adjustment and emotional wellbeing of people with MPM and their

  11. Influences of mental intervention on mental health condition of first-degree relatives of severe mental illness patients%心理干预对重性精神病患者一级亲属心理健康状况的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕红霞

    2015-01-01

    目的:了解心理干预对重性精神病患者一级亲属心理健康状况的影响。方法对87例重性精神病患者的一级亲属采用症状自评量表评定心理健康状况,并根据测评结果予以有针对性的心理干预,心理干预2个月后再次测评,比较2次的测评结果。结果心理干预后亲属的症状自评量表阳性项目数、阳性症状均分及躯体化、强迫、人际关系、焦虑、抑郁、敌对、恐怖、偏执8个因子分均较心理干预前显著降低( P<0.05或0.01)。结论心理干预能显著缓解重性精神病患者一级亲属的焦虑抑郁情绪,改善躯体症状及人际关系,有利于提高其心理健康水平。%Objective To survey the influences of mental intervention on mental health condition of first‐degree relatives of severe mental illness patients .Methods Mental health conditions were assessed with the Symptom Checklist‐90 (SCL‐90) in first‐degree relatives of 87 severe mental illness patients ,purposeful mental interventions given to them according to assessment results ,assessments again conducted after 2 month intervention ,and 2 assessment results compared .Re‐sults After psychological intervention the number of positive items and average score of positive symp‐toms as well as such 8 factor scores of the SCL‐90 lowered more significantly compared with preinterven‐tion as somatization ,obsession ,interpersonal relation ,anxiety ,depression ,hostility ,phobia and paranoia (P<0 .05 or 0 .01) .Conclusion Mental interventions could notably relieved anxiety‐depression emotion of first‐degree relatives of severe mental illness patients ,improve somatic symptoms and interpersonal rela‐tion ,and are beneficial to improve their mental health level .

  12. Índice cintura-cadera contra perímetro cintura para el diagnóstico del síndrome metabólico en niños y adolescentes con familiares de primer grado diabéticos tipo 1 Waist-hip index versus waist circumference for diagnosis of metabolic syndrome in first degree-children and adolescents relatives of persons with type 1 diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Cabrera-Rode

    2011-12-01

    familiares de primer grado de personas con diabetes tipo 1 con síndrome metabólico. En cambio, encontramos diferencias significativas cuando comparamos las frecuencias del síndrome metabólico de la variante del consenso cubano (p= 0,0019, de Cook (p= 0,0053 y de Ford (p= 0,0032, con la definición sugerida por la Federación Internacional de Diabetes (2,23 %; 5/224 empleando el índice cintura-cadera. Conclusiones: nuestros datos indican que para el diagnóstico del síndrome metabólico debemos utilizar el índice cintura-cadera y no el perímetro cintura sugerido por la Asociación Latinoamericana de Diabetes, aún sin presentar datos propios del perímetro cintura de la población cubana.Objective: to compare the measurements of waist circumference and waist-hip circumference to determine the frequency of metabolic syndrome in first degree relatives of persons with type 1diabetes, using different pediatric definitions. Methods: two hundred twenty four first degree relatives of persons with type 1 diabetes were studied in ages from 4 to 10 years. Weight, height, waist-hip circumference, blood pressure, glycemia, triglycerides and HDL-cholesterol were determined. The definitions of metabolic syndrome according to Cook, Ford, International Federation of Diabetes and the Cuban consensus were applied. A variant of Cuban consensus was performed using: body mass index and waist-hip index according the Cuban tables, values of glucose ³ 5,6 mmol/L and blood pressure ³ 90 percentile (Cuban tables. In an independent way, criteria of HDL-cholesterol and triglycerides were taken into account. The waist-hip index of Cuban tables, the waist circumference suggested by the Latin-American and European Association of Diabetes for study definitions were applied. For comparison of frequencies of metabolic syndrome the Fisher exact test was used. Results: the frequency of metabolic syndrome with application of Cuban consensus variant was of 9,37 % (21/224. Comparing the above variant

  13. A survey of metabolic syndrome in first-degree relatives (fathers) of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2012-07-01

    Jul 1, 2012 ... patients and 8.8% in the fathers of women in the control group (p-value < 0.05). According to ... diabetes mellitus is likely with metabolic syndrome.6. Moreover ..... Mental and physical tension, as well as the dietary habits of ...

  14. Anti-glomerular basement membrane glomerulonephritis and thrombotic microangiopathy in first degree relatives; a case report

    OpenAIRE

    Idorn Thomas; Schejbel Lone; Rydahl Casper; Heaf James; Jølvig Karen; Bergstrøm Marie; Garred Peter; Kamper Anne-Lise

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Anti-glomerular basement membrane glomerulonephritis and thrombotic microangiopathy are rare diseases with no known coherence. Case Presentation A daughter and her biological mother were diagnosed with pregnancy-induced thrombotic microangiopathy and anti-glomerular basement membrane glomerulonephritis, respectively. Both developed end-stage renal disease. Exploration of a common aetiology included analyses of HLA genotypes, functional and genetic aspects of the complement...

  15. Brain atrophy rates in first degree relatives at risk for Alzheimer's.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lampert, Erika J; Roy Choudhury, Kingshuk; Hostage, Christopher A; Rathakrishnan, Bharath; Weiner, Michael; Petrella, Jeffrey R; Doraiswamy, P Murali

    2014-01-01

    A positive family history (FH) raises the risk for late-onset Alzheimer's disease though, other than the known risk conferred by apolipoprotein ε4 (ApoE4), much of the genetic variance remains unexplained. We examined the effect of family history on longitudinal regional brain atrophy rates in 184 subjects (42% FH+, mean age 79.9) with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) enrolled in a national biomarker study. An automated image analysis method was applied to T1-weighted MR images to measure atrophy rates for 20 cortical and subcortical regions. Mixed-effects linear regression models incorporating repeated-measures to control for within-subject variation over multiple time points tested the effect of FH over a follow-up of up to 48 months. Most of the 20 regions showed significant atrophy over time. Adjusting for age and gender, subjects with a positive FH had greater atrophy of the amygdala (p atrophy rates was numerically greater in ε3 homozygotes than in E4 carriers, but this difference was not significant. FH+ subjects had numerically greater 4-year cognitive decline and conversion rates than FH- subjects but the difference was not statistically significant after adjusting for ApoE and other variables. We conclude that a positive family history of AD may influence cortical and temporal lobe atrophy in subjects with mild cognitive impairment, but it does not have a significant additional effect beyond the known effect of the E4 genotype.

  16. Brain atrophy rates in first degree relatives at risk for Alzheimer's

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erika J. Lampert

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A positive family history (FH raises the risk for late-onset Alzheimer's disease though, other than the known risk conferred by apolipoprotein ε4 (ApoE4, much of the genetic variance remains unexplained. We examined the effect of family history on longitudinal regional brain atrophy rates in 184 subjects (42% FH+, mean age 79.9 with mild cognitive impairment (MCI enrolled in a national biomarker study. An automated image analysis method was applied to T1-weighted MR images to measure atrophy rates for 20 cortical and subcortical regions. Mixed-effects linear regression models incorporating repeated-measures to control for within-subject variation over multiple time points tested the effect of FH over a follow-up of up to 48 months. Most of the 20 regions showed significant atrophy over time. Adjusting for age and gender, subjects with a positive FH had greater atrophy of the amygdala (p < 0.01, entorhinal cortex (p < 0.01, hippocampus (p < 0.053 and cortical gray matter (p < 0.009. However, when E4 genotype was added as a covariate, none of the FH effects remained significant. Analyses by ApoE genotype showed that the effect of FH on amygdala atrophy rates was numerically greater in ε3 homozygotes than in E4 carriers, but this difference was not significant. FH+ subjects had numerically greater 4-year cognitive decline and conversion rates than FH− subjects but the difference was not statistically significant after adjusting for ApoE and other variables. We conclude that a positive family history of AD may influence cortical and temporal lobe atrophy in subjects with mild cognitive impairment, but it does not have a significant additional effect beyond the known effect of the E4 genotype.

  17. Incidence of cancer in first-degree relatives of basal cell carcinoma patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.M. van Rossum; D. Wopereis; T. Hoyer; I. Soerjomataram (Isabelle); J. Schalkwijk; P.C.M. van de Kerkhof; L.A.L.M. Kiemeney (Bart); N. Hoogerbrugge (Nicoline)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractThere is evidence to suggest that genetic factors play an important role in the development of basal cell carcinomas (BCCs), and that skin neoplasms might be a sign for a genetic predisposition to cancer. We investigated whether the incidence of visceral and skin malignancies among first

  18. Searching for first-degree familial relationships in California's offender DNA database: validation of a likelihood ratio-based approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Steven P; Timken, Mark D; Piucci, Matthew L; Sims, Gary A; Greenwald, Michael A; Weigand, James J; Konzak, Kenneth C; Buoncristiani, Martin R

    2011-11-01

    A validation study was performed to measure the effectiveness of using a likelihood ratio-based approach to search for possible first-degree familial relationships (full-sibling and parent-child) by comparing an evidence autosomal short tandem repeat (STR) profile to California's ∼1,000,000-profile State DNA Index System (SDIS) database. Test searches used autosomal STR and Y-STR profiles generated for 100 artificial test families. When the test sample and the first-degree relative in the database were characterized at the 15 Identifiler(®) (Applied Biosystems(®), Foster City, CA) STR loci, the search procedure included 96% of the fathers and 72% of the full-siblings. When the relative profile was limited to the 13 Combined DNA Index System (CODIS) core loci, the search procedure included 93% of the fathers and 61% of the full-siblings. These results, combined with those of functional tests using three real families, support the effectiveness of this tool. Based upon these results, the validated approach was implemented as a key, pragmatic and demonstrably practical component of the California Department of Justice's Familial Search Program. An investigative lead created through this process recently led to an arrest in the Los Angeles Grim Sleeper serial murders.

  19. [Double-blind study of clobazam (Odipam) and diazepam in non-psychotic anxiety states].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostrogonac, S; Vuckovic, S

    1989-01-01

    Clobazam (Odipam) and Diazepam were investigated by the double blind study method in patients with nonpsychotic anxiety. It was found out that both drugs had equal anxiolytic and tranquilizing effect with the same adverse effects. Greater frequency of excellent marks concerning the final therapeutic effect of Odipam in respect to other marks pointed to its better clinical tolerance, so that this drug was recommended as daily tranquilizer.

  20. Experience in using sulpiride in non-psychotic endogenous depressive-hypochondriacal disorders

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Objective: to study the efficacy of sulpiride in different types of non-psychotic types of endogenous depressive-hypochondriacal syndrome. Patients and methods. Forty-seven patients (36 women and 11 men) with a depressive episode (n = 15), recurrent depressive disorder (n = 14), and slowly progressive schizophrenia (SPS) (n = 18) were examined clinically and using the psychometric scales: the Clinical Global Impression Scale; Montgomery-Esberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS), the Hamilton Anx...

  1. Prevalência dos marcadores imunológicos Anti-GAD e Anti-IA2 em parentes de primeiro grau de diabéticos do tipo 1 em amostra da população da Grande São Paulo Prevalence of immunological markers (Anti-GAD and Anti-IA2 in first-degree relatives of patients with type 1 diabetes in Great São Paulo City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Roberto Cesarini

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available O diabetes tipo 1A (DM1 é causado por mecanismo auto-imune contra células beta em indivíduos com predisposição genética. Auto-anticorpos anti-GAD e anti-IA2 são considerados importantes marcadores destas alterações, cuja prevalência variam, segundo a população estudada e história familiar. Dados sobre freqüência desses marcadores na população brasileira são escassos. OBJETIVOS: Avaliar a freqüência de anti-GAD e anti-IA2 em parentes de primeiro grau de portadores de DM1 (PDM1 em amostra da população da Grande São Paulo. MÉTODOS: Quarenta e oito jovens PDM1 foram recrutados junto a 36 propósitos assistidos em ambulatórios especializados em diabetes da Grande São Paulo, apresentando mediana de idade de 14,5 anos (6,7 a 17,9 anos. Os valores de referência do anti-GAD foram obtidos utilizado-se soros de 194 voluntários normais, sem antecedentes familiares de DM1, com idade de 9,7 a 64,0 anos (mediana de 13,4. Soros de 71 indivíduos normais com idade variando de 11,1 a 15,2 anos (Mi= 12,6 foram submetidos à dosagem de anti-IA2. As dosagens dos marcadores foram através do radioensaio (KRONUS®, Idaho, USA. Valores acima do 99º percentil obtido no grupo controle foram considerados positivos. RESULTADOS: O 99º percentil correspondeu ao valor 1,72 U/ml para o anti-GAD e 0,97 U/ml para o anti-IA2. Cinco indivíduos dos PDM1 (10,4% foram positivos para o anti-GAD, contra 0,5% dos controles (PBACKGROUND: Increasingly accurate prediction of Type1 Diabetes Mellitus (DM1, based on analysis of autoantibody markers, has become possible in first-degree relatives of patients with diabetes (PDM1. These markers indicate autoimmune process against pancreatic islet beta-cells. Anti-GAD and anti-IA2 are considered predictive of DM1, whose prevalences are considerably variable in different populations studied. There are few data about the frequency of these markers on the Brazilian population. The aim of this study is determine the

  2. Pragmatic language and theory of mind deficits in people with schizophrenia and their relatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazza, Monica; Di Michele, Vittorio; Pollice, Rocco; Casacchia, Massimo; Roncone, Rita

    2008-01-01

    Deficits in theory of mind have frequently been observed in people affected by illnesses characterized by disrupted social behaviour like autism and psychoses. In schizophrenia, a pragmatic deficit in expressive language can also be observed. The present study was designed in order to assess the suitability of theory of mind and pragmatic conversation abilities as possible cognitive endophenotypes of schizophrenia. First- and second-order false belief tasks and pragmatic deficits in expressive language were examined in 38 patients with schizophrenia, in 34 non-psychotic relatives and in 44 healthy controls. An extensive clinical and neuropsychological assessment was also conducted. Schizophrenic people and their first-degree relatives performedworse than the normal control subjects in false belief and pragmatic conversation tasks. General cognitive ability and neuropsychological measures of executive functions were not related to social cognition tasks. Theory of mind disorders and failing to understand the gricean conversational maxims are associated with schizophrenia liability. (c) 2008 S. Karger AG, Basel

  3. Psychopharmacological treatment of psychotic mania and psychotic bipolar depression compared to non-psychotic mania and non-psychotic bipolar depression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørklund, Louise B; Horsdal, Henriette T; Mors, Ole

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: An evidence base for the treatment of mania and bipolar depression with psychotic symptoms is lacking. Nevertheless, clinicians may have a preference for treating episodes of bipolar disorder with or without psychotic symptoms in different ways, which is likely to reflect notions...... of differential efficacy of treatments between these subtypes. This study aimed to investigate whether the psychopharmacological treatment of psychotic and non-psychotic episodes of mania and bipolar depression, respectively, differs in clinical practice. METHODS: We conducted a register-based study assessing...... the psychopharmacological treatment of all individuals receiving their first diagnosis of mania or bipolar depression between 2010 and 2012. The psychopharmacological treatment within 3 months following the time of diagnosis was considered. Potential differences in psychopharmacological treatment between the psychotic...

  4. Psychopharmacological treatment of psychotic mania and psychotic bipolar depression compared to non-psychotic mania and non-psychotic bipolar depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjørklund, Louise B; Horsdal, Henriette T; Mors, Ole; Gasse, Christiane; Østergaard, Søren D

    2017-06-08

    An evidence base for the treatment of mania and bipolar depression with psychotic symptoms is lacking. Nevertheless, clinicians may have a preference for treating episodes of bipolar disorder with or without psychotic symptoms in different ways, which is likely to reflect notions of differential efficacy of treatments between these subtypes. This study aimed to investigate whether the psychopharmacological treatment of psychotic and non-psychotic episodes of mania and bipolar depression, respectively, differs in clinical practice. We conducted a register-based study assessing the psychopharmacological treatment of all individuals receiving their first diagnosis of mania or bipolar depression between 2010 and 2012. The psychopharmacological treatment within 3 months following the time of diagnosis was considered. Potential differences in psychopharmacological treatment between the psychotic and non-psychotic subtypes of mania and bipolar depression, respectively, were investigated by means of Pearson's χ(2) test and logistic regression adjusted for sex and age at diagnosis of bipolar disorder. A total of 827 patients were included in the analyses. The adjusted odds ratio (aOR) for treatment with an antipsychotic was 1.71 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.18-2.48, Pbipolar depression. The aOR for treatment with the combination of an antipsychotic and an anticonvulsant was 1.60 (95% CI: 1.06-2.43, Pbipolar psychotic depression. It would be of interest to conduct studies evaluating whether antipsychotics represent the superior pharmacological treatment for psychotic mania and psychotic bipolar depression. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Mentally disordered non-psychotic criminal offenders--treatment instead of punishment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gottlieb, Peter; Gabrielsen, Gorm; Kørner, Ejnar Alex

    2013-01-01

    By including §69 into the Danish Penal Code, it has since 1975 been possible to use psychiatric measures as legal sanctions for even non-psychotic offenders-if the measure is believed to be preventive of future crime. To be able to decide on the applicability of treatment measures as sanctions in...... in criminal cases, the court will request a psychiatric report. They may furthermore ask a medical expert consultation board, the Danish Medico-Legal Council, for an opinion on the mental status of the defendant....

  6. First-degree AV block-an entirely benign finding or a potentially curable cause of cardiac disease?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmqvist, Fredrik; Daubert, James P

    2013-05-01

    First-degree atrioventricular (AV) block is a delay within the AV conduction system and is defined as a prolongation of the PR interval beyond the upper limit of what is considered normal (generally 0.20 s). Up until recently, first-degree AV block was considered an entirely benign condition. In fact, some complain that it is a misnomer since there is only delay and no actual block in the AV conduction system (usually within the AV node). However, it has long been acknowledged that extreme forms of first-degree AV block (typically a PR interval exceeding 0.30 s) can cause symptoms due to inadequate timing of atrial and ventricular contractions, similar to the so-called pacemaker syndrome. Consequently, the current guidelines state that permanent pacemaker implantation is reasonable for first-degree AV block with symptoms similar to those of pacemaker syndrome or with hemodynamic compromise, but also stresses that there is little evidence to suggest that pacemakers improve survival in patients with isolated first-degree AV block. Recent reports suggest that it may be time to revisit the impact of first-degree AV block. Also, several findings in post hoc analyses of randomized device trials give important insights in possible treatment options. The present review aims to provide an update on the current knowledge concerning the impact of first-degree AV block and also to address the issue of pacing in patients with this condition. ©2013, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Correlation of pulmonary functions of COPD patients to those of their first-degree children

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卢冰冰; 何权瀛

    2003-01-01

    Objective To assess the risk factors correlating to the likelihood for airflow obstruction among first-degree children of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients and whether familial aggregation of pulmonary function abnormality exists.Methods Fifty-nine smokers with COPD and 28 smokers without COPD as control and all their children available were recruited into the study. Their history was recorded and a binary logistic regression analysis was carried out to ascertain the effects of their relationship to a proband with COPD, when other potential risk factors were controlled. Results Children with COPD probands showed increased risk of FEV1 below the 70% predicted (OR=1.987) after accounting for the effects of smoking, sex and clinical symptoms. The lower the pulmonary function of the COPD proband, the higher the risk to their children for FEV1 below the 70% predicted. Conclusions Our finding demonstrates the presence of a household aggregation inclination of COPD and pulmonary function impairment. Genetic factors might act as the basis of the familial aggregation.

  8. Functional anomalies in healthy individuals with a first degree family history of major depressive disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amico Francesco

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Individuals with major depressive disorder (MDD process information with a bias towards negative stimuli. However, little is known on the link between vulnerability to MDD and brain functional anomalies associated with stimulus bias. Methods A cohort of 38 subjects, of which 14 were patients with acute MDD and 24 were healthy controls (HC, were recruited and compared. The HC group included 10 healthy participants with a first degree family history of depression (FHP and 14 volunteers with no family history of any psychiatric disease (FHN. Blood oxygen level dependence signals were acquired from functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI during performance in a dot-probe task using fearful and neutral stimuli. Reaction times and the number of errors were also obtained. Results Although MDD patients and HC showed no behavioral difference, the MDD group exhibited smaller activation in the left middle cingulum. The MDD group also showed smaller activation in the left insula when compared to the HC group or the FHN group. Finally, FHP participants exhibited higher activation in the right Heschl's gyrus compared to FHN participants. Conclusions The present study shows that family risk for MDD is associated with increased activation in the Heschl's gyrus. Our results also suggest that acute MDD is linked to reduced activation in the insula and anterior cingulate cortex during processing of subliminal, not recognizable, masked fearful stimuli. Further research should confirm these results in a larger cohort of participants.

  9. The clinical and cost effectiveness of group art therapy for people with non-psychotic mental health disorders: a systematic review and cost-effectiveness analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uttley, Lesley; Stevenson, Matt; Scope, Alison; Rawdin, Andrew; Sutton, Anthea

    2015-07-07

    The majority of mental health problems are non-psychotic (e.g., depression, anxiety, and phobias). For some people, art therapy may be a more acceptable alternative form of psychological therapy than standard forms of treatment, such as talking therapies. This study was part of a health technology assessment commissioned by the National Institute for Health Research, UK and aimed to systematically appraise the clinical and cost-effective evidence for art therapy for people with non-psychotic mental health disorders. Comprehensive literature searches for studies examining art therapy in populations with non-psychotic mental health disorders were performed in May 2013. A quantitative systematic review of clinical effectiveness and a systematic review of studies evaluating the cost-effectiveness of group art therapy were conducted. Eleven randomised controlled trials were included (533 patients). Meta-analysis was not possible due to clinical heterogeneity and insufficient comparable data on outcome measures across studies. The control groups varied between studies but included: no treatment/wait-list, attention placebo controls and psychological therapy comparators. Art therapy was associated with significant positive changes relative to the control group in mental health symptoms in 7 of the 11 studies. A de novo model was constructed and populated with data identified from the clinical review. Scenario analyses were conducted allowing comparisons of group art therapy with wait-list control and group art therapy with group verbal therapy. Group art-therapy appeared cost-effective compared with wait-list control with high certainty although generalisability to the target population was unclear; group verbal therapy appeared more cost-effective than art therapy but there was considerable uncertainty and a sizeable probability that art therapy was more cost effective. From the limited available evidence art therapy was associated with positive effects compared with

  10. Systematic review and economic modelling of the clinical effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of art therapy among people with non-psychotic mental health disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uttley, Lesley; Scope, Alison; Stevenson, Matt; Rawdin, Andrew; Taylor Buck, Elizabeth; Sutton, Anthea; Stevens, John; Kaltenthaler, Eva; Dent-Brown, Kim; Wood, Chris

    2015-03-01

    Mental health problems account for almost half of all ill health in people under 65 years. The majority are non-psychotic (e.g. depression, anxiety and phobias). For some people, art therapy may provide more profound and long-lasting healing than more standard forms of treatment, perhaps because it can provide an alternative means of expression and release from trauma. As yet, no formal evaluation of art therapy for non-psychotic mental health disorders has been conducted. This review aimed to evaluate evidence for the clinical effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of art therapy for non-psychotic mental health disorders. Comprehensive literature searches for studies examining art therapy in populations with non-psychotic mental health disorders were performed in major health-related and social science bibliographic databases including MEDLINE, EMBASE, The Cochrane Library, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL), PsycINFO, Allied and Complementary Medicine Database (AMED) and Applied Social Sciences Index and Abstracts (ASSIA) from inception up to May 2013. A quantitative systematic review of clinical effectiveness, a qualitative review to explore the acceptability, relative benefits and potential harms, and a cost-utility analysis of studies evaluating cost-effectiveness of art therapy were conducted. In the quantitative review, 15 randomised controlled trials (RCTs) were included (n = 777). Meta-analysis was not possible because of clinical heterogeneity and insufficient comparable data on outcome measures across studies. A narrative synthesis reports that art therapy was associated with significant positive changes relative to the control group in mental health symptoms in 10 out of the 15 studies. The control groups varied between studies but included wait-list/no treatment, attention placebo controls and psychological therapy comparators. Four studies reported improvement from baseline but no significant difference between groups

  11. [Neuropsychological syndromes of non-psychotic mental disorders of youthful age].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pluzhnikov, I V; Omelchenko, M A; Krylova, E S; Kaleda, V G

    2013-01-01

    Seventy male patients with non-psychotic mental disorders of youthful age (mean age 19.2±3.7), were studied using A.R. Luria neuropsychological syndrome analysis. Patients were stratified into 3 groups by diagnosis: cyclothymia (20 patients), pubertal decompensation of schizoid personality disorder (30 patients) and schizotypal personality disorder (20 patients). It has been shown that the neuropsychological changes indicate the dysfunction of the amygdale/temporal region in patients of the first group and frontal/thalamic/parietal connections in the patients of two other groups. There were interhemispheric differences between patients with personality disorder and schizotypal personality disorder: left hemisphere dysfunction was characteristic of schizotypal disorder and right hemisphere deficit (neurocognitive deficit) was found in patients with personality disorder.

  12. A compendium of familial relative risks of cancer among first degree relatives: A population-based study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zeegers, M.P.; Schouten, L.J.; Goldbohm, R.A.; Brandt, P.A. van den

    2008-01-01

    Familial clustering of cancer is expected to occur at practically all anatomical sites. However, few studies have had sufficient size to investigate different sites simultaneously and with adjustment for confounders. We evaluated familial clustering in the Netherlands Cohort Study in which 120,852 m

  13. A comparison of complex sleep behaviors with two short-acting Z-hypnosedative drugs in nonpsychotic patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen LF

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Li-Fen Chen,1 Ching-En Lin,1–3 Yu-Ching Chou,4 Wei-Chung Mao,1,5 Yi-Chyan Chen,1–3 Nian-Sheng Tzeng1,6 1Department of Psychiatry, Tri-Service General Hospital, School of Medicine, National Defense Medical Center, Taipei City, Taiwan; 2Taipei Tzu Chi Hospital, The Buddhist Medical Foundation, Taipei, Taiwan; 3School of Medicine, Tzu Chi University, Hualien, Taiwan; 4School of Public Health, National Defense Medical Center, Taipei City, Taiwan; 5Institute of Brain Science, School of Medicine, National Yang-Ming University, Taipei City, Taiwan; 6Student Counseling Center, National Defense Medical Center, Taipei City, Taiwan Objective: Complex sleep behaviors (CSBs are classified as “parasomnias” in the International Classification of Sleep Disorders, Second Edition (ICSD-2. To realize the potential danger after taking two short-acting Z-hypnosedative drugs, we estimated the incidence of CSBs in nonpsychotic patients in Taiwan. Methods: Subjects (N = 1,220 using zolpidem or zopiclone were enrolled from the psychiatric outpatient clinics of a medical center in Taiwan over a 16-month period in 2006–2007. Subjects with zolpidem (N = 1,132 and subjects with zopiclone (N = 88 were analyzed. All subjects completed a questionnaire that included demographic data and complex sleep behaviors after taking hypnotics. Results: Among zolpidem and zopiclone users, 3.28% of patients reported incidents of somnambulism or amnesic sleep-related behavior problems. The incidence of CSBs with zolpidem and zopiclone were 3.27%, and 3.41%, respectively, which was significantly lower than other studies in Taiwan. Conclusion: These results serve as a reminder for clinicians to make inquiries regarding any unusual performance of parasomnic activities when prescribing zolpidem or zopiclone. Keywords: parasomnia, somnambulism, amnesic sleep-related behavior, sleepwalking, zolpidem, zopiclone

  14. Determinants of Increasing Duration of First Unemployment among First Degree Holders in Rwanda: A Logistic Regression Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niragire, François; Nshimyiryo, Alphonse

    2017-01-01

    Unexpectedly, the duration of first unemployment among first degree holders has quickly increased in Rwanda after considerable loss of the skilled labour during the war and Genocide perpetrated against Tutsi in 1994. The time it takes a higher education graduate to land a first employment is a key indicator for the evaluation of and optimal…

  15. A comparison study of early non-psychotic deviant behavior in Afrikaner and US patients with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobin, Christina; Roos, J Louw; Pretorius, Herman; Lundy, Laura S; Karayiorgou, Maria

    2003-02-15

    In a previous study early non-psychotic deviant behaviors in US adult schizophrenic patients recruited for a large-scale genetic study were examined (Psychiatry Research, 101, 101). Early deviance characterized a distinct subgroup of patients at rates that were consistent with earlier reports. In addition, specific early non-psychotic deviant behaviors were meaningfully associated with later disease outcomes. In the present study, we examined the demographic, syndrome course, symptom and early deviant behavior history of 109 Afrikaner probands who met criteria for DSM schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder, and compared them to 109 age- and gender-matched US probands. Consistent with past findings, 68% of Afrikaner probands, as compared to 67% of age- and gender-matched US probands, reported one or more forms of early non-psychotic deviance, including poor socialization, extreme fears/chronic sadness, and/or attention/learning impairment. The remaining 32 and 33% of probands, respectively, were without behavioral deviance until the onset of schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder. The frequency and distribution of individual deviant behaviors were strikingly consistent between the samples. However, logistic regression analyses revealed different patterns of associations between the early deviant behaviors manifested and disease outcome. Afrikaner participants with early fears/chronic sadness were 3 times more likely to attempt suicide, while among US participants, this form of early deviance conferred 3.5 times more risk for later schizoaffective disorder, and 3 times greater likelihood of later sensory (tactile and/or olfactory) hallucinations. Afrikaner participants with attention/learning impairment were 2.5 times more likely to experience later auditory hallucinations, while US participants with these early difficulties were 3 times more likely to experience thought disorder. We concluded that early non-psychotic childhood deviance in this independently

  16. Quality of life in patients with non-psychotic mental disorders, suffering from acute and chronic pancreatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shevchenko Y.M.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to examine the quality of life and clinical features of non-psychotic mental disorders in patients with acute and chronic pancreatitis. Polymorphic mental disorders of different clinical content and severity in most cases not only comorbid diseases of the pancreas, but often are the first earliest clinical manifestations of the disease. The data on clinical and psychopathological features of non-psychotic mental disorders in patients with acute and chronic pancreatitis are given. The share of cardinal syndromes such as asthenic-neurotic and anxious-depressive was established and described. The study was conducted using the following methods: clinical psychiatric questionnaire of common type MOS Short Form-36 Health Survey (SF-36 and methods of mathematical processing. The sample included 131 patients with acute and chronic pancreatitis. Clinical variant of acute and chronic pancreatitis debut were the features of mental disorders and psychotic-pathologic structure of non-psychotic mental disorders. Various indicators of quality of life in acute and chronic pancreatitis in presence of psychotic disorders were revealed.

  17. Symptom Profile and Severity in a Sample of Nigerians with Psychotic versus Nonpsychotic Major Depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Increase Ibukun Adeosun

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The therapeutic strategies in managing patients with psychotic major depression (PMD differ from those with non-psychotic major depression (NMD, because of differences in clinical profile and outcome. However, there is underrecognition of psychotic symptoms in depressed patients. Previous studies in Western population suggest that certain symptom patterns, apart from psychosis which may be concealed, can facilitate the discrimination of PMD from NMD. These studies may have limited applicability to sub-Saharan Africa due to cross-cultural differences in the phenomenology of depression. This study compared the rates and severity of depressive symptoms in outpatients with PMD (n=129 and NMD (n=117 using the Structured Clinical Interview for Depression (SCID and Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAM-D. Patients with PMD had statistically significantly higher rates of suicidal ideation, suicidal attempt, psychomotor agitation, insomnia, and reduced appetite. Patients with NMD were more likely to manifest psychomotor retardation and somatic symptoms. PMD was associated with greater symptom severity. On logistic regression analysis, suicidal ideation, psychomotor disturbances, insomnia, and somatic symptoms were predictive of diagnostic status. The presence of these symptoms clusters may increase the suspicion of occult psychosis in patients with depression, thereby informing appropriate intervention strategies.

  18. Phenylthiocarbamide (PTC) perception in patients with schizophrenia and first-degree family members: relationship to clinical symptomatology and psychophysical olfactory performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moberg, Paul J; McGue, Colleen; Kanes, Stephen J; Roalf, David R; Balderston, Catherine C; Gur, Raquel E; Kohler, Christian G; Turetsky, Bruce I

    2007-02-01

    The inability to taste phenylthiocarbamide (PTC; "taste-blindness") has been associated with a number of medical and neurological illnesses not typically related to taste. We examined PTC sensitivity in 67 schizophrenia patients, 30 healthy controls, and 30 first-degree relatives to determine whether taster status could represent a simple vulnerability marker. A higher prevalence of non-tasters was seen in patients and family members relative to healthy controls. Among patients, non-tasters exhibited increased levels of negative and first-rank symptoms as well as poorer right nostril odor identification skills relative to PTC tasters. These differences were not explained by age, sex, education, smoking, or intensity differences. Phenotypic variation in PTC sensitivity is thought to be genetic in origin and suggests greater illness risk for those subjects with recessive taster alleles.

  19. Escitalopram and Neuroendocrine Response in Healthy First-Degree Relatives to epressed Patients – A Randomized Placebo-Controlled Trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knorr, Ulla Benedichte Søsted; Vinberg, Maj; Hansen, Allan

    2011-01-01

    randomized to escitalopram 10 mg versus matching placebo daily for four weeks. The primary outcome measure was the intervention difference in the change of the total area under the curve (CorAUCtotal) for plasma cortisol in the DEX-CRH test at entry to after four weeks of intervention. Results: Change in Cor......AUCtotal showed no statistically significant difference between the escitalopram and the placebo group, p = 0.47. There were large intra- and inter-individual differences in the results of the DEX-CRH test. There was statistically significant negative correlation between the plasma escitalopram concentration...... and change in CorAUCtotal, rho =20.41, p = 0.01. Post-hoc analyses showed a statistically significant interaction between age and intervention group and change in log CorAUCtotal. Conclusion: The present trial does not support an effect of escitalopram 10 mg daily compared with placebo on the HPAaxis...

  20. Impaired endothelial function and insulin action in first-degree relatives of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sonne, Mette P; Højbjerre, Lise; Alibegovic, Amra A

    2009-01-01

    . Forearm blood flow (FBF) was measured by venous occlusion plethysmography upon stimulation with systemic hyperinsulinemia (291 +/- 11 pmol/L, pooled data from both groups) and upon intraarterial infusion of adenosine (ADN) and acetylcholine (ACH) +/- hyperinsulinemia. Forearm blood flow response to ADN...... and ACH was less in FDR vs CON (P ADN in CON (P

  1. Does DNA Methylation of PPARGC1A Influence Insulin Action in First Degree Relatives of Patients with Type 2 Diabetes?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gillberg, Linn; Jacobsen, Stine; Ribel-Madsen, Rasmus

    2013-01-01

    Epigenetics may play a role in the pathophysiology of type 2 diabetes (T2D), and increased DNA methylation of the metabolic master regulator peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1 alpha (PPARGC1A) has been reported in muscle and pancreatic islets from T2D patients and in m......Epigenetics may play a role in the pathophysiology of type 2 diabetes (T2D), and increased DNA methylation of the metabolic master regulator peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1 alpha (PPARGC1A) has been reported in muscle and pancreatic islets from T2D patients...... included 124 Danish FDR of T2D patients from 46 different families. Skeletal muscle biopsies were excised from vastus lateralis and insulin action was assessed by oral glucose tolerance tests. DNA methylation and mRNA expression levels were measured using bisulfite sequencing and quantitative real-time PCR...

  2. Rubidium uptake of mononuclear leukocytes from normotensive and borderline hypertensive first degree relatives to patients with essential hypertension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Torben; Nielsen, J R; Poulsgård, L

    1985-01-01

    Uptake of 86Rubidium of mononuclear leukocytes (MNL) was used as a measure of cellular sodium-potassium pump activity. 86Rb-uptake was determined with the pump stimulated mainly from inside the cells by sodium as well as with a combined stimulation from inside by sodium and from outside by Rb. In...

  3. Stratifying empiric risk of schizophrenia among first degree relatives using multiple predictors in two independent Indian samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatia, Triptish; Gettig, Elizabeth A; Gottesman, Irving I; Berliner, Jonathan; Mishra, N N; Nimgaonkar, Vishwajit L; Deshpande, Smita N

    2016-12-01

    Schizophrenia (SZ) has an estimated heritability of 64-88%, with the higher values based on twin studies. Conventionally, family history of psychosis is the best individual-level predictor of risk, but reliable risk estimates are unavailable for Indian populations. Genetic, environmental, and epigenetic factors are equally important and should be considered when predicting risk in 'at risk' individuals. To estimate risk based on an Indian schizophrenia participant's family history combined with selected demographic factors. To incorporate variables in addition to family history, and to stratify risk, we constructed a regression equation that included demographic variables in addition to family history. The equation was tested in two independent Indian samples: (i) an initial sample of SZ participants (N=128) with one sibling or offspring; (ii) a second, independent sample consisting of multiply affected families (N=138 families, with two or more sibs/offspring affected with SZ). The overall estimated risk was 4.31±0.27 (mean±standard deviation). There were 19 (14.8%) individuals in the high risk group, 75 (58.6%) in the moderate risk and 34 (26.6%) in the above average risk (in Sample A). In the validation sample, risks were distributed as: high (45%), moderate (38%) and above average (17%). Consistent risk estimates were obtained from both samples using the regression equation. Familial risk can be combined with demographic factors to estimate risk for SZ in India. If replicated, the proposed stratification of risk may be easier and more realistic for family members. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  4. Brain volumes in relatives of patients with schizophrenia - A meta-analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boos, Heleen B. M.; Aleman, Andre; Cahn, Wiepke; Pol, Hilleke Hulshoff; Kahn, Rene S.

    Context: Smaller brain volumes have consistently been found in patients with schizophrenia, particularly in gray matter and medial temporal lobe structures. Although several studies have investigated brain volumes in nonpsychotic relatives of patients with schizophrenia, results have been

  5. Experience in using sulpiride in non-psychotic endogenous depressive-hypochondriacal disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina Arkadyevna Tyuvina

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to study the efficacy of sulpiride in different types of non-psychotic types of endogenous depressive-hypochondriacal syndrome. Patients and methods. Forty-seven patients (36 women and 11 men with a depressive episode (n = 15, recurrent depressive disorder (n = 14, and slowly progressive schizophrenia (SPS (n = 18 were examined clinically and using the psychometric scales: the Clinical Global Impression Scale; Montgomery-Esberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS, the Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale (HARS, and Udvalg for Kliniske Undersшgelser Side Effect Rating Scale. Sulpiride was given in an initial dose of50—100 mg/day; the dose was, if required, increased up to 400—600 mg/day. Results. After 2 months of treatment in the patients with affective disorders, the MADRS and HARS scores showed reductions from 28.7+2.3 to 14.3+1.7 and from 14.8+2.1 to 7.4+2.7, respectively. The reductions in the symptoms of depression and anxiety were 50.2 and 50.0%, respectively. In SPS, the mean MADRS and HARS scores decreased from 21.4+3.7 to 13.7ё1.8 and from 10.2+1.5 to 6.4+3.2, respectively. There were generally 40 and 37.3% reductions in the symptoms of depression and anxiety, respectively. Conclusion. In patients with affective disorders, the efficacy of sulpiride is predominantly due to its antidepressant and anti-anxiety activities in depressive-hypochondriacal syndrome and to its antipsychotic and activating activities in SPS.

  6. A linguistic comparison between auditory verbal hallucinations in patients with a psychotic disorder and in nonpsychotic individuals: Not just what the voices say, but how they say it.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Boer, J N; Heringa, S M; van Dellen, E; Wijnen, F N K; Sommer, I E C

    2016-11-01

    Auditory verbal hallucinations (AVH) in psychotic patients are associated with activation of right hemisphere language areas, although this hemisphere is non-dominant in most people. Language generated in the right hemisphere can be observed in aphasia patients with left hemisphere damage. It is called "automatic speech", characterized by low syntactic complexity and negative emotional valence. AVH in nonpsychotic individuals, by contrast, predominantly have a neutral or positive emotional content and may be less dependent on right hemisphere activity. We hypothesize that right hemisphere language characteristics can be observed in the language of AVH, differentiating psychotic from nonpsychotic individuals. 17 patients with a psychotic disorder and 19 nonpsychotic individuals were instructed to repeat their AVH verbatim directly upon hearing them. Responses were recorded, transcribed and analyzed for total words, mean length of utterance, proportion of grammatical utterances, proportion of negations, literal and thematic perseverations, abuses, type-token ratio, embeddings, verb complexity, noun-verb ratio, and open-closed class ratio. Linguistic features of AVH overall differed between groups F(13,24)=3.920, p=0.002; Pillai's Trace 0.680. AVH of psychotic patients compared with AVH of nonpsychotic individuals had a shorter mean length of utterance, lower verb complexity, and more verbal abuses and perseverations (all p<0.05). Other features were similar between groups. AVH of psychotic patients showed lower syntactic complexity and higher levels of repetition and abuses than AVH of nonpsychotic individuals. These differences are in line with a stronger involvement of the right hemisphere in the origination of AVH in patients than in nonpsychotic voice hearers. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Interpersonal Community Psychiatric Treatment for non-psychotic chronic patients and nurses in outpatient mental health care : A controlled pilotstudy on feasibility and effects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koekkoek, Bauke; Meijel, B. van; Schene, A.; Kaasenbrood, A.; Hutschemaekers, G.; Smit, A.

    2012-01-01

    In psychiatric care professionals perceive some patients as ‘difficult’, especially patients with long-term non-psychotic disorders. For these patients few evidence-based treatments exist. An intervention program, Interpersonal Community Psychiatric Treatment (ICPT), was developed by the authors. It

  8. Interpersonal Community Psychiatric Treatment for non-psychotic chronic patients and nurses in outpatient mental health care: A controlled pilot study on feasibility and effects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koekkoek, B.; Meijel, B. van; Schene, A.; Smit, A.; Kaasenbrood, A.; Hutschemaekers, G.

    2011-01-01

    In psychiatric care professionals perceive some patients as 'difficult', especially patients with long-term non-psychotic disorders. For these patients few evidence-based treatments exist. An intervention program, Interpersonal Community Psychiatric Treatment (ICPT), was developed by the authors. It

  9. Risk factors for suicide among 34,671 patients with psychotic and non-psychotic severe depression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leadholm, Anne Katrine K; Rothschild, Anthony J; Nielsen, Jimmi

    2014-01-01

    -PD and PD separately, and to investigate if the presence of psychotic symptoms is an independent risk factor for suicide in severe depression. METHODS: This register-based, nationwide, historical prospective cohort study used logistic regression analyses to ascertain risk factors for suicide among all......BACKGROUND: Severe unipolar depression is associated with increased risk of suicide, but it remains unknown whether the same risk factors are present in the non-psychotic (non-PD) and psychotic (PD) subtypes respectively. Therefore, this study aimed to identify risk factors for suicide in non...... adults diagnosed with severe depression at Danish psychiatric hospitals between January 1, 1994 and December 31, 2010. The risk for suicide was expressed as adjusted odds ratios (AOR). RESULTS: A total of 34,671 individuals with severe depression (non-PD: n=26,106 and PD: n=12,101) were included...

  10. Attenuated psychotic and basic symptom characteristics in adolescents with ultra-high risk criteria for psychosis, other non-psychotic psychiatric disorders and early-onset psychosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo Cascio, Nella; Saba, Riccardo; Hauser, Marta; Vernal, Ditte Lammers; Al-Jadiri, Aseel; Borenstein, Yehonatan; Sheridan, Eva M; Kishimoto, Taishiro; Armando, Marco; Vicari, Stefano; Fiori Nastro, Paolo; Girardi, Paolo; Gebhardt, Eva; Kane, John M; Auther, Andrea; Carrión, Ricardo E; Cornblatt, Barbara A; Schimmelmann, Benno G; Schultze-Lutter, Frauke; Correll, Christoph U

    2016-10-01

    While attenuated psychotic symptoms (APS) and basic symptoms (BS) are the main current predictors of psychosis in adults, studies in adolescents are scarce. Thus, we (1) described the prevalence and severity of positive, negative, disorganization, general, and basic symptoms in adolescent patients at ultra-high risk for psychosis (UHR), with other non-psychotic psychiatric disorders (PC) and with early-onset psychosis (EOP); and (2) investigated BS criteria in relation to UHR criteria. Sixty-nine 12-18-year-old adolescents (15.3 ± 1.7 years, female = 58.0 %, UHR = 22, PC = 27, EOP = 20) were assessed with the structured interview for prodromal syndromes (SIPS) and the schizophrenia proneness instrument-child and youth version (SPI-CY). Despite similar current and past 12-month global functioning, both UHR and EOP had significantly higher SIPS total and subscale scores compared to PC, with moderate-large effect sizes. Expectedly, UHR had significantly lower SIPS positive symptom scores than EOP, but similar SIPS negative, disorganized, and general symptom scores. Compared to PC, both EOP and UHR had more severe basic thought and perception disturbances, and significantly more often met cognitive disturbances criteria (EOP = 50.0 %, UHR = 40.9 %, PC = 14.8 %). Compared to UHR, both EOP and PC significantly less often met cognitive-perceptive BS criteria (EOP = 35.0 %, UHR = 68.2 %, PC = 25.9 %). BS were significantly more prevalent in both EOP and UHR than PC, and UHR were similar to EOP in symptom domains. Given the uncertain outcome of adolescents at clinical high-risk of psychosis, future research is needed to determine whether the combined assessment of early subjective disturbances with observable APS can improve the accuracy of psychosis prediction.

  11. Adverse effects of first-degree AV-block in patients with sinus node dysfunction: data from the mode selection trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmqvist, Fredrik; Hellkamp, Anne S; Lee, Kerry L; Lamas, Gervasio A; Daubert, James P

    2014-09-01

    Patients with a pacing indication and first-degree atrioventricular (AV)-block pose a clinical challenge. The prognostic impact of first-degree AV-block in patients with sinus node dysfunction and the impact of pacing in this setting are not known. In the Mode Selection Trial (MOST), 2,010 patients with sinus node dysfunction were randomized to either dual-chamber (DDD-R) or ventricular (VVI-R) pacing and followed for a median of 33 months. We report on clinical outcomes in patients with first-degree AV-block (PR interval > 200 ms) compared with patients who had a normal PR interval at baseline. Patients with first-degree AV-block (n = 378) were older (median [Q1, Q3]; 76 [70, 82] years vs 73 [66, 79] years, PAV-conduction (n = 1,159). In multivariable analyses, patients with first-degree AV-block were at greater risk of death, stroke, or heart failure hospitalization (hazard ratio [HR] 1.31, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.06-1.61, P = 0.013). A trend towards a higher incidence of atrial fibrillation was seen (HR 1.24, 95% CI 0.98-1.55, P = 0.069). No significant interactions between pacing arm and prolonged versus normal PR were found for any endpoint, and hazard ratios were consistent across subgroups. First-degree AV-block is associated with more advanced disease but is still an independent predictor of poor clinical outcome. Neither DDD-R nor VVI-R pacing, as employed in MOST, eliminate the negative effects associated with first-degree AV-block. ©2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Adenoma, advanced adenoma and colorectal cancer prevalence in asymptomatic 40- to 49-year-old subjects with a first-degree family history of colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Vecchio Blanco, G; Cretella, M; Paoluzi, O A; Caruso, A; Mannisi, E; Servadei, F; Romeo, S; Grasso, E; Sileri, P; Giannelli, M; Biancone, L; Palmieri, G; Pallone, F

    2013-09-01

    First-degree relatives (FDRs) of patients with colorectal cancer (CRC) have an increased CRC risk. Few studies have addressed if adenoma and advanced adenoma risk is increased among individuals, 40-49 years of age, with a family history of CRC. Therefore, the aim of the study was to define the prevalence and location of adenoma, advanced adenoma and CRC, according to age, in asymptomatic individuals with a family history of CRC. Retrospective study of asymptomatic FDRs, 40 to ≥70 years of age undergoing first screening colonoscopy over a 3-year period, of CRC patients. Among 464 individuals studied, the prevalence of adenoma and advanced adenoma was 18.1% and 6.4%, respectively. According to age intervals, the prevalences of adenoma and advanced adenoma were 14% and 3.5%, respectively, in subjects 40-49 years of age; 14.4% and 6.3%, respectively, in subjects 50-59 years of age; 27% and 8%, respectively, in subjects 60-69 years of age; and 25% and 14%, respectively, in subjects ≥70 years of age; no significant difference was found among the four groups. No difference in lesion location was found, with similar numbers of preneoplastic lesions being present in the right colon and the left colon. CRC was diagnosed in three (0.64%) subjects, one of whom was in the 40-49 years age group. In our population of FDRs of CRC patients, 40-49 years of age, the prevalences of adenoma and advanced adenoma were similar to those observed in older subjects with the same CRC risk. Our data support the current indication to perform screening colonoscopy earlier than 45 years of age in subjects at high CRC risk. Colorectal Disease © 2013 The Association of Coloproctology of Great Britain and Ireland.

  13. Subcortical grey matter alterations in cocaine dependent individuals with substance-induced psychosis compared to non-psychotic cocaine users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willi, Taylor S; Lang, Donna J; Honer, William G; Smith, Geoff N; Thornton, Allen E; Panenka, William J; Procyshyn, Ric M; Vila-Rodriguez, Fidel; Su, Wayne; Vertinsky, A Talia; Leonova, Olga; Rauscher, Alexander; MacEwan, G William; Barr, Alasdair M

    2016-10-01

    After prolonged psychostimulant abuse, transient psychotic symptoms referred to as "substance-induced psychosis" (SIP) can develop - closely resembling symptoms observed in schizophrenia spectrum disorders. The comparability in psychotic presentation between SIP and schizophrenias suggests that similar underlying neural deficits may contribute to the expression of psychosis across these disorders. To date, neuroanatomical characterization of grey matter structural alterations in SIP has been limited to methamphetamine associated psychosis, with no studies controlling for potential neurotoxic effects of the psychostimulant that precipitates psychosis. To investigate grey matter subcortical alterations in SIP, a voxel-based analysis of magnetic resonance images (MRI) was performed between a group of 74 cocaine dependent nonpsychotic individuals and a group of 29 individuals with cocaine-associated psychosis. The cocaine-associated psychosis group had significantly smaller volumes of the thalamus and left hippocampus, controlling for age, total brain volume, current methamphetamine dependence, and current marijuana dependence. No differences were present in bilateral caudate structures. The findings of reduced thalamic and hippocampal volumes agree with previous reports in the schizophrenia literature, suggesting alterations of these structures are not specific to schizophrenia, but may be common to multiple forms of psychosis.

  14. High Prevalence of Metabolic Syndrome in First-Degree Male Relatives of Women with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome Is Related to High Rates of Obesity

    OpenAIRE

    Coviello, Andrea D.; Sam, Susan; Legro, Richard S; Dunaif, Andrea

    2009-01-01

    Context: Women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) have twice the risk for metabolic syndrome (MetS) compared to women from the general population. Mothers and sisters of affected women also have an increased prevalence of MetS.

  15. Increased psychophysiological parameters of attention in non-psychotic individuals with auditory verbal hallucinations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Lutterveld, Remko; Oranje, Bob; Abramovic, Lucija;

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Schizophrenia is associated with aberrant event-related potentials (ERPs) such as reductions in P300, processing negativity and mismatch negativity amplitudes. These deficits may be related to the propensity of schizophrenia patients to experience auditory verbal hallucinations (AVH...

  16. Increased psychophysiological parameters of attention in non-psychotic individuals with auditory verbal hallucinations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Lutterveld, Remko; Oranje, Bob; Abramovic, Lucija;

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Schizophrenia is associated with aberrant event-related potentials (ERPs) such as reductions in P300, processing negativity and mismatch negativity amplitudes. These deficits may be related to the propensity of schizophrenia patients to experience auditory verbal hallucinations (AVH). ...

  17. First Degree Pacemaker Exit Block

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johnson Francis

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Usually atrial and ventricular depolarizations follow soon after the pacemaker stimulus (spike on the ECG. But there can be an exit block due to fibrosis at the electrode - tissue interface at the lead tip. This can increase the delay between the spike and atrial or ventricular depolarization.

  18. Right ventricular electrical and mechanical synchronization by properly timed septal pacing in a patient with right bundle branch block and first degree AV block--a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siliste, Calin; Suran, Maria-Claudia-Berenice; Margulescu, Andrei-Dumitru; Vinereanu, Dragos

    2015-03-01

    We present a case of near-normalization of the QRS by septal pacing in a patient with dual-chamber pacemaker and underlying complete right bundle branch block and first degree atrioventricular block. The right ventricular mechanical synchronization suggested by the ECG was validated as such by strain echo. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first time it has been shown that the narrowing of the QRS corresponds to mechanical synchronization in a case of this seldom-recognized phenomenon.

  19. Cognition and Social Cognition in non-psychotic siblings of patients with schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cella, Matteo; Hamid, Sobia; Butt, Kate; Wykes, Til

    2015-01-01

    Deficits in Social Cognition are common in people with schizophrenia. However, it is not clear if these deficits are a vulnerability marker and whether they are independent to cognitive difficulties. This study investigates these two issues in individuals with a genetic liability to psychosis. Twenty-one healthy siblings of patients with schizophrenia were compared with 21 healthy individuals on a range of cognitive and social cognitive measures. Significant differences in cognitive domains were controlled for when comparing the two groups on measures of social cognition. Siblings of people with schizophrenia performed significantly worst on tests of theory of mind and social perception but not on affect recognition. Scores on tests of executive function, processing speed and general IQ were also lower in the sibling group. When controlled for differences in cognitive tests, the two groups still retained significant differences in theory of mind and social perception. However, executive function significantly contributed to theory of mind and processing speed to social perception differences. These results further suggest that difficulties in some domains of social cognition are associated with a genetic vulnerability for schizophrenia. In these areas, cognitive difficulties account only partially for social cognition problems suggesting that these two domains may represent relatively independent liability factors.

  20. Ventral anterior cingulate connectivity distinguished nonpsychotic bipolar illness from psychotic bipolar disorder and schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anticevic, Alan; Savic, Aleksandar; Repovs, Grega; Yang, Genevieve; McKay, D Reese; Sprooten, Emma; Knowles, Emma E; Krystal, John H; Pearlson, Godfrey D; Glahn, David C

    2015-01-01

    Bipolar illness is a debilitating neuropsychiatric disorder associated with alterations in the ventral anterior cingulate cortex (vACC), a brain region thought to regulate emotional behavior. Although recent data-driven functional connectivity studies provide evidence consistent with this possibility, the role of vACC in bipolar illness and its pattern of whole brain connectivity remain unknown. Furthermore, no study has established whether vACC exhibits differential whole brain connectivity in bipolar patients with and without co-occurring psychosis and whether this pattern resembles that found in schizophrenia. We conducted a human resting-state functional connectivity investigation focused on the vACC seed in 73 remitted bipolar I disorder patients (33 with psychosis history), 56 demographically matched healthy comparison subjects, and 73 demographically matched patients with chronic schizophrenia. Psychosis history within the bipolar disorder group corresponded with significant between-group connectivity alterations along the dorsal medial prefrontal surface when using the vACC seed. Patients with psychosis history showed reduced connectivity (Cohen's d = -0.69), whereas those without psychosis history showed increased vACC coupling (Cohen's d = 0.8) relative to controls. The vACC connectivity observed in chronic schizophrenia patients was not significantly different from that seen in bipolar patients with psychosis history but was significantly reduced compared with that in bipolar patients without psychosis history. These robust findings reveal complex vACC connectivity alterations in bipolar illness, which suggest differences depending on co-occurrence of lifetime psychosis. The similarities in vACC connectivity patterns in schizophrenia and psychotic bipolar disorder patients may suggest the existence of common mechanisms underlying psychotic symptoms in the two disorders. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Maryland

  1. Lack of influence of COMT and NET genes variants on executive functions in schizophrenic and bipolar patients, their first-degree relatives and controls

    OpenAIRE

    Szöke, Andrei; Schürhoff, Franck; Méary, Alexandre; Mathieu, Flavie; Chevalier, Fabien; Trandafir, Anca; Alter, Caroline; Roy, Isabelle; Bellivier, Franck; Leboyer, Marion

    2006-01-01

    Abnormal dopaminergic function in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) may be a key factor in the etiopathogeny of schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. Both schizophrenic and bipolar subjects have executive functions (EF) deficits, thought to reflect abnormal PFC function. The main inactivation pathways for dopamine in the PFC are enzymatic cleavage by the Carboxy-O-Methyl-Transferase (COMT) and reuptake by the nor-epinephrine transporter (NET). Our aim in this study was to replicate previous studies t...

  2. Familial resemblance on the Thurstone Activity Scale, systolic blood pressure, and total cholesterol among first degree relatives of subjects with and without coronary heart disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmelli, D; Rosenman, R

    1985-01-01

    An investigation of the pattern of familial resemblance of three different risk factors assessed in families of coronary heart disease (CHD) patients and controls is presented. The fathers of these families participated in the Western Collaborative Group Study that first established the type A/B behavior pattern as an independent risk factor for CHD. A recently developed methodology, the Structured Exploratory Data Analysis (SEDA), was implemented to examine parental interaction, parent-offspring closeness, asymmetries in transmission, and other differences in the pattern of familial similarities among family members of case and control subjects. The analysis performed revealed pronounced parent-child similarity for total serum cholesterol values in both case and control families; spouse closeness and parent-child resemblance for systolic blood pressure measurements only in control families; and sex asymmetries in the parent-child closeness on pace of activity, which also differed between case and control families. The results of this investigation underscore the value of examining the joint pattern of familial resemblance of a number of risk factors as a means for differentiating between cultural and biological factors affecting familial aggregation of CHD.

  3. The effect of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors in healthy first-degree relatives of patients with major depressive disorder - an experimental medicine blinded controlled trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knorr, Ulla Benedichte

    2012-01-01

    in the change of the total area under the curve (CorAUCtotal) for plasma cortisol in the DEX-CRH test at entry to after four weeks of intervention. The secondary outcomes were a) change in self-reported neuroticism scores on the 240-items Revised Neuroticism-Extroversion-Openness-Personality Inventory (NEO...... and the placebo group, p = 0.47. Fur-ther, escitalopram did not significantly affect self-reported neu-roticism compared with placebo, NEO-PI-R (p = 0.09) and EPQ (p = 0.73). Finally, mean change in the general cognition score was not significantly increased with escitalopram compared with placebo, (p = 0...... linked to personality and cognition. It is not known if SSRIs have a direct effect on the HPA system, personality or cognition that is independent of their effect on depression. Thus, healthy individuals with a genetic liability for depression represent a group of particular interest when investigating...

  4. Obese First-Degree Relatives of Patients with Type 2 Diabetes with Elevated Triglyceride Levels Exhibit Increased β-Cell Function

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Background: Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is characterized as a disease continuum that is marked by metabolic changes that are present for several years, sometimes well before frank diagnosis of T2DM. Genetic predisposition, ethnicity, geography, alterations in BMI, and lipid profile are considered important markers for the pathogenesis of T2DM through mechanisms that remain unresolved and controversial. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between triglycerides (TGs) a...

  5. Incidental findings on brain MRI of cognitively normal first-degree descendants of patients with Alzheimer's disease: a cross-sectional analysis from the ALFA (Alzheimer and Families) project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brugulat-Serrat, Anna; Rojas, Santiago; Bargalló, Nuria; Conesa, Gerardo; Minguillón, Carolina; Fauria, Karine; Gramunt, Nina; Molinuevo, José Luis; Gispert, Juan Domingo

    2017-01-01

    Objectives To describe the prevalence of brain MRI incidental findings (IF) in a cohort of cognitively normal first-degree descendants of patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD). Design Cross-sectional observational study. Setting All scans were obtained with a 3.0 T scanner. Scans were evaluated by a single neuroradiologist and IF recorded and categorised. The presence of white matter hyperintensities (WMH) was determined with the Fazekas scale and reported as relevant if ≥2. Participants 575 participants (45–75 years) underwent high-resolution structural brain MRI. Participants were cognitively normal and scored over the respective cut-off values in all the following neuropsychological tests: Mini-Mental State Examination (≥26), Memory Impairment Screen (≥6), Time Orientation Subtest of the Barcelona Test II (≥68), verbal semantic fluency (naming animals ≥12). Clinical Dementia Rating (CDR) had to be 0. Results 155 participants (27.0%) presented with at least one IF. Relevant WMH were present in 7.8% of the participants, and vascular abnormalities, cyst and brain volume loss in 10.7%, 3.1% and 6.9% of the study volunteers, respectively. Neoplastic brain findings were found in 2.4% of participants and within these, meningiomas were the most common (1.7%) and more frequently found in women. A positive correlation between increasing age and the presence of IF was found. Additionally, brain atrophy greater than that expected by age was significantly more prevalent in participants without a parental history of AD. Conclusions Brain MRIs of healthy middle-aged participants show a relatively high prevalence of IF even when study participants have been screened for subtle cognitive alterations. Most of our participants are first-degree descendants of patients with AD, and therefore these results are of special relevance for novel imaging studies in the context of AD prevention in cognitively healthy middle-aged participants. Trial registration number NCT

  6. Getting better, getting well: understanding and managing partial and non-response to pharmacological treatment of non-psychotic major depression in old age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Driscoll, Henry C; Karp, Jordan F; Dew, Mary Amanda; Reynolds, Charles F

    2007-01-01

    In general, the pharmacological treatment of non-psychotic major depressive disorder in old age is only partially successful, with only approximately 50% of older depressed adults improving with initial antidepressant monotherapy. Many factors may predict a more difficult-to-treat depression, including coexisting anxiety, low self-esteem, poor sleep and a high coexisting medical burden. Being aware of these and other predictors of a difficult-to-treat depression gives the clinician more reasonable expectations about a patient's likely treatment course. If an initial antidepressant trial fails, the clinician has two pharmacological options: switch or augment/combine antidepressant therapies. About 50% of patients who do not improve after initial antidepressant therapy will respond to either strategy. Switching has several advantages including fewer adverse effects, improved treatment adherence and reduced expense. However, as a general guideline, if patients are partial responders at 6 weeks, they will likely be full responders by 12 weeks. Thus, changing medication is not indicated in this context. However, if patients are partial responders at 12 weeks, switching to a new agent is advised. If the clinician treats vigorously and if the patient and clinician persevere, up to 90% of older depressed patients will respond to pharmacological treatment. Furthermore, electroconvulsive therapy is a safe and effective non-pharmacological strategy for non-psychotic major depression that fails to respond to pharmacotherapy. Getting well and staying well is the goal; thus, clinicians should treat to remission, not merely to response. Subsequently, maintenance treatment with the same regimen that has been successful in relieving the depression strongly improves the patient's chances of remaining depression free.

  7. PROBLEMATIC ISSUES OF DIAGNOSTICS AND THERAPY OF NON-PSYCHOTIC MENTAL DISORDERS IN FEMALE PATIENTS OF CLIMACTERIC AGE WITH HYSTERICAL SYMPTOM COMPLEX (LITERATURE REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ye. V. Lukiyanova

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In the article, problematic questions of diagnostics and therapy of non-psychotic mental disorders (NPMD in female patients of climacteric age with hysterical symptom complex are considered. Efficacy of psychotherapy (PT in NPMD, hypnopsychotherapy in hysterical states: hysterical neurosis, neurasthenia and obsessive-compulsive neurosis is indicated. In treatment of NPMD, PT by creative selfexpression is successfully used. It is highlighted that PT forms conscious-critical attitude of patients toward themselves. Combination of PT with physiotherapy in hysterical conversional symptoms has been described. In hysterical manifestations neuroleptics are recommended, in neurotic depressions – antidepressants of mild action. In severe hysterical state, psychopharmacotherapy (PPhT with tranquilizers and neuroleptics is applied on long-term basis. Stable recovery in dissociative and hysterical disorders has been shown. In vegetovascular disorders in structure of climacteric syndrome (CS vinpocetine, in psychoemotional manifestations phenibut was administered. In therapy of hysterical neurosis, “minor neuroleptics”, hypnosuggestive therapy, social rehabilitation were applied. Effective group PT of psychogenically conditioned disorders in asthenicand anxiety-depressive symptoms is effective. Complex therapy of NPMD in hysterical and asthenic neurosis, obsessive-compulsive neurosis has been suggested. Organization of specialized preventive examinations for early revealing of persons with personality pathology is based. Efficacy of a number of medications in periand post-menopause – SSRIs and gabapentin, during menopause paroxetine, in depressions of non-psychotic level – pyrazidol, coaxil, in neurotic hypochondriasis sulpiride and quetiapine, diazepam, in climacteric vegetative and mental disorders hormone replacement therapy (HRT, hormonal therapy, PPhT and PT, in neurovegetative symptoms of CS – antidepressants, in psychovegetative syndromes

  8. Bloqueo aurículo-ventricular de primer grado en tirotoxicosis aguda First degree atrio-ventricular block in acute thyrotoxicosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio R. Vilches

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available El cuadro clínico de la tirotoxicosis incluye síntomas cardiovasculares variados. La taquicardia sinusal es el trastorno electrocardiográfico más frecuente y los trastornos de conducción son extremadamente raros como modo de presentación. Comunicamos un caso de bloqueo aurículo-ventricular de primer grado en una paciente con hipertiroidismo recién diagnosticado y que comenzó días antes de la consulta con un cuadro general inespecífico. Su evaluación ulterior demostró que se trataba de una tirotoxicosis aguda autoinmune, y su tratamiento con metimazol corrigió el trastorno totalmente. Se discuten los mecanismos fisiopatológicos involucrados y las implicancias clínicas desde el punto de vista del internista.Thyrotoxicosis may present with a variety of cardiovascular symptoms. Sinus tachycardia is the most frequently encountered electrocardiographic abnormality and conduction disturbances are extremely uncommon. We present a case of first degree atrio-ventricular block in a patient with newly diagnosed hyperthyroidism and discuss the underlying pathophysiological mechanisms and the clinical implications from the internist’s standpoint.

  9. Comparison of changes in physical self-concept, global self-esteem, depression and anxiety following two different psychomotor therapy programs in nonpsychotic psychiatric inpatients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knapen, Jan; Van de Vliet, Peter; Van Coppenolle, Herman; David, Ans; Peuskens, Joseph; Pieters, Guido; Knapen, Koen

    2005-01-01

    The first objective of this study was to compare the changes in physical self-concept, global self-esteem, depression and anxiety after participation in one of two 16-week psychomotor therapy programs for nonpsychotic psychiatric inpatients. The second objective was to study the relationship between changes in these variables. One hundred and ninety-nine inpatients were randomly assigned to either a personalized psychomotor fitness program, consisting of aerobic exercise and weight training, or a general program of psychomotor therapy, consisting of different forms of physical exercises and relaxation training. Physical self-concept was evaluated using the Dutch version of the Physical Self-Perception Profile at baseline, after 8 weeks, and after completion of the 16-week interventions. At the same time points, additional variables of global self-esteem, depression and anxiety were assessed by means of the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Inventory, the Beck Depression Inventory and the Trait Anxiety Inventory, respectively. After 16 weeks, both groups showed significant improvements in all outcome measures (p values ranged from 0.01 to self-esteem and decreased depression and anxiety levels (p programs are equally effective in enhancing physical self-concept. The relationship between improvements in physical self-concept and enhancements in global self-esteem, depression and anxiety supports the potential role of the physical self-concept in the recovery process of depressed and anxious psychiatric inpatients. Copyright (c) 2005 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  10. Recommendations from the EGAPP Working Group: testing for cytochrome P450 polymorphisms in adults with nonpsychotic depression treated with selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-12-01

    This statement summarizes the Evaluation of Genomic Applications in Practice and Prevention (EGAPP) Working Group recommendations regarding CYP450 genetic testing in adult patients beginning treatment with selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), and the supporting scientific evidence. EGAPP is a project developed by the National Office of Public Health Genomics at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention to support a rigorous, evidence-based process for evaluating genetic tests and other genomic applications that are in transition from research to clinical and public health practice in the United States. A key goal of the EGAPP Working Group is to develop conclusions and recommendations regarding clinical genomic applications and to establish clear linkage to the supporting scientific evidence. The Working Group members are nonfederal experts in genetics, laboratory medicine, and clinical epidemiology convened to establish methods and processes; set priorities for review topics; participate in technical expert panels for commissioned evidence reviews; publish recommendations; and provide guidance and feedback on other project activities. The EGAPP Working Group found insufficient evidence to support a recommendation for or against use of CYP450 testing in adults beginning SSRI treatment for non-psychotic depression. In the absence of supporting evidence, and with consideration of other contextual issues, EGAPP discourages use of CYP450 testing for patients beginning SSRI treatment until further clinical trials are completed. The EGAPP Working Group found no evidence linking testing for CYP450 to clinical outcomes in adults treated with SSRIs. While some studies of a single SSRI dose in healthy patients report an association between genotypic CYP450 drug metabolizer status and circulating SSRI levels, this association was not supported by studies of patients receiving ongoing SSRI treatment. Further, CYP450 genotypes are not consistently associated

  11. Role of social media and the Internet in pathways to care for adolescents and young adults with psychotic disorders and non-psychotic mood disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birnbaum, Michael L; Rizvi, Asra F; Correll, Christoph U; Kane, John M; Confino, Jamie

    2017-08-01

    Although psychosis often occurs during adolescence, there has been little research on how the ubiquitously used Internet and social media could impact pathways to care. We examined how youth with psychotic spectrum disorders (PSD) versus non-psychotic mood disorders (NPMD) use online resources in the early illness stages. Social media use and pathways to care data were collected using a semi-structured interview from 80 youth (PSD = 40 and NPMD = 40) aged 12-21 years within 2 years of symptom onset. A total of 97.5% of participants (mean age = 18.3 years) regularly used social media, spending approximately 2.6 ± 2.5 h per day online. There were 22.4% of our sample (PSD = 19.4%, NPMD = 25.0%, P = 0.56) who reported waiting to reach out for help believing that symptoms would disappear. A total of 76.5% (PSD = 67.5%, NPMD = 85.0%, P = 0.06) noticed social media habit changes during symptom emergence. Thirty per cent reported discussing their symptoms on social media (PSD = 22.5%, NPMD = 37.5%, P = 0.14). NPMD patients sought information most on how to stop symptoms (40.0% vs. 13.5%, P = 0.01), while PSD youth were more commonly interested in what caused their symptoms (21.6% vs. 15.0%, P = 0.45). More PSD patients (42.9% vs. 25.0%, P = 0.10) would prefer to receive mental health information via the Internet. Altogether, 63.6% (PSD = 64.9%, NPMD = 62.5%, P = 0.83) were amenable to clinicians proactively approaching them via social media during symptom emergence. A total of 74.3% (PSD = 78.4%, NPMD = 70.0%, P = 0.40) liked the idea of obtaining help/advice from professionals via social media. The Internet and social media provide an unparalleled opportunity to supplement and potentially transform early intervention services, and acceptance of this approach appears to be high. © 2015 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  12. LADA和2型糖尿病一级亲属胰岛β细胞功能的变化%Islet beta cell function in first-degree relatives of probands with LADA and with type 2 diabetes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓志明; 周智广; 杨琳; 谭少珍; 何凌; 陈小燕; 亓海英; 王建平

    2006-01-01

    目的探讨成人隐匿性自身免疫性糖尿病(LADA)和2型糖尿病(T2DM)一级亲属胰岛β细胞功能的变化. 方法对24例健康对照(NC)、28例谷氨酸脱羧酶抗体(GAD-Ab)阳性LADA一级亲属、14例羧基肽酶H抗体(CPH-Ab)阳性LADA一级亲属、15例T2DM一级亲属行纳格列奈-OGTT,比较其反映β细胞功能的相关指标. 结果①GAD-Ab阳性LADA一级亲属的胰岛素释放峰值、30min时的△I/△G、IRR、MVI、AUCIns较NC组降低(P<0.05~0.01);其HOMA-IR高于NC组(P<0.05);②T2DM一级亲属组的HOMA-IR高于NC组(P<0.05);③LADA一级亲属组中抗体阳性者的胰岛素释放峰值、30 min时的△I/△G、IRR及MVI较阴性者降低更明显;后者的HOMA-IR大于NC组(P<0.05). 结论 LADA一级亲属存在明显的早期相胰岛分泌与储备功能减退及IR,其中抗体阳性者以胰岛分泌功能缺陷为主伴IR,抗体阴性者以IR为主伴胰岛分泌功能缺陷;T2DM一级亲属存在明显的IR.

  13. Síndrome metabólico en familiares de primer grado de pacientes con diabetes mellitus tipo 2 Metabolic syndrome in first degree relatives of patients with diabetes mellitus 2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raúl Orlando Calderín Bouza

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó un estudio descriptivo y transversal de 340 personas divididas en 2 grupos, con y sin antecedentes patológicos familiares de diabetes mellitus tipo 2 (APF de DM2, con el objetivo de detectar si las que presentaban APF de DM2 tenían más hiperinsulinemia, presencia de síndrome metabólico, factores de riesgo cardiovascular asociados y lesión de órganos diana, expresados en hipertrofia del ventrículo izquierdo de los sujetos que no tenían dicho antecedente. Se obtuvo como resultado que la hiperinsulinemia estuvo presente en 96 pacientes con APF de DM2 (56,5 % y una significación de p = 0,001. El síndrome metabólico fue más frecuente en las personas con APF DM2 (90 para un 52,9 % y una significación de p = 0,000. La hipertrigliceridemia fue el marcador por excelencia del síndrome metabólico y el factor de riesgo que con más significación estadística se asoció a los sujetos con APF de DM2 (96: 52,9 % y una significación de p = 0,000. La hipertrofia ventricular izquierda (HVI se asoció como expresión de lesión de órganos diana a los sujetos con APF de DM2 (36: 21,2 % y una significación de p = 0,043. Concluimos que los sujetos con APF de DM2 son más propensos a tener hiperinsulinemia, al síndrome metabólico, a factores de riesgo cardiovascular y a lesión de órgano diana en comparación con los que no tienen dicho antecedente.A cross-sectional descriptive study of 340 persons assigned to two groups, with and without family history of diabetes mellitus type 2 (DM2, was carried out. The objective was to detect whether those persons with family history of DM2 had more hyperinsulemia, metabolic syndrome, associated cardiovascular risk factors and target organ lesions, expressed in left ventricle hypertrophy, than subjects without diabetes family history. The result was that hyperinsulemia was present in 96 patients with family history of DM2 (56,5 % and significance level of p= 0,001. Metabolic syndrome was more frequent in subjects with family history of DM2 (90 for 52,9 % of cases and p= 0,000. Hypertriglyceridemia was both the most noticeable marker of the metabolic syndrome and the most statistically significant risk factor in subjects with family history of DM2 (96 , 52,9 % of cases and p= 0,000. Left ventricle hypertrophy was associated as target organ lesion expression to subjects with family history of DM2 (36: 21,2 % and p=0,043. It was concluded that subjects with family history of DM2 are more likely to have hyperinsulinemia, metabolic syndrome, cardiovascular risk factors and target organ lesions than those persons without such a family history of DM2.

  14. El Vimang en la estomatitis subprotésica grado I: Presentación de un caso Vimang for the treatment of first degree denture stomatitis.: A case presentation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcia Hortensia Corona Carpio

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó un estudio descriptivo y transversal con el objetivo de evaluar los resultados terapéuticos de la terapia antiinflamatoria con extracto de Vimang mediante los enjuagatorios de su infusión, en una paciente portadora de prótesis con base acrílica y con mucosa afectada por estomatitis subprotésis grado I. El producto natural se utilizó en la eliminación de dicha lesión por su gran poder antiinflamatorio; fue indicado 4 veces al día con descanso de su prótesis en el horario nocturno antes de dormir. Se observó la curación a los 5 días de aplicado y como principal manifestación la sensación de recogimiento de la mucosa bucal. No se reflejaron reacciones adversas, por lo que recomendamos su uso a largo plazo.A cross-sectional descriptive study was carried out to evaluate the therapeutic results of the anti-inflammatory therapy based on mouthwashes with Vimang extract infusion and applied to a female patient who worn an acrylic denture and had her mucosa affected by first degree denture stomatitis. The natural product served to eliminate the lesion because of its great anti-inflammatory capacity; she was advised to use it four times a day and to take her denture out at night before going to sleep. Curing was observed 5 days after Vimang application; the main sign was the feeling of oral mucosa retraction. No adverse effects were noted, so a long-term use of this product was recommended.

  15. Mentally Disordered Non-Psychotic Criminal Offenders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gottlieb, Peter; Gabrielsen, Gorm; Kørner, Alex

    2013-01-01

    as sanctions in criminal cases, the court will request a psychiatric report. They may furthermore ask a medical expert consultation board, the Danish Medico-Legal Council, for an opinion on the mental status of the defendant. Aims: To describe a sample of offenders falling under §69 and the use of the section...... and the final verdicts on socio-demographic, health and criminal items, and the data were computerized. Results: The sample was characterized by severe criminality and mental disorder. Forty-six percent (138/298) were sentenced by the court to a psychiatric measure instead of punishment. Conclusions......: The results document that §69 of the Danish Penal Code is used as intended by the law....

  16. Multifocal atherosclerosis in patient after acute first degree radiation sickness.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Metlyaeva N.A.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: assessment the heavy psychosomatic and all-somatic cardiovascular and cerebrovascular pathology of patient, transferred an acute I degree radiation sickness, from the general evenly gamma-beta radiation. Conclusions. The subdepressive and disturbing-depressive syndrome of patient, transferred an acute radiation sickness (ARS of I degree, from the general evenly gamma-beta radiation, was independent risk factor of development of multifocal atherosclerosis; Features of development of all-somatic and psychosomatic pathology of patient are based on a combination of genetic prerequisites, environment influences (the stress caused by accident on the ChNPP and social factors, influencing on him during a course of life, especially during early socialization. Thus at development of psychosomatic frustration the combination of feature of the mental reaction connected with the personal characteristic and special relationship between mental (stress and physiological (somatic by aspects of reaction which led to metabolism violation, to aging, decrease in adaptation opportunities of an organism and development age — dependent pathology took place.

  17. PROJECT WORK BY STUDENTS FOR FIRST DEGREE: AN ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mofasony

    an academic, a solicitor/advocate or judge or write legal opinion(s) for an executive. In writing ... structure as well as the proper footnoting rather than end notes. ..... subsequent references to articles, or to component parts of a larger work, or.

  18. [Reversible first-degree atrioventricular block due to hyperthyroidism].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çelebi, Aksüyek Savaş; Amasyalı, Basri

    2017-04-01

    Hyperthyroidism often causes tachyarrhythmia. Reversible atrioventricular block caused by hyperthyroidism is rare occurrence. Presently described is a case of atrioventricular block due to hyperthyroidism and recovery after antithyroid treatment.

  19. Family history of schizophrenia as a risk factor for axis I psychiatric conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeVylder, Jordan E; Lukens, Ellen P

    2013-02-01

    People with first-degree relatives with schizophrenia are at an elevated risk of developing the disorder themselves. High rates of psychotic symptoms in non-psychotic disorders, high rates of comorbidity in psychotic disorders, and diversity of outcomes following psychosis-risk states together suggest that this vulnerability may be for psychiatric conditions in general, not limited to schizophrenia. In this study, data from the National Survey of American Life (NSAL) were used to examine the association between having a first-degree relative with schizophrenia and the lifetime development of a range of non-psychotic axis I psychiatric disorders using adjusted odds ratios. Having a relative with schizophrenia was associated with increased risk for most non-psychotic psychiatric conditions examined, including those expected to be associated with schizophrenia (affective, anxiety, and substance use disorders) and those not expected (bulimia, disorders of childhood onset), excluding respondents with lifetime psychotic symptoms and controlling for demographic factors. Family history of schizophrenia among this predominantly African-American and Afro-Caribbean sample appears to be a risk factor for a range of axis I diagnoses, supporting a continuous rather than categorical nature of psychiatric vulnerability. Future studies should examine whether these associations are due to genetic or environmental factors, or both. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Clinical comparison of psychotic major depression and non-psychotic major depression%伴与不伴精神病性症状重度抑郁症的临床对照研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王学峰; 宋晓; 谭兰

    2011-01-01

    目的 观察不伴精神病性症状的重度抑郁症(NMD)与伴精神病性症状的重度抑郁症(PMD)的临床表现、治疗方法和治疗效果的异同.方法 选取重度抑郁症患者150例,其中PMD组100例、NMD组50例,并设健康组60例作为对照.将PMD组随机分为PMD联合用药组59例、PMD单药组41例;NMD组和PMD单药组服用帕罗西汀,PMD联用组联合服用帕罗西汀、奥氮平,在初次就医、治疗后1、3、9个月四个时刻时进行汉密尔顿抑郁量表(HAMD)评分.结果 ①初次就医时NMD与PMD的HAMD量表总分分别为(53.22±6.00)分和(58.30±5.20)分(P>0.05);PMD组自杀、迟滞、认知障碍因子评分较高;②9个月后联用组PMD的HAMD评分低于PMD单药组,NMD组低于PMD单药组;③入组时进行第一次测评,此时PMD组与NMD组的睡眠障碍严重性无统计学差异(P>0.05),但均重于健康组(P<0.05);经过9个月治疗,NMD组和PMD组评分总分、主因子因子评分均有提高(P<0.05);但在一级因子的“主观睡眠质量”和“白天功能紊乱”、二级因子的“夜间醒来或早醒”上仍有差异.结论 ①PMD与NMD病情严重程度相当;PMD患者迟滞、认知障碍、自杀念头较重,而NMD患者抑郁症状较重;②帕罗西汀加奥氮平治疗PMD好于单用帕罗西汀;单用帕罗西汀治疗NMD患者较合适;③重度抑郁症或者睡眠功能严重受损,经过适当的治疗其睡眠功能可明显恢复,但仍残留部分睡眠障碍;精神症状不影响睡眠功能的障碍程度和恢复程度.%Objective To compare psychotic major depression (PMD) and non-psychotic major depression (NMD) in clinical features, and treatment methods and effects. Methods' 150 cases of severe depression were divided into the PMD group(100 cases) and the NMD group(50 cases). In the PMD group, 41 patients were treated with a single a-gent, and the other 59 patients were treated with combined agents. The NMD group and PMD

  1. The CCC2000 Birth Cohort Study of Register-Based Family History of Mental Disorders and Psychotic Experiences in Offspring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeppesen, Pia; Tidselbak Larsen, Janne; Clemmensen, Lars

    2015-01-01

    in childhood was predicted by a family history of mental disorder with psychosis rather than a family history of nonpsychotic mental disorder and whether this association differed by severity of PE. The study examined data on 1632 children from a general population birth cohort assessed at age 11-12 years...... by use of a semistructured interview covering 22 psychotic symptoms. The Danish national registers were linked to describe the complete family history of hospital-based psychiatric diagnoses. Uni- and multivariable logistic regressions were used to test whether a family history of any mental disorder...... with psychosis, or of nonpsychotic mental disorder, vs no diagnoses was associated with increased risk of PE in offspring (hierarchical exposure variable). The occurrence of PE in offspring was significantly associated with a history of psychosis among the first-degree relatives (adjusted relative risk [RR] = 3...

  2. Relativity

    CERN Document Server

    Brewster, Hilary D

    2009-01-01

    The theory of relativity has become a cornerstone of modern physics. Over the course of time it has been scrutinized in a multitude of experiments and has always been verified with high accuracy. The correctness of this theory can no longer be called into question. Right after its discovery by Albert Einstein in 1905, special relativity was only gradually accepted because it made numerous predictions contradicting common sense, fervently castigated by Einstein, and also defied experiment for too long a time. It was only with the advent of particle or high energy physics that matter could be ac

  3. Relativity

    CERN Document Server

    Einstein, Albert

    2013-01-01

    Time magazine's ""Man of the Century"", Albert Einstein is the founder of modern physics and his theory of relativity is the most important scientific idea of the modern era. In this short book, Einstein explains, using the minimum of mathematical terms, the basic ideas and principles of the theory that has shaped the world we live in today. Unsurpassed by any subsequent books on relativity, this remains the most popular and useful exposition of Einstein's immense contribution to human knowledge.With a new foreword by Derek Raine.

  4. 非肥胖2型糖尿病一级亲属胰岛β细胞功能和胰岛素抵抗的评价%Evaluation of beta cell of islet function and insulin resistance in non-obesity first-degree relatives of type 2 diabetes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    霍丽梅; 宋光耀; 马博清; 叶蔚

    2004-01-01

    目的 :测定非肥胖的 2型糖尿病的一级亲属的胰岛素敏感性、胰岛β细胞分泌功能及胰岛素的早期分泌.方法 :选取 59例正常对照组、 58例糖耐量正常的糖尿病一级亲属及 38例 2型糖尿病的个体进入研究,他们的体质量指数均小于 25 kg/m2.所有研究对象均分别完成口服葡萄糖耐量试验.分析各组稳态模式评估法 (homeostasis model assessment,HOMA)模型胰岛素抵抗指数( HOMA-IR)、β细胞功能指数( HOMA-β)及胰岛初期分泌指数(Δ I30/Δ G30).结果: 无论用免疫反应胰岛素还是用真胰岛素计算的非肥胖的糖耐量正常的一级亲属的 HOMA-IR 4.93± 1.55和 2.39± 0.72及 1.83 ± 0.64和 1.33± 0.53均高于正常对照组( P《 0.05),但低于 2型糖尿病组 (13.37± 12.40及 3.28± 2.24, P均 《 0.01);而由真胰岛素计算的 Homa-BTI,一级亲属组低于对照组 (103.90± 51.79和 38.45± 24.25, P《 0.01);由真胰岛素计算的△ I30/△ G30显示一级亲属组低于对照组 (11.78± 8.77和 4.54± 3.14, P《 0.05),但高于 2型糖尿病组( 4.54± 3.14, P《 0.05).结论 :非肥胖 2型糖尿病一级亲属在糖耐量正常时就已经存在胰岛β细胞功能的受损、胰岛素抵抗及胰岛素早期分泌指数减低,胰岛素抵抗的存在并非继发于肥胖和高血糖.

  5. 2型糖尿病家系中正常糖耐量一级亲属的胰岛β细胞功能研究%Function change of pancreatic islet β-cells in first degree relatives with normal glucose tolerance in type 2 diabetes mellitus families

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    章明; 胡耀敏; 滕香宇; 陈雅文; 黄融; 刘伟

    2010-01-01

    目的 研究2型糖尿病(T2DM)家系一级亲属中糖耐量正常者胰岛β细胞的功能状况.方法 选择糖耐量正常的2型糖尿病家系一级亲属(T2DM一级亲属组,n=94)和无糖尿病家族史的糖耐量正常者(正常对照组,n=98)作为研究对象.采用口服葡萄糖耐量试验和血清胰岛素释放试验分别测算全身胰岛素敏感性指数[ISI(Matsuda)]及餐后30 min和总体胰岛素释放指数(IGI30和IGI);进一步推算得到葡萄糖处置指数(DI),包括DI30[ISI(Matsuda)×IGI30]和DI[ISI(Matsuda)×IGI],以评估胰岛β细胞胰岛素分泌的早期和总体状况.结果 T2DM一级亲属组和正常对照组的ISI(Matsuda) 分别为107.39±41.88 和105.18±44.18,DI分别为631.04±179.25和665.66±230.71,两组间ISI(Matsuda) 和DI比较差异均无统计学意义(P<0.05);T2DM一级亲属组DI30显著低于正常对照组,分别为1 248.44±894.41 和1 558.35±1 015.66(P<0.05).结论 对于T2DM 家系中正常糖耐量的一级亲属个体,在胰岛素敏感性并未降低的情况下,胰岛β细胞已存在早期胰岛素分泌功能缺陷.

  6. The influence of relatives on the efficiency and error rate of familial searching.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rori V Rohlfs

    Full Text Available We investigate the consequences of adopting the criteria used by the state of California, as described by Myers et al. (2011, for conducting familial searches. We carried out a simulation study of randomly generated profiles of related and unrelated individuals with 13-locus CODIS genotypes and YFiler® Y-chromosome haplotypes, on which the Myers protocol for relative identification was carried out. For Y-chromosome sharing first degree relatives, the Myers protocol has a high probability (80~99% of identifying their relationship. For unrelated individuals, there is a low probability that an unrelated person in the database will be identified as a first-degree relative. For more distant Y-haplotype sharing relatives (half-siblings, first cousins, half-first cousins or second cousins there is a substantial probability that the more distant relative will be incorrectly identified as a first-degree relative. For example, there is a 3~18% probability that a first cousin will be identified as a full sibling, with the probability depending on the population background. Although the California familial search policy is likely to identify a first degree relative if his profile is in the database, and it poses little risk of falsely identifying an unrelated individual in a database as a first-degree relative, there is a substantial risk of falsely identifying a more distant Y-haplotype sharing relative in the database as a first-degree relative, with the consequence that their immediate family may become the target for further investigation. This risk falls disproportionately on those ethnic groups that are currently overrepresented in state and federal databases.

  7. The Influence of Relatives on the Efficiency and Error Rate of Familial Searching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohlfs, Rori V.; Murphy, Erin; Song, Yun S.; Slatkin, Montgomery

    2013-01-01

    We investigate the consequences of adopting the criteria used by the state of California, as described by Myers et al. (2011), for conducting familial searches. We carried out a simulation study of randomly generated profiles of related and unrelated individuals with 13-locus CODIS genotypes and YFiler® Y-chromosome haplotypes, on which the Myers protocol for relative identification was carried out. For Y-chromosome sharing first degree relatives, the Myers protocol has a high probability () of identifying their relationship. For unrelated individuals, there is a low probability that an unrelated person in the database will be identified as a first-degree relative. For more distant Y-haplotype sharing relatives (half-siblings, first cousins, half-first cousins or second cousins) there is a substantial probability that the more distant relative will be incorrectly identified as a first-degree relative. For example, there is a probability that a first cousin will be identified as a full sibling, with the probability depending on the population background. Although the California familial search policy is likely to identify a first degree relative if his profile is in the database, and it poses little risk of falsely identifying an unrelated individual in a database as a first-degree relative, there is a substantial risk of falsely identifying a more distant Y-haplotype sharing relative in the database as a first-degree relative, with the consequence that their immediate family may become the target for further investigation. This risk falls disproportionately on those ethnic groups that are currently overrepresented in state and federal databases. PMID:23967076

  8. Cancer Risks for Relatives of Children with Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John A. Heath

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We determined the extent and distribution of cancers in relatives of 379 children newly diagnosed with cancer. Family history was collected from 1,337 first-degree and 3,399 second-degree relatives and incidence compared with national age- and gender-specific rates. Overall, 14 children (3.7% had a relative with a history of childhood cancer and 26 children (6.9% had a first-degree relative with a history of cancer, with only one of these having an identifiable familial cancer syndrome. There was a higher than expected incidence of childhood cancer among first-degree relatives (parents and siblings (standardized incidence ratio (SIR 1.43; 95% CI 0.54–5.08. There was also a higher than expected incidence of adult cancers among first-degree relatives (SIR 1.45; 95% CI 0.93–2.21, particularly in females (SIR 1.82; 95% CI 1.26–3.39. The increased family cancer history in first-degree females was largely attributable to an effect in mothers (SIR 1.78; 95% CI 1.27–3.33. The gender-specific association was reflected in higher than expected incidence rates of breast cancer in both mothers (SIR 1.92; 95% CI 0.72–6.83 and aunts (SIR 1.64; 95% CI 0.98–2.94. These findings support the hypothesis that previously undetected familial cancer syndromes contribute to childhood cancer.

  9. Gene expression in skeletal muscle biopsies from people with type 2 diabetes and relatives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Palsgaard, Jane; Brøns, Charlotte; Friedrichsen, Martin

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Gene expression alterations have previously been associated with type 2 diabetes, however whether these changes are primary causes or secondary effects of type 2 diabetes is not known. As healthy first degree relatives of people with type 2 diabetes have an increased risk of developing...... type 2 diabetes, they provide a good model in the search for primary causes of the disease. METHODS/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We determined gene expression profiles in skeletal muscle biopsies from Caucasian males with type 2 diabetes, healthy first degree relatives, and healthy controls. Gene expression...... downregulated in people with type 2 diabetes. On the individual gene level, 11 genes showed altered expression levels in first degree relatives compared to controls, among others KIF1B and GDF8 (myostatin). LDHB was found to have a decreased expression in both groups compared to controls. CONCLUSIONS...

  10. Gender-related differences in severe, early-onset chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silverman, E K; Weiss, S T; Drazen, J M; Chapman, H A; Carey, V; Campbell, E J; Denish, P; Silverman, R A; Celedon, J C; Reilly, J J; Ginns, L C; Speizer, F E

    2000-12-01

    Men have higher prevalence rates of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) than women, which has been attributed to the historically higher rates of cigarette smoking in males. However, the increased rates of cigarette smoking in females within the last several decades have been associated with steadily increasing rates of COPD in women. As part of a study of the genetics of severe, early-onset COPD, we assembled a group of 84 probands with severe, early-onset COPD (without severe alpha(1)-antitrypsin deficiency) and 348 of their first-degree relatives. We found a markedly elevated prevalence (71.4%) of females among the early-onset COPD probands. Among the entire group of first-degree relatives of early-onset COPD probands, univariate analysis demonstrated similar spirometric values and bronchodilator responsiveness in males and females; however, among current or ex-smokers, female first-degree relatives had significantly lower FEV(1)/ FVC (81.4 +/- 17.2% in females versus 87.0 +/- 12.9% in males, p = 0.009) and significantly greater bronchodilator responsiveness (expressed as percentage of baseline FEV(1)) (7.7 +/- 9.4% pred in females versus 4.1 +/- 6.4% pred in males, p = 0.002). Female smoking first-degree relatives were significantly more likely to demonstrate profound reductions in FEV(1) (< 40% pred) than male smoking first-degree relatives (p = 0. 03). Multivariate analysis, performed with generalized estimating equations, demonstrated that current or ex-smoking female first-degree relatives had significantly greater risk of FEV(1) < 80% pred (OR 1.91, 95% CI 1.03- 3.54), FEV(1) < 40% pred (OR 3.56, 95% CI 1.08-11.71), and bronchodilator response greater than 10% of baseline FEV(1) (OR 4.74, 95% CI 1.91-11.75). These results suggest that women may be more susceptible to the development of severe COPD.

  11. NON-PSYCHOTIC DENIAL OF PREGNANCY: A PSYCHOANALYTICAL COMPREHENSION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomás Gomes Gonçalves

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo explora el fenómeno de la negación no psicótica del embarazo, una situación en la cual la mujer desconoce que está embarazada por cinco meses o más, o hasta el parto. Este fenómeno es explorado a través de tres conceptos psicoanalíticos distintos: desautorización, embarazo impensable y experi encia de indiferencia. El mecanismo de defensa de desautorización en casos de negación del embarazo es considerado como una explicación por que la mujer no enlaza sus cambios corporales con un posible embarazo. Se percibe que mujeres que no enlazan el acto sexual con el embarazo que sufrieron por causa de una situación traumática. Estas situaciones son comprendidas en el concepto de embarazo impensable. En este artículo, experiencia de indiferencia es relacionada con pacientes fronterizos, una estructura ps icopatológica posible para mujeres que no saben que están embarazadas.

  12. NON-PSYCHOTIC DENIAL OF PREGNANCY: A PSYCHOANALYTICAL COMPREHENSION

    OpenAIRE

    Thomás Gomes Gonçalves; Monica Medeiros Kother Macedo; Jaqueline Conz

    2014-01-01

    Este artículo explora el fenómeno de la negación no psicótica del embarazo, una situación en la cual la mujer desconoce que está embarazada por cinco meses o más, o hasta el parto. Este fenómeno es explorado a través de tres conceptos psicoanalíticos distintos: desautorización, embarazo impensable y experi encia de indiferencia. El mecanismo de defensa de desautorización en casos de negación del embarazo es considerado como una explicación por que la mujer no enlaza sus cambios corporales con...

  13. Autoantibodies persist in relatives to systemic lupus erythematosus patients during 12 years follow-up

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langkilde, Henrik; Voss, A; Heegaard, N

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is an autoimmune disease with presence of autoantibodies and characteristic multi-organ involvement. Relatives of SLE patients have an increased risk of autoantibody production and autoimmune diseases. METHODS: In 2001, 226 first degree relatives (FDRs...

  14. A systematic review and meta-analysis of neurological soft signs in relatives of people with schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neelam Kishen

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Neurological soft signs are subtle but observable impairments in motor and sensory functions that are not localized to a specific area of the brain. Neurological soft signs are common in schizophrenia. It has been established that soft signs meet two of five criteria for an endophenotype, namely: association with the illness, and state independence. This review investigated whether soft signs met a further criterion for an endophenotype, namely familial association. It was hypothesized that if familial association were present then neurological soft signs would be: (a more common in first-degree relatives of people with schizophrenia than in controls; and (b more common in people with schizophrenia than in their first-degree relatives. Method A systematic search identified potentially eligible studies in the EMBASE (1980-2011, OVID - MEDLINE (1950-2011 and PsycINFO (1806-2011 databases. Studies were included if they carried out a three-way comparison of levels of soft signs between people with schizophrenia, their first-degree relatives, and normal controls. Data were extracted independently by two reviewers and cross-checked by double entry. Results After screening 8678 abstracts, seven studies with 1553 participants were identified. Neurological soft signs were significantly more common in first-degree relatives of people with schizophrenia than in controls (pooled standardised mean difference (SMD 1.24, 95% confidence interval (c.i 0.59-1.89. Neurological soft signs were also significantly more common in people with schizophrenia than in their first-degree relatives (SMD 0.92, 95% c.i 0.64-1.20. Sensitivity analyses examining the effects of age and group blinding did not significantly alter the main findings. Conclusions Both hypotheses were confirmed, suggesting that the distribution of neurological soft signs in people with schizophrenia and their first-degree relatives is consistent with the endophenotype criterion of

  15. The daily gluten intake in relatives of patients with coeliac disease compared with that of the general Dutch population

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    vanOverbeek, FM; UilDieterman, IGA; Mol, IW; KohlerBrands, L; Heymans, HSA; Mulder, CJJ

    1997-01-01

    Background: It has been suggested that the amount of gluten intake in populations offers an explanation for differences in the epidemiology of coeliac disease. Investigations into first-degree relatives of coeliac disease patients have often shown that relatives exhibit intermediate features of coel

  16. The daily gluten intake in relatives of patients with coeliac disease compared with that of the general Dutch population

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    vanOverbeek, FM; UilDieterman, IGA; Mol, IW; KohlerBrands, L; Heymans, HSA; Mulder, CJJ

    1997-01-01

    Background: It has been suggested that the amount of gluten intake in populations offers an explanation for differences in the epidemiology of coeliac disease. Investigations into first-degree relatives of coeliac disease patients have often shown that relatives exhibit intermediate features of

  17. Familial aggregation of Alzheimer's disease and related disorders: A collaborative re-analysis of case-control studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C.M. van Duijn (Cock); D.G. Clayton (David); V. Chandra; L. Fratiglioni (Laura); A.B. Graves; A. Heyman; A.F. Jorm; E. Kokmen (Emre); K. Kondo; J.A. Mortimer; W.A. Rocca; S.L. Shalat; H. Soininen; A. Hofman (Albert)

    1991-01-01

    textabstractCase-control studies of Alzheimer's disease were re-analysed to examine the association of Alzheimer's disease with family history in first degree relatives of dementia, Down's syndrome and Parkinson's disease. Overall, the relative risk of Alzheimer's disease for those with at least one

  18. Familial aggregation of Alzheimer's disease and related disorders: A collaborative re-analysis of case-control studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C.M. van Duijn (Cock); D.G. Clayton (David); V. Chandra; L. Fratiglioni (Laura); A.B. Graves; A. Heyman; A.F. Jorm; E. Kokmen (Emre); K. Kondo; J.A. Mortimer; W.A. Rocca; S.L. Shalat; H. Soininen; A. Hofman (Albert)

    1991-01-01

    textabstractCase-control studies of Alzheimer's disease were re-analysed to examine the association of Alzheimer's disease with family history in first degree relatives of dementia, Down's syndrome and Parkinson's disease. Overall, the relative risk of Alzheimer's disease for those with at least one

  19. A cohort study of recurrence patterns among more than 54,000 relatives of oral cleft cases in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grosen, Dorthe; Chevrier, Cécile; Skytthe, Axel;

    2010-01-01

    does have an effect on recurrence in first degree relatives and the type of cleft is predictive of the recurrence type. Highly reliable estimates of recurrence have been provided for first cousins in addition to more accurate estimates for first and second degree relatives. These results...

  20. The daily gluten intake in relatives of patients with coeliac disease compared with that of the general Dutch population

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    vanOverbeek, FM; UilDieterman, IGA; Mol, IW; KohlerBrands, L; Heymans, HSA; Mulder, CJJ

    1997-01-01

    Background: It has been suggested that the amount of gluten intake in populations offers an explanation for differences in the epidemiology of coeliac disease. Investigations into first-degree relatives of coeliac disease patients have often shown that relatives exhibit intermediate features of coel

  1. High educational performance is a distinctive feature of bipolar disorder : A study on cognition in bipolar disorder, schizophrenia patients, relatives and controls

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vreeker, A.; Boks, M. P M; Abramovic, L.; Verkooijen, S.; Van Bergen, A. H.; Hillegers, M. H J; Spijker, A. T.; Hoencamp, E.; Regeer, E. J.; Riemersma-Van Der Lek, R. F.; Stevens, A. W M M; Schulte, P. F J; Vonk, R.; Hoekstra, R.; Van Beveren, N. J M; Kupka, R. W.; Brouwer, R. M.; Bearden, C. E.; MacCabe, J. H.; Ophoff, R. A.

    2016-01-01

    Background Schizophrenia is associated with lower intelligence and poor educational performance relative to the general population. This is, to a lesser degree, also found in first-degree relatives of schizophrenia patients. It is unclear whether bipolar disorder I (BD-I) patients and their relative

  2. Randomization and resilience of brain functional networks as systems-level endophenotypes of schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, Chun-Yi Zac; Su, Tsung-Wei; Huang, Chu-Chung; Hung, Chia-Chun; Chen, Wei-Ling; Lan, Tsuo-Hung; Lin, Ching-Po; Bullmore, Edward T

    2015-07-21

    Schizophrenia is increasingly conceived as a disorder of brain network organization or dysconnectivity syndrome. Functional MRI (fMRI) networks in schizophrenia have been characterized by abnormally random topology. We tested the hypothesis that network randomization is an endophenotype of schizophrenia and therefore evident also in nonpsychotic relatives of patients. Head movement-corrected, resting-state fMRI data were acquired from 25 patients with schizophrenia, 25 first-degree relatives of patients, and 29 healthy volunteers. Graphs were used to model functional connectivity as a set of edges between regional nodes. We estimated the topological efficiency, clustering, degree distribution, resilience, and connection distance (in millimeters) of each functional network. The schizophrenic group demonstrated significant randomization of global network metrics (reduced clustering, greater efficiency), a shift in the degree distribution to a more homogeneous form (fewer hubs), a shift in the distance distribution (proportionally more long-distance edges), and greater resilience to targeted attack on network hubs. The networks of the relatives also demonstrated abnormal randomization and resilience compared with healthy volunteers, but they were typically less topologically abnormal than the patients' networks and did not have abnormal connection distances. We conclude that schizophrenia is associated with replicable and convergent evidence for functional network randomization, and a similar topological profile was evident also in nonpsychotic relatives, suggesting that this is a systems-level endophenotype or marker of familial risk. We speculate that the greater resilience of brain networks may confer some fitness advantages on nonpsychotic relatives that could explain persistence of this endophenotype in the population.

  3. Cognitive behaviour therapy to prevent complicated grief among relatives and spouses bereaved by suicide: Csuster andomised controlled trial.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groot, M.; Keyser, de J.; Neeleman, J.; Kerkhof, A.J.F.M.; Nolen, W.; Burger, H.

    2007-01-01

    Objective To examine the effectiveness of a family based grief counselling programme to prevent complicated grief among first degree relatives and spouses of someone who had committed suicide. Design Cluster randomised controlled trial with follow-up at 13 months after the suicide. Setting General p

  4. Cognitive behaviour therapy to prevent complicated grief among relatives and spouses bereaved by suicide : cluster randomised controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Groot, M.; de Keijser, J.; Neeleman, J.; Kerkhof, A.; Nolen, W.; Burger, H.

    2007-01-01

    Objective To examine the effectiveness of a family based grief counselling programme to prevent complicated grief among first degree relatives and spouses of someone who had committed suicide. Design Cluster randomised controlled trial with follow-up at 13 months after the suicide. Setting General p

  5. Circulating pemphigus autoantibodies in healthy relatives of pemphigus patients : coincidental phenomenon with a risk of disease development?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Torzecka, Jolanta Dorota; Wozniak, Katarzyna; Kowalewski, Cezary; Waszczykowska, Elrbieta; Sysa-Jedrzejowska, Anna; Pas, Hendri H.; Narbutt, Joanna

    2007-01-01

    Pemphigus is a severe autoimmune disease characterized by circulating and bound in vivo pemphigus autoantibodies. It was revealed that the autoantibodies occur in healthy first-degree relatives of pemphigus patients; however, their significance is not fully elucidated. Thus, the aim of the study was

  6. The clinical expression of hereditary protein C and protein S deficiency: : a relation to clinical thrombotic risk-factors and to levels of protein C and protein S

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Henkens, C. M. A.; van der Meer, J.; Hillege, J. L.; Bom, V. J. J.; Halie, M. R.; van der Schaaf, W.

    We investigated 103 first-degree relatives of 13 unrelated protein C or protein S deficient patients to assess the role of additional thrombotic risk factors and of protein C and protein S levels in the clinical expression of hereditary protein C and protein S deficiency. Fifty-seven relatives were

  7. Facial Characteristics and Olfactory Dysfunction: Two Endophenotypes Related to Nonsyndromic Cleft Lip and/or Palate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Roosenboom

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Evidence exists for the presence of a specific facial phenotype in nonaffected first-degree relatives of persons with CL/P. An increased risk for olfactory dysfunction has also been reported in CL/P-relatives. These phenotypic features can probably be explained via the presence of CL/P-related susceptibility genes. We aimed at confirming the occurrence of these endophenotypic traits in first-degree CL/P-relatives, and we investigated the link between the facial phenotype and the smell capacity in this group. We studied the facial morphology of 88 nonaffected first-degree relatives of patients with CL/P and 33 control subjects without family history of facial clefting by 3D surface imaging and a spatially dense analysis of the images. Smell testing was performed in 30 relatives and compared with 23 control subjects. Nonaffected relatives showed midface retrusion, hypertelorism, and olfactory dysfunction, compared to controls. In addition, we show for the first time that olfactory dysfunction in relatives is correlated to a smaller upper nasal region. This might be explained by a smaller central olfactory system. The different facial morphology in the relatives with olfactory impairment as compared to the total group may be an illustration of the contribution of different genetic backgrounds to the occurrence of CL/P via different biological pathways.

  8. Gene expression in skeletal muscle biopsies from people with type 2 diabetes and relatives: differential regulation of insulin signaling pathways.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jane Palsgaard

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Gene expression alterations have previously been associated with type 2 diabetes, however whether these changes are primary causes or secondary effects of type 2 diabetes is not known. As healthy first degree relatives of people with type 2 diabetes have an increased risk of developing type 2 diabetes, they provide a good model in the search for primary causes of the disease. METHODS/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We determined gene expression profiles in skeletal muscle biopsies from Caucasian males with type 2 diabetes, healthy first degree relatives, and healthy controls. Gene expression was measured using Affymetrix Human Genome U133 Plus 2.0 Arrays covering the entire human genome. These arrays have not previously been used for this type of study. We show for the first time that genes involved in insulin signaling are significantly upregulated in first degree relatives and significantly downregulated in people with type 2 diabetes. On the individual gene level, 11 genes showed altered expression levels in first degree relatives compared to controls, among others KIF1B and GDF8 (myostatin. LDHB was found to have a decreased expression in both groups compared to controls. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We hypothesize that increased expression of insulin signaling molecules in first degree relatives of people with type 2 diabetes, work in concert with increased levels of insulin as a compensatory mechanism, counter-acting otherwise reduced insulin signaling activity, protecting these individuals from severe insulin resistance. This compensation is lost in people with type 2 diabetes where expression of insulin signaling molecules is reduced.

  9. Subclinical Coronary Plaque Burden in Asymptomatic Relatives of Patients With Documented Premature Coronary Artery Disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Morten Krogh; Jensen, Jesper Møller; Bøtker, Hans Erik

    Introduction: A family history of premature coronary artery disease (CAD) is a well-known risk factor for adverse coronary events with age of onset being inversely related to the degree of heritability. Hypothesis: We hypothesized that asymptomatic first degree relatives, of patients with premature...... CAD, suffer a high burden of subclinical coronary atherosclerosis. Methods: First degree relatives, aged 30-65 years, of patients with a documented coronary revascularization procedure before the age of 40 years, were invited to participate in the study. Participants were matched by age, sex...... and absence of a family history, with patients referred for coronary CT angiography (CTA) because of atypical angina or non-anginal chest pain. A pooled blinded analysis was performed. The main outcome measure was the number of plaque-affected coronary segments. Results: 88 relatives and 88 symptomatic...

  10. Crime in Huntington's disease: a study of registered offences among patients, relatives, and controls

    OpenAIRE

    Jensen, P; Fenger, K; Bolwig, T; Sorensen, S. A.

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVES—Criminal behaviour has been described as a problem in Huntington's disease, but systematic studies including control groups have been missing. Based on information from Danish registries, rates and types of crime committed by patients with Huntington's disease, non-affected relatives, and controls were studied.
METHODS—99 males and 151 females with Huntington's disease were compared with 334 non-affected first degree relatives (134 men and 200 women) and to matche...

  11. Shared executive dysfunctions in unaffected relatives of patients with autism and obsessive-compulsive disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delorme, Richard; Goussé, Véronique; Roy, Isabelle; Trandafir, Anca; Mathieu, Flavie; Mouren-Siméoni, Marie-Christine; Betancur, Catalina; Leboyer, Marion

    2007-01-01

    Background Executive dysfunctions have been studied as a potential endophenotype associated with the genetic basis of autism. Given that recent findings from clinical and molecular genetic studies suggest that autism and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) could share a common pattern of heritability, we assessed executive functions as a possible common cognitive endophenotype in unaffected family members of individuals with either autism or OCD. Methods Five tests assessing executive functions (Tower of London, verbal fluency, design fluency, trail making and association fluency) were proposed to 58 unaffected first-degree relatives (parents and siblings) of probands with autism and 64 unaffected first-degree relatives of OCD patients. Results were compared with those of 47 healthy controls matched for age, sex, and level of education. Results In the Tower of London test, both groups of unaffected relatives showed significantly lower scores and longer response times compared with controls. No differences were observed between autism and OCD relatives and healthy controls in the four other tasks (verbal fluency, design fluency, trail making test and association fluency). Conclusions Our findings show the existence of executive dysfunction in the unaffected first-degree relatives of probands with OCD, similar to those observed in the relatives of patients with autism. These results support and extend previous cognitive studies on probands indicating executive dysfunctions in autism and OCD. Planning and working memory processes could thus represent a common cognitive endophenotype in autism and OCD that could help in the identification of genes conferring vulnerability to these disorders. PMID:17127035

  12. Genetic epidemiology of severe, early-onset chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Risk to relatives for airflow obstruction and chronic bronchitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silverman, E K; Chapman, H A; Drazen, J M; Weiss, S T; Rosner, B; Campbell, E J; O'DONNELL, W J; Reilly, J J; Ginns, L; Mentzer, S; Wain, J; Speizer, F E

    1998-06-01

    Severe alpha-1-antitrypsin deficiency is the only proven genetic risk factor for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). We have assembled a cohort of 44 probands with severe, early-onset COPD, who do not have severe alpha-1-antitrypsin deficiency. A surprisingly high prevalence of females (79.6%) was found. Assessment of the risk to relatives of these early-onset COPD probands for airflow obstruction and chronic bronchitis was performed to determine whether significant familial aggregation for COPD, independent of alpha-1-antitrypsin deficiency, could be demonstrated. First- degree relatives of early-onset COPD probands had significantly lower FEV1 and FEV1/FVC values than control subjects (p < 0.01), despite similar pack-years of smoking. Reduced spirometric values in first-degree relatives of early-onset COPD probands were found only in current or ex-cigarette smokers. The mean FEV1 in current or ex-smoking first-degree relatives was 76.1 +/- 20.9% predicted compared to 89.2 +/- 14.4% predicted in current or ex-smoking control subjects (p < 0.01); in lifelong nonsmokers, the mean FEV1 was 93.4% predicted for both control subjects and first-degree relatives of early-onset COPD probands. Generalized estimating equations, adjusting for age and pack-years of smoking, demonstrated increased odds of reduced FEV1 and chronic bronchitis in current or ex-smoking first-degree relatives of early-onset COPD probands. Using a new method to estimate relative risk from relative odds, we estimate that the relative risks for FEV1 below 60%, FEV1 below 80%, and chronic bronchitis are each approximately three in current or ex-smoking first-degree relatives of early-onset COPD probands. The increased risk to relatives of early-onset COPD probands for reduced FEV1 and chronic bronchitis, limited to current or ex-smokers, suggests genetic risk factor(s) for COPD that are expressed in response to cigarette smoking.

  13. THE CLINICAL EXPRESSION OF HEREDITARY PROTEIN-C AND PROTEIN-S DEFICIENCY - A RELATION TO CLINICAL THROMBOTIC RISK-FACTORS AND TO LEVELS OF PROTEIN-C AND PROTEIN-S

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    HENKENS, CMA; VANDERMEER, J; HILLEGE, JL; BOM, VJJ; HALIE, MR; van der Schaaf, W

    1993-01-01

    We investigated 103 first-degree relatives of 13 unrelated protein C or protein S deficient patients to assess the role of additional thrombotic risk factors and of protein C and protein S levels in the clinical expression of hereditary protein C and protein S deficiency. Fifty-seven relatives were

  14. Pattern of brain activation during social cognitive tasks is related to social competence in siblings discordant for schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villarreal, Mirta F; Drucaroff, Lucas J; Goldschmidt, Micaela G; de Achával, Delfina; Costanzo, Elsa Y; Castro, Mariana N; Ladrón-de-Guevara, M Soledad; Busatto Filho, Geraldo; Nemeroff, Charles B; Guinjoan, Salvador M

    2014-09-01

    Measures of social competence are closely related to actual community functioning in patients with schizophrenia. However, the neurobiological mechanisms underlying competence in schizophrenia are not fully understood. We hypothesized that social deficits in schizophrenia are explained, at least in part, by abnormally lateralized patterns of brain activation in response to tasks engaging social cognition, as compared to healthy individuals. We predicted such patterns would be partly heritable, and therefore affected in patients' nonpsychotic siblings as well. We used a functional magnetic resonance image paradigm to characterize brain activation induced by theory of mind tasks, and two tests of social competence, the Test of Adaptive Behavior in Schizophrenia (TABS), and the Social Skills Performance Assessment (SSPA) in siblings discordant for schizophrenia and comparable healthy controls (n = 14 per group). Healthy individuals showed the strongest correlation between social competence and activation of right hemisphere structures involved in social cognitive processing, whereas in patients, the correlation pattern was lateralized to left hemisphere areas. Unaffected siblings of patients exhibited a pattern intermediate between the other groups. These results support the hypothesis that schizophrenia may be characterized by an abnormal functioning of nondominant hemisphere structures involved in the processing of socially salient information.

  15. The Relationship of Clinical, Cognitive and Social Measures in Schizophrenia: A Preliminary Finding Combining Measures in Probands and Relatives

    OpenAIRE

    David Huepe; Rodrigo Riveros; Facundo Manes; Blas Couto; Esteban Hurtado; Marcelo Cetkovich; Maria Escobar; Viviana Vergara; Teresa Parrao; Agustin Ibañez

    2012-01-01

    This study examines performance of schizophrenia patients, unaffected relatives and controls in social cognition, cognitive and psychiatric scales looking for possible markers of vulnerability in schizophrenia. Performance of schizophrenia patients from multiplex families, first-degree relatives, and matched controls was compared and, subsequently, discriminant analysis method was used for identifying the best predictors for group membership. By using Multigroup Discriminant Analyses on the t...

  16. PDI-4A: an augmented provisional screening instrument assessing 5 additional common anxiety-related diagnoses in adult primary care patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houston, John P; Kroenke, Kurt; Davidson, Jonathan R; Adler, Lenard A; Faries, Douglas E; Ahl, Jonna; Swindle, Ralph; Trzepacz, Paula T

    2011-09-01

    Patients with nonpsychotic mental health and emotional problems are commonly seen by primary care physicians. The objective of this study was to expand the Provisional Diagnostic Instrument-4 (PDI-4) to include a short self-report screen for 5 common anxiety-related diagnoses: panic attack (PA), social phobia (SP), obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), hypochondriasis, and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Primary care patients (N = 343) were originally evaluated with a self-report screen comprised of 85 Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition symptom-based candidate questions, then interviewed by a trained rater for Structured Clinical Interview Research Version (SCID)/Adult ADHD Clinician Diagnostic Scale version 1.2 (ACDS) assessment and diagnosis. Responses to screening questions were used to calculate sensitivity and specificity for an SCID diagnosis, and to select the optimal cutoffs in symptom frequency for 1 or 2 questions for each additional anxiety-related diagnosis. The PDI-4 Anxiety (PDI-4A) contains 6 items for provisional differential diagnosis of PA, SP, OCD, hypochondriasis, and PTSD in addition to items for the PDI-4. Sensitivities/specificities were: PA, 88%/68%; SP, 57%/70%; OCD, 88%/61%; hypochondriasis, 67%/85%; and PTSD, 71%/72%. Screening for multiple common anxiety diagnoses may be desirable, although limitations may include reduced sensitivity and specificity for selected diagnoses. The PDI-4A may additionally help primary care physicians identify patients with PA, SP, OCD, hypochondriasis, and PTSD.

  17. Sexual traumatic events and neurotic disorders picture – sexuality-related and sexuality-unrelated symptoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rutkowski, Krzysztof

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. There is an ample evidence of the impact of severe traumatic events, such as sexual abuse in childhood, on the formation of disorders - especially the non-psychotic ones: sexual, neurotic and personality. So far, an increase of the risk with the accumulation of traumatic factors has been indicated, but less attention has been paid to adverse events such as lack of sexual education, negative attitudes of the caregivers towards sexuality, etc. Aim. Assessment of the risk of such adverse events in childhood and adolescence, concerning the symptoms from the area of sexuality as well as other neurotic disorders areas.Method. The coexistence of the earlier life circumstances and currently present symptoms was examined on the basis of KO„0” Symptom Checklist and Life Inventory, completed prior to treatment in a day hospital for neurotic disordersResults. In the group of 2582 females and 1347 males, there was a significant prevalence of symptoms related to sexuality, as well as of other neurotic symptoms. Patients reported traumatic events of varying frequency (from a relatively rare incest, to much more frequent sense of lack of sex education. Regression analyses showed a significant relationship between the analyzed events and symptoms, for instance, lack of sexual satisfaction in adulthood co-occurred in women with punishing for childhood sexual plays or masturbation. The other analyzed symptoms – ‘non-sexual’, such as panic attacks, were not so clearly related to the burdensome circumstances.Conclusions. The presence of adverse life events concerning sexuality, not necessarily the most serious ones e.g. abuses, but such as inadequate sex education, child punishing for masturbation or sexual plays, unwanted sexual initiation, are associated with a higher occurrence of most of the analyzed symptoms in the sphere of sexuality. Weaker connection for other than sexual neurotic symptoms suggests that the impact of childhood sexual

  18. Eye-tracking dysfunctions in schizophrenic patients and their relatives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holzman, P.S.; Proctor, L.R.; Levy, D.L.; Yasillo, N.J.; Meltzer, H.Y.; Hurt, S.W.

    1974-08-01

    A simple test of smooth-pursuit eye movements disclosed a striking association between deviant eye tracking and clinically diagnosed schizophrenia. A high proportion of the schizophrenic patients' first-degree relatives who were not themselves clinically schizophrenic also showed deviant eye-tracking behavior. The relationship of poor eye tracking and schizophrenia is even stronger when specific psychological test evidence of thought disorder is used operationally to classify patients. The eye-tracking dysfunction may thus represent a genetic marker that can prove highly useful for studying the transmission of a vulnerability to schizophrenia. The findings suggest proprioceptive and interoceptive involvement in schizophrenic pathology. (auth)

  19. Risk of cognitive impairment or dementia in relatives of patients with Parkinson disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocca, Walter A; Bower, James H; Ahlskog, J Eric; Elbaz, Alexis; Grossardt, Brandon R; McDonnell, Shannon K; Schaid, Daniel J; Maraganore, Demetrius M

    2007-10-01

    The evidence for increased risk of dementia in relatives of patients with Parkinson disease (PD) remains conflicting. To study the risk of cognitive impairment or dementia in first-degree relatives of patients with PD. We conducted a historical cohort study of 1019 first-degree relatives of 162 patients with PD and of 858 relatives of 147 matched controls representative of the population of Olmsted County, Minnesota. In addition, we studied 2716 first-degree relatives of 411 patients with PD referred to Mayo Clinic. We administered via telephone a cognitive test directly to relatives or a dementia questionnaire to proxies. For relatives reported by proxies to have dementia, we obtained copies of their medical records to confirm the diagnosis. We also obtained dementia information from a medical records-linkage system. In the overall population-based sample, the risk of cognitive impairment or dementia was increased in relatives of patients with PD compared with relatives of controls (hazard ratio, 1.37; 95% confidence interval, 1.03-1.81; P = .03) and was particularly increased in relatives of patients with onset of PD at age 66 years or younger (youngest tertile; hazard ratio, 1.73; 95% confidence interval, 1.21-2.46; P = .003). The findings were consistent in several sensitivity analyses. In the referral-based sample, the risk of cognitive impairment or dementia in relatives increased with younger age at onset of PD but did not vary by other clinical characteristics. Cognitive impairment or dementia may share familial susceptibility factors with PD (genetic or nongenetic).

  20. Differences in cannabis-related experiences between patients with a first episode of psychosis and controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianconi, F; Bonomo, M; Marconi, A; Kolliakou, A; Stilo, S A; Iyegbe, C; Gurillo Muñoz, P; Homayoun, S; Mondelli, V; Luzi, S; Dazzan, P; Prata, D; La Cascia, C; O'Connor, J; David, A; Morgan, C; Murray, R M; Lynskey, M; Di Forti, M

    2016-04-01

    Many studies have reported that cannabis use increases the risk of a first episode of psychosis (FEP). However, only a few studies have investigated the nature of cannabis-related experiences in FEP patients, and none has examined whether these experiences are similar in FEP and general populations. The aim of this study was to explore differences in self-reported cannabis experiences between FEP and non-psychotic populations. A total of 252 subjects, who met International Classification of Diseases (ICD)-10 criteria for FEP, and 217 controls who reported cannabis use were selected from the Genetics and Psychosis (GAP) study. The Medical Research Council Social Schedule and the Cannabis Experience Questionnaire were used to collect sociodemographic data and cannabis use information, respectively. Both 'bad' and 'enjoyable' experiences were more commonly reported by FEP subjects than controls. Principal components factor analysis identified four components which explained 62.3% of the variance. Linear regression analysis on the whole sample showed that the type of cannabis used and beliefs about the effect of cannabis on health all contributed to determining the intensity and frequency of experiences. Linear regression analysis on FEP subjects showed that the duration of cannabis use and amount of money spent on cannabis were strongly related to the intensity and frequency of enjoyable experiences in this population. These results suggest a higher sensitivity to cannabis effects among people who have suffered their first psychotic episode; this hypersensitivity results in them reporting both more 'bad' and 'enjoyable' experiences. The greater enjoyment experienced may provide an explanation of why FEP patients are more likely to use cannabis and to continue to use it despite experiencing an exacerbation of their psychotic symptoms.

  1. Insulin signal transduction in skeletal muscle from glucose-intolerant relatives of type 2 diabetic patients [corrected

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Storgaard, H; Song, X M; Jensen, C B;

    2001-01-01

    To determine whether defects in the insulin signal transduction cascade are present in skeletal muscle from prediabetic individuals, we excised biopsies from eight glucose-intolerant male first-degree relatives of patients with type 2 diabetes (IGT relatives) and nine matched control subjects...... phosphorylation in control subjects and IGT relatives, with a tendency for reduced phosphorylation in IGT relatives (P = 0.12). In conclusion, aberrant phosphorylation/activity of IRS-1, PI 3-kinase, and Akt is observed in skeletal muscle from relatives of patients with type 2 diabetes with IGT. However...... resistance in skeletal muscle from relatives of patients with type 2 diabetes....

  2. Desarrollo de habilidades para producir una semejanza gráfica de información espacial en niños y niñas de grado primero de instituciones educativas de la ciudad de Medellín Development of abilities to produce a graphical similarity of space information in children of first degree of educative institutions of the city of Medellín

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cano Vásquez Lina María

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available La investigación que se presenta, estuvo dirigida al análisis del proceso de desarrollo de las habilidades para producir una semejanza gráfica de información espacial. A partir de la implementación de la propuesta pedagógica “vivo y represento mi espacio” que propuso a niños y niñas de grado primero de educación básica primaria de Instituciones Educativas de la ciudad de Medellín actividades variadas para la representación bidimensional y tridimensional del espacio. Se pretendió, a partir de dicha implementación, identificar el perfil cognitivo de los niños y niñas que sobresalieron en la realización de tareas y actividades relacionadas con inteligencia espacial. De igual manera, se buscó establecer diferencias en cuanto al género y edad. This research was focused toward the analysis of the skills development process in order to produce graphic resemblance of spatial information. Starting from the pedagogical proposal “vivo y represento mi espacio” -I live and represent my space-, which consisted on different activities related to the bidimensional and tridimensional representation made by girls and boys that attend first grade in educational institutions of Medellin. This proposal aimed to identify the cognitive profile of the girls and boys that stood out on their spatial intelligence performance. This study also allowed establishing differences about gender and age.

  3. Large-Scale Fusion of Gray Matter and Resting-State Functional MRI Reveals Common and Distinct Biological Markers across the Psychosis Spectrum in the B-SNIP Cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zheng; Meda, Shashwath A; Keshavan, Matcheri S; Tamminga, Carol A; Sweeney, John A; Clementz, Brett A; Schretlen, David J; Calhoun, Vince D; Lui, Su; Pearlson, Godfrey D

    2015-01-01

    To investigate whether aberrant interactions between brain structure and function present similarly or differently across probands with psychotic illnesses [schizophrenia (SZ), schizoaffective disorder (SAD), and bipolar I disorder with psychosis (BP)] and whether these deficits are shared with their first-degree non-psychotic relatives. A total of 1199 subjects were assessed, including 220 SZ, 147 SAD, 180 psychotic BP, 150 first-degree relatives of SZ, 126 SAD relatives, 134 BP relatives, and 242 healthy controls (1). All subjects underwent structural MRI (sMRI) and resting-state functional MRI (rs-fMRI) scanning. Joint-independent component analysis (jICA) was used to fuse sMRI gray matter and rs-fMRI amplitude of low-frequency fluctuations data to identify the relationship between the two modalities. jICA revealed two significantly fused components. The association between functional brain alteration in a prefrontal-striatal-thalamic-cerebellar network and structural abnormalities in the default mode network was found to be common across psychotic diagnoses and correlated with cognitive function, social function, and schizo-bipolar scale scores. The fused alteration in the temporal lobe was unique to SZ and SAD. The above effects were not seen in any relative group (including those with cluster-A personality). Using a multivariate-fused approach involving two widely used imaging markers, we demonstrate both shared and distinct biological traits across the psychosis spectrum. Furthermore, our results suggest that the above traits are psychosis biomarkers rather than endophenotypes.

  4. Large scale fusion of gray matter and resting-state functional MRI reveals common and shared biological markers across the psychosis spectrum in the B-SNIP cohort

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zheng eWang

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available To investigate whether aberrant interactions between brain structure and function present similarly or differently across probands with psychotic illnesses (schizophrenia (SZ, schizoaffective disorder (SAD, and bipolar I disorder with psychosis (BP and whether these deficits are shared with their first-degree non-psychotic relatives. A total of 1199 subjects were assessed, including 220 SZ, 147 SAD, 180 psychotic BP, 150 first-degree relatives of SZ, 126 SAD relatives, 134 BP relatives and 242 healthy controls. All subjects underwent structural MRI (sMRI and resting-state functional MRI (rs-fMRI scanning. Joint independent analysis (jICA was used to fuse sMRI gray matter (GM and rs-fMRI amplitude of low frequency fluctuations (ALFF data to identify the relationship between the two modalities. Joint ICA revealed two significantly fused components. The association between functional brain alteration in a prefrontal-striatal-thalamic-cerebellar network and structural abnormalities in the default mode network (DMN was found to be common across psychotic diagnoses and correlated with cognitive function, social function and Schizo-Bipolar Scale (SBS scores. The fused alteration in the temporal lobe was unique to SZ and SAD. The above effects were not seen in any relative group (including those with cluster-A personality. Using a multivariate fused approach involving two widely used imaging markers we demonstrate both shared and distinct biological traits across the psychosis spectrum. Further, our results suggest that the above traits are psychosis biomarkers rather than endophenotypes.

  5. Relativity made relatively easy

    CERN Document Server

    Steane, Andrew M

    2012-01-01

    Relativity Made Relatively Easy presents an extensive study of Special Relativity and a gentle (but exact) introduction to General Relativity for undergraduate students of physics. Assuming almost no prior knowledge, it allows the student to handle all the Relativity needed for a university course, with explanations as simple, thorough, and engaging as possible.The aim is to make manageable what would otherwise be regarded as hard; to make derivations as simple as possible and physical ideas as transparent as possible. Lorentz invariants and four-vectors are introduced early on, but tensor not

  6. Crime in Huntington's disease: a study of registered offences among patients, relatives, and controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, P; Fenger, K; Bolwig, T G; Sørensen, S A

    1998-10-01

    Criminal behaviour has been described as a problem in Huntington's disease, but systematic studies including control groups have been missing. Based on information from Danish registries, rates and types of crime committed by patients with Huntington's disease, non-affected relatives, and controls were studied. 99 males and 151 females with Huntington's disease were compared with 334 non-affected first degree relatives (134 men and 200 women) and to matched control groups as to frequencies and types of registered criminal convictions. Due to specific age criteria, the group of relatives comprised only about 9% carriers of the gene coding for Huntington's disease. In male patients, crime rates were significantly increased compared with first degree relatives (RR=2.8) and controls (RR=2.3). All types of crime occurred more often in male patients; more severe crimes (murder, rape, arson) were not reported. Rates of drunken driving were significantly increased compared with relatives (RR=3.8) and controls (RR=7.1). Crime rates were neither increased in female patients nor in male and female first degree relatives. The results indicate increased prevalence of criminal behaviour in males carrying the gene for Huntington's disease. The crimes committed seem to be of relatively minor severity and are probably closely linked to the personality changes often seen as a result of the disease process, although depressive reactions to the disease, with secondary alcohol misuse, may also play a part. Environmental and familial factors shared by patients and non-affected at risk persons seem to be of less aetiological importance.

  7. SEX CHARACTERISTICS OF THE MICROCIRCULATION IN HEALTHY SUBJECTS AND IN PATIENTS WITH THE FIRST DEGREE ARTERIAL HYPERTENSION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. I. Podzolkov

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To study the sex characteristics of microcirculation in healthy volunteers and in patients with degree 1 arterial hypertension (HT. Material and methods. Patients (n=71; 34 men and 37 women with degree 1 HT participated in the study. Besides 28 normotensive men and 41 women were included. The microcirculation study was performed with LAKK-02 analyzer on the palmar surface of the third finger of the right hand. The average values of the microcirculation index, the standard deviation of perfusion fluctuations (σ, the variation coefficient of tissue blood flow (Kv were evaluated. Results. The microcirculation index in HT men 26.64 (21.00–32.45 perfusion units (p.u. was significantly higher than this in HT women 20.91 (16.98–24.30 p.u., p=0.031. The variability of microcirculation index was significantly higher in HT patients than this in healthy subjects. Capillary blood flow reserve in healthy women was higher than this in healthy men. Amplitude, reflexing myogenic factor of blood flow regulation was significantly lower in HT men than this in HT women: 13.37 (10.51–16.43 vs 14.69 (11.35–19.13, respectively , p=0.023. Amplitudes, reflecting respiration effects on peripheral blood flow in HT men were significantly higher than these in HT women. Amplitudes, reflecting pulse effect on the tissue perfusion in HT women were significantly higher than these in HT men. Influence of sympathetic adrenergic innervation on the blood flow was higher in healthy men than this in healthy women. Conclusion. Received data suggests the intensification of microcirculation regulation mechanisms in men with HT degree 1. It was found that sympathetic adrenergic effect on the microcirculation regulation was significantly less in healthy women than this in healthy men.

  8. Self-report of basic symptoms among psychotic and nonpsychotic subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciani, N; Pezzarossa, B; Curini, A; Rubino, I A

    1999-10-01

    Basic symptoms, as defined and described by the Bonn Scale, were assessed by means of a new self-report inventory, the Rome Basic Disorders Scale. On all the subscales, psychiatric outpatients (n = 105; most frequent diagnoses: Schizophrenia, Anxiety Disorders, and Mood Disorders) scored significantly higher (p < .001) than nonclinical controls (n = 105). Psychiatric patients with at least one diagnosis on the psychotic sets of Foulds' hierarchical inventory (n = 45), compared with the rest of the psychiatric sample (n = 60), had significantly higher scores on nearly all subscales. Two groups of inpatients with Schizophrenia (n = 20) and Mood Disorders (n = 20) were tested on Day 2 and 9 of hospitalization in an emergency ward. Schizophrenic patients had significantly higher scores on most of the subscales, but only on Day 9; on Day 2 depressed and manic patients scored significantly higher on four subscales. Until now basic symptoms had not been studied during the intrapsychotic phase, mainly because of their transformation into first-rank symptoms; present findings suggest that basic symptoms are active also at the height of the psychotic breakdown and that they are more responsive to treatment in Depression and Mania than in Schizophrenia.

  9. Ambivalent connections. Improving community mental health care for non-psychotic chronic patients perceived as 'difficult'

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bauke van Koekkoek

    2011-01-01

    Depression is a widespread psychiatric disorder, which becomes chronic in 25-30% of cases. When psychiatric and psychological treatments are ineffective, chronic depressive patients are often assigned to long-term care which is mostly provided by mental health nurses. Due to factors strongly

  10. [Comparative double-blind study of bromazepam versus prazepam in non-psychotic anxiety].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guelfi, J D; Lancrenon, S; Millet, V

    1993-01-01

    The efficacy of bromazepam and prazepam for the different components of anxiety: inhibition, asthenia and somatisation is evaluated in a multi-centric, comparative and randomised study, conducted as double blind and in parallel groups in 159 adult patients showing a manifest anxiety according to the F.D.A. criteria. After a 7 day wash-out period, the patients receive either bromazepam in a 12 mg/d dose or prazepam in a 40 mg/d dose, over 4 weeks (D0-D28), then in a decreasing dose from D28 to D43; follow-up is carried out using the anxious inhibition scale W.P.2, auto-questionnaire A.D.A., the Hamilton anxiety scale and the Tyrer questionnaire (benzodiazepine withdrawal symptoms questionnaire). Patients are evaluated seven times during the study: at day 7 for inclusion, day 0 for randomisation, then day 7 and day 14 for following visits, at day 28 for efficacy and tolerance evaluation, and at day 50 for utilisation and withdrawal evaluation. The major efficacy criteria are the evolution of inhibition, asthenia and somatisation as compounds of anxiety respectively evaluated by W.P.2 scale, asthenic partial score of autoquestionnaire A.D.A. and somatic partial score of Hamilton anxiety scale. The analysis of results don't show any significant difference between the two groups on the evolution of the components asthenia and inhibition. However the evolution of the somatic component clearly makes a significant difference in favour of bromazepam. There is also a significant difference in terms of global anxiolytic action efficacy, in favour of bromazepam.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  11. Pattern of outcome with sertraline, imipramine, and des-venlafaxine in unipolar nonpsychotic depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abhishek Kapoor

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: There is a scarcity of research on the temporal sequence of improvement with antidepressants and the differential effect of different antidepressants. Aims: To study the temporal sequence of improvement and differential pattern of outcome with antidepressants from different classes. Methods: 132 males and females from 18 to 65 years suffering from the first depressive episode were followed up at baseline, 3 rd day, 7 th day, 10 th day, 14 th day, 21 st day, 1 month, and 3 months using the 17 item Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression. Patients were randomized into three groups namely (1 sertraline (2 des-venlafaxine and (3 imipramine. Appropriate statistical analyses were applied. Results: The pattern of improvement was similar across the groups. The earliest improvement was seen in early insomnia (at day 3 followed by suicidal ideas and psychological anxiety (by day 7. Middle insomnia, late insomnia, and agitation improved by the 14 th day. Depressed mood improved significantly at day 14 th in the sertraline and imipramine groups and day 21 st in the des-venlafaxine group. Work and activities and retardation improved significantly in the sertraline and imipramine groups at 1 month. The last symptoms to improve were general somatic symptoms, genital symptoms, and guilt feeling. Conclusions: It is important to know the temporal sequence of symptomatic improvement with antidepressants as it will guide us to make important management decisions. It also helps to improve compliance as patients can be appropriately guided regarding expected course of treatment.

  12. Ambivalent connections. Improving community mental health care for non-psychotic chronic patients perceived as 'difficult'

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koekkoek, Bauke

    2011-01-01

    Depression is a widespread psychiatric disorder, which becomes chronic in 25-30% of cases. When psychiatric and psychological treatments are ineffective, chronic depressive patients are often assigned to long-term care which is mostly provided by mental health nurses. Due to factors strongly associa

  13. International relations; Relations internationales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon

    2009-02-15

    Concerning the european community, two meetings occurred during october 2008, the group on the nuclear safety and the waste management at Brussels and the meeting of W.E.N.R.A. (Western european nuclear regulator association). At the international level, the commission on safety standards took place in september 2008 at Vienna, a general conference of IAEA and the senor regulator meeting in september at Vienna. The worldwide conference of radiation protection (International radiation protection association -I.R.P.A.) took place under IAEA aegis at Buenos Aires in october 2008. Bilateral relations between France and South Africa, Germany, China, United States and Japan took place in october 2008 and were about information exchanges. (N.C.)

  14. Relativity without Relativity

    CERN Document Server

    Barbour, J C; Murchadha, N O; Barbour, Julian; Foster, Brendan; Murchadha, Niall \\'O

    2002-01-01

    We give a new derivation of general relativity based entirely on three dimensional principles. We start with a parametrisation invariant, Jacobi-type action on superspace. This will be the product of a square root of a potential times the square root of a kinetic energy term. All we demand is that the action have nontrivial solutions. We find that the only viable action is the Baierlein, Sharp, Wheeler Lagrangian and thus we recover G.R. We impose no spacetime conditions whatsoever. We extend this to include scalar and vector fields. We recover causality (everything travels at the same speed), Maxwellian electrodynamics, and the gauge principle. Thus we derive a large part of modern physics from a purely three dimensional point of view.

  15. Analysis of the multidimensionality of hallucination-like experiences in clinical and nonclinical Spanish samples and their relation to clinical symptoms: implications for the model of continuity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langer, Alvaro I; Cangas, Adolfo J; Serper, Mark

    2011-02-01

    Numerous studies have found that hallucinatory experiences occur in the general population. But to date, few studies have been conducted to compare clinical and nonclinical groups across a broad array of clinical symptoms that may co-occur with hallucinations. Likewise, hallucination-like experiences are measured as a multidimensional construct, with clinical and subclinical components related to vivid daydreams, intrusive thoughts, perceptual disturbance, and clinical hallucinatory experiences. Nevertheless, these individual subcomponents have not been examined across a broad spectrum of clinically disordered and nonclinical groups. The goal of the present study was to analyze the differences and similarities in the distribution of responses to hallucination-like experience in clinical and nonclinical populations and to determine the relation of these hallucination-like experiences with various clinical symptoms. These groups included patients with schizophrenia, non-psychotic clinically disordered patients, and a group of individuals with no psychiatric diagnoses. The results revealed that hallucination-like experiences are related to various clinical symptoms across diverse groups of individuals. Regression analysis found that the Psychoticism dimension of the Symptom Check List (SCL-90-R) was the most important predictor of hallucination-like experiences. Additionally, increased auditory and visual hallucination was the only subcomponent that differentiated schizophrenic patients from other groups. This distribution of responses in the dimensions of hallucination-like experiences suggests that not all the dimensions are characteristic of people hearing voices. Vivid daydreams, intrusive thoughts, and auditory distortions and visual perceptual distortions may represent a state of general vulnerability that does not denote a specific risk for clinical hallucinations. Overall, these results support the notion that hallucination-like experiences are closer to a

  16. Does bereavement-related first episode depression differ from other kinds of first depressions?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kessing, Lars Vedel; Bukh, Jens Drachmann; Bock, Camilla

    2009-01-01

    (4.7%) had experienced death of a first degree relative (parent, sibling, child) or a near friend, 163 patients (54.2%) had experienced other moderate to severe stressful life events and 112 patients had not experienced stressful life events in a 6 months period prior to the onset of depression....... Patients who had experienced bereavement did not differ from patients with other stressful life events or from patients without stressful life events in socio-demographic variables or in the phenomenology of the depression, psychiatric comorbidity, family history or response to antidepressant treatment...

  17. Interest in Genetic Testing in Ashkenazi Jewish Parkinson’s Disease Patients and Their Unaffected Relatives

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Our objective was to explore interest in genetic testing among Ashkenazi Jewish (AJ) Parkinson’s Disease (PD) cases and first-degree relatives, as genetic testing for LRRK2 G2019S is widely available. Approximately 18 % of AJ PD cases carry G2019S mutations; penetrance estimations vary between 24 and 100 % by age 80. A Genetic Attitude Questionnaire (GAQ) was administered at two New York sites to PD families unaware of LRRK2 G2019S mutation status. The association of G2019S, age, education, g...

  18. International relations; Relations internationales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon

    2009-07-15

    The French nuclear safety authority (A.S.N.) has participated at different meeting in European Union as nuclear decommissioning assistance programme(N.D.A.P.), Regulatory assistance management group (R.A.M.G.) and Instrument for nuclear safety cooperation (I.N.S.C.). The members of Western European nuclear regulator association (W.E.N.R.A.) met and discussed about the future of W.E.N.R.A. and its representativeness and its cooperation with European nuclear safety regulator group (E.N.S.R.E.G.) and head of European radiation control authorities (H.E.R.C.A.). About International relations it is to noticed a meeting at the invitation of IAEA to discuss about the possibility to resort to the Ines scale for medical events. An audit mission under the IAEA aegis stood at Fessenheim, O.S.A.R.T. for operational safety review team. Two years and a half passed by between the audit mission Integrated regulatory review service (I.R.S.S.) welcome by A.S.N. in november 2006 and the audit mission follow up in 2009, 12 experts from 11 different countries and coordinated by three representatives of IAEA worked, the conclusions were that 90% of recommendations made to A.S.N. in 2006 were treated in a satisfying way; the evaluation gives three new recommendations, 7 new suggestions and 11 new correct practices. A meeting of the commission on safety standards (C.S.S.) stood in april 2009. Some others meeting are to be noticed: nuclear safety and security group (N.S.S.G.), expert group on nuclear and radiation safety (E.G.N.R.S.) instituted by the council of the Baltic sea states (C.B.S.S.) treats data exchange on the national networks of dose rates and surveillance of radioactivity in air. International nuclear regulator association (I.N.R.A.) held its first meeting in april 2009 at Seoul (Korea). Bilateral relations with Poland, Italy, Ukraine and Germany planed cooperation or information exchange in the field of nuclear safety. Participation to conference in Usa, meetings with United

  19. Hematopoietic and lymphatic cancers in relatives of patients with infectious mononucleosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjalgrim, Henrik; Rostgaard, Klaus; Askling, Johan;

    2002-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Young adults with a history of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-related infectious mononucleosis have an increased risk for Hodgkin's lymphoma. EBV is detected in Hodgkin's lymphoma Reed-Sternberg cells from some patients, but in young adult patients, it is detected at a relatively low...... the importance of socioeconomic status on the association between these diseases, we determined the risk for hematopoietic and lymphatic cancers in first-degree relatives of patients with confirmed EBV-related infectious mononucleosis. METHODS: We identified parents, siblings, and offspring of 17,045 persons...... with serologically confirmed EBV-related infectious mononucleosis. Subjects in these cohorts were linked with the population-based Danish Cancer Register to identify those developing hematopoietic/lymphatic cancers after the index patient was diagnosed with infectious mononucleosis. The relative risk for cancer...

  20. Premorbid cognitive deficits in young relatives of schizophrenia patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matcheri S Keshavan

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Neurocognitive deficits in schizophrenia are thought to be stable trait markers that predate the illness and manifest in relatives of patients. Adolescence is the age of maximum vulnerability to the onset of schizophrenia and may be an opportune “window” to observe neurocognitive impairments close to but prior to the onset of psychosis. We reviewed the extant studies assessing neurocognitive deficits in young relatives at high risk (HR for schizophrenia and their relation to brain structural alterations. We also provide some additional data pertaining to the relation of these deficits to psychopathology and brain structural alterations from the Pittsburgh Risk Evaluation Program (PREP. Cognitive deficits are noted in the HR population, which are more severe in first-degree relatives compared to second-degree relatives and primarily involve psychomotor speed, memory, attention, reasoning, and social-cognition. Reduced general intelligence is also noted, although its relationship to these specific domains is underexplored. Premorbid cognitive deficits may be related to brain structural and functional abnormalities, underlining the neurobiological basis of this illness. Cognitive impairments might predict later emergence of psychopathology in at-risk subjects and may be targets of early remediation and preventive strategies. Although evidence for neurocognitive deficits in young relatives abounds, further studies on their structural underpinnings and on their candidate status as endophenotypes are needed.

  1. Relational databases

    CERN Document Server

    Bell, D A

    1986-01-01

    Relational Databases explores the major advances in relational databases and provides a balanced analysis of the state of the art in relational databases. Topics covered include capture and analysis of data placement requirements; distributed relational database systems; data dependency manipulation in database schemata; and relational database support for computer graphics and computer aided design. This book is divided into three sections and begins with an overview of the theory and practice of distributed systems, using the example of INGRES from Relational Technology as illustration. The

  2. Information Relations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viktor Ya.Tsvetkov

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The article organizes information relations. The article explores the implicative, quantitative, qualitative, logical and situational information relations. The article introduces the concept of implicative and situational relations. Article clarifies the definition of information relations. The article describes examples of information relations. The article shows the difference between the information field and information space. The article uses the concept of Aristotle "logical square" to explain the logic of information relations. This work combines scientific fields of linguistics, philosophy, logic, computer science, artificial intelligence.

  3. Social relations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Due, P; Holstein, B; Lund, R

    1999-01-01

    We introduce a conceptual framework with social relations as the main concept and the structure and the function of social relations as subconcepts. The structure of social relations covers aspects of formal relations and social network. The function of social relations covers social support......, social anchorage and relational strain. We use this conceptual framework to describe social relations in the Danish population, with questionnaire data from the Danish Longitudinal Health Behaviour Study including a random sample of each of the age groups 25-, 50-, 60-and 70-year olds, N = 2......,011. The postal questionnaires were answered by a random sample in each of the age groups. The results show marked age and gender differences in both the structure and the function of social relations. The social network, measured as weekly contacts, weakens with age and so does instrumental support. Emotional...

  4. Relational Leadership

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2015-01-01

    In this chapter, we emphasise what we have outlined as interesting areas of relational leadership and present some ideas on how to facilitate a broader understanding of relational leadership practice. This involves the interpretations that create connections between practice and ontology. We...... elaborate on how leadership in everyday situations can be understood from a relational perspective. The chapter will focus on outlining and inspiring the reader to co-operate with other people to develop further relational understandings of leading....

  5. Descriptive and numeric estimation of risk for psychotic disorders among affected individuals and relatives: implications for clinical practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austin, Jehannine C; Hippman, Catriona; Honer, William G

    2012-03-30

    Studies show that individuals with psychotic illnesses and their families want information about psychosis risks for other relatives. However, deriving accurate numeric probabilities for psychosis risk is challenging, and people have difficulty interpreting probabilistic information; thus, some have suggested that clinicians should use risk descriptors, such as "moderate" or "quite high", rather than numbers. Little is known about how individuals with psychosis and their family members use quantitative and qualitative descriptors of risk in the specific context of chance for an individual to develop psychosis. We explored numeric and descriptive estimations of psychosis risk among individuals with psychotic disorders and unaffected first-degree relatives. In an online survey, respondents numerically and descriptively estimated risk for an individual to develop psychosis in scenarios where they had: A) no affected family members; and B) an affected sibling. Participants comprised 219 affected individuals and 211 first-degree relatives participated. Affected individuals estimated significantly higher risks than relatives. Participants attributed all descriptors between "very low" and "very high" to probabilities of 1%, 10%, 25% and 50%+. For a given numeric probability, different risk descriptors were attributed in different scenarios. Clinically, brief interventions around risk (using either probabilities or descriptors alone) are vulnerable to miscommunication and potentially negative consequences-interventions around risk are best suited to in-depth discussion.

  6. Quantum relations

    CERN Document Server

    Weaver, Nik

    2010-01-01

    We define a "quantum relation" on a von Neumann algebra M \\subset B(H) to be a weak* closed operator bimodule over its commutant M'. Although this definition is framed in terms of a particular representation of M, it is effectively representation independent. Quantum relations on l^\\infty(X) exactly correspond to subsets of X^2, i.e., relations on X. There is also a good definition of a "measurable relation" on a measure space, to which quantum relations partially reduce in the general abelian case. By analogy with the classical setting, we can identify structures such as quantum equivalence relations, quantum partial orders, and quantum graphs, and we can generalize Arveson's fundamental work on weak* closed operator algebras containing a masa to these cases. We are also able to intrinsically characterize the quantum relations on M in terms of families of projections in M \\otimes B(l^2).

  7. Alterations of lateral temporal cortical gray matter and facial memory as vulnerability indicators for schizophrenia: an MRI study in youth at familial high-risk for schizophrenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brent, Benjamin K.; Rosso, Isabelle M.; Thermenos, Heidi W.; Holt, Daphne J.; Faraone, Stephen V.; Makris, Nikos; Tsuang, Ming T.; Seidman, Larry J.

    2015-01-01

    Background Structural alterations of the lateral temporal cortex (LTC) in association with memory impairments have been reported in schizophrenia. This study investigated whether alterations of LTC structure were linked with impaired facial and/or verbal memory in young first-degree relatives of people with schizophrenia and, thus, may be indicators of vulnerability to the illness. Methods Subjects included 27 non-psychotic, first-degree relatives of schizophrenia patients, and 48 healthy controls, between the ages of 13 and 28. Participants underwent high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) at 1.5 Tesla. The LTC was parcellated into superior temporal gyrus, middle temporal gyrus, inferior temporal gyrus, and temporal pole. Total cerebral and LTC volumes were measured using semi-automated morphometry. The Wechsler Memory Scale – Third Edition and the Children’s Memory Scale – Third Edition assessed facial and verbal memory. General linear models tested for associations among LTC subregion volumes, familial risk and memory. Results Compared with controls, relatives had significantly smaller bilateral middle temporal gyri. Moreover, right middle temporal gyral volume showed a significant positive association with delayed facial memory in relatives. Conclusion These results support the hypothesis that smaller middle temporal gyri are related to the genetic liability to schizophrenia and may be linked with reduced facial memory in persons at genetic risk for the illness. The findings add to the growing evidence that children at risk for schizophrenia on the basis of positive family history have cortical and subcortical structural brain abnormalities well before psychotic illness occurs. PMID:26621001

  8. Outcomes of contralateral prophylactic mastectomy in relation to familial history: a decision analysis (BRCR-D-16-00033).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Kalatu R; Brewster, Abenaa M; Bedrosian, Isabelle; Parker, Patricia A; Crosby, Melissa A; Peterson, Susan K; Shen, Yu; Volk, Robert J; Cantor, Scott B

    2016-09-20

    Family history of breast cancer is associated with an increased risk of contralateral breast cancer (CBC) even in the absence of mutations in the breast cancer susceptibility genes BRCA1/2. We compared quality-adjusted survival after contralateral prophylactic mastectomy (CPM) with surveillance only (no CPM) among women with breast cancer incorporating the degree of family history. We created a microsimulation model for women with first-degree, second-degree, and no family history treated for a stage I, II, or III estrogen receptor (ER)-positive or ER-negative breast cancer at the ages of 40, 50, 60, and 70. The model incorporated a 10-year posttreatment period for risk of developing CBC and/or dying of the primary cancer or CBC. For each patient profile, we used 100,000 microsimulation trials to estimate quality-adjusted life expectancy for the clinical strategies CPM and no CPM. CPM showed minimal improvement on quality-adjusted life expectancy among women age 50-60 with no or a unilateral first-degree or second-degree family history (decreasing from 0.31 to -0.06 quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs)) and was unfavorable for most subgroups of women age 70 with stage III breast cancer regardless of degree of family history (range -0.08 to -0.02 QALYs). Sensitivity analysis showed that the highest predicted benefit of CPM assuming 95 % risk reduction in CBC was 0.57 QALYs for a 40-year-old woman with stage I breast cancer who had a first-degree relative with bilateral breast cancer. Women age 40 with stage I breast cancer and a first-degree relative with bilateral breast cancer have a QALY benefit from CPM similar to that reported for BRCA1/2 mutation carriers. For most subgroups of women, CPM has a minimal to no effect on quality-adjusted life expectancy, irrespective of family history of breast cancer.

  9. Numerical Relativity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, John G.

    2009-01-01

    Recent advances in numerical relativity have fueled an explosion of progress in understanding the predictions of Einstein's theory of gravity, General Relativity, for the strong field dynamics, the gravitational radiation wave forms, and consequently the state of the remnant produced from the merger of compact binary objects. I will review recent results from the field, focusing on mergers of two black holes.

  10. Numerical Relativity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, John G.

    2009-01-01

    Recent advances in numerical relativity have fueled an explosion of progress in understanding the predictions of Einstein's theory of gravity, General Relativity, for the strong field dynamics, the gravitational radiation wave forms, and consequently the state of the remnant produced from the merger of compact binary objects. I will review recent results from the field, focusing on mergers of two black holes.

  11. View relations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Søren; Carpendale, Sheelagh

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we explore the potential of using visual representations to support people in managing, organizing, and understanding relations between multiple visualization views. Multiple views can help people understand different facets of data and data processing, and are a crucial part of data...... analysis particularly when it is done collaboratively. Both the growing use of multiple views and the increasing display sizes have amplified the need to explore how to better help people to understand the relations between many views. To improve our understanding of how to visualize view relations, we...... invited visualization and interaction designers to critique and sketch representations of view relations. The participants provided design critiques, and sketched their own relation representations. Our findings expand the range and palette of ways of visually linking visualization views and suggest new...

  12. Assessment of the relatives or spouses cohabiting with the fibromyalgia patients: is there a link regarding fibromyalgia symptoms, quality of life, general health and psychologic status?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dogan, Sebnem Koldas; Aytur, Yesim Kurtais; Atbasoglu, Cem

    2011-09-01

    It was aimed to investigate the existence of the symptoms related to fibromyalgia in the first-degree relatives or spouses of the patients and to assess the psychologic and general health status of these individuals and the correlation of these with the patients' status. Thirty-seven patients with FS, 32 first-degree relatives or spouses of the patients and 30 healthy subjects as a control group were included. Symptoms related to FS were recorded in all subjects. Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire and Nottingham Health Profile were used to assess the components of functional status and quality of life. General health status was evaluated by General Health Questionnaire. Beck Depression Inventory and Beck Anxiety Inventory were used to assess the psychologic status. There were significant differences in the frequency of the symptoms between three groups (P sleep and physical abilities subscores of NHP (P 0.05). No fibromyalgia symptoms or signs were detected in the relatives/spouses. The general health status, psychologic status and quality of life were found to be not impaired in relatives/spouses of the patients with FS.

  13. Calcitonin gene-related peptide induced migraine attacks in patients with and without familial aggregation of migraine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guo, Song; Christensen, Anne Francke; Liu, Marie Louise

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Calcitonin gene-related peptide provokes migraine attacks in 65% of patients with migraine without aura. Whether aggregation of migraine in first-degree relatives (family load) or a high number of risk-conferring single nucleotide polymorphisms contributes to migraine susceptibility...... to calcitonin gene-related peptide infusion in migraine patients is unknown. We hypothesized that genetic enrichment plays a role in triggering of migraine and, therefore, migraine without aura patients with high family load would report more migraine attacks after calcitonin gene-related peptide infusion than...... patients with low family load. METHODS: We allocated 40 previously genotyped migraine without aura patients to receive intravenous infusion of 1.5 µg/min calcitonin gene-related peptide and recorded migraine attacks including headache characteristics and associated symptoms. Information of familial...

  14. Relational Blackboard

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2012-09-11

    The Relational Blackboard (RBB) is an extension of the H2 Relational Database to support discrete events and timeseries data. The original motivation for RBB is as a knowledge base for cognitive systems and simulations. It is useful wherever there is a need for persistent storage of timeseries (i.e. samples of a continuous process generating numerical data) and semantic labels for the data. The RBB is an extension to the H2 Relational Database, which is open-source. RBB is a set of stored procedures for H2 allowing data to be labeled, queried, and resampled.

  15. Discourses of relations and relational

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hosking, D.M.

    2006-01-01

    This is a story of relations and relating. There is no wolf, no Little Red Riding Hood; there are no bears, nor little piggies. It is not a heroic tale of how one particular discourse proves its superiority by vanquishing other discourses; it is not a tale told from behind the wings, the modernist a

  16. Relational Leading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2015-01-01

    This first chapter presents the exploratory and curious approach to leading as relational processes – an approach that pervades the entire book. We explore leading from a perspective that emphasises the unpredictable challenges and triviality of everyday life, which we consider an interesting......, relevant and realistic way to examine leading. The chapter brings up a number of concepts and contexts as formulated by researchers within the field, and in this way seeks to construct a first understanding of relational leading....

  17. The relative importance of genetic and environmental effects for the early stages of thyroid autoimmunity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Pia S; Brix, Thomas H; Iachine, Ivan;

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: In euthyroid individuals, autoantibodies to thyroid peroxidase (TPOab) and thyroglobulin (Tgab) are regarded as early markers of thyroid autoimmunity. Family and twin studies suggest that development of thyroid autoantibodies in first-degree relatives of patients with autoimmune thyroid...... disease is under genetic influence. We aimed to estimate the relative importance of genetic and environmental effects for the presence of thyroid autoantibodies in euthyroid subjects. METHODS: A representative sample of healthy twin pairs was identified through the Danish Twin Registry; 1372 individuals...... concordance and intraclass correlations were consistently higher for MZ than for DZ twin pairs indicating genetic influence. Genetic components (with 95% confidence intervals) accounted for 73% (46-89%) of the liability of being thyroid antibody positive. Adjusting for covariates (age, TSH and others...

  18. Linguistic relativity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolff, Phillip; Holmes, Kevin J

    2011-05-01

    The central question in research on linguistic relativity, or the Whorfian hypothesis, is whether people who speak different languages think differently. The recent resurgence of research on this question can be attributed, in part, to new insights about the ways in which language might impact thought. We identify seven categories of hypotheses about the possible effects of language on thought across a wide range of domains, including motion, color, spatial relations, number, and false belief understanding. While we do not find support for the idea that language determines the basic categories of thought or that it overwrites preexisting conceptual distinctions, we do find support for the proposal that language can make some distinctions difficult to avoid, as well as for the proposal that language can augment certain types of thinking. Further, we highlight recent evidence suggesting that language may induce a relatively schematic mode of thinking. Although the literature on linguistic relativity remains contentious, there is growing support for the view that language has a profound effect on thought. WIREs Cogni Sci 2011 2 253-265 DOI: 10.1002/wcs.104 For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. Employee relations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demann, Eric T K; Stein, Pamela S; Levitt, Christine; Shelton, Keith E

    2008-07-01

    This review highlights some of the more important employee relation aspects involved in starting, establishing, or expanding an existing dental practice. Despite a competitive compensation package, staff-related conflicts can sometimes hamper the progress of a dental practice. Such conflicts can be reduced by having policies and procedures in place for each employee that set expectations concerning the hours of operation, professional manner, dress code, job tasks, performance evaluations, disciplinary actions, and termination if violations occur. Understanding the legal requirements set by various governmental agencies such as OSHA can help ensure that the rights and well-being of every employee are protected.

  20. Weak relativity

    CERN Document Server

    Selleri, Franco

    2015-01-01

    Weak Relativity is an equivalent theory to Special Relativity according to Reichenbach’s definition, where the parameter epsilon equals to 0. It formulates a Neo-Lorentzian approach by replacing the Lorentz transformations with a new set named “Inertial Transformations”, thus explaining the Sagnac effect, the twin paradox and the trip from the future to the past in an easy and elegant way. The cosmic microwave background is suggested as a possible privileged reference system. Most importantly, being a theory based on experimental proofs, rather than mutual consensus, it offers a physical description of reality independent of the human observation.

  1. [Genetic epidemiology of schizophrenia in the population of Tomsk Oblast. Dependence of parameters of the occurrence of schizophrenia among relatives on the method of proband sample formation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritsner, M S; Karas', S I; Sherina, O L; Boiarintseva, I G; Gutkevich, E V

    1989-04-01

    The program of genetic-epidemiological study of schizophrenia in five districts of the Tomsk region is presented. According to standardized methods, 610 diagnosed patients (epidemiological register) were examined, 74.1% of them being at random registered as probands (452 families of the epidemiological sample). 229 probands of non-epidemiological sample were registered in psychiatric hospitals. Schizophrenia occurrence parameters among first-degree relatives of probands of the non-epidemiological sample were regularly overestimated, as compared to the epidemiological sample. The methodical sources of contradictions in clinico-genealogical studies are discussed; the conclusion about representativeness+ of the probands' epidemiological sample is made.

  2. Readable relativity

    CERN Document Server

    Durell, Clement V

    2003-01-01

    Concise and practical, this text by a renowned teacher sketches the mathematical background essential to understanding the fundamentals of relativity theory. Subjects include the velocity of light, measurement of time and distance, and properties of mass and momentum, with numerous diagrams, formulas, and examples, plus exercises and solutions. 1960 edition.

  3. Distant Relations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergaard, Morten

    2011-01-01

    contribute to and learn from entrepreneurship research. In a number of workshops sponsored by the Knowledge Foundation and the Bank of Sweden Tercentenary Foundation, a group of international scholars, practicing artists, and representatives of funding organizations have addressed issues such as opportunity......) Entrepreneurship on the art arena - An ecological perspective (Mikael Scherdin and Ivo Zander) Distant relations - Art practice in a global culture (Morten Søndergaard) Art entrepreneurship - A commentary (Daved Barry) Summary and policy implications (Mikael Scherdin and Ivo Zander)...

  4. Social Relations and Relational Incentives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.J. Dur (Robert); J. Tichem (Jan)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractThis paper studies how social relationships between managers and employees affect relational incentive contracts. To this end we develop a simple dynamic principal-agent model where both players may have feelings of altruism or spite toward each other. The contract may contain two types

  5. Basic relativity

    CERN Document Server

    Mould, Richard A

    1994-01-01

    This comprehensive textbook develops in a logical and coherent way both the formalism and the physical ideas of special and general relativity. Part one focuses on the special theory and begins with the study of relativistic kinematics from three points of view. Part two begins with a chapter introducing differential geometry. Subsequent chapters cover: rotation, the electromagnetic field, and material media. A second chapter on differential geometry provides the background for Einstein's gravitational-field equation and Schwarzschild's solution. The book is aimed at advanced undergraduates and beginning graduate students in physics or astrophysics.

  6. Distant Relations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergaard, Morten

    2011-01-01

    Art EntrepreneurshipIvo Zander Mikael Scherdin This project is funded and sponsored by the Knowledge Foundation, the Bank of Sweden Tercentenary Foundation, and the Department of Business Studies, Uppsala University2008-2009This cutting edge project asks what art and artistic processes can contri......) Entrepreneurship on the art arena - An ecological perspective (Mikael Scherdin and Ivo Zander) Distant relations - Art practice in a global culture (Morten Søndergaard) Art entrepreneurship - A commentary (Daved Barry) Summary and policy implications (Mikael Scherdin and Ivo Zander)...

  7. General Relativity

    CERN Document Server

    Canuto, V

    2015-01-01

    This is an English translation of the Italian version of an encyclopedia chapter that appeared in the Italian Encyclopedia of the Physical Sciences, edited by Bruno Bertotti (1994). Following requests from colleagues we have decided to make it available to a more general readership. We present the motivation for constructing General Relativity, provide a short discussion of tensor algebra, and follow the set up of Einstein equations. We discuss briefly the initial value problem, the linear approximation and how should non gravitational physics be described in curved spacetime.

  8. Thermal Relativity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵柳

    2011-01-01

    The group G of general coordinate transformations on the thermodynamic configuration space ε spanned by all the extensive variables keeps the first law of thermodynamics invariant. One can introduce a metric with Lorentzian signature on the space ε, with the corresponding line element also being invariant under the action of G. This line element is identi6ed as the square of the proper entropy. Thus the second law of thermodynamics is also formulated invariantly and this lays down the foundation for the principle of thermal relativity.

  9. First degree burn injury in healthy volunteers who 6-8 weeks prior have had done a Inguinal herniotomy . | EU Clinical Trials Register [EU Clinical Trials Register

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available adon, buprenorphine, codeine, tramadol, ketobemidone, oxycodone, hydromorphone, dextromethorphan...n, buprenorphin, codein, tramadol, ketobemidon, oxycodon, hydromorphon, dextromethorphan

  10. Bloqueo aurículo-ventricular de primer grado en tirotoxicosis aguda First degree atrio-ventricular block in acute thyrotoxicosis

    OpenAIRE

    Antonio R. Vilches; Jorge Lerman

    2004-01-01

    El cuadro clínico de la tirotoxicosis incluye síntomas cardiovasculares variados. La taquicardia sinusal es el trastorno electrocardiográfico más frecuente y los trastornos de conducción son extremadamente raros como modo de presentación. Comunicamos un caso de bloqueo aurículo-ventricular de primer grado en una paciente con hipertiroidismo recién diagnosticado y que comenzó días antes de la consulta con un cuadro general inespecífico. Su evaluación ulterior demostró que se trataba de una tir...

  11. Insulin signal transduction in skeletal muscle from glucose-intolerant relatives of type 2 diabetic patients [corrected

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Storgaard, H; Song, X M; Jensen, C B;

    2001-01-01

    To determine whether defects in the insulin signal transduction cascade are present in skeletal muscle from prediabetic individuals, we excised biopsies from eight glucose-intolerant male first-degree relatives of patients with type 2 diabetes (IGT relatives) and nine matched control subjects...... in signal transduction noted for IRS-1 and PI 3-kinase may be attributed to elevated basal phosphorylation/activity of these parameters, because absolute phosphorylation/activity under insulin-stimulated conditions was similar between IGT relatives and control subjects. Insulin increased Akt serine......, the elevated basal activity of these signaling intermediates and the lack of a strong correlation between these parameters to glucose metabolism suggests that other defects of insulin signal transduction and/or downstream components of glucose metabolism may play a greater role in the development of insulin...

  12. The Relationship of Clinical, Cognitive and Social Measures in Schizophrenia: A Preliminary Finding Combining Measures in Probands and Relatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huepe, David; Riveros, Rodrigo; Manes, Facundo; Couto, Blas; Hurtado, Esteban; Cetkovich, Marcelo; Escobar, Maria; Vergara, Viviana; Parrao, Teresa; Ibañez, Agustin

    2012-01-01

    This study examines performance of schizophrenia patients, unaffected relatives and controls in social cognition, cognitive and psychiatric scales looking for possible markers of vulnerability in schizophrenia. Performance of schizophrenia patients from multiplex families, first-degree relatives, and matched controls was compared and, subsequently, discriminant analysis method was used for identifying the best predictors for group membership. By using Multigroup Discriminant Analyses on the three groups, the best predictors were PANSS, Premorbid Adjustment Scale, Faux Pas test, and a face/emotion categorizing task. This model obtained 82% correct global classification, suggesting that the combination of psychiatric scales and neuropsychological/social cognition tesks are the best approach for characterizing this disease. Although preliminary, our results suggest that social cognition tasks are robust markers of schizophrenia family impairments, and that combining clinical, social and neuropsychological measures is the best approach to asses patients and relatives vulnerability. PMID:22425724

  13. The Relationship of Clinical, Cognitive and Social Measures in Schizophrenia: A Preliminary Finding Combining Measures in Probands and Relatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Huepe

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study examines performance of schizophrenia patients, unaffected relatives and controls in social cognition, cognitive and psychiatric scales looking for possible markers of vulnerability in schizophrenia. Performance of schizophrenia patients from multiplex families, first-degree relatives, and matched controls was compared and, subsequently, discriminant analysis method was used for identifying the best predictors for group membership. By using Multigroup Discriminant Analyses on the three groups, the best predictors were PANSS, Premorbid Adjustment Scale, Faux Pas test, and a face/emotion categorizing task. This model obtained 82% correct global classification, suggesting that the combination of psychiatric scales and neuropsychological/social cognition tesks are the best approach for characterizing this disease. Although preliminary, our results suggest that social cognition tasks are robust markers of schizophrenia family impairments, and that combining clinical, social and neuropsychological measures is the best approach to asses patients and relatives vulnerability.

  14. A Register-Based Study of Occupational Functioning in Non-Psychotic Patients Before and After Psychotherapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fenger, Morten Munthe; Poulsen, Stig Bernt; Mortensen, Erik Lykke;

    2013-01-01

    . Patients who completed treatment (completer patients) had, on average, 15.7 days on sick leave two years before treatment and 23.1 days on sick leave two years after treatment, while the control group had 5.4 and 7.5 days, respectively. Regarding disability pension, completer patients had 7.6 days before...... higher number of days on sick leave (pp=0.010) compared to the control group, while the change in days with unemployment was insignificant (p=0.501). Conclusion: Occupational outcome of psychotherapy may be less advantageous than shown in previous studies. Differences can...... perhaps be explained by the length and symmetry of the observation period before and after intervention. Other possible reasons for the outcome are: disorder chronicity; a labor market that excludes individuals with mental disorders; and that psychotherapy does not address occupational functioning....

  15. Clinicopathological significance of psychotic experiences in non-psychotic young people: evidence from four population-based studies.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Kelleher, Ian

    2012-07-01

    Epidemiological research has shown that hallucinations and delusions, the classic symptoms of psychosis, are far more prevalent in the population than actual psychotic disorder. These symptoms are especially prevalent in childhood and adolescence. Longitudinal research has demonstrated that psychotic symptoms in adolescence increase the risk of psychotic disorder in adulthood. There has been a lack of research, however, on the immediate clinicopathological significance of psychotic symptoms in adolescence.

  16. Measuring severe adverse events and medication selection using a “PEER Report” for nonpsychotic patients: a retrospective chart review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoffman DA

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Daniel A Hoffman,1 Charles DeBattista,2 Rob J Valuck,3 Dan V Iosifescu41Neuro-Therapy Clinic, Inc, Denver, CO, USA; 2Stanford University School of Medicine, Palo Alto, CA, USA; 3University of Colorado, SKAGES School of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Aurora, CO, USA; 4Mood and Anxiety Disorders Program, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York, NY, USAAbstract: We previously reported on an objective new tool that uses quantitative electroencephalography (QEEG normative- and referenced-electroencephalography sampling databases (currently called Psychiatric EEG Evaluation Registry [PEER], which may assist physicians in determining medication selection for optimal efficacy to overcome trial-and-error prescribing. The PEER test compares drug-free QEEG features for individual patients to a database of patients with similar EEG patterns and known outcomes after pharmacological interventions. Based on specific EEG data elements and historical outcomes, the PEER Report may also serve as a marker of future severe adverse events (eg, agitation, hostility, aggressiveness, suicidality, homicidality, mania, hypomania with specific medications. We used a retrospective chart review to investigate the clinical utility of such a registry in a naturalistic environment.Results: This chart review demonstrated significant improvement on the global assessment scales Clinical Global Impression – Improvement and Quality of Life Enjoyment and Satisfaction – Short Form as well as time to maximum medical improvement and decreased suicidality occurrences. The review also showed that 54.5% of previous medications causing a severe adverse event would have been raised as a caution had the PEER Report been available at the time the drug was prescribed. Finally, due to the significant amount of off-label prescribing of psychotropic medications, additional, objective, evidence-based data aided the prescriber toward better choices.Conclusion: The PEER Report may be useful, particularly in treatment-resistant patients, in helping to guide medication selection. Based on the preliminary data obtained from this chart review, additional studies are warranted to establish the safety and efficacy of adding PEER data when making medication decisions.Keywords: PEER, referenced-EEG, QEEG, adverse events, medication selection, off label

  17. Live music therapy in waiting area of intensive care units: a novel concept for betterment of close relatives of ICU patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sundar Sumathy

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Family members of ICU patients experience high levels of stress and anxiety. We explored a novel concept of live music therapy for relatives of ICU patients. Weekly 1-hour sessions of live music therapy consisting of devotional songs and prayers were performed in waiting area of ICU in a tertiary care hospital. Responses of 100 first degree relatives of ICU patients were documented using an 8-item questionnaire. 69% of the subjects rated live music therapy sessions as and ldquo;excellent and rdquo;; 50% of the subjects reported that they felt and ldquo;excellent and rdquo; after a single session. Such sessions were reported as a felt need by 77% of the subjects; 92% of the subjects reported that there were high chances that they would recommend such sessions in the hospital in future. In our study, we found our concept to be feasible, acceptable and highly appreciated as well as encouraged by first degree relatives of ICU patients. [Int J Res Med Sci 2016; 4(3.000: 947-949

  18. General Relativity

    CERN Document Server

    Khriplovich, I. B

    2005-01-01

    This book offers an alternative to other textbooks on the subject, providing a more specific discussion of numerous general relativistic effects for readers who have knowledge of classical mechanics and electrodynamics, including special relativity. Coverage includes gravitational lensing, signal retardation in the gravitational field of the Sun, the Reissner-Nordström solution, selected spin effects, the resonance transformation of an electromagnetic wave into a gravitational one, and the entropy and temperature of black holes. The book includes numerous problems at various levels of difficulty, making it ideal also for independent study by a broad readership of advanced students and researchers. I.B. Khriplovich is Chief Researcher, Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics, Novosibirsk, and Chair of Theoretical Physics at Novosibirsk University. Dr. Khriplovich is a Corresponding Member of the Russian Academy of Sciences. He has been awarded the Dirac Medal ``For the advancement of theoretical physics'' by Univ...

  19. International Relations:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This is the textbook for the Open University module International Relations: Continuity and Change in Global Politics. Instead of leading with a succession of theoretical 'isms', the module structures its presentation of the subject around six teaching ‘blocks’, each of which explores a dilemma......: Flat or uneven? Change and transformation in the international system • Block 3: Just or unjust? Intervention and inequality in the international system • Block 4: Top-down or bottom-up? Governance in the international system • Block 5: Secure or insecure? Pursuing security in the international system...... • Block 6: Continuity or change in global politics? Each block introduces new IR theories through discussions of the substantive dilemmas and adds in a layered way levels of analysis and conceptual complexity....

  20. Special relativity

    CERN Document Server

    Faraoni, Valerio

    2013-01-01

    This book offers an essential bridge between college-level introductions and advanced graduate-level books on special relativity. It begins at an elementary level, presenting and discussing the basic concepts normally covered in college-level works, including the Lorentz transformation. Subsequent chapters introduce the four-dimensional worldview implied by the Lorentz transformations, mixing time and space coordinates, before continuing on to the formalism of tensors, a topic usually avoided in lower-level courses. The book’s second half addresses a number of essential points, including the concept of causality; the equivalence between mass and energy, including applications; relativistic optics; and measurements and matter in Minkowski spacetime. The closing chapters focus on the energy-momentum tensor of a continuous distribution of mass-energy and its covariant conservation; angular momentum; a discussion of the scalar field of perfect fluids and the Maxwell field; and general coordinates. Every chapter...

  1. [Immunogenetics--HLA-association, molecular chaperones and "related" diseases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melchers, I

    2005-09-01

    The association of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) with the HLA complex has been well established since 1978. But what does that mean? After reminding the reader of some existing immunological interpretations, a more recent variant is introduced. Antigens and molecular chaperones of the HSP70 family form complexes, which interact with HLA-DR beta-chains, especially of the DRB1*0401 genotype, which is the most common among patients with RA in our region. This mechanism might bring *0401(+) persons an advantage in defence against microorganisms, but a disadvantage concerning autoimmunity. Chaperone machines are upregulated in synovial tissue of RA patients. As their number and variety is huge in humans, there exist many possibilities for function, reaching from antigen presentation to immune regulation. In addition to the HLA complex, the "genetic background" plays an important role for the development of an autoimmune disease. This is demonstrated in families of patients with RA or scleroderma, where a high percentage of first degree relatives suffer from a "related" disease.

  2. Effect of education on knowledge, attitude and behavioral intention in family relative with colorectal cancer patients based on theory of planned behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baghianimoghadam, Mohammad Hosein; Ardakani, Mojtaba Fattahi; Akhoundi, Mohsen; Mortazavizadeh, Mohammad Reza; Fallahzadeh, Mohammad Hosein; Baghianimoghadam, Behnam

    2012-01-01

    Colorectal cancer is one of most common cancers in women and men and one of the major causes of death due to neoplasia. Colonoscopy is considered as the most accurate diagnostic procedure to detect colorectal cancer at the earlier stages. The current study aimed to evaluate the effects of an education program using the Theory of Planned Behavior on promoting behavioral intention among first degree relatives of colorectal cancer patients. A quasi-experimental study conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of an educational program to promote attitudinal factors associated with early detection of colorectal cancer in 99 first degree relatives of colorectal cancer patients aged more than 20 years in Yazd city, Iran. A researcher made questionnaire forwhich validity and reliability were confirmed by expert point of view and pilot testing was employed for data collection. Questionnaires were filled in before and after educational intervention. The registered data were transferred to SPSS 19 and analyzed by paired T-test, Man-Whitney and Wilcaxon. Mean scores of knowledge, attitude, perceived behavioral control and intention regarding colorectal cancer increased after education significantly (PBehavior has positive influence on promoting intention behavior. It is therefore recommended to apply educational programs to promote behavioral intention.

  3. Nontesticular cancers in relatives of testicular germ cell tumor (TGCT) patients from multiple-case TGCT families

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMaster, Mary L; Heimdal, Ketil R; Loud, Jennifer T; Bracci, Janet S; Rosenberg, Philip S; Greene, Mark H

    2015-01-01

    Testicular germ cell tumors (TGCT) exhibit striking familial aggregation that remains incompletely explained. To improve the phenotypic definition of familial TGCT (FTGCT), we studied an international cohort of multiple-case TGCT families to determine whether first-degree relatives of FTGCT cases are at increased risk of other types of cancer. We identified 1041 first-degree relatives of TGCT cases in 66 multiple-case TGCT families from Norway and 64 from the United States (combined follow-up of 31,556 person-years). We collected data on all cancers (except nonmelanoma skin cancers) reported by the family informant in these relatives, and we attempted to verify all reported cancer diagnoses through medical or cancer registry records. We calculated observed-to-expected (O/E) standardized incidence ratios, together with 95% confidence intervals (CI), for invasive cancers other than TGCT. We found no increase in risk of cancer overall (Norway O/E = 0.8; 95% CI: 0.6–1.1 and United States O/E = 0.9; 95% CI: 0.7–1.3). Site-specific analyses pooled across the two countries revealed a leukemia excess (O/E = 6.5; 95% CI: 3.0–12.3), deficit of female breast cancer (O/E = 0.0; 95% CI: 0.0–0.6) and increased risk of soft tissue sarcoma (O/E = 7.2; 95% CI: 2.0–18.4); in all instances, these results were based on small case numbers and statistically significant only in Norway. While limited by sample size and potential issues relating to completeness of cancer reporting, this study in multiple-case TGCT families does not support the hypothesis that cancers other than testis cancer contribute to the FTGCT phenotype. PMID:25882629

  4. Saccadic distractibility is elevated in schizophrenia patients, but not in their unaffected relatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maccabe, James H; Simon, Helen; Zanelli, Jolanta W; Walwyn, Rebecca; McDonald, Colm D; Murray, Robin M

    2005-12-01

    Saccadic distractibility, as measured by the antisaccade task, has attracted attention as a putative endophenotypic marker for schizophrenia. Some studies have suggested that this measure is elevated in the unaffected relatives of schizophrenia patients. However, recent studies have called this into question and the topic remains controversial. Saccadic distractibility was measured in 53 patients with DSM-IV schizophrenia, 80 unaffected first-degree relatives and 41 unaffected controls.Results. Schizophrenia patients performed worse than relatives and controls combined (p<0.00001), but relatives did not differ significantly from controls. Performance in multiply affected families was no worse than that in singly affected families. Relatives with a high presumed genetic risk for schizophrenia performed no worse than other relatives. The performance of the patients did not predict that of their relatives. These results demonstrate that saccadic distractibility is strongly associated with disease status but not with genetic loading for schizophrenia. We conclude that saccadic distractibility is unlikely to be useful as an endophenotypic marker in schizophrenia.

  5. Interest in genetic testing in Ashkenazi Jewish Parkinson's disease patients and their unaffected relatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupte, Manisha; Alcalay, Roy N; Mejia-Santana, Helen; Raymond, Deborah; Saunders-Pullman, Rachel; Roos, Ernest; Orbe-Reily, Martha; Tang, Ming-X; Mirelman, Anat; Ozelius, Laurie; Orr-Urtreger, Avi; Clark, Lorraine; Giladi, Nir; Bressman, Susan; Marder, Karen

    2015-04-01

    Our objective was to explore interest in genetic testing among Ashkenazi Jewish (AJ) Parkinson's Disease (PD) cases and first-degree relatives, as genetic testing for LRRK2 G2019S is widely available. Approximately 18 % of AJ PD cases carry G2019S mutations; penetrance estimations vary between 24 and 100 % by age 80. A Genetic Attitude Questionnaire (GAQ) was administered at two New York sites to PD families unaware of LRRK2 G2019S mutation status. The association of G2019S, age, education, gender and family history of PD with desire for genetic testing (outcome) was modeled using logistic regression. One-hundred eleven PD cases and 77 relatives completed the GAQ. Both PD cases and relatives had excellent PD-specific genetic knowledge. Among PD, 32.6 % "definitely" and 41.1 % "probably" wanted testing, if offered "now." Among relatives, 23.6 % "definitely" and 36.1 % "probably" wanted testing "now." Desire for testing in relatives increased incrementally based on hypothetical risk of PD. The most important reasons for testing in probands and relatives were: if it influenced medication response, identifying no mutation, and early prevention and treatment. In logistic regression, older age was associated with less desire for testing in probands OR = 0.921 95%CI 0.868-0.977, p = 0.009. Both probands and relatives express interest in genetic testing, despite no link to current treatment or prevention.

  6. Social motor coordination in unaffected relatives of schizophrenia patients: A potential intermediate phenotype

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan eDel-Monte

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Intermediate endophenotypes emerge as an important concept in the study of schizophrenia. Although research on phenotypes mainly investigated cognitive, metabolic or neurophysiological markers so far, some authors also examined the motor behaviour anomalies as potential trait-marker of the disease. However, none of them investigated social motor coordination despite the importance of their anomalies in schizophrenia. The aim of this study was thus to determine whether coordination modifications previously demonstrated in schizophrenia are trait-markers that might be associated with the risk for this pathology. Interpersonal motor coordination in 27 unaffected first-degree relatives of schizophrenia patients and 27 healthy controls was assessed using a hand-held pendulum task to examine the presence of interpersonal coordination impairments in individuals at risk for the disorder. Measures of neurologic soft signs, clinical variables and neurocognitive functions were collected to assess the cognitive and clinical correlates of social coordination impairments in at-risk relatives. After controlling for potential confounding variables, unaffected relatives of schizophrenia patients had impaired intentional interpersonal coordination compared to healthy controls while unintentional interpersonal coordination was preserved. More specifically, in intentional coordination, the unaffected relatives of schizophrenia patients exhibited coordination patterns that had greater variability and in which relatives did not lead the coordination. These results show that unaffected relatives of schizophrenia patients also present deficits in intentional interpersonal coordination. For the first time, these results suggest that intentional interpersonal coordination impairments might be a potential motor intermediate endophenotype of schizophrenia opening new perspectives for early diagnosis.

  7. Cognitive bias salience in patients with schizophrenia in relation to social functioning: A four-case observation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurovich, Isaac Ya; Papsuev, Oleg O; Shmukler, Alexander B; Movina, Larisa G; Storozhakova, Yanina A; Kiryanova, Elena M

    2016-03-01

    Neurocognition and social cognition are the core deficits influencing social outcomes in patients with schizophrenia. These deficits are present in the prodromal phase, throughout the illness and in first-degree relatives. They are considered in the framework of neurodevelopmental or neurodegenerative models as well as candidates for endophenotypes of schizophrenia. Four clinical cases with patients reflecting different cognitive profiles were chosen to demonstrate heterogeneity of cognitive biases and their influence on social function in vivo. The patients had undergone a number of neurocognitive and social cognitive measures. Better functioning was observed in patients with less affected domains of emotional processing and theory of mind, while neurocognitive statuses were incongruent to levels of social functioning. Further investigation on large samples concerning capacity for empathy and its role in social functioning is needed.

  8. Characterization of a large group of individuals with huntington disease and their relatives enrolled in the COHORT study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E Ray Dorsey

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Careful characterization of the phenotype and genotype of Huntington disease (HD can foster better understanding of the condition. METHODS: We conducted a cohort study in the United States, Canada, and Australia of members of families affected by HD. We collected demographic and clinical data, conducted the Unified Huntington's Disease Rating Scale and Mini-Mental State Examination, and determined Huntingtin trinucleotide CAG repeat length. We report primarily on cross-sectional baseline data from this recently completed prospective, longitudinal, observational study. RESULTS: As of December 31, 2009, 2,318 individuals enrolled; of these, 1,985 (85.6% were classified into six analysis groups. Three groups had expanded CAG alleles (36 repeats or more: individuals with clinically diagnosed HD [n = 930], and clinically unaffected first-degree relatives who had previously pursued [n = 248] or not pursued [n = 112] predictive DNA testing. Three groups lacked expanded alleles: first-degree relatives who had previously pursued [n = 41] or not pursued [n = 224] genetic testing, and spouses and caregivers [n = 430]. Baseline mean performance differed across groups in all motor, behavioral, cognitive, and functional measures (p<0.001. Clinically unaffected individuals with expanded alleles weighed less (76.0 vs. 79.6 kg; p = 0.01 and had lower cognitive scores (28.5 vs. 29.1 on the Mini Mental State Examination; p = 0.008 than individuals without expanded alleles. The frequency of "high normal" repeat lengths (27 to 35 was 2.5% and repeat lengths associated with reduced penetrance (36 to 39 was 2.7%. CONCLUSION: Baseline analysis of COHORT study participants revealed differences that emerge prior to clinical diagnosis. Longitudinal investigation of this cohort will further characterize the natural history of HD and genetic and biological modifiers. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Clinicaltrials.gov NCT00313495.

  9. Hallucinatory Experience: A Personal Account

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, Alvin G.

    1976-01-01

    A nonpsychotic experimental psychologist presents a self-report of several highly organized visual, auditory, and kinesthetic hallucinations that occurred during a 3-day period prior to spinal disc surgery. Probable factors related to the production of the phenomena are described and the relation between hallucination and diagnosis is briefly…

  10. Spatial Relation Resolution and Spatial Relation Abstraction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    AI Tinghua; LIU Yaolin

    2003-01-01

    This paper attempts toregard spatial relation transformationas an important process in map gener-alization. The spatial relation generali-zation can be divided into the compo-nents of abstraction: topology, dis-tance and orientation. The concept‘ spatial relation resolution' is intro-duced to describe the constraints ofrelative spatial relation. On the basisof nine intersection models, the cardi-nal direction models and the iso-dis-tance-relation models, this paper givesthree sorts of relation resolution repre-sentations for topological, distance andorientation relation, respectively. Twomapping implementations in map gen-eralization is discussed.

  11. Relative Derived Equivalences and Relative Homological Dimensions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sheng Yong PAN

    2016-01-01

    Let A be a small abelian category. For a closed subbifunctor F of Ext1A (−,−), Buan has generalized the construction of Verdier’s quotient category to get a relative derived category, where he localized with respect to F-acyclic complexes. In this paper, the homological properties of relative derived categories are discussed, and the relation with derived categories is given. For Artin algebras, using relative derived categories, we give a relative version on derived equivalences induced by F-tilting complexes. We discuss the relationships between relative homological dimensions and relative derived equivalences.

  12. A combination therapy to treat second-degree anti-Ro/La-related congenital heart block: a strategy to avoid stable third-degree heart block?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruffatti, A; Milanesi, O; Chiandetti, L; Cerutti, A; Gervasi, M T; De Silvestro, G; Pengo, V; Punzi, L

    2012-05-01

    While mainly based on the use of fluorinated steroids, there is no standard management of anti-Ro/La-related congenital heart block (CHB). This is a report concerning two consecutive cases of anti-Ro/La-related second-degree block treated with betamethasone (4 mg/day), weekly plasmapheresis, and intravenous immunoglobulins (IVIGs; 1 g/kg) administered every 15 days, a therapy that was begun shortly after CHB was detected and continued until delivery. The newborns were also treated with IVIG (1 g/kg) soon after birth and continued fortnightly until the anti-Ro/La antibody levels became undetectable. In both cases second-degree AV block reverted to a stable sinus rhythm with a first-degree atrioventricular (AV) block. Moreover, there was no recurrence of CHB when therapy was suspended, as confirmed by a 29 month and an eight month follow-up, respectively.

  13. RELATIONAL ASPECTS OF RELATIONAL DATABASE DEPENDENCIES

    OpenAIRE

    Okuma, Hitomi; Kawahara, Yasuo

    2000-01-01

    This paper presents a relational treatment of inference rules for functional and multivalued dependencies in relational databases, to show the soundness and the completeness of the inference rules in Dedekind categories, which also cover the fuzzy case.

  14. Social relations: network, support and relational strain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Due, P; Holstein, B; Lund, Rikke

    1999-01-01

    ,011. The postal questionnaires were answered by a random sample in each of the age groups. The results show marked age and gender differences in both the structure and the function of social relations. The social network, measured as weekly contacts, weakens with age and so does instrumental support. Emotional......We introduce a conceptual framework with social relations as the main concept and the structure and the function of social relations as subconcepts. The structure of social relations covers aspects of formal relations and social network. The function of social relations covers social support......, social anchorage and relational strain. We use this conceptual framework to describe social relations in the Danish population, with questionnaire data from the Danish Longitudinal Health Behaviour Study including a random sample of each of the age groups 25-, 50-, 60-and 70-year olds, N = 2...

  15. Incorporating Relation Paths in Neural Relation Extraction

    OpenAIRE

    Zeng, Wenyuan; Lin, Yankai; Liu, Zhiyuan; Sun, Maosong

    2016-01-01

    Distantly supervised relation extraction has been widely used to find novel relational facts from plain text. To predict the relation between a pair of two target entities, existing methods solely rely on those direct sentences containing both entities. In fact, there are also many sentences containing only one of the target entities, which provide rich and useful information for relation extraction. To address this issue, we build inference chains between two target entities via intermediate...

  16. Visualizing relativity: The OpenRelativity project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherin, Zachary W.; Cheu, Ryan; Tan, Philip; Kortemeyer, Gerd

    2016-05-01

    We present OpenRelativity, an open-source toolkit to simulate effects of special relativity within the popular Unity game engine. Intended for game developers, educators, and anyone interested in physics, OpenRelativity can help people create, test, and share experiments to explore the effects of special relativity. We describe the underlying physics and some of the implementation details of this toolset with the hope that engaging games and interactive relativistic "laboratory" experiments might be implemented.

  17. Neutrosophic Relational Database Decomposition

    OpenAIRE

    Meena Arora; Ranjit Biswas; Dr. U.S.Pandey

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we present a method of decomposing a neutrosophic database relation with Neutrosophic attributes into basic relational form. Our objective is capable of manipulating incomplete as well as inconsistent information. Fuzzy relation or vague relation can only handle incomplete information. Authors are taking the Neutrosophic Relational database [8],[2] to show how imprecise data can be handled in relational schema.

  18. The McCollough effect and facial emotion discrimination in patients with schizophrenia and their unaffected relatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surguladze, Simon A; Chkonia, Eka D; Kezeli, Archil R; Roinishvili, Maya O; Stahl, Daniel; David, Anthony S

    2012-05-01

    Abnormalities in visual processing have been found consistently in schizophrenia patients, including deficits in early visual processing, perceptual organization, and facial emotion recognition. There is however no consensus as to whether these abnormalities represent heritable illness traits and what their contribution is to psychopathology. Fifty patients with schizophrenia, 61 of their first-degree healthy relatives, and 50 psychiatrically healthy volunteers were tested with regard to facial affect (FA) discrimination and susceptibility to develop the color-contingent illusion [the McCollough Effect (ME)]. Both patients and relatives demonstrated significantly lower accuracy in FA discrimination compared with controls. There was also a significant effect of familiality: Participants from the same families had more similar accuracy scores than those who belonged to different families. Experiments with the ME showed that schizophrenia patients required longer time to develop the illusion than relatives and controls, which indicated poor visual adaptation in schizophrenia. Relatives were marginally slower than controls. There was no significant association between the measures of FA discrimination accuracy and ME in any of the participant groups. Facial emotion discrimination was associated with the degree of interpersonal problems, as measured by the Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire in relatives and healthy volunteers, whereas the ME was associated with the perceptual-cognitive symptoms of schizotypy and positive symptoms of schizophrenia. Our results support the heritability of FA discrimination deficits as a trait and indicate visual adaptation abnormalities in schizophrenia, which are symptom related.

  19. Positive Correlation between Epstein-Barr Virus Viral Load and Anti-Viral Capsid Immunoglobulin G Titers Determined for Hodgkin's Lymphoma Patients and Their Relatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besson, Caroline; Amiel, Corinne; Le-Pendeven, Catherine; Brice, Pauline; Fermé, Christophe; Carde, Patrice; Hermine, Olivier; Raphael, Martine; Abel, Laurent; Nicolas, Jean-Claude

    2006-01-01

    Markers of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection include measures of specific serological titers and of viral load (VLo) in peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Few studies have investigated the correlation between these two phenotypes. Here, we found that there was no correlation between VLo and either anti-EBV nuclear antigen type 1 or anti-early antigen immunoglobulin G (IgG) titer but that anti-viral capsid antigen (VCA) IgG titer increased with VLo in peripheral blood mononuclear cells in patients with Hodgkin's lymphoma (P = 3.10−3). A similar pattern was observed in healthy first-degree relatives (parents and siblings) of patients (P = 6.10−4). Our results indicate that anti-VCA IgG titers and EBV VLo are specifically correlated EBV phenotypes. PMID:16390946

  20. Tests Related to Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to learn. Search form Search Tests related to pregnancy You are here Home Testing & Services Testing for ... to Genetic Counseling . What Are Tests Related to Pregnancy? Pregnancy related testing is done before or during ...

  1. Neutrosophic Relational Database Decomposition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meena Arora

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we present a method of decomposing a neutrosophic database relation with Neutrosophic attributes into basic relational form. Our objective is capable of manipulating incomplete as well as inconsistent information. Fuzzy relation or vague relation can only handle incomplete information. Authors are taking the Neutrosophic Relational database [8],[2] to show how imprecise data can be handled in relational schema.

  2. Relative entropy equals bulk relative entropy

    CERN Document Server

    Jafferis, Daniel L; Maldacena, Juan; Suh, S Josephine

    2015-01-01

    We consider the gravity dual of the modular Hamiltonian associated to a general subregion of a boundary theory. We use it to argue that the relative entropy of nearby states is given by the relative entropy in the bulk, to leading order in the bulk gravitational coupling. We also argue that the boundary modular flow is dual to the bulk modular flow in the entanglement wedge, with implications for entanglement wedge reconstruction.

  3. Understanding Causal Coherence Relations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulder, G.

    2008-01-01

    The research reported in this dissertation focuses on the cognitive processes and representations involved in understanding causal coherence relations in text. Coherence relations are the meaning relations between the information units in the text, such as Cause-Consequence. These relations can be m

  4. Complexity and Relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lancaster, Jeanette Elizabeth

    2013-01-01

    A central feature of complexity is that it is based on non-linear, recursive relations. However, in most current accounts of complexity such relations, while non-linear, are based on the reductive relations of a Newtonian onto-epistemological framework. This means that the systems that are emergent from the workings of such relations are a…

  5. Public Relations and Marketing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savage, Daniel D.

    1987-01-01

    Urges community colleges to adopt pro-active public relations strategies. Examines the role of the public information officer in such areas as coordination of public relations and marketing activities, relations with media, and the development of a comprehensive public relations plan. (AYC)

  6. Relatively Flat Envelopes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁南庆

    1994-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to investigate relatively flat envelopes. A necessary and sufficient condition is given for a relatively-finitely presented module to have a (mono-morphic or epic) relatively flat envelope. Then those rings are characterized whose every relatively-finitely presented module has a relatively flat envelope which coincides with its in-jective envelope. Some known results are obtained as corollaries.

  7. Evaluation of Dream Content Among Patients with Schizophrenia, their Siblings, Patients with Psychiatric Diagnoses Other than Schizophrenia, and Healthy Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leeba Rezaie

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Schizophrenia is a chronic psychotic disorder with unknown etiology that causes cognitive impairment, affecting thinking, behavior, social function, sleep and dream content. This study considered the dream content of patients with schizophrenia, siblings of patients with schizophrenia, patients with psychiatric diagnoses other than schizophrenia, and a group of healthy controls. The aim of this study was to compare the dream content of patients with schizophrenia with dream content of individuals with other mental disorders, first degree relatives of patients with schizophrenia, and community controls . Method: Seventy-two patients were selected and placed in 4 groups. The first group consisted of 18 inpatients with schizophrenia whose medications were stable for at least four weeks; the second group consisted of 16 nonpsychotic mentally ill inpatients; the third group consisted of 18 individuals who were siblings of patients with schizophrenia; and the fourth group consisted of 20 healthy individuals in the community with no family history of mental or somatic disorders. The four groups were matched by age and gender. A 14-item dream content questionnaire was administered for all the participants, and the Positive and Negative Symptoms Scale (PANSS was also administered for the two groups of hospitalized patients . Results: Results showed that there were significant differences in dream content among groups included friends acquaintances, females and colorful components. No significant differences were found between the positive and negative subscales of PANSS and any of the dream questionnaire subscales. Conclusion: Our results suggest that there were a few changes in the dream content of the patients with schizophrenia compare to other groups.

  8. Introduction to relation algebras relation algebras

    CERN Document Server

    Givant, Steven

    2017-01-01

    The first volume of a pair that charts relation algebras from novice to expert level, this text offers a comprehensive grounding for readers new to the topic. Upon completing this introduction, mathematics students may delve into areas of active research by progressing to the second volume, Advanced Topics in Relation Algebras; computer scientists, philosophers, and beyond will be equipped to apply these tools in their own field. The careful presentation establishes first the arithmetic of relation algebras, providing ample motivation and examples, then proceeds primarily on the basis of algebraic constructions: subalgebras, homomorphisms, quotient algebras, and direct products. Each chapter ends with a historical section and a substantial number of exercises. The only formal prerequisite is a background in abstract algebra and some mathematical maturity, though the reader will also benefit from familiarity with Boolean algebra and naïve set theory. The measured pace and outstanding clarity are particularly ...

  9. Probability and Relative Frequency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drieschner, Michael

    2016-01-01

    The concept of probability seems to have been inexplicable since its invention in the seventeenth century. In its use in science, probability is closely related with relative frequency. So the task seems to be interpreting that relation. In this paper, we start with predicted relative frequency and show that its structure is the same as that of probability. I propose to call that the `prediction interpretation' of probability. The consequences of that definition are discussed. The "ladder"-structure of the probability calculus is analyzed. The expectation of the relative frequency is shown to be equal to the predicted relative frequency. Probability is shown to be the most general empirically testable prediction.

  10. Measuring Relative Humidity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinkham, Chester A.; Barrett, Kristin Burrows

    1992-01-01

    Describes four experiments that enable students to explore the phenomena of evaporation and condensation and determine the relative humidity by measuring air temperature and dew point on warm September days. Provides tables to calculate saturation points and relative humidity. (MDH)

  11. Relativity simply explained

    CERN Document Server

    Gardner, Martin

    2012-01-01

    Since the publication of Einstein's Special Theory of Relativity in 1905, the discovery of such astronomical phenomena as quasars, pulsars, and black holes - all intimately connected to relativity - has provoked a tremendous upsurge of interest in the subject. This volume, a revised version of Martin Gardner's earlier Relativity for the Million, brings this fascinating topic up to date. Witty, perceptive, and easily accessible to the general reader, it is one of the clearest and most entertaining introductions to relativity ever written.

  12. Bellman goes Relational

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kersting, Kristian; van Otterlo, M.; De Raedt, Luc; Greiner, R.; Schuurmans, D.

    2004-01-01

    Motivated by the interest in relational reinforcement learning, we introduce a novel relational Bellman update operator called ReBel. It employs a constraint logic programming language to compactly represent Markov decision processes over relational domains. Using ReBel, a novel value iteration

  13. Relativity and cosmology

    CERN Document Server

    Kaufmann, William J

    1973-01-01

    The foundations of gravitational theory ; the birth of relativity theory ; the foundations of general relativity ; experimental tests of relativity ; the meaning of the redshift ; the black hole ; wormholes and white holes ; galaxies and quasars ; gravitational waves ; the shape of the Universe ; the creation of the Universe.

  14. A Bigraph Relational Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beauquier, Maxime; Schürmann, Carsten

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we present a model based on relations for bigraphical reactive system [Milner09]. Its defining characteristics are that validity and reaction relations are captured as traces in a multi-set rewriting system. The relational model is derived from Milner's graphical definition...

  15. Decreasing Relative Risk Premium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Frank

    We consider the risk premium demanded by a decision maker with wealth x in order to be indifferent between obtaining a new level of wealth y1 with certainty, or to participate in a lottery which either results in unchanged present wealth or a level of wealth y2 > y1. We define the relative risk...... premium as the quotient between the risk premium and the increase in wealth y1–x which the decision maker puts on the line by choosing the lottery in place of receiving y1 with certainty. We study preferences such that the relative risk premium is a decreasing function of present wealth, and we determine...... relative risk premium in the small implies decreasing relative risk premium in the large, and decreasing relative risk premium everywhere implies risk aversion. We finally show that preferences with decreasing relative risk premium may be equivalently expressed in terms of certain preferences on risky...

  16. Decreasing relative risk premium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Frank

    2007-01-01

    such that the corresponding relative risk premium is a decreasing function of present wealth, and we determine the set of associated utility functions. We find a new characterization of risk vulnerability and determine a large set of utility functions, closed under summation and composition, which are both risk vulnerable...... and have decreasing relative risk premium. We finally introduce the notion of partial risk neutral preferences on binary lotteries and show that partial risk neutrality is equivalent to preferences with decreasing relative risk premium...

  17. Gaining Relational Competitive Advantages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hu, Yimei; Zhang, Si; Li, Jizhen

    2015-01-01

    Establishing strategic technological partnerships (STPs) with foreign partners is an increasingly studied topic within the innovation management literature. Partnering firms can jointly create sources of relational competitive advantage. Chinese firms often lack research and development (R......&D) capabilities but are increasingly becoming preferred technological partners for transnational corporations. We investigate an STP between a Scandinavian and a Chinese firm and try to explore how to gain relational competitive advantage by focusing on its two essential stages: relational rent generation...

  18. On Regular Linear Relations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    T. (A)LVAREZ

    2012-01-01

    For a closed linear relation in a Banach space the concept of regularity is introduced and studied.It is shown that many of the results of Mbekhta and other authors for operators remain valid in the context of multivalued linear operators.We also extend the punctured neighbourhood theorem for operators to linear relations and as an application we obtain a characterization of semiFredholm linear relations which are regular.

  19. Relations in OCL

    OpenAIRE

    Akehurst, David H.

    2004-01-01

    OCL is proposed as a query language within the QVT framework. The main QVT submission bases the specification of transformations on the concept of relations. Relations are not first class entities within the OCL. By extending OCL with the concept of Relations it can better serve the needs of the QVT framework. In particular this enables OCL to be used as a semantic interpretation of a QVT transformation language and may even facilitate the use of OCL as a transformation specification language.

  20. Relative Smooth Topological Spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Ghazanfari

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In 1992, Ramadan introduced the concept of a smooth topological space and relativeness between smooth topological space and fuzzy topological space in Chang's (1968 view points. In this paper we give a new definition of smooth topological space. This definition can be considered as a generalization of the smooth topological space which was given by Ramadan. Some general properties such as relative smooth continuity and relative smooth compactness are studied.

  1. The Impact of the Danish Medico-Legal Council on the Choice Between Treatment and Punishment for Non-psychotic Offenders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gottlieb, Peter; Gabrielsen, Gorm; Kørner, Alex

    2014-01-01

    Background. The Danish Medico-Legal Council provides the court with statements based on available psychiatric assessment reports to assist the law in the use of the Penal Code sections on mentally disordered offenders. Aims. To analyse the impact of the Council on the courts’ choice between...... punishment and treatment in cases of offenders falling under §69 of the Penal Code, i.e. mentally disordered, although not psychotic offenders. Methods. In 298 cases of defendants who according to the Medico-Legal Council might fall under §69 the recommendations of the assessment reports, the recommendations...... of the Council and the final verdicts are compared; and assessment reports from forensic psychiatric centres are compared with those from other psychiatrists. Results. The recommendations of the Medico-Legal Council were often, but not blindly followed by the courts. The probability for the Council to recommend...

  2. Optimal Universal Uncertainty Relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Tao; Xiao, Yunlong; Ma, Teng; Fei, Shao-Ming; Jing, Naihuan; Li-Jost, Xianqing; Wang, Zhi-Xi

    2016-01-01

    We study universal uncertainty relations and present a method called joint probability distribution diagram to improve the majorization bounds constructed independently in [Phys. Rev. Lett. 111, 230401 (2013)] and [J. Phys. A. 46, 272002 (2013)]. The results give rise to state independent uncertainty relations satisfied by any nonnegative Schur-concave functions. On the other hand, a remarkable recent result of entropic uncertainty relation is the direct-sum majorization relation. In this paper, we illustrate our bounds by showing how they provide a complement to that in [Phys. Rev. A. 89, 052115 (2014)]. PMID:27775010

  3. Crowding and Family Relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booth, Alan; Edwards, John N.

    1976-01-01

    The effect of household and neighborhood crowding on the relations between spouses, those between parents and children, and the relations among children are examined; a sample of urban families residing in conditions ranging from open to highly compressed provided the data for the investigation and multiple regression was used to analyze the…

  4. Relational Perspectives on Leading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Mette Vinther; Rasmussen, Jørgen Gulddahl

    2015-01-01

    Relational Perspectives on Leading discusses leadership from a relational and social constructionism perspective as practiced on an everyday basis between people. The book pursues a fast growing, practice-based approach - particularly within the Anglo-Saxon parts of the world - to organization...... studies and organizational phenomena....

  5. Forces in General Relativity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridgely, Charles T.

    2010-01-01

    Many textbooks dealing with general relativity do not demonstrate the derivation of forces in enough detail. The analyses presented herein demonstrate straightforward methods for computing forces by way of general relativity. Covariant divergence of the stress-energy-momentum tensor is used to derive a general expression of the force experienced…

  6. Relative Effects at Work

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Braeken, Johan; Mulder, Joris; Wood, Stephen

    2015-01-01

    Assessing the relative importance of predictors has been of historical importance in a variety of disciplines including management, medicine, economics, and psychology. When approaching hypotheses on the relative ordering of the magnitude of predicted effects (e.g., the effects of discrimination

  7. Relational Processing Following Stroke

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, Glenda; Halford, Graeme S.; Shum, David; Maujean, Annick; Chappell, Mark; Birney, Damian

    2013-01-01

    The research examined relational processing following stroke. Stroke patients (14 with frontal, 30 with non-frontal lesions) and 41 matched controls completed four relational processing tasks: sentence comprehension, Latin square matrix completion, modified Dimensional Change Card Sorting, and n-back. Each task included items at two or three…

  8. Measuring Relational Reasoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Patricia A.; Dumas, Denis; Grossnickle, Emily M.; List, Alexandra; Firetto, Carla M.

    2016-01-01

    Relational reasoning is the foundational cognitive ability to discern meaningful patterns within an informational stream, but its reliable and valid measurement remains problematic. In this investigation, the measurement of relational reasoning unfolded in three stages. Stage 1 entailed the establishment of a research-based conceptualization of…

  9. Teaching Mediated Public Relations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kent, Michael L.

    2001-01-01

    Discusses approaches to teaching a mediated public relations course, emphasizing the World Wide Web. Outlines five course objectives, assignments and activities, evaluation, texts, and lecture topics. Argues that students mastering these course objectives will understand ethical issues relating to media use, using mediated technology in public…

  10. Forces in General Relativity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridgely, Charles T.

    2010-01-01

    Many textbooks dealing with general relativity do not demonstrate the derivation of forces in enough detail. The analyses presented herein demonstrate straightforward methods for computing forces by way of general relativity. Covariant divergence of the stress-energy-momentum tensor is used to derive a general expression of the force experienced…

  11. The Redshifts in Relativity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Satya Pal; Singh, Apoorva; Hareet, Prabhav

    2011-01-01

    The progress of modern cosmology took off in 1917 when A. Einstein published his paper on general theory of relativity extending his work of special theory of relativity (1905). In 1922 Alexander Friedmann constructed a mathematical model for expanding Universe that had a big bang in remote past. The experimental evidences could come in 1929 by…

  12. Public Relations Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proctor and Gamble Co., Cincinnati, OH.

    This guide was especially designed for home economists and includes 50 pages of practical ideas and examples on how to set public relations objectives, determine target audiences, work with the media, write releases' and prepare for broadcast interviews. The guide includes definitions of basic terms used in public relations, establishes guidelines…

  13. Public Relations as Strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelby, Annette N.

    Public relations as strategic communication is one possible theme for an introductory course in public relations. This perspective focuses attention on messages (their content, timing, media, and so forth) as strategic responses to the audience and the situation. It provides a defensible rationale for including certain relevant topics in the…

  14. Annoying Danish Relatives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen de López, Kristine M.; Sundahl Olsen, Lone; Chondrigianni, V.

    2014-01-01

    This study examines the comprehension and production of subject and object relative clauses (SRCs, ORCs) by children with Specific Language Impairment (SLI) and their typically developing (TD) peers. The purpose is to investigate whether relative clauses are problematic for Danish children with SLI...

  15. Elaborating Public Relations Roles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leichty, Greg; Springston, Jeff

    1996-01-01

    Investigates the structure of public relations roles. Factor analyzes G. Broom and G. Smith's role questionnaire in conjunction with items used in organizational boundary spanning. Extracts eight activity factors. Identifies four primary practitioner roles and one minor role. Refines previous public relations roles concepts. Shows by validation…

  16. Teaching Relative Clauses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamori, Takayuki

    2002-01-01

    Discusses the advantages and disadvantages of what has become the standard approach to teaching relative clauses. To overcome the disadvantages, proposes a hierarchical teaching method that begins by introducing noun phrases that contain relative clauses before comparing them with similar structures in the learner's first language. Shows an…

  17. NgsRelate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korneliussen, Thorfinn Sand; Moltke, Ida

    2015-01-01

    . Using both simulated and real data, we show that NgsRelate provides markedly better estimates for low-depth NGS data than two state-of-the-art genotype-based methods. AVAILABILITY: NgsRelate is implemented in C++ and is available under the GNU license at www.pop gen.dk/software. CONTACT: ida...

  18. Journalism of Relation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blaagaard, Bolette

    of the self-other relation which is simultaneously personal and political. Secondly, the dissertation relates the phenomenological ‘race’ and gender debates to the societal and productive context of contemporary European and ‘western’ globalised and mediated culture and politics. Journalism is re...... accountability and relation from journalistic training and practices whereby a ‘white’ and homogeneous social imaginary is reproduced. I make a call for thinking about journalism as relation – in terms of technological mediations, but also in terms of subjectivities. In order to allow for this, a shift is needed...... of cosmopolitanism from universal reproductions of sameness into creative productions of singular self-other relations based on the practiced and productive journalism. This is substantiated through case study analyses. The aim is to challenge the modern, rational journalistic subject referring back to the unified...

  19. Relative Lyapunov Center Bifurcations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wulff, Claudia; Schilder, Frank

    2014-01-01

    Relative equilibria (REs) and relative periodic orbits (RPOs) are ubiquitous in symmetric Hamiltonian systems and occur, for example, in celestial mechanics, molecular dynamics, and rigid body motion. REs are equilibria, and RPOs are periodic orbits of the symmetry reduced system. Relative Lyapunov...... center bifurcations are bifurcations of RPOs from REs corresponding to Lyapunov center bifurcations of the symmetry reduced dynamics. In this paper we first prove a relative Lyapunov center theorem by combining recent results on the persistence of RPOs in Hamiltonian systems with a symmetric Lyapunov...... center theorem of Montaldi, Roberts, and Stewart. We then develop numerical methods for the detection of relative Lyapunov center bifurcations along branches of RPOs and for their computation. We apply our methods to Lagrangian REs of the N-body problem....

  20. Deformed General Relativity

    CERN Document Server

    Bojowald, Martin

    2013-01-01

    Deformed special relativity is embedded in deformed general relativity using the methods of canonical relativity and loop quantum gravity. Phase-space dependent deformations of symmetry algebras then appear, which in some regimes can be rewritten as non-linear Poincare algebras with momentum-dependent deformations of commutators between boosts and time translations. In contrast to deformed special relativity, the deformations are derived for generators with an unambiguous physical role, following from the relationship between canonical constraints of gravity with stress-energy components. The original deformation does not appear in momentum space and does not give rise to non-locality issues or problems with macroscopic objects. Contact with deformed special relativity may help to test loop quantum gravity or restrict its quantization ambiguities.

  1. Human Relations-skolen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scheuer, Steen

    2014-01-01

    Human Relations-skolen er en samlebetegnelse for to forskningsretninger, som tilsammen bidrog som nogle af de første til at indkredse og belyse de mellemmenneskelige relationers betydning for motivation og trivsel i arbejdslivet, og som skulle få stor ind"ydelse ikke bare på organisationsteorien......, som formulerede en række teorier og modeller om menneskets motivation, trivsel og behov i arbejdslivet. Selvom de ikke nødvendigvis relaterede sig til hinandens arbejde, er de forskellige bidragsydere i dag kendt som repræsentanter for den paradigmatiske betegnelse Human Relations. Undertiden skelnes...... der mellem Human Relations (Hawthorne-eksperimenter ne) og Neo-Human Relations (behovsteorierne), men i denne fremstilling bruges Human Relations som en samlebetegnelse for begge disse – noget forskellige – forskningstraditioner. De har i dag opnået stor udbredelse og er praktisk talt obligatorisk...

  2. Holographic Special Relativity

    CERN Document Server

    Wise, Derek K

    2013-01-01

    We reinterpret special relativity, or more precisely its de Sitter deformation, in terms of 3d conformal geometry, as opposed to (3+1)d spacetime geometry. An inertial observer, usually described by a geodesic in spacetime, becomes instead a choice of ways to reverse the conformal compactification of a Euclidean vector space up to scale. The observer's "current time," usually given by a point along the geodesic, corresponds to the choice of scale in the decompactification. We also show how arbitrary conformal 3-geometries give rise to "observer space geometries," as defined in recent work, from which spacetime can be reconstructed under certain integrability conditions. We conjecture a relationship between this kind of "holographic relativity" and the "shape dynamics" proposal of Barbour and collaborators, in which conformal space takes the place of spacetime in general relativity. We also briefly survey related pictures of observer space, including the AdS analog and a representation related to twistor theor...

  3. General relativity and cosmology

    CERN Document Server

    Bucher, Martin

    2015-01-01

    This year marks the hundredth anniversary of Einstein's 1915 landmark paper "Die Feldgleichungen der Gravitation" in which the field equations of general relativity were correctly formulated for the first time, thus rendering general relativity a complete theory. Over the subsequent hundred years physicists and astronomers have struggled with uncovering the consequences and applications of these equations. This contribution, which was written as an introduction to six chapters dealing with the connection between general relativity and cosmology that will appear in the two-volume book "One Hundred Years of General Relativity: From Genesis and Empirical Foundations to Gravitational Waves, Cosmology and Quantum Gravity," endeavors to provide a historical overview of the connection between general relativity and cosmology, two areas whose development has been closely intertwined.

  4. Fireworks-Related Injuries in Iran: A Survey Following the 2014 New Year’s Festival in Tabriz

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shams Vahdati, Samad; Hemmate Gadim, Jamil; Mazouchian, Hossein

    2016-01-01

    Background Iranian people celebrate the last Wednesday eve of the year as Chaharshanbe Suri and use explosives and firecrackers as part of this festival. Objectives This study concerned fireworks injuries related to the Chaharshanbe Suri festival in Tabriz, a provincial capital in East Azerbaijan, Iran, to evaluate the epidemiology and provide data to prevent and manage these accidents. Patients and Methods This study was comprised of patients who were treated at the emergency department of Tabriz Sina hospital with burn injuries related to fireworks. The patients’ demographics, time of the accidents, locations of the burns, and the type of explosive were recorded. Descriptive statistics were used to analyze the data. Results Forty-nine patients were seen in the emergency department. The mean age was 17.16 ± 9.1, ranged from 3 to 36. Forty patients were male (81.6%) and 9 were female (18.4%). Twenty-one patients had second degree burns (47.7%), 10 patients had first degree burns (22.7%), 9 patients had third degree burns (20.5%), and 4 patients had first and second degree burns (9.1%). Conclusions The study shows that walking in the streets or driving with open windows can be dangerous in Iran during Charshanbe suri. PMID:27921014

  5. Effect of the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase gene polymorphisms on homocysteine, folate and vitamin B12 in patients with bipolar disorder and relatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozbek, Zeynep; Kucukali, Cem Ismail; Ozkok, Elif; Orhan, Nurcan; Aydin, Makbule; Kilic, Gamze; Sazci, Ali; Kara, Ihsan

    2008-07-01

    We investigated the effect of polymorphic variants of c.1298A>C (Glu429Ala) and c.677C>T (Ala222Val) in methylenetetrahydrofolate (MTHFR) gene on the total homocysteine (tHcy), folate and B12 levels in patients with bipolar disorder, first-degree relatives of patients, and controls. The c.677C>T and c.1298A>C polymorphisms in MTHFR were determined by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism in 197 bipolar patients, 278 relatives and 238 controls. tHcy and folate and vitamin B12 levels were measured by Fluorescence Polarization Immunoassay and Electrochemiluminescence, respectively. The tHcy was significantly increased in patients and relatives. In contrast, folate and B12 were significantly lower in patients and relatives. Gender was not considered as a significant determinant in the multivariate analysis. Genotypes of c.1298A>C and c.677C>T were correlated with tHcy, folate and B12. Patients and relatives carrying TT and/or AA and AC genotypes had elevated tHcy and reduced folate and B12 levels. High tHcy but low folate and vitamin B12 levels may be a risk factor for development of bipolar disorder.

  6. Modernization of credit relations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.V. Volosovich

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays it is essential to modernize credit relations in the conditions of global economy transformations. This is due to the influence of integration processes on credit relations and transformation of the risks inherent in the credit field. The purpose of this article is to develop measures that help to improve the efficiency of interaction of credit relations’ participants. Modernization of credit relations is based on the interaction of its main and indirect subjects who belong to the subsystems of loans granting, deposits attraction and provision of related services. Its goal is to pass from extensive to intensive model of interaction between the subjects of credit relations. Components of the credit relations modernization are the following: institutional modernization, which is based on the interaction of credit relations’ subjects, and ensures the development of competition in all credit market’s segments, the creation of its corresponding infrastructure, qualitative change in the approaches of regulation and supervision; technological modernization, which involves the formation of joint products on the credit market and the formation of an integrated informational and analytical system. In the result of the credit relations’ modernization it is expected to achieve synergies between the subjects of credit relations, that will lead to changes in the business architecture of the financial market.

  7. Special theory of relativity

    CERN Document Server

    Kilmister, Clive William

    1970-01-01

    Special Theory of Relativity provides a discussion of the special theory of relativity. Special relativity is not, like other scientific theories, a statement about the matter that forms the physical world, but has the form of a condition that the explicit physical theories must satisfy. It is thus a form of description, playing to some extent the role of the grammar of physics, prescribing which combinations of theoretical statements are admissible as descriptions of the physical world. Thus, to describe it, one needs also to describe those specific theories and to say how much they are limit

  8. NgsRelate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korneliussen, Thorfinn Sand; Moltke, Ida

    2015-01-01

    be called with high certainty. RESULTS: We present a software tool, NgsRelate, for estimating pairwise relatedness from NGS data. It provides maximum likelihood estimates that are based on genotype likelihoods instead of genotypes and thereby takes the inherent uncertainty of the genotypes into account....... Using both simulated and real data, we show that NgsRelate provides markedly better estimates for low-depth NGS data than two state-of-the-art genotype-based methods. AVAILABILITY: NgsRelate is implemented in C++ and is available under the GNU license at www.pop gen.dk/software. CONTACT: ida...

  9. Optical Clocks and Relativity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, C. W.; Hume, D. B.; Rosenband, T.; Wineland, D. J.

    2010-09-01

    Observers in relative motion or at different gravitational potentials measure disparate clock rates. These predictions of relativity have previously been observed with atomic clocks at high velocities and with large changes in elevation. We observed time dilation from relative speeds of less than 10 meters per second by comparing two optical atomic clocks connected by a 75-meter length of optical fiber. We can now also detect time dilation due to a change in height near Earth’s surface of less than 1 meter. This technique may be extended to the field of geodesy, with applications in geophysics and hydrology as well as in space-based tests of fundamental physics.

  10. Research in Public Relations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coriolan PĂUNESCU

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Research has an important role in public relations (PR being necessary in developing strategies in this area. Therefore, we can speak oftwo types of research, the applied research and theoretical research, both being successfully used in the work of public relations. Applied research,can be strategic (used in programs in order to identify attitudes and opinions of the target public, to develop strategies for formulating andtransmitting messages, to establish the criteria for evaluating the work and evaluative by which it determines the communication efficiency, incarrying out the program of public relations (in fact it is the comparison between the established and achieved objectives.

  11. Gravitation and relativity

    CERN Document Server

    Hoffmann, William F

    1964-01-01

    Remarks on the observational basis of general relativity ; Riemannian geometry ; gravitation as geometry ; gravitational waves ; Mach's principle and experiments on mass anisotropy ; the many faces of Mach ; the significance for the solar system of time-varying gravitation ; relativity principles and the role of coordinates in physics ; the superdense star and the critical nucleon number ; gravitation and light ; possible effects on the solar system of φ waves if they exist ; the Lyttleton-Bondi universe and charge equality ; quantization of general relativity ; Mach's principle as boundary condition for Einstein's equations.

  12. Fluctuation relations for spintronics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, Rosa; Lim, Jong Soo; Sánchez, David

    2012-06-15

    Fluctuation relations are derived in systems where the spin degree of freedom and magnetic interactions play a crucial role. The form of the nonequilibrium fluctuation theorems relies on the assumption of a local balance condition. We demonstrate that in some cases the presence of magnetic interactions violates this condition. Nevertheless, fluctuation relations can be obtained from the microreversibility principle sustained only at equilibrium as a symmetry of the cumulant generating function for spin currents. We illustrate the spintronic fluctuation relations for a quantum dot coupled to partially polarized helical edge states.

  13. Heat-Related Illnesses

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... in Chesterfield, Missouri Heat-related illness can be caused by overexposure to the sun or any situation ... pale skin, rapid pulse, elevated or lowered blood pressure, nausea, loss of consciousness, vomiting or a high ...

  14. Einstein's theory of relativity

    CERN Document Server

    Born, Max

    2012-01-01

    Semi-technical account includes a review of classical physics (origin of space and time measurements, Ptolemaic and Copernican astronomy, laws of motion, inertia, more) and of Einstein's theories of relativity.

  15. Heat-Related Illnesses

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Medicine's Front Line Observation Emergency Care Fact Sheet Health & Safety Tips Campaigns SUBSCRIBE Emergencies A-Z Share ... Illnesses Dr. Glenn Mitchell , Emergency physician at Mercy Health System in Chesterfield, Missouri Heat-related illness can ...

  16. Publicity and public relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fosha, Charles E.

    1990-01-01

    This paper addresses approaches to using publicity and public relations to meet the goals of the NASA Space Grant College. Methods universities and colleges can use to publicize space activities are presented.

  17. Sport-related concussions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jéssica Natuline Ianof

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Traumatic brain injury (TBI is a major cause of lifelong disability and death worldwide. Sport-related traumatic brain injury is an important public health concern. The purpose of this review was to highlight the importance of sport-related concussions. Concussion refers to a transient alteration in consciousness induced by external biomechanical forces transmitted directly or indirectly to the brain. It is a common, although most likely underreported, condition. Contact sports such as American football, rugby, soccer, boxing, basketball and hockey are associated with a relatively high prevalence of concussion. Various factors may be associated with a greater risk of sport-related concussion, such as age, sex, sport played, level of sport played and equipment used. Physical complaints (headache, fatigue, dizziness, behavioral changes (depression, anxiety, irritability and cognitive impairment are very common after a concussion. The risk of premature return to activities includes the prolongation of post-concussive symptoms and increased risk of concussion recurrence.

  18. Measurement uncertainty relations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Busch, Paul, E-mail: paul.busch@york.ac.uk [Department of Mathematics, University of York, York (United Kingdom); Lahti, Pekka, E-mail: pekka.lahti@utu.fi [Turku Centre for Quantum Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Turku, FI-20014 Turku (Finland); Werner, Reinhard F., E-mail: reinhard.werner@itp.uni-hannover.de [Institut für Theoretische Physik, Leibniz Universität, Hannover (Germany)

    2014-04-15

    Measurement uncertainty relations are quantitative bounds on the errors in an approximate joint measurement of two observables. They can be seen as a generalization of the error/disturbance tradeoff first discussed heuristically by Heisenberg. Here we prove such relations for the case of two canonically conjugate observables like position and momentum, and establish a close connection with the more familiar preparation uncertainty relations constraining the sharpness of the distributions of the two observables in the same state. Both sets of relations are generalized to means of order α rather than the usual quadratic means, and we show that the optimal constants are the same for preparation and for measurement uncertainty. The constants are determined numerically and compared with some bounds in the literature. In both cases, the near-saturation of the inequalities entails that the state (resp. observable) is uniformly close to a minimizing one.

  19. Drug related critical incidents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, F A; Hoda, M Q

    2005-01-01

    Drug related incidents are a common form of reported medical errors. This paper reviews the critical incidents related to drug errors reported from the main operating theatre suite in a teaching hospital in a developing country from January 1997 to December 2002. Each report was evaluated individually by two reviewers using a structured process. During this period, 44 874 anaesthetics were administered; 768 critical incidents were reported, 165 (21%) of which were related to drug errors. Underdosage, side-effect/drug reaction and syringe swap were the most common. A total of 76% were classified as preventable; 56% due to human error and 19% due to system error. High risk incidents accounted for 10% of all drug errors and most of these were related to the use of neuromuscular blocking drugs. This analysis has been found useful in addressing some issues about priorities.

  20. General Relativity and Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, A. T.

    1973-01-01

    Reviews theoretical and experimental fundamentals of Einstein's theory of general relativity. Indicates that recent development of the theory of the continually expanding universe may lead to revision of the space-time continuum of the finite and unbounded universe. (CC)

  1. Heat-Related Illnesses

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... for Disasters Communication With Your Family And Your Doctor About Your Wishes Visiting the ER Who Takes ... 101 Heat-Related Illnesses Dr. Glenn Mitchell , Emergency physician at Mercy Health System in Chesterfield, Missouri Heat- ...

  2. Quantum Gauge General Relativity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Ning

    2004-01-01

    Based on gauge principle, a new model on quantum gravity is proposed in the frame work of quantum gauge theory of gravity. The model has local gravitational gauge symmetry, and the field equation of the gravitational gauge field is just the famous Einstein's field equation. Because of this reason, this model is called quantum gauge general relativity, which is the consistent unification of quantum theory and general relativity. The model proposed in this paper is a perturbatively renormalizable quantum gravity, which is one of the most important advantage of the quantum gauge general relativity proposed in this paper. Another important advantage of the quantum gauge general relativity is that it can explain both classical tests of gravity and quantum effects of gravitational interactions, such as gravitational phase effects found in COW experiments and gravitational shielding effects found in Podkletnov experiments.

  3. Heat-Related Illnesses

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Health System in Chesterfield, Missouri Heat-related illness can be caused by overexposure to the sun or ... the elderly are most at risk, but anyone can be affected. Here you will find information about ...

  4. Heat-Related Illnesses

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Emergencies A-Z Share this! Home » Emergency 101 Heat-Related Illnesses Dr. Glenn Mitchell , Emergency physician at ... about heat cramps and heat stroke and exhaustion. Heat Cramps Symptoms include muscle spasms, usually in the ...

  5. Classifying Linear Canonical Relations

    OpenAIRE

    Lorand, Jonathan

    2015-01-01

    In this Master's thesis, we consider the problem of classifying, up to conjugation by linear symplectomorphisms, linear canonical relations (lagrangian correspondences) from a finite-dimensional symplectic vector space to itself. We give an elementary introduction to the theory of linear canonical relations and present partial results toward the classification problem. This exposition should be accessible to undergraduate students with a basic familiarity with linear algebra.

  6. Sport-related concussions

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a major cause of lifelong disability and death worldwide. Sport-related traumatic brain injury is an important public health concern. The purpose of this review was to highlight the importance of sport-related concussions. Concussion refers to a transient alteration in consciousness induced by external biomechanical forces transmitted directly or indirectly to the brain. It is a common, although most likely underreported, condition. Contact sports such...

  7. Special relativity (in Russian)

    CERN Document Server

    Grozin, Andrey

    2011-01-01

    A modern elementary introduction to special relativity for advanced school children or first-year university students, in Russian. I try to demonstrate that relativity does not contradict common sense; on the contrary, it follows from common sense logically. I discuss Minkowski space-time geometry in some detail. Geometrical approach, with few simple formulas but many pictures, makes results of the theory intuitively obvious.

  8. Relational Quantum Cosmology

    CERN Document Server

    Vidotto, Francesca

    2015-01-01

    The application of quantum theory to cosmology raises a number of conceptual questions, such as the role of the quantum-mechanical notion of "observer" or the absence of a time variable in the Wheeler-DeWitt equation. I point out that a relational formulation of quantum mechanics, and more in general the observation that evolution is always relational, provides a coherent solution to this tangle of problems.

  9. Managing or Relating?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sproedt, Henrik; Buur, Jacob

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes a case of user-driven innovation. We draw on social capital theory and the concept of complex responsive processes to examine the role of relations for the exchange and generation of knowledge across different knowledge traditions. We argue that innovation as a social phenome...... phenomenon with a high degree of uncertainty and complexity requires more relating and less managing to use conflict as a resource by turning the friction between different knowledge traditions into creative friction....

  10. De Sitter projective relativity

    CERN Document Server

    Licata, Ignazio; Benedetto, Elmo

    2017-01-01

    This book presents the Projective approach to de Sitter Relativity. It traces the development of renewed interest in models of the universe at constant positive curvature such as "vacuum" geometry. The De Sitter Theory of Relativity, formulated in 1917 with Willem De Sitter's solution of the Einstein equations, was used in different fields during the 1950s and 1960s, in the work of H. Bacry, J.M. LevyLeblond and F.Gursey, to name some important contributors. From the 1960s to 1980s, L. Fantappié and G. Arcidiacono provided an elegant group approach to the De Sitter universe putting the basis for special and general projective relativity. Today such suggestions flow into a unitary scenario, and this way the De Sitter Relativity is no more a "missing opportunity" (F. Dyson, 1972), but has a central role in theoretical physics. In this volume a systematic presentation is given of the De Sitter Projective relativity, with the recent developments in projective general relativity and quantum cosmology.

  11. Frontiers in Numerical Relativity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Charles R.; Finn, Lee S.; Hobill, David W.

    2011-06-01

    Preface; Participants; Introduction; 1. Supercomputing and numerical relativity: a look at the past, present and future David W. Hobill and Larry L. Smarr; 2. Computational relativity in two and three dimensions Stuart L. Shapiro and Saul A. Teukolsky; 3. Slowly moving maximally charged black holes Robert C. Ferrell and Douglas M. Eardley; 4. Kepler's third law in general relativity Steven Detweiler; 5. Black hole spacetimes: testing numerical relativity David H. Bernstein, David W. Hobill and Larry L. Smarr; 6. Three dimensional initial data of numerical relativity Ken-ichi Oohara and Takashi Nakamura; 7. Initial data for collisions of black holes and other gravitational miscellany James W. York, Jr.; 8. Analytic-numerical matching for gravitational waveform extraction Andrew M. Abrahams; 9. Supernovae, gravitational radiation and the quadrupole formula L. S. Finn; 10. Gravitational radiation from perturbations of stellar core collapse models Edward Seidel and Thomas Moore; 11. General relativistic implicit radiation hydrodynamics in polar sliced space-time Paul J. Schinder; 12. General relativistic radiation hydrodynamics in spherically symmetric spacetimes A. Mezzacappa and R. A. Matzner; 13. Constraint preserving transport for magnetohydrodynamics John F. Hawley and Charles R. Evans; 14. Enforcing the momentum constraints during axisymmetric spacelike simulations Charles R. Evans; 15. Experiences with an adaptive mesh refinement algorithm in numerical relativity Matthew W. Choptuik; 16. The multigrid technique Gregory B. Cook; 17. Finite element methods in numerical relativity P. J. Mann; 18. Pseudo-spectral methods applied to gravitational collapse Silvano Bonazzola and Jean-Alain Marck; 19. Methods in 3D numerical relativity Takashi Nakamura and Ken-ichi Oohara; 20. Nonaxisymmetric rotating gravitational collapse and gravitational radiation Richard F. Stark; 21. Nonaxisymmetric neutron star collisions: initial results using smooth particle hydrodynamics

  12. Algorithmic Relative Complexity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniele Cerra

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Information content and compression are tightly related concepts that can be addressed through both classical and algorithmic information theories, on the basis of Shannon entropy and Kolmogorov complexity, respectively. The definition of several entities in Kolmogorov’s framework relies upon ideas from classical information theory, and these two approaches share many common traits. In this work, we expand the relations between these two frameworks by introducing algorithmic cross-complexity and relative complexity, counterparts of the cross-entropy and relative entropy (or Kullback-Leibler divergence found in Shannon’s framework. We define the cross-complexity of an object x with respect to another object y as the amount of computational resources needed to specify x in terms of y, and the complexity of x related to y as the compression power which is lost when adopting such a description for x, compared to the shortest representation of x. Properties of analogous quantities in classical information theory hold for these new concepts. As these notions are incomputable, a suitable approximation based upon data compression is derived to enable the application to real data, yielding a divergence measure applicable to any pair of strings. Example applications are outlined, involving authorship attribution and satellite image classification, as well as a comparison to similar established techniques.

  13. Relationality and social interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bottero, Wendy

    2009-06-01

    This paper explores Bourdieu's account of a relational social space, and his relative neglect of social interaction within this framework. Bourdieu includes social capital as one of the key relational elements of his social space, but says much less about it than economic or cultural capital, and levels of social capital are rarely measured in his work. Bourdieu is reluctant to focus on the content of social networks as part of his rejection of substantialist thinking. The neglect of substantive networks creates problems for Bourdieu's framework, because many of Bourdieu's core concepts rest upon assumptions about their interactional properties (in particular, the prevalence of homophilous differential association) which are left unexamined. It is argued here that Bourdieu's neglect of the substance of social networks is related to the criticisms that Bourdieu's framework often encounters, and that this neglect bears re-examination, since it is helpful to think of the ways in which differentiated social networks contribute to the development of habitus, help form fields, and so constitute the intersubjective social relations within which sociality, and practice more generally, occur.

  14. Health status of cardiac genetic disease patients and their at-risk relatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingles, Jodie; Yeates, Laura; Hunt, Lauren; McGaughran, Julie; Scuffham, Paul A; Atherton, John; Semsarian, Christopher

    2013-05-25

    Health status is an important outcome measure that incorporates multiple dimensions of health, including symptoms, functional status, and psychosocial factors. While health status has been shown to be a predictor for hospital readmission, morbidity and mortality in the heart failure setting, there are limited data in cardiac genetic disease. We examined health status in a number of cardiac genetic disease groups compared to the general Australian population. A total of 409 individuals were assessed. Individuals with inherited cardiomyopathies [hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM), familial dilated cardiomyopathy (FDC), arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy (ARVC)] and primary arrhythmogenic disorders [long QT syndrome (LQTS), catecholaminergic polymorphic ventricular tachycardia (CPVT)], as well as their first-degree relatives, completed the Medical Outcomes Survey Short Form-36 (SF-36). The physical and mental component scores (PCS and MCS) and SF-6D utility score were assessed. Patients with HCM (p<0.001), FDC (p<0.05), and CPVT (p<0.05) were found to have a significantly lower PCS, while patients with LQTS (p<0.01) had a lower MCS. Individuals at risk of HCM (p<0.0001) and genotype positive-phenotype negative HCM patients (p<0.01) both had a higher PCS and utility scores compared to the clinically affected HCM population. Individuals at risk of LQTS had significantly higher PCS than those with a clinical diagnosis of LQTS (p<0.05) and similarly individuals at risk of FDC had significantly higher PCS than FDC patients (p<0.05). In HCM, female gender (p=0.002), presence of co-morbidities (p<0.0001) and higher NYHA functional class (p<0.0001) were predictors of a lower PCS. Patients with a clinical diagnosis of a genetic heart disease have an impaired health status, related to both physical and mental function. Clinical management strategies in such patient groups need to consider health status as an important outcome measure. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier

  15. Beyond Einstein's General Relativity

    CERN Document Server

    Lobo, Francisco S N

    2014-01-01

    Modern astrophysical and cosmological models are plagued with two severe theoretical difficulties, namely, the dark energy and the dark matter problems. Relative to the former, high-precision observational data have confirmed with startling evidence that the Universe is undergoing a phase of accelerated expansion. This phase, one of the most important and challenging current problems in cosmology, represents a new imbalance in the governing gravitational equations. Several candidates, responsible for this expansion, have been proposed in the literature, in particular, dark energy models and modified gravity, amongst others. Outstanding questions are related to the nature of this so-called "dark energy" that is driving the acceleration of the universe, and whether it is due to the vacuum energy or a dynamical field. On the other hand, the late-time cosmic acceleration may be due to modifications of General Relativity, which introduce new degrees of freedom to the gravitational sector itself. We analyze some of...

  16. Dynamics and Relativity

    CERN Document Server

    Forshaw, Jeffrey

    2009-01-01

    A new title in the Manchester Physics Series, this introductory text emphasises physical principles behind classical mechanics and relativity. It assumes little in the way of prior knowledge, introducing relevant mathematics and carefully developing it within a physics context. Designed to provide a logical development of the subject, the book is divided into four sections, introductory material on dynamics, and special relativity, which is then followed by more advanced coverage of dynamics and special relativity. Each chapter includes problems ranging in difficulty from simple to challenging with?solutions for solving problems. Includes?solutions for solving problemsNumerous worked examples included throughout the bookMathematics is carefully explained and developed within a physics environmentSensitive to topics that can appear daunting or confusing

  17. Sports related ocular injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Avinash; Verma, Ashok K

    2012-07-01

    Every year > 600,000 sports and recreation related eye injuries occur, out of which roughly 13,500 of these result in permanent loss of sight. Up to 90% of these sports related eye injuries are preventable by using adequate eye protection equipment. Protective eyewear is made of polycarbonate, a highly impact-resistant plastic which is now easily available as prescription and non-prescription eyewear and all players should be encouraged to use them. The medical officers by educating their patients regarding the risks of eye injuries in various sports and the confirmed benefits of using protective equipment have the potential to prevent injury to over thousands of eyes every year. The medical fraternity can also play a very important role in educating the coaches, parents, and children and thus put an end to unnecessary blindness and vision loss from sports related ocular injuries, therefore ensuring a lifetime of healthy vision.

  18. Tensors, relativity, and cosmology

    CERN Document Server

    Dalarsson, Mirjana

    2015-01-01

    Tensors, Relativity, and Cosmology, Second Edition, combines relativity, astrophysics, and cosmology in a single volume, providing a simplified introduction to each subject that is followed by detailed mathematical derivations. The book includes a section on general relativity that gives the case for a curved space-time, presents the mathematical background (tensor calculus, Riemannian geometry), discusses the Einstein equation and its solutions (including black holes and Penrose processes), and considers the energy-momentum tensor for various solutions. In addition, a section on relativistic astrophysics discusses stellar contraction and collapse, neutron stars and their equations of state, black holes, and accretion onto collapsed objects, with a final section on cosmology discussing cosmological models, observational tests, and scenarios for the early universe. This fully revised and updated second edition includes new material on relativistic effects, such as the behavior of clocks and measuring rods in m...

  19. Decreasing relative risk premium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Frank

    2007-01-01

    We consider the risk premium demanded by a decision maker in order to be indifferent between obtaining a new level of wealth with certainty, or to participate in a lottery which either results in unchanged wealth or an even higher level than what can be obtained with certainty. We study preferences...... such that the corresponding relative risk premium is a decreasing function of present wealth, and we determine the set of associated utility functions. We find a new characterization of risk vulnerability and determine a large set of utility functions, closed under summation and composition, which are both risk vulnerable...... and have decreasing relative risk premium. We finally introduce the notion of partial risk neutral preferences on binary lotteries and show that partial risk neutrality is equivalent to preferences with decreasing relative risk premium...

  20. Theory of Special Relativity

    CERN Document Server

    Zakamska, Nadia L

    2015-01-01

    Special Relativity is taught to physics sophomores at Johns Hopkins University in a series of eight lectures. Lecture 1 covers the principle of relativity and the derivation of the Lorentz transform. Lecture 2 covers length contraction and time dilation. Lecture 3 covers Minkowski diagrams, simultaneous events and causally connected events, as well as velocity transforms. Lecture 4 covers energy and momentum of particles and introduces 4-vectors. Lecture 5 covers energy and momentum of photons and collision problems. Lecture 6 covers Doppler effect and aberration. Lecture 7 covers relativistic dynamics. Optional Lecture 8 covers field transforms. The main purpose of these notes is to introduce 4-vectors and the matrix notation and to demonstrate their use in solving standard problems in Special Relativity. The pre-requisites for the class are calculus-based Classical Mechanics and Electricity & Magnetism, and Linear Algebra is highly recommended.

  1. Sport and International Relations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Yimeng

    2008-01-01

    As China takes center stage for the Beijing 2008 Olympic Games in August, enthusiasm for the Games extends far beyond the capital city. For Chinese, the Olympics is about national pride and cultural legacy. The Chinese government hopes to make this event a morale booster for the development of the whole country. And for the world, the Olympics is not just a global sporting event, but also an important platform for promoting world harmony and communication between cultures. As editor of Contemporary International Relations, I am mindful of the connection between sport and international relations. Sport today plays a highly significant role in the world, and the impact of this global phenomenon on international relations is often underestimated.

  2. Binary Love Relations

    CERN Document Server

    Yagi, Kent

    2015-01-01

    When in a tight binary, the mutual tidal deformations of neutron stars imprint onto observables, encoding information about their internal structure at supranuclear densities and gravity in the extreme-gravity regime. Gravitational wave observations of their late binary inspiral may serve as a tool to extract the individual tidal deformabilities, but this is made difficult by degeneracies between them in the gravitational wave model. We here resolve this problem by discovering approximately universal relations between dimensionless combinations of the individual tidal deformabilities. We show that these relations break degeneracies in the gravitational wave model, allowing for the accurate extraction of both deformabilities. Such measurements can be used to better differentiate between equation-of-state models, and improve tests of General Relativity and cosmology.

  3. Binary Love relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yagi, Kent; Yunes, Nicolás

    2016-07-01

    When in a tight binary, the mutual tidal deformations of neutron stars get imprinted onto observables, encoding information about their internal structure at supranuclear densities and gravity in the extreme-gravity regime. Gravitational wave (GW) observations of their late binary inspiral may serve as a tool to extract the individual tidal deformabilities, but this is made difficult by degeneracies between them in the GW model. We here resolve this problem by discovering approximately equation-of-state (EoS)-insensitive relations between dimensionless combinations of the individual tidal deformabilities. We show that these relations break degeneracies in the GW model, allowing for the accurate extraction of both deformabilities. Such measurements can be used to better differentiate between EoS models, and improve tests of general relativity and cosmology.

  4. Relativity and its roots

    CERN Document Server

    Hoffmann, Banesh

    1998-01-01

    In this fascinating, accessible introduction to one of the most revolutionary developments in modern physics, Einstein scholar Banesh Hoffmann recounts the successive insights that led to both the special and general theories of relativity.Using simple examples from everyday life, the author presents entertaining, nontechnical demonstrations of what relativity actually means and how it has revolutionized our ideas of time and space. Starting with the geometrical and cosmological ideas of the ancient Greeks, the author traces the succession of ideas and advances that paved the way for modern p

  5. Definable deduction relation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张玉平

    1999-01-01

    The nonmonotonic deduction relation in default reasoning is defined with fixed point style, which has the many-extension property that classical logic is not possessed of. These two kinds of deductions both have boolean definability property, that is, their extensions or deductive closures can be defined by boolean formulas. A generalized form of fixed point method is employed to define a class of deduction relations, which all have the above property. Theorems on definability and atomless boolean algebras in model theory are essential in dealing with this assertion.

  6. Surviving relatives after suicide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørrelykke, Helle; Cohrt, Pernille

    2008-01-01

    We would like to focus on the surviving relatives after suicides, because it is generally accepted that it is especially difficult to recover after the loss from suicide and because we know as a fact that one suicide affects five persons on average. Every year approximately 700 people commit...... suicide in Denmark. This means that at least 400 people undergo the trauma it is when one of their near relatives commits suicide. We also know that the loss from suicide involves a lot of conflicting feelings - like anger, shame, guilt and loss and that the lack of therapy/treatment of these difficult...

  7. The Relational Database Dictionary

    CERN Document Server

    J, C

    2006-01-01

    Avoid misunderstandings that can affect the design, programming, and use of database systems. Whether you're using Oracle, DB2, SQL Server, MySQL, or PostgreSQL, The Relational Database Dictionary will prevent confusion about the precise meaning of database-related terms (e.g., attribute, 3NF, one-to-many correspondence, predicate, repeating group, join dependency), helping to ensure the success of your database projects. Carefully reviewed for clarity, accuracy, and completeness, this authoritative and comprehensive quick-reference contains more than 600 terms, many with examples, covering i

  8. Les relations internationales

    OpenAIRE

    Battistella, Dario

    2007-01-01

    Publié sous le titre "L'invention des relations internationales"; International audience; Issue de la science politique, la récente discipline Relations internationale s'est constituée dès la fin de la Première Guerre mondiale dans un but noble : favoriser la paix, avant de privilégier des objectifs de connaissance. Elle intégre progressivement des théories et des éléments d'analyse issus d'autres sciences sociales, qui pevent introduire un danger de dissolution. Mais ce dynamisme est le sign...

  9. Essential dynamics and relativity

    CERN Document Server

    O'Donnell, Peter J

    2014-01-01

    Essential Dynamics & Relativity provides students with an introduction to the core aspects of dynamics and special relativity. The author reiterates important ideas and terms throughout and covers concepts that are often missing from other textbooks at this level. He also places each topic within the wider constructs of the theory, without jumping from topic to topic to illustrate a point.The first section of the book focuses on dynamics, discussing the basic aspects of single particle motion and analyzing the motion of multi-particle systems. The book also explains the dynamical behavior of b

  10. Structural Logical Relations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schürmann, Carsten; Sarnat, Jeffrey

    2008-01-01

    , such as Twelf, and yet they are often straightforward in proof assistants with stronger meta-logics. In this paper, we propose structural logical relations as a technique for conducting these proofs in systems with limited meta-logical strength by explicitly representing and reasoning about an auxiliary logic......Tait's method (a.k.a. proof by logical relations) is a powerful proof technique frequently used for showing foundational properties of languages based on typed lambda-calculi. Historically, these proofs have been extremely difficult to formalize in proof assistants with weak meta-logics...

  11. Risk of congenital heart disease in relatives of probands with conotruncal cardiac defects: an evaluation of 1,620 families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peyvandi, Shabnam; Ingall, Eitan; Woyciechowski, Stacy; Garbarini, Jennifer; Mitchell, Laura E; Goldmuntz, Elizabeth

    2014-06-01

    Current recurrence risk counseling for conotruncal cardiac defects (CTD) is based on empiric estimates from multiple studies. We examined the risk of congenital heart disease (CHD) in relatives of probands with CTDs to assist in counseling practices in the current era. One thousand six-twenty probands with CTDs and no reported chromosomal or genetic abnormalities were recruited sequentially. A three-generation pedigree was obtained for each proband by a genetic counselor detailing the presence and type of CHD in each family member. Risks and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated for sub-groups of relatives based on degree of relationship for all probands and by individual lesion of the proband. For pairs of affected relatives, concordance rates were calculated. Severity of CHD in the affected relative was assessed. The risk of CHD was higher in siblings (4.4%, 95% CI 3.4-5.4) than in parents (1.5%, 95% CI 1.1-1.9). Risk varied by the cardiac lesion of the proband with the highest risk in first-degree relatives of probands with tetralogy of Fallot and the lowest in D-transposition of the great arteries. 39% of affected parents and 69% of affected siblings had a concordant lesion (i.e., CTD). Most affected siblings of probands with severe CTDs had complex defects (58%), whereas very few affected parents had complex defects (20%). These data suggest that recurrence risk varies by lesion and relationship, with substantial concordance observed by cardiac lesion and complexity of disease, particularly among siblings. These findings contribute to risk counseling in the current era.

  12. Attachment-related psychodynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaver, Phillip R; Mikulincer, Mario

    2002-09-01

    Because there has been relatively little communication and cross-fertilization between the two major lines of research on adult attachment, one based on coded narrative assessments of defensive processes, the other on simple self-reports of 'attachment style' in close relationships, we here explain and review recent work based on a combination of self-report and other kinds of method, including behavioral observations and unconscious priming techniques. The review indicates that considerable progress has been made in testing central hypotheses derived from attachment theory and in exploring unconscious, psychodynamic processes related to affect-regulation and attachment-system activation. The combination of self-report assessment of attachment style and experimental manipulation of other theoretically pertinent variables allows researchers to test causal hypotheses. We present a model of normative and individual-difference processes related to attachment and identify areas in which further research is needed and likely to be successful. One long-range goal is to create a more complete theory of personality built on attachment theory and other object relations theories.

  13. Sport-Related Concussions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brady, Don; Brady, Flo

    2011-01-01

    Sport-related concussions (SRC) are not limited to specific age ranges, professional athletes, or gender. The primary focus of much of SRC research pertains to the assessment, management, and return to play (RTP) of the concussed athlete. This article highlights some major issues of SRC along with some controversies that presently exist within the…

  14. Sports-related concussions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conder, Robert L; Conder, Alanna A

    2015-04-01

    Concussions are an inherent part of collision sports such as football and soccer. As a subset of traumatic brain injury, concussions are neurometabolic events that cause transient neurologic dysfunction. Following a concussion, some athletes require longer neurologic recovery than others. Education and intervention aimed at prevention and management can minimize the long-term sequelae of sports-related concussions.

  15. LUNISOLAR INVARIANT RELATIVE ORBITS

    OpenAIRE

    Walid Ali Rahoma

    2013-01-01

    The present study deal with constructing an analytical model within Hamiltonian formulation to design invariant relative orbits due to the perturbation of J2 and the lunisolar attraction. To fade the secular drift separation over the time between two neighboring orbits, two second order conditions that guarantee that drift are derived and enforced to be equal.

  16. Beijing Managing Government Relations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MICHAELO'NEILL

    2005-01-01

    Aroster of top-level speakers and over 100 delegates gathered at the 2nd China Government Relations Management Summit held in Beiiing at the end of March and organized by the Research Center on Transnational Corporation (CAITEC) of the Ministry of Commerce (MOFCOM). With presentations from a number of multinational corporations including Coca-Cola, Kodak,

  17. Heat-Related Illnesses

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Fact Sheet Health & Safety Tips Campaigns SUBSCRIBE Emergencies A-Z Share this! Home » Emergency 101 Heat-Related ... if the person becomes unconscious. READ IN EMERGENCIES A-Z Seizures Choking (Heimlich Maneuver) Vomiting and Diarrhea ...

  18. MARC and Relational Databases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llorens, Jose; Trenor, Asuncion

    1993-01-01

    Discusses the use of MARC format in relational databases and addresses problems of incompatibilities. A solution is presented that is in accordance with Open Systems Interconnection (OSI) standards and is based on experiences at the library of the Universidad Politecnica de Valencia (Spain). (four references) (EA)

  19. Intergenerational Relations in Polonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopata, Helena Znaniecka

    Conflict and cohesion among different generations of Polish Americans are discussed in this research review. First, demographic figures related to Polish immigration to the U.S. are presented, and the age structure of the present Polish American population is described. It is posited, based on this demographic information, that Polish American…

  20. Community and Public Relations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweet, Harold W.

    This brief presentation describes public relations projects of Dubuque schools to popularize athletics. Among the activities cited which are used to promote community interest in sports events are public school-private school informal matches, talks, swim-a-thons, travel and adventure nights, class banquets with popular speakers, booster clubs,…

  1. Heat-Related Illnesses

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Fact Sheet Health & Safety Tips Campaigns SUBSCRIBE Emergencies A-Z Share this! Home » Emergency 101 Heat-Related ... if the person becomes unconscious. READ IN EMERGENCIES A-Z Suicide Puncture Wounds Shock Resources Home Safety ...

  2. Employment Relations in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Jørgen Steen; Due, Jesper Jørgen; Andersen, Søren Kaj

    2011-01-01

    Jørgen Steen Madsen, Jesper Due og Søren Kaj Andersen har skrevet et kapitel om udviklingen i dansk arbejdsmarkedsregulering til bogen International and Comparative Employment Relations, redigeret af Greg Bamber, Russell Lansbury og Nick Wailes. Bogen indeholder bidrag, der præsenterer og...

  3. Sport-Related Concussions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brady, Don; Brady, Flo

    2011-01-01

    Sport-related concussions (SRC) are not limited to specific age ranges, professional athletes, or gender. The primary focus of much of SRC research pertains to the assessment, management, and return to play (RTP) of the concussed athlete. This article highlights some major issues of SRC along with some controversies that presently exist within the…

  4. Relatively Endocoherent Modules

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lixin Mao

    2007-01-01

    Let MR be a right R-module over a ring R with S= End(MR)We study the coherence of the left S-module sM relative to a torsion theory for the category of right R-modules.Various results are developed, many extending known results.

  5. On conformally related -waves

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Varsha Daftardar-Gejji

    2001-05-01

    Brinkmann [1] has shown that conformally related distinct Ricci flat solutions are -waves. Brinkmann's result has been generalized to include the conformally invariant source terms. It has been shown that [4] if $g_{ik}$ and $\\overline{g}_{ik}$ ($=^{-2}g_{ik}$, : a scalar function), are distinct metrics having the same Einstein tensor, $G_{ik}=\\overline{G}_{ik}$, then both represent (generalized) $pp$-waves and $_{i}$ is a null convariantly constant vector of $g_{ik}$. Thus $pp$-waves are the only candidates which yield conformally related nontrivial solutions of $G_{ik}=T_{ik}=\\overline{G}_{ik}$, with $T_{ik}$ being conformally invariant source. In this paper the functional form of the conformal factor for the conformally related $pp$-waves/generalized $pp$-waves has been obtained. It has been shown that the most general $pp$-wave, conformally related to ${\\rm d}s^{2}=-2{\\rm d}u[{\\rm d}v-m{\\rm d}y+H{\\rm d}u]+P^{-2}[{\\rm d}y^{2}+{\\rm d}z^{2}]$, turns out to the $(au+b)^{-2}{\\rm d}s^{2}$, where , are constants. Only in the special case when $m=0$, $H=1$, and $P=P(y,z)$, the conformal factor is $(au+b)^{-2}$ or $(a(u+v)+b)^{-2}$.

  6. Acceleration and Special Relativity

    CERN Document Server

    Yahalomi, E M

    2000-01-01

    The integration of acceleration over time before reaching the uniformvelocity turns out to be the source of all the special relativity effects. Itexplains physical phenomena like clocks comparisons. The equations forspace-time, mass and energy are presented. This phenomenon complements theexplanation for the twins paradox. A Universal reference frame is obtained.

  7. Prejudice and Race Relations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mack, Raymond W., Ed.

    Contents of this book comprises: Introduction--A decade of change; (1) Race and its consequences: Beliefs and acts; (2) Race relations in different societies: A comparative perspective; (3) Implementing discrimination: the institutional impact of prejudice; (4) Leaders in change: A set of profiles; and (5) Options facing Americans: Pathos to…

  8. Academicians and Race Relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hildebrand, Robert F.

    1972-01-01

    Discusses the activities and attitudes of a group of academicians active in one area of current social change--race relations--in a mideastern urban area, with respect to their roles and their institutions' roles in the current social change. (Author/JM)

  9. Lessons in Human Relations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glenn, Joanne Lozar

    2003-01-01

    Explores the importance of relationship literacy--the ability to create good relationships with others--in the next economy and offers perspectives on how business education instructors can help students develop and improve their human relations skills for business success. (Author/JOW)

  10. Challenging Scandinavian employment relations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ibsen, Christian Lyhne; Larsen, Trine Pernille; Madsen, Jørgen Steen

    2011-01-01

    and employment relations in the Danish, Norwegian and Swedish public sector. In this paper, we argue that although differences exist across the Scandinavian countries, it is evident that they have managed to adopt and implement NPM-inspired reforms without dismantling their universal welfare services and strong...

  11. relatives in Butajira, Ethiopia

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The occurrence of psychosocial problems related to epilepsy is well recognized and in certain situations could even be ... schizophrenia and bipolar disorder project, has also initiated treatment for ..... patients or parents who _are taking care of their children .... Bury M. The sociology of chronic illness: A review.

  12. Related Drupal Nodes Block

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Vegt, Wim

    2010-01-01

    Related Drupal Nodes Block This module exposes a block that uses Latent Semantic Analysis (Lsa) internally to suggest three nodes that are relevant to the node a user is viewing. This module performs three tasks. 1) It periodically indexes a Drupal site and generates a Lsa Term Document Matrix. Inde

  13. Peer Relations in Childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hay, Dale F.; Payne, Alexandra; Chadwick, Andrea

    2004-01-01

    We present a developmental model that describes normal peer relations and highlights processes that underlie the emergence of problems with peers in childhood. We propose that children's relationships with peers begin in the first years of life, with stable individual differences and preferences for particular peers emerging by three years of age.…

  14. Related Addictive Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buck, Tina; Sales, Amos

    This paper provides an overview of addiction related to substance abuse. It provides basic information, prevalence, diagnostic criteria, assessment tools, and treatment issues for eating disorders, compulsive gambling, sex addictions, and work addictions. Eating disorders such as anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa, especially affect adolescents.…

  15. Relating BIP and Reo

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dokter, K.P.C.; Jongmans, S.-S.T.Q.; Arbab, F.; Bliudze, S.; Knight, S.; Lanese, I.; Lluch Lafuente, A.; Vieira, H.T.

    2015-01-01

    Coordination languages simplify design and development of concurrent systems. Particularly, exogenous coordination languages, like BIP and Reo, enable system designers to express the interactions among components in a system explicitly. In this paper we establish a formal relation between BI(P) (i.e

  16. International Relations in France

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Breitenbauch, Henrik Ø.

    Why is the French International Relations (IR) discipline different from the transnational-American discipline? By analysing argument structures in research articles across time, this book shows how the discipline in France is caught between the American character of the discipline and the French...

  17. Heat-Related Illnesses

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Fact Sheet Health & Safety Tips Campaigns SUBSCRIBE Emergencies A-Z Share this! Home » Emergency 101 Heat-Related ... if the person becomes unconscious. READ IN EMERGENCIES A-Z Listen to your Symptoms - When To Seek ...

  18. Relational Aggression among Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Ellie L.; Nelson, David A.; Hottle, America B.; Warburton, Brittney; Young, Bryan K.

    2011-01-01

    "Relational aggression" refers to harm within relationships caused by covert bullying or manipulative behavior. Examples include isolating a youth from his or her group of friends (social exclusion), threatening to stop talking to a friend (the silent treatment), or spreading gossip and rumors by email. This type of bullying tends to be…

  19. Om evalueringsforskningens relative autonomi

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2008-01-01

    Det empiriske udgangspunkt for artiklen "Om evalueringsforskningens relative autonomi - dansk normal evalueringsforskning som et ikke-autonomt (sub)felt i magtens felt" er en række tekster af fire dominerende danske evalueringsforskere. Det teoretiske udgangspunkt er især Pierre Bourdieus teori om...

  20. Can Relations be Designed?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skou, Niels Peter; Mikkelsen, Mette

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines the role of design methods in a social innovation project on a Danish Institution for severely physically and mentally handicapped people. The project was focused on ‘designing’ new or better relations between the residents at the institution and the civil society. During the ...