WorldWideScience

Sample records for nonprofit organization designed

  1. Professionalism and nonprofit organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majone, G

    1984-01-01

    Many professionals prefer to work in nonprofit organizations, rather than in either for-profit or bureaucratic organizations. This preference suggests that nonprofits may be successful in reducing the tension between professional principles and institutional requirements. Professionals in for-profit organizations must submit to the control of a manager who is motivated to overrule them whenever their decisions come into conflict with the goal of profit maximization. Bureaucratic organizations stress predictability of results and adherence to rules as the overriding criteria of evaluation and control. This paper argues that nonprofits are on the whole superior from the point of view of professional ideology and practice. Thus, given a commitment to the values of professionalism, the preference for the nonprofit form becomes understandable, even without the usual assumptions about income-maximizing behavior.

  2. Budgeting in Nonprofit Organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Lauren

    1985-01-01

    This description of the role of budgets in nonprofit organizations uses libraries as an example. Four types of budgets--legislative, management, cash, and capital--are critiqued in terms of cost effectiveness, implementation, and facilitation of organizational control and objectives. (CLB)

  3. 32 CFR 37.1315 - Nonprofit organization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Nonprofit organization. 37.1315 Section 37.1315... organization. (a) Any corporation, trust, association, cooperative or other organization that: (1) Is operated... of the organization. (b) The term includes any nonprofit institution of higher education or nonprofit...

  4. 22 CFR 228.32 - Nonprofit organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Nonprofit organizations. 228.32 Section 228.32 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT RULES ON SOURCE, ORIGIN AND NATIONALITY FOR... USAID Financing § 228.32 Nonprofit organizations. (a) Nonprofit organizations, such as educational...

  5. 25 CFR 700.83 - Nonprofit organization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Nonprofit organization. 700.83 Section 700.83 Indians THE OFFICE OF NAVAJO AND HOPI INDIAN RELOCATION COMMISSION OPERATIONS AND RELOCATION PROCEDURES General Policies and Instructions Definitions § 700.83 Nonprofit organization. The term nonprofit organization...

  6. Development Professionals at Religiously Based Nonprofit Organizations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jim Pinder

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The study of why a fundraising professional would choose to leave his or her employer is critical to the ongoing success of religiously based nonprofit organizations as they work to achieve their mission. Without continuity in the donor relationship, donors will likely leave the organization or become disenfranchised. This study focuses on development professionals at Seventh-Day Adventist institutions across North America. The results of this study are applicable to other religiously based nonprofit organizations. The present article reveals the reasons affecting employee retention and proposes approaches to mitigate the loss of valuable employees. Data were gathered using a structured online survey and analyzed for its descriptive outcomes.

  7. Organizational resilience: Nonprofit organizations' response to change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witmer, Hope; Mellinger, Marcela Sarmiento

    2016-05-24

    Organizational resilience refers to the ability to respond productively to significant disruptive change and transform challenges into opportunities. There is a gap in the literature about resilient nonprofit organizations and its application for identifying organizational conditions for successful adaption to external variables that threaten their existence. The aim of this study was to identify organizational characteristics that point to the resilience of nonprofit behavioral healthcare organizations as they successfully adapt to funding changes. A multiple case study of two behavioral health nonprofit organizations was conducted. Data was collected through interviews and focus groups, and analyzed through a qualitative content analysis. Using the framework of resilience, six themes that equipped these organizations to successfully adapt to funding changes were identified. They included: commitment to the mission, improvisation, community reciprocity, servant and transformational leadership, hope and optimism, and fiscal transparency. The findings suggest that incorporating these qualities into an organizational system equips it to systematically adapt to funding changes and other disruptive challenges. Using resilience as a process and not simply an outcome after recovery, nonprofit organizations can have the capacity to continuously respond to challenges and provide uninterrupted and valuable services to society.

  8. User-centric technology design for nonprofit and civic engagements

    CERN Document Server

    Saeed, Saqib

    2014-01-01

    Due to the increased global political importance of the nonprofit sector, its technological support and organizational characteristics have become important fields of research. In order to conduct effective work, nonprofits need to communicate and coordinate effectively. However, such settings are generally characterized by a lack of resources, an absence of formal hierarchical structures and differences in languages and culture among the activists. Modern technologies could help nonprofit networks in improving their working. In order to design appropriate technological support for such settings, it is important to understand their work practices, which widely differ from traditional business organizations. This book aims to strengthen the body of knowledge by providing user studies and concepts related to user centered technology design process for nonprofit settings. The examination of ethnographic studies and user centered evaluation of IT artifacts in practice will further the understanding of design requ...

  9. Business-nonprofit partnerships as a driver of internal marketing in nonprofit organizations. Consequences for nonprofit performance and moderators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Ignacio Álvarez-González

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Nonprofit organizations (NPOs confront competitive pressures derived from complex economic and societal challenges. Their capacity to fulfil their mission increasingly depends on developing successful alliances with key external and internal stakeholders, including cooperative interorganizational relationships. In this context, the aim of this research is to analyze: (1 to which extent business-nonprofit partnerships (BNPPs foster the development of an internal marketing approach by NPOs; (2 the impact of this approach to human resource management on nonprofit performance; and (3 the possible moderating effect of the funding strategy of the nonprofit. This empirical research, based on a survey to a representative sample of Spanish NPOs, shows that cooperative relationships between nonprofit and business organizations are closely associated with a process of knowledge transfer, resulting in improved nonprofit performance; although these positive effects depend on the capacity of NPOs to generate income from commercial sources.

  10. Management trends: Internationalization of non-profit organizations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inić Branimir P.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Non-profit organizations are increasingly gaining importance in the modern economy with their development and their numbers increasing day by day. It is very important to note that non-profit organizations are often subject to various benefits that the for-profit companies are not. Thus, for example, preferential tax status of non-profit organizations is manifested primarily in the form of exemption from corporate income tax. In addition, private non-profit organizations enjoy various other state, local and federal taxes exemptions. Under certain conditions, these organizations are exempt from taxes on donations and membership fees. A feature that differentiates various non-profit organizations and profit-oriented companies is their source of income. Profit oriented companies depend on their income, obtained from sales of their goods or services to customers, who usually cover the price and cost of goods and services plus the profit. In contrast, nonprofit organizations are very dependent on membership fees, tax exemptions, members donations or depend on funds of the sponsoring agency which covers most of their costs, for example a federal government agency. Those non-profit organizations that have substantial operating costs beyond national borders and do not identify themselves as purely domestic in their mandate are International non-profit organizations. Most non-profit organizations remain in their national boundaries, on the territory of the country in which they were created, but a large number of non-profit organizations rapidly internationalize, and some larger non-profits have grown into important global actors. The paper includes the following sections: (1 introduction, (2 why is the 'non-profit' important, (3 the internationalization of non-profit organizations, (4 sources of income of non-profit organizations (4.1. causality of impact and of strategic decisions in cases pertaining to universities, (5 the limits of strategic

  11. The use of interest rate swaps by nonprofit organizations: evidence from nonprofit health care providers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Louis J; Trussel, John

    2006-01-01

    Although the use of derivatives, particularly interest rate swaps, has grown explosively over the past decade, derivative financial instrument use by nonprofits has received only limited attention in the research literature. Because little is known about the risk management activities of nonprofits, the impact of these instruments on the ability of nonprofits to raise capital may have significant public policy implications. The primary motivation of this study is to determine the types of derivatives used by nonprofits and estimate the frequency of their use among these organizations. Our study also extends contemporary finance theory by an empirical examination of the motivation for interest rate swap usage among nonprofits. Our empirical data came from 193 large nonprofit health care providers that issued debt to the public between 2000 and 2003. We used a univariate analysis and a multivariate analysis relying on logistic regression models to test alternative explanations of interest rate swaps usage by nonprofits, finding that more than 45 percent of our sample, 88 organizations, used interest rate swaps with an aggregate notional value in excess of $8.3 billion. Our empirical tests indicate the primary motive for nonprofits to use interest rate derivatives is to hedge their exposure to interest rate risk. Although these derivatives are a useful risk management tool, under conditions of falling bond market interest rates these derivatives may also expose a nonprofit swap user to the risk of a material unscheduled termination payment. Finally, we found considerable diversity in the informativeness of footnote disclosure among sample organizations that used interest rate swaps. Many nonprofits did not disclose these risks in their financial statements. In conclusion, we find financial managers in large nonprofits commonly use derivative financial instruments as risk management tools, but the use of interest rate swaps by nonprofits may expose them to other risks

  12. Comparative Corporate Governance of Non-Profit Organizations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Steen

    2014-01-01

    Based on the impressive work of Hopt and von Hippel (2010), I review the comparative corporate governance of non-profit organizations and propose topics for future research. There is evidence of agency problems in non-profit as well as for-profit organizations, but the governance mechanisms...

  13. Spokespersons in media campaigns of non-profit organizations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milovanović Dragana

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The subject of this research is how spokespersons can be used in campaigns of non-profit organizations, with a goal to increase their visibility and gain public support. Namely, many companies employ celebrities for their media campaigns as protagonists and promoters of brand values. With their appearance and engagement, celebrities transfer part of their image and credibility to the brand, which widens and enriches the field of associations which brands trigger in consumers' conscience. Non-profit organizations could get similar benefits out of these campaigns. In a society where there is a certain level of fascination with celebrities, i.e. celebrity culture, their influence can be used not only to attract attention to the goods, but also to ideas. The goal of the paper is to show how spokespersons can influence behavior and attitudes of the public by participating in media campaigns, and also the important aspects of choosing a spokesperson. The paper is supposed to be a starting point for practitioners,so they can design creative ideas based on this technique on the non-profit organizations market, especially in Serbia.

  14. Ambidexterity in non-profit, voluntary organizations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aagaard, Peter

    Artiklen forbinder organisatorisk læring med strategisk ledelse af nonprofit, frivillige organisationer. Den forklarer hvor de to forbundne strategiske udfordringer – frivilligt engagement og organisatorisk læring kan håndteres ved at anvende indsigt fra litteraturen om udforskning og udnyttelse ...

  15. Grants Management Guidance for Non-Profit Organizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    This guidance is intended to provide non-profit grant recipients with information to ensure that their organizations remain in compliance with the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR), Office of Management (OMB) cost principles, and the terms and conditions.

  16. Sustainability of Rural Nonprofit Organizations: Czech Republic and Beyond

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladislav Valentinov

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Sustainability of nonprofit organizations is a key concern for today’s nonprofit scholars and practitioners. Building upon the nonprofit economics literature, the present paper introduces the distinction between the demand-side and supply-side determinants of nonprofit sustainability and makes the case for the discrepancy between them. This discrepancy presents not only a generic conceptual explanation of the nonprofit sustainability problems but is also applicable to the context of the European rural nonprofit sector. Three arguments are advanced. First, the notorious implementation problems of LEADER partnerships can be explained as a manifestation of the above discrepancy. Second, and related, the rural context implies the tendency of the supply-side determinants of nonprofit sustainability to undermine the demand-side ones. Third, recent empirical findings from the Czech Republic show that this tendency does not necessarily imply the possibility of a clear classification of the demand-side and supply-side sustainability determinants. Rather, those features of rural areas and communities that significantly affect the size of the local nonprofit sector exhibit a controversial entanglement of demand-side and supply-side identities.

  17. Social media for non-profit organizations in Vietnam

    OpenAIRE

    Nguyen, Thy

    2016-01-01

    The thesis presents about social media in general and social media for non-profit organizations in Vietnam in particular. The writer wanted to explore the disadvantages that non-profits in Vietnam face when using social media and search for recommendations which helps them to use it more efficiently. In the theoretic part, core concepts related to social media were introduced, namely, definition of social media, its types, the popular platforms, situation of social media in Vietnam, pros...

  18. Managing corporate governance risks in a nonprofit health care organization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troyer, Glenn T; Brashear, Andrea D; Green, Kelly J

    2005-01-01

    Triggered by corporate scandals, there is increased oversight by governmental bodies and in part by the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002. Corporations are developing corporate governance compliance initiatives to respond to the scrutiny of regulators, legislators, the general public and constituency groups such as investors. Due to state attorney general initiatives, new legislation and heightened oversight from the Internal Revenue Service, nonprofit entities are starting to share the media spotlight with their for-profit counterparts. These developments are changing nonprofit health care organizations as well as the traditional role of the risk manager. No longer is the risk manager focused solely on patients' welfare and safe passage through a complex delivery system. The risk manager must be aware of corporate practices within the organization that could allow the personal objectives of a few individuals to override the greater good of the community in which the nonprofit organization serves.

  19. Non-Profit Organizations in a Bureaucratic Environment

    OpenAIRE

    Grout, Paul; Schnedler, Wendelin

    2008-01-01

    How does the environment of an organization influence whether workers voluntarily provide effort? We study the power relationship between a non-profit unit (e.g. university department, NGO, health trust), where workers care about the result of their work, and a bu- reaucrat, who supplies some input to the non-profit unit, but has opportunity costs in doing so (e.g. Dean of faculty, corrupt representative, government agency). We find that marginal changes in the balance of power eventually hav...

  20. STRATEGIC MANAGEMENT IN NONPROFIT AND PUBLIC ORGANIZATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioan NICOLAE

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Strategic management in public organizations can use coerciveness as a keyelement of their strategy. Private organizations are more dependent onmarketing or selling to potential customers. As publicness increases,marketing declines in importance and maintaining favorable coercivearrangements increases in importance. Strategic managers should be awareof coercive opportunities in their mandates as they fashion strategy anddevise implementation plans.

  1. Use of direct marketing in nonprofit organizations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Popović Ana

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Non profit organizations represent very heterogenus group of organizations which can be determined by the fact that they are being used as forums for creation and distribution of new ideas. Their aim is to raise public awareness on the purpose they promote and get the reply for their initiatives for gaining support in form of monetary sources for charities, vote for political candidate or achieving a communicational goal. Non governmental organizations, as the dominant form of non profit organizations, are being founded with mission to raise public awareness on some issue or provide help to certain marginalized group. The direct marketing instruments and techniques are considered to be very useful for achieving mission formulated that way. They are, by their nature, precisely targeted and objective-oriented and require direct reply. Apart from that, direct marketing activities are cost-efficient, costs that they generate can be shown in financial reports, and results of undertaken initiatives are directly measurable. All the mentioned lead to conclusion that direct marketing is, for additional reasons, even more appropriate for NPOs having in mind that they usually have limited available resources. In the relevant literature two main roles of direct marketing in non profit organizations are mentioned - managing relations with representatives of stakeholder groups and fundraising. In this paper, therefore, after the facts referring functioning of NPOs, direct marketing strategies used for mentioned purposes will be presented consequently.

  2. Can Management Practices Make a Difference? Nonprofit Organization Financial Performance during Times of Economic Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    QIAN HU

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The economic crisis presented unprecedented challenges to nonprofit organizations to sustain their services. In this study, we examined both financial and management factors that influence the financial performance of nonprofit organizations during times of economic stress. In particular, we investigated whether strategic planning and plan implementation, revenue diversification, and board involvement help nonprofit organizations deal with financial uncertainty and strengthen financial performance. Despite the negative impacts that the economic downturn had on nonprofit organizations, we found that the implementation of strategic plans can help nonprofit organizations reduce financial vulnerability. Our findings call attention to key management factors that influence the financial performance of nonprofit organizations.

  3. Polish and Silesian Non-Profit Organizations Liquidity Strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grzegorz Michalski

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The kind of realized mission inflows the sensitivity to risk. Among other factors, the risk results from decision about liquid assets investment level and liquid assets financing. The higher the risk exposure, the higher the level of liquid assets. If the specific risk exposure is smaller, the more aggressive could be the net liquid assets strategy. The organization choosing between various solutions in liquid assets needs to decide what level of risk is acceptable for her owners (or donors and / or capital suppliers. The paper shows how, in authors opinion, decisions, about liquid assets management strategy inflow the risk of the organizations and its economicalresults during realization of main mission. Comparison of theoretical model with empirical data for over 450 Silesian nonprofit organization results suggests that nonprofit organization managing teams choose more risky aggressive liquid assets solutions than for-profit firms.

  4. TAX FRAMEWORK AND SUSTAINABILITY OF NONPROFIT ORGANIZATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heloisa Candia Hollnagel

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The Third Sector entities are relevant to attend to social issues, but the advance on the application of information technology in the public sector and the convergence of databases have brought new requirements for accounting professionals. Particularly, the fiscal framework of the National Classification of Economic Activities (NACE or CNAE in Portuguese is a matter with insufficient academic approach or professional regulation. This article analyzes the impact of incorrect framework for the sustainability of social assistance entities, due to changes introduced by Law No. 12.101/2009. This exploratory study is based on literature, field research (questionnaires with 102 entities in São Paulo, analysis of the codes of NCEA National Register of Legal Entities (CNPJ and their registration in the municipal councils. Initial results indicate that most organizations have not yet found the need to registering themselves, which can make it difficult for obtaining resources and enrollment in public agencies, including negative financial impact. The theme is noteworthy to avoid risk penalty for incorrect tax reporting, therefore it is relevant for accountancy professionals of that type of organization.

  5. The Proposal of the Changes in the Taxation of Income of the Non-profit Organizations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milena Otavová

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper is focused on the issue of the taxation of incomes of the non-governmental non-profit organizations, especially the civic associations in the conditions of the Czech Republic and in the selected countries of the European Union (Austria, Slovakia, Germany. The main emphasis is put on the comparison of the corporate income tax of the studied countries. Particularly the tax benefits that are provided to the non-profit organizations in the individual countries are compared here. This paper points to the current situation in the Czech Republic, where there is no clear legislation that would regulate the activities by the studied organizations. Changes in the taxation of the incomes of non-profit organizations are designed to eliminate absences with regard to the simplicity and clarity of the individual provisions, and also to prevent misuse of the benefits and to the speculative behavior of tax entities.

  6. Nonprofit organizations versus government agencies to reduce tobacco use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carver, Vivien; Reinert, Bonita; Range, Lillian M; Campbell, Catherine; Boyd, Nicole

    2003-01-01

    Tobacco settlement money can be allocated to nonprofit organizations or government agencies. Both have advantages and disadvantages. Nonprofit organizations may have relatively (a) more efficiency/flexibility, but less accountability; (b) narrower focus, but less experience; (c) more ability to advocate, but more obligations; (d) more independence from tobacco industry influence, but less funding; and, (e) more public trust, but less visibility. The present case study of the Partnership for a Healthy Mississippi focuses on six interconnected areas: education (school and community), raising awareness, advocacy, service, enforcement, and research. In 1999 and 2000, tobacco use declined in Mississippi, even compared to neighboring states. This unique partnership's multifaceted approach to social change probably facilitated this decline.

  7. The role and importance of Non-Profit Organizations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicoleta Ciucescu

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available In a complex and challenging background of the whole country, and the NGO sector also, the non-profit organizations are established with the aim of providing public services to communities where they operate, making them as an intermediary between citizens and authorities. In any democratic society these organizations are meant to serve different types of needs and interests of the community, from both a strategic perspective and ethics, that those which are not covered by other categories of institutions and organizations, mean time providing a framework for civic participation, where citizens may participate to the public life.

  8. Using creative problem solving (CPS) to improve leadership in a non-profit organization

    OpenAIRE

    Sousa, Fernando; Castelão, Paula; Monteiro, Ileana Pardal; Pellissier, René

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of the Creative Problem Solving (CPS) method in improving the leadership process in a non-profit organization. The research was designed around an intervention and structured in three stages (pre-consult, intervention and follow-up), with a team designated by management, in order to bring leadership cohesion to both departments of the organization and also between the board and executive management. The results, expressed in the task...

  9. Nonprofit financial assessment and research service learning: Evaluating the performance of an animal welfare nonprofit organization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen A. Maguire

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this project is to evaluate the current financial and compliance status of an animal welfare nonprofit organization (NPO by: analysis of trends over time using information reported on tax filings (Form 990; vertical and horizontal analyses of financial statements; analysis of trends over time using information from financial statements; reconciliation of financial statements to Form 990; ratio analysis of Form 990 Information; and comparison of reported information to local analogs and national standards. This project is conducted in collaboration with The Chapin Foundation. This research serves as a research service learning project with the participation of Master of Accountancy graduate students at Coastal Carolina University. Once the results are presented, recommendations are given for improving operational efficiency and achieving best practices. These recommendations are presented in the form of both short-term items to be addressed immediately—defined in this study as within 60 days—and long-term items to be undertaken in the future. Resources for applicable standards and requirements are also provided.

  10. Designing and implementing a balanced scorecard: lessons learned in nonprofit implementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gumbus, Andra; Wilson, Tom

    2004-01-01

    The balanced scorecard has been referred to as the management innovation of the century, and extensive articles have been written using case studies of organizations that use this performance measurement system. This article addresses the key issues of design and implementation with a step-by-step guide to how to design a balanced scorecard and lessons to avoid implementation problems in government and nonprofit settings.

  11. CSR and Sustainability Report for Nonprofit Organizations. An Italian Best Practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrizia GAZZOLA

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to analyze the sustainability report for the communication of Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR in a nonprofit organization. To this aim, an Italian case study is analyzed: the Fondazione Renato Piatti Onlus, a nonprofit organization of Social Utility. In the first part, we analyze the CSR for nonprofit organizations and the sustainability report (also called ‘social balance’. In the second part, we present evidence from the case study. The research is exploratory in nature when considering the connection of corporate social responsibility efforts to the nonprofit sector, a qualitative methodology was chosen over quantitative methods. Specifically, the case study was used to show what strategy a nonprofit organization can develop. Nowadays CSR strategies received a growing attention from both businesses and nonprofit organizations but also from the EU which forced large public-interest entities to present a social balance. For nonprofit organizations, applying social responsibility is not a voluntary issue. Nonprofit organizations have an ethical obligation to their stakeholder and to the public to conduct their activities with accountability and transparency. Scholars have increasingly been studying the impact of corporate social responsibility as a business strategy in for-profit companies. However, there is still lack of researches on how nonprofit organizations implement CSR into the strategy. As a consequence of the above remarks, a large part of nonprofit organizations fails to correctly implement a successful long term CSR strategy. The Fondazione Renato Piatti Onlus belongs to that group that has been able to incorporate social responsibility within the organization, then expanding its content into a social report drawn up in accordance with the guidelines of the Italian Agency for the Third Sector.

  12. Taxation of Non-profit Organizations in the Selected European Countries: the Proposal of the Changes for the Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milena Otavová

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper is focused on the issue of taxation of income of non-profit organizations, especially to associations (clubs in the Czech Republic, Slovakia and the United Kingdom. This paper is part of research, where the main emphasis is placed on the comparison of the tax benefits which are provided to non-profit organizations in different countries. This paper points to the current situation in the Czech Republic where despite the changes that have occurred in connection with the new Civil Code, there is still missing clear legislation that would regulate the activities of the monitored organizations. Changes in the taxation of income of non-profit organizations are designed with regard to the elimination of deficiencies in order to prevent the abuse of the benefits and the speculative behavior of tax entities.

  13. Traditions and Management Perspectives of Community and Non-Profit Organizations in Lithuania

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    Andrius Stasiukynas

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose – To overview the traditions and management perspectives of community and non-profit organizations in Lithuania.Methodology – For the purpose of this research a literature analysis on community and non-profit organization case studies was conducted. The case studies describing stories of success were singled out and leaders of these organizations were interviewed.Findings – The research has showed the growth of the number of community and nonprofit organizations during the last twenty years and the difficulties of collecting the statistical data. This study presupposes the possibility to identify the tendencies of management in community and non-profit organizations, including the following: increasing use of the social networks for communication; proliferation of strategic planning; greater emphasis on educating and empowering new generation of leaders.Research implications – Prior studies in this area in Lithuania have not exhaustively analyzed the components of human resource management of non-profit organizations. An important follow up on this study would be to analyze the human resource management in community organizations.Practical implications – This study covered the management aspects important for the improvement of how community and non-profit organizations work.Originality/Value – This study expands the knowledge on Lithuanian community and non-profit organization development and management.Research type – literature review, research paper.

  14. Building stakeholder relations online: How nonprofit organizations use dialogic and relational maintenance strategies on Facebook

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Wissen, N.; Wonneberger, A.

    2017-01-01

    Although Facebook provides organizations with the opportunity to easily engage with stakeholders online, very little is known about the effectiveness of organizational communication strategies. This study examines how nonprofit organizations (NPOs) use Facebook to engage with stakeholders through

  15. Impact of Sarbanes-Oxley and IRS Form 990 on Nonprofit Organizations in Pennsylvania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kisow, Matthew R.

    2011-01-01

    The Sarbanes-Oxley Act, an attempt to reform publicly traded companies that suffered from a series of scandalous failures in the late 1990's, did not apply to nonprofit organizations. Several high-profile scandals which occurred in the nonprofit sector between 1996 and 2002 led lawmakers to make several unsuccessful attempts at mandating that the…

  16. Person-Organization Commitment: Bonds of Internal Consumer in the Context of Non-profit Organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juaneda-Ayensa, Emma; Clavel San Emeterio, Mónica; González-Menorca, Carlos

    2017-01-01

    From an Organizational Behavior perspective, it is important to recognize the links generated between individuals and the organization that encourage a desire for permanence. After more than a half century of research, Organizational Commitment remains one of the open questions in the Psychology of Organizations. It is considered an essential factor for explaining individual behavior in the organization such as satisfaction, turnover intention, or loyalty. In this paper, we analyze different contributions regarding the nature of the bond between the individual and the organization. Taking into account the peculiarities of Non-profit Organizations, we present different interpretation for later validation, comparing results from the Confirmatory Factor Analysis of the four models obtained using exploratory factor analysis, both conducted on a sample of 235 members of Non-profit Organizations.

  17. STARTING DETERMINANTS OF STRATEGIC APPROACH TO MARKETING OF NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS: THEORETICAL ELABORATION

    OpenAIRE

    Pavičić, Jurica

    2001-01-01

    Non-profit organizations have remarkably important role in contemporary societies since they participate in solutions of numerous problems which enable or prevent functioning of society in an optimal way. In this, systematic application of marketing influences more efficient activity of non-profit organizations in practice, and by this indirectly contributes to better solution of social problems. If qualitative or systematic application of marketing is observed from the aspect of forming and ...

  18. The Application of the Sfas No.45 on Financial Reporting in the Non-profit Organization Nurul Huda Mosque Kawangkoan

    OpenAIRE

    Walandouw, Stanley Kho; Mangkona, Sri Wardana Saleh

    2015-01-01

    Organization are founded by the public due to the similarity of interests, both in the realization of human nature as well as to meet their needs. Based on the objectives, the organization can be divided into non-profit organizations and commercial organizations. There is a fundamental difference between nonprofit organizations and commercial organizations, the IAI makes SFAS No.45 which regulates the financial statements of non-profit organizations. The purpose of this study is to see whethe...

  19. Understanding the density of nonprofit organizations across Los Angeles neighborhoods: Does concentrated disadvantage and violent crime matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wo, James C

    2018-03-01

    Although some urban sociology perspectives suggest how certain sociodeomgraphic characteristics influence nonprofit development, there is a dearth of empirical research to assess neighborhood differences in nonprofit organizations. The goal of the current study is to build upon the extant literature by examining how both concentrated disadvantage and violent crime impact nonprofit density across neighborhoods. Using data from Los Angeles census tracts from 2010 to 2012, I test for linear and nonlinear influences that these two neighborhood factors might exert on nonprofit density. Poisson regression models show that concentrated disadvantage has a nonlinear (U-shaped) effect on all forms of nonprofit density, whereas violent crime has a linear and deleterious effect on all forms of nonprofit density. These results provide important new insights for urban sociology and policy; most importantly, the extent to which neighborhoods with ongoing social problems can later respond to such problems via access to nonprofit organizations. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Healthcare public key infrastructure (HPKI) and non-profit organization (NPO): essentials for healthcare data exchange.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeda, Hiroshi; Matsumura, Yasushi; Nakagawa, Katsuhiko; Teratani, Tadamasa; Qiyan, Zhang; Kusuoka, Hideo; Matsuoka, Masami

    2004-01-01

    To share healthcare information and to promote cooperation among healthcare providers and customers (patients) under computerized network environment, a non-profit organization (NPO), named as OCHIS, was established at Osaka, Japan in 2003. Since security and confidentiality issues on the Internet have been major concerns in the OCHIS, the system has been based on healthcare public key infrastructure (HPKI), and found that there remained problems to be solved technically and operationally. An experimental study was conducted to elucidate the central and the local function in terms of a registration authority and a time stamp authority by contracting with the Ministry of Economics and Trading Industries in 2003. This paper describes the experimental design with NPO and the results of the study concerning message security and HPKI. The developed system has been operated practically in Osaka urban area.

  1. THEORIZING HYBRIDITY: INSTITUTIONAL LOGICS, COMPLEX ORGANIZATIONS, AND ACTOR IDENTITIES: THE CASE OF NONPROFITS

    Science.gov (United States)

    SKELCHER, CHRIS; SMITH, STEVEN RATHGEB

    2015-01-01

    We propose a novel approach to theorizing hybridity in public and nonprofit organizations. The concept of hybridity is widely used to describe organizational responses to changes in governance, but the literature seldom explains how hybrids arise or what forms they take. Transaction cost and organizational design literatures offer some solutions, but lack a theory of agency. We use the institutional logics approach to theorize hybrids as entities that face a plurality of normative frames. Logics provide symbolic and material elements that structure organizational legitimacy and actor identities. Contradictions between institutional logics offer space for them to be elaborated and creatively reconstructed by situated agents. We propose five types of organizational hybridity – segmented, segregated, assimilated, blended, and blocked. Each type is theoretically derived from empirically observed variations in organizational responses to institutional plurality. We develop propositions to show how our approach to hybridity adds value to academic and policy-maker audiences. PMID:26640298

  2. THEORIZING HYBRIDITY: INSTITUTIONAL LOGICS, COMPLEX ORGANIZATIONS, AND ACTOR IDENTITIES: THE CASE OF NONPROFITS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skelcher, Chris; Smith, Steven Rathgeb

    2015-06-01

    We propose a novel approach to theorizing hybridity in public and nonprofit organizations. The concept of hybridity is widely used to describe organizational responses to changes in governance, but the literature seldom explains how hybrids arise or what forms they take. Transaction cost and organizational design literatures offer some solutions, but lack a theory of agency. We use the institutional logics approach to theorize hybrids as entities that face a plurality of normative frames. Logics provide symbolic and material elements that structure organizational legitimacy and actor identities. Contradictions between institutional logics offer space for them to be elaborated and creatively reconstructed by situated agents. We propose five types of organizational hybridity - segmented, segregated, assimilated, blended, and blocked. Each type is theoretically derived from empirically observed variations in organizational responses to institutional plurality. We develop propositions to show how our approach to hybridity adds value to academic and policy-maker audiences.

  3. Leadership and characteristics of nonprofit mental health peer-run organizations nationwide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostrow, Laysha; Hayes, Stephania L

    2015-04-01

    Mental health peer-run organizations are nonprofits providing venues for support and advocacy among people diagnosed as having mental disorders. It has been proposed that consumer involvement is essential to their operations. This study reported organizational characteristics of peer-run organizations nationwide and how these organizations differ by degree of consumer control. Data were from the 2012 National Survey of Peer-Run Organizations. The analyses described the characteristics of the organizations (N=380) on five domains of nonprofit research, comparing results for organizations grouped by degree of involvement by consumers in the board of directors. Peer-run organizations provided a range of supports and educational and advocacy activities and varied in their capacity and resources. Some variation was explained by the degree of consumer control. These organizations seemed to be operating consistently with evidence on peer-run models. The reach of peer-run organizations, and the need for in-depth research, continues to grow.

  4. The Exemption of Nonprofit Organizations from Federal Income Taxation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bittker, Boris; Rahdert, George K.

    1976-01-01

    The tax status and problems of various public service and mutual benefit organizations are reviewed. Focus is on tax rates and exemptions of: charitable organizations; educational institutions; scientific organizations; foundations; religious and social welfare organizations; social clubs; cooperatives; labor unions; and business leagues. (LBH)

  5. Evaluating Outsourcing Information Technology and Assurance Expertise by Small Non-Profit Organizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guinn, Fillmore

    2013-01-01

    Small non-profit organizations outsource at least one information technology or information assurance process. Outsourcing information technology and information assurance processes has increased every year. The study was to determine the key reasons behind the choice to outsource information technology and information assurance processes. Using…

  6. Mind the Gap: A Case Study of Values-Based Decision Making in a Nonprofit Organization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craft, Jana L.

    2013-01-01

    Using an exploratory case study approach, this research examined the consistency between espoused and enacted values within a large nonprofit organization known as an ethical leader in the human services industry. This research explored ethical business culture, ethical decision making, deontological and utilitarian moral paradigms and learning…

  7. 48 CFR 731.770 - OMB Circular A-122, cost principles for nonprofit organizations; USAID implementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false OMB Circular A-122, cost principles for nonprofit organizations; USAID implementation. 731.770 Section 731.770 Federal Acquisition Regulations System AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT GENERAL CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS CONTRACT COST...

  8. Digital marketing plan for a non-profit organization. Case: Nordic ASEAN Business Forum Ry

    OpenAIRE

    Ngo, Chi

    2017-01-01

    The Internet is changing people’s lives as well as the way organizations operate. In fact, digitalization and digital marketing are considered essential in organization’s operations. In this context, the capability to facilitate and master digital marketing becomes a key asset of an organization to stay competitive. This project-based thesis was commissioned by Nordic ASEAN Business Forum (NABF), a non-profit organization based in Helsinki, Finland. The need for the thesis comes from the ...

  9. Aplication`s Aspects Of Public Relations By Nonprofit Organizations. Case Study Albania

    OpenAIRE

    Xhiliola Agaraj(Shehu); Merita Murati; Valbona Gjini

    2011-01-01

    The traditional public relations manager is usually responsible for maintaining and enhancing the reputation of the organization among key publics. While the principal focus of this effort is on support publics, it is quite clearly recognized that an organization's image has important effects on its own employees, its donors and volunteers, and its clients. The aim of paper is to define application`s aspects of public relations media and tools by nonprofit organizations in Albanian reality. A...

  10. Win-Win-Win: Reflections from a Work-Integrated Learning Project in a Non-Profit Organization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dale C MacKrell

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports on the educational aspects of an information systems work-integrated learning (WIL capstone project for an organization which operates to alleviate homelessness in the Australian non-profit sector. The methodology adopted for the study is Action Design Research (ADR which draws on action research and design research as a means for framing a project's progress. Reflective insights by the project stakeholders, namely, students, academics, and the non-profit client, reveal a curriculum at work through internal features of the organization; personal features of the participants and features of the external environment. Preliminary findings suggest that students in a WIL project for a non-profit are highly engaged, especially when they become aware of the project’s social value. As well, the improvement of professional skills and emotional intelligence by students is more likely in real-life practice settings than in other less authentic WIL activities, equipping graduates for the workforce with both strong disciplinary and generic skills. Win-win-win synergies through project collaboration represent worthwhile outcomes to education, industry and research.

  11. Polish and Silesian Non-Profit Organizations Liquidity Strategies

    OpenAIRE

    Michalski, Grzegorz; Mercik, Aleksander

    2013-01-01

    The kind of realized mission inflows the sensitivity to risk. Among other factors, the risk results from decision about liquid assets investment level and liquid assets financing. The higher the risk exposure, the higher the level of liquid assets. If the specific risk exposure is smaller, the more aggressive could be the net liquid assets strategy. The organization choosing between various solutions in liquid assets needs to decide what level of risk is acceptable for her owners (or donors) ...

  12. Unwanted horses: The role of nonprofit equine rescue and sanctuary organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holcomb, K E; Stull, C L; Kass, P H

    2010-12-01

    Closure of US equine slaughter facilities in 2007 along with the concomitant economic recession have contributed to a sharp increase in the number of unwanted horses throughout the United States, with estimates totaling 100,000 horses per year. The objective of the study was to obtain comprehensive data regarding nonprofit organizations caring for unwanted horses, along with the characteristics and outcome of horses relinquished to these organizations. Nonprofit organizations that accept relinquished equines were contacted to participate in a 90-question survey. Responding organizations (144 of 326 eligible) in 37 states provided information on 280 cases representative of the 7,990 horses relinquished between 2007 and 2009. Data collected characterized these organizations as being in existence for 6 yr, financially supported through donations and personal funds, dedicated to the care of only 10 to 20 horses on a property of just over 30 acres, and reliant on volunteers for help. Funding was the greatest challenge to continued operation of nonprofit equine organizations, with maintenance costs for the care of a relinquished horse averaging $3,648 per year. Financial hardship, physical inability, or lack of time to care for the horses by owners were the most common reasons for relinquishment, followed by seizure through law enforcement agencies for alleged neglect or abuse. Relinquished horses consisted of mostly light horse breeds (79.3%), with Thoroughbreds and Quarter Horses as the most represented breeds. The age of relinquished horses ranged from 3 d to 42 yr old (12.4 ± 0.5 yr). About one-half of the horses entered in the survey were considered unhealthy due to illness, injury, lameness, or poor body condition. For every 4 horses relinquished to a nonprofit organization, only 3 horses were adopted or sold between 2006 and 2009, and many organizations had refused to accept additional horses for lack of resources. The estimated maximum capacity for the 326

  13. Nonprofit Organizations as Ideal Type of Socially Responsible and Impact Investors

    OpenAIRE

    Fritz, Tizian M.; von Schnurbein, Georg

    2015-01-01

    Nonprofit organizations (NPOs) as mission-driven organizations could profit from investing in stocks diametrically opposed to their mission, as they serve as a perfect hedge. Earning more income from oil or tobacco companies when there is a greater need for ecological interventions or cancer research might help effectively fighting the cause. We show the flaw in this logic as in its optimal state, this strategy is at most a financial zero-sum game. However, as NPOs strive at creating net valu...

  14. Exploring Reasons for the Resistance to Sustainable Management within Non-Profit Organizations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claus-Heinrich Daub

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The numerous empirical and conceptual studies that have been conducted over recent years concerning the social responsibility of enterprises and their contributions towards sustainable development have given very little consideration to non-profit organizations (NPOs. This is surprising, because NPOs are confronted with very similar challenges to profit-orientated enterprises regarding their evolution into sustainable organizations. This paper is a preliminary conceptual study and explores the question of why the corporate social responsibility, or corporate sustainability, of NPOs has to date been both neglected by research establishments and also extensively ignored by the NPOs during their day-to-day practical management. The example of church and pastoral institutions in Germany is used to demonstrate the extent to which they take account of ecological and social aspects in their management systems and processes and, thus, implement sustainable management within their day-to-day practice. The paper concludes with some proposals for further empirical and conceptual research projects, which are designed to analyze developments within NPOs with relation to the integration of sustainability into their management systems and processes.

  15. 76 FR 32377 - Audits of States, Local Governments, and Non-Profit Organizations; OMB Circular A-133 Compliance...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-06

    ... --a Federal E-Government Web site that allows the public to find, review, and submit comments on... OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET Audits of States, Local Governments, and Non-Profit Organizations... CFDA 84.938, [[Page 32378

  16. An Analysis of the Social Meanings of Conflict in Nonprofit Organizations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Elisabeth Naima

    2013-01-01

    This ethnographic study illustrates how staff and management’s sensemaking in conflict in a clerical unit in a Scandinavian nonprofit organization is shaped by institutionalized meanings. Staff and management draw on three institutionalized frameworks when making sense of conflict: The defective...... nonconfrontation as a main strategy in processes of conflict management. Despite the organization’s strong commitment to egalitarianism, the clerical workers view status inequality as the origin of many conflicts and they thereby draw from the same institutionalized meanings of political economy of distributional...... conflicts that the organization was founded to change. Implications for theory and practice are discussed....

  17. Strategic management and performance differences: nonprofit versus for-profit health organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeves, Terrie C; Ford, Eric W

    2004-01-01

    Despite mixed and contradictory findings, for-profits (FPs) and nonprofits (NPs) are assumed to be similar health services organizations (HSOs). In this study, a fifteen-item scale assessing HSOs' strategic management capacity was developed and tested using fifty-seven FP and twenty NP organizations. Then, using item response theory, the items were hierarchically profiled to produce two strategic profile models, a general and an FP anchored model. We find that deviation from the general profile, but not capability attainment level, is related to two of three financial measures. We conclude that studying FPs and NPs together is appropriate.

  18. Accountability, efficiency, and the "bottom line" in non-profit organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cutt, J

    1982-01-01

    Financial reporting by non-profit organizations deals only with accountability for propriety and regularity, and ignores output measurement. The development of output measures of a physical or index nature offers a means of relating dollar costs to output in the form of cost-efficiency or cost-effectiveness measures, but does not provide any measure of the absolute value or worthwhileness of such programs. This fundamental absolute value question should be asked of all non-profit programs and documented to the greatest possible extent in budgetary submissions, and subsequent control and audit. In public sector non-profit programs, the posing of this question requires information on consumer demand other than in aggregative and imprecise form through the political process, and much improved information on the cost side. Eliciting demand information is feasible in the case of public programs with separable benefits by the use of a variety of pricing techniques, direct or imputed, whether or not the service in question is ultimately financed on a user-pay basis. The problem of eliciting demand is more difficult in the case of public goods, but improved demand information can be obtained, ideally by an approach such as the use of a Clarke tax. The argument can be extended to encompass questions of income distribution, stabilization, regulation and tax policy. Recent developments in program evaluation in the federal government are important, but remain deficient in failing to address the question of absolute value.

  19. Designing Organizations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    changed dramatically with the advent of: new communication systems, adaptive mechanisms, information technology, knowledge management systems, innovation processes and more. This book systemically examines these developments and their impact on OD with contributions from leading scholars in the area....... The individual chapters are organized into five sections: (1) Putting Contingency Theory in its Place, (2) Focus on Individuals who make up the Organization, (3) Innovation Processes and Organization Design, (4) Adaptation and Technology, and (5) Design for Performance. Each chapter examines aspects of the books...... is a benchmark publication in the field of organization design. By focusing on recent developments in organization design, this book will help to create more thoughtful research and stronger empirical analyses in this important area of management and organization....

  20. Designing Organizations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Book Description The design of organizations has been an ongoing concern of management theory and practice over the past several decades. Over this time, there has been little change in the fundamental theory, principles and concepts of Organization Design (OD). Recently organizational life has...... changed dramatically with the advent of: new communication systems, adaptive mechanisms, information technology, knowledge management systems, innovation processes and more. This book systemically examines these developments and their impact on OD with contributions from leading scholars in the area...... is a benchmark publication in the field of organization design. By focusing on recent developments in organization design, this book will help to create more thoughtful research and stronger empirical analyses in this important area of management and organization....

  1. Contested spacing: International non-profit organizations and the mobility of asylum seekers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albu, Oana Brindusa

    The importance of examining space from an organizational standpoint is timely, not the least because the use of this concept has critical and often unintended social, and political effects (Mengis, Nicolini & Gorli, 2016). The global refugee crisis following the post-2015 Syrian conflict is perhaps...... one indicative situation of the highly contested ways in which international non-profit organizations (INGOs) create spaces for their organizational activities (e.g., build informal settlements to provide emergency aid), and thus affect how individuals (e.g., asylum seekers) get re-settled, confined...... to, or even restricted from living in such spaces. These matters are relevant since in the contexts where both the opportunities to move freely and being at peace are challenged, space is not only a neutral structure in which such contested organizing takes place (Mengis et al., 2016). Rather...

  2. Financial controlling in non-profit organizations. The case of Slovak Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Vaceková

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of financial controlling is to secure liquidity and financial stability of an organization. It is very important especially for NPOs. They are not founded primarily for the purpose of making profit, so their financial policy gives priority to continuously provide liquidity. The paper presents partial results of a pilot primary research of utilization of financial controlling tools in governmental and nongovernmental non-profit organizations in the conditions of Slovak Republic. Primary data were obtained by the sociological method of a structured questionnaire. The analysis was carried out by adequate mathematical and statistical methods for processing qualitative data and ordinal variables. The presented paper provides a new insight into the studied problem while generating a primary information basis for further scientific study and research work in this field.

  3. Strategic Planning: Contextual Factors that Facilitated and/or Challenged the Implementation of Strategic Planning in Two Nonprofit Organizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masilamony, Davadhasan

    2010-01-01

    As the nonprofit sector continues to grow in size and importance in American society, successful organizations proactively initiate strategic planning so they can be more responsive to changing circumstances, underlying trends, and shifting demands. At times, however, organizations develop elaborate plans that are never implemented. Unfortunately,…

  4. Organization Design

    OpenAIRE

    Milton Harris; Artur Raviv

    2002-01-01

    This paper attempts to explain organization structure based on optimal coordination of interactions among activities. The main idea is that each manager is capable of detecting and coordinating interactions only within his limited area of expertise. Only the CEO can coordinate company wide interactions. The optimal design of the organization trades off the costs and benefits of various configurations of managers. Our results consist of classifying the characteristics of activities and manager...

  5. Leadership in nonprofit organizations of Nicaragua and El Salvador: a study from the social identity theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moriano León, Juan Antonio; Topa Cantisano, Gabriela; Lévy Mangin, Jean-Pierre

    2009-11-01

    This study follows the social identity model of leadership proposed by van Knippenberg and Hogg (2003), in order to examine empirically the mediator effect of leadership prototypicality between social identity, extra effort, and perceived effectiveness of group members. The sample consisted of 109 participants who worked in 22 different work-teams of non-profit organizations (NPO) from Nicaragua and El Salvador. The data analysis was performed through structural equation modeling (SEM). The results show that NPO membership is related to a high level of social identity. In addition, the results confirmed that leadership prototypicality has a significant and positive mediator effect in the relationship between the group identification and the group members' extra effort and the perceived effectiveness of leadership.

  6. Study on the relationship between project management and organizational efficacy in nonprofit organizations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kao I-Chan

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This study treats the members in nonprofit organizations (NPOs as subjects, and explores the origination, planning, control, and completion of project management in NPOs, as well as the general performance of organizational efficacy, such as environmental satisfaction, organizational atmosphere, operational performance, job engagement, and work quality. It also probes into the relationship and effect. By various research methods, such as literature review and questionnaire survey, this study attempts to determine if project management in NPOs can significantly enhance organizational efficacy. This study finds that different NPOs have significant differences in the general performance of project management and organizational efficacy. When the performance of project management in NPOs is more significant, organizational efficacy is higher. Project management in NPOs has a significant path relationship to organizational efficacy; therefore, reinforcement of vocational training in the project management of NPOs could improve performance, which would have significant effect on enhancing organizational efficacy.

  7. The Capacity Development of Non-Profit Organizations in the Growth Stage (An Action Research Based on the SSM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harry Nenobais

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This research aims in analyzing the capacity development of non-profit organizations in the growth stage through six internal components and four external components at Papuan Pesat Foundation. The approach used in the research is the action research based on the soft systems methodology that consists of two activities that had been done simultaneously, which are the research interest and the problem solving interest (McKay and Marshall, 2001. It fulfills criteria that are systematically desirable and culturally feasible (Flood an Jackson, 1991. Whilst the theory used is according to Brothers and Sherman (2012 that states that there are six internal components that should be strengthened in the growth stage, which are the leadership, the organization’s culture, the role of the board, programs’ extension, the management and infrastructure, the financial sustainable.  Afterwards, according to De Vita, et. al. (2001 there are four organization’s external components that should be maintained, which are the social demographic, the economy/market, the politic and values, and the norms. The result of this research shows the research interest, that the organization needs to be equipped with the transformational leadership, the simple structure design, and the improvement of the role of the board. For the problem solving interest, it needs the working programs’ extension through the correct formulation process, the human resources management, the organization’s financial sustainability. Then the external components which need to be formed are the collaboration among the non-profit organizations, the local government, the private sectors, business activities, politic participations and the public relation.

  8. Facebook Satisfaction and Its Impacts on Fundraising: A Case Study at a Portuguese Non-Profit Organization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raul M. S. Laureano

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Non-profit organizations have invested in the development of content for their Facebook pages, believing be an efficient and effective means to publicize its mission and raising resources, whether monetary or human. The purpose of this study is to assess the satisfaction of the participants with the Facebook page, and how that satisfaction influences the dissemination of the organization through the word-of-mouth and the donations practices. In this context, a questionnaire was administered to 204 participants that were aware of the Portuguese non-profit organization “Leigos para o Desenvolvimento” (People for Development. The results show that the participants are satisfied with Facebook page of the organization, and that there is influence of satisfaction on the word-of-mouth and on the frequency and amount of donations. However, satisfaction with the Facebook, itself, does not appear crucial to the realization of donations, either in the present or in future as intended. The study focuses only on one organization and includes a sample that may not represent all the population extracts and so inhibit the generalization of the findings to other populations. The paper includes implications for the development of an effective use of the Facebook as a digital marketing tool that can contribute to the sustainability of non-profit organizations. The study confirms the importance of the Facebook as a digital marketing tool that can contribute to the sustainability of non-profit organizations.

  9. The Adoption of Social Media in Nonprofit Organizations : The Case Study of the United Nations Country Team in Thailand

    OpenAIRE

    Panyam, Sinta

    2014-01-01

    The study examines the role of social media in non-profit organizations using the case study from the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) in Thailand Country office. As Social media become a significant channel to raise the visibility and promote the work of the organization. The focus of this research examines what drives organizations adopting social media through a model built round four key factors, 1.) The importance of social media, 2.) The impact to image of the organization, 3...

  10. Managing Competency in Non-Profit Organization: Experience with a European University

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mostaq M. Hussain

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Competence Management (CM has been discussed in contemporary academic and practitioner literature as a managing tool of Core Competences. Most of the studies of CM deal with manufacturing sector and profit organizations. Very little is known about CM in services and almost nothing in not-for profit organization. No research report has yet been found in educational institutions. Although, CM is not only important in manufacturing and profit organizations but also important in non-profit, like educational institutions, in order to meet the required quality and competitiveness of 21st century's education. Thus, an attempt has been made in this research to study CM in the administration of one the top ranking University in a Nordic country. The result results reveal that competencies had been defined in individual, network and unit level, but lack of integration of a comprehensive CM framework unable the higher educational institution to achieve the benefits of core competence. Based on the empirical findings, some policy and research directions are given at the end of the research.

  11. State directed hybridity? : the relationship between non-profit housing organizations and the state in three national contexts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mullins, David; Milligan, Vivienne; Nieboer, N.E.T.

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents results from the first international comparative study of non-profit housing organizations in Australia, England and the Netherlands to engage with panels of organizational leaders. The study uses a ‘modified Delphi method’ with Likert-type scaled surveys, followed by in-depth

  12. 48 CFR 915.404-4-70-5 - Special considerations-contracts with nonprofit organizations (other than educational institutions).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... TYPES CONTRACTING BY NEGOTIATION Contract Pricing 915.404-4-70-5 Special considerations—contracts with... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Special considerations-contracts with nonprofit organizations (other than educational institutions). 915.404-4-70-5 Section 915.404...

  13. 75 FR 44814 - Audits of States, Local Governments, and Non-Profit Organizations; Circular A-133 Compliance...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-29

    ..., Washington, DC 20503. Comments may also be sent to via http://www.regulations.gov --a Federal E-Government... OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET Audits of States, Local Governments, and Non-Profit Organizations... CFDA 93.794 program is no longer active (i.e., no funds are being spent by recipients), and it has been...

  14. Characteristics of relinquishing and adoptive owners of horses associated with U.S. nonprofit equine rescue organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holcomb, Kathryn E; Stull, Carolyn L; Kass, Philip H

    2012-01-01

    Nonprofit equine rescue organizations in the United States provide care for relinquished horses and may offer adoption programs. With an estimated 100,000 "unwanted" horses per year and few municipal shelters providing wholesale euthanasia, there is a need to minimize the number of unwanted horses and maximize their successful transition to new caregivers. This study's objectives were to characterize the relinquishing and adoptive owners interacting with nonprofit rescue organizations. Nonprofit organizations (n = 144) in 37 states provided information by survey on 280 horses relinquished between 2006 and 2009, from which 73 were adopted. Results show the majority of relinquishing owners were women, whereas adoptive owners were primarily families or couples. Most relinquishing owners had previous equine experience and had owned the horse for 1 to 5 years; about half owned 1 other horse. Three quarters of the adoptive owners possessed additional horses housed on their property. The primary use for rehomed horses was for riding or driving. These findings will serve to help develop effective education programs for responsible horse ownership and optimize acceptance criteria and successful adoption strategies of horses by nonprofit organizations.

  15. The role of private non-profit healthcare organizations in NHS systems: Implications for the Portuguese hospital devolution program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, Álvaro S

    2017-06-01

    The national health services (NHS) of England, Portugal, Finland and other single-payer universalist systems financed by general taxation, are based on the theoretical principle of an integrated public sector payer-provider. However, in practice one can find different forms of participation of non-public healthcare providers in those NHS, including private for profit providers, but also third sector non-profit organizations (NPO). This paper reviews the role of non-public non-profit healthcare organizations in NHS systems. By crossing a literature review on privatization of national health services with a literature review on the comparative performance of non-profit and for-profit healthcare organizations, this paper assesses the impact of contracting private non-profit healthcare organizations on the efficiency, quality and responsiveness of services, in public universal health care systems. The results of the review were then compared to the existing evidence on the Portuguese hospital devolution to NPO program. The evidence in this paper suggests that NHS health system reforms that transfer some public-sector hospitals to NPO should deliver improvements to the health system with minimal downside risks. The very limited existing evidence on the Portuguese hospital devolution program suggests it improved efficiency and access, without sacrificing quality. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. 78 FR 41424 - Audits of States, Local Governments, and Non-Profit Organizations; OMB Circular A-133 Compliance...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-10

    ... OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET Audits of States, Local Governments, and Non-Profit Organizations... Management and Budget. ACTION: Notice of availability of the 2013 OMB Circular A-133 Compliance Supplement...--National Science and Mathematics Access to Retain Talent (SMART) Grants (SMART Grants) CFDA 84.390...

  17. Sustainability Perceptions in Romanian Non-Profit Organizations: An Exploratory Study Using Success Factor Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian Ion Ceptureanu

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyses sustainability perceptions in Romanian non-profits by investigating 81 non-profits managers and board members. Using a multidimensional sustainability measurement framework, Success Factor Analysis, as a conceptual model, we measured perceptions on 5 critical sustainability factors: People, Business Model, Operations, Strategy and Culture and concluded that there are significant differences in the perceptions of sustainability depending on respondents’ previous failure experiences. While those which previously experienced failure adopt a long-term approach based on marketization, clear accountability standards and rely on strategy, while the others prefer a short-term approach, focused more on non-profits operations and focus on human resources.

  18. Applying the prudence principle in non-profit organizations and financial institutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milena Otavová

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes in detail the accounting principle of prudence in non-profit organizations and financial institutions. It defines its application in such organizations and based on comparison it evaluates the practical use of the prudence principle and its reflection in the accounting books. The main focus is on differences in applying the prudence principle that result from differences in the purpose activities and methods of asset management in these organizations. The practical application of the prudence principle in accounting consists mainly in the creation and use of provisions and impairments. These methods are defined by the Implementing Regulation to the Accounting Act No. 563/1991. The paper also provides tables where the creation and use of impairments and provisions in the above-mentioned organizations is compared with how business companies proceed in creating impairments and provisions. The key legislation standardizing accounting in the Czech Republic is the Accounting Act No. 563/1991, as amended, which stipulates the general accounting principles, the so-called accounting philosophy. The accounting is built around the general accounting principles, which are perceived as the pillars of accounting. Even though they are not stipulated in any particular law, they are legally enforceable and their ignorance can be sanctioned. The general accounting principles represent a set of rules to be observed in keeping the accounting books, preparing the accounting reports and submitting the accounting reports to users. The keystone accounting principle is the principle of true and fair refl ection of facts the essential goal of which is to report in the fi nancial statement actual assets and the fi nancial position of the accounting unit with an essential focus on reporting events that occurred during the accounting period with respect to their content.

  19. Facebook satisfaction and its impacts on fundraising: a case study at a Portuguese non-profit organization

    OpenAIRE

    Laureano, R. M. S.; Fernandes, A. L.; Hassamo, S.; Alturas, B.

    2018-01-01

    Non-profit organizations have invested in the development of content for their Facebook pages, believing be an efficient and effective means to publicize its mission and raising resources, whether monetary or human. The purpose of this study is to assess the satisfaction of the participants with the Facebook page, and how that satisfaction influences the dissemination of the organization through the word-of-mouth and the donations practices. In this context, a questionnaire was administered t...

  20. Building a Sustainable Global Surgery Nonprofit Organization at an Academic Institution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frisella, Margaret M

    Surgical Outreach for the Americas is a 501(c)3 nonprofit organization providing surgical care to those in need in developing countries of the Western Hemisphere. Every year since its inception in 2008, teams of surgeons, nurses, and allied health professionals have traveled to areas of need and performed primarily hernia repair surgeries for those without access to affordable health care. Surgical Outreach for the Americas (SOfA) began as a general concept based on World Health Organization statistics claiming that 11% of the global burden of disease can be resolved via surgery. Armed with this information, a group of compassionate and selfless health care professionals planned the first trip, to the Dominican Republic, in January 2009. Building on what was first just an ambition to help others, we now also train surgeons, surgery residents, and nurses in the countries we serve. To date, SOfA has successfully treated 734 patients, with 899 total surgical procedures performed (693 of these under general anesthesia). These procedures include inguinal hernia, umbilical hernia, testicular masses, orchiectomies, and various general surgical procedures. Through the efforts of a great many talented individuals and robust fundraising efforts, the SOfA message continues to gain momentum. SOfA not only considers the health and well-being of the disadvantaged through capacity-building efforts but strives to educate and improve the skills of health care professionals in the countries we visit. Our goal is to increase the number of missions each year and begin a 2-fold educational program that (a) provides surgical resident education through participation in mission work and (b) provides local surgeon education in the areas served. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  1. Establishment path and management innovation of mutually beneficial nonprofit organization (MBNPO: A study based on integrated marketing communications (IMC theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kwang-yong Shin

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Purpose - Research about the modern mutually beneficial nonprofit organizations (MBNPOs has great value because of the increasingly important role that the MBNPO plays in society. The establishment and management of MBNPOs are critical for its development. Design/methodology/approach - Integrated marketing communications (IMC theory is applied to the research on establishment and management innovation. The establishment of MBNPOs needs four sequential steps: identifying the target group, providing services to meet the demand of stakeholders, designing appropriate communication tactics and deploying proper organizational structure to accomplish efficient communication. Findings - Three types of approach enable traditional enterprises to transform into MBNPOs: product innovation, operational innovation and synergetic development. The application of IMC theory accomplishes management innovation of MBNPOs in three aspects: leading market-orientation specific to stakeholder-orientation, making management innovation systematic in MBNPOs and clarifying targets of management innovation in MBNPOs. Originality/value - This is one of the first examinations of establishment path and management innovation of MBNPO based on IMC theory.

  2. Nonprofit Organizations in Danish Welfare Provision – Explaining Differences Across Welfare Areas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thøgersen, Malene

    This paper describes and analyzes the large variation in the proportion of non-profit providers across different welfare areas in Denmark with specific focus on two selected areas: Primary schools and care homes for elderly. With inspiration from niche theory, the aim is to get a deeper insight...... in the characteristics of the institutional framework in the two areas. The main argument of the paper is that non-profit welfare providers cannot be lumped together. It is necessary to take a closer look at both the differences and similarities across areas, but also across non-profit providers and their public...... counterparts within the same niche. In the preliminary results a number of explanatory factors are identified and analyzed: Regulative rules, funding issues, norms and expectations and the degree of competition. The analysis show that an indepth analysis of the two selected welfare areas can provide useful...

  3. Legal environment of non-profit organizations in Iceland Réttarumhverfi félagasamtaka á Íslandi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hrafn Bragason

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Despite a high number of non-profit organizations and their important social function a comprehensive legislation on their activities does not exist in Iceland, as is the case for most other operating entities. In the article existing rules on non-profit activities in Iceland are analyzed. In addition, the entity, non-profit organizations, is defined, and rules on their establishment, member participation, organization, accountability and obligations are described. The analysis will also focus on current regulation on fundraising, business activities, taxation and income from the government. A comparison of non-profit organizations and foundations is performed.Þrátt fyrir fjölda félagasamtaka og þýðingarmikið samfélagslegt hlutverk þeirra eru ekki í gildi heildarlög á Íslandi um starfsemi þeirra eins og um flest önnur félagaform. Í greininni er fjallað um þær reglur sem þó gilda um starfsemi félagasamtaka eða almennra félaga eins og þau eru nefnd í félagarétti. Auk skilgreiningar á félagaforminu er þeim reglum lýst sem gilda um stofnun þeirra, félagsaðild, skipulag, ábyrgð og skuldbindingar. Einnig er rætt um þá reglu um gjörð sem gildir um tekjuöflun félagasamtaka, atvinnustarfsemi, skattlagningu og fjárveitingar frá hinu opinbera. Gerður er samanburður á félagasamtökum og sjálfseignarstofnunum sem starfa á sambærilegum vettvangi.

  4. A Strategic Analysis of Investment Opportunities within British Columbia's Private Healthcare Sector for a Non-Profit Genomics Research Organization

    OpenAIRE

    Barclay, John W.

    2010-01-01

    Advances in the genome sciences are leading to the development of new healthcare innovations relevant to the principles of personalized medicine. Genome BC, a non-profit research organization, invests in projects that will help facilitate the integration of these innovations into the delivery of healthcare. This analysis assesses the strategic positioning of private healthcare firms in BC to be early users of such innovations. The analysis assesses the suitability of investment from Genome BC...

  5. Financial Management for Nonprofit Organizations: Uses and Applications in a Social Entrepreneurship Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broom, Lowell S.; Thornton, Jeremy P.; Carson, Charles M.

    2013-01-01

    Social Entrepreneurship (SE) programs have been expanding over the past decade. The emergence of this new discipline can be attributed to two overlapping factors. Students (particularly business students) have expressed an increased desire to blend values, ethics and social causes into their own vocations. At the same time, the nonprofit and…

  6. THE MARKETING MENTALITY WITHIN THE ORGANIZATION - A COMPARATIVE STUDY BETWEEN COMPANIES AND NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS IN ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pop Nicolae Al.

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In contemporary Marketing theory and practice, debates regarding the role and place of the homonymous activity within the company are frequent. The development of a marketing mentality, as specialists state, allows the implementation of a marketing vision in all the organization’s departments, regardless of the activities performed. The economic theory enunciates all the more the existence of a marketing doctrine urged to ensure the methodological frame of the organization regarding market and consumer orientation. Based upon two selective exploratory market research performed among the major distributors of electro-technical materials and electro-technical solutions integrators, respectively among some public faculties’ management the authors want to examine the existence and the decision makers’ responsiveness regarding the implementation of a marketing mentality in one’s organization. The conclusions concern both business environment and academic non-profit organizations’ activity. The connection between the marketing mentality as an essential premise for the development of the entrepreneurial university concept is also emphasized.

  7. How can work be designed to be intrinsically rewarding? Qualitative insights from South African non-profit employees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle Renard

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: Intrinsic rewards are personal, psychological responses to the work thatemployees perform, which stem from the manner in which their work is designed. Research purpose: This study sought to discover in what ways non-profit employees arepsychologically rewarded by the nature of their work tasks. The use of a qualitative approachto data collection and analysis ensured that in-depth responses from participants were gained. Motivation for the study: Intrinsic rewards are of particular importance to non-profitemployees, who tend to earn below-market salaries. This implies that their motivationoriginates predominantly from intrinsic as opposed to extrinsic rewards; yet, research into thisarea of rewards is lacking. Research approach, design and method: In-depth, semi-structured interviews were conductedusing a sample of 15 extrinsically rewarded non-profit employees working within South Africa.Thematic analysis was utilised in order to generate codes which led to the formation of fiveintrinsic rewards categories. Main findings: Intrinsic rewards were classified into five categories, namely (1 MeaningfulWork, (2 Flexible Work, (3 Challenging Work, (4 Varied Work and (5 Enjoyable Work.These rewards each comprise of various subcategories, which provide insight into why suchwork is rewarding to non-profit employees. Practical/managerial implications: Traditional performance management systems shouldbe re-evaluated in the non-profit sector to shift focus towards intrinsic rewards, asopposed to focusing only on the use of extrinsic rewards such as incentives to motivateemployees. Contribution/value-add: The study provides a qualitative understanding of how extrinsicallyrewarded non-profit employees perceive their work to be intrinsically rewarding, whichbridges the empirical gap pertaining to intrinsic rewards within this sector.

  8. Designing an Engaged Swarm: Toward a "Techne" for Multi-Class, Interdisciplinary Collaborations with Nonprofit Partners

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, Seán

    2016-01-01

    This essay proposes a model of university-community partnership called "an engaged swarm" that mobilizes networks of students from across classes and disciplines to work with off-campus partners such as nonprofits. Based on theories that translate the distributed, adaptive, and flexible activity of actors in biological systems to…

  9. The Role of Local Governmental Funding in Nonprofit Survival

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karl Besel

    2001-05-01

    Full Text Available Nonprofit social service organizations in America originally relied on private donations and charitable events to sustain their operations. As the number of nonprofit organizations has proliferated over the last few decades, so has nonprofit dependency on governmental and other sources of revenue. A case study design was used to examine factors that have impacted the survival of the original Indiana Youth Service Bureaus. This study highlights salient factors that influence survival and explores the characteristics and circumstances of selected organizations that enhance their sustainability. The findings suggest that social work administrators need to foster long-term relationships with local funders as a means of enhancing organizational survival.

  10. Qualidade de serviços nas organizações do terceiro setor Service quality in nonprofit organizations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiano Rocha Heckert

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo examina a qualidade de serviços nas organizações do terceiro setor. Por meio de revisão da literatura e de um estudo de caso, discutem-se as diferenças na aplicação do conceito de qualidade de serviços (expectativas X percepção dos clientes no terceiro setor em comparação com as empresas de mercado. Conclui-se que as organizações do terceiro setor não apresentam um único tipo de cliente, mas diversos stakeholders que assumem esse papel. Cada um desses atores possui diferentes expectativas com relação à instituição e apresenta diferentes critérios de avaliação da qualidade de seus serviços. Destaca-se, ainda, que, em função de valores como "justiça" e "solidariedade", fundamentais neste tipo de organização, o processo de prestação de serviços assume especial relevância no terceiro setor, sendo muitas vezes tão ou mais importante que os resultados obtidos.This article analyses service quality in nonprofit organizations. Based on a literature review and a case study, it discusses the differences in applying the service quality concept (customer expectations X perception in the nonprofit sector, in comparison to for-profit companies. It concludes that nonprofits don't present a single type of customer, but several stakeholders playing that role. Each of those actors has different expectations towards the organization and presents different criteria when evaluating service quality. It should also be pointed that, due to values such as "justice" and "solidarity", essential in that type of organization, the service deliver process assumes special importance in nonprofits and, sometimes, become as or even more important than the results obtained.

  11. Advantages of fund accounting in 'nonprofits'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herzlinger, R E; Sherman, H D

    1980-01-01

    Motivated by the financial difficulties that have beset city governments and some private nonprofit organizations, the accounting profession and other circles are urging these organizations to conform to business accounting practices. (See Robert N. Anthony's article on p. 83 of this issue.) Fund accounting, these reformers claim, is too complex, too segmented to permit intelligent analysis. The authors of this article demur; not only is it legally and logically necessary to maintain separately the restricted and unrestricted monies received from various sources and spent for designated purposes; also close examination of the financial statements of nonprofit enterprises can provide a very good idea of how well they are doing financially. Furthermore, the authors advocate adoption of certain fund accounting principles for businesses, and they show why they could be helpful. This article is much more than a defense of how nonprofit organizations account for their operations; it is a comprehensive but brief introduction to the subject.

  12. The Features of Forming and Using the Finansial and Material Resources of Socially Oriented Non-Profit Organizations of Volgograd Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oleynik Olga Stepanovna

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the problem of interaction of regional authorities and the institute of socially oriented non-profit organizations that carry out the activity aimed at solving social problems, the development of civil society in Russia. The forms and activities of socially oriented non-profit organizations are systematically presented. The authors reveal the directions and tools for supporting the activities of socially oriented non-profit organizations by public authorities and local self-government bodies. The authors aimed at fixing the peculiarities of organization and conduct of statistical observation over the activity of socially-oriented organizations in Volgograd region. The organizational events were arranged. They were necessary for the conduct of qualitative statistical analysis of the activity of socially oriented organizations. For the first time the official data on the activity of socially oriented non-profit organizations in Volgograd region, including the information on formation and use of money and other property, was received as a result of the statistical observation. The authors focus on the analysis of the sources of money and other property, reveal the composition of income in non-profit organizations of various organizational and legal forms. The forms of work in socially oriented non-profit organizations of Volgograd region and its results as of 2013 are thoroughly studied. The conducted statistical analysis showed that the significant public sector has been established in the region. It provides the necessary public social services, financial or social assistance to the most vulnerable members of society.

  13. An analysis of the value of marketing to non-profit organizations: the case of child safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razis, V; Razis, N

    1993-01-01

    This paper considers a broad spectrum of literature concerning the limitations and value of applying marketing management principles from the private sector to public or non-profit organizations. The Child Accident Prevention Foundation of Southern Africa is used as a principle case-study. The authors conclude that there is much to be gained from applying a more systematic approach, providing one adapts business strategies to more complex social environments and objectives. Since both marketing and social issues share the challenge of 'sensitivity serving and satisfying human needs,' (Kotler, 1983 p 272) there are also some instances where business can learn from the experience of social organizations in attempts to influence human behavior.

  14. Non-Profit Ecological Organizations in the Function of the Realization of the Right to Freedom of Association and the Development of Civil Environmental Liability in Kazakhstan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aitimov, Bolat Zh.; Dussipov, Erkin Sh.; Altynbekkyzy, Alua; Ashimova, Dinara I.; Nurbek, Dana T.; Urazymbetov, Talgat E.

    2016-01-01

    Environmental issues have become a central issue, which is considered not only at the state level, but also in the international arena. At the moment the main initiators of drawing attention to the environment are the environmental non-profit organizations. In developed countries, these organizations provide full support to the government and…

  15. Innovation design : creating value for people, organizations and society

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ouden, den P.H.

    2012-01-01

    Innovation Design presents an approach to designing shared value for businesses, non-profit organizations, end-users and society. The societal and economic challenges we are currently facing - such as the aging population, energy scarcity and environmental issues - are not just threats but are also

  16. The strategic marketing reaction of conventional nonprofit hospitals to the market entry of alternative care provider organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schul, P L; Remington, S J; Planchon, J M

    1994-01-01

    A study was conducted examining the competitive reaction of incumbent firms to the market entry of new form competition in the health care services industry. Specifically, the study addressed the relative impact of both objective and perceptual characteristics of the threat potential posed by the entrance of alternative care facilities (ACF's) into markets previously dominated by nonprofit hospital organizations. The results showed that incumbent hospitals tend to rely most extensively on limited, low-risk market differentiation when responding to the threat posed by ACF entrants. Objective characteristics reflective of the structural complexity of the threat were found to be less important in influencing incumbent reaction than were administrators' perceptions of new entrant threat.

  17. Do Accounting Students Have Realistic Expectations of Information Technology Usage in Nonprofit Organizations?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foust, Karen M.; Kleen, Betty A.; Shell, L. Wayne

    Not-for-profit organizations employ 11% of all U.S. workers; these organizations are often the recipients of hand-me-down hardware and software. This study investigates accounting students expectations of the information technology available to and used by not-for-profit organizations. In this descriptive study, based on two different surveys,…

  18. Analysis of Funding Sources and Methods of Non-profit Organization%非营利组织筹资渠道与方式探析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    戚舟波

    2011-01-01

    Various non-profit organizations have become the important form of social organization. Expanding financing channels, flexibly using various means of financing, and improving their fund-raising capacity is the problem to be solved for non-profit organization. This paper summarizes and analyzes the status and problems of financing of non-profit organization, and proposed countermeasures to expand financing channels and methods for non-profit organizations.%各类非营利组织已成为重要的社会组织形式,拓展筹资渠道,灵活运用各种筹资方式,提高自身筹资能力,是目前大多数非营利组织急待解决的问题.本文在分析总结非营利组织筹资现状和问题的基础上,提出拓展非营利组织筹资渠道与方式的对策措施.

  19. Organizing design work

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scheuer, John Damm

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to demonstrate the importance of the kind of understanding of organizing that is implied by design theories for project managers' understanding and organizing of design work. Five theories and their organizing consequences for project managers organizing of design work...... are analyzed. The paper contributes to design research and organization studies by putting the organizing of design projects on the research agenda. It also contributes by demonstrating the importance of being aware of the ontological and epistemological assumptions and organizing consequences of different...... design theories. The selected theories of design thus represent different views on what design is, address different design areas and are based on different ontological and epistemological assumptions that influence their views on how design processes should be organized....

  20. The benefits of accreditation for fundraising nonprofit organizations in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bekkers, R.H.F.P.; Gugerty, M.K.; Prakash, A.

    2010-01-01

    How can fundraising organizations signal trustworthiness to prospective donors? One way to do this is by conforming to standards of excellence and allowing a trusted, independent agency to monitor the organization with regard to these standards. The Central Bureau of Fundraising (CBF) in the

  1. Service & non-profit marketing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanković Čedomir

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Services are dominantly untouchable products which cannot be physically owned. Services promotion is difficult for its untouchables. Personal sale is very powerful in service companies because customers must interact with employees. Price is very important for service's companies. It has psychological role, economic role and it creates attitude for goal achievement. Marketing goal for nonprofit organizations is to get an answer from target market Development of marketing strategies of nonprofit organizations consists of defining and analyzing target market and creating and maintaining marketing mix. In nonprofit organizations product is usually an idea or a service. Promotion in nonprofit organizations is very important. Personal sale, promotional sale, advertising and publicity are used for communicating an idea and informing people about services.

  2. How to Prepare an Indirect Cost Rate Proposal for a Non-profit Organization

    Science.gov (United States)

    The indirect cost rate proposal is the documentation prepared by a grantee organization, in accordance with applicable federal cost principles, to substantiate its claim for the reimbursement of indirect costs.

  3. 'Nonprofits' need surplus too.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, D W

    1982-01-01

    By definition profit refers to the difference between revenue and expenses. In for-profit organizations profit or surplus gives a return to the owners of the company and serves as a source of financing for capital acquisitions and working capital. Nonprofit organizations, which are not allowed a surplus, don't suffer on the first count because they have no owners. But they do suffer on the second count because, if expected to grow, they need to finance asset replacement and growth. In these days when funds for long-term debt are becoming scarcer, this author asserts, the need for regulators to allow 'nonprofits' to keep a surplus is increasing. In this article, he argues for a surplus and then discusses how managers and regulators can determine how much a nonprofit organization should be allowed. He presents a combination of a modified version of the return-on-asset pricing model used in for-profit organizations and a model for assessing working capital needs associated with growth.

  4. 78 FR 14437 - Government Employees Serving in Official Capacity in Nonprofit Organizations; Sector Unit...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-06

    ... because of discomfort about waiving the application of a criminal statute. OGE fielded numerous inquiries... organization; agencies will remain free to impose similar limits as they deem appropriate in the future.\\5\\ See... speech, by declining to permit employee participation, would have to outweigh employees' strong interest...

  5. Portfolio Management in Non-Profit Organizations : The Case of Groningen's Municipality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kleersnijder, Bert; Berghout, Egon; Castelnovo, W; Ferrari, E

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to develop a method to support governing the information function, and in particular, the planning and prioritization of IT projects. Groningen's municipality serves as a case study organization. The core of the methodology consists of the 'Hourglass', which provides

  6. CRM Implementation in Nonprofits: An Analysis of the Success Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grattan, Kelly E.

    2012-01-01

    Constituent Relationship Management ("CRM") is defined as an organization-wide strategy designed to enable the organization to better manage, track and steward its constituents. CRM has benefited for-profit enterprises for nearly three decades. In the nonprofit sector, the concept of CRM is fairly new. Despite the increase in CRM…

  7. Adopt-a-Nonprofit: A Project in Persuasion and Collaboration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spears, Lee A.

    1996-01-01

    Describes a project for professional writing classes that teaches effective persuasive writing, as teams of students research local nonprofit or campus service organizations, design projects to address their groups' main needs, and write solicitation letters for donations or volunteers. Discusses potential problems and how students benefit. (SR)

  8. Managing corporate visual identity : exploring the differences between manufacturing and service, and profit-making and nonprofit organizations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Bosch, Annette; de Jong, Menno; Elving, Wim

    2006-01-01

    Corporate Visual Identity (CVI) is a crucial part of the identity of any organization. Most research on managing corporate identity deals with the strategic development of corporate identity and the design and effects of specific elements of the CVI. This study focuses on an aspect of CVI management

  9. Financial Ratio Analysis Comes to Nonprofits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chabotar, Kent John

    1989-01-01

    To evaluate their financial health, a growing number of colleges, universities, and other nonprofit organizations are using financial ratio analysis, a technique used in business. The strengths and weaknesses of ratio analysis are assessed and suggestions are made on how nonprofits can use it most effectively. (Author/MLW)

  10. Organizations as Designed Islands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pasquale Gagliardi

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available The literature and practice of organizational design are mostly based on simplistic conceptions which ignore recent theoretical developments in organizational studies. Conceiving of organizations as ‘designed islands’, it is argued, can contribute to a more solid theoretical foundation to organization theory, viewed as normative science. Relying on the work of Peter Sloterdijk, who describes the forms of life in space in terms of spheres, the heuristic power of the island metaphor is explored. What can be learnt from the art of isolating in order to construct lived organizational environments is then discussed, and the paradoxical relationship between connection and isolation is highlighted.

  11. Gender, occupation, and promotion to management in the nonprofit sector

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Damman, M.; Heyse, L.; Mills, M.

    2014-01-01

    Although one can assume the work values within nonprofit organizations promote gender equality in promotion decisions, there is preliminary evidence that in the nonprofit sector women are underrepresented in higher management positions. Whereas the mechanisms resulting in underrepresentation of

  12. Competition and Mergers among Nonprofits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prüfer, J.

    2007-01-01

    Should mergers among nonprofit organizations be regulated differently than mergers among for-profit firms? The relevant empirical literature is highly controversial, the theoretical literature is scarce. We analyze the question by modeling duopoly competition with quality-differentiated goods. We

  13. Competition and Mergers among Nonprofits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prüfer, J.

    2007-01-01

    Should mergers among nonprofit organizations be regulated differently than mergers among for-profit firms? The relevant empirical literature is highly controversial, the theoretical literature is scarce. I analyze the question by modeling duopoly competition with quality-differentiated goods. I

  14. Atlantic Environmental Resource Directory, 1989: A directory of non-profit environmental and development organizations in Atlantic Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cuthbertson, L.L.

    1989-01-01

    This directory lists 161 non-profit groups in the Atlantic region, along with contacts for the environmental networks across the country and in New England and appropriate federal and provincial offices in Atlantic Canada. The directory was compiled from questionnaires sent out to a list of contacts that were on an original mailing list of groups known to have taken stands on environmental issues in the past. Follow-up mailouts and phone calls were also made. As well, some contacts were discovered through word-of-mouth. Groups are listed alphabetically by province and are classified by subjects. Information includes address and phone number, contact, date formed, number of members, scope, language and objectives. Groups and resources are indexed by subject area and groups are listed by resources available, environmental networks, Eastern states-United States citizen groups, labour unions, federal and provincial government.

  15. Agency theory in a nonprofit organization Teoria de agência em uma organização sem fins lucrativos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Luiz Ecco

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to analyze, based on the agency theory, the existence of agency conflicts in management by results in a professional education nonprofit organization. For the program, the case study method was used in a nonprofit professional education organization, located in the state of Santa Catarina. The study examined the contract between the Headquarters of the Organization (which represents in this study, according to theory of agency, the principal and its School Units (representing, the agents to accomplish goals. The results show that the asymmetry of information and organizational culture are factors that contribute to the problem of agency and the determination of an optimal contract should take into consideration such situations. The main conclusion is that agency problems are also present in nonprofit organizations, even when an instrument for the management by results is implemented.O objetivo deste artigo é analisar, à luz da teoria da agência, a existência de conflitos de agência, em uma gestão por resultados, de uma organização educacional sem fins lucrativos. Para sua realização utilizou-se o método de estudo de caso em uma organização de educação profissional sem fins lucrativos, situada no Estado de Santa Catarina. O estudo analisou o contrato celebrado entre a Sede da Organização (que representa neste estudo, segundo a teoria da agência, o principal e suas Unidades Escolares (consideradas os agentes para o cumprimento de metas. Os resultados demonstram que a assimetria de informação e a cultura organizacional são fatores quecontribuem para que o problema de agência ocorra e a determinação de um contrato ótimo deveria levar em consideração tais situações. A principal conclusão é de que os problemas de agência também estão presentes nas organizações sem fins lucrativos, mesmo quando se implanta um instrumento para realizar a gestão por resultados.

  16. Profits for nonprofits: find a corporate partner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreasen, A R

    1996-01-01

    Here's a familiar story. A nonprofit organization joins forces with a corporation in a caused-related marketing campaign. It seems like a win-win deal, but the nonprofit--and the media--find out several weeks into the campaign that the corporation's business practices are antithetical to the nonprofit's mission. The nonprofit's credibility is severely damaged. Is the moral of the story that nonprofits should steer clear of alliances with for-profit organizations? Not at all, Alan Andreasen says. Nonprofit managers can help their organizations avoid many of the risks and reap the rewards of cause-related marketing alliances by thinking of themselves not as charities but as partners in the marketing effort. More than ever, nonprofits need what many companies can offer: crucial new sources of revenue. But nonprofits offer corporate partners a great deal in return: the opportunity to enhance their image--and increase the bottom line--by supporting a worthy cause. Consider the fruitful partnership between American Express and Share Our Strength, a hunger-relief organization. Through the Charge Against Hunger program, now in its fourth year, American Express has helped contribute more than +16 million to SOS. In return, American Express has seen an increase in transactions with the card and in the number of merchants carrying the card. How can nonprofit managers build a successful partnership? They can assess their organization to see how it can add value to a corporate partner. They can identify those companies that stand to gain the most from a cause-related marketing alliance. And they can take an active role in shaping the partnership and monitoring its progress.

  17. The Future of Organization Design

    OpenAIRE

    Jay R. Galbraith

    2012-01-01

    The type of organization design that I practice is strategic organization design. It has roots in Chandler's (1962) work which states, "Structure follows strategy." It applies to organizing at the enterprise, business unit, region, or functional levels. It is a top-down design methodology. The alternative is a bottom-up design approach such as the socio-technical systems approach. Bottom-up design methodologies build and design an organization around the technology being utilized and are most...

  18. The Future of Organization Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jay R. Galbraith

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The type of organization design that I practice is strategic organization design. It has roots in Chandler's (1962 work which states, "Structure follows strategy." It applies to organizing at the enterprise, business unit, region, or functional levels. It is a top-down design methodology. The alternative is a bottom-up design approach such as the socio-technical systems approach. Bottom-up design methodologies build and design an organization around the technology being utilized and are most applicable at lower levels of the organization.

  19. Organization and management of design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Danelli, I.G.

    1987-01-01

    The steps for implementation of designs, the organization and the management of PROMON are presented. The Design of Angra-1 reactor and the Design of Angra-2 Pipes, are presented as examples. (M.C.K.) [pt

  20. Organizational communication on Twitter: Differences between non-profit and for-profit organizations in the context of climate change

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Holmberg, K.; Hellsten, I.; Schmidt, C.M.

    2016-01-01

    Twitter as a socio-technical platform provides organizations with new ways to reach their stakeholders. In this paper, we compare the use of Twitter specific affordances – such as hashtags, mentions of usernames and sharing of URLs along the tweets in a sample of 1520 tweets sent by 16 profit

  1. Private Nonprofit Organizations for Child Welfare Cases of South Korea and People’s Republic of China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李伦知

    2013-01-01

    Private organizations and public sector regarding child welfare services have been two main actors in improving the quality of children ’s lives. In this paper, the author examines two cases of children social service and the background of social policies regarding child welfare. Combined with a theory that explains the importance of childcare services, the author also goes in-depth to suggest the compatible and sound model of child welfare after assessing the current limitation.

  2. Provider-related barriers to rapid HIV testing in U.S. urban non-profit community clinics, community-based organizations (CBOs) and hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogart, Laura M; Howerton, Devery; Lange, James; Setodji, Claude Messan; Becker, Kirsten; Klein, David J; Asch, Steven M

    2010-06-01

    We examined provider-reported barriers to rapid HIV testing in U.S. urban non-profit community clinics, community-based organizations (CBOs), and hospitals. 12 primary metropolitan statistical areas (PMSAs; three per region) were sampled randomly, with sampling weights proportional to AIDS case reports. Across PMSAs, all 671 hospitals and a random sample of 738 clinics/CBOs were telephoned for a survey on rapid HIV test availability. Of the 671 hospitals, 172 hospitals were randomly selected for barriers questions, for which 158 laboratory and 136 department staff were eligible and interviewed in 2005. Of the 738 clinics/CBOs, 276 were randomly selected for barriers questions, 206 were reached, and 118 were eligible and interviewed in 2005-2006. In multivariate models, barriers regarding translation of administrative/quality assurance policies into practice were significantly associated with rapid HIV testing availability. For greater rapid testing diffusion, policies are needed to reduce administrative barriers and provide quality assurance training to non-laboratory staff.

  3. The Centrality of Organization Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raymond E. Miles

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available I am excited about this new journal focused on the subject of organization design. In my view, organization design is a central issue in the field of management. Designing an organization requires an understanding of strategy, as we pointed out some time ago (Miles & Snow, 1978. For example, if you want to be a prospector (a first-mover strategy, you have to design your firm to move quickly in new directions, which is likely to require that it be arranged so that various kinds of teams can interact across organizational units and levels. Designing an organization to follow a first-mover strategy also requires both an understanding of leadership and a commitment to the free flow of information throughout the organization. Leaders must understand how cross-functional teams pursue ideas and opportunities, and they must facilitate collaborative knowledge sharing to drive innovations that help the firm operate entrepreneurially. Because an organization is a complex, dynamic system, perhaps no other single topic is so deeply implanted at the core of management, organization theory, and organizational behavior as organization design. Moreover, organization design once was, and could be again, the topic of an ongoing dialogue between managers and academics focused on business organizations.

  4. The accreditation systems of the EFOMP and the IFMBE as non-profit non-governmental organizations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slavtchev, A.; Todorov, V.

    2004-01-01

    Nowadays, new higher demands on the education and training of the physicists and engineers who work in the field of medicine are imposed. It is in concert with the rapid progress of the latter and the emerging novel approaches and new technology. The European Federation of the Organizations on Medical Physics (EFOMP) worked out a program for establishment of national accreditation system for medical physicists in its member-states, recommended for introduction in other countries as well. A similar program in the field of biomedical engineering is under preparation by the International Federation on Medical and Biomedical Engineering (IFMBE) and expected to be introduced in its member-states. The Action Plan of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) on this matter is also presented. These programs could in short time and effectively enough be applied in Bulgaria with respect to our preconditions and traditions. (authors)

  5. Designing account management organizations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hart, van der H.W.C.; Kempeners, M.A.

    1999-01-01

    Organizational structures of account management systems are one of the most interesting and controversial parts of account management systems, because of the variety of organizational options that are available. The main focus is on the organization of account management systems and particularly on

  6. 34 CFR 75.51 - How to prove nonprofit status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Education Office of the Secretary, Department of Education DIRECT GRANT PROGRAMS General Eligibility for A... a nonprofit organization. (See the definition of nonprofit in 34 CFR 77.1.) (b) An applicant may... Revenue Service currently recognizes the applicant as an organization to which contributions are tax...

  7. Nonprofit Sector: Workforce Education Needs and Opportunities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garvey, David

    2009-01-01

    When some people think of nonprofit organizations, they think of small charities that are short-staffed, often struggle financially, and provide basic human needs to the most vulnerable in the society. Others think of organizations that support the civic and social infrastructure of communities, states, and nation, and serve as a vital component…

  8. Nonprofit Communications from a Corporate Communications Viewpoint

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cross, Ava

    2006-01-01

    Nonprofit organizations, such as social service agencies, charities, and hospitals, plan and prepare communications that are vital to their missions. Although not corporations, these organizations produce news releases, newsletters, and annual reports that are similar to those created in the corporate sector. In this research project for a course…

  9. Sustainability & Organization Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Morten Bygvraa; Obel, Børge; Kallehave, Pernille

    The global financial crisis has forced a profound rethink of the optimal form of capitalism and the relationship between business, environment and government. The current crisis has exposed systemic failures of corporate governance in administering the purpose of the firm. It has shown the failure...... of global governance to match the new dynamics and consequences of globalization. Governments are re-examining corporate accountability to society and how companies earn their license to operate. Furthermore companies are re-examining their code of conduct and leadership values. Thus, sustainability...... organization. Here we follow the Global Compact criteria. The consequences for processes, structure, and human skills and values are analyzed. In particular the analysis will investigate exploration and exploitation from a holistic perspective using the principles of requisite variety and information...

  10. Design rules for dynamic organization design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burton, Richard; Obel, Børge

    2013-01-01

    Organizational design rules are contingent if-then statements about what a good design should be for a given situation. Today’s challenge is to look forward to devise organization design rules for a different future with greater uncertainty and greater interdependency – all with dynamic performance...... demands. These new demands call for new design rules for coordination, incentives and leadership, among others. Our existing rules are mostly based upon past experience and empirical studies of what is. What might be – going beyond what we have observed and explained of yesterday and today to help design...... for a future new situation – is a disciplined response to examine the new contingencies of organizational design and their design consequences. Computational laboratories permit us to go beyond what is to develop and examine new design possibilities and boundaries to explore a future world of what might be. We...

  11. Strategic Marketing as Solution for Growing Uncertainties among National Non-Profit Sport Federations in the Netherlands - Research Design.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marije van 't Verlaat

    2007-01-01

    Dutch National Sports Organizations (NSFs) is currently experiencing financial pressures. Two indications for this are described in this paper i.e. increased competition in the sports sector and changes in subsidy division. Decreasing incomes from subsidies can be compensated with either increasing

  12. Designing High-Trust Organizations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jagd, Søren

    The specific problem considered in this paper is what are the key issues to consider for managers involved in designing high-trust organizations, a design problem still not properly explored. This paper intends to take the first step in filling this lacuna. In the paper, I first present...... the existing management and research literature on building high-trust organizations. Then I explore Alan Fox’s (1974) analysis of low-trust vs. high-trust dynamics which, I argue, may serve as a theoretically stronger basis for understanding the issues management have to consider when designing hightrust...... organizations...

  13. Organization design the collaborative approach

    CERN Document Server

    Stanford, Naomi

    2005-01-01

    Organization Design looks at how you need to change the ways your organization does things in order to increase productivity, performance, and profit. Providing the knowledge and method to handle the kind of recurring organisational change that all businesses face, those which do not involve transforming the entire enterprise but which necessitate significant change at the business unit, divisional, functional, facility or local levels. The problem lies in knowing what needs to change and how to change it. Taking the organisation as a designed system, it describes four major elements of organizations: the work - the basic tasks to be done by the organisation and its parts, the people - characteristics of individuals in the organization, formal organization - structures eg the organisation hierarchy, processes, and methods that are formally created to get individuals to perform tasks, informal organization - emerging arrangements including variations to the norm, processes, and relationships, commonly describe...

  14. Rice University: Building an Academic Center for Nonprofit Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seaworth, Angela

    2012-01-01

    According to the author, the setting for their nonprofit education center was close to ideal: Support from a dean who cares deeply about nonprofit organizations; encouragement from the university and its renewed focus on reaching beyond its walls on the eve of its centennial; and a generous gift from alumni who have been affiliated with the…

  15. Open Innovation and Organization Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Tushman

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abernathy's (1978 empirical work on the automotive industry investigated relationships among an organization’s boundary (all manufacturing plants, its organizational design (fluid vs. specific, and its ability to execute product and/or process innovations.  Abernathy's ideas of dominant designs and the locus of innovation have been central to scholars of innovation, R&D, and strategic management. Similarly, building on March and Simon's (1958 concept of organizations as decision making systems, Woodward (1965, Burns and Stalker (1966, and Lawrence and Lorsch (1967 examined relationships among organizational boundaries, organization structure, and innovation in a set of industries that varied by technology and environmental uncertainty. These and other early empirical works have led a diverse group of scholars to develop theories about firm boundaries, organization design, and the ability to innovate.

  16. Organization Theory: Implications for Design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, David A.

    1979-01-01

    This paper outlines the possibilities for scientific inquiry into the design of the university organization structure. In a theoretical context, bureaucratic management techniques were not refined enough to apply to university structures until the mid-twentieth century. Universities today are bureaucracies in that they have a formal division of…

  17. Innovation Design Creating Value for People, Organizations and Society

    CERN Document Server

    den Ouden, Elke

    2012-01-01

    Innovation Design presents an approach to designing shared value for businesses, non-profit organizations, end-users and society. The societal and economic challenges we are currently facing – such as the aging population, energy scarcity and environmental issues – are not just threats but are also great opportunities for organizations. Innovation Design shows how organizations can contribute to the process of generating value for society by finding true solutions to these challenges. And at the same time it describes how they can capture value for themselves in business ecosystems that care for both people and planet. This book covers: ·         Creating meaningful innovations that improve quality of life, engage users and provide value for organizations and other stakeholders; ·         Guiding the creation of shared value throughout the innovation process, with a practical and integrative approach towards value that connects ideas from economics, psychology, sociology and ecology; ·�...

  18. Start-Up Funding Intentions Among Nascent Nonprofit Entrepreneurs: An Exploratory Investigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fredrik O. Andersson

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores the start-up funding intentions of nascent nonprofit entrepreneurs, i.e., individuals in the process of creating a new formal nonprofit organization. The main questions being examined are from which sources nascent nonprofit entrepreneurs anticipate to obtain start-up funding from, how much start-up funding nascent nonprofit entrepreneurs anticipate they will need to formally launch their new nonprofit, and if there are any differences in funding intentions among nascent nonprofit entrepreneurs with and without previous start-up experience. The results from a survey of 103 nascent nonprofit entrepreneurs in Kansas City are presented and contrasted with existing research on funding of new nonprofit organizations. The results show an apparent preference for start-up funding from philanthropic grants and private donations, along with personal contributions of the founder(s.

  19. 10 CFR 603.620 - Financial management standards for nonprofit participants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Financial management standards for nonprofit participants... Financial Matters § 603.620 Financial management standards for nonprofit participants. So as not to force... organization, expenditure-based TIA requirements for the financial management system of any nonprofit...

  20. K-12 Education Nonprofit Employees' Perceptions of Strategies for Recruiting and Retaining Employees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrne, Tara Marie

    2013-01-01

    This qualitative study explored the key reasons individuals who work in K-12 education nonprofit organizations enter the field of K-12 nonprofit education and their motivations for doing so. The purpose of this study was to find new strategies for recruiting and retaining K-12 education nonprofit employees by examining the obstacles that exist to…

  1. Nonprofit Leadership Capacity Buildings : Sustainability in An Age of Uncertainties

    OpenAIRE

    Kapucu, Naim; Palabıyık, Hamit; Yuldashev, Ferhod

    2008-01-01

    Nonprofit organizations are experiencing challenging leadership problems. Especially in this era of highly accelerate baby boom retirement new leaders of the increasingly commercialized nonprofit sector are devoid of the leadership skills necessary to accomplish the mission of an organization. This paper analyzes the problem of leadership planning, training, and development and proposes the ways of mitigating the problem through effective transference of knowledge and skills...

  2. Mobbing in a Non-Profit Organisation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kovacic Andrej

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The aim of this paper is to analyse mobbing in a large, non-profit, state-owned organization in order to find out to what extent mobbing is present and in what way it takes place. In addition, the purpose of the research is to analyse whether the extent of mobbing is connected to employee’s age, gender and position.

  3. Fit Between Organization Design and Organizational Routines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constance E. Helfat

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Despite decades of research on both organization design and organizational routines, little research has analyzed the relationship between them. Here we propose a normative theory in which the effectiveness of organization design and redesign depends on the characteristics of routines. The analysis shows which types of organization designs may be useful as well as which design changes may or may not succeed depending on (a the specificity of routines and (b the dynamic versus static purposes of organizational routines.

  4. Child center closures: Does nonprofit status provide a comparative advantage?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Marcus; Klein, Sacha; Freisthler, Bridget; Weiss, Robert E.

    2013-01-01

    Reliable access to dependable, high quality childcare services is a vital concern for large numbers of American families. The childcare industry consists of private nonprofit, private for-profit, and governmental providers that differ along many dimensions, including quality, clientele served, and organizational stability. Nonprofit providers are theorized to provide higher quality services given comparative tax advantages, higher levels of consumer trust, and management by mission driven entrepreneurs. This study examines the influence of ownership structure, defined as nonprofit, for-profit sole proprietors, for-profit companies, and governmental centers, on organizational instability, defined as childcare center closures. Using a cross sectional data set of 15724 childcare licenses in California for 2007, we model the predicted closures of childcare centers as a function of ownership structure as well as center age and capacity. Findings indicate that for small centers (capacity of 30 or less) nonprofits are more likely to close, but for larger centers (capacity 30+) nonprofits are less likely to close. This suggests that the comparative advantages available for nonprofit organizations may be better utilized by larger centers than by small centers. We consider the implications of our findings for parents, practitioners, and social policy. PMID:23543882

  5. Child center closures: Does nonprofit status provide a comparative advantage?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Marcus; Klein, Sacha; Freisthler, Bridget; Weiss, Robert E

    2013-03-01

    Reliable access to dependable, high quality childcare services is a vital concern for large numbers of American families. The childcare industry consists of private nonprofit, private for-profit, and governmental providers that differ along many dimensions, including quality, clientele served, and organizational stability. Nonprofit providers are theorized to provide higher quality services given comparative tax advantages, higher levels of consumer trust, and management by mission driven entrepreneurs. This study examines the influence of ownership structure, defined as nonprofit, for-profit sole proprietors, for-profit companies, and governmental centers, on organizational instability, defined as childcare center closures. Using a cross sectional data set of 15724 childcare licenses in California for 2007, we model the predicted closures of childcare centers as a function of ownership structure as well as center age and capacity. Findings indicate that for small centers (capacity of 30 or less) nonprofits are more likely to close, but for larger centers (capacity 30+) nonprofits are less likely to close. This suggests that the comparative advantages available for nonprofit organizations may be better utilized by larger centers than by small centers. We consider the implications of our findings for parents, practitioners, and social policy.

  6. The intricate implementation of performance measurement systems, exploring developments in professional-service organizations in the Dutch non-profit sector

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Teelken, J.C.

    2008-01-01

    Institutional and organizational theory supports the argument that current features of performance measurement systems (PMS) in public organizations are generally unsuitable for the actual nature of these professional organizations. Longitudinal and cross-sectional studies in the health care and

  7. Designing organizations in the CCI

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kolsteeg, J.; Smulders, F.E.H.M.

    2014-01-01

    Drastic cuts in government budgets will force cultural organizations to reconsider their position by initiating internal discussions on how to avert the risk of these cuts. In order to avoid gradual withering of their proposition, cultural organizations will increasingly search for new

  8. Integral Design workshops: organization, structure and testing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zeiler, W.; Savanovic, P.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to achieve an understanding of design activities in the context of building design. The starting point is an overview of design research and design methodology. From the insights gained by this analysis of design in this specific context, we present an ‘organization

  9. The Quiet Crisis: The Impact of the Economic Downturn on the Nonprofit Sector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bridgeland, John M.; McNaught, Mary; Reed, Bruce; Dunkelman, Marc

    2009-01-01

    This report was written to shine a spotlight on the under-reported plight of America's nonprofit organizations and to make recommendations for how the nation can respond. In the wake of the economic downturn, hospitals, nursing homes, nursery schools, senior centers, soup kitchens, and other nonprofit organizations have been hit by a triple…

  10. 23 CFR 450.310 - Metropolitan planning organization designation and redesignation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... staff resources of other agencies, non-profit organizations, or contractors to carry out selected... serves a TMA; or (4) Periodic rotation of members representing units of general-purpose local government...

  11. Integral Design workshops: organization, structure and testing

    OpenAIRE

    Zeiler, W Wim; Savanovic, P Perica

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to achieve an understanding of design activities in the context of building design. The starting point is an overview of design research and design methodology. From the insights gained by this analysis of design in this specific context, we present an 'organization structure and design' workshop approach for collaborative multi-discipline design management. The workshops set-up, used to implement and to test the approach, are presented as well as the experiences ...

  12. Challenges to Deploy Service Design in Organizations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Akasaka, Fumiya; Ohno, Takehiko; Jensen, Mika Yasuoka

    2016-01-01

    More and more companies are applying service design approaches to develop services and products. Not every project, however, has achieved its goals. In many cases, difficulties arise from organizational issues such as organization structure and evaluation system. In this research, we held workshops...... where success and failure factors of service design projects in organization are presented. By analysing the results, we construct a model that explains the “difficulties of deploying the service design approach in organization.” On the basis of the model, this paper discusses the challenges...... to the deployment of the service design approach in organizations....

  13. Organization Design for the Newly Established Function

    OpenAIRE

    Lehtonen, Antti

    2017-01-01

    This Thesis focuses on organization design of the case organization that is needed due to the case company re-organizing its processes. The change from a matrix organization to a line management organization has been implemented but the processes, functions, roles, responsibilities and hierarchical structure still need to be defined for one particular function. The study is conducted by using Action research approach. The data was collected in three phases. The most important data collect...

  14. Revenue Sources and Social Media Engagement Among Environmentally Focused Nonprofits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John R. McCaskill

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This study examines social media efforts among environmentally focused nonprofits. A survey of environmentally focused nonprofits revealed that more than half of these organizations receive government funding. Prior research demonstrates social media is an efficient medium in which to simultaneously communicate with multiple stakeholders. However, stakeholder engagement is likely tied with the need to raise funds. From that basis, we discuss social media use among nonprofits and develop hypotheses about differences in social media use among organizations receiving government funds and those not receiving government funds. Our hypotheses are rooted in resource dependency theory (RDT and dialogic communication theory (DCT. We test our hypotheses on data from environmentally focused nonprofits by comparing the levels of social media engagement with varying levels of their total funding provided by government grants to determine if there is a correlation with the level of public engagement via social media. We find the level of engagement on the social media site Facebook is lower for government-funded environmental nonprofits than privately funded ones. The findings of reduced social media engagement and the dependence upon government funding versus private funding supports the precepts of resource dependency theory.

  15. Nonprofit, payload process improvement through lean management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampson, Melissa

    Organizations that are successful and competitive long-term have learned to efficiently utilize their resources, such as money, people, facilities, and time. Over the last half-century, there have been a variety of theories and techniques put forth on how to do this. One recent theory applied in the aerospace industry is Lean Management (LM), which emphasizes a customer focus and a rigorous elimination of activities that do not add value from the customer's perspective. LM has not, until now, been evaluated for small, nonprofit, one-off production organizations (NOPOs). Previous research on LM focused on for-profit companies and large-scale production organizations, producing relatively similar products repetitively (e.g. automobiles, commercial satellites, aircraft, and launch vehicles). One-off production organizations typically create one-of-a-kind products. The purpose of this research is to examine the applicability of LM to a NOPO. LM will improve resource utilization and thereby competitiveness, as well as exploring a new area of knowledge and research. The research methodology consists of conducting case studies, formal and informal interviews, observation and analysis in order to assess whether and how LM may be beneficial. The research focuses on one particular NOPO, BioServe Space Technologies (BST): a nonprofit, payload development organization. Additional NOPOs were interviewed in order to draw more generalized conclusions about LM benefits. The research demonstrates that LM is applicable to NOPOs, thus providing a tool to improve efficiency and competitiveness. Results from this research are guidelines for payload development organizations to implement LM, and highlighting potential LM weaknesses. A major conclusion is that LM needs some minor modifications to be applicable and useful to NOPOs, particularly in terms of value stream mapping. The LM implementation roadmap developed for NOPOs introduces customized metrics, as well as including standard

  16. Pricing objectives in nonprofit hospitals.

    OpenAIRE

    Bauerschmidt, A D; Jacobs, P

    1985-01-01

    This article reports on a survey of 60 financial managers of nonprofit hospitals in the eastern United States relating to the importance of a number of factors which influence their pricing decisions and the pricing objectives which they pursue. Among the results uncovered by the responses: that trustees are the single most important body in the price-setting process (doctors play a relatively unimportant role); that hospital pricing goals are more related to target net revenue than profit ma...

  17. Leading Organizations for Universal Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Joseph B.; Van Thanh, Duong

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to provide a model for helping campus leaders create and sustain efforts to fully incorporate Universal Instructional Design (UID) throughout their institutions. The article uses a multiple dimension model of organizational behavior as the basis for making recommendations to support this type of institutional…

  18. Commitment with or without a stick of paid work: comparison of paid and unpaid workers in a non-profit organization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Vuuren, Hubrecht A.; de Jong, Menno D.T.; Seydel, E.R.

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate whether nonpaid volunteers have other reasons to be a member of an organization than paid workers. Volunteers are assumed to be hard to manage, because there is no “stick of a paid contract” to keep them in line. Therefore, we studied different dimensions

  19. The Role of Non-Governmental Non-Profit Organizations in the Provision of Social Services and the Palliation of Poverty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihaela Bronić

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available After introductory considerations, arguments are put forward for non-governmental organisations as exclusive providers of social services. The negative characteristics of the non-governmental organization are subject of the third part of the paper. In the fourth part, the meaning of the social funds is explained (they are a kind of non-governmental organisations, and in Part 5, we explain the importance of the synergy between the government and society in the provision of social services. After the explanation of the situation in Croatia, in the Part 6 of the paper we give our final considerations. In Croatia non-governmental organizations that provide social services are slowly developing. In their further strengthening it is necessary to change the general viewpoints concerning the role and importance of the non-governmental sector in the alleviation of poverty, as well as to achieve better coordination between the state and the sector.

  20. Public–nonprofit partnership performance in a disaster context: the case of Haiti.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nolte, Isabella M; Boenigk, Silke

    2011-01-01

    During disasters, partnerships between public and nonprofit organizations are vital to provide fast relief to affected communities. In this article, we develop a process model to support a performance evaluation of such intersectoral partnerships. The model includes input factors, organizational structures, outputs and the long-term outcomes of public–nonprofit partnerships. These factors derive from theory and a systematic literature review of emergency, public, nonprofit, and network research. To adapt the model to a disaster context, we conducted a case study that examines public and nonprofit organizations that partnered during the 2010 Haiti earthquake. The case study results show that communication, trust, and experience are the most important partnership inputs; the most prevalent governance structure of public–nonprofit partnerships is a lead organization network. Time and quality measures should be considered to assess partnership outputs, and community, network, and organizational actor perspectives must be taken into account when evaluating partnership outcomes.

  1. 32 CFR 37.690 - How are nonprofit participants to manage real property and equipment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... SECRETARY OF DEFENSE DoD GRANT AND AGREEMENT REGULATIONS TECHNOLOGY INVESTMENT AGREEMENTS Award Terms Affecting Participants' Financial, Property, and Purchasing Systems Property § 37.690 How are nonprofit... institution of higher education or in a nonprofit organization whose primary purpose is conducting scientific...

  2. 7 CFR Exhibit B to Subpart L of... - Section 515 Nonprofit Set Aside (NPSA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... with or controlled by a for-profit organization; and E. May be a consumer cooperative, Indian tribe or... rating/ranking lists. F. Provisions for providing preference to loan requests from nonprofit... qualify for nonprofit preference. VIII. Exception authority. The Administrator, or his/her designee, may...

  3. Gender, Occupation, and Promotion to Management in the Nonprofit Sector : The critical case of Médecins sans Frontières Holland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Damman, Marleen; Heyse, Liesbet; Mills, Melinda

    2014-01-01

    Although one can assume the work values within nonprofit organizations promote gender equality in promotion decisions, there is preliminary evidence that in the nonprofit sector women are underrepresented in higher management positions. Whereas the mechanisms resulting in underrepresentation of

  4. Design theory methods and organization for innovation

    CERN Document Server

    Le Masson, Pascal; Hatchuel, Armand

    2017-01-01

    This textbook presents the core of recent advances in design theory and its implications for design methods and design organization. Providing a unified perspective on different design methods and approaches, from the most classic (systematic design) to the most advanced (C-K theory), it offers a unique and integrated presentation of traditional and contemporary theories in the field. Examining the principles of each theory, this guide utilizes numerous real life industrial applications, with clear links to engineering design, industrial design, management, economics, psychology and creativity. Containing a section of exams with detailed answers, it is useful for courses in design theory, engineering design and advanced innovation management. "Students and professors, practitioners and researchers in diverse disciplines, interested in design, will find in this book a rich and vital source for studying fundamental design methods and tools as well as the most advanced design theories that work in practice". Pro...

  5. Helping Charity Work: Paid Jobs in Charitable Nonprofits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crosby, Olivia

    2001-01-01

    Describes five behind-the-scenes occupations found in almost every type of charitable nonprofit organization: manager, fundraisers, foundation program officers, communications directors, and executive directors. Lists the training, employment, and earnings characteristics of people-to-people, food-related, advocacy, and trade occupations in the…

  6. Federal Tax Exemption Status of the Private Nonprofit Art Association.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Edward J.

    1978-01-01

    The question of whether the selling of art by a private nonprofit art association violates the provisions of section 501(c)(3) of the Internal Revenue Code of 1954 is considered. Revenue rulings of 1971 and 1976 suggest that any sale of art may render the organization ineligible for tax exemption when private interests are benefited. (JMD)

  7. Design of artificial human joints & organs

    CERN Document Server

    Pal, Subrata

    2013-01-01

    This book covers the design science and methodology of artificial joints and organs.  It presents the mechanical characterization of the hard and soft tissues as well as the viscoelastic properties of the tissue.

  8. Derivative financial instruments and nonprofit health care providers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Louis J; Owhoso, Vincent

    2004-01-01

    This article examines the extent of derivative financial instrument use among US nonprofit health systems and the impact of these financial instruments on their cash flows, reported operating results, and financial risks. Our examination is conducted through a case study of New Jersey hospitals and health systems. We review the existing literature on interest rate derivative instruments and US hospitals and health systems. This literature describes the design of these derivative financial instruments and the theoretical benefits of their use by large health care provider organizations. Our contribution to the literature is to provide an empirical evaluation of derivative financial instruments usage among a geographically limited sample of US nonprofit health systems. We reviewed the audited financial statements of the 49 community hospitals and multi-hospital health systems operating in the state of New Jersey. We found that 8 percent of New Jersey's nonprofit health providers utilized interest rate derivatives with an aggregate principle value of $229 million. These derivative users combine interest rate swaps and caps to lower the effective interest costs of their long-term debt while limiting their exposure to future interest rate increases. In addition, while derivative assets and liabilities have an immaterial balance sheet impact, derivative related gains and losses are a material component of their reported operating results. We also found that derivative usage among these four health systems was responsible for generating positive cash flows in the range of 1 percent to 2 percent of their total 2001 cash flows from operations. As a result of our admittedly limited samples we conclude that interest rate swaps and caps are effective risk management tools. However, we also found that while these derivative financial instruments are useful hedges against the risks of issuing long-term financing instruments, they also expose derivative users to credit, contract

  9. Localized prostate cancer treatment decision-making information online: improving its effectiveness and dissemination for nonprofit and government-supported organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silk, Kami J; Perrault, Evan K; Nazione, Samantha; Pace, Kristin; Hager, Polly; Springer, Steven

    2013-12-01

    The current study reports findings from evaluation research conducted to identify how online prostate cancer treatment decision-making information can be both improved and more effectively disseminated to those who need it most. A multi-method, multi-target approach was used and guided by McGuire's Communication Matrix Model. Focus groups (n = 31) with prostate cancer patients and their family members, and in-depth interviews with physicians (n = 8), helped inform a web survey (n = 89). Results indicated that physicians remain a key information source for medical advice and the Internet is a primary channel used to help make informed prostate cancer treatment decisions. Participants reported a need for more accessible information related to treatment options and treatment side effects. Additionally, physicians indicated that the best way for agencies to reach them with new information to deliver to patients is by contacting them directly and meeting with them one-on-one. Advice for organizations to improve their current prostate cancer web offerings and further ways to improve information dissemination are discussed.

  10. Listen! Alternative Experiences of Access to Justice in Santiago de Cali. Justice-State Tension in Multi-Door Courthouses, Non-Profit Organization and Community Kitchens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lina Fernanda Buchely Ibarra

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The Distrito de Aguablanca in Cali was chosen in 1994 by government and multilateral organizations to develop a pioneering project of the second movement of Right and Development: the Casas de Justicia. It integrates two apparently differing objectives. One of them relates with the reduction of the resource expenditures and the devoted time to the provision of justice. The other one attempts to narrowing the relationship gaps between community and State, in order to the prevention of new conflicts. We are trying a deeper examination into this dichotomy, by highlighting the relevance of dialogue and listening in the conception of a perspective of justice involving the stances prevailing at the scenarios where the State intervenes. We will carry out a comparative analysis between the measurement logics arrayed by the central government at the Casa de Justicia, the Amor Foundation, and the Tía Paula community dinning service, situated in the neighborhoods of Marroquín II and Potrero Grande. We will use the referents developed by the philosopher Jean-Luc Nancy in his text Listening, such as silence, present time, transformation, and noise.

  11. Financial Condition and Tuition in Private Nonprofit Baccalaureate Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peruso, Dominick F., Jr.

    2012-01-01

    The rate of tuition inflation at U.S. colleges and universities is alarming and threatens both access and choice. Private nonprofit baccalaureate colleges often possess the highest tuition rates but routinely face financial challenges. This study was designed to better understand the relationship between tuition and financial condition for the…

  12. Design of an organic simplified nuclear reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shirvan, Koroush [Dept. of Nuclear Science and Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge (United States); Forrest, Eric [Primary Standards Laboratory, Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque (United States)

    2016-08-15

    Numerous advanced reactor concepts have been proposed to replace light water reactors ever since their establishment as the dominant technology for nuclear energy production. While most designs seek to improve cost competitiveness and safety, the implausibility of doing so with affordable materials or existing nuclear fuel infrastructure reduces the possibility of near-term deployment, especially in developing countries. The organic nuclear concept, first explored in the 1950s, offers an attractive alternative to advanced reactor designs being considered. The advent of high temperature fluids, along with advances in hydrocracking and reforming technologies driven by the oil and gas industries, make the organic concept even more viable today. We present a simple, cost-effective, and safe small modular nuclear reactor for offshore underwater deployment. The core is moderated by graphite, zirconium hydride, and organic fluid while cooled by the organic fluid. The organic coolant enables operation near atmospheric pressure and use of plain carbon steel for the reactor tank and primary coolant piping system. The core is designed to mitigate the coolant degradation seen in early organic reactors. Overall, the design provides a power density of 40 kW/L, while reducing the reactor hull size by 40% compared with a pressurized water reactor while significantly reducing capital plant costs.

  13. Design of an Organic Simplified Nuclear Reactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koroush Shirvan

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Numerous advanced reactor concepts have been proposed to replace light water reactors ever since their establishment as the dominant technology for nuclear energy production. While most designs seek to improve cost competitiveness and safety, the implausibility of doing so with affordable materials or existing nuclear fuel infrastructure reduces the possibility of near-term deployment, especially in developing countries. The organic nuclear concept, first explored in the 1950s, offers an attractive alternative to advanced reactor designs being considered. The advent of high temperature fluids, along with advances in hydrocracking and reforming technologies driven by the oil and gas industries, make the organic concept even more viable today. We present a simple, cost-effective, and safe small modular nuclear reactor for offshore underwater deployment. The core is moderated by graphite, zirconium hydride, and organic fluid while cooled by the organic fluid. The organic coolant enables operation near atmospheric pressure and use of plain carbon steel for the reactor tank and primary coolant piping system. The core is designed to mitigate the coolant degradation seen in early organic reactors. Overall, the design provides a power density of 40 kW/L, while reducing the reactor hull size by 40% compared with a pressurized water reactor while significantly reducing capital plant costs.

  14. Organizing for Flexibility: Addressing Dynamic Capabilities and Organization Design

    OpenAIRE

    van der Weerdt, Niels; Volberda, Henk; Verwaal, Ernst; Stienstra, Marten

    2014-01-01

    The increasingly dynamic nature of organizational environments has led the research community to study organizational flexibility. Although the research literature stresses the complexity of the organizational flexibility construct, it lacks a comprehensive empirical study addressing the relationships among various dimensions of organizational flexibility. This chapter develops a theoretical framework specifying the linkages between types of flexibility and organization design characteristics...

  15. An Evaluation Program for Nonprofit Recreation Organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-09-01

    I do not care to use it - not satisfied. I use full time daycare elsewhere. Children are not supervised well enough - need more care, e.g., diapers ...games in spring/fall. 131 F. SAILING Too hard to use. G. SWIMMING Swim classes interfere. Leave open year round. Install solar heating. H. YOUTH

  16. Nonprofit Organizations Use of Social Media

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fagerstrøm, Asle; Sørum, Hanne; Vatrapu, Ravi

    2014-01-01

    media survey1 within European Foundation of Drug Helplines members resulted in 16 responses (approximately 38 percentage response rate), representing 10 different European countries. Findings indicated that most drug helplines in the survey have some experience with social media. However, few...... of the drug helpline use social media based on purposeful planning and clear distribution of responsibility. Social media can be used for promoting an event or a sensitizing campaign to create positive value. Facebook is the social media that in general are most frequently used for purposes such as reaching...... a specific audience and promotion. Additionally, findings of the survey show that few drug helplines in the survey monitor social media frequently....

  17. Effective Social Media Engagement for Nonprofits: What Matters?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia L Carboni

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available We employ public management relationship theory to examine how nonprofits can effectively engage social media stakeholders in two-way communication. Though many nonprofit organizations have a social media presence, there is variance in how well organizations use social media to engage stakeholders. Simply having a social media presence is not enough to engage stakeholders.  We examine Facebook posts of a stratified random sample of youth development organizations to determine what predicts stakeholder engagement. We find the type of Facebook post is a significant predictor of stakeholder engagement.  Longer posts also significantly predict increased stakeholder engagement.  At the organizational level, having many posts is a significant negative predictor of stakeholder engagement, indicating that users may feel bombarded and are less likely to engage.  Increased organizational spending on advertising as a proportion of total budget is positively associated with stakeholder engagement. 

  18. Profiles in Organizational Effectiveness for Nonprofits: Improving the Lives of Children, Youth and Families in Kansas City's Urban Core.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewing Marion Kauffman Foundation, Kansas City, MO.

    For some time the Ewing Marion Kauffman Foundation has been studying the attributes that characterize effective nonprofit organizations. These attributes were identified after a review of the literature, discussions with national leaders, meetings with administrators and funders of nonprofit organizations, and the information from case studies by…

  19. Bridging cultures: Nonprofit, church, and emergency management agency collaboration after the May 2013 Oklahoma tornado outbreak.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Haley; Pudlo, Jason

    Community-based organizations, such as nonprofit organizations (NPOs) and churches, play an important role in helping individuals and communities bounce back after a disaster. The nature of disasters requires organizations across sectors to partner together to provide recovery services; however, collaboration is difficult even in times of stability and requires trust and communication to be built through prior collaborative relationships. These prior relationships rarely exist between the majority of the nonprofit sector, churches, and existing emergency management structures. Furthermore, these organizations often have very different cultures, values, and norms that can further hinder successful postdisaster collaboration. The authors use data collected from interviews with nonprofit and church leaders involved in recovery efforts after a series of devastating storms impacted central Oklahoma in 2013 to understand how well nonprofit and church leaders perceive their organizations collaborated with each other and with government and emergency management agencies in response and recovery efforts. Interview data suggest that NPOs and churches without a primary or secondary mission of disaster response and recovery have a difficult time collaborating with organizations involved in existing emergency management structures. The authors suggest that nonprofits with a primary or secondary purpose in disaster response are a potential bridge between other nonprofits and emergency management agencies.

  20. Sustaining Participatory Design in the organization - Infrastructuring with Participatory Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bolmsten, Johan

    Modern organizations need to be able to change to seize opportunities and meet challenges, which are ever more rapidly presenting themselves. In doing so, they need to make use of the creativity and innovations of their employees. At the same time Information Technology applications today...... are likely to take the form of complex, integrated infrastructures, supporting collaboration within and across organizations. This places requirements on the development of IT infrastructures. As the work practices within an organization change, the supporting infrastructure also needs to evolve. This Ph......D thesis is about sustaining Participatory Design in the organization to enable users to influence the development of the IT infrastructure that supports their work practices. The empirical research is based on a long-term action research study, where this researcher works as an embedded researcher...

  1. History of the World Federation of Societies for Laser Medicine and Surgery (WFSLMS) and its Non-Profit Organization (NPO-WFSLMS): Part 1: Origins to Inaugural Meeting, 2005.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohshiro, Toshio

    2014-07-01

    The first society formed to represent the "new" field of laser applications in medicine and surgery was the late Professor Kaplan's International Society for Laser Surgery and Medicine, held in Israel in 1975. Following the ISLSM lead, a large number of national and international societies were very swiftly formed. As the number grew, it became obvious that some sort of linking forum would help all these separate societies to pool the knowledge of their members for the good of the clinicians and their patients. The World Federation of Societies for Laser Medicine and Surgery was formed to attempt to fill this role. The History: At the 1996 meeting of the Greek Medical Laser Association, the first international forum of representatives from 17 international and national laser societies was convened by Professor Nick Nicolopoulos, and the seed of an idea for a centralized forum to help separate laser societies coordinate efforts and knowledge was planted. This seed was nurtured by the ISLSM as the first medical laser society, and forums were called together at each meeting of the ISLSM and the other related societies from 1997 to 2003. At the 2004 Chinese Medical Laser Society meeting, the idea of worldwide federation of laser societies crystallized into a more tangible form The Inaugural WFSLMS Congress: The convening of the first WFSLMS congress took place in Tokyo in 2005, under the leadership of Professor Kazuhiko Atsumi. At this meeting, Professor Kaplan proposed that a Medical Laser Foundation should be established and donated the first seed money for its formation. Because of the Japanese legal requirements, a foundation was impossible and so a Non-profit Organization (NPO-WFSLMS) was started, based in Japan, to oversee the work and fund the tasks of promoting laser surgery and medicine worldwide, for the good of mankind: the financing, running and holding WFSLMS congresses became one of the tasks of NPO-WFSLMS. Both the WFSLMS and NPO-WFSLMS were therefore on

  2. Message content of alcohol moderation TV commercials: impact of corporate versus nonprofit sponsorship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavack, A M

    1999-01-01

    This content analysis examines a sample of 203 alcohol-related North American TV commercials dealing with alcohol moderation and driving under the influence (DUI), in order to determine whether the type of ad sponsor has an impact on the message content. Corporate sponsors, such as breweries and distillers, are compared to nonprofit sponsors such as governments and nonprofit organizations. Findings show that ads from corporate sponsors are less likely to make mention of threats or negative consequences, and are also less likely to use fear arousal. However, DUI/alcohol moderation ads from corporate sponsors and nonprofit sponsors do not differ in the degree to which they use humor or positive approaches.

  3. Design Legacies: Why Service Designers Cannot Embed Design in the Organizations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Junginger, Sabine

    2014-01-01

    Much talk about service design has focused on how to bring design practices, design thinking and design methods into an organization in order to transform or change the way it is going about business. There is only one thing that researchers and practitioners have overlooked: Design principles...... these organizational design practices. This paper explains the concept of design legacies and describes three elements of organizational design legacies: organizational purpose, organizational design approaches and organizational design practices. Using a matrix developed around designing for, with and by, the paper...... explains how we can make sense of existing organizational design practices....

  4. Designing the owner's nuclear project management organization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooke, T.C.; Peck, B.H.

    1976-01-01

    Few decisions are more important to an electric utility company than the one to build a nuclear generating facility. This decision will require continuous management attention to the nuclear project for periods of up to ten years on the part of the utility. Effective management of such a large, complex project requires an owner's organization skilled in such areas as engineering, heavy construction, procurement, and project control. The paper describes a method for designing the owner's nuclear organization. Factors considered include the identification of milestone events and phases of the project and identification of key organizational groups and their degree of involvement. A series of important decision milestones is also identified for structuring the organization. A step-by-step analysis involving a set of evaluation criteria results in a recommended organization that can be staffed by the owner according to the degree of involvement desired. This technique of analysis could also be performed using different evaluation criteria resulting in other options for the owner's organization

  5. The social media participation framework: studying the effects of social media on nonprofit communities

    OpenAIRE

    Effing, Robin

    2014-01-01

    Social media could help nonprofit communities to organize their communication with their members in new and innovative ways. This could contribute to sustaining or improving the participation of members within these communities. Yet little is known of how to measure and understand the offline community effects of social media use. Therefore, the main question of this study is: “How does the use of social media by members of nonprofit communities affect their offline participation?” The Social...

  6. Working on nonprofit boards. Don't assume the shoe fits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McFarlan, F W

    1999-01-01

    Contrary to popular perception, businesspeople can be benevolent. For instance, one recent study notes that four-fifths of all Harvard Business School graduates are involved with nonprofits, with more than half of those serving on boards. Most business professionals will spend some time on a nonprofit board. That's the good news, the author says. The bad news is that the involvement of businesspeople can easily backfire. That's because they often try to take what they have learned from business school and the corporate world and apply it to their duties in the nonprofit sector. On the surface, there are similarities between the for-profit and nonprofit sectors. Both have boards of directors, trustees and chairpeople, regular meetings, and so forth. But the governance of nonprofit organizations is very different from the governance of for-profit businesses in several critical areas, including missions, measurements, and board composition. For instance, the CEO in the nonprofit world must manage a relationship with a nonexecutive board chair. In the for-profit world, the CEO is the chair. Such significant differences make it difficult to transfer ideas and practices between the for-profit and nonprofit worlds. In this article, F. Warren McFarlan describes the main differences between serving on a for-profit board and serving on a nonprofit board. As he points out, understanding the differences will make it easier for businesspeople to move smoothly from one environment to the other and will therefore make their commitments more effective. Nonprofits need businesspeople, but only on the right terms.

  7. Factor analysis of financial and operational performance measures of non-profit hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Dhiman

    2009-01-01

    To understand the important dimensions of the financial and operational performance of non-profit hospitals. Secondary data for non-profit US hospitals between 1996 and 2004. I use iterative principal factor analysis of hospitals' financial and operational ratios for each year of the study. For factor interpretation, I use oblique rotation. Financial ratios were created using cost report data from HCRIS 2552-96 available from the Centers for Medicaid & Medicare Services (CMS). I identify five factors--capital structure, profitability, activity, liquidity, and an operational factor--that explain most of the variation in the performance of non-profit hospitals. I also find that capital structure is more important than profitability in determining the performance of these hospitals. The importance of capital structure highlights a significant shift in the organization of the non-profit hospitals' finances.

  8. Charity and community: the role of nonprofit ownership in a managed health care system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlesinger, M; Gray, B; Bradley, E

    1996-01-01

    As American medicine has been transformed by the growth of managed care, so too have questions about the appropriate role of nonprofit ownership in the health care system. The standards for community benefit that are increasingly applied to nonprofit hospitals are, at best, only partially relevant to expectations for nonprofit managed care plans. Can we expect nonprofit ownership to substantially affect the behavior of an increasingly competitive managed care industry dealing with insured populations? Drawing from historical interpretations of tax exemption in health care and from the theoretical literature on the implications of ownership for organizational behavior, we identify five forms of community benefit that might be associated with nonprofit forms of managed care. Using data from a national survey of firms providing third-party utilization review services in 1993, we test for ownership-related differences in these five dimensions. Nonprofit utilization review firms generally provide more public goods, such as information dissemination, and are more "community oriented" than proprietary firms, but they are not distinguishable from their for-profit counterparts in addressing the implications of medical quality or the cost of the review process. However, a subgroup of nonprofit review organizations with medical origins are more likely to address quality issues than are either for-profit firms or other nonprofit agencies. Evidence on responses to information asymmetries is mixed but suggests that some ownership related differences exist. The term "charitable" is thus capable of a definition far broader than merely the relief of the poor. While it is true that in the past Congress and the federal courts have conditioned the hospital's charitable status on the level of free or below cost care that it provided for indigents, there is no authority for the conclusion that the determination of "charitable" status was always so limited. Such an inflexible

  9. The Design of Project Management Structural Organization

    OpenAIRE

    Dumitru Constantinescu; Cristian Etegan

    2007-01-01

    The relationships organization-suppliers-customers have recently known major changes in the structure of services and have made the organization develop its managerial and professional competencies in order to do projects. The qualified organization is the most trust-worthy in the process of doing a project. The participation of an organization in doing projects depends on a multitude of factors. Out of these factors, the structural organization comes forth, as it represents the variable with...

  10. EPA for Businesses and Non-Profits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Information and links to EPA web pages that are meant to help businesses and non-profits adhere to EPA regulations and otherwise protect the environment, take advantage of opportunities to collaborate with the EPA, and find training EPA training programs.

  11. Designing and Implementing a Unique Website Design Project in an Undergraduate Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kontos, George

    2016-01-01

    The following paper describes a distinctive collaborative service-learning project done in an undergraduate class on web design. In this project, students in a web design class contacted local community non-profit organizations to create websites (collections of web pages) to benefit these organizations. The two phases of creating a website,…

  12. Design and Co-design of Project-organized Studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jørgen Lerche; Andreasen, Lars Birch

    2014-01-01

    The chapter contributes to discussions on design processes in relation to education, presenting different notions of design research and demonstrating how professors and students are involved together in designing innovative and constructive study processes that can help foster students' engagement...

  13. Application of relationship marketing in non-profit organisations ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Application of relationship marketing in non-profit organisations involved in the provision of sport and recreational services. ... A variety of factors have over time contributed to a need for marketing in non-profit ... AJOL African Journals Online.

  14. Firms, nonprofits, and cooperatives : A theory of organizational choice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Herbst, Patrick; Prüfer, Jens

    We formalize the difference between profit-maximizing firms, nonprofits, and cooperatives and identify optimal organizational choice in a model of quality provision. Firms provide lowest and nonprofits highest levels of quality. Efficiency, however, depends on the competitive environment, the

  15. Mitigating concerns and maximizing returns: social media strategies for injury prevention non-profits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMillan-Cottom, Tressie

    2014-08-01

    Injury prevention programs can use social media to disseminate information and recruit participants. Non-profit organizations have also used social media for fundraising and donor relationship management. Non-profit organizations (NPOs) with injury prevention missions often serve vulnerable populations. Social media platforms have varied levels of access and control of shared content. This variability can present privacy and outreach challenges that are of particular concern for injury prevention NPOs. This case report of social media workshops for injury prevention NPOs presents concerns and strategies for successfully implementing social media campaigns.

  16. Mitigating Concerns and Maximizing Returns: Social Media Strategies for Injury Prevention Non-profits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tressie McMillan-Cottom

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Injury prevention programs can use social media to disseminate information and recruit participants. Non-profit organizations have also used social media for fundraising and donor relationship management. Non-profit organizations (NPOs with injury prevention missions often serve vulnerable populations. Social media platforms have varied levels of access and control of shared content. This variability can present privacy and outreach challenges that are of particular concern for injury prevention NPOs. This case report of social media workshops for injury prevention NPOs presents concerns and strategies for successfully implementing social media campaigns.

  17. The Virtual Design Team: Designing Project Organizations as Engineers Design Bridges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raymond E. Levitt

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports on a 20-year program of research intended to advance the theory and practice of organization design for projects from its current status as an art practiced by a handful of consultants worldwide, based on their intuition and tacit knowledge, to: (1 an “organizational engineering” craft, practiced by a new generation of organizational designers; and (2 an attractive and complementary platform for new modes of “virtual synthetic organization theory research.” The paper begins with a real-life scenario that provided the motivation for developing the Virtual Design Team (VDT, an agent-based project organizational simulation tool to help managers design the work processes and organization of project teams engaged in large, semi-routine but complex and fast-paced projects. The paper sets out the underlying philosophy, representation, reasoning, and validation of VDT, and it concludes with suggestions for future research on computational modeling for organization design to extend the frontiers of organizational micro-contingency theory and expand the range of applicability and usefulness of design tools for project organizations and supply-chain networks based on this theory.

  18. Nonprofit brand strength’s moderational role

    OpenAIRE

    Walter Wymer

    2015-01-01

    The nature and characteristics of the nonprofit brand strength construct are conceptualized.  Brand strength is defined as a multidimensional construct, composed by brand familiarity, brand remarkability, and brand attitude.  Brand familiarity refers to the level of knowledge the target audience has about the brand object. Brand attitude refers to the degree to which a brand object is perceived favorably by a target group. Brand remarkability refers to the degree to which a brand object is pe...

  19. How do nonprofit hospitals manage earnings?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leone, Andrew J; Van Horn, R Lawrence

    2005-07-01

    We hypothesize that, unlike for-profit firms, nonprofit hospitals have incentives to manage earnings to a range just above zero. We consider two ways managers can achieve this. They can adjust discretionary spending [Hoerger, T.J., 1991. 'Profit' variability in for-profit and not-for-profit hospitals. Journal of Health Economics 10, 259-289.] and/or they can adjust accounting accruals using the flexibility inherent in Generally Accepted Accounting Principles (GAAP). To test our hypothesis we use regressions as well as tests of the distribution of earnings by Burgstahler and Dichev [Burgstahler, D., Dichev, I., 1997. Earnings management to avoid earnings decreases and losses. Journal of Accounting and Economics 24, 99-126.] on a sample of 1,204 hospitals and 8,179 hospital-year observations. Our tests support the use of discretionary spending and accounting accrual management. Like Hoerger (1991), we find evidence that nonprofit hospitals adjust discretionary spending to manage earnings. However, we also find significant use of discretionary accruals (e.g., adjustments to the third-party-allowance, and allowance for doubtful accounts) to meet earnings objectives. These findings have two important implications. First, the previous evidence by Hoerger that nonprofit hospitals show less variation in income may at least partly be explained by an accounting phenomenon. Second, our findings provide guidance to users of these financial statements in predicting the direction of likely bias in reported earnings.

  20. The Evolution of Enterprise Organization Designs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jay R. Galbraith

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available This article extends Alfred Chandler's seminal ideas about strategy and organizational structure, and it predicts the next stage of organizational evolution. Chandler described the evolution of vertical integration and diversification strategies for which the functional and multidivisional structures are appropriate. He also explained how the dominant structure at any point in time is a concatenation or accumulation of all previous strategies and structures. I extend Chandler's ideas by describing how early "structures" became "organizations" (people, rewards, management processes, etc. and by discussing the more recent strategies of international expansion and customer focus. International expansion leads to organizations of three dimensions: functions, business units, and countries. Customer-focused strategies lead to four-dimensional organizations currently found in global firms such as IBM, Nike, and Procter & Gamble. I argue that the next major dimension along which organizations will evolve is emerging in firms which are experimenting with the use of "Big Data."

  1. Developing the Practice of Organization Design in Arts Management Education

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kolsteeg, Johan

    2013-01-01

    This research contributes to the development of organization design, interpreted as the use of creative processes in solving organizational dilemmas, specifically the element of project management. Looking at problem articulation, process variabality, prototyping and commissionership from a design

  2. Why Aren't Evaluations Working and What to Do About It: A Framework for Negotiating Meaningful Evaluation in Nonprofits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liket, Kellie C.; Rey-Garcia, Marta; Maas, Karen E. H.

    2014-01-01

    Nonprofit organizations are under great pressure to use evaluations to show that their programs "work" and that they are "effective." However, empirical evidence indicates that nonprofits struggle to perform useful evaluations, especially when conducted under accountability pressures. An increasing body of evidence highlights…

  3. 75 FR 8390 - Eligibility of a Nonprofit Corporation/Housing Consultant Certification

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-24

    ... relationship they have with the sponsor or the mortgagor. HUD uses this information to assure compliance with...-92531. Description of the Need for the Information and Its Proposed Use: Nonprofit organizations provide financial and other information so that HUD can determine that the sponsor and/or mortgagor are truly a...

  4. Students Learn How Nonprofits Utilize Volunteers through Inquiry-Based Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolton, Elizabeth B.; Brennan, M. A.; Terry, Bryan D.

    2009-01-01

    This article highlights how undergraduate students implemented inquiry-based learning strategies to learn how nonprofit organizations utilize volunteers. In inquiry-based learning, students begin with a problem or question with some degree of focus or structure provided by the professor. The student inquiry showcased in this article was based on a…

  5. Changing behaviour through business-nonprofit collaboration? Consumer responses to social alliances

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vock, M.; van Dolen, W.; Kolk, A.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to explore consumers' responses to social alliances, a specific type of corporate social marketing in which companies cooperate with non-profit organizations. This paper extends previous studies that suggested that a social marketing effort may be a

  6. Non-profits discover the benefits of using software through the Internet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-04-01

    Many non-profits are looking at ways that they can leverage the Internet to assist in fund raising. Some organizations are using the Internet as a form of e-commerce to accept online gifts, while others are using the immediacy of the Internet for online auctions.

  7. Heterogeneous Roles and Heterogeneous Practices: Understanding the Adoption and Uses of Nonprofit Performance Evaluations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckerd, Adam; Moulton, Stephanie

    2011-01-01

    Evaluating the performance of nonprofit organizations has been of growing importance for the last several decades. Although there is much good that can come out of self-improvement, there is substantial heterogeneity within the sector that calls into question the usefulness of "across the board" evaluation tools. In this article, the authors…

  8. From "Charity" to "Social Enterprise": Managing Volunteers in Public-Serving Nonprofits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zappala, Gianni

    2001-01-01

    The changing environment has shifted the model of nonprofit organizations from charity to social enterprise, which emphasizes partnerships with business and government. Approaches to volunteer management, recruitment, retention, and recognition are different in social enterprises, and a move beyond human resource management practices is required.…

  9. The social media participation framework: studying the effects of social media on nonprofit communities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Effing, Robin

    2014-01-01

    Social media could help nonprofit communities to organize their communication with their members in new and innovative ways. This could contribute to sustaining or improving the participation of members within these communities. Yet little is known of how to measure and understand the offline

  10. A Guide to Community Shared Solar: Utility, Private, and Non-Profit Project Development (Book)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coughlin, J.; Grove, J.; Irvine, L.; Jacobs, J. F.; Johnson Phillips, S.; Sawyer, A.; Wiedman, J.

    2012-05-01

    This guide is organized around three sponsorship models: utility-sponsored projects, projects sponsored by special purpose entities - businesses formed for the purpose of producing community solar power, and non-profit sponsored projects. The guide addresses issues common to all project models, as well as issues unique to each model.

  11. 10 CFR 603.685 - Management of real property and equipment by nonprofit participants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... participants. 603.685 Section 603.685 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (CONTINUED) ASSISTANCE REGULATIONS TECHNOLOGY INVESTMENT AGREEMENTS Award Terms Affecting Participants' Financial, Property, and Purchasing Systems... education or in a nonprofit organization whose primary purpose is conducting scientific research, without...

  12. Emerging Assumptions About Organization Design, Knowledge And Action

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan Meyer

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Participants in the Organizational Design Community’s 2013 Annual Conference faced the challenge of “making organization design knowledge actionable.”  This essay summarizes the opinions and insights participants shared during the conference.  I reflect on these ideas, connect them to recent scholarly thinking about organization design, and conclude that seeking to make design knowledge actionable is nudging the community away from an assumption set based upon linearity and equilibrium, and toward a new set of assumptions based on emergence, self-organization, and non-linearity.

  13. Captação de recursos financeiros em organizações sem fins lucrativos: a utilização de indicadores de gestão para os doadores e beneficiários dos projetos sociais Financial funding for non-profit organizations: management indicators for donors and beneficiaries of social projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilceia Cristina dos Santos

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available As organizações sem fins lucrativos encontram dificuldades na captação de recursos financeiros destinados a projetos sociais, já que mais organizações dessa natureza surgem a cada ano e as instituições financiadoras não tendem a surgir na mesma proporção. Dessa forma, é imprescindível a existência de métricas que possam auxiliar os gestores de tais empresas na efetividade da captação dos recursos. O objetivo deste artigo é justamente contribuir para a eficácia dos gestores nesse processo de gestão. Mais especificamente, o artigo propõe uma adaptação do modelo de indicadores de desempenho baseado no marco lógico desenvolvido pela United States Agency for International Development (USAID e no balanced scorecard (BSC de Kaplan e Norton, de modo a auxiliar as organizações sem fins lucrativos na captação de recursos. Neste artigo, são construídas quatro proposições sobre indicadores de desempenho. Também são fornecidos dois quadros com indicadores de desempenho para as associações voltadas às crianças e adolescentes, no intuito de traduzir as proposições e resultados da discussão efetuada. Dessa forma, o artigo busca contribuir com novas idéias, especificando melhor os conceitos teóricos desenvolvidos pela USAID e por Kaplan e Norton e fornecendo constructos operacionalizáveis para uma melhor gestão das empresas sociais e sem fins lucrativos.Non-profit organizations face difficulties in obtaining financial funding for their social projects because there are more new competing organizations while the number of funding sources does not grow at the same rate. Therefore managers must have appropriate measuring means enabling them to achieve efficiency in financial funding. For this reason adaptation of the model of performance indicators based on those developed by the United States Agency for International Development (USAID and the Balanced Scorecard by Kaplan & Norton were proposed to help non-profit

  14. Assessment of a tool for measuring non-profit advocacy efforts in India, Uganda and Yemen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lalwani, Tanya; Rajaratnam, Julie Knoll; McOwen, Jordan; Gordis, Deborah J; Bowen, Lisa A; Bernson, Jeff

    2016-03-01

    To improve maternal and child health, the White Ribbon Alliance for Safe Motherhood (WRA) implemented an innovative policy advocacy project in India, Uganda and Yemen from 2009 to 2011. PATH assisted WRA in designing an approach to measure the short- and long-term results of WRA's advocacy efforts.Expert rating instruments have been widely used since 1970s to track country-level program efforts focusing on family planning, maternal and neonatal health, and HIV/AIDS. This article assesses and establishes the strength and applicability of an expert rating tool, the Maternal Health Policy Score (MHPS), in measuring and guiding a non-profit's advocacy efforts.The tool was assessed using five criteria: validity of results, reproducibility of results, acceptability to respondents, internal consistency and cost. The tool proved effective for measuring improvements in the policy environment at both the national and subnational levels that the non-profit intended to effect and useful for identifying strong and weak policy domains. The results are reproducible, though ensuring fidelity in implementation during different rounds of data collection may be difficult. The acceptability of the tool was high among respondents, and also among users of the information.MHPS provides a quick, low-cost method to measure overall changes in the policy environment, giving advocacy organizations and grant makers timely information to gauge the influence of their work and take corrective action. WRA demonstrated the use of MHPS at multiple points in the project: at the onset of a project to identify and strategize around policy domains that need attention, during and at the end of the project to monitor progress made and redirect efforts. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. The Design Dimensions of the Just Organization: An Empirical Test of the Relation Between Organization Design and Corporate Social Performance

    OpenAIRE

    Gerde, Virginia Woods

    1998-01-01

    Although organization design to bring about corporate social performance (CSP) is a critical issue in the business and society field, little research has been conducted. This study is an empirical test of the general model of the just organization presented by Stephens and colleagues (1991; Stephens, et al., 1997). The theoretical development describes organizational design principles from John Rawls' (1971) Theory of Justice, chosen for its emphasis on economic organizations and structure, i...

  16. Factors associated with financial distress of nonprofit hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Tae Hyun

    2010-01-01

    Financial distress can have a detrimental influence on the performance of hospitals. Hospital management needs to monitor potential financial distress effectively and know how it will respond depending on the severity of the circumstances. This study examined the multiple factors that may explain the financial distress of nonprofit hospitals during 1998 to 2001 and discussed their importance. To obtain more robust results, financial distress was assessed in 2 ways: first, financial strength index was used to incorporate 4 financial dimensions including profitability, liquidity, leverage, and physical facilities; second, cash flow (CF) was used to address the issues of accrual-based accounting in hospitals. This study finds that decrease in occupancy rate and increase in Medicaid payer mix, health maintenance organization penetration, market competition, physician supply, and percentage of the elderly are associated with increased likelihood of financial distress of urban hospitals. Increases in both Medicare and Medicaid payer mix, however, are related to higher likelihood of financial distress of rural hospitals.

  17. Organizational restructuring, government control and loss of legitimacy following an organizational crisis: the case of Israel's nonprofit human services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mano, Rita; Rosenberg, Dennis

    2014-01-01

    The study explores organizational restructuring following the occurrence of a crisis. Restructuring activities following an intervention are considered here to be indicators of an organization's loss of legitimacy because they have lost their independent status, a basic characteristic of nonprofit human settings. The study shows that according to the Resource Based View of organization restructuring--experienced as downsizing, neglecting and abandoning of projects--organizations are affected by (a) government intervention in decision making; (b) higher demands for accountability; and (c) higher evaluations of performance gaps. On the basis of the study of a sample of 138 Nonprofit Human Services in Israel, the results show that the higher the level of restructuring, the higher the level of legitimacy. However, organization location in metropolitan areas moderates the link between restructuring and legitimacy loss. We conclude that Israel's nonprofit human services being overly dependent on goverhment funding are more prone to restructuring and losing legitimacy following organizational crisis.

  18. Organization Design for Dynamic Fit: A Review and Projection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Nissen

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The concept of fit is central to organization design. In the organizational literature, fit historically has been portrayed as a static concept. Both organizations and their environments, however, are continually changing, so a valid concept of fit needs to reflect organizational dynamics. In this article, I analyze various theoretical perspectives and studies that relate to organizational fit, differentiating those that employ an equilibrating or a fluxing approach. Four substantive themes emerge from this analysis: design orientation, design tension, designer/manager roles, and measurement and validation. Implications of each of these themes for dynamic fit are derived, and promising future research directions are discussed.

  19. Organization Design: The Evolving State-of-the-Art

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Håkonsson, Dorthe Døjbak; Burton, Richard M.; Eriksen, Bo

    The design of organizations has been a prime characteristic of management theory and practice over the past several decades. However, there has been little change in the fundamental theory, principles and concepts of Organization Design since the introduction of contingency theory in the 1970s...... theory, principles and concepts, and on the basis of this benchmark publication, the editors will encourage researchers and students to further develop the field. The recent development in organization design has been sporadic; hence this book will be an important step in creating better theoretical....... Nevertheless, over the past 25 years organizational reality has changed dramatically with the advent of all sorts of communication systems, AI agents, information technology, knowledge management systems, and more. Therefore leading researchers in Organization Design who understand the situation have...

  20. Understanding and Designing Military Organizations for a Complex Dynamic Environment

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hicks, Christopher E

    2008-01-01

    .... The two theories will be used to describe the external environment and how it relates to DoD organizations, current DoD organizational structures, and transformational concepts related to organizational design...

  1. Design & Implementation of IP-PBX for Small Business Organization

    OpenAIRE

    Mr. Sandeep R. Sonaskar; Dr. M. M. Khanapurkar

    2012-01-01

    Most of the small business organization uses old Electronics Private Branch Exchange (EPBX) System for the telephony communication. This EPBX is now could be replaced by Internet protocol telephony PBX called IP-PBX which uses Intranet as a backbone as each organization has pre installed local area network. The network architecture for the IPPBX system is easy to design

  2. Democracy and non-profit housing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Anne Vorre; Langergaard, Luise Li

    2017-01-01

    Resident democracy as a special form of participatory democratic set-up is fundamental in the understanding, and self-understanding, of the non-profit housing sector in Denmark. Through a case study, the paper explores how resident democracy is perceived and narrated between residents and employees....... The tensions are related to representative versus participatory democracy; collectivity versus individuality; and service versus welfare. The tensions elucidate how resident democracy is squeezed between different logics, which result in an ambiguous setting for practising democracy. Based on the results...... at a housing association. The study indicates that the meta-story of democracy is disconnected from practice and the lived lives of residents. Three analytical tensions structure the analysis, which relate to the conditions for realizing the democratic ideal embedded in the structure of the sector...

  3. Nonprofit brand strength’s moderational role

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walter Wymer

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The nature and characteristics of the nonprofit brand strength construct are conceptualized. Brand strength is defined as a multidimensional construct, composed by brand familiarity, brand remarkability, and brand attitude. Brand familiarity refers to the level of knowledge the target audience has about the brand object. Brand attitude refers to the degree to which a brand object is perceived favorably by a target group. Brand remarkability refers to the degree to which a brand object is perceived by a target group to be extraordinary. In the brand management nomological net, brand strength acts as a moderator, influencing the strength of the relationship between marketing tactics (antecedents and marketing outcomes (consequents. Brand strength’s inter-dimensional relationships are conceptualized. A brand strength strategy grid is presented, which informs brand management strategy based on a brand’s current levels of brand familiarity and brand remarkability.

  4. Will Organization Design Be Affected By Big Data?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giles Slinger

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Computing power and analytical methods allow us to create, collate, and analyze more data than ever before. When datasets are unusually large in volume, velocity, and variety, they are referred to as “big data.” Some observers have suggested that in order to cope with big data (a organizational structures will need to change and (b the processes used to design organizations will be different. In this article, we differentiate big data from relatively slow-moving, linked people data. We argue that big data will change organizational structures as organizations pursue the opportunities presented by big data. The processes by which organizations are designed, however, will be relatively unaffected by big data. Instead, organization design processes will be more affected by the complex links found in people data.

  5. Concise Review: Organ Engineering: Design, Technology, and Integration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaushik, Gaurav; Leijten, Jeroen; Khademhosseini, Ali

    2017-01-01

    Engineering complex tissues and whole organs has the potential to dramatically impact translational medicine in several avenues. Organ engineering is a discipline that integrates biological knowledge of embryological development, anatomy, physiology, and cellular interactions with enabling technologies including biocompatible biomaterials and biofabrication platforms such as three-dimensional bioprinting. When engineering complex tissues and organs, core design principles must be taken into account, such as the structure-function relationship, biochemical signaling, mechanics, gradients, and spatial constraints. Technological advances in biomaterials, biofabrication, and biomedical imaging allow for in vitro control of these factors to recreate in vivo phenomena. Finally, organ engineering emerges as an integration of biological design and technical rigor. An overall workflow for organ engineering and guiding technology to advance biology as well as a perspective on necessary future iterations in the field is discussed. Stem Cells 2017;35:51-60. © 2016 AlphaMed Press.

  6. Nonprofits' Expectations in PR Service-Learning Partnerships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Cathy; Andrews, Valerie

    2016-01-01

    Little scholarly evidence exists about the communication needs of nonprofit community partners and what they think constitutes an ideal service-learning (SL) relationship. This study seeks to fill this gap by identifying SL projects and relationships that best serve nonprofit community partners with communication needs. The researchers conducted a…

  7. Firms, Nonprofits, and Cooperatives : A Theory of Organizational Choice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Herbst, P.; Prüfer, J.

    2007-01-01

    This paper formalizes the difference between firms, nonprofits, and cooperatives and identifies optimal organizational choice. In a model of quality provision, we find a clear ranking of quality produced: Firms provide lowest and nonprofits highest levels of quality. Efficiency, however, depends on

  8. Firms, Nonprofits, and Cooperatives : A Theory of Organizational Choice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Herbst, P.; Prüfer, J.

    2007-01-01

    Abstract This paper formalizes the difference between firms, nonprofits, and cooperatives and identifies optimal organizational choice. In a model of quality provision, we find a clear ranking of quality produced: Firms provide lowest and nonprofits highest levels of quality. Efficiency, however,

  9. Practical guide to organic field effect transistor circuit design

    CERN Document Server

    Sou, Antony

    2016-01-01

    The field of organic electronics spans a very wide range of disciplines from physics and chemistry to hardware and software engineering. This makes the field of organic circuit design a daunting prospect full of intimidating complexities, yet to be exploited to its true potential. Small focussed research groups also find it difficult to move beyond their usual boundaries and create systems-on-foil that are comparable with the established silicon world.This book has been written to address these issues, intended for two main audiences; firstly, physics or materials researchers who have thus far designed circuits using only basic drawing software; and secondly, experienced silicon CMOS VLSI design engineers who are already knowledgeable in the design of full custom transistor level circuits but are not familiar with organic devices or thin film transistor (TFT) devices.In guiding the reader through the disparate and broad subject matters, a concise text has been written covering the physics and chemistry of the...

  10. Lights and Shadows of Business-Nonprofit Partnerships: The Role of Nonprofit Learning and Empowerment in this Ethical Puzzle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María José Sanzo

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Business-nonprofit partnerships have gained increased relevance in the context of the evolution of corporate social responsibility strategies and the existence of extremely complex societal and environmental challenges. However, these collaborations are also associated with important ethical concerns. Under such a scenario, this study attempts to shed light on the effects of high value-added partnerships—i.e., those characterized by a process of nonprofit empowerment—on two potential risks of business-nonprofit partnerships: co-optation and loss of personnel’s identification with the nonprofit’s social mission. Based on a two-step survey to a representative sample of Spanish nonprofits involved in social partnerships with firms, results reveal the existence of a mixed influence in both cases, positive and negative. Several implications for practitioners are drawn, specifically about how firms and nonprofits can reduce the negative ethical consequences of partnering.

  11. Precarity in the Nonprofit Employment Services Sector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fanelli, Carlo; Rudman, Debbie Laliberté; Aldrich, Rebecca M

    2017-08-01

    Drawing on interview and focus group data, this article explores research undertaken as part of a larger research project exploring precarity in the nonprofit employment services sector in a mid-sized Canadian city. We critically survey major legislative changes to Canadian employment and income security policies and programs, including the restructuring of work and labor relations, growth of performance-based contracting-out, erosion of intergovernmental transfers, worker stress, and emotional tolls. Our study's results demonstrate how employment precarity in the nonprofit employment services sector is amplified by top-down and centralized relationships with funding partners and policymaking divorced from the employment experiences of frontline staff. We make the case that it is important to work against rising workplace precarity to strengthen organizational and workplace conditions, as well as build environments more supportive of optimal employment support services. En se fondant sur des entretiens et des données découlant de groupes témoins, cet article présente des explorations entreprises dans une recherche plus large étudiant la précarité dans le secteur des emplois de service dans une ville canadienne de taille moyenne. Nous faisons une revue critique de changements importants intervenus dans la législation portant sur l'emploi au Canada et les politiques et programmes de la sécurité du revenu, incluant la restructuration du travail et des relations de travail, l'augmentation de la privatisation se fondant sur la performance, la diminution des transferts intergouvernementaux, le stress au travail et les conséquences émotionnelles. Les résultats de notre recherche démontrent comment la précarité de l'emploi dans les secteurs des services à but non lucratif est amplifiée par des relations allant du haut vers le bas et centralisée avec des partenaires et des politiques séparés de l'expérience des travailleurs sur le terrain. Nous d

  12. Generation and distribution of wealth in Blumenau non-profit social service

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loriberto Starosky Filho

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Non-profit organizations exist all over the world and they have an important role to the economy. These are not aimed at profits and they appeared to develop initiatives of social aspects. The main goal of this research is to check how the wealth is generated and distributed by the non-profits that are enrolled in the Welfare Assistance Council in Blumenau city. This data was gotten through a qualitative, descriptive and documentary research based on analysis of published financial statements of a sample consisting of  nineteen non-profit Welfare Assistance Organizations. The results showed that: a To maintain their activities most  institutions  rely on resources coming from social grants, partnerships and donations; b The added value distributed represents more than fifty percent of the total proceeds in a large number  of institutions; c in most organizations the biggest share of the wealth distribution was used to the workers payment; d a low percentage of  the wealth is to lenders and government. As a general rule, most organizations presented a very low rate of retentions for themselves because they do not seek profits. Their goals are related to social services activities.

  13. The emergence of new organization designs. Evidences from self-managed team-based organizations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Annosi, Maria Carmela; Giustiniano, Luca; Brunetta, Federica; Magnusson, Mats

    2017-01-01

    New organization designs emerge continuously in highly dynamic innovation context to improve readiness to change. The adoption of self-managing teams operating cross-functionally on a bulk of products, together with the reduction of vertical layers in the organization, seems to be a common strategy

  14. The Nature and Design of Post-Industrial Organizations

    OpenAIRE

    George P. Huber

    1984-01-01

    This paper describes the nature and design of post-industrial organizations. It begins with an assessment of the popular literature on post-industrial society, and finds that this literature is an inappropriate basis for inferring the nature of post-industrial organizations. Partly as a consequence of this finding, the paper turns to systems theory as a basis for determining both the nature of post-industrial society and the nature of the increased demands that this environment would impose o...

  15. Organic bulk heterojunction photovoltaic structures: design, morphology and properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bulavko, G V; Ishchenko, A A

    2014-01-01

    Main approaches to the design of organic bulk heterojunction photovoltaic structures are generalized and systematized. Novel photovoltaic materials based on fullerenes, organic dyes and related compounds, graphene, conjugated polymers and dendrimers are considered. The emphasis is placed on correlations between the chemical structure and properties of materials. The effect of morphology of the photoactive layer on the photovoltaic properties of devices is analyzed. Main methods of optimization of the photovoltaic properties are outlined. The bibliography includes 338 references

  16. Leading, Following or Complementing in Economic Crisis: A Conceptual Model Illustrating Nonprofit Relationships with Public Schools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurie Paarlberg

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Public and nonprofit organizations, entwined in the delivery of public goods and services, are in the midst of challenging economic times. In these circumstances, sound collaborative leadership may help bridge budget and program service delivery shortfalls. In this paper, we examine the administrative dynamics of mutual reliance between two prominent public and nonprofit organizations: public schools and parent-teacher groups (PTGs. We conclude that the partnership is changing as a result of external, economic forces. In essence, we are seeing a threat-rigidity response. The economic crisis may be responsible for causing PTGs to narrow their range of activities away from broader strategic issues that can be addressed through their confrontation activities and advocacy mission towards a narrower focus on classroom activities that protect core school operations, namely instruction.

  17. GYNECOLOGIST TRAINING UNDER THE SHORT-TERM INTERDISCIPLINARE PROGRAM “DISEASES OF THE BREAST IN THE PRACTICE OF OBSTETRICIAN-GYNECOLOGIST” IN AUTONOMOUS NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATION OF ADDITIONAL PROFESSIONAL EDUCATION “MOSMED”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viatcheslav Anatolievich Vladimirtsev

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available In connection with the intensive growth of morbidity and mortality from breast cancer and prevalence of precancerous diseases, before the system of continuous medical education task is to widen the scope of the interdisciplinary trainings programs in field of oncomammology for physicians of primary health care. On the example of the short course interdisciplinary Program “Diseases of the breast in the practice of obstetrician-gynecologist” shows the educational opportunities of the licensed independent noncommercial organization of additional professional education “Mosmed” in the field of advanced training of obstetrician-gynecologists in the field of the oncomammology. An important methodological feature of the program is problematic interdisciplinary approach to learning, which are taught by specialists in different disciplines: gynaecologists, oncologists and radiologists. Promotion of the short course interdisciplinary programs of advanced training of obstetrician-gynecologists in the regions aimed at the expansion of medical educational space, the development of the market of educational services and increase access to quality medical additional education in areas that are distant from the leading specialized medical centers. The Program “Diseases of the breast in the practice of obstetrician-gynecologist” are included in the system of continuous medical education and made available online on the Portal of continuing medical and pharmaceutical education of the Ministry of Health of the Russia.

  18. Designing and Staffing the ITER Organization (Designing and staffing the Organization to build teams for ITER)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ikeda, Kaname; Amenc-Antoni, Pascale [ITER Organisation (France)

    2008-07-01

    ITER, 'the way' in Latin, is not only a machine to be built in Cadarache, it is a newly established international organization - called the ITER Organization- that seven Members (European Union, Japan, Korea, China, India, Russian Federation, United States of America), representing more than half the world's population, have decided to set up to achieve this project. The official organization is new, but European, Japanese, Russian and American teams have been working for more than 20 years to make this project a reality, in Naka, Garching and San Diego. It was the first challenge for the ITER management to have these very experienced researchers and engineers come to Cadarache. Many of them have already come or will come later. They are now being joined by colleagues from the national fusion institutions of the three countries that have become part of the ITER project more recently, China, Korea and India; professionals who are new to fusion and also administrative specialists needed for the management of such an organization. The IO is therefore facing additional big challenges: moving from the research period to the construction period and recruiting the most competent people for this, creating a single team with staff from different cultures and with different experiences in a single organization, working towards a single goal: building the machine and making it a success. Selecting people with a broad range of experience through international competition, while taking into account a fair distribution among the seven Members is of major importance. From 7 persons in March 2006, including the General Manager, Kaname Ikeda, the IO has more than 250 people staff today, with almost 100 people under recruitment. 600 professionals are expected to be on site at the peak period, by 2013, with, in addition, a large number of subcontractors. (authors)

  19. Ordering Disorders. Linking organization design and knowledge integration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hendriks, P.H.J.; Fruytier, B.G.M.

    2014-01-01

    Studies addressing the connections between knowledge and organization structures can be divided into two classes. One class holds that a perspective on knowledge signals shortcomings of classical design principles and calls for flatter hierarchy and less specification of the production structure.

  20. Entrepreneurial behavior in organizations: Does job design matter?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong, J.P.J.; Parker, S.K.; Wennekers, A.R.M.; Wu, C.W.

    2015-01-01

    We take a first step to explore how organizational factors influence individual entrepreneurial behavior at work, by investigating the role of job design variables. Drawing on multiple-source survey data of 179 workers in a Dutch research and consultancy organization, we find that entrepreneurial

  1. Charity care in nonprofit urban hospitals: analysis of the role of size and ownership type in Washington State for 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coyne, Joseph S; Ogle, Natalie M; McPherson, Sterling; Murphy, Sean; Smith, Gary J; Davidson, Gregg Agustín

    2014-01-01

    Nonprofit hospitals are expected to serve their communities as charitable organizations in exchange for the tax exemption benefits they receive. With the passage into law of the Affordable Care Act, additional guidelines were generated in 2010 to ensure nonprofit hospitals are compliant. Nonetheless, the debate continues on whether nonprofit hospitals provide adequate charity care to their patient population. In this study, charity care provided by 29 Washington State nonprofit urban hospitals was examined for 2011 using financial data from the Washington State Department of Health. Charity care levels were compared to both income tax savings and gross revenues to generate two financial ratios that were analyzed according to hospital bed size and nonprofit ownership type. For the first ratio, 97% of the hospitals (28 of 29) were providing charity care in greater amounts than the tax savings they accrued. The average ratio value using total charity care and total income tax savings of all the hospitals in the study was 6.10, and the median value was 3.46. The nonparametric Kruskal-Wallis test results by bed size and nonprofit ownership type indicate that ownership type has a significant effect on charity care to gross revenue ratios (p = .020). Our analysis indicates that church-owned hospitals had higher ratios of charity care to gross revenues than did the other two ownership types--government and voluntary--in this sample. Policy implications are offered and further studies are recommended to analyze appropriate levels of charity care in nonprofit hospitals given new requirements for maintaining a hospital's tax-exempt status.

  2. Computer organization and design the hardware/software interface

    CERN Document Server

    Patterson, David A

    2009-01-01

    The classic textbook for computer systems analysis and design, Computer Organization and Design, has been thoroughly updated to provide a new focus on the revolutionary change taking place in industry today: the switch from uniprocessor to multicore microprocessors. This new emphasis on parallelism is supported by updates reflecting the newest technologies with examples highlighting the latest processor designs, benchmarking standards, languages and tools. As with previous editions, a MIPS processor is the core used to present the fundamentals of hardware technologies, assembly language, compu

  3. Organic, bionics & blob design - conceptual and methodological clarification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Bente Dahl

    2015-01-01

    and discussions. Organic, Bionics and Blob Design is an example of such a vague concept. Vague concepts create confusion when the concepts are used in academic texts and in course descriptions, which should be understandable across international research and by exchange students. This article discusses the Tripod......-paradigms". The citation marks indicate that this study looks at paradigms as practice fields rather than as research programs. The field for this study is set by a design engineer education with courses that cover the three design disciplines....

  4. Results-Based Organization Design for Technology Entrepreneurs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris McPhee

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Faced with considerable uncertainty, entrepreneurs would benefit from clearly defined objectives, a plan to achieve these objectives (including a reasonable expectation that this plan will work, as well as a means to measure progress and make requisite course corrections. In this article, the author combines the benefits of results-based management with the benefits of organization design to describe a practical approach that technology entrepreneurs can use to design their organizations so that they deliver desired outcomes. This approach links insights from theory and practice, builds logical connections between entrepreneurial activities and desired outcomes, and measures progress toward those outcomes. This approach also provides a mechanism for entrepreneurs to make continual adjustments and improvements to their design and direction in response to data, customer and stakeholder feedback, and changes in their business environment.

  5. Introduction of designated organization to safeguards implementation in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terada, Hiromi; Akiba, Mitsunori; Ando, Hisataka; Okazaki, Shuji; Irikura, Masatoshi; Kurihara, Hiroyoshi

    2000-01-01

    With domestic application of the IAEA new measures (program 93+2) for strengthening the effectiveness and improving the efficiency of the safeguards system, the Nuclear Regulation Laws was amended for implementation of the new measures based upon the Additional Protocol, and also the new Designated Organization System was introduced to the SSAC (States' System of Accounting for and Control of Nuclear Materials) for safeguards implementation in Japan since beginning of January 2000. On the basis of accumulated experiences of the state safeguards implementation for more than 20 years and then established standardization of the inspection procedures, the Japan's Government is able to utilize the expertise of private organizations for the safeguards implementation. Any capable organizations can be designated by the Government as the Designated Organization for all or a part of safeguards implementations on behalf of the Government. According to the amended Law, the Prime Minister can make the Designated Organization implement safeguards implementations that are defined firstly as safeguards inspections which can be done along the Government instructions without any discussions and decisions, secondarily as destructive analysis of safeguards samples, and thirdly as technical research on advanced safeguards measures. The amendment of the Law was approved by the National Diet on June 9th 1999 and entered into force on December 16th 1999. The Additional Protocol also entered into force in Japan at the same time. The NMCC (Nuclear Material Control Center) was designated as the Organization on December 27th 1999 and started the safeguards implementation in January 7th 2000. In order to prepare for the Designated Organization, the NMCC rearranged the organizational system and kept capable human resources enough for the safeguards implementations. Also the NMCC carried out many programs of education and training for the inspectors. Furthermore, manuals and criteria for the

  6. Phases for the value chain design and analysis in organizations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilio García Vega

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Value generation is a key issue in the management of organizations because it allows the consumer satisfaction, dynamic face of competition and reward the owners or shareholders. Its treatment reflects both the academic and the business world; i.e. teachers, researchers, executives and managers of the enterprises, whether they are micro, small, medium or large. Although there are different approaches to the subject, this paper will seek to develop an approach from a competitive perspective and through the value chain, as it can be considered a valid tool for designing and analysing how organizations generate value. Also, this research tries to present the evolution of the generation of value, based on the classical models of McKinsey & Co. and Michael Porter. Then some approaches and contributions to the value chain of different authors and from different perspectives are presented, so that we can count with a number of additional ideas, which the author considers relevant to face the value chain design and analysis. Finally, on the basis of capital contribution of the mentioned Harvard University Professor, a series of recommendations for the strategic application of the value chain in the management of today's organizations, which are organized into nine phases (phases for the design and analysis of the value chain are presented.

  7. Design of organic complementary circuits and systems on foil

    CERN Document Server

    Abdinia, Sahel; Cantatore, Eugenio

    2015-01-01

    This book describes new approaches to fabricate complementary organic electronics, and focuses on the design of circuits and practical systems created using these manufacturing approaches. The authors describe two state-of-the-art, complementary organic technologies, characteristics and modeling of their transistors and their capability to implement circuits and systems on foil. Readers will benefit from the valuable overview of the challenges and opportunities that these extremely innovative technologies provide. ·         Demonstrates first circuits implemented using specific complementary organic technologies, including first printed analog to digital converter, first dynamic logic on foil and largest complementary organic circuit ·         Includes step-by-step design from single transistor level to complete systems on foil ·         Provides a platform for comparing state-of-the-art complementary organic technologies and for comparing these with other similar technologies, spec...

  8. Process-based organization design and hospital efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vera, Antonio; Kuntz, Ludwig

    2007-01-01

    The central idea of process-based organization design is that organizing a firm around core business processes leads to cost reductions and quality improvements. We investigated theoretically and empirically whether the implementation of a process-based organization design is advisable in hospitals. The data came from a database compiled by the Statistical Office of the German federal state of Rheinland-Pfalz and from a written questionnaire, which was sent to the chief executive officers (CEOs) of all 92 hospitals in this federal state. We used data envelopment analysis (DEA) to measure hospital efficiency, and factor analysis and regression analysis to test our hypothesis. Our principal finding is that a high degree of process-based organization has a moderate but significant positive effect on the efficiency of hospitals. The main implication is that hospitals should implement a process-based organization to improve their efficiency. However, to actually achieve positive effects on efficiency, it is of paramount importance to observe some implementation rules, in particular to mobilize physician participation and to create an adequate organizational culture.

  9. Computer organization and design the hardware/software interface

    CERN Document Server

    Hennessy, John L

    1994-01-01

    Computer Organization and Design: The Hardware/Software Interface presents the interaction between hardware and software at a variety of levels, which offers a framework for understanding the fundamentals of computing. This book focuses on the concepts that are the basis for computers.Organized into nine chapters, this book begins with an overview of the computer revolution. This text then explains the concepts and algorithms used in modern computer arithmetic. Other chapters consider the abstractions and concepts in memory hierarchies by starting with the simplest possible cache. This book di

  10. Nonprofit pharma: solutions to what ails the industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moos, W H; Kodukula, K

    2011-01-01

    Nonprofit organizations (NPOs) play an increasingly important role providing solutions to the significant challenges faced today by both large pharmaceutical and smaller biotechnology companies, not to mention academia. NPOs chartered for the public benefit are common in the USA and in selected other parts of the world. SRI International, originally founded as the Stanford Research Institute in 1946, is one of the largest and most successful independent NPOs. To provide a perspective on NPO business models, a number of SRI case studies spanning a broad range of technical and business initiatives will be summarized, including basic and contract research, discovery and development of new drugs and biologics, pharmaceutical and biotech research and development and contract services, technology pivots, company spin-ins and spin-outs, and the creation of new NPOs. How to bridge the National Institute of Health's "Valley of Death" and how to navigate the Food and Drug Administration's "Critical Path" will be discussed. We conclude with lessons learned about collaborations and routes to commercialization, along with food for thought for bioscience companies and outsourcing participants. Throughout, we attempt to explain why the role of NPOs is important to both the scientific and business communities and to patients and caregivers.

  11. Developing Student Communication Skills while Assisting Nonprofit Organizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Addams, H. Lon; Woodbury, Denise; Allred, Tony; Addams, Joel

    2010-01-01

    Business writing instructors work diligently at raising the level of student writing performance in business communication classes. Some students, however, need additional motivation to apply writing concepts and perform to their highest level. Typically, business students are confronted with hypothetical writing situations, such as claim letters,…

  12. Service-Learning in Nonprofit Organizations: Motivations, Expectations, and Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basinger, Nancy; Bartholomew, Keith

    2006-01-01

    This article applies theories of giving from philanthropic studies to enhance understanding of service-learning relationships between students and community partners. Focusing on the participation motivations, outcome expectations, and satisfaction levels of community partners who have recently completed work with service-learning students, the…

  13. Improving social marketing mix in non-profit organizations

    OpenAIRE

    Bilvinaitė, Arūnė

    2014-01-01

    Socialinio marketingo sąvoka dažniausiai yra siejama su ne pelno siekiančiomis organizacijomis. Marketingo principai tradiciškai naudojami pateikiant prekes ar paslaugas vartotojams. Tačiau pastaruoju metu jie vis dažniau taikomi, siekiant pagelbėti žmonėms ir aplinkai, veikti tiek atskirų asmenų ar jų grupių bei visos visuomenės elgseną dėl tam tikrų priežasčių, siekiant tam tikro rezultato. Toks marketingo naudojimas sąlygojo socialinio marketingo koncepcijos atsiradimą. Darbo objektas- soc...

  14. Strategic Marketing as Solution for Growing Uncertainties among National Non-Profit Sports Federations in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marije van 't Verlaat

    2007-01-01

    Today, Dutch National Non-profit Sports Organizations (NNSFs) experience financial pressures. Two indications for this are described in this paper i.e. increased competition in the sports sector and changes in subsidy division. Decreasing incomes from subsidies can be compensated with either

  15. Computer organization and design the hardware/software interface

    CERN Document Server

    Patterson, David A

    2011-01-01

    This Fourth Revised Edition of Computer Organization and Design includes a complete set of updated and new exercises, along with improvements and changes suggested by instructors and students. Focusing on the revolutionary change taking place in industry today--the switch from uniprocessor to multicore microprocessors--this classic textbook has a modern and up-to-date focus on parallelism in all its forms. Examples highlighting multicore and GPU processor designs are supported with performance and benchmarking data. As with previous editions, a MIPS processor is the core used to pres

  16. Misfits in Organization Design: Information Processing as a Compensatory Mechanism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ben Nanfeng Luo

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available We propose a compensatory misfits theory which holds that an “over-fitting” organization structure can compensate for an “under-fitting” structure, thereby reducing the total misfit. In organizations, over-fit occurs when structural features misfit the core contingencies because the structural level is too high to fit the contingencies. An under-fit occurs when structural features misfit the contingencies because the structural level is too low. When an under-fit is compensated by an over-fit, the combination can produce performance outcomes that approximate those from fit. The reason inheres in information processing being a higher level factor that cuts across different contingencies and structural features that are mis-fitted to each other, so that compensation is possible. We identify the specific conditions that must be fulfilled for compensation to occur, and we discuss implications for organization design theory and practice.

  17. Design and construction of liquid lasers using organic dyes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hariri, Akbar.

    1984-01-01

    Organic dye solution show great promise of obtaining tunable coherent light over the uv, visible and near infrared portion of spectrum. In this paper we describe various pumping schemes of dye molecules. Design, construction and performance of a pulsed dye laser, transversely pumped by a nitrogen laser and wall-ablation flash lamp-pumped dye lasers are the particular examples which are presented in detail

  18. A double moral hazard model of organization design

    OpenAIRE

    Berkovitch, Elazar; Israel, Ronen; Spiegel, Yossi

    2007-01-01

    We develop a theory of organization design in which the firm's structure is chosen to mitigate moral hazard problems in the selection and the implementation of projects. For a given set of projects, the 'divisional structure' which gives each agent the full responsibility over a subset of projects is in general more efficient than the functional structure under which projects are implemented by teams of agents, each of whom specializes in one task. However, the ex post efficiency of the divis...

  19. Application of the Organic Synthetic Designs to Astrobiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolb, V. M.

    2009-12-01

    In this paper we propose a synthesis of the heterocyclic compounds and the insoluble materials on the meteorites. Our synthetic scheme involves the reaction of sugars and amino acids, the so-called Maillard reaction. We have developed this scheme based on the combined analysis of the regular and retrosynthetic organic synthetic principles. The merits of these synthetic methods for the prebiotic design are addressed.

  20. Nonprofit Management Education in MPA Programs: Lessons for Successful Track Building

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerlach, John David

    2016-01-01

    As the American nonprofit sector continues to grow, so does interest in nonprofit management graduate education. MPA programs play a significant role in preparing students for work in the nonprofit field. This article examines nonprofit management as an area of graduate study, paying particular attention to how NASPAA-accredited MPA programs…

  1. 37 CFR 201.24 - Warning of copyright for software lending by nonprofit libraries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... software lending by nonprofit libraries. 201.24 Section 201.24 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights... copyright for software lending by nonprofit libraries. (a) Definition. A Warning of Copyright for Software... packaging that contains the computer program which is lent by a nonprofit library for nonprofit purposes. (b...

  2. From molecular design and materials construction to organic nanophotonic devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chuang; Yan, Yongli; Zhao, Yong Sheng; Yao, Jiannian

    2014-12-16

    CONSPECTUS: Nanophotonics has recently received broad research interest, since it may provide an alternative opportunity to overcome the fundamental limitations in electronic circuits. Diverse optical materials down to the wavelength scale are required to develop nanophotonic devices, including functional components for light emission, transmission, and detection. During the past decade, the chemists have made their own contributions to this interdisciplinary field, especially from the controlled fabrication of nanophotonic molecules and materials. In this context, organic micro- or nanocrystals have been developed as a very promising kind of building block in the construction of novel units for integrated nanophotonics, mainly due to the great versatility in organic molecular structures and their flexibility for the subsequent processing. Following the pioneering works on organic nanolasers and optical waveguides, the organic nanophotonic materials and devices have attracted increasing interest and developed rapidly during the past few years. In this Account, we review our research on the photonic performance of molecular micro- or nanostructures and the latest breakthroughs toward organic nanophotonic devices. Overall, the versatile features of organic materials are highlighted, because they brings tunable optical properties based on molecular design, size-dependent light confinement in low-dimensional structures, and various device geometries for nanophotonic integration. The molecular diversity enables abundant optical transitions in conjugated π-electron systems, and thus brings specific photonic functions into molecular aggregates. The morphology of these micro- or nanostructures can be further controlled based on the weak intermolecular interactions during molecular assembly process, making the aggregates show photon confinement or light guiding properties as nanophotonic materials. By adoption of some active processes in the composite of two or more

  3. Decision making in a non-profit engineering environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christensen, D.C.

    1997-06-01

    A conceptual management framework is developed and applied in a science and engineering organization located within a non-profit, public institution. The goal of this research is to select a set of projects whose combined contributions to the organization's strategic interests satisfy sponsor desires and can be completed within existing time and resource constraints. The development of the rationale for project selection and implementation within the plutonium facility at Los Alamos National Laboratory is studied. This includes the integration of prioritization decision tools, optimization techniques, and advanced planning and scheduling tools. The Nuclear Materials Technology Division is the custodian of the plutonium facility, whose mission is to develop, demonstrate, and deploy technologies necessary to address the nation's and world's plutonium problems. This includes management of nuclear weapon stockpile components, stabilization of plutonium residues, clean-up of contaminated soils and facilities, support to non-proliferation and arms control initiatives, and the eventual disposition of surplus plutonium. In this study, projects are evaluated against selection criteria deemed to be of critical program importance. The Analytic Hierarchy Process is used to evaluate and rank the importance of the suite of candidate projects. Because individual projects may be of interest to a number of business sectors and sponsors, the approach must be capable of using funding sources in an integrated manner in order to meet overall facility and program strategies. Finally, project planning and scheduling tools are integrated into the decision network in order to ensure that appropriate resource leveling occurs and that the actual project selection takes into account the temporal relationships among available resources

  4. Learning about Governance through Nonprofit Board Service

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purdy, Jill M.; Lawless, Joseph

    2012-01-01

    Business educators have a responsibility to ensure that future managers, employees, and shareholders are well versed in governance. Governance provides a vital link between organizations and society, allowing people to place their trust in an organization, support its mission, and ensure a continuing flow of resources to accomplish the mission.…

  5. The design of cathode for organic photovoltaic devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, De; Shi, Feng; Xia, Xuan; Li, Ye; Duanmu, Qingduo

    2016-11-01

    We have discussed the effect of the residual gas in the Al metal cathode deposition process and consequently influence the performance of organic photovoltaic devices (such as organic photoelectron detector or solar cell). We believe that the origin of degradation in Jsc and FF from the Al cathode device should be the formation of AlOx in the C60-Al interface, which contaminate the interface and plays a role like an energy barrier that block the charge collect process. To solve this problem the Ag and Alq3 layer had been inserted before the Al. Owing to the advantageous of Alq3 and Ag layer, the device which Al cathode prepared at a lower vacuum condition exhibits a comparable performance to that device which Al cathode deposited in regular situation. As an additional benefit, since the introducing of Alq3/Ag layer in the VOPc/C60 organic photovoltaic device performs a better near-infrared response, this phenomenon has been confirmed by means of both simulation and experimental data. So the design of our new cathode structure provides a degree of freedom to modulate the light absorption for organic photovoltaic devices in short-wave and long-wave.

  6. A new electrode design for ambipolar injection in organic semiconductors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanagasekaran, Thangavel; Shimotani, Hidekazu; Shimizu, Ryota; Hitosugi, Taro; Tanigaki, Katsumi

    2017-10-17

    Organic semiconductors have attracted much attention for low-cost, flexible and human-friendly optoelectronics. However, achieving high electron-injection efficiency is difficult from air-stable electrodes and cannot be equivalent to that of holes. Here, we present a novel concept of electrode composed of a bilayer of tetratetracontane (TTC) and polycrystalline organic semiconductors (pc-OSC) covered by a metal layer. Field-effect transistors of single-crystal organic semiconductors with the new electrodes of M/pc-OSC/TTC (M: Ca or Au) show both highly efficient electron and hole injection. Contact resistance for electron injection from Au/pc-OSC/TTC and hole injection from Ca/pc-OSC/TTC are comparable to those for electron injection from Ca and hole injection from Au, respectively. Furthermore, the highest field-effect mobilities of holes (22 cm 2  V -1  s -1 ) and electrons (5.0 cm 2  V -1  s -1 ) are observed in rubrene among field-effect transistors with electrodes so far proposed by employing Ca/pc-OSC/TTC and Au/pc-OSC/TTC electrodes for electron and hole injection, respectively.One of technological challenges building organic electronics is efficient injection of electrons at metal-semiconductor interfaces compared to that of holes. The authors show an air-stable electrode design with induced gap states, which support Fermi level pinning and thus ambipolar carrier injection.

  7. NATO Conference on Manpower Planning and Organization Design

    CERN Document Server

    Niehaus, Richard

    1978-01-01

    This volume is the proceedings of the conference entitled "Manpower Planning and Organization Design" which was held in Stresa, Italy, 20-24 June 1977. The Conference was sponsored by the NATO Scientific Affairs Division and organized jointly through the Special Programs Panels on Human Factors and on Systems Science. Two Conference Directors were appointed with overall responsibilities for the programme and for policy, and they were assisted in their tasks by a small advisory panel consisting of Professor A. Charnes (University of Texas), Professor W.W. Cooper (Carnegie Mellon University, now at Harvard University) and Dr. F.A. Heller (TavistQck Institute of Human Relations). Professor R. Florio of Bergamo kindly agreed to become Administrative Director and, as such, was responsible for all the local arrangements. The Conference Directors were further assisted by "national points of contact" appointed from each of the member countries of NATO. These national representatives played a substantial part in the s...

  8. Design strategies for organic semiconductors beyond the molecular formula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henson, Zachary B; Müllen, Klaus; Bazan, Guillermo C

    2012-09-01

    Organic semiconducting materials based on polymers and molecular systems containing an electronically delocalized structure are the basis of emerging optoelectronic technologies such as plastic solar cells and flexible transistors. For isolated molecules, guidelines exist that rely on the molecular formula to tailor the frontier (highest occupied or lowest unoccupied) molecular orbital energy levels and optical absorption profiles. Much less control can be achieved over relevant properties, however, as one makes the transition to the ensemble behaviour characteristic of the solid state. Polymeric materials are also challenging owing to the statistical description of the average number of repeat units. Here we draw attention to the limitations of molecular formulae as predictive tools for achieving properties relevant to device performances. Illustrative examples highlight the relevance of organization across multiple length scales, and how device performances--although relevant for practical applications--poorly reflect the success of molecular design.

  9. Preliminary design and off-design performance analysis of an Organic Rankine Cycle for geothermal sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu, Dongshuai; Li, Saili; Zheng, Ya; Wang, Jiangfeng; Dai, Yiping

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • A method for preliminary design and performance prediction is established. • Preliminary data of radial inflow turbine and plate heat exchanger are obtained. • Off-design performance curves of critical components are researched. • Performance maps in sliding pressure operation are illustrated. - Abstract: Geothermal fluid of 90 °C and 10 kg/s can be exploited together with oil in Huabei Oilfield of China. Organic Rankine Cycle is regarded as a reasonable method to utilize these geothermal sources. This study conducts a detailed design and off-design performance analysis based on the preliminary design of turbines and heat exchangers. The radial inflow turbine and plate heat exchanger are selected in this paper. Sliding pressure operation is applied in the simulation and three parameters are considered: geothermal fluid mass flow rate, geothermal fluid temperature and condensing pressure. The results indicate that in all considered conditions the designed radial inflow turbine has smooth off-design performance and no choke or supersonic flow are found at the nozzle and rotor exit. The lager geothermal fluid mass flow rate, the higher geothermal fluid temperature and the lower condensing pressure contribute to the increase of cycle efficiency and net power. Performance maps are illustrated to make system meet different load requirements especially when the geothermal fluid temperature and condensing pressure deviate from the design condition. This model can be used to provide basic data for future detailed design, and predict off-design performance in the initial design phase

  10. Darwinism, not mutationism, explains the design of organisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, Andy

    2013-04-01

    Shapiro claims that advances in molecular genetics have undermined Darwinism, leading him to advocate mutationism. However, this extreme view is bourne out of conceptual error. He has misunderstood the distinction between gradualism and saltationism, which do not concern the rate of genetic change, but rather the emergence of complex design. And he has misunderstood the relationship between the dynamics of natural selection and the agency of individual organisms: these are not competing hypotheses, but rather alternative conceptualizations of the same phenomenon. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Managing the effects of cultural diversity in HR in a non profit organization, Case organization: Moniheli

    OpenAIRE

    Irfan, Muhammad

    2014-01-01

    Non-profit organizations traditionally operate within limited resources. They cannot spend much of their resources to increase motivation. Especially when the bigger goal of the organization is to promote cultural diversity in society, it is very interesting to observe how a non-profit organization manages the cultural diversity that exists within its own human resources. This report is an attempt to identify the ways through which the case organization Moniheli, a non-profit network of diffe...

  12. ‘Value for Whom, by Whom’: Investigating Value Constructs in Non-Profit Project Portfolios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karyne Cheng Siew Ang

    2016-11-01

    & Killen 2014; Thiry 2001, 2002. Non-commercial value includes the ecological, social, and learning dimensions of value (Martinsuo & Killen 2014, whilst commercial value is characterised by financial and economic measures like market value. The research reported in this paper is distinct as it investigates non-commercial value in the non-profit sector. The study extends our knowledge about strategic value and multi-stakeholder management in the non-profit sector. The findings also contribute to the overall understanding of PPM by providing insights about the multi-perspective aspects of value and the management of portfolios in complex environments involving multiple stakeholders. This paper commences with an outline of past and contemporary views about value and discusses how these views might relate to PPM and NPOs. Next, it deliberates the extent to which multi-stakeholder perspectives of value are discussed in the literature.  An empirical qualitative research design is used to explore value in project portfolios from the perspectives of multiple stakeholders in two inter-related case NPOs. The paper concludes with a discussion of the findings to highlight several value perspectives drawn from the non-profit sector that have significant theoretical and practical contributions to understanding value typologies that underline stakeholder constructs of value and decision making in project portfolios.

  13. Simple plant-based design strategies for volatile organic pollutants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Narayanan, M.; Erickson, L.E.; Davis, L.C.

    1999-12-31

    Vegetation which enhances in-situ biodegradation of organic compounds can play a key role in the bioremediation of such contaminants in polluted soils and groundwater. Plants may act directly on some contaminants by degrading them, but their main effect is to enhance microbial populations in the thizosphere. Microbially mediated transformations are thus indirectly facilitated by root exudates which nourish the indigenous microorganisms. Plants may also be viewed as a solar driven pump-and-treat system which can contain a plume and reduce the spread of contaminated water. Laboratory investigations carried out in a growth chamber with alfalfa plants provide evidence for the (microbially mediated) biodegradation of organic compounds such as toluene, phenol and TCE. Alfalfa plants tolerate concentrations of these organics in contaminated water up to 100 mg/L. They facilitate transfer of the contaminants from the saturated to the vadose zone. For volatile organic compounds such as TCE, vegetation provides a controlled release of compounds and hence assures dilution of the TCE evapotranspired into the atmosphere from contaminated soils. Using a range of calculated plausible scenarios, it is shown that intermedia transfer caused by volatilization associated with plants is most unlikely to lead to exceedance of standards for gas phase contamination, for most volatile contaminants. Possible action level exceedances might occur with highly toxic substances including vinyl chloride and carbon tetrachloride, if they re present in ground water at levels above kilogram amounts in a single plume of a few hectares, and released by vigorously growing plants under hot dry conditions. Information needed for the calculation and design of plant-based bioremediation systems for typical sites is discussed in this paper.

  14. Covalent Organic Frameworks: From Materials Design to Biomedical Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fuli Zhao

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Covalent organic frameworks (COFs are newly emerged crystalline porous polymers with well-defined skeletons and nanopores mainly consisted of light-weight elements (H, B, C, N and O linked by dynamic covalent bonds. Compared with conventional materials, COFs possess some unique and attractive features, such as large surface area, pre-designable pore geometry, excellent crystallinity, inherent adaptability and high flexibility in structural and functional design, thus exhibiting great potential for various applications. Especially, their large surface area and tunable porosity and π conjugation with unique photoelectric properties will enable COFs to serve as a promising platform for drug delivery, bioimaging, biosensing and theranostic applications. In this review, we trace the evolution of COFs in terms of linkages and highlight the important issues on synthetic method, structural design, morphological control and functionalization. And then we summarize the recent advances of COFs in the biomedical and pharmaceutical sectors and conclude with a discussion of the challenges and opportunities of COFs for biomedical purposes. Although currently still at its infancy stage, COFs as an innovative source have paved a new way to meet future challenges in human healthcare and disease theranostic.

  15. Determinants of Sustainability and Organisational Effectiveness in Non-Profit Organisations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chux Gervase Iwu

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This case study investigates the criteria for organizational effectiveness in non-profit organizations (NPOs with the aim to determine how the elements of sustainability fit within the criteria. To achieve this, the study utilized the research questions: “what criteria do NPOs use to evaluate their effectiveness?” and “how is sustainability embedded in NPO effectiveness?” The research design was interpretivist, adopting focus group interviews to obtain data. Specifically, two focus group interviews were held with the top management of an NPO which revealed that both financial and non-financial criteria were equally essential for NPO effectiveness. This finding is consistent with the literature, although it contradicts the initial assumption of the study that NPO effectiveness was based more on non-financial criteria than financial criteria. The study also found that the effectiveness of an NPO should be viewed in two ways: firstly, “the full achievement of its mandate” and, secondly, “the ability to run business projects to cover cost.” It also emerged that both the ability to cover costs and the achievement of a mandate should be done in a sustainable manner (a sustainable manner is seen as one that is harmonious with the natural and the socio-political environment. The results of this paper present a practical case for the management of NPOs by reiterating that the full achievement of the NPO mandate and the successful running of social projects to generate funds for sustainability are key elements of effectiveness. Given the essential role that NPOs play in developing countries, this study has provided the foundation for more widespread enquiry into the sustainability and effectiveness of NPOs.

  16. From Financialization to Low and Non-Profit: Emerging Media Models for Freedom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuria Almiron-Roig

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In the midst of what is probably the worst economic and financial crisis the capitalist world has ever experienced, professional journalistic structures and news organizations are disintegrating. While mainstream current economic and media gurus –and the whole media executive class around the globe– are claiming for a business model change that allows them to go on making lots of money, many voices have been raised in unison to ask for a true radical change: money cannot be the first goal, but rather public interest. This paper presents the outcome of a research on the non-profit alternatives currently under debate destined to help journalism survive.

  17. Micro-Level Interactions in Business-Nonprofit Partnerships

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vock, M.; van Dolen, W.; Kolk, A.

    2014-01-01

    While most research on business-nonprofit partnerships has focused on macro and meso perspectives, this article pays attention to the micro level. Drawing on various theoretical perspectives from both marketing and management, this study conceptually relates the outcomes of active employee

  18. Micro-Level Interactions in Business-Nonprofit Partnerships

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Vock (Marlene); W.M. van Dolen (Willemijn); A. Kolk (Ans)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractWhile most research on business-nonprofit partnerships has focused on macro and meso perspectives, this paper pays attention to the micro level. Drawing on various theoretical perspectives from both marketing and management, we conceptually relate the outcomes of active employee

  19. Overcoming Branding Barriers in Nonprofit, Private Colleges and Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chyr, Fred

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this Delphi study was to explore the views of experts in the field of nonprofit private colleges and universities in the United States to define branding and identify current barriers to branding, to discover how those barriers can be overcome, and to determine what barriers to branding are likely to occur 5 years in the…

  20. 10 CFR 603.665 - Periodic audits of nonprofit participants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Periodic audits of nonprofit participants. 603.665 Section 603.665 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (CONTINUED) ASSISTANCE REGULATIONS TECHNOLOGY INVESTMENT AGREEMENTS Award Terms Affecting Participants' Financial, Property, and Purchasing Systems Financial Matters...

  1. Non-profit Drug Research and Development at a Crossroads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarosławski, Szymon; Toumi, Mondher; Auquier, Pascal; Dussart, Claude

    2018-02-07

    In wealthy nations, non-profit drug R&D has been proposed to reduce the prices of medicines. We sought to review the ethical and economic issues concerning non-profit drug R&D companies, and the possible impact that their pricing strategy may have on the innovation efforts from for-profit companies targeting the same segment of the pharmaceutical market. There are two possible approaches to pricing drugs developed by non-profit R&D programs: pricing that maximises profits and "affordable" pricing that reflects the cost of manufacturing and distribution, plus a margin that ensures sustainability of the drug supply. Overall, the non-profits face ethical challenges - due to the lack of resources, they are unable to independently commercialize their products on a large scale; however, the antitrust law does not permit them to impose prices on potential licensees. Also, reduced prices for the innovative products may result in drying the for-profit R&D in the area.

  2. Computer organization and design the hardware/software interface

    CERN Document Server

    Patterson, David A

    2013-01-01

    The 5th edition of Computer Organization and Design moves forward into the post-PC era with new examples, exercises, and material highlighting the emergence of mobile computing and the cloud. This generational change is emphasized and explored with updated content featuring tablet computers, cloud infrastructure, and the ARM (mobile computing devices) and x86 (cloud computing) architectures. Because an understanding of modern hardware is essential to achieving good performance and energy efficiency, this edition adds a new concrete example, "Going Faster," used throughout the text to demonstrate extremely effective optimization techniques. Also new to this edition is discussion of the "Eight Great Ideas" of computer architecture. As with previous editions, a MIPS processor is the core used to present the fundamentals of hardware technologies, assembly language, computer arithmetic, pipelining, memory hierarchies and I/O. Optimization techniques featured throughout the text. It covers parallelism in depth with...

  3. The concept of mixed organic ligands in metal-organic frameworks: design, tuning and functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Zheng; Zhou, Yan-Ling; Zeng, Ming-Hua; Kurmoo, Mohamedally

    2015-03-28

    The research on metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) has been developing at an extraordinary pace in its two decades of existence, as judged by the exponential growth of novel structures and the constant expansion of its applicability and research scope. A major part of the research and its success are due to the vital role of the concept of mixed organic ligands in the design, tuning and functions. This perspective, therefore, reviews the recent advances in MOFs based on this concept, which is generally based on employing a small polydentate ligand (here labelled as "nodal ligand") to form either clusters, rods or layers, which are then connected by a second ditopic linker ligand to form the framework. The structures of the materials can be grouped into the following three categories: layer-spacer (usually known as pillared-layer), rod-spacer, and cluster-spacer based MOFs. Depending on the size and geometry of the spacer ligands, interpenetrations of frameworks are occasionally found. These MOFs show a wide range of properties such as (a) crystal-to-crystal transformations upon solvent modifications, post-synthetic metal exchange or ligand reactions, (b) gas sorption, solvent selectivity and purification, (c) specific catalysis, (d) optical properties including colour change, luminescence, non-linear optic, (e) short- and long range magnetic ordering, metamagnetism and reversible ground-state modifications and (f) drug and iodine carriers with controlled release. In the following, we will highlight the importance of the above concept in the design, tuning, and functions of a selection of existing MOFs having mixed organic ligands and their associated structures and properties. The results obtained so far using this concept look very promising for fine-tuning the pore size and shape for selective adsorption and specificity in catalytic reactions, which appears to be one way to propel the advances in the application and commercialization of MOFs.

  4. Parametric design and off-design analysis of organic Rankine cycle (ORC) system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Jian; Gu, Chun-wei; Ren, Xiaodong

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • A one-dimensional analysis method for ORC system is proposed. • The system performance under both design and off-design conditions are analyzed. • The working fluid selection is based on both design and off-design performance. • The system parameter determination are based on both design and off-design performance. - Abstract: A one-dimensional analysis method has been proposed for the organic Rankine cycle (ORC) system in this paper. The method contains two main parts: a one-dimensional aerodynamic analysis model of the radial-inflow turbine and a performance prediction model of the heat exchanger. Based on the present method, an ORC system for the industrial waste heat recovery is designed and analyzed. The net power output of the ORC system is 534 kW, and the thermal efficiency reaches 13.5%. System performance under off-design conditions is simulated and considered. The results show that the inlet temperatures of the heat source and the cooling water have a significant influence on the system. With the increment of the heat source inlet temperature, the mass flow rate of the working fluid, the net power output and the heat utilization ratio of the ORC system increase. While, the system thermal efficiency decreases with increasing cooling water inlet temperature. In order to maintain the condensation pressure at a moderate value, the heat source inlet temperature considered in this analysis should be kept within the range of 443.15–468.15 K, while the optimal temperature range of the cooling water is between 283.15 K and 303.15 K.

  5. The Nonprofit Advantage: Producing Quality in Thick and Thin Child Care Markets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleveland, Gordon; Krashinsky, Michael

    2009-01-01

    Nonprofit child care centers are frequently observed to produce child care which is, on average, of higher quality than care provided in commercial child care centers. In part, this nonprofit advantage is due to different input choices made by nonprofit centers--lower child--staff ratios, better-educated staff and directors, higher rates of…

  6. Welcome to Our World: Bridging Youth Development Research in Nonprofit and Academic Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bialeschki, M. Deborah; Conn, Michael

    2011-01-01

    This commentary discusses the emergence of youth development research and evaluation in the nonprofit arena over the past 10 to 15 years. Included in this discussion is the establishment of the context for youth development research in nonprofits, a brief description of key examples of research from three youth nonprofits that illustrate the…

  7. Partnership in civil society : a case of building trust between non-profit associations and international NGOs in Lao PDR

    OpenAIRE

    Purdin, Sky

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this Master's thesis is to develop a context-specific substantive theory of trust building based on the experiences of development workers in Laos, as well as the methods they identify as keys to a better partnership. The research material is based on eleven interviews with civil society development workers in Vientiane, Laos. The study context is partnerships between in-country International Non-Governmental Organizations and local Non-Profit Associations. ...

  8. Metal Organic Frameworks: Explorations and Design Strategies for MOF Synthesis

    KAUST Repository

    AbdulHalim, Rasha

    2016-11-27

    Metal-Organic Frameworks (MOFs) represent an emerging new class of functional crystalline solid-state materials. In the early discovery of this now rapidly growing class of materials significant challenges were often encountered. However, MOFs today, with its vast structural modularity, reflected by the huge library of the available chemical building blocks, and exceptional controlled porosity, stand as the most promising candidate to address many of the overbearing societal challenges pertaining to energy and environmental sustainability. A variety of design strategies have been enumerated in the literature which rely on the use of predesigned building blocks paving the way towards potentially more predictable structures. The two major design strategies presented in this work are the molecular building block (MBB) and supermolecular building block (SBB) -based approaches for the rationale assembly of functional MOF materials with the desired structural features. In this context, we targeted two highly connected MOF platforms, namely rht-MOF and shp-MOF. These two MOF platforms are classified based on their topology, defined as the underlying connectivity of their respective net, as edge transitive binodal nets; shp being (4,12)-connected net and rht being (3,24)-connected net. These highly connected nets were deliberately targeted due to the limited number of possible nets for connecting their associated basic building units. Two highly porous materials were designed and successfully constructed; namely Y-shp-MOF-5 and rht-MOF-10. The Y-shp-MOF-5 features a phenomenal water stability with an exquisite behavior when exposed to water, positioning this microporous material as the best adsorbent for moisture control applications. The shp-MOF platform proved to be modular to ligand functionalization and thus imparting significant behavioral changes when hydrophilic and hydrophobic functionalized ligands were introduced on the resultant MOF. On the other hand, rht

  9. Concise Review: Organ Engineering: Design, Technology, and Integration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kaushik, G.; Leijten, Jeroen Christianus Hermanus; Khademhosseini, A.

    Engineering complex tissues and whole organs has the potential to dramatically impact translational medicine in several avenues. Organ engineering is a discipline that integrates biological knowledge of embryological development, anatomy, physiology, and cellular interactions with enabling

  10. Profitable Nonprofits? Reward-Based Crowdfunding in the Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Makýšová Lucia

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with crowdfunding as a new and alternative mechanism of nonprofit funding which has thus far attracted little scholarly attention in the Czech context. It focuses on the factors that affect a campaign’s overfunding rate and determines whether these factors are consistent among different forms of project creators. A comprehensive analysis of reward-based crowdfunding in the Czech Republic was conducted based on the data from 617 projects using the Czech crowdfunding platform Hithit that were categorized according to the status of the project creator. Using binary logistic regression, a statistic estimation on an overall sample and on a sample of purely nonprofit projects was executed in order to observe if the outcomes diff er. Th e key empirical finding is that NGOs tend to raise fewer additional funds than other forms of project creators. Except for certain specific factors, the effects of the examined factors were consistent across all samples. Th is new and innovative approach to resource insufficiency by using alternative funding sources presents an important and unexplored research gap in the (post- transitive context of nonprofit sector studies, enabling a view of policy implications for Czech NGOs.

  11. Nonprofit Human Milk Banking in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Updegrove, Kimberly

    2013-01-01

    Human milk, widely understood to be beneficial for infants, can be lifesaving for preterm neonates, especially in reducing the risk of necrotizing enterocolitis. Donor human milk (DHM) is an option when mothers are unable to provide milk or have an inadequate supply for their infants. Nonprofit donor human milk banks are established to provide safe, processed human milk from milk donated by healthy lactating mothers who have undergone a rigorous screening process. These milk banks, operating under the auspices of the Human Milk Banking Association of North America, obtain, process, and dispense human milk under strict guidelines set by the association. Increasing the supply of donor human milk to meet a dramatic increase in demand poses a significant challenge for nonprofit milk banks. Efforts to increase supply nationwide include education of providers, use of social media to engage potential donors, and outreach to news media. In parallel, milk banks are establishing regional depots to collect donations, and additional milk banks are being developed. This article describes the current nonprofit milk bank industry in the United States, its challenges, and its future prospects. © 2013 by the American College of Nurse‐Midwives.

  12. Meta-Design and the Triple Learning Organization in Architectural Design Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barelkowski, Robert

    2017-10-01

    The paper delves into the improvement of Meta-Design methodology being the result of implementation of triple learning organization. Grown from the concept of reflective practice, it offers an opportunity to segregate and hierarchize both criteria and knowledge management and at least twofold application. It induces constant feedback loops recharging the basic level of “design” with second level of “learning from design” and third level of “learning from learning”. While learning from design reflects the absorption of knowledge, structuralization of skills, management of information, learning from learning gives deeper understanding and provides axiological perspective which is necessary when combining cultural, social, and abstract conceptual problems. The second level involves multidisciplinary applications imported from many engineering disciplines, technical sciences, but also psychological background, or social environment. The third level confronts these applications with their respective sciences (wide extra-architectural knowledge) and axiological issues. This distinction may be represented in difference between e.g. purposeful, systemic use of participatory design which again generates experience-by-doing versus use of disciplinary knowledge starting from its theoretical framework, then narrowed down to be relevant to particular design task. The paper discusses the application in two cases: awarded competition proposal of Digital Arts Museum in Madrid and BAIRI university building. Both cases summarize the effects of implementation and expose the impact of triple-loop knowledge circles onto design, teaching the architect or helping them to learn how to manage information flows and how to accommodate paradigm shifts in the architectural design process.

  13. Organic Chemostratigraphic Markers Characteristic of the (Informally Designated) Anthropocene Epoch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruge, M. A.

    2008-12-01

    Recognizing the tremendous collective impact of humans on the environment in the industrial age, the proposed designation of the current time period as the Anthropocene Epoch has considerable merit. One of the signature activities during this time continues to be the intensive extraction, processing, and combustion of fossil fuels. While fossil fuels themselves are naturally-occurring, they are most often millions of years old and associated with deeply buried strata. They may be found at the surface, for example, as natural oil seeps or coal seam outcrops, but these are relatively rare occurrences. Fossil fuels and their myriad by- products become the source of distinctive organic chemostratigraphic marker compounds for the Anthropocene when they occur out of their original geological context, i.e., as widespread contaminants in sediments and soils. These persistent compounds have high long-term preservation potential, particularly when deposited under low oxygen conditions. Fossil fuels can occur as environmental contaminants in raw form (e.g., crude petroleum spilled during transport) or as manufactured products (e.g., diesel oil from a leaking storage facility, coal tar from a manufactured gas plant, plastic waste in a landfill, pesticides from petroleum feedstock in agricultural soils). Distinctive assemblages of hydrocarbon marker compounds including acyclic isoprenoids, hopanes, and steranes can be readily detected by gas chromatography/mass spectrometric analysis of surface sediments and soils. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), along with sulfur-, oxygen-, and nitrogen-containing aromatic compounds, are also characteristic of fossil fuels and are readily detectable as well. More widespread is the airfall deposition of fossil fuel combustion products from vehicular, domestic and industrial sources. These occur in higher concentrations in large urban centers, but are also detected in remote areas. Parent (nonmethylated) PAHs such as phenanthrene

  14. Negotiation and Design for the Self-Organizing City. Gaming as a method for Urban Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ekim Tan

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available An understanding of cities as open systems whose agents act on them simultaneously from below and above, influencing urban processes by their interaction with them and with each other, is replacing the simplistic debate on urban participation which asks whether cities should be organized bottom-up or top-down. This conceptualization of cities as complex systems calls for new collaborative city-making methods: a combination of collaborative planning (which already embraces various agencies and derives decision-making from negotiations between them and collaborative design (existing methods rely on rule-based iterative processes which control spatial outcomes. While current collaborative planning methods are open and interactive, they fail to simulate realistic power negotiations in the evolution of the physical environments they plan; collaborative design methods fall short in modelling the decision-making mechanisms of the physical environments they control. This research is dedicated to building an open negotiation and design method for cities as self-organizing systems that bridges this gap. Gaming as a tool for knowledge creation and negotiation serves as an interface between the more abstract decision-making and material city-making. Rarely involved in the creation of our environment, it has the unexplored potential of combining the socio-spatial dimensions of self-organizing urban processes. Diverse agents, the collaborations and conflicts within and between interest groups, and the parameters provided by topological data can all be combined in an operational form in gaming: potentially a great unifier of multiple stakeholder negotiations and individual design aspirations through which to generate popularly informed policies or design. The simple language and rules of games will allow jargon-free communication between stakeholders, experts and non-experts alike. The interactive and iterative nature of city gaming encourages the development

  15. Resource categories and performance in Portuguese non-profit sports clubs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Arraya

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The resource-based view (RBV explores the role of key resources identified as tangible, personnel-based, and intangible resources in creating superior organizational performance. The RBV posits that an organization’s success is mainly driven by resources that possess Barney’s VRIO (valuable, rare, inimitable, and organized framework. The purpose of this study is to demonstrate the relationship between the three categories of resources and organizational performance. The data was analyzed with a two-stage structural equation modelling approach. The sample included Portuguese sports management staff from non-profit clubs which composed of 375 men and 102 women. The results of the structural model demonstrated that, intangible resources can significantly influence organizational performance while, personnel-based resources influence tangible and intangible resources. The results show that “staff competence”, “reputation”, and “financial capital” were the most essential resources, and that is core for non-profit clubs and their strategy to recognize, develop, and leverage VRIO resources. These findings also have considerable implications for sport managers, and suggestions for possible future research were given.

  16. Breaking Down the Door: A Nonprofit Model Creating Pathways for Non-Traditional STEM Student Engagement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelaez, C.; Pelaez, J.

    2015-12-01

    Blueprint Earth was created as a nonprofit scientific research organization dedicated to conducting micro-scale interdisciplinary environmental investigations to generate macroscopic, system-level environmental understanding. The field data collection and analysis process was conceived to be dependent on student participation and collaboration with more senior scientists, effecting knowledge transfer and emphasizing the critical nature of interdisciplinary research in investigating complex, macroscopic questions. Recruiting for student volunteer researchers is conducted in academic institutions, and to date has focused primarily on the Los Angeles area. Self-selecting student participation has run contrary to traditional STEM demographics. The vast majority of research participants in Blueprint Earth's work are female and/or from a minority (non-white) background, and most are first-generation college students or from low-income, Pell grant-eligible households. Traditional field research programs for students often come at a high cost, creating barriers to access for field-based STEM opportunities. The nonprofit model employed by Blueprint Earth provides zero-cost access to opportunity for students that the STEM world is currently targeting for future professional development.

  17. An examination of contemporary financing practices and the global financial crisis on nonprofit multi-hospital health systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Louis J; Smith, Pamela C

    2011-01-01

    This study examines the impact of the 2008 global financial crisis on large US nonprofit health systems. We proceed from an analysis of the contemporary capital financing practices of 25 of the nation's largest nonprofit hospitals and health systems. We find that these institutions relied on operating cash flows, public issues of insured variable rate debt, and accumulated investment to meet their capital financing needs. The combined use of these three financial instruments provided these organizations with $22.4 billion of long-term capital at favorable terms and the lowest interest rates. Our analysis further indicates that the extensive utilization of bond insurance, auction rate debt, and interest rate derivatives created significant risk exposures for these health systems. These risks were realized by the broader global financial crisis of 2008. Findings indicate these health systems incurred large losses from the early retirement of their variable rate debt. In addition, many organizations were forced to post nearly $1 billion of liquid collateral due to the falling values of their interest rate derivatives. Finally, the investment portfolios of these large nonprofit health systems suffered millions of dollars of unrealized capital losses, which may minimize their ability to finance future capital investment requirements.

  18. Public and nonprofit funding for research on mental disorders in France, the United Kingdom, and the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chevreul, Karine; McDaid, David; Farmer, Carrie M; Prigent, Amélie; Park, A-La; Leboyer, Marion; Kupfer, David J; Durand-Zaleski, Isabelle

    2012-07-01

    To document the investments made in research on mental disorders by both government and nonprofit nongovernmental organizations in France, the United Kingdom, and the United States. An exhaustive survey was conducted of primary sources of public and nonprofit organization funding for mental health research for the year 2007 in France and the United Kingdom and for fiscal year 2007-2008 in the United States, augmented with an examination of relevant Web sites and publications. In France, all universities and research institutions were identified using the Public Finance Act. In the United Kingdom, we scrutinized Web sites and hand searched annual reports and grant lists for the public sector and nonprofit charitable medical research awarding bodies. In the United States, we included the following sources: the National Institutes of Health, other administrative entities within the Department of Health and Human Services (eg, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention), the Department of Education, the Department of Veterans Affairs, the Department of Defense, and the National Science Foundation and, for nonprofit funding, The Foundation Center. We included research on all mental disorders and substance-related disorders using the same keywords. We excluded research on mental retardation and dementia and on the promotion of mental well-being. We used the same algorithm in each country to obtain data for only mental health funding in situations in which funding had a broader scope. France spent $27.6 million (2%) of its health research budget on mental disorders, the United Kingdom spent $172.6 million (7%), and the United States spent $5.2 billion (16%). Nongovernmental funding ranged from 1% of total funding for mental health research in France and the United States to 14% in the United Kingdom. Funding for research on mental disorders accounts for low proportions of research budgets compared with funding levels for research on other major health problems, whereas

  19. Framework for Design of Traceability System on Organic Rice Certification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purwandoko, P. B.; Seminar, K. B.; Sutrisno; Sugiyanta

    2018-05-01

    Nowadays, the preferences of organic products such as organic rice have been increased. It because of the people awareness of the healthy and eco-friendly food product consumption has grown. Therefore, it is very important to ensure organic quality of the product that will be produced. Certification is a series of process that holds to ensure the quality of products meets all criteria of organic standards. Currently, there is a problem that traceability information system for organic rice certification has been not available. The current system still conducts manually caused the loss of information during storage process. This paper aimed at developing a traceability framework on organic rice certification process. First, the main discussed issues are organic certification process. Second, unified modeling language (UML) is used to build the model of user requirement in order to develop traceability system for all actors in the certification process. Furthermore, the information captured model along certification process will be explained in this paper. The model shows the information flow that has to be recorded for each actor. Finally, the challenges in the implementation system will be discussed in this paper.

  20. The "common sense" of the nonprofit hospital tax exemption: a policy analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, S M

    1995-01-01

    Although rarely discussed prior to the 1985 Utah Supreme Court ruling against Intermountain Health Care Inc., the question of whether to grant tax exemptions to nonprofit hospitals is currently being debated by federal, state, and local legislators, and by the courts. Changes to current policy seem likely. This policy analysis: (1) presents the historical and legal background; (2) examines the economic, political, and organizational implications of current tax-exemption policy; and (3) offers three alternatives to this current policy. The analysis indicates that the current policy provides little incentive for nonprofit hospitals to make contributions of charity care. Of the alternatives, eliminating the exemption is not politically feasible at this time; regulating hospital operations and outputs portends an implementation nightmare; and tying tax subsidy levels to output levels of charity care--perhaps the strongest and most efficient incentive--would require an unlikely political consensus on what constitute valid and reliable measures of charity care. If there is a movement toward subsidies, then linking subsidy amounts to levels of charity care will depend on whether policy analysts can design satisfactory empirical measures. With the advent of universal health coverage, the demand for charity care will decrease. The problem for tax-exempt hospitals will then become justifying the exemption by demonstrating the extent to which they generate community benefits at no or reduced cost to society.

  1. State-Level Community Benefit Regulation and Nonprofit Hospitals' Provision of Community Benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Simone R; Young, Gary J; Loomer, Lacey; Madison, Kristin

    2018-04-01

    Do nonprofit hospitals provide enough community benefits to justify their tax exemptions? States have sought to enhance nonprofit hospitals' accountability and oversight through regulation, including requirements to report community benefits, conduct community health needs assessments, provide minimum levels of community benefits, and adhere to minimum income eligibility standards for charity care. However, little research has assessed these regulations' impact on community benefits. Using 2009-11 Internal Revenue Service data on community benefit spending for more than eighteen hundred hospitals and the Hilltop Institute's data on community benefit regulation, we investigated the relationship between these four types of regulation and the level and types of hospital-provided community benefits. Our multivariate regression analyses showed that only community health needs assessments were consistently associated with greater community benefit spending. The results for reporting and minimum spending requirements were mixed, while minimum income eligibility standards for charity care were unrelated to community benefit spending. State adoption of multiple types of regulation was consistently associated with higher levels of hospital-provided community benefits, possibly because regulatory intensity conveys a strong signal to the hospital community that more spending is expected. This study can inform efforts to design regulations that will encourage hospitals to provide community benefits consistent with policy makers' goals. Copyright © 2018 by Duke University Press.

  2. Organic-Inorganic Perovskites: Structural Versatility for Functional Materials Design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saparov, Bayrammurad; Mitzi, David B

    2016-04-13

    Although known since the late 19th century, organic-inorganic perovskites have recently received extraordinary research community attention because of their unique physical properties, which make them promising candidates for application in photovoltaic (PV) and related optoelectronic devices. This review will explore beyond the current focus on three-dimensional (3-D) lead(II) halide perovskites, to highlight the great chemical flexibility and outstanding potential of the broader class of 3-D and lower dimensional organic-based perovskite family for electronic, optical, and energy-based applications as well as fundamental research. The concept of a multifunctional organic-inorganic hybrid, in which the organic and inorganic structural components provide intentional, unique, and hopefully synergistic features to the compound, represents an important contemporary target.

  3. Design and Methods of the Korean Organ Transplantation Registry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaeseok Yang, MD, PhD

    2017-08-01

    Conclusions. KOTRY, as a systematic Korean transplant cohort, is expected to provide important information on Asian organ transplantation. The processes used to establish KOTRY provide a good model for launching new nationwide transplant cohort studies.

  4. On the Design of Information-Processing and Decisionmaking Organizations

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Boettcher, Kevin L; Levis, Alexander H

    1982-01-01

    ... and a response selection stage. The total rate of internal processing of each decisionmaker is constrained by bounded rationality, while the performance of the organization must satisfy specified goals...

  5. Big Data – Big Deal for Organization Design?

    OpenAIRE

    Janne J. Korhonen

    2014-01-01

    Analytics is an increasingly important source of competitive advantage. It has even been posited that big data will be the next strategic emphasis of organizations and that analytics capability will be manifested in organizational structure. In this article, I explore how analytics capability might be reflected in organizational structure using the notion of  “requisite organization” developed by Jaques (1998). Requisite organization argues that a new strategic emphasis requires the addition ...

  6. The need for strategic tax planning among nonprofit hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Pamela C

    2005-01-01

    Strategic tax planning issues are important to the nonprofit health care sector, despite its philanthropic mission. The consolidation of the industry has led management to fight for resources and develop alternative strategies for raising money. When management evaluates alternative collaborative structures to increase efficiency, the impact on governance structures must also be considered. The increased governmental scrutiny of joint ventures within the health care sector warrants management's attention as well. The financial incentives must be considered, along with the various tax policy implications of cross-sector collaborations.

  7. American Cancer Society: the world's wealthiest "nonprofit" institution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epstein, S S

    1999-01-01

    The American Cancer Society is fixated on damage control--diagnosis and treatment--and basic molecular biology, with indifference or even hostility to cancer prevention. This myopic mindset is compounded by interlocking conflicts of interest with the cancer drug, mammography, and other industries. The "nonprofit" status of the Society is in sharp conflict with its high overhead and expenses, excessive reserves of assets and contributions to political parties. All attempts to reform the Society over the past two decades have failed; a national economic boycott of the Society is long overdue.

  8. Risk, innovation and change : design propositions for implementing risk management in organizations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Staveren, Martinus Theodorus

    2009-01-01

    This Ph.D. research generated unique design propositions for implementing existing risk management methodologies in organizations. The resulting design propositions incorporate a synthesis of risk management, innovation management and change management. True implementation of risk management is

  9. DESIGNING THE STRATEGIES FOR SOCIO-ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT OF MUNICIPALITY DISTRICTS ON THE BASIS OF SYNTHESIS METHODS FOR COMPLEX SYSTEMS RESEARCH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey N. Isaev

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the results of research work on designing the strategies for socio-economic development for the Sholokhovskiy municipal district of Rostov region and Chusovskoy municipal district of Perm Region, which was made by research team of autonomous nonprofit organization of higher education «Eurasian Open Institute» (EOI during the 2012-2013.

  10. Biocontainment of genetically modified organisms by synthetic protein design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandell, Daniel J.; Lajoie, Marc J.; Mee, Michael T.; Takeuchi, Ryo; Kuznetsov, Gleb; Norville, Julie E.; Gregg, Christopher J.; Stoddard, Barry L.; Church, George M.

    2015-02-01

    Genetically modified organisms (GMOs) are increasingly deployed at large scales and in open environments. Genetic biocontainment strategies are needed to prevent unintended proliferation of GMOs in natural ecosystems. Existing biocontainment methods are insufficient because they impose evolutionary pressure on the organism to eject the safeguard by spontaneous mutagenesis or horizontal gene transfer, or because they can be circumvented by environmentally available compounds. Here we computationally redesign essential enzymes in the first organism possessing an altered genetic code (Escherichia coli strain C321.ΔA) to confer metabolic dependence on non-standard amino acids for survival. The resulting GMOs cannot metabolically bypass their biocontainment mechanisms using known environmental compounds, and they exhibit unprecedented resistance to evolutionary escape through mutagenesis and horizontal gene transfer. This work provides a foundation for safer GMOs that are isolated from natural ecosystems by a reliance on synthetic metabolites.

  11. Organic structures design applications in optical and electronic devices

    CERN Document Server

    Chow, Tahsin J

    2014-01-01

    ""Presenting an overview of the syntheses and properties of organic molecules and their applications in optical and electronic devices, this book covers aspects concerning theoretical modeling for electron transfer, solution-processed micro- and nanomaterials, donor-acceptor cyclophanes, molecular motors, organogels, polyazaacenes, fluorogenic sensors based on calix[4]arenes, and organic light-emitting diodes. The publication of this book is timely because these topics have become very popular nowadays. The book is definitely an excellent reference for scientists working in these a

  12. Intentional Design of Student Organizations to Optimize Leadership Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mainella, Felicia C

    2017-09-01

    This chapter addresses how a group's organizational structure can promote or hinder the leadership capacity of its members. The information in this chapter provides insight into structuring student organizations in a way to maximize all members' leadership development. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc., A Wiley Company.

  13. Macromolecular Architectures Designed by Living Radical Polymerization with Organic Catalysts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miho Tanishima

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Well-defined diblock and triblock copolymers, star polymers, and concentrated polymer brushes on solid surfaces were prepared using living radical polymerization with organic catalysts. Polymerizations of methyl methacrylate, butyl acrylate, and selected functional methacrylates were performed with a monofunctional initiator, a difunctional initiator, a trifunctional initiator, and a surface-immobilized initiator.

  14. Evolution of public and non-profit funding for mental health research in France between 2007 and 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gandré, Coralie; Prigent, Amélie; Kemel, Marie-Louise; Leboyer, Marion; Chevreul, Karine

    2015-12-01

    Since 2007, actions have been undertaken in France to foster mental health research. Our objective was to assess their utility by estimating the evolution of public and non-profit funding for mental health research between 2007 and 2011, both in terms of total funding and the share of health research budgets. Public and non-profit funding was considered. Core funding from public research institutions was determined through a top-down approach by multiplying their total budget by the ratio of the number of psychiatry-related publications to the total number of publications focusing on health issues. A bottom-up method was used to estimate the amount of project-based grants and funding by non-profit organizations, which were directly contacted to obtain this information. Public and non-profit funding for mental health research increased by a factor of 3.4 between 2007 and 2011 reaching €84.8 million, while the share of health research funding allocated to mental health research nearly doubled from 2.2% to 4.1%. Public sources were the main contributors representing 94% of the total funding. Our results have important implications for policy makers, as they suggest that actions specifically aimed at prioritizing mental health research are effective in increasing research funding. There is therefore an urgent need to further undertake such actions as funding in France remains particularly low compared to the United Kingdom and the United States, despite the fact that the epidemiological and economic burden represented by mental disorders is expected to grow rapidly in the coming years. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. and ECNP. All rights reserved.

  15. Nonprofit to for-profit conversions by hospitals, health insurers, and health plans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Needleman, J

    1999-01-01

    Conversion of hospitals, health insurers, and health plans from nonprofit to for-profit ownership has become a focus of national debate. The author examines why nonprofit ownership has been dominant in the US health system and assesses the strength of the argument that nonprofits provide community benefits that would be threatened by for-profit conversion. The author concludes that many of the specific community benefits offered by nonprofits, such as care for the poor, could be maintained or replaced by adequate funding of public programs and that quality and fairness in treatment can be better assured through clear standards of care and adequate monitoring systems. As health care becomes increasingly commercialized, the most difficult parts of nonprofits' historic mission to preserve are the community orientation, leadership role, and innovation that nonprofit hospitals and health plans have provided out of their commitment to a community beyond those to whom they sell services.

  16. A Learning Organization approach for Knowledge Management at Jupiter Design.

    OpenAIRE

    Jones, Timothy John

    2006-01-01

    This report has been carried out by a student studying for the degree of a Masters in Business Administration at Nottingham University Business School. The focus of the report is to suggest a knowledge management framework for the client Jupiter Design Limited. Jupiter has experienced considerable success and growth over recent years, evolving from a relatively small but well respected design agency into one of the largest agencies operating outside of London. Due to an expanding clie...

  17. Strategies for Establishing Service Oriented Design in Organizations

    OpenAIRE

    Aier, Stephan

    2012-01-01

    Service orientation is a broadly discussed design paradigm for information systems engineering. Only recently there have been several contributions to individual dimensions of service orientation like service definition, service modeling, service management or service governance. However, a combination of useful solutions for partial problems might not constitute an effective overall approach to service orientation. We argue that the establishment of service orientation is a wicked [design] p...

  18. Organic carbamates in drug design and medicinal chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Arun K; Brindisi, Margherita

    2015-04-09

    The carbamate group is a key structural motif in many approved drugs and prodrugs. There is an increasing use of carbamates in medicinal chemistry and many derivatives are specifically designed to make drug-target interactions through their carbamate moiety. In this Perspective, we present properties and stabilities of carbamates, reagents and chemical methodologies for the synthesis of carbamates, and recent applications of carbamates in drug design and medicinal chemistry.

  19. The Influence of Marketing Scholarship’s Legacy on Nonprofit Marketing

    OpenAIRE

    Wymer, Walter

    2013-01-01

    This inquiry contributes to the literature on the development of “nonprofit marketing thought” by describing how the field’s early period established a legacy effect on nonprofit marketing scholarship to the present day. This qualitative work uses a wide variety of sources from a protracted historical period in order to more fully inform a perspective on the relevant issues that have influenced the development of nonprofit marketing scholarship. The investigation suggests that, although the d...

  20. Call for Papers – Special issue: Project Management in the Non-Profit Sector

    OpenAIRE

    Sankaran, Shankar

    2015-01-01

    This journal special issue will explore diverse stakeholder perspectives and share examples of project management practices in the non-profit sector. Key objectives are to develop understandings of project management practice in the sector, to examine how cross-sectoral collaboration and learning can help non-profit organisations achieve their project and programme objectives, and to explore ways in which the wider project management community can learn from experiences in the non-profit sector.

  1. Adapting Nonprofit Resources to New Social Demands: The Food Banks in Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Coque

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Food banks make up an increasing phenomenon of nonprofit organizations answering to new social needs related to the global socioeconomic crisis. In order to explore if they are suitably adapting to their environments in Spain, one of the countries most seriously affected by the crisis in South Europe, this work assumes a hybrid qualitative–quantitative structure composed of an exploratory case study based on semi-structured interviews followed by a survey addressed to all the Spanish food banks. Much of the academic literature has concerned the appropriateness of food banks as a delivery mechanism in the context of welfare state withdrawal. This paper takes this in a different direction by examining Spanish food banks from an organizational management point of view. Wary of concerns about the institutionalization of food charity, on the one hand, and recognizing the escalating daily reliance on food banks, on the other, this paper seeks to address potential technical supply problems and challenges food banks face and open debate about the organizational networks of food banks more generally. The results show nonprofit entities based on a voluntary workforce who run supply chains in order to join both social and business targets. Their situation, performance, resources, mutual relationships and the links with other entities are described, paying special attention to the changes induced by the latest contextual changes. In short, food banks are efficiently organized and well established in their territories as a coherent social movement, although they should improve in their strategic view, coordination, resources and sources of these, to satisfy more adequately their increasingly complex demands.

  2. Integration and the hold-up problem in the design organization for engineering projects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zerjav, Vedran; Hartmann, Timo; Javernick-Will, A.; Chinowsky, P.

    2012-01-01

    The paper presents a perspective of the design organization in engineering projects based on the economic concept of the hold-up problem. By integrating the economic theories on the boundaries of organizations into the existing knowledge on design in engineering projects, the paper hypothesizes a

  3. A designerly approach to enable organizations to deliver product-service systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Lille, C.S.H.; Roscam Abbing, E.; Kleinsmann, M.S.

    2012-01-01

    Design is not only just for products, logo’s or websites anymore. More and more companies are embracing design as a way to enable their organization to adapt to changes in society. One of the challenges many organizations face at the moment is how to create value for their customers by delivering

  4. Homeland Security Organizations: Design Contingencies in Complex Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-01

    intelligence agencies did not anticipate the adaptation of al-Qaeda from a central command structure to the current collection of regional franchises ...suspicious activities by terrorist groups throughout the summer, culminating in the December explosion at the Great Western Forum sports venue in...Great Western Forum sports arena in Inglewood, California. The target of the attack was an event organized to honor military personnel who had served

  5. Strategies and techniques of communication and public relations applied to non-profit sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioana – Julieta Josan

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to summarize the strategies and techniques of communication and public relations applied to non-profit sector.The approach of the paper is to identify the most appropriate strategies and techniques that non-profit sector can use to accomplish its objectives, to highlight specific differences between the strategies and techniques of the profit and non-profit sectors and to identify potential communication and public relations actions in order to increase visibility among target audience, create brand awareness and to change into positive brand sentiment the target perception about the non-profit sector.

  6. Community benefits: how do for-profit and nonprofit hospitals measure up?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholson, S; Pauly, M V

    The rise of the for-profit hospital industry has opened a debate about the level of community benefits provided by non-profit hospitals. Do nonprofits provide enough community benefits to justify the community's commitment of resources to them, and the tax-exempt status they receive? If nonprofit hospitals convert to for-profit entities, would community benefits be lost in the transaction? This debate has highlighted the need to define and measure community benefits more clearly. In this Issue Brief, the authors develop a new method of identifying activities that qualify as community benefits, and propose a benchmark for the amount of benefit a nonprofit hospital should provide.

  7. Designing Schools That Work: Organizing Resources Strategically for Student Success

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miles, Karen Hawley; Ferris, Kristen

    2015-01-01

    This publication outlines the fundamental principles and process of Strategic School Design. Through more than a decade of research and practice in the area of school resource use, we have found that high-performing schools are responding to the changing context in education by using people, time, technology, and money in ways that look…

  8. n-Channel semiconductor materials design for organic complementary circuits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usta, Hakan; Facchetti, Antonio; Marks, Tobin J

    2011-07-19

    Organic semiconductors have unique properties compared to traditional inorganic materials such as amorphous or crystalline silicon. Some important advantages include their adaptability to low-temperature processing on flexible substrates, low cost, amenability to high-speed fabrication, and tunable electronic properties. These features are essential for a variety of next-generation electronic products, including low-power flexible displays, inexpensive radio frequency identification (RFID) tags, and printable sensors, among many other applications. Accordingly, the preparation of new materials based on π-conjugated organic molecules or polymers has been a central scientific and technological research focus over the past decade. Currently, p-channel (hole-transporting) materials are the leading class of organic semiconductors. In contrast, high-performance n-channel (electron-transporting) semiconductors are relatively rare, but they are of great significance for the development of plastic electronic devices such as organic field-effect transistors (OFETs). In this Account, we highlight the advances our team has made toward realizing moderately and highly electron-deficient n-channel oligomers and polymers based on oligothiophene, arylenediimide, and (bis)indenofluorene skeletons. We have synthesized and characterized a "library" of structurally related semiconductors, and we have investigated detailed structure-property relationships through optical, electrochemical, thermal, microstructural (both single-crystal and thin-film), and electrical measurements. Our results reveal highly informative correlations between structural parameters at various length scales and charge transport properties. We first discuss oligothiophenes functionalized with perfluoroalkyl and perfluoroarene substituents, which represent the initial examples of high-performance n-channel semiconductors developed in this project. The OFET characteristics of these compounds are presented with an

  9. Spin-dependent transport and functional design in organic ferromagnetic devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guichao Hu

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Organic ferromagnets are intriguing materials in that they combine ferromagnetic and organic properties. Although challenges in their synthesis still remain, the development of organic spintronics has triggered strong interest in high-performance organic ferromagnetic devices. This review first introduces our theory for spin-dependent electron transport through organic ferromagnetic devices, which combines an extended Su–Schrieffer–Heeger model with the Green’s function method. The effects of the intrinsic interactions in the organic ferromagnets, including strong electron–lattice interaction and spin–spin correlation between π-electrons and radicals, are highlighted. Several interesting functional designs of organic ferromagnetic devices are discussed, specifically the concepts of a spin filter, multi-state magnetoresistance, and spin-current rectification. The mechanism of each phenomenon is explained by transmission and orbital analysis. These works show that organic ferromagnets are promising components for spintronic devices that deserve to be designed and examined in future experiments.

  10. Rational design of organic electro-optic materials

    CERN Document Server

    Dalton, L R

    2003-01-01

    Quantum mechanical calculations are used to optimize the molecular first hyperpolarizability of organic chromophores and statistical mechanical calculations are used to optimize the translation of molecular hyperpolarizability to macroscopic electro-optic activity (to values of greater than 100 pm V sup - sup 1 at telecommunications wavelengths). Macroscopic material architectures are implemented exploiting new concepts in nanoscale architectural engineering. Multi-chromophore-containing dendrimers and dendronized polymers not only permit optimization of electro-optic activity but also of auxiliary properties including optical loss (both absorption and scattering), thermal and photochemical stability and processability. New reactive ion etching and photolithographic techniques permit the fabrication of three-dimensional optical circuitry and the integration of that circuitry with semiconductor very-large-scale integration electronics and silica fibre optics. Electro-optic devices have been fabricated exploiti...

  11. Designing Kitaev Spin Liquids in Metal-Organic Frameworks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Masahiko G.; Fujita, Hiroyuki; Oshikawa, Masaki

    2017-08-01

    Kitaev's honeycomb lattice spin model is a remarkable exactly solvable model, which has a particular type of spin liquid (Kitaev spin liquid) as the ground state. Although its possible realization in iridates and α -RuCl3 has been vigorously discussed recently, these materials have substantial non-Kitaev direct exchange interactions and do not have a spin liquid ground state. We propose metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) with Ru3 + (or Os3 + ), forming the honeycomb lattice as promising candidates for a more ideal realization of Kitaev-type spin models, where the direct exchange interaction is strongly suppressed. The great flexibility of MOFs allows generalization to other three-dimensional lattices for the potential realization of a variety of spin liquids, such as a Weyl spin liquid.

  12. Academic and Non-Profit Accessibility to Commercial Remote Sensing Software

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, A. S.; Farr, B.

    2013-12-01

    Remote Sensing as a topic of teaching and research at the university and college level continues to increase. As more data is made freely available and software becomes easier to use, more and more academic and non-profits institutions are turning to remote sensing to solve their tough and large spatial scale problems. Exelis Visual Information Solutions (VIS) has been supporting teaching and research endeavors for over 30 years with a special emphasis over the last 5 years with scientifically proven software and accessible training materials. The Exelis VIS academic program extends to US and Canadian 2 year and 4 year colleges and universities with tools for analyzing aerial and satellite multispectral and hyperspectral imagery, airborne LiDAR and Synthetic Aperture Radar. The Exelis VIS academic programs, using the ENVI Platform, enables labs and classrooms to be outfitted with software and makes software accessible to students. The ENVI software provides students hands on experience with remote sensing software, an easy teaching platform for professors and allows researchers scientifically vetted software they can trust. Training materials are provided at no additional cost and can either serve as a basis for course curriculum development or self paced learning. Non-profit organizations like The Nature Conservancy (TNC) and CGIAR have deployed ENVI and IDL enterprise wide licensing allowing researchers all over the world to have cost effective access COTS software for their research. Exelis VIS has also contributed licenses to the NASA DEVELOP program. Exelis VIS is committed to supporting the academic and NGO community with affordable enterprise licensing, access to training materials, and technical expertise to help researchers tackle today's Earth and Planetary science big data challenges.

  13. Adaptive symbiotic organisms search (SOS algorithm for structural design optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghanshyam G. Tejani

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The symbiotic organisms search (SOS algorithm is an effective metaheuristic developed in 2014, which mimics the symbiotic relationship among the living beings, such as mutualism, commensalism, and parasitism, to survive in the ecosystem. In this study, three modified versions of the SOS algorithm are proposed by introducing adaptive benefit factors in the basic SOS algorithm to improve its efficiency. The basic SOS algorithm only considers benefit factors, whereas the proposed variants of the SOS algorithm, consider effective combinations of adaptive benefit factors and benefit factors to study their competence to lay down a good balance between exploration and exploitation of the search space. The proposed algorithms are tested to suit its applications to the engineering structures subjected to dynamic excitation, which may lead to undesirable vibrations. Structure optimization problems become more challenging if the shape and size variables are taken into account along with the frequency. To check the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed algorithms, six different planar and space trusses are subjected to experimental analysis. The results obtained using the proposed methods are compared with those obtained using other optimization methods well established in the literature. The results reveal that the adaptive SOS algorithm is more reliable and efficient than the basic SOS algorithm and other state-of-the-art algorithms.

  14. Rational design of organic electro-optic materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dalton, L R

    2003-01-01

    Quantum mechanical calculations are used to optimize the molecular first hyperpolarizability of organic chromophores and statistical mechanical calculations are used to optimize the translation of molecular hyperpolarizability to macroscopic electro-optic activity (to values of greater than 100 pm V -1 at telecommunications wavelengths). Macroscopic material architectures are implemented exploiting new concepts in nanoscale architectural engineering. Multi-chromophore-containing dendrimers and dendronized polymers not only permit optimization of electro-optic activity but also of auxiliary properties including optical loss (both absorption and scattering), thermal and photochemical stability and processability. New reactive ion etching and photolithographic techniques permit the fabrication of three-dimensional optical circuitry and the integration of that circuitry with semiconductor very-large-scale integration electronics and silica fibre optics. Electro-optic devices have been fabricated exploiting stripline, cascaded prism and microresonator device structures. Sub-1 V drive voltages and operational bandwidths of greater than 100 GHz have been demonstrated. Both single-and double-ring microresonators have been fabricated for applications such as active wavelength division multiplexing. Free spectral range values of 1 THz and per channel modulation bandwidths of 15 GHz have been realized permitting single-chip data rates of 500 Gb s -1 . Other demonstrated devices include phased array radar, optical gyroscopes, acoustic spectrum analysers, ultrafast analog/digital converters and ultrahigh bandwidth signal generators. (topical review)

  15. Designing organic spin filters in the coherent tunneling regime.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrmann, Carmen; Solomon, Gemma C; Ratner, Mark A

    2011-06-14

    Spin filters, that is, systems which preferentially transport electrons of a certain spin orientation, are an important element for spintronic schemes and in chemical and biological instances of spin-selective electronic communication. We study the relation between molecular structure and spin filtering functionality employing a theoretical analysis of both model and stable organic radicals based on substituted benzene, which are bound to gold electrodes, with a combination of density functional theory and the Landauer-Imry-Büttiker approach. We compare the spatial distribution of the spin density and of the frontier central subsystem molecular orbitals, and local contributions to the transmission. Our results suggest that the delocalization of the singly occupied molecular orbital and of the spin density onto the benzene ring connected to the electrodes, is a good, although not the sole indicator of spin filtering functionality. The stable radicals under study do not effectively act as spin filters, while the model phenoxy-based radicals are effective due to their much larger spin delocalization. These conclusions may also be of interest for electron transfer experiments in electron donor-bridge-acceptor complexes.

  16. Model-based Organization Manning, Strategy, and Structure Design via Team Optimal Design (TOD) Methodology

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Levchuk, Georgiy; Chopra, Kari; Paley, Michael; Levchuk, Yuri; Clark, David

    2005-01-01

    This paper describes a quantitative Team Optimal Design (TOD) methodology and its application to the design of optimized manning for E-10 Multi-sensor Command and Control Aircraft. The E-10 (USAF, 2002...

  17. Cultural challenges and essential factors in the implementation of IS in a non-profit organisation in a developing country

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kastrup Nielsen, Sebastian; Svejvig, Per

    2013-01-01

    collaboration. Cultural dimensions from Hofstede and other researchers are examined to take spe-cific actions to reduce the cultural gap between developed and developing countries. The culture also affects the implementation process, which this paper has found an appropriate solution for. This, together......This paper seeks to describe some of the challenges in the implementation of IS in a non-profit or-ganization in a developing country. When people from developed countries assist in the process of making requirements specification, an understanding of local culture is essential for a successful...

  18. Optimization of organic Rankine cycle power systems considering multistage axial turbine design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meroni, Andrea; Andreasen, Jesper Graa; Persico, Giacomo

    2018-01-01

    Organic Rankine cycle power systems represent a viable and efficient solution for the exploitation of medium-to-low temperature heat sources. Despite the large number of commissioned units, there is limited literature on the design and optimization of organic Rankine cycle power systems considering...... multistage turbine design. This work presents a preliminary design methodology and working fluid selection for organic Rankine cycle units featuring multistage axial turbines. The method is then applied to the case of waste heat recovery from a large marine diesel engine. A multistage axial turbine model...

  19. Optimization of organic Rankine cycle power systems considering multistage axial turbine design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meroni, Andrea; Andreasen, Jesper Graa; Persico, Giacomo

    2017-01-01

    Organic Rankine cycle power systems represent a viable and efficient solution for the exploitation of medium-to-low temperature heat sources. Despite the large number of commissioned units, there is limited literature on the design and optimization of organic Rankine cycle power systems considering...... multistage turbine design. This work presents a preliminary design methodology and working fluid selection for organic Rankine cycle units featuring multistage axial turbines. The method is then applied to the case of waste heat recovery from a large marine diesel engine. A multistage axial turbine model...

  20. Understanding Complexity and Self-Organization in a Defense Program Management Organization (Experimental Design)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-18

    initiatives such as the Packard Commission study, Goldwater-Nichols Legislation, and more recently, the Better Buying Power initiative. While the DoD...potential communications pathways in an organizational structure) Self-Organizing Network Behavior The nodes in the network are specific individuals... behavior pattern impacts of changing predetermined independent variables  Phase 4: Refined hypothesis testing to examine how decision and

  1. 32 CFR 37.620 - What financial management standards do I include for nonprofit participants?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What financial management standards do I include... financial management standards do I include for nonprofit participants? So as not to force system changes..., your expenditure-based TIA's requirements for the financial management system of any nonprofit...

  2. Compensating Controls and Agency Conflicts in the Absence of Owners: The Case of Nonprofit Charter Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, Jean Ryberg

    2017-01-01

    This dissertation consists of three essays using publicly reported internal control deficiencies to examine agency conflicts in the unique organizational setting provided by nonprofit charter schools. In my first essay, I find evidence that increased agency conflicts in nonprofit charter schools are "not" associated with increased…

  3. Wolves in sheep's clothing: Is non-profit status used to signal quality?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Daniel B; Propper, Carol; Smith, Sarah

    2017-09-01

    Why do many firms in the healthcare sector adopt non-profit status? One argument is that non-profit status serves as a signal of quality when consumers are not well informed. A testable implication is that an increase in consumer information may lead to a reduction in the number of non-profits in a market. We test this idea empirically by exploiting an exogenous increase in consumer information in the US nursing home industry. We find that the information shock led to a reduction in the share of non-profit homes, driven by a combination of home closure and sector switching. The lowest quality non-profits were the most likely to exit. Our results have important implications for the effects of reforms to increase consumer provision in a number of public services. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  4. Templated dewetting: designing entirely self-organized platforms for photocatalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altomare, Marco; Nguyen, Nhat Truong; Schmuki, Patrik

    2016-12-01

    Formation and dispersion of metal nanoparticles on oxide surfaces in site-specific or even arrayed configuration are key in various technological processes such as catalysis, photonics, electrochemistry and for fabricating electrodes, sensors, memory devices, and magnetic, optical, and plasmonic platforms. A crucial aspect towards an efficient performance of many of these metal/metal oxide arrangements is a reliable fabrication approach. Since the early works on graphoepitaxy in the 70s, solid state dewetting of metal films on patterned surfaces has been much explored and regarded as a most effective tool to form defined arrays of ordered metal particles on a desired substrate. While templated dewetting has been studied in detail, particularly from a mechanistic perspective on lithographically patterned Si surfaces, the resulting outstanding potential of its applications on metal oxide semiconductors, such as titania, has received only limited attention. In this perspective we illustrate how dewetting and particularly templated dewetting can be used to fabricate highly efficient metal/TiO 2 photocatalyst assemblies e.g. for green hydrogen evolution. A remarkable advantage is that the synthesis of such photocatalysts is completely based on self-ordering principles: anodic self-organized TiO 2 nanotube arrays that self-align to a highest degree of hexagonal ordering are an ideal topographical substrate for a second self-ordering process, that is, templated-dewetting of sputter-deposited metal thin films. The controllable metal/semiconductor coupling delivers intriguing features and functionalities. We review concepts inherent to dewetting and particularly templated dewetting, and outline a series of effective tools that can be synergistically interlaced to reach fine control with nanoscopic precision over the resulting metal/TiO 2 structures (in terms of e.g. high ordering, size distribution, site specific placement, alloy formation) to maximize their photocatalytic

  5. The Future of Organization Design: An Interpretative Synthesis in Three Themes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard M. Burton

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available In the inaugural issue of the Journal of Organization Design (Vol. 1, #1, 2012, noted scholars and experienced practitioners presented their views on the future of organization design. The seven wise and provocative statements were subsequently discussed by members of the Organizational Design Community at a conference held at Harvard University on August 3, 2012. I was asked by JOD to monitor the discussion and identify the broad organization design themes that emerged. Although the discussion was wide ranging, three themes were noticeable. The first theme is that there are fundamentals of organization design, and all agreed that design involves creating a cohesive socio-technical system from a number of constituent elements. The second theme is that the boundaries of many newer organizational forms extend beyond that of the single firm, so the scope of organization design needs to expand to include ecosystems, collaborative communities, industries, and other supra-firm architectures. The third theme involves time and change, requiring a shift in focus from how organizations become stable and predictable to how they can become more agile.

  6. Enhancing the design and management of a local organic food supply chain with Soft Systems Methodology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tavella, Elena; Hjortsø, Carsten Nico Portefée

    2012-01-01

    not adequately consider major aspects of local organic food supply chains such as ethics, sustainability and human values. Supply chain design and management approaches suita-ble to small-scale, local organic food enterprises are lacking and need to be developed. The aim of this paper is to suggest Soft Systems......Supply chain partners for local organic food face uncertainties such as poor collaboration and communication that cannot be reduced through the application of traditional supply chain design and management techniques. Such techniques are known to improve supply chain coordination, but they do...... Methodology (SSM) as a new and suitable ap-proach to design and manage local organic food supply chains. We illustrate how SSM can be used to reduce uncertainties within local organic food supply chains based on a German case. This illustration serves to identify the benefits of using SSM, compared with ad...

  7. Legitimacy, trustee incentives, and board processes: the case of public and private non-profit nursing homes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewaelheyns, Nico; Eeckloo, Kristof; Van Hulle, Cynthia

    2011-01-01

    Using a unique data set, this study explores how type of ownership (government/private) is related to processes of governance. The findings suggest that the neo-institutional perspective and the self-interest rationale of the agency perspective are helpful in explaining processes of governance in both government- and privately owned non-profit organizations. Due to adverse incentives and the quest for legitimacy, supervising governance bodies within local government-owned non-profit institutions pay relatively less attention to the development of high quality supervising bodies and delegate little to management. Our findings also indicate that governance processes in private institutions are more aligned with the business model and that this alignment is likely driven by a concern to improve decision making. By contrast, our data also suggest that in local government-owned institutions re-election concerns of politicians-trustees are an important force in the governance processes of these institutions. In view of these adverse incentives - in contrast to the case of private organizations - a governance code is unlikely to entail much improvement in government-owned organizations. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. Does Social Capital Explain Community-Level Differences in Organ Donor Designation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ladin, Keren; Wang, Rui; Fleishman, Aaron; Boger, Matthew; Rodrigue, James R

    2015-09-01

    The growing shortage of life-saving organs has reached unprecedented levels, with more than 120,000 Americans waiting for them. Despite national attempts to increase organ donation and federal laws mandating the equitable allocation of organs, geographic disparities remain. A better understanding of the contextual determinants of organ donor designation, including social capital, may enhance efforts to increase organ donation by raising the probability of collective action and fostering norms of reciprocity and cooperation while increasing costs to defectors. Because community-level factors, including social capital, predict more than half the variation in donor designation, future interventions should tailor strategies to specific communities as the unit of intervention. The growing shortage of organs has reached unprecedented levels. Despite national attempts to increase donation and federal laws mandating the equitable allocation of organs, their availability and waiting times vary significantly nationwide. Organ donor designation is a collective action problem in public health, in which the regional organ supply and average waiting times are determined by the willingness of individuals to be listed as organ donors. Social capital increases the probability of collective action by fostering norms of reciprocity and cooperation while increasing costs to defectors. We examine whether social capital and other community-level factors explain geographic variation in organ donor designation rates in Massachusetts. We obtained a sample of 3,281,532 registered drivers in 2010 from the Massachusetts Department of Transportation Registry of Motor Vehicles (MassDOT RMV). We then geocoded the registry data, matched them to 4,466 census blocks, and linked them to the 2010 US Census, the American Community Survey (ACS), and other sources to obtain community-level sociodemographic, social capital (residential segregation, voter registration and participation, residential

  9. Knowledge workers and knowledge-intense organizations, Part 2: Designing and managing for productivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weaver, D; Sorrells-Jones, J

    1999-09-01

    Our economy is shifting from a hard goods and material products base to one in which knowledge is the primary mode of production. Organizations are experimenting with designs that support knowledge work by clustering individuals with different but complementary skills in focused teams. The goal is to increase applied knowledge that furthers the organization's strategic intent. The team-based knowledge work model holds promise for healthcare organizations that are under pressure to use knowledge to improve clinical care, integrate care across disciplines and settings, and accept accountability for costs. However, the shift from the traditional bureaucratic model to the flexible team-based design mandates changes in the design of the organization, the role of leadership, and the attributes of the teams and team members. In Part 2 of this three-part series, the authors explore the necessary design changes and the new roles for leadership, teams, and their members. Additionally, implications for healthcare clinicians, particularly nurses, are discussed.

  10. Soil mixing design methods and construction techniques for use in high organic soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-01

    Organic soils present a difficult challenge for roadway designers and construction due to the high : compressibility of the soil structure and the often associated high water table and moisture content. For : other soft or loose inorganic soils, stab...

  11. Metal-Organic Frameworks: Building Block Design Strategies for the Synthesis of MOFs.

    KAUST Repository

    Luebke, Ryan

    2014-01-01

    A significant and ongoing challenge in materials chemistry and furthermore solid state chemistry is to design materials with the desired properties and characteristics. The field of Metal-Organic Frameworks (MOFs) offers several strategies

  12. Improving the organization of the outfitting of gas and oil fields in a unitized design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berezin, V.L.; Kurepin, B.N.; Sivergin, M.Yu.; Telegin, L.G.

    1985-01-01

    The basic tenets of the organization of outfitting gas and oil fields in a unitized design are examined. An economic and mathematical model for selecting a variant for transporting unitized devices is proposed in which the transport expenditures are minimal.

  13. The Legal Structure of Commercial Banks and Financial Regulation : does organizational form matter for the design of bank regulation?

    OpenAIRE

    Cedeno-Brea, Enmanuel

    2017-01-01

    markdownabstractDo the different ways that commercial banks are legally organized matter for the design of financial regulation? It is often assumed that most commercial banks are setup as investor owned business corporations. However, this is not always the case In many jurisdictions, banks are legally organized using a plethora of organizational forms, which include: co-operatives, mutual associations and even nonprofit entities. Thus, some of the distinctive legal attributes and features o...

  14. Design of homo-organic acid producing strains using multi-objective optimization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kim, Tae Yong; Park, Jong Myoung; Kim, Hyun Uk

    2015-01-01

    Production of homo-organic acids without byproducts is an important challenge in bioprocess engineering to minimize operation cost for separation processes. In this study, we used multi-objective optimization to design Escherichia coli strains with the goals of maximally producing target organic ...

  15. Principals of Design for High Performing Organizations: A Suggested Research Program. Appendixes

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-03-01

    unit trust and organizational effectiveness (Cummings), biases in management perceptions of organization and environmental characteristics ( Starbuck ...including subcontracting, franchises , work-family issues (Bailyn), the hierarchy problem in organization design (Ettlie), linkages among HRM activities and...was the call for longitudinal studies. Bartunek called for longitudinal field studies and Starbuck noted the need for parallel case studies involving

  16. Exploring an innovation project as source of change in organization design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brix, Jacob; Peters, Lois S.

    2015-01-01

    This study builds new empirically based theory on how the processing of an innovation project with a high degree of uncertainty induces change in key components in organization design. By using an embedded case study as our research strategy and organisation design theory as our analytical lens, we...

  17. Investigation of the organic Rankine cycle (ORC) system and the radial-inflow turbine design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Yan; Ren, Xiao-dong

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • The thermodynamic analysis of an ORC system is introduced. • A radial turbine design method has been proposed based on the real gas model. • A radial turbine with R123 is designed and numerically analyzed. - Abstract: Energy and environment issue set utilizing low-grade heat noticed. Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) has been demonstrated to be a promising technology to recover waste heat. As a critical component of ORC system, the turbine selection has an enormous influence on the system performance. This paper carries out a study on the thermodynamic analysis of ORC system and the aerodynamic design of an organic radial turbine. The system performance is evaluated with various working fluids. The aerodynamic design of the organic radial-inflow turbine is focused due to the high molecule weight and the low sound speed of the organic working fluid. An aerodynamic and profile design system is developed. A radial-inflow turbine with R123 as the working fluid is designed and the numerical analysis is conducted. The simulation results indicate that the shock wave caused by the high expansion ratio in the nozzle is well controlled. Compared with the one-dimensional design results, the performance of the radial-inflow turbine in this paper reaches the design requirements.

  18. Rational In Silico Design of an Organic Semiconductor with Improved Electron Mobility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friederich, Pascal; Gómez, Verónica; Sprau, Christian; Meded, Velimir; Strunk, Timo; Jenne, Michael; Magri, Andrea; Symalla, Franz; Colsmann, Alexander; Ruben, Mario; Wenzel, Wolfgang

    2017-11-01

    Organic semiconductors find a wide range of applications, such as in organic light emitting diodes, organic solar cells, and organic field effect transistors. One of their most striking disadvantages in comparison to crystalline inorganic semiconductors is their low charge-carrier mobility, which manifests itself in major device constraints such as limited photoactive layer thicknesses. Trial-and-error attempts to increase charge-carrier mobility are impeded by the complex interplay of the molecular and electronic structure of the material with its morphology. Here, the viability of a multiscale simulation approach to rationally design materials with improved electron mobility is demonstrated. Starting from one of the most widely used electron conducting materials (Alq 3 ), novel organic semiconductors with tailored electronic properties are designed for which an improvement of the electron mobility by three orders of magnitude is predicted and experimentally confirmed. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. Organization of project works in Industry 4.0 digital item designing companies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurjanov, A. V.; Zakoldaev, D. A.; Shukalov, A. V.; Zharinov, I. O.

    2018-05-01

    The task of the project works organization in the Industry 4.0 item designing digital factories is being studied. There is a scheme of the item designing component life cycle. There is also a scheme how to develop and confirm the quality of the item designing component documentation using the mathematical modelling. There is a description of the self-organization principles for the cyber and physical technological equipment in the Industry 4.0 «smart factory» company during the manufacturing process.

  20. Optimal design of compact organic Rankine cycle units for domestic solar applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barbazza, Luca; Pierobon, Leonardo; Mirandola, Alberto

    2014-01-01

    criteria, i.e., compactness, high performance and safe operation, are targeted by adopting a multi-objective optimization approach modeled with the genetic algorithm. Design-point thermodynamic variables, e.g., evaporating pressure, the working fluid, minimum allowable temperature differences......Organic Rankine cycle turbogenerators are a promising technology to transform the solar radiation harvested by solar collectors into electric power. The present work aims at sizing a small-scale organic Rankine cycle unit by tailoring its design for domestic solar applications. Stringent design...

  1. Self-Organizing Units in an Interdisciplinary Course for Pervasive Computing Design

    OpenAIRE

    McNair, Lisa; Newswander, Chad; Coupey, Eloise; Dorsa, Ed; Martin, Tom; Paretti, Marie

    2009-01-01

    We conducted a case study of a design course that focused on bringing together students from engineering, industrial design, and marketing to use pervasive computing technologies to design, coordinate, and build a “smart” dorm room for disabled individuals. The class was loosely structured to encourage innovation, critical thinking and interdisciplinarity. In this environment, teams were created, disassembled, and re-created in a self-organizing fashion. With few norms, teams were expected to...

  2. Codification of design rules applying to fitting organs of PWR cooling circuits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grandemange, J.M.; Cereser, W.

    1983-01-01

    The present paper deals with the presentation of the design rules of fitting organs to be codified within the RCC-M. This presentation concerns level 1 fitting organs which are the most important for the safety of the installation. The conception rules of these materials are codified in the volume B of the tome I of the RCC-M dealing with level 1 materials, chapter B 3000: design, sub-chapter B 3500: fitting organ design. This paper presents the general approach considered, for the establishment of the design rules of the RCC-M. It includes four parts dealing with: historical recall; presentation of aims and of the sense in which the codification works have been undertaken; presentation of the B.3500 structure; discussion about the technical points of this sub-chapter [fr

  3. Digital Technologies as Tools of Engagement and Dissent from the Perspective of Nonprofit Sector

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIN Ziying

    2017-01-01

    The widely spread of the digital technologies, such as laptop and the Internet, have brought out profound changes in the economy as wel as in political and social life and intensified the interactions and communication between the state, civil society, and market. For the time being, it offered opportunities for the nonprofit sector to initiate a brand-new stage. This article aims to explore how the technology connects nonprofit sector to government and civil society and assess the impact of technology in nonprofit sector perspective by taking The Red Cross of Society of China as an example.

  4. The Strategic Use of Service Design for Leaders in Service Organizations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judith Gloppen

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available There is a growing interest among scholars, practitioners and organizations as to how design may benefit management, particularly when this happens in a service context. In this exploratory qualitative study, I investigate such a multi-disciplinary intersection with the aim of better understanding how service design may be of value for leaders in service organizations on a strategic level. The research draws on a service design approach called AT-ONE. Addressed are ways that the strategic use of service design may influence attitudes and transformation in service organizations. The study presents views from the designers, implementers and users of this approach, supported by participant observation and interviews. This was done through in-depth qualitative interviews with the AT-ONE project members and designer, with the service design professional company involved, and leaders from the businesses participating in the project and workshop sessions. These were observed by the researcher. Drawing on the findings of this exploratory study, some implications for the field of service design management at the corporate level are offered.

  5. A model to motivate, engage and retain non-profit employees

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    kirstam

    Key words: intrinsic rewards, intrinsic work motivation, non-profit sector, retention, ..... The process of informed consent was explained in both the e-mail and ..... from working, which causes a positive cycle of emotions whereby their desire to.

  6. 32 CFR 37.665 - Must I require nonprofit participants to have periodic audits?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... DEFENSE DoD GRANT AND AGREEMENT REGULATIONS TECHNOLOGY INVESTMENT AGREEMENTS Award Terms Affecting Participants' Financial, Property, and Purchasing Systems Financial Matters § 37.665 Must I require nonprofit...

  7. Valuation of Volunteer Work in the Satellite Account of Non-Profit Institutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Václav Rybáček

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Volunteer work constitutes an important input into the activities of non-profit institutions. However, in the core system of national accounts, volunteering falls outside the production boundary even if it leads to the production of services. By doing so, national accounts inevitably underestimates the contribution of non-profit institutions to the well-being. This shortcoming is overcome by the Satellite Account of Non-profit Institutions complementing and extending the concept of national accounts chiefly by incorporation of the value of volunteering and by full coverage of non-profit institutions classified in a number of economic sectors. This paper is an attempt to address the key issue that is the way of volunteer work´s valuation for analytical purposes. We will discuss different approaches to the valuation and their impact on key macroeconomic aggregates.

  8. The Influence of Marketing Scholarship’s Legacy on Nonprofit Marketing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walter Wymer

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This inquiry contributes to the literature on the development of “nonprofit marketing thought” by describing how the field’s early period established a legacy effect on nonprofit marketing scholarship to the present day. This qualitative work uses a wide variety of sources from a protracted historical period in order to more fully inform a perspective on the relevant issues that have influenced the development of nonprofit marketing scholarship. The investigation suggests that, although the debate on whether or not marketing is a science was nominally resolved years ago, the origins of marketing scholarships as an applied business discipline remain influential. The effects on this influence is a body of research that is fragmented, conflicted, sometimes invalid, and has produced few general theories indicative of a social science. Recommendations are offered for improving the quality of nonprofit marketing scholarship.

  9. Who does it better? The corporate versus the nonprofit governance model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Laurie

    2005-05-01

    Weighing the corporate against the nonprofit governance model, the answer may be "neither." Both systems can learn from each other, experts say, and best practices in public companies do not automatically translate to health care boards.

  10. Design and implementation of organic LED-based displays for signage application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Pratibha; Kwok, Harry

    2006-06-01

    Organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) have been utilized successfully for various applications such as microdisplays in cell-phones and digital cameras. However, the application of OLEDs for large area signage displays has not yet been established. This paper presents novel design techniques for implementing OLEDs as light sources for signage application. The designs are examined on the basis of signage uniformity, cost and manufacturing complexity. Advantages and limitations of each design are described. It is determined that a trade-off is required to choose a design for implementation. After evaluation and comparison of the designs, the most optimal design is chosen and implemented. Measurement results with the optimal design are described.

  11. Mechanically and electrically robust metal-mask design for organic CMOS circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shintani, Michihiro; Qin, Zhaoxing; Kuribara, Kazunori; Ogasahara, Yasuhiro; Hiromoto, Masayuki; Sato, Takashi

    2018-04-01

    The design of metal masks for fabricating organic CMOS circuits requires the consideration of not only the electrical property of the circuits, but also the mechanical strength of the masks. In this paper, we propose a new design flow for metal masks that realizes coanalysis of the mechanical and electrical properties and enables design exploration considering the trade-off between the two properties. As a case study, we apply a “stitching technique” to the mask design of a ring oscillator and explore the best design. With this technique, mask patterns are divided into separate parts using multiple mask layers to improve the mechanical strength at the cost of high resistance of the vias. By a numerical experiment, the design trade-off of the stitching technique is quantitatively analyzed, and it is demonstrated that the proposed flow is useful for the exploration of the designs of metal masks.

  12. DESIGNING A DATA GOVERNANCE MODEL BASED ON SOFT SYSTEM METHODOLOGY (SSM) IN ORGANIZATION

    OpenAIRE

    Hanung Nindito Prasetyo; Kridanto surendro

    2015-01-01

    Today, many emerging various models of data governance like DAMA, DGI and the latest is a model from IBM. Model DAMA International is a data governance model designed by industry associations. The model requires the fulfillment of the entire artifact in a matrix that has been determined that too many components that must be built in data governance in an organization. While the data governance model is built from the data DGI consulting organization which requires the development of data gove...

  13. Not a numbers game : How non-profit organisations measure the impact of social media

    OpenAIRE

    Nurmi, Kasper

    2017-01-01

    The thesis explores social media use of Finnish non-profit organisations using the examples of the Finnish Red Cross and the World Wildlife Foundation Finland. Although the field is widely discussed, no previous studies have looked at the measuring of social media communication in the field of Finnish non-profits. In order to assess the impact of their online communication, specifically on social media platforms, organisations have begun to implement various tools for data accumulation and an...

  14. The Supply of Charity Services by Nonprofit Hospitals: Motives and Market Structure

    OpenAIRE

    Richard G. Frank; David S. Salkever

    1991-01-01

    This article studies provision of charity care by private, nonprofit hospitals. We demonstrate that in the absence of large positive income effects on charity care supply, convex preferences for the nonprofit hospital imply crowding out by other private or government hospitals. Extending our model to include impure altruism (rivalry) provides a possible explanation for the previously reported empirical result that both crowding out and income effects on indigent care supply are often weak or ...

  15. Employee motivation in a non-profit organisation: Case Study: Blå Kors

    OpenAIRE

    Rodrigues, Amanda Deborah Norma; Passos Ruvald, Carolina; Svetleva, Stanimira Nikolaeva

    2017-01-01

    Non-Profit Organisations are characterised by their dependence on their workforce. The functioning of such organisation commonly leans towards the service sector and so the employees play a vital part in the core function of fundraising, which in turn enables the organisation in furthering its cause. This feature, as well as the popular trait of non-profit organisation’s dependence on voluntary labour, also brings us to the importance of job satisfaction or employee motivation and commitment ...

  16. Using the properties of organic compounds to help design a treatment system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nyer, E.; Boettcher, G.; Morello, B.

    1991-01-01

    The author provides the physical/chemical and treatability properties of 50 organic compounds. The physical/chemical parameters of the compounds can be used to help evaluate data generated during remedial investigations. The treatability parameters can be used as a basis for the preliminary design of a treatment system that will remove organic compounds from ground water. The main physical/chemical properties that should be evaluated prior to design are solubility, specific gravity, and octanol/water coefficient. Based on this determination, the treatability is determined for carbon adsorption and biodegradability

  17. Designs and Architectures for the Next Generation of Organic Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kang-Shyang Liao

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Organic solar cells show great promise as an economically and environmentally friendly technology to utilize solar energy because of their simple fabrication processes and minimal material usage. However, new innovations and breakthroughs are needed for organic solar cell technology to become competitive in the future. This article reviews research efforts and accomplishments focusing on three issues: power conversion efficiency, device stability and processability for mass production, followed by an outlook for optimizing OSC performance through device engineering and new architecture designs to realize next generation organic solar cells.

  18. Relevant factors to consider prior to an investor-owned acquisition of a nonprofit healthcare entity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ault, Kelvin; Childs, Brad; Wainright, Charles F; Young, Marilyn

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to explore the factors that affect the negotiations for an acquisition of a nonprofit system by an investor-owned entity. The recent economic downturn, accompanying credit crisis, and healthcare reform legislation will likely encourage and accelerate the pace of merger and acquisition (M&A) transactions between investor-owned entities and nonprofit hospitals. As many nonprofits are smaller, more financially vulnerable, and more limited in their access to capital than their investor-owned counterparts, nonprofits could be prime targets for investor-owned acquirers during the healthcare reform implementation period. In M&A transactions of this type, the investor-owned acquirer typically is motivated to pursue an acquisition when the deal promises an acceptable return on investment and decreased operating costs from economies of scale. Alternatively, the nonprofit target is typically seeking funding for upgrades to facilities and information technology systems as well as a continued commitment to charity care and managed-care contracting leverage. A successful acquisition of a nonprofit hospital by an investor-owned company requires a careful analysis of relevant tax, economic, and strategic factors prior to closing the deal. This article lists the most significant factors to consider in these deals and explains how these factors should influence the purchase price and postacquisition cash flow.

  19. Nonprofit health insurers: the story Wall Street doesn't tell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Susan R

    2003-01-01

    For several years, Wall Street investment firms have campaigned for conversion of nonprofit health insurers to investor ownership, arguing that an infusion of equity capital is critical to insurers' survival. However, closer examination of the financial performance and capital position of not-for-profit health plans shows that: The lower operating margins reported by not-for-profit health plans very likely reflect the organizations' corporate missions to serve their communities by minimizing the cost of coverage and their ability to invest all gains back into the company for the future benefit of their customers. Their investor-owned counterparts must generate higher margins to give shareholders a return on their investment. Compared with investor-owned insurers, not-for-profit health plans use a significantly higher percentage of the customers' premium dollar to pay health care claims. A lower percentage goes for administrative expenses. Over the past 10 years, not-for-profit health plans have succeeded in using operational and investment gains to build and retain a strong capital position--stronger than that of investor-owned companies--while investing heavily in infrastructure, product development, and market growth.

  20. Using direct-to-consumer marketing strategies with obsessive-compulsive disorder in the nonprofit sector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szymanski, Jeff

    2012-06-01

    Three to four million individuals struggle with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) in the United States at any given time. OCD can be a debilitating disorder associated with significant quality-of-life and occupational impairment. First-line treatments for OCD (selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors and exposure and response prevention therapy) have been shown to be effective; yet, many individuals suffering from OCD experience multiple barriers to accessing these treatments. In fact, it can take as many as 17 years from onset of symptoms to effective treatment. Given the need to increase access to and utilization of effective treatments, direct-to-consumer marketing in the context of OCD appears crucial. The International OCD Foundation (formerly the Obsessive Compulsive Foundation) was established as a nonprofit organization with a mission to educate the public and mental health professionals about appropriate practice guidelines, raise awareness of the disorder, and ensure that individuals looking for treatment find the necessary resources. This paper reviews the obstacles those struggling with OCD face in their attempts to alleviate suffering, as well as the direct-to-consumer strategies and tactics used by the International OCD Foundation to improve access to empirically supported, effective treatment. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  1. Policy commercializing nonprofits in health: the history of a paradox from the 19th century to the ACA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Daniel M

    2015-03-01

    POLICY POINTS: Health policy in the United States has, for more than a century, simultaneously and paradoxically incentivized the growth as well as the commercialization of nonprofit organizations in the health sector. This policy paradox persists during the implementation of the Affordable Care Act of 2010. For more than a century, policy in the United States has incentivized both expansion in the number and size of tax-exempt nonprofit organizations in the health sector and their commercialization. The implementation of the Affordable Care Act of 2010 (ACA) began yet another chapter in the history of this policy paradox. This article explores the origin and persistence of the paradox using what many scholars call "interpretive social science." This methodology prioritizes history and contingency over formal theory and methods in order to present coherent and plausible narratives of events and explanations for them. These narratives are grounded in documents generated by participants in particular events, as well as conversations with them, observing them in action, and analysis of pertinent secondary sources. The methodology achieves validity and reliability by gathering information from multiple sources and making disciplined judgments about its coherence and correspondence with reality. A paradox with deep historical roots persists as a result of consensus about its value for both population health and the revenue of individuals and organizations in the health sector. Participants in this consensus include leaders of governance who have disagreed about many other issues. The paradox persists because of assumptions about the burden of disease and how to address it, as well as about the effects of biomedical science that is translated into professional education, practice, and the organization of services for the prevention, diagnosis, treatment, and management of illness. The policy paradox that has incentivized the growth and commercialization of nonprofits in

  2. On challenges and opportunities of designing integrated IT platforms for supporting knowledge works in organizations

    OpenAIRE

    Laha, Arijit

    2009-01-01

    Designing and implementing comprehensive IT-based support environments for KM in organizations is fraught with many problems. Solving them requires intimate knowledge about the information usage in knowledge works and the scopes of technology intervention. In this paper, the Task-oriented Organizational Knowledge Management or TOKM, a design theory for building integrated IT platforms for supporting organizational KM, is proposed. TOKM brings together two apparently mutually exclusive practic...

  3. Design, Synthesis and Characterization of Functional Metal-Organic Framework Materials

    KAUST Repository

    Alamer, Badriah

    2015-06-01

    Over the past few decades, vast majority of industrial and academic research throughout the world has witnessed the emergence of materials that can serve as ideal candidates for potential utility in desired applications, and these materials are known as Metal Organic Framework (MOFs). This exceptional new family of porous materials is fabricated by linkage of metal ions or clusters and organic linkers via strong bonds. MOFs have been awarded with remarkable interest and widely studied due to their inherent structural methodology (e.g. use of various metals, expanded library of organic building blocks with different geometry and functionality particularly frameworks designed from carboxylate organic linkers) and unquestionably unique structural and chemical features for many practical applications. (i.e. gas storage/separation, catalysis, drug delivery etc). Simply, metal organic frameworks epitomize the beauty of porous chemical structures. From a design perspective, the introduction of the Molecular Building Block (MBB) approach is actively being pursued pathway by researchers toward the construction of MOFs by employing inorganic building blocks and organic linkers and taking advantage of not only their multiple coordination modes and geometries but also the way in which they are reticulated to generate final framework. In this thesis, research studies will be directed toward (i) the investigation of the relationship between experimental parameters and synthesis of well-known fcu –MOF, (ii) rational design and synthesis of new rare earth (RE) based MOFs, (ii) isoreticular materials based on particular MBB ([M3O(RCO2)6]), M= p-and d-block metals, and (iv) zeolite- like metal organic framework assembled from single-metal ion based MBB ([MN2(CO2)4]) via 2-, 3-,and 4-connected organic linkers. Consequently, the porosity, chemical and thermal stability, and gas sorption properties will be evaluated and detailed.

  4. 20 CFR 200.1 - Designation of central and field organization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... responsible for the financial management of the agency, and the Chief Information Officer is responsible for... ADMINISTRATION § 200.1 Designation of central and field organization. (a) Introduction. (1) The Railroad... Programs, the Chief Financial Officer, the Chief Information Officer, and the Chief Actuary. (2) The...

  5. STRUCTURE AND ORGANIZATION OF SHAPES IN THE DESIGN OF INDUSTRIAL PRODUCTS, USING GEOMETRICAL TRANSFORMATIONS

    OpenAIRE

    MARIN Dumitru

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents the major contribution of geometrical transformations in the structure and organization of the shapes which compose industrial products. Geometrical transformations, such as symmetry, translation, rotation, homology etc. are frequently used in the design activity for filling the plane and the space (plane and spatial equipartitions), in ornaments and also in creating shapes, which are functional and aesthetical at the same time.

  6. Dialectical Inquiry as an Instructional Heuristic in Organization Theory and Design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dehler, Gordon E.; Welsh, M. Ann

    1993-01-01

    A strategy for teaching undergraduate organization theory and design uses dialectical inquiry (thesis-antithesis-synthesis) and involves students actively in classroom learning. Concepts are introduced through dichotomies as typically introduced in texts; discussion elaborates grey areas. Case analysis by this method conveys the often ambiguous…

  7. Implementing a Student-Designed Green Chemistry Laboratory Project in Organic Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Kate J.; Jones, T. Nicholas; Schaller, Chris P.; McIntee, Edward J.

    2014-01-01

    A multiweek organic chemistry laboratory project is described that emphasizes sustainable practices in experimental design. An emphasis on student-driven development of the project is meant to mirror the independent nature of research. Students propose environmentally friendly modifications of several reactions. With instructor feedback, students…

  8. Design of organic Rankine cycle power systems accounting for expander performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    La Seta, Angelo; Andreasen, Jesper Graa; Pierobon, Leonardo

    2015-01-01

    Organic Rankine cycle power systems have recently emerged as promising solutions for waste heat recovery in low- and medium-size power plants. Their performance and economic feasibility strongly depend on the expander. Its design process and efficiency estimation are particularly challenging due...

  9. Transforming the Organic Chemistry Lab Experience: Design, Implementation, and Evaluation of Reformed Experimental Activities--REActivities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collison, Christina G.; Kim, Thomas; Cody, Jeremy; Anderson, Jason; Edelbach, Brian; Marmor, William; Kipsang, Rodgers; Ayotte, Charles; Saviola, Daniel; Niziol, Justin

    2018-01-01

    Reformed experimental activities (REActivities) are an innovative approach to the delivery of the traditional material in an undergraduate organic chemistry laboratory. A description of the design and implementation of REActivities at both a four- and two-year institution is discussed. The results obtained using a reformed teaching observational…

  10. Design and implementation of monitoring and evaluation of healthcare organization management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charalampos, Platis; Emmanouil, Zoulias; Dimitrios, Iracleous; Lappa, Evaggelia

    2017-09-01

    The management of a healthcare organization is monitored using a suitably designed questionnaire to 271 nurses operating in Greek hospital. The data are fed to an automatic data mining system to obtain a suitable series of models to analyse, visualise and study the obtained information. Hidden patterns, correlations and interdependencies are investigated and the results are analytically presented.

  11. Off-design performance analysis of a solar-powered organic Rankine cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Jiangfeng; Yan, Zhequan; Zhao, Pan; Dai, Yiping

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Solar-powered organic Rankine cycle with CPC and thermal storage unit is studied. • Off-design performances encountering the changes of key parameters are examined. • Off-design performance is analyzed over a whole day and in different months. - Abstract: Performance evaluation of a thermodynamic system under off-design conditions is very important for reliable and cost-effective operation. In this study, an off-design model of an organic Rankine cycle driven by solar energy is established with compound parabolic collector (CPC) to collect the solar radiation and thermal storage unit to achieve the continuous operation of the overall system. The system off-design behavior is examined under the change in environment temperature, as well as thermal oil mass flow rates of vapor generator and CPC. In addition, the off-design performance of the system is analyzed over a whole day and in different months. The results indicate that a decrease in environment temperature, or the increases in thermal oil mass flow rates of vapor generator and CPC could improve the off-design performance. The system obtains the maximum average exergy efficiency in December and the maximum net power output in June or in September. Both the net power output and the average exergy efficiency reach minimum values in August

  12. A supermolecular building approach for the design and construction of metal–organic frameworks

    KAUST Repository

    Guillerm, Vincent; Kim, Dongwook; Eubank, Jarrod F.; Luebke, Ryan; Liu, Xinfang; Adil, Karim; Lah, Myoung Soo; Eddaoudi, Mohamed

    2014-01-01

    In this review, we describe two recently implemented conceptual approaches facilitating the design and deliberate construction of metal–organic frameworks (MOFs), namely supermolecular building block (SBB) and supermolecular building layer (SBL) approaches. Our main objective is to offer an appropriate means to assist/aid chemists and material designers alike to rationally construct desired functional MOF materials, made-to-order MOFs. We introduce the concept of net-coded building units (net-cBUs), where precise embedded geometrical information codes uniquely and matchlessly a selected net, as a compelling route for the rational design of MOFs. This concept is based on employing pre-selected 0-periodic metal–organic polyhedra or 2-periodic metal–organic layers, SBBs or SBLs respectively, as a pathway to access the requisite net-cBUs. In this review, inspired by our success with the original rht-MOF, we extrapolated our strategy to other known MOFs via their deconstruction into more elaborate building units (namely polyhedra or layers) to (i) elucidate the unique relationship between edge-transitive polyhedra or layers and minimal edge-transitive 3-periodic nets, and (ii) illustrate the potential of the SBB and SBL approaches as a rational pathway for the design and construction of 3-periodic MOFs. Using this design strategy, we have also identified several new hypothetical MOFs which are synthetically targetable.

  13. A supermolecular building approach for the design and construction of metal–organic frameworks

    KAUST Repository

    Guillerm, Vincent

    2014-07-10

    In this review, we describe two recently implemented conceptual approaches facilitating the design and deliberate construction of metal–organic frameworks (MOFs), namely supermolecular building block (SBB) and supermolecular building layer (SBL) approaches. Our main objective is to offer an appropriate means to assist/aid chemists and material designers alike to rationally construct desired functional MOF materials, made-to-order MOFs. We introduce the concept of net-coded building units (net-cBUs), where precise embedded geometrical information codes uniquely and matchlessly a selected net, as a compelling route for the rational design of MOFs. This concept is based on employing pre-selected 0-periodic metal–organic polyhedra or 2-periodic metal–organic layers, SBBs or SBLs respectively, as a pathway to access the requisite net-cBUs. In this review, inspired by our success with the original rht-MOF, we extrapolated our strategy to other known MOFs via their deconstruction into more elaborate building units (namely polyhedra or layers) to (i) elucidate the unique relationship between edge-transitive polyhedra or layers and minimal edge-transitive 3-periodic nets, and (ii) illustrate the potential of the SBB and SBL approaches as a rational pathway for the design and construction of 3-periodic MOFs. Using this design strategy, we have also identified several new hypothetical MOFs which are synthetically targetable.

  14. Hybrid Societies: Challenges and Perspectives in the Design of Collective Behavior in Self-organizing Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heiko eHamann

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Hybrid societies are self-organizing, collective systems composed of different components, for example, natural and artificial parts (bio-hybrid or human beings interacting with and through technical systems (socio-technical. Many different disciplines investigate methods and systems closely related to the design of hybrid societies. A~stronger collaboration between these disciplines could allow for re-use of methods and create significant synergies. We identify three main areas of challenges in the design of self-organizing hybrid societies. First, we identify the formalization challenge. There is an urgent need for a generic model that allows a description and comparison of collective hybrid societies. Second, we identify the system design challenge. Starting from the formal specification of the system, we need to develop an integrated design process. Third, we identify the challenge of interdisciplinarity. Current research on self-organizing hybrid societies stretches over many different fields and hence requires the re-use and synthesis of methods at intersections between disciplines. We then conclude by presenting our perspective for future approaches with high potential in this area.

  15. Integrated Materials Design of Organic Semiconductors for Field-Effect Transistors

    KAUST Repository

    Mei, Jianguo

    2013-05-08

    The past couple of years have witnessed a remarkable burst in the development of organic field-effect transistors (OFETs), with a number of organic semiconductors surpassing the benchmark mobility of 10 cm2/(V s). In this perspective, we highlight some of the major milestones along the way to provide a historical view of OFET development, introduce the integrated molecular design concepts and process engineering approaches that lead to the current success, and identify the challenges ahead to make OFETs applicable in real applications. © 2013 American Chemical Society.

  16. Integrated materials design of organic semiconductors for field-effect transistors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mei, Jianguo; Diao, Ying; Appleton, Anthony L; Fang, Lei; Bao, Zhenan

    2013-05-08

    The past couple of years have witnessed a remarkable burst in the development of organic field-effect transistors (OFETs), with a number of organic semiconductors surpassing the benchmark mobility of 10 cm(2)/(V s). In this perspective, we highlight some of the major milestones along the way to provide a historical view of OFET development, introduce the integrated molecular design concepts and process engineering approaches that lead to the current success, and identify the challenges ahead to make OFETs applicable in real applications.

  17. Design and Construction of Deinococcus Radiodurans for Biodegradation of Organic Toxins at Radioactive DOE Waste Sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daly, Michael J.; Wackett, Lawrence P.; Fredrickson, James K.

    2001-01-01

    Seventy million cubic meters of ground and three trillion liters of groundwater have been contaminated by leaking radioactive waste generated in the United States during the Cold War. A cleanup technology is being developed based on the extremely radiation resistant bacterium Deinococcus radiodurans that is being engineered to express bioremediating functions. Research aimed at developing D. radiodurans for organic toxin degradation in highly radioactive waste sites containing radionuclides, heavy metals, and toxic organic compounds was started by this group.Work funded by the existing grant has already contributed to eleven papers on the fundamental biology of D. radiodurans and its design for bioremediation of highly radioactive waste environments

  18. Comparing the Value of Nonprofit Hospitals' Tax Exemption to Their Community Benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herring, Bradley; Gaskin, Darrell; Zare, Hossein; Anderson, Gerard

    2018-01-01

    The tax-exempt status of nonprofit hospitals has received increased attention from policymakers interested in examining the value they provide instead of paying taxes. We use 2012 data from the Internal Revenue Service (IRS) Form 990, Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) Hospital Cost Reports, and American Hospital Association's (AHA) Annual Survey to compare the value of community benefits with the tax exemption. We contrast nonprofit's total community benefits to what for-profits provide and distinguish between charity and other community benefits. We find that the value of the tax exemption averages 5.9% of total expenses, while total community benefits average 7.6% of expenses, incremental nonprofit community benefits beyond those provided by for-profits average 5.7% of expenses, and incremental charity alone average 1.7% of expenses. The incremental community benefit exceeds the tax exemption for only 62% of nonprofits. Policymakers should be aware that the tax exemption is a rather blunt instrument, with many nonprofits benefiting greatly from it while providing relatively few community benefits.

  19. Designing matrix organizations that work: Lessons from the P&G case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronald Jean Degen

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The matrix organization concept emerged from the US aerospace industry in the 1960s and was adopted by many companies in the early 1970s. In the late 1970s and early 1980s many companies were experiencing trouble with its operation and many argued like Peters & Waterman in their bestseller In search of excellence in 1982 (p. 306 that the matrix was too complex to work properly. Galbraith (2009, p. 10-14 explains that the reason for the problems were that the matrix in these organizations was wrongly adopted, hastily installed, and inappropriately implemented. He explains that adopting a matrix structure requires a collaborative organization form, proper power, and accountability distribution, complementing changes to the information systems, planning and budgeting process, the performance evaluation and bonus system, and so on. The purpose of this paper is to illustrate why companies adopted the matrix, what problems they had, the solutions for these problems based on Galbraith (2009 and other authors like Davis & Lawrence (1977, and the state of the art of matrix structure design today like the P&G front-back hybrid matrix organization. To illustrate the historical evolution of organization structure to the simple matrix and then to more complex matrix organizations we used the P&G case (Piskorski & Spadini 2007.

  20. Altruism, Rivalry and Crowding-Out in the Nonprofit Firm's Supply of Charity Services: The Case of Hospitals

    OpenAIRE

    Richard G. Frank; David S. Salkever

    1988-01-01

    This paper extends previous research on Individuals' supply of charitable donations to the behavior of nonprofit firms. Specifically, we study provision of charity care by private, nonprofit hospitals. We demonstrate that In the absence of large positive income effects on charity care supply, convex preferences for the nonprofit hospital imply crowding out by other private or government hospitals. Extending our model to include patient heterogeneity and impure altruism (rivalry) provides a po...

  1. Students’ Perceptions of Humour and Creativity in Project-Organized Groups (POG) in Engineering Design Education in China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhou, Chunfang

    2015-01-01

    This study explores engineering design students’ perceptions of humor in the experiences of creativity development in Project-Organized Groups (POGs). This study links theories including humor, learning, creativity, and engineering design in one framework. Empirically, this study carried out...

  2. Extremely Efficient Design of Organic Thin Film Solar Cells via Learning-Based Optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mine Kaya

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Design of efficient thin film photovoltaic (PV cells require optical power absorption to be computed inside a nano-scale structure of photovoltaics, dielectric and plasmonic materials. Calculating power absorption requires Maxwell’s electromagnetic equations which are solved using numerical methods, such as finite difference time domain (FDTD. The computational cost of thin film PV cell design and optimization is therefore cumbersome, due to successive FDTD simulations. This cost can be reduced using a surrogate-based optimization procedure. In this study, we deploy neural networks (NNs to model optical absorption in organic PV structures. We use the corresponding surrogate-based optimization procedure to maximize light trapping inside thin film organic cells infused with metallic particles. Metallic particles are known to induce plasmonic effects at the metal–semiconductor interface, thus increasing absorption. However, a rigorous design procedure is required to achieve the best performance within known design guidelines. As a result of using NNs to model thin film solar absorption, the required time to complete optimization is decreased by more than five times. The obtained NN model is found to be very reliable. The optimization procedure results in absorption enhancement greater than 200%. Furthermore, we demonstrate that once a reliable surrogate model such as the developed NN is available, it can be used for alternative analyses on the proposed design, such as uncertainty analysis (e.g., fabrication error.

  3. Numerical optimization of Combined Heat and Power Organic Rankine Cycles – Part A: Design optimization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martelli, Emanuele; Capra, Federico; Consonni, Stefano

    2015-01-01

    This two-part paper proposes an approach based on state-of-the-art numerical optimization methods for simultaneously determining the most profitable design and part-load operation of Combined Heat and Power Organic Rankine Cycles. Compared to the usual design practice, the important advantages of the proposed approach are (i) to consider the part-load performance of the ORC at the design stage, (ii) to optimize not only the cycle variables, but also the main turbine design variables (number of stages, stage loads, rotational speed). In this first part (Part A), the design model and the optimization algorithm are presented and tested on a real-world test case. PGS-COM, a recently proposed hybrid derivative-free algorithm, allows to efficiently tackle the challenging non-smooth black-box problem. - Highlights: • Algorithm for the simultaneous optimization Organic Rakine Cycle and turbine. • Thermodynamic and economic models of boiler, cycle, turbine are developed. • Non-smooth black-box optimization problem is successfully tackled with PGS-COM. • Test cases show that the algorithm returns optimal solutions within 4 min. • Toluene outperforms MDM (a siloxane) in terms of efficiency and costs.

  4. Chemical engineering in the electronics industry: progress towards the rational design of organic semiconductor heterojunctions

    KAUST Repository

    Clancy, Paulette

    2012-01-01

    We review the current status of heterojunction design for combinations of organic semiconductor materials, given its central role in affecting the device performance for electronic devices and solar cell applications. We provide an emphasis on recent progress towards the rational design of heterojunctions that may lead to higher performance of charge separation and mobility. We also play particular attention to the role played by computational approaches and its potential to help define the best choice of materials for solar cell development in the future. We report the current status of the field with respect to such goals. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.

  5. Chemical engineering in the electronics industry: progress towards the rational design of organic semiconductor heterojunctions

    KAUST Repository

    Clancy, Paulette

    2012-05-01

    We review the current status of heterojunction design for combinations of organic semiconductor materials, given its central role in affecting the device performance for electronic devices and solar cell applications. We provide an emphasis on recent progress towards the rational design of heterojunctions that may lead to higher performance of charge separation and mobility. We also play particular attention to the role played by computational approaches and its potential to help define the best choice of materials for solar cell development in the future. We report the current status of the field with respect to such goals. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.

  6. How To Design A Triple Bottom Line Organization: A Start-Up Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernhard Schroeder

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available In today’s business environment, where success for a start-up company is measured by early revenue and profit, it can be quite challenging to design a triple bottom line organization (people/planet/profit from the very beginning. We present a case study of a U.S.-based start-up firm and discuss its early challenges, developmental processes, and current success as a triple bottom line firm. The company’s founder and CEO, with no initial product, distribution, or revenue strategy, sought to develop a company that could provide the marketplace with a valuable product while also staying true to a corporate vision of positively affecting less fortunate people. Our analysis of the case suggests that the founder’s vision, passion, transparent communication, and leveraging of partners’ resources were key elements in building the firm. We draw implications of our case study for the designers of future triple bottom line organizations.

  7. Design guideline for Si/organic hybrid solar cell with interdigitated back contact structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bimo Prakoso, Ari; Rusli; Li, Zeyu; Lu, Chenjin; Jiang, Changyun

    2018-03-01

    We study the design of Si/organic hybrid (SOH) solar cells with interdigitated back contact (IBC) structure. SOH solar cells formed between n-Si and poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene): polystyrenesulphonate (PEDOT:PSS) is a promising concept that combines the excellent electronic properties of Si with the solution-based processing advantage of an organic polymer. The IBC cell structure is employed to minimize parasitic absorption losses in the organic polymer, eliminate grid shadowing losses, and allow excellent passivation of the front Si surface in one step over a large area. The influence of Si thickness, doping concentration and contact geometry are simulated in this study to optimize the performance of the SOH-IBC solar cell. We found that a high power conversion efficiency of >20% can be achieved for optimized SOH-IBC cell based on a thin c-Si substrate of 40 μm thickness.

  8. Hospital ownership and medical services: market mix, spillover effects, and nonprofit objectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horwitz, Jill R; Nichols, Austin

    2009-09-01

    Hospitals operate in markets with varied demographic, competitive, and ownership characteristics, yet research on ownership tends to examine hospitals in isolation. Here we examine three hospital ownership types -- nonprofit, for-profit, and government -- and their spillover effects. We estimate the effects of for-profit market share in two ways, on the provision of medical services and on operating margins at the three types of hospitals. We find that nonprofit hospitals' medical service provision systematically varies by market mix. We find no significant effect of market mix on the operating margins of nonprofit hospitals, but find that for-profit hospitals have higher margins in markets with more for-profits. These results fit best with theories in which hospitals maximize their own output.

  9. Pricing behaviour of nonprofit insurers in a weakly competitive social health insurance market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douven, Rudy C H M; Schut, Frederik T

    2011-03-01

    In this paper we examine the pricing behaviour of nonprofit health insurers in the Dutch social health insurance market. Since for-profit insurers were not allowed in this market, potential spillover effects from the presence of for-profit insurers on the behaviour of nonprofit insurers were absent. Using a panel data set for all health insurers operating in the Dutch social health insurance market over the period 1996-2004, we estimate a premium model to determine which factors explain the price setting behaviour of nonprofit health insurers. We find that financial stability rather than profit maximisation offers the best explanation for health plan pricing behaviour. In the presence of weak price competition, health insurers did not set premiums to maximize profits. Nevertheless, our findings suggest that regulations on financial reserves are needed to restrict premiums. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Working fluid charge oriented off-design modeling of a small scale Organic Rankine Cycle system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Liuchen; Zhu, Tong; Ma, Jiacheng

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Organic Rankine Cycle model considering working fluid charge has been established. • Overall solution algorithm of system off-design performance is proposed. • Variation trend of different zones in both heat exchangers can be observed. • Optimal working fluid charge volume for different output work has been estimated. - Abstract: Organic Rankine Cycle system is one of the most widely used technique for low-grade waste heat recovery. Developing of dynamic Organic Rankine Cycle models played an increasingly important part in system performance prediction. The present paper developed a working fluid charge oriented model for an small scale Organic Rankine Cycle to calculate the theoretical value of working fluid charge level for the system under rated condition. The two heat exchangers are divided into three different zones and related heat transfer correlations are employed to estimate the length variation of each zones. Steady state models have been applied to describe the performance of pump and expander. Afterwards, an overall solution algorithm based on the established model has been proposed in order to exact simulate the system’s off-design performance. Additionally, the impact of different working fluid charge volumes has also been discussed. Simulation results clearly shows the variation trend of different zones in both heat exchangers, as well as the variation trend of system operating parameters under various expander output work. Furthermore, the highest thermal efficiency can be reached 6.37% under rated conditions with a working fluid charge volume of 34.6 kg.

  11. Information Exchange among COG Member Stations, Utility/AECL Design and External Nuclear Organizations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turner, Dave

    1998-01-01

    The paper presents the COG Information Exchange Program the mandate of which reads: 'To promote the safety reliability and excellence of CANDU plants worldwide by facilitating the sharing of operating experience amongst the members of COG'. To fulfill its mandate the COG operates Information Exchange Program which: 1. Provides a user-friendly facility, COGNET, for staff of COG member organizations to communicate with each other and with external stations, utilities and organizations on topics applicable to CANDU operation, safety, maintenance, design and performance; 2. Offers one-stop shopping for information applicable to the design, operation, maintenance, safety and performance of CANDU's; 3. Reports and compares the performance of all CANDU stations; 4. Organizes opportunities for individuals involved with the operation of CANDU's to meet with their peers and with CANDU industry experts to share operating experience; 5. Facilitates the identification of generic CANDU problems which leads to the addressing of these problems by others through co-operative projects, designer feedback and R and D programs. The paper has the following content: 1. COGNET; 1.1. COGNET Message Forums; 1.2. COGNET Operations Forums; 1.3. COGNET Private Messages; 2. Report Databases and Library; 2.1. REPEX (Technical Reports); 2.2. PCN (CANDU Plant Modifications); 2.3. SEREX (CANDU Station Events); 2.4. INPO (International Events); 3. CANDU Performance; 3.1. COG NEWSLETTERS; 3.2. Performance Indicators; 4. Workshops; 4.1. COG Workshops

  12. Innovative architecture design for high performance organic and hybrid multi-junction solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ning; Spyropoulos, George D.; Brabec, Christoph J.

    2017-08-01

    The multi-junction concept is especially attractive for the photovoltaic (PV) research community owing to its potential to overcome the Schockley-Queisser limit of single-junction solar cells. Tremendous research interests are now focused on the development of high-performance absorbers and novel device architectures for emerging PV technologies, such as organic and perovskite PVs. It has been predicted that the multi-junction concept is able to boost the organic and perovskite PV technologies approaching the 20% and 30% benchmarks, respectively, showing a bright future of commercialization of the emerging PV technologies. In this contribution, we will demonstrate innovative architecture design for solution-processed, highly functional organic and hybrid multi-junction solar cells. A simple but elegant approach to fabricating organic and hybrid multi-junction solar cells will be introduced. By laminating single organic/hybrid solar cells together through an intermediate layer, the manufacturing cost and complexity of large-scale multi-junction solar cells can be significantly reduced. This smart approach to balancing the photocurrents as well as open circuit voltages in multi-junction solar cells will be demonstrated and discussed in detail.

  13. Design in nature how the constructal law governs evolution in biology, physics, technology, and social organization

    CERN Document Server

    Bejan, Adrian

    2013-01-01

    In this groundbreaking book, Adrian Bejan takes the recurring patterns in nature—trees, tributaries, air passages, neural networks, and lightning bolts—and reveals how a single principle of physics, the constructal law, accounts for the evolution of these and many other designs in our world. Everything—from biological life to inanimate systems—generates shape and structure and evolves in a sequence of ever-improving designs in order to facilitate flow. River basins, cardiovascular systems, and bolts of lightning are very efficient flow systems to move a current—of water, blood, or electricity. Likewise, the more complex architecture of animals evolve to cover greater distance per unit of useful energy, or increase their flow across the land. Such designs also appear in human organizations, like the hierarchical “flowcharts” or reporting structures in corporations and political bodies. All are governed by the same principle, known as the constructal law, and configure and reconfigure themselves...

  14. A Flow Rate Control Approach on Off-Design Analysis of an Organic Rankine Cycle System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ben-Ran Fu

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This study explored effects of off-design heat source temperature (TW,in or flow rate (mW on heat transfer characteristics and performance of an organic Rankine cycle system by controlling the flow rate of working fluid R245fa (i.e., the operation flow rate of R245fa was controlled to ensure that R245fa reached saturation liquid and vapor states at the outlets of the preheater and evaporator, respectively. The results showed that the operation flow rate of R245fa increased with TW,in or mW; higher TW,in or mW yielded better heat transfer performance of the designed preheater and required higher heat capacity of the evaporator; heat transfer characteristics of preheater and evaporator differed for off-design TW,in and mW; and net power output increased with TW,in or mW. The results further indicated that the control strategy should be different for various off-design conditions. Regarding maximum net power output, the flow rate control approach is optimal when TW,in or mW exceeds the design point, but the pressure control approach is better when TW,in or mW is lower than the design point.

  15. Preliminary Design of Molecular Sieve for Removing Organic Iodide in Containment Filtered Venting System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Tong Kyu; Shin, So Eun; Lee, Byung Chul [Heungdeok IT Valley Bldg., Yongin (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Hong Hyun; Lee, Kyung Jun [Gemvax and KAEL Inc., Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-05-15

    In this paper, to increase the DF for gaseous iodine species, especially organic iodide, molecular sieve filled by silver exchanged zeolites is proposed and designed preliminarily. Its aerodynamic analysis is also performed and presented. In order to increase the DF for gaseous organic iodide, deep-bed type molecular sieve was proposed and designed preliminarily. Total 1,620kg of silver exchanged zeolites were filled evenly in 10 beds of the molecular sieve. The safety factor in the case of 20m{sup 3}/s will be smaller than the counterpart of the standard case (6m{sup 3}/s). However, if the adsorption capacity of the zeolites is larger than 3.09mg/g when the residence time is 0.09 second, the designed molecular sieve can be used at 20m3/s of volumetric flow rate. The removal efficiency for organic iodide should be considered as well as economical aspects in the design of molecular sieve. In the event of nuclear power plant (NPP) severe accident, the nuclear reactor containment might suffer damage resulting from overpressure caused by decay heat. In order to prevent this containment damage, containment venting has been considered as one of effective methods. However, since vented gases contain radioactive fission products, they should be filtered to be released to environment. Generally, containment filtered venting system (CFVS) is installed on NPP to achieve this aim. Even though great amount of efforts have been devoted to developing the CFVS using various filtering methods, the decontaminant factor (DF) for radioactive gaseous iodide is still unsatisfactory while DFs for radioactive aerosols and elemental iodine are very high.

  16. Organic fluorescent dye-based nanomaterials: Advances in the rational design for imaging and sensing applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svechkarev, Denis; Mohs, Aaron M

    2018-02-25

    Self-assembled fluorescent nanomaterials based on small-molecule organic dyes are gaining increasing popularity in imaging and sensing applications over the past decade. This is primarily due to their ability to combine spectral property tunability and biocompatibility of small molecule organic fluorophores with brightness, chemical, and colloidal stability of inorganic materials. Such a unique combination of features comes with rich versatility of dye-based nanomaterials: from aggregates of small molecules to sophisticated core-shell nanoarchitectures involving hyperbranched polymers. Along with the ongoing discovery of new materials and better ways of their synthesis, it is very important to continue systematic studies of fundamental factors that regulate the key properties of fluorescent nanomaterials: their size, polydispersity, colloidal stability, chemical stability, absorption and emission maxima, biocompatibility, and interactions with biological interfaces. In this review, we focus on the systematic description of various types of organic fluorescent nanomaterials, approaches to their synthesis, and ways to optimize and control their characteristics. The discussion is built on examples from reports on recent advances in design and applications of such materials. Conclusions made from this analysis allow a perspective on future development of fluorescent nanomaterials design for biomedical and related applications. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  17. Meta-organization design applied to international sport organizations : the case of World Anti-Doping Agency

    OpenAIRE

    Malcourant, Emilie; Vas, Alain; Zintz, Thierry

    2012-01-01

    The concept of meta-organization has attracted great interest from research perspectives since 2005. It is seen as a way to reflect the current organizational reality characterized by associations of independent organizations working together to achieve a common goal. Meta-organization allows understanding globalization and internationalization of our world. However, little has been done on meta-organization. Its understanding remains still poorly developed. This paper focuses on an internati...

  18. Molecular Electrical Doping of Organic Semiconductors: Fundamental Mechanisms and Emerging Dopant Design Rules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salzmann, Ingo; Heimel, Georg; Oehzelt, Martin; Winkler, Stefanie; Koch, Norbert

    2016-03-15

    -Dirac occupation of which ultimately determines the doping efficiency, thus emerges as key challenge. As a first step, the formation of charge transfer complexes is identified as being detrimental to the doping efficiency, which suggests sterically shielding the functional core of dopant molecules as an additional design rule to complement the requirement of low ionization energies or high electron affinities in efficient n-type or p-type dopants, respectively. In an extended outlook, we finally argue that, to fully meet this challenge, an improved understanding is required of just how the admixture of dopant molecules to organic semiconductors does affect the density of states: compared with their inorganic counterparts, traps for charge carriers are omnipresent in organic semiconductors due to structural and chemical imperfections, and Coulomb attraction between ionized dopants and free charge carriers is typically stronger in organic semiconductors owing to their lower dielectric constant. Nevertheless, encouraging progress is being made toward developing a unifying picture that captures the entire range of doping induced phenomena, from ion-pair to complex formation, in both conjugated polymers and molecules. Once completed, such a picture will provide viable guidelines for synthetic and supramolecular chemistry that will enable further technological advances in organic and hybrid organic/inorganic devices.

  19. Preliminary Design and Simulation of a Turbo Expander for Small Rated Power Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Capata

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, the Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC system, which operates with organic fluids, is one of the leading technologies for “waste energy recovery”. It works as a conventional Rankine Cycle but, as mentioned, instead of steam/water, an organic fluid is used. This change allows it to convert low temperature heat into electric energy where required. Large numbers of studies have been carried out to identify the most suitable fluids, system parameters and the various configurations. In the present market, most ORC systems are designed and manufactured for the recovery of thermal energy from various sources operating at “large power rating” (exhaust gas turbines, internal combustion engines, geothermal sources, large melting furnaces, biomass, solar, etc.; from which it is possible to produce a large amount of electric energy (30 kW ÷ 300 kW. Such applications for small nominal power sources, as well as the exhaust gases of internal combustion engines (car sedan or town, ships, etc. or small heat exchangers, are very limited. The few systems that have been designed and built for small scale applications, have, on the other hand, different types of expander (screw, scroll, etc.. These devices are not adapted for placement in small and restricted places like the interior of a conventional car. The aim of this work is to perform the preliminary design of a turbo-expander that meets diverse system requirements such as low pressure, small size and low mass flow rates. The expander must be adaptable to a small ORC system utilizing gas of a diesel engine or small gas turbine as thermal source to produce 2–10 kW of electricity. The temperature and pressure of the exhaust gases, in this case study (400–600 °C and a pressure of 2 bar, imposes a limit on the use of an organic fluid and on the net power that can be produced. In addition to water, fluids such as CO2, R134a and R245fa have been considered. Once the operating fluids has been chosen

  20. Minimizing deviant behavior in healthcare organizations: the effects of supportive leadership and job design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chullen, C Logan; Dunford, Benjamin B; Angermeier, Ingo; Boss, R Wayne; Boss, Alan D

    2010-01-01

    In an era when healthcare organizations are beset by intense competition, lawsuits, and increased administrative costs, it is essential that employees perform their jobs efficiently and without distraction. Deviant workplace behavior among healthcare employees is especially threatening to organizational effectiveness, and healthcare managers must understand the antecedents of such behavior to minimize its prevalence. Deviant employee behavior has been categorized into two major types, individual and organizational, according to the intended target of the behavior. Behavior directed at the individual includes such acts as harassment and aggression, whereas behavior directed at the organization includes such acts as theft, sabotage, and voluntary absenteeism, to name a few (Robinson and Bennett 1995). Drawing on theory from organizational behavior, we examined two important features of supportive leadership, leader-member exchange (LMX) and perceived organizational support (POS), and two important features of job design, intrinsic motivation and depersonalization, as predictors of subsequent deviant behavior in a sample of over 1,900 employees within a large US healthcare organization. Employees who reported weaker perceptions of LMX and greater perceptions of depersonalization were more likely to engage in deviant behavior directed at the individual, whereas employees who reported weaker perceptions of POS and intrinsic motivation were more likely to engage in deviant behavior directed at the organization. These findings give rise to specific prescriptions for healthcare managers to prevent or minimize the frequency of deviant behavior in the workplace.

  1. Design of Biochemical Oxidation Process Engineering Unit for Treatment of Organic Radioactive Liquid Waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zainus Salimin; Endang Nuraeni; Mirawaty; Tarigan, Cerdas

    2010-01-01

    Organic radioactive liquid waste from nuclear industry consist of detergent waste from nuclear laundry, 30% TBP-kerosene solvent waste from purification or recovery of uranium from process failure of nuclear fuel fabrication, and solvent waste containing D 2 EHPA, TOPO, and kerosene from purification of phosphoric acid. The waste is dangerous and toxic matter having low pH, high COD and BOD, and also low radioactivity. Biochemical oxidation process is the effective method for detoxification of organic waste and decontamination of radionuclide by bio sorption. The result process are sludges and non radioactive supernatant. The existing treatment facilities radioactive waste in Serpong can not use for treatment of that’s organics waste. Dio chemical oxidation process engineering unit for continuous treatment of organic radioactive liquid waste on the capacity of 1.6 L/h has been designed and constructed the equipment of process unit consist of storage tank of 100 L capacity for nutrition solution, 2 storage tanks of 100 L capacity per each for liquid waste, reactor oxidation of 120 L, settling tank of 50 L capacity storage tank of 55 L capacity for sludge, storage tank of 50 capacity for supernatant. Solution on the reactor R-01 are added by bacteria, nutrition and aeration using two difference aerators until biochemical oxidation occurs. The sludge from reactor of R-01 are recirculated to the settling tank of R-02 and on the its reverse operation biological sludge will be settled, and supernatant will be overflow. (author)

  2. Design of butterfly type organic dye sensitizers with double electron donors: The first principle study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zhenqing; Shao, Di; Li, Juan; Tang, Lian; Shao, Changjin

    2018-05-01

    In this work, we designed a series of butterfly type organic dyes, named ME07-ME13 by introducing such as triphenylamine, phenothiazine, coumarin groups etc. as electron donors and further investigated their absorption spectra using density functional theory (DFT) and time-dependent DFT (TDDFT). All designed dyes cover the entire visible absorption spectrum from 300 to 800 nm. It's fascinating that ME13 molecule has two absorption peak and the molar coefficient of two absorption peaks are above 4.645 × 104 M-1·cm-1. The light absorption area of ME13 exhibits an increment of 16.5-19.1% compared to ME07-ME12. Furthermore, we performed a detailed analysis on their geometrical and electronic properties, including molecular structures, energy levels, light harvesting efficiency (LHE), driving force (ΔGinject), regeneration (ΔGregen),electron dipole moments (μnormal), intermolecular electron transfer and dye/(TiO2)38 system electron transitions. The results of calculation reveal that double coumarin donors in ME13 are promising functional groups for butterfly type organic dye sensitizers. It is expected that the design of double donors can provide a new strategy and guidance for the investigation in high efficiency dye-sensitized devices.

  3. 29 CFR 780.407 - System must be nonprofit or operated on a share-crop basis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false System must be nonprofit or operated on a share-crop basis... Requirements Under Section 13(b)(12) The Irrigation Exemption § 780.407 System must be nonprofit or operated on... on facilities of any irrigation system unless the ditches, canals, reservoirs, or waterways in...

  4. 32 CFR 37.920 - What requirement for access to a nonprofit participant's records do I include in a TIA?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What requirement for access to a nonprofit participant's records do I include in a TIA? 37.920 Section 37.920 National Defense Department of Defense... What requirement for access to a nonprofit participant's records do I include in a TIA? Your TIA must...

  5. 48 CFR 52.249-5 - Termination for Convenience of the Government (Educational and Other Nonprofit Institutions).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Convenience of the Government (Educational and Other Nonprofit Institutions). 52.249-5 Section 52.249-5... Convenience of the Government (Educational and Other Nonprofit Institutions). As prescribed in 49.502(d), insert the following clause: Termination for Convenience of the Government (Educational and Other...

  6. Cold shock to aquatic organisms: guidance for power-plant siting, design, and operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coutant, C.C.

    1977-01-01

    Problems of cold-shock damages to aquatic organisms have arisen at some condenser cooling-water discharges of thermal power stations when the warm-water releases have suddenly terminated. The basis for such damage lies in the exposure of resident organisms to a rapid decrease in temperature and a sustained exposure to low temperature that induces abnormal behavioral or physiological performance and often leads to death. Although some spectacular fish kills from cold shock have occurred, the present knowledge of the hydraulic and biological processes involved can provide guidance for the siting, design, and operation of power-plant cooling systems to minimize the likelihood of significant cold-shock effects. Preventing cold-shock damages is one consideration in minimizing overall environmental impacts of power-plant cooling and in balancing plant costs with environmental benefits

  7. Design of a DNA chip for detection of unknown genetically modified organisms (GMOs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nesvold, Håvard; Kristoffersen, Anja Bråthen; Holst-Jensen, Arne; Berdal, Knut G

    2005-05-01

    Unknown genetically modified organisms (GMOs) have not undergone a risk evaluation, and hence might pose a danger to health and environment. There are, today, no methods for detecting unknown GMOs. In this paper we propose a novel method intended as a first step in an approach for detecting unknown genetically modified (GM) material in a single plant. A model is designed where biological and combinatorial reduction rules are applied to a set of DNA chip probes containing all possible sequences of uniform length n, creating probes capable of detecting unknown GMOs. The model is theoretically tested for Arabidopsis thaliana Columbia, and the probabilities for detecting inserts and receiving false positives are assessed for various parameters for this organism. From a theoretical standpoint, the model looks very promising but should be tested further in the laboratory. The model and algorithms will be available upon request to the corresponding author.

  8. A Review of Organic Photovoltaic Energy Source and Its Technological Designs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Egidius Rutatizibwa Rwenyagila

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study reviews and describes some of the existing research and mechanisms of operation of organic photovoltaic (OPV cells. Introduced first are problems that exist with traditional fossil fuels that result in most of the world energy challenges such as environmental pollution. This is followed by the description of baseline organic solar cell (OSC structures and materials. Then, some of the existing modelling approaches that have implemented either a one- or a two-dimensional drift-diffusion model to examine OSC structures are reviewed, and their reproducibility is examined. Both experimental and modelling approaches reviewed are particularly important for more and better designed research to probe practical procedural problems associated with OSCs that hinder the commercialization of OPV technology.

  9. The engagement and retention of non-profit employees in Belgium and South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle Renard

    2016-11-01

    Contribution: This study provides insights into the means by which non-profit employees across two nations demonstrate their enthusiasm, pride and involvement in the work that they perform. It moreover sheds light on the factors contributing to such employees intending to leave or stay within the employment of their organisations.

  10. Federal Higher Education Policy and the Profitable Nonprofits. Policy Analysis. No. 678

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fried, Vance H.

    2011-01-01

    Undergraduate education is a highly profitable business for nonprofit colleges and universities. They do not show profits on their books, but instead take their profits in the form of spending on some combination of research, graduate education, low-demand majors, low faculty teaching loads, excess compensation, and featherbedding. The industry's…

  11. Resistance towards persuasion: differences between non-profit and commercial advertising

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boogaard, C.R.; Fransen, M.L.; Eisend, M.; Langner, T.

    2011-01-01

    In the present research we examined a variety of strategies that consumers may use to resist persuasion towards non-profit and commercial advertising. Based on research by Jacks and Cameron (2003), we investigated seven strategies (i.e., attitude bolstering, counter arguing, negative affect,

  12. Enhancing the Understanding of Government and Nonprofit Accounting with THE PUZZLE GAME: A Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elson, Raymond J.; Ostapski, S. Andrew; O'Callaghan, Susanne; Walker, John P.

    2012-01-01

    Nontraditional teaching aids such as crossword puzzles have been successfully used in the classroom to enhance student learning. Government and nonprofit accounting is a confusing course for students since it has strange terminologies and contradicts the accounting concepts learned in other courses. As such, it is an ideal course for a…

  13. 34 CFR Appendix B to Subpart L of... - Ratio Methodology for Private Non-Profit Institutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Ratio Methodology for Private Non-Profit Institutions B Appendix B to Subpart L of Part 668 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF POSTSECONDARY EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION STUDENT ASSISTANCE GENERAL PROVISIONS...

  14. 28 CFR 58.15 - Qualifications for approval as a nonprofit budget and credit counseling agency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Qualifications for approval as a nonprofit budget and credit counseling agency. (a) Definition of agency. As used... representations and statements contained therein are true and correct to the best of such individual's knowledge... customer service audits; (ii) Cooperating with the United States Trustee and the EOUST in timely responding...

  15. Evaluating Performance Measurement Systems in Nonprofit Agencies: The Program Accountability Quality Scale (PAQS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poole, Dennis L.; Nelson, Joan; Carnahan, Sharon; Chepenik, Nancy G.; Tubiak, Christine

    2000-01-01

    Developed and field tested the Performance Accountability Quality Scale (PAQS) on 191 program performance measurement systems developed by nonprofit agencies in central Florida. Preliminary findings indicate that the PAQS provides a structure for obtaining expert opinions based on a theory-driven model about the quality of proposed measurement…

  16. Comparing the Value of Nonprofit Hospitals’ Tax Exemption to Their Community Benefits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herring, Bradley; Gaskin, Darrell; Zare, Hossein; Anderson, Gerard

    2018-01-01

    The tax-exempt status of nonprofit hospitals has received increased attention from policymakers interested in examining the value they provide instead of paying taxes. We use 2012 data from the Internal Revenue Service (IRS) Form 990, Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) Hospital Cost Reports, and American Hospital Association’s (AHA) Annual Survey to compare the value of community benefits with the tax exemption. We contrast nonprofit’s total community benefits to what for-profits provide and distinguish between charity and other community benefits. We find that the value of the tax exemption averages 5.9% of total expenses, while total community benefits average 7.6% of expenses, incremental nonprofit community benefits beyond those provided by for-profits average 5.7% of expenses, and incremental charity alone average 1.7% of expenses. The incremental community benefit exceeds the tax exemption for only 62% of nonprofits. Policymakers should be aware that the tax exemption is a rather blunt instrument, with many nonprofits benefiting greatly from it while providing relatively few community benefits. PMID:29436247

  17. Auditing Government-nonprofit Relations in the Brazilian Post-reformist Context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alketa Peci

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Recent decades have been marked by a rising interaction between the State and nonprofits in order to addressincreasingly complex public issues. Government-nonprofit relations were guided by a complex and diverse legal framework, that transformed not only the implementation of public policies, but also the auditing practices and control of such relations. Previous studies have shown the influence of NPM reforms in auditing practices and institutions, of particular interest to this research is the Theory of the Audit Explosion (TEA. This paper analyzes the control of government-nonprofits relations, under the perspective of the TEA, specifically trying to comprehend if there is a causal relationship between the growth of government-nonprofit relations and the audit explosion in the Brazilian context, as predicted by the theory. A field research, based on documentary data and interviews, was undertaken in three Brazilian SAIs. The conclusions highlight the limitations of the explanatory capacity of TEA in Brazil. Although a formal audit explosion was observed, as predicted by TEA, there are substantive barriers to the audit explosion. This is mainly due to the organizational and institutional aspects related to governmental fund transfer entities. Such problems reflect the poor quality of the partnerships themselves and might be a consequence of political variables such as the spurious relationships of some parliamentary members or public employees with partner NGOs.

  18. The Effect of Gendered Communication on Women's Behavioral Intentions Regarding Nonprofit and For-Profit Entrepreneurship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iffert, Audrey

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to measure the effect of gendered communication on women's behavioral intentions regarding nonprofit and for-profit entrepreneurship. Women represent half of the U.S. workforce, but only about one third of all American entrepreneurs are women. Feminists have argued that because entrepreneurship is largely understood…

  19. Power options: the Massachusetts nonprofit energy purchasers consortium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayes, J.

    1999-01-01

    A series of overhead viewgraphs described some of the topics that were discussed at this workshop. A corporate review of the Massachusetts Health and Educational Facilities Authority (HEFA) was presented. HEFA was formed in 1968 to provide cost savings in electric bills to health, education, cultural and other non profit organizations. The methods that HEFA uses to achieve this goal is to provide energy services with either fixed prices or with two-year or five-year options. Since their creation HEFA has a total of 100 signed natural gas contracts and 300 signed electricity contracts

  20. Advancements in rationally designed PGM-free fuel cell catalysts derived from metal–organic frameworks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barkholtz, Heather M.; Liu, Di-Jia

    2016-01-01

    Over the past several years, metal-organic framework (MOF)-derived platinum group metal free (PGM-free) electrocatalysts have gained considerable attention due to their high efficiency and low cost as potential replacement for platinum in catalyzing oxygen reduction reaction (ORR). In this review, we summarize the recent advancements in design, synthesis and characterization of MOF-derived ORR catalysts and their performances in acidic and alkaline media. As a result, we also discuss the key challenges such as durability and activity enhancement critical in moving forward this emerging electrocatalyst science.

  1. Design and setup of intermittent-flow respirometry system for aquatic organisms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Morten Bo Søndergaard; Bushnell, P.G.; Steffensen, John Fleng

    2016-01-01

    Intermittent-flow respirometry is an experimental protocol for measuring oxygen consumption in aquatic organisms that utilizes the best features of closed (stop-flow) and flow-through respirometry while eliminating (or at least reducing) some of their inherent problems. By interspersing short...... and software further reduces error by allowing many measurements to be made over long periods thereby minimizing animal stress due to acclimation issues. This paper describes some of the fundamental principles that need to be considered when designing and carrying out automated intermittent-flow respirometry...

  2. Fundamental molecular design for precise control of thermoresponsiveness of organic polymers by using ternary systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amemori, Shogo; Kokado, Kenta; Sada, Kazuki

    2012-05-23

    The de novo design of thermosensitive polymers in solution has been achieved by using the addition of small organic molecules (or "effectors"). Hydrogen bonding as an attractive polymer-polymer or polymer-effector interaction substantially dominates the responsivity, causing facile switching between LCST-type and UCST-type phase transitions, control of the transition temperature, and further coincidence of the two transitions. Small molecules having a high affinity for the polymer induce UCST-type phase behavior, whereas those having a low affinity for the polymer showed LCST-type phase behavior.

  3. Molecular design chemical structure generation from the properties of pure organic compounds

    CERN Document Server

    Horvath, AL

    1992-01-01

    This book is a systematic presentation of the methods that have been developed for the interpretation of molecular modeling to the design of new chemicals. The main feature of the compilation is the co-ordination of the various scientific disciplines required for the generation of new compounds. The five chapters deal with such areas as structure and properties of organic compounds, relationships between structure and properties, and models for structure generation. The subject is covered in sufficient depth to provide readers with the necessary background to understand the modeling

  4. Zeolite-like metal–organic frameworks (ZMOFs): design, synthesis, and properties

    KAUST Repository

    Eddaoudi, Mohamed; Sava, Dorina F.; Eubank, Jarrod F.; Adil, Karim; Guillerm, Vincent

    2014-01-01

    This review highlights various design and synthesis approaches toward the construction of ZMOFs, which are metal–organic frameworks (MOFs) with topologies and, in some cases, features akin to traditional inorganic zeolites. The interest in this unique subset of MOFs is correlated with their exceptional characteristics arising from the periodic pore systems and distinctive cage-like cavities, in conjunction with modular intra- and/or extra-framework components, which ultimately allow for tailoring of the pore size, pore shape, and/or properties towards specific applications.

  5. Zeolite-like metal–organic frameworks (ZMOFs): design, synthesis, and properties

    KAUST Repository

    Eddaoudi, Mohamed

    2014-10-24

    This review highlights various design and synthesis approaches toward the construction of ZMOFs, which are metal–organic frameworks (MOFs) with topologies and, in some cases, features akin to traditional inorganic zeolites. The interest in this unique subset of MOFs is correlated with their exceptional characteristics arising from the periodic pore systems and distinctive cage-like cavities, in conjunction with modular intra- and/or extra-framework components, which ultimately allow for tailoring of the pore size, pore shape, and/or properties towards specific applications.

  6. Design of tunable surface mode waveguide based on photonic crystal composite structure using organic liquid*

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Lan-Lan; Liu Wei; Li Ping; Yang Xi; Cao Xu

    2017-01-01

    With the method of replacing the surface layer of photonic crystal with tubes, a novel photonic crystal composite structure used as a tunable surface mode waveguide is designed. The tubes support tunable surface states. The tunable propagation capabilities of the structure are investigated by using the finite-difference time-domain. Simulation results show that the beam transmission distributions of the composite structure are sensitive to the frequency range of incident light and the surface morphology which can be modified by filling the tubes with different organic liquids. By adjusting the filler in tubes, the T-shaped, Y-shaped, and L-shaped propagations can be realized. The property can be applied to the tunable surface mode waveguide. Compared with a traditional single function photonic crystal waveguide, our designed structure not only has a small size, but also is a tunable device. (paper)

  7. Molecular Design of Semiconducting Polymers for High-Performance Organic Electrochemical Transistors

    KAUST Repository

    Nielsen, Christian B.

    2016-07-22

    The organic electrochemical transistor (OECT), capable of transducing small ionic fluxes into electronic signals in an aqueous envi-ronment, is an ideal device to utilize in bioelectronic applications. Currently, most OECTs are fabricated with commercially availa-ble conducting poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT)-based suspensions and are therefore operated in depletion mode. Here, we present a series of semiconducting polymers designed to elucidate important structure-property guidelines required for accumulation mode OECT operation. We discuss key aspects relating to OECT performance such as ion and hole transport, elec-trochromic properties, operational voltage and stability. The demonstration of our molecular design strategy is the fabrication of accumulation mode OECTs that clearly outperform state-of-the-art PEDOT based devices, and show stability under aqueous oper-ation without the need for formulation additives and cross-linkers.

  8. 7 CFR 3560.659 - Sale or transfer to nonprofit organizations and public bodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... low- and low-income families or persons for the remaining useful life of the housing and related... useful life of the housing project unless the Agency determines that the transfer will further the... (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DIRECT MULTI-FAMILY HOUSING LOANS AND GRANTS...

  9. 78 FR 65151 - Modification of Financial Reporting Requirements for Non-Profit Organizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-31

    ... CDFI Fund financial statements that have been reviewed by an independent certified public accountant in accordance with standards issued by the American Institute of Certified Public Accountants, no later than 180... financial statements that have been audited by an independent certified public accountant in accordance with...

  10. 77 FR 37638 - Noncommercial Educational Station Fundraising for Third-Party Non-Profit Organizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-22

    ..., Licensing requirements and service; Section 73.621, Noncommercial educational TV stations; Section 76.3527... noncommercial educational FM broadcast station and each noncommercial educational TV broadcast station that... prohibits NCE stations from broadcasting ``advertisements,'' defined as Any message or other programming...

  11. 48 CFR 215.404-72 - Modified weighted guidelines method for nonprofit organizations other than FFRDCs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Defense or a Secretary of a Department as receiving sustaining support on a cost-plus-fixed-fee basis from... METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES CONTRACTING BY NEGOTIATION Contract Pricing 215.404-72 Modified weighted... of the costs in Block 20 of the DD Form 1547. Show the net (reduced) amount on the DD Form 1547. (ii...

  12. Selecting a Web Conferencing Solution. A Case Study for a Non-Profit Organization.

    OpenAIRE

    Botchkarev, Alexei

    2013-01-01

    Web conferencing has been acknowledged as a valuable organizational resource. Diverse geographically dispersed project teams gain benefits from real time online collaboration, e-learning and document sharing. Web conferencing tools have entered the mainstream of business applications and multiple vendors offer over 100 different types and systems. This presentation is showcasing an approach to defining business requirements and selecting a web conferencing tool for a local chapter of a non-pr...

  13. 48 CFR 52.226-6 - Promoting excess food donation to nonprofit organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... quality and labeling standards imposed by Federal, State, and local laws and regulations even though the... the Internal Revenue Code of 1986; and (2) Exempt from tax under section 501(a) of that Code. (b) In... tier, who will perform, under this contract, the provision, service, or sale of food in the United...

  14. 76 FR 24816 - Government Employees Serving in Official Capacity in Nonprofit Organizations; Sector Unit...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-03

    ... amendments to the definition in Sec. 2640.102(q), which would define both sector mutual fund and sector unit... private sector, of $100 million or more (as adjusted for inflation) in any one year. Congressional Review... as follows: Sec. 2640.102 Definitions. * * * * * (q) Sector mutual fund or sector unit investment...

  15. Creating An Alternative Design for Asita Corporate Identity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle Elise

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the study is to find the solution to the problem outlined, which is to create an alternative design for corporate identity of ASITA. ASITA is a non-profit organization to foster tours and travel agencies in Indonesia. The writer conducted interview to the ASITA Jakarta Chapter, which was appointed to represent ASITA in providing the data needed by the writer. The writer interviewed the advisor of the organization, which had once served as chairperson of ASITA. The result of the research is new corporate identity system of ASITA based on a concept that ASITA as an organization, serves as a compass that guides and assists in every direction. The writer found that corporate identity is an important element to define an organization as well as giving impact on its first impression. To create good corporate identity, several things such as elements of design, color, typography, etc need to be put into attention. 

  16. 8 CFR 1292.2 - Organizations qualified for recognition; requests for recognition; withdrawal of recognition...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...; requests for recognition; withdrawal of recognition; accreditation of representatives; roster. 1292.2...; requests for recognition; withdrawal of recognition; accreditation of representatives; roster. (a) Qualifications of organizations. A non-profit religious, charitable, social service, or similar organization...

  17. 8 CFR 292.2 - Organizations qualified for recognition; requests for recognition; withdrawal of recognition...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...; requests for recognition; withdrawal of recognition; accreditation of representatives; roster. 292.2...; withdrawal of recognition; accreditation of representatives; roster. (a) Qualifications of organizations. A non-profit religious, charitable, social service, or similar organization established in the United...

  18. Species selection for the design of gold nanobioreactor by photosynthetic organisms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dahoumane, Si Amar [Universite Paris Diderot, Interfaces, Traitements, Organisation et Dynamique des Systemes (ITODYS), UMR 7086, CNRS, Sorbonne Paris Cite (France); Djediat, Chakib; Yepremian, Claude; Coute, Alain [Museum National d' Histoire Naturelle, Departement RDDM, FRE 3206, USM 505 (France); Fievet, Fernand [Universite Paris Diderot, Interfaces, Traitements, Organisation et Dynamique des Systemes (ITODYS), UMR 7086, CNRS, Sorbonne Paris Cite (France); Coradin, Thibaud, E-mail: thibaud.coradin@upmc.fr [UPMC Universites Paris 06, CNRS, Chimie de la Matiere Condensee de Paris (LCMCP), College de France (France); Brayner, Roberta, E-mail: roberta.brayner@univ-paris-diderot.fr [Universite Paris Diderot, Interfaces, Traitements, Organisation et Dynamique des Systemes (ITODYS), UMR 7086, CNRS, Sorbonne Paris Cite (France)

    2012-06-15

    The design of cell-based bioreactors for inorganic particles formation requires both a better understanding of the underlying processes and the identification of most suitable organisms. With this purpose, the process of Au{sup 3+} incorporation, intracellular reduction, and Au{sup 0} nanoparticle release in the culture medium was compared for four photosynthetic microorganisms, Klebsormidium flaccidum and Cosmarium impressulum green algae, Euglena gracilis euglenoid and Anabaena flos-aquae cyanobacteria. At low gold content, the two green algae show maintained photosynthetic activity and recovered particles (ca. 10 nm in size) are similar to internal colloids, indicating a full biological control over the whole process. In similar conditions, the euglenoid exhibits a rapid loss of biological activity, due to the absence of protective extracellular polysaccharide, but could grow again after an adaptation period. This results in a larger particle size dispersity but larger reduction yield. The cyanobacteria undergo rapid cell death, due to their prokaryotic nature, leading to high gold incorporation rate but poor control over released particle size. Similar observations can be made after addition of a larger gold salt concentration when all organisms rapidly die, suggesting that part of the process is not under biological control anymore but also involves extracellular chemical reactions. Overall, fruitful information on the whole biocrystallogenesis process is gained and most suitable species for further bioreactor design can be identified, i.e., green algae with external coating.

  19. Species selection for the design of gold nanobioreactor by photosynthetic organisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dahoumane, Si Amar; Djediat, Chakib; Yéprémian, Claude; Couté, Alain; Fiévet, Fernand; Coradin, Thibaud; Brayner, Roberta

    2012-01-01

    The design of cell-based bioreactors for inorganic particles formation requires both a better understanding of the underlying processes and the identification of most suitable organisms. With this purpose, the process of Au 3+ incorporation, intracellular reduction, and Au 0 nanoparticle release in the culture medium was compared for four photosynthetic microorganisms, Klebsormidium flaccidum and Cosmarium impressulum green algae, Euglena gracilis euglenoid and Anabaena flos-aquae cyanobacteria. At low gold content, the two green algae show maintained photosynthetic activity and recovered particles (ca. 10 nm in size) are similar to internal colloids, indicating a full biological control over the whole process. In similar conditions, the euglenoid exhibits a rapid loss of biological activity, due to the absence of protective extracellular polysaccharide, but could grow again after an adaptation period. This results in a larger particle size dispersity but larger reduction yield. The cyanobacteria undergo rapid cell death, due to their prokaryotic nature, leading to high gold incorporation rate but poor control over released particle size. Similar observations can be made after addition of a larger gold salt concentration when all organisms rapidly die, suggesting that part of the process is not under biological control anymore but also involves extracellular chemical reactions. Overall, fruitful information on the whole biocrystallogenesis process is gained and most suitable species for further bioreactor design can be identified, i.e., green algae with external coating.

  20. Design Efficient and Ultralong Pure Organic Room-Temperature Phosphorescent Materials by Structural Isomerism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Yu; Zhao, Zheng; Zhao, Wei Jun; Ma, Hui Li; Peng, Qian; He, Zi Kai; Zhang, Xue Peng; Chen, Yun Cong; He, Xue Wen; Lam, Jacky; Tang, Ben Zhong

    2018-05-08

    Pure organic materials with ultralong room temperature phosphorescence (RTP) are attractive alternatives to inorganic phosphors. However, without heavy atoms and carbonyl or heteroatomic groups, they generally show inefficient intersystem crossing (ISC) due to the weak spin-orbit coupling (SOC). Many efforts have been made to enhance SOC but examples in realizing both efficient and ultralong RTP have been limited. Here we present a novel design principle based on the realization of small energy gap between the lowest singlet and triplet states (ΔEST) and pure ππ* configuration of the lowest triplet state (T1) via structural isomerism to obtain efficient and ultralong RTP materials. The meta-isomer of carbazole-substituted methyl benzoate exhibits an ultralong lifetime of 795.0 ms with a quantum yield of 2.1%, whose performance is among the best RTP materials reported so far. Study on the structure-property relationship demonstrates that the varied steric and conjugation effects imposed by ester substituent at different positions are responsible for the small ΔEST and pure ππ* configuration of T1. This rational design will open a new avenue for exploring novel pure organic RTP materials. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. Triangular SPECT system for 3-D total organ volume imaging: Design concept and preliminary imaging results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim, C.B.; Anderson, J.; Covic, J.

    1985-01-01

    SPECT systems based on 2-D detectors for projection data collection and filtered back-projection image reconstruction have the potential for true 3-D imaging, providing contiguous slice images in any orientation. Anger camera-based SPECT systems have the natural advantage supporting planar imaging clinical procedures. However, current systems suffer from two drawbacks; poor utilization of emitted photons, and inadequate system design for SPECT. A SPECT system consisting of three rectangular cameras with radial translation would offer the variable cylindrical FOV of 25 cm to 40 cm diameter allowing close detector access to the object. This system would provide optimized imaging for both brain and body organs in terms of sensitivity and resolution. For brain imaging a tight detector triangle with fan beam collimation, matching detector UFOV to the head, allows full 2 π utilization of emitted photons, resulting in >4 times sensitivity increase over the single detector system. Minification of intrinsic detector resolution in fan beam collimation further improves system resolution. For body organ imaging the three detectors with parallel hole collimators, rotating in non-circular orbit, provide both improved resolution and three-fold sensitivity increase. Practical challenges lie in ensuring perfect image overlap from three detectors without resolution degradation and artifact generation in order to benefit from the above improvements. An experimental system has been developed to test the above imaging concept and we have successfully demonstrated the superior image quality of the overlapped images. Design concept will be presented with preliminary imaging results

  2. Species selection for the design of gold nanobioreactor by photosynthetic organisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahoumane, Si Amar; Djediat, Chakib; Yéprémian, Claude; Couté, Alain; Fiévet, Fernand; Coradin, Thibaud; Brayner, Roberta

    2012-06-01

    The design of cell-based bioreactors for inorganic particles formation requires both a better understanding of the underlying processes and the identification of most suitable organisms. With this purpose, the process of Au3+ incorporation, intracellular reduction, and Au0 nanoparticle release in the culture medium was compared for four photosynthetic microorganisms, Klebsormidium flaccidum and Cosmarium impressulum green algae, Euglena gracilis euglenoid and Anabaena flos- aquae cyanobacteria. At low gold content, the two green algae show maintained photosynthetic activity and recovered particles (ca. 10 nm in size) are similar to internal colloids, indicating a full biological control over the whole process. In similar conditions, the euglenoid exhibits a rapid loss of biological activity, due to the absence of protective extracellular polysaccharide, but could grow again after an adaptation period. This results in a larger particle size dispersity but larger reduction yield. The cyanobacteria undergo rapid cell death, due to their prokaryotic nature, leading to high gold incorporation rate but poor control over released particle size. Similar observations can be made after addition of a larger gold salt concentration when all organisms rapidly die, suggesting that part of the process is not under biological control anymore but also involves extracellular chemical reactions. Overall, fruitful information on the whole biocrystallogenesis process is gained and most suitable species for further bioreactor design can be identified, i.e., green algae with external coating.

  3. Designing small molecule polyaromatic p- and n-type semiconductor materials for organic electronics

    KAUST Repository

    Collis, Gavin E.

    2015-12-22

    By combining computational aided design with synthetic chemistry, we are able to identify core 2D polyaromatic small molecule templates with the necessary optoelectronic properties for p- and n-type materials. By judicious selection of the functional groups, we can tune the physical properties of the material making them amenable to solution and vacuum deposition. In addition to solubility, we observe that the functional group can influence the thin film molecular packing. By developing structure-property relationships (SPRs) for these families of compounds we observe that some compounds are better suited for use in organic solar cells, while others, varying only slightly in structure, are favoured in organic field effect transistor devices. We also find that the processing conditions can have a dramatic impact on molecular packing (i.e. 1D vs 2D polymorphism) and charge mobility; this has implications for material and device long term stability. We have developed small molecule p- and n-type materials for organic solar cells with efficiencies exceeding 2%. Subtle variations in the functional groups of these materials produces p- and ntype materials with mobilities higher than 0.3 cm2/Vs. We are also interested in using our SPR approach to develop materials for sensor and bioelectronic applications.

  4. On the Properties and Design of Organic Light-Emitting Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, Nicholas C.

    Organic light-emitting devices (OLEDs) are attractive for use in next-generation display and lighting technologies. In display applications, OLEDs offer a wide emission color gamut, compatibility with flexible substrates, and high power efficiencies. In lighting applications, OLEDs offer attractive features such as broadband emission, high-performance, and potential compatibility with low-cost manufacturing methods. Despite recent demonstrations of near unity internal quantum efficiencies (photons out per electron in), OLED adoption lags conventional technologies, particularly in large-area displays and general lighting applications. This thesis seeks to understand the optical and electronic properties of OLED materials and device architectures which lead to not only high peak efficiency, but also reduced device complexity, high efficiency under high excitation, and optimal white-light emission. This is accomplished through the careful manipulation of organic thin film compositions fabricated via vacuum thermal evaporation, and the introduction of a novel device architecture, the graded-emissive layer (G-EML). This device architecture offers a unique platform to study the electronic properties of varying compositions of organic semiconductors and the resulting device performance. This thesis also introduces an experimental technique to measure the spatial overlap of electrons and holes within an OLED's emissive layer. This overlap is an important parameter which is affected by the choice of materials and device design, and greatly impacts the operation of the OLED at high excitation densities. Using the G-EML device architecture, OLEDs with improved efficiency characteristics are demonstrated, achieving simultaneously high brightness and high efficiency.

  5. Rational design of organic semiconductors for texture control and self-patterning on halogenated surfaces

    KAUST Repository

    Ward, Jeremy W.

    2014-05-15

    Understanding the interactions at interfaces between the materials constituting consecutive layers within organic thin-film transistors (OTFTs) is vital for optimizing charge injection and transport, tuning thin-film microstructure, and designing new materials. Here, the influence of the interactions at the interface between a halogenated organic semiconductor (OSC) thin film and a halogenated self-assembled monolayer on the formation of the crystalline texture directly affecting the performance of OTFTs is explored. By correlating the results from microbeam grazing incidence wide angle X-ray scattering (μGIWAXS) measurements of structure and texture with OTFT characteristics, two or more interaction paths between the terminating atoms of the semiconductor and the halogenated surface are found to be vital to templating a highly ordered morphology in the first layer. These interactions are effective when the separating distance is lower than 2.5 dw, where dw represents the van der Waals distance. The ability to modulate charge carrier transport by several orders of magnitude by promoting "edge-on" versus "face-on" molecular orientation and crystallographic textures in OSCs is demonstrated. It is found that the "edge-on" self-assembly of molecules forms uniform, (001) lamellar-textured crystallites which promote high charge carrier mobility, and that charge transport suffers as the fraction of the "face-on" oriented crystallites increases. The role of interfacial halogenation in mediating texture formation and the self-patterning of organic semiconductor films, as well as the resulting effects on charge transport in organic thin-film transistors, are explored. The presence of two or more anchoring sites between a halogenated semiconductor and a halogenated self-assembled monolayer, closer than about twice the corresponding van der Waals distance, alter the microstructure and improve electrical properties. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. Optimal design of compact organic Rankine cycle units for domestic solar applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbazza Luca

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Organic Rankine cycle turbogenerators are a promising technology to transform the solar radiation harvested by solar collectors into electric power. The present work aims at sizing a small-scale organic Rankine cycle unit by tailoring its design for domestic solar applications. Stringent design criteria, i. e., compactness, high performance and safe operation, are targeted by adopting a multi-objective optimization approach modeled with the genetic algorithm. Design-point thermodynamic variables, e. g., evaporating pressure, the working fluid, minimum allowable temperature differences, and the equipment geometry, are the decision variables. Flat plate heat exchangers with herringbone corrugations are selected as heat transfer equipment for the preheater, the evaporator and the condenser. The results unveil the hyperbolic trend binding the net power output to the heat exchanger compactness. Findings also suggest that the evaporator and condenser minimum allowable temperature differences have the largest impact on the system volume and on the cycle performances. Among the fluids considered, the results indicate that R1234yf and R1234ze are the best working fluid candidates. Using flat plate solar collectors (hot water temperature equal to 75 °C, R1234yf is the optimal solution. The heat exchanger volume ranges between 6.0 and 23.0 dm3, whereas the thermal efficiency is around 4.5%. R1234ze is the best working fluid employing parabolic solar collectors (hot water temperature equal to 120 °C. In such case the thermal efficiency is around 6.9%, and the heat exchanger volume varies from 6.0 to 18.0 dm3.

  7. Rational design of metal-organic electronic devices: A computational perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chilukuri, Bhaskar

    Organic and organometallic electronic materials continue to attract considerable attention among researchers due to their cost effectiveness, high flexibility, low temperature processing conditions and the continuous emergence of new semiconducting materials with tailored electronic properties. In addition, organic semiconductors can be used in a variety of important technological devices such as solar cells, field-effect transistors (FETs), flash memory, radio frequency identification (RFID) tags, light emitting diodes (LEDs), etc. However, organic materials have thus far not achieved the reliability and carrier mobility obtainable with inorganic silicon-based devices. Hence, there is a need for finding alternative electronic materials other than organic semiconductors to overcome the problems of inferior stability and performance. In this dissertation, I research the development of new transition metal based electronic materials which due to the presence of metal-metal, metal-pi, and pi-pi interactions may give rise to superior electronic and chemical properties versus their organic counterparts. Specifically, I performed computational modeling studies on platinum based charge transfer complexes and d 10 cyclo-[M(mu-L)]3 trimers (M = Ag, Au and L = monoanionic bidentate bridging (C/N~C/N) ligand). The research done is aimed to guide experimental chemists to make rational choices of metals, ligands, substituents in synthesizing novel organometallic electronic materials. Furthermore, the calculations presented here propose novel ways to tune the geometric, electronic, spectroscopic, and conduction properties in semiconducting materials. In addition to novel material development, electronic device performance can be improved by making a judicious choice of device components. I have studied the interfaces of a p-type metal-organic semiconductor viz cyclo-[Au(mu-Pz)] 3 trimer with metal electrodes at atomic and surface levels. This work was aimed to guide the device

  8. [Designer drugs and caffeine - characteristics of psychoactive substances and their impact on the organism].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wierzejska, Regina

    2014-01-01

    For many teenagers the time of growing up is a period of trying prohibited substances. Nowadays apart from alcohol and tobacco new designed, psychoactive substances known as "smart drugs" or "legal highs" are available. Intensive development of their market is taking place in the last few years which is difficult to overcome by regulations only. Toxicological tests used now are not able to detect the presence of many such substances in the body. Designer drugs cause the interest of young people even from small towns and many times taking them give effects requiring medical help. Caffeine is also a psychoactive substance but depending on the dose it can have positive or detrimental effect. Recently there are more and more products with caffeine, especially drinks and dietary supplements, what can cause the increase of consumption of caffeine. Children are particularly exposed to the adverse effect of high consumption of caffeine because of their small body weight and development of the central nervous system. This article presents actual data about the market of designer drugs, frequency of using them, consumption of caffeine by children and teenagers and about the impact of these substances on the organism.

  9. Minimal Edge-Transitive Nets for the Design and Construction of Metal-Organic Frameworks

    KAUST Repository

    Eddaoudi, Mohamed

    2017-04-05

    Highly-connected and minimal edge-transitive nets (with one or two kinds of edge) can be regarded as ideal blueprints for the rational design and construction of metal-organic frameworks (MOFs). Here we report and affirm the prominence of highly-connected nets as suitable targets in reticular chemistry for the design and synthesis of MOFs. Of special interest are augmented highly-connected binodal edge-transitive nets embedding a unique and precise positioning and connectivity of the net vertex figures, regarded as net-coded building units (net-cBUs). Explicitly, a definite net-cBU encompasses precise geometrical information that codes uniquely and matchlessly a selected net, a compelling perquisite for the rational design of MOFs. Interestingly, the double six-membered ring (d6R) building unit offers great prospective to be deployed as a net-cBU for the deliberate reticulation of the sole two edge-transitive nets with a vertex figure as a d6R, namely the (4,12)-coordinated shp net (square and hexagonal prism) and the (6,12)-coordinated alb net (aluminium diboride, hexagonal prism and trigonal prism). Conceivably, we envisioned and proposed various MOF structures based on the derived shp and alb nets. Gaining access to the requisite net-cBUs is essential for the successful practice of reticular chemistry; correspondingly organic and organic chemistries were deployed to afford concomitant molecular building blocks (MBBs) with the looked-for shape and connectivity. Practically, the combination of the 12-connected (12-c) rare-earth (RE) polynuclear, points of extension matching the 12 vertices of the hexagonal prism (d6R) with a 4-connected tetracarboxylate ligand or a 6-connected hexacarboxylate ligand afforded the targeted shp-MOF or alb-MOF, respectively. Intuitively, a dodecacarboxylate ligand can be conceived and purported as a compatible 12-c MBB, plausibly affording the positioning of the carbon centers of the twelve carboxylate groups on the vertices of the

  10. Effects of structured education program on organ donor designation of nursing students and their families: A randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murakami, Minoru; Fukuma, Shingo; Ikezoe, Masaya; Iizuka, Chizuko; Izawa, Satoshi; Yamamoto, Yosuke; Yamazaki, Shin; Fukuhara, Shunichi

    2016-11-01

    Little is known about the effect of education programs on changing attitudes and behaviors of participants and their families toward deceased organ donation. The subjects of this randomized trial were Japanese nursing students who were not previously designated organ donors. They were randomly assigned to either the education program or information booklet group. The program comprised a lecture followed by group discussion and information booklet. The primary outcome was self-reported organ donor designation. Outcomes were assessed by questionnaire. Data of 203 (99.0%) students were analyzed. At study end, seven of 102 students (6.9%) of the program group and one of 101 students (1.0%) of the booklet group consented to donate organs (proportion ratio 6.93 [95% CI 0.87-55.32]). There were significant between-group differences in willingness to consent for donation (54.9% vs 39.6%; proportion ratio 1.39 [95% CI 1.03-1.87]), family discussion (31.4% vs 15.9%; 1.98 [1.16-3.38]), and organ donor designation of family members (11.8% vs 2.0%; 5.94 [1.36-25.88]). No group differences were found in willingness for organ donation by students and family members. Although there were no significant between-group differences in organ donor designation, the program seems to indirectly promote consent to organ donation by their families. © 2016 The Authors. Clinical Transplantation Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Benign by design: catalyst-free in-water, on-water green chemical methodologies in organic synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    The development of organic synthesis under sustainable conditions is a primary goal of practicing green chemists who want to prevent pollution and design safer pathways. Although, it is challenging to avoid the use of catalysts, or solvents in all the organic reactions but progre...

  12. Organics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chian, Edward S. K.; DeWalle, Foppe B.

    1978-01-01

    Presents water analysis literature for 1978. This review is concerned with organics, and it covers: (1) detergents and surfactants; (2) aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons; (3) pesticides and chlorinated hydrocarbons; and (4) naturally occurring organics. A list of 208 references is also presented. (HM)

  13. Organizers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callison, Daniel

    2000-01-01

    Focuses on "organizers," tools or techniques that provide identification and classification along with possible relationships or connections among ideas, concepts, and issues. Discusses David Ausubel's research and ideas concerning advance organizers; the implications of Ausubel's theory to curriculum and teaching; "webbing," a…

  14. Iterative User Interface Design for Automated Sequential Organ Failure Assessment Score Calculator in Sepsis Detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aakre, Christopher Ansel; Kitson, Jaben E; Li, Man; Herasevich, Vitaly

    2017-05-18

    The new sepsis definition has increased the need for frequent sequential organ failure assessment (SOFA) score recalculation and the clerical burden of information retrieval makes this score ideal for automated calculation. The aim of this study was to (1) estimate the clerical workload of manual SOFA score calculation through a time-motion analysis and (2) describe a user-centered design process for an electronic medical record (EMR) integrated, automated SOFA score calculator with subsequent usability evaluation study. First, we performed a time-motion analysis by recording time-to-task-completion for the manual calculation of 35 baseline and 35 current SOFA scores by 14 internal medicine residents over a 2-month period. Next, we used an agile development process to create a user interface for a previously developed automated SOFA score calculator. The final user interface usability was evaluated by clinician end users with the Computer Systems Usability Questionnaire. The overall mean (standard deviation, SD) time-to-complete manual SOFA score calculation time was 61.6 s (33). Among the 24% (12/50) usability survey respondents, our user-centered user interface design process resulted in >75% favorability of survey items in the domains of system usability, information quality, and interface quality. Early stakeholder engagement in our agile design process resulted in a user interface for an automated SOFA score calculator that reduced clinician workload and met clinicians' needs at the point of care. Emerging interoperable platforms may facilitate dissemination of similarly useful clinical score calculators and decision support algorithms as "apps." A user-centered design process and usability evaluation should be considered during creation of these tools. ©Christopher Ansel Aakre, Jaben E Kitson, Man Li, Vitaly Herasevich. Originally published in JMIR Human Factors (http://humanfactors.jmir.org), 18.05.2017.

  15. Metal-Organic Frameworks: Building Block Design Strategies for the Synthesis of MOFs.

    KAUST Repository

    Luebke, Ryan

    2014-09-01

    A significant and ongoing challenge in materials chemistry and furthermore solid state chemistry is to design materials with the desired properties and characteristics. The field of Metal-Organic Frameworks (MOFs) offers several strategies to address this challenge and has proven fruitful at allowing some degree of control over the resultant materials synthesized. Several methodologies for synthesis of MOFs have been developed which rely on use of predetermined building blocks. The work presented herein is focused on the utilization of two of these design principles, namely the use of molecular building blocks (MBBs) and supermolecular building blocks (SBBs) to target MOF materials having desired connectivities (topologies). These design strategies also permit the introduction of specific chemical moieties, allowing for modification of the MOFs properties. This research is predominantly focused on two platforms (rht-MOFs and ftw-MOFs) which topologically speaking are edge transitive binodal nets; ftw being a (4,12)-connected net and rht being a (3,24)-connected net. These highly connected nets (at least one node having connectivity greater than eight) have been purposefully targeted to increase the predictability of structural outcome. A general trend in topology is that there is an inverse relationship between the connectivity of the node(s) and the number of topological outcomes. Therefore the key to this research (and to effective use of the SBB and MBB approaches) is identification of conditions which allow for reliable formation of the targeted MBBs and SBBs. In the case of the research presented herein: a 12-connected Group IV or Rare Earth based hexanuclear MBB and a 24-connected transition metal based SBB were successfully targeted and synthesized. These two synthetic platforms will be presented and used as examples of how these design methods have been (and can be further) utilized to modify existing materials or develop new materials for gas storage and

  16. Volatile Organic Compound (VOC) Air Monitoring Program design for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frank, L.

    1991-01-01

    The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Volatile Organic Compound (VOC) Monitoring Program has been developed as part of the Department of Energy's (DOE's) No-Migration Variance petition submitted to the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). The program is designed to demonstrate that there will be no migration of hazardous chemicals past the unit boundary in concentrations which exceed any health-based standards. The monitoring program will use EPA compendium Method TO-14. Both air and carbon sorption media samples will be collected as part of the program. Eleven separate monitoring sites have been selected where both 24-hour integrated and 1-hour grab samples will be collected and analyzed for five target compounds. The bin-scale experimental test rooms will be configured with a gas collection manifold and an activated carbon sorption bed to remove VOCs before they can be emitted into the WIPP underground atmosphere. 10 refs., 4 figs., 7 tabs

  17. Organic biowastes blend selection for composting industrial eggshell by-product: experimental and statistical mixture design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, Micaela A R; Andrade, Sandra R; Martins, Rui C; Quina, Margarida J; Quinta-Ferreira, Rosa M

    2012-01-01

    Composting is one of the technologies recommended for pre-treating industrial eggshells (ES) before its application in soils, for calcium recycling. However, due to the high inorganic content of ES, a mixture of biodegradable materials is required to assure a successful procedure. In this study, an adequate organic blend composition containing potato peel (PP), grass clippings (GC) and wheat straw (WS) was determined by applying the simplex-centroid mixture design method to achieve a desired moisture content, carbon: nitrogen ratio and free air space for effective composting of ES. A blend of 56% PP, 37% GC and 7% WS was selected and tested in a self heating reactor, where 10% (w/w) of ES was incorporated. After 29 days of reactor operation, a dry matter reduction of 46% was achieved and thermophilic temperatures were maintained during 15 days, indicating that the blend selected by statistical approach was adequate for composting of ES.

  18. Morphology design of microporous organic polymers and their potential applications: an overview

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qingyin Li; Shumaila Razzaque; Shangbin Jin; Bien Tan

    2017-01-01

    Microporous organic polymers (MOPs) have attracted considerable research interest because of their well-defined porosity,high surface area,lightweight nature,and tunable surface chemistry.The morphology of MOPs are demonstrated to play a significant role in various applications although limited examples manifesting the importance of the MOP morphology in numerous applications have been reported.This review summarizes the recent progress in the design of MOPs using different techniques,including hard and soft template and direct synthesis methods.In addition,their applications,which possibly attribute to their shape,are discussed.Furthermore,the advantages and disadvantages of different methods are discussed,as well as their development and future challenges.

  19. Molecular design and theoretical characterization of benzodithiophene based organic photovoltaic materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharya, Labanya; Sahu, Sridhar

    2018-05-01

    Two different oligomers, containing methyl substituted Benzodithiophene (BDT) as donor unit, fluorinated thiophene as the π-bridge unit and two different kinds of acceptors based on fluorinated benzothiadiazole, fluorinated benzoselenadiazole units are designed for bulk heterojunction (BHJ) organic solar cell (OSC). The ground and excited state properties of those donor-π-acceptor-π-donor (D-π-A-π-D) oligomeric configurations are characterized via density functional (DFT) and time dependent density functional theory (TD-DFT). The parameters such as dipole moment (ρ), chemical potential (µ), electronegativity (χ), frontier molecular orbital (FMO) analysis, HOMO-LUMO gap, open circuit voltage (Voc) and driving force (ΔE) are calculated to analyze geometrical, electronic structural, quantum chemical and photovoltaic properties of the compounds. In addition, optical absorption spectra are also presented for the optical characterization of the compounds.

  20. The offshoring challenge strategic design and innovation for tomorrow’s organization

    CERN Document Server

    Bals, Lydia; Jensen, Peter; Larsen, Marcus

    2013-01-01

    The continuous search for efficiency gains and the goal of attaining a sustainable competitive advantage have steadily increased the volume of goods and services procured globally from third party vendors. In this context, named as “the next wave of globalization”, the offshoring phenomenon has stimulated research and political debates. With the rise of services offshoring, international value chain disaggregation for services has reached a formerly unknown scale. Also, it is increasingly complex transactions, requiring a higher degree of qualification, which are becoming subject to offshoring as well. The Offshoring Challenge: Strategic Design and Innovation for Tomorrow’s Organization features selected chapters by an international research community on the topic of offshoring. All potential business models from offshore outsourcing to third party providers are covered, from cooperative arrangements to internal organizational set-ups including captive offshore centers. Contributions have significant in...

  1. Identification-based chaos control via backstepping design using self-organizing fuzzy neural networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peng Yafu; Hsu, C.-F.

    2009-01-01

    This paper proposes an identification-based adaptive backstepping control (IABC) for the chaotic systems. The IABC system is comprised of a neural backstepping controller and a robust compensation controller. The neural backstepping controller containing a self-organizing fuzzy neural network (SOFNN) identifier is the principal controller, and the robust compensation controller is designed to dispel the effect of minimum approximation error introduced by the SOFNN identifier. The SOFNN identifier is used to online estimate the chaotic dynamic function with structure and parameter learning phases of fuzzy neural network. The structure learning phase consists of the growing and pruning of fuzzy rules; thus the SOFNN identifier can avoid the time-consuming trial-and-error tuning procedure for determining the neural structure of fuzzy neural network. The parameter learning phase adjusts the interconnection weights of neural network to achieve favorable approximation performance. Finally, simulation results verify that the proposed IABC can achieve favorable tracking performance.

  2. Long Term Recovery in Disaster Response and the Role of Non-Profits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor B Flatt

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The Legal Framework of Disaster Response does not deal as well with long term recovery. In particular, the role of non-profits is unexamined. This paper examines the role of non-profits in disaster recovery and argues for a legal framework acknowledging its important role. El marco legal de las respuestas ante desastres no tiene en cuenta la recuperación a largo plazo. En particular, no se analiza el papel de las organizaciones sin ánimo de lucro. Este artículo estudia el papel de las organizaciones sin ánimo de lucro en la recuperación de desastres, y se muestra a favor de establecer un marco legal que reconozca la importancia de su papel.

  3. Impact of changes in Medicare payments on the financial condition of nonprofit hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Dhiman

    2013-01-01

    This article examines the implications of revenue changes on the financial condition of nonprofit hos pitals. I examine these implications empirically by studying the effect of changes in Medicare payments in the Balanced Budget Act of 1997. Using data from the Healthcare Cost Report Information System maintained by the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services between 1996 and 2004, I show that even though revenue fell significantly, resulting in a decline in profitability, hospitals did not significantly change their capital structure and use of capital. An important implication of this is a higher cost of borrowing for these hospitals, which can affect future capital accumulation and viability. Nonprofit hospitals are a very important part of the healthcare delivery system in the United States. Medicare patients constitute the single largest segment of their revenue sources. Understanding the consequences of the changes in Medicare reimbursement on hospital finances is useful in framing future revisions of Medicare payments.

  4. The hub-and-spoke organization design revisited: a lifeline for rural hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elrod, James K; Fortenberry, John L

    2017-12-13

    Characterized by declining populations, high poverty, reduced employment opportunities, and high numbers of uninsured residents, rural communities pose significant challenges for healthcare providers desirous of addressing these medically underserved areas. Such difficult environments, in fact, have forced the closure of many rural hospitals across America, with scores facing the same threat, compelling intensive efforts to identify pathways which will yield an improved future. Collaborations with stronger urban or suburban healthcare institutions offer a prudent avenue for rural hospitals to continue serving their patients. Such relationships can be structured in many different ways, but Willis-Knighton Health System found that its use of the hub-and-spoke organization design set the stage for the institution to cast a vital lifeline to neighboring rural hospitals, affording the relatively seamless integration and assimilation of partner facilities into its network, ensuring continuity of services in remote regions. This article supplies an overview of the hub-and-spoke network and discusses Willis-Knighton Health System's use of it to facilitate the establishment of productive partnerships with rural hospitals. The delivery of healthcare services in rural environments is essential, but with small community hospitals increasingly being under threat, the outlook is not particularly attractive. Partnerships with better positioned healthcare entities offer significant hope, but care must be taken to structure these arrangements optimally. Willis-Knighton Health System found utility and value in its hub-and-spoke organization design, with the insights presented in this account potentially offering a pathway for others to follow as they go about addressing the healthcare needs of rural populations.

  5. Hybrid Organic-Inorganic Perovskites: Structural Diversity and Opportunities for Semiconductor Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitzi, David

    Photovoltaic (PV) devices based on three-dimensional perovskites, (Cs, MA, FA)Pb(I, Br)3 (MA =methylammonium, FA =formamidinium), have attracted substantial recent interest, because of the unprecedented rise in power conversion efficiency to values above 20%, which in turn is made possible by the near ideal band gap, strong optical absorption, high carrier mobilities, long minority carrier lifetimes, and relatively benign defects and grain boundaries for the absorbers. Some of the same properties that render these materials near-ideal for PV, also make them attractive for LED and other optoelectronic applications. Despite the high levels of device performance, the incorporation of the heavy metal lead, coupled with issues of device stability and electrical hysteresis pose challenges for commercializing these exciting technologies. This talk will provide a perspective on and discuss recent advances related to the broader perovskite family, focusing on the extraordinary structural/chemical diversity, including ability to control structural/electronic dimensionality, substitute on the organic cation, metal or halogen sites, and prospects of multi-functionality arising from separately engineered organic/inorganic structural components (e.g., see). Further exploration within this perovskite structural and chemical space offers exciting opportunities for future energy and electronic materials design. This work has been financially supported by the Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), U.S. Dept. of Energy, under Award Number DE-EE0006712.

  6. Two-Dimensional Metal-Free Organic Multiferroic Material for Design of Multifunctional Integrated Circuits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tu, Zhengyuan; Wu, Menghao; Zeng, Xiao Cheng

    2017-05-04

    Coexistence of ferromagnetism and ferroelectricity in a single 2D material is highly desirable for integration of multifunctional units in 2D material-based circuits. We report theoretical evidence of C 6 N 8 H organic network as being the first 2D organic multiferroic material with coexisting ferromagnetic and ferroelectric properties. The ferroelectricity stems from multimode proton-transfer within the 2D C 6 N 8 H network, in which a long-range proton-transfer mode is enabled by the facilitation of oxygen molecule when the network is exposed to the air. Such oxygen-assisted ferroelectricity also leads to a high Curie temperature and coupling between ferroelectricity and ferromagnetism. We also find that hydrogenation and carbon doping can transform the 2D g-C 3 N 4 network from an insulator to an n-type/p-type magnetic semiconductor with modest bandgap. Akin to the dopant induced n/p channels in silicon wafer, a variety of dopant created functional units can be integrated into the g-C 3 N 4 wafer by design for nanoelectronic applications.

  7. Ethical climates in for-profit, nonprofit, and government skilled nursing facilities: managerial implications for partnerships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filipova, Anna A

    2011-01-01

    This study investigates ethical climates in government, nonprofit, and for-profit nursing homes and determines their similarities and differences. Surveys were collected from 656 (21.4%) licensed nurses who worked in 100 skilled nursing facilities in one Midwestern state. Shared law and code and caring ethical climates were identified across the 3 sector nursing homes. Those climates were also polarized. Important implications were drawn for consideration of ethical perceptions of each sector during negotiations and contract management.

  8. Institutional complexity and the construction of collective action in nonprofit fields

    OpenAIRE

    Healy, John A.

    2015-01-01

    This dissertation contributes to our understanding of how institutional complexity within fields influences efforts to construct interorganisational collective action. Five cases of efforts to construct collective action in two nonprofit fields are studied. One field is in the Republic of Ireland and the other in South Africa. The institutional logics salient in each field are derived using inductive methods and the processes of how these institutional logics influence the five efforts to con...

  9. Organizations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hatch, Mary Jo

    and considers many more. Mary Jo Hatch introduces the concept of organizations by presenting definitions and ideas drawn from the a variety of subject areas including the physical sciences, economics, sociology, psychology, anthropology, literature, and the visual and performing arts. Drawing on examples from......Most of us recognize that organizations are everywhere. You meet them on every street corner in the form of families and shops, study in them, work for them, buy from them, pay taxes to them. But have you given much thought to where they came from, what they are today, and what they might become...... prehistory and everyday life, from the animal kingdom as well as from business, government, and other formal organizations, Hatch provides a lively and thought provoking introduction to the process of organization....

  10. Creating identity with nature inspired lighting design – The Sensitive Organism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiort-Lorenzen Anna-Rosa

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available People, as living organisms, exist in symbiosis with nature; therefore, contact with nature is a basic human need. City nature is an important aspect of the urban living environment because people need an escapist experience from the everyday city life that they should find within their close environment. The outdoor lighting of urban nightscapes has a major influence on people's perception of space. Cities with an increasing number of inhabitants and late-night economic activity transform into 24-hour operating cities. This means that more attention should be given to investigating the social needs of public spaces in terms of night-time urban lighting, creating experiences and identities with nature. This paper aims to emphasize the potential hidden in nature-inspired lighting as a topic for further development in the field of lighting design. Nature inspired lighting is based on a transdisciplinary approach, where terms like biomimicry, biophilia, and urban green space adopted from other subject fields than lighting influence the lighting design process in order to create a product addressing human inner connectedness to nature. The example used in this paper presents the concept of a lighting master plan called “The Sensitive Organism”.

  11. Microstructural Engineering and Architectural Design of Metal-Organic Framework Membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yi; Ban, Yujie; Yang, Weishen

    2017-08-01

    In the past decade, a huge development in rational design, synthesis, and application of molecular sieve membranes, which typically included zeolites, metal-organic frameworks (MOFs), and graphene oxides, has been witnessed. Owing to high flexibility in both pore apertures and functionality, MOFs in the form of membranes have offered unprecedented opportunities for energy-efficient gas separations. Reports on the fabrication of well-intergrown MOF membranes first appeared in 2009. Since then there has been tremendous growth in this area along with an exponential increase of MOF-membrane-related publications. In order to compete with other separation and purification technologies, like cryogenic distillation, pressure swing adsorption, and chemical absorption, separation performance (including permeability, selectivity, and long-term stability) of molecular sieve membranes must be further improved in an attempt to reach an economically attractive region. Therefore, microstructural engineering and architectural design of MOF membranes at mesoscopic and microscopic levels become indispensable. This review summarizes some intriguing research that may potentially contribute to large-scale applications of MOF membranes in the future. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. Recent Advances in Bioink Design for 3D Bioprinting of Tissues and Organs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Shen; Guvendiren, Murat

    2017-01-01

    There is a growing demand for alternative fabrication approaches to develop tissues and organs as conventional techniques are not capable of fabricating constructs with required structural, mechanical, and biological complexity. 3D bioprinting offers great potential to fabricate highly complex constructs with precise control of structure, mechanics, and biological matter [i.e., cells and extracellular matrix (ECM) components]. 3D bioprinting is an additive manufacturing approach that utilizes a "bioink" to fabricate devices and scaffolds in a layer-by-layer manner. 3D bioprinting allows printing of a cell suspension into a tissue construct with or without a scaffold support. The most common bioinks are cell-laden hydrogels, decellulerized ECM-based solutions, and cell suspensions. In this mini review, a brief description and comparison of the bioprinting methods, including extrusion-based, droplet-based, and laser-based bioprinting, with particular focus on bioink design requirements are presented. We also present the current state of the art in bioink design including the challenges and future directions.

  13. Recent Advances in Bioink Design for 3D Bioprinting of Tissues and Organs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Shen; Guvendiren, Murat

    2017-01-01

    There is a growing demand for alternative fabrication approaches to develop tissues and organs as conventional techniques are not capable of fabricating constructs with required structural, mechanical, and biological complexity. 3D bioprinting offers great potential to fabricate highly complex constructs with precise control of structure, mechanics, and biological matter [i.e., cells and extracellular matrix (ECM) components]. 3D bioprinting is an additive manufacturing approach that utilizes a “bioink” to fabricate devices and scaffolds in a layer-by-layer manner. 3D bioprinting allows printing of a cell suspension into a tissue construct with or without a scaffold support. The most common bioinks are cell-laden hydrogels, decellulerized ECM-based solutions, and cell suspensions. In this mini review, a brief description and comparison of the bioprinting methods, including extrusion-based, droplet-based, and laser-based bioprinting, with particular focus on bioink design requirements are presented. We also present the current state of the art in bioink design including the challenges and future directions. PMID:28424770

  14. Design rules for charge-transport efficient host materials for phosphorescent organic light-emitting diodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, Falk; Al-Helwi, Mustapha; Baumeier, Björn; Kowalsky, Wolfgang; Fuchs, Evelyn; Lennartz, Christian; Andrienko, Denis

    2012-08-22

    The use of blue phosphorescent emitters in organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) imposes demanding requirements on a host material. Among these are large triplet energies, the alignment of levels with respect to the emitter, the ability to form and sustain amorphous order, material processability, and an adequate charge carrier mobility. A possible design strategy is to choose a π-conjugated core with a high triplet level and to fulfill the other requirements by using suitable substituents. Bulky substituents, however, induce large spatial separations between conjugated cores, can substantially reduce intermolecular electronic couplings, and decrease the charge mobility of the host. In this work we analyze charge transport in amorphous 2,8-bis(triphenylsilyl)dibenzofuran, an electron-transporting material synthesized to serve as a host in deep-blue OLEDs. We show that mesomeric effects delocalize the frontier orbitals over the substituents recovering strong electronic couplings and lowering reorganization energies, especially for electrons, while keeping energetic disorder small. Admittance spectroscopy measurements reveal that the material has indeed a high electron mobility and a small Poole-Frenkel slope, supporting our conclusions. By linking electronic structure, molecular packing, and mobility, we provide a pathway to the rational design of hosts with high charge mobilities.

  15. Molecular Entropy, Thermal Efficiency, and Designing of Working Fluids for Organic Rankine Cycles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jingtao; Zhang, Jin; Chen, Zhiyou

    2012-06-01

    A shortage of fossil energy sources boosts the utilization of renewable energy. Among numerous novel techniques, recovering energy from low-grade heat sources through power generation via organic Rankine cycles (ORCs) is one of the focuses. Properties of working fluids are crucial for the ORC's performance. Many studies have been done to select proper working fluids or to design new working fluids. However, no researcher has systematically investigated the relationship between molecular structures and thermal efficiencies of various working fluids for an ideal ORC. This paper has investigated the interrelations of molecular structures, molecular entropies, and thermal efficiencies of various working fluids for an ideal ORC. By calculating thermal efficiencies and molecular entropies, we find that the molecular entropy is the most appropriate thermophysical property of a working fluid to determine how much energy can be converted into work and how much cannot in a system. Generally speaking, working fluids with low entropies will generally have high thermal efficiency for an ideal ORC. Based on this understanding, the direct interrelations of molecular structures and entropies provide an explicit interrelation between molecular structures and thermal efficiencies, and thus provide an insightful direction for molecular design of novel working fluids for ORCs.

  16. A participatory approach to design monitoring indicators of production diseases in organic dairy farms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duval, J E; Fourichon, C; Madouasse, A; Sjöström, K; Emanuelson, U; Bareille, N

    2016-06-01

    Production diseases have an important negative effect on the health and welfare of dairy cows. Although organic animal production systems aim for high animal health levels, compliance with European organic farming regulations does not guarantee that this is achieved. Herd health and production management (HHPM) programs aim at optimizing herd health by preventing disease and production problems, but as yet they have not been consistently implemented by farmers. We hypothesize that one reason is the mismatch between what scientists propose as indicators for herd health monitoring and what farmers would like to use. Herd health monitoring is a key element in HHPM programs as it permits a regular assessment of the functioning of the different components of the production process. Planned observations or measurements of these components are indispensable for this monitoring. In this study, a participatory approach was used to create an environment in which farmers could adapt the indicators proposed by scientists for monitoring the five main production diseases on dairy cattle farms. The adaptations of the indicators were characterized and the farmers' explanations for the changes made were described. The study was conducted in France and Sweden, which differ in terms of their national organic regulations and existing advisory services. In both countries, twenty certified organic dairy farmers and their animal health management advisors participated in the study. All of the farmers adapted the initial monitoring plan proposed by scientists to specific production and animal health situation on their farm. This resulted in forty unique and farm-specific combinations of indicators for herd health monitoring. All but three farmers intended to monitor five health topics simultaneously using the constructed indicators. The qualitative analysis of the explanations given by farmers for their choices enabled an understanding of farmers' reasons for selecting and adapting

  17. A Practitioner’s View of the Future of Organization Design: Future Trends and Implications for Royal Dutch Shell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Steinmetz

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Humanity is facing an increasingly challenging outlook for energy needs and the planet. Royal Dutch Shell is a global group of energy and petrochemicals companies with approximately 100,000 employees in more than 80 countries that is committed to help meet the challenges of the new energy environment in a sustainable and responsible manner. My statement will present some of the future trends and possible implications which can be seen for organization design within Royal Dutch Shell (Shell and which are applicable to other large, complex enterprises. It largely represents the personal views and reflections of a practitioner both inside and outside of Shell’s human resources (HR function in the United States. Using the lens of organization design, we will review the themes that emerged from the Shell Energy 2025 and Shell Energy 2050 global scenarios. Next, we will discuss Shell’s previous experience, challenges, and issues related to organization design, and how the recent redesign of the HR function has provided wider space and crisper focus to meet the challenges of the future. Finally, we will review the design challenges that the future trends impose upon the organization design practice. Although these challenges and implications are derived from experience working in Shell and its joint ventures, they are not confined solely to Shell. Because many of the challenges discussed below would benefit from scholarly research, the statement represents a practitioner’s view on how the future of organization design may play out.

  18. Toward Developing Made-to-Order Metal-Organic Frameworks: Design, Synthesis and Applications

    KAUST Repository

    Ashri, Lubna Y.

    2016-05-26

    Synthesis of materials with certain properties for targeted applications is an ongoing challenge in materials science. One of the most interesting classes of solid-state materials that have been recently introduced with the potential to address this is metal-organic frameworks (MOFs). MOFs chemistry offers a higher degree of control over materials to be synthesized utilizing various new design strategies, such as the molecular building blocks (MBBs) and the supermolecular building layers (SBLs) approaches. Depending on using predetermined building blocks, these strategies permit the synthesis of MOFs with targeted topologies and enable fine tuning of their properties. This study examines a number of aspects of the design and synthesis of MOFs while exploring their possible utilization in two diverse fields related to energy and pharmaceutical applications. Concerning MOFs design and synthesis, the work presented here explores the rational design of various MOFs with predicted topologies and tunable cavities constructed by pillaring pre-targeted 2-periodic SBLs using the ligand-to-axial and six-connected axial-to-axial pillaring strategies. The effect of expanding the confined spaces in prepared MOFs or modifying their functionalities, while preserving the underlying network topology, was investigated. Additionally, The MBBs approach was employed to discover new modular polynuclear rare earth (RE)-MBBs in the presence of different angular polytopic ligands containing carboxylate and nitrogen moieties with the aid of a modulator. The goal was to assess the diverse possible coordination modes and construct highly-connected nets for utility in the design of new MOFs and enhance the predictability of structural outcomes. The effect of adjusting ligands’ length-to-width ratio on the prepared MOFs was also evaluated. As a result, the reaction conditions amenable for reliable formation of the unprecedented octadecanuclear, octanuclear and double tetranuclear RE-MBBs were

  19. Problem of Methodology and Organization of Accounting and Financial Reporting of Nonprofit Organizations Проблемные положения методологии и организации бухгалтерского учета и финансовой отчетности неприбыльных организаций

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliynik Yana V.

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper investigated the state of legal framework for the activities of nonprofit organizations in order to identify problematic aspects of the methodology of accounting and financial reporting.В статье проведено исследование состояния нормативно-правового обеспечения деятельности неприбыльных организаций с целью определения проблемных аспектов методологии их учета и финансовой отчетности.

  20. Web-based Survey Data Collection With Peer Support and Advocacy Organizations: Implications of Participatory Methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostrow, Laysha; Penney, Darby; Stuart, Elizabeth; Leaf, Phillip J

    2017-01-01

    The 2012 National Survey of Peer-Run Organizations is one of the first to survey a nationally representative sample of mental health peer-run organizations, nonprofit venues for support and advocacy which are defined by people with psychiatric histories being in positions of authority and control. This paper describes data collection methods and demonstrates how participatory strategies to involve people with psychiatric histories intersected with Internet research to achieve study aims. People with psychiatric histories were involved in designing and implementing a web-based survey to collect data on peer-run organizations' operations and views on national policy. Participatory approaches were used throughout design, data collection analysis, and dissemination. The extensive involvement of people with psychiatric histories in project design and implementation were important strategies that contributed to this study's success.