Full Text Available Services are dominantly untouchable products which cannot be physically owned. Services promotion is difficult for its untouchables. Personal sale is very powerful in service companies because customers must interact with employees. Price is very important for service's companies. It has psychological role, economic role and it creates attitude for goal achievement. Marketing goal for nonprofit organizations is to get an answer from target market Development of marketing strategies of nonprofit organizations consists of defining and analyzing target market and creating and maintaining marketing mix. In nonprofit organizations product is usually an idea or a service. Promotion in nonprofit organizations is very important. Personal sale, promotional sale, advertising and publicity are used for communicating an idea and informing people about services.
Mano, Rita; Rosenberg, Dennis
The study explores organizational restructuring following the occurrence of a crisis. Restructuring activities following an intervention are considered here to be indicators of an organization's loss of legitimacy because they have lost their independent status, a basic characteristic of nonprofit human settings. The study shows that according to the Resource Based View of organization restructuring--experienced as downsizing, neglecting and abandoning of projects--organizations are affected by (a) government intervention in decision making; (b) higher demands for accountability; and (c) higher evaluations of performance gaps. On the basis of the study of a sample of 138 Nonprofit Human Services in Israel, the results show that the higher the level of restructuring, the higher the level of legitimacy. However, organization location in metropolitan areas moderates the link between restructuring and legitimacy loss. We conclude that Israel's nonprofit human services being overly dependent on goverhment funding are more prone to restructuring and losing legitimacy following organizational crisis.
Fanelli, Carlo; Rudman, Debbie Laliberté; Aldrich, Rebecca M
Drawing on interview and focus group data, this article explores research undertaken as part of a larger research project exploring precarity in the nonprofit employment services sector in a mid-sized Canadian city. We critically survey major legislative changes to Canadian employment and income security policies and programs, including the restructuring of work and labor relations, growth of performance-based contracting-out, erosion of intergovernmental transfers, worker stress, and emotional tolls. Our study's results demonstrate how employment precarity in the nonprofit employment services sector is amplified by top-down and centralized relationships with funding partners and policymaking divorced from the employment experiences of frontline staff. We make the case that it is important to work against rising workplace precarity to strengthen organizational and workplace conditions, as well as build environments more supportive of optimal employment support services. En se fondant sur des entretiens et des données découlant de groupes témoins, cet article présente des explorations entreprises dans une recherche plus large étudiant la précarité dans le secteur des emplois de service dans une ville canadienne de taille moyenne. Nous faisons une revue critique de changements importants intervenus dans la législation portant sur l'emploi au Canada et les politiques et programmes de la sécurité du revenu, incluant la restructuration du travail et des relations de travail, l'augmentation de la privatisation se fondant sur la performance, la diminution des transferts intergouvernementaux, le stress au travail et les conséquences émotionnelles. Les résultats de notre recherche démontrent comment la précarité de l'emploi dans les secteurs des services à but non lucratif est amplifiée par des relations allant du haut vers le bas et centralisée avec des partenaires et des politiques séparés de l'expérience des travailleurs sur le terrain. Nous d
Rogers, Cathy; Andrews, Valerie
Little scholarly evidence exists about the communication needs of nonprofit community partners and what they think constitutes an ideal service-learning (SL) relationship. This study seeks to fill this gap by identifying SL projects and relationships that best serve nonprofit community partners with communication needs. The researchers conducted a…
F. Ellen Netting
Full Text Available Studying the intersectionality of religion and social welfare in Richmond, Virginia requires going back to the beginning of the Virginia colony. In the crucible of the colony, the religious and social welfare functions of a parish community were one and the same. However, after the Revolutionary War it was just a matter of time before the entire system was disassembled. The process of disentanglement of church and state created an identity crisis in Virginia. In the late 1700s, the emergence of charitable efforts began with leading men of Richmond who tried to address the temporary needs of travelers, followed by groups of women who discovered new roles they could play through charitable works. The new “system” became a potpourri of societies, congregations, associations, and county units attempting to provide for the social welfare of the populous. The intersectionality of religion and social welfare continued as a diverse landscape of small and large organizations and congregations performing the social welfare functions in Richmond and throughout the Commonwealth emerged. Today, to attempt to separate the church from the state in this conglomerate of agencies is neither possible nor desirable. However, understanding its’ historical complexity is essential if one is to engage in contemporary practice within Richmond’s health and human service system.
Karen A. Maguire
Full Text Available The objective of this project is to evaluate the current financial and compliance status of an animal welfare nonprofit organization (NPO by: analysis of trends over time using information reported on tax filings (Form 990; vertical and horizontal analyses of financial statements; analysis of trends over time using information from financial statements; reconciliation of financial statements to Form 990; ratio analysis of Form 990 Information; and comparison of reported information to local analogs and national standards. This project is conducted in collaboration with The Chapin Foundation. This research serves as a research service learning project with the participation of Master of Accountancy graduate students at Coastal Carolina University. Once the results are presented, recommendations are given for improving operational efficiency and achieving best practices. These recommendations are presented in the form of both short-term items to be addressed immediately—defined in this study as within 60 days—and long-term items to be undertaken in the future. Resources for applicable standards and requirements are also provided.
Human milk, widely understood to be beneficial for infants, can be lifesaving for preterm neonates, especially in reducing the risk of necrotizing enterocolitis. Donor human milk (DHM) is an option when mothers are unable to provide milk or have an inadequate supply for their infants. Nonprofit donor human milk banks are established to provide safe, processed human milk from milk donated by healthy lactating mothers who have undergone a rigorous screening process. These milk banks, operating under the auspices of the Human Milk Banking Association of North America, obtain, process, and dispense human milk under strict guidelines set by the association. Increasing the supply of donor human milk to meet a dramatic increase in demand poses a significant challenge for nonprofit milk banks. Efforts to increase supply nationwide include education of providers, use of social media to engage potential donors, and outreach to news media. In parallel, milk banks are establishing regional depots to collect donations, and additional milk banks are being developed. This article describes the current nonprofit milk bank industry in the United States, its challenges, and its future prospects. © 2013 by the American College of Nurse‐Midwives.
Horwitz, Jill R; Nichols, Austin
Hospitals operate in markets with varied demographic, competitive, and ownership characteristics, yet research on ownership tends to examine hospitals in isolation. Here we examine three hospital ownership types -- nonprofit, for-profit, and government -- and their spillover effects. We estimate the effects of for-profit market share in two ways, on the provision of medical services and on operating margins at the three types of hospitals. We find that nonprofit hospitals' medical service provision systematically varies by market mix. We find no significant effect of market mix on the operating margins of nonprofit hospitals, but find that for-profit hospitals have higher margins in markets with more for-profits. These results fit best with theories in which hospitals maximize their own output.
Basinger, Nancy; Bartholomew, Keith
This article applies theories of giving from philanthropic studies to enhance understanding of service-learning relationships between students and community partners. Focusing on the participation motivations, outcome expectations, and satisfaction levels of community partners who have recently completed work with service-learning students, the…
Loriberto Starosky Filho
Full Text Available Non-profit organizations exist all over the world and they have an important role to the economy. These are not aimed at profits and they appeared to develop initiatives of social aspects. The main goal of this research is to check how the wealth is generated and distributed by the non-profits that are enrolled in the Welfare Assistance Council in Blumenau city. This data was gotten through a qualitative, descriptive and documentary research based on analysis of published financial statements of a sample consisting of nineteen non-profit Welfare Assistance Organizations. The results showed that: a To maintain their activities most institutions rely on resources coming from social grants, partnerships and donations; b The added value distributed represents more than fifty percent of the total proceeds in a large number of institutions; c in most organizations the biggest share of the wealth distribution was used to the workers payment; d a low percentage of the wealth is to lenders and government. As a general rule, most organizations presented a very low rate of retentions for themselves because they do not seek profits. Their goals are related to social services activities.
Stevens, Victor J; Solberg, Leif I; Quinn, Virginia P; Rigotti, Nancy A; Hollis, Jack A; Smith, K Sabina; Zapka, Jane G; France, Eric; Vogt, Thomas; Gordon, Nancy; Fishman, Paul; Boyle, Raymond G
This project examined tobacco policies and delivery of cessation services in nonprofit HMOs that collectively provide comprehensive medical care to more than 8 million members. Three annual surveys with health plan managers showed that all of these health plans had written tobacco control guidelines that became more comprehensive over the span of this study. We also surveyed a random sample of 4207 current smokers who had attended a primary care visit in the past year (399-528 at each of nine health plans). Of these smokers, 71% reported advice to quit, 56% were asked about their willingness to quit, 49% were provided some assistance in quitting (mostly self-help material or information about classes or counseling), and 9% were offered some kind of follow-up. Smokers receiving assistance in quitting reported higher satisfaction with their care. In general, health plans with the most comprehensive policies also showed higher rates of implementing tobacco treatment programs in primary care. Compared with tobacco control efforts of a decade or more ago, considerable progress has been made. However, there is still room for improvement in the proportion of smokers who receive the most effective forms of assistance in quitting.
Richard G. Frank; David S. Salkever
This article studies provision of charity care by private, nonprofit hospitals. We demonstrate that in the absence of large positive income effects on charity care supply, convex preferences for the nonprofit hospital imply crowding out by other private or government hospitals. Extending our model to include impure altruism (rivalry) provides a possible explanation for the previously reported empirical result that both crowding out and income effects on indigent care supply are often weak or ...
Cristiano Rocha Heckert
Full Text Available Este artigo examina a qualidade de serviços nas organizações do terceiro setor. Por meio de revisão da literatura e de um estudo de caso, discutem-se as diferenças na aplicação do conceito de qualidade de serviços (expectativas X percepção dos clientes no terceiro setor em comparação com as empresas de mercado. Conclui-se que as organizações do terceiro setor não apresentam um único tipo de cliente, mas diversos stakeholders que assumem esse papel. Cada um desses atores possui diferentes expectativas com relação à instituição e apresenta diferentes critérios de avaliação da qualidade de seus serviços. Destaca-se, ainda, que, em função de valores como "justiça" e "solidariedade", fundamentais neste tipo de organização, o processo de prestação de serviços assume especial relevância no terceiro setor, sendo muitas vezes tão ou mais importante que os resultados obtidos.This article analyses service quality in nonprofit organizations. Based on a literature review and a case study, it discusses the differences in applying the service quality concept (customer expectations X perception in the nonprofit sector, in comparison to for-profit companies. It concludes that nonprofits don't present a single type of customer, but several stakeholders playing that role. Each of those actors has different expectations towards the organization and presents different criteria when evaluating service quality. It should also be pointed that, due to values such as "justice" and "solidarity", essential in that type of organization, the service deliver process assumes special importance in nonprofits and, sometimes, become as or even more important than the results obtained.
Full Text Available Willie H Oglesby, Ken Slenkovich Department of Health Policy and Management, College of Public Health, Kent State University, Kent, OH, USA Background: The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act created new requirements for nonprofit hospitals to conduct a Community Health Needs Assessment (CHNA at least once every 3 years, with a significant tax penalty for noncompliance. While some resources exist to help nonprofit hospital leaders conduct various aspects of a CHNA, few reflect the new Internal Revenue Service requirements. Methods: Many different models of CHNAs have emerged over the years. Although each has its unique features, the essential elements of a CHNA include engaging stakeholders, defining the community, gathering sufficient representative data, prioritizing information, and reporting results. In this paper, we expand upon this basic approach by offering a practical step-by-step guide to conducting CHNAs that meets new Internal Revenue Service regulations. Results: We developed and tested this methodology in partnership with several nonprofit hospital systems in Northeast Ohio, USA. In this paper, we discuss our use of the methodology and identify recommendations for other nonprofit hospital leaders. Conclusion: The methodology presented in this paper is a cost-effective approach to satisfying new CHNA requirements and nonprofit hospital leaders should consider using it or modifying it to fit their unique needs. Keywords: Affordable Care Act, CHNA, community benefit, community hospital
Richard G. Frank; David S. Salkever
This paper extends previous research on Individuals' supply of charitable donations to the behavior of nonprofit firms. Specifically, we study provision of charity care by private, nonprofit hospitals. We demonstrate that In the absence of large positive income effects on charity care supply, convex preferences for the nonprofit hospital imply crowding out by other private or government hospitals. Extending our model to include patient heterogeneity and impure altruism (rivalry) provides a po...
Hall, Michael L
Persuasive messages for marketing healthcare services in general and coordinated care in particular are more important now for providers, hospitals, and third-party payers than ever before. The combination of measurement-based information and creativity may be among the most critical factors in reaching markets or expanding markets. The research presented here provides an approach to marketing coordinated care services which allows healthcare managers to plan persuasive messages given the market conditions they face. Using market respondents' thinking about product attributes combined with distance measurement between pairs of product attributes, a conceptual marketing map is presented and applied to advertising, message copy, and delivery. The data reported here are representative of the potential caregivers for which the messages are intended. Results are described with implications for application to coordinated care services. Theory building and marketing practice are discussed in the light of findings and methodology.
Winand, M.; Scheerder, J.; Vos, S.B.; Zint, T.
Little is known about innovation in the non-profit sport sector. The current research addresses this gap by questioning whether and to what extent sport federations innovate. It aims to identify types of innovation implemented by sport federations and their attitude and preferences towards
Luis Ignacio Álvarez-González
Full Text Available Nonprofit organizations (NPOs confront competitive pressures derived from complex economic and societal challenges. Their capacity to fulfil their mission increasingly depends on developing successful alliances with key external and internal stakeholders, including cooperative interorganizational relationships. In this context, the aim of this research is to analyze: (1 to which extent business-nonprofit partnerships (BNPPs foster the development of an internal marketing approach by NPOs; (2 the impact of this approach to human resource management on nonprofit performance; and (3 the possible moderating effect of the funding strategy of the nonprofit. This empirical research, based on a survey to a representative sample of Spanish NPOs, shows that cooperative relationships between nonprofit and business organizations are closely associated with a process of knowledge transfer, resulting in improved nonprofit performance; although these positive effects depend on the capacity of NPOs to generate income from commercial sources.
Application of relationship marketing in non-profit organisations involved in the provision of sport and recreational services. ... A variety of factors have over time contributed to a need for marketing in non-profit ... AJOL African Journals Online.
Meredith-Dennis, Laura; Xu, Gege; Goonatilleke, Elisha; Lebrilla, Carlito B; Underwood, Mark A; Smilowitz, Jennifer T
When human milk is unavailable, banked milk is recommended for feeding premature infants. Milk banks use processes to eliminate pathogens; however, variability among methods exists. Research aim: The aim of this study was to compare the macronutrient (protein, carbohydrate, fat, energy), immune-protective protein, and human milk oligosaccharide (HMO) content of human milk from three independent milk banks that use pasteurization (Holder vs. vat techniques) or retort sterilization. Randomly acquired human milk samples from three different milk banks ( n = 3 from each bank) were analyzed for macronutrient concentrations using a Fourier transform mid-infrared spectroscopy human milk analyzer. The concentrations of IgA, IgM, IgG, lactoferrin, lysozyme, α-lactalbumin, α antitrypsin, casein, and HMO were analyzed by mass spectrometry. The concentrations of protein and fat were significantly ( p < .05) less in the retort sterilized compared with the Holder and vat pasteurized samples, respectively. The concentrations of all immune-modulating proteins were significantly ( p < .05) less in the retort sterilized samples compared with vat and/or Holder pasteurized samples. The total HMO concentration and HMOs containing fucose, sialic acid, and nonfucosylated neutral sugars were significantly ( p < .05) less in retort sterilized compared with Holder pasteurized samples. Random milk samples that had undergone retort sterilization had significantly less immune-protective proteins and total and specific HMOs compared with samples that had undergone Holder and vat pasteurization. These data suggest that further analysis of the effect of retort sterilization on human milk components is needed prior to widespread adoption of this process.
Inić Branimir P.
Full Text Available Non-profit organizations are increasingly gaining importance in the modern economy with their development and their numbers increasing day by day. It is very important to note that non-profit organizations are often subject to various benefits that the for-profit companies are not. Thus, for example, preferential tax status of non-profit organizations is manifested primarily in the form of exemption from corporate income tax. In addition, private non-profit organizations enjoy various other state, local and federal taxes exemptions. Under certain conditions, these organizations are exempt from taxes on donations and membership fees. A feature that differentiates various non-profit organizations and profit-oriented companies is their source of income. Profit oriented companies depend on their income, obtained from sales of their goods or services to customers, who usually cover the price and cost of goods and services plus the profit. In contrast, nonprofit organizations are very dependent on membership fees, tax exemptions, members donations or depend on funds of the sponsoring agency which covers most of their costs, for example a federal government agency. Those non-profit organizations that have substantial operating costs beyond national borders and do not identify themselves as purely domestic in their mandate are International non-profit organizations. Most non-profit organizations remain in their national boundaries, on the territory of the country in which they were created, but a large number of non-profit organizations rapidly internationalize, and some larger non-profits have grown into important global actors. The paper includes the following sections: (1 introduction, (2 why is the 'non-profit' important, (3 the internationalization of non-profit organizations, (4 sources of income of non-profit organizations (4.1. causality of impact and of strategic decisions in cases pertaining to universities, (5 the limits of strategic
Many professionals prefer to work in nonprofit organizations, rather than in either for-profit or bureaucratic organizations. This preference suggests that nonprofits may be successful in reducing the tension between professional principles and institutional requirements. Professionals in for-profit organizations must submit to the control of a manager who is motivated to overrule them whenever their decisions come into conflict with the goal of profit maximization. Bureaucratic organizations stress predictability of results and adherence to rules as the overriding criteria of evaluation and control. This paper argues that nonprofits are on the whole superior from the point of view of professional ideology and practice. Thus, given a commitment to the values of professionalism, the preference for the nonprofit form becomes understandable, even without the usual assumptions about income-maximizing behavior.
Full Text Available In an effort to increase understanding of formation of the community and home-based care economy in South Africa, we investigated the origin and development of non-profit organisations (NPOs providing home- and community-based care for health and social services in a remote rural area of South Africa.Over a three-year period (2010-12, we identified and tracked all NPOs providing health care and social services in Bushbuckridge sub-district through the use of local government records, snowballing techniques, and attendance at NPO networking meetings--recording both existing and new NPOs. NPO founders and managers were interviewed in face-to-face in-depth interviews, and their organisational records were reviewed.Forty-seven NPOs were formed prior to the study period, and 14 during the study period--six in 2010, six in 2011 and two in 2012, while four ceased operation, representing a 22% growth in the number of NPOs during the study period. Histories of NPOs showed a steady rise in the NPO formation over a 20-year period, from one (1991-1995 to 12 (1996-2000, 16 (2001-2005 and 24 (2006-2010 new organisations formed in each period. Furthermore, the histories of formation revealed three predominant milestones--loose association, formal formation and finally registration. Just over one quarter (28% of NPOs emerged from a long-standing community based programme of 'care groups' of women. Founders of NPOs were mostly women (62%, with either a religious motivation or a nursing background, but occasionally had an entrepreneurial profile.We observed rapid growth of the NPO sector providing community based health and social services. Women dominated the rural NPO sector, which is being seen as creating occupation and employment opportunities. The implications of this growth in the NPO sector providing community based health and social services needs to be further explored and suggests the need for greater coordination and possibly regulation.
Craft, Jana L.
Using an exploratory case study approach, this research examined the consistency between espoused and enacted values within a large nonprofit organization known as an ethical leader in the human services industry. This research explored ethical business culture, ethical decision making, deontological and utilitarian moral paradigms and learning…
Bach-Mortensen, Anders Malthe; Montgomery, Paul
The third sector is becoming a more common provider of social and health services, but little is known about how third sector organisations (TSOs) evaluate their activities. Past research has reported that the third sector is under increasing pressure to evaluate its impact and performance by government and other commissioning bodies. However, in responding to this increased pressure to undertake evaluation, research suggests that many TSOs struggle to evaluate their activities following the principles of evidence-based practice (EBP). Yet, there has been no systematic effort to investigate why the third sector is struggling to provide good quality evidence of its effects. This systematic review is reported following the PRISMA guidelines. Ten interdisciplinary databases were searched using a search string developed following best practice and in consultation with an information systems expert. Included studies were primary research of any research design investigating barriers to and facilitators of the evaluation process of TSOs as identified by practitioners. All studies were quality appraised, and the results were synthesised as a thematic summary. Twenty-four studies were included, which mainly investigated TSOs working within health and social services. The thematic summary identified the main barriers for TSOs to undertake evaluation to be related to the (1) lack of financial resources, (2) lack of technical capability and evaluation literacy and (3) challenges around identifying relevant evaluation systems and outcome indicators. Key facilitating factors involved (1) getting the appropriate support, (2) having an organisational culture that supports evaluation and (3) the motivation to be accountable to stakeholders. These findings were robust to study quality. This review constitutes the first systematic effort to synthesise existing literature on factors supporting and preventing evaluation by TSOs. The prevalence of factors revolving around the lack of
This description of the role of budgets in nonprofit organizations uses libraries as an example. Four types of budgets--legislative, management, cash, and capital--are critiqued in terms of cost effectiveness, implementation, and facilitation of organizational control and objectives. (CLB)
Bess, Kimberly D; Perkins, Douglas D; McCown, Diana L
Transformative organizational change requires organizational learning capacity, which we define in terms of (1) internal and (2) external organizational systems alignment, and promoting a culture of learning, including (3) an emphasis on exploration and information, (4) open communication, (5) staff empowerment, and (6) support for professional development. We shortened and adapted Watkins and Marsick's Dimensions of Learning Organizations Questionnaire into a new 16-item Organizational Learning Capacity Scale (OLCS) geared more toward nonprofit organizations. The OLCS and its subscales measuring each of the above 6 dimensions are unusually reliable for their brevity. ANOVAs for the OLCS and subscales clearly and consistently confirmed extensive participant observations and other qualitative data from four nonprofit human service organizations and one local human service funding organization.
... Education Office of the Secretary, Department of Education DIRECT GRANT PROGRAMS General Eligibility for A... a nonprofit organization. (See the definition of nonprofit in 34 CFR 77.1.) (b) An applicant may... Revenue Service currently recognizes the applicant as an organization to which contributions are tax...
Nonprofit organizations, such as social service agencies, charities, and hospitals, plan and prepare communications that are vital to their missions. Although not corporations, these organizations produce news releases, newsletters, and annual reports that are similar to those created in the corporate sector. In this research project for a course…
Young, D W
By definition profit refers to the difference between revenue and expenses. In for-profit organizations profit or surplus gives a return to the owners of the company and serves as a source of financing for capital acquisitions and working capital. Nonprofit organizations, which are not allowed a surplus, don't suffer on the first count because they have no owners. But they do suffer on the second count because, if expected to grow, they need to finance asset replacement and growth. In these days when funds for long-term debt are becoming scarcer, this author asserts, the need for regulators to allow 'nonprofits' to keep a surplus is increasing. In this article, he argues for a surplus and then discusses how managers and regulators can determine how much a nonprofit organization should be allowed. He presents a combination of a modified version of the return-on-asset pricing model used in for-profit organizations and a model for assessing working capital needs associated with growth.
Full Text Available The economic crisis presented unprecedented challenges to nonprofit organizations to sustain their services. In this study, we examined both financial and management factors that influence the financial performance of nonprofit organizations during times of economic stress. In particular, we investigated whether strategic planning and plan implementation, revenue diversification, and board involvement help nonprofit organizations deal with financial uncertainty and strengthen financial performance. Despite the negative impacts that the economic downturn had on nonprofit organizations, we found that the implementation of strategic plans can help nonprofit organizations reduce financial vulnerability. Our findings call attention to key management factors that influence the financial performance of nonprofit organizations.
When some people think of nonprofit organizations, they think of small charities that are short-staffed, often struggle financially, and provide basic human needs to the most vulnerable in the society. Others think of organizations that support the civic and social infrastructure of communities, states, and nation, and serve as a vital component…
Full Text Available Nonprofit social service organizations in America originally relied on private donations and charitable events to sustain their operations. As the number of nonprofit organizations has proliferated over the last few decades, so has nonprofit dependency on governmental and other sources of revenue. A case study design was used to examine factors that have impacted the survival of the original Indiana Youth Service Bureaus. This study highlights salient factors that influence survival and explores the characteristics and circumstances of selected organizations that enhance their sustainability. The findings suggest that social work administrators need to foster long-term relationships with local funders as a means of enhancing organizational survival.
Skitsou, Alexandra; Bekos, Christos; Charalambous, George
Background: It has been observed that health services provided to certain patients in Cyprus do not fully meet their human rights. Objective: This study was conducted to identify the main shortcomings of the Health System in Cyprus. Methodology: The relevant administrative decisions of the Ombuds......Background: It has been observed that health services provided to certain patients in Cyprus do not fully meet their human rights. Objective: This study was conducted to identify the main shortcomings of the Health System in Cyprus. Methodology: The relevant administrative decisions...... and their families to be essential. Conclusions: The paper concludes that implementing guidelines in accordance with international best practices, the establishment of at-home treatment and nursing facilities, counseling the mentally ill in a way that promotes their social integration and occupational rehabilitation......, ongoing education of health professionals along with relevant education of the community and the broad application of triage in the emergency departments will all contribute to delivering health services more effectively. Keywords: Cyprus, health services, patient rights...
Witmer, Hope; Mellinger, Marcela Sarmiento
Organizational resilience refers to the ability to respond productively to significant disruptive change and transform challenges into opportunities. There is a gap in the literature about resilient nonprofit organizations and its application for identifying organizational conditions for successful adaption to external variables that threaten their existence. The aim of this study was to identify organizational characteristics that point to the resilience of nonprofit behavioral healthcare organizations as they successfully adapt to funding changes. A multiple case study of two behavioral health nonprofit organizations was conducted. Data was collected through interviews and focus groups, and analyzed through a qualitative content analysis. Using the framework of resilience, six themes that equipped these organizations to successfully adapt to funding changes were identified. They included: commitment to the mission, improvisation, community reciprocity, servant and transformational leadership, hope and optimism, and fiscal transparency. The findings suggest that incorporating these qualities into an organizational system equips it to systematically adapt to funding changes and other disruptive challenges. Using resilience as a process and not simply an outcome after recovery, nonprofit organizations can have the capacity to continuously respond to challenges and provide uninterrupted and valuable services to society.
Lam, Marcus; Klein, Sacha; Freisthler, Bridget; Weiss, Robert E.
Reliable access to dependable, high quality childcare services is a vital concern for large numbers of American families. The childcare industry consists of private nonprofit, private for-profit, and governmental providers that differ along many dimensions, including quality, clientele served, and organizational stability. Nonprofit providers are theorized to provide higher quality services given comparative tax advantages, higher levels of consumer trust, and management by mission driven entrepreneurs. This study examines the influence of ownership structure, defined as nonprofit, for-profit sole proprietors, for-profit companies, and governmental centers, on organizational instability, defined as childcare center closures. Using a cross sectional data set of 15724 childcare licenses in California for 2007, we model the predicted closures of childcare centers as a function of ownership structure as well as center age and capacity. Findings indicate that for small centers (capacity of 30 or less) nonprofits are more likely to close, but for larger centers (capacity 30+) nonprofits are less likely to close. This suggests that the comparative advantages available for nonprofit organizations may be better utilized by larger centers than by small centers. We consider the implications of our findings for parents, practitioners, and social policy. PMID:23543882
Lam, Marcus; Klein, Sacha; Freisthler, Bridget; Weiss, Robert E
Reliable access to dependable, high quality childcare services is a vital concern for large numbers of American families. The childcare industry consists of private nonprofit, private for-profit, and governmental providers that differ along many dimensions, including quality, clientele served, and organizational stability. Nonprofit providers are theorized to provide higher quality services given comparative tax advantages, higher levels of consumer trust, and management by mission driven entrepreneurs. This study examines the influence of ownership structure, defined as nonprofit, for-profit sole proprietors, for-profit companies, and governmental centers, on organizational instability, defined as childcare center closures. Using a cross sectional data set of 15724 childcare licenses in California for 2007, we model the predicted closures of childcare centers as a function of ownership structure as well as center age and capacity. Findings indicate that for small centers (capacity of 30 or less) nonprofits are more likely to close, but for larger centers (capacity 30+) nonprofits are less likely to close. This suggests that the comparative advantages available for nonprofit organizations may be better utilized by larger centers than by small centers. We consider the implications of our findings for parents, practitioners, and social policy.
Should mergers among nonprofit organizations be regulated differently than mergers among for-profit firms? The relevant empirical literature is highly controversial, the theoretical literature is scarce. We analyze the question by modeling duopoly competition with quality-differentiated goods. We
Should mergers among nonprofit organizations be regulated differently than mergers among for-profit firms? The relevant empirical literature is highly controversial, the theoretical literature is scarce. I analyze the question by modeling duopoly competition with quality-differentiated goods. I
Full Text Available After introductory considerations, arguments are put forward for non-governmental organisations as exclusive providers of social services. The negative characteristics of the non-governmental organization are subject of the third part of the paper. In the fourth part, the meaning of the social funds is explained (they are a kind of non-governmental organisations, and in Part 5, we explain the importance of the synergy between the government and society in the provision of social services. After the explanation of the situation in Croatia, in the Part 6 of the paper we give our final considerations. In Croatia non-governmental organizations that provide social services are slowly developing. In their further strengthening it is necessary to change the general viewpoints concerning the role and importance of the non-governmental sector in the alleviation of poverty, as well as to achieve better coordination between the state and the sector.
Conversion of hospitals, health insurers, and health plans from nonprofit to for-profit ownership has become a focus of national debate. The author examines why nonprofit ownership has been dominant in the US health system and assesses the strength of the argument that nonprofits provide community benefits that would be threatened by for-profit conversion. The author concludes that many of the specific community benefits offered by nonprofits, such as care for the poor, could be maintained or replaced by adequate funding of public programs and that quality and fairness in treatment can be better assured through clear standards of care and adequate monitoring systems. As health care becomes increasingly commercialized, the most difficult parts of nonprofits' historic mission to preserve are the community orientation, leadership role, and innovation that nonprofit hospitals and health plans have provided out of their commitment to a community beyond those to whom they sell services.
... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Nonprofit organizations. 228.32 Section 228.32 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT RULES ON SOURCE, ORIGIN AND NATIONALITY FOR... USAID Financing § 228.32 Nonprofit organizations. (a) Nonprofit organizations, such as educational...
... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Nonprofit organization. 700.83 Section 700.83 Indians THE OFFICE OF NAVAJO AND HOPI INDIAN RELOCATION COMMISSION OPERATIONS AND RELOCATION PROCEDURES General Policies and Instructions Definitions § 700.83 Nonprofit organization. The term nonprofit organization...
... 32 National Defense 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Nonprofit organization. 37.1315 Section 37.1315... organization. (a) Any corporation, trust, association, cooperative or other organization that: (1) Is operated... of the organization. (b) The term includes any nonprofit institution of higher education or nonprofit...
Bauerschmidt, A D; Jacobs, P
This article reports on a survey of 60 financial managers of nonprofit hospitals in the eastern United States relating to the importance of a number of factors which influence their pricing decisions and the pricing objectives which they pursue. Among the results uncovered by the responses: that trustees are the single most important body in the price-setting process (doctors play a relatively unimportant role); that hospital pricing goals are more related to target net revenue than profit ma...
Snelders, H.M.J.J.; Perik, E.M.; Secomandi, F.
This paper investigates the degree of control that designers might have over human relations in services. For this purpose, a number of speculative service designs were devised to address work-related stress. We focus on three of the generated designs, where design interventions have made changes to
Spears, Lee A.
Describes a project for professional writing classes that teaches effective persuasive writing, as teams of students research local nonprofit or campus service organizations, design projects to address their groups' main needs, and write solicitation letters for donations or volunteers. Discusses potential problems and how students benefit. (SR)
Troyer, Glenn T; Brashear, Andrea D; Green, Kelly J
Triggered by corporate scandals, there is increased oversight by governmental bodies and in part by the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002. Corporations are developing corporate governance compliance initiatives to respond to the scrutiny of regulators, legislators, the general public and constituency groups such as investors. Due to state attorney general initiatives, new legislation and heightened oversight from the Internal Revenue Service, nonprofit entities are starting to share the media spotlight with their for-profit counterparts. These developments are changing nonprofit health care organizations as well as the traditional role of the risk manager. No longer is the risk manager focused solely on patients' welfare and safe passage through a complex delivery system. The risk manager must be aware of corporate practices within the organization that could allow the personal objectives of a few individuals to override the greater good of the community in which the nonprofit organization serves.
The turn to neoliberalism in welfare policy suggests that human services need to be based on a market approach. The problem with this suggestion is that it presupposes marketing information such that service providers can market their services for identified client needs. In the field of intellectual disability (ID) services this type of information is not available. The method is a reflective analysis of the key presupposition of a market-orientated approach to disability services, namely that service providers know who needs what. Using insights from marketing theory the paper engages in a reflective thought experiment to lay out the intricacies of this presupposition. The analysis results in an argument regarding the validation of a market-based approach to disability services. First, this approach has its limits in view of the question of whether the specific and atypical needs of people with ID, as well as their financial position as potential consumers constitute a market. Second, the approach has limited validity both in view of the ability of people with ID to act as consumers, and of the restrictions imposed upon them by the eligibility criteria for welfare and support programmes. A market-based approach to disability services and supports can be helpful to spur innovation and further political and philosophical inquiry in human services, but the neoliberal optimism about the market as the only successful mechanism for service distribution is misplaced.
Hansen, Anne Vorre; Langergaard, Luise Li
Resident democracy as a special form of participatory democratic set-up is fundamental in the understanding, and self-understanding, of the non-profit housing sector in Denmark. Through a case study, the paper explores how resident democracy is perceived and narrated between residents and employees....... The tensions are related to representative versus participatory democracy; collectivity versus individuality; and service versus welfare. The tensions elucidate how resident democracy is squeezed between different logics, which result in an ambiguous setting for practising democracy. Based on the results...... at a housing association. The study indicates that the meta-story of democracy is disconnected from practice and the lived lives of residents. Three analytical tensions structure the analysis, which relate to the conditions for realizing the democratic ideal embedded in the structure of the sector...
Purdy, Jill M.; Lawless, Joseph
Business educators have a responsibility to ensure that future managers, employees, and shareholders are well versed in governance. Governance provides a vital link between organizations and society, allowing people to place their trust in an organization, support its mission, and ensure a continuing flow of resources to accomplish the mission.…
Jones, Daniel B; Propper, Carol; Smith, Sarah
Why do many firms in the healthcare sector adopt non-profit status? One argument is that non-profit status serves as a signal of quality when consumers are not well informed. A testable implication is that an increase in consumer information may lead to a reduction in the number of non-profits in a market. We test this idea empirically by exploiting an exogenous increase in consumer information in the US nursing home industry. We find that the information shock led to a reduction in the share of non-profit homes, driven by a combination of home closure and sector switching. The lowest quality non-profits were the most likely to exit. Our results have important implications for the effects of reforms to increase consumer provision in a number of public services. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.
Chabotar, Kent John
To evaluate their financial health, a growing number of colleges, universities, and other nonprofit organizations are using financial ratio analysis, a technique used in business. The strengths and weaknesses of ratio analysis are assessed and suggestions are made on how nonprofits can use it most effectively. (Author/MLW)
Walandouw, Stanley Kho; Mangkona, Sri Wardana Saleh
Organization are founded by the public due to the similarity of interests, both in the realization of human nature as well as to meet their needs. Based on the objectives, the organization can be divided into non-profit organizations and commercial organizations. There is a fundamental difference between nonprofit organizations and commercial organizations, the IAI makes SFAS No.45 which regulates the financial statements of non-profit organizations. The purpose of this study is to see whethe...
Victor Teodor Alistar
Full Text Available The main objective of this article is to examine the notion of management, as an area of study which analyses, regulates and renders the theoretical and technical support in order to provide rationality within the processes that unfold in the civil service. In order to accomplish this task, human resources management will be analyzed as a process which relies in exerting four main functions: ensuring, developing, motivating and maintaining the human resources, which are conditioned by external factors that must be taken into consideration, such as: legislative framework, labor force, unions, cultural context (here one includes management practices and philosophy, and economic circumstances. All these factors are considered to have a significant impact on the management of human resources.
Andreasen, A R
Here's a familiar story. A nonprofit organization joins forces with a corporation in a caused-related marketing campaign. It seems like a win-win deal, but the nonprofit--and the media--find out several weeks into the campaign that the corporation's business practices are antithetical to the nonprofit's mission. The nonprofit's credibility is severely damaged. Is the moral of the story that nonprofits should steer clear of alliances with for-profit organizations? Not at all, Alan Andreasen says. Nonprofit managers can help their organizations avoid many of the risks and reap the rewards of cause-related marketing alliances by thinking of themselves not as charities but as partners in the marketing effort. More than ever, nonprofits need what many companies can offer: crucial new sources of revenue. But nonprofits offer corporate partners a great deal in return: the opportunity to enhance their image--and increase the bottom line--by supporting a worthy cause. Consider the fruitful partnership between American Express and Share Our Strength, a hunger-relief organization. Through the Charge Against Hunger program, now in its fourth year, American Express has helped contribute more than +16 million to SOS. In return, American Express has seen an increase in transactions with the card and in the number of merchants carrying the card. How can nonprofit managers build a successful partnership? They can assess their organization to see how it can add value to a corporate partner. They can identify those companies that stand to gain the most from a cause-related marketing alliance. And they can take an active role in shaping the partnership and monitoring its progress.
Full Text Available Purpose – To overview the traditions and management perspectives of community and non-profit organizations in Lithuania.Methodology – For the purpose of this research a literature analysis on community and non-profit organization case studies was conducted. The case studies describing stories of success were singled out and leaders of these organizations were interviewed.Findings – The research has showed the growth of the number of community and nonprofit organizations during the last twenty years and the difficulties of collecting the statistical data. This study presupposes the possibility to identify the tendencies of management in community and non-profit organizations, including the following: increasing use of the social networks for communication; proliferation of strategic planning; greater emphasis on educating and empowering new generation of leaders.Research implications – Prior studies in this area in Lithuania have not exhaustively analyzed the components of human resource management of non-profit organizations. An important follow up on this study would be to analyze the human resource management in community organizations.Practical implications – This study covered the management aspects important for the improvement of how community and non-profit organizations work.Originality/Value – This study expands the knowledge on Lithuanian community and non-profit organization development and management.Research type – literature review, research paper.
Rodrigues, Amanda Deborah Norma; Passos Ruvald, Carolina; Svetleva, Stanimira Nikolaeva
Non-Profit Organisations are characterised by their dependence on their workforce. The functioning of such organisation commonly leans towards the service sector and so the employees play a vital part in the core function of fundraising, which in turn enables the organisation in furthering its cause. This feature, as well as the popular trait of non-profit organisation’s dependence on voluntary labour, also brings us to the importance of job satisfaction or employee motivation and commitment ...
Carver, Vivien; Reinert, Bonita; Range, Lillian M; Campbell, Catherine; Boyd, Nicole
Tobacco settlement money can be allocated to nonprofit organizations or government agencies. Both have advantages and disadvantages. Nonprofit organizations may have relatively (a) more efficiency/flexibility, but less accountability; (b) narrower focus, but less experience; (c) more ability to advocate, but more obligations; (d) more independence from tobacco industry influence, but less funding; and, (e) more public trust, but less visibility. The present case study of the Partnership for a Healthy Mississippi focuses on six interconnected areas: education (school and community), raising awareness, advocacy, service, enforcement, and research. In 1999 and 2000, tobacco use declined in Mississippi, even compared to neighboring states. This unique partnership's multifaceted approach to social change probably facilitated this decline.
Sebastian Ion Ceptureanu
Full Text Available This paper analyses sustainability perceptions in Romanian non-profits by investigating 81 non-profits managers and board members. Using a multidimensional sustainability measurement framework, Success Factor Analysis, as a conceptual model, we measured perceptions on 5 critical sustainability factors: People, Business Model, Operations, Strategy and Culture and concluded that there are significant differences in the perceptions of sustainability depending on respondents’ previous failure experiences. While those which previously experienced failure adopt a long-term approach based on marketization, clear accountability standards and rely on strategy, while the others prefer a short-term approach, focused more on non-profits operations and focus on human resources.
Gray, Mel; Dean, Mitchell; Agllias, Kylie
This article provides an overview of recent perspectives on neoliberalism, which serve as a foundation for the assessment of neoliberalism's influence on human services practice. Conventionally, neoliberalism has been conceived of as an ideology, but more recent perspectives regard neoliberalism...... as an art of government, a thought collective, and an uneven but path-dependent process of regulatory development. We argue that these new perspectives have the potential to contribute to our critical capacity and open avenues for the analysis of contemporary transformations of public policy and its...
Austin, Michael J; Claassen, Jennette; Vu, Catherine M; Mizrahi, Paola
Knowledge management has recently taken a more prominent role in the management of organizations as worker knowledge and intellectual capital are recognized as critical to organizational success. This analysis explores the literature of knowledge management including the individual level of tacit and explicit knowledge, the networks and social interactions utilized by workers to create and share new knowledge, and the multiple organizational and managerial factors associated with effective knowledge management systems. Based on the role of organizational culture, structure, leadership, and reward systems, six strategies are identified to assist human service organizations with implementing new knowledge management systems.
Stewart, Louis J; Trussel, John
Although the use of derivatives, particularly interest rate swaps, has grown explosively over the past decade, derivative financial instrument use by nonprofits has received only limited attention in the research literature. Because little is known about the risk management activities of nonprofits, the impact of these instruments on the ability of nonprofits to raise capital may have significant public policy implications. The primary motivation of this study is to determine the types of derivatives used by nonprofits and estimate the frequency of their use among these organizations. Our study also extends contemporary finance theory by an empirical examination of the motivation for interest rate swap usage among nonprofits. Our empirical data came from 193 large nonprofit health care providers that issued debt to the public between 2000 and 2003. We used a univariate analysis and a multivariate analysis relying on logistic regression models to test alternative explanations of interest rate swaps usage by nonprofits, finding that more than 45 percent of our sample, 88 organizations, used interest rate swaps with an aggregate notional value in excess of $8.3 billion. Our empirical tests indicate the primary motive for nonprofits to use interest rate derivatives is to hedge their exposure to interest rate risk. Although these derivatives are a useful risk management tool, under conditions of falling bond market interest rates these derivatives may also expose a nonprofit swap user to the risk of a material unscheduled termination payment. Finally, we found considerable diversity in the informativeness of footnote disclosure among sample organizations that used interest rate swaps. Many nonprofits did not disclose these risks in their financial statements. In conclusion, we find financial managers in large nonprofits commonly use derivative financial instruments as risk management tools, but the use of interest rate swaps by nonprofits may expose them to other risks
Coutts, Christopher; Hahn, Micah
Contemporary ecological models of health prominently feature the natural environment as fundamental to the ecosystem services that support human life, health, and well-being. The natural environment encompasses and permeates all other spheres of influence on health. Reviews of the natural environment and health literature have tended, at times intentionally, to focus on a limited subset of ecosystem services as well as health benefits stemming from the presence, and access and exposure to, green infrastructure. The sweeping influence of green infrastructure on the myriad ecosystem services essential to health has therefore often been underrepresented. This survey of the literature aims to provide a more comprehensive picture-in the form of a primer-of the many simultaneously acting health co-benefits of green infrastructure. It is hoped that a more accurately exhaustive list of benefits will not only instigate further research into the health co-benefits of green infrastructure but also promote consilience in the many fields, including public health, that must be involved in the landscape conservation necessary to protect and improve health and well-being.
Coutts, Christopher; Hahn, Micah
Contemporary ecological models of health prominently feature the natural environment as fundamental to the ecosystem services that support human life, health, and well-being. The natural environment encompasses and permeates all other spheres of influence on health. Reviews of the natural environment and health literature have tended, at times intentionally, to focus on a limited subset of ecosystem services as well as health benefits stemming from the presence, and access and exposure to, green infrastructure. The sweeping influence of green infrastructure on the myriad ecosystem services essential to health has therefore often been underrepresented. This survey of the literature aims to provide a more comprehensive picture—in the form of a primer—of the many simultaneously acting health co-benefits of green infrastructure. It is hoped that a more accurately exhaustive list of benefits will not only instigate further research into the health co-benefits of green infrastructure but also promote consilience in the many fields, including public health, that must be involved in the landscape conservation necessary to protect and improve health and well-being. PMID:26295249
Chevreul, Karine; McDaid, David; Farmer, Carrie M; Prigent, Amélie; Park, A-La; Leboyer, Marion; Kupfer, David J; Durand-Zaleski, Isabelle
To document the investments made in research on mental disorders by both government and nonprofit nongovernmental organizations in France, the United Kingdom, and the United States. An exhaustive survey was conducted of primary sources of public and nonprofit organization funding for mental health research for the year 2007 in France and the United Kingdom and for fiscal year 2007-2008 in the United States, augmented with an examination of relevant Web sites and publications. In France, all universities and research institutions were identified using the Public Finance Act. In the United Kingdom, we scrutinized Web sites and hand searched annual reports and grant lists for the public sector and nonprofit charitable medical research awarding bodies. In the United States, we included the following sources: the National Institutes of Health, other administrative entities within the Department of Health and Human Services (eg, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention), the Department of Education, the Department of Veterans Affairs, the Department of Defense, and the National Science Foundation and, for nonprofit funding, The Foundation Center. We included research on all mental disorders and substance-related disorders using the same keywords. We excluded research on mental retardation and dementia and on the promotion of mental well-being. We used the same algorithm in each country to obtain data for only mental health funding in situations in which funding had a broader scope. France spent $27.6 million (2%) of its health research budget on mental disorders, the United Kingdom spent $172.6 million (7%), and the United States spent $5.2 billion (16%). Nongovernmental funding ranged from 1% of total funding for mental health research in France and the United States to 14% in the United Kingdom. Funding for research on mental disorders accounts for low proportions of research budgets compared with funding levels for research on other major health problems, whereas
Full Text Available Volunteer work constitutes an important input into the activities of non-profit institutions. However, in the core system of national accounts, volunteering falls outside the production boundary even if it leads to the production of services. By doing so, national accounts inevitably underestimates the contribution of non-profit institutions to the well-being. This shortcoming is overcome by the Satellite Account of Non-profit Institutions complementing and extending the concept of national accounts chiefly by incorporation of the value of volunteering and by full coverage of non-profit institutions classified in a number of economic sectors. This paper is an attempt to address the key issue that is the way of volunteer work´s valuation for analytical purposes. We will discuss different approaches to the valuation and their impact on key macroeconomic aggregates.
To understand the important dimensions of the financial and operational performance of non-profit hospitals. Secondary data for non-profit US hospitals between 1996 and 2004. I use iterative principal factor analysis of hospitals' financial and operational ratios for each year of the study. For factor interpretation, I use oblique rotation. Financial ratios were created using cost report data from HCRIS 2552-96 available from the Centers for Medicaid & Medicare Services (CMS). I identify five factors--capital structure, profitability, activity, liquidity, and an operational factor--that explain most of the variation in the performance of non-profit hospitals. I also find that capital structure is more important than profitability in determining the performance of these hospitals. The importance of capital structure highlights a significant shift in the organization of the non-profit hospitals' finances.
... 49 Transportation 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Qualified human service organizations. 604.7... organizations. (a) A recipient may provide charter service to a qualified human service organization (QHSO) for... disabilities; or (3) With low income. (b) If an organization serving persons described in paragraph (a) of this...
Castillo, Yuleinys; Fischer, Jerome M.
The skills and tasks in the human services field are highly connected to emotional intelligence abilities. The purpose of the study was to investigate the effect of an expressive writing program involving human service students in an undergraduate rehabilitation services course. The program was developed to enhance their emotional intelligence.…
Herzlinger, R E; Sherman, H D
Motivated by the financial difficulties that have beset city governments and some private nonprofit organizations, the accounting profession and other circles are urging these organizations to conform to business accounting practices. (See Robert N. Anthony's article on p. 83 of this issue.) Fund accounting, these reformers claim, is too complex, too segmented to permit intelligent analysis. The authors of this article demur; not only is it legally and logically necessary to maintain separately the restricted and unrestricted monies received from various sources and spent for designated purposes; also close examination of the financial statements of nonprofit enterprises can provide a very good idea of how well they are doing financially. Furthermore, the authors advocate adoption of certain fund accounting principles for businesses, and they show why they could be helpful. This article is much more than a defense of how nonprofit organizations account for their operations; it is a comprehensive but brief introduction to the subject.
Murphy, Haley; Pudlo, Jason
Community-based organizations, such as nonprofit organizations (NPOs) and churches, play an important role in helping individuals and communities bounce back after a disaster. The nature of disasters requires organizations across sectors to partner together to provide recovery services; however, collaboration is difficult even in times of stability and requires trust and communication to be built through prior collaborative relationships. These prior relationships rarely exist between the majority of the nonprofit sector, churches, and existing emergency management structures. Furthermore, these organizations often have very different cultures, values, and norms that can further hinder successful postdisaster collaboration. The authors use data collected from interviews with nonprofit and church leaders involved in recovery efforts after a series of devastating storms impacted central Oklahoma in 2013 to understand how well nonprofit and church leaders perceive their organizations collaborated with each other and with government and emergency management agencies in response and recovery efforts. Interview data suggest that NPOs and churches without a primary or secondary mission of disaster response and recovery have a difficult time collaborating with organizations involved in existing emergency management structures. The authors suggest that nonprofits with a primary or secondary purpose in disaster response are a potential bridge between other nonprofits and emergency management agencies.
Full Text Available In a complex and challenging background of the whole country, and the NGO sector also, the non-profit organizations are established with the aim of providing public services to communities where they operate, making them as an intermediary between citizens and authorities. In any democratic society these organizations are meant to serve different types of needs and interests of the community, from both a strategic perspective and ethics, that those which are not covered by other categories of institutions and organizations, mean time providing a framework for civic participation, where citizens may participate to the public life.
Full Text Available The study of why a fundraising professional would choose to leave his or her employer is critical to the ongoing success of religiously based nonprofit organizations as they work to achieve their mission. Without continuity in the donor relationship, donors will likely leave the organization or become disenfranchised. This study focuses on development professionals at Seventh-Day Adventist institutions across North America. The results of this study are applicable to other religiously based nonprofit organizations. The present article reveals the reasons affecting employee retention and proposes approaches to mitigate the loss of valuable employees. Data were gathered using a structured online survey and analyzed for its descriptive outcomes.
Schlesinger, M; Gray, B; Bradley, E
As American medicine has been transformed by the growth of managed care, so too have questions about the appropriate role of nonprofit ownership in the health care system. The standards for community benefit that are increasingly applied to nonprofit hospitals are, at best, only partially relevant to expectations for nonprofit managed care plans. Can we expect nonprofit ownership to substantially affect the behavior of an increasingly competitive managed care industry dealing with insured populations? Drawing from historical interpretations of tax exemption in health care and from the theoretical literature on the implications of ownership for organizational behavior, we identify five forms of community benefit that might be associated with nonprofit forms of managed care. Using data from a national survey of firms providing third-party utilization review services in 1993, we test for ownership-related differences in these five dimensions. Nonprofit utilization review firms generally provide more public goods, such as information dissemination, and are more "community oriented" than proprietary firms, but they are not distinguishable from their for-profit counterparts in addressing the implications of medical quality or the cost of the review process. However, a subgroup of nonprofit review organizations with medical origins are more likely to address quality issues than are either for-profit firms or other nonprofit agencies. Evidence on responses to information asymmetries is mixed but suggests that some ownership related differences exist. The term "charitable" is thus capable of a definition far broader than merely the relief of the poor. While it is true that in the past Congress and the federal courts have conditioned the hospital's charitable status on the level of free or below cost care that it provided for indigents, there is no authority for the conclusion that the determination of "charitable" status was always so limited. Such an inflexible
Morton, Keith; Saltmarsh, John
Chronicles the emergence of community service in the United States, beginning with the turn-of-the-century collision of capitalism and democracy which generated a crisis of community and profound rethinking of the meaning and practice of charity. Three service "paths" are identified: nonprofit human services organizations; active…
Artiklen forbinder organisatorisk læring med strategisk ledelse af nonprofit, frivillige organisationer. Den forklarer hvor de to forbundne strategiske udfordringer – frivilligt engagement og organisatorisk læring kan håndteres ved at anvende indsigt fra litteraturen om udforskning og udnyttelse ...
Information and links to EPA web pages that are meant to help businesses and non-profits adhere to EPA regulations and otherwise protect the environment, take advantage of opportunities to collaborate with the EPA, and find training EPA training programs.
Herring, Bradley; Gaskin, Darrell; Zare, Hossein; Anderson, Gerard
The tax-exempt status of nonprofit hospitals has received increased attention from policymakers interested in examining the value they provide instead of paying taxes. We use 2012 data from the Internal Revenue Service (IRS) Form 990, Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) Hospital Cost Reports, and American Hospital Association's (AHA) Annual Survey to compare the value of community benefits with the tax exemption. We contrast nonprofit's total community benefits to what for-profits provide and distinguish between charity and other community benefits. We find that the value of the tax exemption averages 5.9% of total expenses, while total community benefits average 7.6% of expenses, incremental nonprofit community benefits beyond those provided by for-profits average 5.7% of expenses, and incremental charity alone average 1.7% of expenses. The incremental community benefit exceeds the tax exemption for only 62% of nonprofits. Policymakers should be aware that the tax exemption is a rather blunt instrument, with many nonprofits benefiting greatly from it while providing relatively few community benefits.
Herzberg, Judith T.
Human services educators and scholars maintain that they are teaching social change theory and skills that will allow students to engage in large-scale social change. A review of the literature, from a critical theory perspective, offered little evidence that social change is being taught in human services programs. In this collective case study,…
Kock, Henrik; Wallo, Andreas; Nilsson, Barbro; Hoglund, Cecilia
Purpose: In this article, the area of interest is an emerging type of organisation called human resource intermediaries (HRIs), which focus on delivering human resource (HR) services to public sector organisations and private companies. The purpose of this article is, thus, to explore HRIs as deliverers of HR services. More specifically, the…
Human Service Education: A Journal of the National Organization for Human Service Education, 1996
Describes a code of ethics that reflects the unique history of the human service profession. Provides a definition for human services and gives guidelines in meeting responsibility to clients, to the community and society, and to colleagues. Also provides statements guiding responsibility to the profession, to employers, and to self. (RJM)
Damman, M.; Heyse, L.; Mills, M.
Although one can assume the work values within nonprofit organizations promote gender equality in promotion decisions, there is preliminary evidence that in the nonprofit sector women are underrepresented in higher management positions. Whereas the mechanisms resulting in underrepresentation of
Herbst, Patrick; Prüfer, Jens
We formalize the difference between profit-maximizing firms, nonprofits, and cooperatives and identify optimal organizational choice in a model of quality provision. Firms provide lowest and nonprofits highest levels of quality. Efficiency, however, depends on the competitive environment, the
The paper represents essentially an attempt to analyse and comprehend the role of Human Resource Management (HRM) in effective service delivery in Nigeria. The paper advocates that the revamping and transformation of the Nigerian Civil Service to render effective service to the public lies not in the continuous ...
The nature and characteristics of the nonprofit brand strength construct are conceptualized. Brand strength is defined as a multidimensional construct, composed by brand familiarity, brand remarkability, and brand attitude. Brand familiarity refers to the level of knowledge the target audience has about the brand object. Brand attitude refers to the degree to which a brand object is perceived favorably by a target group. Brand remarkability refers to the degree to which a brand object is pe...
Full Text Available Purpose: The aim of this paper is to analyse mobbing in a large, non-profit, state-owned organization in order to find out to what extent mobbing is present and in what way it takes place. In addition, the purpose of the research is to analyse whether the extent of mobbing is connected to employee’s age, gender and position.
... Qualifications for approval as a nonprofit budget and credit counseling agency. (a) Definition of agency. As used... representations and statements contained therein are true and correct to the best of such individual's knowledge... customer service audits; (ii) Cooperating with the United States Trustee and the EOUST in timely responding...
Leone, Andrew J; Van Horn, R Lawrence
We hypothesize that, unlike for-profit firms, nonprofit hospitals have incentives to manage earnings to a range just above zero. We consider two ways managers can achieve this. They can adjust discretionary spending [Hoerger, T.J., 1991. 'Profit' variability in for-profit and not-for-profit hospitals. Journal of Health Economics 10, 259-289.] and/or they can adjust accounting accruals using the flexibility inherent in Generally Accepted Accounting Principles (GAAP). To test our hypothesis we use regressions as well as tests of the distribution of earnings by Burgstahler and Dichev [Burgstahler, D., Dichev, I., 1997. Earnings management to avoid earnings decreases and losses. Journal of Accounting and Economics 24, 99-126.] on a sample of 1,204 hospitals and 8,179 hospital-year observations. Our tests support the use of discretionary spending and accounting accrual management. Like Hoerger (1991), we find evidence that nonprofit hospitals adjust discretionary spending to manage earnings. However, we also find significant use of discretionary accruals (e.g., adjustments to the third-party-allowance, and allowance for doubtful accounts) to meet earnings objectives. These findings have two important implications. First, the previous evidence by Hoerger that nonprofit hospitals show less variation in income may at least partly be explained by an accounting phenomenon. Second, our findings provide guidance to users of these financial statements in predicting the direction of likely bias in reported earnings.
This special issue contains a collection of manuscripts that were originally intended to be included in the special issue on "Physics and Economics of Ecosystem Services Flows" (Volume 101, guest editors H. Su, J. Dong and S. Nagarajan) and "Biogeochemical Processes in the Changing Wetland Environment" (Volume 103, guest editors J. Bai, L. Huang and H. Gao). All of them are addressing issues related to ecosystem services in different settings. Ecosystem services are of high value for both the ecosystems and human communities, and understanding the impacts of environmental processes and human activities on ecosystems is of fundamental importance for the preservation of these services.
Grünbaum, Niels Nolsøe; Hollensen, Svend; Kahle, Lynn
The purpose of this article is to extend the understanding of the industrial buying process in connection with purchasing professional business (B2B) services, specifically human resource (HR) consulting services. Early B2B buying-behavior literature strongly emphasizes the rational aspects...... of buying behavior in B2B services. Based on a comprehensive exploratory study of Danish companies’ purchases of HR consulting services, the authors provide insights into the factors that determine how Danish companies choose a consulting services supplier. Five hypotheses are developed based...
Social Security Administration — This database contains only a very small subset of the Human Resources Operational Data Store data. It supports the SSA Employee and Office Data Retrieval (SEODR)...
Krajewski-Jaime, Elvia R.; And Others
Cultural competence assumes greater importance in the United States as international relations shift and the United States changes its own demographic makeup. Hispanics have significant health care needs and cultural beliefs that influence their acceptance of service. As part of an effort to build cultural competence in undergraduate social work…
Conducted case study of philanthropic giving among 29 companies in Cambridge, Massachusetts. Found that most corporations used informal rather than formal process for making funding decisions, with many firms relying on tradition, social contacts, and intuition to guide allocations. Findings suggest ways that social services administrators can…
Bruynooghe, Kevin; Verhaeghe, Mieke; Bracke, Piet
Exchange theory and homophily theory give rise to counteracting expectations for the interaction between human service organizations. Based on arguments of exchange theory, more interaction is expected between dissimilar organizations having complementary resources. Based on arguments of homophily theory, organizations having similar characteristics are expected to interact more. Interorganizational relations between human service organizations in two regional networks in Flanders are examined in this study. Results indicate that human service organizations tend to cooperate more with similar organizations as several homophily effects but not one effect of dissimilarity were found to be significant. The results of this study contribute to the understanding of interorganizational networks of human service organizations and have implications for the development of integrated care.
The module provides a link to an article that is part of a series of articles in Issues in Ecology. This article discusses the many services an ecosystem provides in order to sustain and fulfill human needs.
Moore, Stephen T.
Discusses a normative strategy toward pricing human services, which will allow providers to develop pricing strategies within the context of organizational missions, goals, and values. Pricing is an effective tool for distributing resources and improving efficiency, and can be used as a tool for encouraging desired patterns of service utilization.…
K. K. Govender
Full Text Available This article reports the results of an empirical evaluation of a conceptual service encounter management model (Govender, 1999. The various hypotheses proposed to show a relationship between formal and informal socialisation strategies, and the bank employees' perception of the organisational climate and their role are empirically evaluated. Furthermore, the mediated effects of these socialization tactics on the bank customers perception of the service quality was also ascertained by matching a random sample of 210 bank employees with 1050 customers. Opsomming Hierdie artikel rapporteer die resultate van n empiriese evaluering van n konseptuele dienservaringsbestuursmodel (Govender, 1999. Verskeie hipoteses word voorgehou om n verband tussen formele en informele sosialise- ringstrategiee aan te toon, en die bankwerkers se persepsie van die organisatoriese klimaat en hulle rolle word empirics geevalueer.Verder word die modererende effek van hierdie sosialiseringstrategie op die bankkliente se persepsie van dienskwaliteit bepaal deur 'n ewekansige steekproefvan 210 bankwerkers met 1050 kliente af te paar.
The changing environment has shifted the model of nonprofit organizations from charity to social enterprise, which emphasizes partnerships with business and government. Approaches to volunteer management, recruitment, retention, and recognition are different in social enterprises, and a move beyond human resource management practices is required.…
Alargarsamy Balasubramanian, A.C.
The research interests and applicability of robotics have diversified and seen a
tremendous growth in recent years. There has been a shift from industrial robots operating in constrained settings to consumer robots working in dynamic environments associated closely with everyday human
Reagles, Kenneth W.; Butler, Alfred S.
The Human Service Scale is an assessment instrument for measuring the progress of the rehabilitation client and the effectiveness of rehabilitation programs. The theory behind the scale is based on Maslow's hierarchy of human needs. The development and some potential uses of the scale are discussed. (EC)
Do, Ha Manh; Sheng, Weihua; Liu, Meiqin
This paper proposes and implements an open framework of active auditory learning for a home service robot to serve the elderly living alone at home. The framework was developed to realize the various auditory perception capabilities while enabling a remote human operator to involve in the sound event recognition process for elderly care. The home service robot is able to estimate the sound source position and collaborate with the human operator in sound event recognition while protecting the privacy of the elderly. Our experimental results validated the proposed framework and evaluated auditory perception capabilities and human-robot collaboration in sound event recognition.
Herring, Bradley; Gaskin, Darrell; Zare, Hossein; Anderson, Gerard
The tax-exempt status of nonprofit hospitals has received increased attention from policymakers interested in examining the value they provide instead of paying taxes. We use 2012 data from the Internal Revenue Service (IRS) Form 990, Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) Hospital Cost Reports, and American Hospital Association’s (AHA) Annual Survey to compare the value of community benefits with the tax exemption. We contrast nonprofit’s total community benefits to what for-profits provide and distinguish between charity and other community benefits. We find that the value of the tax exemption averages 5.9% of total expenses, while total community benefits average 7.6% of expenses, incremental nonprofit community benefits beyond those provided by for-profits average 5.7% of expenses, and incremental charity alone average 1.7% of expenses. The incremental community benefit exceeds the tax exemption for only 62% of nonprofits. Policymakers should be aware that the tax exemption is a rather blunt instrument, with many nonprofits benefiting greatly from it while providing relatively few community benefits. PMID:29436247
Yang, Taeyang; Lee, Seungji; Seomoon, Eunbi; Kim, Sung-Phil
Brand extension is a marketing strategy to apply the previously established brand name into new goods or service. A number of studies have reported the characteristics of human event-related potentials (ERPs) in response to the evaluation of goods-to-goods brand extension. In contrast, human brain responses to the evaluation of service extension are relatively unexplored. The aim of this study was investigating cognitive processes underlying the evaluation of service-to-service brand extension with electroencephalography (EEG). A total of 56 text stimuli composed of service brand name (S1) followed by extended service name (S2) were presented to participants. The EEG of participants was recorded while participants were asked to evaluate whether a given brand extension was acceptable or not. The behavioral results revealed that participants could evaluate brand extension though they had little knowledge about the extended services, indicating the role of brand in the evaluation of the services. Additionally, we developed a method of grouping brand extension stimuli according to the fit levels obtained from behavioral responses, instead of grouping of stimuli a priori . The ERP analysis identified three components during the evaluation of brand extension: N2, P300, and N400. No difference in the N2 amplitude was found among the different levels of a fit between S1 and S2. The P300 amplitude for the low level of fit was greater than those for higher levels ( p service-to-service brand extension from goods-to-goods.
Hyde, Cheryl A
Comprehensive multicultural organizational development (MCOD) is increasingly necessary in human services agencies. This article presents results from an exploratory study that identified challenges and solutions to MCOD, against the backdrop of daily realities of agency life. The author conducted interviews with 20 consultants and 20 practitioners experienced in MCOD. Qualitative analysis revealed four challenges--socioeconomic environment, organizational dynamics, conceptualization of the change effort, and consultant competence; and four solutions--collaborative environmental relations, leadership development, assessment and planning, and consultant selection. Results suggest the complexities of MCOD and ways that human services agencies can sustain such efforts.
Full Text Available The nature and characteristics of the nonprofit brand strength construct are conceptualized. Brand strength is defined as a multidimensional construct, composed by brand familiarity, brand remarkability, and brand attitude. Brand familiarity refers to the level of knowledge the target audience has about the brand object. Brand attitude refers to the degree to which a brand object is perceived favorably by a target group. Brand remarkability refers to the degree to which a brand object is perceived by a target group to be extraordinary. In the brand management nomological net, brand strength acts as a moderator, influencing the strength of the relationship between marketing tactics (antecedents and marketing outcomes (consequents. Brand strength’s inter-dimensional relationships are conceptualized. A brand strength strategy grid is presented, which informs brand management strategy based on a brand’s current levels of brand familiarity and brand remarkability.
Organizations that are successful and competitive long-term have learned to efficiently utilize their resources, such as money, people, facilities, and time. Over the last half-century, there have been a variety of theories and techniques put forth on how to do this. One recent theory applied in the aerospace industry is Lean Management (LM), which emphasizes a customer focus and a rigorous elimination of activities that do not add value from the customer's perspective. LM has not, until now, been evaluated for small, nonprofit, one-off production organizations (NOPOs). Previous research on LM focused on for-profit companies and large-scale production organizations, producing relatively similar products repetitively (e.g. automobiles, commercial satellites, aircraft, and launch vehicles). One-off production organizations typically create one-of-a-kind products. The purpose of this research is to examine the applicability of LM to a NOPO. LM will improve resource utilization and thereby competitiveness, as well as exploring a new area of knowledge and research. The research methodology consists of conducting case studies, formal and informal interviews, observation and analysis in order to assess whether and how LM may be beneficial. The research focuses on one particular NOPO, BioServe Space Technologies (BST): a nonprofit, payload development organization. Additional NOPOs were interviewed in order to draw more generalized conclusions about LM benefits. The research demonstrates that LM is applicable to NOPOs, thus providing a tool to improve efficiency and competitiveness. Results from this research are guidelines for payload development organizations to implement LM, and highlighting potential LM weaknesses. A major conclusion is that LM needs some minor modifications to be applicable and useful to NOPOs, particularly in terms of value stream mapping. The LM implementation roadmap developed for NOPOs introduces customized metrics, as well as including standard
Current debates on conscientious objection to military service reveal a conflict between conscription and individual freedom of conscience; they question the scope of human rights and liberties as well as raise an issue of their extension. The majority of member states of UN and CoE officially recognize a right to conscientious objection. However, the flow of complaints to international human rights monitoring bodies demonstrates absence of a general consensus on the concept, origin and legal...
Based on the impressive work of Hopt and von Hippel (2010), I review the comparative corporate governance of non-profit organizations and propose topics for future research. There is evidence of agency problems in non-profit as well as for-profit organizations, but the governance mechanisms...
According to the author, the setting for their nonprofit education center was close to ideal: Support from a dean who cares deeply about nonprofit organizations; encouragement from the university and its renewed focus on reaching beyond its walls on the eve of its centennial; and a generous gift from alumni who have been affiliated with the…
Herbst, P.; Prüfer, J.
This paper formalizes the difference between firms, nonprofits, and cooperatives and identifies optimal organizational choice. In a model of quality provision, we find a clear ranking of quality produced: Firms provide lowest and nonprofits highest levels of quality. Efficiency, however, depends on
Herbst, P.; Prüfer, J.
Abstract This paper formalizes the difference between firms, nonprofits, and cooperatives and identifies optimal organizational choice. In a model of quality provision, we find a clear ranking of quality produced: Firms provide lowest and nonprofits highest levels of quality. Efficiency, however,
Full Text Available Sustainability of nonprofit organizations is a key concern for today’s nonprofit scholars and practitioners. Building upon the nonprofit economics literature, the present paper introduces the distinction between the demand-side and supply-side determinants of nonprofit sustainability and makes the case for the discrepancy between them. This discrepancy presents not only a generic conceptual explanation of the nonprofit sustainability problems but is also applicable to the context of the European rural nonprofit sector. Three arguments are advanced. First, the notorious implementation problems of LEADER partnerships can be explained as a manifestation of the above discrepancy. Second, and related, the rural context implies the tendency of the supply-side determinants of nonprofit sustainability to undermine the demand-side ones. Third, recent empirical findings from the Czech Republic show that this tendency does not necessarily imply the possibility of a clear classification of the demand-side and supply-side sustainability determinants. Rather, those features of rural areas and communities that significantly affect the size of the local nonprofit sector exhibit a controversial entanglement of demand-side and supply-side identities.
Full Text Available Public and nonprofit organizations, entwined in the delivery of public goods and services, are in the midst of challenging economic times. In these circumstances, sound collaborative leadership may help bridge budget and program service delivery shortfalls. In this paper, we examine the administrative dynamics of mutual reliance between two prominent public and nonprofit organizations: public schools and parent-teacher groups (PTGs. We conclude that the partnership is changing as a result of external, economic forces. In essence, we are seeing a threat-rigidity response. The economic crisis may be responsible for causing PTGs to narrow their range of activities away from broader strategic issues that can be addressed through their confrontation activities and advocacy mission towards a narrower focus on classroom activities that protect core school operations, namely instruction.
Edwards, James G.
The Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI) was used to assess the level and intensity of burnout in 165 California State University at Long Beach college seniors preparing for the human services professions, specifically teaching, nursing, criminal justice, and social welfare. A comparison group of 80 engineering seniors was also assessed. The 40-item…
McFadden, Hope; Moracco, John
Burnout in human service organizations can be caused by funding problems, overwork, the nature of clients, and ineffective management. A social-professional support group should be a formal part of the organizational structure to provide opportunities for evaluation and feedback, as well as individual help to professionals. (JAC)
VanDierendonck, D; Schaufeli, W.B; Buunk, Abraham (Bram)
This research investigated the impact on burnout of inequity experienced by human service professionals. Two studies were conducted, among therapists working with inmates in a forensic psychiatric center (N = 112) and among staff members of an institute for the direct care of mentally disabled (N =
Accessibility of services for early infant diagnosis of Human Immunodeficiency Virus in sub-Saharan Africa: a systematic review. ... infants who received a virological test within the first 2 months of life in sub-Saharan Africa varied from 3 to 58%, far below the 80% recommended level by the World Health Organization.
The paper is aimed at examining the poverty profile of Nigeria and its consequences on access to health care services and human capital development in the country. It is a startling paradox that about two – thirds of Nigerians are poor despite living in a country with vast potential wealth. Apart from looking at the theoretical ...
Ørberg Jensen, Peter D.; Petersen, Bent
In this exploratory study we look at human asset aspects of offshore outsourcing of services that over time become more advanced and strategic potent to the outsourcing firms. As a consequence, the outsourcing firms might want to internalize the operations. We focus on the ways that outsourcing......, the internalization process....
Full Text Available Brand extension is a marketing strategy to apply the previously established brand name into new goods or service. A number of studies have reported the characteristics of human event-related potentials (ERPs in response to the evaluation of goods-to-goods brand extension. In contrast, human brain responses to the evaluation of service extension are relatively unexplored. The aim of this study was investigating cognitive processes underlying the evaluation of service-to-service brand extension with electroencephalography (EEG. A total of 56 text stimuli composed of service brand name (S1 followed by extended service name (S2 were presented to participants. The EEG of participants was recorded while participants were asked to evaluate whether a given brand extension was acceptable or not. The behavioral results revealed that participants could evaluate brand extension though they had little knowledge about the extended services, indicating the role of brand in the evaluation of the services. Additionally, we developed a method of grouping brand extension stimuli according to the fit levels obtained from behavioral responses, instead of grouping of stimuli a priori. The ERP analysis identified three components during the evaluation of brand extension: N2, P300, and N400. No difference in the N2 amplitude was found among the different levels of a fit between S1 and S2. The P300 amplitude for the low level of fit was greater than those for higher levels (p < 0.05. The N400 amplitude was more negative for the mid- and high-level fits than the low level. The ERP results of P300 and N400 indicate that the early stage of brain extension evaluation might first detect low-fit brand extension as an improbable target followed by the late stage of the integration of S2 into S1. Along with previous findings, our results demonstrate different cognitive evaluation of service-to-service brand extension from goods-to-goods.
Yang, Taeyang; Lee, Seungji; Seomoon, Eunbi; Kim, Sung-Phil
Brand extension is a marketing strategy to apply the previously established brand name into new goods or service. A number of studies have reported the characteristics of human event-related potentials (ERPs) in response to the evaluation of goods-to-goods brand extension. In contrast, human brain responses to the evaluation of service extension are relatively unexplored. The aim of this study was investigating cognitive processes underlying the evaluation of service-to-service brand extension with electroencephalography (EEG). A total of 56 text stimuli composed of service brand name (S1) followed by extended service name (S2) were presented to participants. The EEG of participants was recorded while participants were asked to evaluate whether a given brand extension was acceptable or not. The behavioral results revealed that participants could evaluate brand extension though they had little knowledge about the extended services, indicating the role of brand in the evaluation of the services. Additionally, we developed a method of grouping brand extension stimuli according to the fit levels obtained from behavioral responses, instead of grouping of stimuli a priori. The ERP analysis identified three components during the evaluation of brand extension: N2, P300, and N400. No difference in the N2 amplitude was found among the different levels of a fit between S1 and S2. The P300 amplitude for the low level of fit was greater than those for higher levels (p < 0.05). The N400 amplitude was more negative for the mid- and high-level fits than the low level. The ERP results of P300 and N400 indicate that the early stage of brain extension evaluation might first detect low-fit brand extension as an improbable target followed by the late stage of the integration of S2 into S1. Along with previous findings, our results demonstrate different cognitive evaluation of service-to-service brand extension from goods-to-goods. PMID:29479313
María José Sanzo
Full Text Available Business-nonprofit partnerships have gained increased relevance in the context of the evolution of corporate social responsibility strategies and the existence of extremely complex societal and environmental challenges. However, these collaborations are also associated with important ethical concerns. Under such a scenario, this study attempts to shed light on the effects of high value-added partnerships—i.e., those characterized by a process of nonprofit empowerment—on two potential risks of business-nonprofit partnerships: co-optation and loss of personnel’s identification with the nonprofit’s social mission. Based on a two-step survey to a representative sample of Spanish nonprofits involved in social partnerships with firms, results reveal the existence of a mixed influence in both cases, positive and negative. Several implications for practitioners are drawn, specifically about how firms and nonprofits can reduce the negative ethical consequences of partnering.
Rysavy, F R; Bishop, M J; Gibbs, G P; Williams, G W
This paper presents an overview of computing and networking facilities developed by the Medical Research Council to provide online computing support to the Human Genome Mapping Project (HGMP) in the UK. The facility is connected to a number of other computing facilities in various centres of genetics and molecular biology research excellence, either directly via high-speed links or through national and international wide-area networks. The paper describes the design and implementation of the current system, a 'client/server' network of Sun, IBM, DEC and Apple servers, gateways and workstations. A short outline of online computing services currently delivered by this system to the UK human genetics research community is also provided. More information about the services and their availability could be obtained by a direct approach to the UK HGMP-RC.
Aldridge, M G
Catholic health care organizations are experiencing a tension between evangelical mission and expanding competition in medical markets. For the voluntary, not-for-profit health and human services system to survive and grow, hospital communities must find new revenue sources that do not create dependence on state and federal monies. The United States entered the Age of Maturity in 1985 as the "baby boomers" born between 1945 and 1957 became 40 years old, requiring health care providers to begin to plan for their care in old age. This large aging population, combined with a longer life span for Americans, will put increased burdens on health care organizations, particularly for chronic care, up to the year 2020 or beyond. Changes in family structure and social networks will be necessary as more people care for older relatives. The ratio of nonworkers to workers will increase, further burdening national and state tax bases, Social Security, and other worker-contributor programs. Investment banks are one option to finance the older population's increased needs for health and human services. Investment banks are funded by donations from the private sector (local and national businesses), the public sector (state, national, and local agencies), and new for-profit ventures for older persons. The contributions themselves remain in a central fund, with only the interest generated being used to fund local organizations committed to financial self-sufficiency and to helping the elderly. Older persons will carry increased economic and political clout in the Age of Maturity and will constitute a large percentage of hospitals' business. Therefore hospitals will have to develop a strong market position among the elderly. They must consider integrating a new service mix of both health and human services. Candidates for new hospital services for the elderly include housing programs, long-term care and continuum of care programs, employment programs, retirement planning, estate
Hamel, D.R. [Department of Agriculture-Forest Service, Washington, DC (United States)
This paper identifies the kinds of risk assessments being done by or for the US Department of Agriculture (USDA) Forest Service. Summaries of data sources currently in use and the pesticide risk assessments completed by the agency or its contractors are discussed. An overview is provided of the agency`s standard operating procedures for the conduct of toxicological, ecological, environmental fate, and human health risk assessments.
This article examines the implications of revenue changes on the financial condition of nonprofit hos pitals. I examine these implications empirically by studying the effect of changes in Medicare payments in the Balanced Budget Act of 1997. Using data from the Healthcare Cost Report Information System maintained by the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services between 1996 and 2004, I show that even though revenue fell significantly, resulting in a decline in profitability, hospitals did not significantly change their capital structure and use of capital. An important implication of this is a higher cost of borrowing for these hospitals, which can affect future capital accumulation and viability. Nonprofit hospitals are a very important part of the healthcare delivery system in the United States. Medicare patients constitute the single largest segment of their revenue sources. Understanding the consequences of the changes in Medicare reimbursement on hospital finances is useful in framing future revisions of Medicare payments.
McGinn, Conor; Cullinan, Michael F; Culleton, Mark; Kelly, Kevin
Multipurpose robots that can perform a range of useful tasks have the potential to increase the quality of life for many people living with disabilities. Owing to factors such as high system complexity, as-yet unresolved research questions and current technology limitations, there is a need for effective strategies to coordinate the development process. Integrating established methodologies based on human-centred design and universal design, a framework was formulated to coordinate the robot design process over successive iterations of prototype development. An account is given of how the framework was practically applied to the problem of developing a personal service robot. Application of the framework led to the formation of several design goals which addressed a wide range of identified user needs. The resultant prototype solution, which consisted of several component elements, succeeded in demonstrating the performance stipulated by all of the proposed metrics. Application of the framework resulted in the development of a complex prototype that addressed many aspects of the functional and usability requirements of a personal service robot. Following the process led to several important insights which directly benefit the development of subsequent prototypes. Implications for Rehabilitation This research shows how universal design might be used to formulate usability requirements for assistive service robots. A framework is presented that guides the process of designing service robots in a human-centred way. Through practical application of the framework, a prototype robot system that addressed a range of identified user needs was developed.
Kandel, Himal; Murthy, G V S; Bascaran, Covadonga
Uncorrected refractive error is a public health problem globally and in Nepal. Planning of refraction services is hampered by a paucity of data. This study was conducted to determine availability and distribution of human resources for refraction, their efficiency, the type and extent of their training; the current service provision of refraction services and the unmet need in human resources for refraction in Central Nepal. This was a descriptive cross-sectional study. All refraction facilities in the Central Region were identified through an Internet search and interviews of key informants from the professional bodies and parent organisations of primary eye centres. A stratified simple random sampling technique was used to select 50 per cent of refraction facilities. The selected facilities were visited for primary data collection. Face-to-face interviews were conducted with the managers and the refractionists available in the facilities using a semi-structured questionnaire. Data was collected in 29 centres. All the managers (n=29; response rate 100 per cent) and 50 refractionists (Response rate 65.8 per cent) were interviewed. Optometrists and ophthalmic assistants were the main providers of refraction services (n=70, 92.11 per cent). They were unevenly distributed across the region, highly concentrated around urban areas. The median number of refractions per refractionist per year was 3,600 (IQR: 2,400 - 6,000). Interviewed refractionists stated that clients' knowledge, attitude and practice related factors such as lack of awareness of the need for refraction services and/or availability of existing services were the major barriers to the output of refraction services. The total number of refractions carried out in the Central Region per year was 653,176. An additional 170 refractionists would be needed to meet the unmet need of 1,323,234 refractions. The study findings demand a major effort to develop appropriately trained personnel when planning
Moos, W H; Kodukula, K
Nonprofit organizations (NPOs) play an increasingly important role providing solutions to the significant challenges faced today by both large pharmaceutical and smaller biotechnology companies, not to mention academia. NPOs chartered for the public benefit are common in the USA and in selected other parts of the world. SRI International, originally founded as the Stanford Research Institute in 1946, is one of the largest and most successful independent NPOs. To provide a perspective on NPO business models, a number of SRI case studies spanning a broad range of technical and business initiatives will be summarized, including basic and contract research, discovery and development of new drugs and biologics, pharmaceutical and biotech research and development and contract services, technology pivots, company spin-ins and spin-outs, and the creation of new NPOs. How to bridge the National Institute of Health's "Valley of Death" and how to navigate the Food and Drug Administration's "Critical Path" will be discussed. We conclude with lessons learned about collaborations and routes to commercialization, along with food for thought for bioscience companies and outsourcing participants. Throughout, we attempt to explain why the role of NPOs is important to both the scientific and business communities and to patients and caregivers.
Due to the increased global political importance of the nonprofit sector, its technological support and organizational characteristics have become important fields of research. In order to conduct effective work, nonprofits need to communicate and coordinate effectively. However, such settings are generally characterized by a lack of resources, an absence of formal hierarchical structures and differences in languages and culture among the activists. Modern technologies could help nonprofit networks in improving their working. In order to design appropriate technological support for such settings, it is important to understand their work practices, which widely differ from traditional business organizations. This book aims to strengthen the body of knowledge by providing user studies and concepts related to user centered technology design process for nonprofit settings. The examination of ethnographic studies and user centered evaluation of IT artifacts in practice will further the understanding of design requ...
This guidance is intended to provide non-profit grant recipients with information to ensure that their organizations remain in compliance with the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR), Office of Management (OMB) cost principles, and the terms and conditions.
The thesis presents about social media in general and social media for non-profit organizations in Vietnam in particular. The writer wanted to explore the disadvantages that non-profits in Vietnam face when using social media and search for recommendations which helps them to use it more efficiently. In the theoretic part, core concepts related to social media were introduced, namely, definition of social media, its types, the popular platforms, situation of social media in Vietnam, pros...
Kapucu, Naim; Palabıyık, Hamit; Yuldashev, Ferhod
Nonprofit organizations are experiencing challenging leadership problems. Especially in this era of highly accelerate baby boom retirement new leaders of the increasingly commercialized nonprofit sector are devoid of the leadership skills necessary to accomplish the mission of an organization. This paper analyzes the problem of leadership planning, training, and development and proposes the ways of mitigating the problem through effective transference of knowledge and skills...
Almeida, Álvaro S
The national health services (NHS) of England, Portugal, Finland and other single-payer universalist systems financed by general taxation, are based on the theoretical principle of an integrated public sector payer-provider. However, in practice one can find different forms of participation of non-public healthcare providers in those NHS, including private for profit providers, but also third sector non-profit organizations (NPO). This paper reviews the role of non-public non-profit healthcare organizations in NHS systems. By crossing a literature review on privatization of national health services with a literature review on the comparative performance of non-profit and for-profit healthcare organizations, this paper assesses the impact of contracting private non-profit healthcare organizations on the efficiency, quality and responsiveness of services, in public universal health care systems. The results of the review were then compared to the existing evidence on the Portuguese hospital devolution to NPO program. The evidence in this paper suggests that NHS health system reforms that transfer some public-sector hospitals to NPO should deliver improvements to the health system with minimal downside risks. The very limited existing evidence on the Portuguese hospital devolution program suggests it improved efficiency and access, without sacrificing quality. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Packard, Thomas; Patti, Rino; Daly, Donna; Tucker-Tatlow, Jennifer
This is a study of organizational change strategies employed in seven county human service agencies to improve the coordination of services through the structural integration of previously free standing organizations or the development of voluntary interagency collaborative service delivery systems. The central question involves the identification of organizational change tactics which contributed to the success of the organizational change initiatives. The literature on organizational change is reviewed, with particular attention to a framework developed by Fernandez and Rainey based on their extensive review and synthesis of the research on successful change strategies in the public and business sectors. Qualitative and quantitative data were gathered from over 250 individuals and from agency documents. Findings are compared with the success factors identified by Fernandez and Rainey, and refinements to their propositions are suggested. More precise methods for measuring successful and unsuccessful change initiatives are suggested. Implications for practice and research are presented.
Shaw, Dorothy; Cook, Rebecca J
Universal access to reproductive health is a target of Millennium Development Goal (MDG) 5B, and along with MDG 5A to reduce maternal mortality by three-quarters, progress is currently too slow for most countries to achieve these targets by 2015. Critical to success are increased and sustainable numbers of skilled healthcare workers and financing of essential medicines by governments, who have made political commitments in United Nations forums to renew their efforts to reduce maternal mortality. National essential medicine lists are not reflective of medicines available free or at cost in facilities or in the community. The WHO Essential Medicines List indicates medicines required for maternal and newborn health including the full range of contraceptives and emergency contraception, but there is no consistent monitoring of implementation of national lists through procurement and supply even for basic essential drugs. Health advocates are using human rights mechanisms to ensure governments honor their legal commitments to ensure access to services essential for reproductive health. Maternal mortality is recognized as a human rights violation by the United Nations and constitutional and human rights are being used, and could be used more effectively, to improve maternity services and to ensure access to drugs essential for reproductive health. Copyright © 2012 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Herrick, Rick; McKay, Michael; Olsen, Timothy; Horton, William; Florida, Mark; Moore, Charles J.; Marcus, Daniel S.
Full Text Available The XNAT informatics platform is an open source data management tool used by biomedical imaging researchers around the world. An important feature of XNAT is its highly extensible architecture: users of XNAT can add new data types to the system to capture the imaging and phenotypic data generated in their studies. Until recently, XNAT has had limited capacity to broadcast the meaning of these data extensions to users, other XNAT installations, and other software.We have implemented a data dictionary service for XNAT, which is currently being used on ConnectomeDB, the Human Connectome Project (HCP public data sharing website. The data dictionary service provides a framework to define key relationships between data elements and structures across the XNAT installation. This includes not just core data representing medical imaging data or subject or patient evaluations, but also taxonomical structures, security relationships, subject groups, and research protocols. The data dictionary allows users to define metadata for data structures and their properties, such as value types (e.g. textual, integers, floats and valid value templates, ranges, or field lists. The service provides compatibility and integration with other research data management services by enabling easy migration of XNAT data to standards-based formats such as RDF, JSON, and XML. It also facilitates the conversion of XNAT’s native data schema into standard neuroimaging ontology structures and provenances.
Shwartz, L.; Rosu, D.; Loewenstern, D.; Buco, M. J.; Guo, S.; Lavrado, Rafael Coelho; Gupta, M.; De, P.; Madduri, V.; Singh, J. K.
In this paper, we address the problem of reducing the occurrence of Human Errors that cause service interruptions in IT Service Support and Delivery operations. Analysis of a large volume of service interruption records revealed that more than 21
Gerlach, John David
As the American nonprofit sector continues to grow, so does interest in nonprofit management graduate education. MPA programs play a significant role in preparing students for work in the nonprofit field. This article examines nonprofit management as an area of graduate study, paying particular attention to how NASPAA-accredited MPA programs…
... software lending by nonprofit libraries. 201.24 Section 201.24 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights... copyright for software lending by nonprofit libraries. (a) Definition. A Warning of Copyright for Software... packaging that contains the computer program which is lent by a nonprofit library for nonprofit purposes. (b...
García-Palmieri, Mario R
Available information (2004-2008) concerning population statistics, the occurrence of cardiovascular disease, cardiovascular services and human resources in Puerto Rico is presented. Relevant information concerning life expectancy at birth, death by specific causes in a recent four years period, the commonest causes of death, and the related cardiovascular risk factors prevalence data available is included. The surgical and medical interventional services rendered to cardiovascular patients in different institutions and their locations in Puerto Rico in the year 2008 is presented. Some remarks concerning the productivity of physicians by our Schools of Medicine is included. Information about ACGME accredited postgraduate cardiovascular training programs conducted in Puerto Rico is presented. Data concerning the prevalence of hypertension, diabetes mellitus, overweight and obesity obtained by BRFSS in presented.
Financial reporting by non-profit organizations deals only with accountability for propriety and regularity, and ignores output measurement. The development of output measures of a physical or index nature offers a means of relating dollar costs to output in the form of cost-efficiency or cost-effectiveness measures, but does not provide any measure of the absolute value or worthwhileness of such programs. This fundamental absolute value question should be asked of all non-profit programs and documented to the greatest possible extent in budgetary submissions, and subsequent control and audit. In public sector non-profit programs, the posing of this question requires information on consumer demand other than in aggregative and imprecise form through the political process, and much improved information on the cost side. Eliciting demand information is feasible in the case of public programs with separable benefits by the use of a variety of pricing techniques, direct or imputed, whether or not the service in question is ultimately financed on a user-pay basis. The problem of eliciting demand is more difficult in the case of public goods, but improved demand information can be obtained, ideally by an approach such as the use of a Clarke tax. The argument can be extended to encompass questions of income distribution, stabilization, regulation and tax policy. Recent developments in program evaluation in the federal government are important, but remain deficient in failing to address the question of absolute value.
Spencer-Cavaliere, Nancy; Kingsley, Bethan C.; Norris, Carmen
Despite recognition that social inclusion is a primary goal within the field of human services, people with disabilities continue to live lives of clienthood, marginalisation, and exclusion and human services staff struggle to make social inclusion a priority. The purpose of this study was to explore the perspectives of human services staff about…
...-2011-0011] Public Health Service Guideline for Reducing Transmission of Human Immunodeficiency Virus... public comment on the draft Public Health Service Guideline for Reducing Transmission of Human..., Attn: Public Health Service Guideline for Reducing Transmission of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV...
Wang, Da-Shang; Zheng, Hua; Ouyang, Zhi-Yun
Sustainable ecosystem services supply is the basis of regional sustainable development, and human beings can satisfy and improve their well-being through ecosystem services consumption. To understand the relationships between ecosystem services supply and consumption and human well-being is of vital importance for coordinating the relationships between the conservation of ecosystem services and the improvement of human well-being. This paper summarized the diversity, complexity, and regionality of ecosystem services supply, the diversity and indispensability of ecosystem services consumption, and the multi-dimension, regionality, and various evaluation indices of human well-being, analyzed the uncertainty and multi-scale correlations between ecosystem services supply and consumption, and elaborated the feedback and asynchronous relationships between ecosystem services and human well-being. Some further research directions for the relationships between ecosystem services supply and consumption and human well-being were recommended.
Schwarz, Corinne; Unruh, Erik; Cronin, Katie; Evans-Simpson, Sarah; Britton, Hannah; Ramaswamy, Megha
The medical sector presents a unique opportunity for identification and service to victims of human trafficking. In this article, we describe local and site-specific efforts to develop an intervention tool to be used in an urban hospital's emergency department in the midwestern United States. In the development of our tool, we focused on both identification and intervention to assist trafficked persons, through a largely collaborative process in which we engaged local stakeholders for developing site-specific points of intervention. In the process of developing our intervention, we highlight the importance of using existing resources and services in a specific community to address critical gaps in coverage for trafficked persons. For example, we focus on those who are victims of labor trafficking, in addition to those who are victims of sex trafficking. We offer a framework informed by rights-based approaches to anti-trafficking efforts that addresses the practical challenges of human trafficking victim identification while simultaneously working to provide resources and disseminate services to those victims.
John R. McCaskill
Full Text Available This study examines social media efforts among environmentally focused nonprofits. A survey of environmentally focused nonprofits revealed that more than half of these organizations receive government funding. Prior research demonstrates social media is an efficient medium in which to simultaneously communicate with multiple stakeholders. However, stakeholder engagement is likely tied with the need to raise funds. From that basis, we discuss social media use among nonprofits and develop hypotheses about differences in social media use among organizations receiving government funds and those not receiving government funds. Our hypotheses are rooted in resource dependency theory (RDT and dialogic communication theory (DCT. We test our hypotheses on data from environmentally focused nonprofits by comparing the levels of social media engagement with varying levels of their total funding provided by government grants to determine if there is a correlation with the level of public engagement via social media. We find the level of engagement on the social media site Facebook is lower for government-funded environmental nonprofits than privately funded ones. The findings of reduced social media engagement and the dependence upon government funding versus private funding supports the precepts of resource dependency theory.
Andersen, Lars Peter Sønderbo; Hogh, Annie; Biering, Karin
BACKGROUND: Threats and violence at work are major concerns for employees in many human service sectors. The prevention of work-related violence is a major challenge for employees and management. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to identify prospective associations between psycho-social w......BACKGROUND: Threats and violence at work are major concerns for employees in many human service sectors. The prevention of work-related violence is a major challenge for employees and management. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to identify prospective associations between psycho...... rewards at work, low role clarity, many role conflicts, many work-family conflicts and low organizational justice had statistically significant associations with high levels of work-related threats. Furthermore, high emotional demands, low predictability, low role clarity, many role conflicts, many work......-family conflicts, low supervisor quality and low support from nearest supervisor had statistically significant associations with high levels of work-related violence. Finally, across the four sectors both similar and different associations between psycho-social work environment and work-related violence...
Karyne Cheng Siew Ang
Full Text Available In most non-profit organisations (NPOs, there are multiple programs, projects or initiatives running simultaneously. The management of multiple projects in organisations can be coined as project portfolio management (PPM (Archer & Ghasemzadeh 1999; Pennypacker & Dye 2002. In any project-based organisation, it is critical that selected projects align with and deliver the organisation’s strategy or mission. Decisions about project funding are strategic decisions, particularly when there are resource limitations. In PPM decision making, the allocation of resources to projects requires a clear judgement of value across multiple perspectives. Value has often been expressed in financial terms, however increasingly research indicates that non-financial considerations are equally important in evaluating value. A key task in project portfolio management is to maximise value across the portfolio. However, value can be a subjective notion, as each person may have different expectations of what is valuable. The involvement of diverse stakeholder interests could create complexities in decision making in non-profit organisations due to value being interpreted in different ways by the stakeholders. Furthermore in order to achieve its purpose, non-profits depend heavily on donors, patrons and sponsors - stakeholders who contribute to the portfolio but are often not the direct recipients of the services provided by the non-profit organisation (Kaplan 2012. Non-profit portfolios often compete with other initiatives for resources and attention from the same donors and sponsors, and may need to constantly justify the value they provide to these stakeholders. Most research about value in PPM has been conducted in the ‘for-profit’ sector. Recent value-based studies in the project portfolio field stress the importance of considering both commercial and non-commercial value in portfolio decision making (Killen, du Plessis & Young 2012; Kopman 2013; Martinsuo
Goussinsky, Ruhama; Reshef, Arie; Yanay-Ventura, Galit; Yassour-Borochowitz, Dalit
Qualitative research is an inherent part of the human services profession, since it emphasizes the great and multifaceted complexity characterizing human experience and the sociocultural context in which humans act. In the department of human services at Emek Yezreel College, Israel, we have developed a three-phase model to ensure a relatively…
Karssenberg, Derek; Vaartjes, Ilonca; Kamphuis, Carlijn; Strak, Maciek; Schmitz, Oliver; Soenario, Ivan; de Jong, Kor
The exposome is the totality of human environmental exposures from conception onwards. Identifying the contribution of the exposome to human diseases and health is a key issue in health research. Examples include the effect of air pollution exposure on cardiovascular diseases, the impact of disease vectors (mosquitos) and surface hydrology exposure on malaria, and the effect of fast food restaurant exposure on obesity. Essential to health research is to disentangle the effects of the exposome and genome on health. Ultimately this requires quantifying the totality of all human exposures, for each individual in the studied human population. This poses a massive challenge to geoscientists, as environmental data are required at a high spatial and temporal resolution, with a large spatial and temporal coverage representing the area inhabited by the population studied and the time span representing several decades. Then, these data need to be combined with space-time paths of individuals to calculate personal exposures for each individual in the population. The Global and Geo Health Data Centre is taking this challenge by providing a web service capable of enriching population data with exposome information. Our web service can generate environmental information either from archived national (up to 5 m spatial and 1 h temporal resolution) and global environmental information or generated on the fly using environmental models running as microservices. On top of these environmental data services runs an individual exposure service enabling health researchers to select different spatial and temporal aggregation methods and to upload space-time paths of individuals. These are then enriched with personal exposures and eventually returned to the user. We illustrate the service in an example of individual exposures to air pollutants calculated from hyper resolution air pollution data and various approaches to estimate space-time paths of individuals.
Reeves, Terrie C; Ford, Eric W
Despite mixed and contradictory findings, for-profits (FPs) and nonprofits (NPs) are assumed to be similar health services organizations (HSOs). In this study, a fifteen-item scale assessing HSOs' strategic management capacity was developed and tested using fifty-seven FP and twenty NP organizations. Then, using item response theory, the items were hierarchically profiled to produce two strategic profile models, a general and an FP anchored model. We find that deviation from the general profile, but not capability attainment level, is related to two of three financial measures. We conclude that studying FPs and NPs together is appropriate.
Grout, Paul; Schnedler, Wendelin
How does the environment of an organization influence whether workers voluntarily provide effort? We study the power relationship between a non-profit unit (e.g. university department, NGO, health trust), where workers care about the result of their work, and a bu- reaucrat, who supplies some input to the non-profit unit, but has opportunity costs in doing so (e.g. Dean of faculty, corrupt representative, government agency). We find that marginal changes in the balance of power eventually hav...
O. A. Lyndyuk
Full Text Available European integration of Ukraine requires new philosophy of governance modernization and organization, an effective functioning of the civil service system. The urgency of the implementation of humanization approach is a priority for modernization of the national civil service system. The problem of humanization of the civil service in the context of the European integration of Ukraine has been studied in the article. The essence of concepts of «humanism» and «humanization of the civil service» has been considered. Humanism is understood as reflected anthropocentrism, with the human being the object with the highest value. The term «humanization of the civil service» means a deliberate reorientation of the civil service and its objects to recognize a human as an absolute value, «a measure of all things» and to meet the vital needs of society, creating conditions for its full self-realization and ensuring sustainable human development. The civil service must guarantee the security and stability of life and protect rights, freedoms and interests of each individual. Humanization of civil service is also determined as strengthening the rights and freedoms of civil servants, special protection of their dignity and the formation of new humanistic principles of civil service. The features of humanization of the national civil service have been analyzed. It has been found that the human is considered to be the highest value and the content and direction of civil servants activity is determined by ensuring his rights and freedoms. The necessity of changing the priorities of civil service modernization on the basis of humanization, orientation on meeting the needs of human and citizen, as well as creating conditions for closer implementation of national civil service standards to those used in the European Union has been proved. Changes in the philosophy of the civil service of Ukraine should be directed to «serving people», functioning of «service
Coleman, Gill; Wiggins, Liz
Purpose The purpose of this paper is to argue for the widening of attention in healthcare improvement efforts, to include an awareness of the humanity of people who work in the sector and an appreciation of the part human connection plays in engagement around good quality work. Theoretical frameworks and research approaches which draw on action-based, interpretive and systemic thinking are proposed, as a complement to current practices. Design/methodology/approach The paper describes the early stages of an action research (AR) project, which used the appreciative inquiry "4D" framework to conduct participative inquiry in Hamad Medical Corporation's ambulance service in Qatar, in which staff became co-researchers. Findings The co-researchers were highly motivated to work with improvement goals as a result of their participation in the AR. They, and their managers, saw each other and the work in new ways and discovered that they had much to offer. Research limitations/implications This was a small-scale pilot project, from which findings must be considered tentative. The challenges of establishing good collaboration across language, culture and organisational divides are considerable. Practical implications Appreciative and action-oriented inquiry methods can serve not only to find things out, but also to highlight and give value to aspects of humanity in the workplace that are routinely left invisible in formal processes. This, in turn, can help with quality improvement. Originality/value This paper is a challenge to the orthodox way of viewing healthcare organisations, and improvement processes within them, as reliant on control rather than empowerment. An alternative is to actively include the agency, sense-making capacity and humanity of those involved.
Kong, Ningning; Fosmire, Michael; Branch, Benjamin Dewayne
In the academic libraries' efforts to support digital humanities and social science, GIS service plays an important role. However, there is no general service model existing about how libraries can develop GIS services to best engage with digital humanities and social science. In this study, we adopted the action research method to develop and…
... 49 Transportation 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Listing of Human Service Federal Financial... (Continued) FEDERAL TRANSIT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION CHARTER SERVICE Pt. 604, App. A Appendix A to Part 604—Listing of Human Service Federal Financial Assistance Programs Federal Programs...
Hugelius, G.; Ahlström, A.; Loisel, J.; Harden, J. W.
Soils provide numerous and indispensable services to ecological systems and human societies. As human populations and human land use changes, the capacity of soils to maintain these services may also change. To investigate this we provide the first global scale study based on the soil service index (SSI; see presentations by Harden et al. and Loisel et al. in this session for more details). In this index multiple soil services are numerically or quantitatively assessed, normalized to a unit-less scale for purposes of intercomparability. Soil services assessed under the SSI include organic matter and/or organic carbon storage; plant productivity; CO2 or GHG exchange with the atmosphere; water storage capacity; and nutrient storage and/or availability. The SSI may be applied at any scale. Here we present a first global application of the SSI and provide broad-scale analyses of soil service spatial distributions. We assess how the SSI will change under projected changes in human societies populations and human land use (following representative concentration pathway scenarios). Present and future potential utilization and vulnerability of soil resources are analyzed in the context of human population distributions and its projected changes. The SSI is designed to be broadly useful across scientific, governance and resource management organizations. To exemplify this, the parameterization of this is global soil service estimate is based on only open source input data.
Mieke van der Bijl-Brouwer
Full Text Available Service design is one of the keys to improving how we target today’s complex societal problems. The predominant view of service systems is mechanistic and linear. A service infrastructure—which includes solutions like service blueprints, scripts, and protocols—is, in some ways, designed to control the behavior of service professionals at the service interface. This view undermines the intrinsic motivation, expertise, and creativity of service professionals. This article presents a different perspective on service design. Using theories of social systems and complex responsive processes, I define service organizations as ongoing iterated patterns of relationships between people, and identify them as complex social service systems. I go on to show how the human-centeredness of design practices contributes to designing for such service systems. In particular, I show how a deep understanding of the needs and aspirations of service professionals through phenomenological themes contributes to designing for social infrastructures that support continuous improvement and adaptation of the practices executed by service professionals at the service interface.
Peruso, Dominick F., Jr.
The rate of tuition inflation at U.S. colleges and universities is alarming and threatens both access and choice. Private nonprofit baccalaureate colleges often possess the highest tuition rates but routinely face financial challenges. This study was designed to better understand the relationship between tuition and financial condition for the…
Vock, M.; van Dolen, W.; Kolk, A.
While most research on business-nonprofit partnerships has focused on macro and meso perspectives, this article pays attention to the micro level. Drawing on various theoretical perspectives from both marketing and management, this study conceptually relates the outcomes of active employee
M. Vock (Marlene); W.M. van Dolen (Willemijn); A. Kolk (Ans)
textabstractWhile most research on business-nonprofit partnerships has focused on macro and meso perspectives, this paper pays attention to the micro level. Drawing on various theoretical perspectives from both marketing and management, we conceptually relate the outcomes of active employee
Describes five behind-the-scenes occupations found in almost every type of charitable nonprofit organization: manager, fundraisers, foundation program officers, communications directors, and executive directors. Lists the training, employment, and earnings characteristics of people-to-people, food-related, advocacy, and trade occupations in the…
Grattan, Kelly E.
Constituent Relationship Management ("CRM") is defined as an organization-wide strategy designed to enable the organization to better manage, track and steward its constituents. CRM has benefited for-profit enterprises for nearly three decades. In the nonprofit sector, the concept of CRM is fairly new. Despite the increase in CRM…
Rodriguez, Edward J.
The question of whether the selling of art by a private nonprofit art association violates the provisions of section 501(c)(3) of the Internal Revenue Code of 1954 is considered. Revenue rulings of 1971 and 1976 suggest that any sale of art may render the organization ineligible for tax exemption when private interests are benefited. (JMD)
Purpose: The purpose of this Delphi study was to explore the views of experts in the field of nonprofit private colleges and universities in the United States to define branding and identify current barriers to branding, to discover how those barriers can be overcome, and to determine what barriers to branding are likely to occur 5 years in the…
... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Periodic audits of nonprofit participants. 603.665 Section 603.665 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (CONTINUED) ASSISTANCE REGULATIONS TECHNOLOGY INVESTMENT AGREEMENTS Award Terms Affecting Participants' Financial, Property, and Purchasing Systems Financial Matters...
Jarosławski, Szymon; Toumi, Mondher; Auquier, Pascal; Dussart, Claude
In wealthy nations, non-profit drug R&D has been proposed to reduce the prices of medicines. We sought to review the ethical and economic issues concerning non-profit drug R&D companies, and the possible impact that their pricing strategy may have on the innovation efforts from for-profit companies targeting the same segment of the pharmaceutical market. There are two possible approaches to pricing drugs developed by non-profit R&D programs: pricing that maximises profits and "affordable" pricing that reflects the cost of manufacturing and distribution, plus a margin that ensures sustainability of the drug supply. Overall, the non-profits face ethical challenges - due to the lack of resources, they are unable to independently commercialize their products on a large scale; however, the antitrust law does not permit them to impose prices on potential licensees. Also, reduced prices for the innovative products may result in drying the for-profit R&D in the area.
Raul M. S. Laureano
Full Text Available Non-profit organizations have invested in the development of content for their Facebook pages, believing be an efficient and effective means to publicize its mission and raising resources, whether monetary or human. The purpose of this study is to assess the satisfaction of the participants with the Facebook page, and how that satisfaction influences the dissemination of the organization through the word-of-mouth and the donations practices. In this context, a questionnaire was administered to 204 participants that were aware of the Portuguese non-profit organization “Leigos para o Desenvolvimento” (People for Development. The results show that the participants are satisfied with Facebook page of the organization, and that there is influence of satisfaction on the word-of-mouth and on the frequency and amount of donations. However, satisfaction with the Facebook, itself, does not appear crucial to the realization of donations, either in the present or in future as intended. The study focuses only on one organization and includes a sample that may not represent all the population extracts and so inhibit the generalization of the findings to other populations. The paper includes implications for the development of an effective use of the Facebook as a digital marketing tool that can contribute to the sustainability of non-profit organizations. The study confirms the importance of the Facebook as a digital marketing tool that can contribute to the sustainability of non-profit organizations.
... low income, advanced age, or with disabilities), shall register on FTA's charter registration Web site... service organization and whether the qualified human service organization is exempt from taxation under...
Full Text Available Efficiency is generally defined as the extent to which resources or effort is employed in order to achieve a certain purpose or objective. As per an economic perspective, this term may also mean a minimum quantity of supplies which can generate a maximum result. But can we talk about efficiency in terms of human resources and their allocation to a specific task? And how one asses the activity of the employees when considering service encounters? This study aims to provide an answer to these two questions from an emotional labor perspective: individuals employ their emotional abilities in order to perform a certain job. This is a process under a commercial perspective: the wage represents the exchange value for these competencies.
Nelson Oly Ndubisi
Full Text Available Internet promotion, otherwise e-brochure (EB or partial e-commerce adoption by non-profit organisations denotes the use of the Internet to provide business and service related information by academic institutions (as in the present study, non-profit organisations, religious organisations, and government agencies to reduce their expenses or to improve their operations and customer service. A field survey of Malaysian universities was conducted to determine the key factors that facilitate the adoption of non-business EB. Since EB adoption decision is a strategic one, a comprehensive list of potential facilitators for the strategic use of information technology (IT was derived from extant literature and used in collecting data from 65 schools and centres in five public universities in Kota Kinabalu and Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. The data were factor-analysed to determine the key underlying dimensions of facilitators. On the basis of the resulting five dimensions namely, relative advantage orientation, network orientation, information efficiency orientation, innovativeness orientation, and competitiveness orientation, regression analysis was done to determine the impact of the five dimensions on non-business EB adoption.
Fredrik O. Andersson
Full Text Available This paper explores the start-up funding intentions of nascent nonprofit entrepreneurs, i.e., individuals in the process of creating a new formal nonprofit organization. The main questions being examined are from which sources nascent nonprofit entrepreneurs anticipate to obtain start-up funding from, how much start-up funding nascent nonprofit entrepreneurs anticipate they will need to formally launch their new nonprofit, and if there are any differences in funding intentions among nascent nonprofit entrepreneurs with and without previous start-up experience. The results from a survey of 103 nascent nonprofit entrepreneurs in Kansas City are presented and contrasted with existing research on funding of new nonprofit organizations. The results show an apparent preference for start-up funding from philanthropic grants and private donations, along with personal contributions of the founder(s.
Elizabeth A. Shannon
Research purpose: The aim of this study was to determine whether staff from the Tasmanian Department of Health and Human Services (Australia experienced increased levels of self-efficacy, social support within the workplace and positive affect, following participation in a leadership development programme. Research design, approach and method: Quantitative and qualitative methods were used, allowing for triangulation of results. The General Self-Efficacy Scale and the Berlin Social-Support Scale (perceived available support, instrumental were applied in an online survey administered before and nine months following the programme. Participant satisfaction surveys captured immediate responses and semi-structured interviews captured longer-term reflections. Main findings: Descriptive statistics indicated a moderate overall increase in self-efficacy, with strong increases in resilience, dealing with opposition, resourcefulness and problem solving. There was some evidence of greater overall social support and a strong increase in the development of social support networks. There was no support for an increase in participants’ positive orientation towards their jobs in the quantitative data. The impact of adverse environmental factors on participants’ perceptions also became evident through the interviews. Practical implications: Leadership development programmes that strengthen positive psychological resources provide participants with confidence and resilience in times of change. Organisations benefit from increased levels of employee self-efficacy as engagement and problem-solving abilities are enhanced. Contribution/value-add: These results contribute to the body of knowledge associated with effective leadership development.
... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Financial management standards for nonprofit participants... Financial Matters § 603.620 Financial management standards for nonprofit participants. So as not to force... organization, expenditure-based TIA requirements for the financial management system of any nonprofit...
Cleveland, Gordon; Krashinsky, Michael
Nonprofit child care centers are frequently observed to produce child care which is, on average, of higher quality than care provided in commercial child care centers. In part, this nonprofit advantage is due to different input choices made by nonprofit centers--lower child--staff ratios, better-educated staff and directors, higher rates of…
Bialeschki, M. Deborah; Conn, Michael
This commentary discusses the emergence of youth development research and evaluation in the nonprofit arena over the past 10 to 15 years. Included in this discussion is the establishment of the context for youth development research in nonprofits, a brief description of key examples of research from three youth nonprofits that illustrate the…
Byrne, Tara Marie
This qualitative study explored the key reasons individuals who work in K-12 education nonprofit organizations enter the field of K-12 nonprofit education and their motivations for doing so. The purpose of this study was to find new strategies for recruiting and retaining K-12 education nonprofit employees by examining the obstacles that exist to…
Li, Jing; Zhou, Z X
Due to the accelerated growth of society, the gaps between the capacity of ecosystems to provide services and human needs are steadily widening. Natural, semi-natural, or managed ecosystems had been able to provide ecosystem services to meet the needs of social development. Four agricultural ecosystem services (net primary production (NPP), carbon sequestration and oxygen production (CSOP), water interception, soil conservation and agriculture production) were quantified in Guanzhong-Tianshui economic region. Estimates of ecosystem services were obtained from the analysis of satellite imagery and the use of well-known models. Based on the ecological services in Guanzhong-Tianshui economic region, this study mainly analysed the driving mechanism of the changes from the two aspects of natural drivers and human drivers. Natural drivers (climate, soil, elevation, land cover) had incentive to the ecological services. Human activity was quantified by an integrated human activity index (HAI) based on population density, farmland ratio, and the influence of road networks and residential areas. We found relationships between ecosystem services, human activities and many natural factors, however these varied according to the service studied. Human activities were mostly negatively related to each ecosystem services, while population and residential land ware positively related to agricultural production. Land use change had made a contribution to ecosystem services. Based on the selected ecosystem services and HAI, we provided sustainable ecosystem management suggestions.
Hofman, Erwin; Meijerink, Jeroen Gerard
This paper tests the utility of platform thinking, a design principle that has so far been applied to product development yet under-researched in service settings, for improving the value of services. A key principle of platform thinking is to balance the reuse of service components with the
Full Text Available The kind of realized mission inflows the sensitivity to risk. Among other factors, the risk results from decision about liquid assets investment level and liquid assets financing. The higher the risk exposure, the higher the level of liquid assets. If the specific risk exposure is smaller, the more aggressive could be the net liquid assets strategy. The organization choosing between various solutions in liquid assets needs to decide what level of risk is acceptable for her owners (or donors and / or capital suppliers. The paper shows how, in authors opinion, decisions, about liquid assets management strategy inflow the risk of the organizations and its economicalresults during realization of main mission. Comparison of theoretical model with empirical data for over 450 Silesian nonprofit organization results suggests that nonprofit organization managing teams choose more risky aggressive liquid assets solutions than for-profit firms.
Julia L Carboni
Full Text Available We employ public management relationship theory to examine how nonprofits can effectively engage social media stakeholders in two-way communication. Though many nonprofit organizations have a social media presence, there is variance in how well organizations use social media to engage stakeholders. Simply having a social media presence is not enough to engage stakeholders. We examine Facebook posts of a stratified random sample of youth development organizations to determine what predicts stakeholder engagement. We find the type of Facebook post is a significant predictor of stakeholder engagement. Longer posts also significantly predict increased stakeholder engagement. At the organizational level, having many posts is a significant negative predictor of stakeholder engagement, indicating that users may feel bombarded and are less likely to engage. Increased organizational spending on advertising as a proportion of total budget is positively associated with stakeholder engagement.
Laureano, R. M. S.; Fernandes, A. L.; Hassamo, S.; Alturas, B.
Non-profit organizations have invested in the development of content for their Facebook pages, believing be an efficient and effective means to publicize its mission and raising resources, whether monetary or human. The purpose of this study is to assess the satisfaction of the participants with the Facebook page, and how that satisfaction influences the dissemination of the organization through the word-of-mouth and the donations practices. In this context, a questionnaire was administered t...
Full Text Available This paper deals with crowdfunding as a new and alternative mechanism of nonprofit funding which has thus far attracted little scholarly attention in the Czech context. It focuses on the factors that affect a campaign’s overfunding rate and determines whether these factors are consistent among different forms of project creators. A comprehensive analysis of reward-based crowdfunding in the Czech Republic was conducted based on the data from 617 projects using the Czech crowdfunding platform Hithit that were categorized according to the status of the project creator. Using binary logistic regression, a statistic estimation on an overall sample and on a sample of purely nonprofit projects was executed in order to observe if the outcomes diff er. Th e key empirical finding is that NGOs tend to raise fewer additional funds than other forms of project creators. Except for certain specific factors, the effects of the examined factors were consistent across all samples. Th is new and innovative approach to resource insufficiency by using alternative funding sources presents an important and unexplored research gap in the (post- transitive context of nonprofit sector studies, enabling a view of policy implications for Czech NGOs.
Full Text Available The subject of this research is how spokespersons can be used in campaigns of non-profit organizations, with a goal to increase their visibility and gain public support. Namely, many companies employ celebrities for their media campaigns as protagonists and promoters of brand values. With their appearance and engagement, celebrities transfer part of their image and credibility to the brand, which widens and enriches the field of associations which brands trigger in consumers' conscience. Non-profit organizations could get similar benefits out of these campaigns. In a society where there is a certain level of fascination with celebrities, i.e. celebrity culture, their influence can be used not only to attract attention to the goods, but also to ideas. The goal of the paper is to show how spokespersons can influence behavior and attitudes of the public by participating in media campaigns, and also the important aspects of choosing a spokesperson. The paper is supposed to be a starting point for practitioners,so they can design creative ideas based on this technique on the non-profit organizations market, especially in Serbia.
..., Department of Health and Human Services and Department of Agriculture; Memorandum of Understanding Regarding... Memorandum of Understanding (MOU). The MOU will support and encourage cooperation and communication between... Department of Human Services (HHS) and the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA). HHS's Centers for Disease...
Lashewicz, Bonnie; McGrath, Jenny; Smyth, Maria
This article is an examination of strategies for engaging students in programs of human services education. We describe an in class mask-making activity, used by three human services instructors at an undergraduate university in western Canada, as a means of engaging students to grow in individual and collaborative awareness and skills. We present…
Jenkins, Dusty D.
Implementing service learning into college courses has been shown to have positive benefits for both students and community members; however, service learning has not been largely evaluated in the literature on human sexuality courses. Thus, the purpose of the current study was to design, implement, and evaluate a service learning project in a…
Singh, Simone R; Young, Gary J; Loomer, Lacey; Madison, Kristin
Do nonprofit hospitals provide enough community benefits to justify their tax exemptions? States have sought to enhance nonprofit hospitals' accountability and oversight through regulation, including requirements to report community benefits, conduct community health needs assessments, provide minimum levels of community benefits, and adhere to minimum income eligibility standards for charity care. However, little research has assessed these regulations' impact on community benefits. Using 2009-11 Internal Revenue Service data on community benefit spending for more than eighteen hundred hospitals and the Hilltop Institute's data on community benefit regulation, we investigated the relationship between these four types of regulation and the level and types of hospital-provided community benefits. Our multivariate regression analyses showed that only community health needs assessments were consistently associated with greater community benefit spending. The results for reporting and minimum spending requirements were mixed, while minimum income eligibility standards for charity care were unrelated to community benefit spending. State adoption of multiple types of regulation was consistently associated with higher levels of hospital-provided community benefits, possibly because regulatory intensity conveys a strong signal to the hospital community that more spending is expected. This study can inform efforts to design regulations that will encourage hospitals to provide community benefits consistent with policy makers' goals. Copyright © 2018 by Duke University Press.
Jan 1, 2009 ... civil service organizations to make them accountable and responsible for ... changing the structure of the civil service organisations. More generally .... method to measure productivity of IT based on before and after IT investment .... 2000, and the wealth value of office equipment4, of Federal. Offices as a ...
Hollensen, Svend; Grünbaum, Niels Nolsøe; Andresen, Marc
Early B2B buying-behavior literature strongly emphasizes the rational aspects of buying behavior in B2B services. Based on a comprehensive exploratory study of Danish companies’ purchases of HR consulting services, the authors provide insights into the factors that determine how Danish companies ...
Barbieri, Silvio; Fragnière, Emmanuel; Sitten, Marshall S.; Zambrano, Gabriel
In the field of service design, modeling is often used to visually represent the structures, flow, and operations of a service. This modeling, usually referred to as a “workflow” or “service blueprint”, is usually conceptualized in a linear or matrix form. These models, while useful for visualizing the structures and processes involved in service production, fail to consider the contribution of human factors – motivation, emotion, satisfaction, etc. – that are also essential elements of servi...
socio-economic development because it is essential for a virile labour force ... Poverty and access to health care services are major development problems ..... including preventive, curative and palliative intervention, whether directed to.
In this paper, we address the problem of reducing the occurrence of Human Errors that cause service interruptions in IT Service Support and Delivery operations. Analysis of a large volume of service interruption records revealed that more than 21% of interruptions were caused by human error. We focus on Change Management, the process with the largest risk of human error, and identify the main instances of human errors as the 4 Wrongs: request, time, configuration item, and command. Analysis of change records revealed that the humanerror prevention by partial automation is highly relevant. We propose the HEP Framework, a framework for execution of IT Service Delivery operations that reduces human error by addressing the 4 Wrongs using content integration, contextualization of operation patterns, partial automation of command execution, and controlled access to resources.
Chevallereau, Christine; Pisla, Doina; Bleuler, Hannes; Rodić, Aleksandar
Medical and service robotics integrates several disciplines and technologies such as mechanisms, mechatronics, biomechanics, humanoid robotics, exoskeletons, and anthropomorphic hands. This book presents the most recent advances in medical and service robotics, with a stress on human aspects. It collects the selected peer-reviewed papers of the Fourth International Workshop on Medical and Service Robots, held in Nantes, France in 2015, covering topics on: exoskeletons, anthropomorphic hands, therapeutic robots and rehabilitation, cognitive robots, humanoid and service robots, assistive robots and elderly assistance, surgical robots, human-robot interfaces, BMI and BCI, haptic devices and design for medical and assistive robotics. This book offers a valuable addition to existing literature.
Jan 1, 2009 ... had no impact on the size of jobs that require high-level of human resource capacity. Furthermore ... level human resource capacity has an effect on the size of supervisors, which is the main ...... depreciation. 5 This indicates ...
Smith, Pamela C
Strategic tax planning issues are important to the nonprofit health care sector, despite its philanthropic mission. The consolidation of the industry has led management to fight for resources and develop alternative strategies for raising money. When management evaluates alternative collaborative structures to increase efficiency, the impact on governance structures must also be considered. The increased governmental scrutiny of joint ventures within the health care sector warrants management's attention as well. The financial incentives must be considered, along with the various tax policy implications of cross-sector collaborations.
Epstein, S S
The American Cancer Society is fixated on damage control--diagnosis and treatment--and basic molecular biology, with indifference or even hostility to cancer prevention. This myopic mindset is compounded by interlocking conflicts of interest with the cancer drug, mammography, and other industries. The "nonprofit" status of the Society is in sharp conflict with its high overhead and expenses, excessive reserves of assets and contributions to political parties. All attempts to reform the Society over the past two decades have failed; a national economic boycott of the Society is long overdue.
Yang, Wu; Dietz, Thomas; Liu, Wei; Luo, Junyan; Liu, Jianguo
The Millennium Ecosystem Assessment (MA) estimated that two thirds of ecosystem services on the earth have degraded or are in decline due to the unprecedented scale of human activities during recent decades. These changes will have tremendous consequences for human well-being, and offer both risks and opportunities for a wide range of stakeholders. Yet these risks and opportunities have not been well managed due in part to the lack of quantitative understanding of human dependence on ecosystem services. Here, we propose an index of dependence on ecosystem services (IDES) system to quantify human dependence on ecosystem services. We demonstrate the construction of the IDES system using household survey data. We show that the overall index and sub-indices can reflect the general pattern of households' dependences on ecosystem services, and their variations across time, space, and different forms of capital (i.e., natural, human, financial, manufactured, and social capitals). We support the proposition that the poor are more dependent on ecosystem services and further generalize this proposition by arguing that those disadvantaged groups who possess low levels of any form of capital except for natural capital are more dependent on ecosystem services than those with greater control of capital. The higher value of the overall IDES or sub-index represents the higher dependence on the corresponding ecosystem services, and thus the higher vulnerability to the degradation or decline of corresponding ecosystem services. The IDES system improves our understanding of human dependence on ecosystem services. It also provides insights into strategies for alleviating poverty, for targeting priority groups of conservation programs, and for managing risks and opportunities due to changes of ecosystem services at multiple scales.
Motomura, Yoichi; Nishida, Yoshifumi
A project called `Open life matrix' is not only a research activity but also real problem solving as an action research. This concept is realized by large-scale data collection, probabilistic causal structure model construction and information service providing using the model. One concrete outcome of this project is childhood injury prevention activity in new team consist of hospital, government, and many varieties of researchers. The main result from the project is a general methodology to apply probabilistic causal structure models as servicable knowledge for action research. In this paper, the summary of this project and future direction to emphasize action research driven by artificial intelligence technology are discussed.
Oleynik Olga Stepanovna
Full Text Available The article deals with the problem of interaction of regional authorities and the institute of socially oriented non-profit organizations that carry out the activity aimed at solving social problems, the development of civil society in Russia. The forms and activities of socially oriented non-profit organizations are systematically presented. The authors reveal the directions and tools for supporting the activities of socially oriented non-profit organizations by public authorities and local self-government bodies. The authors aimed at fixing the peculiarities of organization and conduct of statistical observation over the activity of socially-oriented organizations in Volgograd region. The organizational events were arranged. They were necessary for the conduct of qualitative statistical analysis of the activity of socially oriented organizations. For the first time the official data on the activity of socially oriented non-profit organizations in Volgograd region, including the information on formation and use of money and other property, was received as a result of the statistical observation. The authors focus on the analysis of the sources of money and other property, reveal the composition of income in non-profit organizations of various organizational and legal forms. The forms of work in socially oriented non-profit organizations of Volgograd region and its results as of 2013 are thoroughly studied. The conducted statistical analysis showed that the significant public sector has been established in the region. It provides the necessary public social services, financial or social assistance to the most vulnerable members of society.
Spanner, J.C. Sr.
This paper describes a study conducted to identify, characterize, and evaluate the human reliability aspects of ultrasonic testing/inservice inspection (UT/ISI). Recent measurements of UT/ISI system effectiveness have revealed wide variations in performance; suggesting that insufficient emphasis is being placed on the human reliability aspects of nondestructive examination. It appears that NDE performance can be improved through application of the human factors principles relating to the task, training, procedure, environmental, and individual difference variables. These variables are collectively referred to as performance-shaping factors. A man-machine systems model was developed to describe the UT/ISI process using functional task descriptors. The relative operating characteristic (ROC) analysis method, which is derived from signal detection theory, offers unique attributes for analyzing NDT performance. The results of a limited human factors evaluation conducted in conjunction with a mini-round robin test are also described
Deborah S. Carr
For many decades, the natural resource profession has approached the management of public lands as exclusively a natural science endeavor requiring purely technical solutions. With the adoption of an ecosystem management philosophy, the USDA Forest Service has acknowledged the centrality of people in land management policy and decision-making. This paper explores the...
Ecosystem services are the benefits that society receives from nature and they include the regulation of climate, the pollination of crops, the provisioning of intellectual inspiration and recreational environment, as well as many essential goods such as food, fiber, and wood. Rangeland ecosystem se...
Title: Public Comment on Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS) 2018 Physical Activity Guidelines Author: Wayne E. Cascio, Director, Environmental Public Health Division, US EPA Abstract: In the 2008 Physical Activity Guidelines, the effects of air pollution and advers...
Student poverty is an issue with which far too many students are confronted. Student affairs professionals must increase their awareness of this human dynamic and develop programs, services, and personal knowledge to support students faced with this challenge.
This inquiry contributes to the literature on the development of “nonprofit marketing thought” by describing how the field’s early period established a legacy effect on nonprofit marketing scholarship to the present day. This qualitative work uses a wide variety of sources from a protracted historical period in order to more fully inform a perspective on the relevant issues that have influenced the development of nonprofit marketing scholarship. The investigation suggests that, although the d...
This journal special issue will explore diverse stakeholder perspectives and share examples of project management practices in the non-profit sector. Key objectives are to develop understandings of project management practice in the sector, to examine how cross-sectoral collaboration and learning can help non-profit organisations achieve their project and programme objectives, and to explore ways in which the wider project management community can learn from experiences in the non-profit sector.
Song, C.; Lee, W. K.; Jeon, S. W.; Kim, T.; Lim, C. H.
Application of ecosystem service concept in environmental related decision making could be numerical and objective standard for policy maker between preserving and developing perspective of environment. However, pursuing maximum benefit from natural capital through ecosystem services caused failure by losing ecosystem functions through its trade-offs. Therefore, difference between ecosystem functions and services were demonstrated and would apply human relating perspectives. Assessment results of ecosystem functions and services can be divided 3 parts. Tree growth per year set as the ecosystem function factor and indicated through so called pure function map. After that, relating functions can be driven such as water conservation, air pollutant purification, climate change regulation, and timber production. Overall process and amount are numerically quantified. These functional results can be transferred to ecosystem services by multiplying economic unit value, so function reflecting service maps can be generated. On the other hand, above services, to implement more reliable human demand, human reflecting service maps are also be developed. As the validation, quantified ecosystem functions are compared with former results through pixel based analysis. Three maps are compared, and through comparing difference between ecosystem function and services and inversed trends in function based and human based service are analysed. In this study, we could find differences in PF, FRS, and HRS in relation to based ecosystem conditions. This study suggests that the differences in PF, FRS, and HRS should be understood in the decision making process for sustainable management of ecosystem services. Although the analysis is based on in sort existing process separation, it is important to consider the possibility of different usage of ecosystem function assessment results and ecosystem service assessment results in SDG policy making. Furthermore, process based functional approach
Human subjects research ethics were developed to ensure responsible conduct when university researchers learn by interacting with community members. As service-learning students also learn by interacting with community members, a similar set of principles may strengthen the ethical practice of service-learning. This article identifies ethical…
Carbone, Dominic J.
The intersection of work and family life has always been a popular topic of discussion among family theorists. This study examined human service employees in direct service positions coping with work stress, family stress, and work-family conflict. The effects of work stress, family stress and work-family conflict on depression were examined.…
Ecosystem services in urban areas can improve public health and well-being by mitigating natural and anthropogenic pollution, and by promoting healthy lifestyles that include engagement with nature and enhanced opportunities for physical activity and social interaction. EPA’s EnviroAtlas online mapping tool identifies urban environmental features linked in the scientific and medical literature to specific aspects of public health and well-being. EnviroAtlas researchers have synthesized newly-generated one-meter resolution landcover data, downscaled census population data, and other existing datasets such as roads and parks. Resulting geospatial metrics represent health-related indicators of urban ecosystem services supply and demand by census block-group and finer scales. EnviroAtlas maps include percent of the population with limited window views of trees, tree cover along walkable roads, overall neighborhood green space, and proximity to parks. Demographic data can be overlaid to perform analyses of disproportionate distribution of urban ecosystem services across population groups. Together with the Eco-Health Relationship Browser, EnviroAtlas data can be linked to numerous aspects of public health and well-being including school performance, physical fitness, social capital, and longevity. EnviroAtlas maps have been developed using consistent methods to allow for comparisons between neighborhoods and across multiple U.S. communities. To feature eco-heal
Ioana – Julieta Josan
Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to summarize the strategies and techniques of communication and public relations applied to non-profit sector.The approach of the paper is to identify the most appropriate strategies and techniques that non-profit sector can use to accomplish its objectives, to highlight specific differences between the strategies and techniques of the profit and non-profit sectors and to identify potential communication and public relations actions in order to increase visibility among target audience, create brand awareness and to change into positive brand sentiment the target perception about the non-profit sector.
Nicholson, S; Pauly, M V
The rise of the for-profit hospital industry has opened a debate about the level of community benefits provided by non-profit hospitals. Do nonprofits provide enough community benefits to justify the community's commitment of resources to them, and the tax-exempt status they receive? If nonprofit hospitals convert to for-profit entities, would community benefits be lost in the transaction? This debate has highlighted the need to define and measure community benefits more clearly. In this Issue Brief, the authors develop a new method of identifying activities that qualify as community benefits, and propose a benchmark for the amount of benefit a nonprofit hospital should provide.
... for Human Prescription Drugs and Biologics; 0910-AF11 Requirements for Pregnancy and Lactation... containing the analgesic acetaminophen or aspirin and sodium bicarbonate used as an antacid ingredient. The... NPRM (Amendment) (Pediatric) To Be Determined NPRM (Amendment) (Sodium Bicarbonate) To Be Determined...
...-AB58 Specifications, and Certification Criteria for Electronic Health Record Technology (Rulemaking... Electronic Submission of Data From Studies Evaluating Human Drugs and Biologics....... 0910-AC52 137 Over-the... 147 Cigars Subject to the Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act 0910-AG38 Food and Drug...
Stewart, Louis J; Owhoso, Vincent
This article examines the extent of derivative financial instrument use among US nonprofit health systems and the impact of these financial instruments on their cash flows, reported operating results, and financial risks. Our examination is conducted through a case study of New Jersey hospitals and health systems. We review the existing literature on interest rate derivative instruments and US hospitals and health systems. This literature describes the design of these derivative financial instruments and the theoretical benefits of their use by large health care provider organizations. Our contribution to the literature is to provide an empirical evaluation of derivative financial instruments usage among a geographically limited sample of US nonprofit health systems. We reviewed the audited financial statements of the 49 community hospitals and multi-hospital health systems operating in the state of New Jersey. We found that 8 percent of New Jersey's nonprofit health providers utilized interest rate derivatives with an aggregate principle value of $229 million. These derivative users combine interest rate swaps and caps to lower the effective interest costs of their long-term debt while limiting their exposure to future interest rate increases. In addition, while derivative assets and liabilities have an immaterial balance sheet impact, derivative related gains and losses are a material component of their reported operating results. We also found that derivative usage among these four health systems was responsible for generating positive cash flows in the range of 1 percent to 2 percent of their total 2001 cash flows from operations. As a result of our admittedly limited samples we conclude that interest rate swaps and caps are effective risk management tools. However, we also found that while these derivative financial instruments are useful hedges against the risks of issuing long-term financing instruments, they also expose derivative users to credit, contract
Thatte, Nandita; Choi, Yoonjoung
Human resource (HR) management is a priority for health systems strengthening in developing countries, yet few studies have empirically examined associations with service quality. The purpose of this study was to assess the relationship between HR management and family planning (FP) service quality. Data came from the 2010 Kenya Service Provision Assessment, a nationally representative health facility assessment. In total, 912 FP consultations from 301 facilities were analysed. Four indices were created to measure quality on reproductive history taking, physical examination, sexually transmitted infections prevention and pill/injectable specific counselling. HR management variables included training in the past year, any and supportive (i.e. with feedback, technical updates and discussion) in-person supervision in the past 6 months and having a written job description. Multivariate linear regression analyses were conducted to estimate coefficients of HR management variables on each of the four quality indices, adjusting for background characteristics of clients, provider and facilities. The level of service quality ranged from 16 to 53 out of a maximum score of 100 across the indices. Fifty-two per cent of consultations were done by providers who received supportive in-person supervision in the previous 6 months. In 23% and 38% of consultations, the provider was trained in the past year and had a written job description, respectively. Multivariate analyses indicated that having a written job description was associated with higher service quality in history taking, physical examination and the pill/injectable specific counselling. Other HR management variables were not significantly associated with service quality. Having a written job description was significantly associated with higher service quality and may be a useful tool for strengthening management practices. The details of such job descriptions and the quality of other management indicators should be
Kim, Tae Hyun
Financial distress can have a detrimental influence on the performance of hospitals. Hospital management needs to monitor potential financial distress effectively and know how it will respond depending on the severity of the circumstances. This study examined the multiple factors that may explain the financial distress of nonprofit hospitals during 1998 to 2001 and discussed their importance. To obtain more robust results, financial distress was assessed in 2 ways: first, financial strength index was used to incorporate 4 financial dimensions including profitability, liquidity, leverage, and physical facilities; second, cash flow (CF) was used to address the issues of accrual-based accounting in hospitals. This study finds that decrease in occupancy rate and increase in Medicaid payer mix, health maintenance organization penetration, market competition, physician supply, and percentage of the elderly are associated with increased likelihood of financial distress of urban hospitals. Increases in both Medicare and Medicaid payer mix, however, are related to higher likelihood of financial distress of rural hospitals.
Moxley, David P; Calligan, Holly Feen
The arts have been integral to the human experience fostering innovation in social arrangements, strengthening group cohesion, and merging esthetics with the utilitarian properties of technology. For intervention design research in the human services the arts can harness innovation and creativity in meeting human needs and addressing social issues. Given their capacities to stimulate expression of first person experience through interpretative strategies, the arts can equip people and groups, including researchers, with opportunities to express primary experiential knowledge through creative means, portray useful ways of meeting human needs, educate others about the social issues people experience, and formulate intervention strategies or even models to address the causes and consequences of those issues. In this paper, the authors discuss how the arts can inform and deepen human service intervention design and development and, as a result, advance innovation in the human services. They offer a rationale supporting the inclusion of the arts in the design of human service interventions, examine the contributions of the arts to the formulation of intervention concept and developmental research to further improve interventions, and consider how the arts can advance the reflexivity of intervention designers. The authors draw implications for how researchers can position the arts in the nine steps of intervention design and development the authors offer in this paper. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Davis, Jeffrey R.; Richard, Eliabeth E.; Fogarty, Jennifer A.; Rando, Cynthia M.
This slide presentation reviews the Space Life Sciences Directorate (SLSD) new business model for problem solving, with emphasis on open collaboration and innovation. The topics that are discussed are: an overview of the work of the Space Life Sciences Directorate and the strategic initiatives that arrived at the new business model. A new business model was required to infuse open collaboration/innovation tools into existing models for research, development and operations (research announcements, procurements, SBIR/STTR etc). This new model involves use of several open innovation partnerships: InnoCentive, Yet2.com, TopCoder and NASA@work. There is also a new organizational structure developed to facilitate the joint collaboration with other NASA centers, international partners, other U.S. Governmental organizations, Academia, Corporate, and Non-Profit organizations: the NASA Human Health and Performance Center (NHHPC).
Bridgeland, John M.; McNaught, Mary; Reed, Bruce; Dunkelman, Marc
This report was written to shine a spotlight on the under-reported plight of America's nonprofit organizations and to make recommendations for how the nation can respond. In the wake of the economic downturn, hospitals, nursing homes, nursery schools, senior centers, soup kitchens, and other nonprofit organizations have been hit by a triple…
... 32 National Defense 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What financial management standards do I include... financial management standards do I include for nonprofit participants? So as not to force system changes..., your expenditure-based TIA's requirements for the financial management system of any nonprofit...
Kisow, Matthew R.
The Sarbanes-Oxley Act, an attempt to reform publicly traded companies that suffered from a series of scandalous failures in the late 1990's, did not apply to nonprofit organizations. Several high-profile scandals which occurred in the nonprofit sector between 1996 and 2002 led lawmakers to make several unsuccessful attempts at mandating that the…
Bradley, Jean Ryberg
This dissertation consists of three essays using publicly reported internal control deficiencies to examine agency conflicts in the unique organizational setting provided by nonprofit charter schools. In my first essay, I find evidence that increased agency conflicts in nonprofit charter schools are "not" associated with increased…
... SECRETARY OF DEFENSE DoD GRANT AND AGREEMENT REGULATIONS TECHNOLOGY INVESTMENT AGREEMENTS Award Terms Affecting Participants' Financial, Property, and Purchasing Systems Property § 37.690 How are nonprofit... institution of higher education or in a nonprofit organization whose primary purpose is conducting scientific...
... with or controlled by a for-profit organization; and E. May be a consumer cooperative, Indian tribe or... rating/ranking lists. F. Provisions for providing preference to loan requests from nonprofit... qualify for nonprofit preference. VIII. Exception authority. The Administrator, or his/her designee, may...
Waters, Rebecca A; Buchanan, Angus
Being 'person-centred' in the delivery of health and human services has become synonymous with quality care, and it is a core feature of policy reform in Australia and other Western countries. This research aimed to identify the uses, definitions and characteristics of the term 'person-centred' in the ageing, mental health and disability literature. A thematic analysis identified seven common core themes of person-centredness: honouring the person, being in relationship, facilitating participation and engagement, social inclusion/citizenship, experiencing compassionate love, being strengths/capacity focussed, and organisational characteristics. These suggest a set of higher-order experiences for people that are translated differently in different human services. There is no common definition of what it means to be person-centred, despite being a core feature of contemporary health and human service policy, and this suggests that its inclusion facilitates further misunderstanding and misinterpretation. A common understanding and policy conceptualisation of person-centredness is likely to support quality outcomes in service delivery especially where organisations work across human service groups. Further research into the application and service expressions of being 'person-centred' in context is necessary. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Nolte, Isabella M; Boenigk, Silke
During disasters, partnerships between public and nonprofit organizations are vital to provide fast relief to affected communities. In this article, we develop a process model to support a performance evaluation of such intersectoral partnerships. The model includes input factors, organizational structures, outputs and the long-term outcomes of public–nonprofit partnerships. These factors derive from theory and a systematic literature review of emergency, public, nonprofit, and network research. To adapt the model to a disaster context, we conducted a case study that examines public and nonprofit organizations that partnered during the 2010 Haiti earthquake. The case study results show that communication, trust, and experience are the most important partnership inputs; the most prevalent governance structure of public–nonprofit partnerships is a lead organization network. Time and quality measures should be considered to assess partnership outputs, and community, network, and organizational actor perspectives must be taken into account when evaluating partnership outcomes.
Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to analyze the sustainability report for the communication of Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR in a nonprofit organization. To this aim, an Italian case study is analyzed: the Fondazione Renato Piatti Onlus, a nonprofit organization of Social Utility. In the first part, we analyze the CSR for nonprofit organizations and the sustainability report (also called ‘social balance’. In the second part, we present evidence from the case study. The research is exploratory in nature when considering the connection of corporate social responsibility efforts to the nonprofit sector, a qualitative methodology was chosen over quantitative methods. Specifically, the case study was used to show what strategy a nonprofit organization can develop. Nowadays CSR strategies received a growing attention from both businesses and nonprofit organizations but also from the EU which forced large public-interest entities to present a social balance. For nonprofit organizations, applying social responsibility is not a voluntary issue. Nonprofit organizations have an ethical obligation to their stakeholder and to the public to conduct their activities with accountability and transparency. Scholars have increasingly been studying the impact of corporate social responsibility as a business strategy in for-profit companies. However, there is still lack of researches on how nonprofit organizations implement CSR into the strategy. As a consequence of the above remarks, a large part of nonprofit organizations fails to correctly implement a successful long term CSR strategy. The Fondazione Renato Piatti Onlus belongs to that group that has been able to incorporate social responsibility within the organization, then expanding its content into a social report drawn up in accordance with the guidelines of the Italian Agency for the Third Sector.
R. van der Walt
Full Text Available This article examines to what extent current South African university courses/programmes in Human Resources Management and Industrial Psychology prepare students for a career in entrepreneurship. It is argued that human resources practitioners have much to offer in the line of services and advice to small enterprises on how to succeed. The data of the survey are analysed through a qualitative approach. The findings indicate that entrepreneurship training currently receives limited attention in the training of human resources practitioners and industrial psychologists. Key words and phrases: entrepreneurial education, human resources management, industrial psychology
Full Text Available The paper examines human factors derailing extension services delivery in developing countries. Poor management of rewards and incentives; quality of work life; poor assessment system; limited quality of human resource; inadequate extension support training materials; inconsistencies of government programmes; inadequate staff training and poor extension programme evaluation were viewed as major constraints. Considering the role of extension to agricultural development, the paper recommends that efforts should be made by the various stakeholders in agricultural extension services to improve the capability of human resources involved in extension services and highlights the need for government agricultural programmes to be consistent to enable the beneficiaries of such programmes derive the benefits that will boost productivity in agriculture.
Hastings, Tessa J.; Hohmann, Lindsey A.; McFarland, Stuart J.; Teeter, Benjamin S.; Westrick, Salisa C.
Use of non-traditional settings such as community pharmacies has been suggested to increase human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination uptake and completion rates. The objectives of this study were to explore HPV vaccination services and strategies employed by pharmacies to increase HPV vaccine uptake, pharmacists’ attitudes towards the HPV vaccine, and pharmacists’ perceived barriers to providing HPV vaccination services in community pharmacies. A pre-piloted mail survey was sent to 350 randomly...
Higashi, Robin T; Craddock Lee, Simon J; Leonard, Tammy; Cuate, Erica L; Cole, Jay; Pruitt, Sandi L
Persons accessing food from nonprofit distribution sites face numerous challenges and typically have significant unmet health needs. However, given limited and intermittent healthcare system engagement, this vulnerable population is underrepresented in clinical research. We sought to better understand the health needs of a nonclinical population to inform future research and interventions. Focus groups were conducted in English (n = 4) and Spanish (n = 4) with clients of Crossroads Community Services (CCS), the largest distributor of North Texas Food Bank. Discussions probed participants' health status, healthcare utilization, understanding and utilization of mammography, and attitudes toward participation in research. Participants included 42 CCS clients, primarily Hispanic or African American women. Participants reported multiple comorbid conditions among household members, yet utilization of health services was often limited by cost. The majority expressed interest in participating in research to communicate their health concerns and obtain emotional support. CCS clients represent a high-need, under-reached population willing to engage in health-related research that affords them opportunity to connect with peers in group settings and obtain information to improve management of daily life challenges. The Community Assistance Research (CARe) Initiative, a community-academic collaboration, establishes a much-needed opportunity for ongoing clinical research and intervention among this underserved population. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false What criteria will the Department of Health and Human Services use to decide which family planning services projects to fund and in what amount? 59.7... FOR FAMILY PLANNING SERVICES Project Grants for Family Planning Services § 59.7 What criteria will the...
Rivers, J E; Komaroff, E; Kibort, A C
Publicly funded drug-user treatment programs in both urban and rural areas are under unprecedented pressure to adapt to multiple perspectives of their mission, reduced governmental funding, diminished entitlement program resources for clients, managed care reforms, and continuing unmet need for services. This article describe an ongoing health services research study that is investigating how these and related health and human service programs currently serve and cross-refer chronic drug users and how they perceive and are reacting to systemic pressures. Interim analysis on intra-agency diversity and managed care perceptions are reported.
Full Text Available We take a social-ecological systems perspective to investigate the linkages between ecosystem services and human well-being in South Africa. A recent paper identified different types of social-ecological systems in the country, based on distinct bundles of ecosystem service use. These system types were found to represent increasingly weak direct feedbacks between nature and people, from rural "green-loop" communities to urban "red-loop" societies. Here we construct human well-being bundles and explore whether the well-being bundles can be used to identify the same social-ecological system types that were identified using bundles of ecosystem service use. Based on national census data, we found three distinct well-being bundle types that are mainly characterized by differences in income, unemployment and property ownership. The distribution of these well-being bundles approximates the distribution of ecosystem service use bundles to a substantial degree: High levels of income and education generally coincided with areas characterised by low levels of direct ecosystem service use (or red-loop systems, while the majority of low well-being areas coincided with medium and high levels of direct ecosystem service use (or transition and green-loop systems. However, our results indicate that transformations from green-loop to red-loop systems do not always entail an immediate improvement in well-being, which we suggest may be due to a time lag between changes in the different system components. Using human well-being bundles as an indicator of social-ecological dynamics may be useful in other contexts since it is based on socio-economic data commonly collected by governments, and provides important insights into the connections between ecosystem services and human well-being at policy-relevant sub-national scales.
Hamann, Maike; Biggs, Reinette; Reyers, Belinda
We take a social-ecological systems perspective to investigate the linkages between ecosystem services and human well-being in South Africa. A recent paper identified different types of social-ecological systems in the country, based on distinct bundles of ecosystem service use. These system types were found to represent increasingly weak direct feedbacks between nature and people, from rural "green-loop" communities to urban "red-loop" societies. Here we construct human well-being bundles and explore whether the well-being bundles can be used to identify the same social-ecological system types that were identified using bundles of ecosystem service use. Based on national census data, we found three distinct well-being bundle types that are mainly characterized by differences in income, unemployment and property ownership. The distribution of these well-being bundles approximates the distribution of ecosystem service use bundles to a substantial degree: High levels of income and education generally coincided with areas characterised by low levels of direct ecosystem service use (or red-loop systems), while the majority of low well-being areas coincided with medium and high levels of direct ecosystem service use (or transition and green-loop systems). However, our results indicate that transformations from green-loop to red-loop systems do not always entail an immediate improvement in well-being, which we suggest may be due to a time lag between changes in the different system components. Using human well-being bundles as an indicator of social-ecological dynamics may be useful in other contexts since it is based on socio-economic data commonly collected by governments, and provides important insights into the connections between ecosystem services and human well-being at policy-relevant sub-national scales.
Cary, Maria; Oram, Siân; Howard, Louise M; Trevillion, Kylee; Byford, Sarah
Previous studies have found a high prevalence of depression and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) among survivors of human trafficking. European countries are required to assist trafficked people in their psychological recovery, but there are no rigorous data on the costs of doing so. The objectives of this study were to quantify the use of secondary mental health services by survivors of human trafficking; to estimate the cost of survivors' use of secondary mental health services provided by the UK National Health Service (NHS); and to identify factors that predict higher costs of mental health service provision. Historical cohort study of psychiatric patients who had experienced human trafficking. The South London and Maudsley NHS Trust (SLaM) Biomedical Research Centre Case Register Interactive Search (CRIS) database was used to identify anonymised full patient records of patients who had experienced human trafficking and who had accessed SLaM mental health services between 2007 and 2012. Data were extracted on socio-demographic and trafficking characteristics and contacts with mental health services. Total costs were calculated by multiplying each resource use item by an appropriate unit cost. Factors that predicted high mental health service costs were analysed using regression models. One hundred nineteen patients were included in the analysis. Mean total mental health service costs per patient were £27,293 (sd 80,985) and mean duration of contact with services was 1490 (sd 757) days (approximately 4 years). Regression analysis showed that higher costs were associated with diagnosis of psychotic disorder (p trafficking violence (p = 0.06). Patients diagnosed with psychotic disorders cost approximately £32,635 more than patients with non-psychotic disorders/psychological distress but no formal diagnosis and patients whose clinical notes documented pre-trafficking violence cost £88,633 more than patients for whom pre-trafficking violence was not
Full Text Available Within the framework of bureaucratic and human capital theories, an eclectic approach, the study examines the nexus between academic staff recruitment in Nigerian tertiary institutions and human capital development as well as service delivery with specific reference to universities. It is generally agreed that higher education is a sine-qua-non for human capital development and efficient service delivery. Higher education is a prerequisite for the production of highly competent experts, which in turn, contributes to the development of organizations and the economy at large. For these to be achieved, the right content and academic staff must be in place to perform this varied function. However, over the years the quality of human capital coming out of Nigerian universities and its impact on service delivery has become a source of concern to employers of labour and all stakeholders. Inferential opinions have traced the problem to the recruitment of incompetent academic staff. To investigate the issues raised, the study relied heavily on primary and secondary data and multi stage sampling was used to select the sample population. The data collected was presented in pie chart and simple percentage. Similarly, in order to test the hypotheses and establish the degree of dependence or independence of the variables under investigation, the chi-square statistical technique was used. The findings of the study revealed among others, that Nigerian universities do not employ merit, qualification and competency in the academic staff recruitment. It also established that there is a significant relationship between merit, qualification and competency based academic staff recruitment and human capital development and service delivery. To enhance human capital development and service delivery in Nigerian universities, the study recommends among others, that an independent body like the National University Commission (NUC should be given the responsibility of
McFarlan, F W
Contrary to popular perception, businesspeople can be benevolent. For instance, one recent study notes that four-fifths of all Harvard Business School graduates are involved with nonprofits, with more than half of those serving on boards. Most business professionals will spend some time on a nonprofit board. That's the good news, the author says. The bad news is that the involvement of businesspeople can easily backfire. That's because they often try to take what they have learned from business school and the corporate world and apply it to their duties in the nonprofit sector. On the surface, there are similarities between the for-profit and nonprofit sectors. Both have boards of directors, trustees and chairpeople, regular meetings, and so forth. But the governance of nonprofit organizations is very different from the governance of for-profit businesses in several critical areas, including missions, measurements, and board composition. For instance, the CEO in the nonprofit world must manage a relationship with a nonexecutive board chair. In the for-profit world, the CEO is the chair. Such significant differences make it difficult to transfer ideas and practices between the for-profit and nonprofit worlds. In this article, F. Warren McFarlan describes the main differences between serving on a for-profit board and serving on a nonprofit board. As he points out, understanding the differences will make it easier for businesspeople to move smoothly from one environment to the other and will therefore make their commitments more effective. Nonprofits need businesspeople, but only on the right terms.
Scotti, Dennis J; Harmon, Joel; Behson, Scott J
This study assesses the importance of customer-contact intensity at the service encounter level as a determinant of service quality assessments. Using data from the U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs, it shows that performance-driven human resources practices play an important role as determinants of employee customer orientation and service capability in both high-contact (outpatient healthcare) and low-contact (benefits claim processing) human service contexts. However, there existed significant differences across service delivery settings in the salience of customer orientation and the congruence between employee and customer perceptions of service quality, depending on the intensity of customer contact. In both contexts, managerial attention to high-performance work systems and customer-orientation has the potential to favorably impact perceptions of service quality, amplify consumer satisfaction, and enhance operational efficiency.
Hannah, D. M.; Mao, F.; Karpouzoglou, T.; Clark, J.; Buytaert, W.
To explore the dynamics of socio-hydrological systems under change, the concepts of resilience and ecosystem services serve as useful tools. In this context, resilience refers to the capacity of a socio-hydrological system to retain its structural and functional state despite perturbations, while ecosystem services offer a good proxy of the state that reflects human-water intersections. Efforts are needed to maintain and improve socio-hydrological resilience for future contingencies to secure hydrological ecosystem services supply. This requires holistic indicators of resilience for coupled human-water systems that are essential for quantitative assessment, change tracking, inter-case comparison, as well as resilience management. However, such indicators are still lacking. Our research aims to propose widely applicable resilience indicators that are suitable for the coupled human-water context, and compatible with ecosystem services. The existing resilience indicators for both eco-hydrological and socio-economic sectors are scrutinised, screened and analysed to build these new indicators. Using the proposed indicators, we compare the resilience and its temporal change among a set of example regions, and discusses the linkages between socio-hydrological resilience and hydrological ecosystem services with empirical cases.
Macy, Rebecca J; Graham, Laurie M
Children, youth, and adults of both genders are sex trafficked into and throughout the United States every day. Regrettably, little attention has been given to how human service providers might identify the sex-trafficking victims they are likely to encounter. To address this knowledge gap, the authors review 20 documents with the aim of detecting and synthesizing service identification recommendations in the scientific literature, government reports, and documents produced by organizations working with sex-trafficking victims. The review shows consensus regarding identification recommendations, including (a) trafficking indicators, (b) victim interaction strategies, (c) immediate response strategies, and (d) child-specific information. The review also shows consensus regarding screening questions that are important for service providers to use in identifying sex-trafficking victims. These questions relate to the victims' safety, employment, living environment, and travel and immigration status in addition to specific questions used with children and youth. The review results offer human service providers a preliminary set of screening strategies and questions that can be used to identify sex-trafficking victims in the context of human services. Building on the review findings, the authors offer policy and research recommendations.
Lavack, A M
This content analysis examines a sample of 203 alcohol-related North American TV commercials dealing with alcohol moderation and driving under the influence (DUI), in order to determine whether the type of ad sponsor has an impact on the message content. Corporate sponsors, such as breweries and distillers, are compared to nonprofit sponsors such as governments and nonprofit organizations. Findings show that ads from corporate sponsors are less likely to make mention of threats or negative consequences, and are also less likely to use fear arousal. However, DUI/alcohol moderation ads from corporate sponsors and nonprofit sponsors do not differ in the degree to which they use humor or positive approaches.
The widely spread of the digital technologies, such as laptop and the Internet, have brought out profound changes in the economy as wel as in political and social life and intensified the interactions and communication between the state, civil society, and market. For the time being, it offered opportunities for the nonprofit sector to initiate a brand-new stage. This article aims to explore how the technology connects nonprofit sector to government and civil society and assess the impact of technology in nonprofit sector perspective by taking The Red Cross of Society of China as an example.
In a human nutrition class, students are paired with university faculty or staff volunteer participants. Students teach their service learning partners how to record their food consumption and physical activity during a typical 7-day period. Using these data, students complete nutritional assessments of their partners. (Contains 2 figures.)
Human alteration of the nitrogen (N) cycle has produced benefits for health and well-being, but excess N has altered many ecosystems and degraded air and water quality. US regulations mandate protection of the environment in terms that directly connect to ecosystem services. Here...
Liebkind, Karmela; Eranen, Liisa
Investigates the attitudes of future members in human service professions toward victims, based on the qualities effected by trauma victims and their helpers. Reports that the high-trauma and poorly adapted victims elicited more negative attitudes than did the low-trauma and well-adapted victims. (CMK)
Corey, Gerald; Corey, Schneider Marianne; Callanan, Patrick
This article presents multiple facets of a team approach to teaching and facilitating an ethics course for undergraduate human services students and a graduate ethics course for students majoring in counseling. Starting with general points, this article describes a specific, week-to-week approach to a 1-semester course, concluding with sample…
Heidi Asbjornsen; Alex S. Mayer; Kelly W. Jones; Theresa Selfa; Leonardo Saenz; Randall K. Kolka; Kathleen E. Halvorsen
Payments for watershed services (PWS) as a policy tool for enhancing water quality and supply have gained momentum in recent years, but their ability to lead to sustainable watershed outcomes is uncertain. Consequently, the demand for effective monitoring and evaluation (M&E) of PWS impacts on coupled human and natural systems (CHANS) and their implications for...
Camasso, Michael J.; Dick, Janet
The feasibility of applying multiattribute utility theory to the needs assessment and priority-setting activities of human services planning councils was studied in Essex County (New Jersey). Decision-making and information filtering processes are explored in the context of community planning. (SLD)
Estimating value of estuarine habitat to human beneficiaries requires that we understand how habitat alteration impacts function through both production and delivery of ecosystem goods and services (EGS). Here we expand on the habitat valuation technique of Bell (1997) with an es...
Crews, Tena B.; Stitt-Gohdes, Wanda L.
Implementing real-world business writing situations and service learning into business communication courses are not new concepts. Business communication students work through a service-learning project with nonprofit organizations to create communication documents to improve the nonprofit's communication with the public. Writing for social…
Tim M. Daw
Full Text Available Although ecosystem services are increasingly recognized as benefits people obtain from nature, we still have a poor understanding of how they actually enhance multidimensional human well-being, and how well-being is affected by ecosystem change. We develop a concept of "ecosystem service elasticity" (ES elasticity that describes the sensitivity of human well-being to changes in ecosystems. ES Elasticity is a result of complex social and ecological dynamics and is context dependent, individually variable, and likely to demonstrate nonlinear dynamics such as thresholds and hysteresis. We present a conceptual framework that unpacks the chain of causality from ecosystem stocks through flows, goods, value, and shares to contribute to the well-being of different people. This framework builds on previous conceptualizations, but places multidimensional well-being of different people as the final element. This ultimately disaggregated approach emphasizes how different people access benefits and how benefits match their needs or aspirations. Applying this framework to case studies of individual coastal ecosystem services in East Africa illustrates a wide range of social and ecological factors that can affect ES elasticity. For example, food web and habitat dynamics affect the sensitivity of different fisheries ecosystem services to ecological change. Meanwhile high cultural significance, or lack of alternatives enhance ES elasticity, while social mechanisms that prevent access can reduce elasticity. Mapping out how chains are interlinked illustrates how different types of value and the well-being of different people are linked to each other and to common ecological stocks. We suggest that examining chains for individual ecosystem services can suggest potential interventions aimed at poverty alleviation and sustainable ecosystems while mapping out of interlinkages between chains can help to identify possible ecosystem service trade-offs and winners and
Lee, Winona K; Harris, Chessa C D; Mortensen, Kawika A; Long, Linsey M; Sugimoto-Matsuda, Jeanelle
Service learning is endorsed by the Liaison Committee on Medical Education (LCME) as an integral part of U.S. medical school curricula for future physicians. Service learning has been shown to help physicians in training rediscover the altruistic reasons for pursuing medicine and has the potential to enhance students' perspectives of humanism in medicine. The Kalaupapa service learning project is a unique collaboration between disadvantaged post-baccalaureate students with an underserved rural community. This study was conducted to determine whether the Kalaupapa service learning curricula enhanced student perspectives of humanism in medicine at an early stage of their medical training. Program participants between 2008 and 2014 (n = 41) completed written reflections following the conclusion of the service learning project. Four prompts guided student responses. Reflections were thematically analyzed. Once all essays were read, team members compared their findings to condense or expand themes and assess levels of agreement. Emerging themes of resilience and unity were prominent throughout the student reflections. Students expressed respect and empathy for the patients' struggles and strengths, as well as those of their peers. The experience also reinforced students' commitment to service, particularly to populations in rural and underserved communities. Students also gained a deeper understanding of the patient experience and also of themselves as future physicians. To identify and address underserved and rural patients' health care needs, training programs must prepare an altruistic health care workforce that embraces the humanistic element of medicine. The Kalaupapa service learning project is a potential curricular model that can be used to enhance students' awareness and perspectives of humanism in medicine.
Jones, Debra M; McAllister, Lindy; Lyle, David M
Access to healthcare is a fundamental human right for all Australians. Article 19 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights acknowledges the right to freedom of opinion and to seek, receive and impart information and ideas. Capacities for self-expression and effective communication underpin the realisation of these fundamental human rights. For rural and remote Australian children this realisation is compromised by complex disadvantages and inequities that contribute to communication delays, inequity of access to essential speech-language pathology services and poorer later life outcomes. Localised solutions to the provision of civically engaged, accessible, acceptable and sustainable speech-language pathology services within rural and remote Australian contexts are required if we are to make substantive human rights gains. However, civically engaged and sustained healthcare can significantly challenge traditional professionalised perspectives on how best to design and implement speech-language pathology services that seek to address rural and remote communication needs and access inequities. A failure to engage these communities in the identification of childhood communication delays and solutions to address these delays, ultimately denies children, families and communities of their human rights for healthcare access, self-expression, self-dignity and meaningful inclusion within Australian society.
Full Text Available Human Resources Information System is a Decision Support System that provides necessary information regarding human resources in an organization. Web-based e-HR is one of the best practical solution in human resources management that allows employees to focus more on their job instead of HR administration procedures. By implementing Employee Self Service (ESS it is expected that worker satisfaction can be improved and in turn will also improve employees’ performance. The web-based ESS is characterized by personalized information approach which offers personal and management services on information access and structured workflow process. The object covered in this research is HR administration of PT. BCP to create and implement ESS with system prototype development and UML modeling tool. The resulting system is designed to quickly access the information and company procedures to shorten the time for BCP’s employee administration and documentation
A conceptual management framework is developed and applied in a science and engineering organization located within a non-profit, public institution. The goal of this research is to select a set of projects whose combined contributions to the organization's strategic interests satisfy sponsor desires and can be completed within existing time and resource constraints. The development of the rationale for project selection and implementation within the plutonium facility at Los Alamos National Laboratory is studied. This includes the integration of prioritization decision tools, optimization techniques, and advanced planning and scheduling tools. The Nuclear Materials Technology Division is the custodian of the plutonium facility, whose mission is to develop, demonstrate, and deploy technologies necessary to address the nation's and world's plutonium problems. This includes management of nuclear weapon stockpile components, stabilization of plutonium residues, clean-up of contaminated soils and facilities, support to non-proliferation and arms control initiatives, and the eventual disposition of surplus plutonium. In this study, projects are evaluated against selection criteria deemed to be of critical program importance. The Analytic Hierarchy Process is used to evaluate and rank the importance of the suite of candidate projects. Because individual projects may be of interest to a number of business sectors and sponsors, the approach must be capable of using funding sources in an integrated manner in order to meet overall facility and program strategies. Finally, project planning and scheduling tools are integrated into the decision network in order to ensure that appropriate resource leveling occurs and that the actual project selection takes into account the temporal relationships among available resources
Full Text Available Eastern part of the Republic of Croatia as a tourist destination is not fully valorized yet, despite its natural values and rich cultural heritage. Stronger contribution to touristic development could be ensured by Kopački rit Nature Park as potentially great tourist attractor. Its flora and fauna attract people for educational and tourist reasons. Tourism in nature parks has certain limitations due to primary goals which are protection and preservation of nature together with sustainable management of nature resources and ensuring an undisturbed course of natural processes. The aim of this research is to emphasize importance of marketing tools implementation in process of tourist activities development. Through application of marketing techniques and especially nonprofit marketing, primary goals related to nature protection can be harmonized with development of self-financing through tourism activities. Research was conducted by using case study methodology. Relevant persons for the topic were interviewed and from collected information SWOT analysis was made which may be used for policy suggestions in process of creation adequate tourist products and services together with ensuring quality education for visitors and minimizing visitors influence on natural resources.
Mostaq M. Hussain
Full Text Available Competence Management (CM has been discussed in contemporary academic and practitioner literature as a managing tool of Core Competences. Most of the studies of CM deal with manufacturing sector and profit organizations. Very little is known about CM in services and almost nothing in not-for profit organization. No research report has yet been found in educational institutions. Although, CM is not only important in manufacturing and profit organizations but also important in non-profit, like educational institutions, in order to meet the required quality and competitiveness of 21st century's education. Thus, an attempt has been made in this research to study CM in the administration of one the top ranking University in a Nordic country. The result results reveal that competencies had been defined in individual, network and unit level, but lack of integration of a comprehensive CM framework unable the higher educational institution to achieve the benefits of core competence. Based on the empirical findings, some policy and research directions are given at the end of the research.
Meijerink, Jeroen Gerard; Bondarouk, Tatiana
Although traditionally applied independently, this study combines two theoretical perspectives – the intellectual capital theory and the consumer perspective – to uncover value-creating configurations of human resource management (HRM) service providers' and workers' knowledge resources. We examined
Key words: intrinsic rewards, intrinsic work motivation, non-profit sector, retention, ..... The process of informed consent was explained in both the e-mail and ..... from working, which causes a positive cycle of emotions whereby their desire to.
van Wissen, N.; Wonneberger, A.
Although Facebook provides organizations with the opportunity to easily engage with stakeholders online, very little is known about the effectiveness of organizational communication strategies. This study examines how nonprofit organizations (NPOs) use Facebook to engage with stakeholders through
... DEFENSE DoD GRANT AND AGREEMENT REGULATIONS TECHNOLOGY INVESTMENT AGREEMENTS Award Terms Affecting Participants' Financial, Property, and Purchasing Systems Financial Matters § 37.665 Must I require nonprofit...
Full Text Available This inquiry contributes to the literature on the development of “nonprofit marketing thought” by describing how the field’s early period established a legacy effect on nonprofit marketing scholarship to the present day. This qualitative work uses a wide variety of sources from a protracted historical period in order to more fully inform a perspective on the relevant issues that have influenced the development of nonprofit marketing scholarship. The investigation suggests that, although the debate on whether or not marketing is a science was nominally resolved years ago, the origins of marketing scholarships as an applied business discipline remain influential. The effects on this influence is a body of research that is fragmented, conflicted, sometimes invalid, and has produced few general theories indicative of a social science. Recommendations are offered for improving the quality of nonprofit marketing scholarship.
Weighing the corporate against the nonprofit governance model, the answer may be "neither." Both systems can learn from each other, experts say, and best practices in public companies do not automatically translate to health care boards.
Wo, James C
Although some urban sociology perspectives suggest how certain sociodeomgraphic characteristics influence nonprofit development, there is a dearth of empirical research to assess neighborhood differences in nonprofit organizations. The goal of the current study is to build upon the extant literature by examining how both concentrated disadvantage and violent crime impact nonprofit density across neighborhoods. Using data from Los Angeles census tracts from 2010 to 2012, I test for linear and nonlinear influences that these two neighborhood factors might exert on nonprofit density. Poisson regression models show that concentrated disadvantage has a nonlinear (U-shaped) effect on all forms of nonprofit density, whereas violent crime has a linear and deleterious effect on all forms of nonprofit density. These results provide important new insights for urban sociology and policy; most importantly, the extent to which neighborhoods with ongoing social problems can later respond to such problems via access to nonprofit organizations. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Non-profit organizations have remarkably important role in contemporary societies since they participate in solutions of numerous problems which enable or prevent functioning of society in an optimal way. In this, systematic application of marketing influences more efficient activity of non-profit organizations in practice, and by this indirectly contributes to better solution of social problems. If qualitative or systematic application of marketing is observed from the aspect of forming and ...
Social media could help nonprofit communities to organize their communication with their members in new and innovative ways. This could contribute to sustaining or improving the participation of members within these communities. Yet little is known of how to measure and understand the offline community effects of social media use. Therefore, the main question of this study is: “How does the use of social media by members of nonprofit communities affect their offline participation?” The Social...
The thesis explores social media use of Finnish non-profit organisations using the examples of the Finnish Red Cross and the World Wildlife Foundation Finland. Although the field is widely discussed, no previous studies have looked at the measuring of social media communication in the field of Finnish non-profits. In order to assess the impact of their online communication, specifically on social media platforms, organisations have begun to implement various tools for data accumulation and an...
Acampora, Alfonso P., Ed.; Nebelkopf, Ethan, Ed.
The World Federation of Therapeutic Communities is an international association of drug treatment centers that use the "Therapeutic Community" (TC) to combat chemical dependency and drug addiction. Their 1985 conference focused on bridging services between the TC and the traditional human service systems. A total of 85 separate papers were…
Discusses the advantages and limitations of market segmentation as strategy for the marketing of information services made available by nonprofit organizations, particularly libraries. Market segmentation is defined, a market grid for libraries is described, and the segmentation of information services is outlined. A 16-item reference list is…
Tyakht, Alexander V; Popenko, Anna S; Belenikin, Maxim S; Altukhov, Ilya A; Pavlenko, Alexander V; Kostryukova, Elena S; Selezneva, Oksana V; Larin, Andrei K; Karpova, Irina Y; Alexeev, Dmitry G
Rose, Lisa Hale
In spite of open access to community college education, specifically human service associate degree programs, students with criminal justice histories do not necessarily have an unobstructed pathway to obtaining the degree and admission to the baccalaureate programs in human services and social work that are almost always selective. The first…
Full Text Available The paper focuses on the changes in ecosystem services in the most important coal field from the Southern Carpathians (Romania. The time horizon considered is the interval 1950-2010, characterized by two major processes: intensive development of the mining industry (1950-1989 and subsequent restructuring of mining, with significant consequences since 1996. Socio-economic phenomena associated with these two stages in the evolution of the region have generated major changes in ecosystem services, leading to increased human vulnerability, both to extreme events (natural hazards and pressure from economic factors.
Ault, Kelvin; Childs, Brad; Wainright, Charles F; Young, Marilyn
The purpose of this article is to explore the factors that affect the negotiations for an acquisition of a nonprofit system by an investor-owned entity. The recent economic downturn, accompanying credit crisis, and healthcare reform legislation will likely encourage and accelerate the pace of merger and acquisition (M&A) transactions between investor-owned entities and nonprofit hospitals. As many nonprofits are smaller, more financially vulnerable, and more limited in their access to capital than their investor-owned counterparts, nonprofits could be prime targets for investor-owned acquirers during the healthcare reform implementation period. In M&A transactions of this type, the investor-owned acquirer typically is motivated to pursue an acquisition when the deal promises an acceptable return on investment and decreased operating costs from economies of scale. Alternatively, the nonprofit target is typically seeking funding for upgrades to facilities and information technology systems as well as a continued commitment to charity care and managed-care contracting leverage. A successful acquisition of a nonprofit hospital by an investor-owned company requires a careful analysis of relevant tax, economic, and strategic factors prior to closing the deal. This article lists the most significant factors to consider in these deals and explains how these factors should influence the purchase price and postacquisition cash flow.
Karikari, Thomas K; Cobham, Ansa E; Ndams, Iliya S
While advances in neuroscience are helping to improve many aspects of human life, inequalities exist in this field between Africa and more scientifically-advanced continents. Many African countries lack the infrastructure and appropriately-trained scientists for neuroscience education and research. Addressing these challenges would require the development of innovative approaches to help improve scientific competence for neuroscience across the continent. In recent years, science-based non-profit organisations (NPOs) have been supporting the African neuroscience community to build state-of-the-art scientific capacity for sustainable education and research. Some of these contributions have included: the establishment of training courses and workshops to introduce African scientists to powerful-yet-cost-effective experimental model systems; research infrastructural support and assistance to establish research institutes. Other contributions have come in the form of the promotion of scientific networking, public engagement and advocacy for improved neuroscience funding. Here, we discuss the contributions of NPOs to the development of neuroscience in Africa.
Razis, V; Razis, N
This paper considers a broad spectrum of literature concerning the limitations and value of applying marketing management principles from the private sector to public or non-profit organizations. The Child Accident Prevention Foundation of Southern Africa is used as a principle case-study. The authors conclude that there is much to be gained from applying a more systematic approach, providing one adapts business strategies to more complex social environments and objectives. Since both marketing and social issues share the challenge of 'sensitivity serving and satisfying human needs,' (Kotler, 1983 p 272) there are also some instances where business can learn from the experience of social organizations in attempts to influence human behavior.
Derek Mohammed; Ronda Mariani
This paper examines the criteria necessary for the evaluation of the cybersecurity policies for the United States Health and Human Services Department of the Federal Government. The overall purpose of cybersecurity policies and procedures is supported through compliance with Federal mandated regulation and standards, which serve to protect the organizational services and goals of the United States Health and Human Services Department, and to promote the best possible security practices in the...
Luo, Zengliang; Zuo, Qiting; Shao, Quanxi
In order to study river health status from harmonic relationship between human and natural environment, a river health evaluation method was proposed from the aspects of ecosystem integrity and human service demand, and the understanding of river health connotation. The proposed method is based on the harmony theory and two types of river health assessment methods (the forecasting model and index evaluation). A new framework for assessing river water health was then formed from the perspective of harmony and dynamic evolution between human service demand and river ecosystem integrity. As a case study, the method and framework were applied to the Shaying River Basin, a tributary of the most polluted Huaihe River Basin in China. The health status of the river's ecosystem and its effect on the mainstream of Huaihe River were evaluated based on water ecological experiment. The results indicated that: (1) the water ecological environment in Shaying River was generally poor and showed a gradual changing pattern along the river. The river health levels were generally "medium" in the upstream but mostly "sub-disease" in the midstream and downstream, indicating that the water pollution in Shaying River were mainly concentrated in the midstream and downstream; (2) the water pollution of Shaying River had great influence on the ecosystem of Huaihe River, and the main influencing factors were TN, followed by TP and COD Mn ; (3) the natural attribute of river was transferring toward to the direction of socialization due to the increasing human activities. The stronger the human activity intervention is, the faster the transfer will be and the more river's attributes will match with human service demand. The proposed framework contributes to the research in water ecology and environment management, and the research results can serve as an important reference for basin management in Shaying River and Huaihe River. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.
Layman, Craig A; Jud, Zachary R; Archer, Stephanie K; Riera, David
Water filtration is one of the most important ecosystem services provided by sessile organisms in coastal ecosystems. As a consequence of increased coastal development, human-made shoreline structures (e.g., docks and bulkheads) are now common, providing extensive surface area for colonization by filter feeders. We estimate that in a highly urbanized sub-tropical estuary, water filtration capacity supported by filter feeding assemblages on dock pilings accounts for 11.7 million liters of water h −1 , or ∼30% of the filtration provided by all natural oyster reef throughout the estuary. Assemblage composition, and thus filtration capacity, varied as a function of piling type, suggesting that the choice of building material has critical implications for ecosystem function. A more thorough depiction of the function of coastal ecosystems necessitates quantification of the extensive ecosystem services associated with human-made structures. (paper)
In his address at the meeting of representatives from the League of Arab States on the subject 'Peace and Development: Nuclear Energy in the Service of Humanity', the Director General of the IAEA described the role of the Agency for the development of peaceful uses of nuclear energy, focussing on the four main topics: technology transfer for development, contribution of verification and safeguards to peace and security, the role of nuclear power, and the importance of nuclear safety
Engel, Rafael J; Rosen, Daniel; Weaver, Addie; Soska, Tracy
This article reports the findings of one county's human service network's readiness to treat gambling related problems in anticipation of the opening of a new casino. Using a cross-sectional survey design, questionnaires were mailed to executive directors of all mental health, family counseling, drug and alcohol, and faith-based, addiction-related organizations in the county (N = 248); 137 (55.2%) agency directors responded to the questionnaire. The survey requested information about agency demographics, training, screening, treatment, and public awareness/education. Descriptive statistics and bivariate analyses were used to summarize the findings. The analyses revealed a lack of human service response to the impending start of casino gambling. More than three-quarters of respondents had not sent staff for training in screening or treating gambling disorders, did not screen for problem gambling, did not treat problem gambling, and did not refer clients to other agencies for treatment of gambling-related problems. The most common reason offered for not engaging in prevention and treatment activities was that problem gambling is not considered an issue for the agency. There were differences between mental health and/or substance abuse focused agencies and other service providers. Based on the findings of this study, specific strategies to enhance the service delivery network's capacity to address problem gambling are suggested.
Hopf, Suzanne C
Receipt of accessible and appropriate specialist services and resources by all people with communication and/or swallowing disability is a human right; however, it is a right rarely achieved in either Minority or Majority World contexts. This paper considers communication specialists' efforts to provide sustainable services for people with communication difficulties living in Majority World countries. The commentary draws on human rights literature, particularly Article 19 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights and the Communication Capacity Research program that includes: (1) gathering knowledge from policy and literature; (2) gathering knowledge from the community; (3) understanding speech, language and literacy use and proficiency; and (4) developing culturally and linguistically appropriate resources and assessments. To inform the development of resources and assessments that could be used by speech-language pathologists as well as other communication specialists in Fiji, the Communication Capacity Research program involved collection and analysis of data from multiple sources including 144 community members, 75 school students and their families, and 25 teachers. The Communication Capacity Research program may be applicable for achieving the development of evidence-based, culturally and linguistically sustainable SLP services in similar contexts.
Ohlson, C G; Söderfeldt, M; Söderfeldt, B; Jones, I; Theorell, T
Workers in human service organizations are often confronted with conflicting demands in providing care or education. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to relate levels of endocrine stress markers to perceived job strain in two human service organizations. Employees in two local units of the social insurance organization and two local units of the individual and family care sections of the social welfare in Sweden were selected and 103 employees participated (56% participation rate). The perceived job strain was assessed with a standardized questionnaire containing questions of the demand-control model. Questions specially designed to measure emotional demands were also included. The stress markers cortisol, prolactin, thyroid-stimulating hormone, testosterone and IgA and IgG were analysed in blood samples. The main finding was an association between high emotional strain and increased levels of prolactin. The levels of cortisol, but none of the other four stress markers, increased slightly with emotional strain. Emotional strain experienced in human service work may cause psychological stress. The increase in prolactin was modest but consistent with findings in other published studies on stress-related endocrine alterations. Copyright 2001 S. Karger AG, Basel.
Beck, Dana C; Choi, Kristen R; Munro-Kramer, Michelle L; Lori, Jody R
The purpose of this review is to integrate evidence on human trafficking in Ethiopia and identify gaps and recommendations for service delivery, research and training, and policy. A scoping literature review approach was used to systematically search nursing, medical, psychological, law, and international databases and synthesize information on a complex, understudied topic. The search yielded 826 articles, and 39 met the predetermined criteria for inclusion in the review. Trafficking in Ethiopia has occurred internally and externally in the form of adult and child labor and sex trafficking. There were also some reports of organ trafficking and other closely related human rights violations, such as child marriage, child soldiering, and exploitative intercountry adoption. Risk factors for trafficking included push factors (poverty, political instability, economic problems, and gender discrimination) and pull factors (demand for cheap labor). Trafficking was associated with poor health and economic outcomes for victims. Key recommendations for service delivery, research and training, and policy are identified, including establishing comprehensive services for survivor rehabilitation and reintegration, conducting quantitative health outcomes research, and reforming policy around migration and trafficking. Implementing the recommendations identified by this review will allow policy makers, researchers, and practitioners to take meaningful steps toward confronting human trafficking in Ethiopia.
Wilder, David A; Lipschultz, Joshua; Gehrman, Chana
The Performance Diagnostic Checklist-Human Services (PDC-HS) is an informant-based tool designed to assess the environmental variables that contribute to poor employee performance in human service settings. Although the PDC-HS has been shown to effectively identify variables contributing to problematic performance, interventions based on only two of the four PDC-HS domains have been evaluated to date. In addition, the extent to which PDC-HS-indicated interventions are more effective than nonindicated interventions for two domains remains unclear. In the current study, we administered the PDC-HS to supervisors to assess the variables contributing to infrequent teaching of verbal operants and use of a timer by therapists at a center-based autism treatment program. Each of the four PDC-HS domains was identified as contributing to poor performance for at least one therapist. We then evaluated PDC-HS-indicated interventions for each domain. In addition, to assess the predictive validity of the tool, we evaluated various nonindicated interventions prior to implementing a PDC-HS-indicated intervention for two of the four domains. Results suggest that the PDC-HS-indicated interventions were effective across all four domains and were more effective than the nonindicated interventions for the two domains for which they were evaluated. Results are discussed in terms of the utility of the PDC-HS to identify appropriate interventions to manage therapist performance in human service settings.
McCue, Michael J; Thompson, Jon M
To assess the financial and operational differences in freestanding inpatient rehabilitation facilities (IRFs) that are operated by HealthSouth Corporation relative to other for-profit and nonprofit system-affiliated ownership groups. Since 2003, when it faced fraud charges and financial penalties, HealthSouth has experienced new management and refocused its business strategy. Because HealthSouth is the largest provider of freestanding IRF services, it is important to understand how their performance may differ relative to other ownership groups. We used the Mann-Whitney U test to assess differences in median values for financial and operational variables of HealthSouth-owned IRFs compared with other for-profit system IRFs and nonprofit system IRFs. System-affiliated freestanding IRFs in the United States. Sixty-four HealthSouth IRFs, 18 nonprofit system-affiliated IRFs, and 18 for-profit system-affiliated IRFs. Not applicable. Net patient revenue per adjusted discharge, operating expense per adjusted discharge, salary expense per full-time equivalent, and cash flow margin. HealthSouth IRFs had significantly lower net patient revenue per adjusted discharge and operating expense per adjusted discharge; however, its cash flow margin was significantly higher than other comparison groups. HealthSouth IRFs treated a higher case mix of patients relative to these comparison groups. The financial and operating performance of HealthSouth IRFs is stronger than other ownership groups. Strong cash flow will enable HealthSouth to pay down long-term debt.
Schul, P L; Remington, S J; Planchon, J M
A study was conducted examining the competitive reaction of incumbent firms to the market entry of new form competition in the health care services industry. Specifically, the study addressed the relative impact of both objective and perceptual characteristics of the threat potential posed by the entrance of alternative care facilities (ACF's) into markets previously dominated by nonprofit hospital organizations. The results showed that incumbent hospitals tend to rely most extensively on limited, low-risk market differentiation when responding to the threat posed by ACF entrants. Objective characteristics reflective of the structural complexity of the threat were found to be less important in influencing incumbent reaction than were administrators' perceptions of new entrant threat.
Santiago Omar Caballero Morales
Full Text Available Dysarthria is a motor speech disorder due to weakness or poor coordination of the speech muscles. This condition can be caused by a stroke, traumatic brain injury, or by a degenerative neurological disease. Commonly, people with this disorder also have muscular dystrophy, which restricts their use of switches or keyboards for communication or control of assistive devices (i.e., an electric wheelchair or a service robot. In this case, speech recognition is an attractive alternative for interaction and control of service robots, despite the difficulty of achieving robust recognition performance. In this paper we present a speech recognition system for human and service robot interaction for Mexican Spanish dysarthric speakers. The core of the system consisted of a Speaker Adaptive (SA recognition system trained with normal-speech. Features such as on-line control of the language model perplexity and the adding of vocabulary, contribute to high recognition performance. Others, such as assessment and text-to-speech (TTS synthesis, contribute to a more complete interaction with a service robot. Live tests were performed with two mild dysarthric speakers, achieving recognition accuracies of 90–95% for spontaneous speech and 95–100% of accomplished simulated service robot tasks.
Hsieh, Hwey-Lian; Lin, Hsing-Juh; Shih, Shang-Shu; Chen, Chang-Po
The present study examined a mangrove ecosystem in northern Taiwan to determine how the various components of ecosystem function, ecosystem services and human wellbeing are connected. The overall contributions of mangrove services to specific components of human wellbeing were also assessed. A network was developed and evaluated by an expert panel consisting of hydrologists, ecologists, and experts in the field of culture, landscape or architecture. The results showed that supporting habitats was the most important function to human wellbeing, while water quality, habitable climate, air quality, recreational opportunities, and knowledge systems were services that were strongly linked to human welfare. Security of continuous supply of services appeared to be the key to a comfortable life. From a bottom-up and top-down perspective, knowledge systems (a service) were most supported by ecosystem functions, while the security of continuous supply of services (wellbeing) had affected the most services. In addition, the overall benefits of mangrove services to human prosperity concentrated on mental health, security of continuous supply of services, and physical health.
Full Text Available The present study examined a mangrove ecosystem in northern Taiwan to determine how the various components of ecosystem function, ecosystem services and human wellbeing are connected. The overall contributions of mangrove services to specific components of human wellbeing were also assessed. A network was developed and evaluated by an expert panel consisting of hydrologists, ecologists, and experts in the field of culture, landscape or architecture. The results showed that supporting habitats was the most important function to human wellbeing, while water quality, habitable climate, air quality, recreational opportunities, and knowledge systems were services that were strongly linked to human welfare. Security of continuous supply of services appeared to be the key to a comfortable life. From a bottom-up and top-down perspective, knowledge systems (a service were most supported by ecosystem functions, while the security of continuous supply of services (wellbeing had affected the most services. In addition, the overall benefits of mangrove services to human prosperity concentrated on mental health, security of continuous supply of services, and physical health.
Harker, Rachel; Pidgeon, Aileen M; Klaassen, Frances; King, Steven
Human service professionals are concerned with the intervention and empowerment of vulnerable social populations. The human service industry is laden with employment-related stressors and emotionally demanding interactions, which can lead to deleterious effects, such as burnout and secondary traumatic stress. Little attention has been given to developing knowledge of what might enable human service workers to persist and thrive. Cultivating and sustaining resilience can buffer the impact of occupational stressors on human service professionals. One of the psychological factors associated with cultivating resilience is mindfulness. The aim of this current research is to improve our understanding of the relationship between resilience, mindfulness, burnout, secondary traumatic stress, and psychological distress among human service professionals. The current study surveyed 133 human service professionals working in the fields of psychology, social work, counseling, youth and foster care work to explore the predictive relationship between resilience, mindfulness, and psychological distress. The results showed that higher levels of resilience were a significant predictor of lower levels of psychological distress, burnout and secondary traumatic stress. In addition, higher levels of mindfulness were a significant predictor of lower levels of psychological distress and burnout. The findings suggest that cultivating resilience and mindfulness in human service professionals may assist in preventing psychological distress burnout and secondary traumatic stress. Limitations of this study are discussed together with implications for future research.
Shapiro, Aurelie C.; Bhagabati, Nirmal
Mapping and evaluating ecosystem services is of increasing concern and urgency for conservation organizations such as WWF. Coupling biodiversity assessments with ecosystem services e.g., carbon sequestration, water regulation, sediment reduction, is an effective way to visualize additional financial and human benefits of conservation for decision makers. WWF is eager to apply various Earth Observation data to conservation applications for consistent mapping and monitoring of natural ecosystems and the potential impacts of their loss on humans and wildlife alike. Such examples include forest carbon mapping, integrated evaluation of ecosystem services (via the InVEST tool) and bundling endangered Tiger habitat with various ecosystem services for bundled benefits.
The objectives of the services section is (1) to offer complete services in health-physics measurements according to international quality standards, (2) to improve continuously these measurement techniques and to follow up international recommendations and legislation concerning the surveillance of workers, (3) to support and advise nuclear and non-nuclear industry on problems of radioactive contamination. Achievements related to gamma spectrometry, whole-body counting, beta and alpha spectrometry, dosimetry, radon measurements, calibration, instrumentation, and neutron activation analysis are described
Kanchanachitra, Churnrurtai; Lindelow, Magnus; Johnston, Timothy; Hanvoravongchai, Piya; Lorenzo, Fely Marilyn; Huong, Nguyen Lan; Wilopo, Siswanto Agus; dela Rosa, Jennifer Frances
In this paper, we address the issues of shortage and maldistribution of health personnel in southeast Asia in the context of the international trade in health services. Although there is no shortage of health workers in the region overall, when analysed separately, five low-income countries have some deficit. All countries in southeast Asia face problems of maldistribution of health workers, and rural areas are often understaffed. Despite a high capacity for medical and nursing training in both public and private facilities, there is weak coordination between production of health workers and capacity for employment. Regional experiences and policy responses to address these challenges can be used to inform future policy in the region and elsewhere. A distinctive feature of southeast Asia is its engagement in international trade in health services. Singapore and Malaysia import health workers to meet domestic demand and to provide services to international patients. Thailand attracts many foreign patients for health services. This situation has resulted in the so-called brain drain of highly specialised staff from public medical schools to the private hospitals. The Philippines and Indonesia are the main exporters of doctors and nurses in the region. Agreements about mutual recognition of professional qualifications for three groups of health workers under the Association of Southeast Asian Nations Framework Agreement on Services could result in increased movement within the region in the future. To ensure that vital human resources for health are available to meet the needs of the populations that they serve, migration management and retention strategies need to be integrated into ongoing efforts to strengthen health systems in southeast Asia. There is also a need for improved dialogue between the health and trade sectors on how to balance economic opportunities associated with trade in health services with domestic health needs and equity issues. Copyright © 2011
Thomas W. Pavkov
Full Text Available The Family Access Project will deploy innovative community empowerment, education, consensus building, and information system development strategies to strengthen community, ensure the efficient and effective delivery of needed services, and address the unique needs of families requiring public assistance from a host of public and private agencies in Lake County. The goal of the project is to enhance community life through improved care coordination by linking new technologies to the human service delivery process. Upon completion, the project will assist in the enhancement of community-based services through the development of rules of data transaction and data standards and the deploy-ment of a secure messaging/document exchange network. By putting technology in the hands of consumers we also hope to impact the economic development and workforce readiness goals set forth in our community's welfare to work programs. These innovations will require educational innovations in order to facilitate the use of technology by both provider and consumer end-users. Proposed innovations include tutorials related to data standards development, peer train-the-trainer training in the development and use of technology to support service system reforms; and ongoing support through a technical assistance clearinghouse and help desk.
This paper describes and analyzes the large variation in the proportion of non-profit providers across different welfare areas in Denmark with specific focus on two selected areas: Primary schools and care homes for elderly. With inspiration from niche theory, the aim is to get a deeper insight...... in the characteristics of the institutional framework in the two areas. The main argument of the paper is that non-profit welfare providers cannot be lumped together. It is necessary to take a closer look at both the differences and similarities across areas, but also across non-profit providers and their public...... counterparts within the same niche. In the preliminary results a number of explanatory factors are identified and analyzed: Regulative rules, funding issues, norms and expectations and the degree of competition. The analysis show that an indepth analysis of the two selected welfare areas can provide useful...
Full Text Available The paper is focused on the issue of the taxation of incomes of the non-governmental non-profit organizations, especially the civic associations in the conditions of the Czech Republic and in the selected countries of the European Union (Austria, Slovakia, Germany. The main emphasis is put on the comparison of the corporate income tax of the studied countries. Particularly the tax benefits that are provided to the non-profit organizations in the individual countries are compared here. This paper points to the current situation in the Czech Republic, where there is no clear legislation that would regulate the activities by the studied organizations. Changes in the taxation of the incomes of non-profit organizations are designed to eliminate absences with regard to the simplicity and clarity of the individual provisions, and also to prevent misuse of the benefits and to the speculative behavior of tax entities.
Douven, Rudy C H M; Schut, Frederik T
In this paper we examine the pricing behaviour of nonprofit health insurers in the Dutch social health insurance market. Since for-profit insurers were not allowed in this market, potential spillover effects from the presence of for-profit insurers on the behaviour of nonprofit insurers were absent. Using a panel data set for all health insurers operating in the Dutch social health insurance market over the period 1996-2004, we estimate a premium model to determine which factors explain the price setting behaviour of nonprofit health insurers. We find that financial stability rather than profit maximisation offers the best explanation for health plan pricing behaviour. In the presence of weak price competition, health insurers did not set premiums to maximize profits. Nevertheless, our findings suggest that regulations on financial reserves are needed to restrict premiums. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
In September 2015, the United Nations adopted the sustainable development goals (SDGs) to address among others poverty and inequality within and among countries of the world. In particular, the SDGs aim at ameliorating the position of disadvantaged and vulnerable groups in societies. One of the over-arching goals of the SDGs is to ensure that no one is left behind in the realisation of their access to health care. African governments are obligated under international and regional human rights law to ensure access to healthcare services for everyone, including indigenous populations, on a non-discriminatory basis. This requires the governments to adopt appropriate measures that will remove barriers to healthcare services for disadvantaged and marginalised groups such as indigenous peoples.
Led by the agency director, the agency engaged in a Strategic Review, based on a comprehensive assessment of agency performance that identified strategies to improve organizational effectiveness through increased data-informed practice and knowledge management. The Strategic Review gathered information on staff perceptions, perceptions of external stakeholders, changing citywide and neighborhood demographics, policy mandates, and budget and workload issues. The need for the review was based upon multiple, substantial changes not addressed in the 2000 Strategic Plan, including the 2004 merger of the Department of Human Services and the Department of Aging and Adult Services, changes among the executive management team, transitions among key political entities, new policy mandates and changing budget allocations. This case study describes the Strategic Review process and content, summarizing key challenges and lessons related to addressing workload demands, fostering positive staff attitudes, balancing internal and external information needs, and integrating data use and planning processes across the agency. Copyright © Taylor & Francis Group, LLC
Fox, Daniel M
POLICY POINTS: Health policy in the United States has, for more than a century, simultaneously and paradoxically incentivized the growth as well as the commercialization of nonprofit organizations in the health sector. This policy paradox persists during the implementation of the Affordable Care Act of 2010. For more than a century, policy in the United States has incentivized both expansion in the number and size of tax-exempt nonprofit organizations in the health sector and their commercialization. The implementation of the Affordable Care Act of 2010 (ACA) began yet another chapter in the history of this policy paradox. This article explores the origin and persistence of the paradox using what many scholars call "interpretive social science." This methodology prioritizes history and contingency over formal theory and methods in order to present coherent and plausible narratives of events and explanations for them. These narratives are grounded in documents generated by participants in particular events, as well as conversations with them, observing them in action, and analysis of pertinent secondary sources. The methodology achieves validity and reliability by gathering information from multiple sources and making disciplined judgments about its coherence and correspondence with reality. A paradox with deep historical roots persists as a result of consensus about its value for both population health and the revenue of individuals and organizations in the health sector. Participants in this consensus include leaders of governance who have disagreed about many other issues. The paradox persists because of assumptions about the burden of disease and how to address it, as well as about the effects of biomedical science that is translated into professional education, practice, and the organization of services for the prevention, diagnosis, treatment, and management of illness. The policy paradox that has incentivized the growth and commercialization of nonprofits in
Full Text Available This paper examines the criteria necessary for the evaluation of the cybersecurity policies for the United States Health and Human Services Department of the Federal Government. The overall purpose of cybersecurity policies and procedures is supported through compliance with Federal mandated regulation and standards, which serve to protect the organizational services and goals of the United States Health and Human Services Department, and to promote the best possible security practices in the protection of information systems from unauthorized actors and cyber-threats. The criteria of the cybersecurity evaluation is identified and analyzed for quality, strengths, weaknesses, and future applicability. Topics within the criteria include organizational operation, regulations and industrial standards compliance, service delivery to national customers, and the prevention and mitigation of IT system and security failure. This analysis determines the strengths and weaknesses, and makes recommendations for revising the cybersecurity policies within the United States Health and Human Services Department.
Bittker, Boris; Rahdert, George K.
The tax status and problems of various public service and mutual benefit organizations are reviewed. Focus is on tax rates and exemptions of: charitable organizations; educational institutions; scientific organizations; foundations; religious and social welfare organizations; social clubs; cooperatives; labor unions; and business leagues. (LBH)
Z. Zenn Bien
Full Text Available The smart house under consideration is a service-integrated complex system to assist older persons and/or people with disabilities. The primary goal of the system is to achieve independent living by various robotic devices and systems. Such a system is treated as a human-in-the loop system in which human- robot interaction takes place intensely and frequently. Based on our experiences of having designed and implemented a smart house environment, called Intelligent Sweet Home (ISH, we present a framework of realizing human-friendly HRI (human-robot interaction module with various effective techniques of computational intelligence. More specifically, we partition the robotic tasks of HRI module into three groups in consideration of the level of specificity, fuzziness or uncertainty of the context of the system, and present effective interaction method for each case. We first show a task planning algorithm and its architecture to deal with well-structured tasks autonomously by a simplified set of commands of the user instead of inconvenient manual operations. To provide with capability of interacting in a human-friendly way in a fuzzy context, it is proposed that the robot should make use of human bio-signals as input of the HRI module as shown in a hand gesture recognition system, called a soft remote control system. Finally we discuss a probabilistic fuzzy rule-based life-long learning system, equipped with intention reading capability by learning human behavioral patterns, which is introduced as a solution in uncertain and time-varying situations.
Sircar, S; Schkade, L L; Schoech, D
The traditional incremental approach to computerization presents substantial problems as systems develop and grow. The Data Base Management System approach to computerization was developed to overcome the problems resulting from implementing computer applications one at a time. The authors describe the applications approach and the alternative Data Base Management System (DBMS) approach through their developmental history, discuss the technology of DBMS components, and consider the implications of choosing the DBMS alternative. Human service managers need an understanding of the DBMS alternative and its applicability to their agency data processing needs. The basis for a conscious selection of computing alternatives is outlined.
Hsieh, Hwey-Lian; Lin, Hsing-Juh; Shih, Shang-Shu; Chen, Chang-Po
The present study examined a mangrove ecosystem in northern Taiwan to determine how the various components of ecosystem function, ecosystem services and human wellbeing are connected. The overall contributions of mangrove services to specific components of human wellbeing were also assessed. A network was developed and evaluated by an expert panel consisting of hydrologists, ecologists, and experts in the field of culture, landscape or architecture. The results showed that supporting habitats...
Injury prevention programs can use social media to disseminate information and recruit participants. Non-profit organizations have also used social media for fundraising and donor relationship management. Non-profit organizations (NPOs) with injury prevention missions often serve vulnerable populations. Social media platforms have varied levels of access and control of shared content. This variability can present privacy and outreach challenges that are of particular concern for injury prevention NPOs. This case report of social media workshops for injury prevention NPOs presents concerns and strategies for successfully implementing social media campaigns.
Full Text Available Injury prevention programs can use social media to disseminate information and recruit participants. Non-profit organizations have also used social media for fundraising and donor relationship management. Non-profit organizations (NPOs with injury prevention missions often serve vulnerable populations. Social media platforms have varied levels of access and control of shared content. This variability can present privacy and outreach challenges that are of particular concern for injury prevention NPOs. This case report of social media workshops for injury prevention NPOs presents concerns and strategies for successfully implementing social media campaigns.
Final ecosystem goods and services (FEGS) are the connection between the ecosystem resources and human stakeholders that benefit from natural capital. The FEGS concept is an extension of the ecosystem services (ES) concept (e.g., Millennium Ecosystem Assessment) and results from...
Thronson, Harley; Peterson, Bradley M.; Greenhouse, Matthew; MacEwen, Howard; Mukherjee, Rudranarayan; Polidan, Ronald; Reed, Benjamin; Siegler, Nicholas; Smith, Hsiao
Some concepts for candidate future "flagship" space observatories approach the payload limits of the largest launch vehicles planned for the next few decades, specifically in the available volume in the vehicle fairing. This indicates that an alternative to autonomous self-deployment similar to that of the James Webb Space Telescope will eventually be required. Moreover, even before this size limit is reached, there will be significant motivation to service, repair, and upgrade in-space missions of all sizes, whether to extend the life of expensive facilities or to replace outworn or obsolete onboard systems as was demonstrated so effectively by the Hubble Space Telescope program. In parallel with these challenges to future major space astronomy missions, the capabilities of in-space robotic systems and the goals for human space flight in the 2020s and 2030s offer opportunities for achieving the most exciting science goals of the early 21st Century. In this paper, we summarize the history of concepts for human operations beyond the immediate vicinity of the Earth, the importance of very large apertures for scientific discovery, and current capabilities and future developments in robot- and astronaut-enabled servicing and assembly.
Madsen, Ida E H; Tripathi, Manisha; Borritz, Marianne; Rugulies, Reiner
According to the "stress-as-offense-to-self" perspective, work tasks that are considered unnecessary or unreasonable - so-called "illegitimate work tasks" - are likely to elicit stress-reactions. Previous studies, mostly cross-sectional, have shown that illegitimate tasks are associated with increased self-reported stress, cortisol, and counterproductive work behavior. In this article, we examine the prospective association between unnecessary work tasks, one type of illegitimate work tasks, and mental health among Danish human service workers. Further, we explore whether this association is modified by sex, age, occupational position, and baseline mental health status. The data were obtained from self-administered questionnaires from 1351 Danish human service workers in three waves of data-collection during 1999-2005. We measured unnecessary work tasks by a single item, and assessed mental health using the 5-item mental health inventory from the Short form 36 questionnaire. We analyzed data using multi-level modeling, adjusting for potential confounding by sex, age, cohabitation, occupational position, and baseline mental health. Unnecessary work tasks were prospectively associated with a decreased level of mental health. This association was stronger for employees with poor baseline mental health and tended to be more pronounced among older employees. Among participants with poor baseline mental health, the association was explained by neither psychological demands nor decision latitude. Our findings suggest that the prevention of unnecessary work tasks may benefit employee mental health, particularly among employees with pre-existing mental health problems.
This paper examines the profession of information brokerage through a look at types of services provided, and through a discussion of major issues, including that of fee for service. The types of information broker and free-lance librarian services are identified: (1) non-profit reference and research services administered by public libraries and…
João Paulo Bittencourt
Full Text Available The aim of this research was to analyze the process of implementation and management of the Shared Services Center for Human Resources, in a multinational company in the context of mergers and acquisitions. The company analyzed was called here Alpha, and is one of the largest food companies in the country that was born of a merger between Beta and Delta in 2008. The CSC may constitute a tool for strategic management of HR that allows repositioning of the role of the area in order to be more strategic at corporate level and more profitable at the operating level. The research was based on a descriptive and exploratory study of qualitative approach. Among the results, there is the fact that shared services were strategic to support, standardize and ensure the expansion of the company. The challenges found were associated with the development of a culture of service and the relationship with users and the definition of HR activities scope. The following management procedures include the adequacy of wage differences between employees, the career path limitation and the need to attract and retain talent and international expansion.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Considerable attention has been given by policy makers and researchers to the human resources for health crisis in Africa. However, little attention has been paid to quantifying health facility-level trends in health worker numbers, distribution and workload, despite growing demands on health workers due to the availability of new funds for HIV/AIDS control scale-up. This study analyses and reports trends in HIV and non-HIV ambulatory service workloads on clinical staff in urban and rural district level facilities. Methods Structured surveys of health facility managers, and health services covering 2005-07 were conducted in three districts of Zambia in 2008 (two urban and one rural, to fill this evidence gap. Intra-facility analyses were conducted, comparing trends in HIV and non-HIV service utilisation with staff trends. Results Clinical staff (doctors, nurses and nurse-midwives, and clinical officers numbers and staff population densities fell slightly, with lower ratios of staff to population in the rural district. The ratios of antenatal care and family planning registrants to nurses/nurse-midwives were highest at baseline and increased further at the rural facilities over the three years, while daily outpatient department (OPD workload in urban facilities fell below that in rural facilities. HIV workload, as measured by numbers of clients receiving antiretroviral treatment (ART and prevention of mother to child transmission (PMTCT per facility staff member, was highest in the capital city, but increased rapidly in all three districts. The analysis suggests evidence of task sharing, in that staff designated by managers as ART and PMTCT workers made up a higher proportion of frontline service providers by 2007. Conclusions This analysis of workforce patterns across 30 facilities in three districts of Zambia illustrates that the remarkable achievements in scaling-up HIV/AIDS service delivery has been on the back of
Abstract Background Considerable attention has been given by policy makers and researchers to the human resources for health crisis in Africa. However, little attention has been paid to quantifying health facility-level trends in health worker numbers, distribution and workload, despite growing demands on health workers due to the availability of new funds for HIV\\/AIDS control scale-up. This study analyses and reports trends in HIV and non-HIV ambulatory service workloads on clinical staff in urban and rural district level facilities. Methods Structured surveys of health facility managers, and health services covering 2005-07 were conducted in three districts of Zambia in 2008 (two urban and one rural), to fill this evidence gap. Intra-facility analyses were conducted, comparing trends in HIV and non-HIV service utilisation with staff trends. Results Clinical staff (doctors, nurses and nurse-midwives, and clinical officers) numbers and staff population densities fell slightly, with lower ratios of staff to population in the rural district. The ratios of antenatal care and family planning registrants to nurses\\/nurse-midwives were highest at baseline and increased further at the rural facilities over the three years, while daily outpatient department (OPD) workload in urban facilities fell below that in rural facilities. HIV workload, as measured by numbers of clients receiving antiretroviral treatment (ART) and prevention of mother to child transmission (PMTCT) per facility staff member, was highest in the capital city, but increased rapidly in all three districts. The analysis suggests evidence of task sharing, in that staff designated by managers as ART and PMTCT workers made up a higher proportion of frontline service providers by 2007. Conclusions This analysis of workforce patterns across 30 facilities in three districts of Zambia illustrates that the remarkable achievements in scaling-up HIV\\/AIDS service delivery has been on the back of sustained non
Walsh, Aisling; Ndubani, Phillimon; Simbaya, Joseph; Dicker, Patrick; Brugha, Ruairí
Considerable attention has been given by policy makers and researchers to the human resources for health crisis in Africa. However, little attention has been paid to quantifying health facility-level trends in health worker numbers, distribution and workload, despite growing demands on health workers due to the availability of new funds for HIV/AIDS control scale-up. This study analyses and reports trends in HIV and non-HIV ambulatory service workloads on clinical staff in urban and rural district level facilities. Structured surveys of health facility managers, and health services covering 2005-07 were conducted in three districts of Zambia in 2008 (two urban and one rural), to fill this evidence gap. Intra-facility analyses were conducted, comparing trends in HIV and non-HIV service utilisation with staff trends. Clinical staff (doctors, nurses and nurse-midwives, and clinical officers) numbers and staff population densities fell slightly, with lower ratios of staff to population in the rural district. The ratios of antenatal care and family planning registrants to nurses/nurse-midwives were highest at baseline and increased further at the rural facilities over the three years, while daily outpatient department (OPD) workload in urban facilities fell below that in rural facilities. HIV workload, as measured by numbers of clients receiving antiretroviral treatment (ART) and prevention of mother to child transmission (PMTCT) per facility staff member, was highest in the capital city, but increased rapidly in all three districts. The analysis suggests evidence of task sharing, in that staff designated by managers as ART and PMTCT workers made up a higher proportion of frontline service providers by 2007. This analysis of workforce patterns across 30 facilities in three districts of Zambia illustrates that the remarkable achievements in scaling-up HIV/AIDS service delivery has been on the back of sustained non-HIV workload levels, increasing HIV workload and stagnant
Ecosystem goods and services (EGS) are thought to play a role in protecting human health, but the empirical evidence directly linking EGS to human health outcomes is limited, and our ability to detect Eco-Health linkages is confounded by socio-economic factors. These limitations ...
A series of overhead viewgraphs described some of the topics that were discussed at this workshop. A corporate review of the Massachusetts Health and Educational Facilities Authority (HEFA) was presented. HEFA was formed in 1968 to provide cost savings in electric bills to health, education, cultural and other non profit organizations. The methods that HEFA uses to achieve this goal is to provide energy services with either fixed prices or with two-year or five-year options. Since their creation HEFA has a total of 100 signed natural gas contracts and 300 signed electricity contracts
Full Text Available This research aims in analyzing the capacity development of non-profit organizations in the growth stage through six internal components and four external components at Papuan Pesat Foundation. The approach used in the research is the action research based on the soft systems methodology that consists of two activities that had been done simultaneously, which are the research interest and the problem solving interest (McKay and Marshall, 2001. It fulfills criteria that are systematically desirable and culturally feasible (Flood an Jackson, 1991. Whilst the theory used is according to Brothers and Sherman (2012 that states that there are six internal components that should be strengthened in the growth stage, which are the leadership, the organization’s culture, the role of the board, programs’ extension, the management and infrastructure, the financial sustainable. Afterwards, according to De Vita, et. al. (2001 there are four organization’s external components that should be maintained, which are the social demographic, the economy/market, the politic and values, and the norms. The result of this research shows the research interest, that the organization needs to be equipped with the transformational leadership, the simple structure design, and the improvement of the role of the board. For the problem solving interest, it needs the working programs’ extension through the correct formulation process, the human resources management, the organization’s financial sustainability. Then the external components which need to be formed are the collaboration among the non-profit organizations, the local government, the private sectors, business activities, politic participations and the public relation.
... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false System must be nonprofit or operated on a share-crop basis... Requirements Under Section 13(b)(12) The Irrigation Exemption § 780.407 System must be nonprofit or operated on... on facilities of any irrigation system unless the ditches, canals, reservoirs, or waterways in...
... 32 National Defense 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What requirement for access to a nonprofit participant's records do I include in a TIA? 37.920 Section 37.920 National Defense Department of Defense... What requirement for access to a nonprofit participant's records do I include in a TIA? Your TIA must...
... Convenience of the Government (Educational and Other Nonprofit Institutions). 52.249-5 Section 52.249-5... Convenience of the Government (Educational and Other Nonprofit Institutions). As prescribed in 49.502(d), insert the following clause: Termination for Convenience of the Government (Educational and Other...
Ewing Marion Kauffman Foundation, Kansas City, MO.
For some time the Ewing Marion Kauffman Foundation has been studying the attributes that characterize effective nonprofit organizations. These attributes were identified after a review of the literature, discussions with national leaders, meetings with administrators and funders of nonprofit organizations, and the information from case studies by…
... relationship they have with the sponsor or the mortgagor. HUD uses this information to assure compliance with...-92531. Description of the Need for the Information and Its Proposed Use: Nonprofit organizations provide financial and other information so that HUD can determine that the sponsor and/or mortgagor are truly a...
Contribution: This study provides insights into the means by which non-profit employees across two nations demonstrate their enthusiasm, pride and involvement in the work that they perform. It moreover sheds light on the factors contributing to such employees intending to leave or stay within the employment of their organisations.
This essay proposes a model of university-community partnership called "an engaged swarm" that mobilizes networks of students from across classes and disciplines to work with off-campus partners such as nonprofits. Based on theories that translate the distributed, adaptive, and flexible activity of actors in biological systems to…
Bolton, Elizabeth B.; Brennan, M. A.; Terry, Bryan D.
This article highlights how undergraduate students implemented inquiry-based learning strategies to learn how nonprofit organizations utilize volunteers. In inquiry-based learning, students begin with a problem or question with some degree of focus or structure provided by the professor. The student inquiry showcased in this article was based on a…
Small non-profit organizations outsource at least one information technology or information assurance process. Outsourcing information technology and information assurance processes has increased every year. The study was to determine the key reasons behind the choice to outsource information technology and information assurance processes. Using…
Fried, Vance H.
Undergraduate education is a highly profitable business for nonprofit colleges and universities. They do not show profits on their books, but instead take their profits in the form of spending on some combination of research, graduate education, low-demand majors, low faculty teaching loads, excess compensation, and featherbedding. The industry's…
Boogaard, C.R.; Fransen, M.L.; Eisend, M.; Langner, T.
In the present research we examined a variety of strategies that consumers may use to resist persuasion towards non-profit and commercial advertising. Based on research by Jacks and Cameron (2003), we investigated seven strategies (i.e., attitude bolstering, counter arguing, negative affect,
Elson, Raymond J.; Ostapski, S. Andrew; O'Callaghan, Susanne; Walker, John P.
Nontraditional teaching aids such as crossword puzzles have been successfully used in the classroom to enhance student learning. Government and nonprofit accounting is a confusing course for students since it has strange terminologies and contradicts the accounting concepts learned in other courses. As such, it is an ideal course for a…
Vock, M.; van Dolen, W.; Kolk, A.
Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to explore consumers' responses to social alliances, a specific type of corporate social marketing in which companies cooperate with non-profit organizations. This paper extends previous studies that suggested that a social marketing effort may be a
... 34 Education 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Ratio Methodology for Private Non-Profit Institutions B Appendix B to Subpart L of Part 668 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF POSTSECONDARY EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION STUDENT ASSISTANCE GENERAL PROVISIONS...
Broom, Lowell S.; Thornton, Jeremy P.; Carson, Charles M.
Social Entrepreneurship (SE) programs have been expanding over the past decade. The emergence of this new discipline can be attributed to two overlapping factors. Students (particularly business students) have expressed an increased desire to blend values, ethics and social causes into their own vocations. At the same time, the nonprofit and…
Many non-profits are looking at ways that they can leverage the Internet to assist in fund raising. Some organizations are using the Internet as a form of e-commerce to accept online gifts, while others are using the immediacy of the Internet for online auctions.
Eckerd, Adam; Moulton, Stephanie
Evaluating the performance of nonprofit organizations has been of growing importance for the last several decades. Although there is much good that can come out of self-improvement, there is substantial heterogeneity within the sector that calls into question the usefulness of "across the board" evaluation tools. In this article, the authors…
Poole, Dennis L.; Nelson, Joan; Carnahan, Sharon; Chepenik, Nancy G.; Tubiak, Christine
Developed and field tested the Performance Accountability Quality Scale (PAQS) on 191 program performance measurement systems developed by nonprofit agencies in central Florida. Preliminary findings indicate that the PAQS provides a structure for obtaining expert opinions based on a theory-driven model about the quality of proposed measurement…
Full Text Available Recent decades have been marked by a rising interaction between the State and nonprofits in order to addressincreasingly complex public issues. Government-nonprofit relations were guided by a complex and diverse legal framework, that transformed not only the implementation of public policies, but also the auditing practices and control of such relations. Previous studies have shown the influence of NPM reforms in auditing practices and institutions, of particular interest to this research is the Theory of the Audit Explosion (TEA. This paper analyzes the control of government-nonprofits relations, under the perspective of the TEA, specifically trying to comprehend if there is a causal relationship between the growth of government-nonprofit relations and the audit explosion in the Brazilian context, as predicted by the theory. A field research, based on documentary data and interviews, was undertaken in three Brazilian SAIs. The conclusions highlight the limitations of the explanatory capacity of TEA in Brazil. Although a formal audit explosion was observed, as predicted by TEA, there are substantive barriers to the audit explosion. This is mainly due to the organizational and institutional aspects related to governmental fund transfer entities. Such problems reflect the poor quality of the partnerships themselves and might be a consequence of political variables such as the spurious relationships of some parliamentary members or public employees with partner NGOs.
Social media could help nonprofit communities to organize their communication with their members in new and innovative ways. This could contribute to sustaining or improving the participation of members within these communities. Yet little is known of how to measure and understand the offline
... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false OMB Circular A-122, cost principles for nonprofit organizations; USAID implementation. 731.770 Section 731.770 Federal Acquisition Regulations System AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT GENERAL CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS CONTRACT COST...
The purpose of this study was to measure the effect of gendered communication on women's behavioral intentions regarding nonprofit and for-profit entrepreneurship. Women represent half of the U.S. workforce, but only about one third of all American entrepreneurs are women. Feminists have argued that because entrepreneurship is largely understood…
Coughlin, J.; Grove, J.; Irvine, L.; Jacobs, J. F.; Johnson Phillips, S.; Sawyer, A.; Wiedman, J.
This guide is organized around three sponsorship models: utility-sponsored projects, projects sponsored by special purpose entities - businesses formed for the purpose of producing community solar power, and non-profit sponsored projects. The guide addresses issues common to all project models, as well as issues unique to each model.
... participants. 603.685 Section 603.685 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (CONTINUED) ASSISTANCE REGULATIONS TECHNOLOGY INVESTMENT AGREEMENTS Award Terms Affecting Participants' Financial, Property, and Purchasing Systems... education or in a nonprofit organization whose primary purpose is conducting scientific research, without...
Kerr, Gillian; Johnson, Alberta; Gaudon, Sara
The Service Information System (SIS) is a monitoring and evaluation platform built on open source software and donated Microsoft services that is offered on a subscription basis to nonprofits providing any kind of service. It is developed and managed by LogicalOutcomes, a Canadian nonprofit, and launched in March 2018. The first implementation was created in partnership with the Ontario Coalition of Agencies Serving Immigrants, funded by the Ontario Ministry of Citizenship and Immigration. ...
Full Text Available It is widely acknowledged that land use changes (LUC associated with climate variations are affecting the human wellbeing. This paper conducted a revisit to relevant researches on the impacts of LUC on human wellbeing via specifically altering the ecosystem provisioning services. First, the explorations on the influences of LUC on ecosystem provisioning services were reviewed, including the researches on the influences of LUC on agroecosystem services and forest and/or grassland ecosystem services. Then the quantitative identification of the impacts of LUC on ecosystem provisioning services was commented on. In the light of enhanced observation and valuation methods, several approaches to ecosystem services and improved models for assessing those ecosystem services were assessed. The major indicators used to uncover the influences of LUC on human wellbeing were summarized including the increase of inputs and the reduction of outputs in production and the augmented health risk induced by the irrational land uses. Finally, this paper uncovered the research gaps and proposed several research directions to address these gaps.
Homer, Mary J.; Raulli, Robert; Esker, John; Moyer, Brian; Wathen, Lynne; DiCarlo-Cohen, Andrea L.; Maidment, Bert W.; Rios, Carmen; Macchiarini, Francesca; Hrdina, Chad; Prasanna, Pataje G.
The United States Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) is fully committed to the development of medical countermeasures to address national security threats from chemical, biological, radiological, and nuclear agents. Through the Public Health Emergency Medical Countermeasures Enterprise, HHS has launched and managed a multi-agency, comprehensive effort to develop and operationalize medical countermeasures. Within HHS, development of medical countermeasures includes the National Institutes of Health (NIH), (led by the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases), the Office of the Assistant Secretary of Preparedness and Response/Biomedical Advanced Research and Development Authority (BARDA); with the Division of Medical Countermeasure Strategy and Requirements, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, and the Food and Drug Administration as primary partners in this endeavor. This paper describes various programs and coordinating efforts of BARDA and NIH for the development of medical countermeasures for radiological and nuclear threats. (authors)
Wasserman, Deborah L
This paper offers a framework for using a systems orientation and "foundational theory" to enhance theory-driven evaluations and logic models. The framework guides the process of identifying and explaining operative relationships and perspectives within human service program systems. Self-Determination Theory exemplifies how a foundational theory can be used to support the framework in a wide range of program evaluations. Two examples illustrate how applications of the framework have improved the evaluators' abilities to observe and explain program effect. In both exemplars improvements involved addressing and organizing into a single logic model heretofore seemingly disparate evaluation issues regarding valuing (by whose values); the role of organizational and program context; and evaluation anxiety and utilization. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Damman, Marleen; Heyse, Liesbet; Mills, Melinda
Although one can assume the work values within nonprofit organizations promote gender equality in promotion decisions, there is preliminary evidence that in the nonprofit sector women are underrepresented in higher management positions. Whereas the mechanisms resulting in underrepresentation of
Pavao-zuckerman, M.; Pope, A.; Chan, D.; Curl, K.; Gimblett, H. R.; Hough, M.; House-Peters, L.; Lee, R.; Scott, C. A.
Riparian corridors in arid regions are highly valued for their relative scarcity, and because healthy riparian systems support high levels of biodiversity, can meet human demand for water and water-related resources and functions. Our team is taking a transdiciplinary social-ecological systems approach to assessing riparian corridor resilience in two watersheds (the San Pedro River in USA and Mexico, and the Rio San Miguel in Mexico) through a project funded by the NSF CNH program ("Strengthening Resilience of Arid Region Riparian Corridors"). Multiple perspectives are integrated in the project, including hydrology, ecology, institutional dynamics, and decision making (at the level of both policy and individual choice), as well as the perspectives of various stakeholder groups and individuals in the watersheds. Here we discuss initial findings that center around linking changes in ecohydrology and livelihoods related to decisions in response to climatic, ecological, and social change. The research team is implementing two approaches to integrate the disparate disciplines participating in the research (and the varied perspectives among the stakeholders in this binational riparian context): (1) ecosystem service assessment, and (2) agent based model simulation. We are developing an ecosystem service perspective that provides a bridge between ecological dynamics in the landscape and varied stakeholder perspectives on the implications of ecohydrology for well-being (economic, cultural, ecological). Services are linked on one hand to the spatial patterns of traits of individuals within species (allowing a more predictive application of ecosystem services as they vary with community change in time), and to stakeholder perspectives (facilitating integration of ecosystem services into our understanding of decision making processes) in a case study in the San Pedro River National Conservation Area. The agent- based model (ABM) approach incorporates the influence of human
Laar, Amos; DeBruin, Debra
In line with its half century old penal code, Ghana currently criminalizes and penalizes behaviors of some key populations - populations deemed to be at higher risk of acquiring or transmitting Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV). Men who have sex with men (MSM), and sex workers (SWs) fit into this categorization. This paper provides an analysis of how enactment and implementation of rights-limiting laws not only limit rights, but also amplify risk and vulnerability to HIV in key and general populations. The paper derives from a project that assessed the ethics sensitivity of key documents guiding Ghana's response to its HIV epidemic. Assessment was guided by leading frameworks from public health ethics, and relevant articles from the international bill of rights. Ghana's response to her HIV epidemic does not adequately address the rights and needs of key populations. Even though the national response has achieved some public health successes, palpable efforts to address rights issues remain nascent. Ghana's guiding documents for HIV response include no advocacy for decriminalization, depenalization or harm reduction approaches for these key populations. The impact of rights-restricting codes on the nation's HIV epidemic is real: criminalization impedes key populations' access to HIV prevention and treatment services. Given that they are bridging populations, whatever affects the Ghanaian key populations directly, affects the general population indirectly. The right to the highest attainable standard of health, without qualification, is generally acknowledged as a fundamental human right. Unfortunately, this right currently eludes the Ghanaian SW and MSM. The paper endorses decriminalization as a means of promoting this right. In the face of opposition to decriminalization, the paper proposes specific harm reduction strategies as approaches to promote health and uplift the diminished rights of key populations. Thus the authors call on Ghana to remove impediments to
Hastings, Tessa J; Hohmann, Lindsey A; McFarland, Stuart J; Teeter, Benjamin S; Westrick, Salisa C
Use of non-traditional settings such as community pharmacies has been suggested to increase human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination uptake and completion rates. The objectives of this study were to explore HPV vaccination services and strategies employed by pharmacies to increase HPV vaccine uptake, pharmacists' attitudes towards the HPV vaccine, and pharmacists' perceived barriers to providing HPV vaccination services in community pharmacies. A pre-piloted mail survey was sent to 350 randomly selected community pharmacies in Alabama in 2014. Measures included types of vaccines administered and marketing/recommendation strategies, pharmacists' attitudes towards the HPV vaccine, and perceived system and parental barriers. Data analysis largely took the form of descriptive statistics. 154 pharmacists completed the survey (response rate = 44%). The majority believed vaccination is the best protection against cervical cancer (85.3%), HPV is a serious threat to health for girls (78.8%) and boys (55.6%), and children should not wait until they are sexually active to be vaccinated (80.1%). Perceived system barriers included insufficient patient demand (56.5%), insurance plans not covering vaccination cost (54.8%), and vaccine expiration before use (54.1%). Respondents also perceived parents to have inadequate education and understanding about HPV infection (86.6%) and vaccine safety (78.7%). Pharmacists have positive perceptions regarding the HPV vaccine. Barriers related to system factors and perceived parental concerns must be overcome to increase pharmacist involvement in HPV vaccinations.
Abortion is unlawful in Ireland except where it is necessary to save the life of the mother. The right to life of the unborn child is safeguarded under Article 40.3.3 degrees of Bunreacht na hEireann (the Irish Constitution). In 2003 the European Convention on Human Rights was incorporated into Irish domestic legislation, subject to the provisions of the Irish Constitution. The aim of this paper is to consider the potential impact of the ECHR on access to abortion services within the State. This paper commences with discussion of the statutory prohibition on abortion and the Constitutional provisions concerning the protection afforded to the unborn child. It will then be necessary to examine the implications for Ireland of recent European Court of Human Rights' decisions, in particular the recent judgment in A, B & C v Ireland, regarding the right to legal abortions given the unique nature of the legal status of the ECHR and its relationship with the Irish Constitution.
Holcomb, K E; Stull, C L; Kass, P H
Closure of US equine slaughter facilities in 2007 along with the concomitant economic recession have contributed to a sharp increase in the number of unwanted horses throughout the United States, with estimates totaling 100,000 horses per year. The objective of the study was to obtain comprehensive data regarding nonprofit organizations caring for unwanted horses, along with the characteristics and outcome of horses relinquished to these organizations. Nonprofit organizations that accept relinquished equines were contacted to participate in a 90-question survey. Responding organizations (144 of 326 eligible) in 37 states provided information on 280 cases representative of the 7,990 horses relinquished between 2007 and 2009. Data collected characterized these organizations as being in existence for 6 yr, financially supported through donations and personal funds, dedicated to the care of only 10 to 20 horses on a property of just over 30 acres, and reliant on volunteers for help. Funding was the greatest challenge to continued operation of nonprofit equine organizations, with maintenance costs for the care of a relinquished horse averaging $3,648 per year. Financial hardship, physical inability, or lack of time to care for the horses by owners were the most common reasons for relinquishment, followed by seizure through law enforcement agencies for alleged neglect or abuse. Relinquished horses consisted of mostly light horse breeds (79.3%), with Thoroughbreds and Quarter Horses as the most represented breeds. The age of relinquished horses ranged from 3 d to 42 yr old (12.4 ± 0.5 yr). About one-half of the horses entered in the survey were considered unhealthy due to illness, injury, lameness, or poor body condition. For every 4 horses relinquished to a nonprofit organization, only 3 horses were adopted or sold between 2006 and 2009, and many organizations had refused to accept additional horses for lack of resources. The estimated maximum capacity for the 326
Watson, Larry D.; Hoefer, Richard A.
Positive organizational psychology suggests that researchers should focus on the rewarding elements of work life, yet those in the fields of social work and nonprofit administration have not conducted research in line with this admonition. Indeed, the current focus on administrative challenges and problems may be part of the reason there is…
Mahmoud, Shereif H; Gan, Thian Y
The implications of anthropogenic climate change, human activities and land use change (LUC) on the environment and ecosystem services in the coastal regions of Saudi Arabia were analyzed. Earth observations data was used to drive land use categories between 1970 and 2014. Next, a Markov-CA model was developed to characterize the dynamic of LUC between 2014 and 2100 and their impacts on regions' climate and environment. Non-parametric change point and trend detection algorithms were applied to temperature, precipitation and greenhouse gases data to investigate the presence of anthropogenic climate change. Lastly, climate models were used to project future climate change between 2014 and 2100. The analysis of LUC revealed that between 1970 and 2014, built up areas experienced the greatest growth during the study period, leading to a significant monotonic trend. Urban areas increased by 2349.61km 2 between 1970 and 2014, an average increase of >53.4km 2 /yr. The projected LUC between 2014 and 2100 indicate a continued increase in urban areas and irrigated cropland. Human alteration of land use from natural vegetation and forests to other uses after 1970, resulted in a loss, degradation, and fragmentation, all of which usually have devastating effects on the biodiversity of the region. Resulting in a statistically significant change point in temperature anomaly after 1968 with a warming trend of 0.24°C/decade and a downward trend in precipitation anomaly of 12.2mm/decade. Total greenhouse gas emissions including all anthropogenic sources showed a statistically significant positive trend of 78,090Kt/decade after 1991. This is reflected in the future projection of temperature anomaly between 1900 and 2100 with a future warming trend of 0.19°C/decade. In conclusion, human activities, industrial revelation, deforestation, land use transformation and increase in greenhouse gases had significant implications on the environment and ecosystem services of the study area
Rodriguez, Salvador; Aziz, Ayesha; Chatwin, Chris
The use of Health Information Technology (HIT) to improve healthcare service delivery is constantly increasing due to research advances in medical science and information systems. Having a fully automated process solution for a Healthcare Organization (HCO) requires a combination of organizational strategies along with a selection of technologies that facilitate the goal of improving clinical outcomes. HCOs, requires dynamic management of care capability to realize the full potential of HIT. Business Process Management (BPM) is being increasingly adopted to streamline the healthcare service delivery and management processes. Emergency Departments (EDs) provide a case in point, which require multidisciplinary resources and services to deliver effective clinical outcomes. Managed care involves the coordination of a range of services in an ED. Although fully automated processes in emergency care provide a cutting edge example of service delivery, there are many situations that require human interactions with the computerized systems; e.g. Medication Approvals, care transfer, acute patient care. This requires a coordination mechanism for all the resources, computer and human, to work side by side to provide the best care. To ensure evidence-based medical practice in ED, we have designed a Human Task Management service to model the process of coordination of ED resources based on the UK's NICE Clinical guideline for managing the care of acutely ill patients. This functionality is implemented using Java Business process Management (jBPM).
This paper assessed whether a right to sustainable energy services access can be found in international human rights law, possibly in support of achieving UN Sustainable Development Goal 7. According to SDG 7.1, States are expected to strive for the implementation of "universal access to modern,
Ostrow, Laysha; Hayes, Stephania L
Mental health peer-run organizations are nonprofits providing venues for support and advocacy among people diagnosed as having mental disorders. It has been proposed that consumer involvement is essential to their operations. This study reported organizational characteristics of peer-run organizations nationwide and how these organizations differ by degree of consumer control. Data were from the 2012 National Survey of Peer-Run Organizations. The analyses described the characteristics of the organizations (N=380) on five domains of nonprofit research, comparing results for organizations grouped by degree of involvement by consumers in the board of directors. Peer-run organizations provided a range of supports and educational and advocacy activities and varied in their capacity and resources. Some variation was explained by the degree of consumer control. These organizations seemed to be operating consistently with evidence on peer-run models. The reach of peer-run organizations, and the need for in-depth research, continues to grow.
Victor B Flatt
Full Text Available The Legal Framework of Disaster Response does not deal as well with long term recovery. In particular, the role of non-profits is unexamined. This paper examines the role of non-profits in disaster recovery and argues for a legal framework acknowledging its important role. El marco legal de las respuestas ante desastres no tiene en cuenta la recuperación a largo plazo. En particular, no se analiza el papel de las organizaciones sin ánimo de lucro. Este artículo estudia el papel de las organizaciones sin ánimo de lucro en la recuperación de desastres, y se muestra a favor de establecer un marco legal que reconozca la importancia de su papel.
Juaneda-Ayensa, Emma; Clavel San Emeterio, Mónica; González-Menorca, Carlos
From an Organizational Behavior perspective, it is important to recognize the links generated between individuals and the organization that encourage a desire for permanence. After more than a half century of research, Organizational Commitment remains one of the open questions in the Psychology of Organizations. It is considered an essential factor for explaining individual behavior in the organization such as satisfaction, turnover intention, or loyalty. In this paper, we analyze different contributions regarding the nature of the bond between the individual and the organization. Taking into account the peculiarities of Non-profit Organizations, we present different interpretation for later validation, comparing results from the Confirmatory Factor Analysis of the four models obtained using exploratory factor analysis, both conducted on a sample of 235 members of Non-profit Organizations.
Stanley T. Asah; Anne D. Guerry; Dale J. Blahna; Joshua J. Lawler
Ecosystem services, fundamental to livelihoods and well-being, are reshaping environmental management and policy. However, the behavioral dimensions of ecosystem services and the responses of ordinary people to the management of those services, is less well understood. The ecosystem services framework lends itself to understanding the relationship between ecosystems...
Almansa, J. F.; Burgos, D. E.; Guerrero, R.
The age of the recommendations on minimum human and material resources of the SEFM, along with the emergence of new imaging techniques and new equipment, plus analysis of recent international publications relating to the subject and the establishment of relative value units in several Spanish regions, justify a revision of the minimum necessary human resources to carry out the tasks of Radio physics service with adequate safety and quality.
Filipova, Anna A
This study investigates ethical climates in government, nonprofit, and for-profit nursing homes and determines their similarities and differences. Surveys were collected from 656 (21.4%) licensed nurses who worked in 100 skilled nursing facilities in one Midwestern state. Shared law and code and caring ethical climates were identified across the 3 sector nursing homes. Those climates were also polarized. Important implications were drawn for consideration of ethical perceptions of each sector during negotiations and contract management.
Healy, John A.
This dissertation contributes to our understanding of how institutional complexity within fields influences efforts to construct interorganisational collective action. Five cases of efforts to construct collective action in two nonprofit fields are studied. One field is in the Republic of Ireland and the other in South Africa. The institutional logics salient in each field are derived using inductive methods and the processes of how these institutional logics influence the five efforts to con...
The Internet is changing people’s lives as well as the way organizations operate. In fact, digitalization and digital marketing are considered essential in organization’s operations. In this context, the capability to facilitate and master digital marketing becomes a key asset of an organization to stay competitive. This project-based thesis was commissioned by Nordic ASEAN Business Forum (NABF), a non-profit organization based in Helsinki, Finland. The need for the thesis comes from the ...
Sousa, Fernando; Castelão, Paula; Monteiro, Ileana Pardal; Pellissier, René
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of the Creative Problem Solving (CPS) method in improving the leadership process in a non-profit organization. The research was designed around an intervention and structured in three stages (pre-consult, intervention and follow-up), with a team designated by management, in order to bring leadership cohesion to both departments of the organization and also between the board and executive management. The results, expressed in the task...
Xhiliola Agaraj(Shehu); Merita Murati; Valbona Gjini
The traditional public relations manager is usually responsible for maintaining and enhancing the reputation of the organization among key publics. While the principal focus of this effort is on support publics, it is quite clearly recognized that an organization's image has important effects on its own employees, its donors and volunteers, and its clients. The aim of paper is to define application`s aspects of public relations media and tools by nonprofit organizations in Albanian reality. A...
Fritz, Tizian M.; von Schnurbein, Georg
Nonprofit organizations (NPOs) as mission-driven organizations could profit from investing in stocks diametrically opposed to their mission, as they serve as a perfect hedge. Earning more income from oil or tobacco companies when there is a greater need for ecological interventions or cancer research might help effectively fighting the cause. We show the flaw in this logic as in its optimal state, this strategy is at most a financial zero-sum game. However, as NPOs strive at creating net valu...
Gumbus, Andra; Wilson, Tom
The balanced scorecard has been referred to as the management innovation of the century, and extensive articles have been written using case studies of organizations that use this performance measurement system. This article addresses the key issues of design and implementation with a step-by-step guide to how to design a balanced scorecard and lessons to avoid implementation problems in government and nonprofit settings.
Full Text Available Abstract Background This paper addresses an important practical challenge to staff management. In 2000 the United Nations committed themselves to the ambitious targets embodied in the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs. Only five years later, it was clear that poor countries were not on track to achieve them. It was also clear that achieving the three out of the eight MDGs that concern health would only be possible if the appropriate human resources (HR were in place. Methods We use a case study based on semi-structured interview data to explore the steps that Namibia, a country facing severe health problems that include an alarmingly high AIDS infection rate, has taken to manage its health workers. Results In the fifteen years since independence, Namibia has patiently built up a relatively good strategic framework for health policy in the context of government policy as a whole, including strong training arrangements at every level of health staffing, and it has brought HIV/AIDS under the strategic umbrella through its National Strategic Plan for HIV/AIDS. Its major weakness is that it has not kept pace with the rise in HIV/AIDS and TB infection: the community counselling service, still at the pilot stage at the time of this study, was the only specific response. That has created a tension between building long-term capacity in a strategic context and responding to the short-term demands of the AIDS and TB crisis, which in turn affects the ability of HR to contribute to improving health outcomes. Conclusion It is suggested that countries like Namibia need a new paradigm for staffing their health services. Building on the existing strategic framework, it should target the training of 'mid-level cadres'. Higher-level cadres should take on the role of supporting and monitoring the mid-level cadres. To do that, they will need management training and a performance management framework for staff support and monitoring.
Montiel-Company, José María; Subirats-Roig, Cristian; Flores-Martí, Pau; Bellot-Arcís, Carlos; Almerich-Silla, José Manuel
The aim of this study was to examine the validity and reliability of the Maslach Burnout Inventory-Human Services Survey (MBI-HSS) as a tool for assessing the prevalence and level of burnout in dental students in Spanish universities. The survey was adapted from English to Spanish. A sample of 533 dental students from 15 Spanish universities and a control group of 188 medical students self-administered the survey online, using the Google Drive service. The test-retest reliability or reproducibility showed an Intraclass Correlation Coefficient of 0.95. The internal consistency of the survey was 0.922. Testing the construct validity showed two components with an eigenvalue greater than 1.5, which explained 51.2% of the total variance. Factor I (36.6% of the variance) comprised the items that estimated emotional exhaustion and depersonalization. Factor II (14.6% of the variance) contained the items that estimated personal accomplishment. The cut-off point for the existence of burnout achieved a sensitivity of 92.2%, a specificity of 92.1%, and an area under the curve of 0.96. Comparison of the total dental students sample and the control group of medical students showed significantly higher burnout levels for the dental students (50.3% vs. 40.4%). In this study, the MBI-HSS was found to be viable, valid, and reliable for measuring burnout in dental students. Since the study also found that the dental students suffered from high levels of this syndrome, these results suggest the need for preventive burnout control programs.
Full Text Available Purpose - Research about the modern mutually beneficial nonprofit organizations (MBNPOs has great value because of the increasingly important role that the MBNPO plays in society. The establishment and management of MBNPOs are critical for its development. Design/methodology/approach - Integrated marketing communications (IMC theory is applied to the research on establishment and management innovation. The establishment of MBNPOs needs four sequential steps: identifying the target group, providing services to meet the demand of stakeholders, designing appropriate communication tactics and deploying proper organizational structure to accomplish efficient communication. Findings - Three types of approach enable traditional enterprises to transform into MBNPOs: product innovation, operational innovation and synergetic development. The application of IMC theory accomplishes management innovation of MBNPOs in three aspects: leading market-orientation specific to stakeholder-orientation, making management innovation systematic in MBNPOs and clarifying targets of management innovation in MBNPOs. Originality/value - This is one of the first examinations of establishment path and management innovation of MBNPO based on IMC theory.
Grootemaat, Pam; Gillan, Cathie; Holt, Gillian; Forward, Wayne; Heywood, Narelle; Willis, Sue
Background The Working Together For Mental Health course is an 8-hour course designed to demystify mental illness and mental health services. The main target group for the course is people working in human service organisations who provide services for people with mental illness. Methods A questionnaire was administered to all participants attending the course during 2003 (n = 165). Participants completed the questionnaire before and immediately after the course, and at three month follow-up. Results A response rate of 69% was achieved with 114 people completing the questionnaire on all three occasions. The responses showed a significant improvement in the self-assessed knowledge and confidence of participants to provide human services to people with a mental health problem or disorder, three months after the course. There was no significant improvement in participants' attitudes or beliefs about people with a mental health problem or disorder at three month follow-up; however, participants' attitudes were largely positive before entering the course. Conclusion The Working Together For Mental Health course was successful in improving participants' confidence and knowledge around providing human services to people with a mental health illness. PMID:17074097
Greenhill, Beth; Whitehead, Richard
Recent reports highlight the extent to which many people with learning disabilities are not afforded access to their basic human rights. In addition, traditional approaches to risk management often focus on professional assessments of risks and challenging behaviour and exclude service user perspectives. In this paper, we outline what we believe…
Objectives In the last decade, we saw an upsurge of studies evaluating the role of ecosystem goods and services (EGS) on human health (Eco-Health). Most of this work consists of observational research of intermediate processes and few address the full pathways from ecosystem to E...
Bowe, Melissa; Sellers, Tyra P.
The Performance Diagnostic Checklist-Human Services (PDC-HS) has been used to assess variables contributing to undesirable staff performance. In this study, three preschool teachers completed the PDC-HS to identify the factors contributing to four paraprofessionals' inaccurate implementation of error-correction procedures during discrete trial…
... --a Federal E-Government Web site that allows the public to find, review, and submit comments on... OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET Audits of States, Local Governments, and Non-Profit Organizations... CFDA 84.938, [[Page 32378
Harris, Jenine K; Carothers, Bobbi J; Wald, Lana M; Shelton, Sarah C; Leischow, Scott J
In public health, interpersonal influence has been identified as an important factor in the spread of health information, and in understanding and changing health behaviors. However, little is known about influence in public health leadership. Influence is important in leadership settings, where public health professionals contribute to national policy and practice agendas. Drawing on social theory and recent advances in statistical network modeling, we examined influence in a network of tobacco control leaders at the United States Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS). Fifty-four tobacco control leaders across all 11 agencies in the DHHS were identified; 49 (91%) responded to a web-based survey. Participants were asked about communication with other tobacco control leaders, who influenced their work, and general job characteristics. Exponential random graph modeling was used to develop a network model of influence accounting for characteristics of individuals, their relationships, and global network structures. Higher job ranks, more experience in tobacco control, and more time devoted to tobacco control each week increased the likelihood of influence nomination, as did more frequent communication between network members. Being in the same agency and working the same number of hours per week were positively associated with mutual influence nominations. Controlling for these characteristics, the network also exhibited patterns associated with influential clusters of network members. Findings from this unique study provide a perspective on influence within a government agency that both helps to understand decision-making and also can serve to inform organizational efforts that allow for more effective structuring of leadership.
Schoen, Mary E; Xue, Xiaobo; Hawkins, Troy R; Ashbolt, Nicholas J
As a pilot approach to describe adverse human health effects from alternative decentralized community water systems compared to conventional centralized services (business-as-usual [BAU]), selected chemical and microbial hazards were assessed using disability adjusted life years (DALYs) as the common metric. The alternatives included: (1) composting toilets with septic system, (2) urine-diverting toilets with septic system, (3) low flush toilets with blackwater pressure sewer and on-site greywater collection and treatment for nonpotable reuse, and (4) alternative 3 with on-site rainwater treatment and use. Various pathogens (viral, bacterial, and protozoan) and chemicals (disinfection byproducts [DBPs]) were used as reference hazards. The exposure pathways for BAU included accidental ingestion of contaminated recreational water, ingestion of cross-connected sewage to drinking water, and shower exposures to DBPs. The alternative systems included ingestion of treated greywater from garden irrigation, toilet flushing, and crop consumption; and ingestion of treated rainwater while showering. The pathways with the highest health impact included the ingestion of cross-connected drinking water and ingestion of recreational water contaminated by septic seepage. These were also among the most uncertain when characterizing input parameters, particularly the scale of the cross-connection event, and the removal of pathogens during groundwater transport of septic seepage. A comparison of the health burdens indicated potential health benefits by switching from BAU to decentralized water and wastewater systems.
Skagert, Katrin; Dellve, Lotta; Eklöf, Mats; Pousette, Anders; Ahlborg, Gunnar
Despite the acknowledged key role of leaders for psychosocial work environment, few studies focus on how leaders can decrease work-related stress. To gain deeper knowledge of leaders' perceptions and strategies for dealing with their own and their subordinates' stress in public human service organisations (HSO), qualitative interviews were made with leaders from hospitals and regional social insurance offices (n=21), and analysed in line with grounded theory method. The leaders handled subordinates' stress and perceived leadership demands by acting as shock absorber (core category) and used strategies characterised as leading in continuous change whilst maintaining trustworthiness. To cope with their own stress from perceived leadership demands, they tried to sustain their own integrity (core category) by either identifying with or distancing themselves from the leader role. The strategies for dealing with leaders' own and subordinates' exposures to stressors was pervaded by perceived leadership demands and are probably influencing each other. Supportive structures and improved communication about everyday dilemmas seem to be needed in order, not just to prevent stress reactions, but to improve the basic conditions for practicing leadership in HSO.
Roozen, Irene; Claeys, Christel
This study investigates the impact of emotions, both ad- and context-evoked, on the effectiveness of commercials for non-profit vs. profit brands. Effectiveness is made operational by rational measures, recall and recognition, and by emotional measures, ad likeability and brand attitude. Four different experimental groups were exposed to a sequence of warm and sad commercials for non-profit and profit brands, embedded either in a warm film fragment or a sad one. The results indicate that, ove...
Mongelli, Luca; Rullani, Francesco
Book Review of: Creating Value in Nonprofit-business Collaborations: New Thinking and Practice, by Austin James E. and Seitanidi M. May . San Francisco: John Wiley and Sons, 2014. 320 pp. ISBN: 978-1118531136.......Book Review of: Creating Value in Nonprofit-business Collaborations: New Thinking and Practice, by Austin James E. and Seitanidi M. May . San Francisco: John Wiley and Sons, 2014. 320 pp. ISBN: 978-1118531136....
Zampas, Christina; Andión-Ibañez, Ximena
The practice of conscientious objection often arises in the area of individuals refusing to fulfil compulsory military service requirements and is based on the right to freedom of thought, conscience and religion as protected by national, international and regional human rights law. The practice of conscientious objection also arises in the field of health care, when individual health care providers or institutions refuse to provide certain health services based on religious, moral or philosophical objections. The use of conscientious objection by health care providers to reproductive health care services, including abortion, contraceptive prescriptions, and prenatal tests, among other services is a growing phenomena throughout Europe. However, despite recent progress from the European Court of Human Rights on this issue (RR v. Poland, 2011), countries and international and regional bodies generally have failed to comprehensively and effectively regulate this practice, denying many women reproductive health care services they are legally entitled to receive. The Italian Ministry of Health reported that in 2008 nearly 70% of gynaecologists in Italy refuse to perform abortions on moral grounds. It found that between 2003 and 2007 the number of gynaecologists invoking conscientious objection in their refusal to perform an abortion rose from 58.7 percent to 69.2 percent. Italy is not alone in Europe, for example, the practice is prevalent in Poland, Slovakia, and is growing in the United Kingdom. This article outlines the international and regional human rights obligations and medical standards on this issue, and highlights some of the main gaps in these standards. It illustrates how European countries regulate or fail to regulate conscientious objection and how these regulations are working in practice, including examples of jurisprudence from national level courts and cases before the European Court of Human Rights. Finally, the article will provide recommendations
Jenine K. Harris
Full Text Available Background. In public health, interpersonal influence has been identified as an important factor in the spread of health information, and in understanding and changing health behaviors. However, little is known about influence in public health leadership. Influence is important in leadership settings, where public health professionals contribute to national policy and practice agendas. Drawing on social theory and recent advances in statistical network modeling, we examined influence in a network of tobacco control leaders at the United States Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS. Design and Methods. Fifty-four tobacco control leaders across all 11 agencies in the DHHS were identified; 49 (91% responded to a web-based survey. Participants were asked about communication with other tobacco control leaders, who influenced their work, and general job characteristics. Exponential random graph modeling was used to develop a network model of influence accounting for characteristics of individuals, their relationships, and global network structures. Results. Higher job ranks, more experience in tobacco control, and more time devoted to tobacco control each week increased the likelihood of influence nomination, as did more frequent communication between network members. Being in the same agency and working the same number of hours per week were positively associated with mutual influence nominations. Controlling for these characteristics, the network also exhibited patterns associated with influential clusters of network members. Conclusions. Findings from this unique study provide a perspective on influence within a government agency that both helps to understand decision-making and also can serve to inform organizational efforts that allow for more effective structuring of leadership.
Terrazas, Solana; Ibáñez, Carolina; Lagos, Marcela; Poggi, Helena; Brañes, Jorge; Barriga, María Isabel; Cartagena, Jaime; Núñez, Felipe; González, Francisca; Cook, Paz; Van De Wyngard, Vanessa; Ferreccio, Catterina
Molecular techniques for human papillomavirus (HPV) detection have a good performance as screening tests and could be included in cervical cancer early detection programs. We conducted a population-based trial comparing HPV detection and Papanicolaou as primary screening tests, in a public health service in Santiago, Chile. To describe the experience of implementing this new molecular test and present the main results of the study. Women aged 25 to 64 enrolled in three public health centers were invited to participate. In all women, samples were collected for Papanicolaou and HPV DNA testing, and naked-eye visual inspection of the cervix with acetic acid was performed. Women with any positive screening test were referred to the local area hospital for diagnostic confirmation with colposcopy and biopsy of suspicious lesions. Screening results were obtained for 8265 women, of whom 931 (11.3%) were positive to any test. The prevalence of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 2 or worse (CIN2+) was 1.1%; nine women had invasive cervical cancer. Sensitivities for the detection of CIN2+ were 22.1% (95% confidence interval (CI) 16.4-29.2) for Papanicolaou and 92.7% (95% CI 84.4-96.8) for HPV testing; specificities were 98.9% (95% CI 98.7-99.0) and 92.0% (95% CI 91.4-92.6) respectively. This experience showed that the implementation of a molecular test for cervical cancer screening is not a major challenge in Chile: it was well accepted by both the health team and the participants, and it may improve the effectiveness of the screening program.
Ditzian, Kyle; Wilder, David A.; King, Allison; Tanz, Jeanine
The Performance Diagnostic Checklist-Human Services (PDC-HS) is an informant-based tool designed to assess the environmental variables that contribute to poor employee performance in human services settings. We administered the PDC-HS to 3 supervisors to assess the variables that contributed to poor performance by 4 staff members when securing…
Sannigrahi, S.; Paul, S. K.; Sen, S.
Human appropriation, especially unusual changes in land-use and land cover, significantly affects ecosystem services and functions. Driven by the growth of the population and the economy, human demands on earth's land surface have increased dramatically in the past 50 - 100 years. The area studied was divided into six major categories; cropland, mangrove forest, sparse vegetation, built-up urban area, water bodies and sandy coast, and the land coverage was calculated for the years 1973, 1988, 2002 and 2013. The spatial explicit value of the primary regulatory and supporting ecosystem services (climate regulation, raw material production, water regulation) were quantified through the indirect market valuation approach. A light use efficiency based ecosystem model, i.e. Carnegie- Ames-Stanford-Approach (CASA) was employed to estimate the carbon sequestration and oxygen production services of the ecosystem. The ArcGIS matrix transform approach calculated LULC dynamics among the classes. Investigation revealed that the built-up urban area increased from 42.9 km2 in 1973 to 308 km2 in 2013 with a 6.6 km2 yr-1 expansion rate. Similarly, water bodies (especially inland water bodies increased dramatically in the north central region) increased from 3392.1 sq.km in 1973 to 5420 sq.km in 2013 at the expense of semi-natural and natural land resulting in significant changes of ecological and ecosystem services. However, the area occupied by dense mangrove forest decreased substantially during the 40 years (1973 -2013); it was recorded to cover 2294 km2 in 1973 and 1820 km2 in 2013. The results showed that the estimated regulatory and supporting ecosystem services respond quite differently to human appropriation across the regions in both the economic and ecological dimensions. While evaluating the trade-of between human appropriation and ecosystem service changes, it has been estimated that the ecosystem service value of organic matter provision services decreased from 755 US
... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Who is eligible to apply for a family planning... SERVICES GRANTS GRANTS FOR FAMILY PLANNING SERVICES Project Grants for Family Planning Services § 59.3 Who is eligible to apply for a family planning services grant? Any public or nonprofit private entity in...
Full Text Available Background: Burma/Myanmar was controlled by a military regime for over 50 years. Many basic social and protection services have been neglected, specifically in the ethnic areas. Development in these areas was led by the ethnic non-state actors to ensure care and the availability of health services for the communities living in the border ethnic-controlled areas. Political changes in Burma/Myanmar have been ongoing since the end of 2010. Given the ethnic diversity of Burma/Myanmar, many challenges in ensuring health service coverage among all ethnic groups lie ahead. Methods: A case study method was used to document how existing human resources for health (HRH reach the vulnerable population in the ethnic health organizations’ (EHOs and community-based organizations’ (CBHOs service areas, and their related information on training and services delivered. Mixed methods were used. Survey data on HRH, service provision, and training were collected from clinic-in-charges in 110 clinics in 14 Karen/Kayin townships through a rapid-mapping exercise. We also reviewed 7 organizational and policy documents and conducted 10 interviews and discussions with clinic-in-charges. Findings: Despite the lack of skilled medical professionals, the EHOs and CBHOs have been serving the population along the border through task shifting to less specialized health workers. Clinics and mobile teams work in partnership, focusing on primary care with some aspects of secondary care. The rapid-mapping exercise showed that the aggregate HRH density in Karen/Kayin state is 2.8 per 1,000 population. Every mobile team has 1.8 health workers per 1,000 population, whereas each clinic has between 2.5 and 3.9 health workers per 1,000 population. By reorganizing and training the workforce with a rigorous and up-to-date curriculum, EHOs and CBHOs present a viable solution for improving health service coverage to the underserved population. Conclusion: Despite the chronic conflict in
Low, Sharon; Tun, Kyaw Thura; Mhote, Naw Pue Pue; Htoo, Saw Nay; Maung, Cynthia; Kyaw, Saw Win; Shwe Oo, Saw Eh Kalu; Pocock, Nicola Suyin
Burma/Myanmar was controlled by a military regime for over 50 years. Many basic social and protection services have been neglected, specifically in the ethnic areas. Development in these areas was led by the ethnic non-state actors to ensure care and the availability of health services for the communities living in the border ethnic-controlled areas. Political changes in Burma/Myanmar have been ongoing since the end of 2010. Given the ethnic diversity of Burma/Myanmar, many challenges in ensuring health service coverage among all ethnic groups lie ahead. A case study method was used to document how existing human resources for health (HRH) reach the vulnerable population in the ethnic health organizations' (EHOs) and community-based organizations' (CBHOs) service areas, and their related information on training and services delivered. Mixed methods were used. Survey data on HRH, service provision, and training were collected from clinic-in-charges in 110 clinics in 14 Karen/Kayin townships through a rapid-mapping exercise. We also reviewed 7 organizational and policy documents and conducted 10 interviews and discussions with clinic-in-charges. Despite the lack of skilled medical professionals, the EHOs and CBHOs have been serving the population along the border through task shifting to less specialized health workers. Clinics and mobile teams work in partnership, focusing on primary care with some aspects of secondary care. The rapid-mapping exercise showed that the aggregate HRH density in Karen/Kayin state is 2.8 per 1,000 population. Every mobile team has 1.8 health workers per 1,000 population, whereas each clinic has between 2.5 and 3.9 health workers per 1,000 population. By reorganizing and training the workforce with a rigorous and up-to-date curriculum, EHOs and CBHOs present a viable solution for improving health service coverage to the underserved population. Despite the chronic conflict in Burma/Myanmar, this report provides evidence of the substantive
Mikkelsen, Elisabeth Naima
This ethnographic study illustrates how staff and management’s sensemaking in conflict in a clerical unit in a Scandinavian nonprofit organization is shaped by institutionalized meanings. Staff and management draw on three institutionalized frameworks when making sense of conflict: The defective...... nonconfrontation as a main strategy in processes of conflict management. Despite the organization’s strong commitment to egalitarianism, the clerical workers view status inequality as the origin of many conflicts and they thereby draw from the same institutionalized meanings of political economy of distributional...... conflicts that the organization was founded to change. Implications for theory and practice are discussed....
Full Text Available In the midst of what is probably the worst economic and financial crisis the capitalist world has ever experienced, professional journalistic structures and news organizations are disintegrating. While mainstream current economic and media gurus –and the whole media executive class around the globe– are claiming for a business model change that allows them to go on making lots of money, many voices have been raised in unison to ask for a true radical change: money cannot be the first goal, but rather public interest. This paper presents the outcome of a research on the non-profit alternatives currently under debate destined to help journalism survive.
There is a running discussion about the system of financing sport from public budgets and there are opinions that the sport is not sufficiently supported. We know surprisingly little about the situation of non-profit sport clubs and to find a better support system we have to gather information about the environment of sport clubs. What do we know about relations of sport clubs with public authorities and their own sport union/federation and why do we need to know? The aim of this paper is to ...
V. V. Myamlin
Full Text Available The conflicts of existing financial-and-economic model of management are revealed. The groundlessness of profit-financial economic model based only on a profit approach is shown. The alienation of this model from general laws of the Nature is demonstrated. As an argument of absence of additional product the scheme of rotation of substances in the Nature is given. It is suggested to build the laws of economics starting not from idea considerations of those or other social groups but from general laws of the Nature. A new basic economic ideology – the theory of non-profitable economy – is proposed.
Coyne, Joseph S; Ogle, Natalie M; McPherson, Sterling; Murphy, Sean; Smith, Gary J; Davidson, Gregg Agustín
Nonprofit hospitals are expected to serve their communities as charitable organizations in exchange for the tax exemption benefits they receive. With the passage into law of the Affordable Care Act, additional guidelines were generated in 2010 to ensure nonprofit hospitals are compliant. Nonetheless, the debate continues on whether nonprofit hospitals provide adequate charity care to their patient population. In this study, charity care provided by 29 Washington State nonprofit urban hospitals was examined for 2011 using financial data from the Washington State Department of Health. Charity care levels were compared to both income tax savings and gross revenues to generate two financial ratios that were analyzed according to hospital bed size and nonprofit ownership type. For the first ratio, 97% of the hospitals (28 of 29) were providing charity care in greater amounts than the tax savings they accrued. The average ratio value using total charity care and total income tax savings of all the hospitals in the study was 6.10, and the median value was 3.46. The nonparametric Kruskal-Wallis test results by bed size and nonprofit ownership type indicate that ownership type has a significant effect on charity care to gross revenue ratios (p = .020). Our analysis indicates that church-owned hospitals had higher ratios of charity care to gross revenues than did the other two ownership types--government and voluntary--in this sample. Policy implications are offered and further studies are recommended to analyze appropriate levels of charity care in nonprofit hospitals given new requirements for maintaining a hospital's tax-exempt status.
Evans, E.; Howlett, S.; Kremser, T.; Simpson, J.; Kayess, R.; Trollor, J.
Background: People with intellectual disability (ID) experience higher rates of major mental disorders than their non-ID peers, but in many countries have difficulty accessing appropriate mental health services. The aim of this paper is to review the current state of mental health services for people with ID using Australia as a case example, and…
This presentation provides an overview of the SHC 2.61 Community-Based Final Ecosystem Goods and Services Project and other ecosystem services activities in the Office of Research and Development. Specifically, this presentation addressed a series of topics: Provide an overview ...
Colarossi, Lisa; Billowitz, Marissa; Breitbart, Vicki
Objective: To assess the knowledge and attitudes of health care providers, health educators, and social service providers before and after a training session on emergency contraceptive pills. Design: A survey study using pre-post training measurements. Setting: Two hundred and twenty-three medical, social service, and health education providers in…
Baird, D.E.; Bismuth, B.
The role of specialized oil service companies in helping the oil industry develop the hydrocarbon resources of the world efficiently has increased over the last 20 yr. This trend is expected to continue as the complexity and variety of the techniques required increased. In order to provide a large range of services worldwide, the oil service industry has to be highly flexible and mobile. At the same time, successful implementation of these services requires a knowledge of and empathy with local conditions and cultures. The challenge will be to attract, train, and develop technical people from all corners of the globe to become part of the process of developing and implementing new technology. The involvement of the developing nations in the technical evolution of the oil service companies is perhaps the only long-lasting method of transferring these technologies.
Compton, Jana E; Harrison, John A; Dennis, Robin L; Greaver, Tara L; Hill, Brian H; Jordan, Stephen J; Walker, Henry; Campbell, Holly V
Human alteration of the nitrogen (N) cycle has produced benefits for health and well-being, but excess N has altered many ecosystems and degraded air and water quality. US regulations mandate protection of the environment in terms that directly connect to ecosystem services. Here, we review the science quantifying effects of N on key ecosystem services, and compare the costs of N-related impacts or mitigation using the metric of cost per unit of N. Damage costs to the provision of clean air, reflected by impaired human respiratory health, are well characterized and fairly high (e.g. costs of ozone and particulate damages of $28 per kg NO(x)-N). Damage to services associated with productivity, biodiversity, recreation and clean water are less certain and although generally lower, these costs are quite variable (ecosystem services provides decision-makers an integrated view of N sources, damages and abatement costs to address the significant challenges associated with reducing N pollution. Published 2011. This article is a US Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.
Sexual exploitation and trafficking of the young and vulnerable has devastating consequences for their physical and emotional development, health, and well-being. The horrific treatment they suffer bears the hallmarks of evil made manifest. Governments have enacted laws pursuant to international treaties, conventions, and protocols. Nonprofit and nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) are working to prevent young people from being exploited and trafficked, to identify victims, and to provide services to survivors. Progress in addressing the problem is haltingly slow in relation to its magnitude. The prevalence and persistence of this phenomenon is an ethical, legal, and human rights disgrace.
Jones, Martin; Ferguson, Monika; Walsh, Sandra; Martinez, Lee; Marsh, Michael; Cronin, Kathryn; Procter, Nicolas
There are well-established training programmes available to support health and human services professionals working with people vulnerable to suicide. However, little is known about involving people with lived experience in the delivery of suicide prevention training with communities with increased rates of suicide. The aim of this paper was to report on a formative dialogical evaluation that explored the views of health and human services workers with regard to a suicide prevention training programme in regional (including rural and remote areas) South Australia which included meaningful involvement of a person with lived experience in the development and delivery of the training. In 2015, eight suicide prevention training workshops were conducted with health and human services workers. All 248 participants lived and worked in South Australian regional communities. We interviewed a subsample of 24 participants across eight sites. A thematic analysis of the interviews identified five themes: Coproduction is key, It is okay to ask the question, Caring for my community, I can make a difference and Learning for future training. The overall meta-theme was "Involvement of a person with lived experience in suicide prevention training supports regional communities to look out for people at risk of suicide." This paper highlights the need for suicide prevention training and other workforce development programmes to include lived experience participation as a core component in development and delivery. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Sanders, S M
Although rarely discussed prior to the 1985 Utah Supreme Court ruling against Intermountain Health Care Inc., the question of whether to grant tax exemptions to nonprofit hospitals is currently being debated by federal, state, and local legislators, and by the courts. Changes to current policy seem likely. This policy analysis: (1) presents the historical and legal background; (2) examines the economic, political, and organizational implications of current tax-exemption policy; and (3) offers three alternatives to this current policy. The analysis indicates that the current policy provides little incentive for nonprofit hospitals to make contributions of charity care. Of the alternatives, eliminating the exemption is not politically feasible at this time; regulating hospital operations and outputs portends an implementation nightmare; and tying tax subsidy levels to output levels of charity care--perhaps the strongest and most efficient incentive--would require an unlikely political consensus on what constitute valid and reliable measures of charity care. If there is a movement toward subsidies, then linking subsidy amounts to levels of charity care will depend on whether policy analysts can design satisfactory empirical measures. With the advent of universal health coverage, the demand for charity care will decrease. The problem for tax-exempt hospitals will then become justifying the exemption by demonstrating the extent to which they generate community benefits at no or reduced cost to society.
Full Text Available The resource-based view (RBV explores the role of key resources identified as tangible, personnel-based, and intangible resources in creating superior organizational performance. The RBV posits that an organization’s success is mainly driven by resources that possess Barney’s VRIO (valuable, rare, inimitable, and organized framework. The purpose of this study is to demonstrate the relationship between the three categories of resources and organizational performance. The data was analyzed with a two-stage structural equation modelling approach. The sample included Portuguese sports management staff from non-profit clubs which composed of 375 men and 102 women. The results of the structural model demonstrated that, intangible resources can significantly influence organizational performance while, personnel-based resources influence tangible and intangible resources. The results show that “staff competence”, “reputation”, and “financial capital” were the most essential resources, and that is core for non-profit clubs and their strategy to recognize, develop, and leverage VRIO resources. These findings also have considerable implications for sport managers, and suggestions for possible future research were given.
Pelaez, C.; Pelaez, J.
Blueprint Earth was created as a nonprofit scientific research organization dedicated to conducting micro-scale interdisciplinary environmental investigations to generate macroscopic, system-level environmental understanding. The field data collection and analysis process was conceived to be dependent on student participation and collaboration with more senior scientists, effecting knowledge transfer and emphasizing the critical nature of interdisciplinary research in investigating complex, macroscopic questions. Recruiting for student volunteer researchers is conducted in academic institutions, and to date has focused primarily on the Los Angeles area. Self-selecting student participation has run contrary to traditional STEM demographics. The vast majority of research participants in Blueprint Earth's work are female and/or from a minority (non-white) background, and most are first-generation college students or from low-income, Pell grant-eligible households. Traditional field research programs for students often come at a high cost, creating barriers to access for field-based STEM opportunities. The nonprofit model employed by Blueprint Earth provides zero-cost access to opportunity for students that the STEM world is currently targeting for future professional development.
Horwitz, Jill R; Nichols, Austin
To test whether nonprofit, for-profit, or government hospital ownership affects medical service provision in rural hospital markets, either directly or through the spillover effects of ownership mix. Data are from the American Hospital Association, U.S. Census, CMS Healthcare Cost Report Information System and Prospective Payment System Minimum Data File, and primary data collection for geographic coordinates. The sample includes all nonfederal, general medical, and surgical hospitals located outside of metropolitan statistical areas and within the continental United States from 1988 to 2005. We estimate multivariate regression models to examine the effects of (1) hospital ownership and (2) hospital ownership mix within rural hospital markets on profitable versus unprofitable medical service offerings. Rural nonprofit hospitals are more likely than for-profit hospitals to offer unprofitable services, many of which are underprovided services. Nonprofits respond less than for-profits to changes in service profitability. Nonprofits with more for-profit competitors offer more profitable services and fewer unprofitable services than those with fewer for-profit competitors. Rural hospital ownership affects medical service provision at the hospital and market levels. Nonprofit hospital regulation should reflect both the direct and spillover effects of ownership. © Health Research and Educational Trust.
Ecosystem goods and services are the many life-sustaining benefits we receive from nature and contribute to environmental and human health and well-being. Ecosystem-focused research will develop methods to measure ecosystem goods and services.
Rueda Guerrero, M. D.; Sierra Perler, I.; Lorenzo Perez, P.
Discussion of radiological protection in the Middle Health has formed a task force to develop a technical document recommendatory to help plan and evaluate resources radiological protection services. (Author)
Full Text Available The paper discovers potential human interactions with growing amount of internet of things (IoT via proposed concept of Social Web of Services (classical social web with smart things - daily life objects connected to the internet. To investigate the impact of IoT on user behaviour patterns we modelled human-thing interactions using agent-based simulation (ABM. We have proved that under certain conditions SmartThings, connected to the IoT, are able to change patterns of Human behaviour. Results of this work predict our way of living in the era of caused by viral effects of IoT application (HCI and M2M connections, and could be used to foster business process management in the IoT era.
Full Text Available The paper is focused on the issue of taxation of income of non-profit organizations, especially to associations (clubs in the Czech Republic, Slovakia and the United Kingdom. This paper is part of research, where the main emphasis is placed on the comparison of the tax benefits which are provided to non-profit organizations in different countries. This paper points to the current situation in the Czech Republic where despite the changes that have occurred in connection with the new Civil Code, there is still missing clear legislation that would regulate the activities of the monitored organizations. Changes in the taxation of income of non-profit organizations are designed with regard to the elimination of deficiencies in order to prevent the abuse of the benefits and the speculative behavior of tax entities.
Full Text Available In the article the results of BOST method usage was presented to analyse the importance of human and production/ services issues in three different companies - a steelworks, a plastic-processing and a retail chain company. The importance of human and production/service issues was analysed by using the concept of the managerial grid. The relation between workers answers with the use of managerial grid after division answers was analysed into four and three areas. The frequency of occurrence of ratings to determine a degree of perception of importance of human and production/service issues in these companies was analysed.
Post, Michal; Campbell, Camille; Heinz, Tom; Kotsonas, Lori; Montgomery, Joyce; Storey, Keith
The article presents the benefits of successful collaboration between supported employment agencies and human resource managers when working together to secure employment for individuals with disabilities. Two case studies are presented: one involving a successful collaboration with county human resource managers in negotiating a change in the…
Baum, Donald R.
In recent years, the goals and purposes of education within the international development discourse have shifted significantly away from education for productivity or human capital development and towards education for the fulfillment of the individual through human rights. The current global education climate provides governments with an…
Gianfranco De Feo
Full Text Available AIM: The aim of this paper is to describe the time spent to activate oncological non-profit clinical trials promoted in Italy by the National Cancer Institute of Naples, following the implementation of recent European laws. METHODOLOGY: Data about the process of activation of 5 non-profit multicentre clinical trials were prospectively collected through a web-based system. The impact of European guidelines was assessed by comparing the efficiency of the process between applications started before and after the decree introducing in Italy the Clinical Trial Application form (MD-CTA. Outcomes of the descriptive analyses were the time to EC opinion, the time to administrative agreement signature after a positive EC opinion, and the cumulative percentage of submissions that came to closure (either positive or negative within four subsequent time cohorts. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: From March 2007 to October 2009, 202 applications were submitted to 107 centres. Forty-four (59% applications of those submitted before were successful, compared to 71 (55% of those submitted after MD-CTA. Most of the failures were due to missing EC response (27% and 22% or administrative reasons (10% and 16%, before and after, respectively; very few (4% and 7% were due to EC refusal. The impact of the MD-CTA on time to EC opinion looked positive (median 4.1 vs 2.4 months, before and after, respectively but a subgroup analysis revealed that the impact was limited to a comparison biased by the selection of EC. After a positive EC opinion, there was no difference before and after MD-CTA in the time to administrative agreement signature (median 3.6 and 3.8 months, respectively. A trend to shortening time to closure of the whole submission process over the time was evident, with 58% of the applications coming to closure within 6 months from submission in the most recent cohort. CONCLUSIONS: In our experience there is reassuring evidence of a trend toward shortening the time spent to
Hou, Ying; Zhou, Shudong; Burkhard, Benjamin; Müller, Felix
One focus of ecosystem service research is the connection between biodiversity, ecosystem services and human well-being as well as the socioeconomic influences on them. Despite existing investigations, exact impacts from the human system on the dynamics of biodiversity, ecosystem services and human well-being are still uncertain because of the insufficiency of the respective quantitative analyses. Our research aims are discerning the socioeconomic influences on biodiversity, ecosystem services and human well-being and demonstrating mutual impacts between these items. We propose a DPSIR framework coupling ecological integrity, ecosystem services as well as human well-being and suggest DPSIR indicators for the case study area Jiangsu, China. Based on available statistical and surveying data, we revealed the factors significantly impacting biodiversity, ecosystem services and human well-being in the research area through factor analysis and correlation analysis, using the 13 prefecture-level cities of Jiangsu as samples. The results show that urbanization and industrialization in the urban areas have predominant positive influences on regional biodiversity, agricultural productivity and tourism services as well as rural residents' living standards. Additionally, the knowledge, technology and finance inputs for agriculture also have generally positive impacts on these system components. Concerning regional carbon storage, non-cropland vegetation cover obviously plays a significant positive role. Contrarily, the expansion of farming land and the increase of total food production are two important negative influential factors of biodiversity, ecosystem's food provisioning service capacity, regional tourism income and the well-being of the rural population. Our study provides a promising approach based on the DPSIR model to quantitatively capture the socioeconomic influential factors of biodiversity, ecosystem services and human well-being for human-environmental systems
Mihic, Marko M; Todorovic, Marija Lj; Obradovic, Vladimir Lj; Mitrovic, Zorica M
Social services aimed at the elderly are facing great challenges caused by progressive aging of the global population but also by the constant pressure to spend funds in a rational manner. This paper focuses on analyzing the investments into human resources aimed at enhancing home care for the elderly since many countries have recorded progress in the area over the past years. The goal of this paper is to stress the significance of performing an economic analysis of the investment. This paper combines statistical analysis methods such as correlation and regression analysis, methods of economic analysis, and scenario method. The economic analysis of investing in human resources for home care service in Serbia showed that the both scenarios of investing in either additional home care hours or more beneficiaries are cost-efficient. However, the optimal solution with the positive (and the highest) value of economic net present value criterion is to invest in human resources to boost the number of home care hours from 6 to 8 hours per week and increase the number of the beneficiaries to 33%. This paper shows how the statistical and economic analysis results can be used to evaluate different scenarios and enable quality decision-making based on exact data in order to improve health and quality of life of the elderly and spend funds in a rational manner.
Ponzio, Todd A.; Feindt, Hans; Ferguson, Steven
Summary Biopharmaceuticals are therapeutic products based on biotechnology. They are manufactured by or from living organisms and are the most complex of all commercial medicines to develop, manufacture and qualify for regulatory approval. In recent years biopharmaceuticals have rapidly increased in number and importance with over 4001 already marketed in the U.S. and European markets alone. Many companies throughout the world are now ramping up investments in biopharmaceutical R&D and expanding their portfolios through licensing of early-stage biotechnologies from universities and other non-profit research institutions, and there is an increasing number of license agreements for biopharmaceutical product development relative to traditional small molecule drug compounds. This trend will only continue as large numbers of biosimilars and biogenerics enter the market. A primary goal of technology transfer offices associated with publicly-funded, non-profit research institutions is to establish patent protection for inventions deemed to have commercial potential and license them for product development. Such licenses help stimulate economic development and job creation, bring a stream of royalty revenue to the institution and, hopefully, advance the public good or public health by bringing new and useful products to market. In the course of applying for such licenses, a commercial development plan is usually put forth by the license applicant. This plan indicates the path the applicant expects to follow to bring the licensed invention to market. In the case of small molecule drug compounds, there exists a widely-recognized series of clinical development steps, dictated by regulatory requirements, that must be met to bring a new drug to market, such as completion of preclinical toxicology, Phase 1, 2 and 3 testing and product approvals. These steps often become the milestone/benchmark schedule incorporated into license agreements which technology transfer offices use to
Ponzio, Todd A; Feindt, Hans; Ferguson, Steven
Biopharmaceuticals are therapeutic products based on biotechnology. They are manufactured by or from living organisms and are the most complex of all commercial medicines to develop, manufacture and qualify for regulatory approval. In recent years biopharmaceuticals have rapidly increased in number and importance with over 400() already marketed in the U.S. and European markets alone. Many companies throughout the world are now ramping up investments in biopharmaceutical R&D and expanding their portfolios through licensing of early-stage biotechnologies from universities and other non-profit research institutions, and there is an increasing number of license agreements for biopharmaceutical product development relative to traditional small molecule drug compounds. This trend will only continue as large numbers of biosimilars and biogenerics enter the market.A primary goal of technology transfer offices associated with publicly-funded, non-profit research institutions is to establish patent protection for inventions deemed to have commercial potential and license them for product development. Such licenses help stimulate economic development and job creation, bring a stream of royalty revenue to the institution and, hopefully, advance the public good or public health by bringing new and useful products to market. In the course of applying for such licenses, a commercial development plan is usually put forth by the license applicant. This plan indicates the path the applicant expects to follow to bring the licensed invention to market. In the case of small molecule drug compounds, there exists a widely-recognized series of clinical development steps, dictated by regulatory requirements, that must be met to bring a new drug to market, such as completion of preclinical toxicology, Phase 1, 2 and 3 testing and product approvals. These steps often become the milestone/benchmark schedule incorporated into license agreements which technology transfer offices use to monitor
Nejmeh, Brian A
A road map for service-learning partnerships between information science and nonprofit organizations While service-learning is a well-known educational method for integrating learning experiences with community service, it is only now beginning to emerge in computer and information sciences (CIS). Offering a truly global perspective, this book introduces for the first time an essential framework for service learning in CIS, addressing both the challenges and opportunities of this approach for all stakeholders involved-faculty, students, and community nonprofit organizations (NPOs), both dome
... National School Lunch Program: School Food Service Account Revenue Amendments Related to the Healthy... Food Service Account Revenue Amendments Related to the Healthy, Hunger-Free Kids Act of 2010'' on June... sold in a school and purchased with funds from the nonprofit school food service account, other than...
Albu, Oana Brindusa
The importance of examining space from an organizational standpoint is timely, not the least because the use of this concept has critical and often unintended social, and political effects (Mengis, Nicolini & Gorli, 2016). The global refugee crisis following the post-2015 Syrian conflict is perhaps...... one indicative situation of the highly contested ways in which international non-profit organizations (INGOs) create spaces for their organizational activities (e.g., build informal settlements to provide emergency aid), and thus affect how individuals (e.g., asylum seekers) get re-settled, confined...... to, or even restricted from living in such spaces. These matters are relevant since in the contexts where both the opportunities to move freely and being at peace are challenged, space is not only a neutral structure in which such contested organizing takes place (Mengis et al., 2016). Rather...
Moriano León, Juan Antonio; Topa Cantisano, Gabriela; Lévy Mangin, Jean-Pierre
This study follows the social identity model of leadership proposed by van Knippenberg and Hogg (2003), in order to examine empirically the mediator effect of leadership prototypicality between social identity, extra effort, and perceived effectiveness of group members. The sample consisted of 109 participants who worked in 22 different work-teams of non-profit organizations (NPO) from Nicaragua and El Salvador. The data analysis was performed through structural equation modeling (SEM). The results show that NPO membership is related to a high level of social identity. In addition, the results confirmed that leadership prototypicality has a significant and positive mediator effect in the relationship between the group identification and the group members' extra effort and the perceived effectiveness of leadership.
Full Text Available This study treats the members in nonprofit organizations (NPOs as subjects, and explores the origination, planning, control, and completion of project management in NPOs, as well as the general performance of organizational efficacy, such as environmental satisfaction, organizational atmosphere, operational performance, job engagement, and work quality. It also probes into the relationship and effect. By various research methods, such as literature review and questionnaire survey, this study attempts to determine if project management in NPOs can significantly enhance organizational efficacy. This study finds that different NPOs have significant differences in the general performance of project management and organizational efficacy. When the performance of project management in NPOs is more significant, organizational efficacy is higher. Project management in NPOs has a significant path relationship to organizational efficacy; therefore, reinforcement of vocational training in the project management of NPOs could improve performance, which would have significant effect on enhancing organizational efficacy.
Full Text Available This study is an attempt to understand consumers’ perceptions regarding Cause Related Marketing [CRM]. The research findings were based on a survey of 200 consumers in the Brighton area and published data. The research aim was focused on the consumers’ perception of the alliance between corporations and non-profit organisations. The research found that consumers have a better perception of firms that work with charities and good causes than those that do not. They believe that the partnership between corporations and charities has an impact on the good of society. However, they are aware that corporations themselves benefit from this partnership. Concerning good causes, consumers prefer to support those related to Children. The researchers noticed that an individual connection with a cause might have considerable influence on consumer attitudes and behaviour in relation to a specific cause.
Full Text Available The aim of financial controlling is to secure liquidity and financial stability of an organization. It is very important especially for NPOs. They are not founded primarily for the purpose of making profit, so their financial policy gives priority to continuously provide liquidity. The paper presents partial results of a pilot primary research of utilization of financial controlling tools in governmental and nongovernmental non-profit organizations in the conditions of Slovak Republic. Primary data were obtained by the sociological method of a structured questionnaire. The analysis was carried out by adequate mathematical and statistical methods for processing qualitative data and ordinal variables. The presented paper provides a new insight into the studied problem while generating a primary information basis for further scientific study and research work in this field.
Takeda, Hiroshi; Matsumura, Yasushi; Nakagawa, Katsuhiko; Teratani, Tadamasa; Qiyan, Zhang; Kusuoka, Hideo; Matsuoka, Masami
To share healthcare information and to promote cooperation among healthcare providers and customers (patients) under computerized network environment, a non-profit organization (NPO), named as OCHIS, was established at Osaka, Japan in 2003. Since security and confidentiality issues on the Internet have been major concerns in the OCHIS, the system has been based on healthcare public key infrastructure (HPKI), and found that there remained problems to be solved technically and operationally. An experimental study was conducted to elucidate the central and the local function in terms of a registration authority and a time stamp authority by contracting with the Ministry of Economics and Trading Industries in 2003. This paper describes the experimental design with NPO and the results of the study concerning message security and HPKI. The developed system has been operated practically in Osaka urban area.
SKELCHER, CHRIS; SMITH, STEVEN RATHGEB
We propose a novel approach to theorizing hybridity in public and nonprofit organizations. The concept of hybridity is widely used to describe organizational responses to changes in governance, but the literature seldom explains how hybrids arise or what forms they take. Transaction cost and organizational design literatures offer some solutions, but lack a theory of agency. We use the institutional logics approach to theorize hybrids as entities that face a plurality of normative frames. Logics provide symbolic and material elements that structure organizational legitimacy and actor identities. Contradictions between institutional logics offer space for them to be elaborated and creatively reconstructed by situated agents. We propose five types of organizational hybridity – segmented, segregated, assimilated, blended, and blocked. Each type is theoretically derived from empirically observed variations in organizational responses to institutional plurality. We develop propositions to show how our approach to hybridity adds value to academic and policy-maker audiences. PMID:26640298
Skelcher, Chris; Smith, Steven Rathgeb
We propose a novel approach to theorizing hybridity in public and nonprofit organizations. The concept of hybridity is widely used to describe organizational responses to changes in governance, but the literature seldom explains how hybrids arise or what forms they take. Transaction cost and organizational design literatures offer some solutions, but lack a theory of agency. We use the institutional logics approach to theorize hybrids as entities that face a plurality of normative frames. Logics provide symbolic and material elements that structure organizational legitimacy and actor identities. Contradictions between institutional logics offer space for them to be elaborated and creatively reconstructed by situated agents. We propose five types of organizational hybridity - segmented, segregated, assimilated, blended, and blocked. Each type is theoretically derived from empirically observed variations in organizational responses to institutional plurality. We develop propositions to show how our approach to hybridity adds value to academic and policy-maker audiences.
Starling, Stacey Lee
Front and center in the endeavor to "reform" health care is the appeal to change the culture of aging within provider organizations situated in the long-term care continuum. Person-centeredness is the latest philosophical overlay to aging care and supports and services. As a dominate paradigm guiding change, the movement intends to shift…
Al-Ruz, Jamal Abu; Khasawneh, Samer
The purpose of this study was to test a model in which technology integration of pre-service teachers was predicted by a number of university-based and school-based factors. Initially, factors affecting technology integration were identified, and a research-based path model was developed to explain causal relationships between these factors. The…
Full Text Available The aim of this study was to assess the level of availability of HIV prevention strategies in secondary schools in Kabarole district, Uganda in order to inform the design of interventions to strengthen HIV Prevention and psychosocial support. Quantitative and qualitative research methods were used in eight secondary schools in Kabarole district to establish available HIV prevention and psychosocial support services. Questionnaires were administered to 355 students 12-24 years old. In addition, 20 Key Informant interviews were held with education service providers. Quantitative data was analyzed using Epi-data and qualitative data were analyzed by thematic content analysis. Seven of the eight schools had at least one HIV prevention strategy. Two teachers in each of the five schools had been trained in HIV prevention. No school had a nurse trained in HIV prevention, care and support. Education service providers had limited knowledge of HIV prevention support and care of students living with HIV. We found out that students had knowledge on how one can acquire HIV. HIV prevention services reported by students in schools included: talks from teachers and guests (19%, drama with HIV prevention related messages (16%, peer education clubs (15%, workshops and seminars on HIV (8%, sensitization about HIV/AIDS (7%, guidance and counseling (6%, talking compounds- (5%, abstinence talks (6%, keeping students busy in sports (4%, straight talk (4%. Sixty three percent reported receiving HIV reading materials from various sources. Preventing HIV infection among students in schools is still demanding with limited interventions for students. Efforts to support school interventions should focus on including HIV Prevention in the school curriculum, working with peer educators as well as education service providers who spend much of the time with the students while at school.
O'Connor, A. S.; Farr, B.
Remote Sensing as a topic of teaching and research at the university and college level continues to increase. As more data is made freely available and software becomes easier to use, more and more academic and non-profits institutions are turning to remote sensing to solve their tough and large spatial scale problems. Exelis Visual Information Solutions (VIS) has been supporting teaching and research endeavors for over 30 years with a special emphasis over the last 5 years with scientifically proven software and accessible training materials. The Exelis VIS academic program extends to US and Canadian 2 year and 4 year colleges and universities with tools for analyzing aerial and satellite multispectral and hyperspectral imagery, airborne LiDAR and Synthetic Aperture Radar. The Exelis VIS academic programs, using the ENVI Platform, enables labs and classrooms to be outfitted with software and makes software accessible to students. The ENVI software provides students hands on experience with remote sensing software, an easy teaching platform for professors and allows researchers scientifically vetted software they can trust. Training materials are provided at no additional cost and can either serve as a basis for course curriculum development or self paced learning. Non-profit organizations like The Nature Conservancy (TNC) and CGIAR have deployed ENVI and IDL enterprise wide licensing allowing researchers all over the world to have cost effective access COTS software for their research. Exelis VIS has also contributed licenses to the NASA DEVELOP program. Exelis VIS is committed to supporting the academic and NGO community with affordable enterprise licensing, access to training materials, and technical expertise to help researchers tackle today's Earth and Planetary science big data challenges.
Lalwani, Tanya; Rajaratnam, Julie Knoll; McOwen, Jordan; Gordis, Deborah J; Bowen, Lisa A; Bernson, Jeff
To improve maternal and child health, the White Ribbon Alliance for Safe Motherhood (WRA) implemented an innovative policy advocacy project in India, Uganda and Yemen from 2009 to 2011. PATH assisted WRA in designing an approach to measure the short- and long-term results of WRA's advocacy efforts.Expert rating instruments have been widely used since 1970s to track country-level program efforts focusing on family planning, maternal and neonatal health, and HIV/AIDS. This article assesses and establishes the strength and applicability of an expert rating tool, the Maternal Health Policy Score (MHPS), in measuring and guiding a non-profit's advocacy efforts.The tool was assessed using five criteria: validity of results, reproducibility of results, acceptability to respondents, internal consistency and cost. The tool proved effective for measuring improvements in the policy environment at both the national and subnational levels that the non-profit intended to effect and useful for identifying strong and weak policy domains. The results are reproducible, though ensuring fidelity in implementation during different rounds of data collection may be difficult. The acceptability of the tool was high among respondents, and also among users of the information.MHPS provides a quick, low-cost method to measure overall changes in the policy environment, giving advocacy organizations and grant makers timely information to gauge the influence of their work and take corrective action. WRA demonstrated the use of MHPS at multiple points in the project: at the onset of a project to identify and strategize around policy domains that need attention, during and at the end of the project to monitor progress made and redirect efforts. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Full Text Available Food banks make up an increasing phenomenon of nonprofit organizations answering to new social needs related to the global socioeconomic crisis. In order to explore if they are suitably adapting to their environments in Spain, one of the countries most seriously affected by the crisis in South Europe, this work assumes a hybrid qualitative–quantitative structure composed of an exploratory case study based on semi-structured interviews followed by a survey addressed to all the Spanish food banks. Much of the academic literature has concerned the appropriateness of food banks as a delivery mechanism in the context of welfare state withdrawal. This paper takes this in a different direction by examining Spanish food banks from an organizational management point of view. Wary of concerns about the institutionalization of food charity, on the one hand, and recognizing the escalating daily reliance on food banks, on the other, this paper seeks to address potential technical supply problems and challenges food banks face and open debate about the organizational networks of food banks more generally. The results show nonprofit entities based on a voluntary workforce who run supply chains in order to join both social and business targets. Their situation, performance, resources, mutual relationships and the links with other entities are described, paying special attention to the changes induced by the latest contextual changes. In short, food banks are efficiently organized and well established in their territories as a coherent social movement, although they should improve in their strategic view, coordination, resources and sources of these, to satisfy more adequately their increasingly complex demands.
Dawson, Susan; Freed, Patricia E
Nurses are expected to demonstrate professionalism through service leadership, but it is unlikely they have been prepared to understand the responsibilities associated with taking leadership roles in the community. The authors have had a variety of experiences serving on nonprofit health care boards and have obtained information about board roles and responsibilities that would be helpful for practicing nurses who want to be board members. Nurses can make vital contributions to the nonprofit sector of the nation's health care, but must know how to make wise choices to maintain their commitments. This article provides nurses with basic information about the roles and responsibilities of nonprofit board members and some lessons about board service from the authors' experiences.
Andersen, Ingelise; Borritz, Marianne; Christensen, Karl Bang
OBJECTIVE: In a longitudinal study design to analyze the development of burnout at worksites and to study the effect of interventions intended to reduce the level of burnout at individual level. METHODS: At baseline the study, sample consisted of 1024 individuals divided at six organizations and 18...... worksites in the human service sector. Four different types of interventions were identified: external and internal reorganizations, educational days, and consultancy. Burnout defined as work related, client related, and personal burnout was measured by means of the Copenhagen Burnout Inventory at baseline...... of interventions did not reduce the level of burnout in our study....
Schey, Steve [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Francfort, Jim [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)
This report focuses on the Department of Health and Human Services, Assistant Secretary for Preparedness and Response fleet to identify daily operational characteristics of select vehicles and report findings on vehicle and mission characterizations to support the successful introduction of PEVs into the agency’s fleet. Individual observations of these selected vehicles provide the basis for recommendations related to electric vehicle adoption and whether a battery electric vehicle or plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (collectively referred to as PEVs) can fulfill the mission requirements.
Bonadio, I C
This paper reports a qualitative study conducted in an anthropological perspective using the ethnografic research methodology. It had has the objective of knowing and understanding the needs, antenatal care values and beliefs of pregnant women in the context of Prenatal Service of a Philanthropic Institution. The central theme "be treated as a Human Being", identified from the analysis of the cultural themes, revealed that, in the women experience, the most significant element is represented either by the effective interaction or by the establishment on bond of trust between them and nurse.
Frankel, M. S.
The policy making process which led to development of the Public Health Service Guidelines governing research involving human subjects is outlined. Part 1 examines the evolution of PHS Guidelines, tracing (1) evolution of thought and legal interpretation regarding research using human subjects; (2) initial involvement of the Federal government; (3) development of the government's research program; (4) the social-political environment in which formal government policy was developed; and (5) various policy statements issued by the government. Part 2 analyzes the process by which PHS Guidelines were developed and examines the values and other underlying factors which contributed to their development. It was concluded that the evolution of the Guidelines is best understood within the context of a mixed-scanning strategy. In such a strategy, policy makers make fundamental decisions regarding the basic direction of policy and subsequent decisions are made incrementally and within the contexts set by the original fundamental decisions.
Ecosystems provide services to humans that support our well-being. Well-being is not only our health but also our quality of life. We rely upon the services provided by nature to help maintain good health and a high quality of life, including clean water, clean air, food and recr...
Council on Graduate Medical Education.
This report presents specific recommendations to the Department of Health and Human Services and Congress from the Council on Graduate Medical Education that address Medicare's direct and indirect graduate medical education (GME) payments and the monies allocated by the Public Health Service that is targeted toward physician education and primary…
Wershow, H J
The European social democracies have been more generous than the United States in social provision, including services to aged. The momentum of provision has slowed down in recent years. We suggest that prosperity which has led to use of foreign laborers in menial jobs has caused this slow down. The dynamics are similar to the historical U.S. use of "non-100% Americans" as our menial workers. Changes in social policy strategies are needed: 1) universal provision, rather than programs aimed at minorities, is needed to enlist support of stable working and middle classes; 2) tax reforms, which lower progressive income-tax structures for middle incomes, and value-added tax, may be necessary to overcome anti-tax ideologies; 3) clear priorities as to most necessary services must be established by the gerontological community.
Liket, Kellie C.; Rey-Garcia, Marta; Maas, Karen E. H.
Nonprofit organizations are under great pressure to use evaluations to show that their programs "work" and that they are "effective." However, empirical evidence indicates that nonprofits struggle to perform useful evaluations, especially when conducted under accountability pressures. An increasing body of evidence highlights…
L.C.P.M. Meijs (Lucas); E.M. ten Hoorn (Esther); J.L. Brudney (Jeffrey)
textabstractThis article focuses on the exposure of the typical undergraduate business student to the nonprofit sector and management, as opposed to focusing on learning opportunities available to interested students in particular, as is typically reviewed in research on nonprofit management
Vanderstraeten, J.; Matthyssens, P.; van Witteloostuijn, A.
Non-profit organisations, such as economic development incubators, may adapt the balanced scorecard and strategy map in their efforts to improve their internal functioning. In this paper, we employ qualitative research among non-profit economic development incubators in Antwerp, Belgium, to modify
Full Text Available Marko M Mihic, Marija Lj Todorovic, Vladimir Lj Obradovic, Zorica M Mitrovic Department for Management and Specialised Management Disciplines, Faculty of Organisational Sciences, University of Belgrade, Belgrade, Serbia Background: Social services aimed at the elderly are facing great challenges caused by progressive aging of the global population but also by the constant pressure to spend funds in a rational manner.Purpose: This paper focuses on analyzing the investments into human resources aimed at enhancing home care for the elderly since many countries have recorded progress in the area over the past years. The goal of this paper is to stress the significance of performing an economic analysis of the investment.Methods: This paper combines statistical analysis methods such as correlation and regression analysis, methods of economic analysis, and scenario method.Results: The economic analysis of investing in human resources for home care service in Serbia showed that the both scenarios of investing in either additional home care hours or more beneficiaries are cost-efficient. However, the optimal solution with the positive (and the highest value of economic net present value criterion is to invest in human resources to boost the number of home care hours from 6 to 8 hours per week and increase the number of the beneficiaries to 33%.Conclusion: This paper shows how the statistical and economic analysis results can be used to evaluate different scenarios and enable quality decision-making based on exact data in order to improve health and quality of life of the elderly and spend funds in a rational manner. Keywords: home care, social investment, human resources, economic analysis, elderly
This thesis was submitted for the award of Doctor of Philosophy and was awarded by Brunel University London The rapid growth and influence of social network services has led many scholars to focus on privacy issues. However, the research described in this thesis was motivated by the small number of design studies that have focused on practical approaches to identifying tacit information from users’ instant non-verbal responses to privacy issues. The research therefore aimed to propose pers...
Seymour, Susan R.
The purpose of this study was to consider the development of social consciousness in female nonprofit leaders. The problem undergirding the study is that we do not know enough about social consciousness to know how it is learned, if it can be taught, if it is stable over a lifetime, and what factors and life events shape its unique expression. A…
Mullins, David; Milligan, Vivienne; Nieboer, N.E.T.
This paper presents results from the first international comparative study of non-profit housing organizations in Australia, England and the Netherlands to engage with panels of organizational leaders. The study uses a ‘modified Delphi method’ with Likert-type scaled surveys, followed by in-depth
... TYPES CONTRACTING BY NEGOTIATION Contract Pricing 915.404-4-70-5 Special considerations—contracts with... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Special considerations-contracts with nonprofit organizations (other than educational institutions). 915.404-4-70-5 Section 915.404...
Starcher, Keith O.
As the for-profit business model and a reliance on adjunct faculty continues to grow among faith-based institutions, little research exists on the differences in the characteristics of part-time online faculty in for-profit versus nonprofit environments that could provide guidance to administrators. This study utilized a descriptive,…
..., Washington, DC 20503. Comments may also be sent to via http://www.regulations.gov --a Federal E-Government... OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET Audits of States, Local Governments, and Non-Profit Organizations... CFDA 93.794 program is no longer active (i.e., no funds are being spent by recipients), and it has been...
Holcomb, Kathryn E; Stull, Carolyn L; Kass, Philip H
Nonprofit equine rescue organizations in the United States provide care for relinquished horses and may offer adoption programs. With an estimated 100,000 "unwanted" horses per year and few municipal shelters providing wholesale euthanasia, there is a need to minimize the number of unwanted horses and maximize their successful transition to new caregivers. This study's objectives were to characterize the relinquishing and adoptive owners interacting with nonprofit rescue organizations. Nonprofit organizations (n = 144) in 37 states provided information by survey on 280 horses relinquished between 2006 and 2009, from which 73 were adopted. Results show the majority of relinquishing owners were women, whereas adoptive owners were primarily families or couples. Most relinquishing owners had previous equine experience and had owned the horse for 1 to 5 years; about half owned 1 other horse. Three quarters of the adoptive owners possessed additional horses housed on their property. The primary use for rehomed horses was for riding or driving. These findings will serve to help develop effective education programs for responsible horse ownership and optimize acceptance criteria and successful adoption strategies of horses by nonprofit organizations.
Marije van 't Verlaat
Today, Dutch National Non-profit Sports Organizations (NNSFs) experience financial pressures. Two indications for this are described in this paper i.e. increased competition in the sports sector and changes in subsidy division. Decreasing incomes from subsidies can be compensated with either
As the nonprofit sector continues to grow in size and importance in American society, successful organizations proactively initiate strategic planning so they can be more responsive to changing circumstances, underlying trends, and shifting demands. At times, however, organizations develop elaborate plans that are never implemented. Unfortunately,…
An urban nonprofit residential treatment program for chemically dependent teenagers uses the Myers Briggs Type Indicator as a team-building tool for volunteers sponsoring teens through the 12-step recovery process. Training in team building and personality types increases understanding of communication style differences and conflict management.…
... OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET Audits of States, Local Governments, and Non-Profit Organizations... Management and Budget. ACTION: Notice of availability of the 2013 OMB Circular A-133 Compliance Supplement...--National Science and Mathematics Access to Retain Talent (SMART) Grants (SMART Grants) CFDA 84.390...
Barlow, S E; Dietz, W H
The development of recommendations for physicians, nurse practitioners, and nutritionists to guide the evaluation and treatment of overweight children and adolescents. The Maternal and Child Health Bureau, Health Resources and Services Administration, the Department of Health and Human Services convened a committee of pediatric obesity experts to develop the recommendations. The Committee recommended that children with a body mass index (BMI) greater than or equal to the 85th percentile with complications of obesity or with a BMI greater than or equal to the 95th percentile, with or without complications, undergo evaluation and possible treatment. Clinicians should be aware of signs of the rare exogenous causes of obesity, including genetic syndromes, endocrinologic diseases, and psychologic disorders. They should screen for complications of obesity, including hypertension, dyslipidemias, orthopedic disorders, sleep disorders, gall bladder disease, and insulin resistance. Conditions that indicate consultation with a pediatric obesity specialist include pseudotumor cerebri, obesity-related sleep disorders, orthopedic problems, massive obesity, and obesity in children younger than 2 years of age. Recommendations for treatment evaluation included an assessment of patient and family readiness to engage in a weight-management program and a focused assessment of diet and physical activity habits. The primary goal of obesity therapy should be healthy eating and activity. The use of weight maintenance versus weight loss to achieve weight goals depends on each patient's age, baseline BMI percentile, and presence of medical complications. The Committee recommended treatment that begins early, involves the family, and institutes permanent changes in a stepwise manner. Parenting skills are the foundation for successful intervention that puts in place gradual, targeted increases in activity and targeted reductions in high-fat, high-calorie foods. Ongoing support for families
Full Text Available It is commonly acknowledged that land use changes (LUC and climate changes have exerted significant effects on ecosystem services which are essential and vital to human well-being. Among all the services provided by ecosystem, climate regulation services are relatively sensitive to LUC and climate changes. This study aims to comprehensively review studies on the complex effects of LUC and climate changes on climate regulation services and further integrates the effects on climate regulation services into impact assessment for human well-being. In this study, we firstly introduced research efforts in which the drivers of and their corresponding effects on climate regulation services are briefly identified. Then, we explicitly reviewed the researches on the effects of LUC and climate changes on climate regulation services, especially focused on the certain methods and models used to quantify the effects on the major drivers of climate regulation services. After that, the effects of LUC and climate changes on human well-being via climate regulation services were revisited and commented accordingly. Finally, this paper discussed the current research gaps and proposed some research prospects in future studies.
Schoen, Mary E; Xue, Xiaobo; Wood, Alison; Hawkins, Troy R; Garland, Jay; Ashbolt, Nicholas J
We compared water and sanitation system options for a coastal community across selected sustainability metrics, including environmental impact (i.e., life cycle eutrophication potential, energy consumption, and global warming potential), equivalent annual cost, and local human health impact. We computed normalized metric scores, which we used to discuss the options' strengths and weaknesses, and conducted sensitivity analysis of the scores to changes in variable and uncertain input parameters. The alternative systems, which combined centralized drinking water with sanitation services based on the concepts of energy and nutrient recovery as well as on-site water reuse, had reduced environmental and local human health impacts and costs than the conventional, centralized option. Of the selected sustainability metrics, the greatest advantages of the alternative community water systems (compared to the conventional system) were in terms of local human health impact and eutrophication potential, despite large, outstanding uncertainties. Of the alternative options, the systems with on-site water reuse and energy recovery technologies had the least local human health impact; however, the cost of these options was highly variable and the energy consumption was comparable to on-site alternatives without water reuse or energy recovery, due to on-site reuse treatment. Future work should aim to reduce the uncertainty in the energy recovery process and explore the health risks associated with less costly, on-site water treatment options. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available . Philadelphia: Saunders Col- lege Publishing, 1982.  Hamill, J. and Knutzen, K. M., Biomechanical Basis of Human Motion, Baltimore: Williams and Wilkins, 1995.  Lenarcˇicˇ, J. and Klopcˇar, N.,“Positional kinematics of hu- manoid arms,” Robotica, vol...
Dade County Public Schools, Miami, FL.
This unit of instruction deals primarily with environmental influence. The course includes instruction on communicable diseases, prevention of diseases, and the optimal environment (pure food, water, air, waste disposal methods, pesticides, radioactivity, and the effects the laws governing each one have on human life). No requisite for prior…
Acampora, G.; Loia, V.
By 2015, according to Mark Pinto of Bell Labs, the microelectronics industry will be manufacturing 10 million silicon transistors per human being per day and the applications will exist to consume them. The evolution of electronic design will lead entire products to be implemented on single silicon
Hartsfield, John W.; Hartsfield, Kendra J.
Since its beginning, the space program has caught the attention of young people. This space science activity booklet was designed to provide information and learning activities for students in elementary grades. It contains chapters on: (1) primitive beliefs about flight; (2) early fantasies of flight; (3) the United States human spaceflight…
Nystrom, Christine L.
Shows that many "liberal" educators who are in the thrall of obviously "humane" doctrines oppose semantic tyranny or suppression of free speech by their political antagonists, while failing to descry their own manipulations of language and oppositions to others' rights. (GT)
Full Text Available Managers’ psychosocial working conditions are important for managerial sustainability in the public sector. The job demands-resources (JD-R model is a widely applied and well-recognized framework for measuring psychosocial working conditions. However, there is still a need for methodological contributions including more objective as well as qualitative ways to assess these conditions. In this study, job demands and job resources as well as the balance between them was qualitatively and externally assessed for first-line human service managers using a work content analysis method. Conditions and actions were focused upon with an external perspective. Special attention was paid to concrete examples and consequences of work characteristics with predefined criteria and cut-off points to guide the assessments. The results reveal an imbalance for human service managers between high levels of job demands and the lack of job resources available to meet these demands. Work overload, conflicting and unclear goals and tasks, emotional demands, restricted control, and lack of supervisory and organizational support generally characterized the managerial assignment. The analysis provided concrete explanations of the current work strain in this group of employees, thereby giving both short-term and long-term possibilities for improvement of managerial work and sustainability.
Gladys Irene, Arboleda Posada
Full Text Available The study describes the conditions of human development according to labor welfare and satisfaction with healthcare services from staff employed with an indefinite term contract before January 1997 in health institutions of tertiary care in the city of Medellin (Colombia. It was performed a cross-sectional study designed to measure these components of human development through surveys applied on the staff with the described conditions, without any difference of academic, socioeconomic status or type of position. It was included a population of 1622 persons from five institutions, with a final sample of 242.Among the key findings is highlighted the high degree of staff satisfaction related to received in healthcare services for both, the worker and their beneficiaries; as well as the supply of medicines and diagnostic aids; besides the satisfaction with the work performed in the company and the feeling of being useful and important to it, they find out it is difficult to have promotions by merit and recognition for their work. As factors to strengthen in these institutions are the establishing clear policies for promotion and recognition.
Full Text Available Orientation: Intrinsic rewards are personal, psychological responses to the work thatemployees perform, which stem from the manner in which their work is designed. Research purpose: This study sought to discover in what ways non-profit employees arepsychologically rewarded by the nature of their work tasks. The use of a qualitative approachto data collection and analysis ensured that in-depth responses from participants were gained. Motivation for the study: Intrinsic rewards are of particular importance to non-profitemployees, who tend to earn below-market salaries. This implies that their motivationoriginates predominantly from intrinsic as opposed to extrinsic rewards; yet, research into thisarea of rewards is lacking. Research approach, design and method: In-depth, semi-structured interviews were conductedusing a sample of 15 extrinsically rewarded non-profit employees working within South Africa.Thematic analysis was utilised in order to generate codes which led to the formation of fiveintrinsic rewards categories. Main findings: Intrinsic rewards were classified into five categories, namely (1 MeaningfulWork, (2 Flexible Work, (3 Challenging Work, (4 Varied Work and (5 Enjoyable Work.These rewards each comprise of various subcategories, which provide insight into why suchwork is rewarding to non-profit employees. Practical/managerial implications: Traditional performance management systems shouldbe re-evaluated in the non-profit sector to shift focus towards intrinsic rewards, asopposed to focusing only on the use of extrinsic rewards such as incentives to motivateemployees. Contribution/value-add: The study provides a qualitative understanding of how extrinsicallyrewarded non-profit employees perceive their work to be intrinsically rewarding, whichbridges the empirical gap pertaining to intrinsic rewards within this sector.
Graham P. von Maltitz
Full Text Available Jatropha-based biofuels have undergone a rapid boom-and-bust cycle in southern Africa. Despite strong initial support by governments, donors, and the private sector, there is a lack of empirical studies that compare the environmental and socioeconomic impacts of Jatropha's two dominant modes of production: large plantations and smallholder-based projects. We apply a rapid ecosystem services assessment approach to understand the impact of two Jatropha projects that are still operational despite widespread project collapse across southern Africa: a smallholder-based project (BERL, Malawi and a large plantation (Niqel, Mozambique. Our study focuses on changes in provisioning ecosystem services such as biofuel feedstock, food, and woodland products that can have important effects on human well-being locally. Qualitative information is provided for other regulating and cultural ecosystem services. Although at this stage no impact is tremendously positive or negative, both projects show some signs of viability and local poverty alleviation potential. However, their long-term sustainability is not guaranteed given low yields, uncertain markets, and some prevailing management practices.
Full Text Available Although a handsfree man-machine interface is useful when the user’s hands are not free, existing handsfree input devices are not the type of device that are normally worn by people. We have focused on a shoe as an input device because people normally wear it when they go out, and proposed a shoe-embedded interface. The input device is a sensor shoe. Weight sensors have been attached at three positions on a sole: the first metatarsal, the fifth metatarsal, and the calcaneal tuberosity. These positions have been selected based on the characteristics of the human foot skeleton. Two types of foot operation have been used: tap and push. By combining these operations, 10 commands have been defined. To make it possible to use web applications with a limited number of commands, we have proposed a method of supplementing the user’s service requirements using collaborative filtering. The sensor shoe houses an insole with hetero-core optical fiber sensor elements attached to it. These elements are sensitive to weight. We have built an experimental system that runs on a smartphone and provides the shoe-embedded interface, and conducted experiments with three test subjects to evaluate the system. The average rate of successful command identification was 89 %. We have also evaluated this service requirements supplementation method theoretically, and confirmed that the proposed service recommendation function can be applied to smartphone systems.
Fletcher, Erica Hua; Piemonte, Nicole M
In describing the foundations of our pedagogical approaches to service-learning, we seek to go beyond the navel-gazing-at times, paralyzing-paradoxes of neoliberal forces, which can do "good" for students and their communities, yet which also call students into further calculative frameworks for understanding the "value" of pre-health humanities education and social engagement. We discuss methods to create quiet forms of subversion that call for a moral imagination in extending an ethics of care to students as well as to the communities with which they engage. While we recognize the partiality and limitations of our attempts, framing mentored service-learning in unexpected ways can help students and practitioners to understand their role within broader social, historical, cultural, and emotional contexts and encourage them to act intentionally toward the communities they seek to serve in response to this new self-knowledge. To that end, we outline an academically rigorous service-learning intervention at one of our universities.
Federal welfare reform, local service collaborations, and the evolution of statewide information systems inspired agency interest in evidence-informed practice and knowledge sharing systems. Four agency leaders, including the Director, Deputy Director, Director of Planning and Evaluation, and Staff Development Program Manager championed the development of a learning organization based on knowledge management throughout the agency. Internal department restructuring helped to strengthen the Planning and Evaluation, Staff Development, and Personnel units, which have become central to supporting knowledge sharing activities. The Four Pillars of Knowledge framework was designed to capture agency directions in relationship to future knowledge management goals. Featuring People, Practice, Technology and Budget, the framework links the agency's services, mission and goals to the process of becoming a learning organization. Built through an iterative process, the framework was created by observing existing activities in each department rather than being designed from the top down. Knowledge management can help the department to fulfill its mission despite reduced resources. Copyright © Taylor & Francis Group, LLC
Berthe, Philippe; Schubert, Kathleen; Grantier, Julie; Pietsch, Klaus; Angelillo, Philippe; Price, Laurence
This paper provides an overview of the system and subsystem configuration of the MPCV European Service Module (ESM) at Preliminary Design Review (PDR) stage as well as its perspectives of utilisation within the global space exploration endeavour. The MPCV ESM is a cylindrical module with a diameter of 4500 mm and a total length – main engine excluded – of 2700 mm. It is fitted with four solar array wings with a span of 18.8 m. Its dry mass is 3.5 metric tons and it can carry 8.6 tons of propellant. The main functions of the European Service Module are to bring the structural continuity between the launcher and the crew module, to provide propulsion to the MPCV, to ensure its thermal control as well as electrical power and to store water, oxygen and nitrogen for the mission. The current agreement foresees the development and production by Europe of one flight model, with an option for a second one. This module will be assembled in Europe and delivered to NASA in 2016. It will be used for a flight of the MPCV Orion in December 2017.
Nguyen, Phuong T; Lamkin, Joanna; Coverdale, John H; Scott, Samuel; Li, Karen; Gordon, Mollie R
Human trafficking is a serious and prevalent human rights violation that closely intersects with mental health. Limited empirical attention has been paid to the presentations and identification of trafficking victims in psychiatric settings. The primary goal of this paper is to describe the varied presentations of trafficking victims on an urban inpatient psychiatric unit. A literature review was conducted to identify relevant empirical articles to inform our examination of cases. Adult inpatient cases meeting criteria for known or possible human trafficking were systematically identified and illustrative cases were described. Six cases were identified including one male and five females. Two had been labor trafficked and four were suspected or confirmed to have been sex trafficked. The cases demonstrated a tremendous diversity of demographic and psychiatric identifying factors. These cases indicate the importance of routinely screening for trafficking victims in inpatient psychiatry settings. Identification of cases is a requisite step in providing informed and evidence-based treatments and enabling the secondary prevention of re-exploitation. Additional research is warranted given the limited current empirical research on this topic area.
Pascoe, Michelle; Klop, Daleen; Mdlalo, Thandeka; Ndhambi, Mikateko
Developed with a strong awareness of past injustices, South Africa's progressive constitution emphasises a full spectrum of human rights. While the constitution celebrates many languages and cultures, speech-language pathologists (SLPs) face challenges in translating these values into practice with a diverse clientele. Similarly, Article 19 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights focuses on freedom of expression in one's language of choice, but is often perceived as a "Cinderella" right (i.e. one that is frequently neglected). This paper presents a literature review undertaken in association with the Health Professions Council of South Africa to produce guidelines to support SLPs in their practice with diverse linguistic and cultural groups. The aim was to identify key points for inclusion in a set of human rights-driven guidelines. Specific objectives were to critique: (1) current guidelines for SLPs working with diverse cultural and linguistic groups; and (2) equivalent guidelines for related professions. Content analysis of the datasets revealed key themes which formed the basis of an initial skeleton, to be further developed through a consultative process and discussion, ultimately aiming to provide supportive, practical guidelines to better equip South African SLPs to serve all the people of the country.
Lacking a coordinated effort in utilizing data and tracking program outcomes, one agency developed a Quality Management (QM) division to facilitate and manage more effective data use. To support this process, the agency sought to develop a collective, agency-wide understanding and investment in improving and measuring client outcomes. Similarly, the agency also focused efforts on creating a culture of transparency and accountability, with goals of improving service, increasing agency integrity, meeting regulatory compliance, and engaging in effective risk management. Operationalizing the QM initiative involved developing procedures, systems, and guidelines that would facilitate the generation of reliable and accurate data that could be used to inform program change and decision-making. This case study describes this agency's experience in successfully creating and implementing a QM initiative aimed at engaging in greater knowledge sharing. Copyright © Taylor & Francis Group, LLC
Full Text Available For a domestic personal robot, personalized services are as important as predesigned tasks, because the robot needs to adjust the home state based on the operator's habits. An operator's habits are composed of cues, behaviors, and rewards. This article introduces behavioral footprints to describe the operator's behaviors in a house, and applies the inverse reinforcement learning technique to extract the operator's habits, represented by a reward function. We implemented the proposed approach with a mobile robot on indoor temperature adjustment, and compared this approach with a baseline method that recorded all the cues and behaviors of the operator. The result shows that the proposed approach allows the robot to reveal the operator's habits accurately and adjust the environment state accordingly.
Clark, Rebecca Culver; Allison-Jones, Lisa
The well-documented shortage of nurses and the impact of educational preparation of nurses on patient care outcomes provide a compelling argument for the need to increase the number of registered nurses and to advance their educational preparation. This article describes the application of human capital theory in a creative venture between a health system and a school of nursing that has demonstrated success in addressing these issues. A tuition advancement program was developed to support interested personnel in attaining the associate degree in nursing and to support current RNs in attaining the baccalaureate degree. The venture included support for graduate preparation of nurses interested in becoming faculty.
Hou, Ying; Li, Bo; Müller, Felix; Chen, Weiping
Watersheds provide multiple ecosystem services. Ecosystem service assessment is a promising approach to investigate human-environment interaction at the watershed scale. The spatial characteristics of ecosystem services are closely related to land use statuses in human-dominated watersheds. This study aims to investigate the effects of land use on the spatial variations of ecosystem services at the Dianchi Lake watershed in Southwest China. We investigated the spatial variations of six ecosystem services-food supply, net primary productivity (NPP), habitat quality, evapotranspiration, water yield, and nitrogen retention. These services were selected based on their significance at the Dianchi Lake watershed and the availability of their data. The quantification of these services was based on modeling, value transference, and spatial analysis in combination with biophysical and socioeconomic data. Furthermore, we calculated the values of ecosystem services provided by different land use types and quantified the correlations between ecosystem service values and land use area proportions. The results show considerable spatial variations in the six ecosystem services associated with land use influences in the Dianchi Lake watershed. The cropland and forest land use types had predominantly positive influences on food productivity and NPP, respectively. The rural residential area and forest land use types reduced and enhanced habitat quality, respectively; these influences were identical to those of evapotranspiration. Urban area and rural residential area exerted significantly positive influences on water yield. In contrast, water yield was negatively correlated with forest area proportion. Finally, cropland and forest had significantly positive and negative influences, respectively, on nitrogen retention. Our study emphasizes the importance of consideration of the influences from land use composition and distribution on ecosystem services for managing the ecosystems of
Chiabai, Aline; Quiroga, Sonia; Martinez-Juarez, Pablo; Higgins, Sahran; Taylor, Tim
This paper addresses the impact that changes in natural ecosystems can have on health and wellbeing focusing on the potential co-benefits that green spaces could provide when introduced as climate change adaptation measures. Ignoring such benefits could lead to sub-optimal planning and decision-making. A conceptual framework, building on the ecosystem-enriched Driver, Pressure, State, Exposure, Effect, Action model (eDPSEEA), is presented to aid in clarifying the relational structure between green spaces and human health, taking climate change as the key driver. The study has the double intention of (i) summarising the literature with a special emphasis on the ecosystem and health perspectives, as well as the main theories behind these impacts, and (ii) modelling these findings into a framework that allows for multidisciplinary approaches to the underlying relations between human health and green spaces. The paper shows that while the literature based on the ecosystem perspective presents a well-documented association between climate, health and green spaces, the literature using a health-based perspective presents mixed evidence in some cases. The role of contextual factors and the exposure mechanism are rarely addressed. The proposed framework could serve as a multidisciplinary knowledge platform for multi-perspecitve analysis and discussion among experts and stakeholders, as well as to support the operationalization of quantitative assessment and modelling exercises. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
This article features Bookshare, a nonprofit that provides free electronic copies of traditional books to students with certain disabilities. Inspired by Napster, the music-sharing service, Bookshare turns books into a format that can be read aloud by computers, magnified, and spaced differently so that students with vision problems or learning…
Center for Data-Driven Reform in Education (NJ3), 2008
Education service providers (ESPs), or education management organizations, are for-profit or non-profit organizations that contract with new or existing public, charter, or private schools to help them implement comprehensive reforms. Which of these ESPs have evidence that they help children in elementary and secondary school of positive effects…
Full Text Available The current emphasis on social responsibility and community collaboration within higher education has led to an increased drive to include service learning in the curriculum. With its emphasis on mutually beneficial collaborations, service learning can be meaningful for both students and the community, but is challenging to manage successfully. From a design education perspective, it is interesting to note that contemporary design practice emphasises a similar approach known as a human-centered design, where users are considered and included throughout the design process. In considering both service learning and human-centred design as foundations for design pedagogy, various philosophical and methodological similarities are evident. The paper explores the relationship between a service learning community engagement approach and a human-centered design approach in contemporary communication design education. To this end, each approach is considered individually after which a joint frame of reference is presented. Butin’s service learning typology, namely the four Rs – respect, reciprocity, relevance and reflection – serves as a point of departure for the joint frame of reference. Lastly, the potential value and relevance of a combined understanding of service learning and human-centered design is considered.
Johnson, Susan R
For several years, Wall Street investment firms have campaigned for conversion of nonprofit health insurers to investor ownership, arguing that an infusion of equity capital is critical to insurers' survival. However, closer examination of the financial performance and capital position of not-for-profit health plans shows that: The lower operating margins reported by not-for-profit health plans very likely reflect the organizations' corporate missions to serve their communities by minimizing the cost of coverage and their ability to invest all gains back into the company for the future benefit of their customers. Their investor-owned counterparts must generate higher margins to give shareholders a return on their investment. Compared with investor-owned insurers, not-for-profit health plans use a significantly higher percentage of the customers' premium dollar to pay health care claims. A lower percentage goes for administrative expenses. Over the past 10 years, not-for-profit health plans have succeeded in using operational and investment gains to build and retain a strong capital position--stronger than that of investor-owned companies--while investing heavily in infrastructure, product development, and market growth.
Hoshiko, Sumi; Smith, Daniel; Fan, Cathyn; Jones, Carrie R.; McNeel, Sandra V.; Cohen, Ronald A.
Radiation exposure from medical sources now equals or exceeds that from natural background sources, largely attributable to a 20-fold increase in CT use since 1980. Increasing exposure to children and fetuses is of most concern due to their heightened susceptibility. More recently, CT use may be leveling or decreasing, but it is unclear whether this change is widespread or varies by type of institution. We sought to characterize trends in CT utilization in California hospitals and emergency departments among children and pregnant women, looking at different types of facilities, such as teaching, private, public and nonprofit institutions. We examined frequency of CT examinations by year from 229 facilities reporting CT usage in routinely collected California statewide data for 2005-2012. We modeled trends overall and by facility type. CT scans for pediatric and pregnant patient visits in the emergency department increased initially, then started to decline after 2008. Among hospital admissions, rates declined or leveled after 2005. In the emergency department, CT rates varied between types of facilities, with teaching hospitals reducing use sooner and more sharply than other types of facilities. CT utilization in California among children and pregnant women has begun to level or decline. Still, population exposure remains at historically high levels, warranting consideration of potential public health implications. Further examination of reasons for trends among hospital types, particularly how teaching hospitals have reduced rates of CT utilization, may help identify strategies for CT reduction without compromising patient care. (orig.)
Tillner, Falk; Thute, Prasad; Löck, Steffen; Dietrich, Antje; Fursov, Andriy; Haase, Robert; Lukas, Mathias; Krause, Mechthild; Baumann, Michael; Bütof, Rebecca; Enghardt, Wolfgang; Rimarzig, Bernd; Sobiella, Manfred
Preclinical in vivo studies using small animals are essential to develop new therapeutic options in radiation oncology. Of particular interest are orthotopic tumour models, which better reflect the clinical situation in terms of growth patterns and microenvironmental parameters of the tumour as well as the interplay of tumours with the surrounding normal tissues. Such orthotopic models increase the technical demands and the complexity of preclinical studies as local irradiation with therapeutically relevant doses requires image-guided target localisation and accurate beam application. Moreover, advanced imaging techniques are needed for monitoring treatment outcome. We present a novel small animal image-guided radiation therapy (SAIGRT) system, which allows for precise and accurate, conformal irradiation and x-ray imaging of small animals. High accuracy is achieved by its robust construction, the precise movement of its components and a fast high-resolution flat-panel detector. Field forming and x-ray imaging is accomplished close to the animal resulting in a small penumbra and a high image quality. Feasibility for irradiating orthotopic models has been proven using lung tumour and glioblastoma models in mice. The SAIGRT system provides a flexible, non-profit academic research platform which can be adapted to specific experimental needs and therefore enables systematic preclinical trials in multicentre research networks. (paper)
Hoshiko, Sumi; Smith, Daniel; Fan, Cathyn; Jones, Carrie R.; McNeel, Sandra V. [Environmental Health Investigations Branch, California Department of Public Health, Richmond, CA (United States); Cohen, Ronald A. [Children' s Hospital and Research Center Oakland, Department of Radiology, Oakland, CA (United States)
Radiation exposure from medical sources now equals or exceeds that from natural background sources, largely attributable to a 20-fold increase in CT use since 1980. Increasing exposure to children and fetuses is of most concern due to their heightened susceptibility. More recently, CT use may be leveling or decreasing, but it is unclear whether this change is widespread or varies by type of institution. We sought to characterize trends in CT utilization in California hospitals and emergency departments among children and pregnant women, looking at different types of facilities, such as teaching, private, public and nonprofit institutions. We examined frequency of CT examinations by year from 229 facilities reporting CT usage in routinely collected California statewide data for 2005-2012. We modeled trends overall and by facility type. CT scans for pediatric and pregnant patient visits in the emergency department increased initially, then started to decline after 2008. Among hospital admissions, rates declined or leveled after 2005. In the emergency department, CT rates varied between types of facilities, with teaching hospitals reducing use sooner and more sharply than other types of facilities. CT utilization in California among children and pregnant women has begun to level or decline. Still, population exposure remains at historically high levels, warranting consideration of potential public health implications. Further examination of reasons for trends among hospital types, particularly how teaching hospitals have reduced rates of CT utilization, may help identify strategies for CT reduction without compromising patient care. (orig.)
Three to four million individuals struggle with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) in the United States at any given time. OCD can be a debilitating disorder associated with significant quality-of-life and occupational impairment. First-line treatments for OCD (selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors and exposure and response prevention therapy) have been shown to be effective; yet, many individuals suffering from OCD experience multiple barriers to accessing these treatments. In fact, it can take as many as 17 years from onset of symptoms to effective treatment. Given the need to increase access to and utilization of effective treatments, direct-to-consumer marketing in the context of OCD appears crucial. The International OCD Foundation (formerly the Obsessive Compulsive Foundation) was established as a nonprofit organization with a mission to educate the public and mental health professionals about appropriate practice guidelines, raise awareness of the disorder, and ensure that individuals looking for treatment find the necessary resources. This paper reviews the obstacles those struggling with OCD face in their attempts to alleviate suffering, as well as the direct-to-consumer strategies and tactics used by the International OCD Foundation to improve access to empirically supported, effective treatment. Copyright Â© 2011. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Full Text Available The numerous empirical and conceptual studies that have been conducted over recent years concerning the social responsibility of enterprises and their contributions towards sustainable development have given very little consideration to non-profit organizations (NPOs. This is surprising, because NPOs are confronted with very similar challenges to profit-orientated enterprises regarding their evolution into sustainable organizations. This paper is a preliminary conceptual study and explores the question of why the corporate social responsibility, or corporate sustainability, of NPOs has to date been both neglected by research establishments and also extensively ignored by the NPOs during their day-to-day practical management. The example of church and pastoral institutions in Germany is used to demonstrate the extent to which they take account of ecological and social aspects in their management systems and processes and, thus, implement sustainable management within their day-to-day practice. The paper concludes with some proposals for further empirical and conceptual research projects, which are designed to analyze developments within NPOs with relation to the integration of sustainability into their management systems and processes.
Eklund, Carina; Forslund, Ola; Wallin, Keng-Ling; Dillner, Joakim
Accurate and internationally comparable human papillomavirus (HPV) DNA detection and typing services are essential for HPV vaccine research and surveillance. This study assessed the proficiency of different HPV typing services offered routinely in laboratories worldwide. The HPV Laboratory Network (LabNet) has designed international proficiency panels that can be regularly issued. The HPV genotyping proficiency panels of 2013 and 2014 contained 43 and 41 coded samples, respectively, composed of purified plasmids of sixteen HPV types (HPV 6, 11, 16, 18, 31, 33, 35, 39, 45, 51, 52, 56, 58, 59, 66, 68a and 68b) and 3 extraction controls. Proficient typing was defined as detection in both single and multiple infections of 50 International Units of HPV 16 and HPV 18 and 500 genome equivalents for the other 14 HPV types, with at least 97% specificity. Ninety-six laboratories submitted 136 datasets in 2013 and 121 laboratories submitted 148 datasets in 2014. Thirty-four different HPV genotyping assays were used, notably Linear Array, HPV Direct Flow-chip, GenoFlow HPV array, Anyplex HPV 28, Inno-LiPa, and PGMY-CHUV assays. A trend towards increased sensitivity and specificity was observed. In 2013, 59 data sets (44%) were 100% proficient compared to 86 data sets (59%) in 2014. This is a definite improvement compared to the first proficiency panel, issued in 2008, when only 19 data sets (26%) were fully proficient. The regularly issued global proficiency program has documented an ongoing worldwide improvement in comparability and reliability of HPV genotyping services. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Assessments of ecosystem services have been proposed as one way of incorporating concerns about environmental change and ecosystem conditions into subnational development planning. In Thailand a policy window for such initiatives is opening because of a transition in national policy toward area-based planning combined with broader political reforms to expand public participation and encourage more evidence-based decision making. We explored three case studies in Thailand in which central and local government agencies and research organizations partnered to engage local communities and other stakeholders in assessments of ecosystem services and human well-being. The analysis focused on the role ecosystem assessments play in building and creating demand for coproductive capacity. By coproductive capacities we mean the ability to combine scientific resources and governance capabilities in ways that bring about informed social change. We found evidence that the assessments built capacities for governance actors to explore scientific and research-based evidence, to consult scientific experts, and then to evaluate existing policies and plans using this newly acquired information. At the same time, scientific experts also learned to explore public policy issues, to consult planners and decision makers in government, and based on this knowledge to evaluate scientific evidence and revise the scope and goals of their research and analytical activities to better meet policy needs and demands. Coproductive capacities were built when various stakeholders jointly engaged in compilation and interpretation of evidence. Doing so helped legitimize the assessment process with positive feedback on both governance and science capacities. We also found evidence, however, of significant cultural and institutional constraints to designing and making better use of ecosystem services assessments. These constraints included insufficient resources for both knowledge making
Edokpolo, Benjamin; Yu, Qiming Jimmy; Connell, Des
Health risk characterization of exposure to benzene in service stations and petroleum refineries has been carried out in previous studies using guideline values set by various agencies. In this work, health risk was characterized with the exposure data as cumulative probability distribution (CPD) plots but using human epidemiological data. This was achieved by using lowest observable adverse effects levels (LOAEL) data plotted as cumulative probability lowest effects distribution (CPLED). The health risk due to benzene was characterized by using probabilistic methods of hazard quotient (HQ 50/50 and HQ 95/5 ), Monte-Carlo simulation (MCS) and overall risk probability (ORP). CPD relationships of adverse health effects relationships and exposure data were in terms of average daily dose (ADD) and lifetime average daily dose (LADD) for benzene. For service station environments HQ 50/50 and HQ 95/5 were in a range of 0.000071-0.055 and 0.0049-21, respectively. On the other hand, the risk estimated for petroleum refinery environments suggests higher risk with HQ 50/50 and HQ 95/5 values ranging from 0.0012 to 77 and 0.17 to 560, respectively. The results of Monte-Carlo risk probability (MRP) and ORP indicated that workers in petroleum refineries (MRP of 2.9-56% and ORP of 4.6-52% of the affected population) were at a higher risk of adverse health effects from exposure to benzene as compared to exposure to benzene in service station environments (MRP of 0.051 -3.4% and ORP of 0.35-2.7% affected population). The adverse effect risk probabilities estimated by using the Monte-Carlo simulation technique and the ORP method were found to be generally consistent.
van den Bosch, Annette; de Jong, Menno; Elving, Wim
Corporate Visual Identity (CVI) is a crucial part of the identity of any organization. Most research on managing corporate identity deals with the strategic development of corporate identity and the design and effects of specific elements of the CVI. This study focuses on an aspect of CVI management
Full Text Available The following article establishes some context and definitions for what is termed the “sharing imperative” – a movement or tendency towards sharing information online and in real time that has rapidly transformed several industries. As internet-enabled devices proliferate to all corners of the globe, ways of working and accessing information have changed. Users now expect to be able to access the products, services, and information that they want from anywhere, at any time, on any device. This article addresses how the nonprofit sector might respond to those demands by embracing the sharing imperative. It suggests that how well an organization shares has become one of the most pressing governance questions a nonprofit organization must tackle. Finally, the article introduces Platformation, a project whereby tools that enable better inter and intra-organizational sharing are tested for scalability, affordability, interoperability, and security, all with a non-profit lens.
[NASA/DOD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project. Report 3:] Technical communications in aeronautics: Results of an exploratory study. An analysis of profit managers' and nonprofit managers' responses
Pinelli, Thomas E.; Glassman, Myron; Barclay, Rebecca O.; Oliu, Walter E.
Data collected from an exploratory study concerned with the technical communications practices of aerospace engineers and scientists were analyzed to test the primary assumption that profit and nonprofit managers in the aerospace community have different technical communications practices. Five assumptions were established for the analysis. Profit and nonprofit managers in the aerospace community were found to have different technical communications practices for one of the five assumptions tested. It was, therefore, concluded that profit and nonprofit managers in the aerospace community do not have different technical communications practices.