WorldWideScience

Sample records for nonprobability convenience sample

  1. Nonprobability and probability-based sampling strategies in sexual science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catania, Joseph A; Dolcini, M Margaret; Orellana, Roberto; Narayanan, Vasudah

    2015-01-01

    With few exceptions, much of sexual science builds upon data from opportunistic nonprobability samples of limited generalizability. Although probability-based studies are considered the gold standard in terms of generalizability, they are costly to apply to many of the hard-to-reach populations of interest to sexologists. The present article discusses recent conclusions by sampling experts that have relevance to sexual science that advocates for nonprobability methods. In this regard, we provide an overview of Internet sampling as a useful, cost-efficient, nonprobability sampling method of value to sex researchers conducting modeling work or clinical trials. We also argue that probability-based sampling methods may be more readily applied in sex research with hard-to-reach populations than is typically thought. In this context, we provide three case studies that utilize qualitative and quantitative techniques directed at reducing limitations in applying probability-based sampling to hard-to-reach populations: indigenous Peruvians, African American youth, and urban men who have sex with men (MSM). Recommendations are made with regard to presampling studies, adaptive and disproportionate sampling methods, and strategies that may be utilized in evaluating nonprobability and probability-based sampling methods.

  2. Tracing selection effects in three non-probability samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barendregt, Cas; van der Poel, Agnes; van de Mheen, Dike

    2005-01-01

    Snowball sampling and targeted sampling are widely applied techniques to recruit samples from hidden populations, such as problematic drug users. The disadvantage is that they yield non-probability samples which cannot be generalised to the population. Despite thorough preparatory mapping procedures, selection effects continue to occur. This paper proposes an interpretation frame that allows estimating the direction of selection bias after data collection. Critical examination of the recruitment procedure and comparison with statistical and non-statistical external data sources are the core features of the interpretation frame. Applying the interpretation frame increases insight into the reliability of the results and allows to estimate where selection bias may have occurred.

  3. A method to combine non-probability sample data with probability sample data in estimating spatial means of environmental variables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brus, D J; de Gruijter, J J

    2003-04-01

    In estimating spatial means of environmental variables of a region from data collected by convenience or purposive sampling, validity of the results can be ensured by collecting additional data through probability sampling. The precision of the pi estimator that uses the probability sample can be increased by interpolating the values at the nonprobability sample points to the probability sample points, and using these interpolated values as an auxiliary variable in the difference or regression estimator. These estimators are (approximately) unbiased, even when the nonprobability sample is severely biased such as in preferential samples. The gain in precision compared to the pi estimator in combination with Simple Random Sampling is controlled by the correlation between the target variable and interpolated variable. This correlation is determined by the size (density) and spatial coverage of the nonprobability sample, and the spatial continuity of the target variable. In a case study the average ratio of the variances of the simple regression estimator and pi estimator was 0.68 for preferential samples of size 150 with moderate spatial clustering, and 0.80 for preferential samples of similar size with strong spatial clustering. In the latter case the simple regression estimator was substantially more precise than the simple difference estimator.

  4. More than Just Convenient: The Scientific Merits of Homogeneous Convenience Samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jager, Justin; Putnick, Diane L.; Bornstein, Marc H.

    2017-01-01

    Despite their disadvantaged generalizability relative to probability samples, non-probability convenience samples are the standard within developmental science, and likely will remain so because probability samples are cost-prohibitive and most available probability samples are ill-suited to examine developmental questions. In lieu of focusing on how to eliminate or sharply reduce reliance on convenience samples within developmental science, here we propose how to augment their advantages when it comes to understanding population effects as well as subpopulation differences. Although all convenience samples have less clear generalizability than probability samples, we argue that homogeneous convenience samples have clearer generalizability relative to conventional convenience samples. Therefore, when researchers are limited to convenience samples, they should consider homogeneous convenience samples as a positive alternative to conventional or heterogeneous) convenience samples. We discuss future directions as well as potential obstacles to expanding the use of homogeneous convenience samples in developmental science. PMID:28475254

  5. Gaining Access to Economically Marginalized Rural Populations: Lessons Learned from Nonprobability Sampling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mammen, Sheila; Sano, Yoshie

    2012-01-01

    Poverty is a significant problem in rural America. Gaining access to economically marginalized rural populations in order to recruit individuals to participate in a research study, however, is often a challenge. This article compares three different nonprobability sampling techniques that have been used to recruit rural, low-income…

  6. Gaining Access to Economically Marginalized Rural Populations: Lessons Learned from Nonprobability Sampling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mammen, Sheila; Sano, Yoshie

    2012-01-01

    Poverty is a significant problem in rural America. Gaining access to economically marginalized rural populations in order to recruit individuals to participate in a research study, however, is often a challenge. This article compares three different nonprobability sampling techniques that have been used to recruit rural, low-income…

  7. A method to combine non-probability sample data with probability sample data in estimating spatial means of environmental variables

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brus, D.J.; Gruijter, de J.J.

    2003-01-01

    In estimating spatial means of environmental variables of a region from data collected by convenience or purposive sampling, validity of the results can be ensured by collecting additional data through probability sampling. The precision of the pi estimator that uses the probability sample can be

  8. A method to combine non-probability sample data with probability sample data in estimating spatial means of environmental variables

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brus, D.J.; Gruijter, de J.J.

    2003-01-01

    In estimating spatial means of environmental variables of a region from data collected by convenience or purposive sampling, validity of the results can be ensured by collecting additional data through probability sampling. The precision of the pi estimator that uses the probability sample can be in

  9. For what applications can probability and non-probability sampling be used?

    Science.gov (United States)

    H. T. Schreuder; T. G. Gregoire; J. P. Weyer

    2001-01-01

    Almost any type of sample has some utility when estimating population quantities. The focus in this paper is to indicate what type or combination of types of sampling can be used in various situations ranging from a sample designed to establish cause-effect or legal challenge to one involving a simple subjective judgment. Several of these methods have little or no...

  10. For what applications can probability and non-probability sampling be used?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreuder, H T; Gregoire, T G

    2001-02-01

    Almost any type of sample has some utility when estimating population quantities. The focus in this paper is to indicate what type or combination of types of sampling can be used in various situations ranging from a sample designed to establish cause-effect or legal challenge to one involving a simple subjective judgment. Several of these methods have little or no utility in the scientific area but even in the best of circumstances, particularly complex ones, both probabilistic and non-probabilistic procedures have to be used because of lack of knowledge and cost. We illustrate this with a marbled murrelet example.

  11. [A comparison of convenience sampling and purposive sampling].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suen, Lee-Jen Wu; Huang, Hui-Man; Lee, Hao-Hsien

    2014-06-01

    Convenience sampling and purposive sampling are two different sampling methods. This article first explains sampling terms such as target population, accessible population, simple random sampling, intended sample, actual sample, and statistical power analysis. These terms are then used to explain the difference between "convenience sampling" and purposive sampling." Convenience sampling is a non-probabilistic sampling technique applicable to qualitative or quantitative studies, although it is most frequently used in quantitative studies. In convenience samples, subjects more readily accessible to the researcher are more likely to be included. Thus, in quantitative studies, opportunity to participate is not equal for all qualified individuals in the target population and study results are not necessarily generalizable to this population. As in all quantitative studies, increasing the sample size increases the statistical power of the convenience sample. In contrast, purposive sampling is typically used in qualitative studies. Researchers who use this technique carefully select subjects based on study purpose with the expectation that each participant will provide unique and rich information of value to the study. As a result, members of the accessible population are not interchangeable and sample size is determined by data saturation not by statistical power analysis.

  12. Convenience samples and caregiving research: how generalizable are the findings?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pruchno, Rachel A; Brill, Jonathan E; Shands, Yvonne; Gordon, Judith R; Genderson, Maureen Wilson; Rose, Miriam; Cartwright, Francine

    2008-12-01

    We contrast characteristics of respondents recruited using convenience strategies with those of respondents recruited by random digit dial (RDD) methods. We compare sample variances, means, and interrelationships among variables generated from the convenience and RDD samples. Women aged 50 to 64 who work full time and provide care to a community-dwelling older person were recruited using either RDD (N = 55) or convenience methods (N = 87). Telephone interviews were conducted using reliable, valid measures of demographics, characteristics of the care recipient, help provided to the care recipient, evaluations of caregiver-care recipient relationship, and outcomes common to caregiving research. Convenience and RDD samples had similar variances on 68.4% of the examined variables. We found significant mean differences for 63% of the variables examined. Bivariate correlations suggest that one would reach different conclusions using the convenience and RDD sample data sets. Researchers should use convenience samples cautiously, as they may have limited generalizability.

  13. Public Attitudes toward Stuttering in Turkey: Probability versus Convenience Sampling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozdemir, R. Sertan; St. Louis, Kenneth O.; Topbas, Seyhun

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: A Turkish translation of the "Public Opinion Survey of Human Attributes-Stuttering" ("POSHA-S") was used to compare probability versus convenience sampling to measure public attitudes toward stuttering. Method: A convenience sample of adults in Eskisehir, Turkey was compared with two replicates of a school-based,…

  14. Public Attitudes toward Stuttering in Turkey: Probability versus Convenience Sampling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozdemir, R. Sertan; St. Louis, Kenneth O.; Topbas, Seyhun

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: A Turkish translation of the "Public Opinion Survey of Human Attributes-Stuttering" ("POSHA-S") was used to compare probability versus convenience sampling to measure public attitudes toward stuttering. Method: A convenience sample of adults in Eskisehir, Turkey was compared with two replicates of a school-based,…

  15. Convenience Samples and Caregiving Research: How Generalizable Are the Findings?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pruchno, Rachel A.; Brill, Jonathan E.; Shands, Yvonne; Gordon, Judith R.; Genderson, Maureen Wilson; Rose, Miriam; Cartwright, Francine

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: We contrast characteristics of respondents recruited using convenience strategies with those of respondents recruited by random digit dial (RDD) methods. We compare sample variances, means, and interrelationships among variables generated from the convenience and RDD samples. Design and Methods: Women aged 50 to 64 who work full time and…

  16. Public Attitudes toward Stuttering in Turkey: Probability versus Convenience Sampling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozdemir, R. Sertan; St. Louis, Kenneth O.; Topbas, Seyhun

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: A Turkish translation of the "Public Opinion Survey of Human Attributes-Stuttering" ("POSHA-S") was used to compare probability versus convenience sampling to measure public attitudes toward stuttering. Method: A convenience sample of adults in Eskisehir, Turkey was compared with two replicates of a school-based, probability cluster…

  17. Comparing probability and non-probability sampling methods in Ecstasy research: implications for the internet as a research tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Peter G; Johnston, Jennifer; Dunn, Matthew; Fry, Craig L; Degenhardt, Louisa

    2010-02-01

    The usage of Ecstasy and related drug (ERD) has increasingly been the focus of epidemiological and other public health-related research. One of the more promising methods is the use of the Internet as a recruitment and survey tool. However, there remain methodological concerns and questions about representativeness. Three samples of ERD users in Melbourne, Australia surveyed in 2004 are compared in terms of a number of key demographic and drug use variables. The Internet, face-to-face, and probability sampling methods appear to access similar but not identical groups of ERD users. Implications and limitations of the study are noted and future research is recommended.

  18. Health Indicators: Eliminating bias from convenience sampling estimators

    OpenAIRE

    Hedt, Bethany L.; Pagano, Marcello

    2011-01-01

    Public health practitioners are often called upon to make inference about a health indicator for a population at large when the sole available information are data gathered from a convenience sample, such as data gathered on visitors to a clinic. These data may be of the highest quality and quite extensive, but the biases inherent in a convenience sample preclude the legitimate use of powerful inferential tools that are usually associated with a random sample. In general, we know nothing abou...

  19. Health indicators: eliminating bias from convenience sampling estimators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedt, Bethany L; Pagano, Marcello

    2011-02-28

    Public health practitioners are often called upon to make inference about a health indicator for a population at large when the sole available information are data gathered from a convenience sample, such as data gathered on visitors to a clinic. These data may be of the highest quality and quite extensive, but the biases inherent in a convenience sample preclude the legitimate use of powerful inferential tools that are usually associated with a random sample. In general, we know nothing about those who do not visit the clinic beyond the fact that they do not visit the clinic. An alternative is to take a random sample of the population. However, we show that this solution would be wasteful if it excluded the use of available information. Hence, we present a simple annealing methodology that combines a relatively small, and presumably far less expensive, random sample with the convenience sample. This allows us to not only take advantage of powerful inferential tools, but also provides more accurate information than that available from just using data from the random sample alone. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. Direct and Convenient Mass Spectrometry Sampling with Ambient Flame Ionization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiao-Pan; Wang, Hao-Yang; Zhang, Jun-Ting; Wu, Meng-Xi; Qi, Wan-Shu; Zhu, Hui; Guo, Yin-Long

    2015-11-01

    Recent innovations in ambient ionization technology for the direct analysis of various samples in their native environment facilitate the development and applications of mass spectrometry in natural science. Presented here is a novel, convenient and flame-based ambient ionization method for mass spectrometric analysis of organic compounds, termed as the ambient flame ionization (AFI) ion source. The key features of AFI ion source were no requirement of (high) voltages, laser beams and spray gases, but just using small size of n-butane flame (height approximately 1 cm, about 500 oC) to accomplish the rapid desorption and ionization for direct analysis of gaseous-, liquid- and solid-phase organic compounds, as well as real-world samples. This method has high sensitivity with a limit of detection of 1 picogram for propyphenazone, which allows consuming trace amount of samples. Compared to previous ionization methods, this ion source device is extremely simple, maintain-free, low-cost, user-friendly so that even an ordinary lighter (with n-butane as fuel) can achieve efficient ionization. A new orientation to mass spectrometry ion source exploitation might emerge from such a convenient, easy and inexpensive AFI ion source.

  1. Influence of population versus convenience sampling on sample characteristics in studies of cognitive aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brodaty, Henry; Mothakunnel, Annu; de Vel-Palumbo, Melissa; Ames, David; Ellis, Kathryn A; Reppermund, Simone; Kochan, Nicole A; Savage, Greg; Trollor, Julian N; Crawford, John; Sachdev, Perminder S

    2014-01-01

    We examined whether differences in findings of studies examining mild cognitive impairment (MCI) were associated with recruitment methods by comparing sample characteristics in two contemporaneous Australian studies, using population-based and convenience sampling. The Sydney Memory and Aging Study invited participants randomly from the electoral roll in defined geographic areas in Sydney. The Australian Imaging, Biomarkers and Lifestyle Study of Ageing recruited cognitively normal (CN) individuals via media appeals and MCI participants via referrals from clinicians in Melbourne and Perth. Demographic and cognitive variables were harmonized, and similar diagnostic criteria were applied to both samples retrospectively. CN participants recruited via convenience sampling were younger, better educated, more likely to be married and have a family history of dementia, and performed better cognitively than those recruited via population-based sampling. MCI participants recruited via population-based sampling had better memory performance and were less likely to carry the apolipoprotein E ε4 allele than clinically referred participants but did not differ on other demographic variables. A convenience sample of normal controls is likely to be younger and better functioning and that of an MCI group likely to perform worse than a purportedly random sample. Sampling bias should be considered when interpreting findings. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Is a 'convenience' sample useful for estimating immunization coverage in a small population?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weir, Jean E; Jones, Carrie

    2008-01-01

    Rapid survey methodologies are widely used for assessing immunization coverage in developing countries, approximating true stratified random sampling. Non-random ('convenience') sampling is not considered appropriate for estimating immunization coverage rates but has the advantages of low cost and expediency. We assessed the validity of a convenience sample of children presenting to a travelling clinic by comparing the coverage rate in the convenience sample to the true coverage established by surveying each child in three villages in rural Papua New Guinea. The rate of DTF immunization coverage as estimated by the convenience sample was within 10% of the true coverage when the proportion of children in the sample was two-thirds or when only children over the age of one year were counted, but differed by 11% when the sample included only 53% of the children and when all eligible children were included. The convenience sample may be sufficiently accurate for reporting purposes and is useful for identifying areas of low coverage.

  3. Gender, trauma type, and PTSD prevalence: a re-analysis of 18 nordic convenience samples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ditlevsen, D. N.; Elklit, A.

    2012-01-01

    Background: The aim of the study was to examine a possible trauma type related variance in the gender difference of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) prevalence. Methods: An analysis was conducted on 18 convenience sample studies including data from a total of 5220 participants. The studies all...

  4. The Prevalence of Gambling in College: A Review of Literature, Convenience Sample, and Recommendations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seifried, Chad; Krenzelok, Ann; Turner, Brian A.; Brett, Martin

    2009-01-01

    This project examined the level of gambling exhibited by a convenience sample of 155 college students at a large Midwestern university and compared it to previously completed work. The researchers found most college student gamblers engaged in the most popular form of gambling like casino games, card games, and betting pools for money. Gambling on…

  5. Physical, mental, and cognitive function in a convenience sample of centenarians in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richmond, Robyn L; Law, Jenaleen; Kay-Lambkin, Frances

    2011-06-01

    To examine the physical, mental, and cognitive function of centenarians. Descriptive study using a structured questionnaire and convenience sampling. Residential care facilities and private dwellings in Australia. A convenience sample of 188 centenarians. The Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) screened for anxiety and depression. The Katz Index of Independence in Activities of Daily Living (Katz ADL) was used to assess functional status. The Quality of Life Scale was used to assess quality of life. The Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) was used to screen for dementia. Structured responses were obtained for living arrangement, marital status, social relationships, and supports. Centenarians had regular contact with friends (59%), neighbors (62%), and families (72%); 54% were religious and 43.5% had received social supports. Average MMSE and Katz ADL scores were 21.5 and 3.7, respectively; 45% had scores on the MMSE indicative of dementia, 10% indicated anxiety and 14% depression on the HADS. Participants with poor ratings of health experienced higher rates of anxiety and depression than their healthier counterparts. In this convenience sample of Australian centenarians, anxiety and depression was relatively nonexistent, and most reported a high quality of life. This was despite objective deterioration in functional status, paralleling the aging process, and high dependence on others for everyday tasks. Potentially, this is suggestive of a unique ability within the sample to adapt to aging and its limitations. © 2011, Copyright the Authors. Journal compilation © 2011, The American Geriatrics Society.

  6. Seroincidence of non-typhoid Salmonella infections: convenience vs. random community-based sampling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emborg, H-D; Simonsen, J; Jørgensen, C S; Harritshøj, L H; Krogfelt, K A; Linneberg, A; Mølbak, K

    2016-01-01

    The incidence of reported infections of non-typhoid Salmonella is affected by biases inherent to passive laboratory surveillance, whereas analysis of blood sera may provide a less biased alternative to estimate the force of Salmonella transmission in humans. We developed a mathematical model that enabled a back-calculation of the annual seroincidence of Salmonella based on measurements of specific antibodies. The aim of the present study was to determine the seroincidence in two convenience samples from 2012 (Danish blood donors, n = 500, and pregnant women, n = 637) and a community-based sample of healthy individuals from 2006 to 2007 (n = 1780). The lowest antibody levels were measured in the samples from the community cohort and the highest in pregnant women. The annual Salmonella seroincidences were 319 infections/1000 pregnant women [90% credibility interval (CrI) 210-441], 182/1000 in blood donors (90% CrI 85-298) and 77/1000 in the community cohort (90% CrI 45-114). Although the differences between study populations decreased when accounting for different age distributions the estimates depend on the study population. It is important to be aware of this issue and define a certain population under surveillance in order to obtain consistent results in an application of serological measures for public health purposes.

  7. Food variety, dietary diversity, and food characteristics among convenience samples of Guatemalan women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soto-Méndez, María José; Campos, Raquel; Hernández, Liza; Orozco, Mónica; Vossenaar, Marieke; Solomons, Noel W

    2011-01-01

    To compare variety and diversity patterns and dietary characteristics in Guatemalan women. Two non-consecutive 24-h recalls were conducted in convenience samples of 20 rural Mayan women and 20 urban students. Diversity scores were computed using three food-group systems.Variety and diversity scores and dietary origin and characteristics were compared between settings using independent t-test or Mann-Whitney-U-test. Dietary variety and diversity were generally greater in the urban sample when compared to the rural sample, depending on the number of days and food-group system used for evaluation.The diet was predominantly plant-based and composed of non-fortified food items in both areas.The rural diet was predominantly composed of traditional,non-processed foods. The urban diet was mostly based on non-traditional and processed items. Considerations of intervention strategies for dietary improvement and health protection for the Guatemalan countryside should still rely on promotion and preservation of traditional food selection.

  8. A survey of sports injuries among a convenience sample of Israeli athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dankner, R; Kaplan, G; Barell, V

    2001-07-01

    Israel lacks a systematic surveillance of sports injuries, and knowledge of risk factors and specific patterns of injury is inadequate. In order to promote prevention of sports-related injuries, the magnitude of the problem must first be identified and the incidence and severity of sports injuries described. To conduct a survey on previous sports injuries among a sample of Israeli athletes. A convenience sample of Israeli amateur athletes participating in the 1997 15th Maccabiah Games was randomly selected. The study group answered an anonymous self-administered questionnaire that included sociodemographic data, and information regarding their sports activity and sports-related injuries that had occurred during the previous 2 years. The study group, aged 12-73 years (median age 21), comprised 301 consenting athletes in 28 different sports. Of these athletes 56.1% reported having had at least one injury. Most injuries (75.6%) involved the upper and lower extremities, and 37.8% of the injured sportsmen had received medical attention from a physician. Half of the athletes participated in contact sports--both collision and limited impact. This group had a much greater proportion of reported injuries in all age groups. Surveillance of sports injuries should be expanded in order to develop appropriate prevention programs in Israel.

  9. Misbeliefs About Gambling in a Convenience Sample from the General Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomei, Alexander; Bamert, Anthony; Sani, Anna-Maria

    2016-12-31

    We examined knowledge about the role of randomness in gambling and the principle of independence of events, in a community sample. We also investigated whether this knowledge varies according to gender and age. A convenience sample of 1257 residents in French-speaking Switzerland, aged 18-88 years (28.5% of women) completed a short online questionnaire. This assessed the perceived role of human skills in four different games as well as beliefs relating to the principle of independence of events. The results show that 19.5% of the respondents perceived Roulette as a game for which the outcome is determined by skill. They also showed that 15.1% of the respondents did not hold beliefs about the independence of events principle. Gender and age differences were also observed: Men were proportionally more likely to hold erroneous beliefs about gambling skills and the independence of events, compared to women. The 18-25 year-old age group attributed Roulette outcomes to the gambler's skill more frequently than the older categories. The implications of these findings for prevention and social support are discussed.

  10. Evaluation of convenient pretreatment protocols for RNA virus metagenomics in serum and tissue samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosseel, Toon; Ozhelvaci, Orkun; Freimanis, Graham; Van Borm, Steven

    2015-09-15

    Viral metagenomic approaches are increasingly being used for viral discovery. Various strategies are applied to enrich viral sequences, but there is often a lack of knowledge about their effective influence on the viral discovery sensitivity. We evaluate some convenient and widely used approaches for RNA virus discovery in clinical samples in order to reveal their sensitivity and potential bias introduced by the enrichment or amplifications steps. An RNA virus was artificially spiked at a fixed titer in serum and lung tissue, respectively, low and high nucleic acid content matrices. For serum, a simple DNase treatment on the RNA extract gave the maximum gain in proportion of viral sequences (83×), and a subsequent ribosomal RNA removal nearly doubled once more the proportion of viral sequences. For lung tissue, a ribosomal RNA depletion step on the RNA extract had the biggest gain in proportion of viral sequences (32×). We show also that direct sequencing of cDNA is recommended above an extra random PCR amplification step, and a that the virion enrichment strategy (filtration and nuclease treatment) has a beneficial effect for sequencing-based virus discovery. Our findings provide sample-dependent guidelines for targeted virus discovery strategies.

  11. OCT as a convenient tool to assess the quality and application of organotypic retinal samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gater, Rachel; Khoshnaw, Nicholas; Nguyen, Dan; El Haj, Alicia J.; Yang, Ying

    2016-03-01

    Eye diseases such as macular degeneration and glaucoma have profound consequences on the quality of human life. Without treatment, these diseases can lead to loss of sight. To develop better treatments for retinal diseases, including cell therapies and drug intervention, establishment of an efficient and reproducible 3D native retinal tissue system, enabled over a prolonged culture duration, will be valuable. The retina is a complex tissue, consisting of ten layers with a different density and cellular composition to each. Uniquely, as a light transmitting tissue, retinal refraction of light differs among the layers, forming a good basis to use optical coherence tomography (OCT) in assessing the layered structure of the retina and its change during the culture and treatments. In this study, we develop a new methodology to generate retinal organotypic tissues and compare two substrates: filter paper and collagen hydrogel, to culture the organotypic tissue. Freshly slaughtered pig eyes have been obtained for use in this study. The layered morphology of intact organotypic retinal tissue cultured on two different substrates has been examined by spectral domain OCT. The viability of the tissues has been examined by live/dead fluorescence dye kit to cross validate the OCT images. For the first time, it is demonstrated that the use of a collagen hydrogel supports the viability of retinal organotypic tissue, capable of prolonged culture up to 2 weeks. OCT is a convenient tool for appraising the quality and application of organotypic retinal samples and is important in the development of current organotypic models.

  12. Erythrocyte fatty acid status in a convenience sample of residents of the Guatemalan Pacific coastal plain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomons, Noel W; Bailey, Eileen; Soto Méndéz, María José; Campos, Raquel; Kraemer, Klaus; Salem, Norman

    2015-07-01

    We report the fatty acid composition, and in particular, the n-3 and n-6 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFA), in erythrocytes from a convenience sample of 158 women and 135 schoolchildren residing in the southern Pacific Coast of Guatemala. Erythrocyte fatty acids were analyzed by gas-liquid chromatography with flame ionization detection and the profiles were expressed as a weight percent; the Omega-3 Index values were also determined. Schoolchildren had significantly higher mean ARA and total n-6 fatty acid levels than the women. Women had significantly higher EPA fatty acid levels than schoolchildren, but the reverse was true for DHA. For mean total n-3 fatty acid concentration, women and schoolchildren had similar values. The red cell weight percentages of selected fatty acids were also similar in women and schoolchildren. As compared with erythrocyte fatty acid data from developed countries, Guatemalan women and schoolchildren had consistently lower LCPUFA values. The traditional diet of Guatemalans living in the Pacific coastal region provided a worse erythrocyte fatty acid profile than that typically obtained from a Western diet. Additional fatty acid composition studies with associated dietary intake data in other inland locations may be useful for the interpretation of the nutritional status of Guatemalan children and adults. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Assessing representativeness of sampling methods for reaching men who have sex with men: a direct comparison of results obtained from convenience and probability samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarcz, Sandra; Spindler, Hilary; Scheer, Susan; Valleroy, Linda; Lansky, Amy

    2007-07-01

    Convenience samples are used to determine HIV-related behaviors among men who have sex with men (MSM) without measuring the extent to which the results are representative of the broader MSM population. We compared results from a cross-sectional survey of MSM recruited from gay bars between June and October 2001 to a random digit dial telephone survey conducted between June 2002 and January 2003. The men in the probability sample were older, better educated, and had higher incomes than men in the convenience sample, the convenience sample enrolled more employed men and men of color. Substance use around the time of sex was higher in the convenience sample but other sexual behaviors were similar. HIV testing was common among men in both samples. Periodic validation, through comparison of data collected by different sampling methods, may be useful when relying on survey data for program and policy development.

  14. Men who have sex with men in Great Britain: comparing methods and estimates from probability and convenience sample surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prah, Philip; Hickson, Ford; Bonell, Chris; McDaid, Lisa M; Johnson, Anne M; Wayal, Sonali; Clifton, Soazig; Sonnenberg, Pam; Nardone, Anthony; Erens, Bob; Copas, Andrew J; Riddell, Julie; Weatherburn, Peter; Mercer, Catherine H

    2016-09-01

    To examine sociodemographic and behavioural differences between men who have sex with men (MSM) participating in recent UK convenience surveys and a national probability sample survey. We compared 148 MSM aged 18-64 years interviewed for Britain's third National Survey of Sexual Attitudes and Lifestyles (Natsal-3) undertaken in 2010-2012, with men in the same age range participating in contemporaneous convenience surveys of MSM: 15 500 British resident men in the European MSM Internet Survey (EMIS); 797 in the London Gay Men's Sexual Health Survey; and 1234 in Scotland's Gay Men's Sexual Health Survey. Analyses compared men reporting at least one male sexual partner (past year) on similarly worded questions and multivariable analyses accounted for sociodemographic differences between the surveys. MSM in convenience surveys were younger and better educated than MSM in Natsal-3, and a larger proportion identified as gay (85%-95% vs 62%). Partner numbers were higher and same-sex anal sex more common in convenience surveys. Unprotected anal intercourse was more commonly reported in EMIS. Compared with Natsal-3, MSM in convenience surveys were more likely to report gonorrhoea diagnoses and HIV testing (both past year). Differences between the samples were reduced when restricting analysis to gay-identifying MSM. National probability surveys better reflect the population of MSM but are limited by their smaller samples of MSM. Convenience surveys recruit larger samples of MSM but tend to over-represent MSM identifying as gay and reporting more sexual risk behaviours. Because both sampling strategies have strengths and weaknesses, methods are needed to triangulate data from probability and convenience surveys. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  15. Representativeness of two sampling procedures for an internet intervention targeting cancer-related distress: a comparison of convenience and registry samples

    OpenAIRE

    Owen, Jason E.; Bantum, Erin O'Carroll; Criswell, Kevin; Bazzo, Julie; Gorlick, Amanda; Annette L. Stanton

    2013-01-01

    Internet interventions often rely on convenience sampling, yet convenience samples may differ in important ways from systematic recruitment approaches. The purpose of this study was to evaluate potential demographic, medical, and psychosocial differences between Internet-recruited and registry-recruited cancer survivors in an Internet-based intervention. Participants were recruited from a cancer registry (n = 80) and via broad Internet outreach efforts (n = 160). Participants completed a set ...

  16. At convenience and systematic random sampling: effects on the prognostic value of nuclear area assessments in breast cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jannink, I; Bennen, J N; Blaauw, J; van Diest, P J; Baak, J P

    1995-01-01

    This study compares the influence of two different nuclear sampling methods on the prognostic value of assessments of mean and standard deviation of nuclear area (MNA, SDNA) in 191 consecutive invasive breast cancer patients with long term follow up. The first sampling method used was 'at convenience' sampling (ACS); the second, systematic random sampling (SRS). Both sampling methods were tested with a sample size of 50 nuclei (ACS-50 and SRS-50). To determine whether, besides the sampling methods, sample size had impact on prognostic value as well, the SRS method was also tested using a sample size of 100 nuclei (SRS-100). SDNA values were systematically lower for ACS, obviously due to (unconsciously) not including small and large nuclei. Testing prognostic value of a series of cut off points, MNA and SDNA values assessed by the SRS method were prognostically significantly stronger than the values obtained by the ACS method. This was confirmed in Cox regression analysis. For the MNA, the Mantel-Cox p-values from SRS-50 and SRS-100 measurements were not significantly different. However, for the SDNA, SRS-100 yielded significantly lower p-values than SRS-50. In conclusion, compared with the 'at convenience' nuclear sampling method, systematic random sampling of nuclei is not only superior with respect to reproducibility of results, but also provides a better prognostic value in patients with invasive breast cancer.

  17. A convenient method and numerical tables for sample size determination in longitudinal-experimental research using multilevel models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usami, Satoshi

    2014-12-01

    Recent years have shown increased awareness of the importance of sample size determination in experimental research. Yet effective and convenient methods for sample size determination, especially in longitudinal experimental design, are still under development, and application of power analysis in applied research remains limited. This article presents a convenient method for sample size determination in longitudinal experimental research using a multilevel model. A fundamental idea of this method is transformation of model parameters (level 1 error variance [σ(2)], level 2 error variances [τ 00, τ 11] and its covariance [τ 01, τ 10], and a parameter representing experimental effect [δ]) into indices (reliability of measurement at the first time point [ρ 1], effect size at the last time point [Δ T ], proportion of variance of outcomes between the first and the last time points [k], and level 2 error correlation [r]) that are intuitively understandable and easily specified. To foster more convenient use of power analysis, numerical tables are constructed that refer to ANOVA results to investigate the influence on statistical power by respective indices.

  18. Sampling in epidemiological research: issues, hazards and pitfalls

    OpenAIRE

    Tyrer, Stephen; Heyman, Bob

    2016-01-01

    Surveys of people's opinions are fraught with difficulties. It is easier to obtain information from those who respond to text messages or to emails than to attempt to obtain a representative sample. Samples of the population that are selected non-randomly in this way are termed convenience samples as they are easy to recruit. This introduces a sampling bias. Such non-probability samples have merit in many situations, but an epidemiological enquiry is of little value unless a random sample is ...

  19. The effect of nonprobative photographs on truthiness persists over time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenn, Elise; Newman, Eryn J; Pezdek, Kathy; Garry, Maryanne

    2013-09-01

    When making rapid judgments about the truth of a claim, related nonprobative information leads people to believe the claim-an effect called "truthiness" (Newman, Garry, Bernstein, Kantner, & Lindsay, 2012). For instance, within a matter of seconds, subjects judge the claim "The Mona Lisa has no eyebrows," to be true more often when it appears with a photograph of the Mona Lisa viewed at a distance by a person. But does truthiness persist longer than a few seconds? To determine if truthiness "sticks," we asked people to judge if each trivia claim in a series was true. Half of the claims appeared with nonprobative photos; the rest appeared alone. In a second session 48h later, people returned and made the same judgments about the same statements, but this time, all claims appeared without photos. We found that truthiness "stuck." The magnitude of the effect of photos on subjective feelings of truth was consistent over time. These results fit with those from cognitive and educational psychology, as well as with the related idea that photos make relevant information more available and familiar-and therefore feel more true-even after a delay. © 2013. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Representativeness of two sampling procedures for an internet intervention targeting cancer-related distress: a comparison of convenience and registry samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owen, Jason E; Bantum, Erin O'Carroll; Criswell, Kevin; Bazzo, Julie; Gorlick, Amanda; Stanton, Annette L

    2014-08-01

    Internet interventions often rely on convenience sampling, yet convenience samples may differ in important ways from systematic recruitment approaches. The purpose of this study was to evaluate potential demographic, medical, and psychosocial differences between Internet-recruited and registry-recruited cancer survivors in an Internet-based intervention. Participants were recruited from a cancer registry (n = 80) and via broad Internet outreach efforts (n = 160). Participants completed a set of self-report questionnaires, and both samples were compared to a population-based sample of cancer survivors (n = 5,150). The Internet sample was younger, better educated, more likely to be female, had longer time since diagnosis, and had more advanced stage of disease (p's sample was over-represented by men and those with prostate or other cancer types (p's sample also exhibited lower quality of life and social support and greater mood disturbance (p's convenience and systematic samples differ has important implications for external validity and potential for dissemination of Internet-based interventions.

  1. Urinary concentrations of pyrethroid metabolites in the convenience sample of an urban population of Northern Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wielgomas, Bartosz; Nahorski, Wacław; Czarnowski, Wojciech

    2013-06-01

    Urinary concentrations of pyrethroid metabolites were measured in the first void urine samples collected from 132 healthy people living in the Gdańsk region of Northern Poland in 2010 and 2011. Four metabolites of synthetic pyrethroids: cis- and trans-3-(2,2-dichlorovinyl)-2,2-dimethylcyclopropane-1-carboxylic acids (cis-, trans-Cl2CA), cis-3-(2,2-dibromovinyl)-2,2-dimethylcyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (Br2CA) and 3-phenoxybenzoic acid (3-PBA) were simultaneously liquid-liquid extracted, derivatized with hexafluoroisopropanol and analyzed by a gas chromatography ion-trap mass spectrometry. All the analytes were detected and quantified in the samples with various frequency, 3-phenoxybenzoic being the most often (80%) and the others less frequently (7-11%). Distribution of 3-PBA concentrations followed log-normal model, the mean concentration of 3-phenoxybenzoic acid: 0.393 μg/L (0.327 μg/g creatinine) is similar to those of the other general populations in various regions of the world. Neither sex nor age were predictors of urinary 3-PBA. Our findings suggest wide exposure to pyrethroid insecticides in the Polish general population. There is a continuous need to further study the exposure to synthetic pyrethroids among the general population since there is a strong, increasing trend in their usage.

  2. "Convenience Food."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemieux, Colette

    1980-01-01

    Defines the meaning of the American expression "convenience food," quoting definitions given by dictionaries and specialized publications. Discusses the problem of finding the exact equivalent of this expression in French, and recommends some acceptable translations. (MES)

  3. Validation of the Narcissistic Admiration and Rivalry Questionnaire Short Scale (NARQ-S) in Convenience and Representative Samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leckelt, Marius; Wetzel, Eunike; Gerlach, Tanja M; Ackerman, Robert A; Miller, Joshua D; Chopik, William J; Penke, Lars; Geukes, Katharina; Küfner, Albrecht C P; Hutteman, Roos; Richter, David; Renner, Karl-Heinz; Allroggen, Marc; Brecheen, Courtney; Campbell, W Keith; Grossmann, Igor; Back, Mitja D

    2017-03-02

    Due to increased empirical interest in narcissism across the social sciences, there is a need for inventories that can be administered quickly while also reliably measuring both the agentic and antagonistic aspects of grandiose narcissism. In this study, we sought to validate the factor structure, provide representative descriptive data and reliability estimates, assess the reliability across the trait spectrum, and examine the nomological network of the short version of the Narcissistic Admiration and Rivalry Questionnaire (NARQ-S; Back et al., 2013). We used data from a large convenience sample (total N = 11,937) as well as data from a large representative sample (total N = 4,433) that included responses to other narcissism measures as well as related constructs, including the other Dark Triad traits, Big Five personality traits, and self-esteem. Confirmatory factor analysis and item response theory were used to validate the factor structure and estimate the reliability across the latent trait spectrum, respectively. Results suggest that the NARQ-S shows a robust factor structure and is a reliable and valid short measure of the agentic and antagonistic aspects of grandiose narcissism. We also discuss future directions and applications of the NARQ-S as a short and comprehensive measure of grandiose narcissism. (PsycINFO Database Record

  4. Convenience experimentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krohs, Ulrich

    2012-03-01

    Systems biology aims at explaining life processes by means of detailed models of molecular networks, mainly on the whole-cell scale. The whole cell perspective distinguishes the new field of systems biology from earlier approaches within molecular cell biology. The shift was made possible by the high throughput methods that were developed for gathering 'omic' (genomic, proteomic, etc.) data. These new techniques are made commercially available as semi-automatic analytic equipment, ready-made analytic kits and probe arrays. There is a whole industry of supplies for what may be called convenience experimentation. My paper inquires some epistemic consequences of strong reliance on convenience experimentation in systems biology. In times when experimentation was automated to a lesser degree, modeling and in part even experimentation could be understood fairly well as either being driven by hypotheses, and thus proceed by the testing of hypothesis, or as being performed in an exploratory mode, intended to sharpen concepts or initially vague phenomena. In systems biology, the situation is dramatically different. Data collection became so easy (though not cheap) that experimentation is, to a high degree, driven by convenience equipment, and model building is driven by the vast amount of data that is produced by convenience experimentation. This results in a shift in the mode of science. The paper shows that convenience driven science is not primarily hypothesis-testing, nor is it in an exploratory mode. It rather proceeds in a gathering mode. This shift demands another shift in the mode of evaluation, which now becomes an exploratory endeavor, in response to the superabundance of gathered data.

  5. Sampling Methodologies for Epidemiologic Surveillance of Men Who Have Sex with Men and Transgender Women in Latin America: An Empiric Comparison of Convenience Sampling, Time Space Sampling, and Respondent Driven Sampling

    OpenAIRE

    Clark, JL; Konda, KA; Silva-Santisteban, A.; Peinado, J; Lama, JR; Kusunoki, L; Perez-Brumer, A; Pun, M.; Cabello, R.; Sebastian, JL; Suarez-Ognio, L.; Sanchez, J.

    2014-01-01

    Alternatives to convenience sampling (CS) are needed for HIV/STI surveillance of most-at-risk populations in Latin America. We compared CS, time space sampling (TSS), and respondent driven sampling (RDS) for recruitment of men who have sex with men (MSM) and transgender women (TW) in Lima, Peru. During concurrent 60-day periods from June–August, 2011, we recruited MSM/TW for epidemiologic surveillance using CS, TSS, and RDS. A total of 748 participants were recruited through CS, 233 through T...

  6. History of abuse and organic difficulties in a convenience sample of 46 ultra-orthodox males with pedophilia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witztum, Eliezer; Daie, Netzer; Daie-Gabai, Ayala; Rosler, Ariel

    2012-01-01

    Evidence has started to accumulate that relates pedophilia to a history of being a victim of sexual abuse as well as to comorbidity with organic vulnerabilities. During a naturalistic study regarding treatment of pedophilia, the authors had access to clinical and psychodiagnostic evaluations of Israeli Jewish ultraorthodox male pedophiles outside the forensic system. Using psychiatric examination as well as a battery of psychological tests, presence of history of trauma as well as comorbidity with organic vulnerabilities among this unique sub-group was examined. This survey was part of a larger scale research on the effectiveness of Decapeptyl injections as treatment for pedophilia. All participants in the original research underwent comprehensive psychological assessment including an extensive clinical interview as well as psychological tests (Bender, Rorschach and TAT). Of the patients participating in the research, this survey focused on the group of 46 ultra-orthodox male pedophiles. Cross-tabs analyses were conducted in order to examine prevalence of history of trauma and organic vulnerabilities in this specific group. Based on self reports combined with corroborating reports (obtained from parents, educators and medical staff), together with indications in psychological tests, we found that 82.6% of participants were victims of sexual trauma as children and 87% suffer from some kind of organic vulnerability (learning disabilities, disinhibitions, etc.). LIMITATIONS of this small convenience sample that influence ability to generalize are discussed. The current survey indicates that in this sample, the ultra-orthodox male pedophile was frequently a victim of childhood sexual trauma, and exhibited indications of organic vulnerabilities. This is more pronounced than findings in previous studies, and calls for further research in order to understand the underlying causes.

  7. Exposure to di-2-ethylhexyl terephthalate in a convenience sample of U.S. adults from 2000 to 2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Manori J; Wong, Lee-Yang; Samandar, Ella; Preau, James L; Calafat, Antonia M; Ye, Xiaoyun

    2017-03-17

    Di-2-ethylhexyl terephthalate (DEHTP), a structural isomer of di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP), is a plasticizer used in a variety of commercial applications, but data on Americans' exposure to DEHTP do not exist. We investigated the exposure to DEHTP in a convenience group of U.S. adults by analyzing urine collected anonymously in 2000 (N = 44), 2009 (N = 61), 2011 (N = 81), 2013 (N = 92), and 2016 (N = 149) for two major DEHTP oxidative metabolites: mono-2-ethyl-5-carboxypentyl terephthalate (MECPTP) and mono-2-ethyl-5-hydroxyhexyl terephthalate (MEHHTP). For comparison, we also quantified the analogous DEHP metabolites mono-2-ethyl-5-hydroxyhexyl phthalate (MEHHP) and mono-2-ethyl-5-carboxypentyl phthalate (MECPP). We detected MECPTP, MEHHP, and MECPP in all samples collected in 2016 with geometric means of 13.1, 4.1, and 6.7 ng/mL, respectively; we detected MEHHTP in 91% of the samples (geometric mean = 3.1 ng/mL). Concentrations of MECPTP correlated well with those of MEHHTP (R (2) = 0.8, p  0.05) suggesting different sources of exposure to DEHP and DEHTP. We also evaluated the fraction of the metabolites eliminated in their free (i.e., unconjugated) form. The median percent of unconjugated species was lower for the DEHP metabolites (MECPP [45.5%], MEHHP [1.9%]) compared to the DEHTP metabolites (MECPTP [98.8%], MEHHTP [21.2%]). Contrary to the downward trend from 2000 to 2016 in urinary concentrations of MEHHP and MECPP, we observed an upward trend for MEHHTP and MECPTP. These preliminary data suggest that exposure to DEHTP may be on the rise. Nevertheless, general population exposure data using MEHHTP and MECPTP as exposure biomarkers would increase our understanding of exposure to DEHTP, one of the known DEHP alternatives.

  8. Dried Saliva Spot (DSS) as a Convenient and Reliable Sampling for Bioanalysis: An Application for the Diagnosis of Diabetes Mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Numako, Masahiro; Takayama, Takahiro; Noge, Ichiro; Kitagawa, Yutaka; Todoroki, Kenichiro; Mizuno, Hajime; Min, Jun Zhe; Toyo'oka, Toshimasa

    2016-01-01

    This paper proposes the dried saliva spot (DSS) as a convenient sampling technique for bioanalysis. The analytical method with the DSS was used for the determination of D,L-lactic acid (D,L-LA) and the D/L ratio of diabetic patients and prediabetic persons for the simple screening of the disease. The D,L-LA in the DSS was labeled with a chiral reagent (DMT-3(S)-Apy) for carboxylic acids and determined by UPLC-ESI-MS/MS. The limits of detection (signal-to-noise ratio (S/N) = 3) for the DSS analysis were on the amol level (∼30 amol). Because good stability, recovery, accuracy, and precision of the D,L-LA for the DSS method was also obtained from the proposed procedure, the DSS method was applied to the determination of the D- and L-isomers of LA of diabetic patients, and prediabetic and healthy persons. The D/L-LA ratio by the present DSS method and the HbA1c value in blood were well-correlated to the serious diabetic patients, whereas the relation in the prediabetic persons was not very good. The reason seems to be due to the rough saliva sampling, and not to the DSS method, because strict regulation was not requested for the prediabetic and healthy persons. In order to have a successful DSS analysis, the stability of the target molecule, the detection sensitivity to the target molecule, and the validated determination method are important.

  9. Sampling in epidemiological research: issues, hazards and pitfalls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyrer, Stephen; Heyman, Bob

    2016-04-01

    Surveys of people's opinions are fraught with difficulties. It is easier to obtain information from those who respond to text messages or to emails than to attempt to obtain a representative sample. Samples of the population that are selected non-randomly in this way are termed convenience samples as they are easy to recruit. This introduces a sampling bias. Such non-probability samples have merit in many situations, but an epidemiological enquiry is of little value unless a random sample is obtained. If a sufficient number of those selected actually complete a survey, the results are likely to be representative of the population. This editorial describes probability and non-probability sampling methods and illustrates the difficulties and suggested solutions in performing accurate epidemiological research.

  10. Methodology series module 5: Sampling strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maninder Singh Setia

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Once the research question and the research design have been finalised, it is important to select the appropriate sample for the study. The method by which the researcher selects the sample is the 'Sampling Method'. There are essentially two types of sampling methods: 1 probability sampling – based on chance events (such as random numbers, flipping a coin etc.; and 2 non-probability sampling – based on researcher's choice, population that accessible & available. Some of the non-probability sampling methods are: purposive sampling, convenience sampling, or quota sampling. Random sampling method (such as simple random sample or stratified random sample is a form of probability sampling. It is important to understand the different sampling methods used in clinical studies and mention this method clearly in the manuscript. The researcher should not misrepresent the sampling method in the manuscript (such as using the term 'random sample' when the researcher has used convenience sample. The sampling method will depend on the research question. For instance, the researcher may want to understand an issue in greater detail for one particular population rather than worry about the 'generalizability' of these results. In such a scenario, the researcher may want to use 'purposive sampling' for the study.

  11. Methodology Series Module 5: Sampling Strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setia, Maninder Singh

    2016-01-01

    Once the research question and the research design have been finalised, it is important to select the appropriate sample for the study. The method by which the researcher selects the sample is the ' Sampling Method'. There are essentially two types of sampling methods: 1) probability sampling - based on chance events (such as random numbers, flipping a coin etc.); and 2) non-probability sampling - based on researcher's choice, population that accessible & available. Some of the non-probability sampling methods are: purposive sampling, convenience sampling, or quota sampling. Random sampling method (such as simple random sample or stratified random sample) is a form of probability sampling. It is important to understand the different sampling methods used in clinical studies and mention this method clearly in the manuscript. The researcher should not misrepresent the sampling method in the manuscript (such as using the term ' random sample' when the researcher has used convenience sample). The sampling method will depend on the research question. For instance, the researcher may want to understand an issue in greater detail for one particular population rather than worry about the ' generalizability' of these results. In such a scenario, the researcher may want to use ' purposive sampling' for the study.

  12. A random cluster survey and a convenience sample give comparable estimates of immunity to vaccine preventable diseases in children of school age in Victoria, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Heath; Riddell, Michaela A; Gidding, Heather F; Nolan, Terry; Gilbert, Gwendolyn L

    2002-08-19

    We compared estimates of the age-specific population immunity to measles, mumps, rubella, hepatitis B and varicella zoster viruses in Victorian school children obtained by a national sero-survey, using a convenience sample of residual sera from diagnostic laboratories throughout Australia, with those from a three-stage random cluster survey. When grouped according to school age (primary or secondary school) there was no significant difference in the estimates of immunity to measles, mumps, hepatitis B or varicella. Compared with the convenience sample, the random cluster survey estimated higher immunity to rubella in samples from both primary (98.7% versus 93.6%, P = 0.002) and secondary school students (98.4% versus 93.2%, P = 0.03). Despite some limitations, this study suggests that the collection of a convenience sample of sera from diagnostic laboratories is an appropriate sampling strategy to provide population immunity data that will inform Australia's current and future immunisation policies. Copyright 2002 Elsevier Science Ltd.

  13. Sampling methodologies for epidemiologic surveillance of men who have sex with men and transgender women in Latin America: an empiric comparison of convenience sampling, time space sampling, and respondent driven sampling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, J L; Konda, K A; Silva-Santisteban, A; Peinado, J; Lama, J R; Kusunoki, L; Perez-Brumer, A; Pun, M; Cabello, R; Sebastian, J L; Suarez-Ognio, L; Sanchez, J

    2014-12-01

    Alternatives to convenience sampling (CS) are needed for HIV/STI surveillance of most-at-risk populations in Latin America. We compared CS, time space sampling (TSS), and respondent driven sampling (RDS) for recruitment of men who have sex with men (MSM) and transgender women (TW) in Lima, Peru. During concurrent 60-day periods from June-August, 2011, we recruited MSM/TW for epidemiologic surveillance using CS, TSS, and RDS. A total of 748 participants were recruited through CS, 233 through TSS, and 127 through RDS. The TSS sample included the largest proportion of TW (30.7 %) and the lowest percentage of subjects who had previously participated in HIV/STI research (14.9 %). The prevalence of newly diagnosed HIV infection, according to participants' self-reported previous HIV diagnosis, was highest among TSS recruits (17.9 %) compared with RDS (12.6 %) and CS (10.2 %). TSS identified diverse populations of MSM/TW with higher prevalences of HIV/STIs not accessed by other methods.

  14. Convenience Sampling of Children Presenting to Hospital-Based Outpatient Clinics to Estimate Childhood Obesity Levels in Local Surroundings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilliland, Jason; Clark, Andrew F; Kobrzynski, Marta; Filler, Guido

    2015-07-01

    Childhood obesity is a critical public health matter associated with numerous pediatric comorbidities. Local-level data are required to monitor obesity and to help administer prevention efforts when and where they are most needed. We hypothesized that samples of children visiting hospital clinics could provide representative local population estimates of childhood obesity using data from 2007 to 2013. Such data might provide more accurate, timely, and cost-effective obesity estimates than national surveys. Results revealed that our hospital-based sample could not serve as a population surrogate. Further research is needed to confirm this finding.

  15. The role of affect-driven impulsivity in gambling cognitions: A convenience-sample study with a Spanish version of the Gambling-Related Cognitions Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Prete, Francesco; Steward, Trevor; Navas, Juan F; Fernández-Aranda, Fernando; Jiménez-Murcia, Susana; Oei, Tian P S; Perales, José C

    2017-03-01

    Background and aims Abnormal cognitions are among the most salient domain-specific features of gambling disorder. The aims of this study were: (a) to examine and validate a Spanish version of the Gambling-Related Cognitions Scale (GRCS; Raylu & Oei, 2004) and (b) to examine associations between cognitive distortion levels, impulsivity, and gambling behavior. Methods This study first recruited a convenience sample of 500 adults who had gambled during the previous year. Participants were assessed using the Spanish version of GRCS (GRCS-S) questionnaire, the UPPS-P impulsivity questionnaire, measures of gambling behavior, and potentially relevant confounders. Robust confirmatory factor analysis methods on half the sample were used to select the best models from a hypothesis-driven set. The best solutions were validated on the other half, and the resulting factors were later correlated with impulsivity dimensions (in the whole n = 500 factor analysis sample) and clinically relevant gambling indices (in a separate convenience sample of 137 disordered and non-disordered gamblers; validity sample). Results This study supports the original five-factor model, suggests an alternative four-factor solution, and confirms the psychometric soundness of the GRCS-S. Importantly, cognitive distortions consistently correlated with affect- or motivation-driven aspects of impulsivity (urgency and sensation seeking), but not with cognitive impulsivity (lack of premeditation and lack of perseverance). Discussion and conclusions Our findings suggest that the GRCS-S is a valid and reliable instrument to identify gambling cognitions in Spanish samples. Our results expand upon previous research signaling specific associations between gambling-related distortions and affect-driven impulsivity in line with models of motivated reasoning.

  16. Awareness of health risks related to body art practices among youth in Naples, Italy: a descriptive convenience sample study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Body art practices have emerged as common activities among youth, yet few studies have investigated awareness in different age groups of possible health complications associated with piercing and tattooing. Methods We investigated perceptions of and knowledge about health risks. To highlight differences among age groups, we gathered data from students at high schools and universities in the province of Naples. Results Of 9,322 adolescents, 31.3% were pierced and 11.3% were tattooed. Of 3,610 undergraduates, 33% were pierced and 24.5% were tattooed (p tattooed students. Among high school students, 79.4% knew about infectious risks and 46% about non-infectious risks; the respective numbers among university students were 87.2% and 59.1%. Only 3.5% of students in high school and 15% of university undergraduates acknowledged the risk of viral disease transmission; 2% and 3% knew about allergic risks. Among adolescents and young adults, 6.9% and 15.3%, respectively, provided signed informed consent; the former were less knowledgeable about health risks (24.7% vs. 57.1%) (p < 0.05). Seventy-three percent of the high school students and 33.5% of the university students had body art done at unauthorized facilities. Approximately 7% of both samples reported complications from their purchased body art. Conclusions Results indicate a need for adequate information on health risks associated with body art among students in Naples, mainly among high school students. Therefore, adolescents should be targeted for public health education programs. PMID:21819558

  17. Perceptions of antimicrobial usage, antimicrobial resistance and policy measures to reduce antimicrobial usage in convenient samples of Belgian, French, German, Swedish and Swiss pig farmers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visschers, V H M; Backhans, A; Collineau, L; Iten, D; Loesken, S; Postma, M; Belloc, C; Dewulf, J; Emanuelson, U; Beilage, E Grosse; Siegrist, M; Sjölund, M; Stärk, K D C

    2015-04-01

    We conducted a survey among convenient samples of pig farmers (N=281) in Belgium, France, Germany, Sweden and Switzerland. We identified some significant differences among the five investigated countries (independent variable) regarding farmers' antimicrobial usage compared to their own country and worries related to pig farming (dependent variables), but most of the differences were rather small. In general, farmers perceived their own antimicrobial usage to be lower than that of their peers in the same country and lower than or similar to that of farmers from other countries. This may be a consequence of our convenience sample, resulting in self-selection of highly motivated farmers. Farmers were significantly more worried about financial/legal issues than about antimicrobial resistance. They believed that a reduction in revenues for slaughter pigs treated with a large amount of antimicrobials would have the most impact on reduced antimicrobial usage in their country. Further, farmers who were more worried about antimicrobial resistance and who estimated their own antimicrobial usage as lower than their fellow countrymen, perceived more impact from policy measures on the reduction of antimicrobials. Our results indicated that the same policy measures can be applied to reduce antimicrobial usage in pig farming in all five countries. Moreover, it seems worthwhile to increase pig farmers' awareness of the threat of antimicrobial resistance and its relation to antimicrobial usage; not only because pig farmers appeared little worried about antimicrobial usage but also because it affected farmers' perception of policy measures to reduce antimicrobial usage. Our samples were not representative for the national pig farmer populations. Further research is therefore needed to examine to what extent our findings can be generalised to these populations and to farmers in other countries.

  18. Reliable SERS detection of nitrite based on pH and laser irradiance-dependent diazotization through a convenient sampling micro-chamber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Mengyue; Fang, Wei; Ren, Jiaqiang; Shen, Aiguo; Hu, Jiming

    2016-08-15

    Nitrites (NO2(-) ions) in food and drink play an important role in human health but require complicated operations before detection. Herein, we present a rationally designed SERS-enabled micro-chamber that comprised a drawn glass capillary with a tiny orifice (∼50 μm) at the distal tip, wherein the gold nanoparticles (Au NPs) are compactly coated on the inner wall surface. In this chamber, nitrites specifically trigger a pH and laser irradiance-dependent diazotization starting from p-aminothiophenol (PATP) absorbed onto the surface of Au NPs to form p,p'-dimercaptoazobenzene (DMAB) molecules, in which the presence of NO2(-) ions above 30.7 μM (1.38 ppm) in the siphoned liquid sample can be identified relying on SERS peak (1141 cm(-1)) intensity of the emerging azo moiety. Except for pH conditions, laser irradiance is more important but easily neglected in previous studies, which is capable of preventing generation of errors when the detection sensitivity was pursued through increasing the laser power. In this case, several real samples (rather than simple water samples), including honey, pickled vegetable and fermented bean curd, had been successfully detected accurately through such a convenient sampling micro-chamber. The SERS-enabled device could potentially be facilely incorporated with portable Raman instruments for a special application of food inspection in rapid and field analysis of NO2(-) ions.

  19. Urinary Concentrations of Bisphenol A and Three Other Bisphenols in Convenience Samples of U.S. Adults during 2000-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Xiaoyun; Wong, Lee-Yang; Kramer, Josh; Zhou, Xiaoliu; Jia, Tao; Calafat, Antonia M

    2015-10-01

    Because of regulatory actions and public concerns, the use of bisphenol A (BPA) may decrease, while the use of BPA alternatives may increase. Although BPA alternatives are considered safer than BPA, their effects on health are still largely unknown. For risk assessment, understanding exposure to these chemicals is necessary. We measured the urinary concentrations of BPA and three bisphenol analogs, bisphenol S (BPS), bisphenol F (BPF), and bisphenol AF (BPAF), in 616 archived samples collected from convenience samplings of U.S. adults at eight time points between 2000 and 2014. We detected BPA at the highest frequency and geometric mean (GM) concentrations (74-99%, 0.36-2.07 μg/L), followed by BPF (42-88%, 0.15-0.54 μg/L) and BPS (19-74%, < 0.1-0.25 μg/L); BPAF was rarely detected (<3% of all samples). Although concentrations of BPF were generally lower than for other bisphenols, the 95th percentile concentration of BPF was often comparable or higher than that of BPA. We did not observe obvious exposure trends for BPF. However, the significant changes in GM concentrations of BPA and BPS suggest that exposures may be declining (BPA) or on the rise (BPS). Nationally representative data will be useful to confirm these findings and to allow monitoring future exposure trends to BPA and some of its bisphenol alternatives.

  20. Rates, Associations, and Predictors of Psychopathology in a Convenience Sample of School-Aged Latino Youth: Identifying Areas for Mental Health Outreach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haack, Lauren M; Kapke, Theresa L; Gerdes, Alyson C

    2016-07-01

    The Latino youth population is rapidly growing and expected to comprise nearly 40% of the total youth population by 2060. Unfortunate disparities exist in the United States (U.S.), such that young Latinos are less likely than non-Hispanic Whites to receive and benefit from mental health services. In order to identify and prioritize specific areas of mental health outreach, the current study examined preliminary rates, associations, and predictors of child psychopathology in a convenience sample of Latino youth. 123 Spanish and English speaking Latino parents of school-aged children completed a series of questionnaires regarding child and family functioning. Latino youth in the current sample demonstrated comparable rates of psychopathology to non-referred, normative samples. Parental acculturation (particularly Separated parental acculturation status: high orientation to Latino culture and low orientation to U.S. mainstream culture) was associated with an increased prevalence of clinically significant psychopathology across several domains, and socioeconomic status was associated with an increased prevalence of thought problems. Additionally, Separated parental acculturation status significantly predicted the prevalence of clinically significant anxious/depressed problems, such that youth of parents displaying Separated acculturation status were significantly more represented in the clinically-elevated groups than the functional groups. These preliminary results suggest that prioritizing outreach to Latino youth of parents maintaining orientation to Latino culture but not U.S. mainstream culture may be necessary in order to begin addressing existing mental health disparities in the U.S.

  1. A Venue-Based Method for Sampling Hard-to-Reach Populations

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Farzana B. Muhib; Lillian S. Lin; Ann Stueve; Robin L. Miller; Wesley L. Ford; Wayne D. Johnson; Philip J. Smith

    2001-01-01

    .... Traditional sample survey methods, such as random sampling from telephone or mailing lists, can yield low numbers of eligible respondents while non-probability sampling introduces unknown biases...

  2. The Iodine Status of Queensland Preschool Children After the Introduction of Mandatory Iodine Fortification in Bread: An Exploratory Study Using a Convenience Sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samidurai, A J; Ware, R S; Davies, P S W

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Appropriate dietary iodine is essential for thyroid hormone synthesis, especially in young children. Following an iodine fortification in bread initiative, approximately 6 % of Australian preschool children were expected to have an excessive iodine status. The aim of this study was to document the current iodine status of preschool children using urinary iodine concentration (UIC) as a biomarker of iodine intake. Methods A convenience sample of fifty-one preschool children, aged 2-3 years, were recruited from south east Queensland. UIC was ascertained from spot morning and afternoon urine samples collected on two consecutive days and food frequency questionnaires were completed for each participant. Dietary iodine intake was extrapolated from UIC assuming 90 % of dietary iodine is excreted in urine and a urine volume of 0.5 L/day. Results A median UIC of 223.3 μg/L was found. The calculated median dietary iodine intake was 124.8 μg/day (SD 47.0) with 9.8 % of samples above the upper level of 200 μg for dietary iodine for children within this age group. No foods were associated with UIC. Discussion Limited by sample size and recruitment strategies, no association was found between usual food intake and UIC. Extrapolated dietary iodine intake indicated that children within this cohort consumed adequate amounts of dietary iodine, although the number of children consuming above the upper limit of 300 μg/day was almost double of expected. The development of a UIC criteria to assess appropriate parameters for varying degrees of iodine status is required for the monitoring of iodine nutrition in this vulnerable age group.

  3. Sampling Methods in Cardiovascular Nursing Research: An Overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandola, Damanpreet; Banner, Davina; O'Keefe-McCarthy, Sheila; Jassal, Debbie

    2014-01-01

    Cardiovascular nursing research covers a wide array of topics from health services to psychosocial patient experiences. The selection of specific participant samples is an important part of the research design and process. The sampling strategy employed is of utmost importance to ensure that a representative sample of participants is chosen. There are two main categories of sampling methods: probability and non-probability. Probability sampling is the random selection of elements from the population, where each element of the population has an equal and independent chance of being included in the sample. There are five main types of probability sampling including simple random sampling, systematic sampling, stratified sampling, cluster sampling, and multi-stage sampling. Non-probability sampling methods are those in which elements are chosen through non-random methods for inclusion into the research study and include convenience sampling, purposive sampling, and snowball sampling. Each approach offers distinct advantages and disadvantages and must be considered critically. In this research column, we provide an introduction to these key sampling techniques and draw on examples from the cardiovascular research. Understanding the differences in sampling techniques may aid nurses in effective appraisal of research literature and provide a reference pointfor nurses who engage in cardiovascular research.

  4. How Many Focus Groups Are Enough? Building an Evidence Base for Nonprobability Sample Sizes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guest, Greg; Namey, Emily; McKenna, Kevin

    2017-01-01

    Few empirical studies exist to guide researchers in determining the number of focus groups necessary for a research study. The analyses described here provide foundational evidence to help researchers in this regard. We conducted a thematic analysis of 40 focus groups on health-seeking behaviors of African American men in Durham, North Carolina.…

  5. Sample Design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Kenneth N.

    1987-01-01

    This article considers various kinds of probability and non-probability samples in both experimental and survey studies. Throughout, how a sample is chosen is stressed. Size alone is not the determining consideration in sample selection. Good samples do not occur by accident; they are the result of a careful design. (Author/JAZ)

  6. Correspondence of two procedures to measure abdominal circumference in a convenience sample of urban, middle-class schoolchildren in Guatemala City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarado, Virginia J; Mayorga, Evelyn; Molina, Susana; Solomons, Noel W

    2010-01-01

    Given an emerging concern for juvenile overweight and obesity, even in populations of developing countries, techniques to assess central obesity, such as abdominal circumference (AC), are of increasing interest. To compare two procedures for measuring AC in schoolchildren from a convenience sample of middle-class, urban children aged 72 to 131 months in Guatemala City. We conducted a cross-sectional study (August 2004- April 2005) in 363 schoolchildren; 190 boys and 173 girls. The AC was recorded using both the conventional natural waist circumference (NWC) and the umbilical-level abdominal circumference (UAC) methods; each of which was measured over a thin T-shirt. Height and weight were also measured. The NWC and UAC methods were compared between genders and age groups. In addition, correlation coefficients and Bland-Altman regression were performed. A reproducibility study was performed on a subsample of 50 children. Mean NWC was 63.2+/-10.0 cm for boys and 60.2+/-7.7 cm for girls (p=0.001), and mean UAC was 65.9+/-11.0 cm for boys and 63.2+/-8.8 cm for girls (p=0.008). Both measures of AC generally increased with age. The UAC - NWC difference increased with abdominal girth. The Pearson correlation coefficient of BMI vs. NWC and BMI vs. UAC was r=0.92, CV=0.46+/-0.27%. A high test-retest reproducibility (r > 0.98, CV= 0.50+/-0.24%) of the NWC and UAC measurements was found. Reliable NWC and UAC measurements may be obtained by applying a correction term to account for light clothing. Both measurements are applicable methodologies for the collection of data in populations with cultural limitations.

  7. Pricing a Convenience Food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabor, Andre

    1980-01-01

    Discusses a study undertaken by the Nottingham University Consumer Study Group to determine market operation for popular convenience foods in England. Information is presented on distribution of purchases, brand loyalties of respondents to a questionnaire regarding convenience foods, and market fluctuation due to inflation. (Author/DB)

  8. Reframing convenience food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Peter; Viehoff, Valerie

    2016-03-01

    This paper provides a critical review of recent research on the consumption of 'convenience' food, highlighting the contested nature of the term and exploring its implications for public health and environmental sustainability. It distinguishes between convenience food in general and particular types of convenience food, such as ready-meals, tracing the structure and growth of the market for such foods with a particular emphasis on the UK which currently has the highest rate of ready-meal consumption in Europe. Having established the definitional complexities of the term, the paper presents the evidence from a systematic review of the literature, highlighting the significance of convenience food in time-saving and time-shifting, the importance of recent changes in domestic labour and family life, and the way the consumption of convenience food is frequently moralized. The paper shows how current debates about convenience food are part of a longer discursive history about food, health and nutrition. It discusses current levels of public understanding about the links between convenience food, environmental sustainability and food waste. The paper concludes by making a case for understanding the consumption of convenience food in terms of everyday social practices, emphasising its habitual and routine character.

  9. Normalising convenience food?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halkier, Bente

    2017-01-01

    habits among Danes aged 20–25. The article presents two types of empirical patterns. The first types of patterns are the degree to which and the different ways in which convenience food is normalised to use among the young Danes. The second types of patterns are the normative places of convenient food......The construction of convenience food as a social and cultural category for food provisioning, cooking and eating seems to slide between or across understandings of what is considered “proper food” in the existing discourses in everyday life and media. This article sheds light upon some...... of the social and cultural normativities around convenience food by describing the ways in which convenience food forms part of the daily life of young Danes. Theoretically, the article is based on a practice theoretical perspective. Empirically, the article builds upon a qualitative research project on food...

  10. A convenient differential category

    CERN Document Server

    Blute, Richard; Tasson, Christine

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we show that the category of Mackey-complete, separated, topological convex bornological vector spaces and bornological linear maps is a differential category. Such spaces were introduced by Fr\\"olicher and Kriegl, where they were called convenient vector spaces. While much of the structure necessary to demonstrate this observation is already contained in Fr\\"olicher and Kriegl's book, we here give a new interpretation of the category of convenient vector spaces as a model of the differential linear logic of Ehrhard and Regnier. Rather than base our proof on the abstract categorical structure presented by Fr\\"olicher and Kriegl, we prefer to focus on the bornological structure of convenient vector spaces. We believe bornological structures will ultimately yield a wide variety of models of differential logics.

  11. SIPLACE Convenience Shop

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    2007年8月28日至31日,西门子电子装配系统有限公司将在深圳NEPCON上展示其最新的SIPLACE Convenience Shop。SIPLACE Convenience Shop是一个能够使中国客户极大受益的全新一站式解决方案。凭借该解决方案,西门子将能够为其客户提供现场备件库存,

  12. Convenience food products. Drivers for consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunner, Thomas A; van der Horst, Klazine; Siegrist, Michael

    2010-12-01

    Convenience is one of the big trends in the food business. The demand for convenience food products is steadily increasing; therefore, understanding convenience food consumption is an important issue. Despite being vital properties of convenience food, saving time and effort have not been very successful constructs for predicting convenience food consumption. To examine a wide range of possible drivers for convenience food consumption, the present study uses a convenience food frequency questionnaire that asks about consumption behavior. A paper-and-pencil questionnaire was sent out to a representative sample of people in German-speaking Switzerland and yielded N = 918 complete datasets from persons mainly responsible for buying and preparing food in the household. The various convenience food products could be categorized into four groups, which we labeled as highly processed food items, moderately processed food items, single components, and salads. Fifteen drivers were found to have a significant impact either on total convenience consumption or on one of the identified categories. Strong predictors were age, concern about naturalness, nutrition knowledge, and cooking skills.

  13. Costs and benefits of reaching parents for survey participation through school communication systems: testing the potential of a straightforward convenience sample

    OpenAIRE

    Vercruyssen, Anina

    2014-01-01

    Drawing a random sample for surveys from official registers is an expensive and time-consuming procedure in Belgium as in other countries. In order to obtain a sample for a study on work-family life balance amongst working mothers in Flanders (the Dutch-speaking part of Belgium), I opted for a promising, economical procedure by first selecting children in schools and day-care facilities. Given the compulsory nature of schooling in Belgium and the widespread use of day-care facilities, this of...

  14. Quota Sampling as an Alternative to Probability Sampling? An Experimental Study

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Keming; Banamah, Ahmad

    2014-01-01

    In spite of the establishment of probability sampling methods since the 1930s, non-probability sampling methods have remained popular among many commercial and polling agents, and they have also survived the embarrassment from a few incorrect predictions in American presidential elections. The increase of costs and the decline of response rates for administering probability samples have led some survey researchers to search for a non-probability sampling method as an alternative to probabilit...

  15. Selecting a Sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritter, Lois A., Ed.; Sue, Valerie M., Ed.

    2007-01-01

    This chapter provides an overview of sampling methods that are appropriate for conducting online surveys. The authors review some of the basic concepts relevant to online survey sampling, present some probability and nonprobability techniques for selecting a sample, and briefly discuss sample size determination and nonresponse bias. Although some…

  16. Tris(hydroxymethyl)phosphine, P(CH2OH)3 - A convenient and effective new reagent for the fixation of protein samples for SEM imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyllie, Megan J; Turner, Helen; Henderson, William

    2016-10-01

    Tris(hydroxymethyl)phosphine [P(CH2OH)3, THP] is demonstrated to be an alternative fixative to glutaraldehyde for preparation of proteinaceous specimens for SEM analysis. THP is easily prepared from commercially-available [P(CH2OH)4]Cl, and unlike many other alkylphosphines, is reasonably air-stable [>7days at pH 7-8]. Experiments carried out with chicken breast muscle, cross-sectioned perpendicular to the muscle fibres and imaged using SEM, indicate that THP effectively fixes the muscle structure with minimal discolouration of the sample.

  17. The convenience food market in Great Britain: convenience food lifestyle (CFL) segments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckley, Marie; Cowan, Cathal; McCarthy, Mary

    2007-11-01

    Convenience foods enable the consumer to save time and effort in food activities, related to shopping, meal preparation and cooking, consumption and post-meal activities. The objective of this paper is to report on the attitudes and reported behaviour of food consumers in Great Britain based on a review of their convenience food lifestyle (CFLs). The paper also reports the development and application of a segmentation technique that can supply information on consumer attitudes towards convenience foods. The convenience food market in Great Britain is examined and the key drivers of growth in this market are highlighted. A survey was applied to a nationally representative sample of 1000 consumers (defined as the persons primarily responsible for food shopping and cooking in the household) in Great Britain in 2002. Segmentation analysis, based on the identification of 20 convenience lifestyle factors, identified four CFL segments of consumers: the 'food connoisseurs' (26%), the 'home meal preparers' (25%), the 'kitchen evaders' (16%) and the 'convenience-seeking grazers' (33%). In particular, the 'kitchen evaders' and the 'convenience-seeking grazers' are identified as convenience-seeking segments. Implications for food producers, in particular, convenience food manufacturers are discussed. The study provides an understanding of the lifestyles of food consumers in Great Britain, and provides food manufacturers with an insight into what motivates individuals to purchase convenience foods.

  18. Eating disorder symptoms and weight and shape concerns in a large web-based convenience sample of women ages 50 and above: results of the Gender and Body Image (GABI) study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagne, Danielle A; Von Holle, Ann; Brownley, Kimberly A; Runfola, Cristin D; Hofmeier, Sara; Branch, Kateland E; Bulik, Cynthia M

    2012-11-01

    Limited research exists on eating disorder symptoms and attitudes and weight and shape concerns in women in midlife to older adulthood. We conducted an online survey to characterize these behaviors and concerns in women ages 50 and above. Participants (n = 1,849) were recruited via the Internet and convenience sampling. Eating disorder symptoms, dieting and body checking behaviors, and weight and shape concerns were widely endorsed. Younger age and higher body mass index (BMI) were associated with greater endorsement of eating disorder symptoms, behaviors, and concerns. Weight and shape concerns and disordered eating behaviors occur in women over 50 and vary by age and BMI. Focused research on disordered eating patterns in this age group is necessary to develop age-appropriate interventions and to meet the developmental needs of an important, growing, and underserved population. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Eating Disorder Symptoms and Weight and Shape Concerns in a Large Web-Based Convenience Sample of Women Ages 50 and Above: Results of the Gender and Body Image Study (GABI)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagne, Danielle A.; Von Holle, Ann; Brownley, Kimberly A.; Runfola, Cristin D.; Hofmeier, Sara; Branch, Kateland E.; Bulik, Cynthia M.

    2012-01-01

    Objective Limited research exists on eating disorder symptoms and attitudes and weight and shape concerns in women in mid-life to older adulthood. We conducted an online survey to characterize these behaviors and concerns in women ages 50 and above. Method Participants (n = 1,849) were recruited via the Internet and convenience sampling. Results Eating disorder symptoms, dieting and body checking behaviors, and weight and shape concerns were widely endorsed. Younger age and higher body mass index (BMI) were associated with greater endorsement of eating disorder symptoms, behaviors, and concerns. Discussion Weight and shape concerns and disordered eating behaviors occur in women over 50 and vary by age and BMI. Focused research on disordered eating patterns in this age group is necessary to develop age-appropriate interventions and to meet the developmental needs of an important, growing, and underserved population. PMID:22729743

  20. efficient and convenient synthesis of symmetrical carboxylic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Preferred Customer

    An efficient and convenient procedure for the synthesis of symmetrical .... solution was stirred for 16 h at 35 °C followed by filtration and washing with ... obtained hydrous zirconia sample was ground to fine powder and immersed in 1 M H2SO4 ..... Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry, Wiley-VCH: Weinheim; 2002.

  1. Revealing the values behind convenience food consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botonaki, Anna; Mattas, Konstadinos

    2010-12-01

    The increasing importance of convenience in consumer food choices has attracted researchers' interest. In the effort to understand how convenience affects consumers' food preferences, values are believed to play an important role. The present study attempts to examine the way personal values suggested by Schwartz (1992) are associated with behaviour and attitudes regarding convenience food. A number of constructs describing food related attitudes and behaviours were developed and their relationship with personal values was analyzed following the methodology proposed by Brunsø, Scholderer, and Grunert (2004). Data were collected through a questionnaire survey from a random sample of consumers in Thessaloniki city, Greece. The results reveal that convenience food consumption and convenience orientation in the food domain are mainly connected with values that motivate people to seek new experiences, act independently and enhance their own personal interests, while are in conflict with values of conservation and self-transcendence. The opposite holds for other food related attitudes and behaviours like involvement with cooking and variety in diet. The findings seem to be of particular interest not only for marketers of food products, but also for food policy makers.

  2. Efficacy of convenience sampling through the internet versus respondent driven sampling among males who have sex with males in Tallinn and Harju County, Estonia: challenges reaching a hidden population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Lisa Grazina; Trummal, Aire; Lohmus, Liilia; Ravalepik, Ardi

    2009-09-01

    This paper examines challenges obtaining representative samples of males who have sex with males (MSM) in Estonia and provides descriptive HIV behavioral data gathered from four cross-sectional surveys; three using the internet, and one using respondent driven sampling (RDS) to recruit MSM in Tallinn and Harju County. Estonian MSM were sampled between March and May in 2004 (n=193), August and November in 2005 (n=146) and September and December in 2007 (n=238) using internet websites. MSM in Tallinn and Harju County were sampled between April and June in 2007 (n=59) using RDS. Recruitment of MSM using RDS did not acquire the calculated sample size. The RDS study reached a less diverse group of MSM than did the internet studies which recruited a larger proportion of MSM who were older, bisexual, having female sexual partners during the last six months, and unlikely to have been tested for HIV. The findings and observations presented in this paper could inform researchers in Estonia, and the region, about the efficacy of and socio-cultural challenges to sampling MSM to collect HIV biological and/or behavioral data.

  3. Convenient measurement of small impulses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brost, G.; Deaton, T.; Duvall, B.; Boyle, W.; Tinsley, J.; Bohn, C.; Stephen, M.; Souders, J.

    1986-01-01

    This paper describes a convenient method which has been used for the measurement of small impulses (1-20 dyn s). An inductive displacement gauge was used to monitor displacement of a ballistic pendulum.

  4. Support for Restorative Justice in a Sample of U.S. University Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahlin, Eileen M; Gibbs, Jennifer C; Kavanaugh, Philip R; Lee, Joongyeup

    2017-02-01

    Theories of restorative justice suggest that the practice works best when offenders are enmeshed in multiple interdependencies or attachments to others and belong to a culture that facilitates communitarianism instead of individualism. Restorative justice principles and practices are thus believed to be incongruent with the individualistic culture and legal system of the United States, especially compared with that of nations like Australia and Japan. Using a nonprobability convenience sample of students enrolled in a large public university in the United States, our study examines attitudes toward restorative justice as a fair and just process for reintegrating offenders and meeting the needs of victims. Results indicate that our sample holds less punitive attitudes than citizens in either Australia or Japan. Our findings are discussed in light of recent policy shifts in the United States that suggest a concerted move toward decarceration following the 2008 recession.

  5. La variedad, diversidad y características de la dieta en muestras de conveniencia de mujeres guatemaltecas Food variety, dietary diversity, and food characteristics among convenience samples of Guatemalan women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María José Soto-Méndez

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Comparar patrones y características de diversidad y variedad de la dieta de mujeres guatemaltecas. MATERIEL Y MÉTODOS: Se realizaron dos recordatorios de 24-horas en una muestra de conveniencia de 20 mujeres rurales y 20 estudiantes urbanas. Se calcularon puntajes de diversidad usando tres sistemas de grupos alimentarios. La variedad y diversidad, así como el origen y características de la dieta, se compararon entre ambos sitios. RESULTADOS: La variedad y diversidad en general fueron mayores en la muestra urbana en comparación con la muestra rural, dependiendo del número de días y del sistema de grupos de alimentos utilizados para la evaluación. La dieta rural fue predominantemente vegetal y compuesta de alimentos tradicionales no procesados. La dieta urbana estaba basada primordialmente en alimentos procesados. CONCLUSIÓN: Las consideraciones para crear estrategias de intervención para el mejoramiento de la dieta en el área rural dependen de la conservación de la selección de alimentos tradicionales.OBJECTIVE: To compare variety and diversity patterns and dietary characteristics in Guatemalan women. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Two non-consecutive 24-h recalls were conducted in convenience samples of 20 rural Mayan women and 20 urban students. Diversity scores were computed using three food-group systems.Variety and diversity scores and dietary origin and characteristics were compared between settings using independent t-test or Mann-Whitney-U-test. RESULTS: Dietary variety and diversity were generally greater in the urban sample when compared to the rural sample, depending on the number of days and food-group system used for evaluation.The diet was predominantly plant-based and composed of non-fortified food items in both areas.The rural diet was predominantly composed of traditional,non-processed foods. The urban diet was mostly based on non-traditional and processed items. CONCLUSION: Considerations of intervention strategies

  6. Characteristics of e-cigarette users and their perceptions of the benefits, harms and risks of e-cigarette use: survey results from a convenience sample in Ottawa, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volesky, K D; Maki, A; Scherf, C; Watson, L M; Cassol, E; Villeneuve, P J

    2016-07-01

    Although e-cigarette use ("vaping") is increasing in Canada, few attempts have been made to describe e-cigarette users ("vapers"). In this context, we conducted a study in Ottawa, Canada, to describe e-cigarette users' perceptions of the benefits, harms and risks of e-cigarettes. We also collected information on why, how and where they use e-cigarettes as well as information on side effects. A 24-item online survey was administered to individuals who purchased e-cigarettes or e-cigarette-related supplies at one of Ottawa's 17 e-cigarette shops. Descriptive analyses characterized respondents, and logistic regression models were fitted to evaluate the relationship between respondents' characteristics and their perception of e-cigarette harms. The mean age of the 242 respondents was 38.1 years (range: 16-70 years); 66% were male. Nearly all had smoked 100 or more cigarettes in their lifetime (97.9%). More than 80% indicated that quitting smoking was a very important reason for starting to use e-cigarettes and 60% indicated that they intend to stop using e-cigarettes at some point. About 40% reported experiencing some side effects within 2 hours of using e-cigarettes. Those who did not report experiencing any of the listed side effects had approximately 3.2 times higher odds of perceiving e-cigarettes as harmless than those who reported having side effects (odds ratio = 3.17; 95% confidence interval: 1.75-5.73). Our findings suggest that most e-cigarette users are using them to reduce or stop smoking cigarettes and perceive them as harmless. Due to our use of convenience sampling, the reader should be cautious in generalizing our findings to all Canadian e-cigarette users.

  7. Characteristics of e-cigarette users and their perceptions of the benefits, harms and risks of e-cigarette use: survey results from a convenience sample in Ottawa, Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. D. Volesky

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Although e-cigarette use (‘‘vaping’’ is increasing in Canada, few attempts have been made to describe e-cigarette users (‘‘vapers’’. In this context, we conducted a study in Ottawa, Canada, to describe e-cigarette users’ perceptions of the benefits, harms and risks of e-cigarettes. We also collected information on why, how and where they use e-cigarettes as well as information on side effects. Methods: A 24-item online survey was administered to individuals who purchased e-cigarettes or e-cigarette-related supplies at one of Ottawa’s 17 e-cigarette shops. Descriptive analyses characterized respondents, and logistic regression models were fitted to evaluate the relationship between respondents’ characteristics and their perception of e-cigarette harms. Results: The mean age of the 242 respondents was 38.1 years (range: 16–70 years; 66% were male. Nearly all had smoked 100 or more cigarettes in their lifetime (97.9%. More than 80% indicated that quitting smoking was a very important reason for starting to use e-cigarettes and 60% indicated that they intend to stop using e-cigarettes at some point. About 40% reported experiencing some side effects within 2 hours of using e-cigarettes. Those who did not report experiencing any of the listed side effects had approximately 3.2 times higher odds of perceiving e-cigarettes as harmless than those who reported having side effects (odds ratio ¼ 3.17; 95% confidence interval: 1.75–5.73. Conclusion: Our findings suggest that most e-cigarette users are using them to reduce or stop smoking cigarettes and perceive them as harmless. Due to our use of convenience sampling, the reader should be cautious in generalizing our findings to all Canadian e-cigarette users.

  8. Consumers' convenience orientation towards meal preparation: conceptualization and measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Candel, M

    2001-02-01

    Consumer researchers consider convenience orientation towards meal preparation to be a relevant construct for understanding consumer behavior towards foods. This study set out to conceptualize this construct and to develop a scale that measures it. As examined in two different samples of meal preparers, the resulting scale is reliable, satisfies a unifactorial structure and has satisfactory convergent validity. The scale's nomological validity is supported in that it conforms to expectations regarding various psychographic constructs and various food-related behaviors. Convenience orientation was found to be negatively related to cooking enjoyment, involvement with food products and variety seeking, and to be positively related to role overload. The analyses also suggest that the lack of relation between the meal preparer's working status and convenience food consumption, as found in many studies, is due to convenience food not offering enough preparation convenience. Consuming take-away meals and eating in restaurants appear to satisfy the consumer's need for convenience more adequately.

  9. Embracing the convenient care concept.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferris, Allison H; McAndrew, Thomas M; Shearer, Debra; Donnelly, Gloria F; Miller, Howard A

    2010-01-01

    The landscape of primary care medicine is rapidly changing. The decline in interest, both in primary care fields and students choosing these career paths, has left a vacuum in the health care system that must be filled. One of the recent developments has been the birth of "convenient care centers," also known as "retail clinics." This form of health care delivery has mostly been entrepreneurial and based in retail organizations, such as drug stores. These walk-in clinics provide basic medical care for minor common medical conditions, such as sore throat, urinary tract infection, the common cold, and ear infections. Much of this care is provided not by physicians, but by nurse practitioners or physician assistants. After seeing the success of the earliest of these clinics, MinuteClinic by CVS, many other businesses joined the venture, and retail clinics popped up in Wal-Mart, Target, and many local grocery stores. Gradually, hospital systems, physician groups, and managed care companies have also entered the market, sometimes partnering with retail outlets, such as the local grocery store or Wal-Mart, and less often, starting a stand-alone facility. Only 12% of retail clinics are owned by hospital systems or physician groups, while 73% are owned by CVS, Walgreens, or Target. There is even a national nonprofit organization called the Convenient Care Association, started in 2006, and based in Philadelphia, PA. This new trend in delivering health care has been mostly, if not totally, ignored by the medical school practice plans, with the exception of the Mayo Clinic in Minnesota, which has developed several "express care" clinics as stand-alone facilities. As a medical school practice plan and a division of general internal medicine, we could continue to keep a blind eye toward this new trend in primary care medicine or embrace the concept. We aim to develop a new convenient care model integrating our College of Medicine practice plan in partnership with our College of

  10. Positioning doctors for convenience medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haley, M

    1984-01-01

    Faced with an increasingly competitive environment, physicians must learn to organize themselves into group practices positioned to perform as the customer expects. To be successful, these new group practices must recruit the kind of physician who will meet the consumer's demands for quality care: convenience, continuity of care, and confidence in the doctor's competence. This article describes how doctors can become more competitive based on my observations as a former consultant with such healthcare companies as Cigna Healthplan, the largest for-profit HMO, and as the current vice president of Operations Planning and Development with Republic Health Corporation, a Dallas-based hospital management company. These observations should help hospital managers learn how to organize their medical staffs to better serve the patient's needs. By repositioning their physician services, hospitals should become better positioned to compete for new patients.

  11. Methodology series module 5: Sampling strategies

    OpenAIRE

    Maninder Singh Setia

    2016-01-01

    Once the research question and the research design have been finalised, it is important to select the appropriate sample for the study. The method by which the researcher selects the sample is the ‘ Sampling Method’. There are essentially two types of sampling methods: 1) probability sampling – based on chance events (such as random numbers, flipping a coin etc.); and 2) non-probability sampling – based on researcher's choice, population that accessible & available. Some of the non-probabilit...

  12. Methodology Series Module 5: Sampling Strategies

    OpenAIRE

    Maninder Singh Setia

    2016-01-01

    Once the research question and the research design have been finalised, it is important to select the appropriate sample for the study. The method by which the researcher selects the sample is the ‘ Sampling Method’. There are essentially two types of sampling methods: 1) probability sampling – based on chance events (such as random numbers, flipping a coin etc.); and 2) non-probability sampling – based on researcher's choice, population that accessible & available. Some of the non-probabilit...

  13. Forecasting Exchange Rates with Commodity Convenience Yields

    OpenAIRE

    Beutler, Toni

    2012-01-01

    This paper investigates whether commodity convenience yields - the yields that accrue to the holders of physical commodities - can predict the exchange rate of commodity-exporters' currencies. Predictability is a consequence of the fact that i) convenience yields are useful predictors for commodity prices and ii) commodity currencies have a strong relationship with commodity prices. The empirical evidence indicates that there is a significant relationship between aggregate measures of conveni...

  14. Convenience foods. What, why, and when.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholliers, Peter

    2015-11-01

    An attempt is made to assess the academic interest in convenience foods in the past decades in order to introduce this special section on historical dimensions of convenience foods, prepared by FOST, a unit that investigates the history and culture of food (up to today). First, the rise of academic interest is trailed since the appearance of the concept in the 1920s and, next, themes in connection to this interest are considered (e.g., time, health, or gender). Then, definitions of convenience foods are tracked since the 1950s, which leads to suggesting a clear focus (linking convenience foods to home cooking of meals and industrially produced foods). The conclusion stresses the changing definition of the concept, as well as the need to gain historical insight in present-day issues related to convenience foods.

  15. Notification: Purchase Card and Convenience Check Audit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Project #OA-FY13-0116, April 11, 2013. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Inspector General, is beginning the fieldwork phase of its audit of the agency’s purchase card and convenience check programs.

  16. Measuring consumer perceptions of online shopping convenience

    OpenAIRE

    Ferreira, Margarida Bernardo

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this master thesis is to identify which dimensions of convenience affect consumers’ intention of using online shopping. Also it explores a conceptual model to measuring consumer perceptions of online shopping convenience. This paper contains prospects about online consumer behavior, and the results have important implications for retailers, managers and marketers, related to online shopping strategies. An empirical investigation was carried out to test the hypotheses. In order t...

  17. A convenient category for directed homotopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fajstrup, Lisbeth; Rosický, J.

    We propose a convenient category for directed homotopy consisting of preordered topological spaces generated by cubes. Its main advantage is that, like the category of topological spaces generated by simplices suggested by J. H. Smith, it is locally presentable.......We propose a convenient category for directed homotopy consisting of preordered topological spaces generated by cubes. Its main advantage is that, like the category of topological spaces generated by simplices suggested by J. H. Smith, it is locally presentable....

  18. A convenient category for directed homotopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fajstrup, Lisbeth; Rosický, J.

    2008-01-01

    We propose a convenient category for directed homotopy consisting of "directed" topological spaces generated by "directed" cubes. Its main advantage is that, like the category of topological spaces generated by simplices suggested by J. H. Smith, it is locally presentable.......We propose a convenient category for directed homotopy consisting of "directed" topological spaces generated by "directed" cubes. Its main advantage is that, like the category of topological spaces generated by simplices suggested by J. H. Smith, it is locally presentable....

  19. Teknik Sampling Snowball dalam Penelitian Lapangan

    OpenAIRE

    Nina Nurdiani

    2014-01-01

    Field research can be associated with both qualitative and quantitative research methods, depending on the problems faced and the goals to be achieved. The success of data collection in the field research depends on the determination of the appropriate sampling technique, to obtain accurate data, and reliably. In studies that have problems related to specific issues, requiring a non-probability sampling techniques one of which is the snowball sampling technique. This technique is useful for f...

  20. A Manual for Selecting Sampling Techniques in Research

    OpenAIRE

    Alvi, Mohsin

    2016-01-01

    The Manual for Sampling Techniques used in Social Sciences is an effort to describe various types of sampling methodologies that are used in researches of social sciences in an easy and understandable way. Characteristics, benefits, crucial issues/ draw backs, and examples of each sampling type are provided separately. The manual begins by describing What is Sampling and its Purposes then it moves forward discussing the two broader types: probability sampling and non-probability sampling. Lat...

  1. Influence of convenience on healthy food choice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mueller Loose, Simone; Peschel, Anne; Grebitus, Carola

    Although seafood is considered to be a healthy food choice, the recommended consumption level of two servings per week is still not reached in most countries. Previous research has identified potential barriers of seafood consumption, including purchase and consumption convenience, but it is still...... for policy makers as well as seafood marketers and are in line with the presented literature in that convenience seems to be an important driver which can be manipulated in order to increase seafood consumption. Consumers strongly prefer the ‘ready to eat’ half shell open oysters over closed oysters...

  2. A convenient synthesis of 6-demethoxycapillarisin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yuan Feng Tong; Shuai Chen; Yong Hao Cheng; Song Wu

    2007-01-01

    A convenient and effective method for the synthesis of 6-demethoxycapillarisin was described. The highlight was involved in a simple access to the key intermediate 2-ethylthio-5,7-dimethoxy-4H-chromen-4-one from the inexpensive 2,4,6-trihydroxyace-tophenone, using AlCl3 as the demethylation reagent.

  3. Convenience: Så tag på gourmetrestaurant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grunert, Klaus G.

    2006-01-01

    Vil De have en særlig oplevelse med convenience food? Så vil jeg anbefale, at De booker et bord på en gourmet-restaurant og bestiller en menu surprise med en tilsvarende vinmenu. Så behøver man slet ikke at lave mad. Man behøver ikke engang at tænke over, hvad man ønsker at spise eller drikke....... Maden bliver serveret for en. Drikkevarerne bliver skænket op. De snavsede tallerkner bliver ryddet væk. Selv servietten bliver foldet ud og lagt på ens skød. Er det ikke det, De forbinder med convenience food? Hvad er det så - pulverkaffe, kagemiks, lørdagskylling? Eller pølsevogn og burgere, når det...

  4. Contract Terminations for Default and Convenience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-06-01

    terminations that were converted to convenience ter- minations. Howdyshell’s method (15) was to survey all ASBCA decisions in the selected time period, 1 October...on its own work load. The original research plan also included inquiry of data reported to HQ USAF ( AACC ), Con- tract Finance Office, Comptroller (28...duplicated and mailed for study from Sacramento Air Logistics Center, McClellan AFB. Data Analysis Methods Answers to the two research questions were

  5. Convenience food in the diet of children and adolescents: consumption and composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexy, Ute; Sichert-Hellert, Wolfgang; Rode, Tabea; Kersting, Mathilde

    2008-02-01

    Despite an increasing trend towards the use of convenience food, there is to date little debate on it in the nutritional sciences. In the present study, we present and evaluate data on consumption frequencies and composition of savoury convenience food in German families using data from the Dortmund Nutritional and Anthropometric Longitudinally Designed (DONALD) Study. The DONALD Study is an ongoing, longitudinal (open cohort) study (started 1985), collecting detailed data on diet, development, and metabolism in infants, children and adolescents. Dietary intake was measured by yearly repeated 3 d weighed dietary records (n 1558) in 554 subjects (278 boys; 276 girls), 3-18 years old, between 2003 and 2006. A total of 1345 (86%) 3 d dietary records mentioned consumption of at least one convenience food. Convenience food consumption (percentage of total food intake, g/d) increased with age from approximately 3% in the 3-8 year olds to 7% in 14-18-year-old boys and 5% in 14-18-year-old girls (P Convenience foods contributed more to total fat (g/d) (P convenience-food products recorded by our sample had on average fourteen ingredients; 4% were flavourings and 16% were food additives. In conclusion, convenience foods were widely consumed by our sample of German children and adolescents and their consumption increased with age. The composition of convenience food was characterised by a high fat content and a high number of flavourings and food additives.

  6. At-Home Convenience Food Consumption and BMI

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Jonq-Ying; Kilmer, Richard L.

    2010-01-01

    A variation of the household production theory was used to select relevant explanatory variables for the demand for convenience foods. A convenience food index was used to measure the convenience in food preparation. Because of the nature of the measure of convenience, the tobit regression technique was used to examine the importance of these explanatory variables to the demand for convenience foods. Results show that the presence of children in a household increases the demand for convenienc...

  7. Sampling

    CERN Document Server

    Thompson, Steven K

    2012-01-01

    Praise for the Second Edition "This book has never had a competitor. It is the only book that takes a broad approach to sampling . . . any good personal statistics library should include a copy of this book." —Technometrics "Well-written . . . an excellent book on an important subject. Highly recommended." —Choice "An ideal reference for scientific researchers and other professionals who use sampling." —Zentralblatt Math Features new developments in the field combined with all aspects of obtaining, interpreting, and using sample data Sampling provides an up-to-date treat

  8. Sourdough products for convenient use in baking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandt, Markus J

    2007-04-01

    Sourdough fermentations require a specific knowledge on the effects of process parameters, raw materials and micro-organisms in order to obtain a specific, reproducible sourdough and bread quality. This knowledge is not necessarily available in bakeries. Sourdough starter cultures, either active sourdoughs (Reinzuchtsauerteig) or freeze-dried micro-organisms are used to start sourdough fermentation with the required micro-flora. As sourdough fermentation is a labour-intensive and a time-consuming process, a growing demand for convenient products arised early. First organic acids (lactic acid, acetic acid, citric acid) and mixtures thereof came in use. These agents were used directly without or in combination with a sourdough; however, flavour and taste of the resulting breads were unsatisfactory. Based on modified and optimized traditional sourdough processes, dried, pasty and liquid sourdoughs were developed. Companies which produce such ready-to-use products, claim for a convenient, direct production of baked goods in constant quality, in combination with all advantages of a biological sourdough fermentation, e.g. flavour and taste, fresh keeping and prolonged microbial shelf-life. Currently, a broad variety of sourdough products with different fermented cereals is available on the market. In order to obtain a stable product, it is a necessity to inactivate the sourdough micro-biota by e.g. pasteurization, drying or autosterilization.

  9. Just how convenient is convenience? An empirical study of the associations between perceived convenience, meal preparation activities and ready meals' characteristics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Costa, Ana I.A.; Ruijschop, R. M. A. J.

    2006-01-01

    and the types of meals they eat are surprisingly hard to find. One explanation for this could be that perceived convenience finds little support on the technological attributes of products like ready meals. This study's aim was to uncover significant relations between perceived convenience, meal preparation...... activities and technological attributes of frozen pizzas. Ninety-eight Dutch meal preparers, 18-29 years old, were asked to rate expected convenience attributes of frozen pizzas; (2) prepare and consume these pizzas in a home-like setting; (3) rate experienced convenience after consumption. Pizzas were also...... evaluated on their technological degree of convenience. Two main factors of experienced convenience were uncovered - ease of preparation and speed of preparation. However, only ease of preparation was significantly correlated with technologically-defined and expected convenience. Actual speed of preparation...

  10. The Utility of an Online Convenience Panel for Reaching Rare and Dispersed Populations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Randall Sell

    Full Text Available Gaps in data collection systems, as well as challenges associated with gathering data from rare and dispersed populations, render current health surveillance systems inadequate to identify and monitor efforts to reduce health disparities. Using sexual and gender minorities we investigated the utility of using a large nonprobability online panel to conduct rapid population assessments of such populations using brief surveys. Surveys of the Google Android Panel (four assessing sexual orientation and one assessing gender identity and sex assigned at birth were conducted resulting in invitation of 53,739 application users (37,505 of whom viewed the invitation to generate a total of 34,759 who completed screening questions indicating their sexual orientation, or gender identity and sex at birth. Where possible we make comparisons to similar data from two population-based surveys (NHIS and NESARC. We found that 99.4% to 100.0% of respondents across our Google Android panel samples completed the screening questions and 97.8% to 99.2% of those that consented to participate in our surveys indicated they were "OK" with the content of surveys that assessed sexual orientation and sex/gender. In our Google Android panel samples there was a higher percentage of sexual minority respondents than in either NHIS or NESARC with 7.4% of men and 12.4% of women reporting gay, lesbian or bisexual identities. The proportion sexual minority was 2.8 to 5.6 times higher in the Google Android panel samples than was found in the 2012 NHIS sample, for men and women, respectively. The percentage of "transgender" identified individuals in the Google sample was 0.7%, which is similar to 0.5% transgender identified through the Massachusetts BRFSS, and using a transgender status item we found that 2.0% of the overall sample fit could be classified as transgender. The Google samples sometimes more closely approximated national averages for ethnicity and race than NHIS.

  11. Consumers, food and convenience: The long way from resource constraints to actual consumption patterns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scholderer, Joachim; Grunert, Klaus G.

    2005-01-01

    Two theoretical frameworks have been used in previous research to explain consumers' interest in effort-saving activities in the context of meal production: the household production approach and the convenience orientation approach. A model is developed that synthesizes both approaches, assuming...... that the influence of resource constraints on actual convenience behaviours is doubly mediated, first by perceptions of resource constraints, and then by convenience orientations. In Study 1, the model is calibrated based on a sample of 1000 French respondents with main responsibility for food shopping and meal...

  12. Developing Criteria for Sample Sizes in Jet Engine Analytical Component Inspections and the Associated Confidence Levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-09-01

    5 Sample The samples taken from each population will not be random samples . They will be nonprobability , purposive samples . More specifically, they...section will justify why statistical techniques based on the assumption of a random sample , will be used. First, this is the only possible method of...w lu 88 12 21 029 AFIT/GSM/LSM/88S-22 DEVELOPING CRITERIA FOR SAMPLE SIZES IN JET ENGINE ANALYTICAL COMPONENT INSPECTIONS AND THE ASSOCIATED

  13. How convenient!? Adolescents’ vistas on food competences in a convenience context

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wahlen, S.; Horst, van der Hilje; Pothoff, Roosje

    2016-01-01

    Purpose – Adolescents are at a stage in their life course in which they increasingly become choosers, buyers and preparers of food. Hence, they develop and employ required competences. Current food-related competences of adolescents are shaped in an environment with an abundance of convenience foods

  14. 40 CFR 35.6760 - Enforcement and termination for convenience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... convenience. 35.6760 Section 35.6760 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND... Enforcement and termination for convenience. The recipient must comply with all terms and conditions in the... termination for convenience described in 40 CFR 31.43 and 31.44....

  15. College Student Internet Use: Convenience and Amusement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Genevieve M. Johnson

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Four hundred five college students completed a questionnaire that assessed patterns of Internet use. Results describe college students, with rare exception, as Internet users. The vast majority of college students frequently communicate online and access websites. While an Internet game experience is typical, relatively few college students are heavy online gamers. Overwhelmingly (i.e., 77.8%, college students conceptualized the Internet as a convenience, although 17.8% considered the Internet a source of amusement. Approximately 5% of college students reported negative perceptions of the Internet (frustrating or a waste of time. Principal component analysis revealed three patterns of online behaviour; integrated-Internet-use, games-only use, and dating-only use. Implications for online instructional practice are presented. Résumé : Quatre cent cinq étudiants du niveau collégial ont répondu à un questionnaire mesurant leurs tendances de l’utilisation d’Internet. Les résultats présentent ces étudiants comme des usagers d’Internet, à quelques exceptions près. La grande majorité de ces étudiants utilisent fréquemment les outils de communication en ligne et naviguent sur Internet. Alors qu’une expérience de jeu en ligne s’avère commune, peu d’étudiants du collège s’avèrent être des joueurs en ligne excessifs. Essentiellement (c.à-d. 77,8 %, ces étudiants perçoivent Internet comme une commodité, même si 17,8 % d’entre eux le considère comme une source d’amusement. Environ 5 % ont indiqué des perceptions négatives d’Internet (frustrations ou pertes de temps. L’analyse en composantes principales a révélé 3 tendances de comportements en ligne, l’utilisation intégrée d’Internet, l’utilisation seule de jeux et l’utilisation à des fins de rencontre seulement. On présente des conséquences pour la pratique de l’enseignement en ligne.

  16. A construct analysis of meal convenience applied to military foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaeger, Sara R; Cardello, Armand V

    2007-07-01

    The present research investigates the concept of food convenience within the institutional framework of military feeding. The approach views food-related convenience in terms of two broad dimensions: "type of convenience" and "timing of convenience." A discrete choice experiment was conducted with US military personnel (n=179) regarding their perceptions of the (in)convenience associated with the use and consumption of low-preparation, all-in-one, military meals (MREs-meals, ready-to-eat). The obtained data strongly suggest that perceived (in)convenience, time and effort are separate constructs. A food provisioning process perspective was captured in the "timing of convenience" dimension, and the contribution of different stages in the consumption process to the perceived convenience of the meal situation was empirically demonstrated. The latter result has important implications for the study of food convenience outside this specific population and context. As opposed to the product perspective that is currently predominant in the literature, it demonstrates the necessity of adopting a meal perspective in analysing food-related convenience.

  17. Convenience polyandry or convenience polygyny? Costly sex under female control in a promiscuous primate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huchard, Elise; Canale, Cindy I; Le Gros, Chloé; Perret, Martine; Henry, Pierre-Yves; Kappeler, Peter M

    2012-04-07

    Classic sex roles depict females as choosy, but polyandry is widespread. Empirical attempts to understand the evolution of polyandry have often focused on its adaptive value to females, whereas 'convenience polyandry' might simply decrease the costs of sexual harassment. We tested whether constraint-free female strategies favour promiscuity over mating selectivity through an original experimental design. We investigated variation in mating behaviour in response to a reversible alteration of sexual dimorphism in body mass in the grey mouse lemur, a small primate where female brief sexual receptivity allows quantifying polyandry. We manipulated body condition in captive females, predicting that convenience polyandry would increase when females are weaker than males, thus less likely to resist their solicitations. Our results rather support the alternative hypothesis of 'adaptive polyandry': females in better condition are more polyandrous. Furthermore, we reveal that multiple mating incurs significant energetic costs, which are strikingly symmetrical between the sexes. Our study shows that mouse lemur females exert tight control over mating and actively seek multiple mates. The benefits of remating are nevertheless not offset by its costs in low-condition females, suggesting that polyandry is a flexible strategy yielding moderate fitness benefits in this small mammal.

  18. Consumers, food and convenience: The long way from resource constraints to actual consumption patterns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scholderer, Joachim; Grunert, Klaus G.

    2005-01-01

    that the influence of resource constraints on actual convenience behaviours is doubly mediated, first by perceptions of resource constraints, and then by convenience orientations. In Study 1, the model is calibrated based on a sample of 1000 French respondents with main responsibility for food shopping and meal......Two theoretical frameworks have been used in previous research to explain consumers' interest in effort-saving activities in the context of meal production: the household production approach and the convenience orientation approach. A model is developed that synthesizes both approaches, assuming...... preparation in their households. In Study 2, the model is cross-validated using a similar sample of 1000 UK respondents. Results of both studies support the double mediation hypothesis. Udgivelsesdato: FEB...

  19. 43 CFR 12.84 - Termination for convenience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Termination for convenience. 12.84 Section 12.84 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior ADMINISTRATIVE AND AUDIT... Termination for convenience. Except as provided in § 12.83 awards may be terminated in whole or in part...

  20. 45 CFR 1183.44 - Termination for convenience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Termination for convenience. 1183.44 Section 1183.44 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL FOUNDATION ON THE ARTS..., Retention, and Enforcement § 1183.44 Termination for convenience. Except as provided in § 1183.43 awards...

  1. 10 CFR 600.244 - Termination for convenience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Termination for convenience. 600.244 Section 600.244 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (CONTINUED) ASSISTANCE REGULATIONS FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE RULES Uniform... Requirements § 600.244 Termination for convenience. Except as provided in § 600.443 awards may be terminated...

  2. 32 CFR 33.44 - Termination for convenience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Termination for convenience. 33.44 Section 33.44 National Defense Department of Defense OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE DoD GRANT AND AGREEMENT... convenience. Except as provided in § 33.43 awards may be terminated in whole or in part only as follows:...

  3. 29 CFR 97.44 - Termination for convenience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Termination for convenience. 97.44 Section 97.44 Labor Office of the Secretary of Labor UNIFORM ADMINISTRATIVE REQUIREMENTS FOR GRANTS AND COOPERATIVE... § 97.44 Termination for convenience. Except as provided in § 97.43 awards may be terminated in whole...

  4. 14 CFR 1273.44 - Termination for convenience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Termination for convenience. 1273.44 Section 1273.44 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION UNIFORM ADMINISTRATIVE... Reports, Records, Retention, and Enforcement § 1273.44 Termination for convenience. Except as provided...

  5. 28 CFR 66.44 - Termination for convenience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Termination for convenience. 66.44 Section 66.44 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) UNIFORM ADMINISTRATIVE... Reports, Records, Retention, and Enforcement § 66.44 Termination for convenience. Except as provided...

  6. 40 CFR 51.355 - Test frequency and convenience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Test frequency and convenience. 51.355 Section 51.355 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS... Requirements § 51.355 Test frequency and convenience. (a) The performance standards for I/M programs assume...

  7. 22 CFR 135.44 - Termination for convenience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Termination for convenience. 135.44 Section 135.44 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE MISCELLANEOUS UNIFORM ADMINISTRATIVE REQUIREMENTS FOR GRANTS..., Retention, and Enforcement § 135.44 Termination for convenience. Except as provided in § 135.43 awards...

  8. 34 CFR 303.423 - Convenience of proceedings; timelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Convenience of proceedings; timelines. 303.423 Section 303.423 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF... Parents and Children § 303.423 Convenience of proceedings; timelines. (a) Any proceeding for...

  9. 45 CFR 602.44 - Termination for convenience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Termination for convenience. 602.44 Section 602.44 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION UNIFORM... Requirements § 602.44 Termination for convenience. Except as provided in § 602.43 awards may be terminated...

  10. 21 CFR 1403.44 - Termination for convenience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Termination for convenience. 1403.44 Section 1403.44 Food and Drugs OFFICE OF NATIONAL DRUG CONTROL POLICY UNIFORM ADMINISTRATIVE REQUIREMENTS FOR..., Retention, and Enforcement § 1403.44 Termination for convenience. Except as provided in § 1403.43 awards...

  11. 45 CFR 1174.44 - Termination for convenience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Termination for convenience. 1174.44 Section 1174.44 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL FOUNDATION ON THE ARTS..., Retention, and Enforcement § 1174.44 Termination for convenience. Except as provided in § 1174.43 awards...

  12. 45 CFR 92.44 - Termination for convenience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Termination for convenience. 92.44 Section 92.44 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION UNIFORM ADMINISTRATIVE... Requirements Reports, Records Retention, and Enforcement § 92.44 Termination for convenience. Except...

  13. 29 CFR 1470.44 - Termination for convenience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Termination for convenience. 1470.44 Section 1470.44 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) FEDERAL MEDIATION AND CONCILIATION SERVICE UNIFORM ADMINISTRATIVE... Reports, Records Retention, and Enforcement § 1470.44 Termination for convenience. Except as provided...

  14. 38 CFR 43.44 - Termination for convenience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Termination for convenience. 43.44 Section 43.44 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS... convenience. Except as provided in § 43.43 awards may be terminated in whole or in part only as follows:...

  15. 45 CFR 1157.44 - Termination for convenience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Termination for convenience. 1157.44 Section 1157.44 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL FOUNDATION ON THE ARTS... Enforcement § 1157.44 Termination for convenience. Except as provided in § 1157.43 awards may be terminated...

  16. 34 CFR 80.44 - Termination for convenience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Termination for convenience. 80.44 Section 80.44 Education Office of the Secretary, Department of Education UNIFORM ADMINISTRATIVE REQUIREMENTS FOR GRANTS... Retention, and Enforcement § 80.44 Termination for convenience. Except as provided in § 80.43 awards may...

  17. 13 CFR 143.44 - Termination for convenience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Termination for convenience. 143.44 Section 143.44 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION UNIFORM ADMINISTRATIVE... Reports, Records, Retention, and Enforcement § 143.44 Termination for convenience. Except as provided...

  18. 20 CFR 437.44 - Termination for convenience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Termination for convenience. 437.44 Section 437.44 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION UNIFORM ADMINISTRATIVE REQUIREMENTS FOR..., Retention, and Enforcement § 437.44 Termination for convenience. Except as provided in § 437.43, awards...

  19. 15 CFR 24.44 - Termination for convenience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Termination for convenience. 24.44 Section 24.44 Commerce and Foreign Trade Office of the Secretary of Commerce UNIFORM ADMINISTRATIVE... Reports, Records, Retention, and Enforcement § 24.44 Termination for convenience. Except as provided...

  20. Efficient and Convenient Preparation of Water-Soluble Fullerenol

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Jian-Min章建民; YANG Wen杨文; HE Ping何萍; ZHU Shi-Zheng朱士正

    2004-01-01

    An efficient and convenient preparation of fullerenols was described. With polyethylene glycol (PEG) 400 as catalyst, fullerenols were conveniently synthesized via the direct reaction of fullerene with aqueous NaOH. By control of reaction conditions, either water-soluble C60 fullerenol or water-insoluble C60 fullerenol could be obtained selectively.

  1. 36 CFR 1207.44 - Termination for convenience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Termination for convenience. 1207.44 Section 1207.44 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL ARCHIVES AND RECORDS... Termination for convenience. Except as provided in § 1207.43 awards may be terminated in whole or in part...

  2. 14 CFR 152.507 - Termination for convenience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Termination for convenience. 152.507 Section 152.507 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION... convenience. (a) When the continuation of the project would not produce beneficial results commensurate...

  3. 7 CFR 3016.44 - Termination for convenience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Termination for convenience. 3016.44 Section 3016.44 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) OFFICE OF THE CHIEF FINANCIAL OFFICER... Termination for convenience. Except as provided in § 3016.43 awards may be terminated in whole or in part...

  4. 40 CFR 31.44 - Termination for convenience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Termination for convenience. 31.44 Section 31.44 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL... convenience. Except as provided in § 31.43 awards may be terminated in whole or in part only as follows:...

  5. 41 CFR 105-71.144 - Termination for convenience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Termination for convenience. 105-71.144 Section 105-71.144 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property... Termination for convenience. Except as provided in § 105-71.143 awards may be terminated in whole or in...

  6. 24 CFR 85.44 - Termination for convenience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Termination for convenience. 85.44 Section 85.44 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department of Housing and Urban... § 85.44 Termination for convenience. Except as provided in § 85.43 awards may be terminated in whole...

  7. 44 CFR 13.44 - Termination for convenience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Termination for convenience. 13.44 Section 13.44 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY... § 13.44 Termination for convenience. Except as provided in § 13.43 awards may be terminated in whole...

  8. 48 CFR 49.601 - Notice of termination for convenience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Notice of termination for convenience. 49.601 Section 49.601 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION... termination for convenience. (See 49.402-3(g) for notice of termination for default.)...

  9. 49 CFR 18.44 - Termination for convenience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Termination for convenience. 18.44 Section 18.44 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation UNIFORM ADMINISTRATIVE REQUIREMENTS FOR GRANTS AND... Enforcement § 18.44 Termination for convenience. Except as provided in § 18.43 awards may be terminated...

  10. Meal box schemes a convenient way to avoid convenience food? Uses and understandings of meal box schemes among Danish consumers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hertz, Frej Daniel; Halkier, Bente

    2017-03-15

    The term convenience food is subject to diversification, lack of clarity and moral ambiguity. In this paper we address these issues and critically discuss convenience food by using empirical findings from a Danish study that deals with practitioners' uses of meal box schemes. The methodological design consists of thirteen individual interviews, four focus groups and some observations of cooking practices. We combine the empirical findings with a particular definition of convenience food by Brunner et al. (2010) and selected practice theoretical concepts. This particular combination enables us to categorize meal box schemes as a new form of convenience food called convenient food. In addition, results suggest that meal box schemes reduce leftovers from dinner. Meal boxes also influence dinner related activities such as planning ahead in time and grocery shopping, which require less physical and mental effort.

  11. A new convenient access to highly functionalized ()-2-arylvinyl bromides

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Yubo Jiang; Chunxiang Kuang

    2009-11-01

    Highly functionalized ()-2-arylvinyl bromides were prepared in high yields through a new convenient access by acylation of ()-4-(2-bromovinyl)phenol with fatty and aromatic acids at room temperature using dicyclohexyl carbodiimide (DCC) and dimethylaminopyridine (DMAP).

  12. A Convenient Synthetic Method of Metal Dendritic Porphyrins

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wen Bin CUI; Jie ZHOU; Lei CHEN; Xiao Bin DENG; Chun GUO

    2006-01-01

    A convenient synthetic method of metal dendritic porphyrins through the convergent synthetic strategy is described. The porphyrin core were linked with the synthetic fragments by forming ether or ester bonds to give five target compounds were prepared.

  13. Customer service of convenience stores / by K. Kleynhans

    OpenAIRE

    Kleynhans, Karin Belinda Margerete

    2008-01-01

    This study researches the topic customer service of convenience sores. Two objectives are set, namely to measure the customer service levels of convenience stores, and then to determine if any differences exist between customer perceptions and customer expectations. The literature review covers two models of service quality, namely the Kano model and the SERVQUAL model. Both the Kano model and the SERVQUAL model are client service models that currently exist in practice. The Kano model pro...

  14. First come, First served: Enhancing the Convenience Store Service Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan-Ling Chiao

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available One distinctive characteristic of Taiwanese city streets is the omnipresence of convenience stores. These clean, brightly lit stores are in operation 24 hours a day, seven days a week, and offer a wide range of constantly updated lifestyle products and services. Past research in convenience stores have often overlooked the work experiences of convenience store employees, and their contribution to the overall service experience. Thus, the goal of this exploratory study is to explore the convenience store work environment, and to provide some suggestions for in-store technological enhancements. Data was collected through in-depth interviewing, field study observations and Living Lab methodologies. Our research reveals that convenience store employees experience several types of physical, mental and emotional strains throughout their shifts. These strains are often derived from excessive physical exertion and unpleasant interactions with customers. We suggest that certain in-store technological enhancements, such as seamless sensing and seamful actuating, can serve to alleviate employee sense of pressure and anxiety during customer interactions.

  15. Sample size estimation and sampling techniques for selecting a representative sample

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aamir Omair

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The purpose of this article is to provide a general understanding of the concepts of sampling as applied to health-related research. Sample Size Estimation: It is important to select a representative sample in quantitative research in order to be able to generalize the results to the target population. The sample should be of the required sample size and must be selected using an appropriate probability sampling technique. There are many hidden biases which can adversely affect the outcome of the study. Important factors to consider for estimating the sample size include the size of the study population, confidence level, expected proportion of the outcome variable (for categorical variables/standard deviation of the outcome variable (for numerical variables, and the required precision (margin of accuracy from the study. The more the precision required, the greater is the required sample size. Sampling Techniques: The probability sampling techniques applied for health related research include simple random sampling, systematic random sampling, stratified random sampling, cluster sampling, and multistage sampling. These are more recommended than the nonprobability sampling techniques, because the results of the study can be generalized to the target population.

  16. Conveniently assembled multiple-electrode-pair CO2 laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Lihua; Li, Xiangyen; He, Anzhi

    2000-04-01

    A conveniently assembled multiple-electrode-pair (MEP) transversely excited amplify (TEA) CO2 laser is introduced in this paper. The laser is described from the view of device configuration, power supply, control circuit, and etc. The laser output is variable from single pulse to double pulse and multiple pulse with different assembly. We adopt a new alignment method for cavity. The pulse time interval given by control system is continuously adjustable from 0 to 150 microseconds. Experiments prove that the pulse series property is stable and that the pulse parameters are perfect. The conveniently assembled laser lay a foundation for the industry application of multiple-electrode-pair CO2 laser.

  17. Teknik Sampling Snowball dalam Penelitian Lapangan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina Nurdiani

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Field research can be associated with both qualitative and quantitative research methods, depending on the problems faced and the goals to be achieved. The success of data collection in the field research depends on the determination of the appropriate sampling technique, to obtain accurate data, and reliably. In studies that have problems related to specific issues, requiring a non-probability sampling techniques one of which is the snowball sampling technique. This technique is useful for finding, identifying, selecting and taking samples in a network or chain of relationships. Phased implementation procedures performed through interviews and questionnaires. Snowball sampling technique has strengths and weaknesses in its application. Field research housing sector become the case study to explain this sampling technique.

  18. A Study of Patient Satisfaction in the Pediatrics Clinic at Water Reed Army Medical Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-08-01

    versus nonprobability sampling which introduces a greater measure of error into the sampling process (Emory and Cooper, 1991, pp. 264-275). The...to the next patient in the queue. This convenience nonprobability sampling had systematic elements built into the process reducing sampling error, even...and their families perceive care to be of high quality. This process includes interviews and or surveys using appropriate survey research techniques

  19. Less Expensive and More Convenient Gaucher's Disease Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Angela G.

    2006-01-01

    A new research finding related to a less costly and more convenient treatment for Gaucher's disease, the most common lysosomal storage disorder and genetic disorder affecting Jewish people of Eastern European ancestry is reported. The reports suggest that chemical chaperons could partially correct the genetic defect responsible for most cases of…

  20. Convenient meat and meat products. Societal and technological issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leroy, Frédéric; Degreef, Filip

    2015-11-01

    In past and contemporary foodscapes, meat and meat products have not only been following convenience trends, they have been at the heart of them. Historically, the first substantial demands for meat convenience must have been for the outsourcing of hunting or domestication, as well as slaughtering activities. In its turn, this prompted concerns for shelf-life stabilisation and the development of preservation strategies, such as meat fermentation. Demands for ease of preparation and consumption can be traced back to Antiquity but have gained in importance over the centuries, especially with the emergence of novel socio-cultural expectations and (perceived) time scarcity. Amongst other trends, this has led to the creation of ready meals and meat snacks and the expansion of urban fast food cultures. Additionally, contemporary requirements focus on the reduction of mental investments, via the "convenient" concealment of slaughtering, the optimisation of nutritional qualities, and the instant incorporation of more intangible matters, such as variety, hedonistic qualities, reassurance, and identity. An overview is given of the technological issues related to the creation of meat convenience, in its broadest sense, along with their societal implications. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Simple and convenient method for culturing anaerobic bacteria.

    OpenAIRE

    Behbehani, M J; Jordan, H. V.; Santoro, D L

    1982-01-01

    A simple and convenient method for culturing anaerobic bacteria is described. Cultures can be grown in commercially available flasks normally used for preparation of sterile external solutions. A special disposable rubber flask closure maintains anaerobic conditions in the flask after autoclaving. Growth of a variety of anaerobic oral bacteria was comparable to that obtained after anaerobic incubation of broth cultures in Brewer Anaerobic Jars.

  2. Analisis Industri pada Ritel Convenience Store: Kasus 7-Eleven (Sevel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Son Wandrial

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available 7-Eleven, a Japanese retailer is very popular and loved in Jakarta. 7-Eleven or commonly abbreviated to Sevel is now reaping a lot of fans because of the concept of 7-Eleven Indonesia, found only in Indonesia. With the rising middle classes in Indonesia, 7-Eleven becomes a luxurious place for hanging-out but affordable. Consequently, it is attracting the interest of investors to make such a kind of convenience store like Sevel, and it is likely the competition in this sector will be increasingly fierce. PT. Modern’s initial plans are to focus onopening stores in Jakarta, targeting densely-populated commercial and office areas, to offer Indonesian workersa convenient place to shop for lunch, snacks, and emergency items. The company’s goal is to focus on opening stores in Jakarta in its first years of operation. Other major cities, such as Bandung, Semarang, and Surabaya offer for future expansion opportunities. The objective of this article is to describe the competitive condition in convenience store industries using Porter’s Five Forces model. Although the competition is fierce andunfavorable industry condition, Sevel is still leading and dominating the convenience store market in Indonesia.

  3. 45 CFR 2541.440 - Termination for convenience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Termination for convenience. 2541.440 Section 2541.440 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) CORPORATION FOR NATIONAL AND... LOCAL GOVERNMENTS Reports, Records, Retention and Enforcement § 2541.440 Termination for...

  4. Power Law of Customers’ Expenditures in Convenience Stores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizuno, Takayuki

    2008-03-01

    In a convenience store chain, a tail of the cumulative density function of the expenditure of a person during a single shopping trip follows a power law with an exponent of -2.5. The exponent is independent of the location of the store, the shopper's age, the day of week, and the time of day.

  5. Convenient Synthesis of Bis(oxazoline) Dicarboxylate Derivatives

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bin FU; Da Ming DU; Qing XIA

    2004-01-01

    The synthesis of bis(oxazoline) dicarboxylate derivatives was investigated.Diethyl-aminosulfur trifluoride(DAST)was used as a convenient cyclization reagent in the synthesis of bis(oxazoline)dicarboxylate derivatives,which can not be obtained by the general method using MsCl and Et3N as dehydrating cyclization reagent.

  6. 77 FR 21145 - Notice of Applications for Certificates of Public Convenience and Necessity and Foreign Air...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-09

    ... Office of the Secretary Notice of Applications for Certificates of Public Convenience and Necessity and..., 2012 The following Applications for Certificates of Public Convenience and Necessity and Foreign Air..., Inc. (``People Express'') requesting a certificate of public convenience and necessity...

  7. 76 FR 54524 - Notice of Applications for Certificates of Public Convenience and Necessity and Foreign Air...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-01

    ... TRANSPORTATION Office of the Secretary Notice of Applications for Certificates of Public Convenience and... August 20, 2011 The following Applications for Certificates of Public Convenience and Necessity and..., Inc. (``Universal'') requesting a certificate of public convenience and necessity...

  8. 76 FR 10429 - Notice of Applications for Certificates of Public Convenience and Necessity and Foreign Air...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-24

    ... TRANSPORTATION Office of the Secretary Notice of Applications for Certificates of Public Convenience and... February 12, 2011 The following Applications for Certificates of Public Convenience and Necessity and... certificate of public convenience and necessity authorizing interstate charter air transportation....

  9. Valuation of commodity derivatives with an unobservable convenience yield

    OpenAIRE

    Lai, Anh Ngoc; Mellios, Constantin

    2016-01-01

    International audience; This paper extends the existing literature on commodity derivatives to account for an unobservable stochastic convenience yield. Investors operate in an economy with incomplete information. In contrast to other incomplete information models, analytical formulas for forward and futures prices, as well as for European options on forward and futures contracts are obtained. These formulas reveal the important role played by the initial values of the estimator of the conven...

  10. Creating convenience food based on human nutritional requirements

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    International audience; Nanoscale science and technology are now enabling us to understand many natural and unnatural processes. Studying nanostructures at the cell and DNA level, gives us insight in to the working of these processes and how to manipulate, prevent and/or enhance them for the benefit of mankind. Emergent technologies can and must help correct the food system by creating modern convenience foods on a mass scale that mimic and improve on the nutritional value of the most nutriti...

  11. Nickel levels in convenience and fast foods: In vitro study of the dialyzable fraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cabrera-Vique, Carmen, E-mail: carmenc@ugr.es [Department of Nutrition and Bromatology, University of Granada, Granada (Spain); Mesias, Marta [Department of Nutrition and Bromatology, University of Granada, Granada (Spain); Bouzas, Paula R. [Department of Statistic, University of Granada, Granada (Spain)

    2011-03-15

    Nickel presence was determined in 170 samples of 43 different convenience and fast foods widely consumed in Spain. Electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry was used as analytical technique. Reliability of the procedure was checked. Ni levels ranged from 18.50 to 95.00 ng g{sup -1} (fresh weight of edible portion). The most elevated Ni concentrations were found in egg- and pork-based foods and in sauces but there is a high variability inside of each one of these foods. Ni content increases in products that contain spices and aromatic herbs, whole cereals, dry fruits, cheese and mushrooms. Mean Ni dialyzable fraction estimated by in vitro assays ranged from 4.50 to 7.75%. This study shows that the probability of exposure to health risks from these foods is overall small. However, the present findings are of potential use in food composition tables and to estimate the Ni dietary intake and tolerable intake levels in accordance with the current dietary habits. - Research highlights: {yields}Ni levels in convenience and fast food range from 18.50 to 95.00 ng/g. {yields}Ni content increases in products that contain spices and aromatic herbs, whole cereals, dry fruits, cheese and mushrooms. {yields}Mean Ni dialyzable fraction estimated by in vitro assays ranges from 4.50 to 7.75%. {yields}The probability of exposure to health risks from convenience and fast food is overall small.

  12. Survey Instrument Development for Consumer Perception Testing to RTE Product in Convenience Store

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dyah Lestari Widaningrum

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Global trade and the abolition of trade barriers lead to the proliferation of imported food products such as various types of fast food products (RTE: ready-to-eat food sold by convenience stores mainly scattered in Jakarta. The question is what causes consumers choose certain convenience store to buy RTE Product and not choose another outlet category. To understand consumer perceptions, it is necessary to develop an instrument for measuring consumer perceptions of the option to purchase RTE Product at convenience stores. Variables used in this research are the perception and knowledge of the public/consumers against food safety, store attributes, service, and product attributes. The instrument used in this study is a questionnaire with a scalemeasuring1-5 to see the relationship between variables, we used the method of Structural Equation Modeling (SEM. The sample used in this study was 223 respondents that were divided into five areas in Jakarta, namely Central Jakarta, West Jakarta, South Jakarta, East Jakarta, and North Jakarta. The final outcome of the instrument development process was 25 observed variables, consisting of 4 indicators, which valid and reliable, with T-values for each observed variable is above 2,58, and Construct Reliability values range between 0,76 to 0,853.

  13. Selection and Optimization of Simple and Convenient Sample Solutions for Shrimp Tissue Preservation at Normal Temperature%凡纳滨对虾(Litopenaeus vannamei)组织样品常温保存液的筛选和优化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈大菾; 黄倢; 王海亮; 李晋

    2015-01-01

    Molecular biology technologies have been widely used in aquatic animal disease diagnosis and molecular pathology studies, which require high quality of nucleic acid. However, how to preserve sample quality at normal temperature is rarely investigated. In this study, we compared the preserving effect of RNA in the tissues of shrimpLitopenaeus vannamei stored in different preservation solutions at normal temperature to find one preservation solution that can be used at normal temperature and long-distance transportation. Saturated solutions of ammonium sulfate and ammonium acetate in a serial of solvents with different ethanol concentrations were used to preserve shrimp tissues. The results showed that ammonium acetate has higher solubility in ethanol solution than ammonium sulfate. The molarity of ammonium ion of ammonium acetate is steadier in 0−80% ethanol. Ammonium acetate penetrates into the tissue of intact shrimp faster and reaches a higher concentration than ammonium sulfate does. RNA with better integrity, higher copies, and longer half-life period was achieved in the tissue preserved in more than 70% ethanol, saturated ammonium sulfate in the solvent of 50% and 70% ethanol, saturated ammonium acetate in the solvent of 50% ethanol. These results suggest that the saturated ammonium acetate in 50% ethanol as the solvent (pH=6.0) can be used as sample preserving solution to preserve RNA in shrimp tissues at normal temperature.%以不同浓度乙醇为溶剂,配制不同pH的硫酸铵和乙酸铵饱和溶液,测试其对凡纳滨对虾组织的渗透效应和在常温条件下对RNA的保护作用。因为乙酸铵在乙醇中的溶解度远高于硫酸铵,且其铵离子的摩尔浓度在0−80%的乙醇溶剂中比较稳定。研究结果显示,乙酸铵比硫酸铵能更快渗透到整体的对虾组织中,并达到更高的浓度。50%、70%及以上的乙醇为溶剂的饱和硫酸铵、50%乙醇为溶剂的饱和乙酸铵(pH=6.0)溶液保

  14. 48 CFR 8.406-5 - Termination for the Government's convenience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Government's convenience. 8.406-5 Section 8.406-5 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION... Termination for the Government's convenience. (a) An ordering activity contracting officer may terminate individual orders for the Government's convenience. Terminations for the Government's convenience...

  15. Convenience food with environmentally-sustainable attributes: A consumer perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stranieri, Stefanella; Ricci, Elena Claire; Banterle, Alessandro

    2017-09-01

    The use of chemicals in agriculture poses risks on both human health and the environment. Regulatory measures, both mandatory and voluntary, have been introduced to promote a reduction in the use of pesticides. The proliferation of such standards is related to the gradual shift of consumer preferences towards food with reduced negative health and environmental impacts. Beside consumer demand for sustainable food products, convenience food is also assuming an increasingly important role in developed countries. Among such products, minimally-processed vegetables are showing a growing positive trend, but their production has also negative effects on the environment. The goal of this study is to investigate the interaction between environmentally-friendly and healthy convenience food, and to investigate the determinants behind the purchase of healthy convenience food products with environmentally-sustainable attributes, focusing on minimally-processed vegetables labelled with voluntary standards related to integrated agriculture. To do so, we started from the Theory of Planned Behaviour and tested the efficacy of an extended model by considering also other variables which were found to affect significantly food choices. Data were collected by means of face-to-face interviews with 550 consumers in charge of grocery shopping in the metropolitan area of Milan, in northern Italy. Structural equation modelling was performed to analyse the relative importance of the constructs on consumer behaviour. Results confirm the relations of Ajzen's theory and reveal positive relations with consumer food shopping habits, food-related environmental behaviour, gender, income and knowledge. A negative relation with agricultural practices concern also emerges, highlighting that the most concerned consumers may prefer other more stringent environmental certifications. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Essays in petroleum futures market, convenience yield, and long memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazaheri, Ataollah

    This thesis is a collection of three essays which address some empirical applications of long memory processes with specific interest in financial economics of energy futures market. The first essay 'Evidence of Long Memory in the Petroleum Market' studies evidence of long memory in the energy market using daily and weekly futures data. This essay concentrates on the question of interdependence between crude oil futures and the corresponding products. The empirical results provide strong support for long memory in the energy futures market. The cointegrating relations between crude oil and heating oil futures as well as crude oil and unleaded gasoline futures exhibit long memory, whereas the individual series are unit-root. The second essay 'Convenience Yield, Mean Reversion and Long Memory in the Petroleum Market' analyzes convenience yields in the petroleum market. The focus of this essay is the behavior of the spot and futures prices over the long run. The implied convenience yield for petroleum and petroleum products is found to be driven by a nonstationary and mean reverting long memory process. The theoretical implication of this finding is established. It is discussed that this might be attributed to the fact that the market is expecting mean reversion in the spot prices. Furthermore, the volatility process and its relation with the mean process and the corresponding direction of causality have been studied in detail. The third essay 'Long Memory and Conditional Heteroskedasticity, A Monte Carlo Investigation', unlike the first two, looks at the econometrics of the estimators of the long memory process. It evaluates performance of three methods of estimating the parameter of fractionally integrated noise: the exact maximum likelihood estimator (MLE), the quasi maximum likelihood estimator (QMLE), and the GPH under different realizations for variance.

  17. Accessibility of antiretroviral therapy in Ghana: convenience of access.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Addo-Atuah, Joyce; Gourley, Dick; Gourley, Greta; White-Means, Shelley I; Womeodu, Robin J; Faris, Richard J; Addo, Nii Akwei

    2012-01-01

    The convenience of accessing antiretroviral therapy (ART) is important for initial access to care and subsequent adherence to ART. We conducted a qualitative study of people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) and ART healthcare providers in Ghana in 2005. The objective of this study was to explore the participants' perceived convenience of accessing ART by PLWHA in Ghana. The convenience of accessing ART was evaluated from the reported travel and waiting times to receive care, the availability, or otherwise, of special considerations, with respect to the waiting time to receive care, for those PLWHA who were in active employment in the formal sector, the frequency of clinic visits before and after initiating ART, and whether the PLWHA saw the same or different providers at each clinic visit (continuity of care). This qualitative study used in-depth interviews based on Yin's case-study research design to collect data from 20 PLWHA and 24 ART healthcare providers as study participants. • Reported travel time to receive ART services ranged from 2 to 12 h for 30% of the PLWHA. • Waiting time to receive care was from 4 to 9 h. • While known government workers, such as teachers, were attended to earlier in some of the centres, this was not a consistent practice in all the four ART centres studied. • The PLWHA corroborated the providers' description of the procedure for initiating and monitoring ART in Ghana. • PLWHA did not see the same provider every time, but they were assured that this did not compromise the continuity of their care. Our study suggests that convenience of accessing ART is important to both PLWHA and ART healthcare providers, but the participants alluded to other factors, including open provider-patient communication, which might explain the PLWHA's understanding of the constraints under which they were receiving care. The current nation-wide coverage of the ART programme in Ghana, however, calls for the replication of this study to identify

  18. Assessment of the microbiological quality of the poultry products from convenience food group

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bożena Danyluk

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the microbiological quality of chosen poultry products from convenience food group, taking into account the seasons. There were assessed products after heat treatment (marinated, roasted leg; two-phase method breaded, fried and roasted piquant wings; three-phase method breaded, fried and roasted filet and frozen (marinated: leg, wings and filet. Microbiological examination involved determining the total number of mesophilic aerobic bacteria, coagulase-positive staphylococci and glucuronidase-positive E. coli and presence of Salmonella and Listeria monocytogenes in 25 g. The obtained results showed, that the level of microbiological contamination of the samples was without reservation.

  19. Availability of convenience stores and adolescent alcohol use in Taiwan: a multi-level analysis of national surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shi-Heng; Lin, I-Chin; Chen, Chuan-Yu; Chen, Duan-Rung; Chan, Ta-Chien; Chen, Wei J

    2013-12-01

    To examine the association between alcohol in school environments and adolescent alcohol use over the previous 6 months. A multi-level logistic regression analysis was performed of cross-sectional surveys conducted in 2004, 2005 and 2006. A total of 52 214 students aged 11-19 years from 387 middle or high schools were selected from a nationally representative, multi-stage, stratified probability sampling across Taiwan. Information on socio-demographic features and substance use experiences was collected using self-administered questionnaires. The alcohol in the environment was measured using the availability of convenience stores surrounding the schools. Using geographical information systems, the weighted numbers of convenience stores within 1 km, a 12-15-minute walk, of a school were calculated. The schools were later categorized into three subgroups via the tertile of nearby convenience stores. Considering the compositional characteristics, the availability of convenience stores was found to account for 1.5% of the school-level variance of youthful drinking. The odds ratios (95% confidence interval) of alcohol use over the previous 6 months among youth attending schools with medium and high availability were 1.04 (0.96-1.13) and 1.08 (1.00-1.17), respectively, with a P-value of 0.04 in the trend test. The greater availability of convenience stores near a school is associated with an increased risk of alcohol use among adolescents over the previous 6 months. © 2013 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  20. Convenient Airports: Point of View of the Passengers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magri, Adival Aparecido, Jr.; Alves, Claudio Jorge Pinto

    2003-01-01

    The competition among airlines or among airports aiming at to increase the demand for its services has been more and more incited. Knowledge the perception of the users for the offered services means to meet the customer's needs and expectations in order either to keep the customer, and therefore keep a significant advantage over competitors. The passenger of the air transportation wants rapidity, security and convenience. Convenience can be translated by comfort that the passenger wants for the price that he can pay. In this paper had been identified. as a result of a survey achieved in six Brazilian airports during 2002, the best indicators in the passenger's perception. These indicators among any others were listed m the handbook of Airports Council International (ACI). Distinctive perceptions were observed among passengers with different travel motivations. This survey had been carried through in the airports of Brasilia, Porto Alegre, Salvador. Fortaleza, Curitiba and Bel6m. Considering this survey we can identified the most attractive airport among them. This work is a way to help improve quality of service, in particular, m these six airports of the Brazilian network. The results should be published and made available to all the parties concerned (airport authority, airlines and service providers) and should lead to corrective action when the passenger is not satisfied with the service.

  1. Robbery characteristics and employee injuries in convenience stores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faulkner, K A; Landsittel, D P; Hendricks, S A

    2001-12-01

    Each year approximately 30,000 convenience store employees are at risk for injuries related to robberies and many are fatal. A prospective cohort study of 460 convenience store robberies from 1 February 1995 to 30 September 1996 was conducted to uncover possible associations between injury and pertinent robbery circumstances and work environments. Data collection sources included police reports, employee interviews, store evaluations, and relevant Census data. Rate ratios and correlation statistics were calculated to identify associations with injury and relationships between variables. Injury risk was strongly associated with the following characteristics: employee resistance, robberies without firearms or money taken, daytime and merchandise robberies, stores with limited escape routes and no cash policy or drop safe, older clerks, and surrounding areas with lower valued buildings, less expensive rent, more vacant structures, and younger residents. Numerous intercorrelations between these characteristics were identified. Training opportunities, store procedures, and environmental designs are important factors to consider in reducing robbery-related injuries. Published 2001 Wiley-Liss, Inc

  2. Household food waste separation behavior and the importance of convenience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernstad, Anna

    2014-07-01

    Two different strategies aiming at increasing household source-separation of food waste were assessed through a case-study in a Swedish residential area (a) use of written information, distributed as leaflets amongst households and (b) installation of equipment for source-segregation of waste with the aim of increasing convenience food waste sorting in kitchens. Weightings of separately collected food waste before and after distribution of written information suggest that this resulted in neither a significant increased amount of separately collected food waste, nor an increased source-separation ratio. After installation of sorting equipment in households, both the amount of separately collected food waste as well as the source-separation ratio increased vastly. Long-term monitoring shows that results where longstanding. Results emphasize the importance of convenience and existence of infrastructure necessary for source-segregation of waste as important factors for household waste recycling, but also highlight the need of addressing these aspects where waste is generated, i.e. already inside the household.

  3. Emergency ultrasound usage among recent emergency medicine residency graduates of a convenience sample of 14 residencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean, Anthony J; Breyer, Michael J; Ku, Bon S; Mills, Angela M; Pines, Jesse M

    2010-02-01

    Emergency Medicine (EM) residency graduates are trained to perform Emergency Medicine bedside ultrasound (EMBU). However, the degree to which they use this skill in their practice after graduation is unknown. We sought to test the amount and type of usage of EMBU among recent residency graduates, and how usage and barriers vary among various types of EM practice settings. Graduates from 14 EM residency programs in 2003-2005 were surveyed on their current practice setting and use of EMBU. There were 252 (73%) graduates who completed the survey. Of the 73% of respondents reporting access to EMBU, 98% had used it within the past 3 months. Access to EMBU was higher in academic (97%) vs. community teaching (79%) vs. community non-teaching settings (62%) (p < 0.001), and in Emergency Departments (EDs) where yearly census exceeded 60,000 visits (87% vs. 65%, p < 0.001). Physicians in academic settings reported "high use" of EMBU more frequently than those in community settings for most modalities. FAST (focused assessment by sonography in trauma) was the most common high-use application and the most useful in practice. The greatest impediment to EMBU use was "not enough time" (61%). Ultrasound usage among recent EM residency graduates is significantly higher in teaching than in community settings and in high-volume EDs. Its use is more widespread than in previous reports in all types of practice. There is a wide range of utilization of ultrasound in the various applications in emergency practice, with the evaluation of trauma being the most common. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Nutritional status of an economically-privileged convenience sample of urban children in Guatemala City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarado, Virginia J; Mayorga, Evelyn; Molina, Susana; Solomons, Noel W

    2009-01-01

    The worldwide pandemic of overweight and obesity has now reached low-income tropical societies. To determine whether overweight or obesity is present among children from middle-class Guatemala City homes. A total of 363 children, 173 boys and 190 girls aged 72-131 months, were included for height, weight, and abdominal circumference at its narrowest point (natural waist). Overall, 58.6% of subjects presented a body mass index within the normal Center for Disease Control and Prevention curve limits, whereas 3.9% fell below this range (low weight), 17.4% were in the risk of overweight range, and 20.1% were classified as overweight. The mean natural waist circumference was 62.6+/-0.9 cm. The waist-circumference-to-height ratio had a median of 0.47, with 36.9% of all children having a waist-circumference-to-height ratio exceeding the proposed 0.5 upper limit. Nutrition transition has reached the juvenile population of this Central American republic, at least in its urban, privileged groups.

  5. Exploring the relationship between convenience and fish consumption: a cross-cultural study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, Svein Ottar; Scholderer, Joachim; Brunsø, Karen; Verbeke, Wim

    2007-07-01

    The purpose of the present study is to explore cultural differences in the meaning of convenience and the relationships between convenience, attitudes and fish consumption in five European countries. The results suggest that the meaning of meal convenience is not culture specific, whilst the absolute levels of convenience orientation and the perceived inconvenience of fish differ between cultures. Convenience orientation was highest in Poland, followed by Spain, and was lowest in the Netherlands. The relationships between convenience orientation and attitudes towards fish, and convenience orientation and fish consumption, were insignificant in most countries. However, convenience orientation was positively related to the perceived inconvenience of fish. Perceived inconvenience of fish was negatively related to both attitudes towards fish and to fish consumption. Together, these results confirm some earlier findings that fish is generally perceived as a relatively inconvenient type of food. This study suggests that convenience orientation can be crucial to understanding food choice or behaviour only when critical mediating constructs are explored.

  6. Ethics of infant relinquishment, cultural considerations, and obstetric conveniences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callister, Lynn Clark

    2011-01-01

    Ethical issues relating to infant relinquishment, caring for culturally diverse women, the importance of shared power between women and their caregivers, and the provision of evidence-based practice versus reliance on obstetric conveniences are addressed in this article. Respectful care of women relinquishing their infants including use of appropriate language demonstrates moral and ethical nursing practice; providing cultural competent care of multilinguistic, multicultural, and multiethnic childbearing women and their families is an ethical imperative. Nurses practicing ethically will foster adoption of best practices on perinatal and neonatal units, and generate a clearly articulated vision of woman and family centered organizational culture. In ethical terms, this demonstrates respect for others as well as beneficence. Promoting the use of ethical nursing practice and evidence-based practice requires that nurses identify change agents, those who are champions and facilitators of evidence-based practice, and then reward such innovators and make sure that clinical guidelines be developed based on best practices.

  7. Interrelationships between LGBT-Based Victimization, Suicide, and Substance Use Problems in a Diverse Sample of Sexual and Gender Minority Men and Women

    OpenAIRE

    Mereish, Ethan H.; O'Cleirigh, C; Bradford, Judith B.

    2013-01-01

    Research has documented significant relationships between sexual and gender minority stress and higher rates of suicidality (i.e., suicidal ideation and attempts) and substance use problems. We examined the potential mediating role of substance use problems on the relationship between sexual and gender minority stress (i.e., victimization based on lesbian, gay, bisexual, or transgender identity; LGBT) and suicidality. A non-probability sample of LGBT patients from a community health center (N...

  8. 76 FR 33400 - Notice of Applications for Certificates of Public Convenience and Necessity and Foreign Air...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-08

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Office of the Secretary Notice of Applications for Certificates of Public Convenience and... May 14, 2011 The following Applications for Certificates of Public Convenience and Necessity...

  9. 76 FR 42762 - Notice of Applications for Certificates of Public Convenience and Necessity and Foreign Air...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-19

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Office of the Secretary Notice of Applications for Certificates of Public Convenience and... June 25, 2011 The following Applications for Certificates of Public Convenience and Necessity...

  10. 76 FR 68257 - Notice of Applications for Certificates of Public Convenience and Necessity and Foreign Air...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-03

    ... Certificates of Public Convenience and Necessity and Foreign Air Carrier Permits Filed Under Subpart B... of Public Convenience and Necessity and Foreign Air Carrier Permits were filed under Subpart...

  11. 77 FR 31421 - Notice of Applications for Certificates of Public Convenience and Necessity and Foreign Air...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-25

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Office of the Secretary Notice of Applications for Certificates of Public Convenience and Necessity and... The following Applications for Certificates of Public Convenience and Necessity and Foreign...

  12. 77 FR 37732 - Notice of Applications for Certificates of Public Convenience and Necessity and Foreign Air...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-22

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Office of the Secretary Notice of Applications for Certificates of Public Convenience and Necessity and... The following Applications for Certificates of Public Convenience and Necessity and Foreign...

  13. 77 FR 59243 - Notice of Applications for Certificates of Public Convenience and Necessity and Foreign Air...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-26

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Office of the Secretary Notice of Applications for Certificates of Public Convenience and... September 1, 2012 The following Applications for Certificates of Public Convenience and Necessity...

  14. 76 FR 35939 - Notice of Applications for Certificates of Public Convenience and Necessity and Foreign Air...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-20

    ... for Certificates of Public Convenience and Necessity and Foreign Air Carrier Permits Filed Under... Certificates of Public Convenience and Necessity and Foreign Air Carrier Permits were filed under Subpart...

  15. Exploring the relationship between convenience and fish consumption: A cross-cultural study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Svein Ottar; Scholderer, Joachim; Brunsø, Karen

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of the present study is to explore cultural differences in the meaning of convenience and the relationships between convenience, attitudes and fish consumption in five European countries. The results suggest that the meaning of meal convenience is not culture specific, whilst...... the absolute levels of convenience orientation and the perceived inconvenience of fish differ between cultures. Convenience orientation was highest in Poland, followed by Spain, and was lowest in the Netherlands. The relationships between convenience orientation and attitudes towards fish, and convenience...... orientation and fish consumption, were insignificant in most countries. However, convenience orientation was positively related to the perceived inconvenience of fish. Perceived inconvenience of fish was negatively related to both attitudes towards fish and to fish consumption. Together, these results confirm...

  16. 77 FR 46146 - Notice of Applications for Certificates of Public Convenience and Necessity and Foreign Air...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-02

    ... Certificates of Public Convenience and Necessity and Foreign Air Carrier Permits Filed Under Subpart B... Public Convenience and Necessity and Foreign Air Carrier Permits were filed under Subpart B...

  17. 77 FR 39793 - Notice of Applications for Certificates of Public Convenience and Necessity and Foreign Air...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-05

    ... Certificates of Public Convenience and Necessity and Foreign Air Carrier Permits Filed Under Subpart B... Public Convenience and Necessity and Foreign Air Carrier Permits were filed under Subpart B...

  18. 76 FR 35938 - Notice of Applications for Certificates of Public Convenience and Necessity and Foreign Air...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-20

    ... Certificates of Public Convenience and Necessity and Foreign Air Carrier Permits Filed Under Subpart B... Public Convenience and Necessity and Foreign Air Carrier Permits were filed under Subpart B...

  19. 77 FR 54944 - Notice of Applications for Certificates of Public Convenience and Necessity and Foreign Air...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-06

    ... Office of the Secretary Notice of Applications for Certificates of Public Convenience and Necessity and..., 2012 The following Applications for Certificates of Public Convenience and Necessity and Foreign Air.... (``KaiserAir'') requesting an amended certificate of public convenience and necessity authorizing it...

  20. 48 CFR 809.270 - Qualified products for convenience/labor-saving foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... convenience/labor-saving foods. 809.270 Section 809.270 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF... 809.270 Qualified products for convenience/labor-saving foods. (a) Each VISN Nutrition and Food Service representative is authorized to establish a common VISN QPL for convenience and labor-saving...

  1. 78 FR 20372 - Certificates of Public Convenience and Necessity and Foreign Air Carrier Permits; Notice of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-04

    ... Office of the Secretary Certificates of Public Convenience and Necessity and Foreign Air Carrier Permits; Notice of Applications for Certificates of Public Convenience and Necessity and Foreign Air Carrier... Applications for Certificates of Public Convenience and Necessity and Foreign Air Carrier Permits were...

  2. 49 CFR 1150.23 - Modified certificate of public convenience and necessity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Modified certificate of public convenience and..., ACQUIRE, OR OPERATE RAILROAD LINES Modified Certificate of Public Convenience and Necessity § 1150.23 Modified certificate of public convenience and necessity. (a) The operator must file a notice with...

  3. 76 FR 10085 - Notice of Applications for Certificates of Public Convenience and Necessity and Foreign Air...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-23

    ... Office of the Secretary Notice of Applications for Certificates of Public Convenience and Necessity and..., 2011 The following Applications for Certificates of Public Convenience and Necessity and Foreign Air... Airlines, Inc., d/b/a Alpha Cargo, and for reissuance of its certificate of public convenience...

  4. 48 CFR 49.603 - Formats for termination for convenience settlement agreements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... for convenience settlement agreements. 49.603 Section 49.603 Federal Acquisition Regulations System... Formats 49.603 Formats for termination for convenience settlement agreements. The formats to be used for termination for convenience settlement agreements should be substantially as shown in this section (see...

  5. 41 CFR 101-26.103-2 - Restriction on personal convenience items.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... convenience items. 101-26.103-2 Section 101-26.103-2 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property... SOURCES AND PROGRAM 26.1-General § 101-26.103-2 Restriction on personal convenience items. Government... type items intended solely for the personal convenience or to satisfy the personal desire of...

  6. 75 FR 29601 - Office of the Secretary: Notice of Applications for Certificates of Public Convenience and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-26

    ... Certificates of Public Convenience and Necessity and Foreign Air Carrier Permits Notice of Applications for Certificates of Public Convenience and Necessity and Foreign Air Carrier Permits Filed Under Subpart B... Public Convenience and Necessity and Foreign Air Carrier Permits were filed under Subpart B...

  7. 78 FR 75441 - Certificates of Public Convenience and Necessity and Foreign Air Carrier Permits

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-11

    ... Office of the Secretary Certificates of Public Convenience and Necessity and Foreign Air Carrier Permits Notice of Applications for Certificates of Public Convenience and Necessity and Foreign Air Carrier... following Applications for Certificates of Public Convenience and Necessity and Foreign Air Carrier...

  8. 78 FR 76701 - Certificates of Public Convenience and Necessity and Foreign Air Carrier Permits

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-18

    ... Office of the Secretary Certificates of Public Convenience and Necessity and Foreign Air Carrier Permits Notice of Applications for Certificates of Public Convenience and Necessity and Foreign Air Carrier... following Applications for Certificates of Public Convenience and Necessity and Foreign Air Carrier...

  9. 75 FR 41564 - Notice of Applications for Certificates of Public Convenience and Necessity and Foreign Air...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-16

    ... Office of the Secretary Notice of Applications for Certificates of Public Convenience and Necessity and... The following Applications for Certificates of Public Convenience and Necessity and Foreign Air.... requesting a certificate of public convenience and necessity to engage in foreign scheduled...

  10. 78 FR 25782 - Certificates of Public Convenience and Necessity and Foreign Air Carrier Permits

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-02

    ... Office of the Secretary Certificates of Public Convenience and Necessity and Foreign Air Carrier Permits Notice of Applications for Certificates of Public Convenience and Necessity and Foreign Air Carrier... Applications for Certificates of Public Convenience and Necessity and Foreign Air Carrier Permits were...

  11. 78 FR 45011 - Notice of Applications for Certificates of Public Convenience and Necessity and Foreign Air...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-25

    ... Office of the Secretary Notice of Applications for Certificates of Public Convenience and Necessity and..., 2013 The following Applications for Certificates of Public Convenience and Necessity and Foreign Air... convenience and necessity in the name of ``ENDEAVOR AIR, INC.''. Barbara J. Hairston, Acting Program...

  12. 30 CFR 885.22 - When and how can my grant be terminated for convenience?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... convenience? 885.22 Section 885.22 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT... § 885.22 When and how can my grant be terminated for convenience? Either you or we may terminate the grant for convenience following the procedures in 43 CFR part 12....

  13. 76 FR 20435 - Notice of Applications for Certificates of Public Convenience and Necessity and Foreign Air...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-12

    ... Office of the Secretary Notice of Applications for Certificates of Public Convenience and Necessity and Foreign Air Carrier Permits Notice of Applications for Certificates of Public Convenience and Necessity... March 5, 2011. The following Applications for Certificates of Public Convenience and Necessity...

  14. 78 FR 68134 - Certificates of Public Convenience and Necessity and Foreign Air Carrier Permits

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-13

    ... Office of the Secretary Certificates of Public Convenience and Necessity and Foreign Air Carrier Permits Notice of Applications for Certificates of Public Convenience and Necessity and Foreign Air Carrier... Applications for Certificates of Public Convenience and Necessity and Foreign Air Carrier Permits were...

  15. 30 CFR 886.26 - When and how can my grant be terminated for convenience?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... convenience? 886.26 Section 886.26 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT... INDIAN TRIBES § 886.26 When and how can my grant be terminated for convenience? Either you or we may... worth the additional costs. We will handle a termination for convenience as an amendment to the grant...

  16. 78 FR 19354 - Certificates of Public Convenience and Necessity and Foreign Air Carrier Permits

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-29

    ... Office of the Secretary Certificates of Public Convenience and Necessity and Foreign Air Carrier Permits Notice of Applications for Certificates of Public Convenience and Necessity and Foreign Air Carrier... Applications for Certificates of Public Convenience and Necessity and Foreign Air Carrier Permits were...

  17. 78 FR 63273 - Notice of Applications for Certificates of Public Convenience and Necessity and Foreign Air...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-23

    ... Office of the Secretary Notice of Applications for Certificates of Public Convenience and Necessity and... Certificates of Public Convenience and Necessity and Foreign Air Carrier Permits Filed Under Subpart B... of Public Convenience and Necessity and Foreign Air Carrier Permits were filed under Subpart...

  18. 76 FR 68256 - Notice of Applications for Certificates of Public Convenience and Necessity and Foreign Air...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-03

    ... for Certificates of Public Convenience and Necessity and Foreign Air Carrier Permits Filed Under... Certificates of Public Convenience and Necessity and Foreign Air Carrier Permits were filed under Subpart B... Corporation (``JetBlue'') requesting a certificate of public convenience and necessity and requests...

  19. 77 FR 54945 - Notice of Applications for Certificates of Public Convenience and Necessity and Foreign Air...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-06

    ... Office of the Secretary Notice of Applications for Certificates of Public Convenience and Necessity and..., 2012 The following Applications for Certificates of Public Convenience and Necessity and Foreign Air... transfer of its certificates of public convenience and necessity to facilitate the reorganization of...

  20. 48 CFR 52.249-4 - Termination for Convenience of the Government (Services) (Short Form).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Convenience of the Government (Services) (Short Form). 52.249-4 Section 52.249-4 Federal Acquisition... CONTRACT CLAUSES Text of Provisions and Clauses 52.249-4 Termination for Convenience of the Government... convenience of the Government, limit termination settlement charges to services rendered before the date...

  1. 77 FR 49478 - Notice of Applications for Certificates of Public Convenience and Necessity and Foreign Air...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-16

    ... Office of the Secretary Notice of Applications for Certificates of Public Convenience and Necessity and..., 2012 The following Applications for Certificates of Public Convenience and Necessity and Foreign Air.../a Transair requesting a certificate of public convenience and necessity authorizing it to engage...

  2. 48 CFR 52.249-2 - Termination for Convenience of the Government (Fixed-Price).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Convenience of the Government (Fixed-Price). 52.249-2 Section 52.249-2 Federal Acquisition Regulations System... Text of Provisions and Clauses 52.249-2 Termination for Convenience of the Government (Fixed-Price). As prescribed in 49.502(b)(1)(i), insert the following clause: Termination for Convenience of the...

  3. 48 CFR 49.502 - Termination for convenience of the Government.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... convenience of the Government. 49.502 Section 49.502 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL... Termination for convenience of the Government. (a) Fixed-price contracts that do not exceed the simplified...-1, Termination for Convenience of the Government (Fixed-Price) (Short Form), in solicitations...

  4. 75 FR 16226 - Notice of Applications for Certificates of Public Convenience and Necessity and Foreign Air...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-31

    ... Office of the Secretary Notice of Applications for Certificates of Public Convenience and Necessity and..., 2010 The following Applications for Certificates of Public Convenience and Necessity and Foreign Air.... requesting a certificate of public convenience and necessity to engage in foreign scheduled...

  5. 75 FR 53999 - Office of the Secretary: Notice of Applications for Certificates of Public Convenience and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-02

    ... Office of the Secretary: Notice of Applications for Certificates of Public Convenience and Necessity and... Certificates of Public Convenience and Necessity and Foreign Air Carrier Permits Filed Under Subpart B... Public Convenience and Necessity and Foreign Air Carrier Permits were filed under Subpart B...

  6. A convenient method for determination of malathion based on the resonance Rayleigh scattering enhancement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Huan; Zhao, Yanmei; Tan, Xuanping; Huang, Yunmei; Yuan, Haiyan; Yang, Jidong

    2017-09-01

    A convenient method for determination of malathion (Mala) based on resonance Rayleigh scattering (RRS) enhancement of L-Tryptophan (L-Try)-Pd(II)-Mala system was proposed in this paper. The interaction between L-Try, Pd(II) and malathion in the system was investigated by fluorescence, RRS and UV-Vis absorption spectroscopy. In the optimum conditions, the RRS intensity of L-Try-Pd(II)-Mala system had a remarkable enhancement because the hydrolysis products of malathion would interact with Pd(II) and L-Try each other formed new complexes, which enhanced intensity was directly proportional to the malathion concentration within a certain range. Based on the RRS enhancement of L-Try-Pd(II) system by Mala, a novel, convenient and specific method for Mala determination was developed. To our knowledge, the method is the first RRS method for determination of Mala was reported. The detection limit for Mala was 6.7 ng/mL and the quantitative determination range was 0.06-0.6 μg/mL. The influence of coexisting substances on RRS was also investigated, and the RRS method exhibited good anti-interference ability. The new analytical method has been applied to determine of malathion in real samples with satisfactory results.

  7. Male coercion and convenience polyandry in a calopterygid damselfly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Cordero

    2002-08-01

    Full Text Available Copulation in odonates requires female cooperation because females must raise their abdomen to allow intromission. Nevertheless in Calopteryx haemorrhoidalis haemorrhoidalis (Odonata males commonly grasp ovipositing females and apparently force copulations. This has been interpreted as a consequence of extreme population density and male-male competition. We studied this behavior at two sites on a river that had different densities over three years. As predicted, at high densities most matings were forced (i.e. not preceded by courtship, but at low density most were preceded by courtship. Courtship matings were shorter at high density, but density did not affect the duration of forced matings. Females cooperated in forced matings even if they had very few mature eggs. Furthermore, females mated more times if they experienced higher male harassment during oviposition, and at low density second and subsequent matings were more likely to be forced. We interpret these results to mean that females engage in "convenience polyandry", because they gain more by accepting copulation than by resisting males. The results also suggest that females might trade copulations for male protection, because under extreme population density harassment by males is so intense that they can impede oviposition.

  8. Male coercion and convenience polyandry in a calopterygid damselfly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera, A Cordero; Andrés, J A

    2002-01-01

    Copulation in odonates requires female cooperation because females must raise their abdomen to allow intromission. Nevertheless in Calopteryx haemorrhoidalis haemorrhoidalis (Odonata) males commonly grasp ovipositing females and apparently force copulations. This has been interpreted as a consequence of extreme population density and male-male competition. We studied this behavior at two sites on a river that had different densities over three years. As predicted, at high densities most matings were forced (i.e. not preceded by courtship), but at low density most were preceded by courtship. Courtship matings were shorter at high density, but density did not affect the duration of forced matings. Females cooperated in forced matings even if they had very few mature eggs. Furthermore, females mated more times if they experienced higher male harassment during oviposition, and at low density second and subsequent matings were more likely to be forced. We interpret these results to mean that females engage in "convenience polyandry", because they gain more by accepting copulation than by resisting males. The results also suggest that females might trade copulations for male protection, because under extreme population density harassment by males is so intense that they can impede oviposition.

  9. An extremely rapid, convenient and mild coal desulfurization new process: Sodium borohydride reduction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Zhiling; Sun, Tonghua; Jia, Jinping [School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, 800 Dongchuan Road, Shanghai 200240 (China)

    2010-09-15

    The present work describes the desulfurization of coal using mildly reductive method. Both a Yanzhou and a Yanshan coal (referred to as YZ and YS coal, respectively), were treated in an aqueous media employing sodium borohydride (NaBH{sub 4}) as reducing agent, which is a well known hydrogen storage. Reaction variables investigated include concentration of reductant, time, pH of initial media, temperature, stirring rate and particle size. The calorific values and ignition temperatures of the coal samples before and after treatment were determined. Results show that the total sulfur removal improved with the increase in the concentration of NaBH{sub 4}, shaking rate and temperature and with the decrease in the particle size. Meanwhile, decreasing the particle size from - 250 to - 109 {mu}m increased the organic sulfur removal by more than six times for either of the coal samples. Considering economic rationality and operational convenience, the desulfurization conditions determined were 1.6 mM of NaBH{sub 4} concentration, - 109 {mu}m of particle size, neutral pH of initial media, 1 min of treated time, 100 rpm of shaking rate, 30 C of temperature. This led to 23.8% and 59.0% reduction in the pyritic, 70.4% and 100% reduction in the sulfate, and 11.0% and 15.0% reduction in the organic sulfur, giving 31.3% and 40.8% reduction in the total sulfur for the YZ coal and the YS coal, respectively. Moreover, this resulted in the increase in the calorific values by 3.4-6.9% and the decrease in the ignition temperatures by 2-21 C for the coal samples. The desulfurization method described here is extremely rapid, convenient, inexpensive and mild, and therefore, has considerable technological interest. (author)

  10. FUTURE ESTIMATION OF CONVENIENCE LIVING FACILITIES WITHDRAWAL DUE TO POPULATION DECLINE ALL OVER JAPAN FROM 2010 TO 2040 - FOCUS ON SUPERMARKETS, CONVENIENCE STORES AND DRUGSTORES

    OpenAIRE

    NISHIMOTO, Yuka; Akiyama, Yuki; Shibasaki, Ryosuke

    2016-01-01

    Population explosion is considered to be one of the most crucial problems in the world. However, in Japan, the opposite problem: population decline has become serious now. Japanese population is estimated to decrease by twenty millions in 2040. This negative situation will cause to increase areas where many residents cannot make a daily living all over Japan because many convenience living facilities such as supermarkets, convenience stores and drugstores will be difficult to maintai...

  11. Multilevel modeling was a convenient alternative to common regression designs in longitudinal suicide research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antretter, Elfi; Dunkel, Dirk; Osvath, Peter; Voros, Viktor; Fekete, Sandor; Haring, Christian

    2006-06-01

    The prospective investigation of repetitive nonfatal suicidal behavior is associated with two methodological problems. Due to the commonly used definitions of nonfatal suicidal behavior, clinical samples usually consist of patients with a considerable between-person variability. Second, repeated nonfatal suicidal episodes of the same subjects are likely to be correlated. We examined three regression techniques to comparatively evaluate their efficiency in addressing the given methodological problems. Repeated episodes of nonfatal suicidal behavior were assessed in two independent patient samples during a 2-year follow-up period. The first regression design modeled repetitive nonfatal suicidal behavior as a summary measure. The second regression model treated repeated episodes of the same subject as independent events. The third regression model represented a hierarchical linear model. The estimated mean effects of the first model were likely to be nonrepresentative for a considerable part of the study subjects. The second regression design overemphasized the impact of the predictor variables. The hierarchical linear model most appropriately accounted for the heterogeneity of the samples and the correlated data structure. The nonhierarchical regression designs did not provide appropriate statistical models for the prospective investigation of repetitive nonfatal suicidal behavior. Multilevel modeling provides a convenient alternative.

  12. What does the convenience yield curve tell us about the crude oil market?

    OpenAIRE

    Alquist, Ron; Gregory H. Bauer; Díez de los Ríos, Antonio

    2014-01-01

    Using the prices of crude oil futures contracts, we construct the term structure of crude oil convenience yields out to one-year maturity. The crude oil convenience yield can be interpreted as the interest rate, denominated in barrels of oil, for borrowing a single barrel of oil, and it measures the value of storing crude oil over the borrowing period. We show that the convenience yield curve is well explained by a level and a slope factor. Consistent with the theory of storage, convenience y...

  13. Combining vitamin A and vaccines: convenience or conflict?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benn, Christine Stabell

    2012-01-01

    with important consequences for mortality. First, a smaller dose of vitamin A was more beneficial than a larger dose for girls. Second, the effect of vitamin A given with DTP vaccine was significantly different from the effect of vitamin A given with measles vaccine, and children, who received vitamin A with DTP vaccine, had higher mortality than children, who had received vitamin A alone, or who did not receive anything. Third, vitamin A given with BCG at birth interacted negatively with subsequent DTP vaccines in girls. Fourth, the effect of vitamin A to older children in Ghana depended on vaccination status, being beneficial in boys, but harmful in girls who received DTP vaccine during follow-up. The results also show that boys and girls respond differently to vitamin A and vaccines. It is a common assumption within public health in low-income countries that interventions can be combined without producing unexpected consequences. The work presented in this thesis confronts this assumption; the results show that vitamin A and vaccines should be seen not only as specific interventions with specific and independent effects, but as immuno-modulators, which can interact with important consequences for overall mortality. Combining interventions can be convenient and lead to synergistic health benefits, but we documented several examples, where it also leads to unexpectedly increased mortality. Thus, to optimise the child health intervention policy in low-income countries a shift in paradigm is needed. Health interventions should no longer be seen as merely specific and independent, and the policy should probably not be the same for boys and girls. Though more complex, it is necessary to evaluate all health interventions in terms of their effect on overall mortality - and their potential interactions with other health interventions and potential sex-differential effects should always be investigated. Only in this way can we assure that the children in the poorest countries

  14. Convenient diagnosis of spinal and bulbar muscular atrophy using a microchip electrophoresis system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maruyama, Hirofumi; Morino, Hiroyuki; Izumi, Yuishin; Noda, Kouichi; Kawakami, Hideshi

    2013-01-01

    Spinal and bulbar muscular atrophy (SBMA) is a slowly progressive motor neuron disease. Lower and primary sensory neuronopathy is one of the major neuropathological changes that occurs in SBMA. However, many sings are common to SBMA and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), and SBMA patients are sometimes diagnosed with ALS. Leuprorelin may be used to treat SBMA, but an accurate diagnosis is necessary for treatment and care. Genetic diagnosis can be performed to detect the expansion of a CAG repeat in the androgen receptor gene in SBMA patients. To screen for this expansion, we used a microchip electrophoresis system. The discrepancy between the actual repeat length and that found by the microchip electrophoresis system was roughly dependent on the repeat length. The mean difference was -6.8 base pairs (bp) in SBMA patients, -0.30 bp in controls. The microchip electrophoresis results were approximately 2 CAG repeats shorter than the actual repeat length in SBMA patients. Using this method, we screened our ALS samples (31 were familial, 271 were sporadic): 4 subjects were diagnosed with SBMA; 2 had familial ALS, and 2 had sporadic ALS (0.7%). The microchip electrophoresis system is semi-quantitative, convenient and useful for screening a large number of samples.

  15. Regulatory focus and food choice motives. Prevention orientation associated with mood, convenience, and familiarity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pula, Kacy; Parks, Craig D; Ross, Carolyn F

    2014-07-01

    The authors tested the robustness of the Food Choice Questionnaire (FCQ) with a U.S. sample and examined the relationship between individual differences in regulatory focus and everyday food choice motives. Although a popular measure in cross-culture research, the FCQ has seen limited use with U.S. samples, and its psychometric properties have not been tested in this population. American participants (n = 408) completed the Regulatory Focus Questionnaire and a measure of food choice motives. The data did not support the nine-factor FCQ structure. An ad hoc revised measure of food choice motives showed complete measurement invariance (loadings, intercepts, and residuals) across regulatory focus. Regarding everyday food choices, participants with a prevention focus placed greater importance on mood, convenience, and familiarity than participants with a promotion focus. There were no significant differences regarding the importance of health, environmental protection, impression management, natural content, price, and sensory appeal. Several food choice motives were positively correlated. Compared with the promotion-focused participants, the prevention-focused participants more strongly associated the importance of sensory appeal with the importance of natural content and the importance of price. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. The economic impact of state cigarette taxes and smoke-free air policies on convenience stores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jidong; Chaloupka, Frank J

    2013-03-01

    To investigate whether increasing state cigarette taxes and/or enacting stronger smoke-free air (SFA) policies have negative impact on convenience store density in a state, a proxy that is determined by store openings and closings, which reflects store profits. State-level business count estimates for convenience stores for 50 states and District of Columbia from 1997 to 2009 were analysed using two-way fixed effects regression techniques that control for state-specific and year-specific determinants of convenience store density. The impact of tax and SFA policies was examined using a quasi-experimental research design that exploits changes in cigarette taxes and SFA policies within a state over time. Taxes are found to be uncorrelated with the density of combined convenience stores and gas stations in a state. Taxes are positively correlated with the density of convenience stores; however, the magnitude of this correlation is small, with a 10% increase in state cigarette taxes associated with a 0.19% (pincrease in the number of convenience stores per million people in a state. State-level SFA policies do not correlate with convenience store density in a state, regardless whether gas stations were included. These results are robust across different model specifications. In addition, they are robust with regard to the inclusion/exclusion of other state-level tobacco control measures and gasoline prices. Contrary to tobacco industry and related organisations' claims, higher cigarette taxes and stronger SFA policies do not negatively affect convenience stores.

  17. 77 FR 70208 - Notice of Applications for Certificates of Public Convenience and Necessity and Foreign Air...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-23

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Office of the Secretary Notice of Applications for Certificates of Public Convenience and Necessity and..., 2012 The following Applications for Certificates of Public Convenience and Necessity and Foreign...

  18. 76 FR 27167 - Notice of Applications for Certificates of Public Convenience and Necessity and Foreign Air...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-10

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Office of the Secretary Notice of Applications for Certificates of Public Convenience and Necessity and..., 2011 The following Applications for Certificates of Public Convenience and Necessity and Foreign...

  19. 48 CFR 970.4905-1 - Termination for convenience of the government and default.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Termination for convenience of the government and default. 970.4905-1 Section 970.4905-1 Federal Acquisition Regulations... Termination of Contracts 970.4905-1 Termination for convenience of the government and default. (a)...

  20. 77 FR 27832 - Notice of Applications for Certificates of Public Convenience and Necessity and Foreign Air...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-11

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Office of the Secretary Notice of Applications for Certificates of Public Convenience and Necessity and..., 2012 The following Applications for Certificates of Public Convenience and Necessity and Foreign...

  1. 78 FR 56984 - Notice of Applications for Certificates of Public Convenience and Necessity and Foreign Air...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-16

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Office of the Secretary Notice of Applications for Certificates of Public Convenience and Necessity and..., 2013 The following Applications for Certificates of Public Convenience and Necessity and Foreign...

  2. 77 FR 67731 - Notice of Applications for Certificates of Public Convenience and Necessity and Foreign Air...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-13

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Office of the Secretary Notice of Applications for Certificates of Public Convenience and Necessity and..., 2012 The following Applications for Certificates of Public Convenience and Necessity and Foreign...

  3. 77 FR 13682 - Notice of Applications for Certificates of Public Convenience and Necessity and Foreign Air...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-07

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Office of the Secretary Notice of Applications for Certificates of Public Convenience and Necessity and..., 2012 The following Applications for Certificates of Public Convenience and Necessity and Foreign...

  4. 76 FR 10084 - Notice of Applications for Certificates of Public Convenience and Necessity and Foreign Air...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-23

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Office of the Secretary Notice of Applications for Certificates of Public Convenience and Necessity and..., 2011 The following Applications for Certificates of Public Convenience and Necessity and Foreign...

  5. 75 FR 39324 - Office of the Secretary: Notice of Applications for Certificates of Public Convenience and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-08

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Office of the Secretary: Notice of Applications for Certificates of Public Convenience and Necessity and..., 2010 The following Applications for Certificates of Public Convenience and Necessity and Foreign...

  6. 76 FR 70210 - Notice of Applications for Certificates of Public Convenience and Necessity and Foreign Air...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-10

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Office of the Secretary Notice of Applications for Certificates of Public Convenience and Necessity and..., 2011 The following Applications for Certificates of Public Convenience and Necessity and Foreign...

  7. 48 CFR 49.503 - Termination for convenience of the Government and default.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Termination for convenience of the Government and default. 49.503 Section 49.503 Federal Acquisition Regulations System... 49.503 Termination for convenience of the Government and default. (a) Cost-reimbursement...

  8. 48 CFR 1649.101-71 - FEHBP termination for convenience clause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true FEHBP termination for convenience clause. 1649.101-71 Section 1649.101-71 Federal Acquisition Regulations System OFFICE OF PERSONNEL... CONTRACTS General Principles 1649.101-71 FEHBP termination for convenience clause. The clause set forth...

  9. 34 CFR 300.515 - Timelines and convenience of hearings and reviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Timelines and convenience of hearings and reviews. 300.515 Section 300.515 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued... and Children § 300.515 Timelines and convenience of hearings and reviews. (a) The public agency...

  10. 75 FR 22891 - Notice of Applications for Certificates of Public Convenience and Necessity and Foreign Air...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-30

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Office of the Secretary Notice of Applications for Certificates of Public Convenience and Necessity and..., 2010 The following Applications for Certificates of Public Convenience and Necessity and Foreign...

  11. 77 FR 47691 - Notice of Applications for Certificates of Public Convenience and Necessity and Foreign Air...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-09

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Office of the Secretary Notice of Applications for Certificates of Public Convenience and Necessity and..., 2012 The following Applications for Certificates of Public Convenience and Necessity and Foreign...

  12. 76 FR 72025 - Notice of Applications for Certificates of Public Convenience and Necessity and Foreign Air...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-21

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Office of the Secretary Notice of Applications for Certificates of Public Convenience and Necessity and..., 2011 The following Applications for Certificates of Public Convenience and Necessity and Foreign...

  13. 77 FR 27833 - Notice of Applications for Certificates of Public Convenience and Necessity and Foreign Air...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-11

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Office of the Secretary Notice of Applications for Certificates of Public Convenience and Necessity and..., 2012 The following Applications for Certificates of Public Convenience and Necessity and Foreign...

  14. 76 FR 13444 - Notice of Applications for Certificates of Public Convenience and Necessity and Foreign Air...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-11

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Office of the Secretary Notice of Applications for Certificates of Public Convenience and Necessity and..., 2011 The following Applications for Certificates of Public Convenience and Necessity and Foreign...

  15. Perceived Convenience in an Extended Technology Acceptance Model: Mobile Technology and English Learning for College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Chi-Cheng; Yan, Chi-Fang; Tseng, Ju-Shih

    2012-01-01

    Since convenience is one of the features for mobile learning, does it affect attitude and intention of using mobile technology? The technology acceptance model (TAM), proposed by David (1989), was extended with perceived convenience in the present study. With regard to English language mobile learning, the variables in the extended TAM and its…

  16. Future Estimation of Convenience Living Facilities Withdrawal due to Population Decline all Over Japan from 2010 TO 2040 - Focus on Supermarkets, Convenience Stores and Drugstores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishimoto, Yuka; Akiyama, Yuki; Shibasaki, Ryosuke

    2016-06-01

    Population explosion is considered to be one of the most crucial problems in the world. However, in Japan, the opposite problem: population decline has become serious now. Japanese population is estimated to decrease by twenty millions in 2040. This negative situation will cause to increase areas where many residents cannot make a daily living all over Japan because many convenience living facilities such as supermarkets, convenience stores and drugstores will be difficult to maintain their market area population due to future population decline. In our research, we used point data of convenience living facilities developed by address geocoding of digital telephone directory and point data of future population projection developed by distribution of Japanese official population projection data proportionally among the building volume of digital residential map, which can monitor building volumes all over Japan. In conclusion, we estimated that various convenience living facilities in Japan will shrink and close by population decline in near future. In particular, it is cleared that approximately 14.7% of supermarkets will be possible to withdraw all over Japan by 2040. In addition, it is cleared that over 40% of supermarkets in some countryside prefectures will be possible to withdraw by 2040. Thus, we estimated future distributions of convenience living facilities that cannot maintain their market area population due to future population decline. Moreover, we estimated the number of people that they will become inconvenience in buying fresh foods.

  17. The effect of service convenience on word - of - mouth and repurchase intention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    zohre dehdashti shahrokh

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The service convenience represents the core values of customer time and energy expended during and after receiving services. The high level of convenience, facilitate customer purchase decision process and helps him by saving the time and effort to better understand the services provided tangible evidence. This paper examines the impact of the service convenience of word of mouth and repurchases intention to MTN's customers. To collect data of 196 patients were randomly selected. The results of data analysis using structural equation modeling, the relationship between the service convenience with satisfaction, repurchase intention was approved by word of mouth. Perceived service value adjusts the relation between service convenience and customer satisfaction, the impact of trust on word of mouth was not approved.

  18. CAN MONEY BUY CONVENIENCE: A STUDY ON INCOME AS A MOTIVATOR OF ONLINE SHOPPING?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pallabi Mishra

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The fast and hectic life of professionals has created an essence of convenience and urgency in their activities and behavior. With the advent of technology and the swift internet era online activities are on a growing trend. This growing trend in online shopping has led to the consideration of this paper which aims to explore the role of individual income as a motivator of online shopping behavior. This study is descriptive in nature. It consists of primary survey of customers belonging to different individual income levels. The researcher has classified respondents on the basis of their individual income earned per annum into low, medium and high category. It investigates the influence of demographic factor income on shopping experiences of users of the major shopping websites of India. Data has been collected both from primary as well as secondary sources. The sampling technique used is convenience with a sample size of 755.The research results reveal that there is no significant effect of income on product categories purchased online. The effect of income on frequency of online shopping is not significant. There is no significant effect of income on payment mode in online shopping. Further there is no significant relationship between income and satisfaction in online shopping.The managers can benefit immensely from the results. Customers are offer driven in case of all items except necessary and emergency goods. The necessary items would sell even if there is no discount and offers on them. For other items offers and discounts influence the shopping behavior. The higher the offer the better the sale. Moreover to gain competitive advantage online marketers need to provide products and brands of higher value to customers. The cash on delivery facility should be applied to all product categories across the country so that every customer benefits from it. Care should be taken to manage reverse logistics as there should be a pick up facility from

  19. Sampling for evaluation. Issues and strategies for community-based HIV prevention programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connell, A A

    2000-06-01

    Sampling methods are an important issue in the evaluation of community-based HIV prevention initiatives because it is through responsible sampling procedures that a valid model of the population is produced and reliable estimates of behavior change determined. This article provides an overview on sampling with particular focus on the needs of community-based organizations (CBOs). As these organizations continue to improve their capacity for sampling and program evaluation activities, comparisons across CBOs can become more rigorous, resulting in valuable information collectively regarding the effectiveness of particular HIV prevention initiatives. The author reviews several probability and non-probability sampling designs; discusses bias, cost, and feasibility factors in design selection; and presents six guidelines designed to encourage community organizations to consider these important sampling issues as they plan their program evaluations.

  20. Aluminum levels in convenience and fast foods: in vitro study of the absorbable fraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, Francisco E; Cabrera, Carmen; Lorenzo, M Luisa; López, M Carmen

    2002-12-01

    We evaluated the levels of aluminum in a total of 120 samples of 35 different convenience and fast foods that are widely consumed in Spain. Aluminum was determined in the samples mineralized with HNO3, HClO4 and V2O5, using electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry as the analytical technique. Reliability of the procedure was checked by statistically comparing the results with those obtained with a previous microwave oven mineralization stage and by analysis of several certified reference materials. No matrix effect was observed and aqueous standard solutions were used for calibration. The detection limit was 4.0 pg and the characteristic mass of 10.0 pg. Aluminum concentrations ranged from 0.85 to 38.10 microg/g, refereed to fresh weight of the edible portion. The presence of this metal was detected in all the samples we analyzed, but the most elevated levels were encountered in pork- and chicken- based foods (mean 8.45 and 13.94 microg/g, respectively). The more elevated Al concentrations were detected in foods with a greater content of spices and aromatic herbs, pasta, certain vegetables and additives, and foods packaged in Al vessels. The absorbable fraction of Al estimated with in vitro assays was between 0.85 and 2.15%. The growing popularity of these products in recent years requires additional data and a periodical control. In addition, the present findings are of potential use to efforts aimed at determining tolerable levels of Al intake from the diet.

  1. Disparities of Food Availability and Affordability within Convenience Stores in Bexar County, Texas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew Lee Smith

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The American Diabetes Association (ADA recommends healthful food choices; however, some geographic areas are limited in the types of foods they offer. Little is known about the role of convenience stores as viable channels to provide healthier foods in our “grab and go” society. The purposes of this study were to (1 identify foods offered within convenience stores located in two Bexar County, Texas, ZIP Codes and (2 compare the availability and cost of ADA-recommended foods including beverages, produce, grains, and oils/fats. Data were analyzed from 28 convenience store audits performed in two sociodemographically diverse ZIP Codes in Bexar County, Texas. Chi-squared tests were used to compare food availability, and t-tests were used to compare food cost in convenience stores between ZIP Codes. A significantly larger proportion of convenience stores in more affluent areas offered bananas (χ2=4.17, P=0.003, whole grain bread (χ2=8.33, P=0.004, and baked potato chips (χ2=13.68, P<0.001. On average, the price of diet cola (t=−2.12, P=0.044 and certain produce items (e.g., bananas, oranges, tomatoes, broccoli, and cucumber was significantly higher within convenience stores in more affluent areas. Convenience stores can play an important role to positively shape a community’s food environment by stocking healthier foods at affordable prices.

  2. Disparities of Food Availability and Affordability within Convenience Stores in Bexar County, Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Matthew Lee; Sunil, T. S.; Salazar, Camerino I.; Rafique, Sadaf; Ory, Marcia G.

    2013-01-01

    The American Diabetes Association (ADA) recommends healthful food choices; however, some geographic areas are limited in the types of foods they offer. Little is known about the role of convenience stores as viable channels to provide healthier foods in our “grab and go” society. The purposes of this study were to (1) identify foods offered within convenience stores located in two Bexar County, Texas, ZIP Codes and (2) compare the availability and cost of ADA-recommended foods including beverages, produce, grains, and oils/fats. Data were analyzed from 28 convenience store audits performed in two sociodemographically diverse ZIP Codes in Bexar County, Texas. Chi-squared tests were used to compare food availability, and t-tests were used to compare food cost in convenience stores between ZIP Codes. A significantly larger proportion of convenience stores in more affluent areas offered bananas (χ2 = 4.17, P = 0.003), whole grain bread (χ2 = 8.33, P = 0.004), and baked potato chips (χ2 = 13.68, P < 0.001). On average, the price of diet cola (t = −2.12, P = 0.044) and certain produce items (e.g., bananas, oranges, tomatoes, broccoli, and cucumber) was significantly higher within convenience stores in more affluent areas. Convenience stores can play an important role to positively shape a community's food environment by stocking healthier foods at affordable prices. PMID:23935645

  3. Robotic voltammetry with carbon nanotube-based sensors: a superb blend for convenient high-quality antimicrobial trace analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theanponkrang, Somjai; Suginta, Wipa; Weingart, Helge; Winterhalter, Mathias; Schulte, Albert

    2015-01-01

    A new automated pharmacoanalytical technique for convenient quantification of redox-active antibiotics has been established by combining the benefits of a carbon nanotube (CNT) sensor modification with electrocatalytic activity for analyte detection with the merits of a robotic electrochemical device that is capable of sequential nonmanual sample measurements in 24-well microtiter plates. Norfloxacin (NFX) and ciprofloxacin (CFX), two standard fluoroquinolone antibiotics, were used in automated calibration measurements by differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) and accomplished were linear ranges of 1–10 μM and 2–100 μM for NFX and CFX, respectively. The lowest detectable levels were estimated to be 0.3±0.1 μM (n=7) for NFX and 1.6±0.1 μM (n=7) for CFX. In standard solutions or tablet samples of known content, both analytes could be quantified with the robotic DPV microtiter plate assay, with recoveries within ±4% of 100%. And recoveries were as good when NFX was evaluated in human serum samples with added NFX. The use of simple instrumentation, convenience in execution, and high effectiveness in analyte quantitation suggest the merger between automated microtiter plate voltammetry and CNT-supported electrochemical drug detection as a novel methodology for antibiotic testing in pharmaceutical and clinical research and quality control laboratories. PMID:25670899

  4. Caesium-137 soil sampling and inventory variability in reference locations: A literature survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutherland, Ross A.

    1996-01-01

    Soil sampling design, the number of samples collected and the lateral variation of caesium-137 (137Cs) in uneroded reference locations were extracted from previously published work. The focus was on published work which used 137Cs reference inventory (Bq m-2) for qualitative or quantitative estimation of sediment redistribution (SRD) within the landscape. The objective of this study was to address one of the methodological concerns facing the 137Cs technique - that is, the lack of a rigorous statistical treatment of reference locations. The limited attention paid to the reference location is not justified as true estimates of SRD are based on the assumption of an unbiased, independent, random probability sample estimate, commonly the arithmetic mean. Results from the literature survey indicated that only 11% of the reference locations sampled for 137Cs expressly stated that a probability sampling design was used (transect or systematic-aligned grid). The remaining locations were generally sampled using a non-probability based design, more commonly known as haphazard sampling. Of the 75 reference study areas identified only 40 provided enough information to determine the dispersion around the mean, and from this the coefficient of variation (CV) was calculated for all available data. The median CV was 19·3%, with 95% confidence limits of 13·0-23.4%, indicating that approximately 11 random, independent samples would generally be necessary to adequately quantify the reference 137Cs area activity with an allowable error of 10% at 90% confidence. Further analysis indicated that only one-third of the studies sampled a sufficient number of 137Cs reference locations. This value would actually be lower as sampling frameworks were based on non-probability sampling procedures. For 137Cs reference locations it is recommended that a probability sampling design be utilized, preferably the systematic-aligned grid method, and as a minimum first-order estimate about 11 samples

  5. Sampling considerations for disease surveillance in wildlife populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nusser, S.M.; Clark, W.R.; Otis, D.L.; Huang, L.

    2008-01-01

    Disease surveillance in wildlife populations involves detecting the presence of a disease, characterizing its prevalence and spread, and subsequent monitoring. A probability sample of animals selected from the population and corresponding estimators of disease prevalence and detection provide estimates with quantifiable statistical properties, but this approach is rarely used. Although wildlife scientists often assume probability sampling and random disease distributions to calculate sample sizes, convenience samples (i.e., samples of readily available animals) are typically used, and disease distributions are rarely random. We demonstrate how landscape-based simulation can be used to explore properties of estimators from convenience samples in relation to probability samples. We used simulation methods to model what is known about the habitat preferences of the wildlife population, the disease distribution, and the potential biases of the convenience-sample approach. Using chronic wasting disease in free-ranging deer (Odocoileus virginianus) as a simple illustration, we show that using probability sample designs with appropriate estimators provides unbiased surveillance parameter estimates but that the selection bias and coverage errors associated with convenience samples can lead to biased and misleading results. We also suggest practical alternatives to convenience samples that mix probability and convenience sampling. For example, a sample of land areas can be selected using a probability design that oversamples areas with larger animal populations, followed by harvesting of individual animals within sampled areas using a convenience sampling method.

  6. Microbial quality of soft drinks served by the dispensing machines in fast food restaurants and convenience stores in Griffin, Georgia, and surrounding areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Yoen Ju; Chen, Jinru

    2009-12-01

    This study was undertaken to evaluate the microbial quality of the soft drinks served by fast food restaurants and gas station convenience stores in Griffin, GA, and surrounding areas. The soft drinks were collected from the dispensing machines in 8 fast food restaurants or gas station convenience stores in 2005 (n = 25) and in 10 fast food restaurants or gas station convenience stores in 2006 (n = 43) and 2007 (n = 43). One hundred milliliters of each soft drink was filtered through a hydrophobic grid membrane filter. The remaining portion of the soft drink was kept at room temperature for 4 h before sampling in order to mimic the possible holding time between purchase and consumption. The membrane filters were sampled for total aerobic bacteria, Enterobacteriaceae, lactic acid bacteria, and yeasts and molds. The microbial counts in the 2006 samples were numerically higher than the counts in the 2007 samples except for the average lactic acid bacteria counts, and were either significantly or numerically higher than the counts in the 2005 samples. Soft drinks sampled after the 4-h holding period had relatively higher counts than those sampled initially, with a few exceptions. Some soft drinks had over 4 log CFU/100 ml of total aerobic bacteria, Enterobacteriaceae, lactic acid bacteria, and yeast and mold cells. The study revealed the microbial quality of soft drinks served by dispensing machines in Griffin, GA, and surrounding areas, emphasizing the importance of effective sanitizing practice in retail settings.

  7. Convenience store visits by US adolescents: Rationale for healthier retail environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders-Jackson, Ashley; Parikh, Nina M; Schleicher, Nina C; Fortmann, Stephen P; Henriksen, Lisa

    2015-07-01

    Given interest in the public health impact of convenience stores, it is surprising that so little is known about the popularity of these destinations for youth. We surveyed 2772 adolescents (age 13-16) from a nationally representative web panel of US households. Nearly half (47.5%) of adolescents reported visiting convenience stores at least weekly. Significant risk factors for frequent visits were age, being African-American, living in rural areas and in areas with higher levels of neighborhood deprivation. With approximately 4.1 million US adolescents visiting convenience stores at least weekly, new policies and other interventions are needed to promote a healthier retail environment for youth.

  8. Development and quality evaluation of quick cooking dhal-A convenience product.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sethi, Shruti; Samuel, D V K; Khan, Islam

    2014-03-01

    Owing to rapid urbanization and more women joining the workforce, use of ready-to-eat and ready-to-use convenience foods is gaining increasing popularity. Women require dhal that cooks fast and increases in volume when cooked. In an attempt to prepare quick cooking dhal from pigeon pea, variety UPAS 120 was milled, pre-treated with sodium chloride solution (1%), flaked and dried. The quick cooking dhal was packed in three packaging materials, namely, high molecular weight high density polyethylene (HMHDPE), high density polyethylene (HDPE) and laminated pouches. The quality evaluation of the prepared flakes with respect to the cooking quality attributes, changes in proximate composition, free fatty acid (FFA) and peroxide value (PV) were carried out during storage at ambient temperature (8-36°C) at regular intervals for a period of 10 months. During storage, quick cooking dhal packed in laminated pouches performed better than samples stored in other pouches with respect to the changes in the overall quality and acceptability of the product.

  9. Synthesis and herbicidal activities of pyridyl sulfonylureas:More convenient preparation process of phenyl pyrimidylcarbamates

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ning Ma; Zhi Jin Fan; Bao Lei Wang; Yong Hong Li; Zheng Ming Li

    2008-01-01

    Four 4-monosubstituted pyrimidine pyridyl sulfonylureas were synthesized from pyridinesulfonamide and phenyl pyrimidyl-carbamate and screened for herbicidal activities.We also reported a convenient preparation process of phenyl pyrimidylcarbamates from pyrimidineamine and phenyl chloroformate.

  10. The ideology of convenience. Canned foods in women's magazines (Flanders, 1945-1960).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geyzen, Anneke

    2015-11-01

    This paper investigates the communication of canned foods in Flanders between 1945 and 1960. It forwards the antinomy between convenience and care as theoretical framework, it uses three women's magazines as source material, and it subjects this material to the technique of close reading. The results show that the discursive construction of canned foods differs according to the ideology of the magazines. Whereas the agrarian periodical discarded canned foods as careless convenience that menaced the idea of the good housewife, the socialist and the commercial publications undeniably accepted them as caring convenience that could facilitate the household chores of working women. The analysis, thus, deals with the ideological aspect of convenience food, an aspect that has only rarely been examined.

  11. Microwave-assisted convenient synthesis of N-arylpyrrolidines in water

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hong Bo Li; Wu Liang; Lang Liu; Kai Chen; Yi Wu

    2011-01-01

    An efficient and clean synthesis of N-arylpyrrolidines from arylamines and 1,4-dimesyloxybutane was developed using microwave irradiation in an aqueous potassium carbonate medium without any catalyst. The procedure is rapid, simple and convenient.

  12. 78 FR 17389 - Texas Eastern Transmission, LP; Notice of Application for Certificate of Public Convenience and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-21

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Texas Eastern Transmission, LP; Notice of Application for Certificate of Public Convenience and Necessity and Authorization for Abandonment Take notice that on February...

  13. Notification: Fiscal Year 2015 Risk Assessment of EPA's Purchase Card and Convenience Check Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Project #OA-FY15-0064, August 26, 2015. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Office oflnspector General (OIG) plans to begin the preliminary research phase ofauditing the agency's purchase card and convenience check programs.

  14. Notification: Review of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Purchase Card and Convenience Check Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Project #OA-FY13-0116, December 20, 2012. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Inspector General, plans to begin preliminary research for an audit of the agency’s purchase card and convenience check programs.

  15. A convenient method for lactonization of α-allyl esters using iodine ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A convenient method for lactonization of α-allyl esters using iodine in dimethyl- sulphoxide. ... KEY WORDS: γ-Butyrolactones, α-Allyl esters, Iodine, Dimethyl sulphoxide. Bull. Chem. Soc. Ethiop. 2014, 28(3) ... Article Metrics. Metrics Loading .

  16. Attitudes and behaviour towards convenience food and food waste in the United Kingdom

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Households in the UK discard much food. A reduction in such waste to mitigate environmental impact is part of UK government policy. This study investigated whether household food waste is linked to a lifestyle reliant on convenience food in younger consumers. A survey of 928 UK residents aged 18-40 years and responsible for the household food shopping (male n = 278; female n = 650) completed an online questionnaire designed to measure attitudes to convenience food and to quantify household fo...

  17. Si Bule Masuk Islam: Western Converts to Islam in Indonesia - more than just Converts of Convenience?

    OpenAIRE

    M. A. Kevin Brice

    2015-01-01

    In discussing converts to Islam, two different types of converts are often identified based on the reason for conversion: converts of convenience and converts of conviction. The common view is that in most (if not all) cases, conversion to Islam in Indonesia by Westerners is about facilitating marriage and so the converts should be classified as converts of convenience. Evidence of the commonality of this view is considered by reference to advice offered to Westerners about marriage to Indone...

  18. Probability sampling design in ethnobotanical surveys of medicinal plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariano Martinez Espinosa

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Non-probability sampling design can be used in ethnobotanical surveys of medicinal plants. However, this method does not allow statistical inferences to be made from the data generated. The aim of this paper is to present a probability sampling design that is applicable in ethnobotanical studies of medicinal plants. The sampling design employed in the research titled "Ethnobotanical knowledge of medicinal plants used by traditional communities of Nossa Senhora Aparecida do Chumbo district (NSACD, Poconé, Mato Grosso, Brazil" was used as a case study. Probability sampling methods (simple random and stratified sampling were used in this study. In order to determine the sample size, the following data were considered: population size (N of 1179 families; confidence coefficient, 95%; sample error (d, 0.05; and a proportion (p, 0.5. The application of this sampling method resulted in a sample size (n of at least 290 families in the district. The present study concludes that probability sampling methods necessarily have to be employed in ethnobotanical studies of medicinal plants, particularly where statistical inferences have to be made using data obtained. This can be achieved by applying different existing probability sampling methods, or better still, a combination of such methods.

  19. Small Convenience Stores and the Local Food Environment: An Analysis of Resident Shopping Behavior Using Multilevel Modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruff, Ryan Richard; Akhund, Ali; Adjoian, Tamar

    2016-01-01

    Local food environments can influence the diet and health of individuals through food availability, proximity to retail stores, pricing, and promotion. This study focused on how small convenience stores, known in New York City as bodegas, influence resident shopping behavior and the food environment. Using a cross-sectional design, 171 bodegas and 2118 shoppers were sampled. Small convenience stores in New York City. Any bodega shopper aged 18+ who purchased food or beverage from a participating store. Data collection consisted of a store assessment, a health and behavior survey given to exiting customers, and a bag check that recorded product information for all customer purchases. Descriptive statistics were generated for bodega store characteristics, shopper demographics, and purchase behavior. Multilevel models were used to assess the influence of product availability, placement, and advertising on consumer purchases of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs), water, and fruits and vegetables. Seventy-one percent of participants reported shopping at bodegas five or more times per week, and 35% reported purchasing all or most of their monthly food allotment at bodegas. Model results indicated that lower amounts of available fresh produce were significantly and independently associated with a higher likelihood of SSB purchases. A second, stratified multilevel model showed that the likelihood of purchasing an SSB increased with decreasing varieties of produce when produce was located at the front of the store. No significant effects were found for water placement and beverage advertising. Small convenience stores in New York City are an easily accessible source of foods and beverages. Bodegas may be suitable for interventions designed to improve food choice and diet.

  20. 48 CFR 52.249-5 - Termination for Convenience of the Government (Educational and Other Nonprofit Institutions).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Convenience of the Government (Educational and Other Nonprofit Institutions). 52.249-5 Section 52.249-5... Convenience of the Government (Educational and Other Nonprofit Institutions). As prescribed in 49.502(d), insert the following clause: Termination for Convenience of the Government (Educational and...

  1. 48 CFR 1652.249-71 - FEHBP termination for convenience of the government-negotiated benefits contracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... convenience of the government-negotiated benefits contracts. 1652.249-71 Section 1652.249-71 Federal... convenience of the government—negotiated benefits contracts. As prescribed in section 1649.101-71, the following clause shall be inserted in all FEHBP contracts. FEHBP Termination for Convenience of...

  2. 48 CFR 52.249-3 - Termination for Convenience of the Government (Dismantling, Demolition, or Removal of Improvements).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Convenience of the Government (Dismantling, Demolition, or Removal of Improvements). 52.249-3 Section 52.249-3... Convenience of the Government (Dismantling, Demolition, or Removal of Improvements). As prescribed in 49.502(b)(2), insert the following clause: Termination for Convenience of the Government...

  3. 48 CFR 52.249-1 - Termination for Convenience of the Government (Fixed-Price) (Short Form).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Convenience of the Government (Fixed-Price) (Short Form). 52.249-1 Section 52.249-1 Federal Acquisition... CONTRACT CLAUSES Text of Provisions and Clauses 52.249-1 Termination for Convenience of the Government... Convenience of the Government (Fixed-Price) (Short Form) (APR 1984) The Contracting Officer, by written...

  4. Convenience foods, as portrayed by a consumer organisation. Test-Aankoop/Test-Achats (1960-1995).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degreef, Filip

    2015-11-01

    Food choice, both today and in the past, is driven by a broad range of interacting factors, in which culture is centrally placed. This paper will assess convenience foods by means of a qualitative analysis of comparative product tests done by Belgium's largest consumer organisation Test-Aankoop/Test-Achats, and will focus on the influence of socially and culturally normative values between the years 1960 and 1995. The tests provide a unique insight into attitudes to convenience foods within an organisation that saw its role in Belgian consumer society as being both educator and guide. The organisation's views on health, food safety, modernity, tradition, control over ingredients and content, gender roles and taste shaped its attitude to the role and meaning of what food is supposed to be. The organisation thereby both guided and re-affirmed normative values with respect to convenience foods. Values, which are culturally constructed, have always played a key role in the acceptability of products. Cultural and social inhibitions and fears over control of convenience foods, which persist today, were central in the consumer organisation's representation of convenience food.

  5. A synthesis of convenience survey and other data to estimate undiagnosed HIV infection among men who have sex with men in England and Wales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Kate; Seaman, Shaun R; De Angelis, Daniela; Presanis, Anne M; Dodds, Julie P; Johnson, Anne M; Mercey, Danielle; Gill, O Noel; Copas, Andrew J

    2011-10-01

    Hard-to-reach population subgroups are typically investigated using convenience sampling, which may give biased estimates. Combining information from such surveys, a probability survey and clinic surveillance, can potentially minimize the bias. We developed a methodology to estimate the prevalence of undiagnosed HIV infection among men who have sex with men (MSM) in England and Wales aged 16-44 years in 2003, making fuller use of the available data than earlier work. We performed a synthesis of three data sources: genitourinary medicine clinic surveillance (11 380 tests), a venue-based convenience survey including anonymous HIV testing (3702 MSM) and a general population sexual behaviour survey (134 MSM). A logistic regression model to predict undiagnosed infection was fitted to the convenience survey data and then applied to the MSMs in the population survey to estimate the prevalence of undiagnosed infection in the general MSM population. This estimate was corrected for selection biases in the convenience survey using clinic surveillance data. A sensitivity analysis addressed uncertainty in our assumptions. The estimated prevalence of undiagnosed HIV in MSM was 2.4% [95% confidence interval (95% CI 1.7-3.0%)], and between 1.6% (95% CI 1.1-2.0%) and 3.3% (95% CI 2.4-4.1%) depending on assumptions; corresponding to 5500 (3390-7180), 3610 (2180-4740) and 7570 (4790-9840) men, and undiagnosed fractions of 33, 24 and 40%, respectively. Our estimates are consistent with earlier work that did not make full use of data sources. Reconciling data from multiple sources, including probability-, clinic- and venue-based convenience samples can reduce bias in estimates. This methodology could be applied in other settings to take full advantage of multiple imperfect data sources.

  6. High-Speed Train Stop-Schedule Optimization Based on Passenger Travel Convenience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dingjun Chen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The stop-schedules for passenger trains are important to the operation planning of high-speed trains, and they decide the quality of passenger service and the transportation efficiency. This paper analyzes the specific manifestation of passenger travel convenience and proposes the concepts of interstation accessibility and degree of accessibility. In consideration of both the economic benefits of railway corporations and the travel convenience of passengers, a multitarget optimization model is established. The model aims at minimizing stop cost and maximizing passenger travel convenience. Several constraints are applied to the model establishment, including the number of stops made by individual trains, the frequency of train service received by each station, the operation section, and the 0-1 variable. A hybrid genetic algorithm is designed to solve the model. Both the model and the algorithm are validated through case study.

  7. Conceptualization of convenience euthanasia as an ethical dilemma for veterinarians in Quebec.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rathwell-Deault, Dominick; Godard, Béatrice; Frank, Diane; Doizé, Béatrice

    2017-03-01

    Companion animal welfare in our society has become increasingly important, yet many healthy animals are euthanized in veterinary facilities. How is it possible to explain the simultaneous presence of these opposing views of obligation toward animals? The goal of this study was to describe convenience euthanasia of companion animals as experienced by veterinarians in order to understand their thought processes. A qualitative study was undertaken to analyze the results of interviews of 14 veterinarians. The study showed that veterinarians interviewed assessed convenience euthanasia based mainly on their subjective evaluation of the owner-animal bond. As most owner-animal bonds stem from an anthropocentric point of view, decisions on convenience euthanasia were taken mostly by considering the veterinarian's and the client/owner's interests.

  8. Conceptualization of convenience euthanasia as an ethical dilemma for veterinarians in Quebec

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rathwell-Deault, Dominick; Godard, Béatrice; Frank, Diane; Doizé, Béatrice

    2017-01-01

    Companion animal welfare in our society has become increasingly important, yet many healthy animals are euthanized in veterinary facilities. How is it possible to explain the simultaneous presence of these opposing views of obligation toward animals? The goal of this study was to describe convenience euthanasia of companion animals as experienced by veterinarians in order to understand their thought processes. A qualitative study was undertaken to analyze the results of interviews of 14 veterinarians. The study showed that veterinarians interviewed assessed convenience euthanasia based mainly on their subjective evaluation of the owner-animal bond. As most owner-animal bonds stem from an anthropocentric point of view, decisions on convenience euthanasia were taken mostly by considering the veterinarian’s and the client/owner’s interests. PMID:28246412

  9. Robotic voltammetry with carbon nanotube-based sensors: a superb blend for convenient high-quality antimicrobial trace analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theanponkrang S

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Somjai Theanponkrang,1,2 Wipa Suginta,2,3 Helge Weingart,4 Mathias Winterhalter,4 Albert Schulte1,2 1School of Chemistry, 2Biochemistry–Electrochemistry Research Unit, Institute of Science, 3School of Biochemistry, Suranaree University of Technology, Nakhon Ratchasima, Thailand; 4Life Sciences, School of Engineering and Science, Jacobs University Bremen, Bremen, Germany Abstract: A new automated pharmacoanalytical technique for convenient quantification of redox-active antibiotics has been established by combining the benefits of a carbon nanotube (CNT sensor modification with electrocatalytic activity for analyte detection with the merits of a robotic electrochemical device that is capable of sequential nonmanual sample measurements in 24-well microtiter plates. Norfloxacin (NFX and ciprofloxacin (CFX, two standard fluoroquinolone antibiotics, were used in automated calibration measurements by differential pulse voltammetry (DPV and accomplished were linear ranges of 1–10 µM and 2–100 µM for NFX and CFX, respectively. The lowest detectable levels were estimated to be 0.3±0.1 µM (n=7 for NFX and 1.6±0.1 µM (n=7 for CFX. In standard solutions or tablet samples of known content, both analytes could be quantified with the robotic DPV microtiter plate assay, with recoveries within ±4% of 100%. And recoveries were as good when NFX was evaluated in human serum samples with added NFX. The use of simple instrumentation, convenience in execution, and high effectiveness in analyte quantitation suggest the merger between automated microtiter plate voltammetry and CNT-supported electrochemical drug detection as a novel methodology for antibiotic testing in pharmaceutical and clinical research and quality control laboratories. Keywords: antibiotics, electroanalysis, automation, microtiter plates, pharmaceutical screening, pharmacoanalytics

  10. Attitudes and behaviour towards convenience food and food waste in the United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallinson, Lucy J; Russell, Jean M; Barker, Margo E

    2016-08-01

    Households in the UK discard much food. A reduction in such waste to mitigate environmental impact is part of UK government policy. This study investigated whether household food waste is linked to a lifestyle reliant on convenience food in younger consumers. A survey of 928 UK residents aged 18-40 years and responsible for the household food shopping (male n = 278; female n = 650) completed an online questionnaire designed to measure attitudes to convenience food and to quantify household food waste. Cluster analysis of 24 food-related lifestyle factors identified 5 consumer groups. General linear modelling techniques were used to test relationships between the purchase frequency of convenience food and household food waste. From the cluster analysis, five distinct convenience profiles emerged comprising: 'epicures' (n = 135), 'traditional consumers' (n = 255), 'casual consumers' (n = 246), 'food detached consumers' (n = 151) and 'kitchen evaders' (n = 141). Casual consumers and kitchen evaders were the most reliant on convenience food and notably were the most wasteful. The demographic profile of kitchen evaders matched the population groups currently targeted by UK food waste policy. Casual consumers represent a new and distinct group characterised by "buy a lot and waste a lot" behaviour. Household size, packaging format, price-awareness and marketing all appear to influence levels of food waste. However, it seems that subtle behavioural and sociocultural factors also have impact. Further research is needed to elucidate the factors that mediate the positive association between the purchase of convenience food and reported food waste in order to inform food waste policy and initiatives.

  11. Determining a Checkout Register Opening Policy to Maximize Profit In convenience Stores Chains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Ruelas-Gonzalez

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available A major concern for convenience store managers is lost sales due to balking. Convenience stores customers payhigh margins expecting fast service. If waiting lines are too long for their tolerance level at their arrival, they balk andthe sale is lost as a result. In order to reduce lost sales, the length of the waiting line is usually controlled by openingadditional checkout registers when the number of customers standing in the line exceeds a specified number andmaintaining them open until they are no longer needed . This paper presents an applied approach to model theprobability that customers actually enter the store and define the optimal opening level (

  12. Sampling in research on interpersonal aggression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Morten Birkeland; Einarsen, Ståle

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the usefulness of convenience samples in research on interpersonal aggression among adults. It was hypothesised that convenience sampled targets of aggression differs from targets in general with regards to both demographic characteristics and degree of aggression exposed to. A convenience sample comprising support-seeking targets of workplace bullying was compared with a representative sample of Norwegian targets of bullying. The results showed that the two samples differed significantly on all demographic variables investigated, except gender. A far higher percentage of the convenience sample had blown the whistle on illegal, immoral or illegitimate practice at their workplace, whereas they also reported significantly more frequent and more intense exposure to aggression. The findings confirm that convenience samples have low external validity when generalising to the general population. Such samples should therefore mainly be used to investigate tendencies in, and the phenomenology of, interpersonal aggression, in studies where generalisability is not the principal objective. Copyright 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  13. Knowledge and Confidence of a Convenience Sample of Australasian Emergency Doctors in Managing Dental Emergencies: Results of a Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Samaei

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. We aimed to determine Australasian Specialist Emergency Physicians’ and Emergency Physicians in Training (Trainees’ level of knowledge of common dental emergencies. We also explored confidence in managing dental emergencies; predictors of confidence and knowledge; and preferences for further dental education. Methods. A questionnaire was distributed electronically (September 2011 and directly (November 2011 to Fellows and Trainees of the Australasian College for Emergency Medicine. It explored demographics, confidence, knowledge of dental emergencies, and educational preferences. Results. Response rate was 13.6% (464/3405 and college members were proportionally represented by region. Fewer than half (186/446; 42% had received dental training. Sixty-two percent (244/391, 95% CI 57.5–67.1 passed (>50% a knowledge test. More than 60% incorrectly answered questions on dental fracture, periodontal abscess, tooth eruption dates, and ulcerative gingivitis. Forty percent (166/416 incorrectly answered a question about Ludwig’s Angina. Eighty-three percent (360/433 were confident in the pharmacological management of toothache but only 26% (112/434 confident in recognizing periodontal disease. Knowledge was correlated with confidence (r=0.488. Interactive workshops were preferred by most (386/415, 93%. Conclusions. The knowledge and confidence of Australasian Emergency Physicians and Trainees in managing dental emergencies are varied, yet correlated. Interactive training sessions in dental emergencies are warranted.

  14. Knowledge and Confidence of a Convenience Sample of Australasian Emergency Doctors in Managing Dental Emergencies: Results of a Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samaei, Hossein; Weiland, Tracey Joy; Dilley, Stuart; Jelinek, George Alexander

    2015-01-01

    Background. We aimed to determine Australasian Specialist Emergency Physicians' and Emergency Physicians in Training (Trainees') level of knowledge of common dental emergencies. We also explored confidence in managing dental emergencies; predictors of confidence and knowledge; and preferences for further dental education. Methods. A questionnaire was distributed electronically (September 2011) and directly (November 2011) to Fellows and Trainees of the Australasian College for Emergency Medicine. It explored demographics, confidence, knowledge of dental emergencies, and educational preferences. Results. Response rate was 13.6% (464/3405) and college members were proportionally represented by region. Fewer than half (186/446; 42%) had received dental training. Sixty-two percent (244/391, 95% CI 57.5–67.1) passed (>50%) a knowledge test. More than 60% incorrectly answered questions on dental fracture, periodontal abscess, tooth eruption dates, and ulcerative gingivitis. Forty percent (166/416) incorrectly answered a question about Ludwig's Angina. Eighty-three percent (360/433) were confident in the pharmacological management of toothache but only 26% (112/434) confident in recognizing periodontal disease. Knowledge was correlated with confidence (r = 0.488). Interactive workshops were preferred by most (386/415, 93%). Conclusions. The knowledge and confidence of Australasian Emergency Physicians and Trainees in managing dental emergencies are varied, yet correlated. Interactive training sessions in dental emergencies are warranted. PMID:25821600

  15. Comparisons of Online Recruitment Strategies for Convenience Samples: Craigslist, Google AdWords, Facebook, and Amazon Mechanical Turk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antoun, Christopher; Zhang, Chan; Conrad, Frederick G.; Schober, Michael F.

    2016-01-01

    The rise of social media websites (e.g., Facebook) and online services such as Google AdWords and Amazon Mechanical Turk (MTurk) offers new opportunities for researchers to recruit study participants. Although researchers have started to use these emerging methods, little is known about how they perform in terms of cost efficiency and, more…

  16. Awareness of health risks related to body art practices among youth in Naples, Italy: a descriptive convenience sample study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mastronuzzi Roberto

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Body art practices have emerged as common activities among youth, yet few studies have investigated awareness in different age groups of possible health complications associated with piercing and tattooing. Methods We investigated perceptions of and knowledge about health risks. To highlight differences among age groups, we gathered data from students at high schools and universities in the province of Naples. Results Of 9,322 adolescents, 31.3% were pierced and 11.3% were tattooed. Of 3,610 undergraduates, 33% were pierced and 24.5% were tattooed (p Conclusions Results indicate a need for adequate information on health risks associated with body art among students in Naples, mainly among high school students. Therefore, adolescents should be targeted for public health education programs.

  17. Survey of attitudes toward and experiences with animal abuse encounters in a convenience sample of US veterinarians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kogan, Lori R; Schoenfeld-Tacher, Regina M; Hellyer, Peter W; Rishniw, Mark; Ruch-Gallie, Rebecca A

    2017-03-15

    OBJECTIVE To survey practicing veterinarians regarding their perceptions of and experiences with cases of suspected or confirmed animal abuse and related state laws. DESIGN Cross-sectional study. POPULATION Members of the Veterinary Information Network (VIN; n = 34,144) who were in veterinary practice at the time of the survey. PROCEDURES A survey was designed and distributed online to all VIN members from January 26 to February 28, 2015. Responses were compiled, and binary logistic regression analysis was performed to identify factors that influenced decisions or perceptions regarding animal abuse encounters and related legislation. RESULTS 1,209 completed surveys were received (3.5% response rate); 1,155 (95.5%) surveys were submitted by currently practicing veterinarians. One thousand five (87.0%) practicing veterinarians reported having encountered at least 1 case of animal abuse while in practice; 561 (55.8%) of these veterinarians indicated that they had reported at least 1 case. The most common reasons selected for reporting abuse were to protect the animal, ethical beliefs, and to protect other animals in the household. The most common reasons selected for not reporting the abuse were uncertainty that the animal had been abused, belief that client education would be better, and belief that the injury or illness was accidental versus intentional. Most respondents were unaware of the current status of laws in their state regarding animal abuse reporting. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Results suggested a need for state and national veterinary and humane-law enforcement organizations to increase communication and education efforts on recognition and reporting by veterinarians of animal abuse and the related laws.

  18. Radar Doppler Processing with Nonuniform Sampling.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doerry, Armin W. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-07-01

    Conventional signal processing to estimate radar Doppler frequency often assumes uniform pulse/sample spacing. This is for the convenience of t he processing. More recent performance enhancements in processor capability allow optimally processing nonuniform pulse/sample spacing, thereby overcoming some of the baggage that attends uniform sampling, such as Doppler ambiguity and SNR losses due to sidelobe control measures.

  19. 77 FR 68196 - Notice of Applications for Certificates of Public Convenience and Necessity and Foreign Air...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-15

    ... Applications, or Motion to Modify Scope: November 13, 2012. Description: Application of Gama Charters Inc. (``Gama'') requesting a certificate of public convenience and necessity authorizing Gama to engage in the... (``BBJ''). Gama also requests the Department exercise its discretionary authority to issue Gama...

  20. Students' Dependence on Smart Phones: The Influence of Social Needs, Social Influences and Convenience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suki, Norazah Mohd

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to assess whether social needs, social influences and convenience of smart phones affects students' dependence on them. This research also examines whether students' dependence on smart phones influences their purchase behaviour. This investigation is conducted among the students in a public university in the…

  1. Students' Dependence on Smart Phones: The Influence of Social Needs, Social Influences and Convenience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suki, Norazah Mohd

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to assess whether social needs, social influences and convenience of smart phones affects students' dependence on them. This research also examines whether students' dependence on smart phones influences their purchase behaviour. This investigation is conducted among the students in a public university in the…

  2. A convenient enantioselective CBS-reduction of arylketones in flow-microreactor systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Angelis, Sonia; De Renzo, Maddalena; Carlucci, Claudia; Degennaro, Leonardo; Luisi, Renzo

    2016-05-04

    A convenient, versatile, and green CBS-asymmetric reduction of aryl and heteroaryl ketones has been developed by using the microreactor technology. The study demonstrates that it is possible to handle borane solution safely within microreactors and that the reaction performs well using 2-MeTHF as a greener solvent.

  3. Cost of eating: whole foods versus convenience foods in a low-income model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDermott, Andrew J; Stephens, Mark B

    2010-04-01

    Financial limitations in low-income populations, those at highest risk for poor health outcomes, may preclude adherence to recommended dietary guidelines. We examine the financial burden of shopping for foods to meet national dietary recommendations in a supermarket compared to eating primarily in a fast-food restaurant. Using a single-parent, low-income model, we obtained whole food costs (healthy) from local supermarkets and from fast-food outlets (convenient). Using cost per calorie as a metric for comparison, we used estimated single-parent, low-income living expenses to determine the relative costs of meeting national dietary guidelines. Average food costs for healthy and convenience diets accounted for 18% and 37% of income, respectively. Dairy products and vegetables accounted for the largest cost percentages of diet costs (36% and 28%, respectively). The cost per calorie of a convenience diet was 24% higher than the healthy diet. Both models resulted in net financial loss over the course of a year for a single-parent, low-income family. Food costs represent a significant proportion of annual income. Diets based heavily on foods from convenient sources are less healthy and more expensive than a well-planned menu from budget foods available from large supermarket chains.

  4. A Convenient Synthesis of Antibacterial Linezolid from (S)-Glyceraldehyde Acetonide

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    A convenient synthesis of oxazolidinone antibacterial linezolid from readily available L-ascorbic acid is described. The key steps include reductive amination of arylamine and (S)-glyceraldehyde acetonide in the presence of NaBH4 and 4A sieve, followed by hydrolysis and regioselective cyclization.

  5. A convenient procedure for the synthesis of allyl and benzyl ethers from alcohols and phenols

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    H Surya Prakash Rao; S P Senthilkumar

    2001-06-01

    Allyl and benzyl ethers of alcohols can be prepared conveniently and in high yield with allyl and benzyl bromide in the presence of solid potassium hydroxide without use of any solvent. Phenols can be converted to allyl ethers but are inert to benzylation under above conditions.

  6. A convenient synthesis of ezetimibe analogs as cholesterol ab sorption inhibitors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    A convenient method for the synthesis of ezetimibe analogs as cholesterol absorption inhibitors was described.The key step in the synthesis was the intramolecular ring formation through Mitsunobu reaction.Furthermore,a new series of analogs was designed and synthesized.

  7. Petroleum, Convenience, & Automotive Marketing [Student Book and] Answer Book/Teacher's Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozek, Ed; Faught, Suzanne G.

    This student manual and answer book/teacher's guide focus on the industry-specific information and skills needed by students who plan to enter, or who may already be receiving, training in a petroleum-related business, such as a full-service gas station, convenience store, or automotive specialty service shop. The student manual contains 16…

  8. Effect of consumers' ethic perceptions to convenience perceptions and purchasing intention in online stores

    OpenAIRE

    Orpana, Mari

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: The main objective of this thesis is to gain knowledge of how consumers' perceptions regarding the ethics of online retailers affect to consumers' online shopping attitudes, more specifically consumers' perceptions of online shopping convenience. Also ambition is to achieve deeper knowledge about consumer behaviour and especially consumers' perceptions towards online retailers. Besides connection between consumers' perceptions regarding the ethics of online retailers and ...

  9. The association between accessibility of local convenience stores and unhealthy diet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lind, Pernille L; Jensen, Pernille V; Glümer, Charlotte

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: High accessibility of unhealthy food stores may contribute to a poor dietary quality. Research on the link between neighbourhood food environment and consumption is limited, especially in a European context. The objective of this study was to examine the relationship between convenience...

  10. Notification: Fiscal Year 2016 Risk Assessment of EPA’s Purchase Card and Convenience Check Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Project #OA-FY16-0229, July 14, 2016. The EPA OIG plans to begin a risk assessment of the EPA’s purchase card and convenience check program with the Office of Acquisition Management (OAM) within the Office of Administration and Resources Management (OARM).

  11. New Convenient Way for Deriving Exponential Operators' Disentangling Formulas and Their Applications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FAN Hong-Yi; HU Li-Yun

    2009-01-01

    We recommend a new convenient method for disentangling some exponential operators and derive a set of new operator identities.Especially, we derive the normal odering form ofexp [fa+a+ga+2+ka2] without appealing to Lie algebra method.Application of these formulas in solving some dynamic Hamiltonian is presented.

  12. Perceptions of the health and convenience characteristics of fresh and driedfruits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sijtsema, S.J.; Jesionkowska, K.; Symoneaux, R.; Konopacka, D.; Snoek, H.M.

    2012-01-01

    Dried fruits consumption has not received much research attention, although these foods are associated with potential health benefits. Therefore, the aim of this study was to compare fresh fruits and dried fruits on measures of health, convenience and consumer feelings. An on-line questionnaire that

  13. Novel and Convenient Approach to Synthesis of AZT/d4T H-phosphonates

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIN, Chang-Xue(林长学); FU, Hua(付华); TU, Guang-Zhong(涂光忠); ZHAO, Yu-Fen(赵玉芬)

    2004-01-01

    A convenient, efficient and general method has been developed for synthesis of H-phosphonate mono and diesters of AZT and d4T through one-pot reaction of phosphonic acid with AZT or d4T and different alcohols using pivaloyl chloride as condensing agent under mild conditions.

  14. A Framework for Collaborative and Convenient Learning on Cloud Computing Platforms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Deepika; Kumar, Vikas

    2017-01-01

    The depth of learning resides in collaborative work with more engagement and fun. Technology can enhance collaboration with a higher level of convenience and cloud computing can facilitate this in a cost effective and scalable manner. However, to deploy a successful online learning environment, elementary components of learning pedagogy must be…

  15. Identification of heme oxygenase-1 stimulators by a convenient ELISA-based bilirubin quantification assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rücker, Hannelore; Amslinger, Sabine

    2015-01-01

    The upregulation of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) has proven to be a useful tool for fighting inflammation. In order to identify new HO-1 inducers, an efficient screening method was developed which can provide new lead structures for drug research. We designed a simple ELISA-based HO-1 enzyme activity assay, which allows for the screening of 12 compounds in parallel in the setting of a 96-well plate. The well-established murine macrophage cell line RAW264.7 is used and only about 26µg of protein from whole cell lysates is needed for the analysis of HO-1 activity. The quantification of HO-1 activity is based on an indirect ELISA using the specific anti-bilirubin antibody 24G7 to quantify directly bilirubin in the whole cell lysate, applying a horseradish peroxidase-tagged antibody together with ortho-phenylenediamine and H2O2 for detection. The bilirubin is produced on the action of HO enzymes by converting their substrate heme to biliverdin and additional recombinant biliverdin reductase together with NADPH at pH 7.4 in buffer. This sensitive assay allows for the detection of 0.57-82pmol bilirubin per sample in whole cell lysates. Twenty-three small molecules, mainly natural products with an α,β-unsaturated carbonyl unit such as polyphenols, including flavonoids and chalcones, terpenes, an isothiocyanate, and the drug oltipraz were tested at typically 6 or 24h incubation with RAW264.7 cells. The activity of known HO-1 inducers was confirmed, while the chalcones cardamonin, flavokawain A, calythropsin, 2',3,4'-trihydroxy-4-methoxychalcone (THMC), and 2',4'-dihydroxy-3,4-dimethoxychalcone (DHDMC) were identified as new potent HO-1 inducers. The highest inductive power after 6h incubation was found at 10µM for DHDMC (6.1-fold), carnosol (3.9-fold), butein (3.1-fold), THMC (2.9-fold), and zerumbone (2.5-fold). Moreover, the time dependence of HO-1 protein production for DHDMC was compared to its enzyme activity, which was further evaluated in the presence of

  16. Building Consumers'Trust Based on Pick-up Goods Behavior in the Convenience Stores in Taiwan

    OpenAIRE

    Chun-Chia Wang

    2012-01-01

    With the adoption of Internet, online shopping has provided a convenience way to purchase goods or services from anywhere at any time in recent years globally. Especially, convenience stores are available for consumers to pick up goods ordered from Internet shops in Taiwan. Therefore, convenience stores have become an important success factor for increasing a lot of profit in online shopping in Taiwan.In the past, researches have indicated that consumers dare not or are not willing to purchas...

  17. Prevalence and Severity of College Student Bereavement Examined in a Randomly Selected Sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balk, David E.; Walker, Andrea C.; Baker, Ardith

    2010-01-01

    The authors used stratified random sampling to assess the prevalence and severity of bereavement in college undergraduates, providing an advance over findings that emerge from convenience sampling methods or from anecdotal observations. Prior research using convenience sampling indicated that 22% to 30% of college students are within 12 months of…

  18. The Convenient Setting for Denjoy--Carleman Differentiable Mappings of Beurling and Roumieu Type

    CERN Document Server

    Kriegl, Andreas; Rainer, Armin

    2011-01-01

    We prove in a uniform way that all Denjoy--Carleman differentiable function classes of Beurling type $C^{(M)}$ and of Roumieu type $C^{\\{M\\}}$, admit a convenient setting if the weight sequence $M=(M_k)$ is log-convex and of moderate growth: For $\\mathcal C$ denoting either $C^{(M)}$ or $C^{\\{M\\}}$, the category of $\\mathcal C$-mappings is cartesian closed in the sense that $\\mathcal C(E,\\mathcal C(F,G))\\cong \\mathcal C(E\\x F, G)$ for convenient vector spaces. Applications to manifolds of mappings are given: The group of $\\mathcal C$-diffeomorphisms is a regular $\\mathcal C$-Lie group if $\\mathcal C \\supseteq C^\\om$, but not better.

  19. Perceived Convenience, Compatibility, and Media Richness Contribute Significantly toDedicated E-book Reader Acceptance. A Review of: Lai, J.-Y., & Chang, C.-Y. (2011. User attitudes toward dedicated e-book readers for reading: The effects of convenience, compatibility and media richness. Online Information Review, 35(4, 558-580.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theresa S. Arndt

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective – Investigates the effects ofperceived convenience, compatibility andmedia richness on users’ attitudes towarddedicated e-book readers.Design – Convenience sample survey.Setting – Taiwanese university.Subjects – A total of 288 students at the seniorsecondary (5%, four-year university (78%,and graduate student (17% levels. Malefemaleparticipation was approximately equal.Methods – Students completed a 23-itemsurvey on dedicated e-book readers, withquestions on perceived usefulness, perceivedease of use, intention to use, convenience,compatibility, and media richness. Data wasanalyzed using the partial least squaresstatistical technique.Main Results – Users state an increasedintention to use dedicated e-book readers ifthey perceive the technology to be compatiblewith what they desire in a “book,” if the devicedelivers rich media content, and if the device isconvenient. Compatibility was found tosignificantly affect perceived ease of use, andwas found to be the strongest influence onintent to use a dedicated e-book reader.Compatibility, media richness andconvenience also increased the perceivedusefulness of dedicated e-book readers.Conclusion – Users will prefer dedicated e-book readers that are compatible with their preferences in a “book,” that deliver media-rich content, and that they find convenient. The study has implications for the design and development of e-book reading devices.

  20. IS IT CONVENIENT FOR AN ENTERPRISE TO FALL INTO DEBT WITH A BANK?

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Enterprises count on multiple financing alternatives which deserve to be analized in order to come out the most suitable combination between a debt and the shareholder(or shareholders) capital contribution. The financial model based on VPN as a decision criterium helps to select the best financial alternative with a debr. Banking debt improves the enterprise's value, but a balance between indevtedness and aown capital is required. Banking debt can be convenient as interest rate goes below the...

  1. A convenient synthesis of pyrroles catalyzed by acidic resin under solvent-free condition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shi

    2010-01-01

    A convenient and effective Paal-Knorr condensations of 2,5-hexanedione with most amines have been carried out at room temperature under solvent-free condition. Macroporous strongly acidic styrol resin (D001) as a novel, efficient, cost-effective, and reusable solid acid catalyst for the synthesis of pyrroles under the same conditions. The pyrroles were obtained in high yields in short reaction times.

  2. A Convenient Method of Decomposing the Gini Index by Population Subgroups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ogwang Tomson

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available We propose a convenient method of estimating the within-group, between-group, and interaction components of the overall traditional Gini index from the estimated parameters of underlying “trick regression models” involving known forms of heteroscedasticity related to income. Two illustrative examples involving both real and artificial data are provided. The issue of appropriate standard error of the subgroup decomposition is also discussed.

  3. The Statistical Relationship between Product Life Cycle and Repeat Purchase Behavior in Convenience Stores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizuno, T.; Takayasu, M.

    The density function of product life cycles in convenience stores is found to follow the Weibull distribution. To clarify the parameters that determine these life cycles, we introduce the conditional market share---defined as the probability that a product is selected by customers only if it had been previously purchased---and the market share without any conditions. The product life cycle is more strongly correlated with the conditional market share of the product than with the latter type of market share.

  4. Energy Saving Effects of Wireless Sensor Networks: A Case Study of Convenience Stores in Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chih-Sheng; Lee, Da-Sheng

    2011-01-01

    Wireless sensor network (WSN) technology has been successfully applied to energy saving applications in many places, and plays a significant role in achieving power conservation. However, previous studies do not discuss WSN costs and cost-recovery. The application of WSNs is currently limited to research and laboratory experiments, and not mass industrial production, largely because business owners are unfamiliar with the possible favorable return and cost-recovery on WSN investments. Therefore, this paper focuses on the cost-recovery of WSNs and how to reduce air conditioning energy consumption in convenience stores. The WSN used in this study provides feedback to the gateway and adopts the predicted mean vote (PMV) and computational fluid dynamics (CFD) methods to allow customers to shop in a comfortable yet energy-saving environment. Four convenience stores in Taipei have used the proposed WSN since 2008. In 2008, the experiment was initially designed to optimize air-conditioning for energy saving, but additions to the set-up continued beyond 2008, adding the thermal comfort and crowds peak, off-peak features in 2009 to achieve human-friendly energy savings. Comparison with 2007 data, under the same comfort conditions, shows that the power savings increased by 40% (2008) and 53% (2009), respectively. The cost of the WSN equipment was 500 US dollars. Experimental results, including three years of analysis and calculations, show that the marginal energy conservation benefit of the four convenience stores achieved energy savings of up to 53%, recovering all costs in approximately 5 months. The convenience store group participating in this study was satisfied with the efficiency of energy conservation because of the short cost-recovery period. PMID:22319396

  5. Energy saving effects of wireless sensor networks: a case study of convenience stores in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chih-Sheng; Lee, Da-Sheng

    2011-01-01

    Wireless sensor network (WSN) technology has been successfully applied to energy saving applications in many places, and plays a significant role in achieving power conservation. However, previous studies do not discuss WSN costs and cost-recovery. The application of WSNs is currently limited to research and laboratory experiments, and not mass industrial production, largely because business owners are unfamiliar with the possible favorable return and cost-recovery on WSN investments. Therefore, this paper focuses on the cost-recovery of WSNs and how to reduce air conditioning energy consumption in convenience stores. The WSN used in this study provides feedback to the gateway and adopts the predicted mean vote (PMV) and computational fluid dynamics (CFD) methods to allow customers to shop in a comfortable yet energy-saving environment. Four convenience stores in Taipei have used the proposed WSN since 2008. In 2008, the experiment was initially designed to optimize air-conditioning for energy saving, but additions to the set-up continued beyond 2008, adding the thermal comfort and crowds peak, off-peak features in 2009 to achieve human-friendly energy savings. Comparison with 2007 data, under the same comfort conditions, shows that the power savings increased by 40% (2008) and 53% (2009), respectively. The cost of the WSN equipment was 500 US dollars. Experimental results, including three years of analysis and calculations, show that the marginal energy conservation benefit of the four convenience stores achieved energy savings of up to 53%, recovering all costs in approximately 5 months. The convenience store group participating in this study was satisfied with the efficiency of energy conservation because of the short cost-recovery period.

  6. A Concise and Convenient Synthesis of Stilbenes via Benzils and Arylmethyldiphenylphosphine Oxides

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN Xun; ZHU Jun; ZHONG Chen; IZUMI Ken-Ji; ZHANG Chen

    2007-01-01

    A new and convenient synthetic method has been developed for the construction of stilbenes bearing electron-withdrawing group(s) by using benzils and arylmethyldiphenylphosphine oxides via sequences involving Wittig-Horner reaction and a rearrangement in the presence of t-BuOK in toluene under mild conditions.This approach could be readily applied to a facile synthesis of biologically important natural products,resveratrol and its derivatives,such as trimethoxystilbenes 1 (Z) and 2 (E).

  7. Facile and Convenient One-pot Synthesis of 1,1-Disubstituted Cyclopropanes in Water

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Chun; PAN Wei; YANG Yang; WANG Ke-wei; DONG De-wen

    2009-01-01

    A facile and convenient one-pot synthesis method of substituted cyclopropanes in water has been developed. A series of 1, l-disubstituted cyclopropanes 3 were synthesized from the reaction of β-dicarbonyl compounds 1 with 1,2-dibromoethane 2, in very high yields catalyzed by tetrabutylammonium bromide(TBAB) at 50 ℃ in the presence of K2CO3 in water. The catalyst TBAB in the aqueous phase can be reused after the separation of organic products.

  8. Closed-Form Expansions for Transition Densities of Convenience Yield Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanae RUJIVAN

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we derive closed-form expansions for transition densities of convenience yield processes modeled by using extended Cox-Ingersoll-Ross (ECIR processes. The closed-form expansions can be used for all cases of model having appropriate drift and diffusion coefficients. In terms of the efficiency, the closed-form expansions are close to the exact transition densities when the number of terms in the expansions is large and the time step size is small.

  9. Commercial Motion Sensor Based Low-Cost and Convenient Interactive Treadmill

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonghyun Kim

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Interactive treadmills were developed to improve the simulation of overground walking when compared to conventional treadmills. However, currently available interactive treadmills are expensive and inconvenient, which limits their use. We propose a low-cost and convenient version of the interactive treadmill that does not require expensive equipment and a complicated setup. As a substitute for high-cost sensors, such as motion capture systems, a low-cost motion sensor was used to recognize the subject’s intention for speed changing. Moreover, the sensor enables the subject to make a convenient and safe stop using gesture recognition. For further cost reduction, the novel interactive treadmill was based on an inexpensive treadmill platform and a novel high-level speed control scheme was applied to maximize performance for simulating overground walking. Pilot tests with ten healthy subjects were conducted and results demonstrated that the proposed treadmill achieves similar performance to a typical, costly, interactive treadmill that contains a motion capture system and an instrumented treadmill, while providing a convenient and safe method for stopping.

  10. Consumers' purchase of organic food products. A matter of convenience and reflexive practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hjelmar, Ulf

    2011-04-01

    The aim of this study was to gain insight into the purchase of organic food products by consumers and to explore the main factors driving this process. This paper uses evidence from 16 in-depth interviews with consumers in Denmark carried out in 2008-2009. On the basis of the analysis two broad concepts are suggested: convenience behaviours and reflexive practices. Convenience behaviours are characteristic of pragmatic organic consumers. This type of shopping behaviour requires organic foods to be available in the local supermarket, they have to be clearly visible (preferably with an eco-label), and the price differential vis-à-vis conventional products have to be minimal. The analysis also showed that politically/ethically minded consumers have reflexive practices when purchasing organic food products: health considerations, ethical considerations (animal welfare), political considerations (environmentalism) and quality considerations (taste) play an important part for these consumers. Reflexive shopping practices can be sparked by life events (e.g. having children), "shocking" news about conventional food products and similar events, and news capable of creating a "cognitive dissonance" among consumers. The Danish case illustrates that the government needs to actively implement reforms and promote activities which make organic products a convenient choice for the pragmatic oriented consumer if their market share is to increase substantially.

  11. A smartphone-optimized web site for conveniently viewing otolaryngology journal abstracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golub, Justin S; Sharma, Arun; Samy, Ravi N

    2014-12-01

    Access to the medical literature has not kept pace with the mobile revolution. We aimed to (1) gauge interest in a smartphone-optimized Web site for conveniently accessing otolaryngology literature and (2) create an easy-to-access and convenient Web site that displays otolaryngology journal abstracts in a format optimized for smartphones. A survey was sent to physicians of a major US academic otolaryngology-head and neck surgery department. Demographics, literature-browsing habits, and barriers to staying updated were assessed. The response rate was 87%. Ninety-one percent of respondents used a smartphone, and 85% wished they could stay more up to date with the otolaryngology literature. Most respondents believed a convenient smartphone-optimized Web site could help them achieve this goal. A Web site was then developed in collaboration with a university creative department as a proof of concept. The site uses a simple RSS aggregator to display journal abstracts formatted for smartphone-sized screens (www.otosurg.com). © American Academy of Otolaryngology—Head and Neck Surgery Foundation 2014.

  12. Use of DNA barcoding to reveal species composition of convenience seafood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huxley-Jones, Elizabeth; Shaw, Jennifer L A; Fletcher, Carly; Parnell, Juliette; Watts, Phillip C

    2012-04-01

    Increased education of consumers can be an effective tool for conservation of commercially harvested marine species when product labeling is accurate and allows an informed choice. However, generic labeling (e.g., as white fish or surimi) and mislabeling of seafood prevents this and may erode consumer confidence in seafood product labels in general. We used DNA barcoding to identify the species composition of two types of convenience seafood (i.e., products processed for ease of consumption): fish fingers (long pieces of fish covered with bread crumbs or batter, n = 241) and seafood sticks (long pieces of cooked fish, n = 30). In products labeled as either white fish or surimi, four teleost species were present. Less than 1.5% of fish fingers with species-specific information were mislabeled. Results of other studies show substantially more mislabeling (e.g., >25%) of teleost products, which likely reflects the lower economic gains associated with mislabeling of convenience seafood compared with whole fillets. In addition to species identification, seafood product labels should be required to contain information about, for example, harvesting practices, and our data indicate that consumers can have reasonable confidence in the accuracy of the labels of convenience seafood and thus select brands on the basis of information about current fisheries practice.

  13. Quantifying sample biases of inland lake sampling programs in relation to lake surface area and land use/cover.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Tyler; Soranno, Patricia A; Cheruvelil, Kendra Spence; Renwick, William H; Webster, Katherine E; Vaux, Peter; Abbitt, Robbyn J F

    2008-06-01

    We quantified potential biases associated with lakes monitored using non-probability based sampling by six state agencies in the USA (Michigan, Wisconsin, Iowa, Ohio, Maine, and New Hampshire). To identify biases, we compared state-monitored lakes to a census population of lakes derived from the National Hydrography Dataset. We then estimated the probability of lakes being sampled using generalized linear mixed models. Our two research questions were: (1) are there systematic differences in lake area and land use/land cover (LULC) surrounding lakes monitored by state agencies when compared to the entire population of lakes? and (2) after controlling for the effects of lake size, does the probability of sampling vary depending on the surrounding LULC features? We examined the biases associated with surrounding LULC because of the established links between LULC and lake water quality. For all states, we found that larger lakes had a higher probability of being sampled compared to smaller lakes. Significant interactions between lake size and LULC prohibit us from drawing conclusions about the main effects of LULC; however, in general lakes that are most likely to be sampled have either high urban use, high agricultural use, high forest cover, or low wetland cover. Our analyses support the assertion that data derived from non-probability-based surveys must be used with caution when attempting to make generalizations to the entire population of interest, and that probability-based surveys are needed to ensure unbiased, accurate estimates of lake status and trends at regional to national scales.

  14. Sampling in Developmental Science: Situations, Shortcomings, Solutions, and Standards

    OpenAIRE

    Bornstein, Marc H.; Jager, Justin; Putnick, Diane L.

    2013-01-01

    Sampling is a key feature of every study in developmental science. Although sampling has far-reaching implications, too little attention is paid to sampling. Here, we describe, discuss, and evaluate four prominent sampling strategies in developmental science: population-based probability sampling, convenience sampling, quota sampling, and homogeneous sampling. We then judge these sampling strategies by five criteria: whether they yield representative and generalizable estimates of a study’s t...

  15. Convenience and the hierarchy of meal preparation. Cooking and domestic education in the Netherlands, 1910–1930

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verriet, J.

    2015-01-01

    The concept of convenience in food products and meal preparation has changed rapidly during the twentieth century. However, there is little investigation into theway attitudes towards this concept have changed, which curbs our understanding of the importance of, and need for, convenience today. This

  16. Convenience and the hierarchy of meal preparation. Cooking and domestic education in the Netherlands, 1910–1930

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verriet, J.

    2015-01-01

    The concept of convenience in food products and meal preparation has changed rapidly during the twentieth century. However, there is little investigation into theway attitudes towards this concept have changed, which curbs our understanding of the importance of, and need for, convenience today. This

  17. Pengaruh Lebar Fasad, Warna Interior, dan Lokasi Meja Kasir terhadap Persepsi Aman dan Sikap Konsumen pada Convenience Store

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imtihan Hanum

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Pesatnya perkembangan convenience store berkontribusi terhadap tingginya angka kejahatan pada toko. Pedoman convenience store dan teori-teori yang terkait menunjukkan bahwa visibilitas dari convenience store penting untuk menekan maksud kriminal. Namun, faktor yang dikembangkan untuk mendorong persepsi keamanan dan perilaku konsumen tidak jelas dijelaskan. Penelitian ini menguji variabel yang dapat menekan maksud kriminal melalui peningkatan persepsi aman konsumen dan perilaku dalam toko. Percobaan ini menggunakan 43 responden untuk mengevaluasi stimulus gambar simulasi interior dari convenience store. Data dari respon dianalisis dengan ANOVA. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa lokasi kasir jauh dari pintu keluar dengan kombinasi warna dingin dianggap aman oleh responden, sedangkan lokasi counter jauh dari pintu keluar memberikan efek positif pada perilaku konsumen. Sedangkan variabel muka bangunan tidak memberikan pengaruh yang signifikan dalam membangun persepsi konsumen dan perilaku. Hasil eksperimen diharapkan menjadi kenyamanan pedoman desain dari convenience store dan mengembangkan pengetahuan desain. Di masa depan, kita dapat mempelajari jenis lain dari toko atau fungsi lain dengan masalah yang sama.Kata Kunci: convenience store; pencegahan kejahatan; perilaku konsumen; persepsi aman.Influence of Façade Width, Interior Color and Cashier Desk Location on Security Perception and Client Behavior in Convenience StoresThe rapid development of the convenience store contributes to the rising occurence of retail crime. Convenience store guidelines and related theories show that visibility in convenience store interiors is important to suppress criminal intents. However, the factors developed to improve security perception and client behavior are not clearly described. In this study variables were examined that may suppress criminal intent through the improvement of security perception and consumer behavior in convenience stores. In the

  18. A new foothold for the gasoline service station. The marketing concept of BP for enhancing convenience shopping; Neue Standbeine fuer die Tankstelle. Das Convenience-Konzept der BP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    1998-10-01

    Purposefully broadening the range of products by adding new segments for convenience shopping is the strategy BP has adopted in order to improve profits, and in response to prognoses that the traditional fuel and lubricants sales will continue to decline. ``Bigger stations with bigger shops and more services`` is the line of development pursued, said Dr. Uwe Franke, member of the management board of the German BP Holding AG, in a recent interview with the press in Hamburg. The interview is reproduced in this contribution. (orig./CB) [Deutsch] In der zielstrebigen Erweiterung des Shopsortiments durch neue Segmente im Conveniencebereich sieht die BP die besten Chancen fuer das Tankstellengeschaeft. Das Kraft- und Schmierstoffgeschaeft wird zwar weiterhin hohes Gewicht haben, sein Beitrag zum Tankstellenergebnis aber weiter zurueckgehen. `Noch groessere Stationen mit noch groesseren Shops und noch mehr Service`, so kennzeichnete kuerzlich Dr. Uwe Franke, Vorstandsmitglied der Deutschen BP Holding AG, die weitere Entwicklung des Tankstellengeschaefts bei einem Pressegespraech in Hamburg, dessen Inhalte im Beitrag kurz dargestellt wird. (orig.)

  19. Convenience, food and family lives. A socio-typological study of household food expenditures in 21st-century Belgium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniels, Sarah; Glorieux, Ignace

    2015-11-01

    This article aims to uncover the extent to which convenience foods have become embedded in today's diets. The paper focuses on households' food expenditures, collected by Statistics Belgium in 2005. The results show that households' reliance on (semi-) convenience food items and away-from-home consumption clearly differs over the life-course and amongst different social groups. Findings show that single-living households (single men in particular) look for more convenience in their food preparation patterns compared to couples and households with children. The consumption of semi-convenient meal components seems to be more closely related to the conventional definition of home-cooking, with older-generation, lower-educated, non-working and 'traditional' nuclear households being more likely to spend a larger share of their food budget on non-convenient and 'shortcut' ingredients.

  20. Convenience on the menu? A typological conceptualization of family food expenditures and food-related time patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniels, Sarah; Glorieux, Ignace; Minnen, Joeri; van Tienoven, T P; Weenas, Djiwo

    2015-05-01

    One of the most fundamental, but also controversial, food trends of the past years is convenience food. This article investigates the underexplored relationship between the heterogeneity in (convenience) food consumption (a feature of a food culture's cuisine) and meal patterns (characteristics of a food culture's structure). This study hopes to illustrate that convenience food can be interpreted both as a means to maintain a food culture's structure and as a means to overturn it. Latent Class Cluster Analysis is performed using data from the HBS 2005 survey on families' food expenditures to conceptualize convenience-orientation and to examine the relationships with families' meal behaviors. Whereas outsourcing cooking is most prevalent among single-person households; two-or more-person households are most likely to buy unprocessed and natural foods and to spend most time cooking and eating in. A higher consumption of convenience food is also more likely to affect individuals' kitchen than table habits.

  1. Convenience stores surrounding urban schools: an assessment of healthy food availability, advertising, and product placement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gebauer, Hilary; Laska, Melissa Nelson

    2011-08-01

    Adolescent obesity is a national public health problem, particularly among urban populations. Recent evidence has linked neighborhood food environments to health and nutrition status, with easier access to convenience stores being associated with increased risk for obesity. Little is known about the availability of healthy purchasing options within small, urban food stores, or the extent to which these factors are relevant to youth. The objective of this research was to characterize various features of the food environment within small convenience stores located nearby urban junior high and high schools. In-store audits were conducted in 63 stores located within 800 m of 36 urban Minnesota public secondary schools. Results indicated that a limited number of healthier beverages (i.e., water and 100% fruit juice) and snack options (i.e., nuts and pretzels) were available at most stores (≥85%). However, a wide range of healthy snack options were typically not available, with many specific items stocked in less than half of stores (e.g., low-fat yogurt in 27% of stores and low-fat granola bars in 43%). Overall, 51% of stores had fresh fruit and 49% had fresh vegetables. Few stores carried a range of healthier snack alternatives in single-serving packages. All stores had less healthful impulse purchase items available (e.g., candy) while only 46% carried healthier impulse items (e.g., fruit). Most stores (97%) had food/beverage advertising. Overall, convenience stores located in close proximity to secondary schools represent an important and understudied component of the youth food environment.

  2. A novel convenient process to obtain a raw decaffeinated tea polyphenol fraction using a lignocellulose column.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakanaka, Senji

    2003-05-07

    Lignocellulose prepared from sawdust was investigated for its potential application in obtaining a raw decaffeinated tea polyphenol fraction from tea extract. Tea polyphenols having gallate residues, namely, (-)epigallocatechin gallate (EGCg) and (-)epicatechin gallate (ECg), were adsorbed on the lignocellulose column, while caffeine was passed through it. Adsorbed polyphenols were eluted with 60% ethanol, and the elute was found to consist mainly of EGCg and ECg. The caffeine/EGCg ratio was 0.696 before lignocellulose column treatment, but it became 0.004 after the column treatment. These results suggest that the lignocellulose column provides a useful and convenient process of purification of tea polyphenol fraction accompanied by decaffeination.

  3. New Convenient Way for Disentangling Exponential Operator Composed of Angular Momentum Operators

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Hong-Qi; XU Xing-Lei; FAN Hong-Yi

    2011-01-01

    In the preceding paper (Commun. Theor. Phys. 51 (2009) 321) we have recommended a convenient method for disentangling exponential operators. In this work we use this method for disentangling exponential operators composed of angular momentum operators. We mainly desentangle the form of exp[2hJz + gJ+ +kJ-] as the ordering exp(...J+ ) exp(...Jz)exp(...J_ ), we employ the Schwinger Bose realization J_ = b+ a, J+ = a+ b, Jz = (a+ a - b+ b)/2 to fulfil this task, without appealing to Lie algebra method. Note that this operator's desentanglng is different from its decomposition in normal ordering.

  4. Formation of nanocrystalline niobium carbide (NbC) with a convenient route at low temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma Jianhua [College of Chemistry and Materials Engineering, Wenzhou University, Wenzhou, Zhejiang 325027 (China); Nanomaterials and Chemistry Key Laboratory, Advanced Materials Research Center of Wenzhou, Wenzhou University, Wenzhou, Zhejiang 325027 (China)], E-mail: mjh820@ustc.edu; Wu Meining [College of Chemistry and Materials Engineering, Wenzhou University, Wenzhou, Zhejiang 325027 (China); Du Yihong [City College, Wenzhou University, Wenzhou, Zhejiang 325035 (China); Chen Suqin; Jin Wu; Fu Li; Yang Qiongyao; Wen Aifei [College of Chemistry and Materials Engineering, Wenzhou University, Wenzhou, Zhejiang 325027 (China)

    2009-05-05

    Nanocrystalline NbC has been prepared via a convenient route by the reaction of metallic magnesium powders with niobium pentoxide and basic magnesium carbonate in an autoclave at 550 deg. C. X-ray powder diffraction pattern indicated that the product was cubic niobium carbide, and the cell constant was a = 4.461 A. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) image showed that it consisted of particles with an average size of about 30 nm in diameter. The product was also studied by BET and TGA. It had good thermal stability and oxidation resistance below 400 deg. C in air.

  5. Quantifying effects of convenience and product packaging on consumer preferences and market share of seafood products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mueller Loose, Simone; Peschel, Anne; Grebitus, Carola

    2013-01-01

    segments were identified. Market share simulations illustrate the impact of oyster product variations on consumer choice. Overall, price, preparation format and species were the most important choice drivers, followed by region of origin and accompaniments, while packaging format and claims only had......This study analysed the relative importance of product packaging format and preparation convenience for oysters on consumer choice and market share. Consumer preferences for opened versus unopened oyster preparation formats and the provision of easy-to prepare accompaniments with or without visual...

  6. Beyond the Convenience of the Internet of Things: Security and Privacy Concerns

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Moganedi, Mapoung S

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available ] J. A. Stankovic, “Research Directions for the Internet of Things,” Internet Things Journal, IEEE, vol. 1, no. 1, pp. 3–9, 2014. [4] A. D. Miyazaki and A. Fernandez, “Consumer Perceptions of Privacy and Security Risks for Online Shopping,” J... stream_source_info Moganedi_18649_2017.pdf.txt stream_content_type text/plain stream_size 33071 Content-Encoding UTF-8 stream_name Moganedi_18649_2017.pdf.txt Content-Type text/plain; charset=UTF-8 Beyond the Convenience...

  7. Microwave assisted convenient synthesis of quino[2,3-b][1,5]benzoxazepines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Swapnil S.Sonar; Sandip A.Sadaphal; Shivaji S.Pawar; Bapurao B.Shingate; Murlidhar S.Shingare

    2009-01-01

    A convenient synthesis of quino[2,3-b][1,5]benzoxazepines from substituted 2-chloroquinoline-3-carbaldehyde and 2-hydroxy-aniline by using stable,non-toxic and inexpensive catalyst 1,8-diazabicyclo-undecan-7-ene (DBU)/silica gel is described.This method affords the quino[2,3-b][1,5]benzoxazepines under the influence of microwave irradiation (360 W) in solvent-free conditions within short reaction times (2-3 min),giving high yields of products (93-96%).

  8. A Convenient Synthesis of 3,7′-Bisindole Derivatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teng Liu

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available An efficient and convenient method to synthesize highly functionalized 3,7′-bisindole derivatives has been developed via a Michael addition and cyclic condensation reaction of heterocyclic ketene aminals (HKAs with 2-(1H-indol-3-ylcyclohexa-2,5-diene-1,4-dione derivatives in ethanol-based solvents at room temperature. This strategy provides an efficient, environmentally friendly approach for easy access to various novel 3,7′-bisindole derivatives in moderate to good yields.

  9. A conveniently prepared Tc-99m resin for semisolid gastric emptying studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wirth, N.; Swanson, D.; Shapiro, B.; Nakajo, M.; Coffey, J.L.; Eckhauser, F.; Owyang, C.

    1983-06-01

    A polystyrene resin, suitable for semi-solid gastric emptying studies, was rapidly (less than 20 min) and conveniently prepared using commercially available reagents. Using the outlined procedure, Chelex-100 resin bound Tc-99m with greater than 98% labeling efficiency. The resulting Tc-99m Chelex-100 resin demonstrated excellent in vitro and in vivo stability. The clinical application of Tc-99m Chelex-100 resin, mixed with oatmeal, was tested in normal subjects and in various patient groups, including diabetic autonomic neuropathy, pyloric obstruction, postoperative dumping syndrome, and morbidly obese patients before and after gastroplasty.

  10. Modelling and computation in the valuation of carbon derivatives with stochastic convenience yields.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuhua Chang

    Full Text Available The anthropogenic greenhouse gas (GHG emission has risen dramatically during the last few decades, which mainstream researchers believe to be the main cause of climate change, especially the global warming. The mechanism of market-based carbon emission trading is regarded as a policy instrument to deal with global climate change. Although several empirical researches about the carbon allowance and its derivatives price have been made, theoretical results seem to be sparse. In this paper, we theoretically develop a mathematical model to price the CO2 emission allowance derivatives with stochastic convenience yields by the principle of absence of arbitrage opportunities. In the case of American options, we formulate the pricing problem to a linear parabolic variational inequality (VI in two spatial dimensions and develop a power penalty method to solve it. Then, a fitted finite volume method is designed to solve the nonlinear partial differential equation (PDE resulting from the power penalty method and governing the futures, European and American option valuation. Moreover, some numerical results are performed to illustrate the efficiency and usefulness of this method. We find that the stochastic convenience yield does effect the valuation of carbon emission derivatives. In addition, some sensitivity analyses are also made to examine the effects of some parameters on the valuation results.

  11. Reevaluation of the effectiveness of environmental designs to reduce robbery risk in Florida convenience stores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amandus, H E; Hunter, R D; James, E; Hendricks, S

    1995-06-01

    Prevention of intentional injuries to convenience store workers has focused on prevention of robbery. Data from a cross-sectional study of the effectiveness of environmental designs to deter robbery in Florida convenience stores were reanalyzed in order to determine the effect of confounding from local crime risk factors and other environmental designs on robbery rate. Results of this reanalysis were applied to a review of the literature. Of 14 store design factors and 5 local crime risk factors considered, concealed access/escape routes, cash register located at the back or the side of the store, high county crime rate, and high county population size were significantly associated with increased robbery rate. Poor cash handling policy was significantly related to a decreased robbery rate. Results also indicated that local crime factors and some environmental designs confound the relationship between other environmental designs and robbery rate. Conclusions from this reanalysis indicated that studies of the effectiveness of environmental designs to deter robbery must adjust for confounding. Although environmental design tends to be an effective robbery deterrent strategy, results from studies have been inconsistent as to the effectiveness of specific design factors. This inconsistency is partially explained by lack of adjustment for confounding from local crime risk factors and multiple environmental design factors. Areas for further research are discussed.

  12. The Convenience Benefits of the District Heating System over Individual Heating Systems in Korean Households

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyo-Jin Kim

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Koreans usually prefer the district heating system (DHS to the individual heating system (IHS because DHS can give them convenience and safety within their living environment. The Korean government thus plans to expand the DHS and requires information about the value that consumers place on the DHS over the IHS, which has not been dealt with in academic literature. This paper attempts to investigate Korean households’ willingness to pay (WTP for DHS over IHS, for residential heat (RH. To this end, the authors apply the dichotomous choice contingent valuation to assessing additional WTP for DHS using a survey of 1000 randomly selected households living in buildings with IHS. A mixture model is applied to deal with the zero WTP responses. The WTP distribution is specified as a mixture of two distributions, one with a point mass at zero and the other with full support on the positive half of the real line. The results show that the mean additional WTP for DHS-based RH over IHS-based RH is estimated to be KRW 5775 (USD 5.4 per Gcal. This value can be interpreted as the consumer’s convenience benefits of DHS over IHS, and amounts to approximately 6.0% of the average price: KRW 96,510 (USD 90.4 per Gcal in 2013, for IHS-based RH. This information is useful for evaluating changes to the method used for supplying RH from IHS to DHS.

  13. Si Bule Masuk Islam: Western Converts to Islam in Indonesia - more than just Converts of Convenience?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Kevin Brice

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In discussing converts to Islam, two different types of converts are often identified based on the reason for conversion: converts of convenience and converts of conviction. The common view is that in most (if not all cases, conversion to Islam in Indonesia by Westerners is about facilitating marriage and so the converts should be classified as converts of convenience. Evidence of the commonality of this view is considered by reference to advice offered to Westerners about marriage to Indonesians on specialist web sites and examples of coverage of the topic in Indonesian social media. By considering a number of brief case studies, the common view is challenged. The binary of “convert of convenience” versus “convert of conviction” is revisited to suggest that individuals may move between the types over a period of time. Finally the paper will consider whether there is anything about Islam in Indonesia which contributes to the phenomenon of “transnational” conversion by Westerners in Indonesia.DOI: 10.15408/sdi.v22i1.1386

  14. Modelling and computation in the valuation of carbon derivatives with stochastic convenience yields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Shuhua; Wang, Xinyu

    2015-01-01

    The anthropogenic greenhouse gas (GHG) emission has risen dramatically during the last few decades, which mainstream researchers believe to be the main cause of climate change, especially the global warming. The mechanism of market-based carbon emission trading is regarded as a policy instrument to deal with global climate change. Although several empirical researches about the carbon allowance and its derivatives price have been made, theoretical results seem to be sparse. In this paper, we theoretically develop a mathematical model to price the CO2 emission allowance derivatives with stochastic convenience yields by the principle of absence of arbitrage opportunities. In the case of American options, we formulate the pricing problem to a linear parabolic variational inequality (VI) in two spatial dimensions and develop a power penalty method to solve it. Then, a fitted finite volume method is designed to solve the nonlinear partial differential equation (PDE) resulting from the power penalty method and governing the futures, European and American option valuation. Moreover, some numerical results are performed to illustrate the efficiency and usefulness of this method. We find that the stochastic convenience yield does effect the valuation of carbon emission derivatives. In addition, some sensitivity analyses are also made to examine the effects of some parameters on the valuation results.

  15. Polydopamine spheres as active templates for convenient synthesis of various nanostructures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Jian; Yang, Liping; Lin, Meng-Fang; Ma, Jan; Lu, Xuehong; Lee, Pooi See

    2013-02-25

    In this work, monodisperse polydopamine (PDA) spheres with tunable diameters have been synthesized through a facile and low cost method using a deionized water and alcohol mixed solvent. The PDA spheres possess surface functional groups (-OH, -NH(2)), exhibiting an extraordinary versatile active nature. It is demonstrated that the PDA spheres could serve as an active template for the convenient synthesis of various nanostructures, e.g., MnO(2) hollow spheres or PDA/Fe(3)O(4) and PDA/Ag core/shell nanostructures. No surface modification or special treatment is required for the synthesis of these nanostructures, which makes the fabrication process simple and very convenient. The novel application of PDA/Fe(3)O(4) spheres as fillers in nanocomposites for high-performance capacitors is demonstrated, indicating a promising practicality. The PDA spheres provide a new general platform not only for the facile assembly of nanostructures but also a green synthetic template for practical applications. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. Obesogenic neighbourhoods: the impact of neighbourhood restaurants and convenience stores on adolescents' food consumption behaviours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Meizi; Tucker, Patricia; Irwin, Jennifer D; Gilliland, Jason; Larsen, Kristian; Hess, Paul

    2012-12-01

    To examine the relationship between the neighbourhood food environment and dietary intake among adolescents. Cross-sectional design using: (i) a geographic information system to assess characteristics of the neighbourhood food environment and neighbourhood socio-economic status; (ii) the modified Healthy Eating Index (HEI) to assess participants' overall diet quality; and (iii) generalized linear models to examine associations between HEI and home and school food environmental correlates. Mid-sized Canadian city in Ontario, Canada. Participants Grade 7 and 8 students (n 810) at twenty-one elementary schools. Students living in neighbourhoods with a lower diversity of land-use types, compared with their higher diversity counterparts, had higher HEI scores (P store had higher HEI scores than those living within 1 km (P store (P proximity to convenience stores in adolescents' home environments is associated with low HEI scores. Within adolescents' school environments, close proximity to convenience and fast-food outlets and a high density of fast-food outlets are associated with low HEI scores.

  17. Part III: the convenience of, and patient preference for, zolmitriptan orally disintegrating tablet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowson, Andrew J; Almqvist, Per

    2005-01-01

    As part of an optimal strategy for the management of migraine, the individual needs and preferences of patients need to be considered when of patients need to be considered when prescribing treatments. Zolmitriptan has been available as a conventional oral tablet for more than seven years, and is established as a highly effective, well-tolerated compound for the acute treatment of migraine. A bioequivalent, orally disintegrating tablet (ODT) of zolmitriptan, which dissolves on the tongue without the need for additional fluid intake, has been developed. In a study designed to compare patient preference for zolmitriptan ODT and conventional oral sumatriptan tablets, > 60% of the 186 patients questioned had an overall preference for zolmitriptan ODT, with > 80% of patients reporting that this was the more convenient and less disruptive therapy to take. Approximately 90% of patients agreed that, unlike a conventional tablet, zolmitriptan ODT can be taken wherever and whenever a migraine occurs. When patient preference for zolmitriptan ODT and the ODT formulation of rizatriptan was compared in 171 migraineurs, 70% had an overall preference for zolmitriptan ODT to be superior to rizatriptan ODT with respect to taste and aftertaste, as well as packaging. In summary, not only is zolmitriptan ODT a convenient tablets, such as the sumatriptan oral tablet, but patients generally consider it to be a more attractive option for the acute treatment of migraine than the orally disintegrating version of rizatriptan.

  18. Health-Promoting Lifestyle, Perceived Health Competence, Barriers to Health Promotion, and Asthma-Related Knowledge in Persons with Chronic Asthma

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-05-15

    Program, 1997). Limitations The findings of this study cannot be generalized beyond the small, nonprobability sample , and because it is a correlational...A convenience sampling technique was employed to select the participants in this study. Of the 75 patients approached, 3 declined, 3 did not meet...24 3. METHODOLOGY Design 26 Selection of Sample 26 Data Collection 27 Research Question 28 Data Analysis 29 SELECTION OF INSTRUMENTS

  19. A convenient catalyst system for microwave accelerated cross-coupling of a range of aryl boronic acids with aryl chlorides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milton Edward J

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A convenient microwave accelerated cross-coupling procedure between aryl chlorides with a range of boronic acids has been developed. An explanation for the low reactivity of highly fluorinated boronic acids in Suzuki coupling is provided.

  20. Two means of sampling sexual minority women: how different are the samples of women?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boehmer, Ulrike; Clark, Melissa; Timm, Alison; Ozonoff, Al

    2008-01-01

    We compared 2 sampling approaches of sexual minority women in 1 limited geographic area to better understand the implications of these 2 sampling approaches. Sexual minority women identified through the Census did not differ on average age or the prevalence of raising children from those sampled using nonrandomized methods. Women in the convenience sample were better educated and lived in smaller households. Modeling the likelihood of disability in this population resulted in contradictory parameter estimates by sampling approach. The degree of variation observed both between sampling approaches and between different parameters suggests that the total population of sexual minority women is still unmeasured. Thoroughly constructed convenience samples will continue to be a useful sampling strategy to further research on this population.

  1. Convenient and large-scale synthesis of nitrogen-rich hierarchical porous carbon spheres for supercapacitors and CO2 capture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Binbin; Zhang, Shouren; Yin, Hang; Yang, Baocheng

    2017-08-01

    Herein, considering the great potential of nitrogen-doped hierarchical porous carbons in energy storage and CO2 capture, we designed a convenient and easily large-scale production strategy for preparing nitrogen-doped hierarchical porous carbon sphere (NHPCS) materials. In this synthesis route, spherical resorcinol-formaldehyde (RF) resins were selected as carbon precursor, and then the ZnCl2-impregnated RF resin spheres were carbonized in a NH3 atmosphere at a temperature range of 600-800 °C. During the one-step heat-treatment process, nitrogen atom could be efficiently incorporated into the carbon skeleton, and the interconnected and hierarchical pore structure with different micro/mesopore proportion could be generated and tuned by adjusting the activating agent ZnCl2 dosage and carbonization temperature. The resultant nitrogen-doped hierarchical porous carbon sphere materials exhibited a satisfactory charge storage capacity, and the optimal sample of NHPCS-2-8 with a high mesopore proportion obtained at 800 °C with a ZnCl2/RF mass ratio of 2:1 presented a specific capacitance of 273.8 F g-1 at a current density of 0.5 A g-1. More importantly, the assembled NHPCS-2-8-based symmetric capacitor displayed a high energy density of 17.2 Wh kg-1 at a power density of 178.9 W kg-1 within a voltage window of 0 ∼ 1.8 V in 0.5 M Na2SO4 aqueous electrolyte. In addition, the CO2 capture application of these NHPCS materials was also explored, and the optimal sample of NHPCS-0-8 with a large micropore proportion prepared at 800 °C exhibited an exceptional CO2 uptake capacity at ambient pressures of up to 4.23 mmol g-1 at 0 °C.

  2. A venue-based method for sampling hard-to-reach populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhib, F B; Lin, L S; Stueve, A; Miller, R L; Ford, W L; Johnson, W D; Smith, P J

    2001-01-01

    Constructing scientifically sound samples of hard-to-reach populations, also known as hidden populations, is a challenge for many research projects. Traditional sample survey methods, such as random sampling from telephone or mailing lists, can yield low numbers of eligible respondents while non-probability sampling introduces unknown biases. The authors describe a venue-based application of time-space sampling (TSS) that addresses the challenges of accessing hard-to-reach populations. The method entails identifying days and times when the target population gathers at specific venues, constructing a sampling frame of venue, day-time units (VDTs), randomly selecting and visiting VDTs (the primary sampling units), and systematically intercepting and collecting information from consenting members of the target population. This allows researchers to construct a sample with known properties, make statistical inference to the larger population of venue visitors, and theorize about the introduction of biases that may limit generalization of results to the target population. The authors describe their use of TSS in the ongoing Community Intervention Trial for Youth (CITY) project to generate a systematic sample of young men who have sex with men. The project is an ongoing community level HIV prevention intervention trial funded by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. The TSS method is reproducible and can be adapted to hard-to-reach populations in other situations, environments, and cultures.

  3. Money versus Time: Evaluation of Flow Control in Terms of Energy Consumption and Convenience

    CERN Document Server

    Frohnapfel, Bettina; Quadrio, Maurizio

    2012-01-01

    Flow control with the goal of reducing the skin friction drag on the fluid-solid interface is an active fundamental research area, motivated by its potential for significant energy savings and reduced emissions in the transport sector. Customarily, the performance of drag reduction techniques in internal flows is evaluated under two alternative flow conditions, i.e. at constant mass flow rate or constant pressure gradient. Successful control leads to reduction of drag and pumping power within the former approach, whereas the latter leads to an increase of the mass flow rate and pumping power. In practical applications, however, money and time define the flow control challenge: a compromise between the energy expenditure (money) and the corresponding convenience (flow rate) achieved with that amount of energy has to be reached so as to accomplish a goal which in general depends on the specific application. Based on this idea, we derive two dimensionless parameters which quantify the total energy consumption an...

  4. A Convenient Route to 4-Carboxy-4-Anilidopiperidine Esters and Acids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gjermund Henriksen

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The route selection and development of a convenient synthesis of 4-carboxy-4-anilidopiperidines is described. Previous routes were hampered by the low yield of the target esters as well as the inability to convert the esters to the required free acids. Considerations for large-scale production led to a modified synthesis that utilised a tert-butyl ester of 4-carboxy-4-anilidopiperidines which resulted in a dramatic increase in the overall yield of the target N-propionylated- 4-anilidopiperidine-4-carboxylic acids and their corresponding methyl esters. These compounds are now available for use as precursors and reference standards, of particular value for the production of 11C and 18F-labelled 4-carboxy-4-anilidopiperidine radiotracers.

  5. Constraints upon food provisioning practices in 'busy' women's lives: trade-offs which demand convenience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bava, Christina M; Jaeger, Sara R; Park, Julie

    2008-01-01

    The present research explores food provisioning practices within women's lives. By drawing upon French social scientist Pierre Bourdieu's notions of habitus, cultural capital and field, a conceptual framework of the complex process leading to food provisioning practices is developed and investigated. To this end, repeated semi-structured interviews, participant observation, diaries and media analyses were conducted over a 3-month period with 11 women residing in Auckland (New Zealand), who were largely responsible for household food provisioning. The findings set the scene for challenging the notion of free choice. We argue that food provisioning practices are shaped by a process of trade-off between preferred practices and the constraints operating at a given point of time, resulting in practices which demand convenience in food provisioning to minimize time and cognitive effort.

  6. Bestow metal foams with nanostructured surfaces via a convenient electrochemical method for improved device performance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yawen Zhan; Shanshan Zeng; Haidong Bian; Zhe Li; Zhengtao Xu; Jian Lu; Yang Yang Li

    2016-01-01

    Metal foams have been intensively studied as three-dimensional (3-D) bulk mass-support for various applications because of their high conductivities and attractive mechanical properties.However,the relatively low surface area of conventional metal foams largely limits their performance in applications such as charge storage.Here,we present a convenient electrochemical method for addressing this problem using Cu foams as an example.High surface area Cu foams are fabricated in a one-pot one-step manner by repetitive electrodeposition and dealloying treatments.The obtained Cu foams exhibit greatly improved performance for different applications like surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) substrates and 3-D bulk supercapacitor electrodes.

  7. A Rich Client-Server Based Framework for Convenient Security and Management of Mobile Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badan, Stephen; Probst, Julien; Jaton, Markus; Vionnet, Damien; Wagen, Jean-Frédéric; Litzistorf, Gérald

    Contact lists, Emails, SMS or custom applications on a professional smartphone could hold very confidential or sensitive information. What could happen in case of theft or accidental loss of such devices? Such events could be detected by the separation between the smartphone and a Bluetooth companion device. This event should typically block the applications and delete personal and sensitive data. Here, a solution is proposed based on a secured framework application running on the mobile phone as a rich client connected to a security server. The framework offers strong and customizable authentication and secured connectivity. A security server manages all security issues. User applications are then loaded via the framework. User data can be secured, synchronized, pushed or pulled via the framework. This contribution proposes a convenient although secured environment based on a client-server architecture using external authentications. Several features of the proposed system are exposed and a practical demonstrator is described.

  8. A Convenient Synthesis of Benzo-1,2,3,4-tetrazine-1,3-dioxide

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Wei-wei; ZHAO Xiu-xiu; LIN Zhi-hui; PANG Si-ping; SUN Cheng-hui; LI Sheng-hua

    2013-01-01

    Benzo-1,2,3,4-tetrazine-1,3-dioxide was synthesized from 2-bromonitrobenzene,which is converted to 2-bromo-1-( tert-butyl-NNO-azoxy)benzene by a three-step standem reaction. Amination of 2-bromo-1-( tert-butyl-NNO-azoxy)benzene with aqueous ammonia using Cu2 O as the catalyst yielded 2-amino-1-(tert-butyl-NNO-azoxy)benzene,that was cyclized with nitration agents N2O5 or NO2BF4 to give benzo-1,2,3,4-tetrazine-1,3-dioxide. A mild and convenient route was developed. Moreover,the target compound was identified by 1 H NMR,13 C NMR,IR, MS-EI and elemental analysis.

  9. A Marriage of Convenience? A qualitative study of colleague supervision of Master's level dissertations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirton, Jennifer; Straker, Katherine; Brown, Jeremy; Jack, Barbara; Jinks, Annette

    2011-11-01

    The focus of this study is colleague supervision of Master's level dissertations. A qualitative study was undertaken and in-depth interviews with research supervisors (n=7) and students (n=7) who had experienced colleague supervision of masters' level dissertations in the previous four years were undertaken. Independent 'outsider' researchers were deployed to undertake the interviews. A thematic content analysis approach was utilised and an analogy of a 'Marriage of Convenience' was used to describe the various dimensions and significant chronological events of the student/supervisor relationship. Four data themes were identified and included: 'Match making and betrothal', 'Soul mates or not', 'Married life' and 'Giving birth'. The study's findings give rise to a number of recommendations that will be of interest to all healthcare educators who are involved in supervision of colleagues' academic research activities.

  10. Twin-Induced InSb Nanosails: A Convenient High Mobility Quantum System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Mata, María; Leturcq, Renaud; Plissard, Sébastien R; Rolland, Chloé; Magén, César; Arbiol, Jordi; Caroff, Philippe

    2016-02-10

    Ultra narrow bandgap III-V semiconductor nanomaterials provide a unique platform for realizing advanced nanoelectronics, thermoelectrics, infrared photodetection, and quantum transport physics. In this work we employ molecular beam epitaxy to synthesize novel nanosheet-like InSb nanostructures exhibiting superior electronic performance. Through careful morphological and crystallographic characterization we show how this unique geometry is the result of a single twinning event in an otherwise pure zinc blende structure. Four-terminal electrical measurements performed in both the Hall and van der Pauw configurations reveal a room temperature electron mobility greater than 12,000 cm(2)·V(-1)·s(-1). Quantized conductance in a quantum point contact processed with a split-gate configuration is also demonstrated. We thus introduce InSb "nanosails" as a versatile and convenient platform for realizing new device and physics experiments with a strong interplay between electronic and spin degrees of freedom.

  11. Considerations in the use of microneedles: pain, convenience, anxiety and safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Hye-Rin; Lee, Han-Sol; Choi, In-Jeong; Park, Jung-Hwan

    2017-01-01

    Transdermal delivery using microneedles is gaining increasing attention from pharmaceutical and cosmetic companies as one of the promising drug delivery methods. Microneedle products have recently become available on the market, and some of them are under evaluation for efficacy and safety. To be available in the market for cosmetic and therapeutic use, several factors should be considered, including pain, anxiety, convenience and safety. These factors are summarized and reviewed in this article according to type of microneedle. Various kinds of materials have been used for manufacturing microneedles and developing drug formulations for microneedles. Safety information about materials used for microneedles is summarized in terms of type of microneedles. In addition to their biocompatibility, mechanical safety is also discussed. This review can provide guidelines for designing microneedle products for proper use.

  12. Property of Fluctuations of Sales Quantities by Product Category in Convenience Stores.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaku Fukunaga

    Full Text Available The ability to ascertain the extent of product sale fluctuations for each store and locality is indispensable to inventory management. This study analyzed POS data from 158 convenience stores in Kawasaki City, Kanagawa Prefecture, Japan and found a power scaling law between the mean and standard deviation of product sales quantities for several product categories. For the statistical domains of low sales quantities, the power index was 1/2; for large sales quantities, the power index was 1, so called Taylor's law holds. The value of sales quantities with changing power indixes differed according to product category. We derived a Poissonian compound distribution model taking into account fluctuations in customer numbers to show that the scaling law could be explained theoretically for most of items. We also examined why the scaling law did not hold in some exceptional cases.

  13. UHT PROCESSED CHICKPEA LIQUID MEAL: A NOVEL CONCEPT OF A CONVENIENT LIQUID FOOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert W. Hosken

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available Chickpea liquid meal (CLM is a new concept of a convenient liquid food. It is a complex colloidal system, which is composed of dehulled chickpea flour as the major ingredient and with the addition of other ingredients (protein, fat, sucrose, dried glucose syrup, maltodextrin, vitamins, minerals, etc. The product is expected to have a balanced nutritional composition; acceptable flavor, taste and thickness; homogenous and smooth texture; stable colloid; and can be stored for a long of period (commercially sterile. This paper presents an overview of the literature information on the production, nutritional quality and functional properties of the chickpea, and the technology of liquid meal, which is applicable to CLM. It also outlines possible problems that influence consumer acceptability of the product. Some preliminary results of our study are also reported.

  14. An Analysis of Type IV Precision Measurement Equipment Laboratory Logistical Support Relative to the Implementation of F-15/F-16 Two-Level Maintenance

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-09-01

    sampling population, nonprobability sampling was used in this research. The technique chosen to perform nonprobability sampling was the purposive...used in this research. The technique chosen to perform nonprobability sampling was the purposive judgement sampling technique . In this technique , the...judgement sampling technique . In this 6 technique , the researcher handpicks the sample members based on an

  15. Building Consumers'Trust Based on Pick-up Goods Behavior in the Convenience Stores in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun-Chia Wang

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available With the adoption of Internet, online shopping has provided a convenience way to purchase goods or services from anywhere at any time in recent years globally. Especially, convenience stores are available for consumers to pick up goods ordered from Internet shops in Taiwan. Therefore, convenience stores have become an important success factor for increasing a lot of profit in online shopping in Taiwan.In the past, researches have indicated that consumers dare not or are not willing to purchase goods in online shopping. The reasons include the problem of security and the lack of consumers’ trust. Thus, these problems constitute a key barrier to the use of online shopping as well as long-term commitment to the relationship building. Therefore, there is a need to build up consumers’ trust in order to overcome the influential factors in online shopping. In this paper, we use statistic analysis method by questionnaires to discuss the characteristics of pick-up goods in the convenience stores and illustrate the relationship between consumers’ trust in online shopping and pick-up goods behavior in convenience stores. In our experiment, questionnaire items are measured by Likert scale. In 227 valid questionnaires, 90% participants deeply believe that pick-up goods in the convenience stores can promote consumers’ trust in online shopping.

  16. Bringing metabolic networks to life: convenience rate law and thermodynamic constraints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klipp Edda

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Translating a known metabolic network into a dynamic model requires rate laws for all chemical reactions. The mathematical expressions depend on the underlying enzymatic mechanism; they can become quite involved and may contain a large number of parameters. Rate laws and enzyme parameters are still unknown for most enzymes. Results We introduce a simple and general rate law called "convenience kinetics". It can be derived from a simple random-order enzyme mechanism. Thermodynamic laws can impose dependencies on the kinetic parameters. Hence, to facilitate model fitting and parameter optimisation for large networks, we introduce thermodynamically independent system parameters: their values can be varied independently, without violating thermodynamical constraints. We achieve this by expressing the equilibrium constants either by Gibbs free energies of formation or by a set of independent equilibrium constants. The remaining system parameters are mean turnover rates, generalised Michaelis-Menten constants, and constants for inhibition and activation. All parameters correspond to molecular energies, for instance, binding energies between reactants and enzyme. Conclusion Convenience kinetics can be used to translate a biochemical network – manually or automatically - into a dynamical model with plausible biological properties. It implements enzyme saturation and regulation by activators and inhibitors, covers all possible reaction stoichiometries, and can be specified by a small number of parameters. Its mathematical form makes it especially suitable for parameter estimation and optimisation. Parameter estimates can be easily computed from a least-squares fit to Michaelis-Menten values, turnover rates, equilibrium constants, and other quantities that are routinely measured in enzyme assays and stored in kinetic databases.

  17. Recombinant Passenger Proteins Can Be Conveniently Purified by One-Step Affinity Chromatography.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hua-zhen Wang

    Full Text Available Fusion tag is one of the best available tools to date for enhancement of the solubility or improvement of the expression level of recombinant proteins in Escherichia coli. Typically, two consecutive affinity purification steps are often necessitated for the purification of passenger proteins. As a fusion tag, acyl carrier protein (ACP could greatly increase the soluble expression level of Glucokinase (GlcK, α-Amylase (Amy and GFP. When fusion protein ACP-G2-GlcK-Histag and ACP-G2-Amy-Histag, in which a protease TEV recognition site was inserted between the fusion tag and passenger protein, were coexpressed with protease TEV respectively in E. coli, the efficient intracellular processing of fusion proteins was achieved. The resulting passenger protein GlcK-Histag and Amy-Histag accumulated predominantly in a soluble form, and could be conveniently purified by one-step Ni-chelating chromatography. However, the fusion protein ACP-GFP-Histag was processed incompletely by the protease TEV coexpressed in vivo, and a large portion of the resulting target protein GFP-Histag aggregated in insoluble form, indicating that the intracellular processing may affect the solubility of cleaved passenger protein. In this context, the soluble fusion protein ACP-GFP-Histag, contained in the supernatant of E. coli cell lysate, was directly subjected to cleavage in vitro by mixing it with the clarified cell lysate of E. coli overexpressing protease TEV. Consequently, the resulting target protein GFP-Histag could accumulate predominantly in a soluble form, and be purified conveniently by one-step Ni-chelating chromatography. The approaches presented here greatly simplify the purification process of passenger proteins, and eliminate the use of large amounts of pure site-specific proteases.

  18. Recombinant Passenger Proteins Can Be Conveniently Purified by One-Step Affinity Chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hua-zhen; Chu, Zhi-zhan; Chen, Chang-chao; Cao, Ao-cheng; Tong, Xin; Ouyang, Can-bin; Yuan, Qi-hang; Wang, Mi-nan; Wu, Zhong-kun; Wang, Hai-hong; Wang, Sheng-bin

    2015-01-01

    Fusion tag is one of the best available tools to date for enhancement of the solubility or improvement of the expression level of recombinant proteins in Escherichia coli. Typically, two consecutive affinity purification steps are often necessitated for the purification of passenger proteins. As a fusion tag, acyl carrier protein (ACP) could greatly increase the soluble expression level of Glucokinase (GlcK), α-Amylase (Amy) and GFP. When fusion protein ACP-G2-GlcK-Histag and ACP-G2-Amy-Histag, in which a protease TEV recognition site was inserted between the fusion tag and passenger protein, were coexpressed with protease TEV respectively in E. coli, the efficient intracellular processing of fusion proteins was achieved. The resulting passenger protein GlcK-Histag and Amy-Histag accumulated predominantly in a soluble form, and could be conveniently purified by one-step Ni-chelating chromatography. However, the fusion protein ACP-GFP-Histag was processed incompletely by the protease TEV coexpressed in vivo, and a large portion of the resulting target protein GFP-Histag aggregated in insoluble form, indicating that the intracellular processing may affect the solubility of cleaved passenger protein. In this context, the soluble fusion protein ACP-GFP-Histag, contained in the supernatant of E. coli cell lysate, was directly subjected to cleavage in vitro by mixing it with the clarified cell lysate of E. coli overexpressing protease TEV. Consequently, the resulting target protein GFP-Histag could accumulate predominantly in a soluble form, and be purified conveniently by one-step Ni-chelating chromatography. The approaches presented here greatly simplify the purification process of passenger proteins, and eliminate the use of large amounts of pure site-specific proteases.

  19. Indoor air pollution, nighttime heart rate variability and coffee consumption among convenient store workers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai-Jen Chuang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The association between ambient air pollution and heart rate variability (HRV has been well-documented. Little is known about the association of HRV at night with indoor air pollution and coffee consumption. The aim of this study was to investigate the association of HRV indices with indoor air pollution, working time and coffee consumption. METHODS: We recruited 60 young healthy convenient store workers to monitor indoor PM2.5 (particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter ≤ 2.5 µm exposures, coffee consumption (yes vs. no and HRV indices during daytime (0700-1500 hours and nighttime (2300-0700 hours. We used linear mixed effects models to assess the associations of HRV indices with indoor PM2.5 exposures and coffee consumption. RESULTS: We observed the inverse association between indoor PM2.5 exposures and HRV indices, with a decrease in all HRV indices with increased indoor PM2.5 exposures. However, the decrease was most pronounced during nighttime, where a 1 interquartile range (IQR increase in indoor PM2.5 at 4-hr time-weighted moving average was associated with a change of -4.78% 5-min standard deviation (SD of normal-to-normal intervals for 5-min segment (SDNN and -3.23% 5-min square root of the mean squared differences of successive intervals for 5-min segment (r-MSSD. Effects of indoor PM2.5 were lowest for participants with coffee consumption during daytime. CONCLUSIONS: Indoor PM2.5 exposures were associated with decreased 5-min SDNN and 5-min r-MSSD, especially during nighttime. The effect of indoor PM2.5 on HRV indices may be modified by coffee consumption in young healthy convenient store workers.

  20. Masters of convenience: competition, including a rising star from Quebec, improves the service station breed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laverty Wilson, K.

    2002-06-03

    After a decade of extensive dismantling and reconstruction, changes in the downstream refining and marketing side of the petroleum industry have progressed to the point where downstream assets are once again considered to be among the strongest and most vital parts of the industry. Merchandising has become a way of life in gasoline service stations to the point where the service station of the 21. century will likely carry mass-consumption items from panty hose to sandwiches in addition to gasoline. Petro-Canada is in the forefront of rolling out the new-image service stations, while high traffic Esso locations are adding cafes serving doughnuts, muffins, bagels, soup and sandwiches in partnership with the Tim Horton's chain. In Canada, Quebec is way ahead of the other provinces in setting the high tone in the business of catering to consumers on wheels as demonstrated by the 1,932 retail sites of 'Couche-Tard', a name synonymous with gas pumps, fresh coffee and the myriad items offered in traditional convenience stores. With a total of 1,693 stores in Canada, 239 in the United States, 13,000 plus employees and more than 800 gas pumps (80 of them branded to in-house gasoline) Couche-Tard is the ninth largest convenience retailer in North America. The article describes the rise to prominence of the Couche-Tard empire, explains why circumstances in Quebec were ripe for this type of development, and offers a glimpse into the future of the likely further development of the retail gasoline market in the rest of Canada.

  1. Investigating probabilistic sampling approaches for large-scale surveys in software engineering

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    de Mello, Rafael Maiani; da Silva, Pedro Corrêa; Travassos, Guilherme Horta

    2015-01-01

    .... Specialized literature often presents limitations on interpreting surveys’ results, mainly due to the use of sampling frames established by convenience and non-probabilistic criteria for sampling from them...

  2. SEE IT, LIKE IT, BUY IT! HEDONIC SHOPPING MOTIVATIONS AND IMPULSE BUYING

    OpenAIRE

    Kasim Tatić; Srđan Petrić; Merima Činjarević

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the influence of six broad categories of hedonic shopping motivations(adventure,gratification,role, value, social, and idea shopping) and fashion consciousness on consumers’ impulse buying behavior. The online questionnaire wascreated using LimeSurvey, a web based questionnaire generator tool. An online questionnaire was directed to a sample of 500 individuals in Bosnia and Herzegovina, using nonprobability convenience sampling method. A total of 224 pa...

  3. The construct equivalence and item bias of the pib/SpEEx conceptualisation-ability test for members of five language groups in South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Pieter Schaap; Theresa Vermeulen

    2008-01-01

    This study’s objective was to determine whether the Potential Index Batteries/Situation Specific Evaluation Expert (PIB/SpEEx) conceptualisation (100) ability test displays construct equivalence and item bias for members of five selected language groups in South Africa. The sample consisted of a non-probability convenience sample (N = 6 261) of members of five language groups (speakers of Afrikaans, English, North Sotho, Setswana and isiZulu) working in the medical and beverage industries or ...

  4. The Change4Life convenience store programme to increase retail access to fresh fruit and vegetables: a mixed methods process evaluation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean Adams

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Consumption of fruit and vegetables is important for health, but is often lower than recommended and tends to be socio-economically patterned with lower consumption in more deprived groups. In 2008, the English Department of Health introduced the Change4Life convenience store programme. This aimed to increase retail access to fresh fruit and vegetables in deprived, urban areas by providing existing convenience stores with a range of support and branded point-of-sale materials and equipment. METHODS: We undertook a mixed-methods study of the Change4Life convenience store programme in the North East of England around two years after initial implementation. Store mapping (n = 87; 100% stores and systematic in-store observations (n = 74; 85% stores provided information on intervention fidelity; the variety, purchase price and quality of fresh fruit and vegetables on sale; and purchase price compared to a major supermarket. Ten qualitative interviews with a purposive sample of retailers and other professionals explored experiences of the intervention and provided further insight on quantitative results. RESULTS: Intervention stores were primarily located in socio-economically disadvantaged areas. Fidelity, in terms of presence of branded materials and equipment, was low and much was not being used as intended. Fresh fruit and vegetables on sale were of high quality and had a purchase price around 10% more than comparable products at a major supermarket. Interviewees were supportive of the health improvement aim of the intervention. Retailers were appreciative of part-funding for chill cabinets and free point-of-sale materials. The intervention suffered from: poor initial and on-going communication between the intervention delivery team and retailers; poor availability of replacement point-of-sale materials; and failure to cement intended links with health workers and community organisations. CONCLUSIONS: Overall, intervention fidelity was

  5. A convenient approach to $10^{-12}~g/g$ ICP-MS limits for Th and U in Aurubis electrolytic NA-ESN brand copper

    CERN Document Server

    Leonard, D S

    2014-01-01

    Inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy is a powerful technique for measuring trace levels of radioactive contaminants, specifically Th and U, in materials for use in construction of low-background rare-event detectors such as double beta decay and dark matter detectors. I describe here a technique for measuring Th and U contamination in copper using direct acid digestion and dilution, without further chemical processing, achieving results comparable to previous work which utilized more complex chemical pre-concentration techniques. A convenient research-oriented analysis environment is described as well. Results are presented for measurements of three samples from the production line of electrolytically-purified, LME (London Metal Exchange) grade A, NA-ESN Aurubis copper. Purified samples showed levels consistent with zero contamination for both elements, while weak but inconclusive indications of contamination were present for the un-purified anode copper. The best limits achieved are near $1\\cdot 10^{...

  6. The Under Secretary of Defense for Intelligence: Posturing Authorities to Complement Intelligence Community Reform

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-10

    themes served as a foundation for comparative analysis in chapter 4. 49 Sampling Plan Probability and nonprobability are the two most common... nonprobability sampling was the method of choice for this study. The most common type of nonprobability sampling used is purposeful sampling ... sampling . This technique is useful to collect research and knowledge from extended associations through previous acquaintances.78 Snowball sampling

  7. Validation of the Logistics Professional Development Program by Expert Senior Military Logisticians

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-09-01

    logisticians, nonprobability sampling satisfactorily met the sampling goal. Nonprobability sampling is non-random, meaning that not all members...based upon their background. Sampling Method To draw a nonprobability sample that conformed to the requirements of this study, a purposive judgement... sampling technique was used. This technique entailed handpicking respondents who conformed to the pre-defined expert criteria. Hence there is no

  8. The service stations rank first in convenience shopping. Experts see demand in the long run for better distinguishment; Tankstelle ist Nummer eins beim Convenience-Kauf. Experten sehen langfristig Profilierungsbedarf

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    1998-08-01

    The gasoline service station shops have conquered a top rank in convenience shopping in Germany. In the eyes of the clientele, the advantage of convenient and time-saving shopping justifies the higher prices demanded at those service station shops. Lowering the prices to the level of supermarkets will neither significantly raise the turnover, nor increase the anyhow considerable market share hold by the service station shops in convenience shopping. These are the most significant results of a comprehensive inquiry among 1 200 shoppers, into aspects of convenience shopping at service stations, commissioned by the Lekkerland Deutschland GmbH und Co. KG in collaboration with the institute for trade and international marketing at the Saarland University. (orig./CB) [Deutsch] Die Tankstellen-Shops (TS-Shops) haben als Einkaufsstaette besonders beim Kauf des Tagesbedarfs einen festen Platz in der deutschen Handelslandschaft erobern koennen. Zugunsten des bequemen und schnellen Einkaufs akzeptiert der Verbraucher hoehere Preise. Eine Preissenkung auf Supermarktniveau wuerde weder zu einem signifikanten Umsatzanstieg fuehren noch den ohnehin hohen Marktanteil der TS-Shops am Convenience-Einkauf spuerbar steigern. Das sind die Kernergebnisse der ersten umfassenden, auf einer Befragung von rund 1.200 Konsumenten basierenden Studie ueber Tankstellen-Shopping, die von der Lekkerland Deutschland GmbH und Co. KG in Zusammenarbeit mit dem Institut fuer Handel und Internationales Marketing an der Universitaet des Saarlandes erstellt wurde. (orig.)

  9. The European Union as a Conveniently-conflicted Counter-hegemon through Trade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Bailey

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This article addresses the failure by scholars of EU trade policy to fully explain the difficulties faced in realizing the ‘normative’ goals contained within the European Union’s external trade policy and the conviction that it might be a ‘force for good’ through trade. In seeking to account for and, in particular, move beyond the failure to fully explain these difficulties, the article adopts a critical social science approach that focuses on relations of domination and the (potentially misleading appearances that such relations tend to uphold. In contrast to the traditional view of the EU as a potential ‘force for good’, we conceptualize it as a site of domination, focusing in particular on three mechanisms through which this domination is achieved – expansive market (capitalist exchange, the ‘Othering’ that tends to accompany such processes of expansion, and the de-politicization necessary to achieve and/or legitimate these processes. The article proceeds to explore recent developments in EU trade policy, and in particular the Global Europe agenda and associated new generation of free trade agreements with trade partners in Asia and Latin America. In doing so, the article examines the extent to which processes of market expansion, Othering and de-politicization have been realized in recent EU trade policy. It argues for a conceptualization of the European Union as a conveniently-conflicted counter-hegemon through trade, whereby the EU presents itself as a potential ‘force for good’ through trade, but simultaneously avoids the realization of that potential (and justifies its non-realization by evoking the conveniently-conflicted status that arises from institutional constraints and both internal disagreements and external differences. This account, we claim, is both more plausible than the existing empirical accounts in that it is able to explain the consistent promotion of an apparently unrealizable

  10. Rapid, convenient method for screening imidazole-containing compounds for heme oxygenase inhibition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlahakis, Jason Z; Rahman, Mona N; Roman, Gheorghe; Jia, Zongchao; Nakatsu, Kanji; Szarek, Walter A

    2011-01-01

    Sensitive assays for measuring heme oxygenase activity have been based on the gas-chromatographic detection of carbon monoxide using elaborate, expensive equipment. The present study describes a rapid and convenient method for screening imidazole-containing candidates for inhibitory activity against heme oxygenase using a plate reader, based on the spectroscopic evaluation of heme degradation. A PowerWave XS plate reader was used to monitor the absorbance (as a function of time) of heme bound to purified truncated human heme oxygenase-1 (hHO-1) in the individual wells of a standard 96-well plate (with or without the addition of a test compound). The degradation of heme by heme oxygenase-1 was initiated using l-ascorbic acid, and the collected relevant absorbance data were analyzed by three different methods to calculate the percent control activity occurring in wells containing test compounds relative to that occurring in control wells with no test compound present. In the cases of wells containing inhibitory compounds, significant shifts in λ(max) from 404 to near 412 nm were observed as well as a decrease in the rate of heme degradation relative to that of the control. Each of the three methods of data processing (overall percent drop in absorbance over 1.5h, initial rate of reaction determined over the first 5 min, and estimated pseudo first-order reaction rate constant determined over 1.5h) gave similar and reproducible results for percent control activity. The fastest and easiest method of data analysis was determined to be that using initial rates, involving data acquisition for only 5 min once reactions have been initiated using l-ascorbic acid. The results of the study demonstrate that this simple assay based on the spectroscopic detection of heme represents a rapid, convenient method to determine the relative inhibitory activity of candidate compounds, and is useful in quickly screening a series or library of compounds for heme oxygenase inhibition

  11. Review of sampling hard-to-reach and hidden populations for HIV surveillance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnani, Robert; Sabin, Keith; Saidel, Tobi; Heckathorn, Douglas

    2005-05-01

    Adequate surveillance of hard-to-reach and 'hidden' subpopulations is crucial to containing the HIV epidemic in low prevalence settings and in slowing the rate of transmission in high prevalence settings. For a variety of reasons, however, conventional facility and survey-based surveillance data collection strategies are ineffective for a number of key subpopulations, particularly those whose behaviors are illegal or illicit. This paper critically reviews alternative sampling strategies for undertaking behavioral or biological surveillance surveys of such groups. Non-probability sampling approaches such as facility-based sentinel surveillance and snowball sampling are the simplest to carry out, but are subject to a high risk of sampling/selection bias. Most of the probability sampling methods considered are limited in that they are adequate only under certain circumstances and for some groups. One relatively new method, respondent-driven sampling, an adaptation of chain-referral sampling, appears to be the most promising for general applications. However, as its applicability to HIV surveillance in resource-poor settings has yet to be established, further field trials are needed before a firm conclusion can be reached.

  12. 41 CFR 102-5.95 - Is the comfort and/or convenience of an employee considered sufficient justification to authorize...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... convenience of an employee considered sufficient justification to authorize home-to-work transportation? 102-5...-to-Work Transportation § 102-5.95 Is the comfort and/or convenience of an employee considered sufficient justification to authorize home-to-work transportation? No, the comfort and/or convenience of...

  13. Convenience and the hierarchy of meal preparation. Cooking and domestic education in the Netherlands, 1910-1930.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verriet, Jon

    2015-11-01

    The concept of convenience in food products and meal preparation has changed rapidly during the twentieth century. However, there is little investigation into the way attitudes towards this concept have changed, which curbs our understanding of the importance of, and need for, convenience today. This paper uses the magazine of the Dutch schools of domestic education to examine their stance on convenience in meal preparation during the 1910s and 1920s. Recipes and articles are quantitatively and qualitatively analysed to estimate the importance of convenience in food preparation and consumption. The results of this analysis show that there was a hierarchy of values with regard to food choice: convenience was definitely valued, but matters of frugality and nutrition generally dominated. This provides not just a nuanced image of the role of domestic education (demanding yet flexible), but it also gives insight into the mechanics of food choice, which may at least partly still apply today. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. A convenient method for determination of quizalofop-p-ethyl based on the fluorescence quenching of eosin Y in the presence of Pd(II)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Huan; Zhao, Yanmei; Tan, Xuanping; Zeng, Xiaoqing; Guo, Yuan; Yang, Jidong

    2017-03-01

    A convenient fluorescence quenching method for determination of Quizalofop-p-ethyl(Qpe) was proposed in this paper. Eosin Y(EY) is a red dye with strong green fluorescence (λex/λem = 519/540 nm). The interaction between EY, Pd(II) and Qpe was investigated by fluorescence spectroscopy, resonance Rayleigh scattering(RRS) and UV-Vis absorption. Based on changes in spectrum, Pd(II) associated with Qpe giving a positively charged chelate firstly, then reacted with EY through electrostatic and hydrophobic interaction formed ternary chelate could be demonstrated. Under optimum conditions, the fluorescence intensity of EY could be quenched by Qpe in the presence of Pd(II) and the RRS intensity had a remarkable enhancement, which was directly proportional to the Qpe concentration within a certain concentration range, respectively. Based on the fluorescence quenching of EY-Pd(II) system by Qpe, a novel, convenient and specific method for Qpe determination was developed. To our knowledge, this is the first fluorescence method for determination of Qpe was reported. The detection limit for Qpe was 20.3 ng/mL and the quantitative determination range was 0.04-1.0 μg/mL. The method was highly sensitive and had larger detection range compared to other methods. The influence of coexisting substances was investigated with good anti-interference ability. The new analytical method has been applied to determine of Qpe in real samples with satisfactory results.

  15. The Retinal Pigment Epithelium: a Convenient Source of New Photoreceptor cells?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu-Zhen Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent success in restoring visual function through photoreceptor replacement in mouse models of photoreceptor degeneration intensifies the need to generate or regenerate photoreceptor cells for the ultimate goal of using cell replacement therapy for blindness caused by photoreceptor degeneration. Current research on deriving new photoreceptors for replacement, as regenerative medicine in general, focuses on the use of embryonic stem cells and induced pluripotent stem (iPS cells to generate transplantable cells. Nonetheless, naturally occurring regeneration, such as wound healing, involves awakening cells at or near a wound site to produce new cells needed to heal the wound. Here we discuss the possibility of tweaking an ocular tissue, the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE, to produce photoreceptor cells in situ in the eye. Unlike the neural retina, the RPE in adult mammals maintains cell proliferation capability. Furthermore, progeny cells from RPE proliferation may differentiate into cells other than RPE. The combination of proliferation and plasticity opens a question of whether they could be channeled by a regulatory gene with pro-photoreceptor activity towards photoreceptor production. Studies using embryonic chick and transgenic mouse showed that indeed photoreceptor-like cells were produced in culture and in vivo in the eye using genedirected reprogramming of RPE cells, supporting the feasibility of using the RPE as a convenient source of new photoreceptor cells for in situ retinal repair without involving cell transplantation.

  16. Development of new software as a convenient analysis method for dental microradiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuda, Yasuhiro; Murata, Yukie; Tanaka, Toru; Komatsu, Hisanori; Sano, Hidehiko

    2007-05-01

    To the end of developing a convenient research tool to calculate the mineralization status of teeth in detail, a new program was developed using Visual Basic for Applications combined with Microsoft Excel 2004. To demonstrate the usefulness of this program, it was used to analyze tooth enamel mineralization after acid exposure. Transverse microradiography images (TMR) of specimens were digitalized with a charge-coupled device camera with a microscope (CCD camera) and a digital film scanner (FS). Subsequently, the mineral content profile of each specimen after de- and remineralization studies were calculated using the Angmar's formula. The newly developed program was applied to calculating the mineral loss (DeltaZ), lesion depth (Ld), surface zone depth (SZd), and lesion body depth (LBd) of tooth specimens. In addition, the outer surface zone (OSZ), inner lesion body (ILB), and sandwich area (SA) between OSZ and ILB- which together constituted DeltaZ - were calculated by the newly developed program. Data obtained with the newly developed program were in good agreement for both CCD camera and FS, indicating that the program was reliable for tooth enamel mineralization research studies.

  17. Enhanced ethanol fermentation in a pervaporation membrane bioreactor with the convenient permeate vapor recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Senqing; Xiao, Zeyi; Zhang, Yan; Tang, Xiaoyu; Chen, Chunyan; Li, Weijia; Deng, Qing; Yao, Peina

    2014-03-01

    A continuous and closed-circulating fermentation (CCCF) system with a pervaporation membrane bioreactor was built for ethanol fermentation without a refrigeration unit to condense the permeate vapor. Two runs of experiment with a feature of complete and continuous coupling of fermentation and pervaporation were carried out, lasting for 192h and 264h, respectively. The experimental measurement indicated that the enhanced fermentation could be achieved with additional advantages of convenient permeate recovery and energy saving of the process. During the second experiment, the average cell concentration, glucose consumption rate, ethanol productivity, ethanol yield and total ethanol amount produced reached 19.8gL(-1), 6.06gL(-1)h(-1), 2.31gL(-1)h(-1), 0.38, and 609.8gL(-1), respectively. During the continuous fermentation process, ethanol removal in situ promoted the cell second growth obviously, but the accumulation of the secondary metabolites in the broth became the main inhibitor against the cell growth and fermentation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Influence of Price and Labeling on Energy Drink Purchasing in an Experimental Convenience Store.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temple, Jennifer L; Ziegler, Amanda M; Epstein, Leonard H

    2016-01-01

    To examine the impact of energy drink (ED) pricing and labeling on the purchase of EDs. Participants visited a laboratory-based convenience store 3 times and purchased a beverage under different ED labeling (none, caffeine content, and warning labels) and pricing conditions. The 36 participants (aged 15-30 years) were classified as energy drink consumers (≥ 2 energy drinks/wk) and nonconsumers (energy drink/mo). Data were log transformed to generate elasticity coefficients. The authors analyzed changes in elasticity as a function of price and labeling using mixed-effects regression models. Increasing the price of EDs reduced ED purchases and increased purchasing of other caffeinated beverages among ED consumers. Energy drink labels affected ED sales in adolescents. These data suggest that ED pricing and labeling may influence the purchasing of ED, especially in adolescent consumers. Copyright © 2016 Society for Nutrition Education and Behavior. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. A rapid, convenient, solventless green approach for the synthesis of oximes using grindstone chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Synthesis of oximes is an important reaction in organic chemistry, because these versatile oximes are used for protection, purification, and characterization of carbonyl compounds. Nitriles, amides via Beckmann rearrangement, nitro compounds, nitrones, amines, and azaheterocycles can be synthesised from oximes. They also find applications for selective α-activation. In inorganic chemistry, oximes act as a versatile ligand. Several procedures for the preparation of oximes exist, but, most of them have not addressed the green chemistry issue. They are associated with generation of pollutants, requirement of high reaction temperature, low yields, lack of a generalized procedure, etc. Hence, there is a demand for developing an efficient, convenient, and non-polluting or less polluting alternative method for the preparation of oximes. In this context, bismuth compounds are very useful as they are cheap in general, commercially available, air stable crystalline solids, safe, and non-toxic, hence easy to handle. Results Carbonyl compounds (aliphatic, heterocyclic, and aromatic) were converted into the corresponding oximes in excellent yields by simply grinding the reactants at room temperature without using any solvent in the presence of Bi2O3. Most importantly, this method minimizes waste disposal problems, provides a simple yet efficient example of unconventional methodology and requires short time. Conclusions We have developed a novel, quick, environmentally safe, and clean synthesis of aldoximes and ketoximes under solvent-free grinding condition. PMID:22373136

  20. A convenient way of manufacturing silicon nanotubes on a silicon substrate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Changchang; Cheng, Heming; Liu, Xiang, E-mail: liuxiang@ahut.edu.cn

    2016-07-01

    A convenient approach of preparing silicon nanotubes (SiNTs) on a silicon substrate is described in this work in detail. Firstly, a porous silicon (PSi) slice is prepared by a galvanic displacement reaction. Then it is put into aqueous solutions of 20% (w%) ammonium fluoride and 2.5 mM cobalt nitrate for a predetermined time. The cobalt ions are reduced and the resulted cobalt particles are deposited on the PSi slice. After the cobalt particles are removed with 5 M nitric acid a plenty of SiNTs come out and exhibit disorderly on the silicon substrate, which are illustrated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The compositions of the SiNTs are examined by energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. Based on the SEM images, a suggested mechanism is put forward to explain the generation of the SiNTs on the PSi substrate. - Highlights: • A facile approach of preparing silicon nano tubes was invented. • The experimental results demonstrated the strong reducibility of Si-H{sub x} species. • It provided a new way of manufacturing silicon-contained hybrids.

  1. A Convenient Ultraviolet Irradiation Technique for Synthesis of Antibacterial Ag-Pal Nanocomposite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Shuai; Zhang, He; Kang, Lianwei; Li, Xiaoliang; Zhang, Chong; Dong, Yongjie; Qin, Shenjun

    2016-09-01

    In the present work, palygorskite (Pal) was initially subjected to an ion-exchange reaction with silver ions (Pal-Ag+). Subsequently, Ag-Pal nanocomposites were assembled by a convenient ultraviolet irradiation technique, using carbon dots (CDs) derived from wool fiber as the reducing agent. The obtained nanocomposites were characterized by powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), ultraviolet-visible (UV-vis) spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The XRD patterns and UV-vis absorption spectra confirmed the formation of the Ag nanoparticles (NPs). Meanwhile, the TEM images showed that the Ag NPs, which exhibited sizes in the range of 3-7 nm, were located on the surface of the Pal nanofiber structures. Furthermore, the antibacterial activity of the nanocomposites was evaluated against Gram-positive ( Staphylococcus aureus) and Gram-negative ( Escherichia coli) bacteria by applying the disc diffusion method and minimum inhibitory concentration test. Owing to their good antibacterial properties, the Ag-Pal nanocomposites are considered to be a promising bactericide with great potential applications.

  2. Chips in black boxes? Convenience life span, parafood, brandwidth, families, and co-creation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Marc

    2015-11-01

    Any consumer who opens a bag of potato or corn chips (or crisps in the UK) knows there is no time to waste to enjoy or share them. The convenience life span of chips is limited: it is the shelf or storage life and a very limited time once outside the bag. Many technologies converge to generate the desired effect as a black box, not only of the packaging but also of the chips themselves. The concept of paratext can be applied to printed messages on the package, including the brand name and other texts like advertising (epitexts), which can be expanded into the concept of parafood. These concepts help to discuss technological developments and interpret why this has recently become a negotiation zone for co-creation (see the Do us a flavor campaigns). They are symptoms of changing relations between production, research and development, marketing, and consumption. This paper pays special attention to back stories, underdog brand biographies and narratives about origin. The concept of brandwidth is introduced to sensitize about the limits of combining different stories about chips. A recent brand biography, a family history and a cookery book are used to discuss the phenomenon of cooking with Fritos. Together with the concepts of parafood, brandwidth and black boxes, more reflection and dialogue about the role of history and heritage in marketing put new challenging perspectives on the agenda.

  3. Sampling algorithms

    CERN Document Server

    Tillé, Yves

    2006-01-01

    Important progresses in the methods of sampling have been achieved. This book draws up an inventory of methods that can be useful for selecting samples. Forty-six sampling methods are described in the framework of general theory. This book is suitable for experienced statisticians who are familiar with the theory of survey sampling.

  4. Balanced sampling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brus, D.J.

    2015-01-01

    In balanced sampling a linear relation between the soil property of interest and one or more covariates with known means is exploited in selecting the sampling locations. Recent developments make this sampling design attractive for statistical soil surveys. This paper introduces balanced sampling

  5. Balanced sampling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brus, D.J.

    2015-01-01

    In balanced sampling a linear relation between the soil property of interest and one or more covariates with known means is exploited in selecting the sampling locations. Recent developments make this sampling design attractive for statistical soil surveys. This paper introduces balanced sampling

  6. GridSample: an R package to generate household survey primary sampling units (PSUs) from gridded population data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomson, Dana R; Stevens, Forrest R; Ruktanonchai, Nick W; Tatem, Andrew J; Castro, Marcia C

    2017-07-19

    Household survey data are collected by governments, international organizations, and companies to prioritize policies and allocate billions of dollars. Surveys are typically selected from recent census data; however, census data are often outdated or inaccurate. This paper describes how gridded population data might instead be used as a sample frame, and introduces the R GridSample algorithm for selecting primary sampling units (PSU) for complex household surveys with gridded population data. With a gridded population dataset and geographic boundary of the study area, GridSample allows a two-step process to sample "seed" cells with probability proportionate to estimated population size, then "grows" PSUs until a minimum population is achieved in each PSU. The algorithm permits stratification and oversampling of urban or rural areas. The approximately uniform size and shape of grid cells allows for spatial oversampling, not possible in typical surveys, possibly improving small area estimates with survey results. We replicated the 2010 Rwanda Demographic and Health Survey (DHS) in GridSample by sampling the WorldPop 2010 UN-adjusted 100 m × 100 m gridded population dataset, stratifying by Rwanda's 30 districts, and oversampling in urban areas. The 2010 Rwanda DHS had 79 urban PSUs, 413 rural PSUs, with an average PSU population of 610 people. An equivalent sample in GridSample had 75 urban PSUs, 405 rural PSUs, and a median PSU population of 612 people. The number of PSUs differed because DHS added urban PSUs from specific districts while GridSample reallocated rural-to-urban PSUs across all districts. Gridded population sampling is a promising alternative to typical census-based sampling when census data are moderately outdated or inaccurate. Four approaches to implementation have been tried: (1) using gridded PSU boundaries produced by GridSample, (2) manually segmenting gridded PSU using satellite imagery, (3) non-probability sampling (e.g. random-walk, "spin

  7. Slice Sampling

    CERN Document Server

    Neal, R M

    2000-01-01

    Markov chain sampling methods that automatically adapt to characteristics of the distribution being sampled can be constructed by exploiting the principle that one can sample from a distribution by sampling uniformly from the region under the plot of its density function. A Markov chain that converges to this uniform distribution can be constructed by alternating uniform sampling in the vertical direction with uniform sampling from the horizontal `slice' defined by the current vertical position, or more generally, with some update that leaves the uniform distribution over this slice invariant. Variations on such `slice sampling' methods are easily implemented for univariate distributions, and can be used to sample from a multivariate distribution by updating each variable in turn. This approach is often easier to implement than Gibbs sampling, and more efficient than simple Metropolis updates, due to the ability of slice sampling to adaptively choose the magnitude of changes made. It is therefore attractive f...

  8. A Convenient and Efficient Method to Enrich and Maintain Highly Proliferative Human Fetal Liver Stem Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Xuan; Wang, Shu; Dou, Ya-ling; Guo, Xiang-fei; Chen, Zhao-li; Wang, Xin-wei; Shen, Zhi-qiang; Qiu, Zhi-gang; Jin, Min; Li, Jun-wen

    2015-06-01

    Pluripotent human hepatic stem cells have broad research and clinical applications, which are, however, restricted by both limited resources and technical difficulties with respect to isolation of stem cells from the adult or fetal liver. In this study, we developed a convenient and efficient method involving a two-step in situ collagenase perfusion, gravity sedimentation, and Percoll density gradient centrifugation to enrich and maintain highly proliferative human fetal liver stem cells (hFLSCs). Using this method, the isolated hFLSCs entered into the exponential growth phase within 10 days and maintained sufficient proliferative activity to permit subculture for at least 20 passages without differentiation. Immunocytochemistry, immunofluorescence, and flow cytometry results showed that these cells expressed stem cell markers, such as c-kit, CD44, epithelial cell adhesion molecule (EpCAM), oval cell marker-6 (OV-6), epithelial marker cytokeratin 18 (CK18), biliary ductal marker CK19, and alpha-fetoprotein (AFP). Gene expression analysis showed that these cells had stable mRNA expression of c-Kit, EpCAM, neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM), CK19, CK18, AFP, and claudin 3 (CLDN-3) throughout each passage while maintaining low levels of ALB, but with complete absence of cytochrome P450 3A4 (C3A4), phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK), telomeric repeat binding factor (TRF), and connexin 26 (CX26) expression. When grown in appropriate medium, these isolated liver stem cells could differentiate into hepatocytes, cholangiocytes, osteoblasts, adipocytes, or endothelial cells. Thus, we have demonstrated a more economical and efficient method to isolate hFLSCs than magnetic-activated cell sorting (MACS). This novel approach may provide an excellent tool to isolate highly proliferative hFLSCs for tissue engineering and regenerative therapies.

  9. Heart rate variability stabilization in athletes: towards more convenient data acquisition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flatt, Andrew A; Esco, Michael R

    2016-09-01

    Resting heart rate variability (HRV) is a potentially useful marker to consider for monitoring training status in athletes. However, traditional HRV data collection methodology requires a 5-min recording period preceded by a 5-min stabilization period. This lengthy process may limit HRV monitoring in the field due to time constraints and high compliance demands of athletes. Investigation into more practical methodology for HRV data acquisitions is required. The aim of this study was to determine the time course for stabilization of ECG-derived lnRMSSD from traditional HRV recordings. Ten-minute supine ECG measures were obtained in ten male and ten female collegiate cross-country athletes. The first 5 min for each ECG was separately analysed in successive 1-min intervals as follows: minutes 0-1 (lnRMSSD0-1 ), 1-2 (lnRMSSD1-2 ), 2-3 (lnRMSSD2-3 ), 3-4 (lnRMSSD3-4 ) and 4-5 (lnRMSSD4-5 ). Each 1-min lnRMSSD segment was then sequentially compared to lnRMSSD of the 5- to 10-min ECG segment, which was considered the criterion (lnRMSSDC riterion ). There were no significant differences between each 1-min lnRMSSD segment and lnRMSSDC riterion , and the effect sizes were considered trivial (ES ranged from 0·07 to 0·12). In addition, the ICC for each 1-min segment compared to the criterion was near perfect (ICC values ranged from 0·92 to 0·97). The limits of agreement between the prerecording values and lnRMSSDC riterion ranged from ±0·28 to ±0·45 ms. These results lend support to shorter, more convenient ECG recording procedures for lnRMSSD assessment in athletes by reducing the prerecording stabilization period to 1 min.

  10. A simple and convenient method for the simultaneous in vitro study of metformin and glimepiride tablets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Rehan

    2014-11-01

    A simple and convenient method was developed for the simultaneous determination of metformin HCl and glimepiride in tablet dosage form of different pharmaceuticals companies. This method was validated and proved to be applicable for assay determination in intermediate and finished staged. More over a single medium dissolution of metformin HCl and glimepiride was established and the media was evaluated for comparative studies for different formulations. Reverse phase HPLC equipped with UV detector was used for the determination of metformin HCl and glimepiride. A mixture of acetonitrile and ammonium acetate buffer 0.05M pH 3.0 was used as mobile phase at flow rate of 1.0ml/min. Promocil C18 5µ 100Aº 4.6 x 100mm C18 silica column was used and detection was carried out at 270nm. Method was found to be linear over the range of 4ppm to 16ppm for glimepiride and 170ppm to 680ppm for metformin HCl. Regression co-efficient were found to be 0.9949 and 0.9864 for glimepiride and metformin HCl respectively. Dissolution was performed in 500ml 0.2% sodium lauryl sulfate at 37°C for 45min using paddle apparatus. Dissolution of glimepiride was found to be 98.60% and 101.08% in Orinase Met1 tablet and Amaryl M tablet respectively whereas metformin was found 99.41% and 98.59% in Orinase Met 1 tablet and Amaryl M tablet. RSD for all the dissolutions was less than 2.0% after completion.

  11. Acceptance sampling reliability test plans for alpha distributed lifetime

    OpenAIRE

    Khan, Maroof A.; Islam, H. M.

    2013-01-01

    Determining the acceptability of any product, reliability sampling plans are used. In this paper, reliability sampling plans for truncated life test are developed when the lifetimes of a test follow an alpha distribution. The sampling plan proposed here can save the test time in practical situations. Sampling plans are established through an algorithm. Moreover, some tables are provided for the proposed sampling plans so that proposed method can be used conveniently for the practitioner. Oper...

  12. The Self-Identified Skills and Competencies of First-Line Nurse Managers

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-06-01

    year level in one urban hospital. This is a nonprobability , convenience sample with an n=7. The survey instrument is the Head Nurses as Manager...McGrath, 1983). TYPE OF STUDY: This is a descriptive study utilizin9 the survey technique with a questionnaire instrument. CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK...or techniques . Human skills include the ability to work effectively in, as well as lead, a group. 1. Conceptual skills inciude being anie to see the

  13. Convenient and Highly Efficient Inversion of 1β-OH Configuration of trans-Vitamin D3

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yong Bin HAN; Jin Ping CHEN; Ying Ying LI; Bai Ning LIU; Guo Qiang YANG; Yi LI

    2005-01-01

    A convenient and highly efficient conversion of 1β-OH-trans-vitamin D3, a main byproduct in synthesis of active vitamin D3, to 1α-OH-trans-vitamin D3 is reported. The conversion could be accomplished in 1 minute with 90% yield.

  14. Extraction and [superscript 1]H NMR Analysis of Fats from Convenience Foods: A Laboratory Experiment for Organic Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartel, Aaron M.; Moore, Amy C.

    2014-01-01

    The extraction and analysis of fats from convenience foods (crackers, cookies, chips, candies) has been developed as an experiment for a second-year undergraduate organic chemistry laboratory course. Students gravimetrically determine the fat content per serving and then perform a [superscript 1]H NMR analysis of the recovered fat to determine the…

  15. Extraction and [superscript 1]H NMR Analysis of Fats from Convenience Foods: A Laboratory Experiment for Organic Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartel, Aaron M.; Moore, Amy C.

    2014-01-01

    The extraction and analysis of fats from convenience foods (crackers, cookies, chips, candies) has been developed as an experiment for a second-year undergraduate organic chemistry laboratory course. Students gravimetrically determine the fat content per serving and then perform a [superscript 1]H NMR analysis of the recovered fat to determine the…

  16. The Influence of Perceived Convenience and Curiosity on Continuance Intention in Mobile English Learning for High School Students Using PDAs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Chi-Cheng; Tseng, Kuo-Hung; Liang, Chaoyun; Yan, Chi-Fang

    2013-01-01

    Mobile learning aims to utilise communication devices such as mobile devices and wireless connection in combination with e-learning systems, allowing learners to experience convenient, instant and suitable learning at unrestricted time and place. Participants were 125 Taiwanese senior high school students, whose continuance intention was examined…

  17. When are stockpiled products consumed faster? A convenience-salience framework of postpurchase consumption incidence and quantity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chandon, P.; Wansink, B.

    2002-01-01

    When people stockpile products, how do they decide when and how much they will consume? To answer this question, the authors develop a framework that shows how the salience and convenience of products influence postpurchase consumption incidence and quantity. Multiple research methods¿including scan

  18. A convenient synthesis of 1,5-diarylpyrazoles from Baylis-Hillman adducts using HY-zeolite

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mohammad; Nikpassand; Manouchehr; Mamaghani; Mohammad; Ali; Zanjanchi; Nosrat; Olah; Mahmoodi; Massomeh; Mirzaeinejad

    2010-01-01

    A facile and convenient protocol was developed for the synthesis of 1,5-diarylpyrazoles using Baylis-Hillman adducts in the presence of HY-zeolite as an efficient recyclable heterogeneous catalyst in reasonable reaction times(1.5-2.5 h) and high yields (78-90%).

  19. Convenient Synthesis of Substituted Quinoxalines and 2H-Benzo[b][1,4]oxazines in Water

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DING Chang-jiang; WANG Yan; ZHANG Wei-wei; LIU Li; LIANG Yong-jiu; DONG De-wen

    2009-01-01

    A facile and convenient synthesis method has been developed for substituted quinoxalines and 2H-benzo[b][1,4]oxazines from the reactions of α-bromoketones with benzene-1,2-diamine and 2-aminophenol,respectively,which were catalyzed by tetrabutylammonium bromide(TBAB) in aqueous basic media.

  20. A convenient enantioselective decarboxylative aldol reaction to access chiral α-hydroxy esters using β-keto acids

    OpenAIRE

    Zhiqiang Duan; Jianlin Han; Ping Qian; Zirui Zhang; Yi Wang; Yi Pan

    2014-01-01

    We show a convenient decarboxylative aldol process using a scandium catalyst and a PYBOX ligand to generate a series of highly functionalized chiral α-hydroxy esters. The protocol tolerates a broad range of β-keto acids with inactivated aromatic and aliphatic α-keto esters. The possible mechanism is rationalized.

  1. Capillary sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... several times a day using capillary blood sampling. Disadvantages to capillary blood sampling include: Only a limited ... do not constitute endorsements of those other sites. Copyright 1997-2017, A.D.A.M., Inc. Duplication ...

  2. The external validity of results derived from ecstasy users recruited using purposive sampling strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topp, Libby; Barker, Bridget; Degenhardt, Louisa

    2004-01-07

    This study sought to compare the patterns and correlates of 'recent' and 'regular' ecstasy use estimated on the basis of two datasets generated in 2001 in New South Wales, Australia, from a probability and a non-probability sample. The first was the National Drug Strategy Household Survey (NDSHS), a multistage probability sample of the general population; and the second was the Illicit Drug Reporting System (IDRS) Party Drugs Module, for which regular ecstasy users were recruited using purposive sampling strategies. NDSHS recent ecstasy users (any use in the preceding 12 months) were compared on a range of demographic and drug use variables to NDSHS regular ecstasy users (at least monthly use in the preceding 12 months) and purposively sampled regular ecstasy users (at least monthly use in the preceding 6 months). The demographic characteristics of the three samples were consistent. Among all three, the mean age was approximately 25 years, and a majority (60%) of subjects were male, relatively well-educated, and currently employed or studying. Patterns of ecstasy use were similar among the three samples, although compared to recent users, regular users were likely to report more frequent use of ecstasy. All samples were characterised by extensive polydrug use, although the two samples of regular ecstasy users reported higher rates of other illicit drug use than the sample of recent users. The similarities between the demographic and drug use characteristics of the samples are striking, and suggest that, at least in NSW, purposive sampling that seeks to draw from a wide cross-section of users and to sample a relatively large number of individuals, can give rise to samples of ecstasy users that may be considered sufficiently representative to reasonably warrant the drawing of inferences relating to the entire population. These findings may partially offset concerns that purposive samples of ecstasy users are likely to remain a primary source of ecstasy

  3. Rrhizogenesis in vitro is a convenient model for studying the root graviperceptive apparatus formation in microgravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kordyum, Elizabeth; Sarnatska, Veresa; Ovcharenko, Yulia

    A root graviperceptive apparatus is known to form in microgravity but does not function in the absence of a gravitational vector, that has been shown in many spaceflight experiments with seedlings of different plant species. In statocytes, which are differentiated in microgravity, a nucleus is localized in the proximal part of a cell as at 1 g. Unlike control, amyloplastsstatoliths do not sedimented in the distal part of a cell in microgravity, they group in the cell center more often, sometimes they localized in the different part of a cell. In all these experiments, the objects of investigations were embryonal roots formed in seeds at 1 g. There is only single report that columella cells in roots, which developed de novo from callus in space flight, did not differentiate in statocytes. Therefore, we call to attention to rhizogenesis in vitro as a convenient model for studying the influence of microgravity on differentiation of a root graviperceptive apparatus. Two methods for obtaining of Arabidopsis thaliana roots in vitro are proposed: the first-from the primary callus of leaf origin and the second - from leaf fragments. Callus initiation and growth are successful on MS medium supplemented with vitamin B5, glycine, inositol, 2,4-D, kinetin, glucose and agar. For induction of rhizogenesis calli were transferred to medium without hormones or medium which contained one to ten of MS mineral salts and microelements, without vitamins and hormones. Rhyzogenesis was obtained without added growth substances, but considerably higher number of calli with roots and number of roots per callus are on MS medium diluted tenfold. Rhizogenesis in A. thaliana leaf segments should present no problem, but the most intensive root formation is obtained when culturing them for three day on diluted MS medium supplemented with salycilic acid and then on diluted MS medium only. The low temperature treatment for three days increases the number of roots formed. A role of both plasticity

  4. Prospective, open-label trial measuring satisfaction and convenience of two formulations of lamotrigine in subjects with mood disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sajatovic M

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Martha Sajatovic,1 Thomas R Thompson,2 Kevin Nanry,3 Suzanne Edwards,2 Ranjani Manjunath21Case Western Reserve University School of Medicine and University Hospitals of Cleveland, Cleveland, OH, 2GlaxoSmithKline, Research Triangle Park, NC; 3Quintiles, Durham, NC, USABackground: Lamotrigine is an anticonvulsant drug indicated for the maintenance treatment of bipolar I disorder and for various types of epilepsy. An orally disintegrating tablet (ODT of lamotrigine was developed to provide a formulation option that might increase patient convenience and satisfaction.Methods: Subjects with mood disorders who reported difficulty swallowing currently prescribed lamotrigine immediate-release medication (baseline were enrolled and treated with lamotrigine ODT for three weeks (end of treatment. Subject satisfaction and convenience were measured using the Treatment Satisfaction Questionnaire for Medication (TSQM. Also measured were global psychopathology using the Clinical Global Impression severity index (CGI-S and depressive symptoms using the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI-II.Results: Lamotrigine ODT was found to be significantly more convenient to use than lamotrigine immediate-release (change in baseline TSQM convenience score: 23.3, n = 97, P < 0.001. The mean TSQM global satisfaction score was similar at baseline (76.3 and after treatment with lamotrigine ODT (76.0. There were no significant changes on CGI-S and BDI-II.Conclusion: Subjects reported that lamotrigine ODT was significantly more convenient than lamotrigine immediate-release, while both formulations were associated with good satisfaction. Lamotrigine ODT may be a treatment option for patients who have difficulty swallowing medication.Keywords: lamotrigine, epilepsy, antiepileptic drug, bipolar disorder, mood disorder

  5. 7 CFR 42.131 - Selection of samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... production throughout the production process and are inspected for defects. The drawing of sampling units may...) sample units may be drawn individually, but in a random manner, throughout the production of each portion... production for a given day or shift is predicted and is then subdivided into conveniently designated...

  6. Sample mounts for microcrystal crystallography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorne, Robert E. (Inventor); Stum, Zachary (Inventor); O'Neill, Kevin (Inventor); Kmetko, Jan (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    Sample mounts (10) for mounting microcrystals of biological macromolecules for X-ray crystallography are prepared by using patterned thin polyimide films (12) that have curvature imparted thereto, for example, by being attached to a curved outer surface of a small metal rod (16). The patterned film (12) preferably includes a tip end (24) for holding a crystal. Preferably, a small sample aperture is disposed in the film for reception of the crystal. A second, larger aperture can also be provided that is connected to the sample aperture by a drainage channel, allowing removal of excess liquid and easier manipulation in viscous solutions. The curvature imparted to the film (12) increases the film's rigidity and allows a convenient scoop-like action for retrieving crystals. The polyimide contributes minimally to background and absorption, and can be treated to obtain desired hydrophobicity or hydrophilicity.

  7. Induced Dual-Nanospray: A Novel Internal Calibration Method for Convenient and Accurate Mass Measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yafeng; Zhang, Ning; Zhou, Yueming; Wang, Jianing; Zhang, Yiming; Wang, Jiyun; Xiong, Caiqiao; Chen, Suming; Nie, Zongxiu

    2013-09-01

    Accurate mass information is of great importance in the determination of unknown compounds. An effective and easy-to-control internal mass calibration method will dramatically benefit accurate mass measurement. Here we reported a simple induced dual-nanospray internal calibration device which has the following three advantages: (1) the two sprayers are in the same alternating current field; thus both reference ions and sample ions can be simultaneously generated and recorded. (2) It is very simple and can be easily assembled. Just two metal tubes, two nanosprayers, and an alternating current power supply are included. (3) With the low-flow-rate character and the versatility of nanoESI, this calibration method is capable of calibrating various samples, even untreated complex samples such as urine and other biological samples with small sample volumes. The calibration errors are around 1 ppm in positive ion mode and 3 ppm in negative ion mode with good repeatability. This new internal calibration method opens up new possibilities in the determination of unknown compounds, and it has great potential for the broad applications in biological and chemical analysis.

  8. Language sampling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rijkhoff, Jan; Bakker, Dik

    1998-01-01

    This article has two aims: [1] to present a revised version of the sampling method that was originally proposed in 1993 by Rijkhoff, Bakker, Hengeveld and Kahrel, and [2] to discuss a number of other approaches to language sampling in the light of our own method. We will also demonstrate how our ...... sampling method is used with different genetic classifications (Voegelin & Voegelin 1977, Ruhlen 1987, Grimes ed. 1997) and argue that —on the whole— our sampling technique compares favourably with other methods, especially in the case of exploratory research.......This article has two aims: [1] to present a revised version of the sampling method that was originally proposed in 1993 by Rijkhoff, Bakker, Hengeveld and Kahrel, and [2] to discuss a number of other approaches to language sampling in the light of our own method. We will also demonstrate how our...

  9. Screening for oligonucleotide binding affinity by a convenient fluorescence competition assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, J G; Liu, X; Balasubramanian, S

    1999-09-01

    A competitive homogeneous quenched fluorescence assay system is described for the high throughput screening of DNA conjugates that bind to single-stranded DNA. Fluorescence signal is generated by competitive binding of the sample molecule to a target strand labelled with a quencher probe, which is otherwise hybridised to a complementary strand containing a fluorescent probe. Thus fluorescence generated is related to the affinity of the sample. Competitive analysis of a number of peptide-oligonucleotide conjugates gave data that correlated well with the corresponding UV melting data. The assay will be useful for screening of large numbers of potential single-stranded binding molecules.

  10. Convenience stores are the key food environment influence on nutrients available from household food supplies in Texas Border Colonias

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharkey Joseph R

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Few studies have focused on the relationship between the retail food environment and household food supplies. This study examines spatial access to retail food stores, food shopping habits, and nutrients available in household food supplies among 50 Mexican-origin families residing in Texas border colonias. Methods The design was cross-sectional; data were collected in the home March to June 2010 by promotora-researchers. Ground-truthed methods enumerated traditional (supercenters, supermarkets, grocery stores, convenience (convenience stores and food marts, and non-traditional (dollar stores, discount stores retail food stores. Spatial access was computed using the network distance from each participant’s residence to each food store. Data included survey data and two household food inventories (HFI of the presence and amount of food items in the home. The Spanish language interviewer-administered survey included demographics, transportation access, food purchasing, food and nutrition assistance program participation, and the 18-item Core Food Security Module. Nutrition Data Systems for Research (NDS-R was used to calculate HFI nutrients. Adult equivalent adjustment constants (AE, based on age and gender calorie needs, were calculated based on the age- and gender composition of each household and used to adjust HFI nutrients for household composition. Data were analyzed using bivariate analysis and linear regression models to determine the association of independent variables with the availability of each AE-adjusted nutrient. Results Regression models showed that households in which the child independently purchased food from a convenience store at least once a week had foods and beverages with increased amounts of total energy, total fat, and saturated fat. A greater distance to the nearest convenience store was associated with reduced amounts of total energy, vitamin D, total sugar, added sugar, total fat, and saturated

  11. Language sampling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rijkhoff, Jan; Bakker, Dik

    1998-01-01

    This article has two aims: [1] to present a revised version of the sampling method that was originally proposed in 1993 by Rijkhoff, Bakker, Hengeveld and Kahrel, and [2] to discuss a number of other approaches to language sampling in the light of our own method. We will also demonstrate how our...... sampling method is used with different genetic classifications (Voegelin & Voegelin 1977, Ruhlen 1987, Grimes ed. 1997) and argue that —on the whole— our sampling technique compares favourably with other methods, especially in the case of exploratory research....

  12. Socio-Economic Determinants of Supply and Demand for Convenience Foods (Okpa, Moimoi and Meat Pie) in Lafia Urban of Nasarawa State, Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Onuk, E.G; Shailong, C.N.; Beshi, B.A; Adgidzi, E.A

    2014-01-01

    The study specifically described the socio-economic status of the people involved in the production, distribution and consumption of convenience foods in Lafia urban of Nasarawa State. It identified the factors that influence the entry into convenience food enterprise, factors necessitating the demand and supply of the products and examined the costs and returns of three convenience foods. The data collected were analyzed using descriptive statistics, inferential statisti...

  13. Integrated and convenient procedure for protein extraction from formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissues for LC-MS/MS analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Xianyin; Schneider, Bryan P

    2014-11-01

    Because fresh-frozen tissue samples associated with long-term clinical data and of rare diseases are often unobtainable at the present time, formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissue samples are considered a highly valuable resource for researchers. However, protein extraction from FFPE tissues faces challenges of deparaffinization and cross-link reversion. Current procedures for protein extraction from FFPE tissue require separate steps and toxic solvents, resulting in inconvenience in protein extraction. To overcome these limitations, an integrated method was developed using nontoxic solvents in four types of FFPE tissues. The average amount of proteins from three replicates of bladder, kidney, liver, and lung FFPE tissues were 442.6, 728.9, 736.4, and 694.7 μg with CVs of 7.5, 5.8, 2.4, and 4.5%, respectively. Proteomic analysis showed that 348, 417, 607, and 304 unique proteins were identified and quantified without specification of isoform by a least two peptides from bladder, kidney, liver, and lung FFPE tissue samples, respectively. The analysis of individual protein CV demonstrated that 97-99% of the proteins were quantified with a CV ≤ 30%, verifying the reproducibility of the integrated protein extraction method. In summary, the developed method is high-yield, reproducible, convenient, simple, low cost, nonvolatile, nonflammable, and nontoxic.

  14. Respondent-Driven Sampling: An Assessment of Current Methodology*

    OpenAIRE

    Gile, Krista J.; Handcock, Mark S.

    2010-01-01

    Respondent-Driven Sampling (RDS) employs a variant of a link-tracing network sampling strategy to collect data from hard-to-reach populations. By tracing the links in the underlying social network, the process exploits the social structure to expand the sample and reduce its dependence on the initial (convenience) sample. The primary goal of RDS is typically to estimate population averages in the hard-to-reach population. The current estimates make strong assumptions in order to treat the dat...

  15. Personal values, marketing attitudes and nutrition trust are associated with patronage of convenience food outlets in the Asia-Pacific region: a cross-sectional study

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    De Jong, Breanna; Worsley, Anthony; Wang, Wei Chun; Sarmugam, Rani; Pham, Quynh; Februhartanty, Judhiastuty; Ridley, Stacey

    2017-01-01

      Background An online cross-sectional survey examined the relationships between the demographic characteristics, personal values, trust in sources of nutrition information and the use of convenience...

  16. Sampling Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adolph, Karen E.; Robinson, Scott R.

    2011-01-01

    Research in developmental psychology requires sampling at different time points. Accurate depictions of developmental change provide a foundation for further empirical studies and theories about developmental mechanisms. However, overreliance on widely spaced sampling intervals in cross-sectional and longitudinal designs threatens the validity of…

  17. A Convenient and Environmentally Benign Method of Reducing Aryl Ketones or Aldehydes by Zinc Powder in an Aqueous Alkaline Solution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG,Chao-Zhi; YANG,Hui; WU,De-Lin; LU,Guo-Yuan

    2007-01-01

    A convenient and environmentally benign method for reducing the carbonyl group in hydroxy- and amino-9,10-anthracenediones, ortho (or para) acyl phenols and acyl anilines to a methylene group by zinc powder in an aqueous sodium hydroxide solution was reported. Based on theoretical calculations using the density functional theory (DFT), the mechanism of these reduction reactions was postulated. This mechanism can be applied to help predicting the reduced products of aryl ketones (or aldehydes) in an alkaline solution.

  18. Convenient synthesis of (4R,5R)-4,5-bis(aminomethyl)-2-isopropyl- 1,3-dioxolane

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    A convenient approach for the preparation of (4R,5R)-4,5-bis(aminomethyl)-2-isopropyl-l,3-dioxolane is described. The target compound via two steps is synthesized from diethyl-2,3-O-isobutylidene-D-tartrate, through ammonolysis and reduction.(C) 2007 De Cai Wang. Published by Elsevier B.V. on behalf of Chinese Chemical Society. All rights reserved.

  19. Convenient Synthesis of Multi-dentate P,N-Ligand by HCl Elimination of N-Hetrocycle with Organophosphine Reagent

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI,Qing-Shan; WAN,Chong-Qing; XU,Feng-Bo; ZHANG,Zheng-Zhi

    2004-01-01

    @@ The multi-dentate ligands and their complexes have attracted more and more interests in supramolecular chemistry and catalysis.[1,2] Recently, we found a convenient and efficient method to synthesize this kind of P,N-ligands. The C-Hor C-Cl bond in N-heterocycle was activated in presence of corresponding organophospine reagent and the HCl elimination was fluent, giving the multi-dentate P,N-ligands.

  20. Convenient solid phase extraction of cephalosporins in milk using a molecularly imprinted polymer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quesada-Molina, Carolina; Claude, Bérengère; García-Campaña, Ana M; del Olmo-Iruela, Monsalud; Morin, Philippe

    2012-11-15

    In this paper, a molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP) for cephalosporin molecules (cephalexin (CFL) and cephapirin (CFP)), was prepared by non covalent molecular imprinting approach and applied to solid phase extraction (SPE). For MIP synthesis, a tributylammonium cefadroxil salt (TBA-CFD) was used as template with methacrylic acid and ethylene glycol dimethacrylate as monomer and cross-linker, respectively, in acetone-methanol 92/8 (v/v) mixture. The selectivity of MIP versus non imprinted polymer (NIP) was confirmed for CFL, CFD and CFP in standard solutions as well as in milk samples. The efficiency of the synthesized MIP was evaluated by means of the application of the proposed MIP-SPE procedure to spiked milk samples previous to the HPLC method for the detection of cephalosporins. The MIP-SPE recoveries were higher than 60% for the three target analytes in spiked milk. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Study on Use of Fuel-Cell Auxiliary Power Units in Refrigerator Cars Employed for Delivery to Convenience Store

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katayama, Noboru; Kamiyama, Hideyuki; Kogoshi, Sumio; Kudo, Yusuke; Fukada, Takafumi; Ogawa, Makoto

    The use of fuel-cell auxiliary power units (FC-APU) in refrigerator cars employed delivery to for convenience store delivery has been studied. The delivery pattern is assumed to be a typical pattern that includes driving between convenience stores or between a delivery center and a convenience store, unloading, driver's lunch break. The M15 driving mode, which simulates the driving condition in urban areas, is used as the driving mode in the delivery pattern. The FC-APU system includes a proton-exchange membrane fuel cell (PEFC) module, an inverter, and DC/DC converter. Bench tests of the FC-APU are performed to determine the hydrogen fuel consumption rate and the energy efficiency; these values depend on the output power of the PEFC module. The calculated relationship between the output power and fuel consumption rate of a current used system, which consists of an alternator and a secondary battery, are used to estimate the energy efficiency of the current used system. On the basis of the measurement data in this study and the results for the model proposed by Brodric et al. [C. J. Brodrick et al., Trans. Res. D, vol 7, pp. 303 (2002)], the payback period is calculated. The results indicate that the payback period would be 2.1 years when the FC-APU operates at a load of 70%.

  2. A One-Step System for Convenient and Flexible Assembly of Transcription Activator-Like Effector Nucleases (TALENs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jinlong; Sun, Wenye; Liang, Jing; Jiang, Jing; Wu, Zhao

    2016-09-01

    Transcription activator-like effector nucleases (TALENs) are powerful tools for targeted genome editing in diverse cell types and organisms. However, the highly identical TALE repeat sequences make it challenging to assemble TALEs using conventional cloning approaches, and multiple repeats in one plasmid are easily catalyzed for homologous recombination in bacteria. Although the methods for TALE assembly are constantly improving, these methods are not convenient because of laborious assembly steps or large module libraries, limiting their broad utility. To overcome the barrier of multiple assembly steps, we report a one-step system for the convenient and flexible assembly of a 180 TALE module library. This study is the first demonstration to ligate 9 mono-/dimer modules and one circular TALEN backbone vector in a one step process, generating 9.5 to 18.5 repeat sequences with an overall assembly rate higher than 50%. This system makes TALEN assembly much simpler than the conventional cloning of two DNA fragments because this strategy combines digestion and ligation into one step using circular vectors and different modules to avoid gel extraction. Therefore, this system provides a convenient tool for the application of TALEN-mediated genome editing in scientific studies and clinical trials.

  3. Time perspectives and convenience food consumption among teenagers in Vietnam: The dual role of hedonic and healthy eating values.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, Svein Ottar; Tuu, Ho Huy

    2017-09-01

    This study uses the subscales of Consideration of Future Consequences (CFC) to explore the effects of future (CFC-future) and immediate (CFC-immediate) on convenience food consumption among teenagers in Vietnam. Furthermore, we investigate the mediating and dual role of hedonic and healthy eating values in the relationships between CFCs and convenience food consumption. Survey data from 451 teenagers in Central Vietnam and structural equation modelling were used to test the relationships in a proposed theoretical model. The results indicate that while CFC-immediate and hedonic eating value has a positive direct effect, CFC-future and healthy eating value has a negative direct effect on convenience food consumption. The findings also reveal that both CFC-immediate and CFC-future have positive effects on hedonic and healthy eating values. However, this study argues and tests the relative importance of the direct (asymmetric) effects of time perspectives on eating values, and finds that while CFC-future dominate in explaining healthy eating values, CFC-immediate dominate in explaining hedonic eating values. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. A convenient method for complex permittivity measurement of thin materials at microwave frequencies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, B K [Faculty of Engineering, Multimedia University, 63100 Cyberjaya (Malaysia)

    2006-05-07

    A practical problem in the reflection method for measuring permittivity of thin materials is the difficulty in ensuring the sample is placed exactly at the waveguide flange. A small position offset of the dielectric slab will give rise to significant errors in calculating the permittivity. To circumvent this problem, a measurement method using a waveguide partially filled with a thin material slab has been developed. The material sample can be easily prepared and inserted into the guide through a longitudinal slot on the broad wall of the waveguide. Multiple material slabs can be measured rapidly because one does not have to disconnect the waveguide system for sample placement. The method is verified with measurement of Teflon, glass and FR4 fibreglass. The measured permittivity show good agreement with published data. Subsequently, the permittivity of a vegetation leaf was measured. The method presented in this paper is particularly useful in measuring the permittivity of a thin and narrow slab of natural materials such as a paddy leaf.

  5. A rapid and convenient dot-immunobinding assay for chicken egg-yolk antibodies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUANG PING RUAN; LI MA; XIN SHENG YAO; QIAN WEN; HONG YUN ZOU; WEI LUO; XIAO NING WANG

    2006-01-01

    The dot-immunobinding assay was applied to investigate the characteristics of chicken egg yolk antibodies. This method of assay was proved to be a rapid and simple method to demonstrate and characterize the egg-yolk antibody IgY in comparison with the traditional ELISA assay. By using the BandScan software, the gray scale value of dots and the background could be determined. According to the intensity of dots (gray scale value) compared to the standard sample of 10 μg, how much IgY remained can be determined in a shorter time.

  6. A Rapid, Multiplexed, High-Throughput Flow-Through Membrane Immunoassay: A Convenient Alternative to ELISA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonzalo J. Domingo

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a rapid, high-throughput flow-through membrane immunoassay (FMIA platform. A nitrocellulose membrane was spotted in an array format with multiple capture and control reagents for each sample detection area, and assay steps were carried out by sequential aspiration of sample and reagents through each detection area using a 96-well vacuum manifold. The FMIA provides an alternate assay format with several advantages over ELISA. The high surface area of the membrane permits high label concentration using gold labels, and the small pores and vacuum control provide rapid diffusion to reduce total assay time to ~30 min. All reagents used in the FMIA are compatible with dry storage without refrigeration. The results appear as colored spots on the membrane that can be quantified using a flatbed scanner. We demonstrate the platform for detection of IgM specific to lipopolysaccharides (LPS derived from Salmonella Typhi. The FMIA format provides analytical results comparable to ELISA in less time, provides integrated assay controls, and allows compensation for specimen-to-specimen variability in background, which is a particular challenge for IgM assays.

  7. A convenient approach to 10-12 g/ g ICP-MS limits for Th and U in aurubis electrolytic NA-ESN brand copper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonard, Douglas S.

    2014-06-01

    Inductively-coupled-plasma mass spectroscopy is a powerful technique for measuring trace levels of radioactive contaminants, specifically Th and U, in materials for use in construction of low-background rare-event detectors such as double beta decay and dark matter detectors. I describe here a technique for measuring Th and U contamination in copper by using direct acid digestion and dilution without further chemical processing, achieving results comparable to those achieved in previous work [1, 2] which utilized more complex chemical pre-concentration techniques. A convenient research-oriented analysis environment is described as well. Results are presented for measurements of three samples from the production line of electrolytically-purified, LME (London Metal Exchange) grade A, NA-ESN Aurubis copper. Purified samples showed levels consistent with zero contamination for both elements, while weak, but inconclusive, indications of contamination were present for the unpurified anode copper. The best limits achieved are near 1•10-12 g/ g (95% CL) for both Th and U measured for copper from the cathode of the purification process.

  8. Innovative Methodologies for 21st Century Learning, Teaching and Assessment: A Convenience Sampling Investigation into the Use of Social Media Technologies in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kivunja, Charles

    2015-01-01

    The advent of the Web as a social technology has created opportunities for the creation of informal learning environments, which have potential for innovative methodologies in learning, teaching and assessment. However, as Wolfe (2001) admonishes, "contrary to the rhetoric of cheerleaders, the Web places greater demands on students than…

  9. Waist Circumference-to-Height Ratio Detected in a Convenient Sample of Young Slovak People with Increased Cardio-Metabolic Risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hertelyová, Zdenka; Vašková, Janka; Vaško, Ladislav

    2016-06-01

    Cardiovascular disease is a serious problem increasingly affecting young people worldwide. Cardio-metabolic risk factors include lipid profile parameters and atherogenic index of plasma (AIP), as well as basic anthropometric parameters such as the ratio of waist circumference to height (WHtR). The aim of our study was to determine WHtR. WHtR was determined in a group of 500 clinically healthy young people aged 18-25 and, on the basis of measured data, a reference range for WHtR was designed. The average WHtR value for the whole group was 0.45±0.06, with 0.46±0.06 for men, and 0.44±0.06 for women. WHtR values in respondents with all other parameters in normal range were from 0.41 to 0.52 for men and from 0.38 to 0.50 for women. Values are similar to those observed in other studies across diverse world populations. A positive correlation was observed between WHtR and atherogenic indices (AP1, AIP) uric acid levels and lipid profile parameters at prisk factor. Copyright© by the National Institute of Public Health, Prague 2015.

  10. An easy, convenient cell and tissue extraction protocol for nuclear magnetic resonance metabolomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matheus, Nicolas; Hansen, Sylvain; Rozet, Eric; Peixoto, Paul; Maquoi, Erik; Lambert, Vincent; Noël, Agnès; Frédérich, Michel; Mottet, Denis; de Tullio, Pascal

    2014-01-01

    As a complement to the classic metabolomics biofluid studies, the visualisation of the metabolites contained in cells or tissues could be a very powerful tool to understand how the local metabolism and biochemical pathways could be affected by external or internal stimuli or pathologies. Therefore, extraction and/or lysis is necessary to obtain samples adapted for use with the current analytical tools (liquid NMR and MS). These extraction or lysis work-ups are often the most labour-intensive and rate-limiting steps in metabolomics, as they require accuracy and repeatability as well as robustness. Many of the procedures described in the literature appear to be very time-consuming and not easily amenable to automation. To find a fast, simplified procedure that allows release of the metabolites from cells and tissues in a way that is compatible with NMR analysis. We assessed the use of sonication to disrupt cell membranes or tissue structures. Both a vibrating probe and an automated bath sonicator were explored. The application of sonication as the disruption procedure led to reproducible NMR spectral data compatible with metabolomics studies. This method requires only a small biological tissue or cell sample, and a rapid, reduced work-up was applied before analysis. The spectral patterns obtained are comparable with previous, well-described extraction protocols. The rapidity and the simplicity of this approach could represent a suitable alternative to the other protocols. Additionally, this approach could be favourable for high- throughput applications in intracellular and intratissular metabolite measurements. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. The Healthy Young Men's Study: Sampling Methods to Recruit a Random Cohort of Young Men Who Have Sex with Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, Wesley L; Weiss, George; Kipke, Michele D; Ritt-Olson, Anamara; Iverson, Ellen; Lopez, Donna

    2009-10-01

    Recruiting a scientifically sound cohort of young men who have sex with men (YMSM) is an enduring research challenge. The few cohort studies that have been conducted to date on YMSM have relied on non-probability sampling methods to construct their cohorts. While these studies have provided valuable information about HIV risk behaviors among YMSM, their generalizability to broader YMSM populations is limited.In this paper the authors describe a venue-based sampling methodology used to recruit a large and diverse cohort of YMSM from public venues in Los Angeles County. Venue-based sampling is a multi-stage, probability sampling design that uses standard outreach techniques and standard survey methods to systematically enumerate, sample, and survey hard-to-reach populations. The study design allowed the authors to estimate individual, familial and interpersonal psychosocial factors associated with HIV risk and health seeking behaviors for a cohort of YMSM with known properties. Study participants completed an extensive baseline survey and over a two year period will complete four follow-up surveys at six-month intervals. The baseline survey was administered in both English and Spanish.

  12. Work sampling

    OpenAIRE

    Salas Bacalla, julio; FII-UNMSM

    2014-01-01

    Work sampling is a method of indirect measurement, which means instantaneous observations, to determine the amount of uptime or downtime in a production process El muestreo de trabajo es un método de medición indirecto, que mediante observaciones instantaneas, permite determinar la cantidad de tiempo en actividad o inactividad en un proceso productivo

  13. Availability of more healthful food alternatives in traditional, convenience, and nontraditional types of food stores in two rural Texas counties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bustillos, Brenda; Sharkey, Joseph R; Anding, Jenna; McIntosh, Alex

    2009-05-01

    Limited research has focused on the availability of more healthful food alternatives in traditional food stores (supermarkets and grocery stores) in rural areas. Current market trends suggest that food items may be available for purchase in stores other than traditional food stores. An observational survey was developed and used on-site to document the availability and variety of fruit and vegetables (fresh, canned, and frozen), meats (meat, poultry, fish, and eggs), dairy (milk, yogurt, and cheese), and grains (whole grains and refined grains) in all traditional food stores, convenience stores, and nontraditional food stores (dollar stores and mass merchandisers) in two rural Texas counties. Descriptive statistics and t tests identified that although the widest selection of more healthful food items was available in supermarkets, not all supermarkets carried all items. Grocery stores carried less variety of fresh fruits (8+/-0.7 vs 4.7+/-0.3; Pfood stores. Among convenience and nontraditional food stores, "dollar" stores offered the best variety of more healthful canned fruits and vegetables, whole-wheat bread, and whole-grain cereal. Mass merchandisers and dollar stores offered a greater variety of more healthful types of canned tuna and poultry, reduced-fat and skim milk, and low-fat tortillas. In these rural counties, traditional food stores offered greater availability of more healthful food choices across food groups. More healthful food choices in canned fruits and vegetables, canned meat and fish, milk, and grains were also available in dollar stores, mass merchandisers, and convenience stores. Results suggest that a complete understanding of the food environment, especially in rural areas, requires knowledge of the availability and variety of healthful food in all types of stores that are accessible to families.

  14. Vaccinations administered during off-clinic hours at a national community pharmacy: implications for increasing patient access and convenience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goad, Jeffery A; Taitel, Michael S; Fensterheim, Leonard E; Cannon, Adam E

    2013-01-01

    Approximately 50,000 adults die annually from vaccine-preventable diseases in the United States. Most traditional vaccine providers (eg, physician offices) administer vaccinations during standard clinic hours, but community pharmacies offer expanded hours that allow patients to be vaccinated at convenient times. We analyzed the types of vaccines administered and patient populations vaccinated during off-clinic hours in a national community pharmacy, and their implications for vaccination access and convenience. We retrospectively reviewed data for all vaccinations given at the Walgreens pharmacy chain between August 2011 and July 2012. The time of vaccination was categorized as occurring during traditional hours (9:00 am-6:00 pm weekdays) or off-clinic hours, consisting of weekday evenings, weekends, and federal holidays. We compared demographic characteristics and types of vaccine. We used a logistic regression model to identify predictors of being vaccinated during off-clinic hours. During the study period, pharmacists administered 6,250,402 vaccinations, of which 30.5% were provided during off-clinic hours: 17.4% were provided on weekends, 10.2% on evenings, and 2.9% on holidays. Patients had significantly higher odds of off-clinic vaccination if they were younger than 65 years of age, were male, resided in an urban area, and did not have any chronic conditions. A large proportion of adults being vaccinated receive their vaccines during evening, weekend, and holiday hours at the pharmacy, when traditional vaccine providers are likely unavailable. Younger, working-aged, healthy adults, in particular, a variety of immunizations during off-clinic hours. With the low rates of adult and adolescent vaccination in the United States, community pharmacies are creating new opportunities for vaccination that expand access and convenience.

  15. Insight to Nanoparticle Size Analysis—Novel and Convenient Image Analysis Method Versus Conventional Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vippola, Minnamari; Valkonen, Masi; Sarlin, Essi; Honkanen, Mari; Huttunen, Heikki

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this paper is to introduce a new image analysis program "Nanoannotator" particularly developed for analyzing individual nanoparticles in transmission electron microscopy images. This paper describes the usefulness and efficiency of the program when analyzing nanoparticles, and at the same time, we compare it to more conventional nanoparticle analysis techniques. The techniques which we are concentrating here are transmission electron microscopy (TEM) linked with different image analysis methods and X-ray diffraction techniques. The developed program appeared as a good supplement to the field of particle analysis techniques, since the traditional image analysis programs suffer from the inability to separate the individual particles from agglomerates in the TEM images. The program is more efficient, and it offers more detailed morphological information of the particles than the manual technique. However, particle shapes that are very different from spherical proved to be problematic also for the novel program. When compared to X-ray techniques, the main advantage of the small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) method is the average data it provides from a very large amount of particles. However, the SAXS method does not provide any data about the shape or appearance of the sample.

  16. Convenient quantification of methanol concentration detection utilizing an integrated microfluidic chip.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yao-Nan; Yang, Ruey-Jen; Ju, Wei-Jhong; Wu, Ming-Chang; Fu, Lung-Ming

    2012-09-01

    A rapid and simple technique is proposed for methanol concentration detection using a PMMA (Polymethyl-Methacrylate) microfluidic chip patterned using a commercially available CO2 laser scriber. In the proposed device, methanol and methanol oxidase (MOX) are injected into a three-dimensional circular chamber and are mixed via a vortex stirring effect. The mixture is heated to prompt the formation of formaldehyde and is flowed into a rectangular chamber, to which fuchsin-sulphurous acid is then added. Finally, the microchip is transferred to a UV spectrophotometer for methanol detection purposes. The experimental results show that a correlation coefficient of R(2) = 0.9940 is obtained when plotting the optical density against the methanol concentration for samples and an accuracy as high as 93.1% are compared with the determined by the high quality gas chromatography with concentrations in the range of 2 ∼ 100 ppm. The methanol concentrations of four commercial red wines are successfully detected using the developed device. Overall, the results show that the proposed device provides a rapid and accurate means of detecting the methanol concentration for a variety of applications in the alcoholic beverage inspection and control field.

  17. Insight to Nanoparticle Size Analysis-Novel and Convenient Image Analysis Method Versus Conventional Techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vippola, Minnamari; Valkonen, Masi; Sarlin, Essi; Honkanen, Mari; Huttunen, Heikki

    2016-12-01

    The aim of this paper is to introduce a new image analysis program "Nanoannotator" particularly developed for analyzing individual nanoparticles in transmission electron microscopy images. This paper describes the usefulness and efficiency of the program when analyzing nanoparticles, and at the same time, we compare it to more conventional nanoparticle analysis techniques. The techniques which we are concentrating here are transmission electron microscopy (TEM) linked with different image analysis methods and X-ray diffraction techniques. The developed program appeared as a good supplement to the field of particle analysis techniques, since the traditional image analysis programs suffer from the inability to separate the individual particles from agglomerates in the TEM images. The program is more efficient, and it offers more detailed morphological information of the particles than the manual technique. However, particle shapes that are very different from spherical proved to be problematic also for the novel program. When compared to X-ray techniques, the main advantage of the small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) method is the average data it provides from a very large amount of particles. However, the SAXS method does not provide any data about the shape or appearance of the sample.

  18. Cleaner and convenient preparation of 3-(4,6-dimethoxy-pyrimidin-2-yloxy)-2-methyl-phenol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Yue-Zhong; Fang, Zhao-Hua; Liu, Wei-Ping

    2004-08-01

    Environmental concerns have highlighted the need of cleaner technologies. A cleaner, convenient and selective technology has been developed for the preparation of 3-(4,6-dimethoxy-pyrimidin-2-yloxy)-2-methyl-phenol (DPMP) from 2-methyl-benzene-1,3-diol in water as solvent. The isolated yield of DPMP is up to 86% in good selectivity. The product structure was characterized by conventional methods, 1H-NMR and MS. This technology belongs to the modern concept of environmentally friendly low wastes or non-wastes technology (LWNWT).

  19. Cleaner and convenient preparation of 3-(4,6-dimethoxy-pyrimidin-2-yloxy)-2-methyl-phenol

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    文岳中; 方兆华; 刘维屏

    2004-01-01

    Environmental concerns have highlighted the need of cleaner technologies. A cleaner, convenient and selective technology has been developed for the preparation of 3-(4,6-dimethoxy-pyrimidin-2-yloxy)-2-methyl-phenol (DPMP) from 2-methyl-benzene-1,3-diol in water as solvent. The isolated yield of DPMP is up to 86% in good selectivity. The product structure was characterized by conventional methods, 1H-NMR and MS. This technology belongs to the modern concept of environmentally friendly low wastes or non-wastes technology (LWNWT).

  20. 2-Chlorophenyl Zinc Bromide: A Convenient Nucleophile for the Mannich-Related Multicomponent Synthesis of Clopidogrel and Ticlopidine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabelle Aillaud

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available A methodological study devoted to the Mannich-like multicomponent synthesis of the antiplatelet agent (±‑clopidogrel (7 and the ethyl ester analogue 6 is described. The process involves the formation of 2-chlorophenyl zinc bromide (2 and its subsequent reaction with an alkyl glyoxylate and 4,5,6,7-tetrahydrothieno[3,2-c]pyridine (3. We demonstrate that the organozinc reagent 2 also constitutes a very convenient nucleophile for the multicomponent synthesis of the benzylamine core of ticlopidine (9.

  1. Conveniently assembling dithiocarbamate and gold nanoparticles onto the gold electrode: A new type of electrochemical sensors for biomolecule detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Maoguo; Gao, Feng; Yang, Ping; Wang, Lun; Fang, Bin

    Dithiocarbamate and gold nanoparticles have been successfully assembled onto the surface of the gold electrode and a novel ultrastable chemical modified electrode (CME) was fabricated conveniently. The as-prepared CME was investigated by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), atomic force microscopy (AFM) and quartz crystal microbalance (QCM), and its electrochemical behaviors for catalytic oxidation of dopamine (DA) was also observed by cyclic voltammetry (CV) and amperometric i- t curve. The results indicated that the novel surface has endowed the electrode with not only ultrastability but also the advantages of organic ligands and gold nanoparticles, which open up a new way to design high efficient and utility electrochemical sensors for biomolecule detection.

  2. A convenient method for experimental determination of yields and isomeric ratios in photonuclear reactions measured by the activation technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolev, D.; Dobreva, E.; Nenov, N.; Todorov, V.

    1995-02-01

    A generalized exact formula is derived for a determination of the experimental isomeric ratio in any incident particle activation. For the particular case, when the activity of the ground state results from the simultaneous decay of both states and can be conveniently measured, the appropriate modification of this formula is evaluated and applied to six photonuclear reactions induced by 43 MeV bremsstrahlung. The experimental isomeric yield ratios of (γ, 3n) 110m,gIn; (γ, p) (γ, pn), (γ, 2n2p) 117m,gIn; (γ, n) 164m,gHo and (γ, 3n) 162m,gHo are deduced.

  3. A convenient setup for laser-induced fluorescence imaging of both CO and CO2 during catalytic CO oxidation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jianfeng; Pfaff, S.; Lundgren, E.; Zetterberg, J.

    2017-03-01

    In-situ knowledge of the gas composition close to a catalyst is essential for a better understanding of the gas-surface interaction. With planar laser-induced fluorescence (PLIF), the gas distribution around an operating catalyst can be visualized with high spatial and temporal resolution, in a non-intrusive manner. We report on a convenient setup using a nanosecond YAG-Dye laser system together with a broadband mid-infrared optical parametric oscillator (OPO) for imaging both CO and CO2 over a Pd(100) catalyst during catalytic CO oxidation, compare it to previously used systems, and show examples of its capabilities.

  4. Hepatitis A vaccine. A new convenient single-dose schedule with booster when long-term immunization is warranted

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Victor, J; Knudsen, J D; Nielsen, L P

    1994-01-01

    A total of 162 anti-HAV-negative healthy adults were immunized with a single high dose (1440 ELISA units = 1 ml) of inactivated hepatitis A vaccine and a booster was given at month 6. Antibodies were measured after modification of a commercial ELISA kit, enabling quantification of titres down to ...... from 125 to 3090 mIU ml-1. Thus a single dose may be a convenient alternative to immunoglobulin for inducing rapid seroprotection, with a booster dose at month 6 ensuring long-lasting protection....

  5. A simple and convenient method for direct α-chlorination of ketones with ammonium chloride and Oxone

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhong Shi Zhou; Li Li; Xue Han He

    2012-01-01

    When ketones were treated with ammonium chloride and Oxone(R) in MeOH at room temperature,a direct α-chlorination of ketones was occurred and a series of the corresponding α-chloroketones were obtained in moderate to good yields after 24 h.In this reaction,ammonium chloride was used as the source of chlorine and Oxone(R) was used as an oxidant.This method was simple,convenient and providing a novel procedure for preparation of α-chloroketones.

  6. Cleaner and convenient preparation of 3-(4,6-dimethoxy-pyrimidin-2-yloxy)-2-methyl-phenol

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    文岳中; 方兆华; 刘维屏

    2004-01-01

    Environmental concerns have highlighted the need of cleaner technologies. A cleaner, convenient and selectivetechnology has been developed for the preparation of 3-(4,6-dimethoxy-pyrimidin-2-yloxy)-2-methyl-phenol (DPMP) from2-methyl-benzene-l,3-diol in water as solvent. The isolated yield of DPMP is up to 86% in good selectivity. The productstructure was characterized by conventional methods, 1H-NMR and MS. This technology belongs to the modern concept ofenvironmentally friendly low wastes or non-wastes technology (LWNWT).

  7. A convenient look-up-table based method for the compensation of non-linear error in digital fringe projection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Xiong

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Although the structured light system that uses digital fringe projection has been widely implemented in three-dimensional surface profile measurement, the measurement system is susceptible to non-linear error. In this work, we propose a convenient look-up-table-based (LUT-based method to compensate for the non-linear error in captured fringe patterns. Without extra calibration, this LUT-based method completely utilizes the captured fringe pattern by recording the full-field differences. Then, a phase compensation map is established to revise the measured phase. Experimental results demonstrate that this method works effectively.

  8. Integrated spatial sampling modeling of geospatial data

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Lianfa; WANG Jinfeng

    2004-01-01

    Spatial sampling is a necessary and important method for extracting geospatial data and its methodology directly affects the geo-analysis results. Counter to the deficiency of separate models of spatial sampling, this article analyzes three crucial elements of spatial sampling (frame, correlation and decision diagram) and induces its general integrated model. The program of Spatial Sampling Integration (SSI) has been developed with Component Object Model (COM) to realize the general integrated model. In two practical applications, i.e. design of the monitoring network of natural disasters and sampling survey of the areas of non-cultivated land, SSI has produced accurate results at less cost, better realizing the cost-effective goal of sampling toward the geo-objects with spatial correlation. The two cases exemplify expanded application and convenient implementation of the general integrated model with inset components in an integrated environment, which can also be extended to other modeling of spatial analysis.

  9. Sampling Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    Three locations to the right of the test dig area are identified for the first samples to be delivered to the Thermal and Evolved Gas Analyzer (TEGA), the Wet Chemistry Lab (WCL), and the Optical Microscope (OM) on NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander. These sampling areas are informally labeled 'Baby Bear', 'Mama Bear', and 'Papa Bear' respectively. This image was taken on the seventh day of the Mars mission, or Sol 7 (June 1, 2008) by the Surface Stereo Imager aboard NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander. The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  10. Proposal of new convenient extractant for assessing phytoavailability of heavy metals in contaminated sandy soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korzeniowska, Jolanta; Stanislawska-Glubiak, Ewa

    2017-06-01

    The aim of the study was to compare the usefulness of 1 M HCl with aqua regia, EDTA, and CaCl2 for the extraction of phytoavailable forms of Cu, Ni, and Zn on coarse-textured soils contaminated with these metals. Two microplot experiments were used for the studies. Reed canary grass (Phalaris arundinacea), maize (Zea mays), willow (Salix viminalis), spartina (Spartina pectinata), and miscanthus (Miscanthus × giganteus) were used as test plants. They were grown on soil artificially spiked with Cu, Ni, and Zn. The experimental design included a control and three increasing doses of metals. Microplots (1 m(2) × 1 m deep) were filled with sandy soil (clay-6%, pH 5.5, Corg-0.8%). Metals in the form of sulfates were dissolved in water and applied to the plot using a hand liquid sprayer. During the harvest, samples were collected from aboveground parts, roots, and the soil and then tested for their Cu, Zn, and Ni contents. The metal content of the soil was determined using four tested extractants. It was found that Cu and Ni were accumulated in roots in bigger amounts than Zn. The usefulness of the extractants was evaluated based on the correlation between the content of metals in the soil and the plant (n = 32). This study demonstrated that 1 M HCl, aqua regia, and EDTA were more efficient or equally useful for the assessment of the phytoavailability of Cu, Ni, and Zn as CaCl2. Due to the ease of performing determinations and their low cost, 1 M HCl can be recommended to assess the excess of Cu, Ni, and Zn in the coarse-textured soils.

  11. Uniform Sampling Table Method and its Applications II--Evaluating the Uniform Sampling by Experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yibin; Chen, Jiaxi; Chen, Xuan; Wang, Min; Wang, Wei

    2015-01-01

    A new method of uniform sampling is evaluated in this paper. The items and indexes were adopted to evaluate the rationality of the uniform sampling. The evaluation items included convenience of operation, uniformity of sampling site distribution, and accuracy and precision of measured results. The evaluation indexes included operational complexity, occupation rate of sampling site in a row and column, relative accuracy of pill weight, and relative deviation of pill weight. They were obtained from three kinds of drugs with different shape and size by four kinds of sampling methods. Gray correlation analysis was adopted to make the comprehensive evaluation by comparing it with the standard method. The experimental results showed that the convenience of uniform sampling method was 1 (100%), odds ratio of occupation rate in a row and column was infinity, relative accuracy was 99.50-99.89%, reproducibility RSD was 0.45-0.89%, and weighted incidence degree exceeded the standard method. Hence, the uniform sampling method was easy to operate, and the selected samples were distributed uniformly. The experimental results demonstrated that the uniform sampling method has good accuracy and reproducibility, which can be put into use in drugs analysis.

  12. Can Weighting Compensate for Sampling Issues in Internet Surveys?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vaske, J.J.; Jacobs, M.H.; Sijtsma, M.T.J.; Beaman, J.

    2011-01-01

    While Internet surveys have increased in popularity, results may not be representative of target populations. Weighting is commonly used to compensate for sampling issues. This article compared two surveys conducted in the Netherlands—a random mail survey (n = 353) and a convenience Internet survey

  13. ESSAY TYPE QUESTIONS CONVENIENT to CURRICULUM in MIDDLE SCHOOL SOCIAL STUDIES TEACHERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Halil TOKCAN

    2013-03-01

    written compliance program will be tried to determine. METHOD Research Field and Sampling: The target universe of the study is written exam questions implemented by 2007-2008 academic year primary 6 and 7 grade social studies teachers. While the universe of the study can be accessed is written exam questions prepared by primary 6 and 7 grade social studies teachers located in the central district of Niğde. The sample of the study is written social studies courses exam questions which made by 2007-2008 academic year primary 6 and 7 grade, II. grade social studies teachers in 25 primary schools teachers located in the central district of Niğde. 23 primary school social studies teachers’ exam questions contacted from this sample are evaluated scope of this research. Data Collection Tool: With the permission of the Provincial National Education Directorate of Niğde, a sample was taken from the primary school in the academic year 2007-2008, 6 and 7 classes Social Studies' written test questions by examining the written examination papers in the archives which sample taken from the primary schools. Analysis of the Datas: Written questions in the Social Studies gathered during the study after encoded with a number from 1 to 23 for each school, each exam numbered in accordance with it's period and exam number. This encoding respectively indicates, school number, class which examination is held, the period and exam number. 12/6.2.2 code refers to 12th school, 6th grade, 2nd period, 2.nd written exam questions. Questions classified according to related to the unit and then the unit on which the acquisition is. Microsoft Excel 2003 software was used for data analysis. The data and information obtained as a result of the research was evaluated with the help of SPSS 15.0 (Statistical Package for the Social Sciences program in line with our objectives. Because 7 units and 23 schools are evaluated in our study, non-parametric correlation (relationship analysis method

  14. SAS procedures for designing and analyzing sample surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stafford, Joshua D.; Reinecke, Kenneth J.; Kaminski, Richard M.

    2003-01-01

    Complex surveys often are necessary to estimate occurrence (or distribution), density, and abundance of plants and animals for purposes of re-search and conservation. Most scientists are familiar with simple random sampling, where sample units are selected from a population of interest (sampling frame) with equal probability. However, the goal of ecological surveys often is to make inferences about populations over large or complex spatial areas where organisms are not homogeneously distributed or sampling frames are in-convenient or impossible to construct. Candidate sampling strategies for such complex surveys include stratified,multistage, and adaptive sampling (Thompson 1992, Buckland 1994).

  15. Large-scale production of graphitic carbon nitride with outstanding nitrogen photofixation ability via a convenient microwave treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Huiqiang; Shi, Zhenyu; Li, Shuang; Liu, Na

    2016-08-01

    A convenient microwave treatment for synthesizing graphitic carbon nitride (g-C3N4) with outstanding nitrogen photofixation ability under visible light is reported. X-ray diffraction (XRD), N2 adsorption, UV-vis spectroscopy, SEM, N2-TPD, EPR, photoluminescence (PL) and photocurrent measurements were used to characterize the prepared catalysts. The results indicate that microwave treatment can form many irregular pores in as-prepared g-C3N4, which causes the increased surface area and separation rate of electrons and holes. More importantly, microwave treatment causes the formation of many nitrogen vacancies in as-prepared g-C3N4. These nitrogen vacancies not only serve as active sites to adsorb and activate N2 molecules but also promote interfacial charge transfer from catalysts to N2 molecules, thus significantly improving the nitrogen photofixation ability. Moreover, the present process is a convenient method for large-scale production of g-C3N4 which is significantly important for the practical application.

  16. Application of a convenient and cost-effective granulation technology for the formulation of tablets using conventional excipients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nidhi Prakash Sapkal

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present investigation, suitability of a cost-effective and convenient granulation technique that is, moisture activated dry granulation (MADG process for high drug loading in tablet formulation was studied. In this work, effect of the amount of water on flow properties of granules as well as an effect of mixing time on surface morphology of granules was studied. Paracetamol (PCM immediate release granules were prepared using conventional excipients such as polyvinylpyrrolidone K-30, Kollidon VA 64 (as binders, and simple equipments by MADG technique. The prepared granules were evaluated for flow properties and tablets were compressed using optimized granule formulation. The prepared granules possessed good flow properties that is, angle of repose was 32.11 and percent compressibility index was 19.44. Tablets disintegrated in 2.08 min and 89% of the drug was released within 30 min. All the results were comparable with PCM tablets prepared by wet granulation method. Therefore, from the above studies it was concluded that MADG process may be effectively adopted by using Kollidon VA 64 as a binder in tablet formulations where high drug loading is to be achieved, where all the parameters of the formulation can be obtained within specified limits using this simple, convenient, less time consuming, economical, and efficient method of granulation.

  17. Establishment of a convenient sandwich-ELISA for direct quantification of glucosyltransferase-I: application for dual diagnosis of dental caries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashizume-Takizawa, Tomomi; Shinozaki-Kuwahara, Noriko; Tomita, Naoya; Kurita-Ochiai, Tomoko

    2014-04-01

    Previously, we established a convenient enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) system targeting glucosyltransferase (GTF)-B derived from Streptococcus mutans for diagnosing caries risk. However, it has been reported that S. sobrinus possesses high cariogenicity and is more frequently detected in highly caries-susceptible patients than S. mutans is. S. sobrinus can secrete GTF-I, an important cariogenic factor for dental plaque formation, as well as S. mutans GTF-B. Therefore, in this study, we developed another feasible ELISA system targeting S. sobrinus GTF-I that would ensure caries risk determination by combined GTF-I and GTF-B levels. A readily measurable sandwich-ELISA system was devised, which consisted of monoclonal and polyclonal antibodies against GTF-I. The developed sandwich-ELISA system quantified the purified GTF-I with sensitivity and specificity, and a positive correlation was observed between the amount of GTF-I extracted from clinical plaque samples and S. sobrinus levels. Furthermore, high levels of GTF-I and GTF-B were detected using the sandwich-ELISA system in caries-susceptible subjects. These results indicate that the sandwich-ELISA system against GTF-I developed in this study is useful, and that the dual detection of the caries risk factors GTF-I and GTF-B is helpful for predicting caries risk.

  18. An Infraspec VFA-IR spectrometer analysis of Trans-fat content in glazed donuts purchased from supermarkets, convenience stores and bakeries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharron Jenkins

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Most packaged food products must contain trans-fat labelling; however unpackaged snacks such as cookies, donuts, and muffins at supermarkets, gas station convenience stores, and bakeries often do not have or require nutrition fact labels. Hence, consumers are not aware of the trans-fat content in unpackaged food products. It is well-known within the health and scientific community that diets high in trans-fat can lead to a host of health problems, namely coronary heart disease (CHD. The purpose of this study is to conduct a preliminary study of the trans-fat content in unpackaged baked goods, particularly unpackaged glazed donuts. To accomplish our objective, we determined the % trans-fat in oil extracted from glazed donuts obtained from several supermarkets, gas stations and bakeries across Northwest, Indiana. Variable Filter Array (VFA IR spectroscopy was used to assess the trans-fat content of oil extracted from food samples. In this paper, we present our preliminary findings.

  19. Evaluation of respondent-driven sampling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCreesh, Nicky; Frost, Simon D W; Seeley, Janet; Katongole, Joseph; Tarsh, Matilda N; Ndunguse, Richard; Jichi, Fatima; Lunel, Natasha L; Maher, Dermot; Johnston, Lisa G; Sonnenberg, Pam; Copas, Andrew J; Hayes, Richard J; White, Richard G

    2012-01-01

    Respondent-driven sampling is a novel variant of link-tracing sampling for estimating the characteristics of hard-to-reach groups, such as HIV prevalence in sex workers. Despite its use by leading health organizations, the performance of this method in realistic situations is still largely unknown. We evaluated respondent-driven sampling by comparing estimates from a respondent-driven sampling survey with total population data. Total population data on age, tribe, religion, socioeconomic status, sexual activity, and HIV status were available on a population of 2402 male household heads from an open cohort in rural Uganda. A respondent-driven sampling (RDS) survey was carried out in this population, using current methods of sampling (RDS sample) and statistical inference (RDS estimates). Analyses were carried out for the full RDS sample and then repeated for the first 250 recruits (small sample). We recruited 927 household heads. Full and small RDS samples were largely representative of the total population, but both samples underrepresented men who were younger, of higher socioeconomic status, and with unknown sexual activity and HIV status. Respondent-driven sampling statistical inference methods failed to reduce these biases. Only 31%-37% (depending on method and sample size) of RDS estimates were closer to the true population proportions than the RDS sample proportions. Only 50%-74% of respondent-driven sampling bootstrap 95% confidence intervals included the population proportion. Respondent-driven sampling produced a generally representative sample of this well-connected nonhidden population. However, current respondent-driven sampling inference methods failed to reduce bias when it occurred. Whether the data required to remove bias and measure precision can be collected in a respondent-driven sampling survey is unresolved. Respondent-driven sampling should be regarded as a (potentially superior) form of convenience sampling method, and caution is required

  20. Sealed magic angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance probe and process for spectroscopy of hazardous samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Herman M.; Washton, Nancy M.; Mueller, Karl T.; Sears, Jr., Jesse A.; Townsend, Mark R.; Ewing, James R.

    2016-06-14

    A magic-angle-spinning (MAS) nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) probe is described that includes double containment enclosures configured to seal and contain hazardous samples for analysis. The probe is of a modular design that ensures containment of hazardous samples during sample analysis while preserving spin speeds for superior NMR performance and convenience of operation.

  1. Psychiatric Disorders in a Sample of Saudi Arabian Adolescents with Sickle Cell Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amr, Mostafa Abdel-Monhem; Amin, Tarek Tawfik; Hablas, Hatem Refaat

    2010-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine the magnitude of psychiatric disorders and to define socio-demographic and disease-related risk factors in a sample of adolescents with SCD in Al-Hassa, Saudi Arabia. The sample consisted of 110 adolescents with SCD and a convenient sample of 202 adolescents without SCD as controls. Psychiatric…

  2. Modelling and validation of robust partial thawing of frozen convenience foods during distribution in the cold chain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adler-Nissen, Jens; Zammit, Gine Ørnholt

    2011-01-01

    with small blocks of a frozen model food (23 pct. Tylose® gel) and quipped with temperature loggers were distributed by trucks operating in the cold chain. In addition, controlled storage and temperature abuse experiments were conducted. To predict the product temperature–time relationship we developed a new......In collaboration with two commercial distributors we have tested a new concept for distribution, where convenience products for the food service industry are prepared, frozen and packed in cardboard boxes, but distributed in the chill chain at +5°C instead of in the frost chain. This will lead...... thawing model for the slow thawing of food pieces packed in a box. The model is based on enthalpy balances under quasi-stationary conditions; a condition that is fulfilled in the practical distribution experiments. The experiments confirmed the model predictions that the products were still partially...

  3. A convenient method for experimental determination of yields and isomeric ratios in photonuclear reactions measured by the activation technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kolev, D. [Sofia Univ. (Bulgaria). Dept. of Physics; Dobreva, E. [Sofia Univ. (Bulgaria). Dept. of Physics; Nenov, N. [Sofia Univ. (Bulgaria). Dept. of Physics; Todorov, V. [A Higher Institute of Medicine, Sofia (Bulgaria)

    1995-03-15

    A generalized exact formula is derived for a determination of the experimental isomeric ratio in any incident particle activation. For the particular case, when the activity of the ground state results from the simultaneous decay of both states and can be conveniently measured, the appropriate modification of this formula is evaluated and applied to six photonuclear reactions induced by 43 MeV bremsstrahlung. The experimental isomeric yield ratios of ({gamma}, 3n) {sup 110m,g}In; ({gamma}, p) ({gamma}, pn), ({gamma}, 2n2p) {sup 117m,g}In; ({gamma}, n) {sup 164m,g}Ho and ({gamma}, 3n) {sup 162m,g}Ho are deduced. ((orig.)).

  4. 9-Aryl-9-xanthenols: a convenient platform for the design of fluorimetric and colorimetric pH indicators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nekongo, Emmanuel E; Bagchi, Pritha; Fahrni, Christoph J; Popik, Vladimir V

    2012-12-14

    In aqueous and alcohol solutions, colorless and non-fluorescent derivatives of 9-aryl-9H-xanthen-9-ol equilibrate with brightly colored and fluorescent 9-arylxanthylium cations, thus offering a convenient platform for the design of dual-mode indicators for emission and absorption-based pH measurements. The position of the prototropic equilibrium depends only on the hydronium ion concentration and is not affected by general acids or other ions. Furthermore, the equilibrium equivalence point can be readily adjusted by introducing substituents in the xanthenol core. As dehydroxylation of 3,6-dialkoxy-9-(o-tolyl)-9-xanthenol occurs at pH = 6.5, indicators of this type are well suited for biological applications as illustrated by in vitro cell culture studies with NIH 3T3 cells.

  5. Maize black Mexican sweet suspension cultured cells are a convenient tool for studying aquaporin activity and regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavez, Damien; Hachez, Charles; Chaumont, François

    2009-09-01

    Aquaporins (AQPs) are channel proteins that facilitate and regulate the permeation of water across biological membranes. Black Mexican sweet suspension cultured cells are a convenient model for studying the regulation of maize AQP expression and activity. Among other advantages, a single cell system allows the contribution of plasma membrane AQPs (PIPs, plasma membrane intrinsic proteins) to the membrane water permeability coefficient (P(f)) to be determined using biophysical measurement methods, such as the cell pressure probe or protoplast swelling assay. We generated a transgenic cell culture line expressing a tagged version of ZmPIP2;6 and used this material to demonstrate that the ZmPIP2;6 and ZmPIP2;1 isoforms physically interact. This kind of interaction could be an additional mechanism for regulating membrane water permeability by acting on the activity and/or trafficking of PIP hetero-oligomers.

  6. A practical and convenient method for the synthesis of anesthetic drug thiopental: using thiourea and sodium ethoxide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hojat Narimani

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available A general, simple, practical and convenient method has been described for the synthesis of anesthetic drug thiopental using thiourea in the presence of sodium ethoxide. Anesthetic drug of thiopental was prepared in two stages; during the first stage, the alkylation of mthyl cyanoacetate was performed which was then to be followed by cyclization. Alkylation of methyl cyanoacetate which was performed by 2-iodopentane in the presence of sodium ethoxide reacts with thiourea and then the process was followed by thiopental prepration in excellent yield. Some important aspects of this methodology are the high reactivity of the substrates, avoidance of the use of hazardous solvents, simplicity of the product separation, low cost of the substrates and reagents and high yield of product. This is a applicable and efficient method for the preparation of thiopental anesthesia in high yield and in an appropriate time.

  7. Convenient synthesis of twin-Christmas tree-like PbWO4 microcrystals and their photocatalytic properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jin; Peng, Li-Li; Tang, Ying; Wu, Huijie

    2017-06-01

    Novel twin-Christmas tree-like PbWO4 microcrystals have been prepared via a convenient aqueous solution route at room temperature under the assistance of β-cyclodextrin (β-CD). The product was characterized by XRD, EDX, SEM, TEM, UV-vis and PL and BET techniques. It was found that β-CD plays an important role in the forming of twin-Christmas tree-like PbWO4 microcrystals. A five-step growth mechanism was proposed to explain the formation of such twin-Christmas tree-like structures. The photocatalytic performance of PbWO4 microcrystals was evaluated by measuring the decomposition rate of methylene blue (MB) and malachite green (MG) solution under the UV irradiation, and the photocatalytic results indicated that as-prepared PbWO4 microcrystals exhibit good and versatile photocatalytic activity as well as excellent recyclability.

  8. The Predication of Relationship Between Harvesting Moisture Content and The Most Convenient Rice Moisture After Drying to Obtained The Highest Head Rice Yield When Rice is Dried in Drying Machine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Ulger

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Rice is dried after harvesting and milled before consumption. But cracklings occur on rice while rice isbeing dried with hot weather. Depending on cracking amount milling rice yield will be high or low. In orderto minimize breakage during the drying process, the relationship between harvesting grain moisture contentand storage moisture content was examined. Thus the highest head rice yield could be obtained. For thatobject , rice samples that were harvested in different harvested moisture content, were dried with hot weatherin prototype dryer which was designed for this object. Rice samples were dried to different moisture andhead rice yield was predicated after drying process , thus the moisture of dried rice which was obtainedmaximum head rice yield was found.According to the data, relationship between harvesting moisture content and the moisture of dried rice onprototypes drying machine is significant as statistical. A regression equation was obtained with data fromdrying process. With this equation, the most convenient moisture to obtained highest head rice yield afterdrying can be predicted. “The most convenient rice moisture after drying =( 4.66 + 0.59 x Harvestingmoisture content±0.54”.

  9. Socio-Economic Determinants of Supply and Demand for Convenience Foods (Okpa, Moimoi and Meat Pie in Lafia Urban of Nasarawa State, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Onuk, E.G

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The study specifically described the socio-economic status of the people involved in the production, distribution and consumption of convenience foods in Lafia urban of Nasarawa State. It identified the factors that influence the entry into convenience food enterprise, factors necessitating the demand and supply of the products and examined the costs and returns of three convenience foods. The data collected were analyzed using descriptive statistics, inferential statistics (multiple regression analysis, the four point’s likert type scale and the enterprise gross margin. The major findings indicated that female producers of convenience foods were more than male producers, the multiple regression result on the effects of socio-economic characteristics of consumers on the amount of money spent on consumer foods revealed that R2 value is 0.697. This implied that 69.7% of the total variation in output (Y is explained by the combined influences of the independent variables in the model. The gross margin enterprise revealed that the sale of convenience foods in Lafia metropolis is profitable. The study concluded by advocating for provision of credit facilities amongst others to producers and distributors of convenience foods with limited income.

  10. Paying for convenience: comparing the cost of takeaway meals with their healthier home-cooked counterparts in New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackay, Sally; Vandevijvere, Stefanie; Xie, Pei; Lee, Amanda; Swinburn, Boyd

    2017-09-01

    Convenience and cost impact on people's meal decisions. Takeaway and pre-prepared foods save preparation time but may contribute to poorer-quality diets. Analysing the impact of time on relative cost differences between meals of varying convenience contributes to understanding the barrier of time to selecting healthy meals. Six popular New Zealand takeaway meals were identified from two large national surveys and compared with similar, but healthier, home-made and home-assembled meals that met nutrition targets consistent with New Zealand Eating and Activity Guidelines. The cost of each complete meal, cost per kilogram, and confidence intervals of the cost of each meal type were calculated. The time-inclusive cost was calculated by adding waiting or preparation time cost at the minimum wage. A large urban area in New Zealand. For five of six popular meals, the mean cost of the home-made and home-assembled meals was cheaper than the takeaway meals. When the cost of time was added, all home-assembled meal options were the cheapest and half of the home-made meals were at least as expensive as the takeaway meals. The home-prepared meals were designed to provide less saturated fat and Na and more vegetables than their takeaway counterparts; however, the home-assembled meals provided more Na than the home-made meals. Healthier home-made and home-assembled meals were, except one, cheaper options than takeaways. When the cost of time was added, either the home-made or the takeaway meal was the most expensive. This research questions whether takeaways are better value than home-prepared meals.

  11. Mouse newborn cells allow highly productive mouse cytomegalovirus replication, constituting a novel convenient primary cell culture system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le-Trilling, Vu Thuy Khanh; Trilling, Mirko

    2017-01-01

    Mammalian cell culture is indispensable for most aspects of current biomedical research. Immortalized cell lines are very convenient, but transforming principles (e.g. oncogenic viruses or their oncogenes) can heavily influence the experimental outcome. Primary cells do not share this apparent disadvantage but are more laborious to generate. Certain viruses (e.g. mouse cytomegalovirus) do not replicate efficiently in most transformed cell lines. In the past, such viruses have been routinely propagated on primary mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEF) established around day 17 (d17) of gestation. According to new regulations of the European Union, experiments using gravid mammals and/or their embryos in the last trimester (>d14 in the case of mice) of gestation do require explicit permission of the local authorities responsible for animal care and use. Applying for such permission is time-consuming and often inflexible. Embryonic fibroblasts could also be produced at earlier time points of pregnancy from younger and smaller embryos. Obviously, this approach consumes more pregnant mice and embryos. Newborn mice are larger thus yielding more cells per sacrificed animal and the new Directive (2010/63/EU) excludes the killing of animals solely for the use of their organs or tissues. We established a convenient protocol to generate adherent mouse newborn cells (MNC). A direct comparison of MNC with MEF revealed that MNC fully recapitulate all tested aspects of a broad panel of virological parameters (plaque size, final titers, viral replication kinetics, viral gene expression, drug and interferon susceptibility as well as species specificity). The herein described approach allows researchers the legal use of primary cells and contributes to the 3R (replace, reduce, refine) guiding principles-especially the 'reduce' aspect-for the use of animals in scientific research. Additionally, it offers the option to directly compare in vitro and in vivo experiments when MNC are

  12. A Designated Harmonic Suppression Technology for Sampled SPWM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Ping

    2005-01-01

    Sampled SPWM is an excellent VVVF method of motor speed control, meanwhile the harmonic components of the output wave impairs its applications in practice. A designated harmonic suppression technology is presented for sampled SPWM, which is an improved algorithm for the harmonic suppression in high voltage and high frequency spectrum. As the technology is applied in whole speed adjusting range, the voltage can be conveniently controlled and high frequency harmonic of SP WM is also improved.

  13. 78 FR 37783 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Generic Clearance for Internet Nonprobability...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-24

    .... Bureau of the Census Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Generic Clearance for Internet... the Internet at jjessup@doc.gov ). FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Requests for additional...-4827 (or via the Internet at jennifer.hunter.childs@ census.gov ). SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION:...

  14. Correlates of Salvia divinorum use in a national sample: findings from the 2009 National Survey on Drug Use and Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, Jason A; Watkins, William C; Blumenstein, Lindsey

    2011-11-01

    Salvia, a hallucinogenic plant legally available in most of the United States, has become a widely discussed drug in the media. The extant research on Salvia use relies on non-probability samples and studies of college students. There is a clear need for research that identifies the correlates of Salvia use using data from a large sample that is nationally representative. The current study fills this important gap in the literature by using data from the 2009 National Survey on Drug Use and Health. This survey includes data from nearly 70,000 respondents ages 12 and older living in all 50 U.S. states and the District of Columbia. Due to survey design, separate analyses are conducted among adolescents and adults. Findings indicate that 1.66% of adolescents (respondents ages 12 to 17) and 5.08% of adults (respondents ages 18-34) report the use of Salvia at some point in their lifetime. Correlates of use among adolescents include age, gender, income, peer and parent attitudes toward substance use, and other forms of drug use. Correlates of use among adults include age, gender, race, religiosity, marital status, criminal involvement, and other forms of substance use. Implications of the findings and limitations of the current study are discussed.

  15. Non-enzymatic hydrogen peroxide biosensor based on rose-shaped FeMoO{sub 4} nanostructures produced by convenient microwave-hydrothermal method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Hongying, E-mail: liuhongying@hdu.edu.cn [College of Life Information Science & Instrument Engineering, Hangzhou Dianzi University, Zhejiang, Hangzhou 310018 (China); Gu, Chunchuan [Department of Clinical Laboratory, Hangzhou Cancer Hospital, Zhejiang, Hangzhou 310002 (China); Li, Dujuan; Zhang, Mingzhen [College of Life Information Science & Instrument Engineering, Hangzhou Dianzi University, Zhejiang, Hangzhou 310018 (China)

    2015-04-15

    Graphical abstract: A non-enzymatic H{sub 2}O{sub 2} sensor with high selectivity and sensitivity based on rose-shaped FeMoO{sub 4} synthesized by the convenient microwave-assisted hydrothermal method, was fabricated. - Highlights: • Rose-shaped FeMoO{sub 4} is synthesized within 10 min via microwave-assisted hydrothermal approach. • Non-enzymatic hydrogen peroxide biosensor based on FeMoO{sub 4} nanomaterials is fabricated. • The biosensor exhibits good performance. - Abstract: In this work, we demonstrated a simple, rapid and reliable microwave-assisted hydrothermal approach to synthesize the uniform rose-shaped FeMoO{sub 4} within 10 min. The morphologies of the synthesized materials were characterized by X-ray powder diffraction and scanning electron microscopy. Moreover, a non-enzymatic amperometric sensor for the detection of hydrogen peroxide (H{sub 2}O{sub 2}) was fabricated on the basis of the FeMoO{sub 4} as electrocatalysis. The resulting FeMoO{sub 4} exhibited high sensitivity and good stability for the detection of H{sub 2}O{sub 2}, which may be attributed to the rose-shaped structure of the material and the catalytic property of FeMoO{sub 4}. Amperometric response showed that the modified electrode had a good response for H{sub 2}O{sub 2} with a linear range from 1 μM to 1.6 mM, a detection limit of 0.5 μM (S/N = 3), high selectivity and short response time. Additionally, good recoveries of analytes in real milk samples confirm the reliability of the prepared sensor in practical applications.

  16. Personal values, marketing attitudes and nutrition trust are associated with patronage of convenience food outlets in the Asia-Pacific region: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Jong, Breanna; Worsley, Anthony; Wang, Wei Chun; Sarmugam, Rani; Pham, Quynh; Februhartanty, Judhiastuty; Ridley, Stacey

    2017-02-16

    An online cross-sectional survey examined the relationships between the demographic characteristics, personal values, trust in sources of nutrition information and the use of convenience food outlets among middle-class household food providers in the Asia-Pacific region. The survey was administered to 3945 household food providers in Melbourne, Singapore, Shanghai, Vietnam and Indonesia in late 2013. Information about demographics, personal values, trust in sources of nutrition information and use of convenience food outlets was elicited. Exploratory factor analysis, two-step clustering and logistic regression were employed. The analyses found that the use of convenience food outlets was positively related to hedonist values and trust in food industry sources of nutrition information. However, lesser use of convenience food outlets and trust in health sources of nutrition information was associated with traditional (community-oriented) values. Further replication and extension of these findings would be useful. However, they suggest that improvements in the quality of foods sold in convenience food outlets combined with stronger regulation of food marketing and long-term food education are required.

  17. Examination of the relationship between the working conditions of young workers and the content of the meals they buy at convenience stores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyagoshi, Miki; Otsuka, Mika; Kato, Megumi; Kubo, Chiharu; Tsuchihashi, Kayoko; Toyoshima, Hiromi; Miyazaki, Eriko; Yoshie, Ayumu; Okura, Mika; Omote, Shizuko; Kido, Teruhiko

    2008-05-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between the working conditions of young workers and the meals they buy at convenience stores, and to consider the prevention of obesity. The subjects of this study were 284 workers under 29 yr of age employed at a transportation company in Ishikawa prefecture. Questionnaires were sent to participants, and 193 valid responses were obtained. Working types, night duty and working time were correlated with convenience store patronage, although working situations were not obviously associated with the content of meal selection at convenience stores. The study results revealed a tendency for the proportion of the fat in meals to be greater than 25% for the majority of working situations. It was also shown that foods selected with high frequency contained a high proportion of fat. There results suggest that this situation increases the risk of obesity. In addition, the more days per week convenience stores were patronized, the greater the number of participants felt "The need to improve meals." Therefore, we believe it is essential that young workers consider the prevention of obesity by observing nutritional information when selecting foods. An environment in which such information is easy to obtain at convenience stores should be arranged.

  18. Commutability of food microbiology proficiency testing samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelmassih, M; Polet, M; Goffaux, M-J; Planchon, V; Dierick, K; Mahillon, J

    2014-03-01

    Food microbiology proficiency testing (PT) is a useful tool to assess the analytical performances among laboratories. PT items should be close to routine samples to accurately evaluate the acceptability of the methods. However, most PT providers distribute exclusively artificial samples such as reference materials or irradiated foods. This raises the issue of the suitability of these samples because the equivalence-or 'commutability'-between results obtained on artificial vs. authentic food samples has not been demonstrated. In the clinical field, the use of noncommutable PT samples has led to erroneous evaluation of the performances when different analytical methods were used. This study aimed to provide a first assessment of the commutability of samples distributed in food microbiology PT. REQUASUD and IPH organized 13 food microbiology PTs including 10-28 participants. Three types of PT items were used: genuine food samples, sterile food samples and reference materials. The commutability of the artificial samples (reference material or sterile samples) was assessed by plotting the distribution of the results on natural and artificial PT samples. This comparison highlighted matrix-correlated issues when nonfood matrices, such as reference materials, were used. Artificially inoculated food samples, on the other hand, raised only isolated commutability issues. In the organization of a PT-scheme, authentic or artificially inoculated food samples are necessary to accurately evaluate the analytical performances. Reference materials, used as PT items because of their convenience, may present commutability issues leading to inaccurate penalizing conclusions for methods that would have provided accurate results on food samples. For the first time, the commutability of food microbiology PT samples was investigated. The nature of the samples provided by the organizer turned out to be an important factor because matrix effects can impact on the analytical results. © 2013

  19. Neoadjuvant therapy for treatment of breast cancer: the way forward, or simply a convenient option for patients?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatterjee, Abhishek

    2017-01-01

    The complexity of managing early stage breast cancer is well known. Optimal treatment is increasingly multidisciplinary and in the modern era informed by sophisticated molecular tools to help select and guide therapy. Major phase III trials have determined that the order of systemic therapy relative to surgery does not influence important endpoints such as event free survival and overall survival (OS), but questions remain as to how best to utilize these most essential services. For example, there is still uncertainty regarding the ideal timing, intensity, and duration of proposed therapy. For treating physicians, evidence based standardization of these practices is both possible and critically important. Optimization of care will increasingly rely on well-designed studies that have addressed the choice as well as the timing of the steps involved in multidisciplinary breast cancer treatment. Understanding when factors under the oncologist’s control will influence outcome, cost and convenience is essential in the era of quality and value-based medical decision making. The timing of surgery before or after chemotherapy for breast cancer is one such factor. Investigators are to be commended for addressing these questions, which may generate additional hypotheses concerning the biology of metastasis and the nature of recurrence.

  20. An special epithelial staining agents: folic acid receptor-mediated diagnosis (FRD) effectively and conveniently screen patients with cervical cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Meng-Han; Hu, Ling-Yun; Du, Xin-Xin; Yang, Min; Zhang, Wei-Yi; Huang, Ke; Li, Li-An; Jiang, Shu-Fang; Li, Ya-Li

    2015-01-01

    High-quality screening with cytology has markedly reduced mortality from cervical cancer. However, it needs experienced pathologists to review and make the final decisions. We have developed folic acid receptor-mediated diagnosis (FRD) kits to effectively and conveniently screen patients with cervical cancer. We conduct present study aim to assess clinical significances of FRD in screening cervical cancer. A total of 169 patients were enrolled at Chinese People's liberation Army (PLA) general hospital. We compared diagnostic significances of FRD with thinprep cytology test (TCT). Meanwhile, colposcopy was also performed to confirm any lesion suspicious for cervical cancer. The sensitivity and specificity of FRD were 71.93% and 66.07% in diagnosis cervical cancer, respectively. Meanwhile, the positive predictive values (PPV), negative predictive values (NPV), Youden index were 51.90%, 82.22%, 0.38, respectively. On the other hand, the sensitivity and specificity of TCT in diagnosis cervical cancer were 73.68% and 61.61% respectively. PPV, NPV and Youden index for TCT were 49.41%, 82.14% and 0.35 respectively. Overall, FRD have high values of sensitivity, specificity and Youden index. However, this difference failed to statistical significance. FRD have comparable diagnostic significance with TCT. Therefore, FRD might serve as one effective method to screen cervical cancer. Especially for those patients living in remote regions of China, where cytology was unavailable.