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  1. Frequent Nonprescription Stimulant Use and Risky Behaviors in College Students: The Role of Effortful Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Adam M.; Graziano, Paulo A.; Balkhi, Amanda M.; McNamara, Joseph P. H.; Cottler, Linda B.; Meneses, Evander; Geffken, Gary R.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The goal of this study was to (a) investigate the association between nonprescription stimulant use (NPSU) and risky behaviors, including risky sex, driving, financial behaviors, and drug use and (b) collect preliminary evidence on mechanisms that may link NPSU to risky behaviors. Participants: A sample of 555 college students was…

  2. Nonprescription Drug Therapy: Issues and Opportunities

    OpenAIRE

    Covington, Tim R.

    2006-01-01

    Nonprescription drug therapy is tightly woven into the fabric of American health care. Market forces are expected to contribute to significant expansion of nonprescription drug use. Consumers place high value on nonprescription drug therapy; however, self-medicating patients frequently need assistance from a learned intermediary to assure optimal integration of nonprescription drug therapy into the total care regimen. Pharmacist-assisted self-care holds vast potential to serve the public inte...

  3. Consumer involvement in nonprescription medicine purchase decisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gore, P; Madhavan, S; McClung, G; Riley, D

    1994-01-01

    As self-medication with nonprescription drugs becomes increasingly popular and important in this era of escalating health care costs and growing consumer sophistication, the degree of consumer involvement in the purchase decision becomes an important factor. High involvement suggests active information-seeking behavior and, therefore, a greater likelihood of appropriate nonprescription drug use. The authors assess consumer involvement in nonprescription medicine purchase decisions and the use of expert sources of information.

  4. [Risks of non-prescription medication. Clobutinol cough syrup as a recent example].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rottlaender, D; Hoppe, U C

    2008-01-01

    The arbitrary use of additional drugs other than prescribed medication is known to be a huge part of drug sales. However, the interactions of such non-prescription medication with any daily medication or concomitant diseases remain often unclear. Recently, in accordance with the decision of the competent authority in Germany, clobutinol (e.g. Silomat), a drug against non-productive cough was withdrawn in all countries worldwide in which this medication had been available. The drug had first been approved in 1961 and estimated to have had 200 million patient exposures. A recent clinical study revealed that clobutinol can prolong the QT interval compared to placebo and may thus cause cardiac tachyarrhythmias. Even in therapeutic doses (240 mg daily) this effect was seen in healthy volunteers. Furthermore, this study was prematurely discontinued because of an epileptic grand mal seizure in one volunteer, suggesting neurological side effects of clobutinol. Clobutinol prolongs the QT interval and may cause life-threatening arrhythmias. This should serve as a warning to doctors to be careful when prescribing non-prescription medication. Non-prescription drugs can be a potential risk for patients who are also taking other pharmaceutical preparations or having concomitant disease. This is because such drugs may cause harmful interactions, most of them previously unknown. All doctors should avoid unsupervised use of non-prescription medication.

  5. Disease surveillance and nonprescription medication sales can predict increases in poison exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krenzelok, Edward; MacPherson, Erma; Mrvos, Rita

    2008-03-01

    Real-time Outbreak and Disease Surveillance (RODS) is a national real-time syndromic surveillance system that classifies hospital registration chief complaints into one of seven syndromic categories. The National Retail Data Monitor (NRDM) is a public health surveillance tool that is designed to collect and analyze the daily sales of 18 categories of nonprescription medications. The goal of RODS and NRDM is to provide early warning of disease outbreaks, such as biological terrorism. The purpose of this study was to determine whether peak syndromic activity and the consequential purchase of nonprescription medications could predict an increase in poisoning exposures involving NRDM-monitored medications. Data from the RODS and NRDM databases were plotted graphically to portray activity that occurred during 2003. Data from a regional poison information center electronic medical record system that involved all human exposure calls related to NRDM monitored medications in 2003 were extracted and graphed. Analysis included comparisons between the data sets. Poison center exposure volume correlated predictably and simultaneously with the peak activity in both the RODS and NRDM databases. There was no delay between the onset of an influenza outbreak in December 2003, the sale of nonprescription palliative mediations, and the increase in poison center exposure call volume. Increased availability of and access to nonprescription medications resulted in more poisoning exposure calls. Real-time surveillance using other databases can help to forecast poison center activity. This knowledge allows the poison center to provide anticipatory guidance to the residents of its region.

  6. Theta burst stimulation reduces disability during the activities of daily living in spatial neglect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cazzoli, Dario; Müri, René M; Schumacher, Rahel; von Arx, Sebastian; Chaves, Silvia; Gutbrod, Klemens; Bohlhalter, Stephan; Bauer, Daniel; Vanbellingen, Tim; Bertschi, Manuel; Kipfer, Stefan; Rosenthal, Clive R; Kennard, Christopher; Bassetti, Claudio L; Nyffeler, Thomas

    2012-11-01

    Left-sided spatial neglect is a common neurological syndrome following right-hemispheric stroke. The presence of spatial neglect is a powerful predictor of poor rehabilitation outcome. In one influential account of spatial neglect, interhemispheric inhibition is impaired and leads to a pathological hyperactivity in the contralesional hemisphere, resulting in a biased attentional allocation towards the right hemifield. Inhibitory transcranial magnetic stimulation can reduce the hyperactivity of the contralesional, intact hemisphere and thereby improve spatial neglect symptoms. However, it is not known whether this improvement is also relevant to the activities of daily living during spontaneous behaviour. The primary aim of the present study was to investigate whether the repeated application of continuous theta burst stimulation trains could ameliorate spatial neglect on a quantitative measure of the activities of daily living during spontaneous behaviour. We applied the Catherine Bergego Scale, a standardized observation questionnaire that can validly and reliably detect the presence and severity of spatial neglect during the activities of daily living. Eight trains of continuous theta burst stimulation were applied over two consecutive days on the contralesional, left posterior parietal cortex in patients suffering from subacute left spatial neglect, in a randomized, double-blind, sham-controlled design, which also included a control group of neglect patients without stimulation. The results showed a 37% improvement in the spontaneous everyday behaviour of the neglect patients after the repeated application of continuous theta burst stimulation. Remarkably, the improvement persisted for at least 3 weeks after stimulation. The amelioration of spatial neglect symptoms in the activities of daily living was also generally accompanied by significantly better performance in the neuropsychological tests. No significant amelioration in symptoms was observed after sham

  7. Effectiveness of daily eccentric contractions induced via kilohertz frequency transcutaneous electrical stimulation on muscle atrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Minoru; Nakanishi, Ryosuke; Murakami, Shinichiro; Fujita, Naoto; Kondo, Hiroyo; Ishihara, Akihiko; Roy, Roland R; Fujino, Hidemi

    2016-01-01

    The effects of daily repeated bouts of concentric, isometric, or eccentric contractions induced by high frequency (kilohertz) transcutaneous electrical stimulation in ameliorating atrophy of the soleus muscle in hindlimb unloaded rats were determined. Five groups of male rats were studied: control, hindlimb unloaded for 2 weeks (HU), or HU plus two daily bouts of concentric, isometric, or eccentric high-frequency electrical stimulation-induced contractions of the calf musculature. Soleus mass and fiber size were smaller, the levels of phosphorylated Akt1 and FoxO3a lower, and atrogin-1 and ubiquitinated proteins higher in the HU, and the HU plus concentric or isometric contraction groups than in the control group. In contrast, daily bouts of eccentric contractions maintained these values at near control levels and all measures were significantly different from all other HU groups. These results indicate that daily bouts of eccentric contractions induced by high-frequency stimulation inhibited the ubiquitin-proteasome catabolic pathway and enhanced the Akt1/FoxO3a anabolic pathway that resulted in a prevention of the atrophic response of the soleus muscle to chronic unloading.

  8. Functional Electrical Stimulation in Spinal Cord Injury: Clinical Evidence Versus Daily Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bersch, Ines; Tesini, Stefani; Bersch, Ulf; Frotzler, Angela

    2015-10-01

    Functional electrical stimulation (FES) has clinical evidence in the rehabilitation of patients with spinal cord injury as indicated by several studies. Both inpatients and outpatients benefit from the therapeutic effect of the FES. The application areas are multifaceted and can be customized on the need for patients. This is represented by the individuality of the programmability of the stimulators and the variety of stimulation schedules that are based on the knowledge about the effects of FES on structural and functional level. Nevertheless, looking into daily clinical practice, the use of FES is rather poor. Expenditure of time, complexity of technical equipment, and compliance and acceptance of therapists and patients should be taken into account as limiting factors. Copyright © 2015 International Center for Artificial Organs and Transplantation and Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Prefrontal electrical stimulation in nondepressed reduces levels of reported negative affects from daily stressors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adelaide H Austin

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Negative emotional responses to the daily life stresses have cumulative effects which, in turn, impose wide-ranging negative constraints on emotional well being and neurocognitive performance (Kalueff et al, 2007, Charles et al, 2013, Nadler et al, 2010. Crucial cognitive functions such as memory and problem solving, as well more short term emotional responses (e.g., anticipation of- and response to- monetary rewards or losses are influenced by mood. The negative impact of these behavioural responses is felt at the individual level, but it also imposes major economic burden on modern healthcare systems. Although much research have been undertaken to understand the underlying mechanisms of depressed mood and design efficient treatment pathways, comparatively little was done to characterize mood modulations that remain within the boundaries of a healthy mental functioning. In one placebo-controlled experiments, we applied daily prefrontal transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (tDCS at five points in time, and found reliable improvements on self-reported mood evaluation. We replicated this finding in an independent double-blinded placebo-controlled experiment and showed that stimulation over a shorter period of time (3 days is sufficient to create detectable mood improvements. Taken together, our data show that repeated bilateral prefrontal tDCS can reduce psychological distress in nondepressed individuals.

  10. Overuse of non-prescription analgesics by dental clinic patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zallen Richard D

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many patients present to dental clinics for treatment of painful conditions. Prior to seeking treatment, many of these patients will self-medicate with non-prescription analgesics (NPA, and some will unintentionally overdose on these products. The objective of this study is to describe the use of NPA among dental patients. Methods All adult patients presenting to an urban dental clinic during a two-week period in January and February of 2001 were approached to participate in this research project. Trained research assistants using a standardized questionnaire interviewed patients. Patient demographics and the NPA usage over the 3 days preceding the office visit were recorded. We defined a supra-therapeutic dose as any dose greater than the total recommended daily dose stated on package labeling. Results We approached 194 patients and 127 participated. The mean age of participants was 35.5 years, 52% were male. Analgesic use preceding the visit was reported by 99 of 127 patients, and most (81/99 used a NPA exclusively. Fifty-four percent of NPA users were taking more than one NPA. NPA users reported using ibuprofen (37%, acetaminophen (27%, acetaminophen/aspirin combination product (8%, naproxen (8%, and aspirin (4%. Sixteen patients reported supra-therapeutic use of one or more NPA (some ingested multiple products: ibuprofen (14, acetaminophen (3, and naproxen (5. Conclusion NPA use was common in patients presenting to a dental clinic. A significant minority of patients reported excessive dosing of NPA. Ibuprofen was the most frequently misused product, followed by naproxen and acetaminophen. Though mostly aware of the potential toxicity of NPA, many patients used supra-therapeutic dosages.

  11. Effect of daily repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation on motor performance in Parkinson's disease.

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    Khedr, Eman M; Rothwell, John C; Shawky, Ola A; Ahmed, Mohamed A; Hamdy, Ahmed

    2006-12-01

    Previous studies in patients with Parkinson's disease have reported that a single session of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) can improve some or all of the motor symptoms for 30 to 60 minutes. A recent study suggested that repeated sessions of rTMS lead to effects that can last for at least 1 month. Here we report data that both confirm and extend this work. Fifty-five unmedicated PD patients were classified into four groups: two groups (early and late PD) received 25 Hz rTMS bilaterally on the motor arm and leg areas; other groups acted as control for frequency (10 Hz) and for site of stimulation (occipital stimulation). All patients received six consecutive daily sessions (3,000 pulses for each session). The first two groups then received a further three booster sessions (3 consecutive days of rTMS) after 1, 2, and 3 months, while the third group had only one additional session after the first month. Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS), walking time, key-tapping speed, and self-assessment scale were measured for each patient before and after each rTMS session and before and after the monthly sessions. Compared to occipital stimulation, 25 Hz rTMS over motor areas improved all measures in both early and late groups; the group that received 10 Hz rTMS improved more than the occipital group but less than the 25 Hz groups. The effect built up gradually during the sessions and was maintained for 1 month after, with a slight reduction in efficacy. Interestingly, the effect was restored and maintained for the next month by the booster sessions. We conclude that 25 Hz rTMS can lead to cumulative and long-lasting effects on motor performance.

  12. 78 FR 37820 - Nonprescription Drugs Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-24

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Nonprescription Drugs Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice. This notice announces a forthcoming meeting of a public advisory committee of the Food and Drug Administration (FDA). The meeting will be open...

  13. Effectiveness of daily versus non-daily granulocyte colony-stimulating factors in patients with solid tumours undergoing chemotherapy: a multivariate analysis of data from current practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almenar Cubells, D; Bosch Roig, C; Jiménez Orozco, E; Álvarez, R; Cuervo, JM; Díaz Fernández, N; Sánchez Heras, AB; Galán Brotons, A; Giner Marco, V; Codes M De Villena, M

    2013-01-01

    We conducted a multicentre, retrospective, observational study including patients with solid tumours (excluding breast cancer) that received granulocyte colony-stimulating factors (G-CSF) and chemotherapy. We investigated the effectiveness of daily vs. non-daily G-CSFs (pegfilgrastim) adjusting by potential confounders. The study included 391 patients (211 daily G-CSF; 180 pegfilgrastim), from whom 47.3% received primary prophylaxis (PP) (57.8% pegfilgrastim), 26.3% secondary prophylaxis (SP: initiation after cycle 1 and no reactive treatment in any cycle) (51.5% pegfilgrastim) and 26.3% reactive treatment (19.4% pegfilgrastim). Only 42.2% of patients with daily G-CSF and 46.2% with pegfilgrastim initiated prophylaxis within 72 h after chemotherapy, and only 10.5% of patients with daily G-CSF received it for ≥7 days. In the multivariate models, daily G-CSF was associated with higher risk of grade 3-4 neutropenia (G3-4N) vs. pegfilgrastim [odds ratio (OR): 1.73, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.004–2.97]. Relative to SP, PP protected against G3-4N (OR for SP vs. PP: 6.0, 95%CI: 3.2–11.4) and febrile neutropenia (OR: 3.1, 95%CI: 1.1–8.8), and was associated to less chemotherapy dose delays and reductions (OR for relative dose intensity neutropenia and its related events in the clinical practice. PMID:23331323

  14. National collegiate athletic association division I athletes' use of nonprescription medication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, Douglas A; Miller, Thomas W; Pescatello, Linda S; Barnes, Christopher

    2011-01-01

    Athletes are known to use over-the-counter pain medication. However, the frequency of such use among National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) Division I-A football athletes is unknown. NCAA Division I-A football athletes who use nonprescription analgesics for pain misuse these medications. Cross-sectional study. The football players (N, 144) who met the criteria and agreed to participate were from 8 NCAA Division I-A schools. The participants were administered the Over the Counter Drug Screen for Athletes, which measures attitudes toward the use of a spectrum of substances. Among football athletes surveyed who took nonprescription analgesics for football-related pain, 37% reported taking more than the recommended dose. This was slightly higher than the 28% of players who stated they have not taken nonprescription analgesics for football-related pain. Thirty-four percent of all athletes reported using more than the recommended dose of nonprescription analgesics. Athletes who purchased their own nonprescription analgesics communicated poorly regarding nonprescription analgesics use. Those lacking knowledge about nonprescription analgesics and those using nonprescription analgesics in anticipation of pain or to avoid missing a practice or game were most likely to misuse nonprescription analgesics. NCAA Division I-A football athletes who use nonprescription analgesics for athletic competition do not misuse nonprescription analgesics.

  15. Non-prescription medications: considerations for the dental practitioner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kingon, Angus

    2012-04-01

    The widespread availability of non-prescription medications has a significant potential impact on dental practice. Dentists are trained to provide scientifically-based advice on the appropriate use of medications, but it is not uncommon for patients to take matters into their own hands, especially if it is felt that the treatment provided is not solving a specific problem, or is insufficient. Well-meaning but often ill-informed family and friends frequently have an opinion as to what should be done. Not only may the suggested treatment not be effective, it may also be harmful. Over-the-counter medications can easily be obtained, and there is nothing to stop individuals exceeding recommended doses, and if this occurs, there could be adverse medical sequelae. Patient compliance in taking prescription medications is known to be problematic, and when combined with the ready availability of complementary medications, probiotics and illicit drugs, the risk of self-harm can be seen to be a distinct possibility. To compound the position, sometimes there seems to be, in a practical sense, little regulation on the advertising and marketing of non-prescription medications, which can leave consumers not only confused but potentially vulnerable. While complementary medicines may not have a significant role in dental practice in 2012, that may not always be the case as research continues, and reference is made to some aspects of ongoing work. Non-prescription medications are discussed, and some effects on oral health are considered.

  16. Understanding Nonprescription and Prescription Drug Misuse in Late Adolescence/Young Adulthood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sasha A. Fleary

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study explored the extent to which nonprescription and prescription drugs misuse among adolescents/young adults are related to their perception that it is safer than illicit drugs, ease of access, and lower societal stigma. Adolescents/young adults (; , completed an online survey about their nonprescription and prescription drug misuse, other substance use, and correlates of use. Perceived risk, societal stigma, and access to nonprescription and prescription drugs were predictive of misuse. Results support program planners working towards targeting perceived risk and societal stigma in reducing misuse and the need to restrict and monitor access to nonprescription and prescription drugs for adolescents/young adults.

  17. Daily exercise improves memory, stimulates hippocampal neurogenesis and modulates immune and neuroimmune cytokines in aging rats.

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    Speisman, Rachel B; Kumar, Ashok; Rani, Asha; Foster, Thomas C; Ormerod, Brandi K

    2013-02-01

    We tested whether daily exercise modulates immune and neuroimmune cytokines, hippocampus-dependent behavior and hippocampal neurogenesis in aging male F344 rats (18mo upon arrival). Twelve weeks after conditioned running or control group assignment, the rats were trained and tested in a rapid water maze followed by an inhibitory avoidance task. The rats were BrdU-injected beginning 12days after behavioral testing and killed 3weeks later to quantify cytokines and neurogenesis. Daily exercise increased neurogenesis and improved immediate and 24h water maze discrimination index (DI) scores and 24h inhibitory avoidance retention latencies. Daily exercise decreased cortical VEGF, hippocampal IL-1β and serum MCP-1, GRO-KC and leptin levels but increased hippocampal GRO-KC and IL-18 concentrations. Serum leptin concentration correlated negatively with new neuron number and both DI scores while hippocampal IL-1β concentration correlated negatively with memory scores in both tasks. Cortical VEGF, serum GRO-KC and serum MCP-1 levels correlated negatively with immediate DI score and we found novel positive correlations between hippocampal IL-18 and GRO-KC levels and new neuron number. Pathway analyses revealed distinct serum, hippocampal and cortical compartment cytokine relationships. Our results suggest that daily exercise potentially improves cognition in aging rats by modulating hippocampal neurogenesis and immune and neuroimmune cytokine signaling. Our correlational data begin to provide a framework for systematically manipulating these immune and neuroimmune signaling molecules to test their effects on cognition and neurogenesis across lifespan in future experiments. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  18. Opinion of community pharmacists on use of nonprescription medications in Alexandria, Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elhoseeny, Taghareed A; Ibrahem, Samaa Z; Abo el Ela, Azza M

    2013-08-01

    Many studies have reported the use of over-the counter (OTC) or nonprescription medications (medications that are available to consumers without a prescription) to be inappropriate and associated with risks to consumers. Among healthcare professionals, pharmacists have a key role in providing information and helping customers make a safe choice of nonprescription medicines. This study aimed to measure the attitudes and beliefs of community pharmacists toward the use of nonprescription medications by Egyptian customers. A cross-sectional descriptive study was carried out among community pharmacies in Alexandria. A self-administered questionnaire was used to collect data from 335 pharmacists working in community pharmacies. The use of nonprescription medicine among patients/consumers was reported by 66.9% of pharmacists to have increased in the past 4 years and 94.1% of them considered such a use to be very serious or somewhat serious. Long-term or chronic use was cited by 76.7% of pharmacists as the most common reason for the widespread inappropriate use of nonprescription medications, and 82.4% of the pharmacists considered the most common contributing factor to be lack of knowledge of patients/customers about the active ingredients in a branded product. The most common medications enquired about by patients/consumers were those for cough, cold, or sore throat, as reported by 73.5% of pharmacists, whereas 79.4% of pharmacists reported that patients asked about how to use nonprescription drugs. Sixty percent of pharmacists reported that the main reason that patients/customers did not seek consultation for nonprescription medicines was that they believed that nonprescription medicines were safe, and 52.5% reported that patients believed that taking advice on how to use it was unnecessary. To learn about nonprescription medicine, 93.7% of pharmacists turned to drug product labeling. Use of nonprescription drugs is a serious problem that has increased over the past few

  19. Misuse and dependence on non-prescription codeine analgesics or sedative H1 antihistamines by adults: a cross-sectional investigation in France.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Roussin

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Given the growing worldwide market of non-prescription drugs, monitoring their misuse in the context of self-medication represents a particular challenge in Public Health. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of misuse, abuse, and dependence on non-prescription psychoactive drugs. METHOD: During one month, in randomly solicited community pharmacies, an anonymous questionnaire was offered to adults requesting paracetamol (control group, codeine combined with paracetamol in analgesics, or sedative H1 antihistamines. Responses about misuse (drug use not in agreement with the Patient Information Leaflet abuse (excessive drug use having detrimental consequences, and dependence (established according to questions adapted from the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th Edition criteria on psychoactive drugs were compared to those of the paracetamol control group. RESULTS: 295 patients (mean age 48.5 years, 68.5% of women having used one of the studied drugs during the previous month were included. Misuse and dependence to codeine analgesics concerned 6.8% and 17.8% of the patients exposed to these drugs, respectively, (n = 118, which was significantly higher than for paracetamol. 19.5% had used codeine analgesics daily for more than six months. Headache was the most frequent reason for persistent daily use. A high prevalence of persistent daily users of sedative H1 antihistamines was also observed. Whereas these drugs are recommended only for short treatment courses of occasional insomnia, 72.2% of the participants having taken doxylamine (n = 36 were daily users, predominantly for more than six months. CONCLUSIONS: Results on misuse and dependence on non-prescription codeine analgesics suggest that chronic pain, in particular chronic cephalalgia, requires better medical care. In addition, as for hypnotics on prescription, persistent use of doxylamine for self-medication is not justified until

  20. The purchase decision process and involvement of the elderly regarding nonprescription products.

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    Reisenwitz, T H; Wimbish, G J

    1997-01-01

    The elderly or senior citizen is a large and growing market segment that purchases a disproportionate amount of health care products, particularly nonprescription products. This study attempts to examine the elderly's level of involvement (high versus low) and their purchase decision process regarding nonprescription or over-the-counter (OTC) products. Frequencies and percentages are calculated to indicate level of involvement as well as purchase decision behavior. Previous research is critiqued and managerial implications are discussed.

  1. Combining afferent stimulation and mirror therapy for rehabilitating motor function, motor control, ambulation, and daily functions after stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Keh-chung; Huang, Pai-chuan; Chen, Yu-ting; Wu, Ching-yi; Huang, Wen-ling

    2014-02-01

    Mirror therapy (MT) and mesh glove (MG) afferent stimulation may be effective in reducing motor impairment after stroke. A hybrid intervention of MT combined with MG (MT + MG) may broaden aspects of treatment benefits. To demonstrate the comparative effects of MG + MT, MT, and a control treatment (CT) on the outcomes of motor impairments, manual dexterity, ambulation function, motor control, and daily function. Forty-three chronic stroke patients with mild to moderate upper extremity impairment were randomly assigned to receive MT + MG, MT, or CT for 1.5 hours/day, 5 days/week for 4 weeks. Outcome measures were the Fugl-Meyer Assessment (FMA) and muscle tone measured by Myoton-3 for motor impairment and the Box and Block Test (BBT) and 10-Meter Walk Test (10 MWT) for motor function. Secondary outcomes included kinematic parameters for motor control and the Motor Activity Log and ABILHAND Questionnaire for daily function. FMA total scores were significantly higher and synergistic shoulder abduction during reach was less in the MT + MG and MT groups compared with the CT group. Performance on the BBT and the 10 MWT (velocity and stride length in self-paced task and velocity in as-quickly-as-possible task) were improved after MT + MG compared with MT. MT + MG improved manual dexterity and ambulation. MT + MG and MT reduced motor impairment and synergistic shoulder abduction more than CT. Future studies may integrate functional task practice into treatments to enhance functional outcomes in patients with various levels of motor severity. The long-term effects of MG + MT remain to be evaluated.

  2. Functional electrical stimulation early after stroke improves lower limb motor function and ability in activities of daily living.

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Guoqing; Liang, Huiying; Yan, Tiebin

    2014-01-01

    Functional electrical stimulation (FES) to patients early after stroke has been proved to improve walking ability. The effects on abilities in activities of daily living (ADL) are not clear. To investigate the effectiveness of FES in improving lower limb function and ability in ADL of early stroke patients. Thirty-seven stroke patients were randomly allocated to standard rehabilitation (SR) group (n = 18), and FES group with FES and SR (n = 19). SR included 60 minutes each for physiotherapy and occupational therapy. FES was delivered for 30 min to induce ankle dorsiflexion and eversion. Treatments were 5 days per week for 3 weeks. Evaluations including the composite spasticity scale (CSS), lower-extremity subscale of Fugl-Myer Assessment (FMA), postural assessment scale for stroke patients (PASS), Berg Balance Scale (BBS), and modified Barthel Index (MBI) assessed before treatment, after 2 and 3 week treatment respectively. After 2 week treatment, FES group showed a significant reduction of CSS and improvements of FMA, MBI and PASS. After 3 week treatment, FES group showed a further reduction of CSS and also improvement of FMA, MBI and BBS as well. FES on the paretic lower limbs early after stroke improved the mobility and ability in ADL.

  3. Content analysis of false and misleading claims in television advertising for prescription and nonprescription drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faerber, Adrienne E; Kreling, David H

    2014-01-01

    False and misleading advertising for drugs can harm consumers and the healthcare system, and previous research has demonstrated that physician-targeted drug advertisements may be misleading. However, there is a dearth of research comparing consumer-targeted drug advertising to evidence to evaluate whether misleading or false information is being presented in these ads. To compare claims in consumer-targeted television drug advertising to evidence, in order to evaluate the frequency of false or misleading television drug advertising targeted to consumers. A content analysis of a cross-section of television advertisements for prescription and nonprescription drugs aired from 2008 through 2010. We analyzed commercial segments containing prescription and nonprescription drug advertisements randomly selected from the Vanderbilt Television News Archive, a census of national news broadcasts. For each advertisement, the most-emphasized claim in each ad was identified based on claim iteration, mode of communication, duration and placement. This claim was then compared to evidence by trained coders, and categorized as being objectively true, potentially misleading, or false. Potentially misleading claims omitted important information, exaggerated information, made lifestyle associations, or expressed opinions. False claims were factually false or unsubstantiated. Of the most emphasized claims in prescription (n = 84) and nonprescription (n = 84) drug advertisements, 33 % were objectively true, 57 % were potentially misleading and 10 % were false. In prescription drug ads, there were more objectively true claims (43 %) and fewer false claims (2 %) than in nonprescription drug ads (23 % objectively true, 7 % false). There were similar numbers of potentially misleading claims in prescription (55 %) and nonprescription (61 %) drug ads. Potentially misleading claims are prevalent throughout consumer-targeted prescription and nonprescription drug advertising on

  4. 76 FR 12972 - Joint Meeting of the Nonprescription Drugs Advisory Committee and the Pediatric Advisory...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-09

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Joint Meeting of the Nonprescription Drugs Advisory...., Silver Spring, MD. The hotel telephone number is 301- 589-5200. Contact Person: Diem-Kieu Ngo, Center for... that administration by caregivers can be improved so that medication errors can be minimized. FDA...

  5. Purchasing Nonprescription Contraceptives: The Underlying Structure of a Multi-Item Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manolis, Chris; Winsor, Robert D.; True, Sheb L.

    1999-01-01

    Developed a multi-item scale for measuring attitudes associated with purchasing nonprescription contraceptives using construct specification and item generation and confirmatory factor analysis. Demonstrated a high degree of invariance across samples of 81 female and 115 male adult consumers. (SLD)

  6. 76 FR 58018 - Draft Guidance for Industry on Self-Selection Studies for Nonprescription Drug Products...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-19

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Draft Guidance for Industry on Self-Selection Studies for...: The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is announcing the availability of a draft guidance for industry... provide recommendations to industry on the design of self- selection studies for nonprescription...

  7. 75 FR 45641 - Guidance for Industry on Label Comprehension Studies for Nonprescription Drug Products; Availability

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-03

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Guidance for Industry on Label Comprehension Studies for Nonprescription Drug Products; Availability AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is announcing the availability of a guidance for...

  8. 76 FR 60504 - Guidance for Industry on Time and Extent Applications for Nonprescription Drug Products...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-29

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration (Formerly 2004D-0027) Guidance for Industry on Time and... a guidance for industry entitled ``Time and Extent Applications for Nonprescription Drug Products... in 21 CFR part 25 and the guidance for industry entitled ``Environmental Assessment of Human Drug...

  9. Self-reported participation in voluntary nonprescription syringe sales in California's Central Valley.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollini, Robin A

    2017-08-11

    California Senate Bill 41 (SB41), effective January 2012, is a human immunodeficiency virus/hepatitis C virus prevention measure designed to expand syringe access among injection drug users (IDUs) by allowing pharmacies to sell syringes without a prescription. This study assesses self-reported implementation of SB41 and characterizes barriers amenable to intervention. Interviewer-administered survey. Fresno and Kern Counties, CA. Pharmacists and other pharmacy staff (n = 404) at 212 pharmacies. Self-reported nonprescription pharmacy sales to known or suspected IDUs. Overall, 29.3% of participants said their pharmacy would sell nonprescription syringes to a known or suspected IDU, whereas a far higher proportion (79.3%) would sell nonprescription syringes to a person with diabetes. More than one-half said that their pharmacy requires nonprescription syringe purchasers to enter their signature and name and address in a log book although that is not required under SB41. Fewer than 2 out of 3 participants (61.1%) knew that it is legal to sell nonprescription syringes to IDUs. That knowledge, as well as having syringe sales practices based on both store policy and discretion, were positively associated with IDU syringe sales after controlling for other factors. Working at an independent pharmacy, agreeing that only people with "medical conditions" such as diabetes should be able to buy syringes, and viewing syringe sales to IDUs as "not good business" were independently but negatively associated with IDU syringe sales. This study complements an earlier syringe purchase trial documenting low participation in voluntary nonprescription syringe sales under SB41 in Fresno and Kern Counties. In the absence of legislation requiring mandatory syringe sales, interventions should be developed to increase knowledge of the law and frame addiction as a medical condition, with a special focus on independent pharmacies. Informational interventions should stress the need to eliminate

  10. Multifaceted determinants of online non-prescription drug information seeking and the impact on consumers' use of purchase channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holtgräfe, Catherine; Zentes, Joachim

    2012-06-01

    The growing importance of the Internet as an information and purchasing channel is drawing widespread attention from marketing decision makers. Nevertheless, the relevance of the Internet to the so-called self-medication market in Germany has been paid barely enough attention. Our study aims to contribute insights concerning the penetration of the Internet in this market, as well as to give an overview of the critical determinants of Internet use for non-prescription drug information seeking, such as the accessibility of professional information, trust in health professionals' opinion and the ability to search online, as well as the perceived usefulness and credibility of online non-prescription drug information. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the preferred use of the Internet as a non-prescription drug information source positively influences the choice of unconventional purchase channels for non-prescription drugs and negatively affects the use of stationary pharmacies.

  11. Effect of transcranial direct current stimulation on visual perception function and performance capability of activities of daily living in stroke patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ko-Un; Kim, Su-Han; An, Tae-Gyu

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) on visual perception and performance of activities of daily living in patients with stroke. [Subjects and Methods] Thirty subjects were assigned equally to a tDCS plus traditional occupational therapy group (experimental group) and a traditional occupational therapy group (control group). The intervention was implemented five times per week, 30 minutes each, for six weeks. In order to assess visual perception function before and after the intervention, the motor-free visual perception test (MVPT) was conducted, and in order to compare the performance of activities of daily living, the Functional Independence Measure scale was employed. [Results] According to the results, both groups improved in visual perception function and in performance of activities of daily living. Although there was no significant difference between the two groups, the experimental group exhibited higher scores. [Conclusion] In conclusion, the application of tDCS for the rehabilitation of patients with stroke may positively affect their visual perception and ability to perform activities of daily living.

  12. Effect of transcranial direct current stimulation on visual perception function and performance capability of activities of daily living in stroke patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ko-Un; Kim, Su-Han; An, Tae-Gyu

    2016-09-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) on visual perception and performance of activities of daily living in patients with stroke. [Subjects and Methods] Thirty subjects were assigned equally to a tDCS plus traditional occupational therapy group (experimental group) and a traditional occupational therapy group (control group). The intervention was implemented five times per week, 30 minutes each, for six weeks. In order to assess visual perception function before and after the intervention, the motor-free visual perception test (MVPT) was conducted, and in order to compare the performance of activities of daily living, the Functional Independence Measure scale was employed. [Results] According to the results, both groups improved in visual perception function and in performance of activities of daily living. Although there was no significant difference between the two groups, the experimental group exhibited higher scores. [Conclusion] In conclusion, the application of tDCS for the rehabilitation of patients with stroke may positively affect their visual perception and ability to perform activities of daily living.

  13. Self-Medication Practice with Nonprescription Medication among University Students: a review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dedy Almasdy

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To review the literature relating to self-medicationpractice with nonprescription medication among universitystudents.Methods: A narrative review of studies on self-medicationpractice with nonprescription medication among universitystudent was performed. An extensive literature search wasundertaken using indexing services available at UniversitiSains Malaysia (USM library. The following keywords wereused for the search: self-care, self-medication, over-thecountermedicine, nonprescription medicine, minor illnesses,minor ailment, university population and communitypharmacy. Electronic databases searched were Science Direct,Medline, ISI Web of Knowledge, Inside Web, JSTOR, SpringerLink, Proquest, Ebsco Host and Google Scholar. Theseelectronic databases were searched for full text paperspublished in English.Results: Eleven studies were identified. In general, the reviewhas shown that self-medication practice with nonprescriptionmedication highly prevalence among university students. Thereasons for self-medication are vary among this populationand the main symptoms leading to self-medication areheadache or minor pain; fever, flu, cough, or cold; anddiarrhoea.The common medication is analgesic, antipyreticproducts, cough and cold remedies, anti allergy andvitamins or minerals. The sources of the medicines arepharmacy, home medicine cabinet, supermarket/shopand other person such as family, friend, neighbours andclassmates. The sources of drug information are familymember, previous experience, pharmacy salesman,doctor or nurse, advertisement and others. The reviewalso has shown that the self-medication practice couldhave many problems.Conclusions: The review provides insights about theself-medication practices among the university students.These practices were highly prevalence among universitystudents. The symptoms leading to self-medication arevary, thus the medication used and the medicationsources. It needs an adequate drug information

  14. A new perspective on nonprescription statins: an opportunity for patient education and involvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuster, Valentin

    2007-09-01

    Education of the public and encouragement of patients' involvement in their own health care have been repeatedly proved effective means of increasing health awareness, promoting lifestyle modifications, and improving early disease detection in a variety of clinical scenarios. Despite substantial efforts from different public and private organizations to educate the population on cardiovascular risk, coronary heart disease remains the leading cause of death in the United States, and its prevalence continues to grow. Therefore, alternative approaches with the potential to elicit a meaningful impact in the community deserve consideration. A nonprescription statin program could provide consumers with a tool of proved benefit in cardiovascular risk prevention. The magnitude of the target population (millions of subjects with intermediate to high risk), as well as the safety and efficacy profile of lovastatin 20 mg, support the consideration of this drug for "over-the-counter" availability. Moreover, a nonprescription statin program could represent a unique opportunity not only to enhance patients' involvement in primary prevention but also to reinforce the education of the public and to encourage interaction with health care providers. The success of such a program will undoubtedly require precise labeling of the risks and benefits of the therapy, as well as active support and participation from major medical organizations. In conclusion, nonprescription statin availability, through enhanced unique patients' involvement, offers the potential for enormous public health benefit.

  15. Daily low-dose hCG stimulation during the luteal phase combined with GnRHa triggered IVF cycles without exogenous progesterone: a proof of concept trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, Claus Yding; Elbaek, Helle Olesen; Alsbjerg, Birgit; Laursen, Rita Jakubcionyte; Povlsen, Betina Boel; Thomsen, Lise; Humaidan, Peter

    2015-10-01

    Can the luteal phase support be improved in terms of efficacy, hormonal profiles and convenience as compared with today's standard care? Daily low-dose rhCG supplementation in GnRHa triggered IVF cycles can replace the traditional used luteal phase support with exogenous progesterone. A bolus of hCG for final maturation of follicles in connection with COS may induce the risk of OHSS and the luteal phase progesterone levels rise very abruptly in the early luteal phase. This is a proof-of-concept study conducted as a three arm RCT with a total of 93 patients. First patient enrolled in January 2012 and the study finished in January 2014. Normal responder women undergoing IVF/ICSI treatment in a university hospital. One arm served as control, where women followed a standard antagonist protocol. Two study arms were included both having 125 IU hCG daily for luteal phase support without exogenous progesterone after using a GnRHa trigger for ovulation induction. In both study arms exogenous FSH was stopped on stimulation day 6 and replaced by exogenous hCG that was initiated on either stimulation day 2 or day 6. Blood samples were obtained on the day of ovulation induction, on the day of oocyte pickup (OPU) and day OPU + 7. The mean serum levels of hCG did not exceeded the normal physiological range of LH activity in any samples. Mid-luteal progesterone levels were significantly higher in the two study groups receiving daily low-dose hCG for luteal phase support as compared with the control group (control group: 177 ± 27 nmol/l; study group 1: 334 ± 42 nmol/l; study group 2: 277 ± 27 nmol/l; (mean ± SEM). No differences in reproductive outcome were seen between groups. The number of patients included is limited and conclusions need to be verified in a larger RCT. Endogenous production of progesterone may become more attractive as the luteal phase support with levels of LH-like activity only in the physiological range and may, from the patients' point of view, replace

  16. Patterns and predictors of non-prescription medicine use among Malaysian pharmacy patrons: a national cross sectional study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Azmi Hassali

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The study aims to evaluate the predictors of non-prescription medicine purchasing patterns among pharmacy patrons in Malaysia. METHODS: A cross-sectional nationwide study was undertaken in 2011 in sixty randomly selected community pharmacies across 14 Malaysian states. A pharmacy exit survey was conducted over a 6-month period across Malaysia. A one-stage random cluster sampling technique was employed as there was no national sampling framework available for conducting this survey. Face-to-face interviews using a validated and pre-tested questionnaire were conducted by trained data collectors. The non-prescription medicine purchasing pattern was explored and analysed descriptively. Chi-square/Fisher exact test was used to determine the association between study variables. Multinomial logistic regression analysis was used to determine the predictors of type of non-prescription medicine purchased. RESULTS: A total of 2729 pharmacy patrons agreed to participate in 60 selected pharmacy outlets. A total of 3462 non-prescription medicine were purchased during the study period with an average of 1.3 medicines per participant. Most of the non-prescription medicine purchased was meant for alimentary tract and metabolism (31.8%, followed by respiratory system (19.4% and musculoskeletal system (15.8% usage. Factors found to be associated with the choice of non-prescription medicine purchased were age group [χ2 = 170.75, (df = 57, p<0.01], locality [χ2 = 48.16, (df = 19, p<0.01], gender [χ2 = 32.93, (df = 13, p = 0.002], ethnic group [χ2 = 118.89, (df = 39, p<0.01] and type of occupation [χ2 = 222.434, (df = 117, p<0.01]. Non-prescription medicine purchased defined about 20% of the variance in the combination of predictors such as locality, gender, age, ethnicity, type of occupation and household income. CONCLUSION: The predictors for selection of non-prescription medicine were locality (urban or rural, gender, age, ethnicity, type of

  17. Widening consumer access to medicines through switching medicines to non-prescription: a six country comparison.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalie J Gauld

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Switching or reclassifying medicines with established safety profiles from prescription to non-prescription aims to increase timely consumer access to medicines, reduce under-treatment and enhance self-management. However, risks include suboptimal therapy and adverse effects. With a long-standing government policy supporting switching or reclassifying medicines from prescription to non-prescription, the United Kingdom is believed to lead the world in switch, but evidence for this is inconclusive. Interest in switching medicines for certain long-term conditions has arisen in the United Kingdom, United States, and Europe, but such switches have been contentious. The objective of this study was then to provide a comprehensive comparison of progress in switch for medicines across six developed countries: the United States; the United Kingdom; Australia; Japan; the Netherlands; and New Zealand. METHODS: A list of prescription-to-non-prescription medicine switches was systematically compiled. Three measures were used to compare switch activity across the countries: "progressive" switches from 2003 to 2013 (indicating incremental consumer benefit over current non-prescription medicines; "first-in-world" switches from 2003 to 2013; and switch date comparisons for selected medicines. RESULTS: New Zealand was the most active in progressive switches from 2003 to 2013, with the United Kingdom and Japan not far behind. The United States, Australia and the Netherlands showed the least activity in this period. Few medicines for long-term conditions were switched, even in the United Kingdom and New Zealand where first-in-world switches were most likely. Switch of certain medicines took considerably longer in some countries than others. For example, a consumer in the United Kingdom could self-medicate with a non-sedating antihistamine 19 years earlier than a consumer in the United States. CONCLUSION: Proactivity in medicines switching, most notably

  18. Use of Pharmacist Consultations for Nonprescription Laxatives in Japan: An Online Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shibata, Keita; Matsumoto, Arisa; Nakagawa, Ayumi; Akagawa, Keiko; Nakamura, Akihiro; Yamamoto, Toshinori; Kurata, Naomi

    2016-01-01

    Community pharmacies in Japan have long been advocated as effective sources of nonprescription medicines and health-related advice. Consumers sometimes self-treat symptoms of minor illnesses without consulting a pharmacist because the benefits of such consultations are not adequately recognized. The aim of this study was to investigate the use and impact of pharmacist consultations before purchase of nonprescription laxatives. An online survey was conducted July 14-22, 2012 with 500 respondents (250 men, 250 women), ranging 20-60 years old. All participants had purchased nonprescription laxatives for constipation within the past year. Stratified analysis was used to compare responses in groups that had and had not consulted a pharmacist before purchase. Consulting a pharmacist appears to improve consumers' awareness and makes them more likely to use appropriate medication. Those who consulted a pharmacist were better able to identify side effects and take appropriate action than the group that did not consult the pharmacist. Those who consulted a pharmacist were also significantly more likely to say that they would consult a pharmacist in the future. These results indicate that it is important for consumers to be able to consult with pharmacists, to improve consumers' awareness of side effects and to self-medicate appropriately, and hence improve their quality of life. Pharmacists in community pharmacy could be more active in health promotion campaigns, such as drug safety, campaigns, to raise their public profile. Increased public awareness of what pharmacists in community pharmacy do will make it easier for patients to consult with them.

  19. Daily low-dose hCG stimulation during the luteal phase combined with GnRHa triggered IVF cycles without exogenous progesterone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Claus Yding; Elbaek, Helle Olesen; Alsbjerg, Birgit

    2015-01-01

    STUDY QUESTION: Can the luteal phase support be improved in terms of efficacy, hormonal profiles and convenience as compared with today's standard care? SUMMARY ANSWER: Daily low-dose rhCG supplementation in GnRHa triggered IVF cycles can replace the traditional used luteal phase support with exo......STUDY QUESTION: Can the luteal phase support be improved in terms of efficacy, hormonal profiles and convenience as compared with today's standard care? SUMMARY ANSWER: Daily low-dose rhCG supplementation in GnRHa triggered IVF cycles can replace the traditional used luteal phase support...... on either stimulation day 2 or day 6. Blood samples were obtained on the day of ovulation induction, on the day of oocyte pickup (OPU) and day OPU + 7. MAIN RESULTS AND THE ROLE OF CHANCE: The mean serum levels of hCG did not exceeded the normal physiological range of LH activity in any samples. Mid...... were seen between groups. LIMITATIONS, REASONS FOR CAUTION: The number of patients included is limited and conclusions need to be verified in a larger RCT. WIDER IMPLICATIONS OF THE FINDINGS: Endogenous production of progesterone may become more attractive as the luteal phase support with levels of LH...

  20. NONPRESCRIPTION DRUG PROMOTION IN MASS-MEDIA PRINT PUBLICATION IN INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FITA RAHMAWATI

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of the study were to identify whether nonprescription drug promotion in mass-media print publications in Indonesia complied with the regulations of “Keputusan Menteri Kesehatan No. 386/Men.Kes/SK/IV/1994” on drug promotion and WHO Ethical Criteria for Medicinal Drug Promotion, as well as to identify the type of information given to consumers. The study was conducted by random sampling of 110 advertisements from mass-media print publications from the year 2000 until 2004. The results of the study showed that only 1.8% of nonprescription drug advertisements complied with the regulations. The type of information advertised to consumers was the active ingredient(s (80.9%, major indications for use (98.2%, major precautions (9.1%, contra-indications (5.4%, side effects (20.9%, the name of the product or the brand name (100%, name of manufacturer or distributor (93.6%, address of manufacturer/distributor (45.5%, dosage (80.9%, and registration number (82.7%. Our findings showed that 27.3% advertisements did not list the active ingredient(s completely or used no International Nonproprietary Name (INN, and 44.5% advertisements contained claims of product effectiveness that were unsupported by clinical or other scientific evidence.

  1. Quality of care after acute coronary syndromes in a prospective cohort with reasons for non-prescription of recommended medications.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reto Auer

    Full Text Available Adherence to guidelines is associated with improved outcomes of patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS. Clinical registries developed to assess quality of care at discharge often do not collect the reasons for non-prescription for proven efficacious preventive medication in Continental Europe. In a prospective cohort of patients hospitalized for an ACS, we aimed at measuring the rate of recommended treatment at discharge, using pre-specified quality indicators recommended in cardiologic guidelines and including systematic collection of reasons for non-prescription for preventive medications.In a prospective cohort with 1260 patients hospitalized for ACS, we measured the rate of recommended treatment at discharge in 4 academic centers in Switzerland. Performance measures for medication at discharge were pre-specified according to guidelines, systematically collected for all patients and included in a centralized database.Six hundred and eighty eight patients(54.6% were discharged with a main diagnosis of STEMI, 491(39% of NSTEMI and 81(6.4% of unstable angina. Mean age was 64 years and 21.3% were women. 94.6% were prescribed angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors/angiotensin II receptor blockers at discharge when only considering raw prescription rates, but increased to 99.5% when including reasons non-prescription. For statins, rates increased from 98% to 98.6% when including reasons for non-prescription and for beta-blockers, from 82% to 93%. For aspirin, rates further increased from 99.4% to 100% and from to 99.8% to 100% for P2Y12 inhibitors.We found a very high adherence to ACS guidelines for drug prescriptions at discharge when including reasons for non-prescription to drug therapy. For beta-blockers, prescription rates were suboptimal, even after taking into account reason for non-prescription. In an era of improving quality of care to achieve 100% prescription rates at discharge unless contra-indicated, pre-specification of reasons

  2. A Mobile Phone App to Stimulate Daily Physical Activity in Patients with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease: Development, Feasibility, and Pilot Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vorrink, Sigrid Nw; Kort, Helianthe Sm; Troosters, Thierry; Lammers, Jan-Willem J

    2016-01-26

    Patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) demonstrate reduced levels of daily physical activity (DPA) compared to healthy controls. This results in a higher risk of hospital admission and shorter survival. Performing regular DPA reduces these risks. To develop an eHealth intervention that will support patients with COPD to improve or maintain their DPA after pulmonary rehabilitation. The design process consisted of literature research and the iterative developing and piloting phases of the Medical Research Council (MRC) model for complex clinical interventions and the involvement of end users. Participants were healthy adults and persons with COPD. The mobile phone interface met all the set requirements. Participants found that the app was stimulating and that reaching their DPA goals was rewarding. The mean (SD) scores on a 7-point scale for usability, ease of use, ease of learning, and contentment were 3.8 (1.8), 5.1 (1.1), 6.0 (1.6), and 4.8 (1.3), respectively. The mean (SD) correlation between the mobile phone and a validated accelerometer was 0.88 (0.12) in the final test. The idea of providing their health care professional with their DPA data caused no privacy issues in the participants. Battery life lasted for an entire day with the final version, and readability and comprehensibility of text and colors were favorable. By employing a user-centered design approach, a mobile phone was found to be an adequate and feasible interface for an eHealth intervention. The mobile phone and app are easy to learn and use by patients with COPD. In the final test, the accuracy of the DPA measurement was good. The final version of the eHealth intervention is presently being tested by our group for efficacy in a randomized controlled trial in COPD patients.

  3. Non-prescription proton-pump inhibitors for self-treating frequent heartburn: the role of the Canadian pharmacist

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armstrong D

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Heartburn and acid regurgitation are the cardinal symptoms of gastroesophageal reflux and occur commonly in the Canadian population. Multiple non-prescription treatment options are available for managing these symptoms, including antacids, alginates, histamine-H2 receptor antagonists (H2RAs, and proton-pump inhibitors (PPIs. As a result, pharmacists are ideally positioned to recommend appropriate treatment options based upon an individual’s needs and presenting symptoms, prior treatment response, comorbid medical conditions, and other relevant factors. Individuals who experience mild heartburn and/or have symptoms that occur predictably in response to known precipitating factors can manage their symptoms by avoiding known triggers and using on-demand antacids and/or alginates or lower-dose non-prescription H2RAs (e.g. ranitidine 150 mg. For those with moderate symptoms, lifestyle changes, in conjunction with higher-dose non-prescription H2RAs, may be effective. However, for individuals with moderate-to-severe symptoms that occur frequently (i.e. ≥2 days/week, the non-prescription (Schedule II PPI omeprazole 20 mg should be considered. The pharmacist can provide important support by inquiring about the frequency and severity of symptoms, identifying an appropriate treatment option, and recognizing other potential causes of symptoms, as well as alarm features and atypical symptoms that would necessitate referral to a physician. After recommending an appropriate treatment, the pharmacist can provide instructions for its correct use. Additionally, the pharmacist should inquire about recurrences, respond to questions about adverse events, provide monitoring parameters, and counsel on when referral to a physician is warranted. Pharmacists are an essential resource for individuals experiencing heartburn; they play a crucial role in helping individuals make informed self-care decisions and educating them to ensure that therapy is used in an optimal

  4. Pharmacy syringe purchase test of nonprescription syringe sales in San Francisco and Los Angeles in 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutnick, Alexandra; Cooper, Erin; Dodson, Chaka; Bluthenthal, Ricky; Kral, Alex H

    2013-04-01

    The two main legal sources of clean needles for illicit injection drug users (IDUs) in California are syringe exchange programs (SEPs) and nonprescription syringe sales (NPSS) at pharmacies. In 2004, California became one of the last states to allow NPSS. To evaluate the implementation of NPSS and the California Disease Prevention Demonstration Project (DPDP), we conducted syringe purchase tests in San Francisco (SF) and Los Angeles (LA) between March and July of 2010. Large differences in implementation were observed in the two cities. In LA, less than one-quarter of the enrolled pharmacies sold syringes to our research assistant (RA), and none sold a single syringe. The rate of successful purchase in LA is the lowest reported in any syringe purchase test. In both sites, there was notable variation among the gauge size available, and price and quantity of syringes required for a purchase. None of the DPDP pharmacies in LA or SF provided the requisite health information. The findings suggest that more outreach needs to be conducted with pharmacists and pharmacy staff. The pharmacies' failure to disseminate the educational materials may result in missed opportunities to provide needed harm reduction information to IDUs. The varied prices and required quantities may serve as a barrier to syringe access among IDUs. Future research needs to examine reasons why pharmacies do not provide the mandated information, whether the omission of disposal options is indicative of pharmacies' reluctance to serve as disposal sites, and if the dual opt-in approach of NPSS/DPDP is a barrier to pharmacy enrollment.

  5. Effective Modification of a Nonprescription Medicines Course to Optimize Learning of Millennial Generation Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristin A. Casper, Pharm.D.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To describe examples of effective teaching strategies utilized within a required nonprescription therapeutics course, in order to accommodate learning characteristics of Millennials.Case Study: Instructors identified unique characteristics of Millennial generation students through literature review and focused educational workshops. These characteristics include the desire for active learning where didactic lectures make a connection to life, the incorporation of technology, and assignments that focus on team work. Course modifications were then made based on these characteristics including redesign of large group course lectures with incorporation of patient cases, inclusion of a variety of online components including the opportunity to provide course feedback, and active learning small group projects within workshop sections.Evaluation: Student evaluation of the course and instructors significantly improved after introducing changes to the course compared to previous years. Each component of the student evaluation resulted in a statistically significant change in mean score. Verbal and written evaluations indicated a very positive learning experience for students. Grade mean (3.3 vs. 3.8, p<0.001 and range (0.00-4.00 GPA in 2007 vs. 2.00-4.00 GPA in 2008, p <0.001 also improved compared to previous years.Conclusions: By identifying characteristics of Millennial generation student learners, traditional teaching methods can be modified in order to enhance retention of material and optimize their learning process. Course changes improved the learning experience for students and instructors. Instructors’ willingness to evaluate generational differences and adapt teaching enhances the learning experiences in the classroom for both students and instructors.

  6. A Mobile Phone App to Stimulate Daily Physical Activity in Patients with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease : Development, Feasibility, and Pilot Studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vorrink, SNW; Kort, Helianthe Sm; Troosters, Thierry; Lammers, Jan-Willem J

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) demonstrate reduced levels of daily physical activity (DPA) compared to healthy controls. This results in a higher risk of hospital admission and shorter survival. Performing regular DPA reduces these risks. OBJECTIVE: To develop

  7. A mobile phone application to stimulate daily physical activity in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: development, feasibility and pilot studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vorrink, Sigrid N.W.; Kort, Helianthe S.M.; Troosters, Thierry; Lammers, Jan-Willem J.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) demonstrate reduced levels of daily physical activity (DPA) compared to healthy controls. This results in a higher risk of hospital admission and shorter survival. Performing regular DPA reduces these risks. Objective: To develop

  8. A mobile phone application to stimulate daily physical activity in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: development, feasibility and pilot studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thierry Troosters; Dr. H.S.M. Kort; Jan-Willem J. Lammers; Sigrid N.W. Vorrink

    2016-01-01

    Background: Patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) demonstrate reduced levels of daily physical activity (DPA) compared to healthy controls. This results in a higher risk of hospital admission and shorter survival. Performing regular DPA reduces these risks. Objective: To develop

  9. A Mobile Phone App to Stimulate Daily Physical Activity in Patients with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease : Development, Feasibility, and Pilot Studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vorrink, SNW; Kort, Helianthe Sm; Troosters, Thierry; Lammers, Jan-Willem J

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) demonstrate reduced levels of daily physical activity (DPA) compared to healthy controls. This results in a higher risk of hospital admission and shorter survival. Performing regular DPA reduces these risks. OBJECTIVE: To develop

  10. Intern pharmacists as change agents to improve the practice of nonprescription medication supply: provision of salbutamol to patients with asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Carl R; Everett, Alan W; Geelhoed, Elizabeth; Padgett, Cale; Ripley, Scott; Murray, Kevin; Kendall, Peter A; Clifford, Rhonda M

    2010-01-01

    Earlier work established an evidence practice gap during provision of nonprescription salbutamol (albuterol). Pharmacist interns are hypothesized to be in a position to improve professional practice in the community pharmacy setting. To explore the potential of intern pharmacists to improve the professional practice of community pharmacy staff in the provision of nonprescription salbutamol. Intern pharmacists (n = 157) delivered an asthma intervention in 136 pharmacies consisting of an educational activity to pharmacy staff and a health promotion campaign to consumers. Post-intervention, simulated patients presented to 100 intervention and 100 control community pharmacies with a request for salbutamol. The appropriate outcome was medical referral for poor asthma control and correction of poor inhaler technique. Incidence and quantity of patient assessment and counseling provided during the visit were also assessed. Logistic regression was used to determine the predictors of medical referral. A doubling in the rate of medical referral was seen in the intervention group (19% vs 40%; p = 0.001). Assessment of reliever use frequency was the main predictor of medical referral (OR = 22.7; 95% CI 9.06 to 56.9). Correction of poor inhaler technique did not improve; however, a reduction in salbutamol supplied without patient assessment (23% vs 8%; p = 0.009) or counseling (75% vs 48%; p intern pharmacists were able to improve the current practice of community pharmacies yet were unable to establish a new practice behavior. This study provides evidence that intern pharmacists can act as change agents to improve pharmacy practice.

  11. Non-prescription syringe sales in California: a qualitative examination of practices among 12 local health jurisdictions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Valerie J; Backes, Glenn; Martinez, Alexis; McFarland, Willi

    2010-07-01

    Legislation permitting non-prescription syringe sales (NPSS) was passed in 2004 in California as a structural intervention designed to expand access to syringes for injection drug users. As of December 2009, 19 of California's 61 local health jurisdictions (LHJs) have approved policies to authorize pharmacies to sell non-prescription syringes. The legislation faces termination in 2010 if current evaluation efforts fail to demonstrate outcomes defined in the legislation. Using qualitative methods, we examined the systems and procedures associated with implementation; identified facilitators and barriers to implementation among 12 LHJs, and documented the role of public health in initiating and sustaining local programs. We identified consistent activities that led to policy implementation among LHJs and discovered several barriers that were associated with failure to implement local programs. Factors leading to NPSS were public health leadership; an inclusive planning process, marketing the program as a public health initiative; learning from others' efforts, successes, and failures; and identifying acceptable syringe disposal options in advance of program implementation. Health departments that were confronted with political and moral arguments lost momentum and ultimately assigned a lower priority to the initiative citing the loss of powerful public health advocates or a lack of human resources. Additional barriers were law enforcement, elected officials, and pharmacy opposition, and failure to resolve syringe disposal options to the satisfaction of important stakeholders. The lessons learned in this study should provide useful guidance for the remaining LHJs in California without NPSS programs.

  12. A systematic review of health economic models of opioid agonist therapies in maintenance treatment of non-prescription opioid dependence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chetty, Mersha; Kenworthy, James J; Langham, Sue; Walker, Andrew; Dunlop, William C N

    2017-02-24

    Opioid dependence is a chronic condition with substantial health, economic and social costs. The study objective was to conduct a systematic review of published health-economic models of opioid agonist therapy for non-prescription opioid dependence, to review the different modelling approaches identified, and to inform future modelling studies. Literature searches were conducted in March 2015 in eight electronic databases, supplemented by hand-searching reference lists and searches on six National Health Technology Assessment Agency websites. Studies were included if they: investigated populations that were dependent on non-prescription opioids and were receiving opioid agonist or maintenance therapy; compared any pharmacological maintenance intervention with any other maintenance regimen (including placebo or no treatment); and were health-economic models of any type. A total of 18 unique models were included. These used a range of modelling approaches, including Markov models (n = 4), decision tree with Monte Carlo simulations (n = 3), decision analysis (n = 3), dynamic transmission models (n = 3), decision tree (n = 1), cohort simulation (n = 1), Bayesian (n = 1), and Monte Carlo simulations (n = 2). Time horizons ranged from 6 months to lifetime. The most common evaluation was cost-utility analysis reporting cost per quality-adjusted life-year (n = 11), followed by cost-effectiveness analysis (n = 4), budget-impact analysis/cost comparison (n = 2) and cost-benefit analysis (n = 1). Most studies took the healthcare provider's perspective. Only a few models included some wider societal costs, such as productivity loss or costs of drug-related crime, disorder and antisocial behaviour. Costs to individuals and impacts on family and social networks were not included in any model. A relatively small number of studies of varying quality were found. Strengths and weaknesses relating to model structure, inputs and approach were identified across

  13. Non-prescription (OTC) oral analgesics for acute pain - an overview of Cochrane reviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, R Andrew; Wiffen, Philip J; Derry, Sheena; Maguire, Terry; Roy, Yvonne M; Tyrrell, Laila

    2015-11-04

    Non-prescription (over-the-counter, or OTC) analgesics (painkillers) are used frequently. They are available in various brands, package sizes, formulations, and dose. They can be used for a range of different types of pain, but this overview reports on how well they work for acute pain (pain of short duration, usually with rapid onset). Thirty-nine Cochrane reviews of randomised trials have examined the analgesic efficacy of individual drug interventions in acute postoperative pain. To examine published Cochrane reviews for information about the efficacy of pain medicines available without prescription using data from acute postoperative pain. We identified OTC analgesics available in the UK, Australia, Canada, and the USA by examining online pharmacy websites. We also included some analgesics (diclofenac potassium, dexketoprofen, dipyrone) of importance in parts of the world, but not currently available in these jurisdictions.We identified systematic reviews by searching the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews (CDSR) on The Cochrane Library through a simple search strategy. All reviews were overseen by a single review group, had a standard title, and had as their primary outcome numbers of participants with at least 50% pain relief over four to six hours compared with placebo. From individual reviews we extracted the number needed to treat for an additional beneficial outcome (NNT) for this outcome for each drug/dose combination, and also calculated the success rate to achieve at least 50% of maximum pain relief. We also examined the number of participants experiencing any adverse event, and whether the incidence was different from placebo. We found information on 21 different OTC analgesic drugs, doses, and formulations, using information from 10 Cochrane reviews, supplemented by information from one non-Cochrane review with additional information on ibuprofen formulations (high quality evidence). The lowest (best) NNT values were for combinations of

  14. Daily Democracy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larson, Karin; Giro, Francesca; Graham, Todd

    media are fostering a more ‘connected’ and reciprocal relationship between citizens and politicians. Throughout many Western democracies, research points to the in- creasing valorisation of Twitter as an informal, intimate and open space for (ev- eryday) political communication, raising important......, it ignores the communicative mundaneness of daily democracy. This paper accordingly in- vestigates and compares the ways in which members of parliament (MPs) in three European countries – Italy, Sweden and United Kingdom – utilize Twit- ter during off-peak periods, focusing on the extent to which social...... basic patterns of usage. Second, we analyse the types of tweets (e.g. retweet, @-reply); third, their function (e.g. self-promotion, critiquing, requesting input/support); fourth, interaction (whom MPs communicate with). Finally, we examine the content (the political/personal topics tweeted about...

  15. The spatiotemporal association of non-prescription retail sales with cases during the 2009 influenza pandemic in Great Britain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todd, Stacy; Diggle, Peter J; White, Peter J; Fearne, Andrew; Read, Jonathan M

    2014-01-01

    Objective To assess whether retail sales of non-prescription products can be used for syndromic surveillance and whether it can detect influenza activity at different spatial scales. A secondary objective was to assess whether changes in purchasing behaviour were related to public health advice or levels of media or public interest. Setting The UK. Participants National and regional influenza case estimates and retail sales from a major British supermarket. Outcome measures Weekly, seasonally adjusted sales of over-the-counter symptom remedies and non-pharmaceutical products; recommended as part of the advice offered by public health agencies; were compared with weekly influenza case estimates. Comparisons were made at national and regional spatial resolutions. We also compared sales to national measures of contemporaneous media output and public interest (Internet search volume) related to the pandemic. Results At a national scale there was no significant correlation between retail sales of symptom remedies and cases for the whole pandemic period in 2009. At the regional scale, a minority of regions showed statistically significant positive correlations between cases and sales of adult ‘cold and flu’ remedies and cough remedies (3.2%, 5/156, 3.8%, 6/156), but a greater number of regions showed a significant positive correlation between cases and symptomatic remedies for children (35.6%, 55/156). Significant positive correlations between cases and sales of thermometers and antiviral hand gels/wash were seen at both spatial scales (Cor 0.477 (95% CI 0.171 to 0.699); 0.711 (95% CI 0.495 to 0.844)). We found no significant association between retail sales and media reporting or Internet search volume. Conclusions This study provides evidence that the British public responded appropriately to health messaging about hygiene. Non-prescription retail sales at a national level are not useful for the detection of cases. However, at finer spatial scales, in particular

  16. Similarities of Water-soluble Vitamin Components among Non-prescription Pharmaceutical Vitamin Products Generally Available on the Domestic Market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Keiichiro; Kojina, Moeko; Aiba, Tetsuya

    2017-01-01

     Similarities among non-prescription pharmaceutical vitamin products generally available in community pharmacies were examined based on their vitamin components, and a chart was constructed to differentiate products to assist in appropriate product choice. In the analysis of the similarities, two hundred and seventy-six data entries on vitamin products were extracted from the database on the package inserts of the pharmaceutical products provided by the Pharmaceuticals and Medical Devices Agency, and they were reviewed for the amounts of vitamins they contained, in which the B vitamins, or vitamin B1, B2, B6, B12, and niacin, were considered as well as vitamins C and E. Pantothenic acid and L-Cysteine that are frequently used in combination with those vitamins are also taken into consideration. The data entries were then processed by classical multi-dimensional scaling to evaluate the inter-product similarities. As a result, it was shown that the products categorized as pharmaceutical nutrients and tonics containing vitamins (NTcV) are similar to one another, reflecting the fact that they are less characteristic regarding their vitamin components. As for the products in other categories, they were generally found to be featured for their unique content of vitamin components, and thereby, each category includes products with a wide range of variation. It was also indicated that some products categorized as vitamin B1, B2, and C products are less distinguishable from those categorized as NTcV. These findings will assist pharmacists to decide on an appropriate product for a customer following consultation.

  17. Non-prescription dispensing of emergency oral contraceptives: Recommendations from the German Federal Chamber of Pharmacists [Bundesapothekerkammer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schulz M

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Emergency hormonal contraceptives (EHC are contraceptives used to prevent unintended pregnancy following unprotected sexual intercourse (USI or contraceptive failure. The EHCs available without a prescription include medicines containing levonorgestrel (LNG in more than 80 countries and, recently, based on an EU-switch ellaOne®, which contains ulipristal acetate (UPA. EHCs work by stopping or delaying ovulation. Those containing LNG can be used up to 72 hours after USI or contraceptive failure, while UPA can be used up to 120 hours. In the context of the UPA implementation process, Germany switched LNG to non-prescription status as well. Objectives: To develop recommendations, a protocol, and a continuing education program for pharmacists to assure quality when giving advice and dispensing EHCs in community pharmacies without a medical prescription. Methods: The recommendations were developed by an iterative process of drafting, recognizing, and discussing comments and proposals for amendments as well a seeking agreement with a number of stakeholders such as the Federal Ministry of Health (BMG, Federal Institute for Drugs and Medical Devices (BfArM, Federal Chamber of Physicians (BÄK, Drug Commission of German Physicians (AkdÄ, professional organizations/associations of gynaecologists, pharmaceutical OTC-industry as well as government-controlled, private, and church-based organizations and centres providing advice on sex education and family planning. Results: The recommendations were eventually endorsed by the BMG in consultation with the BfArM. Conclusions: The recommendations were made public, published in the professional journal and used in an uncounted number of continuing education programs based on the curriculum and provided by the State Chambers of Pharmacists.

  18. Selecting nonprescription analgesics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Gregory M

    2005-01-01

    Worldwide, there has been an emerging patient demand for access to efficient drugs without consulting a doctor and obtaining a prescription. As a result, there has been an expanding movement of prescription-only drugs to over-the-counter (OTC) status. An increasing number of drugs are becoming available OTC, empowering patients to treat themselves. Where the principle of empowering individuals to treat themselves can fail is when consumers lack the knowledge to do so safely. This potentially applies to the self-selection of analgesic drugs by consumers. When used inappropriately, these drugs pose significant risks. The nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are associated with many adverse reactions, interactions, and contraindications in a number of patient groups, even at OTC doses. In particular, in the elderly, the high incidence of cardiovascular and gastrointestinal disease, coupled with age-related decline in renal function and multiple medication use, all warrant extra caution with the use of NSAIDs and make paracetamol the simple analgesic drug of first choice. Despite the possibility of hepatotoxicity in overdose, paracetamol represents a better all-round option for most patients requiring OTC analgesic therapy.

  19. Daily Weather Records

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These daily weather records were compiled from a subset of stations in the Global Historical Climatological Network (GHCN)-Daily dataset. A weather record is...

  20. MRO SOW Daily Script

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Forest E.; Khanampornpan, Teerapat; Gladden, Roy E.

    2008-01-01

    The MRO SOW daily script (wherein "MRO" signifies "Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter" and "SOW" signifies "sequence systems engineer of the week") is a computer program that automates portions of the MRO daily SOW procedure, which includes checking file-system sizes and automated sequence processor (ASP) log files. The MRO SOW daily script effects clear reporting of (1) the status of, and requirements imposed on, the file system and (2) the ASP log files.

  1. 我国非处方药品广告存在问题分析与对策探讨%Problems Existing in Advertising of Non-Prescription Drugs in Our Country and Countermeasures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢纳泽; 赵辉

    2015-01-01

    目的:为提升我国非处方药药品广告传播效果提供借鉴。方法:从诉求方式、载体选择、传播内容和合法性等方面,分析目前非处方药药品广告存在的主要问题,进行针对性讨论。结果与结论:当前我国非处方药品广告存在诉求方式单一、对终端媒体重视不到位和盲目寻求代言等5个主要问题。建议选择多样化的诉求方式、加强终端药店的宣传、注重企业形象塑造和传播等应对策略,进一步提升我国非处方药广告的传播效果。%Objective:To provide reference for improving advertising communication effect of non-prescription drugs in our country.Methods:From aspects of demand ways, selection of media, contents and legality, the main problems in the current advertising of non-prescription drugs were analyzed and some considerations were made.Results and Conclusion:Five major problems exist in the current advertising status for non-prescription drugs in our country, such as simple demand ways, inefficient emphasis on terminal media and blind appeal for endorsement. It is suggested to carry out four countermeasures including enrichment of demand ways, enhancement of publicity in terminal drug stores, focus on corporate image building and communication, so as to promote the communication effect of advertisement of non-prescription drugs.

  2. DailyMed

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — DailyMed provides high quality information about marketed drugs. This information includes FDA labels (package inserts). This Web site provides health information...

  3. Lightship Daily Observations

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Observations taken on board lightships along the United States coasts from 1936 - 1983. Generally 4-6 observations daily. Also includes deck logs, which give...

  4. DailyMed Webservices

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The DailyMed RESTful API is a web service for accessing current SPL information. It is implemented using HTTP and can be thought of as a collection of resources,...

  5. Daily Weather Maps

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Several different government offices have published the Daily weather maps over its history. The publication has also gone by different names over time. The U.S....

  6. Dementia - daily care

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000030.htm Dementia - daily care To use the sharing features on ... prevent choking. Tips for Talking With Someone With Dementia Keep distractions and noise down: Turn off the ...

  7. Chronic daily headaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fayyaz Ahmed

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Chronic Daily Headache is a descriptive term that includes disorders with headaches on more days than not and affects 4% of the general population. The condition has a debilitating effect on individuals and society through direct cost to healthcare and indirectly to the economy in general. To successfully manage chronic daily headache syndromes it is important to exclude secondary causes with comprehensive history and relevant investigations; identify risk factors that predict its development and recognise its sub-types to appropriately manage the condition. Chronic migraine, chronic tension-type headache, new daily persistent headache and medication overuse headache accounts for the vast majority of chronic daily headaches. The scope of this article is to review the primary headache disorders. Secondary headaches are not discussed except medication overuse headache that often accompanies primary headache disorders. The article critically reviews the literature on the current understanding of daily headache disorders focusing in particular on recent developments in the treatment of frequent headaches.

  8. Global Historical Climatology Network - Daily (GHCN-Daily), Version 3

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Global Historical Climatology Network - Daily (GHCN-Daily) dataset integrates daily climate observations from approximately 30 different data sources. Version 3...

  9. Toothbrushing: Do It Daily.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Texas Child Care, 1993

    1993-01-01

    Offers a practical guide for promoting daily toothbrushing in young children. Discusses the importance of proper dental care, explains the causes of tooth decay, describes proper dental care for infants and young children, recommends materials and teaching methods, and discusses visits to the dentist and the benefits of fluoride for dental health.…

  10. Making Daily Mobility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Ole B.; Wind, Simon

    , social networks, understanding of places and ultimately ourselves and others. To successfully accomplish everyday life, households have to cope with large number of different activities and mobility in relation to their children, work, social life, obligations, expectations, needs and wishes. Drawing...... practice configurations. The paper draws on empirical material collected from the project ‘Analysis of activity-based travel chains and sustainable mobility’ (ACTUM WP2), consisting of qualitative semi-structured interviews with 45 respondents in 11 children families spread across the Greater Copenhagen...... accomplishing daily life. The study also shows that practices need constant maintenance as they are continuously de-stabilised by changing conditions and situations. This careful and competent work involved in the maintenance and adjustment of daily practices is done in relation to the household member...

  11. Making Daily Mobility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Ole B.; Wind, Simon

    ’s normative and affective orientation towards daily mobility, spanning from being a ‘waste of time’ to being a ‘meaningful’ activity. For instance, besides fulfilling a practical purpose, mobility practices are often ‘mobile-with’ constellations of synchronised, however temporal, movement and thus household......In 2012 the average daily transportation distance for every Dane were 40 km (TU Data). Realising how much of life is spend thinking about, planning and performing mobility practices it becomes evident that it is much more than an instrumental physical phenomenon – it has great repercussions on life......, social networks, understanding of places and ultimately ourselves and others. To successfully accomplish everyday life, households have to cope with large number of different activities and mobility in relation to their children, work, social life, obligations, expectations, needs and wishes. Drawing...

  12. Nonprescription steroids on the Internet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clement, Christen L; Marlowe, Douglas B; Patapis, Nicholas S; Festinger, David S; Forman, Robert F

    2012-02-01

    This study evaluated the degree to which anabolic-androgenic steroids are proffered for sale over the Internet and how they are characterized on popular Web sites. Searches for specific steroid product labels (e.g., Dianabol) between March 2006 and June 2006 revealed that approximately half of the Web sites advocated their "safe" use, and roughly one third offered to sell them without prescriptions. The Web sites frequently presented misinformation about steroids and minimized their dangers. Less than 5% of the Web sites presented accurate health risk information about steroids or provided information to abusers seeking to discontinue their steroid use. Implications for education, prevention, treatment, and policy are discussed.

  13. Daily sperm production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kyjovska, Zdenka Orabi; Boisen, Anne Mette Zenner; Jackson, Petra

    2013-01-01

    instillation with Printex90. Body and testicle weight, sperm content per g testicular parenchyma and daily sperm production (DSP) were assessed. The protocol for assessment of DSP was optimized for application in mice (C57BL/6J) and the influence of different parameters was studied. Maternal particulate...... exposure did not affect DSP statistically significantly in the F1 generation, although TiO2 tended to reduce sperm counts. Overall, time-to-first F2 litter increased with decreasing sperm production. There was no effect on sperm production in the F2 generation originating after TiO2 exposure. F2 offspring......, whose fathers were prenatally exposed to Printex90, showed lowered sperm production. Furthermore, we report statistically significant differences in sperm production between mouse strains....

  14. New daily persistent headache

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alok Tyagi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available New daily persistent headache (NDPH is a chronic headache developing in a person who does not have a past history of headaches. The headache begins acutely and reaches its peak within 3 days. It is important to exclude secondary causes, particularly headaches due to alterations in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF pressure and volume. A significant proportion of NDPH sufferers may have intractable headaches that are refractory to treatment. The condition is best viewed as a syndrome rather than a diagnosis. The headache can mimic chronic migraine and chronic tension-type headache, and it is also important to exclude secondary causes, particularly headaches due to alterations in CSF pressure and volume. A large proportion of NDPH sufferers have migrainous features to their headache and should be managed with treatments used for treating migraine. A small group of NDPH sufferers may have intractable headaches that are refractory to treatment.

  15. Physics in daily life

    CERN Document Server

    Hermans, Jo

    2012-01-01

    This book provides answers to everyday questions that any curious mind would ask, like : Why is water blue ? What makes ice so slippery ? How do we localize sound ? How do we keep our body temperature so nice and constant ? How do we survive the sauna at 90 C ? Why do large raindrops fall faster than small ones, and what exactly is their speed ? The answers are given in an accessible and playful way, and are illustrated with funny cartoons. In this book forty "Physics in Daily Life" columns, which appeared earlier in Europhysics News, are brought together in one inspiring volume. As well as being a source of enjoyment and satisfying insights for anyone with some physics background, it also serves as a very good teaching tool for science students. This booklet is a feast of erudition and humour.

  16. Edificio Daily Mirror

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Williams, Owen

    1963-07-01

    Full Text Available The building has 18 levels. The Press occupies the 4 basement floors. The ground floor is taken up with the entrance hall, and an indoor carriage way. A snack bar and the telephone operators are situated on the second floor. The production department and the medical services are located on the third storey, whilst the fourth is occupied by the offices and library. The fifth floor is the beginning of the higher section of the building. This floor and up to including the 11th floor are devoted to office space, except for the 10th storey, which contains the office apartments of the directors and the Council Chamber. Equipment related to various services of the building is housed on the 12th storey. Finally, this tall building constitutes a fine landmark in the London skyline. The Daily Mirror building is outstanding for the appropriate nature, the completeness and the quality of its installations, which thus provide the most widely read paper in the world with outstandingly efficient offices.Este edificio consta de 18 plantas. El cuerpo de Prensa se aloja en los cuatro sótanos; los vestíbulos de entrada y una calzada interior para vehículos se hallan en la planta baja; la primera alberga un snack-bar y centralita telefónica; la segunda, el departamento de producción y centro de asistencia médica, y la tercera, las oficinas y biblioteca principales. La cuarta planta señala el comienzo del bloque alto; esta planta, junto con las quinta, sexta, séptima, octava y décima, están dedicadas a oficinas. La novena contiene las oficinas-apartamentos de los directores y salas de Consejo, y la undécima, la maquinaria para las diversas instalaciones del edificio. La elevada torre constituye un grandioso hito de referencia en esta zona de Londres. El «Daily Mirror» se distingue por el acierto, número y perfección de sus instalaciones, que proporcionan, al periódico de mayor actualidad mundial, las más adecuadas y amplias oficinas modernas.

  17. Neuromuscular electrical stimulation for skeletal muscle function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doucet, Barbara M; Lam, Amy; Griffin, Lisa

    2012-06-01

    Lack of neural innervation due to neurological damage renders muscle unable to produce force. Use of electrical stimulation is a medium in which investigators have tried to find a way to restore movement and the ability to perform activities of daily living. Different methods of applying electrical current to modify neuromuscular activity are electrical stimulation (ES), neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES), transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS), and functional electrical stimulation (FES). This review covers the aspects of electrical stimulation used for rehabilitation and functional purposes. Discussed are the various parameters of electrical stimulation, including frequency, pulse width/duration, duty cycle, intensity/amplitude, ramp time, pulse pattern, program duration, program frequency, and muscle group activated, and how they affect fatigue in the stimulated muscle.

  18. Growth Stimulants

    OpenAIRE

    Matthews, Nyle J.

    1989-01-01

    A tiny pellet inserted under the skin of a calf's ear may increase weight gains as much as 15 to 20 percent. This same result would take years to accomplish through breeding and selection. These tiny pellets are growth stimulants. They are made of hormones that are constructed to slowly release minute amounts into the blood stream that stimulate the animal to produce natural body hormones. One of these hormones is a growth hormone. It regulates the rate of growth of the animal. Increasing the...

  19. Logistiline Daily Service / Paavo Kangur

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kangur, Paavo, 1966-

    2005-01-01

    Sügisel ostis Leedu endise majandusministri Valetntinas Milaknise firma Daily Service ära kõik bürootarvetemüüja Reval Impexi aktsiad. 300 miljoni kroonise aastakäibega firma Eesti tütarettevõte prognoosib oma tänavuseks käibeks 31,2 miljonit krooni. Lisa: Daily Service'i struktuur

  20. Logistiline Daily Service / Paavo Kangur

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kangur, Paavo, 1966-

    2005-01-01

    Sügisel ostis Leedu endise majandusministri Valetntinas Milaknise firma Daily Service ära kõik bürootarvetemüüja Reval Impexi aktsiad. 300 miljoni kroonise aastakäibega firma Eesti tütarettevõte prognoosib oma tänavuseks käibeks 31,2 miljonit krooni. Lisa: Daily Service'i struktuur

  1. A daily diary study on ambidextrous leadership and self-reported employee innovation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zacher, Hannes; Wilden, Ruth G.

    2014-01-01

    Ambidextrous leadership involves a combination of behaviours that stimulate employee exploration (opening behaviour') and behaviours that facilitate exploitation of ideas (closing behaviour'). We hypothesized that the interaction between leaders' daily opening and closing behaviours (i.e.,

  2. Outgoing Longwave Radiation Daily Climate Data Record (OLR Daily CDR)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The product contains the 1-degree by 1-degree daily mean outgoing longwave radiation flux at the top of the atmosphere derived from HIRS radiance observations...

  3. Daily and Sub-daily Precipitation for the Former USSR

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset is a compilation of in situ daily and hourly meteorological observations for the former USSR initially obtained within the framework of several joint...

  4. 低频重复经颅磁刺激治疗对卒中后抑郁患者认知和日常生活能力的影响%Effects of Low-frequency Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation on Cognitive Function and Daily Life Ability in Patients with Post Stroke Depression

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李克娇

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To explore the effects of low-frequency repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (r-TMS) on cognitive function and daily life ability of patients with post stroke depression (PSD). Methods: One-hundred and twenty-eight patients with PSD and mild cognitive impairment were enrolled and randomly divided into control group and r-TMS group with 64 cases in each group. Foundation treatment such as nerve nutrition, dilate blood ves-sels, early limb function rehabilitation, psychological counseling and antidepressant treatment were implemented in the control group. Cases in r-TMS group were treated with low-frequency r-TMS on the basis of foundation treat-ment for 8 weeks. The degree of depression were evaluated by using Hamilton depression scale (HAMD)-17; the cognitive function were evaluated by using mini-mental state examination (MMSE), and daily life ability were eval-uated by using Barthel index (BI) before and 4 and 8 weeks after treatment in two groups. Results: There were no difference in HAMD and MMSE scores and BI between two the groups (P>0.05) before treatment. After treatment, both groups showed lower HAMD scores as well as higher MMSE scores and BI than those before treatment (P<0.05). The scores of HAMD, MMSE and BI were improved more significantly in r-TMS group than those in control group (P<0.05 or 0.01). No serious adverse event was found in r-TMS group. Conclusion: Low-frequency r-TMS is an effective and safe therapy for patients with PSD, which can relieve depression and improve the cognitive func-tion and daily life ability.%目的:探讨低频重复经颅磁刺激(rTMS)治疗对卒中后抑郁(PSD)患者认知和日常生活能力的影响。方法:PSD 伴轻度认知障碍患者128例随机分为对照组和 r-TMS 组,各64例。对照组给予常规药物治疗及早期肢体功能康复、心理疏导和抗抑郁治疗;r-TMS 组在对照组治疗基础上加用低频 r-TMS 治疗。疗程均为8周。

  5. Lightship Daily Observations - NARA Collection

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Observations taken on board lightships along the United States coasts from 1893 - 1943. Generally 4-6 observations daily. Also includes deck logs, which give...

  6. The patient with daily headaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maizels, Morris

    2004-12-15

    The term "chronic daily headache" (CDH) describes a variety of headache types, of which chronic migraine is the most common. Daily headaches often are disabling and may be challenging to diagnose and treat. Medication overuse, or drug rebound headache, is the most treatable cause of refractory daily headache. A pathologic underlying cause should be considered in patients with recent-onset daily headache, a change from a previous headache pattern, or associated neurologic or systemic symptoms. Treatment of CDH focuses on reduction of headache triggers and use of preventive medication, most commonly anti-depressants, antiepileptic drugs, and beta blockers. Medication overuse must be treated with discontinuation of symptomatic medicines, a transitional therapy, and long-term prophylaxis. Anxiety and depression are common in patients with CDH and should be identified and treated. Although the condition is challenging, appropriate treatment of patients with CDH can bring about significant improvement in the patient's quality-of-life.

  7. Allegheny County Jail Daily Census

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — A daily census of the inmates at the Allegheny County Jail (ACJ). Includes gender, race, age at booking, and current age. The records for each month contain a...

  8. Human error in daily intensive nursing care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabrina da Costa Machado Duarte

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: to identify the errors in daily intensive nursing care and analyze them according to the theory of human error. Method: quantitative, descriptive and exploratory study, undertaken at the Intensive Care Center of a hospital in the Brazilian Sentinel Hospital Network. The participants were 36 professionals from the nursing team. The data were collected through semistructured interviews, observation and lexical analysis in the software ALCESTE(r. Results: human error in nursing care can be related to the approach of the system, through active faults and latent conditions. The active faults are represented by the errors in medication administration and not raising the bedside rails. The latent conditions can be related to the communication difficulties in the multiprofessional team, lack of standards and institutional routines and absence of material resources. Conclusion: the errors identified interfere in nursing care and the clients' recovery and can cause damage. Nevertheless, they are treated as common events inherent in daily practice. The need to acknowledge these events is emphasized, stimulating the safety culture at the institution.

  9. 经颅磁刺激术联合康复训练对脑性瘫痪患儿日常精细动作及认知功能发育的影响%Effects of Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation Combined With Rehabilitation Therapy on the Daily Fine Motor and Cognitive Development of Cerebral Palsy Children

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李新剑; 宋伟; 仇爱珍; 金鑫; 王雨晴; 李之林; 杨忠秀

    2016-01-01

    (P < 0. 05). Conclusion Transcranial magnetic stimulation combined with rehabilitation training has positive clinic effects on the daily fine motors and cognitive development of the cerebral palsy children. It is easy and safe to be implemented.

  10. Effects of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation on post-stroke depression, sleep quality and activities of daily living%重复经颅磁刺激对脑卒中后抑郁患者抑郁情绪、睡眠障碍及日常生活活动能力的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何予工; 李鹏

    2015-01-01

    目的 探讨重复经颅磁刺激(rTMS)对脑卒中后抑郁(PSD)患者抑郁情绪、睡眠障碍及日常生活活动(ADL)能力的影响.方法 选取PSD患者90例,按随机数字表法将其分为对照组、治疗组和联合治疗组,每组30例.3组患者均给予基础治疗及综合康复训练,对照组在此基础上给予艾司西酞普兰治疗,治疗组给予rTMS治疗,联合治疗组在对照组基础上辅以rTMS治疗,疗程8周.治疗前及治疗8周后(治疗后),采用汉密尔顿抑郁量表(HAMD)、匹斯堡睡眠质量指数量表(PSQI)、中国脑卒中量表(CSS)及改良Barthel指数(MBI)对患者的抑郁情绪、睡眠质量、神经功能缺损情况及ADL能力进行评定.结果 治疗前,3组患者HAMD、CSS、PSQI、MBI评分之间比较.差异无统计学意义(P>0.05).治疗8周后(治疗后),3组患者HAMD评分、PSQI评分、CSS评分均较治疗前明显下降(P<0.05),MBI评分较治疗前明显增高(P<0.05).与对照组治疗后比较,治疗组及联合治疗组治疗后HAMD、CSS、PSQI、MBI评分均无显著变化,差异无统计学意义(P>0.05).与联合治疗组治疗后比较,治疗组治疗后HAMD[(9.76±4.59)分]、CSS[(7.65±2.35)分]、PSQI[(16.13 ±4.12)分]、MBI评分[(52.6l±9.26)分]无显著变化,差异无统计学意义(P>0.05).结论 rTMS可显著改善PSD患者的抑郁症状、睡眠障碍及神经功能缺损状况,有效提高其ADL能力.%Objective To explore the effects of repetitive transcraninal magnetic stimulation (rTMS) on depression,sleep disorder and activities of daily life (ADL) in post-stroke depression (PSD) patients.Methods A total of 90 PSD patients were divided into a control group,a treatment group and a combined treatment group according to a random number table,30 cases in each group.All patients were given basic treatment and comprehensive rehabilitation training.Moreover,the control group was additionally received escitalopram treatment,the treatment group r

  11. On polar daily geomagnetic variation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola De Michelis

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work is to investigate the nature of the daily magnetic field perturbations produced by ionospheric and magnetospheric currents at high latitudes. We analyse the hourly means of the X and Y geomagnetic field components recorded by a meridian chain of permanent geomagnetic observatories in the polar region of the Northern Hemisphere during a period of four years (1995-1998 around the solar minimum. We apply a mathematical method, known as natural orthogonal component (NOC, which is capable of characterizing the dominant modes of the geomagnetic field daily variability through a set of empirical orthogonal functions (EOFs. Using the first two modes we reconstruct a two-dimensional equivalent current representation of the ionospheric electric currents, which contribute substantially to the geomagnetic daily variations. The obtained current structures resemble the equivalent current patterns of DP2 and DP1. We characterize these currents by studying their evolution with the geomagnetic activity level and by analysing their dependence on the interplanetary magnetic field. The obtained results support the idea of a coexistence of two main processes during all analysed period although one of them, the directly driven process, represents the dominant component of the geomagnetic daily variation.

  12. Tractor Operation and Daily Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fore, J. M.; And Others

    Written for the tractor operator, the manual describes, with the aid of colored illustrations and diagrams, the tasks involved in the proper operation and daily maintenance of tractors. It offers explanations for the desirability of the various servicing and adjustment operations, as well as guidelines for tractor operation and safety. The…

  13. Daily practices, consumption and citizenship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzarino, Jane M; Morigi, Valdir J; Kaufmann, Cristine; Farias, Alessandra M B; Fernandes, Diefersom A

    2011-12-01

    This paper promotes a reflection on the relationship between daily practices and consumption. Understanding how conflicts, resistance and consensus are generated from daily consumption practices opens up possibilities for reflecting on the construction of sustainability in the context of diversity, one of the landmarks of the globalized world. Within this socio-cultural context, the central issue is: can consumption generate citizenship practices? The concepts of subject and agent help one think about collective action and subjectivation processes and their interferences on the collective consuming behavior. Based on empirical data from a research carried out in the municipality of Estrela in 2007, in the Taquari Valley - Rio Grande do Sul (Southern Brazil) on local reality consumption practices, it was possible to conclude that various reasoning mechanisms and values underlie the daily consumption practices. Citizenship construction, based on consumption practices, depends on the subject's reflection capacity on his/her daily practices or on what goes through the circulation of environmental information based on sociability spaces.

  14. Digital Daily Cycles of Individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Talayeh eAledavood

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Humans, like almost all animals, are phase-locked to the diurnal cycle. Most of us sleep at night and are active through the day. Because we have evolved to function with this cycle, the circadian rhythm is deeply ingrained and even detectable at the biochemical level. However, within the broader day-night pattern, there are individual differences: e.g., some of us are intrinsically morning-active, while others prefer evenings. In this article, we look at digital daily cycles: circadian patterns of activity viewed through the lens of auto-recorded data of communication and online activity. We begin at the aggregate level, discuss earlier results, and illustrate differences between population-level daily rhythms in different media. Then we move on to the individual level, and show that there is a strong individual-level variation beyond averages: individuals typically have their distinctive daily pattern that persists in time. We conclude by discussing the driving forces behind these signature daily patterns, from personal traits (morningness/eveningness to variation in activity level and external constraints, and outline possibilities for future research.

  15. Observability of market daily volatility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petroni, Filippo; Serva, Maurizio

    2016-02-01

    We study the price dynamics of 65 stocks from the Dow Jones Composite Average from 1973 to 2014. We show that it is possible to define a Daily Market Volatility σ(t) which is directly observable from data. This quantity is usually indirectly defined by r(t) = σ(t) ω(t) where the r(t) are the daily returns of the market index and the ω(t) are i.i.d. random variables with vanishing average and unitary variance. The relation r(t) = σ(t) ω(t) alone is unable to give an operative definition of the index volatility, which remains unobservable. On the contrary, we show that using the whole information available in the market, the index volatility can be operatively defined and detected.

  16. Dayak and Their Daily Life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Darmadi

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This article titled "Dayak and Daily Life" This paper aims to reveal the Dayak and in their daily life. Dayak is a native of Borneo has its own characteristics. Dayak, divided into 405 sub-sub clans [1]. Each sub Dayak both Indonesia and Malaysia are identical. Dayak customs and culture comes from the word "Power" which means upstream, to refer to people who live in inland areas or in the interior of Borneo. In the arsenal of art and culture, Dayak has many similarities such as; saber, chopsticks, beliong, betang, cupai, renjung, empajang and others. Dayak indigenous religion is Kaharingan which is the original religion born of the cultural ancestors of the Dayaks. Most of the Dayak people still adhere to the belief of the existence of unseen objects in certain places such as rocks, large trees, planting gardens in the forest, lakes, pools, and others are believed to have "magical powers". Daily life of the Dayaks in general farming, farming. When will open farming land, farming they held ritual.

  17. 50 CFR 20.24 - Daily limit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Daily limit. 20.24 Section 20.24 Wildlife... (CONTINUED) MIGRATORY BIRD HUNTING Taking § 20.24 Daily limit. No person shall take in any 1 calendar day, more than the daily bag limit or aggregate daily bag limit, whichever applies....

  18. Repetitive electric brain stimulation reduces food intake in humans

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jauch-Chara, Kamila; Kistenmacher, Alina; Herzog, Nina; Schwarz, Marianka; Schweiger, Ulrich; Oltmanns, Kerstin M

    2014-01-01

    ...)) from 20 to 25 were examined during 8 d of daily tDCS or a sham stimulation. After tDCS or sham stimulation on the first and the last day of both experimental conditions, participants consumed food ad libitum from a standardized test buffet...

  19. Vagus Nerve Stimulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vagus nerve stimulation Overview By Mayo Clinic Staff Vagus nerve stimulation is a procedure that involves implantation of a device that stimulates the vagus nerve with electrical impulses. There's one vagus nerve on ...

  20. Managing Hypertriglyceridemia in Daily Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pramono, Laurentius A; Harbuwono, Dante S

    2015-07-01

    Hypertriglyceridemia is a form of dyslipidemia, which usually occurs in combination with hypercholesterolemia, high-LDL or low-HDL cholesterol level. Most studies suggest that hypertriglyceridemia is associated with many metabolic disorders such as metabolic syndrome, diabetes, obesity, and also cardio-cerebrovascular diseases. Treatment of hypertriglyceridemia is often not comprehensively addressed by many physicians, who usually only include prescribing drugs without encouraging patients to perform physical activity, to take a true healthy diet for dyslipidemia and to stop smoking. This review article discusses evaluation, diagnosis and a comprehensive, yet simple management of hypertriglyceridemia, which can be easily applied in daily clinical practice.

  1. Daily practices, consumption and citizenship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jane M. Mazzarino

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper promotes a reflection on the relationship between daily practices and consumption. Understanding how conflicts, resistance and consensus are generated from daily consumption practices opens up possibilities for reflecting on the construction of sustainability in the context of diversity, one of the landmarks of the globalized world. Within this socio-cultural context, the central issue is: can consumption generate citizenship practices? The concepts of subject and agent help one think about collective action and subjectivation processes and their interferences on the collective consuming behavior. Based on empirical data from a research carried out in the municipality of Estrela in 2007, in the Taquari Valley - Rio Grande do Sul (Southern Brazil on local reality consumption practices, it was possible to conclude that various reasoning mechanisms and values underlie the daily consumption practices. Citizenship construction, based on consumption practices, depends on the subject's reflection capacity on his/her daily practices or on what goes through the circulation of environmental information based on sociability spaces.O artigo reflete sobre as relações entre as práticas cotidianas e o consumo. Compreender como se geram os conflitos, as resistências e os consensos a partir das práticas de consumo no cotidiano abre possibilidades para refletir sobre a construção da sustentabilidade no contexto de diversidade, uma das marcas do mundo globalizado. Neste contexto sociocultural, a questão central que surge é: o consumo pode gerar práticas de cidadania? As noções de sujeito e de agente ajudam a pensar a ação coletiva e os processos de subjetivação e suas interferências no comportamento coletivo de consumir. A partir de dados empíricos da pesquisa realizada em 2007 no município de Estrela, na região do Vale do Taquari - RS (Sul do Brasil, sobre práticas de consumo de uma realidade local, foi possível concluir que

  2. Digital daily cycles of individuals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aledavood, Talayeh; Jørgensen, Sune Lehmann; Saramäki, Jari

    2015-01-01

    Humans, like almost all animals, are phase-locked to the diurnal cycle. Most of us sleep at night and are active through the day. Because we have evolved to function with this cycle, the circadian rhythm is deeply ingrained and even detectable at the biochemical level. However, within the broader...... day-night pattern, there are individual differences: e.g., some of us are intrinsically morning-active, while others prefer evenings. In this article, we look at digital daily cycles: circadian patterns of activity viewed through the lens of auto-recorded data of communication and online activity. We...

  3. Phosphorus balance with daily dialysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kooienga, Laura

    2007-01-01

    Hyperphosphatemia is an almost universal finding in patients with end-stage renal disease and is associated with increased all-cause mortality, cardiovascular mortality, and vascular calcification. These associations have raised the question of whether reducing phosphorus levels could result in improved survival. In light of the recent findings that increased per-session dialysis dose, as assessed by urea kinetics, did not result in improved survival, the definition of adequacy of dialysis should be re-evaluated and consideration given to alternative markers. Two alternatives to conventional thrice weekly dialysis (CHD) are nocturnal hemodialysis (NHD) and short daily hemodialysis (SDHD). The elimination kinetics of phosphorus as they relate to these alternative daily dialysis schedules and the clinical implications of overall phosphorus balance are discussed here. The total weekly phosphorus removal with NHD is more than twice that removed by CHD (4985 mg/week +/- 1827 mg vs. 2347 mg/week +/- 697 mg) and this is associated with a significantly lower average serum phosphorous (4.0 mg/dl vs. 6.5 mg/dl). In spite of the observed increase in protein and phosphorus intake seen in patients on SDHD, phosphate binder requirements and serum phosphorus levels are generally stable to decrease although this effect is strongly dependent on the frequency and overall treatment time.

  4. Chronic Daily Headache - A Reappraisal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chakravarty A

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Chronic Daily Headache (CDH generally refers to frequent headache occuring more than 15 days/month for over three months. Such headaches may be primary or secondary - the latter referring to headaches related to identifiable intra and extracranial vascular or other pathologies or systemic illnesses. The primary type may be subclassified as short and long lasting ones, depending upon whether the headache spells are more or less than four hours in duration. The present review would deal with the four major types of long lasting primary CDH which include Chronic migraine (CM, Chronic tension type headache (CTTH, New daily persistent headache (NDPH and Hemicrania continua (HC. The first part of the article would focus on the clinical pattern recognising features of these types. The relationship of medication overuse to CM would be critically evaluated. In the second part, the status of CDH in the recently proposed classification of headache disorders by the International Headache Society would be briefly evaluated. In the next section the clinical Profile or CDH in Indian patients would be highlighted based on available published data. Lastly, the pathophysiology of this vexing condition would be discussed specially in relation to CM and postulating on how it may evolve from episodic migraine.

  5. Intent to Quit among Daily and Non-Daily College Student Smokers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinsker, E. A.; Berg, C. J.; Nehl, E. J.; Prokhorov, A. V.; Buchanan, T. S.; Ahluwalia, J. S.

    2013-01-01

    Given the high prevalence of young adult smoking, we examined (i) psychosocial factors and substance use among college students representing five smoking patterns and histories [non-smokers, quitters, native non-daily smokers (i.e. never daily smokers), converted non-daily smokers (i.e. former daily smokers) and daily smokers] and (ii) smoking…

  6. Managing Hypertriglyceridemia in Daily Practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurentius A Pramono

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Hypertriglyceridemia is a form of dyslipidemia, which usually occurs in combination with hypercholesterolemia, high-LDL or low-HDL cholesterol level. Most studies suggest that hypertriglyceridemia is associated with many metabolic disorders such as metabolic syndrome, diabetes, obesity, and also cardio-cerebrovascular diseases. Treatment of  hypertriglyceridemia is often not comprehensively addressed by many physicians, who usually only include prescribing drugs without encouraging patients to perform physical activity, to take a true healthy diet for dyslipidemia and to stop smoking. This review article discusses evaluation, diagnosis and a comprehensive, yet simple management of hypertriglyceridemia, which can be easily pplied in daily clinical practice. Key words: hypertriglyceridemia, dyslipidemia, management, clinical guidelines.

  7. Recreating Daily life in Pompeii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadia Magnenat-Thalmann

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available We propose an integrated Mixed Reality methodology for recreating ancient daily life that features realistic simulations of animated virtual human actors (clothes, body, skin, face who augment real environments and re-enact staged storytelling dramas. We aim to go further from traditional concepts of static cultural artifacts or rigid geometrical and 2D textual augmentations and allow for 3D, interactive, augmented historical character-based event representations in a mobile and wearable setup. This is the main contribution of the described work as well as the proposed extensions to AR Enabling technologies: a VR/AR character simulation kernel framework with real-time, clothed virtual humans that are dynamically superimposed on live camera input, animated and acting based on a predefined, historically correct scenario. We demonstrate such a real-time case study on the actual site of ancient Pompeii.

  8. Daily Occupations among asylum seekers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morville, Anne-Le

    2014-01-01

    which might even influence their identity. Such deprivation can eventually lead to dissatisfaction with everyday life and to occupational dysfunction, i.e. a decline in ADL ability. Asylum seekers are a group who are more likely to suffer from health problems than the background population. Especially...... occupations on three levels – the experience of occupational deprivation, satisfaction with daily occupations and performance of ADL tasks – and whether occupational satisfaction and performance changed over a ten-month period. As there are often torture survivors among asylum seekers, another aim...... was to assess whether torture had an influence on the occupational satisfaction and performance, and whether this had changed after ten-months. Forty-three asylum seekers from Afghanistan, Iran and Syria participated at baseline and ten months later 17 were available for inclusion in follow-up studies. Study I...

  9. Daily Medicine Record for Your Child

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the-Counter Pain Relievers and Fever Reducers Daily Medicine Record for Your Child (English) Share Tweet Linkedin ... Age: ____ 2 years old___ Weight: ___ 30 pounds ___ Daily Medicine Record Child’s name: ___________________ Today’s date: _________________ Age: ____________ Weight: ________________ (pounds) ...

  10. CDC WONDER: Daily Fine Particulate Matter

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Daily Fine Particulate Matter data available on CDC WONDER are geographically aggregated daily measures of fine particulate matter in the outdoor air, spanning...

  11. Global Daily Climatology Network: Kazakhstan subset

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset is a compilation of in situ daily meteorological observations for Kazakhstan within the framework of joint efforts to create Global Daily Climatology...

  12. CDC WONDER: Daily Fine Particulate Matter

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Daily Fine Particulate Matter data available on CDC WONDER are geographically aggregated daily measures of fine particulate matter in the outdoor air, spanning...

  13. Skeletal Adaptation to Daily Activity: A Biochemical Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whalen, Robert T.; Dalton, Bonnie (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Musculoskeletal forces generated by normal daily activity on Earth maintain the functional and structural properties of muscle and bone throughout most of one's adult life. A reduction in the level of cumulative daily loading caused by space flight, bed rest or spinal cord injury induces rapid muscle atrophy, functional changes in muscle, and bone resorption in regions subjected to the reduced loading. Bone cells in culture and bone tissue reportedly respond to a wide variety of non-mechanical and mechanical stimuli ranging, from electromagnetic fields, and hormones to small amplitude, high frequency vibrations, fluid flow, strain rate, and stress/strain magnitude. However, neither the transduction mechanism that transforms the mechanical input into a muscle or bone metabolic response nor the characteristics, of the loading history that directly or indirectly stimulates the cell is known. Identifying the factors contributing to the input stimulus will have a major impact on the design of effective countermeasures for long duration space flight. This talk will present a brief overview of current theories of bone remodeling and functional adaptation to mechanical loading. Work from our lab will be presented from the perspective of daily cumulative loading on Earth and its relationship to bone density and structure. Our objective is to use the tibia and calcaneus as model bone sites of cortical and cancellous bone adaptation, loaded daily by musculoskeletal forces in equilibrium with the ground reaction force. All materials that will be discussed are in the open scientific literature.

  14. Improving on daily measures of price discovery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dias, Gustavo Fruet; Fernandes, Marcelo; Scherrer, Cristina

    We formulate a continuous-time price discovery model in which the price discovery measure varies (stochastically) at daily frequency. We estimate daily measures of price discovery using a kernel-based OLS estimator instead of running separate daily VECM regressions as standard in the literature. ...

  15. Functional electrical stimulation with surface electrodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bajd Tadej

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The review investigates the objective evidences of benefits derived from surface functional electrical stimulation (FES of lower and upper extremities for people after incomplete spinal cord injury (SCI and stroke. FES can offer noticeable benefits in walking ability. It can be efficiently combined with treadmill and body weight support. Voluntary muscle strength and endurance gain can be achieved through FES assisted gait training together with increased gait velocity in absence of electrical stimulator. Cyclic FES, FES augmented by biofeedback, and FES used in various daily activities can result in substantial improvements of the voluntary control of upper extremities.

  16. Neuroethics of deep brain stimulation for mental disorders: brain stimulation reward in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oshima, Hideki; Katayama, Yoichi

    2010-01-01

    The theoretical basis of some deep brain stimulation (DBS) trials undertaken in the early years was the phenomenon of "brain stimulation reward (BSR)," which was first identified in rats. The animals appeared to be rewarded by pleasure caused by the stimulation of certain brain regions (reward system), such as the septal area. "Self-stimulation" experiments, in which rats were allowed to stimulate their own brain by pressing a freely accessible lever, they quickly learned lever pressing and sometimes continued to stimulate until they exhausted themselves. BSR was also observed with DBS of the septal area in humans. DBS trials in later years were undertaken on other theoretical bases, but unexpected BSR was sometimes induced by stimulation of some areas, such as the locus coeruleus complex. When BSR was induced, the subjects experienced feelings that were described as "cheerful," "alert," "good," "well-being," "comfort," "relaxation," "joy," or "satisfaction." Since the DBS procedure is equivalent to a "self-stimulation" experiment, they could become "addicted to the stimulation itself" or "compulsive about the stimulation," and stimulate themselves "for the entire day," "at maximum amplitude" and, in some instances, "into convulsions." DBS of the reward system has recently been applied to alleviate anhedonia in patients with refractory major depression. Although this approach appears promising, there remains a difficult problem: who can adjust their feelings and reward-oriented behavior within the normal range? With a self-stimulation procedure, the BSR may become uncontrollable. To develop DBS to the level of a standard therapy for mental disorders, we need to discuss "Who has the right to control the mental condition?" and "Who makes decisions" on "How much control is appropriate?" in daily life.

  17. Brain Stimulation Therapies

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is preferred by many doctors, patients and families. Vagus Nerve Stimulation Vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) works through a device implanted under ... skin that sends electrical pulses through the left vagus nerve, half of a prominent pair of nerves that ...

  18. Feldspar, Infrared Stimulated Luminescence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jain, Mayank

    2014-01-01

    This entry primarily concerns the characteristics and the origins of infrared-stimulated luminescence in feldspars.......This entry primarily concerns the characteristics and the origins of infrared-stimulated luminescence in feldspars....

  19. A randomized, single-blind trial of 5% minoxidil foam once daily versus 2% minoxidil solution twice daily in the treatment of androgenetic alopecia in women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blume-Peytavi, Ulrike; Hillmann, Kathrin; Dietz, Ekkehart; Canfield, Douglas; Garcia Bartels, Natalie

    2011-12-01

    Although twice-daily application of propylene glycol-containing 2% minoxidil topical solution (MTS) stimulates new hair growth, higher concentrations of minoxidil in a once-daily, propylene glycol-free formulation may improve efficacy and reduce unpleasant side effects. We sought to compare the efficacy, safety, and acceptability and to show noninferiority of once-daily 5% minoxidil topical foam (MTF) with twice-daily 2% MTS in women with androgenetic alopecia. A total of 113 women with androgenetic alopecia were randomized to 24 weeks of treatment with 5% MTF or 2% MTS. The primary efficacy parameter was change from baseline in nonvellus target area hair count at week 24. Secondary end points included change in nonvellus target area hair width, overall efficacy by global photographic review as assessed by treatment-blinded evaluators and the subject herself, adverse events, and participants' assessment of product aesthetics. After 24 weeks, women randomized to 5% MTF once daily showed noninferior target area hair count and target area hair width and experienced greater, but nonsignificant, improvements in target area hair count, target area hair width, and overall efficacy by global photographic review than those randomized to 2% MTS used twice daily. 5% MTF was significantly superior to 2% MTS in participants' agreement with "the treatment does not interfere with styling my hair" (P = .002). Women randomized to 5% MTF experienced significantly lower rates of local intolerance (P = .046) especially in pruritus and dandruff compared with 2% MTS. Because of differences in the formulations tested, study participants were not blinded to treatment. Once-daily 5% MTF is noninferior and as effective for stimulating hair growth as twice-daily 2% MTS in women with androgenetic alopecia and is associated with several aesthetic and practical advantages. Copyright © 2010 American Academy of Dermatology, Inc. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. An Overview of Stimulators

    OpenAIRE

    Mohd. Suhaib Kidwai; Mohd Maroof Siddiqui; Ahmad Nafees; Qazi saeed Ahmad

    2012-01-01

    This paper aims to bring forth the significance of stimulators , recent advancements in the field of stimulators and how electrical signals can be utilized for pain relief and to cure other diseases of human body ,by using stimulators. This paper aims to create awareness about stimulators and also focuses on their advantages as compared to theconventional medicine .Moreover,it also bring forth that how an electrical signal can be utilized for treating various human disorders and diseases.

  1. Most drug overdose deaths from nonprescription opioids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robbins RA

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available No abstract available. Article truncated at 150 words. The Centers for Disease Control (CDC is reporting in Morbidity and Mortality Weekly that the number of people dying from an opioid overdose rose 15.5% from 2014 to 2015, but the increase had little to do with prescription painkillers such as oxycodone or hydrocodone (1. Roughly 52,000 people died from drug overdoses in 2015 and of those deaths 33,091 involved an opioid. The increases in “death rates were driven by synthetic opioids other than methadone (72.2%, most likely illicitly-manufactured fentanyl, and heroin (20.6%”. Deaths from methadone, which is usually prescribed by physicians, decreased 9.1%. The largest increase in deaths occurred in the South and Northeast with 3% and 24% increases in deaths from synthetic opioids from 2014 to 2015. In the Midwest and West, there were more modest 17% and 9% increases during the same period. States in the Southwest with “good” to “excellent” reporting included Colorado, Nevada, and New …

  2. Effects of Once-Daily Oral and Transdermal Methylphenidate on Sleep Behavior of Children with ADHD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faraone, Stephen V.; Glatt, Stephen J.; Bukstein, Oscar G.; Lopez, Frank A.; Arnold, L. Eugene; Findling, Robert L.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: Methylphenidate is a leading first-line treatment for ADHD (AD/HD). This stimulant has long been suspected to adversely affect sleeping patterns of treated individuals, especially children. There are few studies on the effects of recently developed longer-acting methylphenidate treatments, such as once-daily oral or transdermal…

  3. Daily Public Assistance Grants Award Activity

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — Daily activity of Public Assistance Grant Awards, including FEMA Region, State, Disaster Declaration Number, Event description, Mission Assigned agency, Assistance...

  4. Daily low-intensity pulsed ultrasound-mediated osteogenic differentiation in rat osteoblasts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Akito Suzuki; Tadahiro Takayama; Naoto Suzuki; Michitomo Sato; Takeshi Fukuda; Koichi Ito

    2009-01-01

    There were few studies investigating the effects of the mechanical stimulation provided by daily low-intensity pulsed ultrasound (LIPUS) treatment. LIPUS is known to accelerate bone mineralization and regeneration; however, the precise cellular mechanism is unclear. Our purpose was to determine how daily LIPUS treat-ment affected cell viability, alkaline phosphatase activity, osteogenesis-related gene expression, and mineralized nodule formation in osteoblasts. The typical osteoblastic cell line ROS 17/2.8 cells were cul-tured in the absence or presence of LIPUS stimulation. Daily LIPUS treatments (1.5 MHz; 20 min) were admi-nistered at an intensity of 30 mW/cm2 for 14 days. Expression of osteogenesis-related genes was examined at mRNA levels using real-time polymerase chain reac-tion and at protein levels using western blotting analy-sis. LIPUS stimulation did not affect the rate of cell viability. Alkaline phosphatase activity was increased after 10 days of culture with daily LIPUS stimulation. LIPUS significantly increased the expression of mRNAs encoding Runx2, Msx2, DIx5, osterix, bone sialoprotein,and bone morphogenetic protein-2, whereas it signifi-cantly reduced the expression of mRNA encoding the transcription factor AJ18. Mineralized nodule for-mation was markedly increased on Day 14 of LIPUS stimulation. LIPUS stimulation directly affected osteo-genic cells, leading to mineralized nodule formation. LIPUS is likely to have a fundamental influence on key functional activities of osteoblasts in alveolar bone.

  5. Daily Spiritual Experiences and Prosocial Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Einolf, Christopher J.

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines how the Daily Spiritual Experiences Scale (DSES) relates to range of prosocial behaviors, using a large, nationally representative U.S. data set. It finds that daily spiritual experiences are a statistically and substantively significant predictor of volunteering, charitable giving, and helping individuals one knows personally.…

  6. Daily Stressors in Primary Education Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Baena, F. Javier; Trianes, María V.; Escobar, Milagros; Blanca, María J.; Muñoz, Ángela M.

    2015-01-01

    Daily stress can have a bearing on children's emotional and academic development. This study aimed to assess daily stressors and to determine their prevalence among primary education students, taking into account their gender, academic year, social adaptation, and the school location. A sample of 7,354 Spanish schoolchildren aged between 6 and 13…

  7. Stochastic modelling of daily rainfall sequences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buishand, T.A.

    1977-01-01

    Rainfall series of different climatic regions were analysed with the aim of generating daily rainfall sequences. A survey of the data is given in I, 1. When analysing daily rainfall sequences one must be aware of the following points:
    a. Seasonality. Because of seasonal variation

  8. Daily Stressors in Primary Education Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Baena, F. Javier; Trianes, María V.; Escobar, Milagros; Blanca, María J.; Muñoz, Ángela M.

    2015-01-01

    Daily stress can have a bearing on children's emotional and academic development. This study aimed to assess daily stressors and to determine their prevalence among primary education students, taking into account their gender, academic year, social adaptation, and the school location. A sample of 7,354 Spanish schoolchildren aged between 6…

  9. Daily Spiritual Experiences and Prosocial Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Einolf, Christopher J.

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines how the Daily Spiritual Experiences Scale (DSES) relates to range of prosocial behaviors, using a large, nationally representative U.S. data set. It finds that daily spiritual experiences are a statistically and substantively significant predictor of volunteering, charitable giving, and helping individuals one knows personally.…

  10. Forecasting Daily Demand in Cash Supply Chains

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Michael Wagner

    2010-01-01

    ...: This study contrasted competing techniques of forecasting daily demand in cash supply chains in order to determine the overall performance and the potential of joint forecasting for integrated planning...

  11. The association between nightmares and daily distress

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lancee, J.; Schrijnemaekers, N.C.M.L.

    2013-01-01

    Nightmares are a prevalent disorder with negative consequences. This study investigated the association between nightmares and daily distress. Fifty-six participants with frequent nightmares filled out questionnaires and a 10-day diary. The questionnaire concerned: sleep, nightmare distress,

  12. Vestibular loss disrupts daily rhythm in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, T; Mauvieux, B; Bulla, J; Quarck, G; Davenne, D; Denise, P; Philoxène, B; Besnard, S

    2015-02-01

    Hypergravity disrupts the circadian regulation of temperature (Temp) and locomotor activity (Act) mediated through the vestibular otolithic system in mice. In contrast, we do not know whether the anatomical structures associated with vestibular input are crucial for circadian rhythm regulation at 1 G on Earth. In the present study we observed the effects of bilateral vestibular loss (BVL) on the daily rhythms of Temp and Act in semipigmented rats. Our model of vestibular lesion allowed for selective peripheral hair cell degeneration without any other damage. Rats with BVL exhibited a disruption in their daily rhythms (Temp and Act), which were replaced by a main ultradian period (τ <20 h) for 115.8 ± 68.6 h after vestibular lesion compared with rats in the control group. Daily rhythms of Temp and Act in rats with BVL recovered within 1 wk, probably counterbalanced by photic and other nonphotic time cues. No correlation was found between Temp and Act daily rhythms after vestibular lesion in rats with BVL, suggesting a direct influence of vestibular input on the suprachiasmatic nucleus. Our findings support the hypothesis that the vestibular system has an influence on daily rhythm homeostasis in semipigmented rats on Earth, and raise the question of whether daily rhythms might be altered due to vestibular pathology in humans. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  13. Whisking recovery after automated mechanical stimulation during facial nerve regeneration.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kleiss, I.J.; Knox, C.J.; Malo, J.S.; Marres, H.A.M.; Hadlock, T.A.; Heaton, J.T.

    2014-01-01

    IMPORTANCE Recovery from facial nerve transection is typically poor, but daily mechanical stimulation of the face in rats has been reported to remarkably enhance functional recovery after facial nerve transection and suture repair. This phenomenon needs additional investigation because of its import

  14. Non-invasive brain stimulation in neglect rehabilitation: An update.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    René Martin Müri

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Here, we review the effects of non-invasive brain stimulation (NIBS such as transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS or transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS in the rehabilitation of neglect. We found 12 studies including 172 patients (10 TMS studies and 2 tDCS studies fulfilling our search criteria. Activity of daily living (ADL measures such as the Barthel Index or more specifically for neglect, the Catherine Bergego Scale were the outcome measure in 3 studies. Five studies were randomized controlled trials with a follow-up time after intervention of up to 6 weeks. One TMS study fulfilled criteria for Class I and one for Class III evidence.The studies are heterogeneous concerning their methodology, outcome measures, and stimulation parameters making firm comparisons and conclusions difficult. Overall, there are however promising results for theta burst stimulation, suggesting that TMS is a powerful add-on therapy in the rehabilitation of neglect patients.

  15. Non-invasive brain stimulation in neglect rehabilitation: an update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müri, René Martin; Cazzoli, Dario; Nef, Tobias; Mosimann, Urs P; Hopfner, Simone; Nyffeler, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Here, we review the effects of non-invasive brain stimulation such as transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) or transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) in the rehabilitation of neglect. We found 12 studies including 172 patients (10 TMS studies and 2 tDCS studies) fulfilling our search criteria. Activity of daily living measures such as the Barthel Index or, more specifically for neglect, the Catherine Bergego Scale were the outcome measure in three studies. Five studies were randomized controlled trials with a follow-up time after intervention of up to 6 weeks. One TMS study fulfilled criteria for Class I and one for Class III evidence. The studies are heterogeneous concerning their methodology, outcome measures, and stimulation parameters making firm comparisons and conclusions difficult. Overall, there are however promising results for theta-burst stimulation, suggesting that TMS is a powerful add-on therapy in the rehabilitation of neglect patients.

  16. Twice-Daily versus Once-Daily Pramipexole Extended Release Dosage Regimens in Parkinson's Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, Ji Young; Kim, Young Eun; Yang, Hui-Jun; Kim, Han-Joon; Jeon, Beomseok

    2017-01-01

    This open-label study aimed to compare once-daily and twice-daily pramipexole extended release (PER) treatment in Parkinson's disease (PD). PD patients on dopamine agonist therapy, but with unsatisfactory control, were enrolled. Existing agonist doses were switched into equivalent PER doses. Subjects were consecutively enrolled into either once-daily-first or twice-daily-first groups and received the prescribed amount in one or two, respectively, daily doses for 8 weeks. For the second period, subjects switched regimens in a crossover manner. The forty-four patients completed a questionnaire requesting preference during their last visit. We measured the UPDRS-III, Hoehn and Yahr stages (H&Y) in medication-on state, Parkinson's disease sleep scale (PDSS), and Epworth Sleepiness Scale. Eighteen patients preferred a twice-daily regimen, 12 preferred a once-daily regimen, and 14 had no preference. After the trial, 14 subjects wanted to be on a once-daily regimen, 25 chose a twice-daily regimen, and 5 wanted to maintain the prestudy regimen. Main reasons for choosing the twice-daily regimen were decreased off-duration, more tolerable off-symptoms, and psychological stability. The mean UPDRS-III, H&Y, and PDSS were not different. Daytime sleepiness was significantly high in the once-daily regimen, whereas nocturnal hallucinations were more common in the twice-daily. Multiple dosing should be considered if once-daily dosing is unsatisfactory. This study is registered as NCT01515774 at ClinicalTrials.gov.

  17. Twice-Daily versus Once-Daily Pramipexole Extended Release Dosage Regimens in Parkinson's Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Young Eun; Yang, Hui-Jun; Kim, Han-Joon

    2017-01-01

    This open-label study aimed to compare once-daily and twice-daily pramipexole extended release (PER) treatment in Parkinson's disease (PD). PD patients on dopamine agonist therapy, but with unsatisfactory control, were enrolled. Existing agonist doses were switched into equivalent PER doses. Subjects were consecutively enrolled into either once-daily-first or twice-daily-first groups and received the prescribed amount in one or two, respectively, daily doses for 8 weeks. For the second period, subjects switched regimens in a crossover manner. The forty-four patients completed a questionnaire requesting preference during their last visit. We measured the UPDRS-III, Hoehn and Yahr stages (H&Y) in medication-on state, Parkinson's disease sleep scale (PDSS), and Epworth Sleepiness Scale. Eighteen patients preferred a twice-daily regimen, 12 preferred a once-daily regimen, and 14 had no preference. After the trial, 14 subjects wanted to be on a once-daily regimen, 25 chose a twice-daily regimen, and 5 wanted to maintain the prestudy regimen. Main reasons for choosing the twice-daily regimen were decreased off-duration, more tolerable off-symptoms, and psychological stability. The mean UPDRS-III, H&Y, and PDSS were not different. Daytime sleepiness was significantly high in the once-daily regimen, whereas nocturnal hallucinations were more common in the twice-daily. Multiple dosing should be considered if once-daily dosing is unsatisfactory. This study is registered as NCT01515774 at ClinicalTrials.gov. PMID:28265478

  18. Stimulate your creativity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raudsepp, E.

    1983-02-01

    Aids in idea stimulation and problem solving are presented. The forced relation technique forces random words together to stimulate thought. This can be done by the catalog method or by listing characteristics and alternatives until a novel idea occurs. A checklist designed for mathematical problem solving is given. The forms of questioning it provides include understanding the unknown and finding a connection between the data and the unknown. A vice-versa checklist, where consideration of the opposite encourages new ideas, is suggested. A self-questioning attitude is necessary for problem-solving. A word stimulation by checklist is also suggested.

  19. Temporal disaggregation of daily meteorological grid data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vormoor, K.; Skaugen, T.

    2012-04-01

    For operational flood forecasting, the Norwegian Water Resources and Energy Administration (NVE) applies the conceptual HBV rainfall-runoff model for 117 catchments. The hydrological models are calibrated and run using an extensive meteorological grid data set providing daily temperature and precipitation data back to 1957 for entire Norway at 1x1 km grid resolution (seNorge grids). The daily temporal resolution is dictated by the resolution of historical meteorological data. However, since meteorological forecasts and runoff observations are also available at a much finer than a daily time-resolution (e.g. 6 hourly), and many hydrological extreme events happens at a temporal scale of less than daily, it is important to try to establish a historical dataset of meteorological input at a finer corresponding temporal resolution. We present a simple approach for the temporal disaggregation of the daily meteorological seNorge grids into 6-hour values by consulting a HIRLAM hindcast grid data series with an hourly time resolution and a 10x10 km grid resolution. The temporal patterns of the hindcast series are used to disaggregate the daily interpolated observations from the seNorge grids. In this way, we produce a historical grid dataset from 1958-2010 with 6-hourly temperature and precipitation for entire Norway on a 1x1 km grid resolution. For validation and to see if additional information is gained, the disaggregated data is compared with observed values from selected meteorological stations. In addition, the disaggregated data is evaluated against daily data, simply split into four fractions. The validation results indicate that additional information is indeed gained and point out the benefit of disaggregated data compared to daily data split into four. With regard to temperature, the disaggregated values show very low deviations (MAE, RMSE), and are highly correlated with observed values. Regarding precipitation, the disaggregated data shows cumulative

  20. Stochastic daily modeling of arctic tundra ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erler, A.; Epstein, H. E.; Frazier, J.

    2011-12-01

    ArcVeg is a dynamic vegetation model that has simulated interannual variability of production and abundance of arctic tundra plant types in previous studies. In order to address the effects of changing seasonality on tundra plant community composition and productivity, we have uniquely adapted the model to operate on the daily timescale. Each section of the model-weather generation, nitrogen mineralization, and plant growth dynamics-are driven by daily fluctuations in simulated temperature conditions. These simulation dynamics are achieved by calibrating stochastic iterative loops and mathematical functions with raw field data. Air temperature is the fundamental driver in the model, parameterized by climate data collected in the field across numerous arctic tundra sites, and key daily statistics are extracted (mean and standard deviation of temperature for each day of the year). Nitrogen mineralization is calculated as an exponential function from the simulated temperature. The seasonality of plant growth is driven by the availability of nitrogen and constrained by historical patterns and dynamics of the remotely sensed normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), as they pertain to the seasonal onset of growth. Here we describe the methods used for daily weather generation, nitrogen mineralization, and the daily competition among twelve plant functional types for nitrogen and subsequent growth. This still rather simple approach to vegetation dynamics has the capacity to generate complex relationships between seasonal patterns of temperature and arctic tundra vegetation community structure and function.

  1. Deep brain stimulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a device called a neurostimulator to deliver electrical signals to the areas of the brain that control ... neurostimulator, which puts out the electric current. The stimulator is similar to a heart ...

  2. Geothermal Well Stimulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campbell, D. A.; Morris, C. W.; Sinclair, A. R.; Hanold, R. J.; Vetter, O. J.

    1981-03-01

    The stimulation of geothermal wells presents some new and challenging problems. Formation temperatures in the 300-600 F range can be expected. The behavior of stimulation fluids, frac proppants, and equipment at these temperatures in a hostile brine environment must be carefully evaluated before performance expectations can be determined. In order to avoid possible damage to the producing horizon of the formation, high temperature chemical compatibility between the in situ materials and the stimulation materials must be verified. Perhaps most significant of all, in geothermal wells the required techniques must be capable of bringing about the production of very large amounts of fluid. This necessity for high flow rates represents a significant departure from conventional petroleum well stimulation and demands the creation of very high near-wellbore permeability and/or fractures with very high flow conductivity.

  3. Motor cortex stimulation in Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Rose, Marisa; Guzzi, Giusy; Bosco, Domenico; Romano, Mary; Lavano, Serena Marianna; Plastino, Massimiliano; Volpentesta, Giorgio; Marotta, Rosa; Lavano, Angelo

    2012-01-01

    Motor Cortex Stimulation (MCS) is less efficacious than Deep Brain Stimulation (DBS) in Parkinson's disease. However, it might be proposed to patients excluded from DBS or unresponsive to DBS. Ten patients with advanced PD underwent unilateral MCS contralaterally to the worst clinical side. A plate electrode was positioned over the motor cortex in the epidural space through single burr hole after identification of the area with neuronavigation and neurophysiological tests. Clinical assessment was performed by total UPDRS, UPDRS III total, UPDRS III-items 27-31, UPDRS IV, and UPDRS II before implantation in off-medication and on-medication states and after surgery at 1, 3, 6, 12, 18, 24, and 36 months in on-medication/on-stimulation and off-medication/on-stimulation states. We assessed changes of quality of life, throughout the Parkinson's disease quality of life scale (PDQoL-39), and the dose of anti-Parkinson's disease medications, throughout the Ldopa equivalent daily dose (LEDD). During off-medication state, we observed moderate and transitory reduction of total UPDRS and UPDRS total scores and significant and long-lasting improvement in UPDRS III items 27-31 score for axial symptoms. There was marked reduction of UPDRS IV score and LEDD. PDQL-39 improvement was also significant. No important complications and adverse events occurred.

  4. Motor Cortex Stimulation in Parkinson's Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marisa De Rose

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Motor Cortex Stimulation (MCS is less efficacious than Deep Brain Stimulation (DBS in Parkinson's disease. However, it might be proposed to patients excluded from DBS or unresponsive to DBS. Ten patients with advanced PD underwent unilateral MCS contralaterally to the worst clinical side. A plate electrode was positioned over the motor cortex in the epidural space through single burr hole after identification of the area with neuronavigation and neurophysiological tests. Clinical assessment was performed by total UPDRS, UPDRS III total, UPDRS III-items 27–31, UPDRS IV, and UPDRS II before implantation in off-medication and on-medication states and after surgery at 1, 3, 6, 12, 18, 24, and 36 months in on-medication/on-stimulation and off-medication/on-stimulation states. We assessed changes of quality of life, throughout the Parkinson's disease quality of life scale (PDQoL-39, and the dose of anti-Parkinson's disease medications, throughout the Ldopa equivalent daily dose (LEDD. During off-medication state, we observed moderate and transitory reduction of total UPDRS and UPDRS total scores and significant and long-lasting improvement in UPDRS III items 27–31 score for axial symptoms. There was marked reduction of UPDRS IV score and LEDD. PDQL-39 improvement was also significant. No important complications and adverse events occurred.

  5. Clinical experience with daily doses of misonidazole

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kogelnik, H.D.; Reinartz, G.; Szepesi, T.; Seitz, W.; Wurst, F.; Mamoli, B.; Wessely, P.; Stark, H.

    1980-11-01

    In this pilot study daily low doses of misonidazole (in the range of 1 to 2 g) up to cumulative doses between 7 and 19 g/m/sup 2/ were used. Serum levels were analysed at different times after administration and according to several dose regimens. We related the cumulative doses to the incidence and severity of the observed peripheral neuropathies. The aim was to find an effective daily low-dose schedule of misonidazole with a clinically acceptable incidence of side effects. Some impressive clinical responses were observed.

  6. Tramadol use in premature ejaculation: Daily versus sporadic treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amil H Khan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Premature ejaculation (PME is defined as ejaculation with the minimal sexual stimulation before, on or shortly after penetration and or before a person wishes it. It is a function of the time between intra-vaginal penetration and intra-vaginal ejaculation. Tramadol has shown efficacy in PME when used as sporadic basis. In this study, we compared the use of 100 mg of tramadol as sporadic treatment (administered 6-8 h before coitus versus continued treatment with the objective of evaluating the therapeutic results of both modalities. We assumed our alternative hypothesis that they have similar effects. Materials and Methods: A prospective study was carried out on 60 patients divided into two groups of 30 patients each. Intra-vaginal ejaculation latency time (IELT and coital frequency were measured both prior to and after the treatment. Group A received tramadol 100 mg daily for 4 weeks and on request (sporadically for 4 weeks more. Group B was given placebo in the same manner. Results were statistically analyzed using the Student t-test. Results : Mean IELT prior to treatment was 59.2 s in Group A and 58.7 s in Group B. Mean pre-treatment coital frequency was 2.44 times/week for Group A and 2.13 times/week for Group B. Mean IELT was 202.5 s after continued tramadol treatment and 238.2 s after sporadic treatment in Group A. Mean IELT with daily placebo was 94.8 s and with sporadic placebo was 96.6 s. Coital frequency increased to 4.32 times/week with daily tramadol treatment and 4.86 times with sporadic treatment. Coital frequency increased to 2.88 times/week with daily placebo treatment and 3.23 times with sporadic treatment. Conclusions: The results of PME treatment with tramadol are similar with both continued and sporadic administration. The sex life of patients improved and they reported greater satisfaction with the sporadic treatment.

  7. Tramadol Use in Premature Ejaculation: Daily Versus Sporadic Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Amil H.; Rasaily, Deepa

    2013-01-01

    Aim: Premature ejaculation (PME) is defined as ejaculation with the minimal sexual stimulation before, on or shortly after penetration and or before a person wishes it. It is a function of the time between intra-vaginal penetration and intra-vaginal ejaculation. Tramadol has shown efficacy in PME when used as sporadic basis. In this study, we compared the use of 100 mg of tramadol as sporadic treatment (administered 6-8 h before coitus) versus continued treatment with the objective of evaluating the therapeutic results of both modalities. We assumed our alternative hypothesis that they have similar effects. Materials and Methods: A prospective study was carried out on 60 patients divided into two groups of 30 patients each. Intra-vaginal ejaculation latency time (IELT) and coital frequency were measured both prior to and after the treatment. Group A received tramadol 100 mg daily for 4 weeks and on request (sporadically) for 4 weeks more. Group B was given placebo in the same manner. Results were statistically analyzed using the Student t-test. Results: Mean IELT prior to treatment was 59.2 s in Group A and 58.7 s in Group B. Mean pre-treatment coital frequency was 2.44 times/week for Group A and 2.13 times/week for Group B. Mean IELT was 202.5 s after continued tramadol treatment and 238.2 s after sporadic treatment in Group A. Mean IELT with daily placebo was 94.8 s and with sporadic placebo was 96.6 s. Coital frequency increased to 4.32 times/week with daily tramadol treatment and 4.86 times with sporadic treatment. Coital frequency increased to 2.88 times/week with daily placebo treatment and 3.23 times with sporadic treatment. Conclusions: The results of PME treatment with tramadol are similar with both continued and sporadic administration. The sex life of patients improved and they reported greater satisfaction with the sporadic treatment. PMID:24249927

  8. Improving human plateaued motor skill with somatic stimulation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shintaro Uehara

    Full Text Available Procedural motor learning includes a period when no substantial gain in performance improvement is obtained even with repeated, daily practice. Prompted by the potential benefit of high-frequency transcutaneous electrical stimulation, we examined if the stimulation to the hand reduces redundant motor activity that likely exists in an acquired hand motor skill, so as to further upgrade stable motor performance. Healthy participants were trained until their motor performance of continuously rotating two balls in the palm of their right hand became stable. In the series of experiments, they repeated a trial performing this cyclic rotation as many times as possible in 15 s. In trials where we applied the stimulation to the relaxed thumb before they initiated the task, most reported that their movements became smoother and they could perform the movements at a higher cycle compared to the control trials. This was not possible when the dorsal side of the wrist was stimulated. The performance improvement was associated with reduction of amplitude of finger displacement, which was consistently observed irrespective of the task demands. Importantly, this kinematic change occurred without being noticed by the participants, and their intentional changes of motor strategies (reducing amplitude of finger displacement never improved the performance. Moreover, the performance never spontaneously improved during one-week training without stimulation, whereas the improvement in association with stimulation was consistently observed across days during training on another week combined with the stimulation. The improved effect obtained in stimulation trials on one day partially carried over to the next day, thereby promoting daily improvement of plateaued performance, which could not be unlocked by the first-week intensive training. This study demonstrated the possibility of effectively improving a plateaued motor skill, and pre-movement somatic stimulation

  9. Bias Corrected Constructed Analogs V2 Daily Climate Projections

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This archive contains projections of daily BCCA CMIP3 and CMIP5 projections of precipitation, daily maximum, and daily minimum temperature over the contiguous United...

  10. Big Ideas behind Daily 5 and CAFE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boushey, Gail; Moser, Joan

    2012-01-01

    The Daily 5 and CAFE were born out of The Sister's research and observations of instructional mentors, their intense desire to be able to deliver highly intentional, focused instruction to small groups and individuals while the rest of the class was engaged in truly authentic reading and writing, and their understanding that a one size fits all…

  11. Professional ideals and daily practice in journalism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pihl-Thingvad, Signe

    2015-01-01

    of commitment, but until now these assumptions have never been empirically examined. This article provides new knowledge of the relationship between professional ideals and daily practice in journalism by describing the contours of the existing discrepancies in the generation of news in Denmark. In addition...

  12. On the Digital Daily Cycles of Individuals

    CERN Document Server

    Aledavood, Talayeh; Saramäki, Jari

    2015-01-01

    Humans, like almost all animals, are phase-locked to the diurnal cycle. Most of us sleep at night and are active through the day. Because we have evolved to function with this cycle, the circadian rhythm is deeply ingrained and even detectable at the biochemical level. However, within the broader day-night pattern, there are individual differences: e.g., some of us are intrinsically morning-active, while others prefer evenings. In this article, we look at digital daily cycles: circadian patterns of activity viewed through the lens of auto-recorded data of communication and online activity. We begin at the aggregate level, discuss earlier results, and illustrate differences between population-level daily rhythms in different media. Then we move on to the individual level, and show that there is a strong individual-level variation beyond averages: individuals typically have their distinctive daily pattern that persists in time. We conclude by discussing the driving forces behind these signature daily patterns, ...

  13. Do Daily Retail Gasoline Prices adjust Asymmetrically?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L.J.H. Bettendorf (Leon); S.A. van der Geest (Stéphanie); G. Kuper

    2005-01-01

    textabstractThis paper analyzes adjustments in the Dutch retail gasoline prices. We estimate an error correction model on changes in the daily retail price for gasoline (taxes excluded) for the period 1996-2004 taking care of volatility clustering by estimating an EGARCH model. It turns out the vola

  14. Do daily retail gasoline prices adjust asymmetrically?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bettendorf, L.; van der Geest, S. A.; Kuper, G. H.

    2009-01-01

    This paper analyses adjustments in the Dutch retail gasoline prices. We estimate an error correction model on changes in the daily retail price for gasoline (taxes excluded) for the period 1996-2004, taking care of volatility clustering by estimating an EGARCH model. It turns out that the volatility

  15. Do Daily Retail Gasoline Prices adjust Asymmetrically?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L.J.H. Bettendorf (Leon); S.A. van der Geest (Stéphanie); G. Kuper

    2005-01-01

    textabstractThis paper analyzes adjustments in the Dutch retail gasoline prices. We estimate an error correction model on changes in the daily retail price for gasoline (taxes excluded) for the period 1996-2004 taking care of volatility clustering by estimating an EGARCH model. It turns out the vola

  16. Modelling erosion on a daily basis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pikha Shrestha, Dhruba; Jetten, Victor

    2016-04-01

    Effect of soil erosion causing negative impact on ecosystem services and food security is well known. To assess annual erosion rates various empirical models have been extensively used in all the climatic regions. While these models are simple to operate and do not require lot of input data, the effect of extreme rain is not taken into account in the annual estimations. For analysing the effects of extreme rain the event- based models become handy. These models can simulate detail erosional processes including particle detachment, transportation and deposition of sediments during a storm. But they are not applicable for estimating annual erosion rates. Moreover storm event data may not be available everywhere which prohibits their extensive use. In this paper we describe a method by adapting the revised MMF model to assess erosion on daily basis so that the effects of extreme rains are taken into account. We couple it to a simple surface soil moisture balance on a daily basis and include estimation of daily vegetation cover changes. Annual soil loss is calculated by adding daily erosion rates. We compare the obtained results with that obtained from applying the revised MMF model in a case study in the Mamora plateau in northwest Morocco which is affected by severe gully formation. The results show clearly the effects of exceptional rain in erosional processes which cannot be captured in an annual model.

  17. Nowcasting daily minimum air and grass temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savage, M. J.

    2016-02-01

    Site-specific and accurate prediction of daily minimum air and grass temperatures, made available online several hours before their occurrence, would be of significant benefit to several economic sectors and for planning human activities. Site-specific and reasonably accurate nowcasts of daily minimum temperature several hours before its occurrence, using measured sub-hourly temperatures hours earlier in the morning as model inputs, was investigated. Various temperature models were tested for their ability to accurately nowcast daily minimum temperatures 2 or 4 h before sunrise. Temperature datasets used for the model nowcasts included sub-hourly grass and grass-surface (infrared) temperatures from one location in South Africa and air temperature from four subtropical sites varying in altitude (USA and South Africa) and from one site in central sub-Saharan Africa. Nowcast models used employed either exponential or square root functions to describe the rate of nighttime temperature decrease but inverted so as to determine the minimum temperature. The models were also applied in near real-time using an open web-based system to display the nowcasts. Extrapolation algorithms for the site-specific nowcasts were also implemented in a datalogger in an innovative and mathematically consistent manner. Comparison of model 1 (exponential) nowcasts vs measured daily minima air temperatures yielded root mean square errors (RMSEs) errors for grass minimum temperature and the 4-h nowcasts.

  18. 27 CFR 19.829 - Daily records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS DISTILLED SPIRITS PLANTS Production of Vinegar by the Vaporizing Process Records § 19.829 Daily records. Each manufacturer of vinegar by the vaporizing process shall keep accurate... spirits used in the manufacture of vinegar; (e) The wine gallons of vinegar produced; and (f) The...

  19. Daily storage management of hydroelectric facilities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chappin, E.J.L.; Ferrero, M.; Lazzeroni, P.; Lukszo, Z.; Olivero, M.; Repetto, M.

    2012-01-01

    This work presents a management procedure for hydroelectric facilities with daily storage. The water storage gives an additional degree of freedom allowing to shift in time power production when it is more convenient and to work at the maximum efficiency of hydraulic turbine. The management is optim

  20. Big Ideas behind Daily 5 and CAFE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boushey, Gail; Moser, Joan

    2012-01-01

    The Daily 5 and CAFE were born out of The Sister's research and observations of instructional mentors, their intense desire to be able to deliver highly intentional, focused instruction to small groups and individuals while the rest of the class was engaged in truly authentic reading and writing, and their understanding that a one size fits all…

  1. The effect of Hegu acupoint stimulation in dental acupuncture analgesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fransiskus Andrianto

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available In daily life, dental treatments are often related with oral pain sensation which needs anesthesia procedures. Sometimes local anesthetics can not be used because patients have hypersensitive reaction or systemic diseases which may lead to complications. Stimulating acupoint, such as Hegu activates hypothalamus and pituitary gland to release endogenous opioid peptide substances that reduce pain sensitivity. The aim of the study was to determine Hegu acupoint stimulation effect on the pain sensitivity reduction in maxillary central incisor gingiva. The laboratory experimental research was conducted on 12 healthy male Wistar rats (3 months old, weights 150–200 grams. All rat samples received the same treatments and adapted within 1 month. The research was done in pre and post test control group design. 40-Volt electro-stimulation was done once on the maxillary central incisor gingiva prior to the bilateral Hegu acupoint stimulation, then followed by 3 times electro-stimulation with 3 minutes intervals. The pain scores were obtained based on the samples’ contraction in each electro-stimulation. The responses were categorized into 5 pain scores and statistically analyzed using Wilcoxon Test. The results showed that Hegu acupoint stimulation lowered the pain scores significantly (p < 0.05. Hegu acupoint stimulation could reduce the pain sensitivity in maxillary central incisor gingiva. Therefore, the use of acupuncture analgesia in dental pain management can be considered in the future.

  2. Combination of radar and daily precipitation data to estimate meaningful sub-daily point precipitation extremes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bárdossy, András; Pegram, Geoffrey

    2017-01-01

    The use of radar measurements for the space time estimation of precipitation has for many decades been a central topic in hydro-meteorology. In this paper we are interested specifically in daily and sub-daily extreme values of precipitation at gauged or ungauged locations which are important for design. The purpose of the paper is to develop a methodology to combine daily precipitation observations and radar measurements to estimate sub-daily extremes at point locations. Radar data corrected using precipitation-reflectivity relationships lead to biased estimations of extremes. Different possibilities of correcting systematic errors using the daily observations are investigated. Observed gauged daily amounts are interpolated to unsampled points and subsequently disaggregated using the sub-daily values obtained by the radar. Different corrections based on the spatial variability and the subdaily entropy of scaled rainfall distributions are used to provide unbiased corrections of short duration extremes. Additionally a statistical procedure not based on a matching day by day correction is tested. In this last procedure as we are only interested in rare extremes, low to medium values of rainfall depth were neglected leaving a small number of L days of ranked daily maxima in each set per year, whose sum typically comprises about 50% of each annual rainfall total. The sum of these L day maxima is first iterpolated using a Kriging procedure. Subsequently this sum is disaggregated to daily values using a nearest neighbour procedure. The daily sums are then disaggregated by using the relative values of the biggest L radar based days. Of course, the timings of radar and gauge maxima can be different, so the method presented here uses radar for disaggregating daily gauge totals down to 15 min intervals in order to extract the maxima of sub-hourly through to daily rainfall. The methodologies were tested in South Africa, where an S-band radar operated relatively continuously at

  3. New York Canyon Stimulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raemy, Bernard

    2012-06-21

    The New York Canyon Stimulation Project was to demonstrate the commercial application of Enhanced Geothermal System techniques in Buena Vista Valley area of Pershing County, Nevada. From October 2009 to early 2012, TGP Development Company aggressively implemented Phase I of Pre-Stimulation and Site/Wellbore readiness. This included: geological studies; water studies and analyses and procurement of initial permits for drilling. Oversubscription of water rights and lack of water needed for implementation of EGS were identified and remained primary obstacles. Despite extended efforts to find alternative solutions, the water supply circumstances could not be overcome and led TGP to determine a "No Go" decision and initiate project termination in April 2012.

  4. Daily Presentation:the Beginning of English Class%课始Daily Presentation在初中英语教学中的实践

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张彩君

    2014-01-01

    Daily Presentation能激发并让学生保持学习英语的浓厚兴趣,使师生在教学中受益匪浅。文章主要阐述不同形式的Daily Presentation,即短剧表演、故事欣赏、电影精彩片断欣赏、新闻报道、专题性讨论、游戏等,以及实施过程中需要关注的要点。%At the beginning of the class, students take turns to be organizers or hosts. They have different types of Daily Presentation, such as short plays, watching movies and so on, which not only stimulates students’ interest to learn, but also give students chances to participate. Thus, students develop different abilities. Briefly speaking, both teachers and students can get uncountable benefits by researching and improving it. This paper mainly talks about the specific functions of Daily Presentation and the forms of being carried it out. Besides, it talks about some points which we should pay attention to as well.

  5. Maximum daily rainfall in South Korea

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Saralees Nadarajah; Dongseok Choi

    2007-08-01

    Annual maxima of daily rainfall for the years 1961–2001 are modeled for five locations in South Korea (chosen to give a good geographical representation of the country). The generalized extreme value distribution is fitted to data from each location to describe the extremes of rainfall and to predict its future behavior. We find evidence to suggest that the Gumbel distribution provides the most reasonable model for four of the five locations considered. We explore the possibility of trends in the data but find no evidence suggesting trends. We derive estimates of 10, 50, 100, 1000, 5000, 10,000, 50,000 and 100,000 year return levels for daily rainfall and describe how they vary with the locations. This paper provides the first application of extreme value distributions to rainfall data from South Korea.

  6. Interracial roommate relationships: negotiating daily interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trail, Thomas E; Shelton, J Nicole; West, Tessa V

    2009-06-01

    Jobs, social group memberships, or living arrangements lead many people to interact every day with another person from a different racial background. Given that research has shown that interracial interactions are often stressful, it is important to know how these daily interactions unfold across time and what factors contribute to the success or failure of these interactions. Both members of same-race and mixed-race college roommate pairs completed daily questionnaires measuring their emotional experiences and their perceptions of their roommate. Results revealed that roommates in mixed-race dyads experienced less positive emotions and intimacy toward their roommates than did roommates in same-race dyads and that the experience of positive emotions declined over time for ethnic minority students with White roommates. Mediation analyses showed that the negative effects of roommate race were mediated by the level of intimacy-building behaviors performed by the roommate. Implications for future research and university policies are discussed.

  7. Inteligent estimation of daily evapotranspiration susing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharifan, H.; Dehghani, A. A.

    2009-04-01

    Evapotranspiration (ET) is one of the parameters in water resources management which is attractive for design of irrigation systems. Due to interaction between meteorology parameter, there are nonlinear relations for assessing the evapotraqnspiration. Artifical neural networks are innovative approaches for estimation and prediction by using learning concept. In this study, by using the daily data of Gorgan synoptical station in Golestan province/ Iran the multilayer perceptron with back propagation learning rule was trained. Five different ANN models comprision various combinations of daily climate variable, i. e. air temperature, sunshine, wind speed and humidity was developed to evaluate degree of effect of each input variables on ET. A comparison is made between the estimated provide by ANN models and ET-values estimated by FAO-Penman-Monteith (F-P-M) method. The results show that ANN models perform better than experimental relation. Keyword : Evapotranspiration, Artifical neural network, Penman-Manteith, Gorgan.

  8. Associations between daily musicking and health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ekholm, Ola; Juel, Knud; Bonde, Lars Ole

    2017-01-01

    /day. RESULTS: Both musically active men and women were more likely to report good self-rated health than individuals that were not active musically. However, the results also indicated that musically active women were less likely to report poor physical and mental health than women who were not active......AIMS: To examine the associations between singing/playing musical instruments daily and various outcomes such as health-related quality of life and health behaviour. METHODS: Data originates from the Danish Health and Morbidity Survey 2013. The survey was based on a random sample of 25,000 adult...... Danes (response rate: 57%). Besides standard health-related questions the survey included eight specific music questions, based on a review of the sparse literature on music and health. On the same basis, 'daily musicking' was defined as normally singing/playing musical instruments at least 1 h...

  9. Daily rhythms in mobile telephone communication

    CERN Document Server

    Aledavood, Talayeh; Roberts, Sam G B; Reed-Tsochas, Felix; Moro, Esteban; Dunbar, Robin I M; Saramäki, Jari

    2015-01-01

    Circadian rhythms are known to be important drivers of human activity and the recent availability of electronic records of human behaviour has provided fine-grained data of temporal patterns of activity on a large scale. Further, questionnaire studies have identified important individual differences in circadian rhythms, with people broadly categorised into morning-like or evening-like individuals. However, little is known about the social aspects of these circadian rhythms, or how they vary across individuals. In this study we use a unique 18-month dataset that combines mobile phone calls and questionnaire data to examine individual differences in the daily rhythms of mobile phone activity. We demonstrate clear individual differences in daily patterns of phone calls, and show that these individual differences are persistent despite a high degree of turnover in the individuals' social networks. Further, women's calls were longer than men's calls, especially during the evening and at night, and these calls wer...

  10. Scaling behaviour in daily air humidity fluctuations

    CERN Document Server

    Vattay, G; Vattay, Gabor; Harnos, Andrea

    1994-01-01

    We show that the daily average air humidity fluctuations exhibit non-trivial $1/f^{\\alpha}$ behaviour which different from the spectral properties of other meteorological quantities. This feature and the fractal spatial strucure found in clouds make it plausible to regard air humidity fluctuations as a manifestation of self-organized criticality. We give arguments why the dynamics in air humidity can be similar to those in sandpile models of SOC.

  11. Total daily water intake in Guatemalan children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montenegro-Bethancourt, Gabriela; Vossenaar, Marieke; Doak, Colleen M; Solomons, Noel W

    2009-12-01

    Water is an essential nutrient, but recommendations for total water requirements only emerged in 2005, in the context of estimated average population targets in the Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs) for US and Canadian societies. To assess total daily water acquisition, and the contribution of water acquired from all possible sources, among Guatemalan children. A total of 449 urban Guatemalan schoolchildren, aged 8 to 11 years, evenly divided between two socioeconomic strata, completed a 1-day pictorial registry of all foods and beverages consumed. Estimated energy intake, total water intake, and the contributions of water from drinking water, beverages, intrinsic and extrinsic water in foods, and the oxidation of macronutrients were assessed. The contribution of water from the examined water sources was 8% for drinking water, 49% for beverages, 29% for all foods, and 14% for metabolism of macronutrients, with only slight variance across sexes and social class. The average total daily water acquisition was 1,841 +/- 572 mL for boys and 1,834 +/- 484 mL for girls, which fall short of the North American DRI recommendations of 2.4 and 2.1 L, respectively There was correspondingly lower average consumption of dietary liquids. Foods play an important role in the acquisition of water from their hydration and metabolic oxidation, contributing 43.8% of the daily supply to these children. There is still a calculated shortfall of daily water acquisition, as compared with the DRI recommendations, which could be overcome by greater intake of plain water and low-energy fresh produce.

  12. Daily Water Use in Nine Cities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maidment, David R.; Miaou, Shaw-Pin

    1986-06-01

    Transfer functions are used to model the short-term response of daily municipal water use to rainfall and air temperature variations. Daily water use data from nine cities are studied, three cities each from Florida, Pennsylvania, and Texas. The dynamic response of water use to rainfall and air temperature is similar across the cities within each State; in addition the responses of the Texas and Florida cities are very similar to one another while the response of the Pennsylvania cities is more sensitive to air temperature and less to rainfall. There is little impact of city size on the response functions. The response of water use to rainfall depends first on the occurrence of rainfall and second on its magnitude. The occurrence of a rainfall more than 0.05 in./day (0.13 cm/day) causes a drop in the seasonal component of water use one day later that averages 38% for the Texas cities, 42% for the Florida cities, and 7% for the Pennsylvania cities. In Austin, Texas, a spatially averaged rainfall series shows a clearer relationship with water use than does rainfall data from a single gage. There is a nonlinear response of water use to air temperature changes with no response for daily maximum air temperatures between 40° and 70°F (4-21°C) an increase in water use with air temperature beyond 70°F; above 85°-90°F (29°-32°C) water use increases 3-5 times more per degree than below that limit in Texas and Florida. The model resulting from these studies can be used for daily water use forecasting and water conservation analysis.

  13. Magnetic Stimulation and Epilepsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-14

    investigated using behavioral recording and electroencephalographic (EEG) recording. The results (Figures 1~7) obtained have been submitted to Epilepsia ...Magnetic Stimulation on Penicillin-Induced Seizures in Rats. Epilepsia (submitted). * corresponding author. IV. OTHER CHANGES N/A V. FUTURE PLANS

  14. Daily hemodialysis 2006. State of the art.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierratos, A; McFarlane, P; Chan, C T; Kwok, S; Nesrallah, G

    2006-06-01

    The need to improve the dialysis outcomes, the negative results from the HEMO and ADEMEX studies as well reports of clinical benefits have rekindled the interest in daily hemodialysis. Although no randomized controlled studies have been published, a large number of manuscripts have described significant benefits from both the short or nocturnal forms of daily (quotidian) dialysis or hemo(dia)filtration. They include improved quality of life, hemodynamic stability, blood pressure control with minimal number of medications, anemia control, regression of cardiac hypertrophy and improved nutrition. Furthermore, quotidian nocturnal hemodialysis provides higher dialysis dose, and has been described to improve endothelial as well as endothelial progenitor cell function, heart rate variability, sleep and phosphate control while it offers unrestricted diet. Several studies have pointed to a lower overall cost and improved cost utility when treating patients using quotidian hemodialysis at home. The obstacles to widespread use are the reimbursement structure in most countries, the willingness and ability of the patients to do home hemodialysis and the availability of user-friendly machines. A prospective randomized controlled study sponsored by the National Institutes of Health (NIH) and US Centers for Medicare and Medicaid services (CMS) currently underway will be pivotal in confirming these benefits and convincing the stakeholders to promote the use of daily hemodialysis.

  15. Daily animal exposure and children's biological concepts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geerdts, Megan S; Van de Walle, Gretchen A; LoBue, Vanessa

    2015-02-01

    A large body of research has focused on the developmental trajectory of children's acquisition of a theoretically coherent naive biology. However, considerably less work has focused on how specific daily experiences shape the development of children's knowledge about living things. In the current research, we investigated one common experience that might contribute to biological knowledge development during early childhood-pet ownership. In Study 1, we investigated how children interact with pets by observing 24 preschool-aged children with their pet cats or dogs and asking parents about their children's daily involvement with the pets. We found that most of young children's observed and reported interactions with their pets are reciprocal social interactions. In Study 2, we tested whether children who have daily social experiences with animals are more likely to attribute biological properties to animals than children without pets. Both 3- and 5-year-olds with pets were more likely to attribute biological properties to animals than those without pets. Similarly, both older and younger children with pets showed less anthropocentric patterns of extension of novel biological information. The results suggest that having pets may facilitate the development of a more sophisticated, human-inclusive representation of animals.

  16. Physiological responses to daily light exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yefeng; Yu, Yonghua; Yang, Bo; Zhou, Hong; Pan, Jinming

    2016-04-01

    Long daylength artificial light exposure associates with disorders, and a potential physiological mechanism has been proposed. However, previous studies have examined no more than three artificial light treatments and limited metabolic parameters, which have been insufficient to demonstrate mechanical responses. Here, comprehensive physiological response curves were established and the physiological mechanism was strengthened. Chicks were illuminated for 12, 14, 16, 18, 20, or 22 h periods each day. A quadratic relationship between abdominal adipose weight (AAW) and light period suggested that long-term or short-term light exposure could decrease the amount of AAW. Quantitative relationships between physiological parameters and daily light period were also established in this study. The relationships between triglycerides (TG), cholesterol (TC), glucose (GLU), phosphorus (P) levels and daily light period could be described by quadratic regression models. TG levels, AAW, and BW positively correlated with each other, suggesting long-term light exposure significantly increased AAW by increasing TG thus resulting in greater BW. A positive correlation between blood triiodothyronine (T3) levels and BW suggested that daily long-term light exposure increased BW by thyroid hormone secretion. Though the molecular pathway remains unknown, these results suggest a comprehensive physiological mechanism through which light exposure affects growth.

  17. Daily hydroxyl radical scavenging capacity of mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ienaga, Kazuharu; Hum Park, Chan; Yokozawa, Takako

    2014-04-01

    Both the formation and reactions of hydroxyl radical (•OH) are quantitative chemical reactions even in mammalians, and so we can reproduce such in vivo reactions in test tubes. Daily urinary excretions of some reaction products have been used to estimate the amount of •OH produced daily. Although urinary 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) is a well-known marker of •OH, we have shown that creatol (CTL: 5-hydroxycreatinine), an •OH adduct of creatinine (Crn), and its metabolite, methylguanidine (MG), are better markers, because the amount of •OH scavenged by deoxyguanosine (dG) in the body is negligible. We measured CTL and MG together with Crn in 24-h urine, and calculated their molar sum, CTL + MG, providing a daily estimate of moles of •OH scavenged with Crn, and, from the molar ratio (CTL + MG)/Crn, we can calculate the percentage of Crn that was used to scavenge •OH. Healthy subjects and normal rats were indicated to use circa (ca.) 0.2 and 0.3% of Crn in order to scavenge •OH, respectively, because the corresponding ratios, scavenged •OH/Crn, were 2.2 and 3.0 mmole/mole (24-h urine) (Crn scavenged ca. 20-25 μmole and ca. 200 pmole of •OH in healthy subjects and normal rats, respectively). Since 8-OHdG/Crn has been reported to be 1.9 μmole/mole (24-h urine), the daily scavenging capacity with Crn is 10(3)-fold more than dG. In patients with chronic renal failure (CRF) or chronic kidney disease (CKD) at stages 3-5: glomerular filtration rate (GFR) < 60 mL/min/1.73 m(2), •OH levels increased in proportion to the severity of CKD: up to ca. 3% of Crn was used daily in order to scavenge •OH. Although the accumulation of MG in organs has not been reported except for the brain and skin tissues in normal animals, •OH increases markedly and MG becomes detectable in all organs such as the kidney, liver, and heart in CRF rats.

  18. Global daily reference evapotranspiration modeling and evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senay, G.B.; Verdin, J.P.; Lietzow, R.; Melesse, Assefa M.

    2008-01-01

    Accurate and reliable evapotranspiration (ET) datasets are crucial in regional water and energy balance studies. Due to the complex instrumentation requirements, actual ET values are generally estimated from reference ET values by adjustment factors using coefficients for water stress and vegetation conditions, commonly referred to as crop coefficients. Until recently, the modeling of reference ET has been solely based on important weather variables collected from weather stations that are generally located in selected agro-climatic locations. Since 2001, the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's Global Data Assimilation System (GDAS) has been producing six-hourly climate parameter datasets that are used to calculate daily reference ET for the whole globe at 1-degree spatial resolution. The U.S. Geological Survey Center for Earth Resources Observation and Science has been producing daily reference ET (ETo) since 2001, and it has been used on a variety of operational hydrological models for drought and streamflow monitoring all over the world. With the increasing availability of local station-based reference ET estimates, we evaluated the GDAS-based reference ET estimates using data from the California Irrigation Management Information System (CIMIS). Daily CIMIS reference ET estimates from 85 stations were compared with GDAS-based reference ET at different spatial and temporal scales using five-year daily data from 2002 through 2006. Despite the large difference in spatial scale (point vs. ???100 km grid cell) between the two datasets, the correlations between station-based ET and GDAS-ET were very high, exceeding 0.97 on a daily basis to more than 0.99 on time scales of more than 10 days. Both the temporal and spatial correspondences in trend/pattern and magnitudes between the two datasets were satisfactory, suggesting the reliability of using GDAS parameter-based reference ET for regional water and energy balance studies in many parts of the world

  19. Once-daily indacaterol versus twice-daily salmeterol for COPD: a placebo-controlled comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kornmann, O; Dahl, R; Centanni, S; Dogra, A; Owen, R; Lassen, C; Kramer, B

    2011-02-01

    Indacaterol is a novel, inhaled, once-daily, ultra-long-acting β(2)-agonist bronchodilator recently approved in Europe for the treatment of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). The aim of the present study was to investigate the efficacy and safety of indacaterol compared with placebo and the twice-daily β(2)-agonist, salmeterol, as an active control. Patients with moderate-to-severe COPD were randomised to 6 months double-blind treatment with indacaterol (150 μg once daily), salmeterol (50 μg twice daily) or placebo. The primary efficacy end-point was trough (24 h post-dose) forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV(1)) after 12 weeks. 1,002 patients were randomised and 838 (84%) completed the study. Indacaterol increased trough FEV(1) at week 12 by 170 mL over placebo (pindacaterol. Safety profiles were similar across the treatment groups, and both indacaterol and salmeterol were well tolerated. Once-daily treatment with 150 μg indacaterol had a significant and clinically relevant bronchodilator effect over 24 h post-dose and improved health status and dyspnoea to a greater extent than twice-daily 50 μg salmeterol. Indacaterol should prove a useful additional treatment for patients with COPD.

  20. Chronic job burnout and daily functioning: A theoretical analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arnold B. Bakker

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we discuss the individual employee's role in the development of his/her job burnout. We review the antecedents and consequences of burnout, and propose a model with chronic burnout as a moderator of daily functioning in the workplace. Specifically, we argue that chronic burnout strengthens the loss cycle of daily job demands, daily exhaustion, and daily self-undermining. Additionally, we argue that chronic burnout weakens the gain cycle of daily job resources, daily work engagement, and daily job crafting. We conclude that employees with high levels of burnout need help in structurally changing their working conditions and health status.

  1. HALF-DOSE DEPOT TRIPTORELIN COMPARABLE TO REDUCED DAILY BUSERELIN: A RANDOMIZED CLINICAL TRIAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Safdarian

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Pituitary suppression by depot GnRH agonist may be excessive for ovarian stimulation. This study compares the efficacy of a single half-dose depot triptorelin and reduced-dose daily buserelin in a long protocol ICSI/ET. METHODS: A total of 182 patients were randomized into two groups using sealed envelopes. Pituitary desensitization was obtained in group 1 (91 patients with half-dose (1.87 mg depot triptorelin in the mid-luteal phase of their menstrual cycle, and in group 2 (91 patients with standard daily dose (0.5 mg buserelin, which was then reduced to 0.25 mg at the start of human menopausal gonadotropin (HMG stimulation. RESULTS: No significant differences were found among those who received HCG in terms of clinical pregnancy rate (34.4% in both groups, implantation rate (14.8% in group 1 versus 11.1% in group 2, fertilization rate (93.3 versus 95.6%, poor response rate (11.1 versus 6.7%, and miscarriage rate (11.1 versus 7.8%. No significant differences were seen in number of HMG ampoules used, follicles at HCG administration, and oocytes retrieved. The number of days of stimulation was significantly reduced in group 2 (11.2 +/- 1.8 in group 1 versus 10.6 +/- 1.9, p = 0.030. CONCLUSION: A half-dose of depot triptorelin can be successfully used in ovarian stimulation instead of reduced-dose daily buserelin, with more patient comfort and reduced stress and cost of injections.

  2. Non-invasive Brain Stimulation for Essential Tremor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shih, Ludy C.; Pascual-Leone, Alvaro

    2017-01-01

    Background There is increasing interest in the use of non-invasive brain stimulation to characterize and potentially treat essential tremor (ET). Studies have used a variety of stimulation coils, paradigms, and target locations to make these observations. We reviewed the literature to compare prior studies and to evaluate the rationale and the methods used in these studies. Methods We performed a systematic literature search of the PubMed database using the terms “transcranial,” “noninvasive,” “brain stimulation,” “transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS),” “transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS),” “transcranial alternating current stimulation (tACS),” and “essential tremor.” Results Single pulses of TMS to the primary motor cortex have long been known to reset tremor. Although there are relatively few studies showing alterations in motor cortical physiology, such as motor threshold, short and long intracortical inhibition, and cortical silent period, there may be some evidence of altered intracortical facilitation and cerebello-brain inhibition in ET. Repetitive TMS, theta burst stimulation, tDCS, and tACS have been applied to human subjects with tremor with some preliminary signs of tremor reduction, particularly in those studies that employed consecutive daily sessions. Discussion A variety of stimulation paradigms and targets have been explored, with the increasing rationale an interest in targeting the cerebellum. Rigorous assessment of coil geometry, stimulation paradigm, rationale for selection of the specific anatomic target, and careful phenotypic and physiologic characterization of the subjects with ET undergoing these interventions may be critical in extending these preliminary findings into effective stimulation therapies. PMID:28373927

  3. Effects of Simultaneously Applied Short-Term Transcutaneous Electrical Nerve Stimulation and Tactile Stimulation on Memory and Affective Behaviour of Patients with Probable Alzheimer’s Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Scherder

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available In previous studies beneficial effects of peripheral electrical or tactile nerve stimulation were observed on memory and affective behaviour in patients with probable Alzheimer's disease. In the present study, it was investigated whether electrical and tactile stimulation applied simultaneously to Alzheimer patients would exceed the effects which were observed following treatment by each type of stimulation separately. Our data reveal that the simultaneous application of the two types of stimulation had a beneficial effect on non-verbal and verbal long-term recognition memory. In addition, patients who were treated participated more in activities of daily living, and were more interested in social contacts. In spite of these positive results, comparisons with those of previous studies suggest that a combination of electrical and tactile stimulation does not yield more effects than application of each type of stimulation separately.

  4. Cognitive stimulation in brainstorming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dugosh, K L; Paulus, P B; Roland, E J; Yang, H C

    2000-11-01

    Research on group brainstorming has demonstrated that it is less effective for generating large numbers of ideas than individual brainstorming, yet various scholars have presumed that group idea sharing should enhance cognitive stimulation and idea production. Three experiments examined the potential of cognitive stimulation in brainstorming. Experiments 1 and 2 used a paradigm in which individuals were exposed to ideas on audiotape as they were brainstorming, and Experiment 3 used the electronic brainstorming paradigm. Evidence was obtained for enhanced idea generation both during and after idea exposure. The attentional set of the participant and the content of the exposure manipulation (number of ideas, presence of irrelevant information) influenced this effect. These results are consistent with a cognitive perspective on group brainstorming.

  5. Sacral nerve stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matzel, K E; Stadelmaier, U; Besendörfer, M

    2004-01-01

    The current concept of recruiting residual function of an inadequate pelvic organ by electrostimulation involves stimulation of the sacral spinal nerves at the level of the sacral canal. The rationale for applying SNS to fecal incontinence was based on clinical observations of its effect on bowel habits and anorectal continence function in urologic patients (increased anorectal angulation and anal canal closure pressure) and on anatomic considerations: dissection demonstrated a dual peripheral nerve supply of the striated pelvic floor muscles that govern these functions. Because the sacral spinal nerve site is the most distal common location of this dual nerve supply, stimulating here can elicit both functions. Since the first application of SNS in fecal incontinence in 1994, this technique has been improved, the patient selection process modified, and the spectrum of indications expanded. At present SNS has been applied in more than 1300 patients with fecal incontinence limited.

  6. Cognitive Stimulation Programs in Healthy Elderly: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Tardif

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This literature paper investigated the efficacy of 14 cognitive intervention programs administered to healthy elderly participants. PsycINFO and PubMed databases were searched using the following terms: cognitive training, cognitive stimulation, elderly, and aging. The majority of participants (13/14 studies were recruited in community. Nine out of 14 studies targeted memory as the principal cognitive function to train or stimulate. Face-name associations, mental imagery, paired associations, and the method of loci were the main techniques taught to participants. Improvements were observed on at least one outcome measure in each study included in this paper. Recommendations to improve cognitive interventions in the healthy elderly are proposed, such as the utilization of more robust experimental designs, the inclusion of measures of generalization of training in daily life, the assessment of instrumental activities of daily living, quality of life, and self-esteem.

  7. Cognitive Stimulation Programs in Healthy Elderly: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tardif, Sarah; Simard, Martine

    2011-01-01

    This literature paper investigated the efficacy of 14 cognitive intervention programs administered to healthy elderly participants. PsycINFO and PubMed databases were searched using the following terms: cognitive training, cognitive stimulation, elderly, and aging. The majority of participants (13/14 studies) were recruited in community. Nine out of 14 studies targeted memory as the principal cognitive function to train or stimulate. Face-name associations, mental imagery, paired associations, and the method of loci were the main techniques taught to participants. Improvements were observed on at least one outcome measure in each study included in this paper. Recommendations to improve cognitive interventions in the healthy elderly are proposed, such as the utilization of more robust experimental designs, the inclusion of measures of generalization of training in daily life, the assessment of instrumental activities of daily living, quality of life, and self-esteem. PMID:21876829

  8. Daily Weather and Children's Physical Activity Patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remmers, Teun; Thijs, Carel; Timperio, Anna; Salmon, J O; Veitch, Jenny; Kremers, Stef P J; Ridgers, Nicola D

    2017-05-01

    Understanding how the weather affects physical activity (PA) may help in the design, analysis, and interpretation of future studies, especially when investigating PA across diverse meteorological settings and with long follow-up periods. The present longitudinal study first aims to examine the influence of daily weather elements on intraindividual PA patterns among primary school children across four seasons, reflecting day-to-day variation within each season. Second, we investigate whether the influence of weather elements differs by day of the week (weekdays vs weekends), gender, age, and body mass index. PA data were collected by ActiGraph accelerometers for 1 wk in each of four school terms that reflect each season in southeast Australia. PA data from 307 children (age range 8.7-12.8 yr) were matched to daily meteorological variables obtained from the Australian Government's Bureau of Meteorology (maximum temperature, relative humidity, solar radiation, day length, and rainfall). Daily PA patterns and their association with weather elements were analyzed using multilevel linear mixed models. Temperature was the strongest predictor of moderate and vigorous PA, followed by solar radiation and humidity. The relation with temperature was curvilinear, showing optimum PA levels at temperatures between 20°C and 22°C. Associations between weather elements on PA did not differ by gender, child's age, or body mass index. This novel study focused on the influence of weather elements on intraindividual PA patterns in children. As weather influences cannot be controlled, knowledge of its effect on individual PA patterns may help in the design of future studies, interpretation of their results, and translation into PA promotion.

  9. Daily lsa-saf evapotranspiration product

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arboleda Rodallega, Alirio; Ghilain, Nicolas; Meulenberghs, Francoise

    2010-05-01

    In the framework of the EUMETSAT's Satellite Application Facility on Land Surface Analysis (LSA-SAF), some models have been implemented in view to characterize continental surfaces by using information obtained from MSG and EPS satellites. In this context a method has been developed in order to monitor the flux of water (Evapotranspiration) between the land surface and the atmosphere. The method is based on a physical approach in which radiative data derived from Meteosat Second Generation (MSG) satellites together with land-cover information are used to constrain a physical model of energy exchange between the soil-vegetation system and the atmosphere. The implemented algorithm provides instantaneous ET estimates over four regions defined in the MSG FOV (the defined regions cover Europe, Africa and the west of south America), with MSG spatial resolution (3km at sub satellite point) and a temporal time step of 30 minutes. The scope of the method is limited to evaporation from terrestrial surfaces rather than from lakes or oceans. The instantaneous product has been validated over different vegetation cover and climatic conditions, providing evidence that the algorithm is able to reproduce ET estimates with accuracy equivalent to the accuracy of ET obtained from observations. In 2009 the instantaneous ET product has been declared pre-operational by EUMETSAT, allowing the product to be disseminated to a larger community of users (http://landsaf.meteo.pt). In some areas like agriculture, hydrology, water management, ecology and climate studies the main concern is not instantaneous but accumulated values over days, months or longer periods. To encompass the need for these community of users, a daily ET product in which daily evapotranspiration is obtained as temporal integration of instantaneous values has been developed. In this contribution we will present the methodology used to obtain instantaneous ET estimates and the procedure applied to derive daily

  10. Large neutral amino acids in daily practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahring, Kirsten Kiær

    2010-01-01

    At the Kennedy Centre for Phenylketonuria, Denmark, large neutral amino acids (LNAAs) are being used to treat adult and adolescent patients who are nonadherent to dietary treatment for phenylketonuria (PKU). At the start of treatment, a patient must undergo dietary analysis and regular blood...... sampling to measure plasma amino acid (AA) concentrations. The aim of this analysis and treatment is that the patient receives 25-30% of the daily protein requirement from LNAA supplementation and the remaining 70-75% from natural, low-phenylalanine proteins (although some patients have difficulties...

  11. Raft River well stimulation experiments: geothermal reservoir well stimulation program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-08-01

    The Geothermal Reservoir Well Stimulation Program (GRWSP) performed two field experiments at the Raft River KGRA in 1979. Wells RRGP-4 and RRGP-5 were selected for the hydraulic fracture stimulation treatments. The well selection process, fracture treatment design, field execution, stimulation results, and pre- and post-job evaluations are presented.

  12. Human Tissue Stimulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-01-01

    Neurodyne Corporation Human Tissue Stimulator (HTS) is a totally implantable system used for treatment of chronic pain and involuntary motion disorders by electrical stimulation. It was developed by Pacesetter Systems, Inc. in cooperation with the Applied Physics Laboratory. HTS incorporates a nickel cadmium battery, telemetry and command systems technologies of the same type as those used in NASA's Small Astronomy Satellite-3 in microminiature proportions so that the implantable element is the size of a deck of cards. The stimulator includes a rechargeable battery, an antenna and electronics to receive and process commands and to report on its own condition via telemetry, a wireless process wherein instrument data is converted to electrical signals and sent to a receiver where signals are presented as usable information. The HTS is targeted to nerve centers or to particular areas of the brain to provide relief from intractable pain or arrest involuntary motion. The nickel cadmium battery can be recharged through the skin. The first two HTS units were implanted last year and have been successful. Extensive testing is required before HTS can be made available for general use.

  13. Penile vibratory stimulation in the recovery of urinary continence and erectile function after nerve-sparing radical prostatectomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fode, Mikkel; Borre, Michael; Ohl, Dana A

    2013-01-01

    were instructed in using a PVS device (FERTI CARE(®) vibrator). Stimulation was performed at the frenulum once daily by the patients in their own homes for at least 1 week before surgery. After catheter removal, daily PVS was re-initiated for a period of 6 weeks. Participants were evaluated at 3, 6...

  14. Self-Stimulated Undulator Klystron

    OpenAIRE

    Bessonov, E. G.; Osipov, A. L.; Mikhailichenko, A. A.

    2011-01-01

    The Self Stimulated Undulator Klystron (SSUK) and its possible applications in the Particle Accelerator Physics, incoherent Self-Stimulated Undulator Radiation Sources (SSUR) and Free-Electron Lasers (FEL) are discussed.

  15. Daily practices of health among sex workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elouyse Fernandes Leitão

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To describe the health practices adopted by sex workers in their daily lives. Methods: A qualitative study that took place at bars where sex workers of Maceió –AL, Brazil, work. The universe of participant subjects was integrated by 15 female sex workers, aged between 20 and 39 years, assisted by the team of a Street Clinic. The research took place between August and October 2011 and women were randomly selected. Data was collected through semi-structured interviews, which were all audio-recorded and transcribed for further analysis and interpretation. Results: Thematic analysis of the data produced and the theoretical framework of health promotion enabled the categorization of the health practices in daily life of these women, such as: prevention of sexually transmitted diseases, body care and aesthetics, physical activity, nutrition, leisure, interpersonal relationships, consumption of alcohol and others drugs, self-medication, and quest for health services. The ways they appropriate themselves of such practices are conditioned by the social vulnerability and economic and sociocultural context they are in. Conclusion: Despite the deficiencies found in the development of these practices, sex workers seek to preserve habits that improve their physical, social and mental health, as well as the pursuit of professional care and services to promote their health.

  16. [Health information in the daily local press].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unzueta Zamalloa, L; Najarro Ajuria, G; Mendíbil Crespo, I; Galán Morales, F; Garay Narvarte, F J

    1998-04-15

    To know how much health-related information is published in the daily local press, type of information; pathologies; practical help offered, and sources. Crossover descriptive study. Community. Health articles (events and publicity excluded) published in the newspapers of Bizkaia: Deia, Egin, Egunkaria, El Correo and El Mundo; sample included all issues from one fortnight of June and one fortnight of September of 1996. 501 articles, which occupied 1.57% of the impressed surface, were published. 90% of the issues had health articles. 19.8% appeared in once-weekly health sections. Subjects considered as health culture were 49.9% scientific and technical information and 9.8% health habits and vaccinations. When compared with the rest of the newspaper, health sections gave more explicit advice (p = 0.04) and diferred in sources of information (p < 0.01). Health articles are almost daily published. The most frequent type was the spread of scientific and technical information. Current information topics are dominant. A few articles give explicit advice or referred to health habits. Acknowledgement of the sources could be improved. It would be desirable to investigate the quality of contents.

  17. Chronic daily headache in the elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özge, Aynur

    2013-12-01

    Disabling headache disorders are ubiquitous in all age groups, including the elderly, yet they are under-recognized, underdiagnosed and undertreated worldwide. Surveys and clinic-based research reports on headache disorders in elderly populations are extremely limited in number. Chronic daily headache (CDH) is an important and growing subtype of primary headache disorders, associated with increased burden and disruption to quality of life. CDH can be divided into two forms, based on headache duration. Common forms of primary headache disorders of long duration (>4 hours) were comprehensively defined in the third edition of the International Classification of Headache Disorders (ICHD-3 beta). These include chronic migraine, chronic tension-type headache, new daily persistent headache, and hemicrania continua. Rarer short-duration (hemicrania, SUNCT, and hypnic headache. Accurate diagnosis, management, and relief of the burden of CDH in the elderly population present numerous unique challenges as the "aging world" continues to grow. In order to implement appropriate coping strategies for the elderly, it is essential to establish the correct diagnosis at each step and to exercise caution in differentiating from secondary causes, while always taking into consideration the unique needs and limitations of the aged body.

  18. Efficacy and safety of ciclesonide once daily and fluticasone propionate twice daily in children with asthma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Søren; Engelstätter, Renate; Weber, Hans-Jochen

    2009-01-01

    the efficacy and safety of ciclesonide with fluticasone propionate in children with mainly moderate and severe persistent asthma. METHODS: Seven hundred and forty-four patients (aged 6-11years) were randomized to ciclesonide (80 or 160mug once daily) or fluticasone propionate (88mug twice daily), following a 2...... excretion, in children with moderate and severe asthma.......BACKGROUND: Ciclesonide is a new inhaled corticosteroid (ICS). Information about its clinical efficacy and safety in relation to other ICS in children is needed for clinical positioning. OBJECTIVE: This 12-week, randomized, double-blind, double-dummy, three-arm, parallel-group study compared...

  19. Spinal Cord Stimulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meier, Kaare

    2014-01-01

    pain after failed back surgery syndrome (FBSS)(4), pain due to peripheral nerve injury, stump pain(5), peripheral vascular disease(6) and diabetic neuropathy(7,8); whereas phantom pain(9), postherpetic neuralgia(10), chronic visceral pain(11), and pain after partial spinal cord injury(12) remain more......Spinal cord stimulation (SCS) is a surgical treatment for chronic neuropathic pain that is refractory to other treatment. Originally described by Shealy et al. in 1967(1), it is used to treat a range of conditions such as complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS I)(2), angina pectoris(3), radicular...

  20. Cognitive profile and activities of daily living

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borgwardt, Line Gutte; Thuesen, A M; Olsen, K J

    2015-01-01

    ) was significantly reduced, between 3-9 years old for the visual function and reasoning battery, between 2.3-10.2 years for the memory screening. Data suggested a specific developmental profile for AM with a positive intellectual development until the chronological age 10-12 years, followed by a static or slightly...... of patients has, despite their intellectual disabilities, a potential for continuous cognitive development, especially during childhood and early teenage years. This should be included and supported in the individual educational planning....... on the cognitive function and activities of daily living in patients with AM. METHODS: Thirty five AM patients, age 6-35 years, were included in the study. As a cognitive function test, we used the Leiter international performance scale-revised (Leiter-R), which consists of two batteries: the visual function...

  1. Appraisal-emotion relationships in daily life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nezlek, John B; Vansteelandt, Kristof; Van Mechelen, Iven; Kuppens, Peter

    2008-02-01

    Using a daily process design, the present study examined relationships between momentary appraisals and emotional experience based on Smith and Lazarus' (1993) theory of emotions (1993). Nine times a day for 2 weeks, participants (N = 33, 23 women) recorded their momentary experience of 2 positive emotions (joy, love) and 4 negative emotions (anger, guilt, fear, sadness) and the core relational theme appraisal contents Smith and Lazarus hypothesized as corresponding to these emotions. A series of multilevel modeling analyses found that the hypothesized relationships between appraisal contents and these emotions were stronger than relationships between contents and other emotions, although appraisals were related to other emotions in many cases. Moreover, there were some individual differences in the strength of these relationships. These results suggest that there are no one-to-one relationships between appraisal contents and specific emotional experiences, and that specific emotions are associated with different appraisal contents, and that specific appraisals are associated with different emotions.

  2. Transition from hospital to daily life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Missel, Malene; Schønau, Mai Nanna; Pedersen, Jesper Holst

    2014-01-01

    PURPOSE: To assess the effect of nurse-led systematic rehabilitation counseling performed before discharge to prevent concerns in the hospital-to-home gap in rehabilitation of lung cancer patients after surgery. DESIGN AND METHOD: A quasi-experimental intervention study. One hundred twenty patients...... with operable non-small cell lung cancer admitted for surgery participated. Outcome was assessed by a validated self-rating questionnaire. The intervention was performed at the Department of Thoracic Surgery, University Hospital of Copenhagen, Denmark. RESULTS: Following nurse-led rehabilitation counseling...... in the transition from hospital to daily life. CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Despite promising results, there is still a need to improve support for patients with lung cancer requiring rehabilitation....

  3. Daily Pill Can Prevent HIV PSA (:60)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2015-11-24

    This 60 second public service announcement (PSA) is based on the November 24, 2015 CDC Vital Signs report. Preexposure prophylaxis, or PrEP, is a daily medicine that can be used to prevent getting HIV. PrEP is for people who don’t have HIV but who are at very high risk for getting it from sex or injection drug use. Unfortunately, many people who can benefit from PrEP aren’t taking it.  Created: 11/24/2015 by National Center for HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention (NCHHSTP).   Date Released: 11/24/2015.

  4. Daily oral iron supplementation during pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peña-Rosas, Juan Pablo; De-Regil, Luz Maria; Dowswell, Therese; Viteri, Fernando E

    2014-01-01

    Background Iron and folic acid supplementation has been the preferred intervention to improve iron stores and prevent anaemia among pregnant women, and it may also improve other maternal and birth outcomes. Objectives To assess the effects of daily oral iron supplements for pregnant women, either alone or in conjunction with folic acid, or with other vitamins and minerals as a public health intervention. Search methods We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group’s Trials Register (2 July 2012). We also searched the WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP) (2 July 2012) and contacted relevant organisations for the identification of ongoing and unpublished studies. Selection criteria Randomised or quasi-randomised trials evaluating the effects of oral preventive supplementation with daily iron, iron + folic acid or iron + other vitamins and minerals during pregnancy. Data collection and analysis We assessed the methodological quality of trials using standard Cochrane criteria. Two review authors independently assessed trial eligibility, extracted data and conducted checks for accuracy. Main results We included 60 trials. Forty-three trials, involving more than 27,402 women, contributed data and compared the effects of daily oral supplements containing iron versus no iron or placebo. Overall, women taking iron supplements were less likely to have low birthweight newborns (below 2500 g) compared with controls (8.4% versus 10.2%, average risk ratio (RR) 0.81; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.68 to 0.97, 11 trials, 8480 women) and mean birthweight was 30.81 g greater for those infants whose mothers received iron during pregnancy (average mean difference (MD) 30.81; 95% CI 5.94 to 55.68, 14 trials, 9385 women). Preventive iron supplementation reduced the risk of maternal anaemia at term by 70% (RR 0.30; 95% CI 0.19 to 0.46, 14 trials, 2199 women) and iron deficiency at term by 57% (RR 0.43; 95% CI 0.27 to 0.66, seven trials, 1256 women

  5. Caloric vestibular stimulation in aphasic syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David eWilkinson

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Caloric vestibular stimulation (CVS is commonly used to diagnose brainstem disorder but its therapeutic application is much less established. Based on the finding that CVS increases blood flow to brain structures associated with language and communication, we assessed whether the procedure has potential to relieve symptoms of post-stroke aphasia. Three participants, each presenting with chronic, unilateral lesions to the left hemisphere, were administered daily CVS for 4 consecutive weeks. Relative to their pre-treatment baseline scores, two of the three participants showed significant improvement on both picture and responsive naming at immediate and one-week follow-up. One of these participants also showed improved sentence repetition, and another showed improved auditory word discrimination. No adverse reactions were reported. These data provide the first, albeit tentative, evidence that CVS may relieve expressive and receptive symptoms of aphasia. A larger, sham-controlled study is now needed to further assess efficacy.

  6. Dioxins: WHO's tolerable daily intake (TDI) revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Leeuwen, F X; Feeley, M; Schrenk, D; Larsen, J C; Farland, W; Younes, M

    2000-01-01

    In December 1990, the World Health Organization (WHO) established a tolerable daily intake (TDI) of 10 pg/kg b.w. (body weight) for TCDD, based on liver toxicity, reproductive effects and immunotoxicity in experimental animals, and making use of kinetic data in humans and experimental animals. Since then new epidemiological and toxicological data have emerged, in particular with respect to neurodevelopmental and endocrine effects of dioxin. Therefore, the European Centre for Environment and Health of the World Health Organization (WHO-ECEH) and the International Programme on Chemical Safety (IPCS) jointly organized a consultation on the "Assessment of the health risk of dioxins: re-evaluation of the TDI", May 1998, Geneva, Switzerland. The participants discussed the health risks for infants, cancer and non-cancer endpoints in humans and animals, mechanistic aspects, kinetic behaviour, modelling, exposure, and the applicability of the toxic equivalency (TEQ) concept. For the health risk assessment of dioxin-like compounds, the WHO Consultation focused on the most sensitive effects that are considered adverse (hormonal, reproductive and developmental effects) seen at low doses in animal studies (rats and monkeys). Human daily intakes corresponding with body burdens similar to those associated with adverse effects in animals could be estimated to be in the range of 14-37 pg/kg b.w./day. To arrive at a TDI expressed as TEQ, a composite uncertainty factor of 10 was recommended. By applying this uncertainty factor a TDI range of 1-4 pg TEQs/kg body weight was established. An extensive executive summary of the results of this WHO Consultation with all the underlying background documents will be published in Food Additives and Contaminants (in press).

  7. Cognitive Stimulation in Patients with Dementia: Randomized Controlled Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Mapelli

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: This study explores the effective outcomes of a structured cognitive stimulation treatment to improve cognition and behavioral symptoms in people with dementia (PWDs, using a randomized controlled clinical trial. Methods: Thirty PWDs were divided into three groups: experimental (treated with cognitive stimulation, placebo (treated with occupational therapy, and control (continuing with the usual activities of the nursing home. Assessment, at baseline and after a period of 8 weeks, was performed using the Clinical Dementia Rating Scale, activities of daily living, Mini-Mental State Examination, Esame Neuropsicologico Breve 2, Geriatric Depression Scale and Behavioral Pathology in Alzheimer's Disease Scale. Results: Only the experimental group improved its performance in cognitive tests (p Conclusions: The results suggest that a cognitive stimulation treatment for PWDs would improve not only their cognition, but also behavioral symptoms.

  8. [Behavior of acid secretion under the long-term daily administration of omeprazol].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dammann, H G; Müller, P; Seitz, H K; Simon, B

    1983-06-18

    The effect of the substituted benzimidazole omeprazole on acid secretion after repeated administration to healthy volunteers has been studied. During repeated dosage of 30 mg once daily inhibition of basal and pentagastrin-stimulated acid output was increased from 30% after the first dose to about 60% after dose 4. The extent of inhibition did not further increase between day 5 and day 10. In four volunteers acid secretion returned to predose levels within 5 days after drug withdrawal. The 24-hour gastric acidity was reduced by about 72% and 82% after 9-day pretreatment with 30 mg and 60 mg omeprazole respectively. The antisecretory effect of omeprazole was independent of peak plasma concentrations. Omeprazole given once daily therefore possesses a long-lasting effect on gastric acid secretion, i.e. for more than 24 hours. This effect appears to be fully reversible since control levels of acid output are reached within 5 days.

  9. Daily Aspirin May Help Prevent Some Recurrent Miscarriages

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_163515.html Daily Aspirin May Help Prevent Some Recurrent Miscarriages Approach seemed ... as simple as taking a daily low-dose aspirin could help prevent a recurrence. The intervention appears ...

  10. School playground facilities as a determinant of children's daily activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Glen; Bugge, Anna; Hermansen, Bianca;

    2012-01-01

    This study investigates the influence of school playground facilities on children's daily physical activity.......This study investigates the influence of school playground facilities on children's daily physical activity....

  11. School playground facilities as a determinant of children's daily activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Glen; Bugge, Anna; Hermansen, Bianca

    2012-01-01

    This study investigates the influence of school playground facilities on children's daily physical activity.......This study investigates the influence of school playground facilities on children's daily physical activity....

  12. 10 Daily Servings of Fruits, Veggies a Recipe for Longevity

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 10 daily servings of produce, 7.8 million premature deaths would be avoided each year worldwide, the British ... disease (13 percent); cancer risk (4 percent); and premature death (15 percent). The results for 10 daily servings ...

  13. Climate Prediction Center (CPC) US daily temperature analyses

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The U.S. daily temperature analyses are maps depicting various temperature quantities utilizing daily maximum and minimum temperature data across the US. Maps are...

  14. CDC WONDER: Daily Air Temperatures and Heat Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Daily Air Temperature and Heat Index data available on CDC WONDER are county-level daily average air temperatures and heat index measures spanning the years...

  15. Daily Job Demands and Employee Work Engagement: The Role of Daily Transformational Leadership Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breevaart, Kimberley; Bakker, Arnold B

    2017-03-30

    Using job demands-resources (JD-R) theory, the present study integrates the challenge stressor-hindrance stressor framework and leadership theory to investigate the relationship between daily transformational leadership behavior and employee work engagement. We hypothesized that daily transformational leadership behavior (a) sustains employee work engagement on days characterized by high challenge job demands, and (b) protects work engagement on days characterized by high hindrance job demands. Teachers filled out a short online questionnaire at the end of each workday during a 2-week period (N = 271 × 5.68 days = 1539). Results of latent moderated structural equation modeling showed that teachers' daily challenge demands (workload and cognitive demands) had a positive relationship with work engagement on the days transformational leadership was high (vs. low). In addition, teachers' daily hindrance demands (role-conflict, but not family to work conflict) had a negative relationship with work engagement on the days transformational leadership was low (vs. high). These findings show that the function of transformational leadership behavior changes from day to day, and depends on the type of job demand. We discuss the practical and theoretical implications of these findings. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  16. Central nervous system stimulants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, A J

    2000-03-01

    Three major types of CNS stimulant are currently abused in sport: amphetamine, cocaine and caffeine. Each drug type has its own characteristic mechanism of action on CNS neurones and their associated receptors and nerve terminals. Amphetamine is widely abused in sports requiring intense anaerobic exercise where it prolongs the tolerance to anaerobic metabolism. It is addictive, and chronic abuse causes marked behavioural change and sometimes psychosis. Major sports abusing amphetamine are cycling, American football, ice-hockey and baseball. Cocaine increases tolerance to intense exercise, yet most of its chronic effects on energy metabolism are negative. Its greatest effects seem to be as a central stimulant and the enhancement of short-term anaerobic exercise. It is highly addictive and can cause cerebral and cardiovascular fatalities. Caffeine enhances fatty acid metabolism leading to glucose conservation, which appears to benefit long-distance endurance events such as skiing. Caffeine is also addictive, and chronic abuse can lead to cardiac damage. Social abuse of each of the three drugs is often difficult to distinguish from their abuse in sport.

  17. Parkinson's disease patients with bilateral subthalamic deep brain stimulation gain weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macia, Frédéric; Perlemoine, Caroline; Coman, Irène; Guehl, Dominique; Burbaud, Pierre; Cuny, Emmanuel; Gin, Henri; Rigalleau, Vincent; Tison, François

    2004-02-01

    Weight, body mass index (BMI) and energy expenditure/energy intake (EE/EI) was studied in 19 Parkinson's disease (PD) patients after subthalamic deep brain stimulation (STN-DBS) versus 14 nonoperated ones. Operated patients had a significant weight gain (WG, + 9.7 +/- 7 kg) and BMI increase (+ 4.7 kg/m2). The fat mass was higher after STN-DBS. Resting EE (REE; offdrug/ON stimulation) was significantly decreased in STN-DBS patients, while their daily energy expenditure (DEI) was not significantly different. A significant correlation was found among WG, BMI increase, and pre-operative levodopa-equivalent daily dose, their reduction after STN-DBS, and the differential REE related to stimulation and the REE in the offdrug/OFF stimulation condition. In conclusion, STN-DBS in PD induces a significant WG associated with a reduction in REE without DEI adjustment.

  18. 20 CFR 330.3 - Daily rate of compensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Daily rate of compensation. 330.3 Section 330.3 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD REGULATIONS UNDER THE RAILROAD UNEMPLOYMENT INSURANCE ACT DETERMINATION OF DAILY BENEFIT RATES § 330.3 Daily rate of compensation. (a) Definition....

  19. 20 CFR 330.2 - Computation of daily benefit rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Computation of daily benefit rate. 330.2 Section 330.2 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD REGULATIONS UNDER THE RAILROAD UNEMPLOYMENT INSURANCE ACT DETERMINATION OF DAILY BENEFIT RATES § 330.2 Computation of daily benefit rate. (a)...

  20. How do COPD patients distribute their daily activities?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tabak, Monique; Vollenbroek-Hutten, Miriam Marie Rosé; van der Valk, P.; van der Palen, Jacobus Adrianus Maria; Tönis, Thijs; Hermens, Hermanus J.

    2011-01-01

    Better insight in daily activity behaviour of COPD patients is needed as a first step to enable a tailoring of their treatment. The objective of this study was to measure the daily activity of COPD patients and to compare the daily activity distribution with asymptomatic controls, using triaxial acc

  1. Development of chronic daily headache : A clinical study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spierings, E.L.H.; Schroevers, M.; Honkoop, P.C.; Sorbi, M.

    1998-01-01

    We studied the development of chronic daily headache in 258 headache practice patients, 50 men and 208 women. Chronic daily headache was defined as headaches occurring at least 5 days per week for at least 1 year. Twenty-two percent of the patients had daily headaches from the onset, and 78% initial

  2. Transcranial brain stimulation: closing the loop between brain and stimulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karabanov, Anke; Thielscher, Axel; Siebner, Hartwig Roman

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To discuss recent strategies for boosting the efficacy of noninvasive transcranial brain stimulation to improve human brain function. RECENT FINDINGS: Recent research exposed substantial intra- and inter-individual variability in response to plasticity-inducing transcranial brain...... transcranial brain stimulation. Priming interventions or paired associative stimulation can be used to ‘standardize’ the brain-state and hereby, homogenize the group response to stimulation. Neuroanatomical and neurochemical profiling based on magnetic resonance imaging and spectroscopy can capture trait......-related and state-related variability. Fluctuations in brain-states can be traced online with functional brain imaging and inform the timing or other settings of transcranial brain stimulation. State-informed open-loop stimulation is aligned to the expression of a predefined brain state, according to prespecified...

  3. Investigation of daily covering material for biocells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bendere, R.; Smigins, R.; Medne, O.; Berzina-Cimdina, L.; Rugele, K.

    2014-02-01

    Bioreactor landfilling, with the acceptance of landfill Directive 1999/31/EC has lost its actuality in European Union; at the same time, this method can still be used for acceleration of biowaste degradation and biogas production. One of the possibilities to reduce the disposal of biowaste is to use biocells for its anaerobic pre-treatment before landfilling. The daily filling up of such a cell requires isolation of the main volume to limit gas emissions, reduce smells, etc. Bioprocesses that are of the utmost importance for biocell treatment are often not taken into account in selection of materials to be used as daily landfill covers. Based on physical, chemical and biological methods the investigations have been carried out into different covering materials offered in the market, with identification of parameters that are the most important for daily covering the biocells. It is found that the materials fitted best this purpose should be of biological origin and consist of small bio-particles with large surface, without the inhibitors of anaerobic processes such as sulphuric compounds. Bioreaktoru pielietošana atkritumu uzglabāšanas sfērā, sakarā ar Direktīvas 1999/31/EC pieņemšanu, ir zaudējusi savu aktualitāti, taču šī metode vēl joprojām var tikt izmantota bioatkritumu noārdīšanai un biogāzes ražošanai. Viena no iespējām kā samazināt bioatkritumu izvietošanu ir biošūnu izmantošana bioatkritumu anaerobai pirmsapstrādei pirms to noglabāšanas. Šūnas piepildīšana ikdienā prasa nepieciešamību izolēt lielāko tās daļu, lai samazinātu gāzes emisiju, smakas, utt. Materiāli, kas ikdienā tiek izmantoti atkritumu pārklāšanai, nepietiekami ietekmē bioprocesus, kas pamatā ir galvenais biošūnas izmantošanas mērķis. Šajā sakarā ir veikta dažādu tirdzniecībā pieejamu pārklājuma materiālu izpēte, pielietojot virkni fizikālo, ķīmisko un bioloģisko metožu, un nosakot svarīgākos parametrus, kas ir b

  4. Brain stimulation for intractable epilepsy: Anterior thalamus and responsive stimulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vibhor Krishna

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite medications, resective surgery, and vagal nerve stimulation, some patients with epilepsy continue to have seizures. In these patients, other approaches are urgently needed. The biological basis of stimulation of anterior thalamic nucleus and epileptogenic focus is presented. Results from two large randomized controlled trials Stimulation of Anterior Nucleus of Thalamus for Epilepsy (SANTE and Neuropace pivotal trial are discussed. Neuromodulation provides effective treatment for a select group of refractory epilepsy patients. Future investigations into the mechanism underlying ′response′ to brain stimulation are desired.

  5. Collective stimulated Brillouin scatter

    CERN Document Server

    Korotkevich, Alexander O; Rose, Harvey A

    2011-01-01

    We develop a statistical theory of stimulated Brillouin backscatter (BSBS) of a spatially and temporally partially incoherent laser beam for laser fusion relevant plasma. We find a new collective regime of BSBS which has a much larger threshold than the classical threshold of a coherent beam in long-scale-length laser fusion plasma. We identify two contributions to BSBS convective instability increment. The first is collective with intensity threshold independent of the laser correlation time and controlled by diffraction. The second is independent of diffraction, it grows with increase of the correlation time and does not have an intensity threshold. The instability threshold is inside the typical parameter region of National Ignition Facility (NIF). We also find that the bandwidth of KrF-laser-based fusion systems would be large enough to allow additional suppression of BSBS.

  6. Collective stimulated Brillouin backscatter

    CERN Document Server

    Lushnikov, Pavel M

    2007-01-01

    We develop the statistical theory of the stimulated Brillouin backscatter (BSBS) instability of a spatially and temporally partially incoherent laser beam for laser fusion relevant plasma. We find a new regime of BSBS which has a much larger threshold than the classical threshold of a coherent beam in long-scale-length laser fusion plasma. Instability is collective because it does not depend on the dynamics of isolated speckles of laser intensity, but rather depends on averaged beam intensity. We identify convective and absolute instability regimes. Well above the incoherent threshold the coherent instability growth rate is recovered. The threshold of convective instability is inside the typical parameter region of National Ignition Facility (NIF) designs although current NIF bandwidth is not large enough to insure dominance of collective instability and suggests lower instability threshold due to speckle contribution. In contrast, we estimate that the bandwidth of KrF-laser-based fusion systems would be larg...

  7. Myeloperoxidase Stimulates Neutrophil Degranulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grigorieva, D V; Gorudko, I V; Sokolov, A V; Kostevich, V A; Vasilyev, V B; Cherenkevich, S N; Panasenko, O M

    2016-08-01

    Myeloperoxidase, heme enzyme of azurophilic granules in neutrophils, is released into the extracellular space in the inflammation foci. In neutrophils, it stimulates a dose-dependent release of lactoferrin (a protein of specific granules), lysozyme (a protein of specific and azurophilic granules), and elastase (a protein of azurophilic granules). 4-Aminobenzoic acid hydrazide, a potent inhibitor of peroxidase activity of myeloperoxidase, produced no effect on neutrophil degranulation. Using signal transduction inhibitors (genistein, methoxyverapamil, wortmannin, and NiCl2), we demonstrated that myeloperoxidase-induced degranulation of neutrophils resulted from enzyme interaction with the plasma membrane and depends on activation of tyrosine kinases, phosphatidylinositol 3-kinases (PI3K), and calcium signaling. Myeloperoxidase modified by oxidative/halogenation stress (chlorinated and monomeric forms of the enzyme) lost the potency to activate neutrophil degranulation.

  8. Stimulated Cavity-Optomechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Bahl, Gaurav; Tomes, Matthew; Carmon, Tal

    2011-01-01

    Stimulated Brillouin interaction between sound and light, known to be the strongest optical nonlinearity common to all amorphous and crystalline dielectrics, has been widely studied in fibers and bulk materials but rarely in optical microresonators. The possibility of experimentally extending this principle to excite mechanical resonances in photonic microsystems, for sensing and frequency reference applications, has remained largely unexplored. The challenge lies in the fact that microresonators inherently have large free spectral range, while the phase matching considerations for the Brillouin process require optical modes of nearby frequencies but with different wavevectors. We rely on high-order transverse optical modes to relax this limitation. Here we report on the experimental excitation of mechanical resonances ranging from 49 to 1400 MHz by using forward Brillouin scattering. These natural mechanical resonances are excited in ~100 um silica microspheres, and are of a surface-acoustic whispering-galle...

  9. Non-stationarity in daily and sub-daily intense rainfall – Part 1: Sydney, Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Jakob

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available This study was driven by a need to clarify how variations in climate might affect intense rainfall and the potential for flooding. Sub-daily durations are of particular interest for urban applications. Worldwide, few such observation-based studies exist, which is mainly due to limitations in data. While there are still large discrepancies between precipitation data sets from observations and models, both show that there is a tendency for moist regions to become wetter and for dry regions to become drier. However, changes in extreme conditions may show the opposite sign to those in average conditions. Where changes in observed intense precipitation have been studied, this has typically been for daily durations or longer.

    The purpose of this two-part study is to examine daily and sub-daily rainfall extremes for evidence of non-stationarity. Here the problem was addressed by supplementing one long record (Part 1 by a set of shorter records for a 30-yr concurrent period (Part 2. Variations in frequency and magnitude of rainfall extremes across durations from 6 min to 72 h were assessed using data from sites in the south-east of Australia. For the analyses presented in this paper, a peaks-over-threshold approach was chosen since it allows investigating changes in frequency as well as magnitude. Non-parametric approaches were used to assess changes in frequency, magnitude, and quantile estimates as well as the statistical significance of changes for one station (Sydney Observatory Hill for the period 1921 to 2005. Deviations from the long-term average vary with season, duration, and threshold. The effects of climate variations are most readily detected for the highest thresholds. Deviations from the long-term average tend to be larger for frequencies than for magnitudes, and changes in frequency and magnitude may have opposite signs.

    Investigations presented in this paper show that variations in frequency and magnitude of events at

  10. Stimulated coherent transition radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hung-chi Lihn

    1996-03-01

    Coherent radiation emitted from a relativistic electron bunch consists of wavelengths longer than or comparable to the bunch length. The intensity of this radiation out-numbers that of its incoherent counterpart, which extends to wavelengths shorter than the bunch length, by a factor equal to the number of electrons in the bunch. In typical accelerators, this factor is about 8 to 11 orders of magnitude. The spectrum of the coherent radiation is determined by the Fourier transform of the electron bunch distribution and, therefore, contains information of the bunch distribution. Coherent transition radiation emitted from subpicosecond electron bunches at the Stanford SUNSHINE facility is observed in the far-infrared regime through a room-temperature pyroelectric bolometer and characterized through the electron bunch-length study. To measure the bunch length, a new frequency-resolved subpicosecond bunch-length measuring system is developed. This system uses a far-infrared Michelson interferometer to measure the spectrum of coherent transition radiation through optical autocorrelation with resolution far better than existing time-resolved methods. Hence, the radiation spectrum and the bunch length are deduced from the autocorrelation measurement. To study the stimulation of coherent transition radiation, a special cavity named BRAICER is invented. Far-infrared light pulses of coherent transition radiation emitted from electron bunches are delayed and circulated in the cavity to coincide with subsequent incoming electron bunches. This coincidence of light pulses with electron bunches enables the light to do work on electrons, and thus stimulates more radiated energy. The possibilities of extending the bunch-length measuring system to measure the three-dimensional bunch distribution and making the BRAICER cavity a broadband, high-intensity, coherent, far-infrared light source are also discussed.

  11. PHYSIOLOGICAL RESPONSES AND MOOD STATES AFTER DAILY REPEATED PROLONGED EXERCISE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilkka Väänänen

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to describe the physiological responses to daily repeated acute but non-competitive prolonged exercise during a 4-day march and a 2-day cross-country ski event to the cardiorespiratory, autonomic nervous, musculoskeletal and endocrine systems. Mood states were also evaluated after these repeated exercises. The data of these short-term follow-up (reversal field trials was collected from healthy, 23 to 48 year old Finnish male soldiers in 1993 (n=6 and 1994 (n=15 during the "International Four-Day Long-Distance March" in Nijmegen, The Netherlands, and from ten healthy, 22 to 48 year old Finnish male participants in 1995 during a 2-day Finlandia Ski Race in Lahti, Finland. Acute cardiovascular responses were estimated by measuring the heart rate during exercise. The responses of the autonomic nervous system were estimated by measuring the heart rates during the orthostatic test. The musculoskeletal responses were estimated by measuring the perceived pains, flexibility, functional strength, use of elastic energy and oedemic changes of the lower extremities. Hormonal responses were estimated from the urinary excretion of catecholamines, and the concentrations of serum cortisol, testosterone, luteinizing (LH and follicle stimulating hormone (FSH. Mood states were assessed with the Profile of Mood States (POMS questionnaire. Daily walking time was 7-10 hours while the skiing time was 3 hours. Average heart rate during walking was 59% and skiing 87% of maximum heart rate. Morning heart rate in the supine position increased progressively through the marching period but not through the skiing experiment. After the first day, perceived pain increased significantly and remained at a similarly increased level until the end of the exercise period. Leg measurements showed no signs of oedema, decreases in flexibility, or functional strength. Catecholamine excretion rates during marches indicated cumulatively increased

  12. Minimal hepatic encephalopathy matters in daily life

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jasmohan S Bajaj

    2008-01-01

    Minimal hepatic encephalopathy is a neuro-cognitive dysfunction which occurs in an epidemic proportion of cirrhotic patients, estimated as high as 80% of the population tested. It is characterized by a specific, complex cognitive dysfunction which is independent of sleep dysfunction or problems with overall intelligence. Although named "minimal", minimal hepatic encephalopathy (MHE) can have a far-reaching impact on quality of life, ability to function in daily life and progression to overt hepatic encephalopathy. Importantly, MHE has a profound negative impact on the ability to drive a car and may be a significant factor behind motor vehicle accidents. A crucial aspect of the clinical care of MHE patients is their driving history, which is often ignored in routine care and can add a vital dimension to the overall disease assessment. Driving history should be an integral part of care in patients with MHE. The lack of specific signs and symptoms, the preserved communication skills and lack of insight make MHE a difficult condition to diagnose. Diagnostic strategies for MHE abound, but are usually limited by financial, normative or time constraints. Recent studies into the inhibitory control and critical flicker frequency tests are encouraging since these tests can increase the rates of MHE diagnosis without requiring a psychologist. Although testing for MHE and subsequent therapy is not standard of care at this time, it is important to consider this in cirrhotics in order to improve their ability to live their life to the fullest.

  13. Sarcopenia in daily practice: assessment and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaudart, Charlotte; McCloskey, Eugène; Bruyère, Olivier; Cesari, Matteo; Rolland, Yves; Rizzoli, René; Araujo de Carvalho, Islène; Amuthavalli Thiyagarajan, Jotheeswaran; Bautmans, Ivan; Bertière, Marie-Claude; Brandi, Maria Luisa; Al-Daghri, Nasser M; Burlet, Nansa; Cavalier, Etienne; Cerreta, Francesca; Cherubini, Antonio; Fielding, Roger; Gielen, Evelien; Landi, Francesco; Petermans, Jean; Reginster, Jean-Yves; Visser, Marjolein; Kanis, John; Cooper, Cyrus

    2016-10-05

    Sarcopenia is increasingly recognized as a correlate of ageing and is associated with increased likelihood of adverse outcomes including falls, fractures, frailty and mortality. Several tools have been recommended to assess muscle mass, muscle strength and physical performance in clinical trials. Whilst these tools have proven to be accurate and reliable in investigational settings, many are not easily applied to daily practice. This paper is based on literature reviews performed by members of the European Society for Clinical and Economic Aspects of Osteoporosis and Osteoarthritis (ESCEO) working group on frailty and sarcopenia. Face-to-face meetings were afterwards organized for the whole group to make amendments and discuss further recommendations. This paper proposes some user-friendly and inexpensive methods that can be used to assess sarcopenia in real-life settings. Healthcare providers, particularly in primary care, should consider an assessment of sarcopenia in individuals at increased risk; suggested tools for assessing risk include the Red Flag Method, the SARC-F questionnaire, the SMI method or different prediction equations. Management of sarcopenia should primarily be patient centered and involve the combination of both resistance and endurance based activity programmes with or without dietary interventions. Development of a number of pharmacological interventions is also in progress. Assessment of sarcopenia in individuals with risk factors, symptoms and/or conditions exposing them to the risk of disability will become particularly important in the near future.

  14. Optically stimulated differential impedance spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maxey, Lonnie C; Parks, II, James E; Lewis, Sr., Samuel A; Partridge, Jr., William P

    2014-02-18

    Methods and apparatuses for evaluating a material are described. Embodiments typically involve use of an impedance measurement sensor to measure the impedance of a sample of the material under at least two different states of illumination. The states of illumination may include (a) substantially no optical stimulation, (b) substantial optical stimulation, (c) optical stimulation at a first wavelength of light, (d) optical stimulation at a second wavelength of light, (e) a first level of light intensity, and (f) a second level of light intensity. Typically a difference in impedance between the impedance of the sample at the two states of illumination is measured to determine a characteristic of the material.

  15. Electrical stimulation and muscle strengthening

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Dehail, P; Duclos, C; Barat, M

    2008-01-01

    ...: muscular or neuromuscular, electromyostimulation, electrical stimulation, strengthening, strength training, immobilization, muscle dystrophy, bed-rest, bed-bound, knee or hip surgery, postoperative...

  16. Primary hypothyroidism in the community: Lower daily dosages of levothyroxine replacement therapy for Asian patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Ngiap Chuan; Chew, Rong Quan; Koh, Yi Ling Eileen; Subramanian, Reena Chandini; Sankari, Usha; Meyappan, Meykkumar; Cho, Li Wei

    2017-02-01

    The goal of treatment in patients with primary hypothyroidism is to attain euthyroidism guided by the stipulated thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) levels range so as to minimize any potential long-term adverse effects. However, various factors may result in their Levothyroxine (T4) under and over-replacement.Our study aimed to evaluate the mean daily dose of L-T4 replacement for Asian patients with primary hypothyroidism. The secondary aims were to determine the proportion of those who were either over or under-replaced, and the factors associated with their thyroid function status and replacement adherence.Data collected using questionnaire survey from targeted patients managed in a typical public primary care center in Singapore: socio-demographic characteristics, clinical parameters, laboratory investigations, mean daily L-T4-replacement doses, and replacement regimens. The thyroid status of patients was classified based on thyroid function investigations.Complete data of 229 patients were analyzed. A total of 59.8% of patients had TSH within the normal range, 27.5% and 12.7% were under and over-replaced, respectively. About 60% of Asian patients with primary hypothyroidism achieved normal TSH status requiring average of 1.1 μg of daily L-T4/kgBW (kg body weight). Subjects who were over-replaced had a higher daily L-T4 dose/kgBW when compared to the euthyroid and the under replaced groups. Those with L-T4 over-replacement were largely due to excessive dosage. Patients who were younger, from lower socioeconomic strata, and higher BMI were more likely to be over or under-replaced.Majority of Asian patients with hypothyroidism required replacement of 1.1 μg of daily L-T4/kgBW. Their thyroid status was influenced by demographic and dosing factors.

  17. An examination of psychopathology and daily impairment in adolescents with social anxiety disorder.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franklin Mesa

    Full Text Available Although social anxiety disorder (SAD is most often diagnosed during adolescence, few investigations have examined the clinical presentation and daily functional impairment of this disorder exclusively in adolescents. Prior studies have demonstrated that some clinical features of SAD in adolescents are unique relative to younger children with the condition. Furthermore, quality of sleep, a robust predictor of anxiety problems and daily stress, has not been examined in socially anxious adolescents. In this investigation, social behavior and sleep were closely examined in adolescents with SAD (n = 16 and normal control adolescents (NC; n = 14. Participants completed a self-report measure and an actigraphy assessment of sleep. Social functioning was assessed via a brief speech and a social interaction task, during which heart rate and skin conductance were measured. Additionally, participants completed a daily social activity journal for 1 week. No differences were observed in objective or subjective quality of sleep. Adolescents with SAD reported greater distress during the analogue social tasks relative to NC adolescents. During the speech task, adolescents with SAD exhibited a trend toward greater speech latency and spoke significantly less than NC adolescents. Additionally, SAD participants manifested greater skin conductance during the speech task. During the social interaction, adolescents with SAD required significantly more confederate prompts to stimulate interaction. Finally, adolescents with SAD reported more frequent anxiety-provoking situations in their daily lives, including answering questions in class, assertive communication, and interacting with a group. The findings suggest that, although adolescents with SAD may not exhibit daily impaired sleep, the group does experience specific behavioral and physiological difficulties in social contexts regularly. Social skills training may be a critical component in therapeutic approaches

  18. Effects of Converting Tacrolimus Formulation from Twice-Daily to Once-Daily in Liver Transplantation Recipients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashok Thorat

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Typically, tacrolimus is administrated twice daily. Prolonged-release tacrolimus is the once-daily formulation and may be more convenient for patients. Experience with the administration of the once-daily formulation is still limited. This study enrolled 210 liver transplant recipients who had stable liver function and converted tacrolimus from a twice-daily to once-daily formulation on a 1 mg to 1 mg basis. Among 210 patients, seven patients (3.3% were withdrawn from the once-daily formulation due to allergy and fatigue. For the other patients, the trough concentration after converting to the once-daily formulation was lower than that of the twice-daily formulation. Liver enzymes were mildly elevated in 3 months after formulation conversion and serum creatinine and uric acid were mildly decreased. Seven patients (3.4% had clinical suspicion of acute rejection after the formulation conversion and three of them were caused by nonadherence. 155 patients (76.4% experienced a more convenient life with an increase of social activity. Forty-seven patients (23.2% experienced the convenience of once-daily formulation during overseas trips. In conclusion, tacrolimus can be safely converted from the twice-daily to the once-daily formulation for most stable liver recipients. Acute rejection may occur in a minority of patients during formulation conversion and should be carefully monitored.

  19. Daily oral iron supplementation during pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peña-Rosas, Juan Pablo; De-Regil, Luz Maria; Garcia-Casal, Maria N; Dowswell, Therese

    2015-07-22

    Iron and folic acid supplementation has been the preferred intervention to improve iron stores and prevent anaemia among pregnant women, and it is thought to improve other maternal and birth outcomes. To assess the effects of daily oral iron supplements for pregnant women, either alone or in conjunction with folic acid, or with other vitamins and minerals as a public health intervention in antenatal care. We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group's Trials Register (10 January 2015). We also searched the WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP) (26 February 2015) and contacted relevant organisations for the identification of ongoing and unpublished studies (26 February 2015) . Randomised or quasi-randomised trials evaluating the effects of oral preventive supplementation with daily iron, iron + folic acid or iron + other vitamins and minerals during pregnancy. We assessed the methodological quality of trials using standard Cochrane criteria. Two review authors independently assessed trial eligibility, extracted data and conducted checks for accuracy. We used the GRADE approach to assess the quality of the evidence for primary outcomes.We anticipated high heterogeneity among trials and we pooled trial results using a random-effects model and were cautious in our interpretation of the pooled results: the random-effects model gives the average treatment effect. We included 61 trials. Forty-four trials, involving 43,274 women, contributed data and compared the effects of daily oral supplements containing iron versus no iron or placebo.Preventive iron supplementation reduced maternal anaemia at term by 70% (risk ratio (RR) 0.30; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.19 to 0.46, 14 trials, 2199 women, low quality evidence), iron-deficiency anaemia at term (RR 0.33; 95% CI 0.16 to 0.69, six trials, 1088 women), and iron deficiency at term by 57% (RR 0.43; 95% CI 0.27 to 0.66, seven trials, 1256 women, low quality evidence). There were no clear

  20. Medication-Overuse Headache: Differences between Daily and Near-Daily Headache Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abouch V. Krymchantowski

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Medication-overuse headache (MOH is a challenging neurological disease, which brings frustration for sufferers and treating physicians. The patient’s lack of adherence and limited treatment evidence are frequent. The aim of this study was to compare the outcome and treatment strategies between consecutive MOH patients with daily and near-daily headache from a tertiary center. Methods: Every consecutive patient seen between January and December 2014 with the diagnosis of MOH was included. Psychiatric comorbidities, inability to inform baseline headache frequency, current or previous two-month use of preventive medications, and refusal to sign informed consent were exclusion criteria. The patients were evaluated in thorough initial consultations and divided in two groups based on their baseline headache frequency. The diagnosis and treatment strategies were clearly explained. The filling out of a detailed headache diary was requested from all patients. Endpoints compared headache frequency and adherence after two, four, and eight months between the two study groups. Results: One-hundred sixty-eight patients (31 male, 137 female met the inclusion criteria. Nineteen patients (11.3% were excluded. All patients had migraine or chronic migraine as primary headaches. Eighty had daily (DH, and 69 near-daily headache (NDH, at baseline consultation. Mean baseline frequency was 24.8 headache days/month (18.9 days/month for the near-daily group, average headache history was 20.6 years and mean time with >15 headache days/month was 4.8 years. Outpatient withdrawal, starting prevention, and enforcing the correct use of rescue therapy was carried out with all patients. After two months, 88% of the DH and 71% of the NDH groups adhered to treatment (p = 0.0002. The HF decreased to 12 and 9 headache days/month, respectively in DH and NDH groups (p > 0.05, non-significant (Intention-to-treat (ITT 14 DH; 12 NDH; p > 0.05. After four and eight months, 86.3% and 83

  1. Laser stimulation can activate autophagy in HeLa cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yisen; Lan, Bei; He, Hao; Hu, Minglie; Cao, Youjia; Wang, Chingyue

    2014-10-01

    For decades, lasers have been a daily tool in most biological research for fluorescent excitation by confocal or multiphoton microscopy. More than 20 years ago, cell photodamage caused by intense laser stimulation was noticed by generating reactive oxygen species, which was then thought as the main damage effect by photons. In this study, we show that laser stimulation can induce autophagy, an important cell lysosomal pathway responding to immune stimulation and starvation, without any biochemical treatment. Two different types of laser stimulations are found to be capable of activating autophagy: continuous scanning by continuous-wave visible lasers and a short-time flash of femtosecond laser irradiation. The autophagy generation is independent from wavelength, power, and scanning duration of the visible lasers. In contrast, the power of femtosecond laser is very critical to autophagy because the multiphoton excited Ca2+ dominates autophagy signaling. In general, we show here the different mechanisms of autophagy generation by such laser stimulation, which correspond to confocal microscopy and cell surgery, respectively. Those results can help further understanding of photodamage and autophagy signaling.

  2. Laser stimulation can activate autophagy in HeLa cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Yisen; Hu, Minglie; Wang, Chingyue [Ultrafast Laser Laboratory, Key Laboratory of Optoelectronic Information Technology (Ministry of Education), College of Precision Instrument and Optoelectronics Engineering, Tianjin University, Tianjin (China); Lan, Bei; Cao, Youjia [Key Laboratory of Microbial Functional Genomics of Ministry of Education, College of Life Sciences, Nankai University, Tianjin (China); He, Hao, E-mail: haohe@tju.edu.cn [Ultrafast Laser Laboratory, Key Laboratory of Optoelectronic Information Technology (Ministry of Education), College of Precision Instrument and Optoelectronics Engineering, Tianjin University, Tianjin (China); Med-X Research Institute, School of Biomedical Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai (China)

    2014-10-27

    For decades, lasers have been a daily tool in most biological research for fluorescent excitation by confocal or multiphoton microscopy. More than 20 years ago, cell photodamage caused by intense laser stimulation was noticed by generating reactive oxygen species, which was then thought as the main damage effect by photons. In this study, we show that laser stimulation can induce autophagy, an important cell lysosomal pathway responding to immune stimulation and starvation, without any biochemical treatment. Two different types of laser stimulations are found to be capable of activating autophagy: continuous scanning by continuous-wave visible lasers and a short-time flash of femtosecond laser irradiation. The autophagy generation is independent from wavelength, power, and scanning duration of the visible lasers. In contrast, the power of femtosecond laser is very critical to autophagy because the multiphoton excited Ca{sup 2+} dominates autophagy signaling. In general, we show here the different mechanisms of autophagy generation by such laser stimulation, which correspond to confocal microscopy and cell surgery, respectively. Those results can help further understanding of photodamage and autophagy signaling.

  3. EOR by stimulated microflora

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Svarovskaya, L.I.; Altunina, L.K.; Rozhenkova, Z.A.; Bulavin, V.D. [Institute of Petroleum Chemistry, Tomsk (Russian Federation)

    1995-12-31

    A combined microbiological and physico-chemical method for EOR has been developed for flooded West Siberia oil fields with formation temperature of 45{degrees}-95{degrees}C (318-365K). Formation water includes rich and various biocenoses numbering up to 2 x 10{sup 7} cells per ml. Representatives of genera, i.e, Pseudomonas, Bacillus, Actinomyces, Micrococcus, Mycobacterium, Sarcina, etc. were found to be the most widely distributed microorganisms. The method is based on injection of systems exhibiting high oil displacing capacity and at the same time being an additional nitrous nutrient for endemic populations of microorganisms. Their injection into formation water favors biomass growth by 4-6 orders and promotes syntheses of biosurfactants, biopolymers, acids, etc., and gaseous products. The features of residual oil displacement have been studied on laboratory models using a combined microbiological and physico-chemical method. A curve for the yield of residual oil is presented by two peaks. The first peak is stipulated by the washing action of oil displacement system, and the second one by the effect of metabolites produced at stimulation of biogenic processes. Oil displacement index increases by 15%-30%.

  4. Stimulating Language: Insights from TMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devlin, Joseph T.; Watkins, Kate E.

    2007-01-01

    Fifteen years ago, Pascual-Leone and colleagues used transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) to investigate speech production in pre-surgical epilepsy patients and in doing so, introduced a novel tool into language research. TMS can be used to non-invasively stimulate a specific cortical region and transiently disrupt information processing. These…

  5. Low intensity transcranial electric stimulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Antal, Andrea; Alekseichuk, I; Bikson, M

    2017-01-01

    Low intensity transcranial electrical stimulation (TES) in humans, encompassing transcranial direct current (tDCS), transcutaneous spinal Direct Current Stimulation (tsDCS), transcranial alternating current (tACS), and transcranial random noise (tRNS) stimulation or their combinations, appears...... following stimulation as well as prickling and burning sensations occurring during tDCS at peak-to-baseline intensities of 1-2mA and during tACS at higher peak-to-peak intensities above 2mA. The prevalence of published AEs is different in studies specifically assessing AEs vs. those not assessing them......, being higher in the former. AEs are frequently reported by individuals receiving placebo stimulation. The profile of AEs in terms of frequency, magnitude and type is comparable in healthy and clinical populations, and this is also the case for more vulnerable populations, such as children, elderly...

  6. Light intensity, photoperiod duration, daily light flux and coral growth of Galaxea fascicularis in an aquarium setting: a matter of photons?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schutter, M.; Ven, R.M.; Janse, M.; Verreth, J.A.J.; Wijffels, R.H.; Osinga, R.

    2012-01-01

    Light is one of the most important abiotic factors influencing the (skeletal) growth of scleractinian corals. Light stimulates coral growth by the process of light-enhanced calcification, which is mediated by zooxanthellar photosynthesis. However, the quantity of light that is available for daily

  7. Light intensity, photoperiod duration, daily light flux and coral growth of Galaxea fascicularis in an aquarium setting: a matter of photons?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schutter, M.; Ven, R.M.; Janse, M.; Verreth, J.A.J.; Wijffels, R.H.; Osinga, R.

    2012-01-01

    Light is one of the most important abiotic factors influencing the (skeletal) growth of scleractinian corals. Light stimulates coral growth by the process of light-enhanced calcification, which is mediated by zooxanthellar photosynthesis. However, the quantity of light that is available for daily co

  8. Twice-Daily versus Once-Daily Pramipexole Extended Release Dosage Regimens in Parkinson’s Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji Young Yun

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This open-label study aimed to compare once-daily and twice-daily pramipexole extended release (PER treatment in Parkinson’s disease (PD. PD patients on dopamine agonist therapy, but with unsatisfactory control, were enrolled. Existing agonist doses were switched into equivalent PER doses. Subjects were consecutively enrolled into either once-daily-first or twice-daily-first groups and received the prescribed amount in one or two, respectively, daily doses for 8 weeks. For the second period, subjects switched regimens in a crossover manner. The forty-four patients completed a questionnaire requesting preference during their last visit. We measured the UPDRS-III, Hoehn and Yahr stages (H&Y in medication-on state, Parkinson’s disease sleep scale (PDSS, and Epworth Sleepiness Scale. Eighteen patients preferred a twice-daily regimen, 12 preferred a once-daily regimen, and 14 had no preference. After the trial, 14 subjects wanted to be on a once-daily regimen, 25 chose a twice-daily regimen, and 5 wanted to maintain the prestudy regimen. Main reasons for choosing the twice-daily regimen were decreased off-duration, more tolerable off-symptoms, and psychological stability. The mean UPDRS-III, H&Y, and PDSS were not different. Daytime sleepiness was significantly high in the once-daily regimen, whereas nocturnal hallucinations were more common in the twice-daily. Multiple dosing should be considered if once-daily dosing is unsatisfactory. This study is registered as NCT01515774 at ClinicalTrials.gov.

  9. Development and Validation of a Daily Pain Catastrophizing Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darnall, Beth D; Sturgeon, John A; Cook, Karon F; Taub, Chloe J; Roy, Anuradha; Burns, John W; Sullivan, Michael; Mackey, Sean C

    2017-09-01

    To date, there is no validated measure for pain catastrophizing at the daily level. The Pain Catastrophizing Scale (PCS) is widely used to measure trait pain catastrophizing. We sought to develop and validate a brief, daily version of the PCS for use in daily diary studies to facilitate research on mechanisms of catastrophizing treatment, individual differences in self-regulation, and to reveal the nuanced relationships between catastrophizing, correlates, and pain outcomes. After adapting the PCS for daily use, we evaluated the resulting 14 items using 3 rounds of cognitive interviews with 30 adults with chronic pain. We refined and tested the final daily PCS in 3 independent, prospective, cross-sectional, observational validation studies conducted in a combined total of 519 adults with chronic pain who completed online measures daily for 14 consecutive days. For study 1 (N = 131), exploratory factor analysis revealed adequate fit and-unexpectedly-unidimensionality for item responses to the daily PCS. Study 2 (N = 177) correlations indicated adequate association with related constructs (anger, anxiety, pain intensity, depression). Similarly, results for study 3 (N = 211) revealed expected correlations for daily PCS and measures of daily constructs including physical activity, sleep, energy level, and positive affect. Results from complex/multilevel confirmatory factor analysis confirmed good fit to a unidimensional model. Scores on the daily PCS were statistically comparable with and more parsimonious than the full 14-item version. Next steps include evaluation of score validity in populations with medical diagnoses, greater demographic diversity, and in patients with acute pain. This article describes the development and validation of a daily PCS. This daily measure may facilitate research that aims to characterize pain mechanisms, individual differences in self-regulation, adaptation, and nuanced relationships between catastrophizing, correlates, and pain

  10. Peripheral electrical stimulation in Alzheimer's disease - A randomized controlled trial on cognition and behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dijk, Koene R.A.; Scheltens, Philip; Luijpen, Marijn W.; Sergeant, Joseph A.; Scherder, Erik J.A.

    2005-01-01

    In a number of studies, peripheral electrical nerve stimulation has been applied to Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients who lived in a nursing home. Improvements were observed in memory, verbal fluency, affective behavior, activities of daily living and on the rest-activity rhythm and pupillary light

  11. Electrical stimulation alters FMD and arterial compliance in extremely inactive legs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groot, P.C.E. de; Crozier, J.; Rakobowchuk, M.; Hopman, M.T.E.; MacDonald, M.

    2005-01-01

    PURPOSE: The main aim of the study was to assess the effect and time course of 4 wk of electrically induced leg training on arterial compliance and endothelial function. METHODS: Six spinal cord-injured (SCI) individuals participated in 4 wk of daily one-leg functional electrical stimulation (FES) t

  12. Peripheral electrical stimulation in Alzheimer's disease - A randomized controlled trial on cognition and behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dijk, KRA; Scheltens, P; Luijpen, MW; Sergeant, JA; Scherder, EJA

    2005-01-01

    In a number of studies, peripheral electrical nerve stimulation has been applied to Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients who lived in a nursing home. Improvements were observed in memory, verbal fluency, affective behavior, activities of daily living and on the rest-activity rhythm and pupillary light

  13. Long term clinical outcome of peripheral nerve stimulation in patients with chronic peripheral neuropathic pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Calenbergh, F. Van; Gybels, J.; Laere, K. Van

    2009-01-01

    examination. The assessments were done both during habitual use of PNS and with the stimulator off. RESULTS: Average pain intensity and pain unpleasantness ratings as assessed with visual analog and verbal rating scales showed significant beneficial effects of PNS. Quality of life measures (sleep and daily...

  14. Daily meal frequency and associated variables in children and adolescents

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Silva, Fabiana A; Candiá, Samara M; Pequeno, Marina S; Sartorelli, Daniela S; Mendes, Larissa L; Oliveira, Renata M.S; Netto, Michele P; Cândido, Ana Paula C

    2017-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the frequency distribution of daily meals and its relation to demographic, socioeconomic, behavioral, anthropometric and biochemical factors in children and adolescents. Methods...

  15. Cuidados cotidianos Cuidados cotidianos Daily care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria José Coelho

    2010-10-01

    in a 527-bed hospital, with data collection using the nursing notes. RESULTS: Care movement; client conditions; client situations; the care that took place was one from the moment the client checked in to the moment he checked out of the hospital. Conclusion: The data consolidate what observed in the Hospital Routine: that the recovery of the client is not over within the possibilities of attention and balance of the organic ills predicted by the cure of these subjects, based on the model which identifies the cure as well as the pathology as the main references. From the total number of patients, a great number were able to leave the hospital, which shows the impact/result of the care received during their recovery, and a complex network in a continuous and daily chain in those three axis.

  16. Nanomaterial-enabled neural stimulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongchen eWang

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Neural stimulation is a critical technique in treating neurological diseases and investigating brain functions. Traditional electrical stimulation uses electrodes to directly create intervening electric fields in the immediate vicinity of neural tissues. Second-generation stimulation techniques directly use light, magnetic fields or ultrasound in a non-contact manner. An emerging generation of non- or minimally invasive neural stimulation techniques is enabled by nanotechnology to achieve a high spatial resolution and cell-type specificity. In these techniques, a nanomaterial converts a remotely transmitted primary stimulus such as a light, magnetic or ultrasonic signal to a localized secondary stimulus such as an electric field or heat to stimulate neurons. The ease of surface modification and bio-conjugation of nanomaterials facilitates cell-type-specific targeting, designated placement and highly localized membrane activation. This review focuses on nanomaterial-enabled neural stimulation techniques primarily involving opto-electric, opto-thermal, magneto-electric, magneto-thermal and acousto-electric transduction mechanisms. Stimulation techniques based on other possible transduction schemes and general consideration for these emerging neurotechnologies are also discussed.

  17. Nanomaterial-Enabled Neural Stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yongchen; Guo, Liang

    2016-01-01

    Neural stimulation is a critical technique in treating neurological diseases and investigating brain functions. Traditional electrical stimulation uses electrodes to directly create intervening electric fields in the immediate vicinity of neural tissues. Second-generation stimulation techniques directly use light, magnetic fields or ultrasound in a non-contact manner. An emerging generation of non- or minimally invasive neural stimulation techniques is enabled by nanotechnology to achieve a high spatial resolution and cell-type specificity. In these techniques, a nanomaterial converts a remotely transmitted primary stimulus such as a light, magnetic or ultrasonic signal to a localized secondary stimulus such as an electric field or heat to stimulate neurons. The ease of surface modification and bio-conjugation of nanomaterials facilitates cell-type-specific targeting, designated placement and highly localized membrane activation. This review focuses on nanomaterial-enabled neural stimulation techniques primarily involving opto-electric, opto-thermal, magneto-electric, magneto-thermal and acousto-electric transduction mechanisms. Stimulation techniques based on other possible transduction schemes and general consideration for these emerging neurotechnologies are also discussed.

  18. Neuromuscular electrical stimulation for mobility support of elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Winfried Mayr

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The stimulator for neuromuscular electrical stimulation for mobility support of elderly is not very complicated, but for application within "MOBIL" we have some additional demands to fulfill. First we have specific safety issues for this user group. A powerful compliance management system is crucial not only to guide daily application, but for creating hard data for the scientific outcome. We also need to assure easy handling of the stimulator, because the subjects are generally not able to cope with too difficult and complex motor skills. So, we developed five generations of stimulators and optimizing solutions after field tests. We are already planning the sixth generation with wireless control of the stimulation units by the central main handheld control unit. In a prototype, we have implemented a newly available high capacity memory, a breakthrough in “compliance data storage” as they offer the necessary high storage capacity and fast data handling for an affordable prize. The circuit also contains a 3D accelerometer sensor which acts as a further important safety features: if the control unit drops, this event is detected automatically by the sensor and activates an emergency switch-off that disables the stimulation to avoid associated risks. Further, we have implemented a hardware emergence shutdown and other safety measures. Finally, in the last example muscle torque measurements are referenced with compliance data. In the study normalized maximum voluntary contraction (MVC and maximum stimulation induced contraction (MSC were assessed in regular check-ups along the training period. With additional consideration of adjusted stimulation intensity for training out of the compliance data records we are able to estimate the induced contraction strength, which turned out to amount in average 11% of MVC. This value may seem on a first sight rather low, and ought to be considered in relation to the results at the end of the training period

  19. Vagal nerve stimulation therapy: what is being stimulated?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guy Kember

    Full Text Available Vagal nerve stimulation in cardiac therapy involves delivering electrical current to the vagal sympathetic complex in patients experiencing heart failure. The therapy has shown promise but the mechanisms by which any benefit accrues is not understood. In this paper we model the response to increased levels of stimulation of individual components of the vagal sympathetic complex as a differential activation of each component in the control of heart rate. The model provides insight beyond what is available in the animal experiment in as much as allowing the simultaneous assessment of neuronal activity throughout the cardiac neural axis. The results indicate that there is sensitivity of the neural network to low level subthreshold stimulation. This leads us to propose that the chronic effects of vagal nerve stimulation therapy lie within the indirect pathways that target intrinsic cardiac local circuit neurons because they have the capacity for plasticity.

  20. Digital electronic bone growth stimulator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kronberg, James W. (Aiken, SC)

    1995-01-01

    A device for stimulating bone tissue by applying a low level alternating current signal directly to the patient's skin. A crystal oscillator, a binary divider chain and digital logic gates are used to generate the desired waveforms that reproduce the natural electrical characteristics found in bone tissue needed for stimulating bone growth and treating osteoporosis. The device, powered by a battery, contains a switch allowing selection of the correct waveform for bone growth stimulation or osteoporosis treatment so that, when attached to the skin of the patient using standard skin contact electrodes, the correct signal is communicated to the underlying bone structures.

  1. Digital electronic bone growth stimulator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kronberg, J.W.

    1995-05-09

    A device is described for stimulating bone tissue by applying a low level alternating current signal directly to the patient`s skin. A crystal oscillator, a binary divider chain and digital logic gates are used to generate the desired waveforms that reproduce the natural electrical characteristics found in bone tissue needed for stimulating bone growth and treating osteoporosis. The device, powered by a battery, contains a switch allowing selection of the correct waveform for bone growth stimulation or osteoporosis treatment so that, when attached to the skin of the patient using standard skin contact electrodes, the correct signal is communicated to the underlying bone structures. 5 figs.

  2. Electrical stimulation in exercise training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroll, Walter

    1994-01-01

    Electrical stimulation has a long history of use in medicine dating back to 46 A.D. when the Roman physician Largus found the electrical discharge of torpedo fishes useful in the treatment of pain produced by headache and gout. A rival Greek physician, Dioscorides, discounted the value of the torpedo fish for headache relief but did recommend its use in the treatment of hemorrhoids. In 1745, the Leyden jar and various sized electrostatic generators were used to treat angina pectoris, epilepsy, hemiplegia, kidney stones, and sciatica. Benjamin Franklin used an electrical device to treat successfully a young woman suffering from convulsive fits. In the late 1800's battery powered hydroelectric baths were used to treat chronic inflammation of the uterus while electrified athletic supporters were advertised for the treatment of male problems. Fortunately, such an amusing early history of the simple beginnings of electrical stimulation did not prevent eventual development of a variety of useful therapeutic and rehabilitative applications of electrical stimulation. Over the centuries electrical stimulation has survived as a modality in the treatment of various medical disorders with its primary application being in the rehabilitation area. Recently, a surge of new interest in electrical stimulation has been kindled by the work of a Russian sport scientist who reported remarkable muscle strength and endurance improvements in elite athletes. Yakov Kots reported his research on electric stimulation and strength improvements in 1977 at a Canadian-Soviet Exchange Symposium held at Concordia University in Montreal. Since then an explosion of new studies has been seen in both sport science and in medicine. Based upon the reported works of Kots and the present surge of new investigations, one could be misled as to the origin of electrical stimulation as a technique to increase muscle strength. As a matter of fact, electric stimulation has been used as a technique to improve

  3. Capturing daily urban rhythms: the use of location aware technologies

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Krygsman, S

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available that activities and travel behaviour are believed to be habitual and recurring. Aggregating such individual behaviour leads to so-called daily urban rhythms. Knowledge of these daily urban rhythms is important as they are indicative of temporal and spatial user...

  4. 19 CFR 159.35 - Certified daily rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... TREASURY (CONTINUED) LIQUIDATION OF DUTIES Conversion of Foreign Currency § 159.35 Certified daily rate. The daily buying rate of foreign currency which is determined by the Federal Reserve Bank of New York... the conversion of foreign currency whenever a proclaimed rate or certified quarterly rate is...

  5. 7 CFR 59.301 - Mandatory Daily Reporting for Lambs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Mandatory Daily Reporting for Lambs. 59.301 Section 59... (CONTINUED) LIVESTOCK MANDATORY REPORTING Lamb Reporting § 59.301 Mandatory Daily Reporting for Lambs. (a) In... prices for lambs (per hundredweight) established on that day as F.O.B. feedlot or delivered at the...

  6. Presentation of chronic daily headache : A clinical study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spierings, E L H; Schroevers, M.; Honkoop, P.C.; Sorbi, M.

    1998-01-01

    We studied the presentation of chronic daily headache in 258 patients from a private headache practice, 50 men and 208 women. Chronic daily headache was defined as headaches, occurring at least 5 days per week for at least 1 year. Seventy-seven percent of the patients experienced the onset of headac

  7. Probability Distribution and Projected Trends of Daily Precipitation in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CAO; Li-Ge; ZHONG; Jun; SU; Bu-Da; ZHAI; Jian-Qing; Macro; GEMMER

    2013-01-01

    Based on observed daily precipitation data of 540 stations and 3,839 gridded data from the high-resolution regional climate model COSMO-Climate Limited-area Modeling(CCLM)for 1961–2000,the simulation ability of CCLM on daily precipitation in China is examined,and the variation of daily precipitation distribution pattern is revealed.By applying the probability distribution and extreme value theory to the projected daily precipitation(2011–2050)under SRES A1B scenario with CCLM,trends of daily precipitation series and daily precipitation extremes are analyzed.Results show that except for the western Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau and South China,distribution patterns of the kurtosis and skewness calculated from the simulated and observed series are consistent with each other;their spatial correlation coefcients are above 0.75.The CCLM can well capture the distribution characteristics of daily precipitation over China.It is projected that in some parts of the Jianghuai region,central-eastern Northeast China and Inner Mongolia,the kurtosis and skewness will increase significantly,and precipitation extremes will increase during 2011–2050.The projected increase of maximum daily rainfall and longest non-precipitation period during flood season in the aforementioned regions,also show increasing trends of droughts and floods in the next 40 years.

  8. Presentation of chronic daily headache : A clinical study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spierings, E L H; Schroevers, M.; Honkoop, P.C.; Sorbi, M.

    1998-01-01

    We studied the presentation of chronic daily headache in 258 patients from a private headache practice, 50 men and 208 women. Chronic daily headache was defined as headaches, occurring at least 5 days per week for at least 1 year. Seventy-seven percent of the patients experienced the onset of headac

  9. 49 CFR 236.586 - Daily or after trip test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Daily or after trip test. 236.586 Section 236.586..., Train Control and Cab Signal Systems Inspection and Tests; Locomotive § 236.586 Daily or after trip test... calendar day or within 24 hours before departure upon each trip. (b) Each equipped locomotive shall be...

  10. Pilot study of vibration stimulation on neurological rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sui, Jianfeng; Shull, Pete; Ji, Linhong

    2014-01-01

    Robot-assisted therapy has been proved effective for dyskinesia, and has many unique advantages compared with traditional treatment, such as repeatability, accuracy, objectivity. But some studies show that the effect of the robot-assisted rehabilitation for improving patients' activities of daily life (ADLs) is not obvious. This study introduces a novel auxiliary method-vibration stimulation combined with robots which may improve patients' ADLs. In controlled trials, two kinds of feedback-vibration and visual feedback are applied to prompt subjects for rehabilitation, and electromyographic signals (EMGs) and motion parameters are recorded in real time. Experimental results show that subjects' EMGs using vibration feedback are similar to healthy people, and characteristics of motion are closer to the theoretical value compared with control group. Vibration stimulation may serve as a kind of efficient auxiliary means to improve the efficiency of neurological rehabilitation.

  11. The Management of Catatonia in Bipolar Disorder with Stimulants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waheed K. Bajwa

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Catatonia, while not a rare occurrence in bipolar disorder, has not been widely discussed in the literature. We present a case of a married Caucasian male with a history of bipolar disorder, exhibiting catatonia and experiencing difficulty in day-to-day functioning. He demonstrated impairment in cognition and an inability to organize simple activities of daily life. After exhausting a number of options for medical management, including benzodiazepines, atypical antipsychotics, and amantadine, he only displayed significant clinical improvement with the addition of a stimulant, methylphenidate. In time, the patient saw a complete return to normal functioning. The use of stimulants for catatonia in bipolar disorder may be an interesting and effective option for treatment. While this is not the first time this treatment has been suggested, there is very little data in support of it; our case confirms the discoveries of previous case reports.

  12. Technical Rebuilding of Movement Function Using Functional Electrical Stimulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gföhler, Margit

    To rebuild lost movement functions, neuroprostheses based on functional electrical stimulation (FES) artificially activate skeletal muscles in corresponding sequences, using both residual body functions and artificial signals for control. Besides the functional gain, FES training also brings physiological and psychological benefits for spinal cord-injured subjects. In this chapter, current stimulation technology and the main components of FES-based neuroprostheses including enhanced control systems are presented. Technology and application of FES cycling and rowing, both approaches that enable spinal cord-injured subjects to participate in mainstream activities and improve their health and fitness by exercising like able-bodied subjects, are discussed in detail, and an overview of neuroprostheses that aim at restoring movement functions for daily life as walking or grasping is given.

  13. Neural stimulation and recording electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cogan, Stuart F

    2008-01-01

    Electrical stimulation of nerve tissue and recording of neural electrical activity are the basis of emerging prostheses and treatments for spinal cord injury, stroke, sensory deficits, and neurological disorders. An understanding of the electrochemical mechanisms underlying the behavior of neural stimulation and recording electrodes is important for the development of chronically implanted devices, particularly those employing large numbers of microelectrodes. For stimulation, materials that support charge injection by capacitive and faradaic mechanisms are available. These include titanium nitride, platinum, and iridium oxide, each with certain advantages and limitations. The use of charge-balanced waveforms and maximum electrochemical potential excursions as criteria for reversible charge injection with these electrode materials are described and critiqued. Techniques for characterizing electrochemical properties relevant to stimulation and recording are described with examples of differences in the in vitro and in vivo response of electrodes.

  14. Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation for Schizophrenia

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Dougall, Nadine; Maayan, Nicola; Soares-Weiser, Karla; McDermott, Lisa M; McIntosh, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    .... One proposed alternative to drug treatments is transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS). To date, many research trials to assess effectiveness of TMS for people with symptoms of schizophrenia have been conducted worldwide...

  15. Magnetic Brain Stimulation in ADHD

    OpenAIRE

    2001-01-01

    Transcranial magnetic brain stimulation was performed in 27 children and adolescents, aged 4 to 18 years, with ADHD in the Services of Pediatric Neurology and Clinical Neurophysiology, Miguel Servet Hospital, Zaragoza, Spain.

  16. A fuzzy recommendation system for daily water intake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin Dai

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Water is one of the most important constituents of the human body. Daily consumption of water is thus necessary to protect human health. Daily water consumption is related to several factors such as age, ambient temperature, and degree of physical activity. These factors are generally difficult to express with exact numerical values. The main objective of this article is to build a daily water intake recommendation system using fuzzy methods. This system will use age, physical activity, and ambient temperature as the input factors and daily water intake values as the output factor. The reasoning mechanism of the fuzzy system can calculate the recommended value of daily water intake. Finally, the system will compare the actual recommended values with our system to determine the usefulness. The experimental results show that this recommendation system is effective in actual application.

  17. Daily vs twice daily enoxaparin in the prevention of venous thromboembolic disorders during rehabilitation following acute spinal cord injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hebbeler, Sara L; Marciniak, Christina M; Crandall, Susan; Chen, David; Nussbaum, Steven; Mendelewski, Susan

    2004-01-01

    Subcutaneous administration of low molecular weight heparin (eg, enoxaparin) has been shown to be safe and effective in the prevention of acute venous thromboembolic (TE) disease following acute spinal cord injury (SCI) in the rehabilitation setting. However, emerging evidence suggests that different dosing strategies may be equivalent. To determine whether subcutaneous enoxaparin, 40 mg once daily, when compared with subcutaneous enoxaparin, 30 mg twice daily, is equally safe and effective in the prevention of venous TE disease in patients with SCI. Retrospective chart review. A freestanding, inpatient, acute, rehabilitation hospital. One hundred and twenty-nine patients admitted from June 2000 through June 2002 for inpatient rehabilitation following an acute SCI who received either enoxaparin, 40 mg once daily, or enoxaparin, 30 mg twice daily, for prophylaxis for TE disease. Equivalent prophylaxis efficacy was seen in both enoxaparin groups. Symptomatic venous thromboembolism did not differ, with deep vein thromboses occurring in 1 of 49 (2.0%) patients receiving twice-daily enoxaparin, and 1 of 80 (1.25%) patients receiving once-daily enoxaparin (chi2 = 0.125, NS). Pulmonary embolism was seen in 1 of 49 (2.0%) patients treated with twice-daily enoxaparin and in none of the patients in the once-daily group (chi2 = 1.64, NS). Bleeding complications also did not differ between the 2 treatment groups; these were observed in 2 of 49 (4.1%) patients receiving twice-daily enoxaparin and in 5 of 80 (6.3%) patients receiving once-daily enoxaparin (chi2 = 0.228, NS). Subcutaneous enoxaparin administered once or twice daily is equally effective for the prevention of venous TE disease. Both dosing strategies are associated with a low incidence of bleeding in patients with SCI who are undergoing rehabilitation.

  18. Transcranial electrical stimulation: An introduction

    CERN Document Server

    Tarazona, Carlos G; Chávez, Laura; Andrade, Sebastián

    2015-01-01

    The main objective of the electrical stimulation of the brain is to generate action potentials from the application of electromagnetic fields. Among the available techniques, transcranial electrical stimulation (TES) represents a popular method of administration that has the advantage of being non-invasive and economically more affordable. This article aims to briefly introduce the reader into the understanding of TES in terms of the physics involved as well as for some of the relevant results of studies applying this technique.

  19. Pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of boosted once-daily darunavir.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakuda, Thomas N; Brochot, Anne; Tomaka, Frank L; Vangeneugden, Tony; Van De Casteele, Tom; Hoetelmans, Richard M W

    2014-10-01

    The ability to dose antiretroviral agents once daily simplifies the often complex therapeutic regimens required for the successful treatment of HIV infection. Thus, once-daily dosing can lead to improved patient adherence to medication and, consequently, sustained virological suppression and reduction in the risk of emergence of drug resistance. Several trials have evaluated once-daily darunavir/ritonavir in combination with other antiretrovirals (ARTEMIS and ODIN trials) or as monotherapy (MONET, MONOI and PROTEA trials) in HIV-1-infected adults. Data from ARTEMIS and ODIN demonstrate non-inferiority of once-daily darunavir/ritonavir against a comparator and, together with pharmacokinetic data, have established the suitability of once-daily darunavir/ritonavir for treatment-naive and treatment-experienced patients with no darunavir resistance-associated mutations. The findings of ARTEMIS and ODIN have led to recent updates to treatment guidelines, whereby once-daily darunavir/ritonavir, given with other antiretrovirals, is now a preferred treatment option for antiretroviral-naive adult patients and a simplified treatment option for antiretroviral-experienced adults who have no darunavir resistance-associated mutations. Once-daily dosing with darunavir/ritonavir is an option for treatment-naive and for treatment-experienced paediatric patients with no darunavir resistance-associated mutations based on the findings of the DIONE trial and ARIEL substudy. This article reviews the pharmacokinetics, efficacy, safety and tolerability of once-daily boosted darunavir. The feasibility of darunavir/ritonavir monotherapy as a treatment approach for some patients is also discussed. Finally, data on a fixed-dose combination of 800/150 mg of darunavir/cobicistat once daily are presented, showing comparable darunavir bioavailability to that obtained with 800/100 mg of darunavir/ritonavir once daily. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British

  20. Short-term effects of daily air pollution on mortality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan Mahiyuddin, Wan Rozita; Sahani, Mazrura; Aripin, Rasimah; Latif, Mohd Talib; Thach, Thuan-Quoc; Wong, Chit-Ming

    2013-02-01

    The daily variations of air pollutants in the Klang Valley, Malaysia, which includes Kuala Lumpur were investigated for its association with mortality counts using time series analysis. This study located in the tropic with much less seasonal variation than typically seen in more temperate climates. Data on daily mortality for the Klang Valley (2000-2006), daily mean concentrations of air pollutants of PM10, SO2, CO, NO2, O3, daily maximum O3 and meteorological conditions were obtained from Malaysian Department of Environment. We examined the association between pollutants and daily mortality using Poisson regression while controlling for time trends and meteorological factors. Effects of the pollutants (Relative Risk, RR) on current-day (lag 0) mortality to seven previous days (lag 7) and the effects of the pollutants from the first two days (lag 01) to the first eight days (lag 07) were determined. We found significant associations in the single-pollutant model for PM10 and the daily mean O3 with natural mortality. For the daily mean O3, the highest association was at lag 05 (RR = 1.0215, 95% CI = 1.0013-1.0202). CO was found not significantly associated with natural mortality, however the RR's of CO were found to be consistently higher than PM10. In spite of significant results of PM10, the magnitude of RR's of PM10 was not important for natural mortality in comparison with either daily mean O3 or CO. There is an association between daily mean O3 and natural mortality in a two-pollutants model after adjusting for PM10. Most pollutants except SO2, were significantly associated with respiratory mortality in a single pollutant model. Daily mean O3 is also important for respiratory mortality, with over 10% of mortality associated with every IQR increased. These findings are noteworthy because seasonal confounding is unlikely in this relatively stable climate, by contrast with more temperate regions.

  1. Correlation between prescribed daily dose, seizure freedom and defined daily dose in antiepileptic drug treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horváth, László; Fekete, Klára; Márton, Sándor; Fekete, István

    2017-04-01

    Background Although defined daily doses (DDD) for antiepileptic drugs (AED) have been assigned only in combination therapy, based on the literature, most patients take them in monotherapy. Furthermore, discrepancies between DDD and prescribed daily dose (PDD) were observed. Objective First, to determine PDDs of AEDs and to reveal PDD/DDD ratio among seizure free versus not seizure free patients in everyday clinical practice. Second, to test the applicability of 75% cut-off of DDD to achieve seizure freedom. Furthermore, to find out what factors might influence PDD. Setting Outpatient data files at a Hungarian university hospital were studied. Methods A retrospective, 20-year cross-sectional database was compiled from 1282 epileptic outpatients' files. Main outcome measure Seizure freedom and PDD were used as outcome measures. Results The mean DDD% of all prescribed AEDs increased steadily from monotherapy, through bitherapy towards polytherapy (p seizure free patients took AEDs in doses in the range of ≤75% of DDDs in monotherapy and bitherapy. Older AEDs (carbamazepine and valproate) were given in a significantly higher mean dose in bitherapy in the seizure free group. Among the newer types, only levetiracetam and lamotrigine had a significantly higher DDD% in mono-, bi-, and polytherapy. Confirmed by logistic regression analysis, gender, age, type of epilepsy, and number of AEDs had a significant impact on the value of 75% DDD. Conclusion No significant unfavourable impact of the lower ratio of PDD/DDD on the outcome of achieving seizure freedom has been confirmed. As a measure of seizure freedom, 75% of DDD may be used, although individual therapy must be emphasised. Precisely quantified DDD would provide a more accurate calculation of other derived values.

  2. Effects of non-invasive brain stimulation on associative memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matzen, Laura E; Trumbo, Michael C; Leach, Ryan C; Leshikar, Eric D

    2015-10-22

    Associative memory refers to remembering the association between two items, such as a face and a name. It is a crucial part of daily life, but it is also one of the first aspects of memory performance that is impacted by aging and by Alzheimer's disease. Evidence suggests that transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) can improve memory performance, but few tDCS studies have investigated its impact on associative memory. In addition, no prior study of the effects of tDCS on memory performance has systematically evaluated the impact of tDCS on different types of memory assessments, such as recognition and recall tests. In this study, we measured the effects of tDCS on associative memory performance in healthy adults, using both recognition and recall tests. Participants studied face-name pairs while receiving either active (30 min, 2 mA) or sham (30 min, 0.1 mA) stimulation with the anode placed at F9 and the cathode placed on the contralateral upper arm. Participants in the active stimulation group performed significantly better on the recall test than participants in the sham group, recalling 50% more names, on average, and making fewer recall errors. However, the two groups did not differ significantly in terms of their performance on the recognition memory test. This investigation provides evidence that stimulation at the time of study improves associative memory encoding, but that this memory benefit is evident only under certain retrieval conditions.

  3. Deep Brain Stimulation for Parkinson's Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... You are here Home » Disorders » All Disorders Deep Brain Stimulation for Parkinson's Disease Information Page Deep Brain Stimulation for Parkinson's Disease Information Page Search Disorders ...

  4. Neuroprotection trek--the next generation: neuromodulation I. Techniques--deep brain stimulation, vagus nerve stimulation, and transcranial magnetic stimulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, Russell J.

    2003-01-01

    Neuromodulation denotes controlled electrical stimulation of the central or peripheral nervous system. The three forms of neuromodulation described in this paper-deep brain stimulation, vagus nerve stimulation, and transcranial magnetic stimulation-were chosen primarily for their demonstrated or potential clinical usefulness. Deep brain stimulation is a completely implanted technique for improving movement disorders, such as Parkinson's disease, by very focal electrical stimulation of the brain-a technique that employs well-established hardware (electrode and pulse generator/battery). Vagus nerve stimulation is similar to deep brain stimulation in being well-established (for the treatment of refractory epilepsy), completely implanted, and having hardware that can be considered standard at the present time. Vagus nerve stimulation differs from deep brain stimulation, however, in that afferent stimulation of the vagus nerve results in diffuse effects on many regions throughout the brain. Although use of deep brain stimulation for applications beyond movement disorders will no doubt involve placing the stimulating electrode(s) in regions other than the thalamus, subthalamus, or globus pallidus, the use of vagus nerve stimulation for applications beyond epilepsy-for example, depression and eating disorders-is unlikely to require altering the hardware significantly (although stimulation protocols may differ). Transcranial magnetic stimulation is an example of an external or non-implanted, intermittent (at least given the current state of the hardware) stimulation technique, the clinical value of which for neuromodulation and neuroprotection remains to be determined.

  5. Low Frequency Electrical Stimulation Either Prior to Or after Rapid Kindling Stimulation Inhibits the Kindling-Induced Epileptogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalilifar, Mostafa; Moazedi, Ahmad Ali; Ghotbeddin, Zohreh

    2017-01-01

    Objective. Studies are ongoing to find appropriate low frequency stimulation (LFS) protocol for treatment of epilepsy. The present study aimed at assessing the antiepileptogenesis effects of LFS with the same protocol applied either just before or immediately after kindling stimulations. Method. This experimental animal study was conducted on adult Wistar rats (200 ± 20 g) randomly divided into kindle (n = 7), LFS + Kindle (n = 6), and Kindle + LFS groups (n = 6). All animals underwent rapid kindling procedure and four packages of LFS (1 Hz) with 5 min interval were applied either immediately before (LFS-K) or after kindling stimulation (K-LFS). The after discharge duration (ADD), daily stages of kindling, and kindling seizure stage and number of stimulations required to reach each stage were compared between the three groups using two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) followed by Tukey post hoc and one-way ANOVA, and Kruskal-Wallis test, respectively. Results. LFS in both protocols significantly decreased the ADD (p 0.05, stages 3 to 5: p < 0.05). Conclusion. Although LFS-K showed more inhibiting effect than K-LFS, the difference was not statistically significant. PMID:28373988

  6. Electrical stimulation and motor recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Wise

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, several investigators have successfully regenerated axons in animal spinal cords without locomotor recovery. One explanation is that the animals were not trained to use the regenerated connections. Intensive locomotor training improves walking recovery after spinal cord injury (SCI) in people, and >90% of people with incomplete SCI recover walking with training. Although the optimal timing, duration, intensity, and type of locomotor training are still controversial, many investigators have reported beneficial effects of training on locomotor function. The mechanisms by which training improves recovery are not clear, but an attractive theory is available. In 1949, Donald Hebb proposed a famous rule that has been paraphrased as "neurons that fire together, wire together." This rule provided a theoretical basis for a widely accepted theory that homosynaptic and heterosynaptic activity facilitate synaptic formation and consolidation. In addition, the lumbar spinal cord has a locomotor center, called the central pattern generator (CPG), which can be activated nonspecifically with electrical stimulation or neurotransmitters to produce walking. The CPG is an obvious target to reconnect after SCI. Stimulating motor cortex, spinal cord, or peripheral nerves can modulate lumbar spinal cord excitability. Motor cortex stimulation causes long-term changes in spinal reflexes and synapses, increases sprouting of the corticospinal tract, and restores skilled forelimb function in rats. Long used to treat chronic pain, motor cortex stimuli modify lumbar spinal network excitability and improve lower extremity motor scores in humans. Similarly, epidural spinal cord stimulation has long been used to treat pain and spasticity. Subthreshold epidural stimulation reduces the threshold for locomotor activity. In 2011, Harkema et al. reported lumbosacral epidural stimulation restores motor control in chronic motor complete patients. Peripheral nerve or functional electrical

  7. Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation Studies in Alzheimer's Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Guerra

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Although motor deficits affect patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD only at later stages, recent studies demonstrated that primary motor cortex is precociously affected by neuronal degeneration. It is conceivable that neuronal loss is compensated by reorganization of the neural circuitries, thereby maintaining motor performances in daily living. Effectively several transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS studies have demonstrated that cortical excitability is enhanced in AD and primary motor cortex presents functional reorganization. Although the best hypothesis for the pathogenesis of AD remains the degeneration of cholinergic neurons in specific regions of the basal forebrain, the application of specific TMS protocols pointed out a role of other neurotransmitters. The present paper provides a perspective of the TMS techniques used to study neurophysiological aspects of AD showing also that, based on different patterns of cortical excitability, TMS may be useful in discriminating between physiological and pathological brain aging at least at the group level. Moreover repetitive TMS might become useful in the rehabilitation of AD patients. Finally integrated approaches utilizing TMS together with others neuro-physiological techniques, such as high-density EEG, and structural and functional imaging as well as biological markers are proposed as promising tool for large-scale, low-cost, and noninvasive evaluation of at-risk populations.

  8. A pilot feasibility study of daily rTMS to modify corticospinal excitability during lower limb immobilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricci, Raffaella; Ramsey, Dave; Johnson, Kevin; Borckardt, Jeffrey J; Vallejo, Matthew; Roberts, Donna R; George, Mark S

    2008-10-01

    Short term immobilization of the lower limb is associated with increased corticospinal excitability at 24 hours post cast removal. We wondered whether daily stimulation of the motor cortex might decrease brain reorganization during casting. We tested the feasibility of this approach. Using transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS), resting motor threshold and recruitment curves were obtained at baseline in 6 healthy participants who then had leg casts placed for 10 days. On 7 of the 10 days subjects received 20 minutes of 1 Hz repetitive TMS (rTMS). TMS measures were then recorded immediately after and 24 hours post cast removal. Four of 6 subjects completed the study. At the group level there were no changes in excitability following cast removal. At the individual level, two participants did not show any change, 1 participant had higher and one lower excitability 24 hours after cast removal. Daily rTMS over motor cortex is feasible during casting and may modify neuroplastic changes occurring during limb disuse. A prospective double blind study is warranted to test whether daily rTMS might improve outcome in subjects undergoing casting, and perhaps in other forms of limb disuse such as those following brain injury or weightlessness in space flight.

  9. Time series ARIMA models for daily price of palm oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ariff, Noratiqah Mohd; Zamhawari, Nor Hashimah; Bakar, Mohd Aftar Abu

    2015-02-01

    Palm oil is deemed as one of the most important commodity that forms the economic backbone of Malaysia. Modeling and forecasting the daily price of palm oil is of great interest for Malaysia's economic growth. In this study, time series ARIMA models are used to fit the daily price of palm oil. The Akaike Infromation Criterion (AIC), Akaike Infromation Criterion with a correction for finite sample sizes (AICc) and Bayesian Information Criterion (BIC) are used to compare between different ARIMA models being considered. It is found that ARIMA(1,2,1) model is suitable for daily price of crude palm oil in Malaysia for the year 2010 to 2012.

  10. Contribution of daily and seasonal biorhythms to obesity in humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanikowska, Dominika; Sato, Maki; Witowski, Janusz

    2015-04-01

    While the significance of obesity as a serious health problem is well recognized, little is known about whether and how biometerological factors and biorhythms causally contribute to obesity. Obesity is often associated with altered seasonal and daily rhythmicity in food intake, metabolism and adipose tissue function. Environmental stimuli affect both seasonal and daily rhythms, and the latter are under additional control of internal molecular oscillators, or body clocks. Modifications of clock genes in animals and changes to normal daily rhythms in humans (as in shift work and sleep deprivation) result in metabolic dysregulation that favours weight gain. Here, we briefly review the potential links between biorhythms and obesity in humans.

  11. Fluticasone furoate: once-daily evening treatment versus twice-daily treatment in moderate asthma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Woodcock Ashley

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Inhaled corticosteroids are the recommended first-line treatment for asthma but adherence to therapy is suboptimal. The objectives of this study were to compare the efficacy and safety of once-daily (OD evening and twice-daily (BD regimens of the novel inhaled corticosteroid fluticasone furoate (FF in asthma patients. Methods Patients with moderate asthma (age ≥ 12 years; pre-bronchodilator forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1 40-85% predicted; FEV1 reversibility of ≥ 12% and ≥ 200 ml were randomized to FF or fluticasone propionate (FP regimens in a double-blind, crossover study. Patients were not permitted to have used any ICS for ≥ 8 weeks prior to enrolment and subsequently received doses of FF or FP 200 μg OD, FF or FP 100 μg BD and matching placebo by inhalation for 28 days each. Primary endpoint was Day 28 evening pre-dose (trough FEV1; non-inferiority of FF 200 μg OD and FF 100 μg BD was assessed, as was superiority of all active treatment relative to placebo. Adverse events (AEs and 24-hour urinary cortisol excretion were assessed. Results The intent-to-treat population comprised 147 (FF and 43 (FP patients. On Day 28, pre-dose FEV1 showed FF 200 μg OD to be non-inferior (pre-defined limit -110 ml to FF 100 μg BD (mean treatment difference 11 ml; 95% CI: -35 to +56 ml; all FF and FP regimens were significantly superior to placebo (p ≤ 0.02. AEs were similar to placebo; no serious AEs were reported. Urinary cortisol excretion at Day 28 for FF was lower than placebo (ratios: 200 μg OD, 0.75; 100 μg BD, 0.84; p ≤ 0.02. Conclusions FF 200 μg OD in the evening is an efficacious and well tolerated treatment for asthma patients and is not inferior to the same total BD dose. Trial registration Clinicaltrials.gov; NCT00766090.

  12. Comparison of once daily versus twice daily olmesartan in patients with chronic kidney disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sakai Y

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Yukinao Sakai,1 Anna Suzuki,1 Koji Mugishima,1 Yuichiro Sumi,1 Yusuke Otsuka,1 Tomoyuki Otsuka,1 Dai Ohno,1 Tsuneo Murasawa,1 Shuichi Tsuruoka21Department of Nephrology, Nippon Medical School Musashikosugi Hospital, Kawasaki, Japan; 2Division of Nephrology, Department of Internal Medicine, Graduate School of Medicine, Nippon Medical School, Tokyo, JapanBackground: The effects of olmesartan (OLM on blood pressure and kidney function in Japanese patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD were compared between 20 mg twice daily (BID and 40 mg once daily (QD treatments.Methods: The subjects were Japanese CKD patients with concurrent hypertension who had been treated with OLM 20 mg BID for at least 3 months on an outpatient basis (n=39. After a change in the treatment regimen to 40 mg OLM QD (after breakfast, blood pressure (BP (n=39, morning home BP (n=13, estimated glomerular filtration rate (n=39, and urinary albumin-to-creatinine ratio (n=17 were monitored for 2 months.Results: No significant change in office (mean ± standard deviation [SD] [mmHg], 143.9 ± 18.8/75.7 ± 12.0 to 141.6 ± 16.1/74.7 ± 11.7, not significant [ns] or early morning home (mean ± SD [mmHg], 133.8 ± 15.9/71.2 ± 11.5 to 133.8 ± 13.9/74.5 ± 10.5, ns BP was observed 2 months after the change in dose. The estimated glomerular filtration rate increased significantly (mean ± SD, 49.0 ± 28.0 to 51.8 ± 27.0, P<0.05, whereas urinary albumin-to-creatinine ratio did not change significantly (mean ± SD, 0.551 ± 0.445 to 0.364 ± 0.5194, ns.Conclusion: High-dose OLM administered BID and QD had similar effects on outpatient and early morning home BP in CKD patients, suggesting that the BID regimen can be safely changed to a QD regimen. For CKD patients with hypertension requiring continuous long-term treatment, the possibility that the QD regimen might bring a greater therapeutic effect was suggested. However, recognizing the best blood pressure control level for a CKD

  13. Sung Solecisms: Hip Hop as Non-Prescriptive Pedagogy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biggs, Cynthia D.

    2011-01-01

    Does the music idiom commonly known as rap music have educational merit? With its harshest critics lambasting it with connotations that equate it with stupidity, gun culture, jail culture, or non-intellectual culture, could there be a pedagogical link after all? Dr. Marc Lamont Hill, Associate Professor of English Education and Anthropology at…

  14. General sale of non-prescription medicinal products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lind, Johanna Lena Maria; Schafheutle, Ellen; Hägg, Annika Nordén

    2016-01-01

    between Sweden and the UK. METHOD: The main method was analysis of legislative text and policy documents, conducted in 2012. RESULTS: Both countries had specified medicines available to the public in non-pharmacy outlets, but with restrictions on different factors, e.g. placement and package size...

  15. Effect of mirror therapy combined with somatosensory stimulation on motor recovery and daily function in stroke patients: A pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keh-Chung Lin

    2014-07-01

    Conclusion: Combining MG with MT significantly improves manual dexterity, grasping, and transfer performance. Adding the MG component into the MT likely increased the richness of sensory input and improved the movement performance more than MT alone.

  16. Effects of Dual-Channel Functional Electrical Stimulation on Gait Performance in Patients with Hemiparesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shmuel Springer

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The study objective was to assess the effect of functional electrical stimulation (FES applied to the peroneal nerve and thigh muscles on gait performance in subjects with hemiparesis. Participants were 45 subjects (age 57.8 ± 14.8 years with hemiparesis (5.37 ± 5.43 years since diagnosis demonstrating a foot-drop and impaired knee control. Thigh stimulation was applied either to the quadriceps or hamstrings muscles, depending on the dysfunction most affecting gait. Gait was assessed during a two-minute walk test with/without stimulation and with peroneal stimulation alone. A second assessment was conducted after six weeks of daily use. The addition of thigh muscles stimulation to peroneal stimulation significantly enhanced gait velocity measures at the initial and second evaluation. Gait symmetry was enhanced by the dual-channel stimulation only at the initial evaluation, and single-limb stance percentage only at the second assessment. For example, after six weeks, the two-minute gait speed with peroneal stimulation and with the dual channel was 0.66 ± 0.30 m/sec and 0.70 ± 0.31 m/sec, respectively (. In conclusion, dual-channel FES may enhance gait performance in subjects with hemiparesis more than peroneal FES alone.

  17. Effects of Dual-Channel Functional Electrical Stimulation on Gait Performance in Patients with Hemiparesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Springer, Shmuel; Vatine, Jean-Jacques; Lipson, Ronit; Wolf, Alon; Laufer, Yocheved

    2012-01-01

    The study objective was to assess the effect of functional electrical stimulation (FES) applied to the peroneal nerve and thigh muscles on gait performance in subjects with hemiparesis. Participants were 45 subjects (age 57.8 ± 14.8 years) with hemiparesis (5.37 ± 5.43 years since diagnosis) demonstrating a foot-drop and impaired knee control. Thigh stimulation was applied either to the quadriceps or hamstrings muscles, depending on the dysfunction most affecting gait. Gait was assessed during a two-minute walk test with/without stimulation and with peroneal stimulation alone. A second assessment was conducted after six weeks of daily use. The addition of thigh muscles stimulation to peroneal stimulation significantly enhanced gait velocity measures at the initial and second evaluation. Gait symmetry was enhanced by the dual-channel stimulation only at the initial evaluation, and single-limb stance percentage only at the second assessment. For example, after six weeks, the two-minute gait speed with peroneal stimulation and with the dual channel was 0.66 ± 0.30 m/sec and 0.70 ± 0.31 m/sec, respectively (P hemiparesis more than peroneal FES alone. PMID:23097635

  18. Bimanual force coordination in Parkinson's disease patients with bilateral subthalamic deep brain stimulation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stacey L Gorniak

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Studies of bimanual actions similar to activities of daily living (ADLs are currently lacking in evaluating fine motor control in Parkinson's disease patients implanted with bilateral subthalamic deep brain stimulators. We investigated basic time and force characteristics of a bimanual task that resembles performance of ADLs in a group of bilateral subthalamic deep brain stimulation (DBS patients. METHODS: Patients were evaluated in three different DBS parameter conditions off stimulation, on clinically derived stimulation parameters, and on settings derived from a patient-specific computational model. Model-based parameters were computed as a means to minimize spread of current to non-motor regions of the subthalamic nucleus via Cicerone Deep Brain Stimulation software. Patients were evaluated off parkinsonian medications in each stimulation condition. RESULTS: The data indicate that DBS parameter state does not affect most aspects of fine motor control in ADL-like tasks; however, features such as increased grip force and grip symmetry varied with the stimulation state. In the absence of DBS parameters, patients exhibited significant grip force asymmetry. Overall UPDRS-III and UPDRS-III scores associated with hand function were lower while patients were experiencing clinically-derived or model-based parameters, as compared to the off-stimulation condition. CONCLUSION: While bilateral subthalamic DBS has been shown to alleviate gross motor dysfunction, our results indicate that DBS may not provide the same magnitude of benefit to fine motor coordination.

  19. Specific dimensions of impulsivity are differentially associated with daily and non-daily cigarette smoking in young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Dustin C; Peters, Jessica R; Adams, Zachary W; Milich, Richard; Lynam, Donald R

    2015-07-01

    Young adults are at risk for initiation of tobacco use and progression to tobacco dependence. Not every person who smokes cigarettes becomes tobacco dependent, however, and non-daily smoking is becoming more prevalent among those who use tobacco. It is likely that individual differences in psychosocial and behavioral factors influence risk for engaging in non-daily and daily cigarette smoking. The objective of this study was to investigate the associations between impulsivity and smoking status in young adults who vary in frequency of cigarette smoking. Young adult first-year college students between the ages of 18-24 (512) were classified to one of three groups: non-smokers, non-daily smokers, or daily smokers, and impulsivity was assessed using the UPPS-P (negative and positive urgency, lack of premeditation, lack of perseverance, sensation seeking). When all impulsivity dimensions were used simultaneously to predict smoking status, negative urgency predicted increased risk of membership in the daily smoking group and lack of premeditation predicted increased risk of membership in the non-daily smoking group. These results suggest that dimensions of impulsivity may contribute differentially to forms of smoking behavior in young adults.

  20. ERP time series with daily and sub-daily resolution determined from CONT05

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artz, T.; Böckmann, S.; Nothnagel, A.; Tesmer, V.

    2007-07-01

    From time to time, continuous VLBI campaigns take place under the direction of the IVS. Even though these observations are continuous over two weeks, the standard VLBI analysis procedure leads to independent daily datasets. In this paper, an alternative approach is presented to estimate earth rotation parameters with different temporal resolutions. By stacking the single sessions to a two-weekly solution on the normal equation level, a consistent time series is produced over the whole CONT05 period. Stacked parameters are station positions which are estimated in a 'global' approach and borders of time dependent parameters e.g. zenith wet delay. Analysis of the correlation matrix of estimated parameters gives an impression of the dependencies between them. Furthermore, it is demonstrated how these dependencies depend on the type of datum used. E.g. correlations between earth rotation parameters (ERP) and tropospheric zenith delay of certain VLBI sites have been detected. The ERP time series resulting from the stacking approach turned out to be more consistent over the fortnightly time span. In particular, time series of hourly ERP exhibit a better behaviour at the session boundaries, since the discrepancies at session borders due to poorly determined intervals is minimized.

  1. Chronotype and personality factors in the daily consumption of alcohol and psychostimulants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adan, A

    1994-04-01

    This paper analyses the influence of and possible interaction between chronotype (Morning-types, Neither-types and Evening-types) and personality dimensions (neuroticism, extroversion and psychoticism) in the daily consumption of alcohol and psychostimulants (nicotine and caffeine). In a sample of 537 subjects (257 men and 280 women), who were students and professionals with different but fixed work schedules, there were significant differences among the chronotypes regarding the consumption of all the above. Evening-types consumed more alcohol, nicotine and caffeine (coffee and cola), while Morning-types consumed more caffeine from tea. Personality was only related to the consumption of cola: the greater the neuroticism the higher the consumption of this beverage. Stimulant drinks showed various types of interaction with personality types, which revealed a complex pattern of group action. The results stress the need to consider chronotype as a contributory psychological factor in a multi-causal model of consumption of psychoactive substances.

  2. Unsupervised daily routine and activity discovery in smart homes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jie Yin; Qing Zhang; Karunanithi, Mohan

    2015-08-01

    The ability to accurately recognize daily activities of residents is a core premise of smart homes to assist with remote health monitoring. Most of the existing methods rely on a supervised model trained from a preselected and manually labeled set of activities, which are often time-consuming and costly to obtain in practice. In contrast, this paper presents an unsupervised method for discovering daily routines and activities for smart home residents. Our proposed method first uses a Markov chain to model a resident's locomotion patterns at different times of day and discover clusters of daily routines at the macro level. For each routine cluster, it then drills down to further discover room-level activities at the micro level. The automatic identification of daily routines and activities is useful for understanding indicators of functional decline of elderly people and suggesting timely interventions.

  3. Locally Constructed Analogs (LOCA) Daily CMIP5 Climate Projections

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Geographic Data Committee — This archive contains 64 projections of daily LOCA CMIP5 climate over the contiguous United States. This archive includes these meteorological variables at 1/16th...

  4. TAO/TRITON, RAMA, and PIRATA Buoys, Daily, Relative Humidity

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset has daily Relative Humidity data from the TAO/TRITON (Pacific Ocean, http://www.pmel.noaa.gov/tao/), RAMA (Indian Ocean,...

  5. Daily MUR SST, Interim near-real-time (nrt) product

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A daily, global Sea Surface Temperature (SST) data set is produced at 1-km (MUR, or Multi-scale ultra-high resolution Temperature) by the JPL sciengists Drs. Mike...

  6. GPM, GMI Level 3 Daily GPROF Profiling VV03A

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — 3GPROF products provide global gridded monthly/daily precipitation averages from multiple satellites that can be used for climate studies. The 3GPROF products are...

  7. TAO/TRITON, RAMA, and PIRATA Buoys, Daily, ADCP

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset has daily Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler (ADCP) water currents data from the TAO/TRITON (Pacific Ocean, http://www.pmel.noaa.gov/tao/), RAMA (Indian...

  8. MOPITT Gridded Daily CO Retrievals (Near Infrared Radiances) V006

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This product averages the daily L2 swath data into a 1x1 degree grid. Day and night passes are kept separate. Averaging kernels for each retrieval are provided...

  9. MOPITT Gridded Daily CO Retrievals (Near Infrared Radiances) V005

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This product averages the daily L2 swath data into a 1x1 degree grid. Day and night passes are kept separate. Averaging kernels for each retrieval are provided...

  10. MOPITT Gridded Daily CO Retrievals (Thermal Infrared Radiances) V005

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This product averages the daily L2 swath data into a 1x1 degree grid. Day and night passes are kept separate. Averaging kernels for each retrieval are provided...

  11. Once versus twice daily gentamicin dosing for infective endocarditis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buchholtz, Kristine; Larsen, Carsten Toftager; Schaadt, Bente

    2011-01-01

    to half-life, mean CRP and leukocytes. Results: Baseline GFR was similar in the two groups. Both groups displayed a significant fall in GFR from admission to discharge. The mean decrease in GFR was as follows: with once daily gentamicin, 17.0% (95% confidence interval 7.5– 26.5), and with twice daily......Objectives: The aim of this randomized study was to investigate the effects of once versus twice daily gentamicin dosing on renal function and measures of infectious disease in a population with infective endocarditis (IE). Methods: Seventy-one IE patients needing gentamicin treatment according...... to guidelines were randomized to either once (n = 37) or twice daily (n = 34) doses of gentamicin. Kidney function (glomerular filtration rate, GFR) was measured with an isotope method ( 51 Cr-EDTA) at the beginning of treatment and at discharge. Treatment efficacy was assessed by C-reactive protein (CRP) time...

  12. Locally Constructed Analogs (LOCA) Daily CMIP5 Climate Projections

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Bureau of Reclamation, Department of the Interior — This archive contains 64 projections of daily LOCA CMIP5 climate over the contiguous United States. This archive includes these meteorological variables at 1/16th...

  13. Complex dynamical behaviors of daily data series in stock exchange

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hongchun; Chen, Guanrong; Lü, Jinhu

    2004-12-01

    It is well known that many economic data series show chaotic behaviors. In this Letter, we further investigate the complex dynamical behaviors of the daily data series, including opening quotation, closing quotation, maximum price, minimum price, and total exchange quantum, in Shenzhen stock exchange and Shanghai stock exchange, which are two representative stock exchanges in mainland China. The maximum Lyapunov exponents, correlation dimensions, and frequency spectra are calculated for these time series. Our results indicate that some daily data series of stock exchanges display low-dimensional chaotic behaviors, and some other daily data series do not show any chaotic behavior. Moreover, we introduce a weighted one-rank local-region approach for predicting short-term daily data series of stock exchange.

  14. TAO/TRITON, RAMA, and PIRATA Buoys, Daily, Precipitation

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset has daily Precipitation data from the TAO/TRITON (Pacific Ocean, http://www.pmel.noaa.gov/tao/), RAMA (Indian Ocean,...

  15. TES/Aura L3 CO Daily Gridded V002

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Daily atmospheric temperature and VMR for the atmospheric species are provided at 2 deg. lat. X 4 deg. long. spatial grids and at a subset of TES standard pressure...

  16. U.S. Daily Climate Normals (1971-2000)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — U.S. Daily Climate Normals (DSI-9641D) is archived at the National Climatic Data Center (NCDC). The climatological normals presented in this data set are based on...

  17. Satisfaction with daily occupations amongst asylum seekers in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morville, Anne-Le; Erlandsson, Lena-Karin; Danneskiold-Samsøe, Bente

    2015-01-01

    AIM: The aim of this study was to describe asylum seekers' satisfaction with daily occupations and activity level while in a Danish asylum centre, and whether this changed over time. Another aim was to describe whether exposure to torture, self-rated health measures, and ADL ability were related...... to their satisfaction with daily occupations and activity level. METHODS: A total of 43 asylum seekers at baseline and 17 at follow-up were included. The questionnaires Satisfaction with Daily Occupations, Major Depression Inventory, WHO-5 Wellbeing, Pain Detect, a questionnaire covering torture, and basic social...... information were used as well as Assessment of Motor and Process Skills. RESULTS: The results showed a low level of satisfaction with daily occupations at both baseline and follow-up. There was no statistically significant change in satisfaction or activity level between baseline and the follow...

  18. GPM, GMI Level 3 Daily GPROF Profiling VV03B

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — 3GPROF products provide global gridded monthly/daily precipitation averages from multiple satellites that can be used for climate studies. The 3GPROF products are...

  19. GPM, GMI Level 3 Daily GPROF Profiling VV03C

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — 3GPROF products provide global gridded monthly/daily precipitation averages from multiple satellites that can be used for climate studies. The 3GPROF products are...

  20. Physical fitness, nutritional habits and daily locomotive action of 12 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Physical fitness, nutritional habits and daily locomotive action of 12-year-old children with different body mass ... South African Journal of Sports Medicine ... They were divided according to their BMI into normal, overweight or obese children.

  1. TAO/TRITON, RAMA, and PIRATA Buoys, Daily, Evaporation

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset has daily Evaporation data from the TAO/TRITON (Pacific Ocean, http://www.pmel.noaa.gov/tao/), RAMA (Indian Ocean, http://www.pmel.noaa.gov/tao/rama/),...

  2. Water Quality Assessment and Total Maximum Daily Loads Information (ATTAINS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Water Quality Assessment TMDL Tracking And Implementation System (ATTAINS) stores and tracks state water quality assessment decisions, Total Maximum Daily Loads...

  3. TES/Aura L3 HDO Daily Gridded V002

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Daily atmospheric temperature and VMR for the atmospheric species are provided at 2 deg. lat. X 4 deg. long. spatial grids and at a subset of TES standard pressure...

  4. TES/Aura L3 HDO Daily Gridded V003

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Daily atmospheric temperature and VMR for the atmospheric species are provided at 2 deg. lat. X 4 deg. long. spatial grids and at a subset of TES standard pressure...

  5. Environmental Monitoring, Water Quality - Total Maximum Daily Load (TMDL)

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — The Clean Water Act Section 303(d) establishes the Total Maximum Daily Load (TMDL) program. The purpose of the TMDL program is to identify sources of pollution and...

  6. TAO/TRITON, RAMA, and PIRATA Buoys, Daily, Temperature

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset has daily Temperature data from the TAO/TRITON (Pacific Ocean, http://www.pmel.noaa.gov/tao/), RAMA (Indian Ocean, http://www.pmel.noaa.gov/tao/rama/),...

  7. TAO/TRITON, RAMA, and PIRATA Buoys, Daily, Longwave Radiation

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset has daily Incoming Longwave Radiation data from the TAO/TRITON (Pacific Ocean, http://www.pmel.noaa.gov/tao/), RAMA (Indian Ocean,...

  8. TAO/TRITON, RAMA, and PIRATA Buoys, Daily, Air Temperature

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset has daily Air Temperature data from the TAO/TRITON (Pacific Ocean, http://www.pmel.noaa.gov/tao/), RAMA (Indian Ocean,...

  9. TAO/TRITON, RAMA, and PIRATA Buoys, Daily, Dynamic Height

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset has daily Dynamic Height data (a measure of the elevation of the sea level, calculated by integrating the specific volume anomaly of the sea water...

  10. TAO/TRITON, RAMA, and PIRATA Buoys, Daily, Buoyancy Flux

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset has daily Buoyancy Flux data from the TAO/TRITON (Pacific Ocean, http://www.pmel.noaa.gov/tao/), RAMA (Indian Ocean,...

  11. TES/Aura L3 CO Daily Gridded V003

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Daily atmospheric temperature and VMR for the atmospheric species are provided at 2 deg. lat. X 4 deg. long. spatial grids and at a subset of TES standard pressure...

  12. TES/Aura L3 HDO Daily Gridded V001

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Daily atmospheric temperature and VMR for the atmospheric species are provided at 2 deg. lat. X 4 deg. long. spatial grids and at a subset of TES standard pressure...

  13. TES/Aura L3 CO Daily Gridded V001

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Daily atmospheric temperature and VMR for the atmospheric species are provided at 2 deg. lat. X 4 deg. long. spatial grids and at a subset of TES standard pressure...

  14. Environmental Monitoring, Water Quality - Total Maximum Daily Load (TMDL)

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Education | GIS Inventory — The Clean Water Act Section 303(d) establishes the Total Maximum Daily Load (TMDL) program. The purpose of the TMDL program is to identify sources of pollution and...

  15. Climate Prediction Center (CPC) U.S. Daily Precipitation Observations

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Observational reports of daily precipitation (1200 UTC to 1200 UTC) are made by members of the NWS Automated Surface Observing Systems (ASOS) network; NWS...

  16. Columbia River Basin Daily MACA-VIC Results

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This archive contains daily downscaled meteorological and hydrological projections for the Columbia Basin in the United States at 1/16-deg resolution utilizing 9...

  17. Global Precipitation Climatology Project (GPCP) - Daily, Version 1.2

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Global Precipitation Climatology Project (GPCP) comprises a total of 27 products. The Version 1.2 Daily product covers the period October 1998 to the present,...

  18. U.S. Daily Climate Normals (1981-2010)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The U.S. Daily Climate Normals for 1981 to 2010 are 30-year averages of meteorological parameters for thousands of U.S. stations located across the 50 states, as...

  19. University of Idaho Daily Meteorological data for continental US

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This archive contains daily surface meteorological (METDATA) data for the Continental United States at 4-km (1/24-deg) resolution. The meteorological variables are...

  20. Perspectives on stimulated Brillouin scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garmire, Elsa

    2017-01-01

    This collection of papers describes research that goes into detail on some of the more important issues in the physics of stimulated Brillouin scattering. This perspective describes the earliest years of the physics of stimulated Brillouin scattering, along with key developments that have led to this technically and physically rich field of today’s nonlinear optics. Stimulated Brillouin has a profound effect in optical fiber communications, initially discovered by its limit on the transmitted power. By controlling SBS in fibers and making use of its phase conjugation properties in both fibers and bulk media, a wide range of applications have been enabled. Today ring Brillouin lasers in fibers, whispering gallery modes and in photonic integrated circuits provide optical delay lines and switches, pulse shapers and components for increasingly complex and important optical systems.

  1. Enteral feeding without pancreatic stimulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaushik, Neeraj; Pietraszewski, Marie; Holst, Jens Juul

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: All forms of commonly practiced enteral feeding techniques stimulate pancreatic secretion, and only intravenous feeding avoids it. In this study, we explored the possibility of more distal enteral infusions of tube feeds to see whether activation of the ileal brake mechanism can result...... in enteral feeding without pancreatic stimulation, with particular reference to trypsin, because the avoidance of trypsin stimulation may optimize enteral feeding in acute pancreatitis. METHODS: The pancreatic secretory responses to feeding were studied in 36 healthy volunteers by standard double......-lumen duodenal perfusion/aspiration techniques over 6 hours. Subjects were assigned to no feeding (n = 7), duodenal feeding with a polymeric diet (n = 7) or low-fat elemental diet (n = 6), mid-distal jejunal feeding (n = 11), or intravenous feeding (n = 5). All diets provided 40 kcal/kg ideal body weight/d and 1...

  2. Estimation of annual average daily traffic with optimal adjustment factors

    OpenAIRE

    Alonso Oreña, Borja; Moura Berodia, José Luis; Ibeas Portilla, Ángel; Romero Junquera, Juan Pablo

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to estimate the annual average daily traffic in inter-urban networks determining the best correlation (affinity) between the short period traffic counts and permanent traffic counters. A bi-level optimisation problem is proposed in which an agent in an upper level prefixes the affinities between short period traffic counts and permanent traffic counters stations and looks to minimise the annual average daily traffic calculation error while, in a lower level, an origin–destina...

  3. The impact of daily covers on sidewall leakage in landfills

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Welker, A. L. [Villanova Univ., Dept. of Civil Engineering, PA (United States)

    2000-09-01

    Typically, sanitary landfills are covered by 15 cm of locally available soil on a daily basis. This practice is intended to limit short term negative effects of the waste material on the above-ground environment such as odor, fire, or vermin attraction. Daily placement of compacted soil creates low hydraulic conductivity stratifying layers within the landfill which, in due course, may result in side-slope seepage, decreased stability and decreased efficiency of methane gas venting. The expense of soil acquisitions and the the diminishing availability of landfill space increases the need for alternative materials to replace the daily cover. This paper examines the the threat of sidewall landfill leakage for a hypothetical landfill with traditional soil cover and an alternative daily cover, to demonstrate that the threat of sidewall leakage is real and can be decreased with the use of alternative material as the daily cover such as crushed glass, sludge from waste-water treatment plants, industrial waste, foams and various geosynthetics. At the same time, results of the modelling study showed that with proper drainage sidewall seepage will not occur even with a daily cover that has a hydraulic conductivity two orders of magnitude smaller than the waste, despite positive pressure building up on top of the daily cover. These results imply that the threat of sidewall leakage is minimal, and while alternative daily cover material would help to reduce it even further, their use is most likely to be the result of economic, not technical, considerations. 12 refs., 3 tabs., 4 figs.

  4. Deep brain stimulation: postoperative issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deuschl, Günther; Herzog, Jan; Kleiner-Fisman, Galit; Kubu, Cynthia; Lozano, Andres M; Lyons, Kelly E; Rodriguez-Oroz, Maria C; Tamma, Filippo; Tröster, Alexander I; Vitek, Jerrold L; Volkmann, Jens; Voon, Valerie

    2006-06-01

    Numerous factors need to be taken into account when managing a patient with Parkinson's disease (PD) after deep brain stimulation (DBS). Questions such as when to begin programming, how to conduct a programming screen, how to assess the effects of programming, and how to titrate stimulation and medication for each of the targeted sites need to be addressed. Follow-up care should be determined, including patient adjustments of stimulation, timing of follow-up visits and telephone contact with the patient, and stimulation and medication conditions during the follow-up assessments. A management plan for problems that can arise after DBS such as weight gain, dyskinesia, axial symptoms, speech dysfunction, muscle contractions, paresthesia, eyelid, ocular and visual disturbances, and behavioral and cognitive problems should be developed. Long-term complications such as infection or erosion, loss of effect, intermittent stimulation, tolerance, and pain or discomfort can develop and need to be managed. Other factors that need consideration are social and job-related factors, development of dementia, general medical issues, and lifestyle changes. This report from the Consensus on Deep Brain Stimulation for Parkinson's Disease, a project commissioned by the Congress of Neurological Surgeons and the Movement Disorder Society, outlines answers to a series of questions developed to address all aspects of DBS postoperative management and decision-making with a systematic overview of the literature (until mid-2004) and by the expert opinion of the authors. The report has been endorsed by the Scientific Issues Committee of the Movement Disorder Society and the American Society of Stereotactic and Functional Neurosurgery.

  5. Status of Daily Living Activities among Older People in Maku

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Abbasian

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: One of the most popular methods for evaluating old people’s health condition is to assess their functional practice. The aim of this study was to assess the status of daily living activities among the older people of Maku, Iran. Methods: The present cross-sectional study was accomplished among 216 older people in Maku via simple random sampling. Participant’s subjective and demographic information were gathered and their daily living activities status was measured by the KATZ index. Results: The participants' mean age was 70.09±7.98. Most of the elderlies were men (59.3% and illiterate (38.4%. Of them, 10.6% were dependent, 6% needed help or were partially dependent, and 82.9% were independent in their daily living activities. Significant associations were observed between daily living activities and age, education level, marital status and living condition (p<0.001. Married old adults were more dependent than other ones living alone (p<0.001. Conclusion: Although most of the participants were independent, they needed assistance for few of their daily living activities. Also, since age was significantly correlated with daily living activities, it is necessary to implement educational health living programsfor older people suffering from functional restrictions. Also, providing suitable facilities, convenience and human resources should  be taken into consideration.

  6. Pharmacokinetic profile of once-daily cyclobenzaprine extended-release.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darwish, Mona; Hellriegel, Edward T

    2010-11-01

    Cyclobenzaprine immediate-release (CIR) is a widely prescribed skeletal muscle relaxant with an established efficacy and safety profile in patients with muscle spasm associated with acute, painful conditions, although it is commonly associated with sedation. CIR is typically prescribed at a dosage of 10 mg three-times-daily. This review focuses on the pharmacokinetic profile of a new formulation, cyclobenzaprine extended-release (CER), which delivers a sustained plasma cyclobenzaprine concentration over 24 h, allowing once-daily dosing. Results from CER pharmacokinetic studies conducted through August 2010 are summarized. This review provides information on the first four studies assessing the single-dose and steady-state pharmacokinetic profile of CER. Once-daily CER 30 mg and three-times-daily CIR 10 mg produced comparable systemic exposures to cyclobenzaprine, but pharmacokinetic profiles were qualitatively different. CER was characterized by a single daily peak in cyclobenzaprine concentration versus three peaks/day for CIR. With once-daily dosing of CER, cyclobenzaprine concentration is sustained over 24 h. CER 30 mg provides approximately twice the exposure as CER 15 mg. Systemic exposure to CER is increased in the presence of food and in elderly subjects. Steady-state is achieved by day 7 of dosing.

  7. A comparison of roxatidine acetate 150 mg once daily and 75 mg twice daily in gastric ulcer healing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rösch, W

    1988-01-01

    In 363 outpatients with endoscopically confirmed gastric ulcers the efficacy and safety of roxatidine acetate 150 mg at night was compared to 75 mg twice daily. After 8 weeks' treatment substantial reductions in gastric ulcer diameter were obtained in addition to healing rates of 83.7 and 86% for the twice daily and night-time dosing, respectively. Daily reductions in day and night-time epigastric pain were obtained with no significant differences between treatment groups for pain scores or antacid tablet consumption. Furthermore, cigarette smoking did not influence the healing rates produced by either treatment schedule. 26 patients reported 32 adverse reactions and 5 patients discontinued treatment because of side effects, although only 1 of these was a severe reaction. The present data suggest that a single night-time dose of roxatidine acetate 150 mg is as safe and effective as the twice daily dose regimen for the management of acute gastric ulceration.

  8. Trigeminovascular stimulation in conscious rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kemper, RHA; Meijler, WJ; TerHorst, GJ

    1997-01-01

    INTRACISTERNAL infusion of capsaicin was used to induce intracranial trigeminovascular stimulation in conscious rats. Both behaviour and trigeminal nucleus caudalis c-fos expression were examined. Exploratory behaviour was dose-dependently reduced and different types of behaviours were induced with

  9. Activities to Stimulate Critical Thinking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haynes, Thomas B.; Schroeder, Connie

    1989-01-01

    Describes sample vocational activities that stimulate critical thinking: (1) setting up an accounting system (business education); (2) developing a marketing plan (marketing education); (3) developing a fertilizer application plan (agricultural education); (4) making the best purchase (home economics); (5) planning a repair/remodeling project…

  10. AUXIN STIMULATION OF ETHYLENE EVOLUTION

    Science.gov (United States)

    mechanism of auxin action on the enhancement of ethylene production is the formation of enzymes involved in ethylene biogenesis....The stimulation of ethylene production by auxin was inhibited by actinomycin D and other inhibitors of protein synthesis. It is concluded that the

  11. Orientation selective deep brain stimulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehto, Lauri J.; Slopsema, Julia P.; Johnson, Matthew D.; Shatillo, Artem; Teplitzky, Benjamin A.; Utecht, Lynn; Adriany, Gregor; Mangia, Silvia; Sierra, Alejandra; Low, Walter C.; Gröhn, Olli; Michaeli, Shalom

    2017-02-01

    Objective. Target selectivity of deep brain stimulation (DBS) therapy is critical, as the precise locus and pattern of the stimulation dictates the degree to which desired treatment responses are achieved and adverse side effects are avoided. There is a clear clinical need to improve DBS technology beyond currently available stimulation steering and shaping approaches. We introduce orientation selective neural stimulation as a concept to increase the specificity of target selection in DBS. Approach. This concept, which involves orienting the electric field along an axonal pathway, was tested in the corpus callosum of the rat brain by freely controlling the direction of the electric field on a plane using a three-electrode bundle, and monitoring the response of the neurons using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Computational models were developed to further analyze axonal excitability for varied electric field orientation. Main results. Our results demonstrated that the strongest fMRI response was observed when the electric field was oriented parallel to the axons, while almost no response was detected with the perpendicular orientation of the electric field relative to the primary fiber tract. These results were confirmed by computational models of the experimental paradigm quantifying the activation of radially distributed axons while varying the primary direction of the electric field. Significance. The described strategies identify a new course for selective neuromodulation paradigms in DBS based on axonal fiber orientation.

  12. Aversive Stimulation -- Criteria for Application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Donnell, Patrick A.; Ohlson, Glenn A.

    Criteria for applying aversive stimulation with severely handicapped children are examined, and practical and ethical issues are considered. Factors seen to influence punishment outcomes include timing, intensity, and schedule of reinforcement. Suggested is the need for further research on the comparative effectiveness of positive and negative…

  13. Ovarian stimulation and embryo quality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baart, Esther; Macklon, Nick S.; Fauser, Bart J. C. M.

    2009-01-01

    To Study the effects of different ovarian stimulation approaches on oocyte and embryo quality, it is imperative to assess embryo quality with a reliable and objective method. Embryos rated as high quality by standardized morphological assessment are associated with higher implantation and pregnancy

  14. Fish consumption, sleep, daily functioning, and heart rate variability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Anita L; Dahl, Lisbeth; Olson, Gina; Thornton, David; Graff, Ingvild E; Frøyland, Livar; Thayer, Julian F; Pallesen, Staale

    2014-05-15

    This study investigated the effects of fatty fish on sleep, daily functioning and biomarkers such as heart rate variability (HRV), vitamin D status (serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD), and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, 20:5n-3) + docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6n-3) in red blood cells. Moreover the relationship among sleep, daily functioning, HRV, vitamin D status, and levels of EPA+DHA was investigated. Ninety-five male forensic patients from a secure forensic inpatient facility in the USA were randomly assigned into a Fish or a Control group. The Fish group received Atlantic salmon three times per week from September to February, and the Control group was provided an alternative meal (e.g., chicken, pork, beef), but with the same nutritional value as their habitual diet, three times per week during the same period. Sleep (sleep latency, sleep efficiency, actual sleep time, and actual wake time), self-perceived sleep quality and daily functioning, as well as vitamin D status, EPA+DHA, and HRV, were assessed pre- and post-intervention period. There was a significant increase in sleep latency from pre- to post-test in the Control group. The Fish group reported better daily functioning than the Control group during post-test. Fish consumption throughout the wintertime had also an effect on resting HRV and EPA+DHA, but not on vitamin D status. However, at post-test, the vitamin D status in the Fish group was still closer to the level regarded as optimal compared to the Control group. Vitamin D status correlated negatively with actual wake time and positively with sleep efficiency during pre-test, as well as positively with daily functioning and sleep quality during post-test. Finally, HRV correlated negatively with sleep latency and positively with daily functioning. Fish consumption seemed to have a positive impact on sleep in general and also on daily functioning, which may be related to vitamin D status and HRV.

  15. Does daily urine output really matter in renal transplantation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tillou, Xavier; Lee-Bion, Adrien; Hurault de Ligny, Bruno; Orczyk, Clément; Le Gal, Sophie; Desmonts, Alexis; Bensadoun, Henri; Doerfler, Arnaud

    2013-12-27

    Our objective was to clarify the clinical outcome of renal transplantation based on residual daily urine output (RDUO). We retrospectively analyzed a prospective database of 276 patients who underwent renal transplantation (Tx) between January 2008 and December 2012. Patients had pre-transplantation daily urine output measurement of 24-h proteinuria and were clinically re-evaluated the day before transplantation. We included patients with no daily urine output and those with residual daily urine output. Real bladder capacity was not measured. We excluded patients with a history of lower urinary tract malformation, those treated by trans-ileal conduit or enterocystoplasty, and those with early graft thrombosis or graft primary non-function. Sex ratio, age at Tx, pre-Tx MHC antibodies levels, donor age, and cold ischemia duration were not significantly different between the 2 groups. Dialysis duration was longer in group I (p<0.001). The dialysis duration was correlated with the volume of residual urine output (r=0.12, p<0.0001). We found 14 (19.4%) urological complications in Group I (11 urinary leaks and 3 urethral stenosis) and 13 (6.4%) in Group II (5 urinary leaks and 8 stenosis). This difference was significant (p=0.0013 and relative risk [RR]=2.2). Absence of residual daily urine output was a risk factor of post-transplantation urinary leak (p<0.0001: RR=2.95). At 3 years, graft survival was 74.7% and 94.6%, respectively, in Group I and II (p=0.003). The absence of residual daily urine output seems to be a major risk factor for urological complications. Taking into account recipient residual daily urine output should modify surgical strategy during renal transplantation.

  16. Phantom headache: pain-memory-emotion hypothesis for chronic daily headache?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prakash, Sanjay; Golwala, Purva

    2011-06-01

    The neurobiology of chronic pain, including chronic daily headache (CDH) is not completely understood. "Pain memory" hypothesis is one of the mechanisms for phantom limb pain. We reviewed the literature to delineate a relation of "pain memory" for the development of CDH. There is a direct relation of pain to memory. Patients with poor memory have less chance to develop "pain memory", hence less possibility to develop chronic pain. Progressive memory impairment may lead to decline in headache prevalence. A similar relation of pain is also noted with emotional or psychiatric symptoms. Literature review suggests that there is marked overlap in the neural network of pain to that of memory and emotions. We speculate that pain, memory, and emotions are interrelated in triangular pattern, and each of these three is related to other two in bidirectional pattern, i.e., stimulation of one of these will stimulate other symptoms/networks and vice versa (triangular theory for chronic pain). Longstanding or recurrent noxious stimuli will strengthen this interrelation, and this may be responsible for chronicity of pain. Reduction of both chronic pain and psychological symptoms by cognitive behavioral therapy or psychological interventions further suggests a bidirectional interrelation between pain and emotion. Longitudinal studies are warranted on the prevalence of headache and other painful conditions in patients with progressive memory impairment to delineate the relation of pain to memory. Interrelation of headache to emotional symptoms should also be explored.

  17. Stimulation of phagocytosis by sulforaphane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suganuma, Hiroyuki, E-mail: hsuganu1@jhmi.edu [Lewis B. and Dorothy Cullman Cancer Chemoprotection Center, Department of Pharmacology and Molecular Sciences, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, 725 N. Wolfe Street, Baltimore, MD 21205 (United States); Fahey, Jed W., E-mail: jfahey@jhmi.edu [Lewis B. and Dorothy Cullman Cancer Chemoprotection Center, Department of Pharmacology and Molecular Sciences, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, 725 N. Wolfe Street, Baltimore, MD 21205 (United States); Bryan, Kelley E., E-mail: kbryanm1@jhmi.edu [Lewis B. and Dorothy Cullman Cancer Chemoprotection Center, Department of Pharmacology and Molecular Sciences, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, 725 N. Wolfe Street, Baltimore, MD 21205 (United States); Healy, Zachary R., E-mail: zhealy1@jhmi.edu [Lewis B. and Dorothy Cullman Cancer Chemoprotection Center, Department of Pharmacology and Molecular Sciences, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, 725 N. Wolfe Street, Baltimore, MD 21205 (United States); Talalay, Paul, E-mail: ptalalay@jhmi.edu [Lewis B. and Dorothy Cullman Cancer Chemoprotection Center, Department of Pharmacology and Molecular Sciences, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, 725 N. Wolfe Street, Baltimore, MD 21205 (United States)

    2011-02-04

    Research highlights: {yields} Sulforaphane stimulates the phagocytosis of RAW 264.7 macrophages under conditions of serum deprivation. {yields} This effect does not require Nrf2-dependent induction of phase 2 genes. {yields} Inactivation of macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) by sulforaphane may be involved in stimulation of phagocytosis by sulforaphane. -- Abstract: Sulforaphane, a major isothiocyanate derived from cruciferous vegetables, protects living systems against electrophile toxicity, oxidative stress, inflammation, and radiation. A major protective mechanism is the induction of a network of endogenous cytoprotective (phase 2) genes that are regulated by transcription factor Nrf2. To obtain a more detailed understanding of the anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory effects of sulforaphane, we evaluated its effect on the phagocytosis activity of RAW 264.7 murine macrophage-like cells by measuring the uptake of 2-{mu}m diameter polystyrene beads. Sulforaphane raised the phagocytosis activity of RAW 264.7 cells but only in the absence or presence of low concentrations (1%) of fetal bovine serum. Higher serum concentrations depressed phagocytosis and abolished its stimulation by sulforaphane. This stimulation did not depend on the induction of Nrf2-regulated genes since it occurred in peritoneal macrophages of nrf2{sup -/-} mice. Moreover, a potent triterpenoid inducer of Nrf2-dependent genes did not stimulate phagocytosis, whereas sulforaphane and another isothiocyanate (benzyl isothiocyanate) had comparable inducer potencies. It has been shown recently that sulforaphane is a potent and direct inactivator of macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF), an inflammatory cytokine. Moreover, the addition of recombinant MIF to RAW 264.7 cells attenuated phagocytosis, but sulforaphane-inactivated MIF did not affect phagocytosis. The inactivation of MIF may therefore be involved in the phagocytosis-enhancing activity of sulforaphane.

  18. [Delay in the acquisition of sucking-swallowing-breathing in the preterm; efects of early stimulation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Orden Izquierdo, E; Salcedo Lobato, E; Cuadrado Pérez, I; Herráez Sánchez, M S; Cabanillas Vilaplana, L

    2012-01-01

    Premature baby's oral feeding is not possible until the reflex of sucking-swallowing-breathing adquisition. Its delay extends hospital stay and increases the incidence of oral motor disorders in early childhood. To analyze the transition from enteral to oral nutrition, the comorbidity associated with its delay and the impact of an early suction stimulation in a cohort of premature babies. Retrospective checking of 95 infants less than 32 gestation weeks (GW) admitted to a neonatal ICU in the last 4 years. It was revised the gestational age, anthropometric at birth and discharge, comorbidity, duration of mechanical ventilation, oxygen requirements, time of beginning and end of enteral/oral nutrition, beginning of Kangaroo method and the suction stimulation and the daily weight gain average. Suction stimulation began between weeks 29 and 40 GW (average and median 32 GW). Oral nutrition was initiated between 31-40 GW (average and median 33 GW) and completed between 33-44 GW (average and median 35 GW). Oral nutrition was delayed in patients who required longer mechanical ventilation and oxygen therapy. There was a positive correlation between the beginning of suction stimulation and the time of acquisition of a complete oral nutrition (84% Spearman correlation test) and length of hospital stay (80% Spearman correlation test). [corrected] Early suction stimulation in a preterm patient seems to facilitate full oral nutrition at an early stage and it is associated with a hospital stay decrease and the improvement in the daily weight gain average.

  19. Once-daily dose regimen of ribavirin is interchangeable with a twice-daily dose regimen: randomized open clinical trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balk JM

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Jiska M Balk,1 Guido RMM Haenen,1 Özgür M Koc,2 Ron Peters,3 Aalt Bast,1 Wim JF van der Vijgh,1 Ger H Koek,4 1Department of Toxicology, NUTRIM School for Nutrition, Toxicology and Metabolism, Maastricht University Medical Centre, 2Faculty of Health, Medicine and Life Sciences, Maastricht University, Maastricht, 3DSM Resolve, Geleen, 4Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Maastricht University Medical Centre, Maastricht, the Netherlands Background: The combination of ribavirin (RBV and pegylated interferon (PEG-IFN is effective in the treatment of chronic hepatitis C infection. Reducing the frequency of RBV intake from twice to once a day will improve compliance and opens up the opportunity to combine RBV with new and more specific direct-acting agents in one pill. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to evaluate the pharmacokinetic profile of RBV in a once-daily to twice-daily regimen. The secondary aim was to determine tolerability as well as the severity and differences in side effects of both treatment regimens. Methods: In this randomized open-label crossover study, twelve patients with chronic type 1 hepatitis C infection and weighing more than 75 kg were treated with 180 µg of PEG-IFN weekly and 1,200 mg RBV daily for 24 weeks. The patients received RBV dosed as 1,200 mg once-daily for 12 weeks followed by RBV dosed as 600 mg twice-daily for 12 weeks, or vice versa. In addition to the pharmacokinetic profile, the hematological profile and side effects were recorded. The RBV concentrations in plasma were determined using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Results: Eight of twelve patients completed the study. Neither the time taken for RBV to reach peak plasma concentration nor the AUC0-last (adjusted for difference in dose was significantly different between the two groups (P>0.05. Furthermore, the once-daily regimen did not give more side effects than the twice-daily regimen (P>0

  20. Modulation of untruthful responses with noninvasive brain stimulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shirley eFecteau

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Deceptive abilities have long been studied in relation to personality traits. More recently, studies explored the neural substrates associated with deceptive skills suggesting a critical role of the prefrontal cortex. Here we investigated whether noninvasive brain stimulation over the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC could modulate generation of untruthful responses about subject’s personal life across contexts (i.e., deceiving on guilt-free questions on daily activities; generating previously memorized lies about past experience; and producing spontaneous lies about past experience, as well as across modality responses (verbal and motor responses. Results reveal that real, but not sham, transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS over the DLPFC can reduce response latency for untruthful over truthful answers across contexts and modality responses. Also, contexts of lies seem to incur a different hemispheric laterality. These findings add up to previous studies demonstrating that it is possible to modulate some processes involved in generation of untruthful answers by applying noninvasive brain stimulation over the DLPFC and extend these findings by showing a differential hemispheric contribution of DLPFCs according to contexts.

  1. Can yoga therapy stimulate stem cell trafficking from bone marrow?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nitya Shree

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available It has been established that mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs from bone marrow enter the peripheral circulation intermittently for possible tissue regeneration, repair and to take care of daily wear and tear. This is evident from the detection of MSCs from peripheral blood. The factors governing this migration remain elusive. These MSCs carry out the work of policing and are supposed to repair the injured tissues. Thus, these cells help in maintaining the tissue and organ homeostasis. Yoga and pranayama originated in India and is now being practiced all over the world for positive health. So far, the chemical stimulation of bone marrow has been widely used employing injection of colony stimulating factor. However, the role of physical factors such as mechanical stimulation and stretching has not been substantiated. It is claimed that practicing yoga delays senescence, improves the physiological functions of heart and lung and yoga postures make the body elastic. It remains to be seen whether the yoga therapy promotes trafficking of the stem cells from bone marrow for possible repair and regeneration of worn out and degenerating tissues. We cover in this short review, mainly the role of physical factors especially the yoga therapy on stem cells trafficking from bone marrow.

  2. Modulation of Untruthful Responses with Non-Invasive Brain Stimulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fecteau, Shirley; Boggio, Paulo; Fregni, Felipe; Pascual-Leone, Alvaro

    2013-01-01

    Deceptive abilities have long been studied in relation to personality traits. More recently, studies explored the neural substrates associated with deceptive skills suggesting a critical role of the prefrontal cortex. Here we investigated whether non-invasive brain stimulation over the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) could modulate generation of untruthful responses about subject’s personal life across contexts (i.e., deceiving on guilt-free questions on daily activities; generating previously memorized lies about past experience; and producing spontaneous lies about past experience), as well as across modality responses (verbal and motor responses). Results reveal that real, but not sham, transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) over the DLPFC can reduce response latency for untruthful over truthful answers across contexts and modality responses. Also, contexts of lies seem to incur a different hemispheric laterality. These findings add up to previous studies demonstrating that it is possible to modulate some processes involved in generation of untruthful answers by applying non-invasive brain stimulation over the DLPFC and extend these findings by showing a differential hemispheric contribution of DLPFCs according to contexts. PMID:23550273

  3. Can yoga therapy stimulate stem cell trafficking from bone marrow?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shree, Nitya; Bhonde, Ramesh R

    It has been established that mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) from bone marrow enter the peripheral circulation intermittently for possible tissue regeneration, repair and to take care of daily wear and tear. This is evident from the detection of MSCs from peripheral blood. The factors governing this migration remain elusive. These MSCs carry out the work of policing and are supposed to repair the injured tissues. Thus, these cells help in maintaining the tissue and organ homeostasis. Yoga and pranayama originated in India and is now being practiced all over the world for positive health. So far, the chemical stimulation of bone marrow has been widely used employing injection of colony stimulating factor. However, the role of physical factors such as mechanical stimulation and stretching has not been substantiated. It is claimed that practicing yoga delays senescence, improves the physiological functions of heart and lung and yoga postures make the body elastic. It remains to be seen whether the yoga therapy promotes trafficking of the stem cells from bone marrow for possible repair and regeneration of worn out and degenerating tissues. We cover in this short review, mainly the role of physical factors especially the yoga therapy on stem cells trafficking from bone marrow. Copyright © 2016 Transdisciplinary University, Bangalore and World Ayurveda Foundation. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Daily Self-Weighing to Control Body Weight in Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carly R. Pacanowski

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study is to review the history of daily self-weighing for weight control, discuss the possibility that self-weighing may cause adverse psychological symptoms, and propose mechanisms that explain how self-weighing facilitates weight control. A systematic forward (citation tracking approach has been employed in this study. In the early literature, experimental tests did not demonstrate a benefit of adding daily self-weighing to traditional behavioral modification for weight loss. More recent studies have shown that daily self-weighing combined with personalized electronic feedback can produce and sustain weight loss with and without a traditional weight loss program. Daily self-weighing appears to be effective in preventing age-related weight gain. Apart from these experimental findings, there is considerable agreement that the frequency of self-weighing correlates with success in losing weight and sustaining the weight loss. The early literature suggested frequent self-weighing may be associated with negative psychological effects. However, more recent experimental trials do not substantiate such a causal relationship. In conclusion, daily self-weighing may be a useful strategy for certain adults to prevent weight gain, lose weight, or prevent weight regain after loss. More research is needed to better understand the role of different types of feedback, who benefits most from self-weighing, and at what frequency.

  5. Satisfaction with daily occupations amongst asylum seekers in Denmark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morville, Anne-Le; Erlandsson, Lena-Karin; Danneskiold-Samsøe, Bente; Amris, Kirstine; Eklund, Mona

    2015-05-01

    The aim of this study was to describe asylum seekers' satisfaction with daily occupations and activity level while in a Danish asylum centre, and whether this changed over time. Another aim was to describe whether exposure to torture, self-rated health measures, and ADL ability were related to their satisfaction with daily occupations and activity level. A total of 43 asylum seekers at baseline and 17 at follow-up were included. The questionnaires Satisfaction with Daily Occupations, Major Depression Inventory, WHO-5 Wellbeing, Pain Detect, a questionnaire covering torture, and basic social information were used as well as Assessment of Motor and Process Skills. The results showed a low level of satisfaction with daily occupations at both baseline and follow-up. There was no statistically significant change in satisfaction or activity level between baseline and the follow-up. Associations between AMPS process skills--education, worst pain and activity level--were present at baseline, as was a relationship between AMPS process skills and satisfaction. At follow-up, associations between WHO-5 and satisfaction and activity level and between MDI scores and activity level were found. Asylum seekers experience a low level of satisfaction with daily occupations, both at arrival and after 10 months in an asylum centre. There is a need for further research and development of occupation-focused rehabilitation methods for the asylum seeker population.

  6. Daily physical activity and type 2 diabetes: A review

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hidetaka; Hamasaki[1

    2016-01-01

    Physical activity improves glycemic control and reduces the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and mortality in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D). Moderate to vigorous physical activity is recommended to manage T2D; however, patients with T2D can be physically weak, making it difficult to engage in the recommended levels of physical activity. Daily physical activity includes various activities performed during both occupational and leisure time such as walking, gardening, and housework that type 2 diabetic patients should be able to perform without considerable physical burden. This review focuses on the association between daily physical activity and T2D. Walking was the most common form of daily physical activity, with numerous studies demonstrating its beneficial effects on reducing the risk of T2D, CVD,and mortality. Walking for at least 30 min per day was shown to reduce the risk of T2D by approximately 50%. Additionally, walking was associated with a reduction in mortality. In contrast, evidence was extremely limited regarding other daily physical activities such as gardening and housework in patients with T2D. Recent studies have suggested daily physical activity, including non-exerciseactivity thermogenesis, to be favorably associated with metabolic risks and mortality. However, well-designed longitudinal studies are warranted to elucidate its effects on overall health.

  7. Daily physical activity and type 2 diabetes: A review

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hidetaka; Hamasaki

    2016-01-01

    Physical activity improves glycemic control and reduces the risk of cardiovascular disease(CVD) and mortality in patients with type 2 diabetes(T2D). Moderate to vigorous physical activity is recommended to manage T2D; however, patients with T2D can be physically weak, making it difficult to engage in the recommended levels of physical activity. Daily physical activity includes various activities performed during both occupational and leisure time such as walking, gardening, and housework that type 2 diabetic patients should be able to perform without considerable physical burden. This review focuses on the association between daily physical activity and T2D. Walking was the most common form of daily physical activity, with numerous studies demonstrating its beneficial effects on reducing the risk of T2D, CVD, and mortality. Walking for at least 30 min per day was shown to reduce the risk of T2D by approximately 50%. Additionally, walking was associated with a reduction in mortality. In contrast, evidence was extremely limited regarding other daily physical activities such as gardening and housework in patients with T2D. Recent studies have suggested daily physical activity, including non-exercise activity thermogenesis, to be favorably associated with metabolic risks and mortality. However, well-designed longitudinal studies are warranted to elucidate its effects on overall health.

  8. Daily total global solar radiation modeling from several meteorological data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilgili, Mehmet; Ozgoren, Muammer

    2011-05-01

    This paper investigates the modeling of the daily total global solar radiation in Adana city of Turkey using multi-linear regression (MLR), multi-nonlinear regression (MNLR) and feed-forward artificial neural network (ANN) methods. Several daily meteorological data, i.e., measured sunshine duration, air temperature and wind speed and date of the year, i.e., monthly and daily, were used as independent variables to the MLR, MNLR and ANN models. In order to determine the relationship between the total global solar radiation and other meteorological data, and also to obtain the best independent variables, the MLR and MNLR analyses were performed with the "Stepwise" method in the Statistical Packages for the Social Sciences (SPSS) program. Thus, various models consisting of the combination of the independent variables were constructed and the best input structure was investigated. The performances of all models in the training and testing data sets were compared with the measured daily global solar radiation values. The obtained results indicated that the ANN method was better than the other methods in modeling daily total global solar radiation. For the ANN model, mean absolute error (MAE), mean absolute percentage error (MAPE), correlation coefficient ( R) and coefficient of determination ( R 2) for the training/testing data set were found to be 0.89/1.00 MJ/m2 day, 7.88/9.23%, 0.9824/0.9751, and 0.9651/0.9508, respectively.

  9. Impulse magnetic stimulation facilitates synaptic regeneration in rats following sciatic nerve injury

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sergey A. Zhivolupov; Miroslav M. Odinak; Nariman A. Rashidov; Ludmila S. Onischenko; Igor N. Samartsev; Anton A. Jurin

    2012-01-01

    The current studies describing magnetic stimulation for treatment of nervous system diseases mainly focus on transcranial magnetic stimulation and rarely focus on spinal cord magnetic stimula-tion. Spinal cord magnetic stimulation has been confirmed to promote neural plasticity after injuries of spinal cord, brain and peripheral nerve. To evaluate the effects of impulse magnetic stimulation of the spinal cord on peripheral nerve regneration, we compressed a 3 mm segment located in the middle third of the hip using a sterilized artery forceps to induce ischemia. Then, all animals un-derwent impulse magnetic stimulation of the lumbar portion of spinal crod and spinal nerve roots daily for 1 month. Electron microscopy results showed that in and below the injuryed segment, the inflammation and demyelination of neural tissue were alleviated, apoptotic cells were reduced, and injured Schwann cells and myelin fibers were repaired. These findings suggest that high-frequency impulse magnetic stimulation of spinal cord and corresponding spinal nerve roots promotes synaptic regeneration following sciatic nerve injury.

  10. [Non-invasive brain stimulation in neurology : Transcranial direct current stimulation to enhance cognitive functioning].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonenko, D; Flöel, A

    2016-08-01

    Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) has been successfully used in neuroscientific research to modulate cognitive functions. Recent studies suggested that improvement of behavioral performance is associated with tDCS-induced modulation of neuronal activity and connectivity. Thus, tDCS may also represent a promising tool for reconstitution of cognitive functions in the context of memory decline related to Alzheimer's disease or aphasia following stroke; however, evidence from randomized sham-controlled clinical trials is still scarce. Initial results of tDCS-induced behavioral improvement in patients with Alzheimer's dementia and its precursors indicated that an intense memory training combined with tDCS may be effective. Early interventions in the stage of mild cognitive impairment could be crucial but further evidence is needed to substantiate this. In patients with aphasia following stroke tDCS was applied to the left and right hemispheres, with varying results depending on the severity of the symptoms and polarity of the stimulation. Patients with mild aphasia can benefit from tDCS of the language dominant hemisphere while in patients with severe aphasia tDCS of right hemispheric homologous brain language areas may be particularly relevant. Moreover, recent studies suggested that an intervention in the subacute phase of aphasia could be most promising. In summary, tDCS could provide the exciting possibility to reconstitute cognitive functions in patients with neurological disorders. Future studies have to elucidate whether tDCS can be used in the clinical routine to prevent further cognitive decline in neurodegenerative diseases and whether beneficial effects from experimental studies translate into long-term improvement in activities of daily life.

  11. Daily reports and pooled time series analysis: pediatric psychology applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soliday, Elizabeth; Moore, Kevin J; Lande, Marc B

    2002-01-01

    To apply daily reports and pooled time series analysis (PTSA) to issues in pediatric psychology research. We discuss specific applications for this procedure in analyzing repeated observations for a small sample, including medication effects, caregiving role strain, pain reports, and treatment effects. In the PTSA example presented, 20 daily behavior reports were provided by parents of 10 children with steroid-sensitive nephrotic syndrome (SSNS) during high-dose steroid administration and tapering. The full model, including child age, medication dosage, and between-subjects effects, significantly predicted children's aggressive behavior and anxious/depressed behavior. Steroid dosage significantly predicted aggressive, but not anxious/depressed, behavior. Daily reports analyzed using PTSA provided insight into serious behavioral side effects of steroid medications used to treat SSNS. We discuss the role of pediatric psychologists in addressing medication side effects and other time-related effects detectable using this methodology.

  12. Daily extreme temperature multifractals in Catalonia (NE Spain)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burgueño, A. [Departament d' Astronomia i Meteorologia, Universitat de Barcelona, Barcelona (Spain); Lana, X., E-mail: francisco.javier.lana@upc.edu [Departament de Física i Enginyeria Nuclear, Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya, Barcelona (Spain); Serra, C. [Departament de Física i Enginyeria Nuclear, Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya, Barcelona (Spain); Martínez, M.D. [Departament de Física Aplicada, Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya, Barcelona (Spain)

    2014-02-01

    The multifractal character of the daily extreme temperatures in Catalonia (NE Spain) is analyzed by means of the multifractal detrended fluctuation analysis (MF-DFA) applied to 65 thermometric records covering years 1950–2004. Although no clear spatial patterns of the multifractal spectrum parameters appear, factor scores deduced from Principal Component analysis indicate some signs of spatial gradients. Additionally, the daily extreme temperature series are classified depending on their complex time behavior, through four multifractal parameters (Hurst exponent, Hölder exponent with maximum spectrum, spectrum asymmetry and spectrum width). As a synthesis of the three last parameters, a basic measure of complexity is proposed through a normalized Complexity Index. Its regional behavior is found to be free of geographical dependences. This index represents a new step towards the description of the daily extreme temperatures complexity.

  13. Detecting Inhomogeneity in Daily Climate Series Using Wavelet Analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAN Zhongwei; Phil D.JONES

    2008-01-01

    A wavelet method was applied to detect inhomogeneities in daily meteorological series,data which are being increasingly applied in studies of climate extremes.The wavelet method has been applied to a few well-established long-term daily temperature series back to the 18th century,which have been "homogenized" with conventional approaches.Various types of problems remaining in the series were revealed with the wavelet method.Their influences on analyses of change in climate extremes are discussed.The results have importance for understanding issues in conventional climate data processing and for development of improved methods of homogenization in order to improve analysis of climate extremes based on daily data.

  14. Daily Rhythms in Mosquitoes and Their Consequences for Malaria Transmission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel S. C. Rund

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The 24-h day involves cycles in environmental factors that impact organismal fitness. This is thought to select for organisms to regulate their temporal biology accordingly, through circadian and diel rhythms. In addition to rhythms in abiotic factors (such as light and temperature, biotic factors, including ecological interactions, also follow daily cycles. How daily rhythms shape, and are shaped by, interactions between organisms is poorly understood. Here, we review an emerging area, namely the causes and consequences of daily rhythms in the interactions between vectors, their hosts and the parasites they transmit. We focus on mosquitoes, malaria parasites and vertebrate hosts, because this system offers the opportunity to integrate from genetic and molecular mechanisms to population dynamics and because disrupting rhythms offers a novel avenue for disease control.

  15. Deep brain stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus and globus pallidus internus for advanced Parkinson’s disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Odekerken, V.J.J.

    2016-01-01

    Deep Brain Stimulation (DBS) for Parkinson’s disease is a treatment option in patients with medication-induced motor response fluctuations, when medication schedule adjustments are no longer able to sustain optimal functioning in daily life. DBS mainly improves motor symptoms that initially responde

  16. The Combined Use of Hypnosis and Sensory and Motor Stimulation in Assisting Children with Developmental Learning Problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jampolsky, Gerald G.

    Hypnosis was combined with sensory and motor stimulation to remediate reversal problems in five children (6 1/2- 9-years-old). Under hypnosis Ss were given the suggestion that they learn their numbers through feel and then given 1 hour of structured instruction daily for 10 days. Instruction stressed conditioning, vibratory memory, touch memory,…

  17. A randomized controlled trial of an implantable 2-channel peroneal nerve stimulator on walking speed and activity in poststroke hemiplegia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kottink, A.I.R.; Kottink, Anke I.; Hermens, Hermanus J.; Nene, A.V.; Tenniglo, Martinus Johannes Bernardus; van der Aa, Hans E.; Buschman, H.P.J.; IJzerman, Maarten Joost

    Objective To determine the effect of a new implantable 2-channel peroneal nerve stimulator on walking speed and daily activities, in comparison with the usual treatment in chronic stroke survivors with a drop foot. Design Randomized controlled trial. Setting All subjects were measured 5 times in the

  18. The Combined Use of Hypnosis and Sensory and Motor Stimulation in Assisting Children with Developmental Learning Problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jampolsky, Gerald G.

    Hypnosis was combined with sensory and motor stimulation to remediate reversal problems in five children (6 1/2- 9-years-old). Under hypnosis Ss were given the suggestion that they learn their numbers through feel and then given 1 hour of structured instruction daily for 10 days. Instruction stressed conditioning, vibratory memory, touch memory,…

  19. Statistical procedures for evaluating daily and monthly hydrologic model predictions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coffey, M.E.; Workman, S.R.; Taraba, J.L.; Fogle, A.W.

    2004-01-01

    The overall study objective was to evaluate the applicability of different qualitative and quantitative methods for comparing daily and monthly SWAT computer model hydrologic streamflow predictions to observed data, and to recommend statistical methods for use in future model evaluations. Statistical methods were tested using daily streamflows and monthly equivalent runoff depths. The statistical techniques included linear regression, Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency, nonparametric tests, t-test, objective functions, autocorrelation, and cross-correlation. None of the methods specifically applied to the non-normal distribution and dependence between data points for the daily predicted and observed data. Of the tested methods, median objective functions, sign test, autocorrelation, and cross-correlation were most applicable for the daily data. The robust coefficient of determination (CD*) and robust modeling efficiency (EF*) objective functions were the preferred methods for daily model results due to the ease of comparing these values with a fixed ideal reference value of one. Predicted and observed monthly totals were more normally distributed, and there was less dependence between individual monthly totals than was observed for the corresponding predicted and observed daily values. More statistical methods were available for comparing SWAT model-predicted and observed monthly totals. The 1995 monthly SWAT model predictions and observed data had a regression Rr2 of 0.70, a Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency of 0.41, and the t-test failed to reject the equal data means hypothesis. The Nash-Sutcliffe coefficient and the R r2 coefficient were the preferred methods for monthly results due to the ability to compare these coefficients to a set ideal value of one.

  20. Analyzing clinical trial outcomes based on incomplete daily diary reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Neal; Harel, Ofer; Little, Roderick J A

    2016-07-30

    A case study is presented assessing the impact of missing data on the analysis of daily diary data from a study evaluating the effect of a drug for the treatment of insomnia. The primary analysis averaged daily diary values for each patient into a weekly variable. Following the commonly used approach, missing daily values within a week were ignored provided there was a minimum number of diary reports (i.e., at least 4). A longitudinal model was then fit with treatment, time, and patient-specific effects. A treatment effect at a pre-specified landmark time was obtained from the model. Weekly values following dropout were regarded as missing, but intermittent daily missing values were obscured. Graphical summaries and tables are presented to characterize the complex missing data patterns. We use multiple imputation for daily diary data to create completed data sets so that exactly 7 daily diary values contribute to each weekly patient average. Standard analysis methods are then applied for landmark analysis of the completed data sets, and the resulting estimates are combined using the standard multiple imputation approach. The observed data are subject to digit heaping and patterned responses (e.g., identical values for several consecutive days), which makes accurate modeling of the response data difficult. Sensitivity analyses under different modeling assumptions for the data were performed, along with pattern mixture models assessing the sensitivity to the missing at random assumption. The emphasis is on graphical displays and computational methods that can be implemented with general-purpose software. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  1. Urban impact on the daily cycle of air temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Kai; Li, Yuguo

    2017-04-01

    Understanding and preventing urban warming is vital in urban climate research, but the main anthropogenic factors behind the phenomenon are very complex. Previous studies mostly focused on the urban heat island and larger warming trend of mean temperature, neglected the basic periodic variations of the climate. The daily and annual cycles of the surface air temperature are the two fundamental climate variations. A typical temperature cycle has three characteristics; mean, amplitude and phase. We hypothesize that an analysis of the changes in the characteristics of the whole daily and annual temperature cycles, including not only the mean temperature and temperature ranges (amplitudes), but also the maximum, minimum temperatures and the phases, can provide more information concerning the urban warming. Through a detailed analysis of long-term observations in Hong Kong, we found that the daily phase has shifted a total of 1.77 hours later over the last 130 years (1.36 hours per century) in the urban area of Hong Kong as represented by the Hong Kong Observatory (HKO) data. The annual phase change in HKO reflects the phenomenon that globally observed annual phase advances or seasons onset earlier. Similar results are revealed by studying 670 long-term stations worldwide. The average daily phase delay in the identified large city stations is 3 times larger than that observed in the rural stations. Such a daily phase delay phenomenon can be explained by the increase in effective daily thermal storage in cities due to human-made structures; the change in annual thermal storage is much smaller. The results can help determine the extent of the urban impact on different temperature cycles, and provide more information on how human activities impact on the climate.

  2. Daily self-disclosure and sleep in couples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kane, Heidi S; Slatcher, Richard B; Reynolds, Bridget M; Repetti, Rena L; Robles, Theodore F

    2014-08-01

    An emerging literature provides evidence for the association between romantic relationship quality and sleep, an important factor in health and well-being. However, we still know very little about the specific relationship processes that affect sleep behavior. Therefore, the goal of this study was to examine how self-disclosure, an important relational process linked to intimacy, relationship satisfaction, and health, is associated with sleep behavior. As part of a larger study of family processes, wives (n = 46) and husbands (n = 38) from 46 cohabiting families completed 56 days of daily diaries. Spouses completed evening diaries assessing daily self-disclosure, relationship satisfaction, and mood and morning diaries assessing the prior night's sleep. Multilevel modeling was used to explore the effects of both daily variation in and average levels across the 56 days of self-disclosure on sleep. Daily variation in self-disclosure predicted sleep outcomes for wives, but not for husbands. On days when wives self-disclosed more to their spouses than their average level, their subjective sleep quality and sleep efficiency that night improved. Furthermore, daily self-disclosure buffered the effect of high negative mood on sleep latency for wives, but not husbands. In contrast, higher average levels of self-disclosure predicted less waking during the night for husbands, but not for wives. The association between self-disclosure and sleep is one mechanism by which daily relationship functioning may influence health and well-being. Gender may play a role in how self-disclosure is associated with sleep.

  3. Prediction of Extreme Significant Wave Height from Daily Maxima

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘德辅; 李华军; 温书勤; 宋艳; 王树青

    2001-01-01

    For prediction of the extreme significant wave height in the ocean areas where long term wave data are not available, the empirical method of extrapolating short term data (1 ~ 3 years) is used in design practice. In this paper two methods are proposed to predict extreme significant wave height based on short-term daily maxima. According to the daa recorded by the Oceanographic Station of Liaodong Bay at the Bohai Sea, it is supposed that daily maximum wave heights are statistically independent. The data show that daily maximum wave heights obey log-normal distribution, and that the numbers of daily maxima vary from year to year, obeying binomial distribution. Based on these statistical characteristics, the binomial-log-normal compound extremum distribution is derived for prediction of extreme significant wave heights (50~ 100 years). For examination of its accuracy and validity, the prediction of extreme wave heights is based on 12 years′ data at this station, and based on each 3 years′ data respectively. The results show that with consideration of confidence intervals, the predicted wave heights based on 3 years′ data are very close to those based on 12 years′data. The observed data in some ocean areas in the Atlantic Ocean and the North Sea show it is not correct to assume that daily maximum wave heights are statistically independent; they are subject to Markov chain condition, obeying log-normal distribution. In this paper an analytical method is derived to predict extreme wave heights in these cases. A comparison of the computations shows that the difference between the extreme wave heights based on the assumption that daily maxima are statistically independent and that they are subject to Markov Chain condition is smaller than 10%.

  4. Historical developments in children's deep brain stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cif, Laura; Coubes, Philippe

    2017-01-01

    Heterogeneous by the underlying pathobiology and clinical presentation, childhood onset dystonia is most frequently progressive, with related disability and limitations in functions of daily living. Consequently, there is an obvious need for efficient symptomatic therapies. Following lesional surgery to basal ganglia (BG) and thalamus, deep brain stimulation (DBS) is a more conservative and adjustable intervention to and validated for internal segment of the globus pallidus (GPi), highly efficient in treating isolated "primary" dystonia and associated symptoms such as subcortical myoclonus. The role of DBS in acquired, neurometabolic and degenerative disorders with dystonia deserves further exploration to confirm as an efficient and lasting therapy. However, the pathobiological background with distribution of the sequellae over the central nervous system and related clinical features, will limit DBS efficacy in these conditions. Cumulative arguments propose DBS in severe life threatening dystonic conditions called status dystonicus as first line therapy, irrespective of the underlying cause. There are no currently available validated selection criteria for DBS in pediatric dystonia. Concurrent targets such as subthalamic nucleus (STN) and several motor nuclei of the thalamus are under exploration and only little information is available in children. DBS programming in paediatric population was adopted from experience in adults. The choice of neuromodulatory DBS parameters could influence not only the initial therapeutic outcome of dystonic symptoms but also its maintenance over time and potentially the occurrence of DBS related side effects. DBS allows efficient symptomatic treatment of severe dystonia in children and advances pathophysiological knowledge about local and distributed abnormal neural activity over the motor cortical-subcortical networks in dystonia and other movement disorders. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights

  5. Electrical stimulation of experimental nonunions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacobs, R.R.; Luethi, U.; Dueland, R.T.; Perren, S.M.

    Hypertrophic and oligotrophic nonunions were prepared by resection of a portion of the proximal ulna in dogs. In the hypertrophic nonunions, 20 muamps of direct current for eight weeks produced an increase in bone formation compared to the opposite control limb by radiography, photometry, point counting of new bone, and growth rate by sequential fluorochrome labeling and the dynamic uptake of 99mTc-labeled methylene disphosphonate. Oligotrophic nonunions were treated by plating and aspiration grafting in addition to direct-current stimulation. Ony the point counting of new bone showed a significant increase in bone formation with stimulation. Sequential fluorochrome labeling demonstrated that the new bone was laid down on existing bone and not primarily adjacent to the cathode within the fibrous nonunion. This finding supports the cell-mediated rather than physicochemical effect of electrostimulation.

  6. Somato stimulation and acupuncture therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jing-Jun; Rong, Pei-Jing; Shi, Li; Ben, Hui; Zhu, Bing

    2016-05-01

    Acupuncture is an oldest somato stimulus medical technique. As the most representative peripheral nerve stimulation therapy, it has a complete system of theory and application and is applicable to a large population. This paper expounds the bionic origins of acupuncture and analyzes the physiological mechanism by which acupuncture works. For living creatures, functionally sound viscera and effective endurance of pain are essential for survival. This paper discusses the way in which acupuncture increases the pain threshold of living creatures and the underlying mechanism from the perspective of bionics. Acupuncture can also help to adjust visceral functions and works most effectively in facilitating the process of digestion and restraining visceral pain. This paper makes an in-depth overview of peripheral nerve stimulation therapy represented by acupuncture. We look forward to the revival of acupuncture, a long-standing somato stimulus medicine, in the modern medical systems.

  7. Two daily smoke maxima in eighteenth century London air

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, R. Giles

    Varied electrostatics experiments followed Benjamin Franklin's pioneering atmospheric investigations. In Knightsbridge, Central London, John Read (1726-1814) installed a sensing rod in the upper part of his house and, using a pith ball electrometer and Franklin chimes, monitored atmospheric electricity from 1789 to 1791. Atmospheric electricity is sensitive to weather and smoke pollution. In calm weather conditions, Read observed two daily electrification maxima in moderate weather, around 9 am and 7 pm. This is likely to represent a double diurnal cycle in urban smoke. Before the motor car and steam railways, one source of the double maximum smoke pattern was the daily routine of fire lighting for domestic heating.

  8. Resolution of New Daily Persistent Headache After Osteopathic Manipulative Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Joshua

    2016-03-01

    New daily persistent headache is a refractory headache with an elusive cause and treatment. Limited available data suggest that abnormalities in the musculoskeletal system may increase vulnerability to this type of headache. Osteopathic manipulative treatment has been used successfully to manage primary headache disorders. In this case report, a patient with new daily persistent headache and severe somatic dysfunction had resolution of her pain after osteopathic manipulative treatment. This case suggests that osteopathic manipulative treatment may be useful in patients with this typically treatment-resistant disorder.

  9. Characterizing and Comparing Young Adult Intermittent and Daily Smokers

    OpenAIRE

    Lenk, Kathleen M.; Chen, Vincent; Bernat, Debra H.; Forster, Jean L.; Rode, Peter A.

    2009-01-01

    To examine young adult smoking patterns, we interviewed 732 smokers (from five U.S. upper Midwestern states) via telephone in 2006. We first defined two groups of intermittent smokers—low (smoked 1–14 days in past 30) and high (smoked 15–29 days in past 30), and then analyzed differences between these two groups and daily smokers. Low intermittent smokers were much less likely than high intermittent smokers to consider themselves smokers, feel addicted, or smoke with friends. Daily smokers we...

  10. Stimulated Superconductivity at Strong Coupling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bao, Ning; Dong, Xi; Silverstein, Eva; Torroba, Gonzalo; /Stanford U., ITP /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /SLAC

    2011-08-12

    Stimulating a system with time dependent sources can enhance instabilities, thus increasing the critical temperature at which the system transitions to interesting low-temperature phases such as superconductivity or superfluidity. After reviewing this phenomenon in non-equilibrium BCS theory (and its marginal fermi liquid generalization) we analyze the effect in holographic superconductors. We exhibit a simple regime in which the transition temperature increases parametrically as we increase the frequency of the time-dependent source.

  11. Tactile Stimulation and Consumer Response.

    OpenAIRE

    Hornik, Jacob

    1992-01-01

    Tactile behavior is a basic communication form as well as an expression of interpersonal involvement. This article presents three studies offering evidence for the positive role of casual interpersonal touch on consumer behavior. More specifically, it provides initial support for the view that tactile stimulation in various consumer behavior situations enhances the positive feeling for and evaluation of both the external stimuli and the touching source. Further, customers touched by a request...

  12. Effect of virtual reality dance exercise on the balance, activities of daily living, and depressive disorder status of Parkinson’s disease patients

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Nam-Yong; Lee, Dong-Kyu; Song, Hyun-Seung

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] In this study, we examined the effects of virtual reality dance exercise on the balance, activities of daily living and depressive disorder status of Parkinson’s disease patients. [Subjects] Twenty patients were assigned either the experimental group (n = 10) or the control group (n = 10). All participants received 30 minutes of neurodevelopment treatment and 15 minutes of functional electrical stimulation 5 times per week for 6 weeks. The experimental group additionally performed 3...

  13. Movement disorders induced by deep brain stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baizabal-Carvallo, José Fidel; Jankovic, Joseph

    2016-04-01

    Deep brain stimulation represents a major advance in the treatment of several types of movement disorders. However, during stimulation new movement disorders may emerge, thus limiting the positive effects of this therapy. These movement disorders may be induced by: 1) stimulation of the targeted nucleus, 2) stimulation of surrounding tracts and nuclei, and 3) as a result of dose adjustment of accompanying medications, such as reduction of dopaminergic drugs in patients with Parkinson's disease. Various dyskinesias, blepharospasm, and apraxia of eyelid opening have been described mainly with subthalamic nucleus stimulation, whereas hypokinesia and freezing of gait have been observed with stimulation of the globus pallidus internus. Other deep brain stimulation-related movement disorders include dyskinesias associated with stimulation of the globus pallidus externus and ataxic gait as a side effect of chronic bilateral stimulation of the ventral intermediate nucleus of thalamus. These movement disorders are generally reversible and usually resolved once the stimulation is reduced or turned off. This, however, typically leads to loss of benefit of the underlying movement disorder which can be re-gained by using different contacts, changing targets or stimulation parameters, and adjusting pharmacological therapy. New and innovative emerging technologies and stimulation techniques may help to prevent or overcome the various deep brain stimulation-induced movement disorders. In this review we aim to describe the clinical features, frequency, pathophysiology, and strategies for treatment of these iatrogenic movement disorders.

  14. Stimulating parameters and de-synchronization in vagus nerve stimulation therapy for epilepsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Y.-L.; Chen, Z.-Y.; Ma, J.; Feng, W.-J.

    2008-02-01

    The influence of the stimulation parameters on the de-synchronization of small world Hindmarsh-Rose (H-R) neural network is numerically investigated in the vagus nerve stimulation therapy for epilepsy. The simulation shows that synchronization evolves into de-synchronization when a part of neurons (about 10 percent) is stimulated with a pulse current signal. The network de-synchronization appears to be sensitive to the stimulation parameters. For the case of the same stimulation intensity, those weakly coupled networks reach de-synchronization more easily than strongly coupled networks. There exist an optimal stimulation interval and period of continuous stimulation time when other stimulation parameters remain invariable.

  15. Stimulating parameters and de-synchronization in vagus nerve stimulation therapy for epilepsy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Y-L; Ma, J; Feng, W-J [Institute of Theoretical Physics, Lanzhou University of Technology, 287 Langongping Road, Lanzhou 730050 (China); Chen, Z-Y [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of California at Berkeley, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States)], E-mail: hyperchaos@163.com, E-mail: liyl20031@126.com, E-mail: chen_zhao_yang@yahoo.com

    2008-02-15

    The influence of the stimulation parameters on the de-synchronization of small world Hindmarsh-Rose (H-R) neural network is numerically investigated in the vagus nerve stimulation therapy for epilepsy. The simulation shows that synchronization evolves into de-synchronization when a part of neurons (about 10 percent) is stimulated with a pulse current signal. The network de-synchronization appears to be sensitive to the stimulation parameters. For the case of the same stimulation intensity, those weakly coupled networks reach de-synchronization more easily than strongly coupled networks. There exist an optimal stimulation interval and period of continuous stimulation time when other stimulation parameters remain invariable.

  16. Gastric stimulation for weight loss

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Meir Mizrahi; Ami Ben Ya'acov; Yaron Ilan

    2012-01-01

    The prevalence of obesity is growing to epidemic proportions,and there is clearly a need for minimally invasive therapies with few adverse effects that allow for sustained weight loss.Behavior and lifestyle therapy are safe treatments for obesity in the short term,but the durability of the weight loss is limited.Although promising obesity drugs are in development,the currently available drugs lack efficacy or have unacceptable side effects.Surgery leads to long-term weight loss,but it is associated with morbidity and mortality.Gastric electrical stimulation (GES) has received increasing attention as a potential tool for treating obesity and gastrointestinal dysmotility disorders.GES is a promising,minimally invasive,safe,and effective method for treating obesity.External gastric pacing is aimed at alteration of the motility of the gastrointestinal tract in a way that will alter absorption due to alteration of transit time.In addition,data from animal models and preliminary data from human trials suggest a role for the gut-brain axis in the mechanism of GES.This may involve alteration of secretion of hormones associated with hunger or satiety.Patient selection for gastric stimulation therapy seems to be an important determinant of the treatment's outcome.Here,we review the current status,potential mechanisms of action,and possible future applications of gastric stimulation for obesity.

  17. Stimulation of Eryptosis by Cryptotanshinone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosi Bissinger

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Cryptotanshinone, a component of Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge roots, may trigger suicidal death or apoptosis of tumor cells and has thus been recommended for the prevention and treatment of malignancy. On the other hand, Cryptotanshinone has been shown to counteract apoptosis of neurons and hepatocytes. Similar to apoptosis of nucleated cells, erythrocytes may enter eryptosis, a suicidal death characterized by cell shrinkage and phosphatidylserine translocation to the erythrocyte surface. Eryptosis may be triggered by increase of cytosolic Ca2+-activity ([Ca2+]i. The present study explored whether Cryptotanshinone stimulates eryptosis. Methods: Forward scatter was taken as measure of cell volume, annexin V binding for identification of phosphatidylserine-exposing erythrocytes and Fluo3-fluorescence for determination of [Ca2+]i. Results: A 48 h exposure of human erythrocytes to Cryptotanshinone (10 µM was followed by significant decrease of forward scatter, significant increase of the percentage annexin-V-binding cells and significant increase of [Ca2+]i. The effect of Cryptotanshinone (1 µM on annexin-V-binding was virtually abrogated by removal of extracellular Ca2+. Conclusion: Cryptotanshinone is a powerful stimulator of suicidal erythrocyte death or eryptosis, which is effective mainly, if not exclusively, by stimulation of Ca2+ entry.

  18. Gastric stimulation for weight loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizrahi, Meir; Ben Ya'acov, Ami; Ilan, Yaron

    2012-01-01

    The prevalence of obesity is growing to epidemic proportions, and there is clearly a need for minimally invasive therapies with few adverse effects that allow for sustained weight loss. Behavior and lifestyle therapy are safe treatments for obesity in the short term, but the durability of the weight loss is limited. Although promising obesity drugs are in development, the currently available drugs lack efficacy or have unacceptable side effects. Surgery leads to long-term weight loss, but it is associated with morbidity and mortality. Gastric electrical stimulation (GES) has received increasing attention as a potential tool for treating obesity and gastrointestinal dysmotility disorders. GES is a promising, minimally invasive, safe, and effective method for treating obesity. External gastric pacing is aimed at alteration of the motility of the gastrointestinal tract in a way that will alter absorption due to alteration of transit time. In addition, data from animal models and preliminary data from human trials suggest a role for the gut-brain axis in the mechanism of GES. This may involve alteration of secretion of hormones associated with hunger or satiety. Patient selection for gastric stimulation therapy seems to be an important determinant of the treatment’s outcome. Here, we review the current status, potential mechanisms of action, and possible future applications of gastric stimulation for obesity. PMID:22654422

  19. Smiling Instead of Smoking: Development of a Positive Psychology Smoking Cessation Smartphone App for Non-daily Smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoeppner, Bettina B; Hoeppner, Susanne S; Kelly, Lourah; Schick, Melissa; Kelly, John F

    2017-02-14

    The usefulness of mobile technology in supporting smoking cessation has been demonstrated, but little is known about how smartphone apps could best be leveraged. The purpose of this paper is to describe the program of research that led to the creation of a smoking cessation app for non-daily smokers, so as to stimulate further ideas to create "smart" smartphone apps to support health behavior change. Literature reviews to evaluate the appropriateness of the proposed app, content analyses of existing apps, and smoking cessation sessions with non-daily smokers (n = 38) to inform the design of the app. The literature reviews showed that (1) smoking cessation apps are sought after by smokers, (2) positive affect plays an important role in smoking cessation, (3) short, self-administered exercises consistently bring about enduring positive affect enhancements, and (4) low treatment-seeking rates of non-daily smokers despite high motivation to quit indicate a need for novel smoking cessation support. Directed content analyses of existing apps indicated that tailoring, two-way interactions, and proactive features are under-utilized in existing apps, despite the popularity of such features. Conventional content analyses of audio-recorded session tapes suggested that difficulty in quitting was generally linked to specific, readily identifiable occasions, and that social support was considered important but not consistently sought out. The "Smiling Instead of Smoking" (SIS) app is an Android app that is designed to act as a behavioral, in-the-pocket coach to enhance quitting success in non-daily smokers. It provides proactive, tailored behavioral coaching, interactive tools (e.g., enlisting social support), daily positive psychology exercises, and smoking self-monitoring.

  20. Impact of Hyperbaric Oxygenation on the Phagocytosis-Stimulating Function of the Operated Liver

    OpenAIRE

    Savilov, P. N.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: to study the ability of hyperbaric oxygenation (HBO) to eliminate impaired phagocytosis-stimulating hepatic function caused by hepatectomy (HE). Material and methods. Experiments were conducted on 82 outbred female albino rats exposed to HE (15—20% of the organ mass) and HBO at 3 ata for 50 min once daily three times within the first three days after surgery. The capacities of neutrophils and monocytes of arterial (aorta) and venous (portal vein, hepatic veins) blood to ingest and ...

  1. Adjuvant transcranial direct current stimulation for treating Alzheimer's disease: A case study

    OpenAIRE

    Suellen Marinho Andrade; Camila Teresa Ponce Leon de Mendonça; Thobias Cavalcanti Laurindo Pereira; Bernardino Fernandez-Calvo; Regina Coely Neves Araújo; Nelson Torro Alves

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT We report the case of a 73-year-old male patient with Alzheimer's disease who underwent 10-daily transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) sessions. tDCS was applied over the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex as an adjuvant to the traditional treatment that the patient was receiving, which consisted of anticholinergic medication and cognitive training. The data were qualitatively analyzed and are presented in an analytic and structured form. The effects on cognitive performanc...

  2. Vagus Nerve Stimulation for Treating Epilepsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Evidence-based Guideline for PATIENTS and their FAMILIES VAGUS NERVE STIMULATION FOR TREATING EPILEPSY This information sheet is provided to help you understand how vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) may help treat epilepsy. The American ...

  3. Pharmacokinetics of tacrolimus converted from twice-daily formulation to once-daily formulation in Chinese stable liver transplant recipients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yi-fan ZHANG; Xiao-yan CHEN; Xiao-jian DAI; Xi-sheng LENG; Da-fang ZHONG

    2011-01-01

    Aim:To evaluate the pharmacokinetics of tacrolimus in Chinese stable liver transplant recipients converted from immediate release (IR) tacrolimus-based immunosuppression to modified release (MR) tacrolimus-based immunosuppression.Methods:Open-label,multi-center study with a one-way conversion design was conducted.Eighty-three stable liver recipients (6-24 months post-transplant) with normal renal and stable hepatic function were converted from IR tacrolimus twice-daily treatment to MR tacrolimus once-daily treatment on a 1:1 (mg:mg) total daily dose basis.Twenty-four hour pharmacokinetic studies were carried out on d 0 (pre-conversion),d 1,and d 84 (post-conversion).Results:The area under the blood concentration-time curve of MR tacrolimus from 0 to 24 h (AUC0-24) on d 1 was comparable to that of IR tacrolimus on d 0,with a 90% confidence interval (CI) for MR/IR tacrolimus of 92%-97%.The AUC0-24 value for MR tacrolimus on d 84 with the daily dose increased by 14% was approximately 17% lower than that for IR tacrolimus.The 90% CI was 77%-90%,outside the bioequivalence range of 80%-125%.There was a good correlation between AUC0-24 and concentration at 24 h (C24) for IR tacrolimus (d 0,r=0.930) and MR tacrolimus (d 1,r=0.936; d 84,r=0.903).Conclusion:The exposure to tacrolimus when administered MR tacrolimus once daily is not equivalent to that for IR tacrolimus twice daily after an 84-day conversion in Chinese stable liver transplant recipients.The dose should be adjusted on the basis of trough levels.The therapeutic drug monitoring for patients treated with IR tacrolimus is considered to be applicable to MR tacrolimus.

  4. Sequentiality of daily life physiology: an automatized segmentation approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontecave-Jallon, J; Baconnier, P; Tanguy, S; Eymaron, M; Rongier, C; Guméry, P Y

    2013-09-01

    Based on the hypotheses that (1) a physiological organization exists inside each activity of daily life and (2) the pattern of evolution of physiological variables is characteristic of each activity, pattern changes should be detected on daily life physiological recordings. The present study aims at investigating whether a simple segmentation method can be set up to detect pattern changes on physiological recordings carried out during daily life. Heart and breathing rates and skin temperature have been non-invasively recorded in volunteers following scenarios made of "daily life" steps (13 records). An observer, undergoing the scenario, wrote down annotations during the recording time. Two segmentation procedures have been compared to the annotations, a visual inspection of the signals and an automatic program based on a trends detection algorithm applied to one physiological signal (skin temperature). The annotations resulted in a total number of 213 segments defined on the 13 records, the best visual inspection detected less segments (120) than the automatic program (194). If evaluated in terms of the number of correspondences between the times marks given by annotations and those resulting from both physiologically based segmentations, the automatic program was better than the visual inspection. The mean time lags between annotation and program time marks remain variables time series recorded in common life conditions exhibit different successive patterns that can be detected by a simple trends detection algorithm. Theses sequences are coherent with the corresponding annotated activity.

  5. Simple Pleasures, Small Annoyances, and Goal Progress in Daily Life

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    N.L. Mead (Nicole); V.M. Patrick (Vanessa); M.P. Gunadi (Manissa); W. Hofmann (Wilhelm)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractDespite the explosion of research on goal pursuit, relatively little is known about the shaping of goal progress by the simple experiences that characterize everyday life. Two literatures furnish competing predictions about the relationship between pleasant daily experiences (simple plea

  6. Decadal changes in extreme daily precipitation in Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. T. Nastos

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available The changes in daily precipitation totals in Greece, during the 45-year period (1957–2001 are examined. The precipitation datasets concern daily totals recorded at 21 surface meteorological stations of the Hellenic National Meteorological Service, which are uniformly distributed over the Greek region. First and foremost, the application of Factor Analysis resulted in grouping the meteorological stations with similar variation in time. The main sub groups represent the northern, southern, western, eastern and central regions of Greece with common precipitation characteristics. For representative stations of the extracted sub groups we estimated the trends and the time variability for the number of days (% exceeding 30 mm (equal to the 95% percentile of daily precipitation for eastern and western regions and equal to the 97.5% percentile for the rest of the country and 50 mm which is the threshold for very extreme and rare events. Furthermore, the scale and shape parameters of the well fitted gamma distribution to the daily precipitation data with respect to the whole examined period and to the 10-year sub periods reveal the changes in the intensity of the precipitation.

  7. Housework: Words and Chores for Daily Living Skills. Book 3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riley, Anita Marcott; Whitted, Paula A. Farmer

    This is the third of three books in a series providing a systematic training program of relevant daily living skills for individuals with moderate to severe mental impairment. Useful terms and expressions are taught through crossword puzzles, experience stories, picture sequencing, flip books, word closure and other exercises. This book covers…

  8. Housework: Words and Chores for Daily Living Skills. Book 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riley, Anita Marcott; Whitted, Paula A. Farmer

    This is the first of three books in a series providing a systematic training program of relevant daily living skills for individuals with moderate to severe mental impairment. Useful terms and expressions are taught through crossword puzzles, experience stories, picture sequencing, flip books, word closure and other exercises. This book covers…

  9. Housework: Words and Chores for Daily Living Skills. Book 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riley, Anita Marcott; Whitted, Paula A. Farmer

    This is the second of three books in a series providing a systematic training program of relevant daily living skills for individuals with moderate to severe mental impairment. Useful terms and expressions are taught through crossword puzzles, experience stories, picture sequencing, flip books, word closure and other exercises. This book covers…

  10. Daily symptom ratings for studying premenstrual dysphoric disorder : A review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosman, Renske C.; Jung, Sophie E.; Miloserdov, Kristina; Schoevers, Robert A.; aan het Rot, Marije

    2016-01-01

    Background: To review how daily symptom ratings have been used in research into premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD), and to discuss opportunities for the future. Methods: PsycINFO and Medline were systematically searched, resulting in the inclusion of 75 studies in which (1) participants met the

  11. Muslim women representations in the daily newspaper La Libre Belgique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rim MEDDEB

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This contribution explains the discursive modalities, which offer a media visibility of Muslim women in the daily newspaper La Libre Belgique. The analysis examines the newspaper’s material devices such as the creation of sections, the thematic structures and the reference strategies used in the news articles in order to construct social hierarchies based on religious identity and gender criteria.

  12. Keeping Secrets from Parents: Daily Variations among Poor, Urban Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smetana, Judith G.; Villalobos, Myriam; Rogge, Ronald D.; Tasopoulos-Chan, Marina

    2010-01-01

    Daily variations in secrecy with mothers and fathers were examined in 108 poor, urban, diverse middle adolescents (M = 15.16 years, SD = 0.89). Adolescents completed online diaries over 14 days assessing secrecy from parents about school, personal, and multifaceted activities (e.g., staying out late), and bad behavior. Three-level hierarchical…

  13. An empirical model of the quiet daily geomagnetic field variation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamazaki, Y.; Yumoto, K.; Cardinal, M.G.; Fraser, B.J.; Hattori, P.; Kakinami, Y.; Liu, J.Y.; Lynn, K.J.W.; Marshall, R.; McNamara, D.; Nagatsuma, T.; Nikiforov, V.M.; Otadoy, R.E.; Ruhimat, M.; Shevtsov, B.M.; Shiokawa, K.; Abe, S.; Uozumi, T.; Yoshikawa, A.

    2011-01-01

    An empirical model of the quiet daily geomagnetic field variation has been constructed based on geomagnetic data obtained from 21 stations along the 210 Magnetic Meridian of the Circum-pan Pacific Magnetometer Network (CPMN) from 1996 to 2007. Using the least squares fitting method for geomagnetically quiet days (Kp ??? 2+), the quiet daily geomagnetic field variation at each station was described as a function of solar activity SA, day of year DOY, lunar age LA, and local time LT. After interpolation in latitude, the model can describe solar-activity dependence and seasonal dependence of solar quiet daily variations (S) and lunar quiet daily variations (L). We performed a spherical harmonic analysis (SHA) on these S and L variations to examine average characteristics of the equivalent external current systems. We found three particularly noteworthy results. First, the total current intensity of the S current system is largely controlled by solar activity while its focus position is not significantly affected by solar activity. Second, we found that seasonal variations of the S current intensity exhibit north-south asymmetry; the current intensity of the northern vortex shows a prominent annual variation while the southern vortex shows a clear semi-annual variation as well as annual variation. Thirdly, we found that the total intensity of the L current system changes depending on solar activity and season; seasonal variations of the L current intensity show an enhancement during the December solstice, independent of the level of solar activity. Copyright 2011 by the American Geophysical Union.

  14. Daily time series evapotranspiration maps for Oklahoma and Texas panhandle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evapotranspiration (ET) is an important process in ecosystems’ water budget and closely linked to its productivity. Therefore, regional scale daily time series ET maps developed at high and medium resolutions have large utility in studying the carbon-energy-water nexus and managing water resources. ...

  15. The Daily Show with Jon Stewart: Part 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trier, James

    2008-01-01

    "The Daily Show With Jon Stewart" is one of the best critical literacy programs on television, and in this Media Literacy column the author suggests ways that teachers can use video clips from the show in their classrooms. (For Part 1, see EJ784683.)

  16. "The Daily Show with Jon Stewart": Part 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trier, James

    2008-01-01

    Comedy Central's popular program "The Daily Show With Jon Stewart" is the best critical media literacy program on television, and it can be used in valuable ways in the classroom as part of a media literacy pedagogy. This Media Literacy column provides an overview of the show and its accompanying website and considers ways it might be used in the…

  17. Using "The Daily Show" to Promote Media Literacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrett, H. James; Schmeichel, Mardi

    2012-01-01

    Social studies teachers are tasked with aiding their students' abilities to engage in public debate and make politically sound decisions. One way the authors have found to help facilitate this is to draw connections between content knowledge and current political conversations through the use of clips from "The Daily Show with Jon Stewart." While…

  18. Modeling of Sokoto Daily Average Temperature: A Fractional ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    the daily average temperature (DAT) series of Sokoto metropolis for the period of 01/01/2003 to. 03/04/2007. ... in Melbourne, Australia, for the period 1981–1990 ..... Advances in Meteorology, 1-2. Period ... paper, Department of Economics.

  19. Loneliness in the daily lives of young adults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Roekel, E.; Ha, Thao; Scholte, Ron H. J.; Engels, Rutger C. M. E.; Verhagen, Maaike

    2016-01-01

    A socio-cognitive model of loneliness states that lonely people are characterized by two characteristics, hypersensitivity to social threat and hyposensitivity to social reward. However, these characteristics have not yet been examined in the daily lives of young adults. Therefore, the main aim of t

  20. Stochastic daily precipitation model with a heavy-tailed component

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neykov, N. M.; Neytchev, P. N.; Zucchini, W.

    2014-09-01

    Stochastic daily precipitation models are commonly used to generate scenarios of climate variability or change on a daily timescale. The standard models consist of two components describing the occurrence and intensity series, respectively. Binary logistic regression is used to fit the occurrence data, and the intensity series is modeled using a continuous-valued right-skewed distribution, such as gamma, Weibull or lognormal. The precipitation series is then modeled using the joint density, and standard software for generalized linear models can be used to perform the computations. A drawback of these precipitation models is that they do not produce a sufficiently heavy upper tail for the distribution of daily precipitation amounts; they tend to underestimate the frequency of large storms. In this study, we adapted the approach of Furrer and Katz (2008) based on hybrid distributions in order to correct for this shortcoming. In particular, we applied hybrid gamma-generalized Pareto (GP) and hybrid Weibull-GP distributions to develop a stochastic precipitation model for daily rainfall at Ihtiman in western Bulgaria. We report the results of simulations designed to compare the models based on the hybrid distributions and those based on the standard distributions. Some potential difficulties are outlined.

  1. Disability in activities of daily living: a multifactorial approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    den Ouden, M.E.M.

    2013-01-01

    Activities of daily living (ADL), such as bathing and doing groceries are essential for maintaining independence in the community. Previous longitudinal studies have shown that about 20 to 30% of older persons (70 years and older) experience ADL disability. Older persons who are ADL disabled have hi

  2. Continuity, Stability, and Change in Daily Emotional Experience across Adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Reed W.; Moneta, Giovanni; Richards, Maryse H.; Wilson, Suzanne

    2002-01-01

    This longitudinal study examined change in 220 adolescents' daily range of emotional states between early and late adolescence. Findings showed that emotional states became less positive across early adolescence; this downward change in average emotions ceased in grade 10. The greatest relative instability was during early adolescence; stability…

  3. The impact of common metal allergens in daily devices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hamann, Dathan; Hamann, Carsten R; Thyssen, Jacob P

    2013-01-01

    We are widely exposed to metal allergens in our daily doings. As exposures constantly changes because of fashion trends and technological developments, there is a need for a continuous update of patch testers. An overview of consumer metal exposure studies that have been published in 2012 and 2013...

  4. Estimating autotrophic respiration in streams using daily metabolism data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knowing the fraction of gross primary production (GPP) that is immediately respired by autotrophs and their closely associated heterotrophs (ARf) is necessary to understand the trophic base and carbon spiraling in streams. We show a means to estimate ARf from daily metabolism da...

  5. Daily Stressors in School-Age Children: A Multilevel Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escobar, Milagros; Alarcón, Rafael; Blanca, María J.; Fernández-Baena, F. Javier; Rosel, Jesús F.; Trianes, María Victoria

    2013-01-01

    This study uses hierarchical or multilevel modeling to identify variables that contribute to daily stressors in a population of schoolchildren. Four hierarchical levels with several predictive variables were considered: student (age, sex, social adaptation of the student, number of life events and chronic stressors experienced, and educational…

  6. Tracking the PhD Students' Daily Computer Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sim, Kwong Nui; van der Meer, Jacques

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated PhD students' computer activities in their daily research practice. Software that tracks computer usage (Manic Time) was installed on the computers of nine PhD students, who were at their early, mid and final stage in doing their doctoral research in four different discipline areas (Commerce, Humanities, Health Sciences and…

  7. How older people nurses assess cognitive function through daily observation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Persoon, A.; Cruijsen, M. Van der; Schlattmann, N.; Simmes, F.; Achterberg, T. van

    2011-01-01

    AIM: To obtain knowledge and insight into how older people nurses observe the cognitive function of their patients. BACKGROUND: In cases of cognitive decline not due to delirium, the daily observation of cognitive function by nurses has not been standardised in hospital wards specialised in the care

  8. Beachwatch : The effect of daily morphodynamics on seasonal beach evolution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Quartel, S.

    2007-01-01

    Not only the storm intensity, but also the capacity of the beach to recover during fair weather conditions, influences the erosion trends of beaches. Susanne Quartel concludes this in her thesis in which the daily changes of the intertidal beach of Noordwijk aan Zee, the Netherlands, are described.

  9. Ubiquitous Support for Midwives to Leverage Daily Activities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Al Mahmud, A.; Keyson, D.V.

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we present preliminary outcomes concerning the design of a support system for midwives in the Netherlands to carry out daily activities. The purpose of our design is to make the workflow of midwives more efficient. Our user studies confirm that the current workflows of midwives to supp

  10. Subtle gene-environment interactions driving paranoia in daily life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simons, C J P; Wichers, M; Derom, C; Thiery, E; Myin-Germeys, I; Krabbendam, L; van Os, J

    2009-02-01

    It has been suggested that genes impact on the degree to which minor daily stressors cause variation in the intensity of subtle paranoid experiences. The objective of the present study was to test the hypothesis that catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) Val(158)Met and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) Val(66)Met in part mediate genetic effects on paranoid reactivity to minor stressors. In a general population sample of 579 young adult female twins, on the one hand, appraisals of (1) event-related stress and (2) social stress and, on the other hand, feelings of paranoia in the flow of daily life were assessed using momentary assessment technology for five consecutive days. Multilevel regression analyses were used to examine moderation of daily life stress-induced paranoia by COMT Val(158)Met and BDNF Val(66)Met genotypes. Catechol-O-methyltransferase Val carriers displayed more feelings of paranoia in response to event stress compared with Met carriers. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor Met carriers showed more social-stress-induced paranoia than individuals with the Val/Val genotype. Thus, paranoia in the flow of daily life may be the result of gene-environment interactions that can be traced to different types of stress being moderated by different types of genetic variation.

  11. The Strategic Attitude: Integrating Strategic Planning into Daily University Worklife

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickmeyer, Nathan

    2004-01-01

    Chief financial officers in today's universities are so busy with the challenges of day-to-day management that strategic thinking often takes a back seat. Planning for strategic change can go a long way toward streamlining the very daily tasks that obscure the "big picture." Learning how to integrate strategic thinking into day-to-day management…

  12. Daily Physical Activity in Stable Heart Failure Patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dontje, Manon L.; van der Wal, M.H.L.; Stolk, Ronald P.; Brugemann, Johan; Jaarsma, Tiny; Wijtvliet, Petra E. P. J.; van der Schans, Cees P.; de Greef, Mathieu H. G.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Physical activity is the only nonpharmacological therapy that is proven to be effective in heart failure (HF) patients in reducing morbidity. To date, little is known about the levels of daily physical activity in HF patients and about related factors. Objective: The objectives of this s

  13. Daily physical activity in stable heart failure patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dontje, Manon L.; Wal, M.H. van der; Stolk, R.P.; Brügemann, J.; Jaarsma, J.; Wijtvliet, P.E.; Schans, Cees van der; Greef, M.H. de

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND:: Physical activity is the only nonpharmacological therapy that is proven to be effective in heart failure (HF) patients in reducing morbidity. To date, little is known about the levels of daily physical activity in HF patients and about related factors. OBJECTIVE:: The objectives of this

  14. Keeping Secrets from Parents: Daily Variations among Poor, Urban Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smetana, Judith G.; Villalobos, Myriam; Rogge, Ronald D.; Tasopoulos-Chan, Marina

    2010-01-01

    Daily variations in secrecy with mothers and fathers were examined in 108 poor, urban, diverse middle adolescents (M = 15.16 years, SD = 0.89). Adolescents completed online diaries over 14 days assessing secrecy from parents about school, personal, and multifaceted activities (e.g., staying out late), and bad behavior. Three-level hierarchical…

  15. Development of daily "swath" mascon solutions from GRACE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Save, Himanshu; Bettadpur, Srinivas

    2016-04-01

    The Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) mission has provided invaluable and the only data of its kind over the past 14 years that measures the total water column in the Earth System. The GRACE project provides monthly average solutions and there are experimental quick-look solutions and regularized sliding window solutions available from Center for Space Research (CSR) that implement a sliding window approach and variable daily weights. The need for special handling of these solutions in data assimilation and the possibility of capturing the total water storage (TWS) signal at sub-monthly time scales motivated this study. This study discusses the progress of the development of true daily high resolution "swath" mascon total water storage estimate from GRACE using Tikhonov regularization. These solutions include the estimates of daily total water storage (TWS) for the mascon elements that were "observed" by the GRACE satellites on a given day. This paper discusses the computation techniques, signal, error and uncertainty characterization of these daily solutions. We discuss the comparisons with the official GRACE RL05 solutions and with CSR mascon solution to characterize the impact on science results especially at the sub-monthly time scales. The evaluation is done with emphasis on the temporal signal characteristics and validated against in-situ data set and multiple models.

  16. Impulsivity and cigarette craving among adolescent daily and occasional smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathew, Amanda R; Burris, Jessica L; Froeliger, Brett; Saladin, Michael E; Carpenter, Matthew J

    2015-06-01

    Impulsivity is a multi-dimensional construct that is robustly related to cigarette smoking. While underlying factors that account for this relation are not well understood, craving has been proposed as a central mechanism linking impulsivity to smoking. In order to further refine our understanding of associations between impulsivity and cigarette craving, the current study examined the association between impulsivity and tonic and cue-elicited craving among a sample of adolescent smokers. We expected trait impulsivity would be positively associated with both tonic and cue-elicited craving, and that this relationship would be stronger among daily vs. occasional smokers. 106 smokers (ages 16-20) completed the questionnaires and reported their cigarette craving prior to and immediately following presentation of each of three counterbalanced cue types: (a) in vivo smoking, (b) alcohol, and (c) neutral cue. Impulsivity was positively associated with tonic craving for daily smokers (β=.38; p=.005), but not occasional smokers (β=.01; p=.95), with a significant impulsivity x smoker group interaction (β=1.31; p=.03). Impulsivity was unrelated to craving following smoking or alcohol cue, regardless of smoker group (all p's>.16). Results suggest a moderated effect in which impulsivity is positively associated with tonic craving for daily smokers, but not occasional smokers. Tonic craving may serve as a mechanism linking impulsivity, smoking persistence, and nicotine dependence among daily smokers. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Negative consequences associated with dependence in daily cannabis users

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Earleywine Mitch

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cannabis is the most widely consumed illicit substance in America, with increasing rates of use. Some theorists tend to link frequency of use with cannabis dependence. Nevertheless, fewer than half of daily cannabis users meet DSM-IV-TR criteria for cannabis dependence. This study seeks to determine whether the negative aspects associated with cannabis use can be explained by a proxy measure of dependence instead of by frequency of use. Results Over 2500 adult daily cannabis users completed an Internet survey consisting of measures of cannabis and other drug use, in addition to measures of commonly reported negative problems resulting from cannabis use. We compared those who met a proxy measure of DSM-IV-TR criteria for cannabis dependence (N = 1111 to those who did not meet the criteria (N = 1770. Cannabis dependent subjects consumed greater amounts of cannabis, alcohol, and a variety of other drugs. They also had lower levels of motivation, happiness, and satisfaction with life, with higher levels of depression and respiratory symptoms. Conclusion Although all of our subjects reported daily use, only those meeting proxy criteria for cannabis dependence reported significant associated problems. Our data suggest that dependence need not arise from daily use, but consuming larger amounts of cannabis and other drugs undoubtedly increases problems.

  18. Negative consequences associated with dependence in daily cannabis users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Looby, Alison; Earleywine, Mitch

    2007-01-10

    Cannabis is the most widely consumed illicit substance in America, with increasing rates of use. Some theorists tend to link frequency of use with cannabis dependence. Nevertheless, fewer than half of daily cannabis users meet DSM-IV-TR criteria for cannabis dependence. This study seeks to determine whether the negative aspects associated with cannabis use can be explained by a proxy measure of dependence instead of by frequency of use. Over 2500 adult daily cannabis users completed an Internet survey consisting of measures of cannabis and other drug use, in addition to measures of commonly reported negative problems resulting from cannabis use. We compared those who met a proxy measure of DSM-IV-TR criteria for cannabis dependence (N = 1111) to those who did not meet the criteria (N = 1770). Cannabis dependent subjects consumed greater amounts of cannabis, alcohol, and a variety of other drugs. They also had lower levels of motivation, happiness, and satisfaction with life, with higher levels of depression and respiratory symptoms. Although all of our subjects reported daily use, only those meeting proxy criteria for cannabis dependence reported significant associated problems. Our data suggest that dependence need not arise from daily use, but consuming larger amounts of cannabis and other drugs undoubtedly increases problems.

  19. Fostering Activities of Daily Living by Intact Nursing Home Residents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blair, Charles E.; Glaister, Judy; Brown, Alston; Phillips, Carolyn

    2007-01-01

    We assessed effectiveness of four education programs in providing nursing assistants with ability to produce a therapeutic milieu supportive of intact residents' activities of daily living, positive self-esteem and mood: (1) a combination of Orem's Systems of Nursing Care and Skinner's Applied Behavioral Analysis, (2) Applied Behavioral Analysis,…

  20. Do transformational leaders enhance their followers' daily work engagement?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Tims (Maria); A.B. Bakker (Arnold); D. Xanthopoulou (Despoina)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractThis diary study investigated whether and howsupervisors' leadership style influences followers' daily work engagement. On the basis of leadership theories and the job demands–resources model, we predicted that a transformational leadership style enhances employees' work engagement throu

  1. TAO/TRITON, RAMA, and PIRATA Buoys, Daily, Salinity

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset has daily Salinity data from the TAO/TRITON (Pacific Ocean, http://www.pmel.noaa.gov/tao/), RAMA (Indian Ocean, http://www.pmel.noaa.gov/tao/rama/), and...

  2. TAO/TRITON, RAMA, and PIRATA Buoys, Daily, Position

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset has daily Position data from the TAO/TRITON (Pacific Ocean, http://www.pmel.noaa.gov/tao/), RAMA (Indian Ocean, http://www.pmel.noaa.gov/tao/rama/), and...

  3. TAO/TRITON, RAMA, and PIRATA Buoys, Daily, Heat Content

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset has daily Heat Content data from the TAO/TRITON (Pacific Ocean, http://www.pmel.noaa.gov/tao/), RAMA (Indian Ocean, http://www.pmel.noaa.gov/tao/rama/),...

  4. TAO/TRITON, RAMA, and PIRATA Buoys, Daily, Wind

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset has daily Wind data from the TAO/TRITON (Pacific Ocean, http://www.pmel.noaa.gov/tao/), RAMA (Indian Ocean, http://www.pmel.noaa.gov/tao/rama/), and...

  5. TAO/TRITON, RAMA, and PIRATA Buoys, Daily, Currents

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset has daily Currents data from the TAO/TRITON (Pacific Ocean, http://www.pmel.noaa.gov/tao/), RAMA (Indian Ocean, http://www.pmel.noaa.gov/tao/rama/), and...

  6. Using "The Daily Show" to Promote Media Literacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrett, H. James; Schmeichel, Mardi

    2012-01-01

    Social studies teachers are tasked with aiding their students' abilities to engage in public debate and make politically sound decisions. One way the authors have found to help facilitate this is to draw connections between content knowledge and current political conversations through the use of clips from "The Daily Show with Jon Stewart." While…

  7. "The Daily Show with Jon Stewart": Part 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trier, James

    2008-01-01

    Comedy Central's popular program "The Daily Show With Jon Stewart" is the best critical media literacy program on television, and it can be used in valuable ways in the classroom as part of a media literacy pedagogy. This Media Literacy column provides an overview of the show and its accompanying website and considers ways it might be used in the…

  8. The Daily Show with Jon Stewart: Part 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trier, James

    2008-01-01

    "The Daily Show With Jon Stewart" is one of the best critical literacy programs on television, and in this Media Literacy column the author suggests ways that teachers can use video clips from the show in their classrooms. (For Part 1, see EJ784683.)

  9. Personality pathology and daily aspects of marital functioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    South, Susan C

    2014-04-01

    Personality disorders (PDs) are associated with a host of interpersonal problems, including unstable and dysfunctional romantic relationships. In previous research, PD symptoms have been linked to one's own and spouse's self-reported level of marital satisfaction and marital conflict. The current study extends on this work by examining whether Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM) PD criteria would predict aspects of daily marital functioning. A total of 99 newlywed couples (N = 198) recruited from the community were assessed for PD symptoms using a self-report measure and subsequently completed a 6-day diary protocol. Multilevel modeling was used to examine the association of PD symptoms with three major aspects of daily functioning: overall relationship sentiment, serious conflicts with one's spouse, and quality of interactions. Results indicated that PD symptoms significantly predicted aspects of all three measures of daily functioning. The individual PDs generally showed the greatest associations with aspects of conflict. Paranoid, schizoid, avoidant, and obsessive-compulsive PD scores were significantly negatively related to overall relationship sentiment whereas Cluster A and Cluster C PD scores negatively predicted various daily interaction behaviors. Findings provide insight into the mechanisms that might explain the associations between PD symptoms and overall measures of relationship functioning. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved

  10. Daily air pollution levels and acute asthma in southern Sweden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forsberg, B. [Umeaa Univ., Dept. og Environmental Health (Sweden); Stjernberg, N. [National Inst. for Working Life, Umeaa (Sweden); Linne, R. [Landskrona Hospital (Sweden); Segerstedt, B. [Umeaa Univ., School of Business (Sweden); Wall, S. [Umeaa Univ., Dept. of Epidemiology and Public Health (Sweden)

    1998-10-01

    This study aimed to investigate the association between daily air pollution levels and the occurrence of acute respiratory signs and symptoms among people with asthma or asthma-like problems. Thirty eight subjects in the southern Swedish city of Landskrona kept a daily diary for 10 weeks. The daily prevalence of symptoms, supplementary bronchodilator use and peak flow deviations were compared with measurements of environmental nitrogen dioxide (NO{sub 2}), sulphur dioxide, temperature and humidity in the city. The occurrence of severe asthma, both during the day and during the evening, was significantly positively associated with the concurrent 24 h average concentration of NO{sub 2}, which never exceeded 72 {mu}m{sup 3}. A correlation of borderline significance was found between the use of on-demand medication and the NO{sub 2} level. However, peak flow deviations were not associated with air pollution or weather conditions, which may be explained by the beneficial effect of bronchodilators used by 28 of the subjects. The results of this study confirm those of some earlier studies and suggest that aggravation of asthma is related to daily variations in air quality, as indicated by relatively low ambient concentrations of nitrogen dioxide. These results also indicate that it may be appropriate to examine severe asthma symptoms separately. (au) 33 refs.

  11. Making mundane pleasures visible: mediating daily likings with lightweight technology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kanis, M.; Brinkman, W.-P.

    2010-01-01

    This article discusses the sharing of daily pleasures with lightweight technology. Two mobile applications called PosiPost Me (Mobile internet edition) and PosiPost Be (Bluetooth edition) were developed to understand the potential of remote and proximity-based sharing of positive messages. These imp

  12. Daily Routines and Sleep Disorders in Visually Impaired Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troster, Heinrich; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Assessed sleep disorders in 265 visually impaired and 67 non-disabled 10- to 72-month olds. Found that infants with visual impairments had more difficulties in falling asleep and in sleeping through the night than nonhandicapped children. Also found a relationship between sleep disorders and the regularity of children's daily routine and…

  13. Update of Inpatient Treatment for Refractory Chronic Daily Headache.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Tzu-Hsien; Wang, Shuu-Jiun

    2016-01-01

    Chronic daily headache (CDH) is a group of headache disorders, in which headaches occur daily or near-daily (>15 days per month) and last for more than 3 months. Important CDH subtypes include chronic migraine, chronic tension-type headache, hemicrania continua, and new daily persistent headache. Other headaches with shorter durations (<4 h/day) are usually not included in CDH. Common comorbidities of CDH are medication overuse headache and various psychiatric disorders, such as depression and anxiety. Indications of inpatient treatment for CDH patients include poor responses to outpatient management, need for detoxification for overuse of specific medications (particularly opioids and barbiturates), and severe psychiatric comorbidities. Inpatient treatment usually involves stopping acute pain, preventing future attacks, and detoxifying medication overuse if present. Multidisciplinary integrated care that includes medical staff from different disciplines (e.g., psychiatry, clinical psychology, and physical therapy) has been recommended. The outcomes of inpatient treatment are satisfactory in terms of decreasing headache intensity or frequency, withdrawal from medication overuse, reducing disability, and improving life quality, although long-term relapse is not uncommon. In conclusion, inpatient treatment may be useful for select patients with refractory CDH and should be incorporated in a holistic headache care program.

  14. Circulation Price Elasticity in the Daily Newspaper Industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grotta, Gerald L.; Taylor, Michael Lee

    Pricing of subscriptions and single copies has historically been arbitrary. Evidence indicates that the newspaper industry has tended to overestimate the elasticity of demand for newspaper circulation. This study analyzed price changes, circulation changes, and population changes for all daily newspapers in the United States between 1970 and 1975.…

  15. Improving Your Daily Practice: A Guide for Effective School Leadership

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berkey, Timothy B.

    2009-01-01

    This book will show principals how they can change daily practices to invest more time in the improvement of teaching and learning. It redirects leadership to effective practices in instructional leadership. Contents include an Introduction and the following chapters: (1) Why Change the Way I Lead?; (2) The Path to Effective School Leadership; (3)…

  16. Pain-related Impairment of Daily Activities After Thoracic Surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ringsted, Thomas K; Wildgaard, Kim; Kreiner, Svend

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE:: Persistent postoperative pain is an acknowledged entity that reduces daily activities. Evaluation of the post-thoracotomy pain syndrome (PTPS) is often measured using traditional pain scales without in-depth questions on pain impairment. Thus, the purpose was to create a procedure...

  17. TAO/TRITON, RAMA, and PIRATA Buoys, Daily, Wind Stress

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset has daily Wind Stress data from the TAO/TRITON (Pacific Ocean, http://www.pmel.noaa.gov/tao/), RAMA (Indian Ocean, http://www.pmel.noaa.gov/tao/rama/),...

  18. Daily hassles in a population of Romanian adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogdan Nemeş

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The present study is aimed to identify the most important long-term stressors for Romanian adolescents. Material and Methods: 1143 randomly selected Romanian subjects were considered. Mean age in the study sample was 15.02, with a standard deviation (SD of 0.371. About 65.4% of subjects were females. Daily hassles related to the family environment, physical state, psychological status, financial status of the family and interpersonal relationships were covered Results: 22.7% of the subjects reported daily hassles related to their familial environment, 7.8% reported daily hassles related to their physical state, 59.6% reported daily hassles related to their psychological state, 41.9% reported financial difficulties of their families and 4.4% of adolescent reported being bullied. Conclusion: Stressors that appear to be most relevant for adolescents in north-western Romania are: financial difficulties of the family and psychological difficulties. There are no differences in reporting bullying between genders and that this phenomenon is less frequent in Romania. A greater attention should be paid to the effects of workforce migration.

  19. Determinants of daily insulin use in type 1 diabetes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Muis, Marian J.; Bots, Michiel L.; Bilo, Henk J. G.; Hoogma, Roel P. L. M.; Hoekstra, Joost B. L.; Grobbee, Diederick E.; Stolk, Ronald P.

    2006-01-01

    Objective: Insulin need for a given degree of glucose control varies markedly among individuals. We examined which factors determine daily insulin use in patients with Type I diabetes. Methods: A cross-sectional study was performed in 416 patients. Clinical parameters, medication use, physical

  20. The United States as Seen through the "People's Daily."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chin-Chuan

    1981-01-01

    Analyzed China's foremost party organ, the "People's Daily," during 1979-80 to find out what changes have occurred with regard to media images of the U.S. since the normalization of the Sino-U.S. relationship. Noted a more favorable portrayal of the U.S.--at the expense of the Soviet Union. (PD)

  1. Elderly Living Alone and their Daily Life-styles

    OpenAIRE

    安藤, 貞雄

    1996-01-01

    A description of the daily life-styles of elderly living alone in the Iwate district of northern Japan in regardto health condition, housing, food, social activities and so on, was conducted.It was stressed that the degree of life satisfaction was highly influenced by the type of food taken in thedaily diet and the number of meals taken per day.

  2. Electrical stimulation for epilepsy: stimulation of hippocampal foci.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velasco, F; Velasco, M; Velasco, A L; Menez, D; Rocha, L

    2001-01-01

    Subacute and chronic continuous electrical stimulation at the epileptic focus in the hippocampus or parahippocampal cortex at 130 Hz, 0.21-1.0 ms, 2.5-3.5 V (about 200-300 microA) induces a decrease in focal EEG epileptic interictal activity and also in the occurrence of clinical seizures. This may represent an alternative for the treatment of temporal lobe seizures originated in bilateral independent temporal lobe foci or occurring in patients where one is uncertain whether memory deficit might result from ablative procedures.

  3. A Chip for an Implantable Neural Stimulator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gudnason, Gunnar; Bruun, Erik; Haugland, Morten

    2000-01-01

    transmission to the stimulator passes through a 5 MHz inductive link. From the signals transmitted to the stimulator, the chip is able to generate charge-balanced current pulses with a controllable length up to 256 µs and an amplitude up to 2 mA, for stimulation of nerve fibers. The quiescent current...

  4. Geothermal Reservoir Well Stimulation Program: technology transfer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-05-01

    Each of the following types of well stimulation techniques are summarized and explained: hydraulic fracturing; thermal; mechanical, jetting, and drainhole drilling; explosive and implosive; and injection methods. Current stimulation techniques, stimulation techniques for geothermal wells, areas of needed investigation, and engineering calculations for various techniques. (MHR)

  5. Vomiting Center reanalyzed: An electrical stimulation study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, A. D.; Wilson, V. J.

    1982-01-01

    Electrical stimulation of the brainstem of 15 decerebrate cats produced stimulus-bound vomiting in only 4 animals. Vomiting was reproducible in only one cat. Effective stimulating sites were located in the solitary tract and reticular formation. Restricted localization of a vomiting center, stimulation of which evoked readily reproducible results, could not be obtained.

  6. Estimation of Daily Stream Temperatures in a Mountain River Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohrabi, M.; Benjankar, R. M.; Isaak, D.; Wenger, S.; Tonina, D.

    2013-12-01

    Stream temperature plays an important role in aquatic ecosystems. Concentrations of dissolved oxygen, water and spawning habitat quality, growth of fish populations are functions of stream temperature. Therefore, accurate estimates of daily stream temperatures can provide beneficial information for water resource managers and decision makers. Here, we develop a model for precise daily water temperature estimates that is applicable even in places lacking various meteorological and hydrological data. The water temperature model in this study is a piecewise model that considers both linear and non-linear relationships between dependent and independent variables including maximum and minimum temperature (meteorological derivers) and precipitation (hydrological deriver). We demonstrated the model in the Boise River Basin, in central Idaho, USA. The hydrology of this basin is snow-dominated and complex due to the mountainous terrain. We predicted daily stream temperature at 34 sites using 12 weather and Snowtel stations for deriving variables. Results of the stream temperature model indicate average Root Mean Square Error of 1.28 degree of Celsius along with average 0.91 of Nash-Sutcliffe coefficient for all stations. Comparison of the results of this study to Mohseni et al.'s model (1998), which is widely applied in water temperature studies, shows better performance of the model presented in this study. Our approach can be used to provide historical reconstructions of daily stream temperatures or projections of stream temperatures under climate change scenarios in any location with at least one year of daily stream temperature observations and with contemporaneous regional air temperature and precipitation data.

  7. Once-Daily Radiation Therapy for Inflammatory Breast Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, Lindsay [Department of Radiation Oncology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota (United States); Harmsen, William [Division of Biomedical Statistics and Informatics, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota (United States); Blanchard, Miran [Department of Radiation Oncology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota (United States); Goetz, Matthew [Division of Medical Oncology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota (United States); Jakub, James [Department of Surgery, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota (United States); Mutter, Robert; Petersen, Ivy; Rooney, Jessica [Department of Radiation Oncology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota (United States); Stauder, Michael [Department of Radiation Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Yan, Elizabeth [Department of Radiation Oncology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota (United States); Laack, Nadia, E-mail: laack.nadia@mayo.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota (United States)

    2014-08-01

    Purpose: Inflammatory breast cancer (IBC) is a rare and aggressive breast cancer variant treated with multimodality therapy. A variety of approaches intended to escalate the intensity and efficacy of radiation therapy have been reported, including twice-daily radiation therapy, dose escalation, and aggressive use of bolus. Herein, we examine our outcomes for patients treated with once-daily radiation therapy with aggressive bolus utilization, focusing on treatment technique. Methods and Materials: A retrospective review of patients with nonmetastatic IBC treated from January 1, 2000, through December 31, 2010, was performed. Locoregional control (LRC), disease-free survival (DFS), overall survival (OS) and predictors thereof were assessed. Results: Fifty-two women with IBC were identified, 49 (94%) of whom were treated with neoadjuvant chemotherapy. All underwent mastectomy followed by adjuvant radiation therapy. Radiation was delivered in once-daily fractions of 1.8 to 2.25 Gy (median, 2 Gy). Patients were typically treated with daily 1-cm bolus throughout treatment, and 33 (63%) received a subsequent boost to the mastectomy scar. Five-year Kaplan Meier survival estimates for LRC, DFS, and OS were 81%, 56%, and 64%, respectively. Locoregional recurrence was associated with poorer OS (P<.001; hazard ratio [HR], 4.1). Extracapsular extension was associated with worse LRC (P=.02), DFS (P=.007), and OS (P=.002). Age greater than 50 years was associated with better DFS (P=.03). Pathologic complete response was associated with a trend toward improved LRC (P=.06). Conclusions: Once-daily radiation therapy with aggressive use of bolus for IBC results in outcomes consistent with previous reports using various intensified radiation therapy regimens. LRC remains a challenge despite modern systemic therapy. Extracapsular extension, age ≤50 years, and lack of complete response to chemotherapy appear to be associated with worse outcomes. Novel strategies are needed in IBC

  8. Once daily baclofen sustained release or gastro-retentive system are acceptable alternatives to thrice daily baclofen immediate release at same daily dosage in patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sampat Nitin

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Baclofen, a GABA-agonist, is currently available as an immediate release (IR formulation for relieving neurogenic spasticity in a variety of disorders. Baclofen IR requires to be administered three times a day which inadvertently increases the chances of medication noncompliance among patients and is also associated with side effects such as drowsiness and muscle weakness. Aim: To overcome the shortcomings of baclofen IR, two modified formulations, baclofen sustained release (SR and gastric retentive system (GRS, have been proposed to be equivalent in efficacy to baclofen IR with the administration of a single daily dose. Materials and Methods: Ninety patients with chronic neurogenic muscular spasticity were enrolled requiring 10-20 mg of baclofen IR every eight hours. The patients were randomized to two treatment arms: SR (n = 46 or GRS (n = 44 at the same once-daily dose for four weeks. Efficacy was measured by Ashworth score for muscle tone, spasm score, reflex score, 30-item functional independence score, and patient′s diary score for three most affected activities of daily life. Results: The mean Ashworth score changed significantly (P = 0.00 for patients in the SR group from 3.03-2.69 (-0.35 and 3.07-2.70 (-0.37 for patients in the GRS group. There was no significant difference (P = 0.87 between baseline-adjusted Ashworth score reductions on SR (-0.35 and GRS (-0.37. Similar results were obtained for spasm, reflex, and functional independence scores. The mean baseline-adjusted patient-diary scores did not differ significantly between 8 am, 12 pm, 4 pm, and 8 pm (P = 0.96, either on SR (-5.3 to -6.1 or GRS (-7.3 to -8.1, indicating a uniform effect round-the-day on both. Further, sedation scores (mean ± SEM decreased significantly (P < 0.05 on both SR (10.36 ± 1.37 to 6.18 ± 0.92 and GRS (8.14 ± 1.57 to 5.33 ± 1.11, suggesting better toleration. Conclusion: Once-daily baclofen SR and GRS are efficacious, convenient, and

  9. The use of phytobiotics in growth stimulation of weaned pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radulović Stamen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Phytogene feed additives (phytobiotics are plant origin compounds used in animal nutrition in order to improve their productivity by improving the production performance of animals, feed properties and the quality of food of animal origin. These additives stimulate animal growth by using their natural and physiological potentials and mechanisms providing conditions for the realization of the genetically projected production volumes. Data on the use of phytobiotics as growth stimulators are incomplete and often very contradictory, especially those related to their impact on the health and performance of weaned pigs. Given the relevance and importance of these issues the feeding trial was organized by the group-control system. The experiment lasted for 40 days and it was divided into two phases of 20 days each. Trial was conducted on 24 piglets, F1 generation of Swedish Landrace and Pietrain, weaned from sows at the age of 35 days. Tests were carried out on piglets, with an average body weight of 8.61±1.59 kg, which were subjected to one of the two feeding treatments immediately after weaning. The control group was fed with a mixture without growth promoters, while the experimental group received a diet containing preparation of phytobiotic (Enviva EO 101, Danisco Animal Nutrition in the amount recommended by the manufacturer (0.1 kg/t. The mixtures for piglets nutrition were formulated in accordance with the recommendations of the NRC (1998, and AEC (1993 and they met the nutritional requirements completely. During the experiment, there was no disturbance of health and/or the manifestation of clinical signs of disease. The control group, fed with the diet without added growth stimulators, achieved body weight (25.32±6.31 kg, average daily gain (0.42±0.12 kg, consumption (0.89 kg and feed conversion (2.119 normal for a given race, age and housing conditions. The use of preparation of phytobiotics as growth promoters, led to better production

  10. Long-term effects of 6-week whole-body vibration on balance recovery and activities of daily living in the postacute phase of stroke: a randomized, controlled trial.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nes, I.J.W. van; Latour, H.; Schils, F.; Meijer, R.; Kuijk, A. van; Geurts, A.C.H.

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The long-term effects of 6-weeks whole-body vibration, as a novel method of somatosensory stimulation, on postural control and activities of daily living were compared with those of 6 weeks of exercise therapy on music of the same intensity in the postacute phase of stroke. M

  11. Long-term effects of 6-week whole-body vibration on balance recovery and activities of daily living in the postacute phase of stroke: a randomized, controlled trial.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nes, I.J.W. van; Latour, H.; Schils, F.; Meijer, R.; Kuijk, A. van; Geurts, A.C.H.

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The long-term effects of 6-weeks whole-body vibration, as a novel method of somatosensory stimulation, on postural control and activities of daily living were compared with those of 6 weeks of exercise therapy on music of the same intensity in the postacute phase of stroke.

  12. Long-term effects of 6-week whole-body vibration on balance recovery and activities of daily living in the postacute phase of stroke: a randomized, controlled trial.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nes, I.J.W. van; Latour, H.; Schils, F.; Meijer, R.; Kuijk, A. van; Geurts, A.C.H.

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The long-term effects of 6-weeks whole-body vibration, as a novel method of somatosensory stimulation, on postural control and activities of daily living were compared with those of 6 weeks of exercise therapy on music of the same intensity in the postacute phase of stroke. M

  13. Duodenal ulcer healing on 2 g of sucralfate daily at bedtime compared to 1 g four times daily

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendtsen, Flemming; Ebbehøj, N; Fallingborg, J

    1990-01-01

    Seventy-seven patients with endoscopically verified duodenal ulcers were randomized to treatment with either 2 g sucralfate daily at bedtime or 1 g sucralfate q.d.s. in a controlled double-blind comparative study. After a 4-week treatment period, the healing rate was 68% for the former and 69...

  14. Derivation of factors to estimate daily milk yield from one milking of cows milked three times daily

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective was to derive factors to predict daily milk yield when milk is sampled once per d for cows milked three times (3x) per d. Milk weights for all three milkings were recorded automatically by 8 herds and collected by Dairy Herd Improvement supervisors on test-day. Following edits, 196,725...

  15. Derivation of factors to estimate daily yield from single milkings for Holsteins milked two or three times daily

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective was to derive factors to predict daily yield when milk weights are recorded once when cows are milked twice (2x) or once or twice when cows are milked thrice (3x) per d. Data was from herds enrolled in DHI and automatically recording milking weights and times. Following edits, 83,690...

  16. Derivation of factors to estimate daily fat, protein, and somatic cell score from one milking of cows milked twice daily

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective was to derive factors to predict daily fat (F) and protein (P) yield or somatic cell score (SCS) when milk is sampled once for cows milked twice per d. Milk samples were collected for each milking on test-day by Dairy Herd Improvement personnel from herds recording milking times and m...

  17. Duodenal ulcer healing on 2 g of sucralfate daily at bedtime compared to 1 g four times daily

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendtsen, Flemming; Ebbehøj, N; Fallingborg, J;

    1990-01-01

    Seventy-seven patients with endoscopically verified duodenal ulcers were randomized to treatment with either 2 g sucralfate daily at bedtime or 1 g sucralfate q.d.s. in a controlled double-blind comparative study. After a 4-week treatment period, the healing rate was 68% for the former and 69...

  18. Noninvasive cortical stimulation with transcranial direct current stimulation in Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fregni, Felipe; Boggio, Paulo S; Santos, Marcelo C; Lima, Moises; Vieira, Adriana L; Rigonatti, Sergio P; Silva, M Teresa A; Barbosa, Egberto R; Nitsche, Michael A; Pascual-Leone, Alvaro

    2006-10-01

    Electrical stimulation of deep brain structures, such as globus pallidus and subthalamic nucleus, is widely accepted as a therapeutic tool for patients with Parkinson's disease (PD). Cortical stimulation either with epidural implanted electrodes or repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation can be associated with motor function enhancement in PD. We aimed to study the effects of another noninvasive technique of cortical brain stimulation, transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS), on motor function and motor-evoked potential (MEP) characteristics of PD patients. We tested tDCS using different electrode montages [anodal stimulation of primary motor cortex (M1), cathodal stimulation of M1, anodal stimulation of dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC), and sham-stimulation] and evaluated the effects on motor function--as indexed by Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS), simple reaction time (sRT) and Purdue Pegboard test--and on corticospinal motor excitability (MEP characteristics). All experiments were performed in a double-blinded manner. Anodal stimulation of M1 was associated with a significant improvement of motor function compared to sham-stimulation in the UPDRS (P stimulation of M1 or anodal stimulation of DLPFC. Furthermore, whereas anodal stimulation of M1 significantly increased MEP amplitude and area, cathodal stimulation of M1 significantly decreased them. There was a trend toward a significant correlation between motor function improvement after M1 anodal-tDCS and MEP area increase. These results confirm and extend the notion that cortical brain stimulation might improve motor function in patients with PD.

  19. Tapering Enhanced Stimulated Superradiant Amplification

    CERN Document Server

    Duris, Joseph; Musumeci, Pietro

    2014-01-01

    High conversion efficiency between electrical and optical power is highly desirable both for high peak and high average power radiation sources. In this paper we discuss a new mechanism based on stimulated superradiant emission in a strongly tapered undulator whereby an optimal undulator tapering is calculated by dynamically matching the resonant energy variation to the ponderomotive decelerating gradient. The method has the potential to allow the extraction of a large fraction (~50%) of power from a relativistic electron beam and convert it into coherent narrow-band tunable radiation, and shows a clear path to very high average power radiation sources.

  20. Stimulated Brillouin Scattering Microscopic Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballmann, Charles W; Thompson, Jonathan V; Traverso, Andrew J; Meng, Zhaokai; Scully, Marlan O; Yakovlev, Vladislav V

    2015-01-01

    Two-dimensional stimulated Brillouin scattering microscopy is demonstrated for the first time using low power continuous-wave lasers tunable around 780 nm. Spontaneous Brillouin spectroscopy has much potential for probing viscoelastic properties remotely and non-invasively on a microscopic scale. Nonlinear Brillouin scattering spectroscopy and microscopy may provide a way to tremendously accelerate the data aquisition and improve spatial resolution. This general imaging setup can be easily adapted for specific applications in biology and material science. The low power and optical wavelengths in the water transparency window used in this setup provide a powerful bioimaging technique for probing the mechanical properties of hard and soft tissue.

  1. Stimulated Brillouin Scattering Microscopic Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballmann, Charles W.; Thompson, Jonathan V.; Traverso, Andrew J.; Meng, Zhaokai; Scully, Marlan O.; Yakovlev, Vladislav V.

    2015-12-01

    Two-dimensional stimulated Brillouin scattering microscopy is demonstrated for the first time using low power continuous-wave lasers tunable around 780 nm. Spontaneous Brillouin spectroscopy has much potential for probing viscoelastic properties remotely and non-invasively on a microscopic scale. Nonlinear Brillouin scattering spectroscopy and microscopy may provide a way to tremendously accelerate the data aquisition and improve spatial resolution. This general imaging setup can be easily adapted for specific applications in biology and material science. The low power and optical wavelengths in the water transparency window used in this setup provide a powerful bioimaging technique for probing the mechanical properties of hard and soft tissue.

  2. Transverse stimulated Raman scattering in KDP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barker, C.E.; Sacks, R.A.; Wonterghem, B.M. Van; Caird, J.A.; Murray, J.R.; Campbell, J.H.; Kyle, K.; Ehrlich, R.E.; Nielsen, N.D.

    1995-09-12

    Optical components of large-aperture, high irradiance and high fluence lasers can experience significant levels of stimulated scattering along their transverse dimensions. The authors have observed transverse stimulated Raman scattering in large aperture KDP crystals, and have measured the stimulated gain coefficient. With sufficiently high gain, transverse stimulated scattering can lead to energy loss from the main beam and, more importantly, optical damage in the components in which this scattering occurs. Thus transverse stimulated,scattering is of concern in large aperture fusion lasers such as Nova and Beamlet, which is a single-aperture, full-scale scientific prototype of the laser driver for the proposed National Ignition Facility.

  3. Field distribution of epidural electrical stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Xiaobo; Cui, Hong yan; Xu, Shengpu; Hu, Yong

    2013-11-01

    Epidural electrical stimulation has been applied in clinics for many years. However, there is still a concern about possible injury to spinal nerves. This study investigated electrical field and current density distribution during direct epidural electrical stimulation. Field distribution models were theoretically deduced, while the distribution of potentials and current were analyzed. The current density presented an increase of 70-80%, with one peak value ranging from -85° to 85° between the two stimulated poles. The effect of direct epidural electrical stimulation is mainly on local tissue surrounding the electrodes, concentrated around the two stimulated positions. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. A comparison of the effects of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) by number of stimulation sessions on hemispatial neglect in chronic stroke patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yong Kyun; Jung, Jae Hwan; Shin, Sung Hun

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the effect of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) applied either during one session of stimulation, or by ten sessions of low-frequency stimulation over the left parietal cortex, on hemispatial neglect in stroke patients. We enrolled 34 subjects that had experienced a stroke. All subjects received 1,200 real rTMS over the left parietal cortex at an intensity of 90% of motor thresholds with 1 Hz. Subjects were divided into two groups. One group of subjects (n = 19) received real rTMS over the left parietal cortex in a single session of stimulation, and the other group (n = 15), underwent a total of ten sessions of daily stimulations for 2 weeks. Letter cancelation test, line bisection test, and Ota's task were administered to compare the effects of different rTMS protocols, before and after rTMS. The results showed no difference in baseline value between the single session group and the ten sessions group. Total ten sessions of low-frequency rTMS over the left parietal cortex, compared with the single session of rTMS, significantly improved hemispatial neglect in letter cancelation, line bisection, and Ota's task (P rTMS can be used in treatment by rTMS for patients suffering from hemispatial neglect after stroke.

  5. [Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (rTMS) for Higher Brain Function Deficits].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, Yukichi

    2016-12-01

    The management of higher brain dysfunctions such as stroke-induced unilateral spatial neglect (USN) or aphasia is crucial because these dysfunctions have devastating neurological repercussions on the patients' daily life and quality of life. Impairment of the physiological interhemispheric rivalry is often the result of brain insults such as strokes or traumatic injuries, and it may lead to USN or aphasia. Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS), a non-invasive brain stimulation method, is a promising tool for restoring the pathological imbalance in interhemispheric rivalry by either suppressing the hyperactivity of the unaffected hemisphere or facilitating hypoactivity in the affected hemisphere. The concept of paradoxical functional facilitation (Kapur, 1996) has important clinical implications when coupled with rTMS applications. In addition to conventional rTMS (c-rTMS), other clinically relevant protocols of patterned rTMS (p-rTMS) have been developed: the theta burst stimulation (TBS), the paired associative stimulation (PAS), and the quadripulse stimulation (QPS). TBS is commonly used in the rehabilitation of patients with post-stroke USN and those with non-fluent aphasia because of its prolonged beneficial effects and the short duration of stimulation. TBS may be considered an effective and safe protocol of rTMS. We foresee broader clinical applications of p-rTMS (TBS) and c-rTMS in the treatment of various neurological deficits.

  6. Cognitive stimulation for dementia: a systematic review of the evidence of effectiveness from randomised controlled trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguirre, Elisa; Woods, Robert T; Spector, Aimee; Orrell, Martin

    2013-01-01

    Cognitive stimulation is a psychological intervention widely used in dementia care, which offers a range of activities for people with dementia and provides general stimulation of cognitive abilities. This systematic review evaluates the effectiveness of cognitive stimulation in dementia. The review included studies from the Specialized Register of the Cochrane Dementia and Cognitive Improvement Group, called ALOIS. This yielded ninety-four studies, of which fifteen were randomised controlled trials meeting the inclusion criteria. The analysis included 718 subjects (407 receiving cognitive stimulation and 311 in control groups). Results were subjected to a meta-analysis. A consistent significant benefit to cognitive function was identified following treatment and the benefits appeared to be over and above any medication effects. This remained evident at follow-up up to three months after the end of treatment. In secondary analyses, with smaller total sample sizes, significant benefits were also noted for quality of life and well-being, and on staff ratings of communication and social interaction. No differences in relation to mood, activities of daily living or challenging behaviour were noted. There is consistent evidence that cognitive stimulation interventions benefit cognitive function and aspects of well-being. Cognitive stimulation should be made more widely available in dementia care.

  7. Stimulation of gross dimethylsulfide (DMS) production by solar radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galí, Martí; Saló, Violeta; Almeda, Rodrigo; Calbet, Albert; Simó, Rafel

    2011-08-01

    Oceanic gross DMS production (GP) exerts a fundamental control on the concentration and the sea-air flux of this climatically-active trace gas. However, it is a poorly constrained process, owing to the complexity of the microbial food web processes involved and their interplay with physical forcing, particularly with solar radiation. The “inhibitor method”, using dimethyldisulfide (DMDS) or other compounds to inhibit bacterial DMS consumption, has been frequently used to determine GP in dark incubations. In the work presented here, DMDS addition was optimized for its use in light incubations. By comparing simultaneous dark and light measurements of GP in meso- to ultraoligotrophic waters, we found a significant enhancement of GP in natural sunlight in 7 out of 10 experiments. Such stimulation, which was generally between 30 and 80% on a daily basis, occurred throughout contrasting microbial communities and oceanographic settings.

  8. Sub-daily runoff predictions using parameters calibrated on the basis of data with a daily temporal resolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, J. E.; Halldin, S.; Xu, C. Y.; Seibert, J.; Kauffeldt, A.

    2017-07-01

    Concentration times in small and medium-sized basins (∼10-1000 km2) are commonly less than 24 h. Flood-forecasting models are thus required to provide simulations at high temporal resolutions (1 h-6 h), although time-series of input and runoff data with sufficient lengths are often only available at the daily temporal resolution, especially in developing countries. This has led to study the relationships of estimated parameter values at the temporal resolutions where they are needed from the temporal resolutions where they are available. This study presents a methodology to treat empirically model-parameter dependencies on the temporal resolution of data in two small basins using a bucket-type hydrological model, HBV-light, and the generalised likelihood uncertainty estimation approach for selecting its parameters. To avoid artefacts due to the numerical resolution or numerical method of the differential equations within the model, the model was consistently run using modelling time-steps of one-hour regardless of the temporal resolution of the rainfall-runoff data. The distribution of the parameters calibrated at several temporal resolutions in the two basins did not show model-parameter dependencies on the temporal resolution of data and the direct transferability of calibrated parameter sets (e.g., daily) for runoff simulations at other temporal resolutions for which they were not calibrated (e.g., 3 h or 6 h) resulted in a moderate (if any) decrease in model performance, in terms of Nash-Sutcliffe and volume-error efficiencies. The results of this study indicate that if sub-daily forcing data can be secured, flood forecasting in basins with sub-daily concentration times may be possible with model-parameter values calibrated from long time series of daily data. Further studies using more models and basins are required to test the generality of these results.

  9. Muscle activity and inactivity periods during normal daily life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tikkanen, Olli; Haakana, Piia; Pesola, Arto J; Häkkinen, Keijo; Rantalainen, Timo; Havu, Marko; Pullinen, Teemu; Finni, Taija

    2013-01-01

    Recent findings suggest that not only the lack of physical activity, but also prolonged times of sedentary behaviour where major locomotor muscles are inactive, significantly increase the risk of chronic diseases. The purpose of this study was to provide details of quadriceps and hamstring muscle inactivity and activity during normal daily life of ordinary people. Eighty-four volunteers (44 females, 40 males, 44.1±17.3 years, 172.3±6.1 cm, 70.1±10.2 kg) were measured during normal daily life using shorts measuring muscle electromyographic (EMG) activity (recording time 11.3±2.0 hours). EMG was normalized to isometric MVC (EMG(MVC)) during knee flexion and extension, and inactivity threshold of each muscle group was defined as 90% of EMG activity during standing (2.5±1.7% of EMG(MVC)). During normal daily life the average EMG amplitude was 4.0±2.6% and average activity burst amplitude was 5.8±3.4% of EMG(MVC) (mean duration of 1.4±1.4 s) which is below the EMG level required for walking (5 km/h corresponding to EMG level of about 10% of EMG(MVC)). Using the proposed individual inactivity threshold, thigh muscles were inactive 67.5±11.9% of the total recording time and the longest inactivity periods lasted for 13.9±7.3 min (2.5-38.3 min). Women had more activity bursts and spent more time at intensities above 40% EMG(MVC) than men (p<0.05). In conclusion, during normal daily life the locomotor muscles are inactive about 7.5 hours, and only a small fraction of muscle's maximal voluntary activation capacity is used averaging only 4% of the maximal recruitment of the thigh muscles. Some daily non-exercise activities such as stair climbing produce much higher muscle activity levels than brisk walking, and replacing sitting by standing can considerably increase cumulative daily muscle activity.

  10. SDCLIREF - A sub-daily gridded reference dataset

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Raul R.; Willkofer, Florian; Schmid, Franz-Josef; Trentini, Fabian; Komischke, Holger; Ludwig, Ralf

    2017-04-01

    Climate change is expected to impact the intensity and frequency of hydrometeorological extreme events. In order to adequately capture and analyze extreme rainfall events, in particular when assessing flood and flash flood situations, data is required at high spatial and sub-daily resolution which is often not available in sufficient density and over extended time periods. The ClimEx project (Climate Change and Hydrological Extreme Events) addresses the alteration of hydrological extreme events under climate change conditions. In order to differentiate between a clear climate change signal and the limits of natural variability, unique Single-Model Regional Climate Model Ensembles (CRCM5 driven by CanESM2, RCP8.5) were created for a European and North-American domain, each comprising 50 members of 150 years (1951-2100). In combination with the CORDEX-Database, this newly created ClimEx-Ensemble is a one-of-a-kind model dataset to analyze changes of sub-daily extreme events. For the purpose of bias-correcting the regional climate model ensembles as well as for the baseline calibration and validation of hydrological catchment models, a new sub-daily (3h) high-resolution (500m) gridded reference dataset (SDCLIREF) was created for a domain covering the Upper Danube and Main watersheds ( 100.000km2). As the sub-daily observations lack a continuous time series for the reference period 1980-2010, the need for a suitable method to bridge the gap of the discontinuous time series arouse. The Method of Fragments (Sharma and Srikanthan (2006); Westra et al. (2012)) was applied to transform daily observations to sub-daily rainfall events to extend the time series and densify the station network. Prior to applying the Method of Fragments and creating the gridded dataset using rigorous interpolation routines, data collection of observations, operated by several institutions in three countries (Germany, Austria, Switzerland), and the subsequent quality control of the observations

  11. Muscle activity and inactivity periods during normal daily life.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olli Tikkanen

    Full Text Available Recent findings suggest that not only the lack of physical activity, but also prolonged times of sedentary behaviour where major locomotor muscles are inactive, significantly increase the risk of chronic diseases. The purpose of this study was to provide details of quadriceps and hamstring muscle inactivity and activity during normal daily life of ordinary people. Eighty-four volunteers (44 females, 40 males, 44.1±17.3 years, 172.3±6.1 cm, 70.1±10.2 kg were measured during normal daily life using shorts measuring muscle electromyographic (EMG activity (recording time 11.3±2.0 hours. EMG was normalized to isometric MVC (EMG(MVC during knee flexion and extension, and inactivity threshold of each muscle group was defined as 90% of EMG activity during standing (2.5±1.7% of EMG(MVC. During normal daily life the average EMG amplitude was 4.0±2.6% and average activity burst amplitude was 5.8±3.4% of EMG(MVC (mean duration of 1.4±1.4 s which is below the EMG level required for walking (5 km/h corresponding to EMG level of about 10% of EMG(MVC. Using the proposed individual inactivity threshold, thigh muscles were inactive 67.5±11.9% of the total recording time and the longest inactivity periods lasted for 13.9±7.3 min (2.5-38.3 min. Women had more activity bursts and spent more time at intensities above 40% EMG(MVC than men (p<0.05. In conclusion, during normal daily life the locomotor muscles are inactive about 7.5 hours, and only a small fraction of muscle's maximal voluntary activation capacity is used averaging only 4% of the maximal recruitment of the thigh muscles. Some daily non-exercise activities such as stair climbing produce much higher muscle activity levels than brisk walking, and replacing sitting by standing can considerably increase cumulative daily muscle activity.

  12. Crayfish Procambarus clarkii retina and nervous system exhibit antioxidant circadian rhythms coupled with metabolic and luminous daily cycles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fanjul-Moles, María Luisa; Prieto-Sagredo, Julio; López, Dario Santiago; Bartolo-Orozco, Ramón; Cruz-Rosas, Hugo

    2009-01-01

    Based on previous work in which we proposed midgut as a putative peripheral oscillator responsible for circadian reduced glutathione (GSH) crayfish status, herein we investigated the retina and optic lobe-brain (OL-B) circadian GSH system and its ability to deal with reactive oxygen species (ROS) produced as a consequence of metabolic rhythms and light variations. We characterized daily and antioxidant circadian variations of the different parameters of the glutathione system, including GSH, oxidized glutathione (GSSG), glutathione reductase (GR) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx), as well as metabolic and lipoperoxidative circadian oscillations in retina and OL-B, determining internal and external GSH-system synchrony. The results demonstrate statistically significant bi- and unimodal daily and circadian rhythms in all GSH-cycle parameters, substrates and enzymes in OL-B and retina, as well as an apparent direct effect of light on these rhythms, especially in the retina. The luminous condition appears to stimulate the GSH system to antagonize ROS and lipid peroxidation (LPO) daily and circadian rhythms occurring in both structures, oscillating with higher LPO under dark conditions. We suggest that the difference in the effect of light on GSH rhythmic mechanisms of both structures for antagonizing ROS could be due to differences in glutathione-system coupling strength with the circadian clock.

  13. Bubble stimulation efficiency of dinoflagellate bioluminescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deane, Grant B; Stokes, M Dale; Latz, Michael I

    2016-02-01

    Dinoflagellate bioluminescence, a common source of bioluminescence in coastal waters, is stimulated by flow agitation. Although bubbles are anecdotally known to be stimulatory, the process has never been experimentally investigated. This study quantified the flash response of the bioluminescent dinoflagellate Lingulodinium polyedrum to stimulation by bubbles rising through still seawater. Cells were stimulated by isolated bubbles of 0.3-3 mm radii rising at their terminal velocity, and also by bubble clouds containing bubbles of 0.06-10 mm radii for different air flow rates. Stimulation efficiency, the proportion of cells producing a flash within the volume of water swept out by a rising bubble, decreased with decreasing bubble radius for radii less than approximately 1 mm. Bubbles smaller than a critical radius in the range 0.275-0.325 mm did not stimulate a flash response. The fraction of cells stimulated by bubble clouds was proportional to the volume of air in the bubble cloud, with lower stimulation levels observed for clouds with smaller bubbles. An empirical model for bubble cloud stimulation based on the isolated bubble observations successfully reproduced the observed stimulation by bubble clouds for low air flow rates. High air flow rates stimulated more light emission than expected, presumably because of additional fluid shear stress associated with collective buoyancy effects generated by the high air fraction bubble cloud. These results are relevant to bioluminescence stimulation by bubbles in two-phase flows, such as in ship wakes, breaking waves, and sparged bioreactors.

  14. High-frequency and brief-pulse stimulation pulses terminate cortical electrical stimulation-induced afterdischarges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Zhi-Wei; Li, Yong-Jie; Yu, Tao; Ni, Duan-Yu; Zhang, Guo-Jun; Du, Wei; Piao, Yuan-Yuan; Zhou, Xiao-Xia

    2017-06-01

    Brief-pulse stimulation at 50 Hz has been shown to terminate afterdischarges observed in epilepsy patients. However, the optimal pulse stimulation parameters for terminating cortical electrical stimulation-induced afterdischarges remain unclear. In the present study, we examined the effects of different brief-pulse stimulation frequencies (5, 50 and 100 Hz) on cortical electrical stimulation-induced afterdischarges in 10 patients with refractory epilepsy. Results demonstrated that brief-pulse stimulation could terminate cortical electrical stimulation-induced afterdischarges in refractory epilepsy patients. In conclusion, (1) a brief-pulse stimulation was more effective when the afterdischarge did not extend to the surrounding brain area. (2) A higher brief-pulse stimulation frequency (especially 100 Hz) was more likely to terminate an afterdischarge. (3) A low current intensity of brief-pulse stimulation was more likely to terminate an afterdischarge.

  15. Optical stimulator for vision-based sensors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rössler, Dirk; Pedersen, David Arge Klevang; Benn, Mathias

    2014-01-01

    We have developed an optical stimulator system for vision-based sensors. The stimulator is an efficient tool for stimulating a camera during on-ground testing with scenes representative of spacecraft flights. Such scenes include starry sky, planetary objects, and other spacecraft. The optical...... precision and long-term stability. The system can be continuously used over several days. By facilitating a full camera including optics in the loop, the stimulator enables the more realistic simulation of flight maneuvers based on navigation cameras than pure computer simulations or camera stimulations...... stimulator is used as a test bench to simulate high-precision navigation by different types of camera systems that are used onboard spacecraft, planetary rovers, and for spacecraft rendezvous and proximity maneuvers. Careful hardware design and preoperational calibration of the stimulator result in high...

  16. Stimulated emission from NV centres in diamond

    CERN Document Server

    Jeske, Jan; McGuinness, Liam P; Reineck, Philip; Johnson, Brett C; McCallum, Jeffrey C; Jelezko, Fedor; Volz, Thomas; Cole, Jared H; Gibson, Brant C; Greentree, Andrew D

    2016-01-01

    Stimulated emission is the process fundamental to laser operation, thereby producing coherent photon output. Despite negatively-charged nitrogen-vacancy (NV$^-$) centres being discussed as a potential laser medium since the 1980's, there have been no definitive observations of stimulated emission from ensembles of NV$^-$ to date. Reasons for this lack of demonstration include the short excited state lifetime and the occurrence of photo-ionisation to the neutral charge state by light around the zero-phonon line. Here we show both theoretical and experimental evidence for stimulated emission from NV$^-$ states using light in the phonon-sidebands. Our system uses a continuous wave pump laser at 532 nm and a pulsed stimulating laser that is swept across the phononic sidebands of the NV$^-$. Optimal stimulated emission is demonstrated in the vicinity of the three-phonon line at 700 nm. Furthermore, we show the transition from stimulated emission to photoionisation as the stimulating laser wavelength is reduced fro...

  17. Braille line using electrical stimulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Puertas, A; Pures, P; Echenique, A M; Ensinck, J P Graffigna y G [Gabinete de TecnologIa Medica. Universidad N. de San Juan (Argentina)

    2007-11-15

    Conceived within the field of Rehabilitation Technologies for visually impaired persons, the present work aims at enabling the blind user to read written material by means of a tactile display. Once he is familiarized to operate this system, the user will be able to achieve greater performance in study, academic and job activities, thus achieving a rapid and easier social inclusion. The devise accepts any kind of text that is computer-loadable (documents, books, Internet information, and the like) which, through digital means, can be read as Braille text on the pad. This tactile display is composed of an electrodes platform that simulate, through stimulation the writing/reading Braille characters. In order to perceive said characters in similar way to the tactile feeling from paper material, the skin receptor of fingers are stimulated electrically so as to simulate the same pressure and depressions as those of the paper-based counterpart information. Once designed and developed, the display was tested with blind subjects, with relatively satisfactory results. As a continuing project, this prototype is currently being improved as regards.

  18. Braille line using electrical stimulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puertas, A.; Purés, P.; Echenique, A. M.; Ensinck, J. P. Graffigna y. G.

    2007-11-01

    Conceived within the field of Rehabilitation Technologies for visually impaired persons, the present work aims at enabling the blind user to read written material by means of a tactile display. Once he is familiarized to operate this system, the user will be able to achieve greater performance in study, academic and job activities, thus achieving a rapid and easier social inclusion. The devise accepts any kind of text that is computer-loadable (documents, books, Internet information, and the like) which, through digital means, can be read as Braille text on the pad. This tactile display is composed of an electrodes platform that simulate, through stimulation the writing/reading Braille characters. In order to perceive said characters in similar way to the tactile feeling from paper material, the skin receptor of fingers are stimulated electrically so as to simulate the same pressure and depressions as those of the paper-based counterpart information. Once designed and developed, the display was tested with blind subjects, with relatively satisfactory results. As a continuing project, this prototype is currently being improved as regards.

  19. Tidewater Dynamics at Store Glacier, West Greenland from Daily Repeat UAV Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubbard, A., II; Ryan, J.; Toberg, N.; Todd, J.; Christoffersen, P.; Snooke, N.; Box, J. E.

    2015-12-01

    A significant component of the Greenland ice sheet's mass wasteage to sea level rise is attributed to the acceleration and dynamic thinning at its tidewater margins. To improve understanding of the rapid mass loss processes occurring at large tidewater glaciers, we conducted a suite of daily repeat aerial surveys across the terminus of Store Glacier, a large outlet draining the western Greenland Ice Sheet, from May to July 2014 (https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-y8kauAVAfE). A suite flock of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) were equipped with digital cameras, which, in combination with onboard GPS, enabled production of high spatial resolution orthophotos and digital elevation models (DEMs) using standard structure-from-motion techniques. These data provide insight into the short-term dynamics of Store Glacier surrounding the break-up of the sea-ice mélange that occurred between 4 and 7 June. Feature tracking of the orthophotos reveals that mean speed of the terminus is 16 - 18 md-1, which was independently verified against a high temporal resolution time-series derived from an expendable/telemetric GPS deployed at the terminus. Differencing the surface area of successive orthophotos enable quantification of daily calving rates, which significantly increase just after melange break-up. Likewise, by differencing bulk freeboard volume of icebergs through time we could also constrain the magnitude and variation of submarine melt. We calculate a mean submarine melt rate of 0.18 md-1 throughout the spring period with relatively little supraglacial runoff and no active meltwater plumes to stimulate fjord circulation and upwelling of deeper, warmer water masses. Finally, we relate calving rates to the zonation and depth of water-filled crevasses, which were prominent across parts of the terminus from June onwards.

  20. Daily rhythm and regulation of clock gene expression in the rat pineal gland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simonneaux, V; Poirel, V-J; Garidou, M-L; Nguyen, D; Diaz-Rodriguez, E; Pévet, P

    2004-01-05

    Rhythms in pineal melatonin synthesis are controlled by the biological clock located in the suprachiasmatic nuclei. The endogenous clock oscillations rely upon genetic mechanisms involving clock genes coding for transcription factors working in negative and positive feedback loops. Most of these clock genes are expressed rhythmically in other tissues. Because of the peculiar role of the pineal gland in the photoneuroendocrine axis regulating biological rhythms, we studied whether clock genes are expressed in the rat pineal gland and how their expression is regulated.Per1, Per3, Cry2 and Cry1 clock genes are expressed in the pineal gland and their transcription is increased during the night. Analysis of the regulation of these pineal clock genes indicates that they may be categorized into two groups. Expression of Per1 and Cry2 genes shows the following features: (1) the 24 h rhythm persists, although damped, in constant darkness; (2) the nocturnal increase is abolished following light exposure or injection with a beta-adrenergic antagonist; and (3) the expression during daytime is stimulated by an injection with a beta-adrenergic agonist. In contrast, Per3 and Cry1 day and night mRNA levels are not responsive to adrenergic ligands (as previously reported for Per2) and daily expression of Per3 and Cry1 appears strongly damped or abolished in constant darkness. These data show that the expression of Per1 and Cry2 in the rat pineal gland is regulated by the clock-driven changes in norepinephrine, in a similar manner to the melatonin rhythm-generating enzyme arylalkylamine N-acetyltransferase. The expression of Per3 and Cry1 displays a daily rhythm not regulated by norepinephrine, suggesting the involvement of another day/night regulated transmitter(s).