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Sample records for nonpregnant group pregnancy

  1. Canine herpesvirus during pregnancy and non-pregnant luteal phase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ström Holst, B; Hagberg Gustavsson, M; Grapperon-Mathis, M; Lilliehöök, I; Johannisson, A; Isaksson, M; Lindhe, A; Axnér, E

    2012-12-01

    Canine herpesvirus (CHV) is a widespread infection among dogs that typically get latently infected after exposure and can reactivate the infection after stress. The aim of the present study was to study the effects of latent CHV infection during pregnancy on pregnancy outcome, and to study if there are signs of genital viral reactivation during pregnancy or during non-pregnant luteal phase. Twelve mated bitches and eight control bitches were followed and sampled regularly during pregnancy or non-pregnant luteal phase. Blood samples were taken for antibody analysis and vaginal swabs for real-time PCR analysis. Three of the pregnant bitches were vaccinated against CHV during pregnancy. All bitches had antibodies to CHV. Two pregnant bitches that were not vaccinated had a twofold or larger increase in CHV titre, with no negative effects detected on pregnancy. Higher titres were not associated with smaller litters or with vaccination. There was no consistent variation in antibody titres due to pregnancy or non-pregnant luteal phase. Vaginal excretion of CHV was not detected from any of the bitches.

  2. Urinary proteomic and non-prefractionation quantitative phosphoproteomic analysis during pregnancy and non-pregnancy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Zheng, Jianhua; Liu, Liguo; Wang, Jin; Jin, Qi

    2013-01-01

    .... Furthermore, we also apply a non-prefractionation quantitative phosphoproteomic approach using mTRAQ labeling to evaluate the expression of specific phosphoproteins during pregnancy comparison with non-pregnancy...

  3. Changes in ectocervical surface area in women throughout pregnancy compared to non-pregnant and postpartum states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Xueya; Jiang, Yanmin; Liu, Lei; Shi, Shao-Qing; Garfield, Robert E; Liu, Huishu

    2016-11-01

    The objective of this study is to estimate changes in the surface area of the ectocervix (CA) in women during pregnancy and compare this to postpartum and non-pregnant states. CA was evaluated in 210 normal nulliparous women divided into groups from early to late gestation, 40 postpartum women, and 25 non-pregnant women. CA in cm(2) was estimated from analysis of images taken with an endoscope of the cervical face and an mm scale. An mm scale was also used to determine fornix length and fornix area computed. The face, fornix, and total areas of the CA of non-pregnant and postpartum groups are significantly smaller (p 75% area compared with CA of non-pregnant patients and then reverts back to low CA postpartum. (2) Increases in CA during pregnancy occur in both the face and fornix areas. (3) Increases in CA reflect enlargement in cervical volume and remodeling during pregnancy.

  4. The effect of heparin on pregnancy associated plasma protein-A concentration in healthy, non-pregnant individuals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jespersen, Camilla H B; Vestergaard, Kirstine R; Schou, Morten

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study was to determine the differences in pregnancy associated plasma protein-A (PAPP-A) concentrations in heparin naive and heparin treated healthy men and non-pregnant women, to find a possible difference in different age groups, and to determine the response...

  5. Changes in cerebral autoregulation in the second half of pregnancy and compared to non-pregnant controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Veen, Teelkien R; Panerai, Ronney B; Haeri, Sina; van den Berg, Paul P; Zeeman, Gerda G; Belfort, Michael A

    2016-10-01

    The mechanism by which pregnancy affects the cerebral circulation is unknown, but it has a central role in the development of neurological complications in preeclampsia, which is believed to be related to impaired autoregulation. We evaluated the cerebral autoregulation in the second half of pregnancy, and compared this with a control group of healthy, fertile non-pregnant women. In a prospective cohort analysis, cerebral blood flow velocity of the middle cerebral artery (determined by transcranial Doppler), blood pressure (noninvasive arterial volume clamping), and end-tidal carbon dioxide (EtCO2) were simultaneously collected for 7min. The autoregulation index (ARI) was calculated. ARI values of 0 and 9 indicated absent and perfect autoregulation, respectively. ANOVA and Pearson's correlation coefficient were used, with ppregnant and 18 non-pregnant women were included. The ARI did not change during pregnancy, but pregnant women had a significantly higher ARI than non-pregnant controls (ARI 6.7±0.9 vs. 5.3±1.4, ppregnant fertile women, even after controlling for EtCO2. The autoregulation does not change with advancing gestational age. Copyright © 2016 International Society for the Study of Hypertension in Pregnancy. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Energy requirements of Dorper×thin-tailed Han crossbred ewes during non-pregnancy and lactation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LOU Can; DIAO Qi-yu; SI Bing-wen; DENG Kai-dong; MA Tao; JIANG Cheng-gang; TU Yan; ZHANG Nai-feng; JI Shou-kun; CHEN Dan-dan

    2015-01-01

    This experiment was conducted to investigate the energy requirement of Dorper×thin-tailed Han crossbred ewes during non-pregnancy and lactation. Fifteen ewes after parturition were randomly assigned to three treatments:ad libitum(100%) feed intake and 80 or 60%ad libitum intake, and another nine non-pregnant ewes were assigned to a blank control group. Digestibility trials were performed in the non-pregnant ewes and in the lactating ewes on the 20th, 50th, and 80th d of lactation. In paralel with the digestibility trial, a respirometry experiment was conducted to determine the methane and carbon dioxide production with an open-circuit respirometry system that was equipped with respiratory chambers. The net energy (NE) and metabolizable energy (ME) requirements for maintenance and growth were calculated using the carbon and nitrogen balance method. The results revealed that the carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) excretions and energy losses at faeces and urine, as wel as the output of methane and CO2, increased signiifcantly with decreasing feed intake (P<0.01). The apparent digestibilities of C in the stages of non-pregnancy and early, middle and late lactation were 55.8–58.3%, 62.5–73.8%, 64.8–71.3%, and 61.7–65.0%, respectively, and the apparent digestibilities of N were 45.2–51.3%, 73.7–82.7%, 72.8–80.5%, and 73.6–76.5%, respectively. The corresponding energy apparent digestibilities were 52.0–56.3%, 60.7–76.6%, 61.0–68.8%, and 61.4–67.7%, respectively. The ME/DE (digestible energy) values were 79.5–85.9%, 79.4–83.5%, 81.0%–85.3% and 78.6–82.9%, respectively. The maintenance requirements of NE, ME, and the efifciencies of ME utilisation for maintenance during the stages of non-pregnancy and early, middle and late lactation were 215.5, 253.1, 247.7, and 244.7 kJ kg–1 BW0.75 d, and 372.4, 327.1, 320.9, and 362.0 kJ kg–1 BW0.75 d, and 0.58, 0.77, 0.77, and 0.68, respectively. The ME requirement for the growth of non-pregnant ewes was

  7. PP097. Cardiac output and systemic vascular resistance in normal pregnancy and in control non-pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalil, A; Goodyear, Gemma; Joseph, Ehizele; Khalil, Asma

    2012-07-01

    Changes in cardiac output (CO) and systemic vascular resistance (SVR) have been shown to precede the clinical onset of pregnancy complications, such as pre-eclampsia and fetal growth restriction. CO and SVR undergo major changes during normal pregnancy. However, assessment of these vascular parameters requires intensive training and expensive techniques, so currently can be performed only in specialised centres. The aim of this study was to investigate maternal cardiovascular function measured using an ultrasonic cardiac output monitor (USCOM), a simple non-invasive continuous wave Doppler device, in a cohort of pregnant women and non-pregnant controls. This was a cross sectional study including 185 women with normal singleton pregnancies at 11-40weeks of gestation and 49 non-pregnant controls. Stroke volume (SV), CO and SVR were measured using the USCOM device. All measurements were performed with the patients in supine position. All women with a gestational age of >20weeks were in a left lateral position by placing a wedge-shaped pillow under their right side to prevent vena cava compression. In a group of 25 pregnant women, each measurement was repeated three times to evaluate the reproducibility of this technique. Cardiac index (CI), SV index (SVI) and SVR index (SVRI) relate CO, SV and SVR to the body surface area. The data were normally distributed after logarithmic transformation. Comparisons between pregnant and non-pregnant women were performed using Studentt-test, Chi-Square test or multiple regression analysis, when adjustment for potential confounders was necessary. Data analysis was performed using SPSS 16.0. In the first trimester, all of the following vascular parameters were higher in pregnant women compared to non-pregnant controls: CO [median (IQR): 4.86 (4.45-5.57) vs 5.57 (4.76-6.52)L/min, PPregnant women had significantly lower SVR [median (IQR): 1458 (1261-1649) vs 1165 (1023-1406)sec/cm(-5), P<0.001] and SVRI [median (IQR): 2646 (2307

  8. Platelet reactivity changes significantly throughout all trimesters of pregnancy compared with the nonpregnant state: a prospective study.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Burke, N

    2013-12-01

    Platelets play an important role in the pathophysiology of uteroplacental disease and platelet reactivity may be an important marker of uteroplacental disease activity. However, platelet reactivity has not been evaluated comprehensively in normal pregnancy. We sought to evaluate platelet reactivity using a number of agonists at defined time points in pregnancy using a novel platelet assay and compare these with a nonpregnant cohort.

  9. Group B streptococcus - pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000511.htm Group B streptococcus - pregnancy To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Group B streptococcus (GBS) is a type of bacteria that ...

  10. Changes in the spinal curvature, degree of pain, balance ability, and gait ability according to pregnancy period in pregnant and nonpregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Hyunju; Shin, Doochul; Song, Changho

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The aim of this study was to investigate the changes in pain intensity, spinal curvature, and balance and gait ability according to the pregnancy period. [Subjects] Nineteen pregnant women and fifteen nonpregnant women were recruited in this study. [Methods] The pain intensity, spinal curvature, gait, and balance of pregnant women were measured according to the pregnant period (2nd and 3rd trimester). The changes in the pregnant women were also compared with those in the nonpregnant women. [Results] The pain intensity and spinal curvature in the third trimester of pregnancy were significantly increased compared with the second trimester. Only the lumbar spine curvature in the third trimester pregnancy was significantly greater in the pregnant women than in non-pregnant women. The gait velocity and cadence in the third trimester of pregnancy showed a significant decrease compared with the second trimester. The gait speed in the second and third trimester of pregnancy showed a significant decrease in the pregnant women compared with nonpregnant women. Balance in the third trimester of pregnancy showed significant improvement compared with the second trimester. The balance of the pregnant women showed a significant decrease compare with that nonpregnant women only on unstable surfaces. [Conclusion] These research findings can be used as basic data for health promotion programs for sound daily activities in pregnant women.

  11. Teenage pregnancy: a small comparison group of known mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenthal, T L; Muram, D; Tolley, E A; Mcalpine, J

    1993-01-01

    To obtain confirmation of the findings of the authors' earlier comparison of ever-pregnant and nonpregnant Black high school students from Tennessee, 16 students confirmed to be pregnant were substituted for the 33 subjects in the original study whose pregnancy status was based solely on self-report. The nonpregnant control group of 251 teens was utilized in both analyses. Although the confirmed pregnant group was too small to repeat the regression analysis, striking concordance of findings between the 2 studies emerged for all dependent variables except the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire anxiety scale. The lower anxiety scores recorded among subjects in the original study may be either a statistical artifact or a reflection of the fact that these pregnant teens remained in school while subjects in the second study were enrolled in programs centered around their pregnant status. Sexual activity scores were strong or moderate significantly more often in both groups of pregnant teens compared to their nonpregnant counterparts. Interesting was the finding that 81% of pregnant teens regarded romance novels and soap operas to be accurate portrayals of real-life dating relationships compared to only 49% of nonpregnant teens. On the other hand, only 56% of the pregnant subjects regarded their own relationships to have this romantic quality. In a future study, the role of such uncritical romantic ideals in adolescent pregnancy risk will be investigated in a larger sample.

  12. Comparing the pharmacokinetics of doxylamine/pyridoxine delayed-release combination in nonpregnant women of reproductive age and women in the first trimester of pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matok, Ilan; Clark, Shannon; Caritis, Steve; Miodovnik, Menachem; Umans, Jason; Hankins, Gary; Koren, Gideon

    2013-03-01

    Although Diclectin (doxylamine/pyridoxine delayed-released combination) is widely used in Canada, its pharmacokinetics (PK) during pregnancy has never been described. The objective of this study was to compare the PK of doxylamine/pyridoxine delayed-released combination in pregnant versus nonpregnant women. The apparent clearances (CL) of doxylamine and pyridoxal 5'-phosphate (PLP; the active metabolite of vitamin B(6) ) during the first-trimester pregnancy in women who participated in a Diclectin randomized trial were compared with those of healthy, adult, nonpregnant women who participated in a voluntary PK trial. Eighteen nonpregnant women were compared with 50 pregnant women who were treated with Diclectin. There was no difference in the apparent CL of doxylamine in women in their first trimester of pregnancy when compared with nonpregnant women on day 4 (median = 196.7 vs 249.5 mL/h/kg, respectively, P = .065), day 8 (median = 248.4 vs 249.5 mL/h/kg, respectively, P = .82), and day 15 (median = 200.9 vs 249.5 mL/h/kg, respectively, P = .55). No difference was found in the apparent CL of PLP on day 15 (median = 342.3 vs 314.7 mL/h/kg, respectively, P = .92). There was no pregnancy-induced effect in the apparent CL of either doxylamine or PLP in women during the first trimester of pregnancy despite the existence of morning sickness.

  13. Serum levels of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines in non-pregnant women, during pregnancy, labour and abortion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Vassiliadis

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Disturbance of the cytokine equilibrium has been accused for many pathological disorders. Microbial infections, autoimmune diseases, graft rejection have been correlated to over- or under-production of specific cytokines which are produced as responder molecules to the various immune stimuli. The sole naturally occurring immune reaction in the organism is developed during the gestational period where, despite the presence of a semi-allogeneic graft, maternal immunoreactivity is driven to support fetal growth. The successful embryo development has been attributed to the important intervention of cytokines where some have been characterized as indispensable and others deleterious to fetal growth. However, the physiological levels of many factors during the gestational process have not been determined. Thus, in the present study we have measured and established the values of IL-1α, IL-2, IL-3, IL-4, IL-6, IL-10, IL-12, GM-CSF, TNF- α and IFN-γ during all phases of human pregnancy (first, second and third trimester of pregnancy, labour, abortions of the first trimester as well as in the non-pregnant control state. This is an attempt to assess serum protein concentrations and present the physiological levels of these cytokines at certain time intervals providing thus a diagnostic advantage in pregnancy cases where the mother cannot immunologically support the fetus. Exploitation of this knowledge and further research may be useful for therapeutic interventions in the future.

  14. Group B Streptococcus and Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... B Strep and Pregnancy • What is group B streptococcus (GBS)? • What does it mean to be colonized ... planned cesarean birth? •Glossary What is group B streptococcus (GBS)? Group B streptococcus is one of the ...

  15. Mathematical models and specific absorbed fractions of photon energy in the nonpregnant adult female and at the end of each trimester of pregnancy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stabin, M.G.; Watson, E.E.; Cristy, M.; Ryman, J.C.; Eckerman, K.F. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Davis, J.L. [Tennessee Univ., Chattanooga, TN (United States); Marshall, D. [Florida Univ., Gainesville, FL (United States). Dept. of Nuclear Engineering; Gehlen, M.K. [San Diego State Univ., CA (United States)

    1995-05-08

    Mathematical phantoms representing the adult female at three, six, and nine months of gestation are described. They are modifications of the 15-year-old male/adult female phantom (15-AF phantom) of Cristy and Eckerman (1987). The model of uterine contents includes the fetus, fetal skeleton, and placenta. The model is suitable for dose calculations for the fetus as a whole; individual organs within the fetus (other than the skeleton) are not modeled. A new model for the nonpregnant adult female is also described, comprising (1) the 15-AF phantom; (2) an adjustment to specific absorbed fractions for organ self-dose from photons to better match Reference Woman masses; and (3) computation of specific absorbed fractions with Reference Woman masses from ICRP Publication 23 for both penetrating and nonpenetrating radiations. Specific absorbed fractions for photons emitted from various source regions are tabulated for the new non;pregnant adult female model and the three pregnancy models.

  16. The cardiac biomarkers troponin I and CK-MB in nonpregnant and pregnant goats, goats with normal birth, goats with prolonged birth, and goats with pregnancy toxemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tharwat, M; Al-Sobayil, F; Al-Sobayil, K

    2012-10-15

    This study was designed to establish the reference range for the cardiac biomarkers cardiac troponin I (cTnI) and creatine kinase myocardial band (CK-MB) in nonpregnant and pregnant goats, goats with normal birth, goats with prolonged birth associated with dystocia, and goats with pregnancy toxemia. Fifty-seven does, categorized into three groups (G1 to G3), were used. These groups were comprised of 20 healthy does (G1), 19 does with prolonged birth (G2), and 18 does with pregnancy toxemia (G3). Six blood samples (T0 to T5) were collected from G1. The first blood sample (T0) was taken before insemination, the second (T1) at the first trimester, the third (T2) at the second trimester, the fourth (T3) at the last trimester, the fifth (T4) within 12 h of parturition, and the sixth blood sample (T5) was taken 10 days after parturition. A sample of blood was obtained from G2 and G3 upon admission to the hospital. At T0 to T3, no cTnI was detected in any of the 20 does in G1. At parturition (T4), seven of the 20 goats (35%) exhibited slightly elevated cTnI concentrations (range, 0.01 to 0.04 ng/mL). Ten days after parturition (T5), cTnI was not detected in any of the 20 goats. In 10 of the 19 goats (53%) with prolonged birth (G2), the cTnI was significantly elevated to a mean value of 0.094 ± 0.155 ng/mL, with a maximum value of 0.61 ng/mL. In 16 of the 18 goats (89%) with pregnancy toxemia (G3), the cTnI was significantly elevated to a value of 0.852 ± 1.472 ng/mL, with a maximum value of 5.219 ng/mL. Comparing the values of CK-MB in G1 (T0 to T5), G2 and G3 revealed nonsignificant differences. Only a slight elevation in the CK-MB levels in goats with prolonged birth (G2) was noted. We concluded that in healthy does, the cardiac biomarker cTnI is not elevated during normal pregnancy. The serum cTnI concentration may be elevated in a number of goats at normal vaginal or cesarean delivery. Finally, cTnI is significantly elevated in does with pregnancy toxemia and could

  17. Relational Factors of Vulnerability and Protection for Adolescent Pregnancy: A Cross-Sectional Comparative Study of Portuguese Pregnant and Nonpregnant Adolescents of Low Socioeconomic Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Ana I. F.; Canavarro, Maria C.; Cardoso, Margarida F.; Mendonca, Denisa

    2005-01-01

    This study explores multiple relational contexts that promote vulnerability and protection against early pregnancy in a potential risk group of Portuguese adolescents. A comparative analysis was made between two groups of female adolescents of low socioeconomic status: pregnant adolescents (n = 57) and adolescents without a history of pregnancy (n…

  18. Changes in cerebral autoregulation in the second half of pregnancy and compared to non-pregnant controls

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Veen, Teelkien R.; Panerai, Ronney B.; Haeri, Sina; van den Berg, Paul P.; Zeeman, Gerda G.; Belfort, Michael A.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The mechanism by which pregnancy affects the cerebral circulation is unknown, but it has a central role in the development of neurological complications in preeclampsia, which is believed to be related to impaired autoregulation. We evaluated the cerebral autoregulation in the second half

  19. HTRA3 expression in non-pregnant rhesus monkey ovary and endometrium, and at the maternal-fetal interface during early pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Findlay Jock K

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background HTRA3 is a recently identified member of the mammalian serine protease family HTRA (high temperature requirement factor A. In both the rodent and the human HTRA3 is transcribed into two mRNA species (long and short through alternative splicing. We have previously shown that HTRA3 is expressed in the mature rat ovary and may be involved in folliculogenesis and luteinisation. HTRA3 is also upregulated during mouse and human placental development. The current study investigated whether HTRA3 is also localised in the primate ovary (rhesus monkey n = 7. In addition, we examined the non-pregnant rhesus monkey endometrium (n = 4 and maternal-fetal interface during early pregnancy (n = 5 to further investigate expression of HTRA3 in primate endometrium and placentation. Methods HTRA3 mRNA levels in several rhesus monkey tissues was determined by semiquantitative RT-PCR. Protein expression and localisation of HTRA3 was determined by immunohistochemistry. Results Long and short forms of HTRA3 mRNA were detected in the ovary, aorta, bladder, small intestine, skeletal muscle, heart and uterus but not the liver nor the kidney. HTRA3 protein was immunolocalised to the oocyte of all follicular stages in the rhesus monkey ovary. Protein expression in mural and cumulus granulosa cells of late secondary follicles increased significantly compared to granulosa cells of primordial, primary and secondary follicles. Mural and cumulus granulosa cells of antral follicles also showed a significant increase in expression. Staining intensity was higher in the granulosa-lutein cells compared to the theca-lutein cells of corpora lutea (n = 3. In the non-pregnant monkey endometrium, HTRA3 was detected in the glandular epithelium. The basalis endometrial glands showed higher staining intensity than functionalis endometrial glands. During early pregnancy, strong staining for HTRA3 protein was seen in both maternal decidual cells and glands. Conclusion We

  20. Group B Streptococcus and Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... GBS testing late in pregnancy and treatment during labor can help prevent early-onset infections. However, it does not prevent late-onset ... the bacteria may regrow and be present during labor. Penicillin is the antibiotic ... prevent early- onset GBS infection in newborns. What if I am ...

  1. Oral Mucosal Disorders in Pregnant versus Non-Pregnant Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fahimeh Rezazadeh

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The effects of pregnancy on the Oral Mucosa Disorder (OMD have been sporadically documented in some developed countries. Less known is the status of OMD during pregnancy in less developed/developing countries. Iran is no exception. This study assesses the prevalence of OMD in 200 pregnant women and compares the findings with the findings from a 200 non-pregnant woman of similar age distribution in Iran. The participants had been referred to a clinic to receive reproductive age-related services. Participants suffering from systemic chronic diseases, those on medications/drugs, smokers, needing biopsies, and those with urgent Oral Mucosal Lesion (OML treatments were excluded from the study. Oral mucosal of all 400 participants were examined. The participants’ age ranges were from 17 to 47; with the average age of 33.14 for one group; and 30.23 for the other group. Both groups had the same level of formal education. Out of 400 examined women; 62 had lesions, including 47 pregnant (23.5%; and 15 non-pregnant (7.5% women. This result shows that the OMD rate of occurrence was significantly higher among the pregnant women. Higher OML prevalence in pregnant women, as compared to the non-pregnant women, indicates the importance of timely oral examination of pregnant women and subsequent treatment plans for them.

  2. Comparison of Sexual Functions in Pregnant and Non-Pregnant Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aydin, Mustafa; Cayonu, Neval; Kadihasanoglu, Mustafa; Irkilata, Lokman; Atilla, Mustafa Kemal; Kendirci, Muammer

    2015-11-14

    The physiology and anatomy of pregnant women change during pregnancy. Pregnancy is an anatomically and physiologically amended process experienced by women and as a result of these changes, sexual life of pregnant women alters during pregnancy. We aimed to compare sexual functions of pregnant and non-pregnant women. Sexually active 246 pregnant women were included into this cross-sectional controlled study. A total of 210 non-pregnant women were served as control. Both groups were compared in terms of age, gestational age, presence of urinary incontinence, body mass index, and obstetrical history. Sexual functions of the women were evaluated with Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI). Data were analyzed using chi-square, Mann-Whitney U, Fisher's Exact, Shapiro Wilk, Kruskal Wallis and Dunnett's tests where appropriate. The Pvalues < .05 were considered statistically significant. Mean age in both groups were comparable (P = .053). Median total FSFI scores in the pregnant women were significantly lower than those non-pregnant (18.9 vs. 22.7; P < .05). Additionally, the subgroup analyses of the FSFI scores were found that, total FSFI score is significantly lower in the pregnant group compared to non-pregnant group (P < .05). Furthermore, rate of sexual dysfunction in pregnant women was significantly higher than those non-pregnant women (91.08% vs. 67.61%, P = .0001). However, in pregnant women, no meaningful difference in rate of sexual dysfunction was found according to the trimesters (P = .632). Moreover, gravidity and parity exhibited negative impacts on the sexual functions. But number of abortions did not affect sexual function. These data demonstrate that pregnancy significantly diminishes sexual function in women. We believe that, couples need to be counseled regarding the impact of pregnancy on sexual functions.

  3. Risk Factors for Sporadic Non-Pregnancy Associated Listeriosis in Germany-Immunocompromised Patients and Frequently Consumed Ready-To-Eat Products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preußel, Karina; Milde-Busch, Astrid; Schmich, Patrick; Wetzstein, Matthias; Stark, Klaus; Werber, Dirk

    2015-01-01

    Non-pregnancy associated (N-PA) listeriosis, caused by Listeria monocytogenes, is a rare but severe disease, and is predominantly food-borne. Most cases appear sporadic and their infection vehicle remains unknown. Incidence has increased since 2008 in Germany. We aimed to identify underlying conditions and foods associated with sporadic N-PA listeriosis in Germany. We performed a nationwide case-control study from March 2012-December 2013. Cases were sporadic N-PA listeriosis patients notified to public health. Control subjects were age (40-65 years, 66-75 years, ≥ 76 years) frequency-matched persons from a nationwide random telephone sample. A structured questionnaire collected information on underlying diseases, therapies and >60 food items. We conducted multivariable logistic regression analysis, adjusting for host factors identified by causal diagram theory, and calculated population attributable fractions. We enrolled 109 cases and 1982 controls. Cases' median age was 69 years, 55% were male, 44% received immunosuppressive therapy within 3 months prior to illness onset; a further 28% had at least one immunocompromising disease. In multivariable analysis, immunosuppressive therapy (OR 8.8, 95%CI 4.9-15.6), immunocompromising disease (OR 2.7; 95%CI 1.4-5.2), gastric acid suppression (OR 3.0; 95%CI 1.4-6.3), the consumption of cold cooked sausages (OR 2.6; 95%CI 1.6-4.4), the preferred consumption of packaged cheese (OR 2.1; 95%CI 1.3-3.5) and pre-sliced cheese (OR 2.2; 95%CI 1.3-3.7) were significantly associated with N-PA listeriosis. These foods accounted for 59% of all cases. Typical high risk foods, e.g. cold seafood, certain types of cheeses, tended to be negatively associated with disease. In conclusion, immunosuppressive therapy and frequently consumed ready-to-eat foods are the main risk factors for sporadic N-PA listeriosis in Germany. To reduce their risk, immunocompromised persons should consume the identified foods well before the 'use-by' date

  4. Risk Factors for Sporadic Non-Pregnancy Associated Listeriosis in Germany-Immunocompromised Patients and Frequently Consumed Ready-To-Eat Products.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karina Preußel

    Full Text Available Non-pregnancy associated (N-PA listeriosis, caused by Listeria monocytogenes, is a rare but severe disease, and is predominantly food-borne. Most cases appear sporadic and their infection vehicle remains unknown. Incidence has increased since 2008 in Germany. We aimed to identify underlying conditions and foods associated with sporadic N-PA listeriosis in Germany. We performed a nationwide case-control study from March 2012-December 2013. Cases were sporadic N-PA listeriosis patients notified to public health. Control subjects were age (40-65 years, 66-75 years, ≥ 76 years frequency-matched persons from a nationwide random telephone sample. A structured questionnaire collected information on underlying diseases, therapies and >60 food items. We conducted multivariable logistic regression analysis, adjusting for host factors identified by causal diagram theory, and calculated population attributable fractions. We enrolled 109 cases and 1982 controls. Cases' median age was 69 years, 55% were male, 44% received immunosuppressive therapy within 3 months prior to illness onset; a further 28% had at least one immunocompromising disease. In multivariable analysis, immunosuppressive therapy (OR 8.8, 95%CI 4.9-15.6, immunocompromising disease (OR 2.7; 95%CI 1.4-5.2, gastric acid suppression (OR 3.0; 95%CI 1.4-6.3, the consumption of cold cooked sausages (OR 2.6; 95%CI 1.6-4.4, the preferred consumption of packaged cheese (OR 2.1; 95%CI 1.3-3.5 and pre-sliced cheese (OR 2.2; 95%CI 1.3-3.7 were significantly associated with N-PA listeriosis. These foods accounted for 59% of all cases. Typical high risk foods, e.g. cold seafood, certain types of cheeses, tended to be negatively associated with disease. In conclusion, immunosuppressive therapy and frequently consumed ready-to-eat foods are the main risk factors for sporadic N-PA listeriosis in Germany. To reduce their risk, immunocompromised persons should consume the identified foods well before the 'use

  5. Pregnancy Complications: Group B Strep Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... report card Careers Archives Pregnancy Before or between pregnancies Nutrition, weight & fitness Prenatal care Is it safe? Labor & ... Careers Archives Health Topics Pregnancy Before or between pregnancies Nutrition, weight & fitness Prenatal care Is it safe? Labor & ...

  6. A linear study of pulmonary function tests in normal pregnant and non-pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Lata; Dixit, R

    2013-10-01

    Pregnancy is principally a phenomenon of maternal adaptation to the increasing demands of the growing foetus. Pregnancy causes many visible and invisible changes in human body and it represents one of the best example of selective adaptation in terms of respiratory physiology. To evaluate the changes in dynamic pulmonary function tests in all three trimesters of pregnancy and compare the results between normal pregnant women (case group) and normal non-pregnant women (control group) and also to compare the results of the study with other studies, 50 subjects were selected and divided into two groups, non-pregnant women (n = 20, mean age = 26.5 +/- 2.69 years) and normal pregnant women of all three trimesters (n = 30, mean age = 24.84 +/- 3.00 years). Pulmonary function tests were done by medspiror. Significant decrease in all the parameters of pulmonary function tests like forced vital capacity, forced expiratory volume in one second, peak expiratory flow rate, maximum ventilation volume, were noticed in all trimesters of normal pregnant women as compared to normal non-pregnant women. The data suggest that there is alteration in pulmonary function tests in pregnant women. Continuous Monitoring of pulmonary function tests may prove to be of great value in maternal healthcare as cases of restriction and obstruction in lungs during pregnancy can be identified early and its deterioration can be prevented by proper management.

  7. An observational assessment of the sublingual microcirculation of pregnant and non-pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, R B; Munro, A; Abdo, I; McKeen, D M; Lehmann, C

    2014-02-01

    The microcirculation is responsible for distribution of blood within tissues, delivery of oxygen and other nutrients, and regulation of blood pressure. The objective of this study was to compare the sublingual microcirculation of pregnant participants to that of comparable non-pregnant volunteers. Two groups of participants were recruited: a group of pregnant, non-laboring women with singleton pregnancies at term gestation and a control group of age-comparable non-pregnant volunteers. A sidestream dark field imaging device was applied to the sublingual mucosal surface obtaining a steady image for at least 20 s duration, in five visual fields. The resultant five video clips per participant were analyzed blindly and at random to prevent coupling between images. The mean microvascular flow index values for each group were compared using a paired t-test. Thirty-seven participants were recruited (19 pregnant, 18 non-pregnant); a single pregnant participant was withdrawn because of technical issues. Baseline characteristics were similar with the exception of weight and body mass index. The mean microvascular flow index was significantly higher in the pregnant group 2.7 ± 0.2 compared to the non-pregnant group 2.5 ± 0.3 (P = 0.021), while the perfused vessel density and proportion of perfused vessels were not significantly different (P = 0.707 and 0.403, respectively). The microvascular flow index of pregnant women is higher than a comparable non-pregnant group, which appears to correlate with the physiological changes of pregnancy. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Craving and Withdrawal Symptoms During Smoking Cessation: Comparison of Pregnant and Non-Pregnant Smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berlin, Ivan; Singleton, Edward G; Heishman, Stephen J

    2016-04-01

    Although pregnant smokers are aware of the negative peri- and postnatal health consequences of smoking, the cessation rate in pregnancy is low, raising the question of why pregnant smokers have difficulty quitting. Reasons might be that pregnant smokers experience more intense craving and withdrawal symptoms than non-pregnant smokers. We compared craving and withdrawal in 306 pregnant smokers versus 93 non-pregnant women using data from two smoking cessation trials. Complete data were analyzed using pre-quit and post-quit (2 weeks after quit date) craving and withdrawal measured by the 12-item French Tobacco Craving Questionnaire (FTCQ-12) and French Minnesota Nicotine Withdrawal Scale (FMNWS). Pregnant smokers started smoking and smoked regularly earlier and succeeded far less at quitting smoking by week 2 than the general population of smokers (11% versus 43%). Post-quit date FTCQ-12 general score was higher in pregnant smokers compared to comparison groups, and was driven by elevated emotionality and expectancy. FMNWS decreased significantly less among pregnant smokers than among non-pregnant smokers. Insufficient reduction of craving and withdrawal symptoms in response to a quit attempt may partially explain why pregnant smokers may have more difficulty quitting than non-pregnant smokers. Because this was a historical comparison, findings are preliminary; however, they might foster further investigation of differences in craving and withdrawal symptoms in pregnant versus non-pregnant smokers.

  9. Factors associated with Genital Hygiene Behaviours in pregnant and non-pregnant women in Turkey

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    Seyhan Çankaya

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: This descriptive study was conducted to determine the factors associated with genital hygiene behaviours in pregnant and non-pregnant women.Method and material: Seventy pregnant women and 70 non-pregnant women, aged between 25 and 45 years, who were in the third trimester of pregnancy and presented to the Gynecology and Obstetrics Clinic at the Faculty of Medicine in Konya Province, Turkey, were included in the study. The data were gathered using a questionnaire with 26 questions designed by the researcher using the Genital Hygiene Behavior Inventory (GHBI.Results: There was no significant difference between the GHBI scores of the pregnant and non-pregnant women (p>0.05. Therefore, both groups were combined, and it was aimed to discover the factors associated with genital hygiene behaviours more effectively. A positive correlation between the GHBI scores and the monthly income was found, whereas there was a negative correlation between the GHBI scores and age, marriage age, number of pregnancies, and birth (p<0.05. There was a significant difference between the GHBI scores and the educational status of the women and their husbands, the employment status of the women and the perceived income status (p<0.05. A statistically significant difference was found between the groups in terms of GHBI scores and the women’s pain and/or bleeding experience during sexual intercourse, vaginal douching, and training on the hygiene of the genital area (p<0.05.Conclusion: There was no significant difference in genital hygiene behaviours between the pregnant and non-pregnant women. This may be attributed to the fact that the genital hygiene practices of women who did not have sufficient knowledge of genital hygiene before they became pregnant did not change during pregnancy. Therefore, we suggest that midwives provide both pregnant and non-pregnant women with training on genital hygiene.

  10. The diagnostic performance of ultrasound for acute appendicitis in pregnant and young nonpregnant women: A case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segev, Lior; Segev, Yakir; Rayman, Shlomi; Nissan, Aviram; Sadot, Eran

    2016-10-01

    Ultrasonography is frequently used to diagnose acute appendicitis in women of reproductive age, but its diagnostic value in pregnant patients remains unclear. This study sought to compare the diagnostic performance of ultrasound in pregnant and young nonpregnant women with suspected acute appendicitis. The database of a single tertiary medical center was reviewed for all women of reproductive age who underwent appendectomy either during pregnancy (2000-2014) or in the nonpregnant state (2004-2007) following ultrasound evaluation. The performance of ultrasound in terms of predicting the final pathologic diagnosis was compared between the pregnant and non pregnant groups using receiver operating characteristic curve analysis. Of 586 young women treated for appendicitis during the study periods (92 pregnant, 494 non-pregnant), 200 underwent preoperative ultrasound [67 pregnant, and 133 nonpregnant young women]. The pregnant and nonpregnant groups were comparable in age and presenting symptoms. There was no significant difference in the predictive performance of ultrasound between the two groups (AUC 0.76 and 0.73 respectively, p = 0.78) or within the pregnant group, by trimester [first (n = 23), AUC 0.73; second (n = 32), AUC 0.67; third (n = 12), AUC 0.86; p = 0.4]. Ultrasound had a positive predictive value of 0.94 in the pregnant group and 0.91 in the nonpregnant group; corresponding negative predictive values were 0.40 and 0.43. There appears to be no difference in the ability of ultrasound to predict the diagnosis of acute appendicitis between pregnant women and nonpregnant women of reproductive age. Therefore, similar preoperative imaging algorithms may be used in both patient populations. Copyright © 2016 IJS Publishing Group Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Iron deficiency, an independent risk factor for isolated hypothyroxinemia in pregnant and nonpregnant women of childbearing age in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Xiaohui; Shan, Zhongyan; Li, Chenyan; Mao, Jinyuan; Wang, Weiwei; Xie, Xiaochen; Liu, Aihua; Teng, Xiaochun; Zhou, Weiwei; Li, Chenyang; Xu, Bin; Bi, Lihua; Meng, Tao; Du, Jianling; Zhang, Shaowei; Gao, Zhengnan; Zhang, Xiaomei; Yang, Liu; Fan, Chenling; Teng, Weiping

    2015-04-01

    Isolated hypothyroxinemia during early pregnancy may irreversibly damage the neurodevelopment of offspring. However, the causes are not well clarified. To explore the association of iron deficiency (ID) with hypothyroid function of women in early pregnancy and nonpregnant women. A total of 7953 pregnant women of ≤ 12 weeks gestation and 2000 childbearing-aged women were recruited. A subpopulation including 3340 pregnant women and 1052 nonpregnant women with sufficient iodine intake and negative thyroid peroxidase antibody were studied. Mild and severe cases of hypothyroxinemia were defined as free T4 levels below the 10th percentile and the 5th percentile, respectively, with normal TSH. Total body iron, serum ferritin, and serum transferrin receptor were used as indicators for iron nutrition. Serum free T4 levels were significantly lower in both pregnant and nonpregnant women with ID compared with the corresponding groups without ID (both P women with ID than those without, in both pregnant and nonpregnant women (all P pregnant and nonpregnant childbearing-aged women, independent of the effects of iodine and thyroid autoimmunity. We speculate that ID may be a pathogenic factor for hypothyroxinemia, even in pregnant women during the first trimester.

  12. Comparative evaluation of subgingival plaque microflora in pregnant and non-pregnant women: A clinical and microbiologic study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rishi Emmatty

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Gingival changes in pregnancy have been attributed to changes in the subgingival biofilm related to hormonal variations. Aims: To evaluate the subgingival plaque microflora in pregnant and nonpregnant women to determine if pregnancy induces any alterations in the subgingival plaque and to associate these changes with changes in periodontal status. Settings and Design: Thirty pregnant and 10 nonpregnant women within the age group of 20-35 years having a probing pocket depth (PPD of 3-4 mm were included in the study. The pregnant women were equally divided into 3 groups of 10, each belonging to I, II, and III trimester. Materials and Methods: Plaque index, gingival index, PPD, and microbiologic evaluation for specific bacterial counts for Prevotella intermedia, Porphyromonas gingivalis, Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, Parvimonas micra, and Fusobacterium nucleatum were carried out for all subjects. Statistical Analysis: Mann-Whitney U test. Results: Increase in gingival inflammation was observed in II and III trimester as compared with I trimester and control. Plaque scores did not show any significant difference between pregnant and nonpregnant women. Specific bacterial examination revealed an increase in proportion of P. intermedia in pregnant women of both II and III trimester as compared with I trimester and nonpregnant women. Conclusions: A definite increase in proportions of P. intermedia occurs in subgingival plaque microflora in pregnancy that may be responsible for the exaggerated gingival response.

  13. Evaluation of sleep problems in preeclamptic, healthy pregnant and non-pregnant women.

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    Habibolah Khazaie

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Sleep problems are common complaints among pregnant women. This study was designed to compare subjective sleep problems in non-pregnancy condition, healthy and preeclamptic pregnancy as a major complication of pregnancy. We hypothesized that some sleep problems are more prevalent in females with preeclampsia.In this cross-sectional study, 102 women with preeclampsia, 106 healthy pregnant women in the third trimester and 103 healthy non-pregnant women were selected through random sampling. Age and parity were matched in the three groups. We used Global sleep assessment questionnaire (GSAQ to check the subjective sleep problems, and then we performed statistical analysis using Analysis of variance (ANOVA and Pearson Chi-square tests.Our findings revealed significant differences in initial insomnia (p = 0.034, fragmented sleep (p = 0.022, snoring (p<0.001, non-idiopathic insomnia (p = 0.045 and sadness and anxiety (p = 0.001 between the three groups. Some sleep problems were more common in preeclampctic compared to healthy pregnant women including initial insomnia, fragmented sleep, snoring, sleep apnea and non-idiopathic insomnia. Moreover, the subjects with preeclampsia revealed more fragmented sleep, snoring, sadness and anxiety and lack of getting enough sleep due to other activities compared to non-pregnant women.Different kinds of sleep problems can occur in subjects with preeclampsia in comparison with the non-pregnant and healthy pregnant subjects. Sleep problems should be evaluated during pregnancy, particularly in pregnant women with preeclampsia, and suitable treatment should be provided for any specific sleep problem.

  14. Oral changes in pregnant and nonpregnant women: A case-control study

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    Santosh R Patil

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The numerous changes occurring during pregnancy affect every body system, resulting in localized physical alterations in almost all parts of the body, including the oral cavity. The aim of the present study was to find the incidence of oral conditions seen particularly in the pregnant women than in the nonpregnant women. Materials and Methods: The oral health condition of 120 pregnant women referred to the outpatient department of Jodhpur Dental College General Hospital from a gynecology clinic were examined and compared with 120 nonpregnant women. The pregnant women were divided in a 3 groups of 40 each, according to the stage of pregnancy. The common oral conditions seen during pregnancy were assessed. Results: Pregnant women had a higher incidence of gingivitis and pyogenic granuloma. Gingivitis and erosion of teeth due to vomiting was seen commonly in the 3 rd trimester. The results indicated that pregnancy had an effect on the oral condition, which was mainly due to the hormonal changes seen during this period rather than other factors. Conclusion: Women planning a pregnancy or those already pregnant should be informed about the role of oral health during pregnancy and the possible outcomes of these conditions for the welfare of their foetus. They should be referred to the dental clinician for necessary counselling for preventive oral self-care and treatment, if required.

  15. Humoral and cell mediated immune responses to a pertussis containing vaccine in pregnant and nonpregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huygen, Kris; Caboré, Raïssa Nadège; Maertens, Kirsten; Van Damme, Pierre; Leuridan, Elke

    2015-08-07

    Vaccination of pregnant women is recommended for some infectious diseases in order to protect both women and offspring through high titres of maternal IgG antibodies. Less is known on the triggering of cellular immune responses by vaccines administered during pregnancy. In an ongoing study on maternal pertussis vaccination (2012-2014) 18 pregnant women were vaccinated with a tetanus-diphtheria-acellular pertussis (Tdap) containing vaccine (Boostrix®) during the third pregnancy trimester. Sixteen age-matched nonpregnant women received the same vaccine in the same time period. A blood sample was taken at the moment of, but before vaccination and one month and one year after vaccination. Anti-Pertussis Toxin (PT), filamentous hemagglutinin (FHA), pertactin (Prn), tetanus toxin (TT) and diphtheria toxin (DT) antibodies were measured by ELISA. Cellular immune responses were analyzed using a diluted whole blood assay, measuring proliferation, and cytokine release in response to vaccine antigens PT, FHA, TT, and to pokeweed mitogen (PWM) as polyclonal stimulus. Antibody levels to all five vaccine components increased significantly and to the same extent after vaccination in pregnant and nonpregnant women. One year after vaccination, antibody titres had decreased particularly to PT, but they were still significantly higher to all antigens than before vaccination. In contrast, proliferative and IFN-γ responses were increased to TT, PT, and FHA in nonpregnant women one month after vaccination, whereas in pregnant women only TT specific T cell responses were increased and to a lesser extent than in the control group. One year after vaccination, cellular responses equaled the baseline levels detected prior to vaccination in both groups. In conclusion, a Tdap vaccination can increase vaccine specific IgG antibodies to the same extent in pregnant and in nonpregnant women, whereas the stimulation of vaccine specific Th1 type cellular immune responses with this acellular vaccine

  16. [Vaginal colonization by genital mycoplasmas in pregnant and non-pregnant women].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castellano-González, Maribel; Ginestre-Pérez, Messaria; Perozo-Mena, Armindo; Alaña, Freddy; Fernández-Bravo, Marisol; Rincón-Villalobos, Gresleida

    2007-12-01

    To compare vaginal colonization by genital micoplasmas in pregnant and non pregnant women and to determine the association between pregnancy and colonization by these microorganisms, samples of exocervix an endocervix from pregnant (n = 80) and non pregnant (n = 65) women, from two health centers of Maracaibo, Zulia State, Venezuela were processed. The Mycoplasma-Lyo kit (bioMérieux laboratories) was used for the culture and identification of genital micoplasmas. In pregnant women, prevalences of 10% for M. hominis and 26.25% for Ureaplasma spp. were found; 35.38% for M. hominis and 20% for Ureaplasma spp. in non-pregnant, were obtained. Among the pregnant, Ureaplasma spp. was the most frequently isolated micoplasma, in symptomatic and asymptomatic; while in the non pregnant group, M. hominis was more common among the symptomatic patients; only one case (1.54%) was an asymptomatic carrier of Ureaplasma spp. The highest positivity percentages were obtained in primigravidas (48.71%) and during the second gestational trimester (34.21%). No statistically significant differences were found between vaginal colonization by genital micoplasmas according to age, number of pregnancy and gestational trimester; but they were found between the presented symptomatology and vaginal colonization by genital micoplasmas. Genital micoplasmas were isolated from gravid women at approximately the same recovery rate as in non-pregnant women; being M. hominis the most frequently isolated in non-pregnant women and Ureaplasma spp. in the pregnant group.

  17. Contraceptive Use Among Nonpregnant and Postpartum Women at Risk for Unintended Pregnancy, and Female High School Students, in the Context of Zika Preparedness - United States, 2011-2013 and 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boulet, Sheree L; D'Angelo, Denise V; Morrow, Brian; Zapata, Lauren; Berry-Bibee, Erin; Rivera, Maria; Ellington, Sascha; Romero, Lisa; Lathrop, Eva; Frey, Meghan; Williams, Tanya; Goldberg, Howard; Warner, Lee; Harrison, Leslie; Cox, Shanna; Pazol, Karen; Barfield, Wanda; Jamieson, Denise J; Honein, Margaret A; Kroelinger, Charlan D

    2016-08-05

    Zika virus infection during pregnancy can cause congenital microcephaly and brain abnormalities (1,2). Since 2015, Zika virus has been spreading through much of the World Health Organization's Region of the Americas, including U.S. territories. Zika virus is spread through the bite of Aedes aegypti or Aedes albopictus mosquitoes, by sex with an infected partner, or from a pregnant woman to her fetus during pregnancy.* CDC estimates that 41 states are in the potential range of Aedes aegypti or Aedes albopictus mosquitoes (3), and on July 29, 2016, the Florida Department of Health identified an area in one neighborhood of Miami where Zika virus infections in multiple persons are being spread by bites of local mosquitoes. These are the first known cases of local mosquito-borne Zika virus transmission in the continental United States.(†) CDC prevention efforts include mosquito surveillance and control, targeted education about Zika virus and condom use to prevent sexual transmission, and guidance for providers on contraceptive counseling to reduce unintended pregnancy. To estimate the prevalence of contraceptive use among nonpregnant and postpartum women at risk for unintended pregnancy and sexually active female high school students living in the 41 states where mosquito-borne transmission might be possible, CDC used 2011-2013 and 2015 survey data from four state-based surveillance systems: the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS, 2011-2013), which surveys adult women; the Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System (PRAMS, 2013) and the Maternal and Infant Health Assessment (MIHA, 2013), which surveys women with a recent live birth; and the Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS, 2015), which surveys students in grades 9-12. CDC defines an unintended pregnancy as one that is either unwanted (i.e., the pregnancy occurred when no children, or no more children, were desired) or mistimed (i.e., the pregnancy occurred earlier than desired). The proportion of

  18. PECULIARITIES OF NK CELLS DIFFERENTIATION: CD56dim AND CD56bright NK CELLS AT PREGNANCY AND IN NON-PREGNANT STATE

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    V. A. Mikhailova

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Natural killer (NK cells represent a lymphocyte subpopulation which is capable of contact cytolysis of virus-infected cells and tumor cells, being a source of cytokines which stimulate other immune cells and promote immune response. NK cell differentiation is connected with a consequent acquisition of specific NK cell receptors by stem cells and formation of functional characteristics inherent to natural killer cells. The aim of this review was to describe the CD56dim and CD56bright populations of NK cells in the course of their differentiation. The authors describe NK surface receptors and expression of transcription factors at various steps of the NK differentiation. We present comparative characteristics of data concerning cytokines and cellular microenvironment influence upon NK cell differentiation, and examine a phenomenon of existing memory-like NK cells. Uterine NK cell differentiation is of special interest, since these cells represent a special NK cell population which prevails among decidual lymphocytes during pregnancy and participates in the process of placental formation and development. This review considers some features of uterine NK cell differentiation, taking into account a possibility of formation of this NK cell population from both peripheral blood NK pool, and in situ proliferation. Moreover, functional studies of the uterine NK cells allow to get closer to understanding the role of NK cells during pregnancy and abnormality of utero-placental bed regulation by NK cells in cases of pregnancy failure.

  19. Prostaglandin E2 receptor subtype EP-2 is not involved in the induction of non-pregnant guinea pig uterine contractions associated with terminal pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebel, Wes; Riccardi, Keith; Grasser, W A; Terry, Ketti; Thompson, David; Paralkar, V M

    2004-12-01

    Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) exerts its biological effects through 4 different receptor subtypes, EP-1, EP-2, EP-3, and EP-4. Recently we have demonstrated the importance of the prostaglandin E2 receptor subtype EP-2 in the healing of bone defects and fractures. This discovery led to the identification of CP-533,536, an EP-2 selective agonist, a promising therapeutic alternative for the enhancement of bone healing and the treatment of fractures (J Bone Miner Res 18 (2003) 2033). PGE2 has a myriad of effects throughout the body including the induction of uterine contractions, which results in termination of pregnancies. Our objective in this study was to determine the role of the EP-2 receptor and specifically that of CP-533,536, an EP-2 specific agonist, to induce uterine contractions and terminate pregnancy in guinea pigs, an animal model of human pregnancy. Preliminary experiments confirmed earlier reports that the guinea pig uterus was more sensitive than that of the rat. The guinea pig uterus contains the four PGE2 receptor subtypes, and ex vivo treatment of the uterus with PGE2 as expected causes profound uterine contractions. However, using receptor selective prostaglandin agonists including CP-533,536 we showed that the EP-1 and 3 receptors not the EP-2 receptor is responsible for the induction of uterine contractions of PGE2. Further, CP-533,536 did not antagonize the ability of PGE2 to induce uterine contractions in this model.

  20. Glomerular immunoglobulin deposits induce glomerular inflammation in pregnant but not in non-pregnant rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Faas, MM; Van Der Schaaf, G; Schipper, M; Moes, H

    2003-01-01

    PROBLEM: Does an inflammatory stimulus evoke a more intense inflammatory response in pregnant rats as compared with nonpregnant rats? METHOD OF STUDY: Non-pregnant rats were injected with antibodies against the glomerular basement membrane (GBM), 14 days before pregnancy, to induce a subclinical glo

  1. OUTCOME OF PREGNANCY IN ADOLOSCENT AGE GROUP

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    Archana

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION : Adolescent pregnancy is a common problem encountered in developing countries like India due to early age of marriage. This was seen in women with lower socioeconomic status. Many studies have shown conflicting results . AIM OF THE STUDY : To study the maternal and fetal effects of ad olescent pregnancy. MATERIALS AND METHO DS : This is a hospital based retrospective study done in Yenepoya Medical C ollege over a period of 18 months. All patients with age between 10 - 19 years were included. EXCLUSION CRITERIA: Multiple gestation, patients w ith chronic diseases like, chronic hypertension and diabetes, congenital heart disease and chronic renal disease. RESULTS : Teenage pregnancies are associated with increased incidence of preterm birth, low birth weight babies, delivery by forceps of vacuum , caesarean section and low APGAR at birth . CONCLUSION : Teenage women are more likely to have anaemia, preterm birth, low birth weight babies, delivery by forceps or vacuum or by caesarean section. Good family support, preconceptional counselling, regular antenatal care may improve the perinatal outcome to some extent.

  2. Fast Facts about Group B Strep and Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... by group B strep should get antibiotics during labor. Most early-onset group B strep disease in newborns can be ... during pregnancy. The antibiotics used to prevent early-onset group B strep disease in newborns only help during labor — they can’t be taken before labor, ...

  3. Protein turnover and 3-methylhistidine excretion in non-pregnant, pregnant and gestational diabetic women

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fitch, W.L.; King, J.C.

    1986-03-01

    Protein turnover was studied in nine non-pregnant (NP) women, eight pregnant (P) and two gestational diabetic (GDM) women. Whole body protein turnover, synthesis and catabolism rates were measured using a single oral dose of /sup 15/N-glycine followed by measurement of enrichment of urinary ammonia. Urinary 3-methylhistidine (3MH) excretion was measured for three consecutive days, including the day of the protein turnover study. Whole body protein turnover and synthesis rates did not differ between the P and NP women, although the synthesis rates tended to be higher in the P group. Gestational diabetic women appeared to have considerably higher rates of both turnover and synthesis. Pregnant women excreted significantly more urinary 3MH than did non-pregnant women. GDM women appeared to have lower 3MH excretion than the P women. Correlation between 3MH excretion and protein turnover rates was nearly significant (p = .06) in the NP women, but was poorly correlated (p = .43) in the P women, suggesting that muscles may be a less important site of whole body protein turnover in pregnancy than in the non-pregnant state.

  4. Periodontal status in pregnant women in comparison with non-pregnant individuals

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    R Surekha

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Our understanding of pathogenesis of periodontal disease has changed remarkably over a few decades. Rather than being confined to periodontium, periodontal disease may have a wide ranging systemic effects. It is now recognized that it shares most of the common risk factors for diabetes, coronary heart disease preterm low birth weight, miscarriage or early pregnancy loss and preeclampsia. Materials and Methods: The study group comprised of 400 women (200 pregnant women and 200 non-pregnant with an age range of 18-40 years. Maternal demographic and medical data were collected. Periodontal examinations included: Oral hygiene index (OHI-S, gingival index (GI, pocket probing depth and clinical attachment loss (CAL. Results: The results were analyzed using test of proportion when OHI-S was compared in pregnant women with that of non-pregnant individuals, there was no significant difference in good oral hygiene group (P = 0.187, Z = 1.32. When the GI index was evaluated, a definite statistical difference was noted in mild, moderate and severe gingivitis (P - 0.000, Z = 0.365; P - 0.00, Z = 4.17; P - 0.000, Z = 0.75. CAL index revealed a statistical difference was observed healthy periodontium, mild, moderate and severe periodontitis in both pregnant and non-pregnant women (P = −0.000, Z = 3.65; P - 0.000, Z = 5.83; P - 0.001, Z - 3.24; P - 0.000, Z - 6.47. Conclusion: The present study conducted supports the hypothesis that there is a definite correlation between the pregnant women and poor oral hygiene (gingivitis and periodontitis as compared with the non-pregnant controls.

  5. von Willebrand factor-cleaving protease (ADAMTS13) activity in normal non-pregnant women, pregnant and post-delivery women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Luceros, Analía; Farías, Cristina E; Amaral, María M; Kempfer, Ana C; Votta, Roberto; Marchese, Carlos; Salviú, María J; Woods, Adriana I; Meschengieser, Susana S; Lazzari, María A

    2004-12-01

    ADAMTS13 dysfunction has been involved in the pathogenesis of Thrombotic Thrombocytopenic Purpura. This disorder occurs more frequently in women and, in 13% of them, is associated with pregnancy. However, there is little information on the protease behaviour in normal pregnancy. We studied von Willebrand factor and ADAMTS13 activity changes in normal non-pregnant, pregnant and post-delivery women. Fifty-five non-pregnant women, normal blood bank donors, who were not taking contraceptive pills were included as controls. A prospective cross-sectional study of 270 normal pregnant and post-delivery women was carried out. ADAMTS13 activity decreased progressively as from the period of 12-16 weeks up to the end of early puerperium (mean 52%, range 22-89, p < 0.0001), to increase slightly thereafter. Nulliparous presented mildly lower levels of ADAMTS13 activity than parous women (65% vs. 83 %, p = 0.0003), and primigravidae than multigravidae between 6-11 weeks up to 17-23 weeks of pregnancy (69% vs. 80%, p = 0.005). Although in all women the protease levels were the same by blood groups, the O blood group non-pregnant women showed a higher mean of ADAMTS13 activity than those non-O (78% vs. 69%, p = 0.064). Our results suggest that the changing levels of protease activity during pregnancy and puerperium, induced by unidentified mechanisms, could render the peripartum time more vulnerable to developed thrombotic microangiopathies.

  6. Progesterone (PR), oestrogen (ER-α and ER-β) and oxytocin (OTR) gene expression in the oviduct and uterus of pregnant and non-pregnant bitches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derussi, A A P; de Souza, R W A; Volpato, R; Guaitolini, C R F; Ackermann, C L; Taffarel, M O; Cardoso, G S; Dal-Pai-Silva, M; Lopes, M D

    2012-12-01

    The aim was to assess hormone receptor gene expression in the oviduct and uterus during canine pregnancy. Nineteen pregnant bitches divided into four groups were ovariohysterectomized (OVH) at either day 8, 12, 21 or 60 of pregnancy, and five non-pregnant females underwent OVH 12 days after the pre-ovulatory Luteinizant Hormone (LH) surge and served as controls. RT-qPCR for progesterone (PR), oestrogen (ER-α and ER-β) and oxytocin (OTR) receptors was performed on the oviduct and uterine tissue. The mRNA PR expression in the uterus during early stages of pregnancy and the luteal phase was higher than at other times. The mRNA ER-β expression in the oviduct during early pregnancy was less than in non-pregnant bitches. In the uterus, the mRNA ER-β expression was higher in the initial stages of pregnancy. The ER-α expression was higher in the oviduct and uterus in advanced stages of pregnancy. The mRNA OTR expression in the oviduct was lower than in the uterus in control group. The expression of this receptor in oviduct and the uterus was higher in the final stages of pregnancy, when compared with other phases. These data suggested that the serum progesterone concentrations probably exert a direct control on the PR and ER (α and β) expression and indirectly on OTR expression in the bitch oviduct and uterus.

  7. Comparing Smoking Topography and Subjective Measures of Usual Brand Cigarettes Between Pregnant and Non-Pregnant Smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergeria, Cecilia L; Heil, Sarah H; Bunn, Janice Y; Sigmon, Stacey C; Higgins, Stephen T

    2017-06-27

    Most pregnant smokers report abruptly reducing their cigarettes per day (CPD) by ~50% after learning of pregnancy and making further smaller reductions over the remainder of their pregnancy. Laboratory and naturalistic studies with non-pregnant smokers have found that these types of reductions often lead to changes in smoking topography (i.e., changes in smoking intensity to maintain a desired blood-nicotine level). If pregnant women smoke more intensely, they may expose themselves and their offspring to similar levels of toxicants despite reporting reductions in CPD. Pregnant and non-pregnant female smokers (n = 20 and 89, respectively) participated. At the experimental session, after biochemical confirmation of acute abstinence, participants smoked one usual brand cigarette ad lib through a Borgwaldt CReSS Desktop Smoking Topography device. Carbon monoxide (CO) and measures of nicotine withdrawal, craving, and reinforcement derived from smoking were also collected. The two groups did not differ on demographic or smoking characteristics at screening, except nicotine metabolism rate, which as expected, was faster in pregnant smokers. Analyses suggest that none of the smoking topography parameters differed between pregnant and non-pregnant smokers, although pregnant smokers had a significantly smaller CO boost. Both groups reported similar levels of relief of withdrawal and craving after smoking, but other subjective effects suggest that pregnant smokers find smoking less reinforcing than non-pregnant smokers. Pregnant smokers do not smoke cigarettes differently than non-pregnant women, but appear to find smoking comparatively less pleasurable. This is the first study to assess smoking topography in pregnant women. Pregnant women appear to be at increased risk for smoking cigarettes with more intensity because of (1) their tendency to make significant abrupt reductions in the number of cigarettes they smoke each day after learning of pregnancy and (2) an increase in

  8. Transient osteoporosis of the hip in a non-pregnant woman.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, Kanakeya Bachha; Sareen, Atul; Kanojia, Rajesh Kumar; Prakash, Jatin

    2015-06-04

    Transient osteoporosis of the hip is a rare, self-limiting condition, occurring most commonly in middle-aged men, but also sometimes in women, usually in late pregnancy. It is characterised by gradual onset of hip pain aggravated by weight bearing without any associated history of trauma and systemic illness. It is usually of unknown aetiology, but pregnancy is a recognised risk factor for women. Other conditions that can mimic transient osteoporosis of the hip on MRI are osteonecrosis, osteomyelitis and neoplasms. We present a case of a 38-year-old non-pregnant woman with transient osteoporosis of the hip, managed conservatively, leading to a full recovery. Treatment is conservative, including protected weight bearing, physical therapy and non-steroidal analgesics. The patient was completely painless and symptom free at 2-year follow-up. 2015 BMJ Publishing Group Ltd.

  9. Teenage Pregnancy among Latinas: Examining Risk and Protective Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dogan-Ates, Aysun; Carrion-Basham, Carla Y.

    2007-01-01

    This study investigated the role of three groups of risk and protective factors (e.g., individual, family, and extrafamilial) that are associated with teen pregnancy. Two groups of Latina adolescents (aged 15 to 19), nonpregnant/ nonparenting (NP; N = 48) and pregnant/parenting (P; N = 46), completed a demographic survey, an adolescent profile…

  10. Effects of estrogen on CD4+CD25+ regulatory T cell in peripheral blood during pregnancy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yuan-Huan Xiong; Zhen Yuan; Li He

    2013-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the effects of estrogen (E2) level on regulatory T cells (Treg) in peripheral blood during pregnancy. Methods:A total of 30 healthy non-pregnant women were selected as control group, 90 pregnant women of early, middle and late pregnancy and 30 postpartum women at 1 month after parturition were selected as experimental groups including early pregnancy group, middle pregnancy group and late pregnancy group;the proportions of CD4+CD25+Treg and CD4+CD25+CD127-Treg among CD4+T cells were detected by flow cytometry;the serum estrogen content in peripheral blood was detected by electrochemical immune luminescence method. Results: E2 level was coincident with the change of Tregs number during pregnancy. The estrogen content in peripheral blood increased gradually from early pregnancy to late pregnancy, then decreased significantly after parturition, and the level at 1 month after parturition down to the level in non-pregnancy group (P>0.05);the level of E2 in pregnancy groups were significantly higher than those in non-pregnancy group (P0.05);the proportions in middle and late pregnancy groups were significantly higher than those in early pregnancy group (P0.05). There was correlation between Tregs number with estrogen level during pregnancy. The proportion of CD4+CD25+ Treg and CD4+CD25+CD127- Treg were positively correlated with estrogen level. Conclusions:High proportion of CD4+CD25+Treg and CD4+CD25+CD127-Treg is closely related to the high level of E2 during pregnancy. It suggested that high level of estrogen may induce an increase of CD4+CD25+Treg in peripheral blood, and then influence the immune function of pregnant women. The results of this experiment might play an important role of estrogen in immune-modulation during pregnancy.

  11. Non-Invasive Assessment of the Interrelationships of Diet, Pregnancy Rate, Group Composition, and Physiological and Nutritional Stress of Barren-Ground Caribou in Late Winter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joly, Kyle; Wasser, Samuel K; Booth, Rebecca

    2015-01-01

    The winter diet of barren-ground caribou may affect adult survival, timing of parturition, neonatal survival, and postpartum mass. We used microhistological analyses and hormone levels in feces to determine sex-specific late-winter diets, pregnancy rates, group composition, and endocrine-based measures of physiological and nutritional stress. Lichens, which are highly digestible but contain little protein, dominated the diet (> 68%) but were less prevalent in the diets of pregnant females as compared to non-pregnant females and males. The amount of lichens in the diets of pregnant females decreased at higher latitudes and as winter progressed. Pregnancy rates (82.1%, 95% CI = 76.0 - 88.1%) of adult cows were within the expected range for a declining herd, while pregnancy status was not associated with lichen abundance in the diet. Most groups (80%) were of mixed sex. Male: female ratios (62:100) were not skewed enough to affect the decline. Levels of hormones indicating nutritional stress were detected in areas of low habitat quality and at higher latitudes. Levels of hormones indicated that physiological stress was greatest for pregnant cows, which faced the increasing demands of gestation in late winter. These fecal-based measures of diet and stress provided contextual information for the potential mechanisms of the ongoing decline. Non-invasive techniques, such as monitoring diets, pregnancy rates, sex ratios and stress levels from fecal samples, will become increasingly important as monitoring tools as the industrial footprint continues to expand in the Arctic.

  12. Management of group B streptococcal bacteriuria in pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Victoria M; Yudin, Mark H

    2012-05-01

    To provide information regarding the management of group B streptococcal (GBS) bacteriuria to midwives, nurses, and physicians who are providing obstetrical care. The outcomes considered were neonatal GBS disease, preterm birth, pyelonephritis, chorioamnionitis, and recurrence of GBS colonization. Medline, PubMed, and the Cochrane database were searched for articles published in English to December 2010 on the topic of GBS bacteriuria in pregnancy. Bacteriuria is defined in this clinical practice guideline as the presence of bacteria in urine, regardless of the number of colony-forming units per mL (CFU/mL). Low colony counts refer to bacteriuria to optimize maternal and perinatal outcomes, to reduce the occurrences of antibiotic anaphylaxis, and to prevent increases in antibiotic resistance to GBS and non-GBS pathogens. No cost-benefit analysis is provided. 1. Treatment of any bacteriuria with colony counts ≥ 100 000 CFU/mL in pregnancy is an accepted and recommended strategy and includes treatment with appropriate antibiotics. (II-2A) 2. Women with documented group B streptococcal bacteriuria (regardless of level of colony-forming units per mL) in the current pregnancy should be treated at the time of labour or rupture of membranes with appropriate intravenous antibiotics for the prevention of early-onset neonatal group B streptococcal disease. (II-2A) 3. Asymptomatic women with urinary group B streptococcal colony counts bacteriuria should not be re-screened by genital tract culture or urinary culture in the third trimester, as they are presumed to be group B streptococcal colonized. (II-2D).

  13. Urolithiasis in pregnancy: survey in clinical epidemiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Guoqing; Wang, Jianfeng; Li, Jierong; Zheng, Jintao; Huang, Zhenqiang; Ye, Zhangqun

    2011-04-01

    This study examined the association of pregnancy with urolithiasis and provided new insights into urolithiasis in pregnancy. A total of 462 subjects were studied from January 2004 to December 2009 in Foshan Maternal and Child Health Hospital, China. Among the 462 subjects, 162 cases of urolithiasis during pregnancy (UPG) were selected as the observation group, 150 cases of no urolithiasis during pregnancy (NUPG) served as pregnancy control group, and 150 cases of no pregnancy (NPG) at reproductive age who took part in physical examination were randomly assigned into non-pregnant control group. At the same time, the patients in observation group were divided into the following sub-groups: no symptomatic urinary calculus (NSUC) and symptomatic urinary calculus (SUC) groups; SUC group was further divided into surgical intervention (SI) and conservative management (CM) groups. The general information and the data of blood and urine were collected and compared among the groups. The results showed that the incidence of urinary calculi in pregnant women was lower than that in non-pregnant women, the formation of urinary stone was associated with the change of metabolism of protein and sugar in pregnant women, and the surgical intervention was a practicable alternative to treat the clinical intractable symptomatic urinary calculi in pregnancy.

  14. Prostaglandins, catecholamines, renin and aldosterone during hypertensive and normotensive pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, E B; Christensen, N J; Christensen, P; Johannesen, P; Kornerup, H J; Kristensen, S; Lauritsen, J G; Leyssac, P P; Rasmussen, A B; Wohlert, M

    1982-01-01

    Urinary excretion of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and F2 alpha (PGF2 alpha), plasma concentrations of renin (PRC), aldosterone (PAC), noradrenaline (PNA) and adrenaline (PA) were determined in the third trimester of pregnancy, 5 days and 3 months after delivery in preeclampsia and normotensive pregnant and non-pregnant control subjects. PGE2 was higher in pregnant control subjects than in non-pregnant subjects, but reduced to non-pregnant level in preeclampsia. PGF2 alpha was the same in preeclampsia and normotensive pregnancy but higher than in the non-pregnant group. PRC and PAC were increased during pregnancy, but considerably lesser in preeclampsia than during normotensive pregnancy. PNA and PA were the same in all three groups. All parameters were normal 3 months after delivery. There were no correlations between any of the hormones and blood pressure in any of the groups. PGE2 was positively correlated to PRC. The lack of renal PGE2 in preeclampsia might be responsible for the decrease in renal blood flow and sodium excretion, and the changes in PRC and PAC are supposed to be secondary to changes in PGE2. It is hypothesised that preeclampsia is a state of prostaglandin deficiency.

  15. Dental caries and periodontal disease among U.S. pregnant women and nonpregnant women of reproductive age, National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 1999-2004.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azofeifa, Alejandro; Yeung, Lorraine F; Alverson, C J; Beltrán-Aguilar, Eugenio

    2016-09-01

    This study assessed and compared the prevalence and severity of dental caries and the prevalence of periodontal disease among pregnant and nonpregnant women of reproductive age (15-44 years) using data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, NHANES (1999-2004). Estimates were derived from a sample of 897 pregnant women and 3,971 nonpregnant women. Chi-square and two-sample t-tests were used to assess differences between groups stratified by age, race/ethnicity, education, and poverty. Bonferroni method was applied to adjust for multiple comparisons. In general, there were no statistically significant differences in the prevalence estimates of dental caries and periodontal disease between pregnant women and nonpregnant women. However, results showed significant differences when stratified by sociodemographic characteristics. For example, the prevalence of untreated dental caries among women aged 15-24 years was significantly higher in pregnant women than in nonpregnant women (41 percent versus 24 percent, P = 0.001). Regardless of their pregnancy status, racial/ethnic minorities or women with less education or lower family income had higher prevalence of untreated dental caries, severity of dental caries, and periodontal disease compared to the respective reference groups of non-Hispanic whites or women with more education or higher family income. Results of this study show few clinical differences in dental caries and periodontal disease between pregnant and nonpregnant women but persistent disparities by sociodemographic characteristics. In order to reduce oral health disparities in the United States, it is important to improve access to oral health care particularly among vulnerable groups. Integrating oral health into the overall health care could benefit and improve women's oral health outcomes. © 2016 American Association of Public Health Dentistry.

  16. Dental caries and periodontal disease among U.S. pregnant women and nonpregnant women of reproductive age, National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 1999–2004

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azofeifa, Alejandro; Yeung, Lorraine F.; Alverson, C. J.; Beltrán-Aguilar, Eugenio

    2016-01-01

    Objectives This study assessed and compared the prevalence and severity of dental caries and the prevalence of periodontal disease among pregnant and nonpregnant women of reproductive age (15–44 years) using data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, NHANES (1999–2004). Methods Estimates were derived from a sample of 897 pregnant women and 3,971 nonpregnant women. Chi-square and two-sample t-tests were used to assess differences between groups stratified by age, race/ethnicity, education, and poverty. Bonferroni method was applied to adjust for multiple comparisons. Results In general, there were no statistically significant differences in the prevalence estimates of dental caries and periodontal disease between pregnant women and nonpregnant women. However, results showed significant differences when stratified by sociodemographic characteristics. For example, the prevalence of untreated dental caries among women aged 15–24 years was significantly higher in pregnant women than in nonpregnant women (41 percent versus 24 percent, P=0.001). Regardless of their pregnancy status, racial/ethnic minorities or women with less education or lower family income had higher prevalence of untreated dental caries, severity of dental caries, and periodontal disease compared to the respective reference groups of non-Hispanic whites or women with more education or higher family income. Conclusion Results of this study show few clinical differences in dental caries and periodontal disease between pregnant and nonpregnant women but persistent disparities by sociodemographic characteristics. In order to reduce oral health disparities in the United States, it is important to improve access to oral health care particularly among vulnerable groups. Integrating oral health into the overall health care could benefit and improve women’s oral health outcomes. PMID:27154283

  17. Comparison of pregnant and non-pregnant occupant crash and injury characteristics based on national crash data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manoogian, Sarah

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to provide specific characteristics of injuries and crash characteristics for pregnant occupants from the National Automotive Sampling System/Crashworthiness Data System (NASS/CDS) database for pregnant women as a group, broken down by trimester, and compared to non-pregnant women. Using all NASS/CDS cases collected between the years 2000 and 2012 with at least one pregnant occupant, the entire pregnant data set included 321,820 vehicles, 324,535 occupants, and 640,804 injuries. The pregnant occupant data were compared to the characteristics of NASS/CDS cases for 14,719,533 non-pregnant females 13-44 years old in vehicle crashes from 2000 to 2012. Sixty five percent of pregnant women were located in the front left seat position and roughly the same percentage of pregnant women was wearing a lap and shoulder belt. The average change in velocity was 11.6 mph for pregnant women and over 50% of crashes for pregnant women were frontal collisions. From these collisions, less than seven percent of pregnant women sustained MAIS 2+ injuries. Minor differences between the pregnant and non-pregnant occupants were identified in the body region and source of injuries sustained. However, the data indicated no large differences in injury or crash characteristics based on trimester of pregnancy. Moreover, the risk of an MAIS 2+ level injury for pregnant occupants is similar to the risk of injury for non-pregnant occupants based on the total vehicle change in velocity. Overall this study provides useful data for researchers to focus future efforts in pregnant occupant research. Additionally, this study reinforces that more detailed and complete data on pregnant crashes needs to be collected to understand the risk for pregnant occupants.

  18. Leukocyte counts and lymphocyte subsets in relation to pregnancy and HIV infection in Malawian women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandala, Wilson L; Gondwe, Esther N; Molyneux, Malcolm E; MacLennan, Jenny M; MacLennan, Calman A

    2017-09-01

    We investigated leukocyte and lymphocyte subsets in HIV-infected or HIV-uninfected, pregnant or non-pregnant Malawian women to explore whether HIV infection and pregnancy may act synergistically to impair cellular immunity. We recruited 54 pregnant and 48 non-pregnant HIV-uninfected women and 24 pregnant and 20 non-pregnant HIV-infected Malawian women. We compared peripheral blood leukocyte and lymphocyte subsets between women in the four groups. Parturient HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected women had more neutrophils (each P<.0001), but fewer lymphocytes (P<.0001; P=.0014) than non-pregnant women. Both groups had fewer total T cells (P<.0001; P=.002) and CD8(+) T cells (P<.0001; P=.014) than non-pregnant women. HIV-uninfected parturient women had fewer CD4(+) and γδ T cells, B and NK cells (each P<.0001) than non-pregnant women. Lymphocyte subset percentages were not affected by pregnancy. Malawian women at parturition have an increased total white cell count due to neutrophilia and an HIV-unrelated pan-lymphopenia. © 2017 The Author. American Journal of Reproductive Immunology Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. The influence of 1800 MHz GSM-like signals on blood chemistry and oxidative stress in non-pregnant and pregnant rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kismali, Gorkem; Ozgur, Elcin; Guler, Goknur; Akcay, Aytac; Sel, Tevhide; Seyhan, Nesrin

    2012-05-01

    Environmental electromagnetic fields originate from man-made sources, such as mobile phones and base stations, and have led to increasing public concern about their possible adverse health effects. We aimed to investigate the possible effects of radiofrequency radiation (RFR) generated from these devices on oversensitive animals, such as pregnant rabbits. In the present study, the effects of whole body 1800 MHz Global System for Mobile Communications (GSM)-like RFR exposure for 15 min/day for seven days on blood chemistry and lipid peroxidation levels in both non-pregnant and pregnant New Zealand White rabbits were investigated. Thirteen-month-old rabbits were studied in the following four groups: Non-pregnant control, non-pregnant RFR-exposed, pregnant control and pregnant RFR-exposed. Lipid peroxidation, namely malondialdehyde (MDA) levels, did not change after RFR exposure. However, blood chemistry parameters, such as cholesterol (CHO), total protein (TP), albumin (ALB), uric acid, creatinin and creatine kinase (CK) and creatine kinase-myocardial band isoenzyme (CK-MB) changed due to both pregnancy and RFR exposure. Our investigations have been shown that no indication for oxidative stress was detected in the blood of pregnant rabbits upon RF exposure at specific conditions employed in the present study. Minor changes in some blood chemistry parameters were detected but CK-MB and CK increases were found remarkable. Studies on RFR exposure during pregnancy will help establish international standards for the protection of pregnant women from environmental RFR.

  20. Drug use by pregnant women and comparable non-pregnant women in The Netherlands with reference to the Australian classification system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schirm, Eric; Meijer, W.M.; Tobi, H; de Jong-van den Berg, Lolkje Theodora Wilhelmina

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To describe drug use in pregnancy, and compare drug use of pregnant women with non-pregnant women with respect to possible teratogenicity. Study design: A cross-sectional study based on pharmacy records from 1997 to 2001 was performed. Pregnant women and matched non-pregnant women (same p

  1. Drug use by pregnant women and comparable non-pregnant women in The Netherlands with reference to the Australian classification system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schirm, Eric; Meijer, W.M.; Tobi, H; de Jong-van den Berg, Lolkje Theodora Wilhelmina

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To describe drug use in pregnancy, and compare drug use of pregnant women with non-pregnant women with respect to possible teratogenicity. Study design: A cross-sectional study based on pharmacy records from 1997 to 2001 was performed. Pregnant women and matched non-pregnant women (same p

  2. Effects of low-decibel infrasound on the ovary of non-pregnancy female rats, embryos and neonatal rats%低声压级水平次声波对未孕大鼠卵巢及孕鼠胚胎和仔鼠的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩小雪; 丁玉珍; 邓裕钦; 鲍正清; 李瑞满

    2014-01-01

    目的:研究低声压级水平次声波(2~25 Hz/70 dB)对未孕大鼠卵巢结构和分泌功能的影响,同时探讨其对孕鼠的胚胎和仔鼠的影响.方法:将40只雌性大鼠随机分组:对照组A1与次声组A2各8只,处理后观察卵巢结构并测定血清中的雌二醇、睾酮、黄体生成素(LH)和卵泡刺激素(FSH);其余雌鼠合笼,将孕鼠分为对照组B1与次声组B2、B3各6只,妊娠第6、12、18 d测血清中的雌三醇和孕酮;孕鼠分娩后记录仔鼠情况.结果:A 1和A2组及B 1、B2和B3组性激素水平均无统计学意义,A 1和A2组卵泡的数量及形态无明显差别,但A2组髓质层血管明显扩张.与B1组比较,B2、B3组仔鼠的体质量明显增加(P<0.05).结论:低声压级水平次声波可以增加卵巢的血液供应,但对卵泡的发育、卵巢的内分泌功能无明显影响;可增加仔鼠的体质量,但对胚胎无明显影响,低声压级水平次声波应用于孕妇是安全的.%Aim:To investigate the effects of low-decibel infrasound(2~25 Hz/70 dB)on the ovarian structure and the endocrine function of non-pregnancy female rats,and meanwhile to explore its influence on embryos and neonatal rats.Methods:Forty female rats were used,of which 16 were randomly divided into 2 groups with 8 in each:the control group A1 ,and the infrasound group A2.Then serum hormones were determined and the structure of ovary tissue was examined.The other female rats were mated.18 pregnant rats were equally divided into 3 groups:the blank group B1 and the infrasound groups,B2, B3.The serum estradiol and progesterone were determined at post-pregnant day 6,12,and 18,respec-tively.The neonatal rats were examined soon after delivery.Results:All of the serum hormone levels tested showed no statistically significant difference in this study.There were many different follicles ob-served,but no evident difference in quantity and morphology was found

  3. Telephone smoking cessation quitline use among pregnant and non-pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bombard, Jennifer M; Farr, Sherry L; Dietz, Patricia M; Tong, Van T; Zhang, Lei; Rabius, Vance

    2013-08-01

    To describe characteristics, referrals, service utilization, and self-reported quit rates among pregnant and non-pregnant women enrolled in a smoking cessation quitline. This information can be used to improve strategies to increase pregnant and non-pregnant smokers' use of quitlines. We examined tobacco use characteristics, referral sources, and use of services among 1,718 pregnant and 24,321 non-pregnant women aged 18-44 years enrolled in quitline services in 10 states during 2006-2008. We examined self-reported 30-day quit rates 7 months after enrollment among 246 pregnant and 4,123 non-pregnant women and, within groups, used Chi-square tests to compare quit rates by type of service received. The majority of pregnant and non-pregnant callers, respectively, smoked ≥10 cigarettes per day (62 %; 83 %), had recently attempted to quit (55 %; 58 %), smoked 5 or minutes after waking (59 %; 55 %), and lived with a smoker (63 %; 48 %). Of callers, 24.3 % of pregnant and 36.4 % of non-pregnant women were uninsured. Pregnant callers heard about the quitline most often from a health care provider (50 %) and non-pregnant callers most often through mass media (59 %). Over half of pregnant (52 %) and non-pregnant (57 %) women received self-help materials only, the remainder received counseling. Self-reported quit rates at 7 months after enrollment in the subsample were 26.4 % for pregnant women and 22.6 % for non-pregnant women. Quitlines provide needed services for pregnant and non-pregnant smokers, many of whom are uninsured. Smokers should be encouraged to access counseling services.

  4. Isolated large vulvar varicose veins in a non-pregnant woman

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullah M Al Wahbi

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Vulvar varicosities are often asymptomatic, and they may be associated with varicose veins of the lower extremity. Also, they may be a part of pelvic congestion syndrome and usually occur during pregnancy. We present a case of a huge isolated and disfiguring vulvar varicosities in a non-pregnant women managed successfully by combination of surgery and sclerotherapy.

  5. Isolated large vulvar varicose veins in a non-pregnant woman

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Wahbi, Abdullah M

    2016-01-01

    Vulvar varicosities are often asymptomatic, and they may be associated with varicose veins of the lower extremity. Also, they may be a part of pelvic congestion syndrome and usually occur during pregnancy. We present a case of a huge isolated and disfiguring vulvar varicosities in a non-pregnant women managed successfully by combination of surgery and sclerotherapy.

  6. Effectiveness of the Gold Standard Programmes (GSP for Smoking Cessation in Pregnant and Non-Pregnant Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mette Rasmussen

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Smoking is considered the most important preventable risk factor in relation to the development of complications during pregnancy and delivery. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of an intensive 6-week gold standard programme (GSP on pregnant women in real life. Methods: This was a prospective cohort study based on data from a national Danish registry on smoking cessation interventions. The study population included 10,682 women of a fertile age. The pregnancy status of the study population was identified using the National Patient Registry. Results: The response rate to follow up was 76%. The continuous abstinence rate for both pregnant and non-pregnant smokers was 24–32%. The following prognostic factors for continuous abstinence were identified: programme format (individual/group, older age, heavy smoking, compliance with the programme, health professional recommendation, and being a disadvantaged smoker. Conclusions: The GSP seems to be as effective among pregnant smokers as among non-pregnant smoking women. Due to the relatively high effect and clinical significance, the GSP would be an attractive element in smoking cessation intervention among pregnant women.

  7. Sedentary behavior patterns in non-pregnant and pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkins, Marquis; Kim, Youngdeok; Gabriel, Kelley Pettee; Rockette-Wagner, Bonny Jane; Chasan-Taber, Lisa

    2017-06-01

    Sedentary behavior has been associated with adverse health outcomes among pregnant women; however, few studies have characterized sedentary behavior patterns in this population. We described patterns of accelerometer-determined indicators of sedentary behavior among a national sample of US pregnant (n = 234) women and non-pregnant (n = 1146) women participating in the NHANES 2003-06 cycles. We included women with ≥ 4 days of accelerometer wear of ≥ 10 h/day. A count threshold of sedentary behavior as: 1) total accumulated sedentary time by bout length categories; 2) accumulated sedentary time within discrete bout length categories; 3) mean, median, and usual bout length; and 4) and bout frequency. Both non-pregnant and pregnant women spent up to 60% of their accelerometer wear time in sedentary behavior depending on the minimum bout threshold applied. Sedentary time was higher among pregnant women compared to non-pregnant women when lower bout thresholds (i.e. 10 min or less) were applied. The majority of total sedentary time was accumulated in bouts lasting sedentary bouts (i.e., ≥ 30 min) per day, which accounted for nearly 20% of total accumulated sedentary time. When applying a minimum threshold of at least 15 min, sedentary time increased across pregnancy trimesters, while sedentary time was similar across trimesters when using lower thresholds. These findings provide the first characterization of accelerometer-determined indicators of sedentary behavior in pregnant women. The minimum bout threshold applied influenced estimates of sedentary time and patterns sedentary time accumulation across pregnancy trimesters.

  8. Differential expression of uterine NO in pregnant and nonpregnant rats with intrauterine bacterial infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, L; Nowicki, B; Yallampalli, C

    2001-05-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that nitric oxide (NO) is involved in the uterine host defense against bacterial infection. In nonpregnant rats, NO production in the uterus was shown to be lower, and inducible NO synthase (NOS) expression was undetectable. However, studies in pregnant rats show abundant expression of inducible NOS with significant elevation in NO production in the uterus. We have recently reported that intrauterine Escherichia coli infection caused a localized increase in uterine NO production and inducible NOS expression in the nonpregnant rat. In our present study, we examined whether the uterine NO production, NOS expression, and uterine tumor necrosis factor-alpha protein are increased in pregnant rats with intrauterine pathogenic Escherichia coli infection. Unlike the nonpregnant state, the NO production in the infected uterine horn of pregnant rats was not significantly elevated after bacterial inoculation compared with the contralateral uterine horn. The expression of uterine NOS (types II and III) also did not show significant upregulation in the infected horn. This is in contrast to that in nonpregnant animals, in which type II NOS was induced in the uterus on infection. Moreover, intrauterine infection induced an elevated expression of tumor necrosis factor-alpha protein in the infected horn both of nonpregnant and of pregnant rats. These data suggest that the sequential stimulation of NOS expression, especially the inducible isoform, and generation of uterine NO are lacking during pregnancy despite an elevated tumor necrosis factor-alpha after infection. In summary, NO synthesis response may be maximal at pregnancy, and infection may not further induce the NO system. Present studies, together with our previous report that intrauterine infection-induced lethality in pregnancy rats was amplified with the inhibition of NO, suggest that pregnancy is a state predisposed for increased complications associated with intrauterine infection and

  9. Breast Cancer Diagnosed During Pregnancy: Adapting Recent Advances in Breast Cancer Care for Pregnant Patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loibl, S.; Schmidt, A.; Gentilini, O.; Kaufman, B.; Kuhl, C.; Denkert, C.; Minckwitz, G. von; Parokonnaya, A.; Stensheim, H.; Thomssen, C.; Calsteren, K. van; Poortmans, P.; Berveiller, P.; Markert, U.R.; Amant, F.

    2015-01-01

    Breast cancer during pregnancy (BCP), although rare, is becoming more common and treatment should be as similar as possible to that for nonpregnant young patients with breast cancer. A group of specialists convened to review current guidelines and provide guidance on how recent advances in breast ca

  10. Effect of pregnancy on topiramate pharmacokinetics in rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matar, Kamal M; Marafie, Najlaa A

    2011-05-01

    Pregnancy is associated with various physiological changes that may lead to significant alterations in the pharmacokinetic profiles of many drugs. The present study was designed to investigate the potential effects of pregnancy on the pharmacokinetics of topiramate (TPM) in the rabbit model. Nineteen female New Zealand white rabbits (nine pregnant and 10 non-pregnant) were used in this study. Blood samples were collected from the animals just before receiving TPM orally at a dose of 20 mg/kg and then serially for up to 24 h. TPM plasma samples were analysed using a validated tandem mass spectrometric (LC-MS/MS) method. The mean values of TPM pharmacokinetic parameters (t(1/2), T(max), AUC(0-∞), and CL/F) were significantly modified in pregnant rabbits as compared with non-pregnant group. Pregnancy significantly (P < 0.05) increased TPM half-life (t(1/2)), time to attain the maximum plasma concentration (T(max)), and the area under TPM plasma concentration-time curve (AUC(0-∞)) and decreased the drug's oral clearance (CL/F) compared with non-pregnancy state in rabbits. The present study demonstrates that pregnancy alters the pharmacokinetics of TPM in rabbits in late gestational period and considerable inter-animal variability was observed. The findings of the present study indicate that TPM CL/F is decreased during late pregnancy in the rabbit model.

  11. Non-Invasive Assessment of the Interrelationships of Diet, Pregnancy Rate, Group Composition, and Physiological and Nutritional Stress of Barren-Ground Caribou in Late Winter.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyle Joly

    Full Text Available The winter diet of barren-ground caribou may affect adult survival, timing of parturition, neonatal survival, and postpartum mass. We used microhistological analyses and hormone levels in feces to determine sex-specific late-winter diets, pregnancy rates, group composition, and endocrine-based measures of physiological and nutritional stress. Lichens, which are highly digestible but contain little protein, dominated the diet (> 68% but were less prevalent in the diets of pregnant females as compared to non-pregnant females and males. The amount of lichens in the diets of pregnant females decreased at higher latitudes and as winter progressed. Pregnancy rates (82.1%, 95% CI = 76.0 - 88.1% of adult cows were within the expected range for a declining herd, while pregnancy status was not associated with lichen abundance in the diet. Most groups (80% were of mixed sex. Male: female ratios (62:100 were not skewed enough to affect the decline. Levels of hormones indicating nutritional stress were detected in areas of low habitat quality and at higher latitudes. Levels of hormones indicated that physiological stress was greatest for pregnant cows, which faced the increasing demands of gestation in late winter. These fecal-based measures of diet and stress provided contextual information for the potential mechanisms of the ongoing decline. Non-invasive techniques, such as monitoring diets, pregnancy rates, sex ratios and stress levels from fecal samples, will become increasingly important as monitoring tools as the industrial footprint continues to expand in the Arctic.

  12. Cervical intraepithelial neoplasia in pregnancy: Interference of pregnancy status with p16 and Ki-67 protein expression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciavattini, Andrea; Sopracordevole, Francesco; Di Giuseppe, Jacopo; Moriconi, Lorenzo; Lucarini, Guendalina; Mancioli, Francesca; Zizzi, Antonio; Goteri, Gaia

    2017-01-01

    To date, there are evidence-based guidelines available for cervical dysplasia diagnosed in pregnancy. Certain functional biomarkers have proven useful in the prediction of regressing and non-regressing cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) lesions in non-pregnant women. In the present study, Ki-67 and p16 immunostaining were evaluated in different grades of CIN lesions diagnosed in pregnant or non-pregnant women with the aim to identify any differences in order to better understand the behavior of CIN in pregnancy. The current retrospective case-control study included 17 pregnant patients that conceived naturally with first-time onset of CIN occurring at no later than 16 gestational weeks. The control group included 17 non-pregnant patients matched for age, parity and number of previous sexual partners. Exclusion criteria included previous cervical treatment, immunocompromised status, chronic hepatitis B and/or C and cigarette smoking. p16 and Ki-67 protein expression were respectively detected using the CINtec Histology kit and monoclonal antibodies against Ki-67. p16 and Ki-67 staining were analyzed using a classification system based on the distribution of positivity on a semi-quantitative three point-scale. p16 and Ki-67 immune reactivity correlated positively with the grade of epithelial dysplasia in the total cohort of pregnant and non-pregnant patients; expression increased linearly from CIN1 to CIN3. Furthermore, the association between p16 immunostaining and CIN grade was significant in non-pregnant patients but not in pregnant patients. In pregnant patients, positivity for Ki-67 was less intense than in non-pregnant patients. These results appear to suggest that pregnancy status interferes with the expression of cellular proteins involved in cell-cycle regulation and the carcinogenic process induced by high-risk human papilloma virus, exhibiting increased variability in their staining. PMID:28123559

  13. Influence of pregnancy on body weight, ruminal characteristics, and visceral organ mass in beef heifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheaffer, A N; Caton, J S; Bauer, M L; Reynolds, L P

    2001-09-01

    Crossbred heifers (initially 24 mo, approximate age and 378 +/- 32.1 kg BW) were used to evaluate the influence of pregnancy and advancing gestation on DMI, BW, carcass weight, ruminal characteristics, and visceral organ mass. Heifers (naturally serviced (n = 22; nonpregnant controls, n = 17), were grouped in common pens. Heifers were provided corn silage and hay-based diets formulated to provide 0.45 kg of ADG. Treatments were pregnancy and nonpregnancy; pregnant and nonpregnant heifers were slaughtered on d 40, 120, 200, and 270. Live weight at slaughter and BW change throughout the trial were not influenced by pregnancy (P > 0.1). Carcass weight per unit of BW was decreased due to pregnancy (P 0.1) at any of the slaughter periods. Heart mass responded differently when nonpregnant and pregnant were analyzed over time and an interaction was detected as slaughter period advanced (P 0.1). Data indicate that ruminal fill is altered by pregnancy but visceral organ mass is not greatly changed by treatment.

  14. Associated Behavioral Risks in a Group of Women During Pregnancy from Mures District

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    Florina Ruţa

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background. It is well-known that the exposure during pregnancy to lifestyle risk factors can affect thehealth both for the mother and the fetus. There are many risk factors for pregnancy, including: smoking, alcohol consumption, sedentary pattern, irregular daily meal serving plan, lack of knowledge regarding health prevention. The main objective of our study was to assess the practices, knowledge and attitudes towards lifestyle risk behaviors during pregnancy in a group of women from Tirgu-Mures area.

  15. Epilepsy and Pregnancy: For healthy pregnancies and happy outcomes. Suggestions for service improvements from the Multispecialty UK Epilepsy Mortality Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leach, J P; Smith, P E; Craig, J; Bagary, M; Cavanagh, D; Duncan, S; Kelso, A R C; Marson, A G; McCorry, D; Nashef, L; Nelson-Piercy, C; Northridge, R; Sieradzan, K; Thangaratinam, S; Walker, M; Winterbottom, J; Reuber, M

    2017-08-01

    Between 2009 and 2012 there were 26 epilepsy-related deaths in the UK of women who were pregnant or in the first post-partum year. The number of pregnancy-related deaths in women with epilepsy (WWE) has been increasing. Expert assessment suggests that most epilepsy-related deaths in pregnancy were preventable and attributable to poor seizure control. While prevention of seizures during pregnancy is important, a balance must be struck between seizure control and the teratogenic potential of antiepileptic drugs (AEDs). A range of professional guidance on the management of epilepsy in pregnancy has previously been issued, but little attention has been paid to how optimal care can be delivered to WWE by a range of healthcare professionals. We summarise the findings of a multidisciplinary meeting with representation from a wide group of professional bodies. This focussed on the implementation of optimal pregnancy epilepsy care aiming to reduce mortality of epilepsy in mothers and reduce morbidity in babies exposed to AEDs in utero. We identify in particular -What stage to intervene - Golden Moments of opportunities for improving outcomes -Which Key Groups have a role in making change -When - 2020 vision of what these improvements aim to achieve. -How to monitor the success in this field We believe that the service improvement ideas developed for the UK may provide a template for similar initiatives in other countries. Copyright © 2017 British Epilepsy Association. All rights reserved.

  16. Expression and localization of IL-18 in the hypothalamic-pituitary-ovarian axis of non-pregnant, pregnant, and abortive rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yuesi; Zhang, Xiuli; Zhang, Yan; Xu, Hui; Fang, Guangli

    2011-12-01

    Cytokines present in the reproductive system play an important role both in the modulation of immune responses to infectious challenge and in the establishment and maintenance of pregnancy. Interleukin 18 (IL-18) has been regarded as an important regulator of innate and acquired immune response, but its expression and distribution in the hypothalamic-pituitary-ovarian axis remain unclear. In this paper, the expression and distribution of IL-18 in non-pregnant, pregnant, and early abortive rats were examined using an ultra-sensitive immunohistochemical streptavidin-peroxidase method, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. The results showed that IL-18 expression in the pituitary, in follicular ovaries, and in the corpus luteum of abortive rats were significantly lower than that of pregnant and non-pregnant rats. However, the staining of IL-18 in the hypothalamus, interstitial glands of the ovary, and uterus of abortive rats was strikingly stronger than those of the non-pregnant ones. IL-18 mRNA expression in rat uterus was detected in all groups, whereas IL-18 mRNA content in abortive rat uterus was significantly higher than in normal pregnant rats. Further, IL-18 in the peripheral blood serum of abortive rats was significantly lower than in same-period normal pregnant rats. The differential expression of IL-18 in early abortion suggests that IL-18 may be related to the underlying mechanisms of abortion.

  17. Effect of pregnancy on plasma phenobarbital concentrations in rats.

    OpenAIRE

    Moriyama,Masahiro; Domoto, Haruyo; Yamashita, Syoichi; Furuno,Katsushi; Oishi, Ryozo; Kawasaki,Hiromu; Gomita, Yutaka

    1995-01-01

    We examined the pharmacokinetics of phenobarbital before and during pregnancy in rats. Animals were divided into four groups: (a) control, (b) pregnant, (c) phenobarbital-treated, and (d) phenobarbital-treated pregnant groups. The increase in body weight of nonpregnant or pregnant rats was not influenced by long-term phenobarbital treatment. Plasma phenobarbital concentrations during the period of long-term phenobarbital treatment with a fixed dosage by body weight were not significantly affe...

  18. Power and pulsed Doppler evaluation of ovarian hemodynamic changes during diestrus in pregnant and nonpregnant bitches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polisca, A; Zelli, R; Troisi, A; Orlandi, R; Brecchia, G; Boiti, C

    2013-01-15

    The aim of the study was to further characterize the relationship between hemodynamic changes in the ovary and luteal function in pregnant and nonpregnant bitches. Fourteen German Shepherd bitches were monitored three times a week from the first day of cytological diestrus (D1) until parturition or the end of diestrus (progesterone pregnant versus nonpregnant group was significantly shorter (P pregnant group versus nonpregnant group from D31 to D61 and from D49 to D58 respectively. Moreover, a significantly decrease (P pregnant group was observed from D46 to D58 and from D49 to D55, respectively. The resistive and pulsatility indices showed an increase during diestrus and the values were significantly lower (P pregnant group from D49 to D61. By means of PD, the pixel number was significantly higher (P pregnant versus nonpregnant group from D40 to D61. In particular, a significant decrease (P pregnant group was observed from D46 to D61. The comparison of the P4 values with the ovarian pixel number in the pregnant and nonpregnant group showed a direct correlation (r = 0.792, N = 59 and r = 0.774, N = 59, respectively). In particular, the P4 values were higher (P pregnant than in the nonpregnant group from D37 to D52. In conclusion, significant physiological differences between pregnant and nonpregnant bitches in terms of P4 and ovarian blood supply are reported. In addition it was possible to define that blood flow pattern during diestrus in pregnant bitches is not always closely related with P4 production. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Maternal Methyl-Group Donor Intake and Global DNA (HydroxyMethylation before and during Pregnancy

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    Sara Pauwels

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available It is still unclear to which extent methyl-group intake during pregnancy can affect maternal global DNA (hydroxylmethylation. Pregnancy methylation profiling and its link with methyl-group intake in a healthy population could enhance our understanding of the development of pregnancy related disorders. One hundred forty-eight women were enrolled in the MANOE (MAternal Nutrition and Offspring’s Epigenome study. Thiry-four women were enrolled before pregnancy and 116 during the first trimester of pregnancy. Global DNA (hydroxymethylation in blood using LC-MS/MS and dietary methyl-group intake (methionine, folate, betaine, and choline using a food-frequency questionnaire were estimated pre-pregnancy, during each trimester, and at delivery. Global DNA (hydroxymethylation levels were highest pre-pregnancy and at weeks 18–22 of pregnancy. We observed a positive relation between folic acid and global DNA methylation (p = 0.04 and hydroxymethylation (p = 0.04. A high intake of methionine pre-pregnancy and in the first trimester showed lower (hydroxymethylation percentage in weeks 11–13 and weeks 18–22, respectively. Choline and betaine intake in the first weeks was negatively associated with hydroxymethylation. Women with a high intake of these three methyl groups in the second and third trimester showed higher hyrdoxymethylation/methylation levels in the third trimester. To conclude, a time trend in DNA (hydroxymethylation was found and women with higher methyl-group intake showed higher methylation in the third trimester, and not in earlier phases of pregnancy.

  20. Comparative analysis of iodine nutritional status between pregnancy and non-pregnancy women among Shijiazhuang district%石家庄地区妊娠期与非妊娠期妇女碘营养状况对比分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张海红; 李卫红; 张霞; 王玉春

    2012-01-01

    Objective Iodine nutrition level of pregnancy and non - pregnancy women among Shijiazhuang district was investigated in order to provide reliable data for effective prevention of new bom defects caused by iodine deficiency. Method Urine iodine of 737 pregnancy and 249 non - pregnancy women was tested by the arsenic cerium catalytic spectrophotometer (WS107 -2006) . Result The medine of urine iodine among pregnancy women was 169 μg/L, lower than non - pregnancy women 216. 2 μg/L, difference (x2 =49.68, P <0.001) was statistical significance. There were 297 pregnancy women ( 40. 30 % ) and 57 non - pregnancy of women( 22.89 % ) whose urine iodine level were lower than 150 μg/L. Difference between two groups was also statistically significant (x2 = 24.51, P < 0.001). Conclusion Iodine deficiency rate of pregnancy women among Shijiazhuang district was relatively high. In order to prevent new bom defects effectively, it's very important to supply iodine reasonably during pregancy and to monitor iodine level dynamically.%目的 了解石家庄地区妊娠期与非妊娠期妇女碘营养水平,为科学有效预防因缺碘引起新生儿出生缺陷提供可靠依据.方法 采用砷铈催化分光光度法(WS107-2006)检测737名妊娠期妇女和249名非妊娠期尿碘.结果 妊娠期妇女尿碘中位数169 μg/L,非妊娠期妇女尿碘中位数216.2 μg/L;妊娠期妇女尿碘中位数低于非妊娠期妇女(X2=49.68,P <0.001)差异有统计学意义;妊娠期妇女中尿碘水平<150 μg/L297例(40.30%),非妊娠期妇女57例(22.89%),妊娠期与非妊娠期两组人群缺碘率差异具有统计学意义(x2 =24.51,P<0.001).结论 石家庄地区妊娠期妇女缺碘率相对较高,对妊娠期妇女合理补碘及进行孕期全程动态监测对预防新生儿出生缺陷具有十分重要意义.

  1. Shifts in Color Discrimination during Early Pregnancy

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    Levente L. Orbán

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The present study explores two hypotheses: a women during early pregnancy should experience increased color discrimination ability, and b women during early pregnancy should experience shifts in subjective preference away from images of foods that appear either unripe or spoiled. Both of these hypotheses derive from an adaptive view of pregnancy sickness that proposes the function of pregnancy sickness is to decrease the likelihood of ingestion of foods with toxins or teratogens. Changes to color discrimination could be part of a network of perceptual and physiological defenses (e.g., changes to olfaction, nausea, vomiting that support such a function. Participants included 13 pregnant women and 18 non-pregnant women. Pregnant women scored significantly higher than non-pregnant controls on the Farnsworth-Munsell (FM 100 Hue Test, an objective test of color discrimination, although no difference was found between groups in preferences for food images at different stages of ripeness or spoilage. These results are the first indication that changes to color discrimination may occur during early pregnancy, and is consistent with the view that pregnancy sickness may function as an adaptive defense mechanism.

  2. The study of serum Carnitine, Triglyceride and Cholesterol changes in pregnant and non-pregnant women

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    Zahraei M

    1993-04-01

    Full Text Available Carnitine is a water-soluble quaternary amine which increases the long-chain fatty acid metabolism by facilitation of their transport to the oxidation site (mitochondria. Carnitine most likely is present in all animal species, in many microorganisms, and in many plants. In this study, we determined the carnitine level of sera in pregnant and non-pregnant women by segade modified method. Average concentration of carnitine in the sera of fifty pregnant women was about 25/83 umol/I: First trimester-30.96 umol/I. Second trimester-29.11 umol/I. Third trimester-25.11 umol/I. concentration of cholesterol and triglyceride in the above-mentioned group was the following: Cholesterol: 258.84 mg/dl triglyceride: 267.02 mg/dl. The above values show that the carnitine level in sera of pregnant women decreases significantly and this decrease is tolerated well by pregnant women. According to our results, the serum carnitine concentration in pregnant women gradually decreases as gestation proceeds. So that the end of this period, is half of its concentration before conception. During pregnancy, there was an inverse correlation between carnitine level and that of cholesterol and triglycerides. Decrease in carnitine concentration and increase in cholesterol and triglyceride levels may be due to the following factors: 1 Increase in FFA oxidation in pregnancy. 2 Hormones. 3 Dilution of the blood. 4 Decrease in Fe storage in pregnant women.

  3. Muscle sympathetic nerve activity and volume regulating factors in healthy pregnant and non-pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charkoudian, Nisha; Usselman, Charlotte W; Skow, Rachel J; Staab, Jeffery S; Julian, Colleen Glyde; Stickland, Michael K; Chari, Radha S; Khurana, Rshmi; Davidge, Sandra T; Davenport, Margie H; Steinback, Craig D

    2017-07-21

    Healthy, normotensive human pregnancies are associated with striking increases in both plasma volume and vascular sympathetic nerve activity (SNA). In non-pregnant humans, volume regulatory factors including plasma osmolality, vasopressin and the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system have important modulatory effects on control of sympathetic outflow. We hypothesized that pregnancy would be associated with changes in the relationships between SNA (measured as muscle SNA) and volume regulating factors, including plasma osmolality, plasma renin activity and arginine vasopressin (AVP). We studied 46 healthy, normotensive young women (23 pregnant and 23 non-pregnant). We measured SNA, arterial pressure, plasma osmolality, plasma renin activity, AVP and other volume regulatory factors in resting, semi-recumbent posture. Pregnant women had significantly higher resting SNA (38 ± 12 vs. non-pregnant: 23 ± 6 bursts/minute), lower osmolality and higher plasma renin activity and aldosterone (all P pregnant] vs. 5.17 ± 2.03 [pregnant], P > 0.05). However, regression analysis detected a significant relationship between individual values for SNA and AVP in pregnant (r = 0.71, P pregnant women (r = 0.04). No relationships were found for other variables. These data suggest that the link between AVP release and resting SNA becomes stronger in pregnancy, which may contribute importantly to blood pressure regulation in healthy women during pregnancy. Copyright © 2017, American Journal of Physiology-Heart and Circulatory Physiology.

  4. Two Live Births following Robotic-Assisted Abdominal Cerclage in Nonpregnant Women

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    Ahmet Göçmen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. To report the robotic-assisted abdominal cerclage performed in two nonpregnant women and the success of live birth outcomes. Presentation of Cases. A 36-year-old woman with a complaint of recurrent second trimester pregnancy losses and a 35-year-old patient with a complaint of preterm deliveries and cervical insufficiency underwent robotic assisted abdominal cervicoisthmic cerclage placement in nonpregnant period. The two patients had spontaneous pregnancy after the robotic-assisted abdominal cerclage and delivered healthy infants. Discussion. The limitations of traditional laparoscopic abdominal cerclage have been accomplished with robotic surgery advantages especially intuitive movements and increased range of motion. There are only a few studies in the literature including robotic assisted abdominal cerclage in nonpregnant women, and only five successful live birth outcomes were reported. In this paper, we reported the sixth and seventh cases of achieved live pregnancy after robotic assisted abdominal cerclage in the literature. Conclusion. Robotic assisted abdominal cerclage is a good alternative surgical method with successful pregnancy outcomes.

  5. Clinical characteristics of fulminant hepatitis in pregnancy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao-Mao Li; Lin Ma; Yue-Bo Yang; Zhong-Jie Shi; Shui-Sheng Zhou

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the clinical characteristics of fulminant hepatitis in pregnancy.METHODS: We compared and analyzed the etiology,clinical characteristics, and laboratory examinations of 25 cases of fulminant hepatitis in pregnancy and 30 cases of fulminant hepatitis not in pregnancy.RESULTS: HBV infection and chronic fulminant hepatitis were most common both in the pregnant and in the non-pregnant groups. Jaundice, digestive tract symptoms,increase of bilirubin and thrombinogen activity were the main manifestations. The incidence of hepatic encephalopathy (HE) and hepato-renal syndrome (HRS) was significantly different between the two groups. The incidence of preterm labor, dead fetus and neonatal asphyxia was high.CONCLUSION: Fulminant hepatitis is likely to occur in late pregnancy with more severe complications, which significantly influences maternity, perinatal fetus, and newborn.

  6. Norms as Group-Level Constructs: Investigating School-Level Teen Pregnancy Norms and Behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mollborn, Stefanie; Domingue, Benjamin W; Boardman, Jason D

    2014-09-01

    Social norms are a group-level phenomenon, but past quantitative research has rarely measured them in the aggregate or considered their group-level properties. We used the school-based design of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health to measure normative climates regarding teen pregnancy across 75 U.S. high schools. We distinguished between the strength of a school's norm against teen pregnancy and the consensus around that norm. School-level norm strength and dissensus were strongly (r = -0.65) and moderately (r = 0.34) associated with pregnancy prevalence within schools, respectively. Normative climate partially accounted for observed racial differences in school pregnancy prevalence, but norms were a stronger predictor than racial composition. As hypothesized, schools with both a stronger average norm against teen pregnancy and greater consensus around the norm had the lowest pregnancy prevalence. Results highlight the importance of group-level normative processes and of considering the local school environment when designing policies to reduce teen pregnancy.

  7. Variations of serum copper values in pregnancy

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    Vukelić Jelka

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Copper is essential micronutrient and has an important role in the human body. The serum copper increases during pregnancy and is doubled at full term. Lower levels of serum copper in pregnancy are connected with some pathological conditions. Objective. The aim of this study was to estimate the levels of serum copper in normal and pathological pregnancies, comparing them with values of serum copper in non-pregnant women, to determine if serum copper is lower in some pathological pregnancies and if this is of some importance. Methods. A total of 2170 plasma samples for copper analyses were made in the following groups: healthy non-pregnant women; healthy pregnant women from the 5th-40th gestational week, during the first delivery stage and during the first three postpartum weeks, in pregnant women with habitual abortion, imminent abortion, abortion in progress, missed abortion (9th-24th weeks, missed labour and premature rupture of membranes (29th-40th weeks. Levels of serum copper were determined by colorimetric technique of bathocuproin with disulphate as a chromogen. Results. Serum copper values in non-pregnant women range from 11.6-25.8 μmol/L. In healthy pregnant women, there is a constant trend of the increase of serum copper. The mean serum copper values revealed three significant peaks at the 22nd, 27th and 35th gestational week. Serum copper values in the patients with some pathological pregnancies in relation to the serum copper values of the healthy pregnant women were significantly lower. Conclusion. Serum copper values can be used as an indicator of some pathological pregnancies.

  8. Variations of serum copper values in pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vukelić, Jelka; Kapamadzija, Aleksandra; Petrović, Djordje; Grujić, Zorica; Novakov-Mikić, Aleksandra; Kopitović, Vesna; Bjelica, Artur

    2012-01-01

    Copper is essential micronutrient and has an important role in the human body. The serum copper increases during pregnancy and is doubled at full term. Lower levels of serum copper in pregnancy are connected with some pathological conditions. The aim of this study was to estimate the levels of serum copper in normal and pathological pregnancies, comparing them with values of serum copper in non-pregnant women, to determine if serum copper is lower in some pathological pregnancies and if this is of some importance. A total of 2170 plasma samples for copper analyses were made in the following groups: healthy non-pregnant women; healthy pregnant women from the 5th-40th gestational week, during the first delivery stage and during the first three postpartum weeks, in pregnant women with habitual abortion, imminent abortion, abortion in progress, missed abortion (9th-24th weeks), missed labour and premature rupture of membranes (29th-40th weeks). Levels of serum copper were determined by colorimetric technique of bathocuproin with disulphate as a chromogen. Serum copper values in non-pregnant women range from 11.6-25.8 micromol/L. In healthy pregnant women, there is a constant trend of the increase of serum copper. The mean serum copper values revealed three significant peaks at the 22nd, 27th and 35th gestational week. Serum copper values in the patients with some pathological pregnancies in relation to the serum copper values of the healthy pregnant women were significantly lower. Serum copper values can be used as an indicator of some pathological pregnancies.

  9. Metabolic syndrome in the non-pregnant state is associated with the development of preeclampsia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Geum Joon; Park, Jong Heon; Shin, Soon-Ae; Oh, Min-Jeong; Seo, Hong Seog

    2016-01-15

    The aim of this study was to investigate the association between metabolic syndrome in the non-pregnant state and the development of preeclampsia. We enrolled 212,463 Korean women who had their first delivery between January, 2011 and December, 2012 and had undergone a national health screening examination through the National Health Insurance during the 1-2 years before their first delivery. Women who had hypertension in the non-pregnant state were excluded. The presence of metabolic syndrome was defined using the modified criteria published in National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III criteria. The prevalence of metabolic syndrome in non-pregnant state was 1.2%. Preeclampsia developed in 3.1% and its prevalence among women with and without metabolic syndrome was 7.3% and 3.0%, respectively. The pre-pregnancy prevalence of metabolic syndrome was higher in women who developed preeclampsia compared to that in those who had a normal pregnancy (1.1% vs. 2.8%; ppreeclampsia (odds ratio: 1.48; 95% CI: 1.26 to 1.74) compared to that in those without metabolic syndrome, after adjusting for age, family history of hypertension, smoking status, and pre-pregnancy body mass index. The risk of preeclampsia increased with a rise in the number of components of metabolic syndrome. Metabolic syndrome in the non-pregnant state was associated with the development of preeclampsia. Further studies are needed to evaluate whether early intervention for metabolic syndrome before pregnancy can decrease the risk of developing preeclampsia. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Pregnancy after treatment of breast cancer in young women does not adversely affect the prognosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Córdoba, Octavi; Bellet, Meritxell; Vidal, Xavier; Cortés, Javier; Llurba, Elisa; Rubio, Isabel T; Xercavins, Jordi

    2012-06-01

    We assessed whether pregnancy after breast cancer in patients younger than 36 years of age affects the prognosis. Of 115 women with breast cancer followed for a mean of 6 years, 18 became pregnant (median time between diagnosis and the first pregnancy 44.5 months). Voluntary interruption of pregnancy was decided by 8 (44.4%) women. Significant differences in prognostic factors between pregnant and non-pregnant women were not observed. Pregnant women showed a lower frequency of positive estrogen receptors (41%) than non-pregnant (64%) (P=0.06). At 5 years of follow-up, 100% of women in the pregnant group and 80% in the non-pregnant group were alive. The percentages of disease-free women were 94% and 64%, respectively (P=0.009). Breast cancer patients presented a high number of unwanted pregnancies. Pregnancy after breast cancer not only did not adversely affect prognosis of the neoplasm but also may have a protective effect.

  11. Loneliness and pregnancy in an urban Latino community: associations with maternal age and unscheduled hospital utilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geller, Jeffrey S

    2004-01-01

    The objective is to compare loneliness in a pregnant population to a non-pregnant control group, and to evaluate loneliness and unscheduled hospital visits during pregnancy. A prospective cohort study in a Latino urban community including 53 consecutive pregnant women in their first trimester, and 61 non-pregnant women as a control. The UCLA Loneliness Scale version 3, and demographic information was collected. A chart review after delivery determined total number of unscheduled pregnancy related hospital visits. Appropriate data analysis using t-test and regression analysis was used. Forty-eight women continued to delivery. There was no difference in mean loneliness scores between pregnant (41) and non-pregnant groups (43), or that of normal populations (41). There was a significant association between UCLA loneliness scores and total pregnancy related unscheduled hospital visits p = 0.042, beta = 0.06, r= 0.29. There was a significant association between increasing age and increasing loneliness during pregnancy p = 0.007, beta = 0.21, r= 0.36, not seen in the non-pregnant group p = 0.98. Loneliness, when controlling for age, yielded a stronger association with unscheduled hospital visits p = 0.018, beta = 0.076, and r = 0.40. The findings were that increased loneliness is associated with increased unscheduled pregnancy related hospital utilization during pregnancy. Older pregnant women had higher loneliness scores. Loneliness was more significant than age in predicting higher unscheduled hospital visits. The combination of increased loneliness and younger age predicted the highest number of unscheduled hospital visits.

  12. Sex, Pregnancy and Contraception: A Report of Focus Group Discussions with Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugland, Barbara W.; Wilder, Kathleen J.; Chandra, Anita

    Findings in this report summarize the first phase of a larger, multi-year study that is combining qualitative and quantitative methods to outline a conceptual framework to guide future demographic/fertility research, pregnancy prevention programs and policies. Twelve focus groups--involving a multiculturally representative group of male and female…

  13. Pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Palmer, Keith T; Bonzini, Matteo; Bonde, Jens Peter Ellekilde

    2013-01-01

    Most pregnant women are exposed to some physical activity at work. This Concise Guidance is aimed at doctors advising healthy women with uncomplicated singleton pregnancies about the risks arising from five common workplace exposures (prolonged working hours, shift work, lifting, standing and heavy...... on pregnancy. Moreover, moderate physical exercise is thought to be healthy in pregnancy and most pregnant women undertake some physical work at home. The guidelines provide risk estimates and advice on counselling....

  14. SOCIAL CAPITAL AND ADOLESCENT GIRLS' RESILIENCE TO TEENAGE PREGNANCY IN BEGORO, GHANA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gyan, Sylvia Esther; Ahorlu, Collins; Dzorgbo, Dan-Bright S; Fayorsey, Clara K

    2017-05-01

    This study focuses on how older adolescent girls access and utilize social capital to develop resilience against teenage pregnancy in Begoro, Ghana. A survey of 419 non-pregnant girls aged 15-19 years, selected using a multi-stage cluster sampling technique, was conducted in 2012. Qualitative data were gathered through in-depth interviews with ten girls purposively selected from the survey respondents. Parents, relatives, teachers and religious groups were found to be important sources of social capital for the non-pregnant girls in developing resilience against teenage pregnancy. In addition, resilient girls tended to rely on multiple sources of social capital. It is recommended that stakeholders and policymakers in Ghana ensure that these significant sources of social capital in adolescent girls' sexual experience are equipped with the right information to help girls decrease the risk of teenage pregnancy.

  15. Life Assets in Teenage Pregnancy

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    Thatsanee Soontrapirom

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Teenage pregnancy is an evolving global public health problem. Level of life assets could predict behaviors and take effect to less sexual risk behaviors in teenagers. Objective: To compare life assets between pregnant and non-pregnant teenagers and to evaluate the relationship between basic factors and teenage pregnancy. Methods: A total of 172 female teenagers aged 12-19 years were included. The control group was matched with the case group by age with mean age of 17.07 years old. The case group consisted of 86 pregnant teenagers who attended the Teenage Antenatal Care Unit at Siriraj Hospital. The control group consisted of 86 teenagers who were not pregnant and who had never been pregnant. The research instruments were general information and life assets inventory questionnaires developed by Suriyadeo Tripathi with Cronbach’s Alpha coefficient at 0.890. Results: Mean life assets scores were significantly higher in the control group than in the case group (T-test analysis: Mean = 94.70/87.65, SD = 17.45/22.68, p-value =.024, respectively. The control group scored more favorably than the case group on 16 items. In addition, the case group could not meet the minimum assessment criteria on 21 items, which indicated their status as an at risk group. A total of 12 factors were found to be statistically significantly associated with teenage pregnancy. Conclusion: Overall life assets were significantly higher among teenagers who had not experienced pregnancy. The risk factors included level of education, GPA, family income, mothers or family members of teenagers having experience of teenage pregnancy, main guardians, father education, mother occupation, parental relationship, family warmth and smoking were found to be significantly associated with risk of teenage pregnancy in this study. These results will help to facilitate preventive interventions and the development of policies and guidelines to control and perhaps reverse current

  16. Women's experiences of participation in a pregnancy and postnatal group incorporating yoga and facilitated group discussion: a qualitative evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doran, Frances; Hornibrook, Julie

    2013-03-01

    This paper reports on a small qualitative research study which explored women's experiences of participation in a pregnancy and postnatal group that incorporated yoga and facilitated discussion. The group is offered through a community based feminist non-government women's health Centre in Northern NSW Australia. The purpose of the research was to explore women's experiences of attending this pregnancy and postnatal group. An exploratory qualitative approach was used to explore women's experiences of attending the group. Fifteen women participated in individual, in-depth face-to-face interviews. Interviews were recorded and transcribed verbatim. Thematic analysis was undertaken to analyse the qualitative data. Six themes were developed, one with 3 subthemes. One theme was labelled as: 'the pregnancy and motherhood journey' and included 3 sub-themes which were labelled: 'preparation for birth', 'connecting with the baby' and 'sharing birth stories.' The other five themes were: 'feminine nurturing safe space', 'watching and learning the mothering', 'building mental health, well-being and connections', the "group like a rock and a seed' and 'different from mainstream'. This research adds to the overall body of knowledge about the value of yoga in pre and postnatal care. It demonstrates the value of sharing birth stories and the strong capacity women have to support one another, bringing benefits of emotional and social well-being, information, resources and support derived from group based models of care. Crown Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. The change and significance of platelet parameters and blood coagulation function index in patients with hypertensive disorder complicating pregnancy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu-Xia Shi; Yi-Xin Yang; Qian Xu; Yanhua Zhu

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To explore the change and significance of platelet parameters and blood coagulation function index in patients with hypertensive disorder complicating pregnancy.Methods: Chose 89 patients with HDCP, they were set as HDCP group, chose another 60 cases health late pregnancy women and 42 cases non pregnant female, they were set as late pregnant group and non-pregnant control group, detected the platelet parameters: the average blood platelet count (PLT), platelet volume (MPV), platelet distribution width (PDW) and blood coagulation indexes, plasma prothrombin time (PT), thrombin time (TT), fibrinogen (FIB), D-dimer (D-D), activated partial blood coagulation time (APTT) live enzymes in three groups.Results: (1) Compared with the non-pregnant group and late pregnant group, PLT was significantly lower, while the MPV and PDW were significantly higher in HDCP group; PLT in late pregnant group was significantly lower than that in non-pregnant group, and there were no significantly difference of MPV and PDW in the two groups; (2) Compared with the non-pregnant group and late pregnant group, PT and APTT levels were significantly lower, while FIB and D-D were significantly higher in HDCP group; The level of PT and APTT in late pregnant group were significantly lower, and FIB and D-D levels were significantly higher than that in non-pregnant group, However, The level of TT were no statistical significance difference among the three groups.Conclusion: HDCP existence phenomenon of platelet activation and apparent high coagulation state, dynamic detection of HDCP patients platelet parameters and blood coagulation indexes to prevent related complications, improve obstetrics safety is of great significance.

  18. The impact of group prenatal care on pregnancy and postpartum weight trajectories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magriples, Urania; Boynton, Marcella H; Kershaw, Trace S; Lewis, Jessica; Rising, Sharon Schindler; Tobin, Jonathan N; Epel, Elissa; Ickovics, Jeannette R

    2015-11-01

    The objective of the study was to investigate whether group prenatal care (Centering Pregnancy Plus [CP+]) has an impact on pregnancy weight gain and postpartum weight loss trajectories and to determine whether prenatal depression and distress might moderate these trajectories. This was a secondary analysis of a cluster-randomized trial of CP+ in 14 Community Health Centers and hospitals in New York City. Participants were pregnant women aged 14-21 years (n = 984). Medical record review and 4 structured interviews were conducted: in the second and third trimesters and 6 and 12 months postpartum. Longitudinal mixed modeling was utilized to evaluate the weight change trajectories in the control and intervention groups. Prenatal distress and depression were also assessed to examine their impact on weight change. There were no significant differences between the intervention and control groups in baseline demographics. Thirty-five percent of the participants were overweight or obese, and more than 50% had excessive weight gain by Institute of Medicine standards. CP+ was associated with improved weight trajectories compared with controls (P prenatal care gained less weight during pregnancy and lost more weight postpartum. This effect was sustained among women who were categorized as obese based on prepregnancy body mass index (P Prenatal depression and distress were significantly associated with higher antepartum weight gain and postpartum weight retention. Women with the highest levels of depression and prenatal distress exhibited the greatest positive impact of group prenatal care on weight trajectories during pregnancy and through 12 months postpartum. Group prenatal care has a significant impact on weight gain trajectories in pregnancy and postpartum. The intervention also appeared to mitigate the effects of depression and prenatal distress on antepartum weight gain and postpartum weight retention. Targeted efforts are needed during and after pregnancy to improve

  19. Factor VIII and von Willebrand factor changes during normal pregnancy and puerperium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Luceros, Analía; Meschengieser, Susana S; Marchese, Carlos; Votta, Roberto; Casais, Patricia; Woods, Adriana I; Nadal, María V; Salviú, María J; Lazzari, María A

    2003-10-01

    Gestation is a challenge to haemostasis and it is associated with significant haemostatic changes. Several studies have evaluated von Willebrand factor in normal pregnancy, but none considered the personal history of bleeding. We studied a group of healthy non-bleeding women (184 pregnant, 64 puerperium, 37 non-pregnant) to evaluate normal ranges and their relationship to blood group and parity. The von Willebrand factor increased markedly from non-pregnant values up to the end of early puerperium (P < 0.0001), while factor VIII only showed a slight increase. Factor VIII and von Willebrand factor activity remained within the normal range for non-pregnant women. The return to non-pregnant factor levels occurred in late puerperium, later than previously reported. Only factor VIII was significantly lower in the O blood group (P = 0.035). As regards parity, there were no differences in factor VIII, von Willebrand factor antigen and von Willebrand factor ristocetin cofactor between primigravidae and multigravidae for any period studied (P = 0.888, 0.999, and 0.237, respectively). Our results provide reference ranges that may help to design a study in von Willebrand factor disease in pregnancy.

  20. Assessment of Pre-Pregnancy Dietary Intake with a Food Frequency Questionnaire in Alberta Women

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    Stephanie M. Ramage

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Pre-pregnancy is an under-examined and potentially important time to optimize dietary intake to support fetal growth and development as well as maternal health. The purpose of the study was to determine the extent to which dietary intake reported by non-pregnant women is similar to pre-pregnancy dietary intake reported by pregnant women using the same assessment tool. Methods: The self-administered, semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire (FFQ was adapted from the Canadian version of the Diet History Questionnaire, originally developed by the National Cancer Institute in the United States. Pregnant women (n = 98 completed the FFQ which assessed dietary intake for the year prior to pregnancy. Non-pregnant women (n = 103 completed the same FFQ which assessed dietary intake for the previous year. Energy, macronutrients, and key micronutrients: long-chain omega-3 fatty acids, folate, vitamin B6, vitamin B12, calcium, vitamin D and iron were examined. Results: Dietary intake between groups; reported with the FFQ; was similar except for saturated fat; trans fat; calcium; and alcohol. Pregnant women reported significantly higher intakes of saturated fat; trans fat; and calcium and lower intake of alcohol in the year prior to pregnancy compared to non-pregnant women who reported intake in the previous year. Conclusions: Despite limitations; a FFQ may be used to assist with retrospective assessment of pre-pregnancy dietary intake.

  1. Prevalence of human papillomavirus infection in pregnant versus non-pregnant women in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salcedo, Mila M B P; Damin, Andrea P S; Agnes, Grasiela; Pessini, Suzana A; Beitune, Patricia El; Alexandre, Claudio O P; Schmeler, Kathleen M; da Silveira, Gustavo Py Gomes

    2015-12-01

    To investigate the prevalence of human papillomavirus (HPV) in cervical samples of pregnant and non-pregnant women in South-Brazil. A prospective study of 91 pregnant and 92 non-pregnant women with no previous history of cervical dysplasia or cancer was carried out. Cervical samples for HPV testing and cytology were collected in each trimester of pregnancy and in the puerperium for pregnant women and at matched intervals for the non-pregnant women. All samples were analyzed through PCR with consensus primers GP5+/GP6+. Genotyping was performed using specific primers. To control for confounding factors, the analysis of multivariate logistic regression was applied. The measure of odds ratio (OR) and the 95 % confidence interval (95 % CI) were used. The level of statistical significance was set at 5 % (P ≤ 0.05). HPV DNA was detected in 23/91 (25.3 %) cervical samples from the pregnant women and in 12/92 (13 %) cervical samples from non-pregnant women (P = 0.035). There was a significant association among cervical HPV infection and young age, number of lifetime sexual partners, and the presence of abnormal cervical cytology. HPV16 and HPV18 were the viral types more frequently detected. Out of the 23 HPV-positive pregnant women, 17 (73.9 %) had normal cervical cytology. Our results suggest a higher prevalence of HPV infection in pregnant vs. non-pregnant women. This finding may be related to the relative immunosuppression observed in pregnant women, outlining the importance of the appropriate monitoring of the viral infection in this specific population.

  2. Impact of Pregnancy on Zonisamide Pharmacokinetics in Rabbits

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    Kamal M. Matar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Pregnancy is associated with various physiological changes which may lead to significant alterations in the pharmacokinetics of many drugs. The present study was aimed to investigate the potential effects of pregnancy on the pharmacokinetic profile of zonisamide (ZNM in the rabbit. Seven female rabbits were used in this study. The pregnant and nonpregnant rabbits received ZNM orally at a dose of 10 mg/kg and blood samples were collected from the animals just before receiving the drug and then serially for up to 24 h. The plasma samples were analyzed using tandem mass spectrometric method. Following a single oral dose of ZNM to the rabbits, the mean values of ZNM plasma concentrations at different times were consistently low in pregnant compared to nonpregnant rabbits. The mean values of ZNM’s Cmax and AUC0-∞ were significantly (P<0.05 decreased, whereas the CL/F exhibited substantial increase (P<0.05 in pregnant compared to nonpregnant rabbits. Tmax, t1/2abs, t1/2el, MRT, and Vd/F showed no significant differences between the two groups. The present study demonstrates that pregnancy decreased ZNM plasma concentrations in rabbits and that the decrease could be due to decreased extent of gastrointestinal absorption, induced hepatic metabolism, or enhanced renal elimination of the drug.

  3. Short-term low-protein diet during pregnancy alters islet area and protein content of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase pathway in rats

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    CRISTIANA S.B. SALVATIERRA

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase and mitogen-activated protein kinase pathways mediate β cell growth, proliferation, survival and death. We investigated whether protein restriction during pregnancy alters islet morphometry or the expression and phosphorylation of several proteins involved in the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase and mitogen-activated protein kinase pathways. As controls, adult pregnant and non-pregnant rats were fed a normal-protein diet (17%. Pregnant and non-pregnant rats in the experimental groups were fed a low-protein diet (6% for 15 days. Low protein diet during pregnancy increased serum prolactin level, reduced serum corticosterone concentration and the expression of both protein kinase B/AKT1 (AKT1 and p70 ribosomal protein S6 kinase (p70S6K, as well as the islets area, but did not alter the insulin content of pancreatic islets. Pregnancy increased the expression of the Src homology/collagen (SHC protein and the extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1/2 (ERK1/2 independent of diet. ERK1/2 phosphorylation (pERK1/2 was similar in islets from pregnant and non-pregnant rats fed a low-protein diet, and was higher in islets from pregnant rats than in islets from non-pregnant rats fed a normal-protein diet. Thus, a short-term, low-protein diet during pregnancy was sufficient to reduce the levels of proteins in the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase pathway and affect islet morphometry.

  4. Is there association between ABO blood group and the risk factors of unfavorable outcomes of pregnancy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seyfizadeh, Nayer; Seyfizadeh, Narges; Yousefi, Bahman; Borzoueisileh, Sajad; Majidinia, Maryam; Shanehbandi, Dariush; Jahani, Mohammad Ali

    2015-03-01

    There are four major blood groups in human based on the presence of A and B antigens. ABO gene encodes A and B antigens on the surface of red blood cells and there are reported relations between this blood phenotype and pregnancy outcomes in the women. In this study, medical records of 792 healthy pregnant women were investigated and their age and blood test results including blood group with fasting blood sugar, hemoglobin, hematocrit, urea, creatinine and red blood cell counts were analyzed in statistical package for the social sciences. The RBC count in AB blood type was significantly higher than A and O blood group, also FBS level in the people with AB blood group was meaningfully higher than A group. But the mean of HGB and HCT were not significantly different between groups. The serum urea in the AB group was higher than the three other groups and also it was significantly higher in B compared to O and A blood groups. The serum creatinine in the AB group was higher than the three other groups too. Also it was significantly higher in the B group compared to A blood groups. These results indicate that the ABO blood group may have association with some of the risk factors of the unfavorable outcomes of pregnancy and it may be one of the prognostic tools, also it addresses more extensive studies.

  5. Herbal medicine use during pregnancy in a group of Australian women

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    Wills Gemma

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There are limited data on the extent of women's use of herbal medicines during pregnancy, despite the fact that knowledge of the potential benefits or harms of many of these products is sparse, particularly with respect to their use in pregnancy. We aimed to measure the prevalence of herbal medicine use in a group of pregnant women attending a public tertiary maternity hospital in Melbourne, Australia. Secondary aims were to explore why women took the herbal medicine, where they received advice, what form the supplements took and if they perceived the supplements to be helpful. Methods Consecutive pregnant women were approached in the antenatal clinic and the birth centre at around 36–38 weeks gestation. A questionnaire was developed and self-administered in English, as well as being translated into the four most common languages of women attending the hospital: Cantonese, Vietnamese, Turkish and Arabic. Back translation into English was undertaken by different professional translators to verify accuracy of both words and concepts. Data collected included demographic information, model of pregnancy care and herbal supplement use. Descriptive statistics were used initially, with stratified and regression analysis to compare sub-groups. Results Of 705 eligible women, 588 (83% agreed to participate. Of these, 88 (15% completed the questionnaire in a language other than English. Thirty-six percent of women took at least one herbal supplement during the current pregnancy. The most common supplements taken were raspberry leaf (14%, ginger (12% and chamomile (11%. Women were more likely to take herbal supplements if they were older, tertiary educated, English speaking, non-smokers and primiparous. Conclusion Use of herbal supplements in pregnancy is likely to be relatively high and it is important to ascertain what supplements (if any women are taking. Pregnancy care providers should be aware of the common herbal supplements used

  6. Bacteruria with group-B streptococcus: is it a risk factor for adverse pregnancy outcomes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kessous, Roy; Weintraub, Adi Y; Sergienko, Ruslan; Lazer, Tal; Press, Fernanda; Wiznitzer, Arnon; Sheiner, Eyal

    2012-10-01

    To investigate pregnancy outcomes of patients with and without group-B streptococcus (GBS) bacteriuria. A retrospective study comparing pregnancy outcomes of women with GBS bacteriuria during pregnancy, those with positive GBS vaginal cultures and those without GBS colonization during pregnancy was conducted. A significant linear association was found with regard to intrapartum fever (U-GBS 0.5%, V-GBS 0.3%, no GBS 0.1%, p = 0.001) and chorioamnionitis (U-GBS 3.3%, V-GBS 1%, no GBS 0.7%, p = 0.001). In addition preterm delivery (15.3% vs. 7.9%, p = 0.001) and premature rupture of membranes (10.7% vs. 7.9, p = 0.001) were significantly higher in the U-GBS group compared to no GBS. Woman with U-GBS had higher rates of diabetes mellitus, hypertensive disorders, and habitual abortions as well as a higher risk for intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR). In addition patients with U-GBS underwent induction of labor and cesarean delivery more frequently. Our study showed a significant association between U-GBS and adverse obstetrical outcomes. In addition a linear association was found between GBS culture location and obstetric complications. However, GBS was not associated with adverse perinatal outcome in our population.

  7. Population pharmacokinetics of artesunate and dihydroartemisinin in pregnant and non-pregnant women with malaria

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    Bose Carl

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The World Health Organization endorses the use of artemisinin-based combination therapy for treatment of acute uncomplicated falciparum malaria in the second and third trimesters of pregnancy. However, the effects of pregnancy on the pharmacokinetics of artemisinin derivatives, such as artesunate (AS, are poorly understood. In this analysis, the population pharmacokinetics of oral AS, and its active metabolite dihydroartemisinin (DHA, were studied in pregnant and non-pregnant women at the Kingasani Maternity Clinic in the DRC. Methods Data were obtained from 26 pregnant women in the second (22 - 26 weeks or the third (32 - 36 weeks trimester of pregnancy and from 25 non-pregnant female controls. All subjects received 200 mg AS. Plasma AS and DHA were measured using a validated LC-MS method. Estimates for pharmacokinetic and variability parameters were obtained through nonlinear mixed effects modelling. Results A simultaneous parent-metabolite model was developed consisting of mixed zero-order, lagged first-order absorption of AS, a one-compartment model for AS, and a one-compartment model for DHA. Complete conversion of AS to DHA was assumed. The model displayed satisfactory goodness-of-fit, stability, and predictive ability. Apparent clearance (CL/F and volume of distribution (V/F estimates, with 95% bootstrap confidence intervals, were as follows: 195 L (139-285 L for AS V/F, 895 L/h (788-1045 L/h for AS CL/F, 91.4 L (78.5-109 L for DHA V/F, and 64.0 L/h (55.1-75.2 L/h for DHA CL/F. The effect of pregnancy on DHA CL/F was determined to be significant, with a pregnancy-associated increase in DHA CL/F of 42.3% (19.7 - 72.3%. Conclusions In this analysis, pharmacokinetic modelling suggests that pregnant women have accelerated DHA clearance compared to non-pregnant women receiving orally administered AS. These findings, in conjunction with a previous non-compartmental analysis of the modelled data, provide further evidence that

  8. Pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Palmer, Keith T; Bonzini, Matteo; Bonde, Jens Peter Ellekilde;

    2013-01-01

    Most pregnant women are exposed to some physical activity at work. This Concise Guidance is aimed at doctors advising healthy women with uncomplicated singleton pregnancies about the risks arising from five common workplace exposures (prolonged working hours, shift work, lifting, standing and heavy...... physical workload). The adverse outcomes considered are: miscarriage, preterm delivery, small for gestational age, low birth weight, pre-eclampsia and gestational hypertension. Systematic review of the literature indicates that these exposures are unlikely to carry much of an increased risk for any...... on pregnancy. Moreover, moderate physical exercise is thought to be healthy in pregnancy and most pregnant women undertake some physical work at home. The guidelines provide risk estimates and advice on counselling....

  9. Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... occur between 34 and 36 weeks—these are late-preterm births. 5 Infants born in the 37th and 38th ... NICHD News and Spotlights Common tests for preterm birth not useful for ... in treating mildly low thyroid function in pregnancy, NIH Network study finds ...

  10. Immediate stress reduction effects of yoga during pregnancy: One group pre-post test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusaka, Momoko; Matsuzaki, Masayo; Shiraishi, Mie; Haruna, Megumi

    2016-10-01

    Excessive stress during pregnancy may cause mental disorders in pregnant women and inhibit fetal growth. Yoga may alleviate stress during pregnancy. To verify the immediate effects of yoga on stress response during pregnancy. One group pre-post test was conducted at a hospital in Japan. We recruited 60 healthy primiparas without complications and asked them to attend yoga classes twice a month and to practice yoga at their homes using DVD 3 times a week from 20 gestational weeks until childbirth. Salivary cortisol and alpha-amylase concentration were measured before and after yoga classes at time 1 (27-32 gestational weeks) and time 2 (34-37 gestational weeks). Subjective mood was assessed using the profile of mood states. Saliva values and mood scores before and after each yoga class were compared using paired t-test and Wilcoxon rank-sum test, respectively. We analyzed 44 and 35 women at time 1 and time 2, respectively. The mean salivary cortisol concentration declined significantly after each yoga class [time 1: 0.36-0.26μg/dL (pstress reduction effects of yoga during pregnancy. Copyright © 2016 Australian College of Midwives. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Romanticism and self-esteem among pregnant adolescents, adolescent mothers, and nonpregnant, nonparenting teens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medora, N P; Goldstein, A; von der Hellen, C

    1994-10-01

    Feelings of romanticism and self-esteem among pregnant adolescents, adolescent mothers, and a control group of nonpregnant, nonparenting adolescents were investigated. The Bachman Self-Esteem Scale (Bachman, O'Malley, & Johnston, 1978) and the Dean Romanticism Scale (Dean, 1961) were distributed to 649 U.S. female adolescents--255 pregnant adolescents, 121 adolescent mothers, and 273 teenagers in the control group. For romanticism, the results indicated a significant main effect for group (pregnant teens, teen mothers, and a control group consisting of nonpregnant, nonparenting teenagers) and ethnicity (White, Hispanic, African American, and Asian) but not for age (13 to 15 years and 16 to 19 years). The pregnant teens and teen mothers thus had a higher degree of romanticism than the control group did. For self-esteem, there was a significant main effect for race, but not for group or for age. This main effect was qualified by a significant interaction between ethnicity and age.

  12. Corticotropin-releasing hormone, its binding protein and receptors in human cervical tissue at preterm and term labor in comparison to non-pregnant state

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    Byström Birgitta

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Preterm birth is still the leading cause of neonatal morbidity and mortality. The level of corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH is known to be significantly elevated in the maternal plasma at preterm birth. Although, CRH, CRH-binding protein (CRH-BP, CRH-receptor 1 (CRH-R1 and CRH-R2 have been identified both at mRNA and protein level in human placenta, deciduas, fetal membranes, endometrium and myometrium, no corresponding information is yet available on cervix. Thus, the aim of this study was to compare the levels of the mRNA species coding for CRH, CRH-BP, CRH-R1 and CRH-R2 in human cervical tissue and myometrium at preterm and term labor and not in labor as well as in the non-pregnant state, and to localize the corresponding proteins employing immunohistochemical analysis. Methods Cervical, isthmic and fundal (from non-pregnant subjects only biopsies were taken from 67 women. Subjects were divided in 5 groups: preterm labor (14, preterm not in labor (7, term labor (18, term not in labor (21 and non-pregnant (7. Real-time RT-PCR was employed for quantification of mRNA levels and the corresponding proteins were localized by immunohistochemical analysis. Results The levels of CRH-BP, CRH-R1 and CRH-R2 mRNA in the pregnant tissues were lower than those in non-pregnant subjects. No significant differences were observed between preterm and term groups. CRH-BP and CRH-R2 mRNA and the corresponding proteins were present at lower levels in the laboring cervix than in the non-laboring cervix, irrespective of gestational age. In most of the samples, with the exception of four myometrial biopsies the level of CRH mRNA was below the limit of detection. All of these proteins could be detected and localized in the cervix and the myometrium by immunohistochemical analysis. Conclusion Expression of CRH-BP, CRH-R1 and CRH-R2 in uterine tissues is down-regulated during pregnancy. The most pronounced down-regulation of CRH-BP and CRH-R2

  13. Urinary tract infections during pregnancy - an updated overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szweda, Hanna; Jóźwik, Marcin

    2016-01-01

    Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are the most common type of infection during pregnancy, affecting up to 10% of pregnant women. They are also recognized as the second most common ailment of pregnancy, after anemia. Three clinical types of pregnancy-related UTI are distinguished: asymptomatic bacteriuria (ASB), cystitis, and pyelonephritis. A particular form of ASB is the presence of Group B streptococci in the urinary tract of the pregnant woman. All clinical types of UTI may lead to serious maternal and fetal complications. Therefore, unlike in the nonpregnant female patient, all UTIs during pregnancy, including the asymptomatic infection, require treatment. In some patients, antibiotic prophylaxis should also be introduced. In the present work, we collectively summarize current practical recommendations from a number of international bodies and organizations.

  14. Disposition of stiripentol in the pregnant and non-pregnant female rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maurizis, J C; Rapp, M; Madelmont, J C; Gillardin, J M; Lepage, F; Labarre, P; Dupuy, J M; Veyre, A

    1993-12-01

    1. The disposition of stiripentol labelled with 14C and 3H on two positions has been studied in the pregnant and non-pregnant female rat after p.o. administration of a 200 mg/kg dose. 2. For both labelled species radioactivity was eliminated mainly in the faeces (69% within 72 h). Urinary excretion was rather low (22% within 72 h). No significant difference was found between the disposition of the two labelled species. 3. For both labelled species concentrations of radioactivity reached a plateau in the plasma and tissues between 1 and 6 h after administration. The liver, fat, mammary gland and adrenal gland were the most extensively-labelled organs. The affinity for the mammary gland was significantly greater in pregnant rats and for the adrenal gland was significantly greater in the non-pregnant rats. The fact that the concentration in the placenta was higher than in the foetus demonstrated that this membrane acts as a barrier for the penetration of the drug in the amniotic fluid. 4. Chromatographic analysis of the faeces and urine showed that an important portion of the dose remained unabsorbed through the gastrointestinal tract. The absorbed fraction undergoes an extensive first-pass metabolism involving mainly the oxidative cleavage of the methylenedioxy ring. Comparison with the results of other work conducted on the non-pregnant rat demonstrated that pregnancy did not affect the disposition and metabolic process.

  15. [Clinical practice recommendations for diabetes in pregnancy (Diabetes and Pregnancy Study Group of the Austrian Diabetes Association)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kautzky-Willer, Alexandra; Harreiter, Jürgen; Weitgasser, Raimund; Lechleitner, Monika

    2016-04-01

    Twenty-six years ago the St. Vincent Declaration aimed for an achievement of a comparable pregnancy outcome in diabetic and non-diabetic women. However, current surveys clearly show that women with pre-gestational diabetes still feature a much higher risk of perinatal morbidity and even increased mortality. This fact is mostly ascribed to a persistently low rate of pregnancy planning and pre-pregnancy care with optimization of metabolic control prior to conception. In addition, obesity increases worldwide, contributing to a growing number of women with type 2 diabetes at a childbearing age, and a further deterioration in outcome in diabetic women. Development of diabetic embryopathy and fetopathy are known to be related to maternal glycemic control (target: normoglycemia and normal HbA1c, if possible without hypoglycemia). The risk for hypoglycemia is at its greatest in early pregnancy and decreases with the progression of pregnancy due to the hormonal changes leading to a marked increase of insulin resistance. Intensified insulin therapy with multiple daily insulin injections and pump treatment are equally effective in reaching good metabolic control during pregnancy. All women should be experienced in the management of their therapy and on stable glycemic control prior to the conception. In addition, thyroid dysfunction, hypertension as well as the presence of diabetic complications should be excluded before pregnancy or treated adequately in order to decrease the risk for a progression of complications during pregnancy as well as for maternal and fetal morbidity.

  16. Iodine deficiency in pregnancy is prevalent in vulnerable groups in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkegaard-Klitbo, Ditte Marie; Perslev, Kathrine; Andersen, Stine Linding

    2016-01-01

    . CONCLUSIONS: The iodine status in Danish pregnant women was below WHO recommendations. Iodine supplement non-users are at a particular risk of iodine deficiency. Low maternal education, non-Danish origin and pre-pregnancy obesity are predictors of non-iodine supplement use. An increase in iodine fortification......INTRODUCTION: Iodine is essential for the production of thyroid hormones. In pregnancy, physiological changes occur that can lead to iodine deficiency and impairment of fetal neurological development. We aimed to assess the iodine intake in pregnant women in Eastern Denmark, compare iodine levels...... in Eastern and Western Denmark and to identify potentially vulnerable groups. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional cohort study of pregnant Danish women (n = 240). Questionnaires and urine samples were collected at the Ultrasound Clinic, Hvidovre Hospital, Denmark, and urinary iodine concentrations (UIC) (µg...

  17. Field experiences with early pregnancy diagnosis by progesterone-based ELISA in sows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.H. Boma

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available In four Kenyan pig breeding units the pregnancy diagnosis of sows has been carried out in two groups: Group 1 (n = 1911: the sows were transrectaly pregnancy tested between Days 17–22 post-mating by ultrasound. Sows testing non-pregnant immediately received one dose of 400 IU pregnant mare serum gonadotropin (PMSG (equine chorion gonadotropin, eCG and 200 IU human chorion gonadotropin (hCG. On showing signs of oestrous, the animals were subsequently artificially inseminated (AI. Group 2 (n = 1923: sows were pregnancy tested by serum progesterone (P4-based enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA on Day 17 post-breeding. P4 concentrations were categorized as positive (> 5 ng/ml or negative (< 5 ng/ml. Sows testing non-pregnant immediately received one dose of 400 IU PMSG and 200 IU hCG by injection, and were subsequently artificially inseminated. The following parameters were evaluated: sows diagnosed non-pregnant, days from first post-weaning insemination until the sows were inseminated at their first return to oestrus; farrowing rate and total piglets born and number of live-born piglets in litters.The percentage of sows diagnosed non-pregnant in the two groups, as well as the totals of born piglets and of live-born piglets in litters did not differ significantly between the two groups. The number of days from the first post-weaning mating until the sows were artificially inseminated at their first return to oestrus and the administration of eCG and hCG was shorter (P < 0.01 and farrowing rate was higher (P < 0.01 in the ELISA-tested sows.

  18. Changes in blood glucose, plasma non-esterified fatty acids and insulin in pregnant and non-pregnant goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, J R; Ludri, R S

    2002-02-01

    The blood glucose and the plasma non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA) and insulin concentrations were estimated in jugular blood samples from 18 Alpine x Beetal and Sannen x Beetal goats during pregnancy and compared with samples from non-pregnant goats and from goats during the periparturient period. The blood glucose levels in the pregnant goats rose to a peak of about 60 +/- 1.36 mg/ml at 42-56 days and then declined to about 46 +/- 2.37 mg/ml at 112-126 days. In non-pregnant goats, the blood glucose levels were significantly (p goats, except between days 42 and 70 (59 +/- 1.36 mg/ml). On the day of kidding, the levels declined significantly (p goats from days 56 to 126. The NEFA concentration increased on the day of kidding, followed by a transient fall by day 3. The plasma insulin concentration was usually higher in pregnant than in non-pregnant goats, except between days 56 and 70 and from day 126 onwards. The insulin concentration fell late in pregnancy, but there was a transient increase 2 days after parturition. The blood glucose and plasma NEFA concentrations can be used as indices of nutritional status during pregnancy in goats.

  19. Seafood consumption among pregnant and non-pregnant women of childbearing age in the United States, NHANES 1999–2006

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hilda Razzaghi

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids found in seafood are essential for optimal neurodevelopment of the fetus. However, concerns about mercury contamination of seafood and its potential harm to the developing fetus have created uncertainty about seafood consumption for pregnant women. We compared fish and shellfish consumption patterns, as well as their predictors, among pregnant and non-pregnant women of childbearing age in the US. Methods: Data from 1,260 pregnant and 5,848 non-pregnant women aged 16–49 years from the 1999 to 2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES were analyzed. Frequency and type of seafood consumed and adjusted associations of multiple characteristics with seafood consumption were estimated for pregnant and non-pregnant women, separately. Time trends were also examined. Results: There were no significant differences in the prevalence of fish or shellfish consumption, separately or combined, between pregnant and non-pregnant women using either the 30-day questionnaire or the Day 1, 24-h recall. Seafood consumption was associated with higher age, income, and education among pregnant and non-pregnant women, and among fish consumers these groups were more likely to consume ≥3 servings in the past 30 days. Tuna and shrimp were the most frequently reported fish and shellfish, respectively, among both pregnant and non-pregnant women. We observed no significant time trends. Conclusion: There were no differences in seafood consumption between pregnant and non-pregnant women, and the factors related to seafood consumption were similar for both groups. Our data suggest that many women consume less than the recommended two servings of seafood a week.

  20. The use of folic acid and other vitamins before and during pregnancy in a group of women in Melbourne, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forster, Della A; Wills, Gemma; Denning, Angela; Bolger, Melissa

    2009-04-01

    to explore the use of folic acid and other vitamin supplements before and during pregnancy, including type, dosage and form; who recommended supplement use and for what reason; and women's understanding of why they took folic acid. cross-sectional survey. a public tertiary referral hospital in Melbourne, Australia. consecutive pregnant women at 36-38-weeks gestation completed a self-administered survey (available in English, Cantonese, Vietnamese, Turkish and Arabic). a structured questionnaire was used. Descriptive statistics are presented, with stratified and regression analyses to compare sub-groups. of 705 eligible women, 588 (83%) agreed to participate. Of these, 88 (15%) completed the questionnaire in a language other than English. Twenty-nine per cent (168/588) of women took pre-pregnancy folic acid supplements. Only 23% reported taking a folic acid supplement for at least 4 weeks before pregnancy. During pregnancy, 79% of women took folic acid, most of whom commenced before 13 weeks. Other vitamin supplements taken during pregnancy were iron (52%), calcium (24%), Vitamin B6 (14%), pregnancy multivitamins (35%) and zinc (7%). Only 8% took no supplements at all in pregnancy. Factors associated with an increased risk of not taking folic acid were income pregnancy (adjusted OR 2.3, 95% CI 1.26, 4.48) and having other than a first baby (adjusted OR 1.89, 95% CI 1.22, 2.93). uptake of folic acid supplementation in the periconceptional period was well below the target that all women planning pregnancy consume 0.4-0.5mg of folate per day. Less than one-third of this sample took a pre-pregnancy folic acid supplement, with differences in uptake by group. A large proportion of respondents also took a range of other vitamin supplements during pregnancy. it is important to target women who are less likely to take periconceptional folic acid as well as to increase awareness among women of childbearing age in general.

  1. Vitamin D status and periodontal disease among pregnant and non-pregnant women in an underdeveloped district of Pakistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Farhan R.; Ahmad, Tashfeen; Hussain, Rabia; Bhutta, Zulfiqar A.

    2016-01-01

    Aim: To compare pregnant and non-pregnant females for vitamin D level and periodontal status and to determine if there is any association between the periodontal health and hypovitaminosis D in pregnant women. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in Jhelum, Pakistan. Participants were pregnant females at ~ 12 weeks of gestation (n = 36) and non-pregnant (n = 35) females selected from the same locality. Periodontal parameters such as probing depth, bleeding on probing, and attachment loss were recorded. Serum samples were taken to measure blood indices and vitamin D levels. Chi-square test and Odds ratio were applied to determine the association between hypovitaminosis D and periodontal status. Results: Vitamin D deficiency was common in the pregnant group compared to non-pregnant (P < 0.001). Blood indices (hemoglobin, hematocrit, mean corpuscular volume) were significantly lower among the pregnant compared to the non-pregnant group (P < 0.001). However, there was no significant difference between the two groups for probing depth and attachment loss. Conclusions: Pregnant women were more deficient in Vitamin D than non-pregnant women. However, no association between low vitamin D levels and periodontal disease was seen in the studied population. PMID:27382540

  2. Group B streptococcus and pregnancy : towards an optimal prevention strategy for neonatal Group B Streptococcal Disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Valkenburg-van den Berg, Arijaantje Willemijntje (Arijaan)

    2012-01-01

    Group B Streptococcus (GBS, Streptococcus agalactiae) has been recognized as an important cause of perinatal morbidity and mortality. The frequency of GBS colonization ranges from 10% to 35% in women of reproductive age. GBS colonization can be transient, intermittent or persistent. Vertical transmi

  3. Group B streptococcus and pregnancy : towards an optimal prevention strategy for neonatal Group B Streptococcal Disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Valkenburg-van den Berg, Arijaantje Willemijntje (Arijaan)

    2012-01-01

    Group B Streptococcus (GBS, Streptococcus agalactiae) has been recognized as an important cause of perinatal morbidity and mortality. The frequency of GBS colonization ranges from 10% to 35% in women of reproductive age. GBS colonization can be transient, intermittent or persistent. Vertical transmi

  4. Group B streptococcus and pregnancy : towards an optimal prevention strategy for neonatal Group B Streptococcal Disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Valkenburg-van den Berg, Arijaantje Willemijntje (Arijaan)

    2012-01-01

    Group B Streptococcus (GBS, Streptococcus agalactiae) has been recognized as an important cause of perinatal morbidity and mortality. The frequency of GBS colonization ranges from 10% to 35% in women of reproductive age. GBS colonization can be transient, intermittent or persistent. Vertical

  5. A study of cardiovascular autonomic function in normal pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumana Panja

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The present study was designed to evaluate the physiological responses to noninvasive cardiovascular autonomic function tests in normal pregnancy and compare them with non- pregnant controls. Materials and Methods: The study population comprised of 90 apparently healthy, pregnant women divided equally into three groups based on their period of gestation and 30 otherwise healthy, non-pregnant women as controls. The standard autonomic function tests based on cardiovascular reflexes, including heart rate response tests and blood pressure response tests were performed. Result: It was observed that variability of mean between and within all the population groups and controls was significantly different. Multiple comparison analysis revealed a significantly lower Deep Breathing Difference in pregnant subjects, significant difference in Valsalva Ratio in third trimester group, a significantly lower Postural Tachycardia Index only during last trimester and a significantly higher fall in systolic blood pressure on standing only during 1st trimester. A significantly lower alteration in diastolic blood pressure during isometric handgrip in later trimesters and a significant increase in overall cardiovascular autonomic score between and within all groups were also observed. Conclusion: The observations serve to corroborate that the cardiovascular indices in pregnant women are significantly altered in comparison to non-pregnant women, thus highlighting the importance of cardiovascular monitoring during pregnancy. The study also helped to reaffirm the efficacy of simple cardiovascular reflex tests in research on pregnancy physiology.

  6. 'Expecting and Connecting' Group Pregnancy Care: Evaluation of a collaborative clinic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craswell, Alison; Kearney, Lauren; Reed, Rachel

    2016-10-01

    Establishment of a service to increase clinical placement opportunities for midwifery students in a regional area of Queensland, Australia with unknown impact on all service stakeholders. Group antenatal care (known as Expecting and Connecting) was provided at the university campus, instigated collaboratively between the health service and university in response to population growth and student needs in a health service jurisdiction not otherwise serviced for public pregnancy care. This study evaluated the 'Expecting and Connecting' Group Pregnancy Care service from the perspective of attending women, midwifery students and midwives. Qualitative findings were obtained from mothers, midwives and midwifery students. The study was guided by Donabedian's conceptual framework to assess quality within a health service. Thematic analysis was used to identify themes and concepts from the data within the areas of structure, process and outcome. Expecting and Connecting provided benefits to participants including an environment for students and pregnant women to build relationships to meet Continuity of Care requirements for students. Mothers reported high levels of satisfaction with antenatal care including the ability to develop peer support. The collaborative facilitation of group antenatal care by university and health service midwives provided a catalyst to the development of peer support networks within the local community and enhance opportunity for midwifery student requirements. The 'Expecting and Connecting' group antenatal care service was highly regarded by participant mothers, midwives and midwifery students and provided an additional source of midwifery student placement. Crown Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Vaccination for Group B Streptococcus during pregnancy: attitudes and concerns of women and health care providers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patten, San; Vollman, Ardene Robinson; Manning, Shannon D; Mucenski, Melissa; Vidakovich, Jeanne; Davies, H Dele

    2006-07-01

    Group B Streptococcus (GBS) is the leading infectious cause of neonatal morbidity and mortality. Although intrapartum antibiotic prophylaxis (IAP) strategies are effective in preventing GBS transmission from mothers to newborns, there are growing concerns about adverse effects, and the development of antibiotic resistance. GBS vaccines targeting the most virulent neonatal disease serotypes are currently under development and may be used during pregnancy. The objective of this study was to explore the key issues and concerns that would be associated with GBS vaccination during pregnancy from the perspectives of pregnant women and health care providers. Twenty-two women and 25 health care professionals in Alberta, Canada participated in 10 focus groups, each group ranging from 2 to 20 participants. Valuable information emerged from the focus groups about the factors that would affect acceptance of a maternal GBS vaccine. This information will be essential for health systems to consider in the introduction, promotion and delivery of such a vaccine. The data may help optimize education about GBS and a putative vaccine to pregnant women.

  8. Gingival changes during pregnancy: III. Impact of clinical, microbiological, immunological and socio-demographic factors on gingival inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrillo-de-Albornoz, Ana; Figuero, Elena; Herrera, David; Cuesta, Pedro; Bascones-Martínez, Antonio

    2012-03-01

    To identify predictor variables involved in exacerbated gingival inflammation associated with pregnancy. In this cohort study, 48 pregnant and 28 non-pregnant women without periodontitis were included. The pregnant women were evaluated in the first, second and third trimester and at 3 months postpartum, whilst the non-pregnant women were evaluated twice, with a 6-month interval. At each visit, clinical [plaque index (PlI) and gingival index (GI)], hormonal (salivary progesterone and estradiol), immunological [gingival crevicular fluid interleukin-1β, interleukin-6, tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and prostaglandin-E(2) ] and microbiological (periodontal pathogens culture) evaluations were performed. Statistical analysis was undertaken using exhaustive chi-square automatic interaction detection (exhaustive CHAID) to analyse the predictive value of the independent outcomes to develop pregnancy GI. PlI was the strongest predictor implicated in the GI throughout pregnancy and after delivery. During the second and third trimesters the presence of Porphyromonas gingivalis significantly contributed to the worsening of gingival inflammation. When compared with the non-pregnant group, significant differences were found in TNF-α amounts and concentrations and in the third trimester site-specific GI. Bacterial challenge to the gingival tissues, both quantitatively (PlI) and qualitatively (harbouring P. gingivalis) appears to affect the level of gingival inflammation observed during pregnancy. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  9. Impact of iron and folic acid supplementation on oxidative stress during pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lymperaki, E; Tsikopoulos, A; Makedou, K; Paliogianni, E; Kiriazi, L; Charisi, C; Vagdatli, E

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study was to assess serum total antioxidant capacity (TAC) and the impact of supplements on oxidative stress (OS) during pregnancy. Fifty volunteer pregnant women (21-40 years old), in the 12 ± 2 weeks' and 38 ± 2 weeks' gestation of pregnancy (study group), and 25 non-pregnant healthy women (control group) were enrolled. All pregnant women were divided into two age groups (A1: folic acid, B3: both and B4: none). Antioxidant activity was assayed using the TAC kit (Cayman Chemical Co.). Level of statistical significance was p pregnancy, especially with folic acid or no supplementation. In conclusion, pregnancy is associated with OS, which is promoted by the administration of iron supplementation.

  10. Outcome of consecutive pregnancies in a patient with Bombay (Oh) blood group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharya, S; Makar, Y; Laycock, R A; Gooch, A; Poole, J; Hadley, A

    2002-12-01

    A young lady with a rare Bombay (Oh) blood group had two successive uneventful pregnancies. Her serum contained a potent high-titre anti-H and serological as well as chemiluminescence tests, suggesting that the antibody was haemolytic. Her husband was of the normal H status. Theoretically, both babies should have been positive for the H antigen and should have suffered from haemolytic disease of the newborn. This apparent conundrum could be owing to the weak expression of the H antigens on the infant red cells.

  11. Restless legs syndrome and pregnancy: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivanitchapoom, Prachaya; Pandey, Sanjay; Hallett, Mark

    2014-01-01

    Restless legs syndrome (RLS) is a common sensorimotor neurological disorder that is diagnosed according to the revised criteria of the International RLS Study Group (IRLSSG). The pathophysiology of RLS is still unknown and its prevalence is influenced by ethnicity, age, and gender. RLS is divided into two types by etiology: primary or idiopathic and secondary. Primary RLS is strongly influenced by a genetic component while secondary RLS is caused by other associated conditions such as end-stage renal disease or peripheral neuropathy. Another common condition associated with RLS is pregnancy. The prevalence of RLS during pregnancy is two to three times higher than in the normal population and is influenced by the trimester and the number of parity. The main mechanisms that may contribute to the pathophysiology of RLS during pregnancy are hormonal changes and iron and folate status. Standard medications for treating RLS during pregnancy are not established. Most medications have been used according to the evidence from non-pregnant patients. Therefore, consideration of the medical treatment for treating RLS during pregnancy should be balanced between the benefit of relieving the symptoms and maternal and fetal risk. In general, the prognosis of RLS during pregnancy is good and symptoms are usually relieved after delivery. PMID:24768121

  12. Restless legs syndrome and pregnancy: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivanitchapoom, Prachaya; Pandey, Sanjay; Hallett, Mark

    2014-07-01

    Restless legs syndrome (RLS) is a common sensorimotor neurological disorder that is diagnosed according to the revised criteria of the International RLS Study Group (IRLSSG). The pathophysiology of RLS is still unknown and its prevalence is influenced by ethnicity, age, and gender. RLS is divided into two types by etiology: primary or idiopathic and secondary. Primary RLS is strongly influenced by a genetic component while secondary RLS is caused by other associated conditions such as end-stage renal disease or peripheral neuropathy. Another common condition associated with RLS is pregnancy. The prevalence of RLS during pregnancy is two to three times higher than in the normal population and is influenced by the trimester and the number of parity. The main mechanisms that may contribute to the pathophysiology of RLS during pregnancy are hormonal changes and iron and folate status. Standard medications for treating RLS during pregnancy are not established. Most medications have been used according to the evidence from non-pregnant patients. Therefore, consideration of the medical treatment for treating RLS during pregnancy should be balanced between the benefit of relieving the symptoms and maternal and fetal risk. In general, the prognosis of RLS during pregnancy is good and symptoms are usually relieved after delivery.

  13. [Effect of tobacco smoke on permeability of capillary of pregnant and non-pregnant rats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Florek, Tewa; Ignatowicz, Ewa; Piekoszewski, Wojciech; Wachowiak, Anna; Wrzosek, Jagna

    2006-01-01

    From among 4200 chemical compounds contained in the tobacco smoke, nicotine and carbon monoxide are responsible for changes in the heart-vessel system to the greatest extent. Additionally, other toxic compounds, including the carcinogenic ones, have a significant impact on the biological activity in the tissues of blood vessels. A particularly complex picture of the detrimental impact of the tobacco smoke is presented in case of pregnant women, fetuses and newborns. The aim of the research was to assess the impact of tobacco smoke on the permeability of capillaries in different tissues of rats (lungs, brain, liver, kidneys) and testing of the potentially protective impact of rutine (3-rutinozide of quercetin). The research on the permeability of capillaries has been carried out applying Evans blue. The animals were divided into 8 research groups: pregnant animals--"control", "rutine", "tobacco smoke", "rutine+tobacco smoke", and non-pregnant animals--"control", "rutine", "tobacco smoke", "rutine+tobacco smoke". In the first stage of research (pregnant, non-pregnant-- groups: "rutine" and "rutine+tobacco smoke"), the water rutine solution in a dose of 40 mg/kg of body weight was administered. The non-pregnant and pregnant animals from groups "tobacco smoke" and "rutine+tobacco smoke" were exposed to tobacco smoke via inhalation (1500 mg CO/m3 of air) for 21 days. All the animals were injected with the water Evans blue solution in a dose of 30 mg/kg of body weight. After 30 minutes, the animals were killed by cutting the abdominal aorta, and lungs, brain, liver and kidneys were taken for further testing. The cotinine in the urine was determined by the HPLC method, using norephedrine as the internal standard, after the preceding extraction by means of the liquid-liquid technique. The concentration of cotinine in case of non-pregnant and pregnant females was respectively 11.8 +/- 1.9 pg/ml of urine and 12.0 +/- 2.5 microg/ml of urine. In case of the rats, which

  14. PP13, maternal ABO blood groups and the risk assessment of pregnancy complications.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nandor Gabor Than

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Placental Protein 13 (PP13, an early biomarker of preeclampsia, is a placenta-specific galectin that binds beta-galactosides, building-blocks of ABO blood-group antigens, possibly affecting its bioavailability in blood. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We studied PP13-binding to erythrocytes, maternal blood-group effect on serum PP13 and its performance as a predictor of preeclampsia and intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR. Datasets of maternal serum PP13 in Caucasian (n = 1078 and Hispanic (n = 242 women were analyzed according to blood groups. In vivo, in vitro and in silico PP13-binding to ABO blood-group antigens and erythrocytes were studied by PP13-immunostainings of placental tissue-microarrays, flow-cytometry of erythrocyte-bound PP13, and model-building of PP13--blood-group H antigen complex, respectively. Women with blood group AB had the lowest serum PP13 in the first trimester, while those with blood group B had the highest PP13 throughout pregnancy. In accordance, PP13-binding was the strongest to blood-group AB erythrocytes and weakest to blood-group B erythrocytes. PP13-staining of maternal and fetal erythrocytes was revealed, and a plausible molecular model of PP13 complexed with blood-group H antigen was built. Adjustment of PP13 MoMs to maternal ABO blood group improved the prediction accuracy of first trimester maternal serum PP13 MoMs for preeclampsia and IUGR. CONCLUSIONS: ABO blood group can alter PP13-bioavailability in blood, and it may also be a key determinant for other lectins' bioavailability in the circulation. The adjustment of PP13 MoMs to ABO blood group improves the predictive accuracy of this test.

  15. PP13, Maternal ABO Blood Groups and the Risk Assessment of Pregnancy Complications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Than, Nandor Gabor; Romero, Roberto; Meiri, Hamutal; Erez, Offer; Xu, Yi; Tarquini, Federica; Barna, Laszlo; Szilagyi, Andras; Ackerman, Ron; Sammar, Marei; Fule, Tibor; Karaszi, Katalin; Kovalszky, Ilona; Dong, Zhong; Kim, Chong Jai; Zavodszky, Peter; Papp, Zoltan; Gonen, Ron

    2011-01-01

    Background Placental Protein 13 (PP13), an early biomarker of preeclampsia, is a placenta-specific galectin that binds beta-galactosides, building-blocks of ABO blood-group antigens, possibly affecting its bioavailability in blood. Methods and Findings We studied PP13-binding to erythrocytes, maternal blood-group effect on serum PP13 and its performance as a predictor of preeclampsia and intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR). Datasets of maternal serum PP13 in Caucasian (n = 1078) and Hispanic (n = 242) women were analyzed according to blood groups. In vivo, in vitro and in silico PP13-binding to ABO blood-group antigens and erythrocytes were studied by PP13-immunostainings of placental tissue-microarrays, flow-cytometry of erythrocyte-bound PP13, and model-building of PP13 - blood-group H antigen complex, respectively. Women with blood group AB had the lowest serum PP13 in the first trimester, while those with blood group B had the highest PP13 throughout pregnancy. In accordance, PP13-binding was the strongest to blood-group AB erythrocytes and weakest to blood-group B erythrocytes. PP13-staining of maternal and fetal erythrocytes was revealed, and a plausible molecular model of PP13 complexed with blood-group H antigen was built. Adjustment of PP13 MoMs to maternal ABO blood group improved the prediction accuracy of first trimester maternal serum PP13 MoMs for preeclampsia and IUGR. Conclusions ABO blood group can alter PP13-bioavailability in blood, and it may also be a key determinant for other lectins' bioavailability in the circulation. The adjustment of PP13 MoMs to ABO blood group improves the predictive accuracy of this test. PMID:21799738

  16. Community perspective on a model to reduce teenage pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabi, Marian M

    2002-11-01

    Qualitative methodology was used to validate elements of an educational career youth developmental model (ECYDM) to reduce teenage pregnancy among African American teens in two inner city urban communities. The specific aims of the study were to gain understanding of the factors contributing to teenage pregnancy and to identify a pregnancy prevention programme relevant to the needs of African American youth. Data were collected from a convenience purposive sample of 43 African American teens and adults. Teen participants included males and non-pregnant, pregnant, and parent females. Adult participants included parents, school staff, and community clergies. Data were collected using demographic questionnaires, structured individual and focus group interviews. Approval from the Institutional Review Board was obtained before conducting the study. Findings supported elements of the ECYDM as a pregnancy prevention programme for African American teens in inner city urban communities. Participants identified an educational-career motivational programme that utilizes mentoring to teach, counsel, and provide information to improve youths' health, education, career, and social outcomes as the pregnancy prevention programme for youth in urban communities. These findings have important implications for future programme design and research. Teenage pregnancy must be addressed within the context of the individual, family, and community. Community partnership and collaboration of resources is necessary to reduce teenage pregnancy. Educational-career programmes are needed to provide information and knowledge to young men and women to make sound informed decisions. Continued qualitative research is also needed to gain understanding of pregnancy prevention programmes.

  17. Localization of interleukin-6 receptor mRNA in the pregnant and non-pregnant mouse uterus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hondo, Eiichi; Kokubu, Keiji; Kato, Kahori; Kiso, Yasuo

    2005-12-01

    To understand roles of interleukin 6 (IL-6) family cytokines for pregnancy in mice, localization of IL-6 receptor (IL-6R) mRNA was investigated in non- and early pregnant uteri by in situ hybridization. IL-6R mRNA was expressed in all non-pregnant uteri and in pregnant uteri from the third day (Day 3) to the sixth day of pregnancy (Day 6; the day of plug = Day 1). IL-6R mRNA signals were detected in non-pregnant mice in the luminal and glandular epithelium. Signal strength varied according to the sexual cycle. There was no correlation between the signal strength of the IL-6R mRNA and the serum concentrations of progesterone and 17beta-estradiol, which show a monophasic rise in the non-pregnant sexual cycle. In pregnant mice, slight signals were detectable in the luminal and glandular epithelium on Day 3. IL-6R mRNA messages increased with progression towards Day 4, however, localization changed drastically on Day 5. Stromal cells abruptly expressed their mRNA on Day 5, and these cells strongly expressed it on Day 6. The function of IL-6R in the luminal and glandular epithelium might be different from that in the stroma during the implantation period. In addition, few signals were identified in the stromal cells adjacent to the luminal epithelium on Day 6. This suggests that there are two types of stromal cells on Day 6 in mice.

  18. Sex Hormones Enhance Gingival Inflammation without Affecting IL-1β and TNF-α in Periodontally Healthy Women during Pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Wu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Hormones (progesterone and estradiol change greatly during pregnancy; however, the mechanism of hormonal changes on gingival inflammation is still unclear. This study is to evaluate the effects of hormonal changes during pregnancy on gingival inflammation and interleukin-1β (IL-1β and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α in gingival crevicular fluid (GCF. 30 periodontally healthy pregnant women were evaluated in the first, second, and third trimesters. 20 periodontally healthy nonpregnant women were evaluated twice (once per subsequent month. Clinical parameters including probing pocket depth (PPD, bleeding index (BI, gingival index (GI, clinical attachment level (CAL, and plaque index (PLI were recorded. GCF levels of IL-1β and TNF-α and serum levels of progesterone and estradiol were measured. From the data, despite low PLI, BI and GI increased significantly during pregnancy; however, no significant changes in PLI, CAL, IL-1β, or TNF-α GCF levels were observed. Although IL-1β, not TNF-α, was higher in pregnant group than in nonpregnant group, they showed no correlation with serum hormone levels during pregnancy. GI and BI showed significant positive correlation with serum hormone levels during pregnancy. This study suggests that sex hormone increase during pregnancy might have an effect on inflammatory status of gingiva, independent of IL-1β and TNF-α in GCF.

  19. Sex Hormones Enhance Gingival Inflammation without Affecting IL-1β and TNF-α in Periodontally Healthy Women during Pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Min; Chen, Shao-Wu; Su, Wei-Lan; Zhu, Hong-Ying; Ouyang, Shu-Yuan; Cao, Ya-Ting; Jiang, Shao-Yun

    2016-01-01

    Hormones (progesterone and estradiol) change greatly during pregnancy; however, the mechanism of hormonal changes on gingival inflammation is still unclear. This study is to evaluate the effects of hormonal changes during pregnancy on gingival inflammation and interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) in gingival crevicular fluid (GCF). 30 periodontally healthy pregnant women were evaluated in the first, second, and third trimesters. 20 periodontally healthy nonpregnant women were evaluated twice (once per subsequent month). Clinical parameters including probing pocket depth (PPD), bleeding index (BI), gingival index (GI), clinical attachment level (CAL), and plaque index (PLI) were recorded. GCF levels of IL-1β and TNF-α and serum levels of progesterone and estradiol were measured. From the data, despite low PLI, BI and GI increased significantly during pregnancy; however, no significant changes in PLI, CAL, IL-1β, or TNF-α GCF levels were observed. Although IL-1β, not TNF-α, was higher in pregnant group than in nonpregnant group, they showed no correlation with serum hormone levels during pregnancy. GI and BI showed significant positive correlation with serum hormone levels during pregnancy. This study suggests that sex hormone increase during pregnancy might have an effect on inflammatory status of gingiva, independent of IL-1β and TNF-α in GCF.

  20. Nutrient and food group intakes of women with and without Bulimia Nervosa and Binge Eating Disorder during pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siega-Riz, Anna Maria; Haugen, Margaretha; Meltzer, Helle M; Von Holle, Ann; Hamer, Robert; Torgersen, Leila; Knopf-Berg, Cecilie; Reichborn-Kjennerud, Ted; Bulik, Cynthia M

    2009-01-01

    Background Little is known concerning the dietary habits of eating disordered women during pregnancy that may lie in the causal pathway of adverse birth outcomes. Objective To examine the nutrient and food group intake of women with bulimia nervosa (BN) and binge eating disorder (BED) during pregnancy and compare their intake to women with no eating disorders. Design Data on 30,040 mother-child pairs are from the prospective Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study was used in cross-sectional analyses. Dietary information was collected using a food frequency questionnaire during the first half of pregnancy. Statistical testing by eating disorder categories with the non-eating disorder category as the referent group were conducted using log (means) adjusted for confounding and multiple comparisons. Food group differences were conducted using a Wilcoxon two-sided normal approximation test also adjusting for multiple comparisons. Results Women with BED before and during pregnancy had higher intakes of total energy, total mono-saturated and saturated fat, and lower intakes of folate, potassium, and vitamin C compared to the referent (p<.02). Women with incident BED during pregnancy had higher total energy and saturated fat intake compared to the referent (p=.01). Several differences emerged in food group consumption between women with and without eating disorders including intakes of artificial sweeteners, sweets, juice, fruits and fats. Conclusions Women with BN before and during pregnancy and those with BED before pregnancy exhibit dietary patterns different from women without eating disorders, that are reflective of their symptomatology, and may influence pregnancy outcomes. PMID:18469258

  1. Fetal and maternal metabolic responses to exercise during pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mottola, Michelle F; Artal, Raul

    2016-03-01

    Pregnancy is characterized by physiological, endocrine and metabolic adaptations creating a pseudo-diabetogenic state of progressive insulin resistance. These adaptations occur to sustain continuous fetal requirements for nutrients and oxygen. Insulin resistance develops at the level of the skeletal muscle, and maternal exercise, especially activity involving large muscle groups improve glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity. We discuss the maternal hormonal and metabolic changes associated with a normal pregnancy, the metabolic dysregulation that may occur leading to gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM), and the consequences to mother and fetus. We will then examine the acute and chronic (training) responses to exercise in the non-pregnant state and relate these alterations to maternal exercise in a low-risk pregnancy, how exercise can be used to regulate glucose tolerance in women at risk for or diagnosed with GDM. Lastly, we present key exercise guidelines to help maintain maternal glucose regulation and suggest future research directions.

  2. Heavy with child? Pregnancy status and stable isotope ratios as determined from biopsies of humpback whales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Casey T.; Fleming, Alyson H.; Calambokidis, John; Kellar, Nicholas M.; Allen, Camryn D.; Catelani, Krista N.; Robbins, Michelle; Beaulieu, Nicole E.; Steel, Debbie; Harvey, James T.

    2016-01-01

    Understanding reproductive rates of wild animal populations is crucially important for management and conservation. Assessing pregnancy status of free-ranging cetaceans has historically been difficult; however, recent advances in analytical techniques have allowed the diagnosis of pregnancy from small samples of blubber tissue. The primary objectives of this study were as follows: (i) to test the efficacy of blubber progesterone assays as a tool for diagnosing pregnancy in humpback whales (Megaptera novaeangliae); (ii) to estimate the pregnancy rate of humpback whales in Monterey Bay, California; and (iii) to investigate the relationship between stable isotopes and reproductive status of these whales. Progesterone concentrations of female whales fell into two distinct groups, allowing for diagnostic separation of pregnant and non-pregnant individuals. Pregnancy rate varied between years of the study (48.4%% in 2011 and 18.5% in 2012), but fell within the range of other estimates of reproductive success for this population. Stable carbon and nitrogen isotope ratios were examined to investigate the impacts of pregnancy on these values. Neither δ15N nor δ13C varied in a consistent way among animals of different sex or reproductive status. The relationship between δ15N and δ13C was strongly positive for male and non-pregnant female humpbacks; however, no relationship existed for pregnant whales. This difference may be indicative of the effects of pregnancy on δ15N, resulting from tissue synthesis and reduced excretion of nitrogenous waste, as well as on δ13C through increased mobilization of lipid stores to meet the energetic demands of pregnancy. Ultimately, our results support the use of blubber progesterone assays for diagnosing pregnancy in humpback whales and indicate that, when paired with other approaches (e.g. stable isotope analysis), pregnancy status can be an informative tool for addressing questions about animal physiology, ecology and population

  3. Do pregnant women contact their general practitioner? A register-based comparison of healthcare utilisation of pregnant and non-pregnant women in general practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feijen-de Jong Esther I

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Midwives and obstetricians are the key providers of care during pregnancy and postpartum. Information about the consultations with a general practitioner (GP during this period is generally lacking. The aim of this study is to compare consultation rates, diagnoses and GP management of pregnant women with those of non-pregnant women. Methods Data were retrieved from the Netherlands Information Network of General Practice (LINH, a nationally representative register. This register holds longitudinal data on consultations, prescriptions and the referrals of all patients listed at 84 practices in the Netherlands in 2007–2009, including 15,123 pregnant women and 102,564 non-pregnant women in the same age-range (15 to 45 years. We compared consultation rates (including all contacts with the practice, diagnoses (ICPC-1 coded, medication prescriptions (coded according to the Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical classification system, and rate and type of referrals from the start of the pregnancy until six weeks postpartum (336 days. Results Pregnant women contacted their GP on average 3.6 times, compared to 2.2 times for non-pregnant women. The most frequently recorded diagnoses for pregnant women were ‘pregnancy’ and ‘cystitis/urinary infection’, and ‘cystitis/urinary infection’ and ‘general disease not otherwise specified’ for non-pregnant women. The mean number of prescribed medications was lower in pregnant women (2.1 against 4.4. For pregnant women, the most frequent referral indication concerned obstetric care, for non-pregnant women this concerned physiotherapy. Conclusions GP consultation rates in pregnancy and postpartum shows that GPs are important providers of care for pregnant women. Therefore, the involvement of GPs in collaborative care during pregnancy and postpartum should be reinforced.

  4. Effect of pregnancy and embryonic mortality on milk production in dromedary camels (Camelus dromedarius).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagy, P; Faigl, V; Reiczigel, J; Juhasz, J

    2015-02-01

    The main objective of the present study was to compare milk production in pregnant versus nonpregnant dromedary camels. In addition, we described the effect of embryonic mortality on lactation and measured serum progesterone levels until d 60 to 90 of gestation. Twenty-five multiparous camels were selected in midlactation for 2 studies in consecutive years. Camels were mated naturally when the size of the dominant follicle reached 1.2 to 1.5cm. Pregnancy was diagnosed by ultrasonography and progesterone determination. In the first experiment (Exp 1), 8 of 11 animals conceived at 284±21.5d postpartum. Three pregnant dromedaries were given PGF2α to induce luteolysis and pregnancy loss on d 62 and spontaneous embryonic loss was detected in 2 camels (on d 27 and 60). Animals were allotted to 3 groups retrospectively: nonpregnant camels (group 1, n=4), pregnant camels (group 2; n=3), and camels with embryonic loss after d 55 (group 3; n=4). In the second study (Exp 2), 14 dromedaries were mated during midlactation. Seven of them failed to conceive (group 1) and 7 became pregnant (group 2). No embryonic loss was detected in Exp 2. Turning points in milk production were identified by change point analysis. In nonpregnant dromedaries (group 1), milk decreased slowly over time without significant change point. In pregnant camels (group 2), a gradual decline until 4 wk after mating was followed by a sudden drop, and the change point model resulted in one breakpoint at d 28±7 and 35±3 of gestation in Exp 1 and Exp 2, respectively. In camels with embryonic mortality (group 3, Exp 1), milk yield started to decline similarly as in pregnant animals, but milk production increased gradually after embryonic loss and reached similar levels as in their nonpregnant herdmates. Change point analysis for group 3 resulted in 2 turning points at 30±4 and 48±4d after conception. Mean length of lactation was shorter by 230 (34.2%) and by 249d (37.6%) and mean total lactation production

  5. Does pregnancy influence long-term results of bariatric surgery?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quyên Pham, Thu; Pigeyre, Marie; Caiazzo, Robert; Verkindt, Hélène; Deruelle, Philippe; Pattou, François

    2015-01-01

    Bariatric surgery is performed mostly on obese women of reproductive age. Many authors have studied pregnancy outcomes after bariatric surgery. Only a small number of studies have analyzed the impact of maternity on the results of bariatric surgery. To study the effect of pregnancy on long-term outcomes of bariatric surgery. Lille University Hospital. A retrospective study was conducted on 591 women aged 18 to 42 years who had undergone laparoscopic adjustable gastric band (LAGB) surgery or laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (LRYGB) surgery between 1996 and 2012. A comparison of the results after a 5-year follow-up was performed between patients who became pregnant after their bariatric surgery (pregnant group, n = 84) and postoperative nonpregnant women (nonpregnant group, n = 507). At the 5-year visit, 84.8% patients were seen. The preoperative body mass index (BMI) was the same in the 2 groups (pregnant group: 47.8±6.9 kg/m(2); nonpregnant group: 47.5±7.2 kg/m(2); P = .755). The percentage of excess weight loss (%EWL) was lower in the pregnant group at 2 years (pregnant group = 45.9±24.6%; nonpregnant group = 56.9±28.6%, P = .002) but was similar at 5 years (47.7±27.7% versus 49.9±28.9%, P = .644). The decrease in co-morbidities was similar after 5 years. The gestational weight gain (GWG) was higher when the band was deflated during pregnancy (GWG =+12.7±10.5 kg) compared to the band without fluid removal (GWG =+4.9±7 kg) or laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (GWG =+4.4±1.1 kg) (Pbariatric surgery slows down postoperative weight loss but does not affect weight results at 5-year follow-up. Copyright © 2015 American Society for Bariatric Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Relationship between ABO blood group and pregnancy complications: a systematic literature analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franchini, Massimo; Mengoli, Carlo; Lippi, Giuseppe

    2016-09-01

    Given the expression of ABO blood group antigens on the surface of a wide range of human cells and tissues, the putative interplay of the ABO system in human biology outside the area of transfusion and transplantation medicine constitutes an intriguing byway of research. Thanks to evidence accumulated over more than 50 years, the involvement of the ABO system in the pathogenesis of several human diseases, including cardiovascular, infectious and neoplastic disorders, is now acknowledged. However, there is controversial information on the potential association between ABO blood type and adverse pregnancy outcomes, including pre-eclampsia and related disorders (eclampsia, HELLP syndrome and intrauterine growth restriction), venous thromboembolism, post-partum haemorrhage and gestational diabetes. To elucidate the role of ABO antigens in pregnancy-related complications, we performed a systematic review of the literature published in the past 50 years. A meta-analytical approach was also applied to the existing literature on the association between ABO status and pre-eclampsia. The results of this systematic review are presented and critically discussed, along with the possible pathogenic implications.

  7. [Group A streptococcus-induced toxic shock syndrome in pregnancy: a case report of cesarean section].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Kumiko; Fukuda, Taeko; Kimura, Maiko; Hagiya, Keiichi; Danmura, Masato; Nakayama, Shin; Ogura, Tsuyoshi; Tanaka, Makoto

    2012-12-01

    Group A streptococcus (GAS)-induced toxic shock syndrome (TSS) in pregnancy is rare, but its clinical course is fulminant. The mortality rates of mother and fetus are reported to be 58 and 66%, respectively. We report a case of GAS-TSS after cesarean section. A 38-year-old pregnant woman of 38 weeks gestation was admitted to our hospital because of vomiting, fever of 39 degrees C, and continuous abdominal pain with scanty genital bleeding. She had complained of sore throat several days before. One hour after admission, external fetal monitoring revealed periodic pulse deceleration to 90 x beats min(-1). The emergent cesarean section was performed under general anesthesia. Approximately 8 hours after the cesarean section, she developed coma, shock and respiratory insufficiency requiring intubation. Streptococcus pyogens were isolated from her blood sample and the patient met criteria for GAS-TSS. She was treated with antibiotics (penicillin and clindamycin), antithrombin III, recomodulin, catecholamins, and continuous hemodialysis with filtration of toxins. Although the patient recovered and was discharged on 63rd day, the infant died on postpartum day 4. Early recognition and intensive treatment for GAS is recommended in a late stage pregnancy with an episode of sore throat, vomiting, high fever, strong labor pain, and DIC signs.

  8. Body image during pregnancy: an evaluation of the suitability of the body attitudes questionnaire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fuller-Tyszkiewicz Matthew

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Available data suggest that body dissatisfaction is common during pregnancy and may even be a precursor to post-natal depression. However, in order to accurately identify at-risk women, it is essential to first establish that body image measures function appropriately in pregnant populations. Our study examines the suitability of the Body Attitudes Questionnaire (BAQ for measuring body dissatisfaction among pregnant women by comparing the psychometric functioning of the BAQ: (1 across key phases of pregnancy, and (2 between pregnant and non-pregnant women. Methods A total of 176 pregnant women from Melbourne, Victoria filled out a questionnaire battery containing demographic questions and the Body Attitudes Questionnaire at 16, 24, and 32 weeks during pregnancy. A comparison group of 148 non-pregnant women also completed the questionnaire battery at Time 1. Evaluations of the psychometric properties of the BAQ consisted of a series of measurement invariance tests conducted within a structural equation modelling framework. Results Although the internal consistency and factorial validity of the subscales of the BAQ were established across time and also in comparisons between pregnant and non-pregnant women, measurement invariance tests showed non-invariant item intercepts across pregnancy and also in comparison with the non-pregnant subgroup. Inspection of modification indices revealed a complex, non-uniform pattern of differences in item intercepts across groups. Conclusions Collectively, our findings suggest that comparisons of body dissatisfaction between pregnant and non-pregnant women (at least based on the BAQ are likely to be conflated by differential measurement biases that serve to undermine attempts to accurately assess level of body dissatisfaction. Researchers should be cautious in assessments of body dissatisfaction among pregnant women until a suitable measure has been established for use in this population. Given

  9. Preventing Alcohol-Exposed Pregnancy among American-Indian Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Jamie; Kenyon, DenYelle Baete; Hanson, Jessica D.

    2016-01-01

    Research has determined that the prevention of alcohol-exposed pregnancies (AEP) must occur preconceptually, either by reducing alcohol intake in women planning pregnancy or at risk for becoming pregnant, or by preventing pregnancy in women drinking at risky levels. One such AEP prevention programme with non-pregnant American-Indian (AI) women is…

  10. Serum iron level, ferritin and total iron binding capacity level among nonpregnant women with and without melasma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elham Behrangi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Melasma is a common acquired disorder characterized by symmetric, hyperpigmented patches with an irregular outline, occurring most commonly on the face. It is most prevalent among young to middle-aged women. Although iron overload affects skin pigmentation, effect of iron deficiency on skin is not clear. So, we evaluated serum iron level, ferritin and total iron binding capacity (TIBC level among nonpregnant women with and without melasma. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional case study was conducted in 2012 at university dermatologic department on 33 nonpregnant women with melasma (case and 33 nonpregnant women without melasma (control. Serum iron level, TIBC and ferritin in the two groups was measured and compared. Results: Serum iron level was lower in the case group (85 ± 11 in comparison with control group (102 ± 9, but the difference was not significant (P: 0.9. Mean TIBC and Ferritin were higher in the case group (TIBC: 329.4 ± 29, ferritin: 6 ± 18 than the control group (TIBC: 329.3 ± 29, ferritin: 33 ± 6 without significant difference. Conclusion: Although the serum iron level was lower in nonpregnant women with mealsma, it was not significant compared with those without melasma.

  11. Serum iron level, ferritin and total iron binding capacity level among nonpregnant women with and without melasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behrangi, Elham; Baniasadi, Farzaneh; Esmaeeli, Shooka; Hedayat, Kosar; Goodarzi, Azade; Azizian, Zahra

    2015-01-01

    Background: Melasma is a common acquired disorder characterized by symmetric, hyperpigmented patches with an irregular outline, occurring most commonly on the face. It is most prevalent among young to middle-aged women. Although iron overload affects skin pigmentation, effect of iron deficiency on skin is not clear. So, we evaluated serum iron level, ferritin and total iron binding capacity (TIBC) level among nonpregnant women with and without melasma. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional case study was conducted in 2012 at university dermatologic department on 33 nonpregnant women with melasma (case) and 33 nonpregnant women without melasma (control). Serum iron level, TIBC and ferritin in the two groups was measured and compared. Results: Serum iron level was lower in the case group (85 ± 11) in comparison with control group (102 ± 9), but the difference was not significant (P: 0.9). Mean TIBC and Ferritin were higher in the case group (TIBC: 329.4 ± 29, ferritin: 6 ± 18) than the control group (TIBC: 329.3 ± 29, ferritin: 33 ± 6) without significant difference. Conclusion: Although the serum iron level was lower in nonpregnant women with mealsma, it was not significant compared with those without melasma. PMID:26109976

  12. Effect of pregnancy on autoregulation of cerebral blood flow in anterior versus posterior cerebrum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cipolla, Marilyn J; Bishop, Nicole; Chan, Siu-Lung

    2012-09-01

    Severe preeclampsia and eclampsia are associated with brain edema that forms preferentially in the posterior cerebral cortex possibly because of decreased sympathetic innervation of posterior cerebral arteries and less effective autoregulation during acute hypertension. In the present study, we examined the effect of pregnancy on the effectiveness of cerebral blood flow autoregulation using laser Doppler flowmetry and edema formation by wet:dry weight in acute hypertension induced by phenylephrine infusion in the anterior and posterior cerebrum from nonpregnant (n=8) and late-pregnant (n=6) Sprague-Dawley rats. In addition, we compared the effect of pregnancy on sympathetic innervation by tyrosine hydroxylase staining of posterior and middle cerebral arteries (n=5-6 per group) and endothelial and neuronal NO synthase expression using quantitative PCR (n=3 per group). In nonpregnant animals, there was no difference in autoregulation between the anterior and posterior cerebrum. However, in late-pregnant animals, the threshold of cerebral blood flow autoregulation was shifted to lower pressures in the posterior cerebrum, which was associated with increased neuronal NO synthase expression in the posterior cerebral cortex versus anterior. Compared with the nonpregnant state, pregnancy increased the threshold of autoregulation in both brain regions that was related to decreased expression of endothelial NO synthase. Lastly, acute hypertension during pregnancy caused greater edema formation in both brain cortices that was not attributed to changes in sympathetic innervation. These findings suggest that, although pregnancy shifted the cerebral blood flow autoregulatory curve to higher pressures in both the anterior and posterior cortices, it did not protect from edema during acute hypertension.

  13. Salivary flow rate, pH, and concentrations of calcium, phosphate, and sIgA in Brazilian pregnant and non-pregnant women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lindemann Laura

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Studies on salivary variables and pregnancy in Latin America are scarce. This study aimed to compare salivary flow rate, pH, and concentrations of calcium, phosphate, and sIgA of unstimulated whole saliva in pregnant and non-pregnant Brazilians. Methods Cross-sectional study. Sample was composed by 22 pregnant and 22 non-pregnant women attending the Obstetrics and Gynecology Clinics, São Lucas Hospital, in Porto Alegre city, South region of Brazil. Unstimulated whole saliva was collected to determine salivary flow rate, pH, and biochemical composition. Data were analyzed by Student t test and ANCOVA (two-tailed α = 0.05. Results No difference was found for salivary flow rates and concentrations of total calcium and phosphate between pregnant and non-pregnant women (p > 0.05. Pregnant women had lower pH (6.7 than non-pregnant women (7.5 (p Conclusion Some of the tested variables of unstimulated whole saliva were different between pregnant and non-pregnant Brazilians in this sample. Overall, the values of the tested salivary parameters were within the range of international references of normality.

  14. Metformin Treatment in Type 2 Diabetes in Pregnancy: An Active Controlled, Parallel-Group, Randomized, Open Label Study in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes in Pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jahan Ara Ainuddin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims. To assess the effect of metformin and to compare it with insulin treatment in patients with type 2 diabetes in pregnancy in terms of perinatal outcome, maternal complications, additional insulin requirement, and treatment acceptability. Methods. In this randomized, open label study, 206 patients with type 2 diabetes in pregnancy who met the eligibility criteria were selected from the antenatal clinics. Insulin was added to metformin treatment when required, to maintain the target glycemic control. The patients were followed up till delivery. Maternal, and perinatal outcomes and pharmacotherapeutic characteristics were recorded on a proforma. Results. Maternal characteristics were comparable in metformin and insulin treated group. 84.9% patients in metformin group required add-on insulin therapy at mean gestational age of 26.58 ± 3.85 weeks. Less maternal weight gain (P24 hours in metformin group (P<0.01. Significant reduction in cost of treatment was found in metformin group. Conclusion. Metformin alone or with add-on insulin is an effective and cheap treatment option for patients with type 2 diabetes in pregnancy. This trial is registered with clinical trial registration number: Clinical trials.gov NCT01855763.

  15. Evaluation of the macula, retinal nerve fiber layer and choroid in preeclampsia, healthy pregnant and healthy non-pregnant women using spectral-domain optical coherence tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ataş, Mustafa; Açmaz, Gökhan; Aksoy, Hüseyin; Demircan, Süleyman; Ataş, Fatma; Gülhan, Ahmet; Zararsız, Gökmen

    2014-08-01

    To evaluate the macular, retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) and choroidal thickness alterations by using spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) in preeclampsia and compare with healthy pregnant and healthy non-pregnant controls. The study population included healthy pregnant control group (n: 25), healthy non-pregnant control group (n: 26) and study group with preeclampsia (n: 27). Retinal thickness parameters were measured by SD-OCT. There was a statistically significant difference among all of the groups for choroidal thickness (p Choroidal thickness in preeclamptic women was significantly thinner than healthy pregnant women. The most thick choroid layer was detected in healthy pregnant group, and also the most thin choroidal thickness was detected in healthy non-pregnant group (p thickness were significantly thinner in preeclamptic study and healthy pregnant groups than healthy non-pregnant group (p thickness. Average of RNFL thickness was significantly thicker in healthy pregnant group than healthy non-pregnant group (p = 0.004). This study revealed that choroidal thickness measured using SD-OCT increased in women with preeclampsia and healthy pregnant women but the increase in choroidal thickness in preeclampsia was lower than the healthy pregnant controls. This lower rise in choroidal thickness can be generally attributed to the markedly increased systemic vascular vasospasm secondary to preeclampsia.

  16. Immunohistochemical distribution of oestrogen and progesterone receptors and tissue concentrations of oestrogens in the cervix of non-pregnant cows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Breeveld-Dwarkasing, V.N.A.; Boer-Brouwer, de M.; Mostl, E.; Soede, N.M.; Weijden, van der G.C.; Taverne, M.A.M.; Dissel-Emiliani, van F.M.F.

    2002-01-01

    An immunohistochemical study of the expression of oestrogen (ER) and progesterone receptors (PR) in different regions along the longitudinal and vertical axes of the cervix of non-pregnant cows was performed. Animals were separated into two groups depending on the presence or absence of a functional

  17. Plasma immunoreactive erythropoietin in normal women studied sequentially during and after pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widness, J A; Clemons, G K; Garcia, J F; Schwartz, R

    1984-07-15

    Six healthy, nonanemic women with uncomplicated singleton pregnancies were sequentially studied for plasma immunoreactive erythropoietin levels, hematologic indices, and human placental lactogen. Mean group levels of erythropoietin as well as human placental lactogen were significantly increased (p less than 0.01) after 18 weeks' gestation compared to nonpregnant values (20 to 30 weeks post partum). However, individual responses of erythropoietin during pregnancy were found to be highly variable. There was a direct correlation of both maternal plasma erythropoietin and human placental lactogen with gestational age (p less than 0.001) but no detectable relation of erythropoietin with human placental lactogen levels. We speculate that the increase in erythropoietin levels during pregnancy acts as a trophic stimulus for effecting an increase in maternal red blood cell mass presumably to meet the increased metabolic (oxygen) demands of pregnancy.

  18. Urinary incontinence during pregnancy and 1 year after delivery in primiparous women compared with a control group of nulliparous women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Bent Brandt; Svare, Jens; Viktrup, Lars

    2012-01-01

    AIMS: To investigate the impact of the first pregnancy and delivery on the prevalence and types of urinary incontinence during pregnancy and 1 year after delivery. METHODS: The study was a prospective cohort study with a control group. Primiparous women, who delivered in our department from June......, the prevalence of any type of urinary incontinence in the primiparous group was 32.1%, compared to 13.8% in the control group. Adjusted OR¿=¿3.3 (95%CI¿=¿2.4-4.4). One year after delivery, the prevalence in the primiparous group was 29.3%, compared to 16.6% in the control group. Adjusted OR¿=¿2.5 (95%CI¿=¿1...... in the primiparous group. The symptoms and impact on quality of life seemed to be mild to moderate in both groups. Neurourol. Urodynam. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc....

  19. Effect of breed and corpus luteum on pregnancy rate of bovine embryo recipients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ériklis Nogueira

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate pregnancy rates of recipients of different breed groups (Nellore and crossbreed, as well as the effects of size and type of the corpus luteum (CL on plasmatic concentrations of progesterone and pregnancy rates of embryo recipients. A total of 152 heifers were synchronized with progesterone implants and on the day of embryo transfer, previously obtained by superovulation and frozen in ethylene glycol, the diameter and type of the corpus luteum (cavitary and compact was measured and blood was collected for progesterone measurement. The pregnancy rate was 44.1%, with a diameter of corpus luteum higher in recipients that became pregnant (2.03±0.41 compared with non-pregnant ones (1.86±0.34 cm. Plasmatic concentrations of progesterone did not differ between pregnant (1.50±1.05 and non-pregnant (1.31±0.91 ng/mL animals. The type of corpus luteum did not influence the pregnancy rates. Only Angus and crossbred Marchigiana differ among themselves in pregnancy rates (33.3 and 59.2%, respectively. The pregnancy probability was affected only by CL diameter, but not by P4 plasmatic concentration. Selection of the corpus luteum size at the time of embryo transfer is an important factor to increase pregnancy rates in recipients, and compact and cavitary corpora lutea do not influence the pregnancy rates of bovine embryo recipients. Nellore recipients have pregnancy rates that are satisfactory and comparable to crossbred (Bos taurus × Bos indicus recipients.

  20. Pregnancy and Reproductive Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Relationships Pregnancy Share this page Facebook Twitter Email Pregnancy and Reproductive Issues Tahirah Diagnosed in 2003 Pregnancy ... in control groups without the disease. Effects of pregnancy on MS Before 1950, most women with MS ...

  1. The Contribution of Normal Pregnancy to Eclampsia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abbie Chapman Johnson

    Full Text Available Eclampsia, clinically defined as unexplained seizure in a woman with preeclampsia, is a life threatening complication unique to the pregnant state. However, a subpopulation of women with seemingly uncomplicated pregnancies experience de novo seizure without preeclamptic signs or symptoms, suggesting pregnancy alone may predispose the brain to seizure. Here, we hypothesized that normal pregnancy lowers seizure threshold and investigated mechanisms by which pregnancy may affect seizure susceptibility, including neuroinflammation and plasticity of gamma-aminobutyric acid type A receptor (GABAAR subunit expression. Seizure threshold was determined by quantifying the amount of pentylenetetrazole (PTZ required to elicit electrical seizure in Sprague Dawley rats that were either nonpregnant (Nonpreg, n = 7 or pregnant (Preg; d20, n = 6. Seizure-induced vasogenic edema was also measured. Further, activation of microglia, a measure of neuroinflammation (n = 6-8/group, and GABAAR δ- and γ2-subunit protein expression in the cerebral cortex and hippocampus (n = 6/group was determined. Seizure threshold was lower in Preg compared to Nonpreg rats (36.7±9.6 vs. 65.0±14.5 mg/kg PTZ; p<0.01 that was associated with greater vasogenic edema formation (78.55±0.11 vs. 78.04±0.19% water; p<0.05. The % of active microglia was similar between groups; however, pregnancy was associated with downregulation of cortical GABAAR-δ and hippocampal GABAAR-γ2 expression. Overall, pregnancy appears to be a state of increased seizure susceptibility that is not due to neuroinflammation, but rather is associated with reduced expression of GABAAR subunits and greater edema. Understanding neurophysiological changes occurring in normal pregnancy could allow for better prevention and management of de novo seizure, including pathologic states such as eclampsia.

  2. Cross-sectional study of nutritional markers in pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subhadra Sharma

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To note the value of serum Vitamin B12, folic acid, and ferritin in normal and high-risk pregnancies (HRPs in patients attending antenatal clinic at All India Institute of Medical Sciences (AIIMS. Materials and Methods: This is a cross-sectional study where a total of 282 patients attending Gynaecology Outpatient Department at AIIMS, New Delhi, India were recruited. Among the 282 subjects, 251 were pregnant, and 31 were controls. The serum was tested for serum Vitamin B12, serum folic acid, and serum ferritin levels using Beckman Coulter Access 2 immunoassay. Results: The median value of serum folic acid level in pregnant women was 12 pg/ml with range being 2–20 pg/ml in contrast to 8 pg/ml with range being 3–20 pg/ml in nonpregnant female. This difference was statistically significant. (P = 0.05. There was no significant difference in the median level of serum Vitamin B12 and serum ferritin in pregnant and nonpregnant group. Serum Vitamin B12 level was lower in the third trimester (127 pg/ml than in first trimester (171 pg/ml and the difference is statistically significant (P = 0.03. Serum ferritin levels were also significantly lower in the second trimester (16.4 pg/ml than third trimester (24.55 pg/ml. Although the median serum folic acid level was lower in the first trimester (9.84 pg/ml than in second trimester (10.8 pg/ml and in the third trimester (13.18 pg/ml but the difference was not statistically significant. There was no significant difference in Vitamin B12 level in HRPs (median value 134 pg/ml as compared to low-risk pregnancies (149.5 pg/ml. Conclusion: Serum folic acid levels are significantly higher during pregnancy as compared to nonpregnant state. However, there was no significant difference in the median level of serum Vitamin B12 and serum ferritin in pregnant and nonpregnant group. Serum folic acid level and ferritin level were significantly higher in HRPs compared to low-risk pregnancies.

  3. The influence of 1800 MHz GSM-like signals on hepatic oxidative DNA and lipid damage in nonpregnant, pregnant, and newly born rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomruk, Arin; Guler, Goknur; Dincel, Aylin Sepici

    2010-01-01

    The aim of our study is to evaluate the possible biological effects of whole-body 1800 MHz GSM-like radiofrequency (RF) radiation exposure on liver oxidative DNA damage and lipid peroxidation levels in nonpregnant, pregnant New Zealand White rabbits, and in their newly borns. Eighteen nonpregnant and pregnant rabbits were used and randomly divided into four groups which were composed of nine rabbits: (i) Group I (nonpregnant control), (ii) Group II (nonpregnant-RF exposed), (iii) Group III (pregnant control), (iv) Group IV (pregnant-RF exposed). Newborns of the pregnant rabbits were also divided into two groups: (v) Group V (newborns of Group III) and (vi) Group VI (newborns of Group III). 1800 MHz GSM-like RF radiation whole-body exposure (15 min/day for a week) was applied to Group II and Group IV. No significant differences were found in liver 8 OHdG/10(6) dG levels of exposure groups (Group II and Group IV) compared to controls (Group I and Group III). However, in Group II and Group IV malondialdehyde (MDA) and ferrous oxidation in xylenol orange (FOX) levels were increased compared to Group I (P 0.05, Mann-Whitney) while liver FOX levels were found significantly increased in Group VI with respect to Group V (P GSM-like RF radiation exposure may lead to oxidative destruction as being indicators of subsequent reactions that occur to form oxygen toxicity in tissues.

  4. Management of melanoma during pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leachman, Sancy A; Jackson, Ryan; Eliason, Mark J; Larson, April A; Bolognia, Jean L

    2007-04-01

    There is no conclusive evidence that pregnancy adversely affects overall survival in patients with melanoma. Clinicians caring for pregnant patients should be as suspicious of changes in melanocytic nevi in these patients as they are for nonpregnant patients. Treatment of early-stage melanoma is the same irrespective of whether or not the patient is pregnant. Chemotherapeutic regimens for metastatic disease administered during pregnancy have not demonstrated significant efficacy.

  5. Distinct cardiac transcriptional profiles defining pregnancy and exercise.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eunhee Chung

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Although the hypertrophic responses of the heart to pregnancy and exercise are both considered to be physiological processes, they occur in quite different hormonal and temporal settings. In this study, we have compared the global transcriptional profiles of left ventricular tissues at various time points during the progression of hypertrophy in exercise and pregnancy. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The following groups of female mice were analyzed: non-pregnant diestrus cycle sedentary control, mid-pregnant, late-pregnant, and immediate-postpartum, and animals subjected to 7 and 21 days of voluntary wheel running. Hierarchical clustering analysis shows that while mid-pregnancy and both exercise groups share the closest relationship and similar gene ontology categories, late pregnancy and immediate post-partum are quite different with high representation of secreted/extracellular matrix-related genes. Moreover, pathway-oriented ontological analysis shows that metabolism regulated by cytochrome P450 and chemokine pathways are the most significant signaling pathways regulated in late pregnancy and immediate-postpartum, respectively. Finally, increases in expression of components of the proteasome observed in both mid-pregnancy and immediate-postpartum also result in enhanced proteasome activity. Interestingly, the gene expression profiles did not correlate with the degree of cardiac hypertrophy observed in the animal groups, suggesting that distinct pathways are employed to achieve similar amounts of cardiac hypertrophy. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results demonstrate that cardiac adaptation to the later stages of pregnancy is quite distinct from both mid-pregnancy and exercise. Furthermore, it is very dynamic since, by 12 hours post-partum, the heart has already initiated regression of cardiac growth, and 50 genes have changed expression significantly in the immediate-postpartum compared to late-pregnancy. Thus, pregnancy

  6. Impact of obesity on pregnancy outcome in different ethnic groups: calculating population attributable fractions.

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    Eugene Oteng-Ntim

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To quantify the proportion of adverse pregnancy outcome attributable to maternal obesity. DESIGN: Cross sectional analysis of routine obstetric dataset. SETTING: Guy's and St Thomas's NHS Foundation Trust (GSTFT. POPULATION: 23,668 women who had singleton deliveries at GSTFT between 2004 and 2008. METHODS: Logistic regression was used to estimate the association between BMI and outcome in different ethnic groups. Adjusted odds ratios, and the proportions of obese women, were used to calculate population attributable risk fractions (PAFs. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: (I MATERNAL OUTCOMES: diabetes, type of delivery, post-partum haemorrhage, and preterm delivery. (ii Perinatal outcomes: macrosomia, low birth weight, admission to neonatal intensive care/special care baby unit, and perinatal death. RESULTS: The prevalence of maternal obesity was 14%. Increasing BMI was independently associated with increasing risk of adverse obstetric and neonatal outcome. At the individual level, the effect of obesity on diabetes was highest in Asian women compared to white women (p for interaction = 0.03. Calculation of population attributable risk fractions demonstrated that one third of diabetes cases and one in six Caesarean sections could be avoided in this population if all obese women were of normal BMI. At the population level, the contribution of obesity to diabetes was highest for Black women (42%, and lowest for oriental women (8%. Seven percent of neonatal macrosomia in all the population, and 13% in Black mothers, were attributable to obesity. CONCLUSIONS: Preventing obesity prior to pregnancy will substantially reduce the burden of obstetric and neonatal morbidity in this population. This reduction will be higher in Black women.

  7. Course Of Pregnancy, Delivery And Health State Of Newborns After Preventive Treatment Of Gestosis In Pregnant Women Of Risk Group

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    N.I. Zryachkin

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The research objective is to decrease the frequency of perinatal complications in mother, fetus and newborn. Methodology used is prospective study. Course of pregnancy, delivery, postnatal period and neonatal period has been studied at 50 women and children (the basic group, at 80 women and children (group of comparison. The state of mi-crocirculation was studied at the I- II trimesters of pregnancy before and after treatment by means of biomicroscopy of vessels of eye conjunctiva by slit lamp with computer data processing. Homocysteine was studied at the I- II trimesters of pregnancy before and after treatment, and children of The control group consisted of 63 pregnant women without complicated anamnesis and with somatic status who gave birth to 63 children. At the I trimester of pregnancy in risk groups of development of gestosis hyperhomocysteinemia, preclinical disturbances of processes of microcirculation were observed. The method of preventive treatment of gestosis in the basic group included anticoagulant - Vessl Due F, vitamin E, essenciale H, folic acid, vitamin B6, vitamin B12. The preventive treatment was directed on stabilization of function of vessel endothelium, improvement of processes of microcirculation leading to decrease in frequency and severity of gestosis, perinatal complications in mother and newborn

  8. Neither folic acid supplementation nor pregnancy affects the distribution of folate forms in the red blood cells of women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartman, Brenda A; Fazili, Zia; Pfeiffer, Christine M; O'Connor, Deborah L

    2014-09-01

    It is not known whether folate metabolism is altered during pregnancy to support increased DNA and RNA biosynthesis. By using a state-of-the-art LC tandem mass spectrometry technique, the aim of this study was to investigate differences in RBC folate forms between pregnant and nonpregnant women and between nonpregnant women consuming different concentrations of supplemental folic acid. Forms of folate in RBCs were used to explore potential shifts in folate metabolism during early erythropoiesis. Total RBC folate and folate forms [tetrahydrofolate; 5-methyltetrahydrofolate (5-methyl-THF); 4α-hydroxy-5-methyl-tetrahydrofolate (an oxidation product of 5-methyl-THF); 5-formyl-tetrahydrofolate; and 5,10-methenyl-tetrahydrofolate] were measured in 4 groups of women (n = 26): pregnant women (PW) (30-36 wk of gestation) consuming 1 mg/d of folic acid, and nonpregnant women consuming 0 mg/d (NPW-0), 1 mg/d (NPW-1), and 5 mg/d (NPW-5) folic acid. The mean ± SD RBC folate concentration of the NPW-0 group (890 ± 530 nmol/L) was lower than the NPW-1 (1660 ± 350 nmol/L) and NPW-5 (1980 ± 570 nmol/L) groups as assessed by microbiologic assay (n = 26, P folic acid supplements had detectable concentrations of 5,10-methenyl-tetrahydrofolate (LOD = 0.31 nmol/L). However, there was no difference in the relative distribution of 5-methyl-THF (83-84%), sum of non-methyl folates (0.6-3%), or individual non-methyl folate forms in RBCs across groups. We conclude that although folic acid supplementation in nonpregnant women increases RBC total folate and the concentration of individual folate forms, it does not alter the relative distribution of folate forms. Similarly, distribution of RBC folate forms did not differ between pregnant and nonpregnant women. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01741077.

  9. The impact of pregnancy on anti-HIV activity of cervicovaginal secretions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Brenna L; Dutt, Riana; Raker, Christina; Barthelemy, Melody; Rossoll, Richard M; Ramratnam, Bharat; Wira, Charles R; Cu-Uvin, Susan

    2016-12-01

    Mucosal immunity of the female genital tract plays a critical role in defense against sexually transmitted infections like HIV. Pregnancy is associated with both structural and immunologic alterations in the genital mucosa, but the impact of these changes on its ability to suppress HIV infection is unknown. Current epidemiologic data are conflicting as to whether pregnancy increases the risk of HIV acquisition. The purpose of this study was to define the association between antimicrobial peptides and chemokines in cervicovaginal secretions and in vitro HIV infectivity among pregnant and nonpregnant women. Forty pregnant and 37 nonpregnant women were enrolled in a prospective longitudinal cohort study at a single tertiary care women's hospital in Providence, RI. Cervicovaginal lavage was performed at each study visit. For pregnant women, study visits occurred once per trimester, and there was an optional postpartum visit. For nonpregnant women, study visits occurred across a single cycle that was timed to occur in the proliferative, ovulatory, and secretory phases based on the presumption of a regular menstrual cycle. The impact of cervicovaginal lavage on HIV infectivity was evaluated using a TZM-bl assay and compared between pregnant and nonpregnant women for each visit. The previously validated TZM-bl assay, which uses a luciferase reporting gene to indicate HIV infection of TZM-bl cells, was measured with a luminometer with higher relative light units that indicate greater levels of in vitro HIV infection. Immune mediators were measured with a multiplex bead assay. HIV infectivity and median concentration of each mediator were compared between pregnant and nonpregnant groups with the Wilcoxon rank sum test. Cervicovaginal fluid from pregnant and nonpregnant women significantly decreased HIV infectivity in both groups compared with positive control (virus only; P<.01), but infectivity was not different between groups (P≥.44). During the second and third

  10. Posture analysis of lifting a load for head carriage and comparison between pregnant and non-pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumas, G A; Preston, D; Beaucage-Gauvreau, E; Lawani, M

    2014-01-01

    In Western Africa, women continue performing heavy physical work that includes carrying loads on their heads during pregnancy. Women may adapt to pregnancy related body changes by modifying their postures to perform such tasks. The objectives of this biomechanical task analysis study were to 1) determine sagittal plane postures of the trunk and upper extremities at specific events during the task of lifting and lowering a load to be carried on the head, 2) compare postures of pregnant and non-pregnant participants, 3) evaluate risk for musculo-skeletal disorders (MSD) with the rapid entire body assessment (REBA) criteria. Twenty-six pregnant (26 ± 5 years, 159 ± 9 cm, 63 ± 15 kg, 25 ± 9 weeks of pregnancy) and 25 paired non-pregnant retail merchants were recruited in Porto-Novo (Benin). Participants were recorded on video in a laboratory setting while they lifted a tray (20% body weight) from a stool to their head and then put it back down. Trunk inclination and knee, shoulder and elbow flexion angles were determined using Dartfish® software. The trunk was bent by more than 80° at pick-up and set-down and knees were moderately flexed, significantly less (pregnant women, possibly because it was harder to lift the trunk, or for stability. For all postures analysed, the majority of trials were classified as "high" risk or "very high risk" for MSD. Future research should investigate prevalence of MSDs in this population to confirm the results of this study.

  11. Interactions between subtotal nephrectomy and salt: effects on blood pressure and renal function in pregnant and nonpregnant ewes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Karen J; Boyce, Amanda C; Thomson, Clare L; Chinchen, Sarah; Lumbers, Eugenie R

    2008-04-01

    The effects of high salt intake on blood pressure and renal function were studied in nine subtotally nephrectomized pregnant ewes (STNxP) and seven intact pregnant ewes (IntP) in late gestation and in eight subtotally nephrectomized nonpregnant ewes (STNxNP) and seven intact nonpregnant ewes (IntNP). STNxP had higher mean arterial pressures (P High salt (0.17 M NaCl as drinking water for 5 days) did not change blood pressure in either STNxP or IntP. STNxNP had higher mean arterial pressures (P = 0.03) and plasma creatinine levels (P blood pressure increased with high salt intake and there was a positive relationship between diastolic pressure and sodium balance (r = 0.497, P = 0.05). This relationship was not present in IntNP, STNxP, or IntP. Because high salt intake did not cause an increase in blood pressure in STNxP, it is concluded that they were protected by pregnancy from further rises in blood pressure. The observed increase in glomerular filtration rate (P high salt may have contributed to this protection. As well, the increased production of vasorelaxants in pregnancy may selectively protect against the occurrence of salt-sensitive hypertension in pregnancy.

  12. Variations of serum copper values in pregnancy

    OpenAIRE

    Vukelić Jelka; Kapamadžija Aleksandra; Petrović Đorđe; Grujić Zorica; Novakov-Mikić Aleksandra; Kopitović Vesna; Bjelica Artur

    2012-01-01

    Introduction. Copper is essential micronutrient and has an important role in the human body. The serum copper increases during pregnancy and is doubled at full term. Lower levels of serum copper in pregnancy are connected with some pathological conditions. Objective. The aim of this study was to estimate the levels of serum copper in normal and pathological pregnancies, comparing them with values of serum copper in non-pregnant women, to determine if serum copper is lower in some pathol...

  13. 21 CFR 862.1275 - Estrogens (total, nonpregnancy) test system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Estrogens (total, nonpregnancy) test system. 862.1275 Section 862.1275 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... infertility, amenorrhea (absence of menses) differentiation of primary and secondary ovarian...

  14. DETECTION OF A RARE BLOOD GROUP “BOMBAY (OH PHENOTYPE” IN A POST CAESAREAN PREGNANCY WITH ANAEMIA - A RARE CASE REPORT FROM EASTERN INDIA

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    Anindya Kumar

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: The Bombay blood group is a very rare blood group discovered almost 60 years back. We report here, a high risk case of Post Caesarean pregnancy with anaemia with Bombay Blood Group

  15. Effect of pregnancy and nitric oxide on the myogenic vasodilation of posterior cerebral arteries and the lower limit of cerebral blood flow autoregulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Abbie C; Cipolla, Marilyn J; Chan, Siu-Lung

    2013-09-01

    Hemorrhage during parturition can lower blood pressure beyond the lower limit of cerebral blood flow (CBF) autoregulation that can cause ischemic brain injury. However, the impact of pregnancy on the lower limit of CBF autoregulation is unknown. We measured myogenic vasodilation, a major contributor of CBF autoregulation, in isolated posterior cerebral arteries (PCAs) from nonpregnant and late-pregnant rats (n = 10/group) while the effect of pregnancy on the lower limit of CBF autoregulation was studied in the posterior cerebral cortex during controlled hemorrhage (n = 8). Pregnancy enhanced myogenic vasodilation in PCA and shifted the lower limit of CBF autoregulation to lower pressures. Inhibition of nitric oxide synthase (NOS) prevented the enhanced myogenic vasodilation during pregnancy but did not affect the lower limit of CBF autoregulation. The shift in the autoregulatory curve to lower pressures during pregnancy is likely protective of ischemic injury during hemorrhage and appears to be independent of NOS.

  16. 16S rRNA gene-based metagenomic analysis reveals differences in bacteria-derived extracellular vesicles in the urine of pregnant and non-pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Jae Young; Rho, Mina; You, Young-Ah; Kwon, Eun Jin; Kim, Min-Hye; Kym, Sungmin; Jee, Young-Koo; Kim, Yoon-Keun; Kim, Young Ju

    2016-02-05

    Recent evidence has indicated that bacteria-derived extracellular vesicles (EVs) are important for host-microbe communication. The aims of the present study were to evaluate whether bacteria-derived EVs are excreted via the urinary tract and to compare the composition of bacteria-derived EVs in the urine of pregnant and non-pregnant women. Seventy-three non-pregnant and seventy-four pregnant women were enrolled from Dankook University and Ewha Womans University hospitals. DNA was extracted from urine EVs after EV isolation using the differential centrifugation method. 16S ribosomal RNA (16S rRNA) gene sequencing was performed using high-throughput 454 pyrosequencing after amplification of the V1-V3 region of the 16S rDNA. The composition of 13 taxa differed significantly between the pregnant and non-pregnant women. At the genus level, Bacillus spp. EVs were more significantly enriched in the urine of the pregnant women than in that of the non-pregnant women (45.61% vs 0.12%, respectively). However, Pseudomonas spp. EVs were more dominant in non-pregnant women than in pregnant women (13.2% vs 4.09%, respectively). Regarding the compositional difference between pregnant women with normal and preterm delivery, EVs derived from Ureaplasma spp. and the family Veillonellaceae (including Megasphaera spp.) were more abundant in the urine of preterm-delivered women than in that of women with normal deliveries. Taken together, these data showed that Bacillus spp. EVs predominate in the urine of pregnant women, whereas Pseudomonas spp. EVs predominate in the urine of non-pregnant women; this suggests that Bacillus spp. EVs might have an important role in the maintenance of pregnancy.

  17. Influence of pregnancy on the febrile response to ICV administration of PGE1 in rats studied in a thermocline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eliason, H L; Fewell, J E

    1997-05-01

    Rats near term of pregnancy have an attenuated febrile response to intracerebroventricular (ICV) injection of prostaglandin E1 (PGE1) when they are studied at an ambient temperature below their thermoneutral zone. Given that nonshivering thermogenesis in brown adipose tissue is impaired in rodents near term of pregnancy, it is possible that the attenuated febrile response is forced by impairment of this component of the autonomic thermoregulatory response. If this were the case, then near-term pregnant rats should develop a "normal" fever after PGE1 administration if they were studied in a thermocline where they could utilize behavioral as well as autonomic thermoregulatory effectors to increase their body core temperature (Tbc). Experiments were, therefore, carried out on 13 nonpregnant and 14 pregnant chronically instrumented rats in a thermocline (temperature gradient 10-40 degrees C) to investigate their Tbc responses to ICV injection of PGE1. ICV injection of 0.2 microgram PGE1 produced significant increases in Tbc and fever index in both nonpregnant and pregnant animals (day 19 of gestation); the increases, however, were significantly attenuated in the pregnant compared with the nonpregnant rats. Behavioral (e.g., selected ambient temperature) and autonomic (e.g., oxygen consumption) thermoregulatory effectors were activated to increase Tbc after ICV PGE1 in both groups of animals, but the duration of activation was shortened in pregnant compared with nonpregnant rats. The abbreviated thermoregulatory effector responses and the resulting attenuated febrile response to PGE1 in the pregnant rats may have resulted from a pregnancy-related activation of an endogenous antipyretic system.

  18. Demographic and psycbosocial factors regarding the decision to continue or interrupt a pregnancy in a group of low socioeconomic adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Becerra Heraud, Silvia

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to assess the demographic and psycho-social characteristics of a sample of 60 adolescents divided in two groups of 30 subjects each one (pregnant adolescents and adolescents with an induced abortion) and compare them. The results indicated the existence of some differences between both groups that may be relevant in the decision to have an abortion, for example the adolescent's age and occupation, her desire to become pregnant, the number of past pregnanci...

  19. Mental rotation task in a pilot during and after pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piccardi, Laura; Verde, Paola; Bianchini, Filippo; Morgagni, Fabio; Guariglia, Cecilia; Strollo, Felice

    2013-10-01

    Discordant findings have been reported about the change in pregnant women's cognitive test performance. Visuo-spatial abilities, which are crucial in terrestrial/flight navigation, could be influenced by hormonal variations. A 32-yr-old Italian Air Force pilot underwent a 2-D Mental Rotation Task (MRT) and hormonal assessment in the second trimester of pregnancy and 1 yr after delivery. Her performance was compared with that of two nonpregnant groups of women: one with flying experience and the other without. Estradiol and progesterone were significantly higher in pregnancy compared with postpartum, while testosterone was almost unchanged. During pregnancy, we observed a significant difference in the subject's response time compared with pilots (she was slower) and nonpilots (she was faster). One year after delivery, her performance was still better than the nonpilot group and was almost the same as the pilot group. Our data are consistent with an effect of pregnancy on visuo-spatial ability that can last for some time after delivery, even with the early recovery of the hormonal levels. MRT smoothly changed in our subject, supporting previous findings that women who are experts in flight navigation are less sensitive to hormonal fluctuations. In this case, visuospatial ability requiring effortful processing underwent variations during pregnancy and postpartum. Further studies are needed in order to confirm our observations in a wider population.

  20. Survival outcomes in pregnancy associated breast cancer: a retrospective case control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Sheikh Asim; Gupta, Sameer; Sehgal, Rajesh; Vogel, Victor

    2012-01-01

    Pregnancy-associated breast cancer (PABC) has been defined as breast cancer diagnosed during pregnancy or within one year of delivery. It is believed that after adjusting for age and stage, the 5-year survival rates are the same in both pregnant and nonpregnant women. We conducted a retrospective case-control study among patients treated at our institution between 1990 and 2005 to compare the 5-year survival outcomes for PABC with women treated for breast cancer who were not pregnant. Overall survival (OS) and disease-free survival (DFS) were estimated by the Kaplan-Meier method, and log rank tests were used to assess the associations between OS, DFS and pregnancy status, HER-2 status, ER/PR status, and family history. The median age was 33 years (range 24-42) for both groups. Twenty-two (55%) patients with PABC were ER/PR receptor positive compared with 20 (50%) for the controls. Ninety percent of patients with PABC received chemotherapy compared with 87.5% in the nonpregnant group. 91.5% of patients with PABC had breast-conserving surgery and 8.5% had mastectomies compared with 86% and 14%, respectively, for the control group. The median OS was 4.9 years in the PABC group compared with 6 years for the controls (p = 0.02). The median DFS was 2.7 years for the PABC group compared with 5.1 years for the controls (p = 0.01). The most common site of relapse was bone for the PABC group (27%) and local recurrence (33%) for the controls. Univariate analysis revealed that OS and DFS were associated with pregnancy status, family history, ER/PR status, and stage. After adjusting for age and stage, PABC patients had higher risk of both death (p = 0.01) and recurrence (p = 0.02) compared with nonpregnant controls. Women with PABC had significantly shorter OS and DFS compared with nonpregnant age and stage-matched controls.

  1. Effect of pregnancy in hematological profile of dogs

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    Elenica Dimco

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Pregnant impact on hematological parameters in the dogs was award in this study. Blood was collected in the cephalic vein of 32 female animals, clinically healthy, in different physiological condition. Hematological parameters that studied were RBC, WBC and platelets count, Hgb concentration, HCT, differential counting of leukocytes and erythrocyte indicators. The obtained results from the analysis showed that pregnancy can affect the values of hematological parameters. The number of erythrocytes, the level of hematocrit and hemoglobin concentration in pregnant animals resulted lower than in non-pregnant animals. No volatility resulted in the values of MCV, MCH and MCHC. In the pregnant animals group was found the increase of the circulating leucocytes number, of relative value of neutrophils and lymphocytes decrease. The pregnancy condition should be taken in consideration during the results interpretation of laboratory analysis.

  2. Effects of dexamethasone on the glucogenic capacity of fetal, pregnant, and non-pregnant adult sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franko, K L; Giussani, D A; Forhead, A J; Fowden, A L

    2007-01-01

    Fetal glucocorticoids have an important role in the pre-partum maturation of physiological systems essential for neonatal survival such as glucogenesis. Consequently, in clinical practice, synthetic glucocorticoids, like dexamethasone, are given routinely to pregnant women threatened with pre-term delivery to improve the viability of their infants. However, little is known about the effects of maternal dexamethasone treatment on the glucogenic capacity of either the fetus or mother. This study investigated the effects of dexamethasone treatment using a clinically relevant dose and regime on glycogen deposition and the activities of glucose-6-phosphatase (G6Pase) and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK) in the liver and kidney of pregnant ewes and their fetuses, and of non-pregnant ewes. Dexamethasone administration increased the glycogen content of both the fetal and adult liver within 36 h of beginning treatment. It also increased G6Pase activity in the liver and kidney of the fetuses but not of their mothers or the non-pregnant ewes. Neither hepatic nor renal PEPCK activity was affected by dexamethasone in any group of animals. These changes in glycogen content and G6Pase activity were accompanied by rises in the plasma glucose and insulin concentrations and by a fall in the plasma cortisol level in the fetus and both groups of adult animals. In addition, dexamethasone treatment raised fetal plasma tri-iodothyronine (T(3)) concentrations and reduced maternal levels of plasma T(3) and thyroxine, but had no effect on thyroid hormone concentrations in the non-pregnant ewes. These findings show that maternal dexamethasone treatment increases the glucogenic capacity of both the mother and fetus and has major implications for glucose availability both before and after birth.

  3. Prevalence of HIV among childbearing women and women having termination of pregnancy: multidisciplinary steering group study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberg, D. J.; MacKinnon, H.; Smith, R.; Patel, N. B.; Scrimgeour, J. B.; Inglis, J. M.; Peutherer, J. F.; Urquhart, G. E.; Emslie, J. A.; Covell, R. G.

    1992-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To determine the prevalence of HIV among pregnant women, in particular those whose behaviour or that of their partners put them at "low risk" of infection. DESIGN--Voluntary named or anonymous HIV testing of pregnant women during 21 months (November 1988 to July 1990). SUBJECTS AND SETTING--All women who planned to continue their pregnancy and attended clinics serving the antenatal populations of Edinburgh and Dundee. All women admitted for termination of pregnancy to gynaecology wards serving the pregnant populations of Dundee and outlying rural areas. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES--Period prevalence of HIV antibody positivity. RESULTS--91% of antenatal clinic attenders and 97% of women having termination of pregnancy agreed to HIV testing on a named or anonymous basis. HIV period prevalences for antenatal clinic attenders and women having termination of pregnancy tested in Dundee were 0.13% and 0.85% respectively, and for antenatal clinic attenders tested in Edinburgh 0.26%. For those at "low risk" rates for antenatal clinic attenders and women having termination of pregnancy in Dundee were 0.11% and 0.13%, and for antenatal clinic attenders in Edinburgh 0.02%. In Dundee HIV prevalence among women having a termination of pregnancy (0.85%) was significantly greater than that among antenatal clinic attenders (0.13%). CONCLUSIONS--HIV infection is undoubtedly occurring among women at "low risk," and it is clear that a policy of selective testing of those at only "high risk" is inadequate for pregnant women living in areas of high prevalence such as Edinburgh and Dundee. Moreover, when studying pregnant populations in such areas there is the need to include those having a termination of pregnancy. PMID:1586820

  4. CenteringPregnancy-Africa: a pilot of group antenatal care to address Millennium Development Goals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patil, Crystal L; Abrams, Elizabeth T; Klima, Carrie; Kaponda, Chrissie P N; Leshabari, Sebalda C; Vonderheid, Susan C; Kamanga, Martha; Norr, Kathleen F

    2013-10-01

    severe health worker shortages and resource limitations negatively affect quality of antenatal care (ANC) throughout sub-Saharan Africa. Group ANC, specifically CenteringPregnancy (CP), may offer an innovative approach to enable midwives to offer higher quality ANC. our overarching goal was to prepare to conduct a clinical trial of CenteringPregnancy-Africa (CP-Africa) in Malawi and Tanzania. In Phase 1, our goal was to determine the acceptability of CP as a model for ANC in both countries. In Phase 2, our objective was to develop CP-Africa session content consistent with the Essential Elements of CP model and with national standards in both Malawi and Tanzania. In Phase 3, our objective was to pilot CP-Africa in Malawi to determine whether sessions could be conducted with fidelity to the Centering process. Phases 1 and 2 took place in Malawi and Tanzania. Phase 3, the piloting of two sessions of CP-Africa, occurred at two sites in Malawi: a district hospital and a small clinic. we used an Action Research approach to promote partnerships among university researchers, the Centering Healthcare Institute, health care administrators, health professionals and women attending ANC to develop CP-Africa session content and pilot this model of group ANC. for Phases 1 and 2, members of the Ministries of Health, health professionals and pregnant women in Malawi and Tanzania were introduced to and interviewed about CP. In Phase 2, we finalised CP-Africa content and trained 13 health professionals in the Centering Healthcare model. In Phase 3, we conducted a small pilot with 24 pregnant women (12 at each site). participants enthusiastically embraced CP-Africa as an acceptable model of ANC health care delivery. The CP-Africa content met both CP and national standards. The pilot established that the CP model could be implemented with process fidelity to the 13 Essential Elements. Several implementation challenges and strategies to address these challenges were identified

  5. The impact of Centering Pregnancy Group Prenatal Care on postpartum family planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hale, Nathan; Picklesimer, Amy H; Billings, Deborah L; Covington-Kolb, Sarah

    2014-01-01

    The objective of the study was to evaluate the impact of group prenatal care (GPNC) on postpartum family-planning utilization. A retrospective cohort of women continuously enrolled in Medicaid for 12 months (n = 3637) was used to examine differences in postpartum family-planning service utilization among women participating in GPNC (n = 570) and those receiving individual prenatal care (IPNC; n = 3067). Propensity scoring methods were used to derive a matched cohort for additional analysis of selected outcomes. Utilization of postpartum family-planning services was higher among women participating in GPNC than among women receiving IPNC at 4 points in time: 3 (7.72% vs 5.15%, P planning visits were highest among non-Hispanic black women at each interval, peaking with 31.84% by 12 months postpartum. After propensity score matching, positive associations between GPNC and postpartum family-planning service utilization remained consistent by 6 (odds ratio [OR], 1.42; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.05-1.92), 9 (OR, 1.43; 95% CI, 1.08-1.90), and 12 (OR, 1.44; 95% CI, 1.10-1.90) months postpartum. These findings demonstrate the potential that GPNC has to positively influence women's health outcomes after pregnancy and to improve the utilization rate of preventive health services. Utilization of postpartum family-planning services was highest among non-Hispanic black women, further supporting evidence of the impact of GPNC in reducing health disparities. However, despite continuous Medicaid enrollment, postpartum utilization of family-planning services remained low among all women, regardless of the type of prenatal care they received. Copyright © 2014 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. The effects of adjuvant arthritis on the myometrial adrenergic functions in the nonpregnant and the late-pregnant rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Csik, G; Spiegl, G; Minorics, R; Falkay, G; Zupko, I

    2010-10-01

    The beneficial effects of pregnancy on the symptoms of inflammatory diseases are well documented. The modulation in the uterine functions in the presence of generalized inflammation, however, is much less characterized. The aim of the present study was to explore the modulatory action of adjuvant arthritis on the adrenergic functions of the uterus in nonpregnant and late pregnant rats. Adjuvant arthritis was induced by the subplantar injection of M. butyricum. Presynaptic functions were characterized by a superfusion technique and by registration of the contractions of isolated uterine rings elicited by electric field stimulation. The functions of the adrenoceptors were characterized by constructing concentration-response curves with agonists for both α- and β-receptors. Where these curves differed significantly from the control, the expressions of these receptors at the mRNA level were additionally determined. Adjuvant arthritis substantially decreased the uptake and release of [(3)H]noradrenaline in myometrial samples from nonpregnant rats, but caused no change at term. The electrically induced contractions were decreased by inflammation in both gestational states. Arthritis resulted in decreased β-adrenoceptor-mediated relaxation (in both the nonpregnant and the late-pregnant animals) and an increase in α-mediated contraction at term. It can be concluded that adjuvant arthritis deteriorates the adrenergic innervation of the uterus. The effects of exogenous sympathomimetics are shifted, favoring a state of higher contractility. If similar mechanisms are operative in humans, the present results could imply that β-adrenoceptor agonists are not ideal tocolytics when pregnancy is complicated by generalized inflammation.

  7. Stillbirth in diabetic pregnancies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mathiesen, Elisabeth R; Damm, Peter; Nielsen, Lene Ringholm

    2011-01-01

    women. There is thus a need for new strategies for improving glycaemic control to near-normal levels throughout pregnancy and for preventing and treating hypertensive disorders in pregnancy. Antenatal surveillance tests including ultrasound examinations of the foetal growth rate, kick counting and non......Pregnancy in women with pregestational diabetes is associated with high perinatal morbidity and mortality. Stillbirth accounts for the majority of cases with perinatal death. Intrauterine growth restriction, pre-eclampsia, foetal hypoxia and congenital malformations may be contributing factors......, but more than 50% of stillbirths are unexplained. Majority of stillbirths are characterised by suboptimal glycaemic control during pregnancy. Foetal hypoxia and cardiac dysfunction secondary to poor glycaemic control are probably the most important pathogenic factors in stillbirths among pregnant diabetic...

  8. Hyperthyroidism and pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gargallo Fernández, Manuel

    2013-11-01

    Association of hyperthyroidism and pregnancy is not an unusual event, and has an impact on both the mother and fetus. After delivery, it may also affect the newborn and the nursing mother. Clinical management of this situation is quite different from that required by non-pregnant hyperthyroid women and poses significant diagnostic and therapeutic challenges. This review addresses aspects related to the unique characteristics of biochemical assessment of thyroid function in pregnancy, the potential causes of hyperthyroidism in pregnancy, and the clinical and therapeutic approach in each case. Special attention is paid to pregnancy complicated with Graves' disease and its different the maternal, fetal, neonatal, and postnatal consequences. Copyright © 2012 SEEN. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  9. Positive prenatal well-being: conceptualising and measuring mindfulness and gratitude in pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O' Leary, Karen; Dockray, Samantha; Hammond, Sean

    2016-08-01

    Little research has examined the usefulness of positive well-being factors during pregnancy. Recent mindfulness research demonstrates that inconsistencies and the suitability of extant measures have yet to be examined in pregnancy. Effects of gratitude during pregnancy have yet to be examined despite consistently reported benefits in non-pregnant groups. The aims of this paper were to develop the Gratitude during Pregnancy (GDP) scale, validate the Mindfulness Awareness Attention Scale (MAAS) and examine the importance of gratitude and mindfulness during pregnancy. In study 1, 375 pregnant women completed gratitude and mindfulness measures. The one-factor structure of the MAAS was retained and demonstrated good reliability α = 0.88. Using exploratory factor analysis, an 18-item GDP scale was developed, demonstrating good reliability α = 0.89. The four GDP factors are as follows: general gratitude, physical changes, antenatal care and social support. In study 2, 87 pregnant women completed well-being questionnaires, including the GDP and MAAS. Gratitude correlated with positive affect, life satisfaction and pregnancy uplifts (p mindfulness correlated negatively with negative affect and pregnancy hassles (p mindfulness and gratitude and provide a reliable means to measure both constructs during pregnancy.

  10. Effects of pregnancy in rats on cysteamine-induced peptic ulcers: role of progesterone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montoneri, C; Drago, F

    1997-12-01

    After mating with a sexually active male, groups of female Sprague-Dawley rats were injected with cysteamine (400 mg/kg, subcutaneously) at day 0 (controls), day 5 (early-stage pregnancy), and day 18 (late-stage pregnancy) of pregnancy. In contrast to late-stage pregnancy rats, early-stage pregnancy animals showed a decrease of cysteamine-induced gastroduodenal lesions. When subjected to cysteamine injection, both nonpregnant female and male rats treated for eight days with progesterone (300 microg/rat, subcutaneously) showed a reduced incidence of gastroduodenal lesions. No effect was found in animals pretreated with 17beta-estradiol (200 microg/rat, subcutaneously). Furthermore, increased gastroduodenal mucus levels were found in early-stage pregnancy rats and in animals pretreated with progesterone. These results suggest that increased progesterone plasma levels during early-stage pregnancy may be involved in pregnancy-induced gastric and duodenal protection. This effect may be related to an increase in gastric and duodenal mucus production induced by this hormone.

  11. Spinal posture and pelvic position during pregnancy: a prospective rasterstereographic pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betsch, Marcel; Wehrle, Regina; Dor, Larissa; Rapp, Walter; Jungbluth, Pascal; Hakimi, Mohssen; Wild, Michael

    2015-06-01

    Despite the high prevalence of low back pain during pregnancy there is still a lack in the understanding of its aetiology. Changes of the spinal posture due to the anatomical changes of the pregnant body seem to be in part responsible for the back pain. In this pilot study we assessed the potential to accurately measure the spinal posture and pelvic position during pregnancy without any harmful radiation using a spine and surface topography system. Thirteen pregnant women were examined during the second and third trimester of their pregnancy, and postpartum. Twenty female, non-pregnant volunteers comprised the control group. The spinal posture and pelvic position were measured with a radiation-free spine and surface topography system. We found a significant increase in thoracic kyphosis during the course of pregnancy, but no increased lumbar lordosis. The lateral deviation of the spine also decreased significantly. However, we did not measure significant changes of the pelvic position during or after pregnancy. The results of our study show that pregnancy has an effect on the spinal posture, and that spine and surface topography can be used to measure these changes three-dimensionally and without any harmful radiation. In future studies this technique could allow to further evaluate the relationship between posture and low back pain during pregnancy, helping to understand the aetiology of low back pain in pregnancy as well as to identify methods for its prevention and treatment.

  12. Efficacy of a combined protocol for re-insemination of open cows after early pregnancy diagnosis using ultrasonography and its effect on fertility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.O. Gaja

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present field study was to establish the beneficial effects of re-insemination of non-pregnant cows using ultrasonography 20 to 23 days after the artificial insemination. A total of 245 Japanese Black cows were artificially inseminated and early pregnancy diagnosis (EPD was performed on 92 cows 20 days after insemination, using ultrasonography. The remaining 153 cows were considered as negative controls in which routine rectal palpation was performed for pregnancy diagnosis 45-50 days post-insemination. EPD revealed that eleven of the 92 cows (12% were infertile due to ovarian abnormalities and were thus excluded from the rest of the study. Forty-eight (59% of the remaining 81 cows were diagnosed as pregnant, while the other 33 (41% were diagnosed as non-pregnant. Of these non-pregnant cows, 17 of them received a dose of an analogue of the gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH analogue and were then timed-inseminated, while the other 16 were observed for estrus signs, and 13 of them (81% were artificially inseminated. Rates of conception were 35% and 38% in the GnRH and the artificially inseminated groups, respectively (P>0.05. Total pregnancy rate for the EPD group increased significantly (74% (P<0.01 when compared to the control cows (54% within the same period. In conclusion, our field study demonstrated that re-insemination of non-pregnant cows following EPD is highly efficacious not only in improving the rate of fertility via reducing inter-insemination and inter-calving intervals, but also aids in the early detection of ovarian disorders.

  13. Pharmacokinetics of cocaine in pregnant and nonpregnant rhesus monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duhart, H M; Fogle, C M; Gillam, M P; Bailey, J R; Slikker, W; Paule, M G

    1993-01-01

    To determine pharmacokinetic parameters for cocaine in rhesus monkey plasma, samples were taken over several hours after i.m. administration of cocaine plus a tritiated cocaine tracer. Cocaine and its metabolites, benzoylecgonine and norcocaine, were isolated via HPLC and quantitated using liquid scintillation spectrometry. Pregnant subjects were dosed with cocaine at 0.3 (n = 3) or 1.0 (n = 3) mg/kg, whereas nonpregnant female subjects were dosed with 1.0 mg/kg (n = 3). For the pregnant subjects, pharmacokinetic studies were conducted on about gestational day 125 and areas under the concentration versus time curve (AUCs, ng/mL x h) were 64 +/- 26 (+/- SEM) and 143 +/- 12; half-lives (t1/2s, h) were 1.9 +/- 0.6 and 1.1 +/- 0.1 after 0.3 and 1.0 mg/kg i.m., respectively. For nonpregnant subjects dosed acutely with 1.0 mg/kg, the AUC was 262 +/- 63 and the t1/2 was 1.4 +/- 0.3. There appear to be few differences in the pharmacokinetic parameters of cocaine and benzoylecgonine between pregnant and nonpregnant monkeys in this study.

  14. Iodine deficiency in pregnancy is prevalent in vulnerable groups in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkegaard-Klitbo, Ditte Marie; Perslev, Kathrine; Andersen, Stine Linding

    2016-01-01

    -containing supplements (86%). The median UIC was 118 (interquartile range (IQR): 79-196) µg/l in iodine supplement users and 82 (IQR: 41-122) µg/l in non-users (p pregnancy obesity....... CONCLUSIONS: The iodine status in Danish pregnant women was below WHO recommendations. Iodine supplement non-users are at a particular risk of iodine deficiency. Low maternal education, non-Danish origin and pre-pregnancy obesity are predictors of non-iodine supplement use. An increase in iodine fortification......INTRODUCTION: Iodine is essential for the production of thyroid hormones. In pregnancy, physiological changes occur that can lead to iodine deficiency and impairment of fetal neurological development. We aimed to assess the iodine intake in pregnant women in Eastern Denmark, compare iodine levels...

  15. Effect of Spinal Manipulation on Pelvic Floor Functional Changes in Pregnant and Nonpregnant Women: A Preliminary Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haavik, Heidi; Murphy, Bernadette A; Kruger, Jennifer

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether a single session of spinal manipulation of pregnant women can alter pelvic floor muscle function as measured using ultrasonographic imaging. In this preliminary, prospective, comparative study, transperineal ultrasonographic imaging was used to assess pelvic floor anatomy and function in 11 primigravid women in their second trimester recruited via notice boards at obstetric caregivers, pregnancy keep-fit classes, and word of mouth and 15 nulliparous women recruited from a convenience sample of female students at the New Zealand College of Chiropractic. Following bladder voiding, 3-/4-dimensional transperineal ultrasonography was performed on all participants in the supine position. Levator hiatal area measurements at rest, on maximal pelvic floor contraction, and during maximum Valsalva maneuver were collected before and after either spinal manipulation or a control intervention. Levator hiatal area at rest increased significantly (P pregnant women, with no change postmanipulation in the nonpregnant women at rest or in any of the other measured parameters. Spinal manipulation of pregnant women in their second trimester increased the levator hiatal area at rest and thus appears to relax the pelvic floor muscles. This did not occur in the nonpregnant control participants, suggesting that it may be pregnancy related. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  16. [Evaluation of smell function changes in pregnancy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gül, Aylin; Yilmaz, Beyhan; Karababa, Songül; Tuna, Selin Fulya; Özkurt, Fazil Emre; Yaman Yörük, Neval; Topçu, İsmail

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to compare the olfactory function changes among pregnant women in varying trimesters and non-pregnant women. Thirty-five healthy pregnant women and 14 non-pregnant women were included in the study. Volunteer pregnant women were divided into three subgroups including the first trimester, second trimester, and third trimester. All volunteers were tested with the smell bottle test battery. The content of the test was consistent with the Sniffin' sticks including three detailed olfactory function tests, namely olfactory threshold (OT), olfactory discrimination (OD), and olfactory identification (OI). Total results of these three tests were defined as TDI scores. TDI score and test scores of the pregnant women in the first trimester statistically significantly decreased compared to pregnant women in other trimesters and non-pregnant women (p0.05). The olfactory function changes are observed in women during pregnancy. In particular, decreased smell sensitivity in the first trimester returns to normal scores towards the end of pregnancy.

  17. Gestational diabetes and pregnancy outcomes - a systematic review of the World Health Organization (WHO and the International Association of Diabetes in Pregnancy Study Groups (IADPSG diagnostic criteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wendland Eliana M

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Two criteria based on a 2 h 75 g OGTT are being used for the diagnosis of gestational diabetes (GDM, those recommended over the years by the World Health Organization (WHO, and those recently recommended by the International Association for Diabetes in Pregnancy Study Group (IADPSG, the latter generated in the HAPO study and based on pregnancy outcomes. Our aim is to systematically review the evidence for the associations between GDM (according to these criteria and adverse outcomes. Methods We searched relevant studies in MEDLINE, EMBASE, LILACS, the Cochrane Library, CINHAL, WHO-Afro library, IMSEAR, EMCAT, IMEMR and WPRIM. We included cohort studies permitting the evaluation of GDM diagnosed by WHO and or IADPSG criteria against adverse maternal and perinatal outcomes in untreated women. Only studies with universal application of a 75 g OGTT were included. Relative risks (RRs and their 95% confidence intervals (CI were obtained for each study. We combined study results using a random-effects model. Inconsistency across studies was defined by an inconsistency index (I2 > 50%. Results Data were extracted from eight studies, totaling 44,829 women. Greater risk of adverse outcomes was observed for both diagnostic criteria. When using the WHO criteria, consistent associations were seen for macrosomia (RR = 1.81; 95%CI 1.47-2.22; p 2 ≥ 73%. Magnitudes of RRs and their 95%CIs were 1.73 (1.28-2.35; p = 0.001 for large for gestational age; 1.71 (1.38-2.13; p Conclusions The WHO and the IADPSG criteria for GDM identified women at a small increased risk for adverse pregnancy outcomes. Associations were of similar magnitude for both criteria. However, high inconsistency was seen for those with the IADPSG criteria. Full evaluation of the latter in settings other than HAPO requires additional studies.

  18. Coagulation parameters do not change during luteal phase and pregnancy in cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera del Álamo, Maria Montserrat; Meléndez-Lazo, Antonio; Ferré-Dolcet, Lluis; Pastor, Josep; Rigau, Teresa; Santos, Laura; Fresno, Laura

    2014-07-15

    Changes in coagulation parameters depending on reproductive status and pregnancy have been previously reported in both human and other veterinary species. The objective of this study was to determine if different reproductive status affects coagulation parameters in queens. Blood samples from 66 queens submitted to spay surgery were obtained. A hemostatic panel including platelet count, prothrombin time, activated partial thromboplastin time, fibrinogen concentration, and D-dimer and also progesterone concentrations were measured before surgery. According to progesterone results and embryo vesicles diameter, four groups were established: (1) nonpregnant queens with low (≤1 ng/mL) progesterone concentration (LP) (n = 33); (2) nonpregnant queens with high (≥2 ng/mL) progesterone concentration (n = 8) (HP); (3) first half of pregnancy (n = 12); and (4) second half of pregnancy (n = 13). None of the evaluated parameters showed statistically significant differences among the different groups. There was no significant linear correlation between progesterone values and coagulation parameters. In conclusion, neither the presence of the embryo nor the higher values of progesterone concentration induced statistically significant changes in the coagulation profile studied.

  19. Maternal Dietary Patterns During Early Pregnancy and the Odds of Childhood Germ Cell Tumors: A Children's Oncology Group Study

    OpenAIRE

    Musselman, Jessica R.B.; Anne M Jurek; Johnson, Kimberly J.; Linabery, Amy M.; Robison, Leslie L.; Shu, Xiao-Ou; Ross, Julie A

    2010-01-01

    Maternal diet during pregnancy may be associated with cancer in offspring. Intake of individual foods, as well as dietary patterns, can be used when examining these relations. Here, the authors examined associations between maternal dietary intake patterns and pediatric germ cell tumors (GCTs) using principal components analysis and logistic regression. Mothers of 222 GCT cases aged less than 15 years who were diagnosed at a Children's Oncology Group institution between 1993 and 2001 and thos...

  20. A study of changes in homocysteine levels during normal pregnancy and pre-eclampsia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Urmila; Gupta, H P; Singh, R K; Shukla, Manju; Singh, Ranjana; Mehrotra, Seema Sinha Nee; Prasad, Shweta

    2008-08-01

    To find out changes in homocysteine levels that occur during normal pregnancy and pregnancy with pre-eclamptic toxaemia and also to find out correlation between homocysteine concentration and preeclamptic toxaemia a study was carried out among 90 women of which 30 were control which included normotensive non-pregnant women and the study group I comprised 30 pregnant normotensive women and the study group II comprised 30 pregnant women with pre-eclamptic toxaemia. Serum homocysteine was measured in all subjects using fluorescence polarisation immuno-assay. Control group had highest mean homocysteine levels while the study group I had least mean homocysteine levels (p 146/100 mm Hg as compared to subjects with BP >140/90 and homocysteine levels were directly correlated with severity of pre-eclampsia.

  1. Associations of life events during pregnancy with longitudinal change in symptoms of antenatal anxiety and depression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijer, Judith L; Bockting, Claudi L H; Stolk, Ronald P; Kotov, Roman; Ormel, Johan; Burger, Huibert

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: to investigate the association of life events during pregnancy with change in antenatal anxiety and depression symptoms. We distinguished pregnancy related and non-pregnancy related events and assessed specificity of these associations for depressive or anxious symptoms. In addition, we i

  2. Laboratory reference intervals during pregnancy, delivery and the early postpartum period

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klajnbard, Anna; Szecsi, Pal Bela; Colov, Nina P;

    2010-01-01

    Physiological changes during pregnancy may affect laboratory parameters. Reference values based on samples from non-pregnant women are not necessarily useful for clinical decisions during pregnancy. There is a need to establish reference values during pregnancy in order to recognize pathological...

  3. Laboratory reference intervals during pregnancy, delivery and the early postpartum period

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klajnbard, Anna; Szecsi, Pal Bela; Colov, Nina P

    2010-01-01

    Physiological changes during pregnancy may affect laboratory parameters. Reference values based on samples from non-pregnant women are not necessarily useful for clinical decisions during pregnancy. There is a need to establish reference values during pregnancy in order to recognize pathological...

  4. Lack of Association between Recurrent Pregnancy Loss and Inherited Thrombophilia in a Group of Colombian Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardona, Henry; Castañeda, Serguei A.; Cardona Maya, Wálter; Alvarez, Leonor; Gómez, Joaquín; Gómez, Jorge; Torres, José; Tobón, Luis; Bedoya, Gabriel; Cadavid, Ángela P.

    2012-01-01

    Studies have shown an association between recurrent pregnancy loss and inherited thrombophilia in Caucasian populations, but there is insufficient knowledge concerning triethnic populations such as the Colombian. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether inherited thrombophilia is associated with recurrent pregnancy loss. Methods. We conducted a case-control study of 93 patients with recurrent pregnancy loss (cases) and 206 healthy multiparous women (controls) in a Colombian subpopulation. Three single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) markers of the inherited thrombophilias factor V Leiden, prothrombin G20210A, and methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase C677T were genotyped by PCR-RFLP. Activated protein C resistance and plasma levels of antithrombin, protein C, and protein S were also measured. Results. The frequency of thrombophilia-associated SNPs, activated protein C resistance, and anticoagulant protein deficiencies, was low overall, except for the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase C677T SNP. The differences between patients and controls had no statistical significance. Conclusion. Our study confirms the low prevalence of inherited thrombophilias in non-Caucasian populations and it is unlikely that the tested thrombophilias play a role in the pathogenesis of recurrent pregnancy loss in this Colombian population. PMID:22577540

  5. Lack of Association between Recurrent Pregnancy Loss and Inherited Thrombophilia in a Group of Colombian Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henry Cardona

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Studies have shown an association between recurrent pregnancy loss and inherited thrombophilia in Caucasian populations, but there is insufficient knowledge concerning triethnic populations such as the Colombian. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether inherited thrombophilia is associated with recurrent pregnancy loss. Methods. We conducted a case-control study of 93 patients with recurrent pregnancy loss (cases and 206 healthy multiparous women (controls in a Colombian subpopulation. Three single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs markers of the inherited thrombophilias factor V Leiden, prothrombin G20210A, and methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase C677T were genotyped by PCR-RFLP. Activated protein C resistance and plasma levels of antithrombin, protein C, and protein S were also measured. Results. The frequency of thrombophilia-associated SNPs, activated protein C resistance, and anticoagulant protein deficiencies, was low overall, except for the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase C677T SNP. The differences between patients and controls had no statistical significance. Conclusion. Our study confirms the low prevalence of inherited thrombophilias in non-Caucasian populations and it is unlikely that the tested thrombophilias play a role in the pathogenesis of recurrent pregnancy loss in this Colombian population.

  6. A prospective longitudinal cohort study: evolution of GERD symptoms during the course of pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fill Malfertheiner Sara

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Symptoms of gastro-esophageal reflux disease (GERD in pregnancy are reported with a prevalence of 30–80%. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence and severity of GERD symptoms during the course of pregnancy. Furthermore current practice in medical care for GERD during pregnancy was assessed. Methods We performed a prospective longitudinal cohort study on 510 pregnant women (mean age 28.12, SD 5.3. Investigations for reflux symptoms where based on the use of validated reflux-disease questionnaire (RDQ. Additional information was collected about the therapy. A group of non-pregnant women (mean age 24.56, SD 5.7 was included as controls. Frequency and severity of reflux symptoms were recorded in each trimester of pregnancy. Results The prevalence of GERD symptoms in pregnant women increased from the first trimester with 26.1 to 36.1% in the second trimester and to 51.2% in the third trimester of pregnancy. The prevalence of GERD symptoms in the control group was 9.3%. Pregnant women received medication for their GERD symptoms in 12.8% during the first, 9.1% during the second and 15.7% during the third trimester. Medications used >90% antacids, 0% PPI. Conclusion GERD symptoms occur more often in pregnant women than in non-pregnant and the frequency rises in the course of pregnancy. Medical therapy is used in a minority of cases and often with no adequate symptom relief.

  7. Maintenance of the corpus luteum of early pregnancy in the ewe. IV. Changes in luteal sensitivity to prostaglandin F2 alpha throughout early pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silvia, W J; Niswender, G D

    1986-10-01

    Two experiments were conducted to examine the temporal aspects of luteal resistance to the luteolytic effect of prostaglandin (PG) F2 alpha during early pregnancy. In Exp. 1, 14 pregnant and 12 nonpregnant ewes were treated with PGF2 alpha either on d 10 or 13 post-estrus. Jugular venous blood samples were collected at -30 min, 0, 6, 12, 18, 24, 30 and 36 h post-injection for quantification of progesterone. The difference (delta P) between pre-treatment and post-treatment concentrations of progesterone was calculated for each ewe. There was a significant interaction between pregnancy status and day of treatment on delta P (P less than .05). Pregnant and nonpregnant ewes treated on d 10 showed a large delta P. A large delta P also was observed in nonpregnant ewes treated on d 13 post-estrus. However, delta P in pregnant ewes treated on d 13 was smaller than in the other three groups (P less than .05). The temporal patterns of concentrations of progesterone in serum were different among treatment groups (P less than .05). A suppression in the concentration of progesterone was observed by 24 h post-injection in all four treatment groups. Progesterone returned to pre-treatment levels only in pregnant ewes treated on d 13. In Exp. 2, 47 pregnant ewes were treated with PGF2 alpha on d 10, 13, 16, 19, 22, 26 or 30 postestrus. Blood samples were collected and data were analyzed as described for Exp. 1.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  8. Differential effect of neocuproine, a copper(I) chelator, on contractile activity in isolated ovariectomized non-pregnant rat, pregnant rat and pregnant human uterus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumcu, Eda Karabal; Büyüknacar, Hacer Sinem Göktürk; Göçmen, Cemil; Evrüke, Ismail Cüneyt; Onder, Serpil

    2009-03-01

    The study was conducted to examine effects of a selective copper(I) chelator, neocuproine on the spontaneous or oxytocin-induced contractions in isolated ovariectomized non-pregnant rat, pregnant rat and pregnant human uterus. Uterus activity was evaluated in tissues obtained from bilaterally ovariectomized non-pregnant rats on the 21st day of the operation (n = 24), pregnant rats on the 19-21st day of gestation (n = 24) and women undergoing caesarean section at 38-42 weeks of pregnancy (n = 15). Neocuproine (100 microM) significantly suppressed the amplitude and frequency of the spontaneous contractions in the ovariectomized non-pregnant rat uterus while this agent facilitated the frequency of the spontaneous or oxytocin-induced contractions in the pregnant rat and human uterus without altering the amplitude of these contractions. At high concentration of 200 microM, neocuproine could enhance the amplitude of the contractions in the pregnant uterus. These effects were blocked by a purinergic receptor antagonist, suramin (100 microM) and did not occur following the administration of neocuproine-copper(I) complex or copper(II) chelator cuprizone. alpha, beta-methylene ATP increased the amplitude and frequency of contractions in the pregnant uterus, but not affected the contractions in the ovariectomized non-pregnant rat uterus, and neocuproine potentiated this facilitation effect. However, the suppressive effect of neocuproine on the ovariectomized non-pregnant rat uterus increased in the presence of alpha,beta-methylene ATP. Beta-adrenoceptor blocker, propranolol or nitric oxide synthase inhibitor, L-nitroarginine did not affect the responses to neocuproine. These findings suggest that neocuproine can affect the uterus contractile activity by modulation purinergic excitatory responses and that copper(I)-sensitive mechanisms may play a role in this effect.

  9. [A group of pregnant teenagers' perceptions regarding their pregnancy accompanied by food insecurity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Cano, Liliana A; Restrepo-Mesa, Sandra L

    2014-01-01

    Describing pregnant adolescents' perceptions regarding food insecurity in their households. Quantitative methodology involving an ethnographic approach was used; seventeen adolescents in their third trimester of pregnancy were included in the study; they were registered in the Medellin public hospital network's prenatal control program and living in households classified as being food insecure. Some adolescents said that initially their pregnancies were unwanted; however, feeling a baby in their wombs became an act of love and became acceptance of their unborn children. Single-parent families headed by women and a background of adolescent pregnancy amongst the participants' mothers were striking findings. Although pregnant adolescents recognized the type of nutrition which should have been consumed according to their physiological period, beliefs and preferences, their financial difficulties and the situation that they lived in limited their access to food, thereby making the most valuable food in nutritional terms become the least consumed by them. Poverty spreads the experience of food insecurity and hunger within a household and generates concern in mothers-to-be about the future of their unborn children's nutrition, feelings of intense pain, helplessness and hopelessness concerning the future.

  10. Appendicitis in Pregnancy: Presentation, Management and Complications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdoulhossein Davoodabadi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background Diagnosis of acute appendicitis in pregnancy is difficult. Delay operation, increase complications. Objectives This study focused on early operation on base of careful history, precise physical examination, and rational close observation and evaluates its results with conventional investigation in pregnant women suspected acute appendicitis. Materials and Methods A cross sectional study in100 pregnant women and 100 aged matched non pregnant women underwent appendectomy during Sep 2011 - Dec 2014. The data were analyzed by chi-square test through SPSS 16.0. Results Age 16 - 37 years, mean age in pregnant women and no pregnant women were24.75 ± 4.4 and 27.56 ± 6.53 years (P > 0.05, respectively. 20 - 25 years age group, were more frequent = 44%. 70% patients were gravid 1, mean hospital stay in pregnant women, and non-pregnant women were 48 ± 6 and 85.2 ± 43.19 hours (P value < 0.001. respectively. acute appendicitis was confirmed histological in non-pregnant was 72%, but In pregnant women 62%, most cases were in the third Trimester 66% (n = 41. Peri umbilical pain, with migration to the right lower quadrant, was in 75% of patients. Right-lower-quadrant pain was the most common presenting symptom. Diagnosis (62% was made on base care full history and precise physical examination and close observation of 12 ± 8 hours. there were no maternal and fetal complications related to all of the appendectomies during the all trimester up to delivery period. Conclusions There are no diagnostic laboratory findings in acute appendicitis during pregnancy. Careful history and physical examination and close observation of 12 ± 8 hours are sufficient for surgery decision making. In spite of high negative appendectomy since it has no Surgical and obstetric complication, early Appendectomy without aggressive investigation recommend.

  11. Non-Invasive Assessment of the Interrelationships of Diet, Pregnancy Rate, Group Composition, and Physiological and Nutritional Stress of Barren-Ground Caribou in Late Winter: e0127586

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kyle Joly; Samuel K Wasser; Rebecca Booth

    2015-01-01

    .... We used microhistological analyses and hormone levels in feces to determine sex-specific late-winter diets, pregnancy rates, group composition, and endocrine-based measures of physiological and nutritional stress...

  12. Non-Invasive Assessment of the Interrelationships of Diet, Pregnancy Rate, Group Composition, and Physiological and Nutritional Stress of Barren-Ground Caribou in Late Winter

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Joly, Kyle; Wasser, Samuel K; Booth, Rebecca

    2015-01-01

    .... We used microhistological analyses and hormone levels in feces to determine sex-specific late-winter diets, pregnancy rates, group composition, and endocrine-based measures of physiological and nutritional stress...

  13. Quantitative cardiovascular magnetic resonance in pregnant women: cross-sectional analysis of physiological parameters throughout pregnancy and the impact of the supine position

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moelker Adriaan

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There are physiological reasons for the effects of positioning on hemodynamic variables and cardiac dimensions related to altered intra-abdominal and intra-thoracic pressures. This problem is especially evident in pregnant women due to the additional aorto-caval compression by the enlarged uterus. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of postural changes on cardiac dimensions and function during mid and late pregnancy using cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR. Methods Healthy non-pregnant women, pregnant women at 20th week of gestation and at 32nd week of gestation without history of cardiac disease were recruited to the study and underwent CMR in supine and left lateral positions. Cardiac hemodynamic parameters and dimensions were measured and compared between both positions. Results Five non-pregnant women, 6 healthy pregnant women at mid pregnancy and 8 healthy pregnant women at late pregnancy were enrolled in the study. In the group of non-pregnant women left ventricular (LV cardiac output (CO significantly decreased by 9% (p = 0.043 and right ventricular (RV end-diastolic volume (EDV significantly increased by 5% (p = 0.043 from the supine to the left lateral position. During mid pregnancy LV ejection fraction (EF, stroke volume (SV, left atrium lateral diameter and left atrial supero-inferior diameter increased significantly from the supine position to the left lateral position: 8%, 27%, 5% and 11%, respectively (p Conclusions During pregnancy positional changes affect significantly cardiac hemodynamic parameters and dimensions. Pregnant women who need serial studies by CMR should be imaged in a consistent position. From as early as 20 weeks the left lateral position should be preferred on the supine position because it positively affects venous return, SV and CO.

  14. Akt and MAPK signaling mediate pregnancy-induced cardiac adaptation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Eunhee; Yeung, Fan; Leinwand, Leslie A

    2012-05-01

    Although the signaling pathways underlying exercise-induced cardiac adaptation have been extensively studied, little is known about the molecular mechanisms that result in the response of the heart to pregnancy. The objective of this study was to define the morphological, functional, and gene expression patterns that define the hearts of pregnant mice, and to identify the signaling pathways that mediate this response. Mice were divided into three groups: nonpregnant diestrus control, midpregnancy, and late pregnancy. Both time points of pregnancy were associated with significant cardiac hypertrophy. The prosurvival signaling cascades of Akt and ERK1/2 were activated in the hearts of pregnant mice, while the stress kinase, p38, was decreased. Given the activation of Akt in pregnancy and its known role in cardiac hypertrophy, the hypertrophic response to pregnancy was tested in mice expressing a cardiac-specific activated (myristoylated) form of Akt (myrAkt) or a cardiac-specific constitutively active (antipathologic hypertrophic) form of its downstream target, glycogen synthase kinase 3β (caGSK3β). The pregnancy-induced hypertrophic responses of hearts from these mice were significantly attenuated. Finally, we tested whether pregnancy-associated sex hormones could induce hypertrophy and alter signaling pathways in isolated neonatal rat ventricular myocytes (NRVMs). In fact, progesterone, but not estradiol treatment increased NRVM cell size via phosphorylation of ERK1/2. Inhibition of MEK1 effectively blocked progesterone-induced cellular hypertrophy. Taken together, our study demonstrates that pregnancy-induced cardiac hypertrophy is mediated by activation of Akt and ERK1/2 pathways.

  15. Platelet aggregation and serum adenosine deaminase (ADA) activity in pregnancy associated with diabetes, hypertension and HIV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leal, Claudio A M; Leal, Daniela B R; Adefegha, Stephen A; Morsch, Vera M; da Silva, José E P; Rezer, João F P; Schrekker, Clarissa M L; Abdalla, Faida H; Schetinger, Maria R C

    2016-07-01

    Platelet aggregation and adenosine deaminase (ADA) activity were evaluated in pregnant women living with some disease conditions including hypertension, diabetes mellitus and human immunodeficiency virus infection. The subject population is consisted of 15 non-pregnant healthy women [control group (CG)], 15 women with normal pregnancy (NP), 7 women with hypertensive pregnancy (HP), 10 women with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) and 12 women with human immunodeficiency virus-infected pregnancy (HIP) groups. The aggregation of platelets was checked using an optical aggregometer, and serum ADA activity was determined using the colorimetric method. After the addition of 5 µM of agonist adenosine diphosphate, the percentage of platelet aggregation was significantly (p < 0·05) increased in NP, HP, GDM and HIP groups when compared with the CG, while the addition of 10 µM of the same agonist caused significant (p < 0·05) elevations in HP, GDM and HIP groups when compared with CG. Furthermore, ADA activity was significantly (p < 0·05) enhanced in NP, HP, GDM and HIP groups when compared with CG. In this study, the increased platelet aggregation and ADA activity in pregnancy and pregnancy-associated diseases suggest that platelet aggregation and ADA activity could serve as peripheral markers for the development of effective therapy in the maintenance of homeostasis and some inflammatory process in these pathophysiological conditions. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. A study of respiratory rate, tidal volume, inspiratory capacity and inspiratory reserve volume in different trimesters of pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anita Teli

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The anatomical, physiological and biochemical adaptations in pregnancy are profound. Many of these changes begin soon after fertilization and continue throughout the gestation and changes in the respiratory system are part of the same process. However there is insufficient information regarding the changes in respiratory parameters in different trimesters of pregnancy. Aims: The aim of the study was designed to evaluate the pulmonary function tests in 1 st , 2 nd and 3 rd trimesters of pregnancy and compare them with non-pregnant control group. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was carried in 200 healthy women in the age range of 19-35 years. The subjects were distributed in four groups, as control (non-pregnant group and 1 st , 2 nd and 3 rd trimester pregnant groups. Number of subjects in each group was 50. Respiratory parameters in control and study groups were recorded. Statistical Analysis: By ′Z ′ test. Results: There was gradual significant increase in respiratory rate in all trimesters of pregnancy. There was a gradual decrease in tidal volume in 1 st , 2 nd and 3 rd trimesters of pregnancy when compared to non pregnant women. There was significant decrease in Inspiratory Reserve Volume and Inspiratory Capacity. Conclusion: The changes in pulmonary function are attributed to major adaptations in the maternal respiratory system and are influenced by the mechanical pressure of enlarging gravid uterus, elevating the diaphragm and restricting the movements of lungs thus hampering the forceful expiration and also might be due to decline in alveolar Pco 2 caused by hyperventilation which acts as bronchoconstrictor; in addition to sensitization of respiratory center due to progesterone

  17. Restless Legs Syndrome/Willis-Ekbom Disease and Pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prosperetti, Chiara; Manconi, Mauro

    2015-09-01

    Restless legs syndrome (RLS)/Willis-Ekbom disease is 3-fold more prevalent in pregnant than in non-pregnant women. Symptoms are particularly strong and frequent during the third trimester of pregnancy and disappear around delivery. A pre-existing form of RLS tends to worsen during pregnancy. Women who experience RLS during pregnancy have a higher risk of symptoms in further pregnancies and of developing a primary form of RLS later in life, than women free of symptoms during pregnancy. This article reviews the literature for pregnancy-related RLS, with particular attention to its epidemiology, course, possible mechanisms, management, and the impact of symptoms.

  18. Haemostatic reference intervals in pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Szecsi, Pal Bela; Jørgensen, Maja; Klajnbard, Anna

    2010-01-01

    Haemostatic reference intervals are generally based on samples from non-pregnant women. Thus, they may not be relevant to pregnant women, a problem that may hinder accurate diagnosis and treatment of haemostatic disorders during pregnancy. In this study, we establish gestational age-specific refe......Haemostatic reference intervals are generally based on samples from non-pregnant women. Thus, they may not be relevant to pregnant women, a problem that may hinder accurate diagnosis and treatment of haemostatic disorders during pregnancy. In this study, we establish gestational age......-specific reference intervals for coagulation tests during normal pregnancy. Eight hundred one women with expected normal pregnancies were included in the study. Of these women, 391 had no complications during pregnancy, vaginal delivery, or postpartum period. Plasma samples were obtained at gestational weeks 13......-20, 21-28, 29-34, 35-42, at active labor, and on postpartum days 1 and 2. Reference intervals for each gestational period using only the uncomplicated pregnancies were calculated in all 391 women for activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT), fibrinogen, fibrin D-dimer, antithrombin, free protein S...

  19. Haemostatic reference intervals in pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Szecsi, Pal Bela; Jørgensen, Maja; Klajnbard, Anna;

    2010-01-01

    Haemostatic reference intervals are generally based on samples from non-pregnant women. Thus, they may not be relevant to pregnant women, a problem that may hinder accurate diagnosis and treatment of haemostatic disorders during pregnancy. In this study, we establish gestational age......-specific reference intervals for coagulation tests during normal pregnancy. Eight hundred one women with expected normal pregnancies were included in the study. Of these women, 391 had no complications during pregnancy, vaginal delivery, or postpartum period. Plasma samples were obtained at gestational weeks 13......-20, 21-28, 29-34, 35-42, at active labor, and on postpartum days 1 and 2. Reference intervals for each gestational period using only the uncomplicated pregnancies were calculated in all 391 women for activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT), fibrinogen, fibrin D-dimer, antithrombin, free protein S...

  20. Splenectomy during pregnancy: treatment of refractory immune thrombocytopenic purpura

    OpenAIRE

    Mahey, Reeta; Kaur, Simran Deep; Chumber, Sunil; Kriplani, Alka; Bhatla, Neerja

    2013-01-01

    Immune thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP) complicates 1–2/10 000 pregnancies and accounts for 5% of cases of pregnancy-associated thrombocytopenia. Corticosteroids and intravenous immunoglobulin remain the first-line therapy in pregnancy, and a majority of pregnant women respond to this conventional therapy. Other cytotoxic and immunosuppressive agents used for treatment in non-pregnant patients, for example, danazol, cyclophosphamide, vinca alkaloids and azathioprine, are potential teratogens an...

  1. Malaria in pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seal, Subrata Lall; Mukhopadhay, Sima; Ganguly, Rajendra Prasad

    2010-08-01

    Malaria during pregnancy is a recognised risk factor for maternal and foetal complications and it is endemic in certain areas of our country. Pregnancy also enhances the severity of malaria particularly with P falciparum infestation. The outcome of effects of malaria in pregnancy on the mother and foetus is studied here. This is a prospective observational study conducted in the department of obstetrics and gynaecology of RG Kar Medical College during the period from 1st January 2001 to 31st December 2006. Forty pregnant women with malaria in pregnancy were studied. Another 40 non- pregnant women during the same period were served as control. The maternal complications were compared with the controls and the outcome of pregnancy was studied. There was statistically significant (p renal failure, hepatic failure, hypoglycaemia, hypotension and death in the pregnant women in comparison to non-pregnant women. P falciparum infection was also more during pregnancy. There was also increased incidence of abqrtion, preterm labour, intra-uterine growth restriction and intra-uterine foetal death. Treatment with antimalarial drugs particularly in cerebral malaria does not give good results as there were 12 maternal deaths in this series. Every attempt should be made to prevent malaria during pregnancy by various measures as it is associated with high maternal morbidity and mortality and adversely affects the neonatal outcome.

  2. Ischemia-modified albumin as an oxidative stress biomarker in early pregnancy loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cengiz, Huseyin; Dagdeviren, Hediye; Kanawati, Ammar; Suzen Çaypinar, Sema; Yesil, Ali; Ekin, Murat; Yasar, Levent

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to determine the association between early pregnancy loss and serum ischemia-modified albumin (IMA) concentrations. Serum samples of 180 women that included healthy pregnant women, women admitted for termination of pregnancy due to the absence of fetal cardiac activity or absence of fetal pole on ultrasonographic examination, and healthy non-pregnant women attending for gynecological examination. Each group included 60 patients. Serum concentrations of IMA were compared among the groups, and the correlations with patients' age, gravidity, BMI, gestational age and total serum albumin concentrations were calculated. When the groups were compared with respect to IMA concentrations, the group with early pregnancy loss was found to have significantly higher IMA concentrations (p 163 ng/mL had a sensitivity of 75%, specificity of 55% to discriminate between healthy pregnant patients and patients with early pregnancy loss in first trimester. Our findings support the theory that possible oxidative stress, a more hypoxic environment and defective placentation lead to increased serum IMA concentrations. These findings may help to shed light on the complicated pathogenesis of early pregnancy loss.

  3. Feature Extraction and Classification of EHG between Pregnancy and Labour Group Using Hilbert-Huang Transform and Extreme Learning Machine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lili Chen

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Preterm birth (PTB is the leading cause of perinatal mortality and long-term morbidity, which results in significant health and economic problems. The early detection of PTB has great significance for its prevention. The electrohysterogram (EHG related to uterine contraction is a noninvasive, real-time, and automatic novel technology which can be used to detect, diagnose, or predict PTB. This paper presents a method for feature extraction and classification of EHG between pregnancy and labour group, based on Hilbert-Huang transform (HHT and extreme learning machine (ELM. For each sample, each channel was decomposed into a set of intrinsic mode functions (IMFs using empirical mode decomposition (EMD. Then, the Hilbert transform was applied to IMF to obtain analytic function. The maximum amplitude of analytic function was extracted as feature. The identification model was constructed based on ELM. Experimental results reveal that the best classification performance of the proposed method can reach an accuracy of 88.00%, a sensitivity of 91.30%, and a specificity of 85.19%. The area under receiver operating characteristic (ROC curve is 0.88. Finally, experimental results indicate that the method developed in this work could be effective in the classification of EHG between pregnancy and labour group.

  4. Feature Extraction and Classification of EHG between Pregnancy and Labour Group Using Hilbert-Huang Transform and Extreme Learning Machine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Yaru

    2017-01-01

    Preterm birth (PTB) is the leading cause of perinatal mortality and long-term morbidity, which results in significant health and economic problems. The early detection of PTB has great significance for its prevention. The electrohysterogram (EHG) related to uterine contraction is a noninvasive, real-time, and automatic novel technology which can be used to detect, diagnose, or predict PTB. This paper presents a method for feature extraction and classification of EHG between pregnancy and labour group, based on Hilbert-Huang transform (HHT) and extreme learning machine (ELM). For each sample, each channel was decomposed into a set of intrinsic mode functions (IMFs) using empirical mode decomposition (EMD). Then, the Hilbert transform was applied to IMF to obtain analytic function. The maximum amplitude of analytic function was extracted as feature. The identification model was constructed based on ELM. Experimental results reveal that the best classification performance of the proposed method can reach an accuracy of 88.00%, a sensitivity of 91.30%, and a specificity of 85.19%. The area under receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve is 0.88. Finally, experimental results indicate that the method developed in this work could be effective in the classification of EHG between pregnancy and labour group. PMID:28316639

  5. Establishment of a model for pregnancy-induced hypertension syndrome resuiting from cold-stress in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    俞丽丽; 李力; 陈鸣; 吴国萍; 史景泉; 祝之明

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To establish a model for pregnancy-induced hypertension syndrome in rats. Methods: Adult female Wistar rats were randomized into non-pregnant control (NN), non-pregnant cold-stress control (NC), pregnant control (PN) and pregnant cold-stress (PC) groups. The rats of NN and PN groups were put under 25 ℃ and those of NC and PC groups under (4±2) ℃ for 4 h every morning respectively in the whole experimental period. The blood pressure, urine protein, body weight, haematocrit, weight of the placenta and weight and length of the fetus were recorded and the histological changes of the placenta and the kidneys were also studied. Results: The blood pressure and urine protein of the rats of the NC and PC groups after 2 weeks of cold-stress were more significantly increased than the rats of the NN and PN groups. In addition, the weight of the placenta and the weight and length of the fetus were more significantly lower in the former than the latter. Obvious changes of anoxia and ischemia were observed in the tissues of the kidneys and every layer of the placenta.Conclusion: Our findings of hypertension syndrome induced with repeated cold-stress in pregnant rats can be applied to illustrate the pathogenesis of pregnancy-induced hypertension syndrome in human beings.

  6. Leukemia and lymphoma in pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abadi, Uri; Koren, Gideon; Lishner, Michael

    2011-04-01

    Treatment of pregnant women with chemotherapy may pose a risk to the fetus, raising therapeutic, ethical, moral, and social dilemmas. Publications on this issue are limited to retrospective series and case reports, thus further complicating decision making. Diagnosis and staging are usually performed as in nonpregnant women, but procedures that expose the fetus to radiation are excluded. Chemotherapy is not recommended in the first trimester to avoid fetal malformations. Thus, the option is either treatment delay or pregnancy termination. Later in pregnancy, treatment is often initiated without delay, with no apparent evidence of teratogenicity.

  7. Short inter-pregnancy intervals, parity, excessive pregnancy weight gain and risk of maternal obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Esa M; Babineau, Denise C; Wang, Xuelei; Zyzanski, Stephen; Abrams, Barbara; Bodnar, Lisa M; Horwitz, Ralph I

    2014-04-01

    To investigate the relationship among parity, length of the inter-pregnancy intervals and excessive pregnancy weight gain in the first pregnancy and the risk of obesity. Using a prospective cohort study of 3,422 non-obese, non-pregnant US women aged 14-22 years at baseline, adjusted Cox models were used to estimate the association among parity, inter-pregnancy intervals, and excessive pregnancy weight gain in the first pregnancy and the relative hazard rate (HR) of obesity. Compared to nulliparous women, primiparous women with excessive pregnancy weight gain in the first pregnancy had a HR of obesity of 1.79 (95% CI 1.40, 2.29); no significant difference was seen between primiparous without excessive pregnancy weight gain in the first pregnancy and nulliparous women. Among women with the same pregnancy weight gain in the first pregnancy and the same number of inter-pregnancy intervals (12 and 18 months or ≥18 months), the HR of obesity increased 2.43-fold (95% CI 1.21, 4.89; p = 0.01) for every additional inter-pregnancy interval of pregnancy intervals. Among women with the same parity and inter-pregnancy interval pattern, women with excessive pregnancy weight gain in the first pregnancy had an HR of obesity 2.41 times higher (95% CI 1.81, 3.21; p obesity risk unless the primiparous women had excessive pregnancy weight gain in the first pregnancy, then their risk of obesity was greater. Multiparous women with the same excessive pregnancy weight gain in the first pregnancy and at least one additional short inter-pregnancy interval had a significant risk of obesity after childbirth. Perinatal interventions that prevent excessive pregnancy weight gain in the first pregnancy or lengthen the inter-pregnancy interval are necessary for reducing maternal obesity.

  8. Understanding the association between teenage pregnancy and inter-generational factors: a comparative and analytical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitehead, Elizabeth

    2009-04-01

    (1) to identify the number of teenage pregnant women who also have mothers who became pregnant when they were in their teenage years and (2) to explore the importance of this intergenerational experience on the teenagers themselves, their significant family, friends and society as a whole. semi-structured interviews with the subjects allowed for both breadth and depth exploration. the total research sample was 95 teenage women, which included 48 pregnant (51%) and 47 non-pregnant (49%) women. Stage 1 reports on the findings relating to the intergenerational phenomena and stage 2 focuses on related historical experiences of a further 8 interviews with subjects who had experienced this intergenerational phenomenon. The subjects in both stages of this study came from two contrasting demographic areas of the UK: North West and South East. data were analysed using an appropriate qualitative software package. The specific categories of experience were constructed using a grounded theory approach. the findings of stage 1 of the study showed that the number of teenage women who reported that they had a mother who's first baby was born to her when she was under 20 years of age was 33 (69%) for the pregnant group and 12 (26%) for the non-pregnant group. This was found to be statistically significant (chi(2)=6.51, df=1, p=teenage pregnancy. A national multi-method research study is now required to explore the breadth of intergenerational teenage pregnancy and the experiences of those families where this social construct is prevalent.

  9. Cholera in pregnancy: Clinical and immunological aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Ashraful I; Chowdhury, Fahima; Leung, Daniel T; Larocque, Regina C; Harris, Jason B; Ryan, Edward T; Calderwood, Stephen B; Qadri, Firdausi

    2015-10-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the clinical and immunological features of cholera in pregnancy. Women of reproductive age presenting to the icddr,b Dhaka hospital with cholera, and enrolled as part of a larger cohort study, were tested for pregnancy on admission. We compared initial clinical features and immune responses of pregnant patients with non-pregnant female patients at days 2, 7 and 21 after infection. Among reproductive age women enrolled between January 2001 and May 2006, 9.7% (14/144) were pregnant. The duration of diarrhoea prior to admission tended to be higher in pregnant compared to non-pregnant patients (p=0.08), but other clinical characteristics did not differ. Antibody responses to cholera toxin B subunit (CtxB), toxin-coregulated pilus A (TcpA), Vibrio cholerae lipopolysaccharide (LPS), and serum vibriocidal antibody responses, were comparable between pregnant and non-pregnant patients. There were no deaths among the pregnant cases or non-pregnant controls, and no adverse foetal outcomes, including stillbirths, during 21 days of follow up of pregnant cases. To our knowledge, this is the first report of immune responses in pregnant women with cholera. We found that pregnant woman early in pregnancy has comparable clinical illness and subsequent immune responses compared to non-pregnant women. These findings suggest that the evaluation of safety and immunogenicity of oral cholera vaccines in pregnancy should be an area of future investigations. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  10. Prognosis for patients diagnosed with pregnancy-associated breast cancer: a paired case-control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wagner Brant Moreira

    Full Text Available CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: Previous studies have suggested that the occurrence of pregnancy concomitantly with a diagnosis of breast cancer may affect the evolution of the neoplasia. The present study aimed to compare pregnancy-associated breast cancer (PABC patients with non-pregnant cancer patients (controls in relation to the time taken to diagnose the disease, tumor characteristics and mortality. DESIGN AND SETTING: A retrospective, paired case-control study was conducted at the Hospital da Santa Casa de Misericórdia and Centro de Quimioterapia Antiblástica e Imunoterapia in Belo Horizonte, Brazil. METHODS: The study involved 87 PABC and 252 control patients. The influence of covariables (interval between first symptoms and diagnosis, tumor histology, size of primary tumor, distant metastasis, grade of malignancy, hormone receptor status and axillary lymph node involvement and the pregnancy variable on overall survival was investigated using univariate and multivariate analyses. RESULTS: The median overall survival for PABC patients of 30.1 months (95% confidence interval, CI: 19.4-40.9 months was significantly different (P = 0.005 from that of the control group (53.1 months; 95% CI: 35.1-71.0 months. The cumulative overall survivals after five and ten years were, respectively, 29.7 and 19.2% for PABC patients, and 47.3 and 34.8% for control patients (P = 0.005. Tumor size, grade of malignancy, distant metastasis and pregnancy were independent factors that significantly modified disease prognosis. CONCLUSIONS: Pregnancy was an independent prognostic factor. The overall survival of PABC patients was shorter than that of non-pregnant patients.

  11. Hyperprolactinemia in nonpregnant women due to pituitary tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolstoi, L G

    1986-06-02

    The human prolactin molecule has been isolated and its structure characterized. This anterior pituitary hormone plays an important function in the induction and maintenance of lactation in the post-partum nursing mother. Prolactin-producing tumors cause inappropriate lactation in the nonpregnant woman. Bromocriptine, an ergot derivative, mimics the action of dopamine in the anterior pituitary gland and does not cure the underlying pathology. Prior to the development of bromocriptine, there was no effective treatment for the symptoms of amenorrhea and galactorrhea. Although the methods of therapy are more sophisticated today, there remain a number of unanswered questions. The unknown long-term risks of bromocriptine therapy must be balanced against the potential risk of osteopenia.

  12. Anxious women do not show the expected decrease in cardiovascular stress responsiveness as pregnancy advances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braeken, M A K A; Jones, A; Otte, R A; Widjaja, D; Van Huffel, S; Monsieur, G J Y J; van Oirschot, C M; Van den Bergh, B R H

    2015-10-01

    Altered stress responsiveness is a risk factor for mental and physical illness. In non-pregnant populations, it is well-known that anxiety can alter the physiological regulation of stress reactivity. Characterization of corresponding risks for pregnant women and their offspring requires greater understanding of how stress reactivity and recovery are influenced by pregnancy and women's anxiety feelings. In the current study, women were presented repeatedly with mental arithmetic stress tasks in the first and third pregnancy trimester and reported their trait anxiety using the state trait anxiety inventory. Cardiovascular stress reactivity in late pregnancy was lower than reactivity in the first pregnancy trimester (heart rate (HR): t(197)=4.98, pstress reactivity occurred in more anxious women (HR: b=0.15, SE=0.06, p=.008; HF HRV: b=-10.97, SE=4.79, p=.02). The study design did not allow the influence of habituation to repeated stress task exposure to be assessed separately from the influence of pregnancy progression. Although this is a limitation, the clear differences between anxious and non-anxious pregnant women are important, regardless of the extent to which differing habituation between the groups is responsible. Less dampened stress reactivity through pregnancy may pose long-term risks for anxious women and their offspring. Follow-up studies are required to determine these risks. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Hormones and cognitive functioning during late pregnancy and postpartum: a longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, Jessica F; Sherwin, Barbara B

    2012-02-01

    This longitudinal study investigated the possible influence of estradiol (E₂), progesterone (P), testosterone (T), cortisol (CORT), and prolactin (PRL) levels on cognitive functioning during late pregnancy and the early postpartum period. The performance of 55 pregnant women on a battery of neuropsychological tests, tested once during the third trimester of pregnancy and once during the early postpartum period, was compared with that of 21 nonpregnant controls matched for age and education. Women in the pregnancy group had significantly lower scores than the controls during both the pre- and postpartum visits on tasks of verbal recall and processing speed. CORT levels were significantly associated, in an inverted-U function, with verbal recall scores at both the pregnancy and at postpartum periods and with spatial abilities at postpartum only. During pregnancy, PRL levels were associated in both a linear and an inverted-U function with scores on tests of paragraph recall and in a linear function with scores on tests of executive function. At postpartum, E₂ and CORT were negatively associated in a linear fashion with attention scores. These findings provide new evidence that fluctuating hormone levels during late pregnancy and early postpartum may modulate selected cognitive abilities.

  14. Pregnancy-associated plasma protein A (PAPP-A) and preeclampsia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalousová, Marta; Muravská, Alexandra; Zima, Tomás

    2014-01-01

    Pregnancy-associated plasma protein A (PAPP-A) is a key regulator of insulin-like growth factor bioavailability essential for normal fetal development. In maternal blood, this protein increases with gestational age and then rapidly decreases after delivery. It is routinely used for Down syndrome screening in the first trimester of pregnancy, and its decrease compared to a normal pregnancy indicates an increased risk for both chromosomal anomalies and adverse pregnancy outcomes. It belongs to a group of biomarkers that predict later preeclampsia development, primarily early onset preeclampsia; however, it should be combined with a Doppler ultrasonography of the uterine artery (pulsatile index) and other biochemical and maternal factors to achieve a higher detection rate with an acceptable false positivity rate. Some studies have demonstrated an even more pronounced decrease of PAPP-A in the early second trimester of pregnancy in women who subsequently develop preeclampsia compared with women who do not develop preeclampsia. Conversely, during the last trimester of pregnancy, its concentration increases even more in patients with preeclampsia than in patients without. It is also detectable at very low levels in nonpregnant individuals, and a higher concentration indicates an adverse effect in patients with acute coronary syndromes or stable atherosclerotic disease and in patients with end-stage renal disease who are being treated with hemodialysis.

  15. Upper-airway flow limitation and transcutaneous carbon dioxide during sleep in normal pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rimpilä, Ville; Jernman, Riina; Lassila, Katariina; Uotila, Jukka; Huhtala, Heini; Mäenpää, Johanna; Polo, Olli

    2017-08-01

    Sleep during pregnancy involves a physiological challenge to provide sufficient gas exchange to the fetus. Enhanced ventilatory responses to hypercapnia and hypoxia may protect from deficient gas exchange, but sleep-disordered breathing (SDB) may predispose to adverse events. The aim of this study was to analyze sleep and breathing in healthy pregnant women compared to non-pregnant controls, with a focus on CO2 changes and upper-airway flow limitation. Healthy women in the third trimester and healthy non-pregnant women with normal body mass index (BMI) were recruited for polysomnography. Conventional analysis of sleep and breathing was performed. Transcutaneous carbon dioxide (TcCO2) was determined for each sleep stage. Flow-limitation was analyzed using the flattening index and TcCO2 values were recorded for every inspiration. Eighteen pregnant women and 12 controls were studied. Pregnancy was associated with shorter sleep duration and more superficial sleep. Apnea-hypopnea index, arterial oxyhemoglobin desaturation, flow-limitation, snoring or periodic leg movements were similar in the two groups. Mean SaO2 and minimum SaO2 were lower and average heart rate was higher in the pregnant group. TcCO2 levels did not differ between groups but variance of TcCO2 was smaller in pregnant women during non-rapid eye movement (NREM). TcCO2 profiles showed transient TcCO2 peaks, which seem specific to pregnancy. Healthy pregnancy does not predispose to SDB. Enhanced ventilatory control manifests as narrowing threshold of TcCO2 between wakefulness and sleep. Pregnant women have a tendency for rapid CO2 increases during sleep which might have harmful consequences if not properly compensated. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Pregnancy is associated with hypotrophy of carotid artery endothelial and smooth muscle cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jovanović, S; Jovanović, A

    1998-04-01

    It is known that blood flow through the carotid artery is decreased during pregnancy, which may be due to a pregnancy-associated increase in the sensitivity of this artery to vasoconstrictors. Recent studies have shown that alteration of blood flow or pressure could remodel some arteries over a short time frame. However, the possibility of remodelling of the carotid artery during pregnancy has not yet been examined. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to study the morphometrical and stereological characteristics of guinea-pig carotid artery during different stages of pregnancy (non-pregnant, early-pregnant, mid-pregnant, late-pregnant, n = 8-10 for each group). The cross-sectional area of the different layers of the carotid artery and the cross-sectional area of endothelial and smooth muscle cells were measured using both light and electron microscopy. The values of internal diameter and cross-sectional area of adventitia were not significantly different, regardless of the pregnancy status. In contrast, external diameter, wall thickness and cross-sectional areas of media and intima progressively and significantly decreased during pregnancy. In addition, volume/surface density ratio of intima and media also significantly and progressively decreased during pregnancy, suggesting hypotrophy of endothelial and smooth muscle cells of carotid artery. Indeed, electron microscopy revealed that the size, defined as cross-sectional area, of endothelial and smooth muscle cells was significantly decreased during different stages of pregnancy. It is concluded that during pregnancy there is thinning of the intimal and medial layers of guinea-pig carotid artery, which reflect pregnancy-associated hypotrophy of carotid artery endothelial and smooth muscle cells.

  17. Economics of resynchronization strategies including chemical tests to identify nonpregnant cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giordano, J O; Fricke, P M; Cabrera, V E

    2013-02-01

    Our objectives were to assess (1) the economic value of decreasing the interval between timed artificial insemination (TAI) services when using a pregnancy test that allows earlier identification of nonpregnant cows; and (2) the effect of pregnancy loss and inaccuracy of a chemical test (CT) on the economic value of a pregnancy test for dairy farms. Simulation experiments were performed using a spreadsheet-based decision support tool. In experiment 1, we assessed the effect of changing the interbreeding interval (IBI) for cows receiving TAI on the value of reproductive programs by simulating a 1,000-cow dairy herd using a combination of detection of estrus (30 to 80% of cows detected in estrus) and TAI. The IBI was incremented by 7d from 28 to 56 d to reflect intervals either observed (35 to 56 d) or potentially observed (28 d) in dairy operations. In experiment 2, we evaluated the effect of accuracy of the CT and additional pregnancy loss due to earlier testing on the value of reproductive programs. The first scenario compared the use of a CT 31 ± 3 d after a previous AI with rectal palpation (RP) 39 ± 3 d after AI. The second scenario used a CT 24 ± 3 d after AI or transrectal ultrasound (TU) 32 d after AI. Parameters evaluated included sensitivity (Se), specificity (Sp), questionable diagnosis (Qd), cost of the CT, and expected pregnancy loss. Sensitivity analysis was performed for all possible combinations of parameter values to determine their relative importance on the value of the CT. In experiment 1, programs with a shorter IBI had greater economic net returns at all levels of detection of estrus, and use of chemical tests available on the market today might be beneficial compared with RP. In experiment 2, the economic value of programs using a CT could be either greater or less than that of RP and TU, depending on the value for each of the parameters related to the CT evaluated. The value of the program using the CT was affected (in order) by (1) Se, (2

  18. Prevalence of vulvovaginal candidiasis among nonpregnant women attending a tertiary health care facility in Abuja, Nigeria

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    Emeribe AU

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Anthony Uchenna Emeribe,1 Idris Abdullahi Nasir,2 Justus Onyia,2 Alinwachukwu Loveth Ifunanya31Department of Medical Laboratory Science, University of Calabar, Calabar, Cross River State, Nigeria; 2Department of Medical Microbiology, University of Abuja Teaching Hospital, Gwagwalada, Federal Capital Territory, Nigeria; 3Department of Medical Laboratory, School of Health Technology, Tsafe, Zamfara State, NigeriaBackground: Candida spp. are normal flora of the vagina that eventually become pathogenic under some prevailing conditions, and thus present as a common etiology of vulvovaginitis. When prompt recognition and laboratory confirmation is not achieved, this could lead to devastating genital discomfort and a major reason for frequent hospital visits.Aims: This was a cross-sectional prospective study that aimed to determine the prevalence and some associated risk factors of vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC among nonpregnant women attending University of Abuja Teaching Hospital, Gwagwalada.Subjects and methods: A pair of high vaginal swab and endocervical swab samples was collected from each of 200 individual participating subjects. They were separately inoculated on Sabouraud's dextrose agar and incubated aerobically at 33°C for 48 hours. Ten percent KOH wet mount and Gram staining was done on swabs and colonies, respectively. Structured questionnaires were used to obtain sociodemographic and clinical data.Results: Of the 200 participating subjects, the prevalence of Candida albicans was 6.5% and that of non-albicans candidiasis 7.5%. Candidiasis was observed mostly among the 20- to 30-year age-group. All subjects with Candida-positive culture had been on antibacterial therapy prior to participating in this study – 28 (100%. There was a statistical relationship between the prevalence of VVC with previous antibacterial therapy (P<0.05, but not with age or other prevailing health conditions studied (P>0.05.Conclusion: The outcome of this study

  19. Metformin Treatment in Type 2 Diabetes in Pregnancy: An Active Controlled, Parallel-Group, Randomized, Open Label Study in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes in Pregnancy

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Aims. To assess the effect of metformin and to compare it with insulin treatment in patients with type 2 diabetes in pregnancy in terms of perinatal outcome, maternal complications, additional insulin requirement, and treatment acceptability. Methods. In this randomized, open label study, 206 patients with type 2 diabetes in pregnancy who met the eligibility criteria were selected from the antenatal clinics. Insulin was added to metformin treatment when required, to maintain the target glycem...

  20. Flu vaccination in pregnancy

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    Maria Siettou

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available In periods of seasonal influenza, during pandemic flu in the past and from recent experience that we have the emergence of influenza A (H1N1, pregnant compared with non-pregnant women are at increased risk to get sick and to develop serious complications up to mortality. Purpose: This paper examines the risks that arise for pregnant from contamination with the flu virus and the safety of influenza vaccination in pregnancy. Method: The method involves searching review and research studies in Pubmed data base mainly of the 2000 until 2009 and the words were used is pregnancy, flu vaccination, complications of the flu vaccination at the period of pregnancy. Results: Morbidity during periods of seasonal influenza in pregnant women is increased, while in times of pandemic are recorded fatalities. Based on this, specific recommendations have been made for a flu vaccination in pregnant women, both from the CDC, the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists in the U.S. and other official bodies like the World Health Organization, according to that the constitution of influenza vaccine in the pregnancy is necessary, given that the probability of morbidity in this period is increased at 10%. Conclusions: The studies so far to influenza vaccination in pregnancy, do not record serious complications for pregnant women and infants. However more research needs to be done on the safety of influenza vaccination in pregnancy.

  1. Prediction of uterine dehiscence using ultrasonographic parameters of cesarean section scar in the nonpregnant uterus: a prospective observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pomorski, Michal; Fuchs, Tomasz; Zimmer, Mariusz

    2014-10-29

    Every year 1.5 million cesarean section procedures are performed worldwide. As many women decide to get pregnant again, the population of pregnant women with a history of cesarean section is growing rapidly. For these women prediction of cesarean section scar performance is still a serious clinical problem. Starting in 2005, the study included 308 nonpregnant women with a history of low transverse cesarean section. The following ultrasonographic parameters of the cesarean section scar in the nonpregnant uterus were assessed: the residual myometrial thickness (RMT) and the width (W) and the depth (D) of the triangular hypoechoic scar niche. During 8 years of follow-up, 41 of these women were referred to our department for delivery. In all cases, a repeat cesarean section was performed and the lower uterine segment was assessed. Two independent statistical methods namely the logit model and Decision Tree analysis were used to determine the relation between the appearance of the cesarean section scar in the nonpregnat state and the performance of the scar in the next pregnancy. The logit model revealed that the D/RMT ratio showed significant correlation with cesarean section scar dehiscence (P-value of 0.007). Specifically, a D/RMT ratio value greater than 1.3035 indicated that the likelihood of dehiscence was greater than 50%. The Decision Tree analysis revealed that a diagnosis of dehiscence versus non-dehiscence could be based solely on one criterion, a D/RMT ratio of at least 0.785. The sensitivity of this method was 71%, and the specificity was 94%. Assessment of the cesarean section scar in the nonpregant uterus can be used to predict the occurrence of scar dehiscence in the next pregnancy.

  2. Gene expression of BDNF and its receptors, TrkB and p75 in the uterus and oviduct of pregnant and non-pregnant ewes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirshokraei, P; Hassanpour, H; Rahnama, A; Foster, W G

    2013-08-01

    To compare genes expression of BDNF and its receptors, TrkB and p75 between pregnant and non-pregnant uterine and oviductal tissues of ewes, semi-quantitative RT-PCR was performed. BDNF, TrkB and p75 genes are normally expressed in the ovine uterus and oviduct. The relative amounts of BDNF mRNA were increased in the uterine segments of the pregnant samples with compared to non-pregnant samples. This increasing was only significant (Ppregnant samples. In contrast, the relative amounts of BDNF mRNA were decreased in the oviductal segments of the pregnant samples and were undetectable in the isthmus. Variations of the relative amounts of TrkB and p75 mRNAs between the pregnant and non-pregnant samples were not significant (P>0.05) although TrkB mRNA in the caruncle and cervix and p75 mRNA in the cervix of pregnant samples were too less to be detected by RT-PCR method. It is probably that these changes of BDNF/receptors genes expression are necessary for normal pregnancy, and abnormal variations in the expression of these genes may be involved in the pathophysiological conditions.

  3. Relaxant effect of the calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) on the nonpregnant and pregnant rat uterus. Comparison with vascular tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anouar, A; Schirar, A; Germain, G

    1998-04-01

    To explore the role of calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) in rat pregnancy, we determined the density of myometrial CGRP-encoded nerve fibre terminals and examined, in an organ bath, the relaxant effect of the peptide on uterine strips near parturition. Comparisons were made with the uterus and aorta of nonpregnant rats. In the myometrium, CGRP immunoreactive nerve fibers were abundant in nonpregnant rats and scarce at the parturient stage. In the aorta there was no variation in the density of CGRP fibres with gestation. In nonpregnant rats only, CGRP relaxed spontaneous and tetrodotoxin (TTX)-sensitive electrically-evoked uterine contractions (EC50 40 nM, Emax 80%). The effect was antagonized by CGRP[8-37] (pKB 6.47) but was not affected by either blockers of nitricoxid synthase or ATP-sensitive potassium channels. CGRP was also able to relax contractions evoked by direct depolarization of the cells (TTX-insensitive contractions) (EC50, 2 nM, Emax 70%). In aorta contracted with arginine vasopressin, CGRP-induced relaxation was the same in nonpregnant and parturient animals. It was antagonized by CGRP [8-371 (pKB 6.90) and was abolished in presence of the nitric oxide synthase inhibitor Nomega-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME). Amylin neither relaxed the uterus nor the aorta. In pregnant rats, the relaxant effect of CGRP on the uterus was limited on day 21 and was totally absent on day 22 of gestation. We conclude that the primary relaxant effect of CGRP on the uterus occurs at the level of myometrial smooth muscle cells. In the myometrium, gestation decreases CGRP innervation and impairs the relaxant responses to CGRP. Such changes are not observed in vascular tissues like aorta.

  4. Soluble TRAIL in normal pregnancy and acute pyelonephritis: a potential explanation for the susceptibility of pregnant women to microbial products and infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaemsaithong, Piya; Romero, Roberto; Korzeniewski, Steven J; Schwartz, Alyse G; Stampalija, Tamara; Dong, Zhong; Yeo, Lami; Hernandez-Andrade, Edgar; Hassan, Sonia S; Chaiworapongsa, Tinnakorn

    2013-11-01

    Pregnancy is characterized by activation of the innate immune response demonstrated by phenotypic and metabolic changes in granulocytes and monocytes. This state of activation has been implicated in the pathophysiology of multiorgan dysfunction of pregnant women with acute viral or bacterial infection. Tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) is one of the mediators responsible for neutrophil apoptosis. Gene deletion of TRAIL results in delayed neutrophil apoptosis and resolution of inflammation after the administration of bacterial endotoxin. The aim of this study was to determine whether maternal plasma concentrations of the soluble form of TRAIL (sTRAIL) differ in women with uncomplicated pregnancy and those with acute pyelonephritis. A cross-sectional study was conducted to include women in the following groups: (1) non-pregnant (n = 23); (2) uncomplicated pregnancies (n = 93) and (3) pregnancies with acute pyelonephritis (n = 23). Plasma concentrations of sTRAIL were determined by enzyme-linked immunoassay. (1) Women with uncomplicated pregnancies had a lower mean plasma sTRAIL concentration (pg/mL) than non-pregnant women (31.5 ± 10.1 versus 53.3 ± 12.5; p pyelonephritis than in those with uncomplicated pregnancies (20.5 ± 6.6 versus 31.5 ± 10.1; p pyelonephritis, patients with bacteremia had a significantly lower mean plasma concentration of sTRAIL (pg/mL) than those without bacteremia (15.1 ± 4.8 versus 24.7 ± 4.6; p pyelonephritis, and this could account, at least in part, for the exaggerated intravascular inflammatory response previously reported in pyelonephritis during pregnancy.

  5. Protocol for the Smoking, Nicotine and Pregnancy (SNAP trial: double-blind, placebo-randomised, controlled trial of nicotine replacement therapy in pregnancy

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    Coughtrie Michael WH

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Smoking in pregnancy remains a public health challenge. Nicotine replacement therapy (NRT is effective for smoking cessation in non-pregnant people, but because women metabolise nicotine and cotinine much faster in pregnancy, it is unclear whether this will be effective for smoking cessation in pregnancy. The NHS Health Technology Assessment Programme (HTA-funded smoking, nicotine and pregnancy (SNAP trial will investigate whether or not nicotine replacement therapy (NRT is effective, cost-effective and safe when used for smoking cessation by pregnant women. Methods/Design Over two years, in 5 trial centres, 1050 pregnant women who are between 12 and 24 weeks pregnant will be randomised as they attend hospital for ante-natal ultrasound scans. Women will receive either nicotine or placebo transdermal patches with behavioural support. The primary outcome measure is biochemically-validated, self-reported, prolonged and total abstinence from smoking between a quit date (defined before randomisation and set within two weeks of this and delivery. At six months after childbirth self-reported maternal smoking status will be ascertained and two years after childbirth, self-reported maternal smoking status and the behaviour, cognitive development and respiratory symptoms of children born in the trial will be compared in both groups. Discussion This trial is designed to ascertain whether or not standard doses of NRT (as transdermal patches are effective and safe when used for smoking cessation during pregnancy.

  6. Traditions and plant use during pregnancy, childbirth and postpartum recovery by the Kry ethnic group in Lao PDR

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Activities and diet during the postpartum period are culturally dictated in many Southeast Asian cultures, and a period of confinement is observed. Plants play an important role in recovery during the postpartum period in diet and traditional medicine. Little is known of the Kry, a small ethnic group whose language was recently described, concerning its traditions and use of plants during pregnancy, parturition, postpartum recovery and infant healthcare. This research aims to study those traditions and identify medicinal plant use. Methods Data were collected in the 3 different Kry villages in Khammouane province, Lao PDR, through group and individual interviews with women by female interviewers. Results A total of 49 different plant species are used in women's healthcare. Plant use is culturally different from the neighboring Brou and Saek ethnic groups. Menstruation, delivery and postpartum recovery take place in separate, purpose-built, huts and a complex system of spatial restrictions is observed. Conclusions Traditions surrounding childbirth are diverse and have been strictly observed, but are undergoing a shift towards those from neighboring ethnic groups, the Brou and Saek. Medicinal plant use to facilitate childbirth, alleviate menstruation problems, assist recovery after miscarriage, mitigate postpartum haemorrhage, aid postpartum recovery, and for use in infant care, is more common than previously reported (49 species instead of 14). The wealth of novel insights into plant use and preparation will help to understand culturally important practices such as traditional delivery, spatial taboos, confinement and dietary restrictions, and their potential in modern healthcare. PMID:21569234

  7. Traditions and plant use during pregnancy, childbirth and postpartum recovery by the Kry ethnic group in Lao PDR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de Boer Hugo J

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Activities and diet during the postpartum period are culturally dictated in many Southeast Asian cultures, and a period of confinement is observed. Plants play an important role in recovery during the postpartum period in diet and traditional medicine. Little is known of the Kry, a small ethnic group whose language was recently described, concerning its traditions and use of plants during pregnancy, parturition, postpartum recovery and infant healthcare. This research aims to study those traditions and identify medicinal plant use. Methods Data were collected in the 3 different Kry villages in Khammouane province, Lao PDR, through group and individual interviews with women by female interviewers. Results A total of 49 different plant species are used in women's healthcare. Plant use is culturally different from the neighboring Brou and Saek ethnic groups. Menstruation, delivery and postpartum recovery take place in separate, purpose-built, huts and a complex system of spatial restrictions is observed. Conclusions Traditions surrounding childbirth are diverse and have been strictly observed, but are undergoing a shift towards those from neighboring ethnic groups, the Brou and Saek. Medicinal plant use to facilitate childbirth, alleviate menstruation problems, assist recovery after miscarriage, mitigate postpartum haemorrhage, aid postpartum recovery, and for use in infant care, is more common than previously reported (49 species instead of 14. The wealth of novel insights into plant use and preparation will help to understand culturally important practices such as traditional delivery, spatial taboos, confinement and dietary restrictions, and their potential in modern healthcare.

  8. [Effects of obesity and weight gain during pregnancy on obstetrical factors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aisaka, K; Ando, S; Kokuho, K; Tawada, T; Kaneda, S; Tomonari, R; Yoshimatsu, J; Sasaki, S; Yoshida, K

    1988-12-01

    The relationship between the body weight or weight gain during pregnancy and various obstetrical factors was investigated in 731 patients who delivered in San-ikukai Hospital for in the year 1986. The patients were classified into three groups according to their body weight in non-pregnant states: slender (n = 214), ordinary (n = 379) and obese (n = 138), according to the standard for "The decision diagram for the estimation of obesity and emaciation in Japanese" published in 1986 by the Ministry of Health and Welfare, Japan. Each of these groups was further divided into two groups according to the degree of weight gain during pregnancy (more or less than 15kg). Then, the duration of labor, the blood loss during delivery, the birth weight, the placental weight and the obstetrical abnormalities (prolonged labor, arrested labor, blood loss of more than 500 ml, fetal distress and toxemia of pregnancy) were investigated in these groups. The blood loss, the neonatal birth weight and the placental weight in the obese groups were much greater than those in the ordinary or the slender group (p less than 0.005). However, there was no significant difference in the duration of the labor among these groups. The incidence of obstetrical abnormalities in the obese group was significantly higher than in the ordinary or the slender group (chi 2 = 4.37, p less than 0.05, chi 2 = 5.27, p less than 0.025).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  9. Expression of the calcium-activated potassium channel in upper and lower segment human myometrium during pregnancy and parturition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Lu; Cong, Binghai; Zhang, Lanmei; Ni, Xin

    2009-01-01

    Background Large conductance calcium-activated potassium channel (BKCa) plays an important role in the control of uterine contractility during pregnancy. The change from uterine quiescence to enhanced contractile activity may be associated with the spatial and temporal expression of BKCa within myometrium. The objectives of this study were to examine the expression of BKCa alpha- and beta-subunit in upper segment (US) and lower segment (LS) regions of uterus, and to investigate for the possibly differential expression of these proteins in US and LS myometrium obtained from three functional states: (1) non-pregnant (NP); (2) term pregnant not in labour (TNL) and (3) term pregnant in labour (TL). Methods Myometrial biopsies were collected from non-pregnant women at hysterectomy and pregnant women at either elective caesarean section or emergency caesarean section. Protein expression level and cellular localization of BKCa alpha- and beta-subunit in US and LS myometrium were determined by Western blot analysis and immunohistochemistry, respectively. Results BKCa alpha- and beta-subunit were predominantly localized to myometrial smooth muscle in both US and LS myometrium obtained from non-pregnant and pregnant patients. The level of BKCa alpha-subunit in US but not in LS was significantly higher in NP myometrium than those measured in myometrium obtained during pregnancy. Lower expression of BKCa alpha-subunit in both US and LS was found in TL than in TNL biopsies. Expression of beta-subunit in both US and LS myometrium was significantly reduced in TL group compared with those measured in TNL group. There was no significant difference in BKCa beta-subunit expression in either US or LS between NP and TNL group. Conclusion Our results suggest that expression of BKCa alpha- and beta-subunit in pregnant myometrium is reduced during labour, which is consistent with the myometrial activity at the onset of parturition. PMID:19344525

  10. Expression of the calcium-activated potassium channel in upper and lower segment human myometrium during pregnancy and parturition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Lanmei

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Large conductance calcium-activated potassium channel (BKCa plays an important role in the control of uterine contractility during pregnancy. The change from uterine quiescence to enhanced contractile activity may be associated with the spatial and temporal expression of BKCa within myometrium. The objectives of this study were to examine the expression of BKCa alpha- and beta-subunit in upper segment (US and lower segment (LS regions of uterus, and to investigate for the possibly differential expression of these proteins in US and LS myometrium obtained from three functional states: (1 non-pregnant (NP; (2 term pregnant not in labour (TNL and (3 term pregnant in labour (TL. Methods Myometrial biopsies were collected from non-pregnant women at hysterectomy and pregnant women at either elective caesarean section or emergency caesarean section. Protein expression level and cellular localization of BKCa alpha- and beta-subunit in US and LS myometrium were determined by Western blot analysis and immunohistochemistry, respectively. Results BKCa alpha- and beta-subunit were predominantly localized to myometrial smooth muscle in both US and LS myometrium obtained from non-pregnant and pregnant patients. The level of BKCa alpha-subunit in US but not in LS was significantly higher in NP myometrium than those measured in myometrium obtained during pregnancy. Lower expression of BKCa alpha-subunit in both US and LS was found in TL than in TNL biopsies. Expression of beta-subunit in both US and LS myometrium was significantly reduced in TL group compared with those measured in TNL group. There was no significant difference in BKCa beta-subunit expression in either US or LS between NP and TNL group. Conclusion Our results suggest that expression of BKCa alpha- and beta-subunit in pregnant myometrium is reduced during labour, which is consistent with the myometrial activity at the onset of parturition.

  11. Management of Nonpregnant Women with Elevated Human Chorionic Gonadotropin

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    Bernd C. Schmid

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG is useful in evaluating and monitoring early pregnancy as well as trophoblastic disease. Here we describe the management of women with elevated serum human chorionic gonadotropin in a case of a 51-year-old female who was unsuccessfully treated for ectopic pregnancy. She was subsequently diagnosed with pituitary hCG production, which should be considered as differential diagnosis before treatment is initiated.

  12. The use and value of digital media for information about pregnancy and early motherhood: a focus group study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lupton, Deborah

    2016-07-19

    Many women in countries in the global North access digital media information sources during pregnancy and the early years of motherhood. These include websites, blogs, online discussion forums, apps and social media platforms. Little previous research has sought to investigate in detail how women use the diverse range of digital media now available to them and what types of information they value. A qualitative study using focus groups was conducted to address these issues. Four focus groups were held in Sydney, Australia, including a total of 36 women who were either pregnant or had given birth in the previous three years. The participants were asked to talk about the types of digital media they used for pregnancy and parenting purposes, why they used them and in what ways they found them useful or helpful (or not). Group discussions were transcribed and thematically analysed, identifying the dominant information characteristics identified by women as valuable and useful. Nine characteristics emerged from the focus group discussions as most important to women: information that was: 1) immediate; 2) regular; 3) detailed; 4) entertaining; 5) customised; 6) practical; 7) professional; 8) reassuring; and 9) unbiased. These characteristics were valued for different purposes and needs. Digital media provided women with details when they most needed them or at times when they had opportunities to access them. The study showed that women value apps or digital platforms that are multi-functional. The findings revealed the importance of using digital information for establishing and maintaining social connections and intimate relationships with other mothers. However, participants also highly valued expert advice and expressed the desire for greater and more ready access to information and support offered by healthcare professionals. Pregnant women and those with young children place a high value on the information and support they receive from and sharing using online

  13. Association between signs and symptoms of temporomandibular disorders and pregnancy (case control study).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayoral, Verónica A; Espinosa, Irene A; Montiel, Alvaro J

    2013-01-01

    Temporomandibular disorders (TMD) are a combination of multifactoral etiological muscular-skeletal symptoms. Prevalence is greater in women, where sexual hormones are important in pathogenesis, and its behavior at different stages of the reproductive life of women has never been fully documented. The general objective was to determine the association between signs and symptoms of temporomandibular disorders and pregnancy. A case-control study was conducted on 66 pregnant patients who met with a medical specialist and 66 non-pregnant women paired by age, who visited the General Regional Hospital 36 of Mexico's Social Security Institute (IMSS). These patients were examined for the Temporomandibular (TMD) research project to establish the prevalence of TMD in both groups. Descriptive variables were calculated through him SPSS 17 program and the association between groups with Xi Square and Ratio Possibilities (OR), The average age was 28.23 +/- 5.9 years in both groups, with median gestation 32.97 weeks. Most of the participants had a domestic partner. The prevalence of TDM in the non-pregnant group was 45.5% and only 15.2% in the pregnant group (chi2 = 14.34, p disorders.

  14. "The Burden of Pregnancy"; heavier for the heaviest? The changes in Health Related Quality of Life (HRQoL) assessed by the 15D instrument during pregnancy and postpartum in different body mass index groups: a longitudinal survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahrakorpi, Niina; Koivusalo, Saila B; Stach-Lempinen, Beata; Eriksson, Johan G; Kautiainen, Hannu; Roine, Risto P

    2017-03-01

    Only little information is available on health-related quality of life (HRQoL) and its changes during the course of a normal pregnancy. We studied changes in HRQoL in a pregnant population during pregnancy and until 1 year postpartum in different body mass index (BMI) groups. Seven hundred and fifty pregnant women attending the first ultrasound examination before gestational week 14 were invited to participate in a longitudinal, communal-based survey. The participants were divided into three groups according to their BMI; <25, 25-29.9, and ≥30 kg/m(2) . The women were asked to fill in questionnaires assessing HRQoL (15D), depressive symptoms (Edinburgh Depression Scale, EPDS), medical, obstetric and socioeconomic status at baseline. HRQoL and EPDS were re-assessed at 30 weeks of gestation, and 6 weeks, 3 and 12 months postpartum. Of the invited 750 mothers, 325 (43%) returned the questionnaires and at least one follow-up questionnaire. At baseline, mean 15D scores decreased with increasing BMI but the difference was not statistically significant when adjusted for age, educational attainment, parity or EPDS-scores (0.929, 0.921 and 0.916, p = 0.16). During the course of pregnancy, the HRQoL of all women decreased but this decrease was significantly greater in the obese group (-0.088; 95% CI -0.110 to -0.065) than in the other groups [-0.054 (95% CI -0.062 to -0.045) and -0.051 (95% CI -0.068 to -0.033), p = 0.019]. Within 3 months postpartum the mean HRQoL recovered in all BMI groups to baseline levels, irrespective of the mode of delivery or pregnancy-related complications. The burden of pregnancy is heavier for the heaviest. © 2016 Nordic Federation of Societies of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  15. Depressive symptoms and gestational length among pregnant adolescents: Cluster randomized control trial of CenteringPregnancy® plus group prenatal care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felder, Jennifer N; Epel, Elissa; Lewis, Jessica B; Cunningham, Shayna D; Tobin, Jonathan N; Rising, Sharon Schindler; Thomas, Melanie; Ickovics, Jeannette R

    2017-06-01

    Depressive symptoms are associated with preterm birth among adults. Pregnant adolescents have high rates of depressive symptoms and low rates of treatment; however, few interventions have targeted this vulnerable group. Objectives are to: (a) examine impact of CenteringPregnancy® Plus group prenatal care on perinatal depressive symptoms compared to individual prenatal care; and (b) determine effects of depressive symptoms on gestational age and preterm birth among pregnant adolescents. This cluster-randomized controlled trial was conducted in 14 community health centers and hospitals in New York City. Clinical sites were randomized to receive standard individual prenatal care (n = 7) or CenteringPregnancy® Plus group prenatal care (n = 7). Pregnant adolescents (ages 14-21, N = 1,135) completed the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale during pregnancy (second and third trimesters) and postpartum (6 and 12 months). Gestational age was obtained from medical records, based on ultrasound dating. Intention to treat analyses were used to examine objectives. Adolescents at clinical sites randomized to CenteringPregnancy® Plus experienced greater reductions in perinatal depressive symptoms compared to those at clinical sites randomized to individual care (p = .003). Increased depressive symptoms from second to third pregnancy trimester were associated with shorter gestational age at delivery and preterm birth (prenatal care may be an effective nonpharmacological option for reducing depressive symptoms among perinatal adolescents. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  16. Hemostatic changes in pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Simioni

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Normal pregnancy is associated with changes in all aspects of haemostasis, including increase in concentrations of most clotting factors, decreasing concentrations of some of the natural anticoagulants and diminishing fibrinolytic activity. These changes help in maintaining placental function during pregnancy but result in a state of hypercoagulability that may predispose to thrombosis and placental vascular complications. During pregnancy, the concentrations of coagulation factors V, VII, VIII, IX, X, XII and von Willebrand factor rise significantly, accompanied by a pronounced increase in fibrinogen levels which increases up to two-fold from non-pregnant levels. Furthermore, there is a decrease in physiological anticoagulants manifested by a significant reduction in protein S activity and by acquired activated protein C resistance. The overall fibrinolytic activity is impaired during pregnancy, but returns rapidly to normal following delivery. This is largely due to placental derived plasminogen activator inhibitor type 2 (PAI-2, which is present in substantial quantities during pregnancy. D-Dimer levels increase in pregnancy but are not thought to indicate intravascular coagulation as fibrinolysis is depressed. These D-Dimers may originate from the uterus. Finally, the platelet count decreases in normal pregnancy possibly due to increased destruction and haemodilution with a maximal decrease in the third trimester. Immediately after delivery there is an increase in platelet count, especially in patients undergoing cesarean section. During treatment of severe post-partum hemorrhage, it is absolutely essential to have the knowledge that the starting values of the platelets are very different as compared to a non-pregnant patient. Moreover, after delivery, also the levels of fibrinogen increase. Since the value of fibrinogen represents a crucial parameter for the management of acute bleeding, it is essential to administer the proper amount of

  17. Association study of CTLA-4 +49A/G gene polymorphism with recurrent pregnancy loss in the Iranian Azeri Turkish ethnic group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonyadi, Mortaza; Parsa, Sara; Taghavi, Simin; Zeinalzadeh, Narges

    2017-06-12

    Recurrent pregnancy loss (RPL) is defined as two or more pregnancy losses. T-regulatory cells play an important role in the feto-maternal interface. Cytotoxic-T-lymphocyte antigen-4 (CTLA-4) is a molecule that downregulates the activation and proliferation of T cells. The objective of the current study was to investigate the possible association of CTLA-4+49A/G gene polymorphism with RPL among patients from the Iranian Azeri Turkish ethnic group. The study group/patients consisted of 101 women with the experience of two or more pregnancy losses and the control group consisted of 101 women with at least two live births, without any previous history of pregnancy loss and autoimmune diseases from the same ethnic group. The CTLA-4+49A/G was detected by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphisms assay. The distribution of CTLA-4+49A/G genotype was AA, 38.61%; AG, 51.48%; GG, 9.9% in patients and AA, 37.62%; AG, 47.52%; GG,14.85% in controls (P-value: 0.2). Furthermore, no association in G-allele was observed in the patient and control groups (P-value: 0.5). The results of the present study suggest that CTLA-4 does not have any association with RPL in the Iranian Azeri Turkish ethnic group.

  18. Iodine deficiency in pregnancy is prevalent in vulnerable groups in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkegaard-Klitbo, Ditte Marie; Perslev, Kathrine; Andersen, Stine Linding

    2016-01-01

    in Eastern and Western Denmark and to identify potentially vulnerable groups. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional cohort study of pregnant Danish women (n = 240). Questionnaires and urine samples were collected at the Ultrasound Clinic, Hvidovre Hospital, Denmark, and urinary iodine concentrations (UIC) (µg...

  19. The decrease of serum vascular endothelial growth factor concentration in patients with pregnancy induced hypertension

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Objectives:To detect the concentration of serum vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in patients with pregnancy induced hypertension (PIH) as well as to explore the role of VEGF in the pathogenesis of PIH.Methods:Serum VEGF concentrations in 23 healthy nonpregnant women (normal group),30 normal pregnant women (control group) and 37 women with PIH (PIH group) were measured by sandwich enzyme-linked immunoadsorbent assay (ELISA).Results:Serum concentrations of VEGF in control group were significantly higher (149.39±27.15ng/L) than those in normal group (11.98±3.99ng/L) (P<0.001),peaking in the second trimester of pregnancy (183.84±49.02ng/L) and decreasing in the third trimester (118.37±34.29ng/L).Serum VEGF concentrations (64.45±24.33ng/L) in PIH group were significantly lower than those in normal late pregnancy women of control group (118.37±34.29ng/L) (P<0.01).There was a trend that serum VEGF concentrations in PIH group decreased with the severity of PIH (P<0.05).Conclusion:The serum VEGF concentration in PIH women are significantly decreased,which suggests that VEGF may play an important role in the pathogenic mechanism of PIH.

  20. Telephone Smoking Cessation Quitline Use Among Pregnant and Non-pregnant Women

    OpenAIRE

    Bombard, Jennifer M.; Farr, Sherry L.; Dietz, Patricia M.; Tong, Van T.; Zhang, Lei; Rabius, Vance

    2013-01-01

    To describe characteristics, referrals, service utilization, and self-reported quit rates among pregnant and non-pregnant women enrolled in a smoking cessation quitline. This information can be used to improve strategies to increase pregnant and non-pregnant smokers’ use of quitlines. We examined tobacco use characteristics, referral sources, and use of services among 1,718 pregnant and 24,321 non-pregnant women aged 18–44 years enrolled in quitline services in 10 states during 2006–2008. We ...

  1. Trauma in pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Rudra

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Trauma is the most common non-obstetrical cause of death in pregnant women. Pregnancy must always be suspected in any female trauma patient of childbearing age until proved otherwise. Unique changes in anatomy and physiology that takes place during pregnancy alter the pathophysiology and location of maternal injuries in pregnancy, which may be significantly different from the non-pregnant state. Trauma from road traffic accidents, falls and domestic violence are the most common causes of abdominal blunt trauma. As pregnancy progresses, the change of accidental injury increases. Head and neck injuries, respiratory failure, and hypovolemic shock constitute the most frequent causes of trauma related maternal death in pregnancy. Even the pregnant woman with minor injuries should be carefully observed. Initial management is directed at resuscitation and stabilization of the mother that takes precedence over that of the fetus, unless vital signs cannot be maintained and perimortem cesarean section decided upon. Fetal monitoring should be maintained after satisfactory resuscitation and stabilization of the mother. Preventive measures include proper seat belt use and identifying and counseling victims of suspected domestic violence.

  2. Kidney stones during pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semins, Michelle J; Matlaga, Brian R

    2014-03-01

    Kidney stones affect 10% of people at some point in their lives and, for some unfortunate women, this happens during pregnancy. Pregnancy is a complex state and both physiological and mechanical changes alter risk factors for kidney stone formation. When a pregnant woman develops acute nephrolithiasis, the situation is more complicated than in nonpregnant women. Imaging limitations and treatment restrictions mean that special diagnostic and management algorithms are needed upon presentation. Ultrasonography remains the gold-standard first-line diagnostic imaging modality for kidney stones during pregnancy but several second-line alternatives exist. Acute renal colic during pregnancy is associated with risks to both mother and fetus. As such, these patients need to be handled with special attention. First-line management is generally conservative (trial of passage and pain management) and is associated with a high rate of stone passage. Presentation of obstructive nephrolithiasis with associated infection represents a unique and serious clinical situation requiring immediate drainage. If infection is not present and conservative management fails, ureteroscopy can be offered if clinically appropriate, but, in some circumstances, temporary drainage with ureteral stent or nephrostomy tube might be indicated. Shockwave lithotripsy and percutaneous nephrolithotomy are contraindicated during pregnancy.

  3. [Managment of head and neck cancers during pregnancy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiciński, Krzysztof; Skorek, Andrzej; Stankiewicz, Czesław

    2011-01-01

    The coincidence of malignant disease during pregnancy is uncommon. The incidence of cancer in pregnancy has increased, due to the tendency to postpone childbirth to an older age. Cancer complicates approximately 0.1% of all pregnancies. Managing head and neck cancers during pregnancy requires additional pregnancy-related understanding of the aetiological effect of pregnancy on cancer, knowledge of the direct and indirect effects of cancer on pregnancy, and the effect of diagnostic and treatment modalities on pregnancy. The timing of treatment is an important determinant on foetal wellbeing. A multidisciplinary approach should be adopted to enable parents and clinicians to make the best clinical decision. Clinicians must be cognizant with the ethical dilemmas of treatment. In head and neck cancers, pregnancy has no effect on maternal prognosis when compared to non-pregnant patients matched by age, cancer stage and treatment. Copyright © 2011 Polish Otolaryngology Society. Published by Elsevier Urban & Partner (Poland). All rights reserved.

  4. Pregnancy after treatment of breast cancer--a population-based study on behalf of Danish Breast Cancer Cooperative Group

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kroman, N.; Jensen, M.B.; Wohlfahrt, J.;

    2008-01-01

    at diagnosis, tumour size, nodal status, or pregnancy history before diagnosis of breast cancer. Neither spontaneous abortions nor induced abortions subsequent to breast cancer treatment had a negative impact on prognosis. CONCLUSION: In line with our previous study, but based on more than twice the patient...... material, we found no evidence that a pregnancy after treatment of breast cancer has a negative influence the prognosis Udgivelsesdato: 2008......BACKGROUND: Estrogen is an established growth factor in breast cancer and it has been hypothesized that pregnancy associated estrogens may increase the risk of recurrence of breast cancer. In 1997 we published a population-based Danish study indicating no negative prognostic effect of pregnancy...

  5. Differential involvement of L- and T-type Ca(2+) channels, store-operated calcium channel (TRPC) and Rho-kinase signaling pathway(s) in PGF2α-induced contractions in myometrium of non-pregnant and pregnant buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Abhishek; Nakade, Udayraj P; Jaitley, Pooja; Sharma, Vipin; Choudhury, Soumen; Garg, Satish Kumar

    2017-09-12

    This study unravels the differential involvement of calcium signaling pathway(s) in PGF2α-induced contractions in myometrium of non-pregnant and pregnant buffaloes. Compared to the myometrium of pregnant animals, myometrium of non-pregnant buffaloes was more sensitive to PGF2α-induced contractile effect as manifested by the changes in mean integral tension (MIT) and tonicity. However, phasic contraction was significantly more in myometrium of pregnant animals. The uterotonic effect of PGF2α was dependent on extracellular Ca(2+) and its influx through nifedipine-sensitive L-type Ca(2+) channels both in non-pregnant and pregnant animals, but T-type Ca(2+) channels play an additional role during pregnancy. Entry of extracellular Ca(2+) is triggered by enhanced functional involvement of Pyr3-sensitive TRPC3 channels and Rho-kinase pathways to regulate uterotonic action of PGF2α in myometrium of non-pregnant buffaloes while these are down-regulated during pregnancy as there was significantly reduced expression of Rho-A proteins in myometrium of pregnant buffaloes and down-regulation of these pathways facilitate uterine quiescence. Intracellular Ca(2+) plays minor role in myometrium of both the non-pregnant and pregnant buffaloes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Structural studies of innervation on nonpregnant rat uterus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garfield, R E

    1986-07-01

    Whole-mount preparations of the uterus and mesentery from nonpregnant rats were examined after staining with glyoxylic acid or acetylcholinesterase to demonstrate the innervation. Some uterine tissues were also evaluated by electron microscopy. Glyoxylic acid fluorescent nerves were present in the mesentery, mesometrium, and uterine wall exclusively around blood vessels. Acetylcholinesterase positive nerve fibers from Frankenhäuser's plexus (cervical ganglia) were associated with blood vessels and muscle in the uterine wall but not in the mesentery. Electron microscopy revealed nerve varicosities with granular vesicles associated with blood vessels and varicosities with agranular vesicles located near blood vessels and muscle cells. Treatment of animals for 3 days with 5- and 6-hydroxydopamine, respectively, increased granular size and damaged the varicosities with granular vesicles but did not change nerves with agranular vesicles or induce the presence of gap junctions. The results of this study suggest that blood vessels in the uterus are highly innervated by both adrenergic and other types of nerves that probably control blood flow. Nonadrenergic but not adrenergic nerves may also directly control myometrial contractility.

  7. Concentrations of prostaglandins E2, F2 alpha and 6-keto-prostaglandin F1 alpha in the utero-ovarian venous plasma of nonpregnant and early pregnant ewes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silvia, W J; Ottobre, J S; Inskeep, E K

    1984-05-01

    The effect of pregnancy on concentrations of prostaglandins E2, F2 alpha and 6-keto-prostaglandin F1 alpha (PGE2, PGF2 alpha and 6-keto-PGF1 alpha) in utero-ovarian venous plasma was examined in ewes on Days 10 through 14 after estrus, an interval which includes the critical period for maternal recognition of pregnancy. The utero-ovarian vein ipsilateral to a corpus luteum was catheterized on Day 9 or 10 in 6 pregnant and 8 nonpregnant ewes. Five blood samples were collected at 30-min intervals for 2 h beginning at 0500 and 1700 h daily. Sampling began at 0500 h on the day after catheterization. The mean and variance within each 2-h collection period were calculated for each ewe. The natural logarithm of the variance in each collection period (ln variance) was used as an estimate of the fluctuations in secretory activity by the endometrial-conceptus complex. Patterns of the mean concentrations of PGE2 were different between pregnant and nonpregnant ewes (P less than 0.01); PGE2 being higher in the pregnant ewes beginning on Day 13. There was a trend for the patterns of ln variance in PGE2 to differ (P less than 0.1) with pregnancy status over the entire period; ln variance was greater in pregnant ewes beginning on Day 13. The patterns of the mean concentrations and ln variances for PGF2 alpha and 6-keto-PGF1 alpha did not differ between pregnant and nonpregnant ewes. There were significant increases in both of these prostaglandins over time, independent of pregnancy status (P less than 0.01). The association of higher concentrations of PGE2 in utero-ovarian venous plasma with early pregnancy is consistent with the hypothesis that PGE2, originating from the uterus and/or conceptus, is one factor involved in maintenance of the corpus luteum of pregnancy.

  8. Impact of local endothelial challenge with cytomegalovirus or glycoprotein B on vasodilation in intact pressurized arteries from nonpregnant and pregnant mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gombos, Randi B; Teefy, Jana; Lee, Albert; Hemmings, Denise G

    2012-10-01

    Cytomegalovirus (CMV) infections are associated with vascular diseases in the human population. We have previously shown vascular dysfunction in systemic and uterine arteries dissected from nonpregnant (NP) mouse CMV (mCMV)-infected mice that was further impaired during late pregnancy (LP). CMV attachment alone through glycoprotein B (GB) can generate signals that impact vascular tone regulation. However, the contribution of direct virus interactions with endothelium to the vascular dysfunction we previously observed after in vivo mCMV infection is not known. We used a pressure myograph system to infuse GB or whole intact mCMV inside arteries dissected from uninfected mice and assessed vasodilation to methacholine infused inside pressurized arteries rather than applied abluminally. These results were compared to those observed after methacholine infusion into untreated arteries dissected from mCMV-infected mice. In mesenteric arteries, vasodilation to infused methacholine did not differ among treatments in NP or LP groups in contrast to previously published studies. However, increased vasoconstrictor activity was unmasked after blocking thromboxane receptors or prostaglandin production. Vasodilation in uterine arteries from uninfected NP mice to infused methacholine was increased by both GB and whole intact mCMV pretreatment. Untreated uterine arteries from mCMV-infected NP mice showed even greater vasodilation. There was no effect of GB or whole intact mCMV pretreatment in uterine arteries from uninfected LP mice, whereas vasodilation to infused methacholine was reduced in untreated uterine arteries from mCMV-infected LP mice. CMV exerts direct effects on vascular function which should be considered during viral reactivation leading to viremia and during GB-based vaccine administration.

  9. Pregnancy aggravates proteinuria in subclinical glomerulonephritis in the rat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Faas, MM; Bakker, WW; Poelman, RT; Schuiling, GA

    1999-01-01

    Because subclinical renal disease may be aggravated during pregnancy-as reflected in the occurrence of proteinuria, for example-we investigated whether a subclinical glomerulonephritis (SG) in the non-pregnant rat (passive Heymann nephritis), a condition without proteinuria, is aggravated when the a

  10. Factors Associated with Adolescent Pregnancy in Rural Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okonofua, Friday E.

    1995-01-01

    A community-based, case-control study conducted in rural Nigeria with 132 pregnant girls and 131 nonpregnant girls the same age found that pregnancy was largely associated with the completion of formal education at an early age and the lack of knowledge of reproductive health. (SLD)

  11. Mood-Management during Pregnancy through Selective Exposure to Television.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helregel, Brenda K.; Weaver, James B.

    1989-01-01

    Discussion of mood management strategies focuses on a study of pregnant and non-pregnant women and new mothers, that was designed to examine television program preferences as a function of the physiologically induced affective stages of pregnancy. Television viewing habits are examined and affective dispositions are ascertained. (29 references)…

  12. Multiple Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Education & Events Advocacy For Patients About ACOG Multiple Pregnancy Home For Patients Search FAQs Multiple Pregnancy Page ... Multiple Pregnancy FAQ188, July 2015 PDF Format Multiple Pregnancy Pregnancy How does multiple pregnancy occur? What are ...

  13. Pregnancy Complications

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... To receive Pregnancy email updates Enter email Submit Pregnancy complications Complications of pregnancy are health problems that ... pregnancy. Expand all | Collapse all Health problems before pregnancy Before pregnancy, make sure to talk to your ...

  14. Hypertensive Disorders of Pregnancy

    OpenAIRE

    Mammaro, Alessia; Carrara, Sabina; Cavaliere, Alessandro; Ermito, Santina; Dinatale, Angela; Pappalardo, Elisa Maria; Militello, Mariapia; Pedata, Rosa

    2009-01-01

    Hypertension is the most common medical problem encountered during pregnancy, complicating 2-3% of pregnancies. Hypertensive disorders during pregnancy are classified into 4 categories, as recommended by the National High Blood Pressure Education Program Working Group on High Blood Pressure in Pregnancy: 1) chronic hypertension, 2) preeclampsia-eclampsia, 3) preeclampsia superimposed on chronic hypertension, and 4) gestational hypertension (transient hypertension of pregnancy or chronic hyper...

  15. Evaluation of knowledge and practice behaviors of a group of Iranian obstetricians, general practitioners, and midwives, regarding periodontal disease and its effect on the pregnancy outcome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Golkari

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Background. Periodontal disease is considered as a risk factor for poor pregnancy outcomes, including preterm birth and low birth weight. Only few studies have assessed the knowledge and practice behaviours of healthcare providers, concerning oral health during pregnancy, periodontal diseases and their role in adverse pregnancy outcomes. The present study aimed to compare the knowledge and practice behaviours of a group of Iranian obstetricians, general practitioners, and midwives about periodontal disease.Design and methods. A cross-sectional study was conducted using a self-administered, structured questionnaire that was previously used in North Carolina. The questionnaire was translated into Persian language and was randomly distributed among 200 obstetricians, general practitioners, and midwives participating in an international congress. Data were analysed by Chi-square and spearman correlation tests using SPSS statistical software (version PASW 18.Results. A total of 150 completed the questionnaires, achieving a response rate of 75%. Totally, the knowledge of the obstetricians was more accurate compared to the two other groups and the midwives were the worst. More experienced general practitioners (P=0.002 and obstetricians (P=0.049 did less dental examinations for their patients during their first visit or periodically. More experienced obstetricians also referred their patients for dental examinations during pregnancy less than their less experienced colleagues (P<0.001.Conclusions. Although the participants had some knowledge about periodontal disease and its association with adverse pregnancy outcomes, there is much space for improvements. The participants’ attitude and knowledge were consistent.

  16. Physical activity and pregnancy: cardiovascular adaptations, recommendations and pregnancy outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melzer, Katarina; Schutz, Yves; Boulvain, Michel; Kayser, Bengt

    2010-06-01

    Regular physical activity is associated with improved physiological, metabolic and psychological parameters, and with reduced risk of morbidity and mortality. Current recommendations aimed at improving the health and well-being of nonpregnant subjects advise that an accumulation of > or =30 minutes of moderate physical activity should occur on most, if not all, days of the week. Regardless of the specific physiological changes induced by pregnancy, which are primarily developed to meet the increased metabolic demands of mother and fetus, pregnant women benefit from regular physical activity the same way as nonpregnant subjects. Changes in submaximal oxygen uptake (VO(2)) during pregnancy depend on the type of exercise performed. During maternal rest or submaximal weight-bearing exercise (e.g. walking, stepping, treadmill exercise), absolute maternal VO(2) is significantly increased compared with the nonpregnant state. The magnitude of change is approximately proportional to maternal weight gain. When pregnant women perform submaximal weight-supported exercise on land (e.g. level cycling), the findings are contradictory. Some studies reported significantly increased absolute VO(2), while many others reported unchanged or only slightly increased absolute VO(2) compared with the nonpregnant state. The latter findings may be explained by the fact that the metabolic demand of cycle exercise is largely independent of the maternal body mass, resulting in no absolute VO(2) alteration. Few studies that directly measured changes in maternal maximal VO(2) (VO(2max)) showed no difference in the absolute VO(2max) between pregnant and nonpregnant subjects in cycling, swimming or weight-bearing exercise. Efficiency of work during exercise appears to be unchanged during pregnancy in non-weight-bearing exercise. During weight-bearing exercise, the work efficiency was shown to be improved in athletic women who continue exercising and those who stop exercising during pregnancy. When

  17. Screening for Hepatitis B Virus Infection in Nonpregnant Adolescents and Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Understanding Task Force Recommendations Screening for Hepatitis B Virus Infection in Nonpregnant Adolescents and Adults The U.S. Preventive Services Task Force (Task Force) has issued a final recommendation statement on ...

  18. Determination of reference intervals of glycated albumin and hemoglobin A1c in healthy pregnant Japanese women and analysis of their time courses and influencing factors during pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiramatsu, Yuji; Shimizu, Ikki; Omori, Yasue; Nakabayashi, Masao

    2012-01-01

    Glycemic control is an important issue in gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) and in diabetic pregnant women. We determined the reference intervals of glycated albumin (GA) and hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) as glycemic control markers in healthy Japanese pregnant women and analyzed their time courses and factors that influence these variables during pregnancy. 676 women were screened for the present study. After the exclusion of non-pregnant and puerperal women, 574 women were studied to determine the reference intervals. HbA1c, GA, casual plasma glucose, urinary glucose, urinary protein, and body mass index (BMI) (non-pregnancy) were measured. HbA1c levels significantly decreased in the second trimester of pregnancy and increased in the third trimester, while GA levels significantly decreased towards the third trimester. Casual plasma glucose levels decreased in the first trimester and subsequently remained constant. The reference intervals of GA and HbA1c in the healthy pregnant women were 11.5-15.7% and 4.5-5.7%, respectively. GA levels were lower (ppregnant women with proteinuria. In the obese group, GA levels were lower (ppregnant women were determined. Strict glycemic control is essential to reduce perinatal complications. GA appears to be a useful marker for pregnant women, since it can be measured easily and changes rapidly and markedly.

  19. The development of the Economic impacts of Smoking In Pregnancy (ESIP) model for measuring the impacts of smoking and smoking cessation during pregnancy

    OpenAIRE

    Jones, Matthew John

    2015-01-01

    Background Smoking in pregnancy is a major cause of morbidity and mortality [1-3], with a significant cost burden to the NHS. [4] An estimated 26% of women still report smoking at the beginning of or just before pregnancy, with 12% reporting smoking throughout. [5]While economic evaluations of cessation interventions in the non-pregnant population are well developed, similar evaluations of within-pregnancy interventions are not. [6] Because of the special circumstances associated with pre...

  20. Alaska Native and Rural Youths' Views of Sexual Health: A Focus Group Project on Sexually Transmitted Diseases, HIV/AIDS, and Unplanned Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leston, Jessica D.; Jessen, Cornelia M.; Simons, Brenna C.

    2012-01-01

    Background: The disparity in rates of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), HIV/AIDS, and unplanned pregnancy between Alaska Native (AN) and non-AN populations, particularly among young adults and females, is significant and concerning. Focus groups were conducted to better understand the knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs of rural Alaska youth…

  1. The Role of Trust in CenteringPregnancy : Building Interpersonal Trust Relationships in Group-Based Prenatal Care in The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kweekel, L.; Gerrits, T.; Rijnders, M.; Brown, P.R.

    2016-01-01

    Background CenteringPregnancy (CP) is a specific model of group-based prenatal care for women, implemented in 44 midwifery practices in The Netherlands since 2011. Women have evaluated CP positively, especially in terms of social support, and improvements have been made in birthweight and preterm-bi

  2. Maternal and Fetal Death following Group A Streptococcal Meningitis in Mid-Term Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamaledeen, Abderahman; Law, Penelope

    2014-01-01

    Background. Group A streptococcal (GAS) meningitis is rarely seen in the antenatal period, but it is associated with significant mortality. We present a case of a mid-trimester woman who developed fulminant meningitis following a rapid onset atypical presentation of infection with this organism. Case. A multiparous 23+5-week woman presented with a 10-day history of a non-productive cough associated with pyrexia. Within minutes of her admission she collapsed and lost consciousness; sepsis was suspected and cross-specialty care was initiated. She was managed empirically in extremis with broad-spectrum antibiotics and mannitol with 3% hypertonic saline for suspected infection and raised intracranial pressure, respectively. Despite intensivist management, a CT head revealed diffuse oedema with coning of the cerebellar tonsils. Brainstem death was certified within 19 hours of admission and fetal death ensued. Postmortem bacteriology confirmed GAS meningitis. Conclusion. Through raising awareness of this patient and her disease course, we hope that future policy decisions, primary care, and hospital level management will be informed accordingly for treatment of pregnant women with suspected GAS infection. PMID:24883215

  3. Maternal and Fetal Death following Group A Streptococcal Meningitis in Mid-Term Pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sayinthen Vivekanantham

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Group A streptococcal (GAS meningitis is rarely seen in the antenatal period, but it is associated with significant mortality. We present a case of a mid-trimester woman who developed fulminant meningitis following a rapid onset atypical presentation of infection with this organism. Case. A multiparous 23+5-week woman presented with a 10-day history of a non-productive cough associated with pyrexia. Within minutes of her admission she collapsed and lost consciousness; sepsis was suspected and cross-specialty care was initiated. She was managed empirically in extremis with broad-spectrum antibiotics and mannitol with 3% hypertonic saline for suspected infection and raised intracranial pressure, respectively. Despite intensivist management, a CT head revealed diffuse oedema with coning of the cerebellar tonsils. Brainstem death was certified within 19 hours of admission and fetal death ensued. Postmortem bacteriology confirmed GAS meningitis. Conclusion. Through raising awareness of this patient and her disease course, we hope that future policy decisions, primary care, and hospital level management will be informed accordingly for treatment of pregnant women with suspected GAS infection.

  4. Is the risk of HIV acquisition increased during and immediately after pregnancy? A secondary analysis of pooled HIV community-based studies from the ALPHA network.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milly Marston

    Full Text Available Previous studies of HIV acquisition in pregnancy have been in specific population groups, such as sero-discordant couples which have shown an increased risk of HIV acquisition during pregnancy and studies of sexually active women where the results have been ambiguous. However these studies are unable to tell us what the overall impact of pregnancy is on HIV acquisition in the general population.Data from six community-based HIV cohorts were pooled to give 2,628 sero-conversions and a total of 178,000 person years of observation. Multiple imputation was used to allow for the uncertainty of exact sero-conversion date in surveillance intervals greater than the length of a pregnancy. Results were combined using Rubin's rules to give appropriate error bounds. The analysis was stratified into two periods: pre- and post- widespread availability of prevention of mother-to-child HIV transmission services. This allows us to assess whether there is reporting bias relating to a person's knowledge of their own HIV status which would become more widespread in the latter time period.Results suggest that women while pregnant have a lower risk of acquiring HIV infection over all periods (HRR 0.79, 95%CI 0.70-0.89 than women who were not pregnant. There is no evidence for a difference in the rate of HIV acquisition between postpartum and non-pregnant women (HRR 0.92 95%CI 0.84-1.03.Although there may be immunological reasons for increased risk of HIV acquisition during pregnancy, at a population level this study indicates a lower risk of HIV acquisition for pregnant women. Pregnant women may be more likely to be concordant with their current sexual partner than non-pregnant women, i.e. either already HIV positive prior to the pregnancy or if negative at the time of becoming pregnant more likely to have a negative partner.

  5. Pregnancy induces transcriptional activation of the peripheral innate immune system and increases oxidative DNA damage among healthy third trimester pregnant women.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinyin Jiang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Pregnancy induces physiological adaptations that may involve, or contribute to, alterations in the genomic landscape. Pregnancy also increases the nutritional demand for choline, an essential nutrient that can modulate epigenomic and transcriptomic readouts secondary to its role as a methyl donor. Nevertheless, the interplay between human pregnancy, choline and the human genome is largely unexplored. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: As part of a controlled feeding study, we assessed the influence of pregnancy and choline intake on maternal genomic markers. Healthy third trimester pregnant (n = 26, wk 26-29 gestation and nonpregnant (n = 21 women were randomized to choline intakes of 480 mg/day, approximating the Adequate Intake level, or 930 mg/day for 12-weeks. Blood leukocytes were acquired at study week 0 and study week 12 for microarray, DNA damage and global DNA/histone methylation measurements. A main effect of pregnancy that was independent of choline intake was detected on several of the maternal leukocyte genomic markers. Compared to nonpregnant women, third trimester pregnant women exhibited higher (P<0.05 transcript abundance of defense response genes associated with the innate immune system including pattern recognition molecules, neutrophil granule proteins and oxidases, complement proteins, cytokines and chemokines. Pregnant women also exhibited higher (P<0.001 levels of DNA damage in blood leukocytes, a genomic marker of oxidative stress. No effect of choline intake was detected on the maternal leukocyte genomic markers with the exception of histone 3 lysine 4 di-methylation which was lower among pregnant women in the 930 versus 480 mg/d choline intake group. CONCLUSIONS: Pregnancy induces transcriptional activation of the peripheral innate immune system and increases oxidative DNA damage among healthy third trimester pregnant women.

  6. Group B streptococcus colonization and HIV in pregnancy: A cohort study in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biobaku Oluwafunmilola, R; Olaleye Atinuke, O; Adefusi Olorunwa, F; Adeyemi Babalola, A; Onipede Anthony, O; Loto Olabisi, M; Imaralu John, O

    2017-01-01

    Group B streptococcus (GBS) is a leading cause of maternal and neonatal infectious morbidity. HIV is prevalent among pregnant women in Nigeria. To determine the rates of anogenital GBS colonization in our institution and compare GBS colonization rates between HIV positive and negative pregnant women. A cross-sectional comparative study was conducted over 6 months. Patients were separated according to their HIV status: positive and negative. GBS colonization was assessed by vaginal and anal swabs collected at 35-37 weeks of gestation and cultured in Todd-Hewitt broth, followed by a confirmatory test. Socio-demographic characteristics and CD4 count were extracted from patient medical records. Secondary outcomes were identification of risk factors for GBS colonization, antibiotic sensitivity, and any association between CD4 count and GBS colonization. Appropriate statistical analysis was done. A total of 200 patients attended the clinic; 67 HIV positive and 133 negative. Analyzed samples were 198; the overall prevalence of GBS was 18.2%. No significant difference in GBS colonization was noted between HIV positive (19.4% [13]) and negative patients (17.6% [23/131]). Most GBS isolates were susceptible to ampicillin (87%) and penicillin (81%). A high body mass index (BMI) was independently associated with GBS colonization (OR = 1.25, 95% CI: 1.04-1.51). No association was observed between CD4 counts and GBS colonization. A high prevalence of GBS colonization was observed in our institution. Colonization rates were independent of the HIV status but associated with a high BMI in HIV positive women.

  7. Effects of pregnancy and protein-energy malnutrition on monooxygenase O-dealkylation activity in rat liver microsomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.N. Kuriyama

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Xenobiotic metabolism is influenced by a variety of physiological and environmental factors including pregnancy and nutritional status of the individual. Pregnancy has generally been reported to cause a depression of hepatic monooxygenase activities. Low-protein diets and protein-energy malnutrition have also been associated with a reduced activity of monooxygenases in nonpregnant animals. We investigated the combined effects of pregnancy and protein-energy malnutrition on liver monooxygenase O-dealkylation activity. On pregnancy day 0 rats were assigned at random to a group fed ad libitum (well-nourished, WN or to a malnourished group (MN which received half of the WN food intake (12 g/day. WN and MN rats were killed on days 0 (nonpregnant, 11 or 20 of pregnancy and ethoxy- (EROD, methoxy- (MROD and penthoxy- (PROD resorufin O-dealkylation activities were measured in liver microsomes. Only minor changes in enzyme activities were observed on pregnancy day 11, but a clear-cut reduction of monooxygenase activities (pmol resorufin min-1 mg protein-1 was noted near term (day 0 vs 20, means ± SD, Student t-test, P<0.05 in WN (EROD: 78.9 ± 15.1 vs 54.6 ± 10.2; MROD: 67.8 ± 10.0 vs 40.9 ± 7.2; PROD: 6.6 ± 0.9 vs 4.3 ± 0.8 and in MN (EROD: 89.2 ± 23.9 vs 46.9 ± 15.0; MROD: 66.8 ± 13.8 vs 27.9 ± 4.4; PROD: 6.3 ± 1.0 vs 4.1 ± 0.6 dams. On pregnancy day 20 MROD was lower in MN than in WN dams. Malnutrition did not increase the pregnancy-induced reduction of EROD and PROD activities. Thus, the present results suggest that the activities of liver monooxygenases are reduced in near-term pregnancy and that protein-energy malnutrition does not alter EROD or PROD in pregnant rats.

  8. RELEVANCE OF TRICHOMONIASIS PROBLEM IN WOMEN OF REPRODUCTIVE AGE WITH NON-PREGNANCY CERVICITIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Т.Д. Basova

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Trichomoniasis is a widespread infection characterized by polymorphism of the causative agent, polyorganic impairment of the urogenital tract, obliterated symptomatics. Frequent recurrences of trichomoniasis- induced cervicovaginitis are based on associa five relationship of Trichomonas with pathogenic and opportunistic microorganisms, medicamentous resistance and antigenic mimicry of the causative agent The lack of distinct evaluation criteria of the diagnostic testing results, application of the bacterioscopic method as the basic screening lead to trichomoniasis hypodiagnostics. Treatment of the disease should be obligatory carried out with systemic and local medical preparations regardless of symptomatic markedness.

  9. The dermatoses of pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sachdeva Silonie

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The skin changes in pregnancy can be either physiological (hormonal, changes in pre-existing skin diseases or development of new pregnancy specific dermatoses. Pregnancy-specific skin dermatoses include an ill-defined heterogeneous group of pruritic skin eruptions which are seen only in pregnancy. These include atopic eruption of pregnancy, polymorphic eruption of pregnancy, pemphigoid gestationis and intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy. Atopic eruption of pregnancy is the most common of these disorders. Most skin eruptions resolve postpartum and require only symptomatic treatment. Antepartum surveillance is recommended for patients with pemphigoid gestationis and intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy as they carry fetal risk. This article deals with the classification, clinical features and treatment of the specific dermatoses of pregnancy.

  10. Prevalence of anal incontinence during pregnancy and 1 year after delivery in a cohort of primiparous women and a control group of nulliparous women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svare, Jens A; Hansen, Bent B; Lose, Gunnar

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The aim of the study was to examine the prevalence of anal incontinence (AI) during pregnancy and 1 year after delivery in primiparous women and to compare it with the prevalences in nulliparous women. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A validated questionnaire regarding AI was filled in by 1018...... primiparous women after delivery and by 1836 nulliparous women (baseline). A similar questionnaire was filled in 1 year later by both groups. RESULTS: At baseline the prevalence of flatus incontinence was significantly higher in the primiparous than the nulliparous women (35 vs. 25%), while incontinence...... study showed remarkably high prevalences of AI during pregnancy and 1 year after delivery in primiparous women and likewise in nulliparous women at baseline and 1 year later. These results may indicate that factors other than pregnancy and delivery are of importance for AI in young women....

  11. New von Hippel-Lindau manifestations develop at the same or decreased rates in pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Binderup, Marie Louise Mølgaard; Budtz-Jørgensen, Esben; Bisgaard, Søs Marie Luise

    2015-01-01

    diagnosed throughout their lifetimes. We analyzed age-dependent manifestation rates using Poisson regression. We compared the women's rates in intervals where they had been pregnant with their age-matched nonpregnant intervals. We investigated possible long-term effects using pregnancy intervals...... pregnancies. Manifestation rates in women's pregnant intervals were lower compared with their age-matched nonpregnant intervals (1 year: hazard ratio [HR] = 0.439, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.131-1.474, p = 0.18; 3 years: HR = 0.412, 95% CI 0.214-0.796, p = 0.0083; and 5 years: HR = 0.450, 95% CI 0.......136-1.489, p = 0.19). Men and women had similar manifestation rates, both increasing from their 20s. CONCLUSIONS: Pregnancy does not aggravate vHL tumor development, and we neither discourage pregnancy in VHL mutation carriers nor recommend intensified surveillance during pregnancy. The pregnancy effect...

  12. The effect of group training on pregnancy-induced lumbopelvic pain: systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized control trials

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Since there is lack of up to date consensus exists as to whether group training is effective in improving lumbopelvic pain (LPP) after pregnancy, a review of the recent evidences is needed. To determine the effect of group exercise training for the management of LPP among pregnant women compared with usual antenatal care. An electronic database search for relevant randomized control trials published in English from 2006 to 2015 was conducted. Articles with outcome measures of self-reported LP...

  13. Neurosurgical procedures in pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cirak Bayram

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: Over the past few decades maternal mortality has progressively declined because of improved management of the major obstetric problems of hemorrhage, infection, and toxemia. As a result, the relative incidence of deaths resulting from non obstetric causes has increased. Chief among nonobstetric causes are neurologic disorders. Those most common during pregnancy are low back pain, intracranial tumors, subarachnoid hemorrhage, and neurotrauma. The management of the neurosurgical pathologies during pregnancy needs some specifications for both the mother and the fetus. METHODS: We performed a retrospective study evaluating the clinical, radiological, and surgical characteristics of 9 patients who have cranial neuropathologies and have undergone neurosurgical intervention. RESULTS: Most of the patients in this study had vaginal delivery. Prominent neurosurgical disease related to cerebral damage. Every patient underwent a laboratory and radiological evaluation. All except one survived the neurosurgical pathology. Neither baby nor mother had significant problem during delivery and neurosurgical intervention. CONCLUSION: Pregnant women may face to every kind of neurosurgical pathology that nonpregnant women have faced. In addition, pregnancy itself, gives rise some metabolic changes in the women and those changes may cause some neurologic pathologies to be symptomatic or to aggravate the present symptomatology. Because of those reasons, close neurologic follow up of a pregnant woman is of vital importance. At the end of a pregnancy having experienced some neurologic interventions including diagnostic evaluation or surgical intervention does not necessitates the cesarean section for a neurologically intact infant and mother.

  14. Reproductive Pathological Changes Associated with Experimental Subchronic Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis Infection in Nonpregnant Boer Does

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    A. M. Othman

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis causes caseous lymphadenitis (CLA, which is a contagious and chronic disease in sheep and goats. In order to assess the histopathological changes observed in the reproductive organs of nonpregnant does infected with the bacteria, 20 apparently healthy adult Boer does were divided into four inoculation groups, intradermal, intranasal, oral, and control, consisting of five goats each. Excluding the control group, which was unexposed, other does were inoculated with 107 CFU/1 mL of live C. pseudotuberculosis through the various routes stated above. Thirty days after infection, the ovaries, uterus, and iliac lymph nodes were collected for bacterial recovery and molecular detection, as well as histopathological examination. The mean changes in necrosis, congestion, inflammatory cell infiltration, and oedema varied in severity among the ovaries, uterus, and iliac lymph nodes following different inoculation routes. Overall, the intranasal route of inoculation showed more severe (p<0.05 lesions in all the organs examined. The findings of this study have shown that C. pseudotuberculosis could predispose to infertility resulting from pathological lesions in the uterus and ovaries of does.

  15. Vascular Complications of Systemic Sclerosis during Pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliza F. Chakravarty

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Systemic sclerosis (SSc is a chronic autoimmune disorder characterized by progressive fibrosis of the skin and visceral tissues as well as a noninflammatory vasculopathy. Vascular disease in systemic sclerosis is a major cause of morbidity and mortality among nonpregnant patients with SSc and is even a bigger concern in the pregnant SSc patient, as the underlying vasculopathy may prevent the required hemodynamic changes necessary to support a growing pregnancy. Vascular manifestations including scleroderma renal crisis and pulmonary arterial hypertension should be considered relative contraindications against pregnancy due to the high associations of both maternal and fetal morbidity and mortality. In contrast, Raynaud's phenomenon may actually improve somewhat during pregnancy. Women with SSc who are considering a pregnancy or discover they are pregnant require evaluation for the presence and extent of underlying vasculopathy. In the absence of significant visceral vasculopathy, most women with SSc can expect to have reasonable pregnancy outcomes.

  16. Estimation of DMFT, Salivary Streptococcus Mutans Count, Flow Rate, Ph, and Salivary Total Calcium Content in Pregnant and Non-Pregnant Women: A Prospective Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamate, Wasim Ismail; Vibhute, Nupura Aniket; Baad, Rajendra Krishna

    2017-04-01

    Pregnancy, a period from conception till birth, causes changes in the functioning of the human body as a whole and specifically in the oral cavity that may favour the emergence of dental caries. Many studies have shown pregnant women at increased risk for dental caries, however, specific salivary caries risk factors and the particular period of pregnancy at heightened risk for dental caries are yet to be explored and give a scope of further research in this area. The aim of the present study was to assess the severity of dental caries in pregnant women compared to non-pregnant women by evaluating parameters like Decayed, Missing, Filled Teeth (DMFT) index, salivary Streptococcus mutans count, flow rate, pH and total calcium content. A total of 50 first time pregnant women in the first trimester were followed during their second trimester, third trimester and postpartum period for the evaluation of DMFT by World Health Organization (WHO) scoring criteria, salivary flow rate by drooling method, salivary pH by pH meter, salivary total calcium content by bioassay test kit and salivary Streptococcus mutans count by semiautomatic counting of colonies grown on Mitis Salivarius (MS) agar supplemented by 0.2U/ml of bacitracin and 10% sucrose. The observations of pregnant women were then compared with same parameters evaluated in the 50 non-pregnant women. Paired t-test and Wilcoxon sign rank test were performed to assess the association between the study parameters. Evaluation of different caries risk factors between pregnant and non-pregnant women clearly showed that pregnant women were at a higher risk for dental caries. Comparison of caries risk parameters during the three trimesters and postpartum period showed that the salivary Streptococcus mutans count had significantly increased in the second trimester, third trimester and postpartum period while the mean pH and mean salivary total calcium content decreased in the third trimester and postpartum period. These changes

  17. Host remodeling of the gut microbiome and metabolic changes during pregnancy

    OpenAIRE

    Koren, Omry; Goodrich, Julia K.; Cullender, Tyler C.; Spor, Aymé; Laitinen, Kirsi; Bäckhed, Helene Kling; Gonzalez, Antonio; Werner, Jeffrey J; Angenent, Largus T.; Knight, Rob; Bäckhed, Fredrik; Isolauri, Erika; Salminen, Seppo; Ley, Ruth E.

    2012-01-01

    Many of the immune and metabolic changes occurring during normal pregnancy also describe metabolic syndrome. Gut microbiota can cause symptoms of metabolic syndrome in non-pregnant hosts: To explore their role in pregnancy, here we characterized fecal bacteria of 91 pregnant women of varying pre-pregnancy BMIs and gestational diabetes status, and their infants. Similarities between infant-mother microbiotas increased with children’s age, and the infant microbiota was unaffected by mother heal...

  18. Differential endometrial gene expression in pregnant and nonpregnant sows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østrup, Esben; Bauersachs, Stefan; Blum, Helmut

    2010-01-01

    In an attempt to unveil molecular processes controlling the porcine placentation, we have investigated the pregnancy-induced gene expression in the endometrium using the Affymetrix GeneChip Porcine Genome Array. At Day 14 after insemination, at the time of initial placentation, samples were...... to the apical cell domain of the glandular epithelium suggest the concept of endometrial FGF9 acting as an embryonic growth factor in the pig....

  19. Comparison between overweight due to pregnancy and due to added weight to simulate body mass distribution in pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguiar, Liliana; Santos-Rocha, Rita; Vieira, Filomena; Branco, Marco; Andrade, Carlos; Veloso, António

    2015-10-01

    The assessment of biomechanical loading in the musculoskeletal system of the pregnant women is particularly interesting since they are subject to morphological, physiological and hormonal changes, which may lead to adaptations in gait. The purpose of this study was to analyze the effect of the increased mass in the trunk associated to pregnancy on the lower limb and pelvis, during walking, on temporal-distance parameters, joint range of motion and moments of force, by comparing a pregnant women group to a non-pregnant group, and to this group while carrying a 5 kg additional load located in the abdomen and breasts during walking, to understand which gait adaptations may be more related with the increased trunk mass, or if may be more associated with other factors such as the girth of the thigh. The subjects performed a previous 12 min training adaption to the added load. To calculate ankle, knee and hip joint angles and moments of force, a three-dimensional biomechanical model was developed. The inverse dynamics method was used to estimate net joint moments of force. The increased mass of the anterior trunk associated with second trimester of pregnancy may influence some gait variables such as the left step time, left and right stance times, double limb support time, maximum hip extension, maximum pelvic right obliquity, pelvic obliquity range of motion, maximum transversal left rotation and peak hip flexion moments of force.

  20. Teenage pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dryburgh, H

    2000-10-01

    This article examines trends in teenage pregnancy in Canada, focussing on induced abortions, live births and fetal loss among women aged 15 to 19 in 1997. The data come from the Hospital Morbidity Data Base and the Canadian Vital Statistics Data Base at Statistics Canada, and the annual Therapeutic Abortion Survey, conducted by the Canadian Institute for Health Information. Data on abortions performed on Canadian residents in the United States are from an annual survey of selected states. International data are from the Alan Guttmacher Institute. Pregnancy rates, abortion rates, live birth rates and fetal loss rates are calculated using population counts of women in the age groups 15 to 17, 18 to 19, and 15 to 19. The percentages of pregnancies that ended in the three outcomes are also calculated for these years. The teenage pregnancy rate declined from 1994 to 1997, reflecting lower teenage birth and fetal loss rates. Through this period the abortion rate remained stable, with the result that slightly more than half of all teenage pregnancies ended in abortion by 1997. Younger teens are more likely to have an abortion than to give birth. The majority of pregnancies among older teens end in a live birth, although the number of live births is decreasing.

  1. Gynecologic cancers in pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Amant, Frédéric; Halaska, Michael J; Fumagalli, Monica

    2014-01-01

    , optimizing maternal treatment while considering fetal safety. To maximize the maternal outcome, cancer treatment should follow a standard treatment protocol as for nonpregnant patients. Iatrogenic prematurity should be avoided. Individualization of treatment and effective psychologic support is imperative...... performed by experts. Most standard regimens of chemotherapy can be administered from 14 weeks gestational age onward. Apart from cervical and vulvar cancer, as well as important vulvar scarring, the mode of delivery is determined by the obstetrician. Term delivery is aimed for. Breast-feeding should...... be considered based on individual drug safety and neonatologist-breast-feeding expert's consult. CONCLUSIONS: Despite limited evidence-based information, cancer treatment during pregnancy can succeed. State-of-the-art treatment should be provided for this vulnerable population to preserve maternal and fetal...

  2. Cardiopulmonary bypass in pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mukul Chandra Kapoor

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Cardiac surgery carried out on cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB in a pregnant woman is associated with poor neonatal outcomes although maternal outcomes are similar to cardiac surgery in non-pregnant women. Most adverse maternal and fetal outcomes from cardiac surgery during pregnancy are attributed to effects of CPB. The CPB is associated with utero-placental hypoperfusion due to a number of factors, which may translate into low fetal cardiac output, hypoxia and even death. Better maternal and fetal outcomes may be achieved by early pre-operative optimization of maternal cardiovascular status, use of perioperative fetal monitoring, optimization of CPB, delivery of a viable fetus before the operation and scheduling cardiac surgery on an elective basis during the second trimester.

  3. Breast Cancer Diagnosed During Pregnancy: Adapting Recent Advances in Breast Cancer Care for Pregnant Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loibl, Sibylle; Schmidt, André; Gentilini, Oreste; Kaufman, Bella; Kuhl, Christine; Denkert, Carsten; von Minckwitz, Gunter; Parokonnaya, Anastasia; Stensheim, Hanne; Thomssen, Christoph; van Calsteren, Kristel; Poortmans, Philip; Berveiller, Paul; Markert, Udo R; Amant, Frederic

    2015-11-01

    Breast cancer during pregnancy (BCP), although rare, is becoming more common and treatment should be as similar as possible to that for nonpregnant young patients with breast cancer. A group of specialists convened to review current guidelines and provide guidance on how recent advances in breast cancer diagnosis and treatment can be adapted for pregnant patients. The majority of patients with BCP will be considered for treatment during the pregnancy. Premature delivery should be avoided whenever possible. Most treatments, including sentinel lymph node biopsy, systemic therapy with taxanes, platinum agents, or dose-dense treatment can be safely given during pregnancy, after careful risk/benefit assessment for mother and child. Chemotherapy is contraindicated during the first trimester because of a higher risk of fetal malformations but is feasible in the second and third trimesters. Other treatments such as radiation therapy or anti-human epidermal growth receptor 2 treatment are in general not indicated during pregnancy but might be considered in some instances. Patient data should be collected in a systematic way whenever possible.

  4. Effect of collection-maturation interval time and pregnancy status of donor mares on oocyte developmental competence in horse cloning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gambini, A; Andrés, G; Jarazo, J; Javier, J; Karlanian, F; Florencia, K; De Stéfano, A; Salamone, D F

    2014-02-01

    The current limitations for obtaining ovaries from slaughterhouses and the low efficiency of in vivo follicular aspiration necessitate a complete understanding of the variables that affect oocyte developmental competence in the equine. For this reason, we assessed the effect on equine oocyte meiotic competence and the subsequent in vitro cloned embryo development of 1) the time interval between ovary collection and the onset of oocyte in vitro maturation (collection-maturation interval time) and 2) the pregnancy status of the donor mares. To define the collection-maturation interval time, collected oocytes were classified according to the slaughtering time and the pregnancy status of the mare. Maturation rate was recorded and some matured oocytes of each group were used to reconstruct zona free cloned embryos. Nuclear maturation rates were lower when the collection-maturation interval time exceeded 10 h as compared to 4 h (32/83 vs. 76/136, respectively; P = 0.0128) and when the donor mare was pregnant as compared to nonpregnant (53/146 vs. 177/329, respectively; P = 0.0004). Low rates of cleaved embryos were observed when the collection-maturation interval time exceeded 10 h as compared to 6 to 10 h (11/27 vs. 33/44, respectively; P = 0.0056), but the pregnancy status of donor mares did not affect cloned equine blastocyst development (3/49 vs. 1/27 for blastocyst rates of nonpregnant and pregnant groups, respectively; P = 1.00). These results indicate that, to apply assisted reproductive technologies in horses, oocytes should be harvested within approximately 10 h after ovary collection. Also, even though ovaries from pregnant mares are a potential source of oocytes, they should be processed at the end of the collection routine due to the lower collection and maturation rate in this group.

  5. Stress-induced inflammatory responses in women: effects of race and pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christian, Lisa M; Glaser, Ronald; Porter, Kyle; Iams, Jay D

    2013-09-01

    African Americans experience preterm birth at nearly twice the rate of whites. Chronic stress associated with minority status is implicated in this disparity. Inflammation is a key biological pathway by which stress may affect birth outcomes. This study examined the effects of race and pregnancy on stress-induced inflammatory responses. Thirty-nine women in the second trimester of pregnancy (19 African American, 20 white) and 39 demographically similar nonpregnant women completed an acute stressor (Trier Social Stress Test). Psychosocial characteristics, health behaviors, and affective responses were assessed. Serum interleukin (IL)-6 was measured at baseline, 45 minutes, and 120 minutes poststressor. IL-6 responses at 120 minutes poststressor were 46% higher in African Americans versus whites (95% confidence interval = 8%-81%, t(72) = 3.51, p = .001). This effect was present in pregnancy and nonpregnancy. IL-6 responses at 120 minutes poststressor tended to be lower (15%) in pregnant versus nonpregnant women (95% confidence interval = -5%-32%, p = .14). Racial differences in inflammatory responses were not accounted for by demographics, psychological characteristics, health behaviors, or differences in salivary cortisol. Pregnant whites showed lower negative affective responses than did nonpregnant women of either race (p values ≤ .007). This study provides novel evidence that stress-induced inflammatory responses are more robust among African American women versus whites during pregnancy and nonpregnancy. The ultimate impact of stress on health is a function of stressor exposure and physiological responses. Individual differences in stress-induced inflammatory responses represent a clear target for continued research efforts in racial disparities in health during pregnancy and nonpregnancy.

  6. Towards prenatal biomonitoring in Nanjing, China: lead and cadmium levels in the duration of pregnancy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Kang-sheng; MAO Xiao-dong; HAO Jia-hu; SHI Juan; DAI Chun-fang; CHEN Wen-jun

    2013-01-01

    Background Prenatal lead and cadmium exposure will not only influence the mother's organ systems,but also will provide an environment that may influence the fetus and neonate in a harmful way.In the present study,we detected the blood lead levels (BLLS) and cadmium levels for the duration of pregnancy and 6-12 weeks after delivery and to analyze the influencing factors of BLLs in healthy pregnant women.Methods A cohort study survey was carried out.We recruited 174 healthy pregnant women without pregnancy or obstetric complications or abnormal pregnancy outcomes as the gravida group,and 120 healthy non-pregnant women as the control group.Results The lead concentrations in the three pregnancy trimesters and in the postpartum period were:(5.98±2.43),(5.54±2.01),(5.59±1.97),and (6.76±1.74) μg/dl; and (6.75±2.13) μg/dl in the control group.The cadmium concentrations in the three pregnancy trimesters and postpartum period were 1.61±0.45,1.63±0.46,1.64±0.49,and 1.67±0.57.We found that the BLLs in the gravida group were lower than in the control group during all three trimesters.Occupations,supplement nutritional elements (dietary supplements and nutritional (food) elements),and the time of house painting could affect BLLs in pregnant women.Lead-related occupations,using cosmetics,and living in a house painted more recently than one year previously are risk factors of high BLLs among pregnant women,while calcium,iron,zinc,and milk supplements are protective factors.Conclusions These findings may help people,especially pregnant women,to reduce lead exposure via supplements of calcium,iron,zinc,and milk or avoiding contacting risk factors.

  7. The effects of implementing the International Association of Diabetes and Pregnancy Study Groups criteria for diagnosing gestational diabetes on maternal and neonatal outcomes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tai-Ho Hung

    Full Text Available In 2010, the International Association of the Diabetes and Pregnancy Study Groups (IADPSG recommended a new strategy for the screening and diagnosis of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM. However, no study has indicated that adopting the IADPSG recommendations improves perinatal outcomes. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of implementing the IADPSG criteria for diagnosing GDM on maternal and neonatal outcomes.Previously, we used a two-step approach (a 1-h, 50-g glucose challenge test followed by a 3-h, 100-g glucose tolerance test when indicated to screen for and diagnose GDM. In July 2011, we adopted the IADPSG recommendations in our routine obstetric care. In this study, we retrospectively compared the rates of various maternal and neonatal outcomes in all women who delivered after 24 weeks of gestation during the periods before (P1, between January 1, 2009 and December 31, 2010 and after (P2, between January 1, 2012 and December 31, 2013 the IADPSG criteria were implemented. Pregnancies complicated by multiple gestations, fetal chromosomal or structural anomalies, and pre-pregnancy diabetes mellitus were excluded. Our results showed that the incidence of GDM increased from 4.6% using the two-step method to 12.4% using the IADPSG criteria. Compared to the women in P1, the women in P2 experienced less weight gain during pregnancy, lower birth weights, shorter labor courses, and lower rates of macrosomia (<4000 g and large-for-gestational age (LGA infants. P2 was a significant independent factor against macrosomia (adjusted odds ratio [OR] 0.63, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.43-0.90 and LGA (adjusted OR 0.74, 95% CI 0.61-0.89 after multivariable logistic regression analysis.The adoption of the IADPSG criteria for diagnosis of GDM was associated with significant reductions in maternal weight gain during pregnancy, birth weights, and the rates of macrosomia and LGA.

  8. STUDY OF CEREBRAL MALARIA IN PREGNANCY IN A TERTIARY CARE HOSPITAL OF EASTERN ODISHA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bidyut Prava Das

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND The present work aimed at the clinical mode of presentation, degree of parasitaemia, complications and prognostic trends of pregnant women in cerebral malaria. Evaluation of mortality in different trimesters, varied complications and comparison with nonpregnant women was done. MATERIALS AND METHODS Thirty three pregnant women with cerebral malaria were studied. Twenty nonpregnant such cases of reproductive age group admitted to Department of Medicine, S.C.B. Medical College, Cuttack, Odisha, were taken as control. The cases were taken in random order. RESULTS Maximum numbers of cases (45.45% were primigravidae in second trimester of pregnancy. They exhibited higher incidence of anaemia and parasitaemia (2-10%, resulting in abortion and premature labour. CONCLUSION All the cases of cerebral malaria were found to be anaemic, but the severity of anaemia was more pronounced in primi (21% as compared to multigravidae (6.4%. High parasitaemia associated with leucocytosis (27.27% resulted in poor prognosis. Hypoglycaemia (15.15%, high level of urea, creatinine and alteration in parameters of liver function test further complicated the scenario leading to multiorgan failure. Recovery in cases of primigravidae was prolonged as compared to multigravidae.

  9. Development of Physiologically Based Pharmacokinetic/Pharmacodynamic Model for Indomethacin Disposition in Pregnancy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeed Alqahtani

    Full Text Available Findings of a recent clinical study showed indomethacin has lower plasma levels and higher steady-state apparent clearance in pregnant subjects when compared to those in non-pregnant subjects reported in separate studies. Thus, in the current work we developed a pregnancy physiological based pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic (PBPK/PD model for indomethacin to explain the differences in indomethacin pharmacokinetics between pregnancy and non-pregnancy. A whole-body PBPK model with key pregnancy-related physiological changes was developed to characterize indomethacin PK in pregnant women and compare these parameters to those in non-pregnant subjects. Data related to maternal physiological and biological changes were obtained from literature and incorporated into the structural PBPK model that describes non-pregnant PK data. Changes in indomethacin area under the curve (AUC, maximum concentration (Cmax and average steady-state concentration (Cave in pregnant women were predicted. Model-simulated PK profiles were in agreement with observed data. The predicted mean ratio (non-pregnant:second trimester (T2 of indomethacin Cave was 1.6 compared to the observed value of 1.59. In addition, the predicted steady-state apparent clearance (CL/Fss ratio was almost similar to the observed value (0.46 vs. 0.42. Sensitivity analysis suggested changes in CYP2C9 activity, and to a lesser extent UGT2B7, as the primary factor contributing to differences in indomethacin disposition between pregnancy and non-pregnancy. The developed PBPK model which integrates prior physiological knowledge, in vitro and in vivo data, allowed the successful prediction of indomethacin disposition during T2. Our PBPK/PD model suggested a higher indomethacin dosing requirement during pregnancy.

  10. Prevalence and etiological classification of thrombocytopenia among a group of pregnant women in Erbil City, Iraq

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rawand Pouls Shamoon

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To determine the prevalence and define the causes of pregnancy-associated thrombocytopenia. Materials and Methods: A total of 850 pregnant women at different ages of gestation were screened for thrombocytopenia. A control group of 150 age-matched non-pregnant women were tested for platelet count. Newborns of thrombocytopenic women were tested within 24 hours of delivery and reassessment of the women's platelets was done within 7-10 days post-delivery. Results: The mean platelet count in pregnant women was significantly lower than in non-pregnant women (221±59.9/mm3 vs. 273±66.9/mm3. Thrombocytopenia affected 8% of cases, with peak incidence during the third trimester. Gestational thrombocytopenia was found to be the principal cause (73.8%; hypertensive disorders caused thrombocytopenia in 23% of cases and two cases (4% were due to immune thrombocytopenic purpura. No maternal or fetal complications were noted. The mean platelet count of 51 newborns of thrombocytopenic women was 240±7.1. Two newborns (4% had low platelet counts. Conclusion: The majority of thrombocytopenias were mild gestational and occurred in late pregnancy. No maternal or neonatal bleeding complications were observed.

  11. International Association of Diabetes and Pregnancy Study Group criteria is suitable for gestational diabetes mellitus diagnosis:further evidence from China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei Yumei; Yang Huixia; Zhu Weiwei; Yang Hongyun; Li Haixia; Yan Jie; Zhang Cuilin

    2014-01-01

    Background The International Association of Diabetes and Pregnancy Study Group (IADPSG) recommended new diagnostic criteria for gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) after extensive analyses of the Hyperglycemia and Adverse Pregnancy Outcomes (HAPO) study.Unfortunately,there was no data from mainland of China in this study.We evaluated the feasibility of IADPSG criteria for GDM diagnosis in China.Methods A large prospective study was conducted.We reviewed medical records of a total of 25 674 pregnant women who underwent GDM screening and diagnosis between January 1,2005 and December 31,2012 in the Peking University First Hospital.The prevalence of gestational glucose metabolism abnormalities was calculated according to different cut off values defined by the National Diabetes Data Group (NDDG) or the IADPSG,and the incidence of adverse pregnancy outcomes related to GDM was analyzed.Results According to the cut off values of NDDG and IADPSG criteria,the prevalence of gestational glucose metabolism abnormalities was 8.4% and 18.9% (P <0.01) respectively,and the prevalence of cesarean section (52.5% vs.46.0%,P <0.01),macrosomia (7.5% vs.6.3%,P <0.05),neonatal hypoglycemia (1.6% vs.1.0%,P <0.01),and perinatal death (0.5% vs.0.2%,P <0.01); the prevalence was significantly lower when IADPSG criteria were applied.The prevalence of macrosomia,cesarean section,neonatal hypoglycemia,pregnancy induced hypertension,etc.was also higher in the GDM group than in the normal group.The prevalence of cesarean section (62.3%) and macrosomia (14.8%) was the highest in untreated mild GDM patients.Conclusions Our results indicated that treatment/intervention of women with GDM identified by IADPSG criteria was related to significantly lower risk of multiple adverse pregnancy outcomes.Such findings provide support for applying IADPSG criteria in China.

  12. Short-term low-protein diet during pregnancy alters islet area and protein content of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase pathway in rats

    OpenAIRE

    CRISTIANA S.B. SALVATIERRA; REIS,SÍLVIA R.L.; ANA F.M. PESSOA; LETÍCIA M.I. DE SOUZA; Luiz F. Stoppiglia; Veloso, Roberto V; REIS,MARISE A.B.; Everardo M Carneiro; Boschero, Antonio C.; Edson M. Colodel; ARANTES,VANESSA C.; Latorraca, Márcia Q.

    2015-01-01

    The phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase and mitogen-activated protein kinase pathways mediate β cell growth, proliferation, survival and death. We investigated whether protein restriction during pregnancy alters islet morphometry or the expression and phosphorylation of several proteins involved in the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase and mitogen-activated protein kinase pathways. As controls, adult pregnant and non-pregnant rats were fed a normal-protein diet (17%). Pregnant and non-pregnant rats in ...

  13. Short-term low-protein diet during pregnancy alters islet area and protein content of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase pathway in rats

    OpenAIRE

    CRISTIANA S.B. SALVATIERRA; REIS,SÍLVIA R.L.; ANA F.M. PESSOA; LETÍCIA M.I. DE SOUZA; Luiz F. Stoppiglia; Veloso, Roberto V; REIS,MARISE A.B.; Everardo M Carneiro; Boschero, Antonio C.; Edson M. Colodel; ARANTES,VANESSA C.; Latorraca, Márcia Q.

    2015-01-01

    The phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase and mitogen-activated protein kinase pathways mediate β cell growth, proliferation, survival and death. We investigated whether protein restriction during pregnancy alters islet morphometry or the expression and phosphorylation of several proteins involved in the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase and mitogen-activated protein kinase pathways. As controls, adult pregnant and non-pregnant rats were fed a normal-protein diet (17%). Pregnant and non-pregnant rat...

  14. Pregnancy Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Us Home A-Z Health Topics Pregnancy tests Pregnancy tests > A-Z Health Topics Pregnancy test fact ... To receive Publications email updates Enter email Submit Pregnancy tests If you think you may be pregnant , ...

  15. [Role of oxytocin in activation of spontaneous electrical activity of uterine body and uterine tubes in non-pregnant rats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazarian, K V; Unanian, N G; Meliksetian, I B; Akopian, R R; Saakian, A A

    2011-01-01

    The work studies effects of various doses of oxytocin (0.01, 0.1, 1 and 10 microg/kg) on duration of discharges of spontaneous electrical activity and frequency of spikes in various parts of uterine tubes and of uterine body of non-pregnant rats. Under these conditions, changes in these parameters for ovarian parts of the uterine tubes had similar character unlike those in cervical parts of the tubes and in the middle part of the uterine body, so the latter parts can be grouped together owing to peculiarities of their changes. The longest duration of genesis of electric discharges has been shown for the ovarian part of uterine tubes at a concentration of 10 microg/kg of oxytocin. Morphological experiments revealed that among all studies areas the ovarian parts of uterine tubes were characterized by the highest amount of atypical cells that have the maximally pronounced functional activity.

  16. Aspects of physiological effects of sodium zeolite A supplementation in dry, non-pregnant dairy cows fed grass silage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enemark, J M; Frandsen, A M; Thilsing-Hansen, T

    2003-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to monitor serum and urine biochemical changes in dairy cows during and after oral administration of a synthetic sodium aluminium-silicate (zeolite A). A prospective longitudinal study involving four non-pregnant and non-lactating cows was chosen. Cows were...... was observed in the experimental group at initiation of supplementation, whereas an increment in these parameters was recorded after withdrawal of zeolite supplementation. It is assumed, that zeolite caused a reduction in the availability of dietary calcium during supplementation, which possibly elicited...... and magnesium is presumed to result from a combination of interference of zeolite with intestinal absorption and a marginal dietary supplementation of these minerals....

  17. 40 CFR 26.1704 - Prohibition of reliance on unethical human research with non-pregnant, non-nursing adults...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Prohibition of reliance on unethical human research with non-pregnant, non-nursing adults conducted before April 7, 2006. 26.1704 Section 26... Prohibition of reliance on unethical human research with non-pregnant, non-nursing adults conducted...

  18. 40 CFR 26.1705 - Prohibition of reliance on unethical human research with non-pregnant, non-nursing adults...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Prohibition of reliance on unethical human research with non-pregnant, non-nursing adults conducted after April 7, 2006. 26.1705 Section 26... Prohibition of reliance on unethical human research with non-pregnant, non-nursing adults conducted...

  19. Ultrasound pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pregnancy sonogram; Obstetric ultrasonography; Obstetric sonogram; Ultrasound - pregnancy; IUGR - ultrasound; Intrauterine growth - ultrasound; Polyhydramnios - ultrasound; Oligohydramnios - ultrasound; ...

  20. Serum Adipsin Levels throughout Normal Pregnancy and Preeclampsia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poveda, Natalia E.; Garcés, María F.; Ruiz-Linares, Carlos E.; Varón, Diana; Valderrama, Sergio; Sanchez, Elizabeth; Castiblanco-Cortes, Adriana; Agudelo-Zapata, Yessica; Sandoval-Alzate, Héctor Fabio; Leal, Luis G.; Ángel-Müller, Edith; Ruíz-Parra, Ariel I.; González-Clavijo, Angélica M.; Diéguez, Carlos; Nogueiras, Rubén; Caminos, Jorge E.

    2016-01-01

    Adipsin is a protease produced at high levels by adipose tissue. It is involved in complement activation and metabolic control. The objective of this study was to determine the changes in adipsin levels during different stages of normal pregnancy, and its association with obstetric outcomes, such as preeclampsia. This nested case-control study in a longitudinal cohort included normal pregnant (n = 54) and preeclamptic (n = 18) women, both followed throughout pregnancy. Additionally, some of the normal pregnant women were followed up three months postpartum (n = 18). Healthy non-pregnant women were also studied during their menstrual cycle (n = 20). The results of this study show that in healthy non-pregnant women, adipsin levels did not change significantly during the menstrual cycle. In normal pregnant women, adipsin levels were lower (p < 0.01) when compared with non-pregnant healthy women, but these serum levels increased again during postpartum (p < 0.001). Adipsin levels were significantly elevated in preeclamptic women in late pregnancy (P < 0.01). A significant correlation was not found between leptin and adipsin during the three periods of gestation studied in healthy pregnant and preeclamptic women. Our results suggest that adipsin may be involved in pregnancy-associated metabolic changes. Moreover, the increase of adipsin levels towards late gestation in preeclamptic women could be related to the pathophysiology of this disease. PMID:26832661

  1. Biology of breast cancer during pregnancy using genomic profiling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azim, Hatem A; Brohée, Sylvain; Peccatori, Fedro A; Desmedt, Christine; Loi, Sherene; Lambrechts, Diether; Dell'Orto, Patrizia; Majjaj, Samira; Jose, Vinu; Rotmensz, Nicole; Ignatiadis, Michail; Pruneri, Giancarlo; Piccart, Martine; Viale, Giuseppe; Sotiriou, Christos

    2014-08-01

    Breast cancer during pregnancy is rare and is associated with relatively poor prognosis. No information is available on its biological features at the genomic level. Using a dataset of 54 pregnant and 113 non-pregnant breast cancer patients, we evaluated the pattern of hot spot somatic mutations and did transcriptomic profiling using Sequenom and Affymetrix respectively. We performed gene set enrichment analysis to evaluate the pathways associated with diagnosis during pregnancy. We also evaluated the expression of selected cancer-related genes in pregnant and non-pregnant patients and correlated the results with changes occurring in the normal breast using a pregnant murine model. We finally investigated aberrations associated with disease-free survival (DFS). No significant differences in mutations were observed. Of the total number of patients, 18.6% of pregnant and 23% of non-pregnant patients had a PIK3CA mutation. Around 30% of tumors were basal, with no differences in the distribution of breast cancer molecular subtypes between pregnant and non-pregnant patients. Two pathways were enriched in tumors diagnosed during pregnancy: the G protein-coupled receptor pathway and the serotonin receptor pathway (FDR pregnancy had higher expression of PD1 (PDCD1; P=0.015), PDL1 (CD274; P=0.014), and gene sets related to SRC (P=0.004), IGF1 (P=0.032), and β-catenin (P=0.019). Their expression increased almost linearly throughout gestation when evaluated on the normal breast using a pregnant mouse model underscoring the potential effect of the breast microenvironment on tumor phenotype. No genes were associated with DFS in a multivariate model, which could be due to low statistical power. Diagnosis during pregnancy impacts the breast cancer transcriptome including potential cancer targets.

  2. Treatment of pregnant and non-pregnant rheumatic patients : a survey among Dutch rheumatologists

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vroom, F.; van de Laar, M. A. J. F.; van Roon, E. N.; Brouwers, J. R. B. J.; den Berg, L. T. W. de Jong-van

    2008-01-01

    Background: The aim of this study was to explore, among Dutch rheumatologists, aspects such as attitude towards guidelines, pharmacotherapy and information needs in the treatment of pregnant as well as non-pregnant rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients. Methods: Fifteen rheumatologists from nine differ

  3. Treatment of pregnant and non-pregnant rheumatic patients: a survey among Dutch rheumatologists

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vroom, F.; Laar, van de M.A.F.J.; Roon, van E.N.; Brouwers, J.R.B.J.; Jong-van den Berg, de L.T.W.

    2008-01-01

    Background: The aim of this study was to explore, among Dutch rheumatologists, aspects such as attitude towards guidelines, pharmacotherapy and information needs in the treatment of pregnant as well as non-pregnant rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients. - Methods: Fifteen rheumatologists from nine dif

  4. Fulminant hepatic failure from hepatitis E in a non-pregnant female traveller.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chris, Robert B; Keystone, Jay S

    2016-04-01

    A non-pregnant Canadian woman returning from India presented with a 1-week history of jaundice and malaise. Subsequently, she developed fulminant hepatic failure caused by hepatitis E virus (HEV). HEV can cause fulminant hepatic failure, most commonly in pregnant women and those with chronic liver disease; however, all travellers are at risk.

  5. Acute appendicitis in pregnancy: literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antônio Henriques de Franca Neto

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: suspected appendicitis is the most common indication for surgery in non-obstetric conditions during pregnancy and occurs in about one in 500 to one in 635 pregnancies per year. This occurs more often in the second trimester of pregnancy. Acute appendicitis is the most common general surgical problem encountered during pregnancy. Methods: a literature review on research of scientific articles, under the terms “acute appendicitis” and “pregnancy”, in PubMed, Lilacs/SciELO, Scopus, Cochrane Library and Uptodate databases. Results: the clinical manifestations of appendicitis are similar to non-pregnant women, however, without a classic presentation, which often occurs, diagnosis is difficult and must be supported by imaging. Discussion: clinical diagnosis should be strongly suspected in pregnant women with classic findings such as abdominal pain that migrates to the right lower quadrant. The main purpose of imaging is to reduce delays in surgical intervention due to diagnostic uncertainty. A secondary objective is to reduce, but not eliminate, the negative appendectomy rate. Differential diagnosis of suspected acute appendicitis usually includes pathologies considered in non-pregnant people. Conclusion: the imaging study of choice is ultrasound, MRI may be used when the former is not conclusive and, as a last resort, a CT scan can be performed. The treatment remains appendectomy by laparotomy, since the feasibility of video- assisted surgery in these cases remains controversial.

  6. Inhibition of PPARγ during Rat Pregnancy Causes Intrauterine Growth Restriction and Attenuation of Uterine Vasodilation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia I Gokina

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Decreased peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ activity is thought to have a major role in preeclampsia through abnormal placental development. However, the role of PPARγ in adaptation of the uteroplacental vasculature that may lead to placental hypoperfusion and fetal growth restriction during pregnancy is not known. Here, pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats (n=11/group were treated during the second half of pregnancy with the PPARγ inhibitor GW9662 (10 mg/kg/day in food or vehicle. Pregnancy outcome and PPARγ mRNA, vasodilation and structural remodeling were determined in maternal uterine and mesenteric arteries. PPARγ was expressed in uterine vascular tissue of both non-pregnant and pregnant rats with ~2-fold greater expression in radial vs. main uterine arteries. PPARγ mRNA levels were significantly higher in uterine compared to mesenteric arteries. GW9662 treatment during pregnancy did not affect maternal physiology (body weight, glucose, blood pressure, mesenteric artery vasodilation or structural remodeling of uterine and mesenteric vessels. Inhibition of PPARγ for the last 10 days of gestation caused decreased fetal weights on both day 20 and 21 of gestation that was associated with impaired vasodilation of radial uterine arteries in response to acetylcholine and sodium nitroprusside. These results define an essential role of PPARγ in the control of uteroplacental vasodilatory function during pregnancy, an important determinant of blood flow to the placenta and fetus. Strategies that target PPARγ activation in the uterine circulation could have important therapeutic potential in treatment of pregnancies complicated by hypertension, diabetes or preeclampsia.

  7. Increased chromosome radiosensitivity during pregnancy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ricoul, Michelle; Sabatier, Laure; Dutrillaux, Bernard [Commissariat a l`Energie Atomique, Laboratoire de Radiobiologie et Oncologie, DRR, DSV, Fontenay aux roses (France)

    1997-03-04

    It was necessary to consider the risks of exposure of pregnant women, not only in relation to the child, but also in relation to their own hypersensitivity. We have demonstrated that pregnancy increases radiosensitivity of chromosome in the mouse at the end of gestation. This is of importance since it may have implications on radioprotection of pregnant women and give experimental guidelines to the problems of hypersensitivity to drugs and cancer aggravation during pregnancy. Blood obtained from women at various times of pregnancy was exposed to ionizing radiations. By comparison to non-pregnant women, an increase in chromosome breakage was observed in metaphases from lymphocytes, after short-term culture in the presence of the serum of the same donor. Immediately after delivery, this increase in radiosensitivity disappeared. In a prospective study, serial analyses showed a very strong correlation between the amount of pregnancy hormones, progesterone in particular, and the increase in radiosensitivity. Pregnant women may have an increased sensitivity to ionizing radiation during the second half of their pregnancy. This study provides the first evidence in human that radiosensitivity may vary in relation to physiological conditions.

  8. Influence of pregnancy and labor on the occurrence of nerve fibers expressing the capsaicin receptor TRPV1 in human corpus and cervix uteri

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irestedt Lars

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cervical ripening is a prerequisite for a normal obstetrical outcome. This process, including labor, is a painful event that shares features with inflammatory reactions where peripheral nociceptive pathways are involved. The capsaicin and heat receptor TRPV1 is a key molecule in sensory nerves involved in peripheral nociception, but little is known regarding its role in the pregnant uterus. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate human corpus and cervix uteri during pregnancy and labor and non-pregnant controls for the presence of TRPV1. Methods We have investigated human uterine corpus and cervix biopsies at term pregnancy and parturition. Biopsies were taken from the upper edge of the hysterotomy during caesarean section at term (n = 8, in labor (n = 8 and from the corresponding area in the non-pregnant uterus after hysterectomy (n = 8. Cervical biopsies were obtained transvaginally from the anterior cervical lip. Serial frozen sections were examined immunohistochemically using specific antibodies to TRPV1 and nerve markers (neurofilaments/peripherin. Results In cervix uteri, TRPV1-immunoreactive fibers were scattered throughout the stroma and around blood vessels, and appeared more frequent in the sub-epithelium. Counts of TRPV1-immunoreactive nerve fibers were not significantly different between the three groups. In contrast, few TRPV1-immunoreactive fibers were found in nerve fascicles in the non-pregnant corpus, and none in the pregnant corpus. Conclusion In this study, TRPV1 innervation in human uterus during pregnancy and labor is shown for the first time. During pregnancy and labor there was an almost complete disappearance of TRPV1 positive nerve fibers in the corpus. However, cervical innervation remained throughout pregnancy and labor. The difference in TRPV1 innervation between the corpus and the cervix is thus very marked. Our data suggest that TRPV1 may be involved in pain mechanisms associated with

  9. The effect of group training on pregnancy-induced lumbopelvic pain: systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized control trials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisseha, Berihu; Mishra, Prakash Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Since there is lack of up to date consensus exists as to whether group training is effective in improving lumbopelvic pain (LPP) after pregnancy, a review of the recent evidences is needed. To determine the effect of group exercise training for the management of LPP among pregnant women compared with usual antenatal care. An electronic database search for relevant randomized control trials published in English from 2006 to 2015 was conducted. Articles with outcome measures of self-reported LPP, visual analogue scale and sick leave due to LPP after pregnancy were included. Quality of the included articles was rated using Physiotherapy Evidence Database (PEDro) scale and the pooled effect of self-reported LPP was obtained by Review Manager (RevMan 5) software. Significant effect of group training was detected over usual antenatal care or no treatment with P=0.0035 (95% confidence interval, −0.2348 to −0.0044). The results of this systematic review proposed that group training reduces LPP significantly better than routine antenatal care for pregnant women suffered from LPP. PMID:26933655

  10. Assessment of Pregnancy in the Late Gestation Mare Using Digital Infrared Thermography

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of this study was to investigate use of digital infrared thermal imaging (DITI) to determine whether surface temperature gradient differences exist between pregnant and nonpregnant mares as a noncontact method to determine pregnancy status. On the day measurements were collected, each ...

  11. The influence of pregnancy and gender on perivascular innervation of rat posterior cerebral arteries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aukes, Annet M.; Bishop, Nicole; Godfrey, Julie; Cipolla, Marilyn J.

    2008-01-01

    The authors investigated the influence of pregnancy and gender on the density of trigeminal and sympathetic perivascular nerves in posterior cerebral arteries (PCA) and the reactivity to norepinephrine and calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP). PCAs were isolated from nonpregnant, late-pregnant, po

  12. ATLANTIC-DIP: prevalence of metabolic syndrome and insulin resistance in women with previous gestational diabetes mellitus by International Association of Diabetes in Pregnancy Study Groups criteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noctor, Eoin; Crowe, Catherine; Carmody, Louise A; Kirwan, Breda; O'Dea, Angela; Glynn, Liam G; McGuire, Brian E; O'Shea, Paula M; Dunne, Fidelma P

    2015-02-01

    Women with previous gestational diabetes (GDM) are a high-risk group for future development of diabetes, metabolic syndrome, and cardiovascular disease. The new International Association of Diabetes in Pregnancy Study Groups (IADPSG) criteria significantly increase the number of women diagnosed with GDM. The long-term metabolic outcome in these women is unknown. We set out to determine the prevalence of metabolic syndrome, using adult treatment panel-III criteria; and insulin resistance, using HOMA2-IR, in white European women with previous GDM. Using a cohort design, we invited women meeting IADPSG GDM criteria across four Irish antenatal centres between 2007 and 2010 to participate. Two hundred and sixty-five women with previous values meeting IADPSG criteria for GDM participated (44 % of the population eligible for participation). Mean age was 36.7 years (SD 5.0). These women were compared with a randomly selected control group of 378 women (mean age 37.6 years, SD 5.1) known to have normal glucose tolerance (NGT) in pregnancy during the same period. A total of 25.3 % of women with previous IADPSG-defined GDM met metabolic syndrome criteria, compared to 6.6 % of women with NGT [at 2.6 (SD 1.0) vs. 3.3 years (SD 0.7) post-partum]. The prevalence of HOMA2-IR >1.8 was higher in women with previous IADPSG-defined GDM (33.6 vs. 9.1 % with NGT, p Women with previous GDM by IADPSG criteria demonstrate a greater than threefold prevalence of metabolic syndrome compared to women with NGT in pregnancy. Efforts to prevent projected long-term consequences of this should focus on interventions both in the preconception and post-partum periods.

  13. Assessment of Macular Peripapillary Nerve Fiber Layer and Choroidal Thickness Changes in Pregnant Women with Gestational Diabetes Mellitus, Healthy Pregnant Women, and Healthy Non-Pregnant Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acmaz, Gokhan; Atas, Mustafa; Gulhan, Ahmet; Acmaz, Banu; Atas, Fatma; Aksoy, Huseyin; Zararsiz, Gokmen; Gokce, Gokcen

    2015-06-18

    Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is a risk factor for the development of type II diabetes and it causes maternal and child morbidity. Screening for diabetic retinopathy (DR) is important because patients who develop DR have no symptoms until macular edema and/or proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR) are already present. The aim of this study was to determine the early retinal findings of GDM. This study was conducted in a tertiary research center. We conducted a prospective cross-sectional study with 3 groups: Group 1 consisted of 36 pregnant women with GDM, Group 2 consisted of 24 healthy pregnant women, and Group 3 consisted of 38 healthy non-pregnant women of reproductive age. Spectralis optical coherence tomography (OCT) was used for the assessment. Macular, choroid, and retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thicknesses were evaluated in patients with GDM and comparisons were made among pregnant women with GDM, healthy pregnant women, and healthy non-pregnant women for these parameters. The nasal part of the RNFL was significantly thinner in the GDM group than in the healthy pregnant group. None of the patients had retinopathy or macular edema at the time of examination. Decreased nasal part of RNFL thickness may be the first retinal change in patients with GDM. Our study suggests that OCT should be performed for the patients with GDM for detection of early retinal changes associated with GDM.

  14. An attempt to detect "pregnancy susceptibility" in indigent adolescent girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldfarb, J L; Mumford, D M; Schum, D A; Smith, P B; Flowers, C; Schum, C

    1977-06-01

    Since current birth control education programs seem ineffective in reducing the ever-growing number of unplanned teenage pregnancies, an alternative approach might be intensive counseling for girls whose backgrounds and attitudes seem to make them susceptible to such pregnancy. To identify these factors data were gathered from 1294 pregnant girls aged 12-18 and compared with data from a similar socioeconomic population of nonpregnant girls interviewed at school. Families of both groups were all indigent. Based on this information an attitude scale was drawn up and weights assigned to questions most predictive of illegitimate pregnancy. Details of developing this questionnaire are given. The final version showed high predictive correlation when given to another group of 170 pregnant girls. In general, girls from large families, who had repeated 1 or more subjects in school, and who received sex education late and from friends were more likely to become pregnant. Girls from smaller families, who did well in school, and received sex education from parents were less at risk. Use of a scale to identify girls in need of "parenting" has many problems. They may feel singled out. However, intensive counseling may be the only way to reach these adolescents. Also the 1 most predictive factor is age at which sex education was received and from whom. Those who learned about menstruation at age 13 or later and then from friends was 206 times more likely to become pregnant than the girl who receives sex education early from her family. An approach would be to establish intensive counseling programs in schools with a large at-risk population, thus avoiding the stigma of singling out any 1 girl.

  15. Is Pregnancy-Associated Melanoma Associated with Adverse Outcomes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Maris S; Lee, Jihey; Stern, Stacey L; Faries, Mark B

    2017-07-01

    Melanoma is the most common malignancy encountered during pregnancy. Conflicting data have led to ongoing confusion regarding pregnancy-associated melanoma (PAM) in the media and among the public. The objective of this study was to better characterize both the clinical presentation of PAM and its prognostic implications. Female patients of reproductive age, with stage 0 to IV cutaneous melanoma, were identified from our prospectively maintained database. Clinical and histopathologic factors were analyzed with appropriate statistical methods. Univariable and then multivariable analysis were used on matched data to compare disease-free survival (DFS), overall survival (OS), and melanoma-specific survival (MSS) for stage 0-III PAMs vs non-PAMs. Kaplan-Meier survival curves were then plotted for OS and MSS and compared using the log-rank test. The clinical presentation of melanoma was similar for PAM and non-PAM patients. There was no significant difference in recurrence between the 2 groups; for PAM patients, 38.5% of patients had recurrence, as compared with 36.6% of non-PAM patients (p = 0.641). For PAM patients, median follow-up was 14.6 years (range 0 to 42.6 years) and 11.1 years (0 to 48.5 years) for the non-PAM patients. No significant differences in DFS, MSS, or OS were identified on univariable or multivariable analysis for PAM vs non-PAM patients in stage 0/I/II and stage III cutaneous melanoma, respectively (p = 0.880 DFS, p = 0.219 OS, and p = 0.670 MSS). We observed no difference in DFS, OS, or MSS between the 2 groups. Pregnant patients should be screened for melanoma in a similar manner to nonpregnant patients and should be counseled that their survival is not adversely affected by their pregnancy. Copyright © 2017 American College of Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Aberrant Pregnancy Adaptations in the Peripheral Immune Response in Type 1 Diabetes: A Rat Model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bart Groen

    Full Text Available Despite tight glycemic control, pregnancy complication rate in type 1 diabetes patients is higher than in normal pregnancy. Other etiological factors may be responsible for the development of adverse pregnancy outcome. Acceptance of the semi-allogeneic fetus is accompanied by adaptations in the maternal immune-response. Maladaptations of the immune-response has been shown to contribute to pregnancy complications. We hypothesized that type 1 diabetes, as an autoimmune disease, may be associated with maladaptations of the immune-response to pregnancy, possibly resulting in pregnancy complications.We studied pregnancy outcome and pregnancy-induced immunological adaptations in a normoglycemic rat-model of type 1 diabetes, i.e. biobreeding diabetes-prone rats (BBDP; 5 non-pregnant rats, 7 pregnant day 10 rats and 6 pregnant day 18 rats , versus non-diabetic control rats (i.e. congenic non-diabetic biobreeding diabetes-resistant (BBDR; 6 non-pregnant rats, 6 pregnant day 10 rats and 6 pregnant day 18 rats and Wistar-rats (6 non-pregnant, 6 pregnant day 10 rats and 5 pregnant day 18 rats.We observed reduced litter size, lower fetal weight of viable fetuses and increased numbers of resorptions versus control rats. These complications are accompanied by various differences in the immune-response between BBDP and control rats in both pregnant and non-pregnant animals. The immune-response in non-pregnant BBDP-rats was characterized by decreased percentages of lymphocytes, increased percentages of effector T-cells, regulatory T-cells and natural killer cells, an increased Th1/Th2-ratio and activated monocytes versus Wistar and BBDR-rats. Furthermore, pregnancy-induced adaptations in BBDP-rats coincided with an increased Th1/Th2-ratio, a decreased mean fluorescence intensity CD161a/NKR-P1b ratio and no further activation of monocytes versus non-diabetic control rats.This study suggests that even in the face of strict normoglycemia, pregnancy complications

  17. Changes of the electrical heart field and hemodynamic parameters in the 34th to 40th weeks of pregnancy and after delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lechmanová, M; Parízek, A; Halaska, M; Slavícek, J; Kittnar, O

    2002-07-01

    We have studied changes of the electrical heart field resulting from the changed spatial position of the heart during the last period of pregnancy in healthy women. This was suggested to be a good model of electrocardiographic changes that could be found on patients suffering from obesity. The measured parameters of the electrical heart field were compared with hemodynamic parameters before and after delivery in the group of non-obese women with physiological pregnancy and in a group of healthy non-obese and non-pregnant women. Several significant changes of the electrical heart field were detected in the late pregnancy: increased heart rate, shortening of A-V conductance, prolongation of QT interval normalised for the heart rate and changes in the ventricular depolarisation and repolarisation patterns. Some of these changes are not fully restored in 4 days after delivery. Moreover, we have found an increased pump function of the left ventricle accompanied by decreased peripheral resistance in the group of pregnant women. Increased pump function was partially restored after delivery, peripheral resistance was not only restored, but it overshot to increased values. Persisting elevated heart rate with increased peripheral resistance suggested increased sympathetic activity after birth. Only some changes of electrical heart field could be explained by changed spatial arrangement of the chest organs during pregnancy and they must be considered in a complex consequence with changes in regulatory mechanisms.

  18. Analysis of Serum Thyroid Hormone Levels in the Three Trimester of Normal Pregnancy Woman%正常妊娠早中晚孕期血清甲状腺激素水平的分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李丽华; 周喜友; 张慧莲; 黄丽清; 王中兴; 邹建话

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the change characteristics of the serum thyroid hormone levels in the three trimester of normal pregnancy women Method:The serum free triiodothyronine (FT3),free thyroxine (FT4) and thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) levels was measured using automated chemiluminescence immunoassa in Shenzhen area of 860 cases pregnant women and 209 cases healthy non-pregnant women,which 308 cases of early pregnancy, 315 cases of the second trimester,the third trimester of 237 cases,and make the statistical analysis. Result:The FT3,FT4 levels of the early pregnancy group,the second trimester group and the third trimester group gradually decreased,comparing with the non-pregnant group,the difference was statistically significant (P<0.05). The TSH levels drop in the early pregnancy and the second trimester group,comparing with non-pregnant group,the difference was statistically significant (P<0.05). The TSH levels in the third trimester group returned the level when non-pregnant,comparing with early pregnancy and the second trimester group ,the difference was statistically significant (P<0.05) .Conclusion:The thyroid hormone levels of women in the early pregnancy ,the second trimester and the third trimester differ from non-pregnant women,regular testing of the thyroid hormone levels is recommended during pregnancy,so that early detection and early treatment,thereby reducing the maternal and fetal harm.%目的:探讨正常妊娠早、中、晚期妇女甲状腺激素水平变化的特点。方法:应用化学发光技术检测深圳地区860例孕妇和209例健康非妊娠妇女血清中游离三碘甲状腺原氨酸(FT3)、游离甲状腺素(FT4)及促甲状腺激素(TSH)的水平,其中孕早期308例,孕中期315例,孕晚期237例,并进行统计分析。结果:早孕组、中孕组、晚孕组FT3、FT4水平逐渐下降,与非孕组比较差异有统计学意义(P<0.05)。早孕组、中孕组TSH水平下降,与非孕组比

  19. Evaluating nitrogen utilization efficiency of nonpregnant dry cows offered solely fresh cut grass at maintenance levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stergiadis, S; Chen, X J; Allen, M; Wills, D; Yan, T

    2015-02-01

    The present study aimed to identify key parameters influencing N utilization and develop prediction equations for manure N output (MN), feces N output (FN), and urine N output (UN). Data were obtained under a series of digestibility trials with nonpregnant dry cows fed fresh grass at maintenance level. Grass was cut from 8 different ryegrass swards measured from early to late maturity in 2007 and 2008 (2 primary growth, 3 first regrowth, and 3 second regrowth) and from 2 primary growth early maturity swards in 2009. Each grass was offered to a group of 4 cows and 2 groups were used in each of the 8 swards in 2007 and 2008 for daily measurements over 6 wk; the first group (first 3 wk) and the second group (last 3 wk) assessed early and late maturity grass, respectively. Average values of continuous 3-d data of N intake (NI) and output for individual cows ( = 464) and grass nutrient contents ( = 116) were used in the statistical analysis. Grass N content was positively related to GE and ME contents but negatively related to grass water-soluble carbohydrates (WSC), NDF, and ADF contents ( grass WSC contents and ratios of N:WSC, N:digestible OM in total DM (DOMD), and N:ME ( grass N contents and lower grass WSC, NDF, ADF, DOMD, and ME concentrations were significantly associated with greater MN, FN, and UN ( grass lower in N and greater in fermentable energy in animals fed solely fresh grass at maintenance level can improve N utilization, reduce N outputs, and shift part of N excretion toward feces rather than urine. These outcomes are highly desirable in mitigation strategies to reduce nitrous oxide emissions from livestock. Equations predicting N output from BW and grass N content explained a similar amount of variability as using NI and grass chemical composition (excluding DOMD and ME), implying that parameters easily measurable in practice could be used for estimating N outputs. In a research environment, where grass DOMD and ME are likely to be available, their

  20. Mas receptor contributes to pregnancy-induced cardiac remodeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmos-Silva, Cintia; Almeida, Jônathas Fernandes Queiroz de; Macedo, Larissa Matuda; Melo, Marcos Barrouin B; Pedrino, Gustavo Rodrigues; Santos, Fernanda Fernanda Cristina Alcantara; Biancardi, Manoel Francisco; Santos, Robson Augusto Souza Dos Augusto Souza; Carvalho, Adryano Augustto; Mendes, Elizabeth Pereira; Colugnati, Diego Basile; Mazaro-Costa, Renata; Castro, Carlos Henrique de

    2016-09-13

    Previous studies have demonstrated a protective effect of the Ang-(1-7)/Mas receptor axis on pathological cardiac hypertrophy. Also, the involvement of Mas receptor in the exercise-induced cardiac hypertrophy has been suggested. However, the role of the Ang-(1-7)/Mas receptor on pregnancy-induced cardiac remodeling remains unknown. The objective of this study was to evaluate the participation of the Mas receptor in the development of the cardiac hypertrophy and fibrosis induced by gestation. Female Wistar rats were shared in 3 groups: control , pregnant , and pregnant treated with Mas receptor antagonist A-779 . Wild type (WT) and Mas-knockout mice (KO) were distributed in non-pregnant  and pregnant  groups. Systolic blood pressure (SBP) was measured by tail-cuff plethysmography. The medial part of the left ventricle (LV) was collected for histological analysis. Echocardiographic analysis was used to evaluate the cardiac function. SBP was not changed by pregnancy or A-779 treatment in the Wistar rats. Pharmacological blockade or genetic deletion of Mas receptor attenuates the pregnancy-induced myocyte hypertrophy. The treatment with A-779 or genetic deletion of the Mas receptor increased the collagen III deposition in LV from pregnant animals without changing the fibroblast proliferation. KO mice presented a lower ejection fraction, fraction shortening, stroke volume and higher end systolic volume compared to WT. Interestingly, the pregnancy restored these parameters. In conclusion, these data show that while Mas receptor blockade or deletion decreases physiological hypertrophy of pregnancy, it is associated with more extracellular matrix deposition. These alterations are associated with improvement of the cardiac function through Mas-independent mechanism. ©2016 The Author(s).

  1. Sweet and bitter taste perception of women during pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nanou, Evangelia; Brandt, Sarah Østergaard; Weenen, Hugo;

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Changes in sweet and bitter taste perception during pregnancy have been reported in a limited number of studies leading, however, to inconclusive results. The current study aimed to investigate possible differences in perceived intensity and liking of sweetness and bitterness between...... and bitterness, respectively. Pregnant women completed also a self-administered questionnaire on changes in sweet and bitter taste perception due to pregnancy. Results: Perceived intensity of sweetness and bitterness was not different between pregnant and nonpregnant women for any of the products. However......, the liking of the least sweet apple + berry juice was significantly higher, and the optimal preferred sugar content was significantly lower in pregnant compared to nonpregnant women. With regards to self-report, pregnant women who reported higher sensitivity in sweet or bitter taste did not have...

  2. Kinematic Analysis of Gait in the Second and Third Trimesters of Pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Branco

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The kinematic analysis of gait during pregnancy provides more information about the anatomical changes and contributes to exercise and rehabilitation prescription. The purposes were to quantify the lower limb kinematics of gait and to compare it between the second and third trimesters of pregnancy and with a control group. A three-dimensional analysis was performed in twenty-two pregnant women and twelve nonpregnant. Repeated Measures and Manova tests were performed for comparisons between trimesters and between pregnant and controls. The walking speed, stride width, right-/left-step time, cycle time and time of support, and flight phases remain unchanged between trimesters and between pregnant and controls. Stride and right-/left-step lengths decreased between trimesters. Double limb support time increased between trimesters, and it increased when compared with controls. Joint kinematics showed a significant decrease of right-hip extension and adduction during stance phase between trimesters and when compared with controls. Also, an increase in left-knee flexion and a decrease in right-ankle plantarflexion were found between trimesters. The results suggested that pregnant women need to maintain greater stability of body and to become more efficient in locomotion. Further data from the beginning of pregnancy anthropometric data may contribute to the analysis.

  3. Development and psychometric testing of the attitude toward potential pregnancy scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paterno, Mary T; Han, Hae-Ra

    2014-01-01

    To develop and test a comprehensive tool for measuring women's attitudes toward the possibility of becoming pregnant. Cross-sectional mixed methods study. Two obstetric/gynecologic (OB/GYN) clinics and one family planning clinic in Baltimore, Maryland. One-hundred thirty (130) nonpregnant, primarily African American women (84%) age 18 to 29. Participants completed a computer-based survey as part of a larger retrospective mixed-methods study. The Attitude Toward Potential Pregnancy Scale (APPS) was assessed using exploratory factor analysis and hypothesis testing. Cronbach's alpha for internal consistency for the APPS was 0.86. Item-total correlations ranged from 0.56 to 0.75. All items loaded on one factor. Support for construct validity was demonstrated using logistic regression, where the odds of being a highly effective contraceptive user decreased by 8% with each one-point increase in score on the APPS (odds ratio = 0.92; confidence interval [0.87, 0.98]). This study provides support for reliability and validity of the APPS. The APPS may be a useful tool for understanding pregnancy attitude in future studies and in clinical practice. Further research is needed to assess the usefulness of the scale with other groups of women, its utility in the clinical practice setting, and its potential predictive validity for unintended pregnancy. © 2014 AWHONN, the Association of Women's Health, Obstetric and Neonatal Nurses.

  4. 输卵管组织LIF及其受体LIFR的表达与输卵管妊娠的关系%The correlation between the occurrence of tubal pregnancy and the expression levels of LIF and LIFR in oviduct tissues

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李咏; 孙丽洲; 赵丹梅; 欧阳俊; 向梅; 马文琴; 吴超英; 史文忠; 唐正华

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To explore the correlation between the occurrence of tubal pregnancy and the expression level of leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF) and LIF receptor (LIFR). Methods; Semi-quantitative analysis of LIF and LIFR by immunohistochemistry was performed in 11 fallopian tubal tissues of non-pregnant group,and 36 of tubal pregnancy group,respectively. Results; The LIFR expression level in fallopian tubal epithelium cells of tubal pregnancy group was significantly higher than that of non-pregnant group. While the LIFR abundance in interstitial cells of tubal pregnancy group was significantly lower than that of non-pregnant group. How-ever, no significant difference of LIF abundance was found between two groups. Conclusion; Aberrant expression of LIFR in oviduct tissues might be involved in the ectopic implantation process of tubal pregnancy.%目的:探讨白血病抑制因子(LIF)及其受体(LIFR)与输卵管异位妊娠的关系.方法:采用免疫组化技术检测11例非孕组和36例输卵管异位妊娠组输卵管组织中LIF和LIFR的表达水平,半定量分析其在各组间的表达差异.结果:无论是在输卵管腺上皮还是间质中,LIF在非孕组和异位妊娠组间的表达无明显差别;但是在输卵管腺上皮中,LIFR的表达异位妊娠组高于非孕组(P< 0.05);而在间质中,LIFR的表达输卵管妊娠组明显低于非孕组(P<0.01).结论:LIFR的异常表达可能与输卵管异位妊娠的发生密切相关.

  5. Clinical and microbiological characteristics of recurrent group B streptococcal infection among non-pregnant adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying-Hsiang Wang

    2014-09-01

    Conclusions: Recurrent GBS diseases were found to occur considerably more often than previously thought, mainly in adults with a high comorbid index. Relapse, not new acquisition, was found to be more common.

  6. Maternal and fetal outcome in pregnancy with hepatitis E virus infection

    OpenAIRE

    Sunil Yadav; Sneha Shirodker; Swapnali Kshirsagar

    2016-01-01

    Background: Hepatitis E infection has been a major concern in the pregnant females due to its fulminant nature in pregnancy and increased mortality in pregnant females as compared the non-pregnant females and males. In spite of approximately 60 years of its discovery the cause of fulminant nature of hepatitis E in pregnancy still remains a mystery. The maternal and fetal outcomes are still unfavorable. Various studies and hypothesis have been given but still not proved. Hence the study was pe...

  7. Pregnancy Intentions and Teenage Pregnancy Among Latinas: A Mediation Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocca, Corinne H.; Doherty, Irene; Padian, Nancy S.; Hubbard, Alan E.; Minnis, Alexandra M.

    2010-01-01

    CONTEXT The extent to which pregnancy intentions mediate the relationship between individual, familial and cultural characteristics and adolescent pregnancy is not well understood. The role of intentions may be particularly important among Latina teenagers, whose attitudes toward pregnancy are more favorable than those of other groups and whose pregnancy rates are high. METHODS Prospective, time-varying data from 2001–2004 were used to investigate whether two measures of pregnancy intentions, wantedness and happiness, mediated associations between risk factors and pregnancy among 213 Latina adolescents in San Francisco. Participants were tested for pregnancy and interviewed about pregnancy intentions, partnerships, family characteristics and activities every six months for two years. Associations and mediation were examined using logistic regression. RESULTS Neither pregnancy intention variable mediated relationships between participant characteristics and pregnancy. After adjustment for other measures, wantedness was strongly associated with pregnancy (odds ratio, 2.6), while happiness was not. Having a strong family orientation was associated with happiness (3.7) but unrelated to pregnancy. Low sexual relationship power with a main partner was associated with an elevated risk of pregnancy (3.3). If the pregnancy intentions of all participants were changed to definitely not wanting pregnancy, the estimated decline in pregnancy risk would be 16%. CONCLUSIONS Pregnancy intentions were important not as mediators but rather as independent risk factors for pregnancy. Differences in pregnancy rates between groups of Latinas may be less a function of intentional choice than of situational factors. Interventions and research should focus on identifying and targeting factors that hinder effective contraceptive use among teenagers who want to avoid pregnancy. PMID:20887287

  8. Pregnancy intentions and teenage pregnancy among Latinas: a mediation analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocca, Corinne H; Doherty, Irene; Padian, Nancy S; Hubbard, Alan E; Minnis, Alexandra M

    2010-09-01

    The extent to which pregnancy intentions mediate the relationship between individual, familial and cultural characteristics and adolescent pregnancy is not well understood. The role of intentions may be particularly important among Latina teenagers, whose attitudes toward pregnancy are more favorable than those of other groups and whose pregnancy rates are high. Prospective, time-varying data from 2001-2004 were used to investigate whether two measures of pregnancy intentions, wantedness and happiness, mediated associations between risk factors and pregnancy among 213 Latina adolescents in San Francisco. Participants were tested for pregnancy and interviewed about pregnancy intentions, partnerships, family characteristics and activities every six months for two years. Associations and mediation were examined using logistic regression. Neither pregnancy intention variable mediated relationships between participant characteristics and pregnancy. After adjustment for other measures, wantedness was strongly associated with pregnancy (odds ratio, 2.6), while happiness was not. Having a strong family orientation was associated with happiness (3.7) but unrelated to pregnancy. Low power in a sexual relationship with a main partner was associated with an elevated risk of pregnancy (3.3). If the pregnancy intentions of all participants were changed to definitely not wanting pregnancy, the estimated decline in pregnancy risk would be 16%. Pregnancy intentions were important not as mediators but rather as independent risk factors for pregnancy. Differences in pregnancy rates between groups of Latinas may be less a function of intentional choice than of situational factors. Interventions and research should focus on identifying and targeting factors that hinder effective contraceptive use among teenagers who want to avoid pregnancy. Copyright © 2010 by the Guttmacher Institute.

  9. Blood Lead Levels During Pregnancy and Its Influencing Factors in Nanjing, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kang-sheng Liu; Jia-hu Hao; Juan Shi; Chun-fang Dai; Xi-rong Guo

    2013-01-01

    Objective Toinvestigate the blood lead levels (BLLs) in the duration of pregnancy and 6-12 weeks after delivery, and analyze the influencing factors of BLLs in healthy pregnant women.MethodsPregnant women were recruited from September 2009 to February 2010 at the prenatalclinic inNanjing Maternity and Child Health Care Hospital. Altogether 174 healthy pregnant women without pregnant or obstetric complications or abnormal pregnancy outcomes were enrolled as the gravidagroup, and 120 healthy non-pregnant women as the control group. BLLs during pregnancy were determinedby flame atomic absorption spectroscopy.ResultsBLLs in all the three pregnancy trimesters and postpartum were 59.8±24.3, 55.4±20.1,55.9±19.7, and 67.6±17.4 μg/L, respectively, and the mean BLL in control group was 67.5±21.3 μg/L. BLLs during all the three trimesters were lower in the gravida group than in the control group (P=0.043, 0.021, and 0.028). Furthermore, occupations, nutrients supplementation, and time ofhouse/apartmentpainted were associated with BLLs in pregnant women. Lead-related occupations, cosmetics use, and livingin a house painted less than 1 year beforeare risk factors of high BLLs among pregnant women, while calcium, iron, zinc, and milk supplements are protective factors.Conclusion Supplementing calcium, iron, zinc, and milk, or avoiding contact with risk factors may help people, especially pregnant women, to reduce lead exposure.

  10. Changes in ovine maternal temperature, and serum cortisol and interleukin-6 concentrations after challenge with Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide during pregnancy and early lactation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabaroff, L; Boermans, H; Karrow, N A

    2006-08-01

    Major changes in maternal physiology during pregnancy and lactation can have a large impact on the immune and neuroendocrine systems. One of the most significant changes, observed in rats and mice, is hyporesponsiveness of the hypothalamic pituitary adrenal axis (HPAA) in response to inflammation, restraint, and other psychological stressors during late pregnancy and lactation. This attenuation, however, has not been well characterized in ruminant animals and may be relevant to their susceptibility to inflammatory diseases during these periods. Thus, the intent of this study was to characterize responsiveness of the ovine HPAA to inflammatory challenge during pregnancy and lactation. Ewes from early (33 d), middle (55 d), and late (138 d) pregnancy, as well as early lactation (10 d), were challenged i.v. with a bolus dose of 400 ng of Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide (LPS)/kg of BW or saline. A corresponding group of nonpregnant ewes was also challenged with LPS to serve as positive control animals for each pregnancy and lactation study. Responsiveness of the HPAA was assessed by measuring the 4-h change in serum cortisol concentration after LPS challenge. The cortisol increase after LPS challenge was elevated (P HPAA responsiveness during pregnancy or lactation were attributed to changes in proinflammatory signaling to the HPAA. Interestingly, enhanced cortisol responsiveness during late pregnancy was correlated with increased (P HPAA responsiveness during this period. Serum IL-6 concentrations during early and midpregnancy did not increase in response to LPS challenge, indicating that HPAA activation during periods of pregnancy may be independent of IL-6 production.

  11. Small intestinal obstruction in pregnancy and puerperium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiedozi Lawrence

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available The problem of intestinal obstruction in pregnancy and puerperium is worsened by the risk it poses not just to the mother, but also to the fetus. In this review of 10 pregnant/puerperium patients the maternal mortality was 10% and fetal wastage 20%. In pregnancy and puerperium, intestinal obstruction carries a higher mortality, 10-33%, than in non-pregnant patients, 6-10%. The rarity of the problem, delay in diagnosis, anxiety over radiological examination in pregnant women, worry over laparotomy in pregnant women, all result in delay in instituting definite treatment and contribute to the morbidity. Application of established principles in the management of intestinal obstruction even when it occurs in pregnancy and puerperium might help to improve the results of management and reduce the current level of morbidity and mortality.

  12. Changes in Cosmetics Use during Pregnancy and Risk Perception by Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marie, Cécile; Cabut, Sophie; Vendittelli, Françoise; Sauvant-Rochat, Marie-Pierre

    2016-03-30

    Cosmetic products contain various chemical substances that may be potential carcinogen and endocrine disruptors. Women's changes in cosmetics use during pregnancy and their risk perception of these products have not been extensively investigated. The main objective of this study was to describe the proportion of pregnant women changing cosmetics use and the proportion of non-pregnant women intending to do so if they became pregnant. The secondary objectives were to compare, among the pregnant women, the proportions of those using cosmetics before and during pregnancy, and to describe among pregnant and non-pregnant women, the risk perception of these products. A cross-sectional study was carried out in a gynaecology clinic and four community pharmacies. One hundred and twenty-eight women (60 non-pregnant and 68 pregnant women) replied to a self-administered questionnaire. Cosmetics use was identified for 28 products. The results showed that few women intended to change or had changed cosmetics use during pregnancy. Nail polish was used by fewer pregnant women compared to the period before pregnancy (p cosmetics use as a risk during pregnancy and 65% would have appreciated advice about these products. Our findings indicate that all perinatal health professionals should be ready to advise women about the benefits and risks of using cosmetics during pregnancy.

  13. Changes in Cosmetics Use during Pregnancy and Risk Perception by Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marie, Cécile; Cabut, Sophie; Vendittelli, Françoise; Sauvant-Rochat, Marie-Pierre

    2016-01-01

    Cosmetic products contain various chemical substances that may be potential carcinogen and endocrine disruptors. Women’s changes in cosmetics use during pregnancy and their risk perception of these products have not been extensively investigated. The main objective of this study was to describe the proportion of pregnant women changing cosmetics use and the proportion of non-pregnant women intending to do so if they became pregnant. The secondary objectives were to compare, among the pregnant women, the proportions of those using cosmetics before and during pregnancy, and to describe among pregnant and non-pregnant women, the risk perception of these products. A cross-sectional study was carried out in a gynaecology clinic and four community pharmacies. One hundred and twenty-eight women (60 non-pregnant and 68 pregnant women) replied to a self-administered questionnaire. Cosmetics use was identified for 28 products. The results showed that few women intended to change or had changed cosmetics use during pregnancy. Nail polish was used by fewer pregnant women compared to the period before pregnancy (p < 0.05). Fifty-five percent of the women considered cosmetics use as a risk during pregnancy and 65% would have appreciated advice about these products. Our findings indicate that all perinatal health professionals should be ready to advise women about the benefits and risks of using cosmetics during pregnancy. PMID:27043593

  14. Offering fragile X syndrome carrier screening: a prospective mixed-methods observational study comparing carrier screening of pregnant and non-pregnant women in the general population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martyn, M; Anderson, V; Archibald, A; Carter, R; Cohen, J; Delatycki, M; Donath, S; Emery, J; Halliday, J; Hill, M; Sheffield, L; Slater, H; Tassone, F; Younie, S; Metcalfe, S

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Fragile X syndrome (FXS) is the leading cause of inherited intellectual and developmental disability. Policy development relating to carrier screening programmes for FXS requires input from large studies examining not only test uptake but also psychosocial aspects. This study will compare carrier screening in pregnant and non-pregnant populations, examining informed decision-making, psychosocial issues and health economics. Methods and Analysis Pregnant and non-pregnant women are being recruited from general practices and obstetric services. Women receive study information either in person or through clinic mail outs. Women are provided pretest counselling by a genetic counsellor and make a decision about testing in their own time. Data are being collected from two questionnaires: one completed at the time of making the decision about testing and the second 1 month later. Additional data are gathered through qualitative interviews conducted at several time points with a subset of participating women, including all women with a positive test result, and with staff from recruiting clinics. A minimum sample size of 500 women/group has been calculated to give us 88% power to detect a 10% difference in test uptake and 87% power to detect a 10% difference in informed choice between the pregnant and non-pregnant groups. Questionnaire data will be analysed using descriptive statistics and multivariate logistic regression models. Interview data will be thematically analysed. Willingness-to-pay and cost effectiveness analyses will also be performed. Recruitment started in July 2009 and data collection will be completed by December 2013. Ethics and Dissemination Ethics approval has been granted by the Universities of Melbourne and Western Australia and by recruiting clinics, where required. Results will be reported in peer-reviewed publications, conference presentations and through a website http://www.fragilexscreening.net.au. The results of this study will

  15. Role of malaria induced oxidative stress on anaemia in pregnancy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Akanbi OM; Odaibo AB; Olatoregun R; Ademowo AB

    2010-01-01

    Objective:To assess the role of oxidative stress on anaemia in pregnancy.Methods:Blood samples were collected from pregnant and non-pregnant women who came for antenatal clinic and medical check at Comprehensive Health Center, Akungba-Akoko and Iwaro General Hospital in Akoko Area of Ondo State, Nigeria. Thick and thin blood films were prepared and used for malaria parasite counts. Haemoglobin level was determined by colorimetric method using Drabkin's solution. Oxidative status was determined using malondiadelhyde level as an indicator of lipid peroxidation, while ascorbic acid and reduced glutathione levels were measured by standard spectrophotometric methods.Results: Mean parasite density was significantly higher in pregnant women than non-pregnant women (P<0.05). Haemoglobin level was significantly reduced in malaria positive pregnant and non-pregnant women than malaria negative (8.3-10.0 g/dL) (P<0.05). The oxidative status indicated that malondialdehyde(MDA) was significantly increased in pregnant [(2.5±0.7) nmol/mL] than non-pregnant women [(1.8±0.1) nmol/mL] (P<0.05), while Vit C and superoxide dismutase(SOD) levels were significantly reduced in pregnant than non-pregnant women(P<0.05). There was an inverse correlation between Hb and MDA levels in pregnant women studied. Positive correlation was observed between the mean MDA level and parasite density (r = 0.53). The Hb level decreased as the parasite density and MDA level increased in pregnant women.Conclusions:This study shows that oxidative stress, caused by malaria infection could be part of the contributing factors responsible for anaemia in pregnancy.

  16. Recurrent urinary tract infections in healthy and nonpregnant women✩

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    Glover, Matthew; Moreira, Cristiano G.; Sperandio, Vanessa; Zimmern, Philippe

    2016-01-01

    Recurrent urinary tract infections (RUTI) are prevalent and pose significant clinical challenges. Although the term RUTI has long been vaguely defined, a consensus definition has emerged in recent years. The exact etiology behind RUTI remains under debate, with valid arguments for both ascending reinfections as well as persistent infection inside the bladder. These persistent infections exist in the form of quiescent intracellular reservoirs in the mouse model and may represent a novel concept to explain UTI recurrence in humans. Manageable risk factors such as behavioral patterns alongside nonmanageable risk factors including genetic susceptibility are growing fields of investigation. Acute UTI have been studied through two model bacterial strains: Escherichia coli UTI89 and CFT073. However, the clinical relevance to RUTI of these two strains has not been firmly established. Current treatment strategies for RUTI are limited and remain dominated by antibiotic usage despite variable efficacy. The majority of studies in humans have focused on younger groups of women with little information available about the postmenopausal population despite a heightened risk of RUTI in this age group. PMID:27499825

  17. Swedish teenager perceptions of teenage pregnancy, abortion, sexual behavior, and contraceptive habits--a focus group study among 17-year-old female high-school students.

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    Ekstrand, Maria; Larsson, Margareta; Von Essen, Louise; Tydén, Tanja

    2005-10-01

    Sweden has the highest abortion numbers among the Nordic countries. Since 1995, the abortion rate among teenagers has increased by nearly 50%. We therefore undertook a study where the overall aim was to gain a deeper understanding on which factors female teenagers believe may explain the increasing numbers of teenage abortions. Teenagers' perceptions of teenage pregnancy, abortion, sexual behavior, and contraceptive habits were investigated. Six focus group interviews with 17-year-old Swedish girls were conducted. The interviews were tape-recorded, transcribed verbatim, and analyzed by manifest content analysis. Negative attitudes toward teenage pregnancy and supportive attitudes toward abortion were expressed. Risk-taking behaviors such as negligence in contraceptive use and intercourse under the influence of alcohol were suggested as main reasons behind the increasing numbers of abortions among Swedish teenagers. The contemporary, sexualized, media picture was believed to influence adolescents' sexual behavior, and liberal attitudes toward casual sex were expressed. Girls were perceived as more obliged than boys in taking responsibility for contraceptive compliance and avoidance of pregnancy. The apprehension that hormonal contraceptives cause negative side-effects was widely spread, and the participants were found to have a somewhat limited knowledge of abortion. The majority were unsatisfied with the quality of sexual education provided by the schools. Possible reasons for increased abortion numbers among teenagers in Sweden could be liberal attitudes toward casual sex in combination with negligence in contraceptive use, use of alcohol followed by sexual risk-taking, fear of hormonal contraceptives, and a deterioration of sexual education in the schools.

  18. Significance of tests of iron nutrition in pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metz, J.; Turchetti, L.; Combrink, B.; Krawitz, S.

    1966-01-01

    Tests of iron and folate nutrition have been carried out in early pregnancy and at delivery in 63 Bantu females. Accepted normal values for serum iron, and percentage saturation of transferrin, but not for unsaturated iron-binding capacity, for non-pregnant subjects were found to apply equally well in pregnancy. Concomitant folate deficiency in early pregnancy did not render tests of iron deficiency less valid. The unsaturated iron-binding capacity, percentage saturation, and marrow iron stores in early pregnancy all showed a significant correlation with the haemoglobin value at term. Patients with normal marrow iron stores and a percentage saturation of transferrin of 20 or more at or before the 24th week are unlikely to become anaemic from iron deficiency during pregnancy. PMID:5909700

  19. Evaluation of safety and tolerability of antiretroviral therapy in pregnant and non-pregnant women

    OpenAIRE

    Kamini Tyagi; Veena Gupta

    2015-01-01

    Background: The study was conducted to evaluate safety and tolerability of different components of combined antiretroviral therapy (CART) in pregnant and non-pregnant women and to find out substitute of the drug causing intolerance. Methods: An observational study on 75 pregnant and 125 non pregnant, HIV infected women receiving CART, over a period of 1 year (Jan 2013-Jan 20140 in SRN Hospital affiliated to MLN Medical college, Allahabad. All women were examined clinically and investigated...

  20. Prevalence of oral lesions and measurement of salivary pH in the different trimesters of pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Kanu; Kaur, Harshaminder

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Oral changes observed during pregnancy have been studied for many years, but their magnitude and frequency have not been stressed upon. This study was undertaken to assess the prevalence of oral lesions during different trimesters of pregnancy and their correlation with salivary pH change. METHODS The gingival, simplified oral hygiene, community periodontal and decayed-missing-filled teeth indices were used to assess a total of 120 pregnant women (40 in each trimester group) and 40 nonpregnant women (control group). Salivary pH was measured using a digital pH meter. Presence of any oral lesions was determined via oral examination. RESULTS Scores for all indices increased while salivary pH decreased from the control group to the first trimester group, through to the third. Oral lesions were seen in 44.2% of pregnant women. Lesions were seen in 27.5%, 52.5% and 52.5% of women in the first, second and third trimesters, respectively. The percentage of pregnant women with one oral lesion was highest in the second trimester (47.5%), whereas the third trimester had the highest prevalence (17.5%) of two concurrent oral lesions. The incidence of fissured tongue was highest in the first trimester group, and that of gingival enlargement was highest in the third trimester group. In the second trimester group, there was an almost equal incidence of fissured tongue and gingival/mucosal enlargement. CONCLUSION Most changes in oral tissues during pregnancy can be avoided with good oral hygiene. Salivary pH could be used to assess the prevalence of oral lesions in the different trimesters of pregnancy. PMID:25640100

  1. The effect of potassium channel opener pinacidil on the non-pregnant rat uterus.

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    Novakovic, Radmila; Milovanovic, Slobodan; Protic, Dragana; Djokic, Jelena; Heinle, Helmut; Gojkovic-Bukarica, Ljiljana

    2007-09-01

    The effects of the K(+) channel opener, pinacidil on the spontaneous rhythmic contractions and contractions provoked by electrical field stimulation (50 Hz) or by oxytocin were investigated in the isolated uterus of the non-pregnant rat in oestrus. Pinacidil produced more potent inhibition of oxytocin-elicited contractions than of spontaneous rhythmic contractions or electrical field stimulation-induced contractions. Glibenclamide, a selective blocker of adenosine triphosphate (ATP)-sensitive K(+) (K(ATP)) channels, antagonized the pinacidil-induced inhibition of contractions elicited by oxytocin in a competitive manner. However, the pinacidil-induced inhibition of electrical field stimulation-elicited contractions and spontaneous rhythmic contractions was antagonized non-competitively by glibenclamide. In the uterine strips pre-contracted with 80 mM K(+), the pinacidil-induced maximal relaxation was not affected. The present data show that pinacidil exhibits potent relaxant properties in the rat non-pregnant uterus in oestrus and therefore should be taken into account as a possible agent for treatment of dysmenorrhoea. Based on glibenclamide affinity, it appears that the inhibitory response to pinacidil involves K(ATP )channels. We need further investigations to explain why the interaction between glibenclamide and pinacidil in this experimental model depends on the nature of contractions. The ability of pinacidil to completely relax the rat non-pregnant uterus pre-contracted with K(+)-rich solution suggests that K(+) channel-independent mechanism(s) also play a part in its relaxant effect.

  2. Biomathematical pattern of EMG signal propagation in smooth muscle of the non-pregnant porcine uterus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domino, Malgorzata; Pawlinski, Bartosz; Gajewski, Zdzislaw

    2017-01-01

    Uterine contractions are generated by myometrial smooth muscle cells (SMCs) that comprise most of the myometrial layer of the uterine wall. Aberrant uterine motility (i.e., hypo- or hyper-contractility or asynchronous contractions) has been implicated in the pathogenesis of infertility due to the failure of implantation, endometriosis and abnormal estrous cycles. The mechanism whereby the non-pregnant uterus initiates spontaneous contractions remains poorly understood. The aim of the present study was to employ linear synchronization measures for analyzing the pattern of EMG signal propagation (direction and speed) in smooth muscles of the non-pregnant porcine uterus in vivo using telemetry recording system. It has been revealed that the EMG signal conduction in the uterine wall of the non-pregnant sow does not occur at random but it rather exhibits specific directions and speed. All detectable EMG signals moved along the uterine horn in both cervico-tubal and tubo-cervical directions. The signal migration speed could be divided into the three main types or categories: i. slow basic migration rhythm (SBMR); ii. rapid basic migration rhythm (RBMR); and iii. rapid accessory migration rhythm (RAMR). In conclusion, the EMG signal propagation in smooth muscles of the porcine uterus in vivo can be assessed using a linear synchronization model. Physiological pattern of the uterine contractile activity determined in this study provides a basis for future investigations of normal and pathologicall myogenic function of the uterus. PMID:28282410

  3. Oxidative stress markers in hypertensive states of pregnancy: preterm and term disease.

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    Kurlak, Lesia O; Green, Amanda; Loughna, Pamela; Broughton Pipkin, Fiona

    2014-01-01

    Discussion continues as to whether de novo hypertension in pregnancy with significant proteinuria (pre-eclampsia; PE) and non-proteinuric new hypertension (gestational hypertension; GH) are parts of the same disease spectrum or represent different conditions. Non-pregnant hypertension, pregnancy and PE are all associated with oxidative stress. We have established a 6 weeks postpartum clinic for women who experienced a hypertensive pregnancy. We hypothesized that PE and GH could be distinguished by markers of oxidative stress; thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and antioxidants (ferric ion reducing ability of plasma; FRAP). Since the severity of PE and GH is greater pre-term, we also compared pre-term and term disease. Fifty-eight women had term PE, 23 pre-term PE, 60 had term GH and 6 pre-term GH, 11 pre-existing (essential) hypertension (EH) without PE. Limited data were available from normotensive pregnancies (n = 7) and non-pregnant controls (n = 14). There were no differences in postpartum TBARS or FRAP between hypertensive states; TBARS (P = 0.001) and FRAP (P = 0.009) were lower in plasma of non-pregnant controls compared to recently-pregnant women. Interestingly FRAP was higher in preterm than term GH (P = 0.013). In PE and GH, TBARS correlated with low density lipoprotein (LDL)-cholesterol (P = 0.036); this association strengthened with inclusion of EH (P = 0.011). The 10 year Framingham index for cardiovascular risk was positively associated with TBARS (P = 0.003). Oxidative stress profiles do not differ between hypertensive states but appear to distinguish between recently-pregnant and non-pregnant states. This suggests that pregnancy may alter vascular integrity with changes remaining 6 weeks postpartum. LDL-cholesterol is a known determinant of oxidative stress in cardiovascular disease and we have shown this association to be present in hypertensive pregnancy further emphasizing that such a pregnancy may be revealing a pre

  4. Altered Expression of Human Smooth Muscle Myosin Phosphatase Targeting (MYPT) Isovariants with Pregnancy and Labor.

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    Lartey, Jon; Taggart, Julie; Robson, Stephen; Taggart, Michael

    2016-01-01

    -labor donors. We found a reduction in the expression of PPP1R12A, PPP1R12BLZ+, PPP1R16A and PPP1R16B mRNA in late pregnancy (not-in-labor) relative to non-pregnancy. PPP1R12ALZ+ and PPP1R12ALZ- mRNA levels were similar in the non-pregnant and pregnant not in labor groups. There was a further reduction in the uterine expression of PPP1R12ALZ+, PPP1R12CLZ+ and PPP1R12ALZ- mRNA with labor relative to the pregnant not-in-labor group. PPP1R12A, PPP1R12BLZ+, PPP1R16A and PPP1R16B mRNA levels were invariant between the not in labor and in-labor groups. MYPT proteins are crucial determinants of smooth muscle function. Therefore, these alterations in human uterine smooth muscle MYPT isovariant expression during pregnancy and labor may be part of the important molecular physiological transition between uterine quiescence and activation.

  5. Proteomic analysis of pregnancy-related proteins from pig uterus endometrium during pregnancy

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    Kang Sunghyun

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Many important molecular events associated with implantation and development occur within the female reproductive tract, especially within the uterus endometrium, during pregnancy periods. The endometrium includes the mucosal lining of the uterus, which provides a suitable site for implantation and development of a fertilized egg and fetus. To date, the molecular cascades in the uterus endometrium during pregnancy periods in pigs have not been elucidated fully. In this study, we compared the functional regulated proteins in the endometrium during pregnancy periods with those in non-pregnant conditions and investigated changes in expression patterns during pregnancy (days 40, 70, and 93 using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE and western blotting. The functional regulated proteins were identified and discovered from differentially expressed proteins in the uterus endometrium during pregnancy. We discovered 820 protein spots in a proteomic analysis of uterus endometrium tissues with 2-DE gels. We identified 63 of the 98 proteins regulated differentially among non-pregnant and pregnant tissues (matched and unmatched spots. Interestingly, 10 of these 63 proteins are development-, cytoskeleton- and chaperon-related proteins such as transferrin, protein DJ-1, transgelin, galectin-1, septin 2, stathmin 1, cofilin 1, fascin 1, heat shock protein (HSP 90β and HSP 27. The specific expression patterns of these proteins in the endometrium during pregnancy were confirmed by western blotting. Our results suggest that the expressions of these genes involved in endometrium function and endometrium development from early to late gestation are associated with the regulation of endometrium development for maintaining pregnancy.

  6. Screening pregnant women for group B streptococcus infection between 30 and 32 weeks of pregnancy in a population at high risk for premature birth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horváth, Boldizsar; Grasselly, Magdolna; Bödecs, Tamás; Boncz, Imre; Bódis, József

    2013-07-01

    To assess the benefits of a chemoprophylaxis program based on screening women for group B streptococcus (GBS) infection between 30 and 32 weeks of pregnancy in a population with a high rate of premature births. From 1995 to 2011, 24 950 women were screened for GBS infection between 30 and 32 weeks of pregnancy at Markusovszky Teaching Hospital, Szombathely, Hungary. Those who tested positive, and those who tested negative but were at risk of infecting their newborns, underwent intrapartum prophylaxis. Neonatal outcomes were compared with those of a historical cohort that underwent no screening or treatment, and with those published in CDC/ACOG guidelines recommending screening closer to term. There were 63 infected newborns (0.2%) in the study cohort, and 1 of 8 with sepsis died. There were 149 infected newborns (0.7%) in the historical cohort, and 29 of 31 with sepsis died. Screening women early in a population with a high rate of premature births may simplify preterm labor management. It results, however, in a higher incidence of early onset neonatal GBS disease than when screening is done closer to term. Copyright © 2013 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Frequency of Occurrence of Pregnancy in Relation to Uterine Horn in Cattle in the Colombian Tropics

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    Marco González Tous

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to determine the frequency of occurrence of pregnancy in the right and left uterine horns of cattle in the Colombian tropics. Rectal palpation was performed in 1,534 cows to diagnose pregnancy and to indicate the pregnant horn (left or right. Additionally, 618 non-pregnant cows were examined to determine the presence of corpora lutea (CL or follicle (F, and to identify the ovary (right or left containing them. In pregnant cows, the percentages of right and left gestation were 63.1% (968/1534 and 36.9% (566/1534 (p ≤ 0.01, respectively, and in non-pregnant cows, 69 % of CL and 68% of F were found in the right ovary (p ≤ 0.01. Similarly, reproductive tracts of 300 pregnant cows were inspected, as well as those of 300 non-pregnant cows but with CL and F present. In pregnant tracts, the percentages of right and left gestation were 67.3% and 32.7% (p ≤ 0.01, respectively, and in non-pregnant cattle, 68% of CL and 65% of F were found in the right ovary (p ≤ 0.01. In conclusion, the highest percentage of pregnancies in cattle in the Colombian tropics is presented in the right horn; an increased presence of CL and F was also found in the right ovary.

  8. Combined use of progesterone inserts, ultrasongraphy, and GnRH to identify and resynchronize nonpregnant cows and heifers 21 days after timed artificial insemination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelley, D E; Ibarbia, L; Daetz, R; Bittar, J H; Risco, C A; Santos, J E P; Ribeiro, E S; Galvão, K N

    2016-01-15

    The objective was to decrease the reinsemination interval (RI) when dairy cows and heifers are inseminated using all timed artificial insemination (TAI) programs. Holstein cows (n = 211) and heifers (n = 153) were randomly assigned to a control or 21-day Resynch (21dRES) at 13 days after TAI. Animals in 21dRES (n = 109 cows and 77 heifers) had a progesterone device inserted on Day 13 and removed on Day 20 after TAI and ovaries scanned by ultrasonography. Animals found not to have an active CL (<15 mm) or a CL that decreased 10 mm or greater from Days 13 to 20, and to have a follicle of 12 mm or greater received GnRH and TAI on Day 21. Pregnancy diagnosis was performed on Day 32. Nonpregnant control cows (n = 102) were resynchronized immediately using Ovsynch-56, and control heifers (n = 76) were resynchronized using 5-day Cosynch starting on Day 34; therefore, cows and heifers were reinseminated on Day 42. Nonpregnant 21dRES animals that had not been reinseminated on Day 21 were resynchronized concurrently with the control animals. Pregnancy per AI (PAI) for the initial TAI was similar (P = 0.80) for 21dRES and control cows (30.3% vs. 29.4%) and heifers (49.4% vs. 51.3%). Of the nonpregnant 21dRES animals, 33 of 76 cows (43.4%) and 22 of 39 heifers (56.4%) had been reinseminated on Day 21. Therefore, the RI was decreased by 9.9 days (33.3 ± 1.0 vs. 43.2 ± 1.0 days; P < 0.001) in 21dRES cows and by 12.2 days in 21dRES heifers (30.1 ± 1.3 vs. 42.3 ± 1.3 days; P < 0.001) compared with controls. The overall resynchronized PAI was similar for 21dRES cows compared with controls (31.6% vs. 25.0%; P = 0.23). The PAI was 24.2% for 21dRES cows reinseminated on Day 21 and 37.2% for 21dRES cows reinseminated on Day 42. The overall resynchronized PAI was increased for 21dRES heifers compared with controls (57.5% vs. 32.4%; P = 0.03) because 21dRES heifers reinseminated on Day 21 had similar PAI compared with controls (43.5% vs. 32

  9. HIV-Infected Ugandan Women on Antiretroviral Therapy Maintain HIV-1 RNA Suppression Across Periconception, Pregnancy, and Postpartum Periods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, Lynn T; Ribaudo, Heather B; Kaida, Angela; Bennett, Kara; Musinguzi, Nicholas; Siedner, Mark J; Kabakyenga, Jerome; Hunt, Peter W; Martin, Jeffrey N; Boum, Yap; Haberer, Jessica E; Bangsberg, David R

    2016-04-01

    HIV-infected women risk sexual and perinatal HIV transmission during conception, pregnancy, childbirth, and breastfeeding. We compared HIV-1 RNA suppression and medication adherence across periconception, pregnancy, and postpartum periods, among women on antiretroviral therapy (ART) in Uganda. We analyzed data from women in a prospective cohort study, aged 18-49 years, enrolled at ART initiation and with ≥1 pregnancy between 2005 and 2011. Participants were seen quarterly. The primary exposure of interest was pregnancy period, including periconception (3 quarters before pregnancy), pregnancy, postpartum (6 months after pregnancy outcome), or nonpregnancy related. Regression models using generalized estimating equations compared the likelihood of HIV-1 RNA ≤400 copies per milliliter, <80% average adherence based on electronic pill caps (medication event monitoring system), and likelihood of 72-hour medication gaps across each period. One hundred eleven women contributed 486 person-years of follow-up. Viral suppression was present at 89% of nonpregnancy, 97% of periconception, 93% of pregnancy, and 89% of postpartum visits, and was more likely during periconception (adjusted odds ratio, 2.15) compared with nonpregnant periods. Average ART adherence was 90% [interquartile range (IQR), 70%-98%], 93% (IQR, 82%-98%), 92% (IQR, 72%-98%), and 88% (IQR, 63%-97%) during nonpregnant, periconception, pregnant, and postpartum periods, respectively. Average adherence <80% was less likely during periconception (adjusted odds ratio, 0.68), and 72-hour gaps per 90 days were less frequent during periconception (adjusted relative risk, 0.72) and more frequent during postpartum (adjusted relative risk, 1.40). Women with pregnancy were virologically suppressed at most visits, with an increased likelihood of suppression and high adherence during periconception follow-up. Increased frequency of 72-hour gaps suggests a need for increased adherence support during postpartum periods.

  10. Nutrition and multifetal pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, J E; Carlson, M

    2000-03-01

    Largely because of assisted reproduction, the rate of multifetal pregnancy is rising rapidly in the United States. Accordingly, dietitians are increasingly being called upon to provide nutrition services for these high-risk pregnancies. This article gives an overview of the incidence of and risks associated with multifetal pregnancy and reviews studies that contribute to our knowledge of nutrition and multifetal pregnancy. Practice guidelines for promoting healthy outcomes based on the best available scientific data are suggested. Guidelines for weight gain for twin and triplet pregnancy, dietary intake, and supplement use are included. Suggested practice guidelines for multifetal pregnancy include a positive rate of weight gain early in pregnancy, the use of prepregnancy weight status to determine total weight gain goals in twin pregnancy, a 50-lb weight gain goal for triplet pregnancy, and higher minimal number of servings of foods from several of the Food Guide Pyramid groups. The need for additional information on the effects of nutritional status on the course and outcome of multifetal pregnancy is critical. Preliminary evidence of the benefits of nutrition services suggests that both the incorporation of dietetics services into care programs and additional research on nutrition and multifetal gestation are warranted.

  11. Changes in ovaries and uterus after aglepristone administration in the third week of luteal phase of non-pregnant bitches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kacprzak, Kamil; Jurka, Piotr; Dolka, Izabella; Czopowicz, Michał; Ruszczak, Anna; Duszewska, Anna

    2015-01-01

    The mechanism of aglepristone action in the placentation time in the bitch remains unclear. The aim of this study was to describe the mechanism by which aglepristone influences ovaries and uterus and to measure the levels of steroid sex hormones in non-pregnant bitches. Fourteen bitches assigned to a study (n=9) and control (n=5) group were given aglepristone and saline solution, respectively, on the 19th and 20th day after LH peak. On the 26th day after LH peak an ovariohysterectomy was performed. Blood samples were screened for estradiol and progesterone concentrations. Ovaries and uterine horns and bodies were isolated for histological and morphometrical diagnosis and immunohistochemistry analysis of α-estrogen and progesterone receptor expression. A decrease of progesterone (pbody (pbody of study bitches were significantly thicker than in the control group (pbody was thicker than myometrium of horns (pbody (pbody within groups. To the knowledge of the authors this is the first study, which describes the inflammatory effect developing in uterus in response to aglepristone administration, and attempts to elucidate its mechanisms.

  12. Acute liver failure in pregnancy: Causative and prognostic factors

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    Shweta Sahai

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Acute liver failure (ALF in pregnancy is often associated with a poor prognosis. In this single-center observational study we aim to study the incidence, causes, and factors affecting mortality in pregnant women with ALF. Patients and Methods: Sixty-eight pregnant women reporting with clinical features of liver dysfunction were enrolled as "cases." Their clinical course was followed and laboratory studies were performed. The presence of ALF was defined as the appearance of encephalopathy. The results were compared with a "control" group of 16 nonpregnant women presenting with similar complaints. The cases were further subdivided into two groups of "survivors" and "nonsurvivors" and were compared to find out the factors that contribute to mortality. Results: ALF was seen in significantly more number of pregnant women than the controls (P = 0.0019. The mortality rate was also significantly higher (P = 0.0287. Hepatitis E virus (HEV caused jaundice in a higher number of pregnant women (P < 0.001. It also caused ALF in majority (70.3% of pregnant women, but HEV infection was comparable between the survivors and nonsurvivors (P = 0.0668, hence could not be correlated with mortality. Conclusions: Pregnant women appear to be more susceptible for HEV infection and development of ALF. The mortality of jaundiced pregnant women increased significantly with appearance of ALF, higher bilirubin, lower platelet count, higher international normalized ratio, and spontaneous delivery.

  13. A comparison of meningococcal carriage by pregnancy status

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    Knudtson Eric J

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Neisseria meningitidis is the second leading cause of invasive meningitis. A prerequisite for infection is colonization of the nasopharynx, and asymptomatic carrier rates are widely reported in the range of 10-15%. Recent reports have indicated an increased likelihood that a pediatric admission for Neisseria meningitidis will have a mother who is pregnant in the home. We hypothesized that this association may relate to immunologic changes in pregnancy leading to higher carrier rates. We compared the carrier status by performing nasopharyngeal swabs for Neisseria meningitidis in 100 pregnant and 99 non-pregnant women. Average age of the participants was 28.9 +/- 6.7 years. The average gestational age at specimen collection was 27.5 +/- 9.4 weeks. Non pregnant women were significantly more likely to use tobacco (38% vs 24%, p The meningococcal carrier rate in our population is well below what is widely reported in the literature. Assuming a 1% carrier rate in the pregnant group and a 0.5% carrier rate in the non pregnant group, 4,763 patients would be required to detect a difference of this magnitude, given 80% power and an alpha of 0.05.

  14. Serum leptin levels in relation to circulating cytokines, chemokines, adhesion molecules and angiogenic factors in normal pregnancy and preeclampsia

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    Karádi István

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective In this study, we determined circulating levels of C-reactive protein, several cytokines, chemokines, adhesion molecules and angiogenic factors along with those of leptin in healthy non-pregnant and pregnant women and preeclamptic patients, and investigated whether serum leptin levels were related to the clinical characteristics and measured laboratory parameters of the study participants. Methods Sixty preeclamptic patients, 60 healthy pregnant women and 59 healthy non-pregnant women were involved in this case-control study. Levels of leptin and transforming growth factor (TGF-beta1 in maternal sera were assessed by ELISA. Serum levels of interleukin (IL-1beta, IL-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1ra, IL-2, IL-4, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, IL-12p40, IL-12p70, IL-18, interferon (IFN-gamma, tumor necrosis factor (TNF-alpha, interferon-gamma-inducible protein (IP-10, monocyte chemotactic protein (MCP-1, intercellular adhesion molecule (ICAM-1 and vascular cell adhesion molecule (VCAM-1 were determined by multiplex suspension array. Serum C-reactive protein (CRP concentrations were measured by an autoanalyzer. Serum total soluble fms-like tyrosine kinase-1 (sFlt-1 and biologically active placental growth factor (PlGF levels were determined by electrochemiluminescence immunoassay. For statistical analyses, non-parametric methods were applied. Results There were significant differences in most of the measured laboratory parameters among the three study groups except for serum IL-1beta and TGF-beta1 levels. Serum leptin levels were significantly higher in preeclamptic patients and healthy pregnant women than in healthy non-pregnant women. Additionally, preeclamptic patients had significantly higher leptin levels as compared to healthy pregnant women. Serum leptin levels were independently associated with BMI in healthy non-pregnant women. In healthy pregnant women, both BMI and serum CRP concentrations showed significant positive linear

  15. Ciprofloxacin and Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... infections. It is part of a group of antibiotics called “quinolones or fluoroquinolones.” Is there an increased chance for miscarriage if ... al. 1998. Pregnancy outcome following gestational exposure to fluoroquinolones: a ... G, et al. 2006. Antibiotic use in pregnancy and lactation. Obstet Gynecol 107( ...

  16. New onset of systemic lupus erythematosus during pregnancy

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    Laura Keisa

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE is a chronic inflammatory disease that frequently affects young women. If SLE is first suspected during pregnancy, the diagnostic criterion is the same as for nonpregnant women and the treatment should be started as soon as the diagnosis is made. This study describes a 31-year-old pregnant woman who was hospitalized with shortness of breath, pain, and stiffness in phalangeal joints. The new onset of SLE was diagnosed. The disease was controlled by medical treatment. The patient had successful pregnancy and a healthy baby was delivered. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2016; 5(4.000: 1221-1224

  17. Thyroid dysfunction and pregnancy outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazarpour, Sima; Ramezani Tehrani, Fahimeh; Simbar, Masoumeh; Azizi, Fereidoun

    2015-01-01

    Background: Pregnancy has a huge impact on the thyroid function in both healthy women and those that have thyroid dysfunction. The prevalence of thyroid dysfunction in pregnant women is relatively high. Objective: The objective of this review was to increase awareness and to provide a review on adverse effect of thyroid dysfunction including hyperthyroidism, hypothyroidism and thyroid autoimmune positivity on pregnancy outcomes. Materials and Methods: In this review, Medline, Embase and the Cochrane Library were searched with appropriate keywords for relevant English manuscript. We used a variety of studies, including randomized clinical trials, cohort (prospective and retrospective), case-control and case reports. Those studies on thyroid disorders among non-pregnant women and articles without adequate quality were excluded. Results: Overt hyperthyroidism and hypothyroidism has several adverse effects on pregnancy outcomes. Overt hyperthyroidism was associated with miscarriage, stillbirth, preterm delivery, intrauterine growth retardation, low birth weight, preeclampsia and fetal thyroid dysfunction. Overt hypothyroidism was associated with abortion, anemia, pregnancy-induced hypertension, preeclampsia, placental abruption, postpartum hemorrhage, premature birth, low birth weight, intrauterine fetal death, increased neonatal respiratory distress and infant neuro developmental dysfunction. However the adverse effect of subclinical hypothyroidism, and thyroid antibody positivity on pregnancy outcomes was not clear. While some studies demonstrated higher chance of placental abruption, preterm birth, miscarriage, gestational hypertension, fetal distress, severe preeclampsia and neonatal distress and diabetes in pregnant women with subclinical hypothyroidism or thyroid autoimmunity; the other ones have not reported these adverse effects. Conclusion: While the impacts of overt thyroid dysfunction on feto-maternal morbidities have been clearly identified and its long

  18. Thyroid dysfunction and pregnancy outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sima Nazarpour

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Pregnancy has a huge impact on the thyroid function in both healthy women and those that have thyroid dysfunction. The prevalence of thyroid dysfunction in pregnant women is relatively high. Objective: The objective of this review was to increase awareness and to provide a review on adverse effect of thyroid dysfunction including hyperthyroidism, hypothyroidism and thyroid autoimmune positivity on pregnancy outcomes. Materials and Methods: In this review, Medline, Embase and the Cochrane Library were searched with appropriate keywords for relevant English manuscript. We used a variety of studies, including randomized clinical trials, cohort (prospective and retrospective, case-control and case reports. Those studies on thyroid disorders among non-pregnant women and articles without adequate quality were excluded. Results: Overt hyperthyroidism and hypothyroidism has several adverse effects on pregnancy outcomes. Overt hyperthyroidism was associated with miscarriage, stillbirth, preterm delivery, intrauterine growth retardation, low birth weight, preeclampsia and fetal thyroid dysfunction. Overt hypothyroidism was associated with abortion, anemia, pregnancy-induced hypertension, preeclampsia, placental abruption, postpartum hemorrhage, premature birth, low birth weight, intrauterine fetal death, increased neonatal respiratory distress and infant neuro developmental dysfunction. However the adverse effect of subclinical hypothyroidism, and thyroid antibody positivity on pregnancy outcomes was not clear. While some studies demonstrated higher chance of placental abruption, preterm birth, miscarriage, gestational hypertension, fetal distress, severe preeclampsia and neonatal distress and diabetes in pregnant women with subclinical hypothyroidism or thyroid autoimmunity; the other ones have not reported these adverse effects. Conclusion: While the impacts of overt thyroid dysfunction on feto-maternal morbidities have been clearly

  19. Estimates of Intraclass Correlation Coefficients from Longitudinal Group-Randomized Trials of Adolescent HIV/STI/Pregnancy Prevention Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glassman, Jill R.; Potter, Susan C.; Baumler, Elizabeth R.; Coyle, Karin K.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Group-randomized trials (GRTs) are one of the most rigorous methods for evaluating the effectiveness of group-based health risk prevention programs. Efficiently designing GRTs with a sample size that is sufficient for meeting the trial's power and precision goals while not wasting resources exceeding them requires estimates of the…

  20. Impact of pregnancy and nutrition on oxidant/antioxidant balance in sheep and goats reared in South Sinai, Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nawito, M F; Hameed, Amal R Abd El; Sosa, A S A; Mahmoud, Karima Gh M

    2016-08-01

    To monitor the effect of nutrition and pregnancy on oxidative status of animals under the arid condition of South Sinai. Blood samples were taken from two groups of animals: The first group retained in farm and fed on concentrate (high diet) and another group grazing natural forage (low diet). Each group was subdivided into pregnant and non-pregnant animals. Blood samples were assayed for their content of malondialdehyde (MDA), total antioxidant capacity (TAC), catalase (CAT), and superoxide dismutase (SOD) enzymes. MDA level significantly increased in pregnant animals fed either concentrate or grazing low-quality forage and accompanied by a low level of TAC in pregnant grazing animals fed low-quality forage. The activity of CAT decreased in pregnant fed either concentrate or grazing and SOD significant decrease in the pregnant grazing group. These data suggested that the animals might have experienced some degree of oxidative stress and lipid peroxidation and indicating that redox homeostasis was impaired in those pregnant and specially fed on forage rations. Pregnancy constituted the most oxidative stress facing the grazing and concentrated diet feed sheep and goats under arid and saline conditions of Southern Sinai, Egypt.

  1. Impact of pregnancy and nutrition on oxidant⁄antioxidant balance in sheep and goats reared in South Sinai, Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. F. Nawito

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To monitor the effect of nutrition and pregnancy on oxidative status of animals under the arid condition of South Sinai. Materials and Methods: Blood samples were taken from two groups of animals: The first group retained in farm and fed on concentrate (high diet and another group grazing natural forage (low diet. Each group was subdivided into pregnant and non-pregnant animals. Blood samples were assayed for their content of malondialdehyde (MDA, total antioxidant capacity (TAC, catalase (CAT, and superoxide dismutase (SOD enzymes. Results: MDA level significantly increased in pregnant animals fed either concentrate or grazing low-quality forage and accompanied by a low level of TAC in pregnant grazing animals fed low-quality forage. The activity of CAT decreased in pregnant fed either concentrate or grazing and SOD significant decrease in the pregnant grazing group. These data suggested that the animals might have experienced some degree of oxidative stress and lipid peroxidation and indicating that redox homeostasis was impaired in those pregnant and specially fed on forage rations. Conclusion: Pregnancy constituted the most oxidative stress facing the grazing and concentrated diet feed sheep and goats under arid and saline conditions of Southern Sinai, Egypt.

  2. Brain somatostatinergic system at late pregnancy, parturition and the early postpartum period in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrios, V; Puebla, L; Rodriguez-Sanchez, M N; Arilla, E

    1993-11-03

    During pregnancy and postpartum rats experience a wide variety of behavioural changes. Since the somatostatinergic system has been implicated in the control of some of these changes, the present study examined somatostatin (SS) content and specific binding in the frontoparietal cortex and hippocampus of non-pregnant, pregnant (17 to 18 days), parturition and postpartum (10 and 30 days) rats as well as in ovariectomized rats which were or were not treated with estradiol valerianate. The content of somatostatin-like immunoreactivity (SSLI) was increased at 17 days of pregnancy in frontoparietal cortex and decreased at parturition and 10 days postpartum in that region and the hippocampus under study when compared with SSLI levels in non-pregnant rats. At 30 days postpartum the SSLI content returned to non-pregnant values in both brain regions. Scatchard analysis showed that the decrease in [125I]Tyr11-SS binding observed at 17 days of pregnancy in the frontoparietal cortex was due to the decrease in the number of SS receptors. In contrast, on the day of delivery the number of SS receptors in the same brain region increased. The affinity of the SS receptors was consistently unchanged in pregnant and non-pregnant rats in both regions. At 10 days postpartum the value of specific binding of the tracer to SS receptors in the frontoparietal cortex was not significantly different from that in the non-pregnant rats, although the actual number of receptors was slightly higher. Pregnancy did not change SS binding in the hippocampus.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  3. Circulating levels of GH-releasing hormone and GH during human pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazlan, M; Spence-Jones, C; Chard, T; Landon, J; McLean, C

    1990-04-01

    To study the potential role of GH-releasing hormone (GHRH) in maintaining circulating levels of GH during pregnancy, 302 maternal plasma samples were collected from non-fasted subjects at various stages of pregnancy and assayed for GHRH using a 'two-site' immunoradiometric assay. The GH and placental lactogen levels were also determined. In addition, maternal plasma samples taken during labour, amniotic fluid and cord blood were also assayed for these hormones. Maternal plasma GHRH levels were similar to non-pregnant levels throughout gestation despite fluctuations in GH values which were always higher than non-pregnant levels. There was no significant difference between GHRH levels in maternal plasma and cord blood although high GH levels were observed in the latter. These findings suggest that peripheral GHRH levels do not play an important role in maintaining circulating GH levels during pregnancy.

  4. Peripheral blood TIM-3 positive NK and CD8+ T cells throughout pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meggyes, Matyas; Miko, Eva; Polgar, Beata;

    2014-01-01

    of TIM-3+ peripheral blood mononuclear cells during healthy human pregnancy. METHODS OF STUDY: 57 healthy pregnant women [first trimester (n = 16); second trimester (n = 19); third trimester (n = 22)] and 30 non-pregnant controls were enrolled in the study. We measured the surface expression of TIM-3...... negative regulator of Th1 immunity and tolerance induction. Data about the TIM-3/Gal-9 pathway in the pathogenesis of human diseases is emerging, but their possible role during human pregnancy is not precisely known. The aim of our study was to investigate the number, phenotype and functional activity...... by cytotoxic T cells, NK cells and NK cell subsets as well as Galectin-9 expression by regulatory T cells by flow cytometry. We analyzed the cytokine production and cytotoxicity of TIM3+ and TIM3- CD8 T and NK cells obtained from non-pregnant and healthy pregnant women at different stages of pregnancy by flow...

  5. Standing body sway in women with and without morning sickness in pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yawen; Chung, Hyun Chae; Hemingway, Lauren; Stoffregen, Thomas A

    2013-01-01

    Morning sickness typically is attributed to hormonal changes in pregnancy. We asked whether morning sickness is associated with changes in standing postural equilibrium, as occurs in research on visually induced motion sickness. Twenty-one pregnant women (mean age=30 years, mean height=163cm; mean weight=63kg) were tested during the first trimester. Laboratory-based balance measures were collected, along with perceived postural stability, the presence of morning sickness, and the severity of subjective symptoms. We varied the distance between the feet and the visual task performed during stance. Participants were classified as either experiencing (Sick, n=12) or not experiencing (Well, n=9) morning sickness. Perceived balance stability was lower for Sick than for Well women. The positional variability of sway was reduced for the Sick group, relative to the Well group. Positional variability decreased with wider stance width, and was reduced during performance of a more demanding visual task. Stance width and visual task also influenced the temporal dynamics of sway. Effects of stance width and visual task on postural sway were similar to effects in non-pregnant adults, suggesting that sensitive tuning of posture is maintained during the first trimester. The findings suggest that women with morning sickness may attempt to stabilize their bodies by reducing overall body sway. It may be useful to recommend that women adopt wider stance early in pregnancy.

  6. Evaluating The Effective Factors in Pregnancy after Intrauterine Insemination: A Retrospective Study

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    Firoozeh Ghaffari

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Controlled ovarian hyperstimulation (COH in conjunction with intrauterine inseminations (IUI are commonly used to treat infertile couples. In this study we evaluated the relationship between IUI outcome and special causes of infertility. We also aimed to examine parameters that might predict success following IUI. Materials and Methods: In this cross-sectional study, we included 994 IUI cycles in 803 couples who referred to the infertility Institute. All statistical analyses were performed by using SPSS program, t tests and chi-square. Stepwise multiple linear regression analysis was performed to compare the association between dependent and independent variables. Logistic regression was conducted to build a prediction model of the IUI outcome. Results: Overall pregnancy rate per completed cycle (16.5% and live birth rate per cycle (14.5%. The mean age in the pregnant group was significantly lower than that of the non-pregnant group (P=0.01.There was an association between cause of infertility and clinical pregnancies (P<0.001. Logistic regression identified four significant factors in determining the success of the IUI [menstrual irregularites (OR:2.3, CI:1.6-3.4, P<0.001, duration of infertility (OR:0.8, CI:0.8-0.9, P<0.001, total dose of gonadotropin (OR:1.02, CI:1.003-1.04, P=0.02 and semen volume (OR:1.1, CI:1.008-1.2, P=0.03] which were the most predictive of IUI success. Conclusion: Our study defined prognostic factors for pregnancy in COH+IUI. These variables can be integrated into a mathematical model to predict the chance of pregnancy rate in subsequent COH+IUI cycles.

  7. Changes and clinical significance of concentration of serum total homocysteine in patients with pregnancy induced hypertension%妊娠高血压综合征患者血清总同型半胱氨酸的变化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韦淑琴; 郑建华; 刘亚星; 邹丽红; 石大维

    2001-01-01

    目的 检测妊娠高血压综合征(妊高征)患者外周血中总同型半胱氨酸(tHcy)的水平,并探讨其与妊高征发病的关系。方法 应用高效液相色谱电化学检测(HPLC-ED)法检测未妊娠妇女、正常妊娠妇女以及妊高征患者血清中tHcy的水平。结果 ①非妊娠组的tHcy水平[(7.89±2.62)mol/L]与正常妊娠组[(5.91±1.96)μmol/L]相比较,差异有极显著性(P<0.001);正常妊娠组在孕中期tHcy水平[(5.23±1.88)μmol/L]降至最低。②妊高征组tHcy水平[(9.40±3.06)μmol/L]明显高于正常妊娠组(P<0.001),与非妊娠组妇女相比较,tHcy水平呈逐渐升高趋势(P值分别小于0.05,0.01,0.001);并随妊高征病情的加重,tHcy水平呈逐渐上升趋势,重度妊高征明显高于轻度妊高征(P<0.05)。结论 妊娠后tHcy水平显著升高可能是妊高征发病机制中的一个重要因素。%Objective To determine the changes in serum total homocysteine(tHcy) concentration that occur in patients with pregnancy induced hypertension (PIH),to explore the relationship between serum tHcy and pathogenesis of PIH.Methods Serum tHcy concentrations were measured in 30 healthy nonpregnant women (nonpregnancy group),36 normal pregnant women (normal pregnancy group) and 42 women with PIH (PIH group) by high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) with electrochemical detection.Results ① Serum tHcy concentrations were significantly lower in normal pregnancy group,(5.91±1.96)μmol/L than those in nonpregnancy group,(7.89±2.62)μmol/L (P<0.001),the lowest level in the second trimester of pregnancy,(5.23±1.88)μmol/L.②Serum tHcy concentrations,(9.40±3.06)μmol/L in PIH group were significantly higher than those in normal pregnancy group,(5.91±1.96)μmol/L(P<0.001).There was a trend that serum tHcy concentrations in PIH group gradually increased as compared with nonpregnancy group(P<0.05,0.01,0

  8. Plants used during pregnancy, childbirth and postpartum healthcare in Lao PDR: A comparative study of the Brou, Saek and Kry ethnic groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de Boer Hugo

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In many Southeast Asian cultures the activities and diet during the postpartum period are culturally dictated and a period of confinement is observed. Plants play an important role in recovery during the postpartum period in diet, traditional medicine, steam bath and mother roasting (where mother and child placed on a bed above a brazier with charcoal embers on which aromatic plants are laid. This research focuses on the use of plants during pregnancy, parturition, postpartum recovery and infant healthcare among three ethnic groups, the Brou, Saek and Kry. It aims to identify culturally important traditions that may facilitate implementation of culturally appropriate healthcare. Methods Data were collected in 10 different villages in Khammouane province, Lao PDR, through group and individual interviews with women by female interviewers. Results A total of 55 different plant species are used in women's healthcare, of which over 90% are used in postpartum recovery. Consensus Analysis rejects the hypothesis that the three ethnic groups belong to a single culture for postpartum plant use, and multidimensional scaling reveals non-overlapping clusters per ethnic group. Conclusion Medicinal plant use is common among the Brou, Saek and Kry to facilitate childbirth, alleviate menstruation problems, assist recovery after miscarriage, mitigate postpartum haemorrhage, aid postpartum recovery, and for use in infant care. The wealth of novel insights into plant use and preparation will help to understand culturally important practices such as confinement, dietary restrictions, mother roasting and herbal steam baths and their incorporation into modern healthcare.

  9. EXPRESSION OF ADHESION MOLECULES ON PERIPHERAL BLOOD MONOCYTES DURING PREGNANCY

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    V. A. Mikhaylova

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Peripheral blood monocytes play a key role in regulation of immune response during pregnancy. Intensive adhesion of monocytes to endothelium proves that monocytes are activated during pregnancy. To determine a potential role of adhesion molecules for ability of monocytes to adhere, we studied expression of CD11a, CD11b, CD11c, CD18, CD49d, CD29 markers of monocytes from non-pregnant and pregnant women. Expression of adhesion molecules on monocytes was analyzed by flow cytometry. The amounts of CD11b-expressing monocytes increased during pregnancy, as compared with non-pregnant women. Intensity of CD11a, CD11b, CD11c, CD29 expression on the monocytes did also increase at normal pregnancy. These results suggest that intense adhesion of monocytes to endothelium during uncomplicated pregnancy may be determined by increased expression of CD11a, CD11b, CD11c, CD29, and higher amounts of CD11b+ monocytes.

  10. The acute phase protein ceruloplasmin as a non-invasive marker of pseudopregnancy, pregnancy, and pregnancy loss in the giant panda.

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    Erin L Willis

    Full Text Available After ovulation, non-pregnant female giant pandas experience pseudopregnancy. During pseudopregnancy, non-pregnant females exhibit physiological and behavioral changes similar to pregnancy. Monitoring hormonal patterns that are usually different in pregnant mammals are not effective at determining pregnancy status in many animals that undergo pseudopregnancy, including the giant panda. Therefore, a physiological test to distinguish between pregnancy and pseudopregnancy in pandas has eluded scientists for decades. We examined other potential markers of pregnancy and found that activity of the acute phase protein ceruloplasmin increases in urine of giant pandas in response to pregnancy. Results indicate that in term pregnancies, levels of active urinary ceruloplasmin were elevated the first week of pregnancy and remain elevated until 20-24 days prior to parturition, while no increase was observed during the luteal phase in known pseudopregnancies. Active ceruloplasmin also increased during ultrasound-confirmed lost pregnancies; however, the pattern was different compared to term pregnancies, particularly during the late luteal phase. In four out of the five additional reproductive cycles included in the current study where females were bred but no birth occurred, active ceruloplasmin in urine increased during the luteal phase. Similar to the known lost pregnancies, the temporal pattern of change in urinary ceruloplasmin during the luteal phase deviated from the term pregnancies suggesting that these cycles may have also been lost pregnancies. Among giant pandas in captivity, it has been presumed that there is a high rate of pregnancy loss and our results are the first to provide evidence supporting this notion.

  11. The effectiveness of group-based comprehensive risk-reduction and abstinence education interventions to prevent or reduce the risk of adolescent pregnancy, human immunodeficiency virus, and sexually transmitted infections: two systematic reviews for the Guide to Community Preventive Services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chin, Helen B; Sipe, Theresa Ann; Elder, Randy; Mercer, Shawna L; Chattopadhyay, Sajal K; Jacob, Verughese; Wethington, Holly R; Kirby, Doug; Elliston, Donna B; Griffith, Matt; Chuke, Stella O; Briss, Susan C; Ericksen, Irene; Galbraith, Jennifer S; Herbst, Jeffrey H; Johnson, Robert L; Kraft, Joan M; Noar, Seth M; Romero, Lisa M; Santelli, John

    2012-03-01

    Adolescent pregnancy, HIV, and other sexually transmitted infections (STIs) are major public health problems in the U.S. Implementing group-based interventions that address the sexual behavior of adolescents may reduce the incidence of pregnancy, HIV, and other STIs in this group. Methods for conducting systematic reviews from the Guide to Community Preventive Services were used to synthesize scientific evidence on the effectiveness of two strategies for group-based behavioral interventions for adolescents: (1) comprehensive risk reduction and (2) abstinence education on preventing pregnancy, HIV, and other STIs. Effectiveness of these interventions was determined by reductions in sexual risk behaviors, pregnancy, HIV, and other STIs and increases in protective sexual behaviors. The literature search identified 6579 citations for comprehensive risk reduction and abstinence education. Of these, 66 studies of comprehensive risk reduction and 23 studies of abstinence education assessed the effects of group-based interventions that address the sexual behavior of adolescents, and were included in the respective reviews. Meta-analyses were conducted for each strategy on the seven key outcomes identified by the coordination team-current sexual activity; frequency of sexual activity; number of sex partners; frequency of unprotected sexual activity; use of protection (condoms and/or hormonal contraception); pregnancy; and STIs. The results of these meta-analyses for comprehensive risk reduction showed favorable effects for all of the outcomes reviewed. For abstinence education, the meta-analysis showed a small number of studies, with inconsistent findings across studies that varied by study design and follow-up time, leading to considerable uncertainty around effect estimates. Based on these findings, group-based comprehensive risk reduction was found to be an effective strategy to reduce adolescent pregnancy, HIV, and STIs. No conclusions could be drawn on the

  12. Exercise during pregnancy: a review of patterns and determinants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaston, Anca; Cramp, Anita

    2011-07-01

    The mental and physical health benefits of exercise during pregnancy highlight the importance of understanding the determinants of pregnant women's physical activity. This paper presents a review of the existing research on pregnancy and physical activity, in order to (a) summarize the existing body of literature since 1986 examining changes in physical activity during pregnancy, (b) summarize correlates and predictors of physical activity during pregnancy, and (c) present directions for future research. A literature search yielded 25 articles published from 1986 to 2009 in English peer-reviewed journals. The major findings were categorized into the following: (a) exercise patterns, (b) demographic correlates/predictors, (c) the influence of pre-pregnancy exercise on pregnancy exercise, (d) theory-based predictors and (f) other correlates of exercise (e.g. general health and safety concerns). Results indicated that pregnant women are less active than non-pregnant women and that pregnancy leads to a decrease in physical activity. Consistent demographic predictors of higher exercise participation during pregnancy include higher education and income, not having other children in the home, being white, and being more active prior to becoming pregnancy. Only a few studies used theoretical models to understand physical activity during pregnancy with varied results. The review outlines demographic and theory-based correlates/predictors that should be taken into consideration when developing interventions to increase physical activity among pregnant women.

  13. Problemas de saúde mental entre jovens grávidas e não-grávidas Mental health problems among pregnant and non-pregnant youth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valéria Garcia Caputo

    2007-08-01

    pregnancy in adolescence. Statistical analysis included Chi-square tests, Fisher's exact test, Mann Whitney's U and logistic regression models. RESULTS: Pregnant and non-pregnant adolescents did not differ in the prevalence of total mental health problems (24.6% vs. 27.3%; p=0.50. Compared to the group of never pregnant adolescents, the group of primiparous presented higher prevalence of anxious/depressive symptoms (24.2% vs. 15.3%; p=0.01 and withdrawn/depressed symptoms (13.0% vs., 4.5%; p<0.001 and there was a greater number of tobacco users (21.3% vs. 11.0%; p=0.002. These differences were confirmed by logistic regression models controlled for maternal education. CONCLUSIONS: Anxiety and depression symptoms and tobacco use were more frequent in pregnant adolescents in comparison to non-pregnant. These problems require special attention from prenatal care services in order to avoid potential damages for the health of mothers and their children.

  14. Drug treatment of hypertension in pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Catherine M; Garovic, Vesna D

    2014-03-01

    Hypertensive disorders represent major causes of pregnancy-related maternal mortality worldwide. Similar to the non-pregnant population, hypertension is the most common medical disorder encountered during pregnancy and is estimated to occur in about 6-8 % of pregnancies. A recent report highlighted hypertensive disorders as one of the major causes of pregnancy-related maternal deaths in the USA, accounting for 579 (12.3 %) of the 4,693 maternal deaths that occurred between 1998 and 2005. In low-income and middle-income countries, preeclampsia and its convulsive form, eclampsia, are associated with 10-15 % of direct maternal deaths. The optimal timing and choice of therapy for hypertensive pregnancy disorders involves carefully weighing the risk-versus-benefit ratio for each individual patient, with an overall goal of improving maternal and fetal outcomes. In this review, we have compared and contrasted the recommendations from different treatment guidelines and outlined some newer perspectives on management. We aim to provide a clinically oriented guide to the drug treatment of hypertension in pregnancy.

  15. Pregnancy and the Acceptability of Computer-Based Versus Traditional Mental Health Treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hantsoo, Liisa; Podcasy, Jessica; Sammel, Mary; Epperson, Cynthia Neill; Kim, Deborah R

    2017-04-20

    Recent recommendations urge increased depression screening in pregnant and postpartum women, potentially increasing demand for treatment. Computer-based psychotherapy treatments may address some of perinatal women's unique mental health treatment needs and barriers. We conducted a quantitative survey of pregnant women (≥12 weeks of gestation) on preferences regarding computer-based therapies compared with traditional therapies (psychotherapy and medication). Nonpregnant women and men served as comparison groups. Participants were provided descriptions of three computer-based therapies: video telehealth therapy (VTT), computer-assisted therapy (CAT), and self-guided online therapy (SGO). Participants were asked to select all options that they would consider for treatment as well as first choice preference. The Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9) assessed current depressive symptomatology, and the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI) assessed psychiatric history. Participants included pregnant females (n = 111), nonpregnant females (n = 147), and males (n = 54). Among pregnant women, 77.5% (n = 86) indicated that they would consider some form of computer-based therapy for mental health treatment during pregnancy; VTT was the most commonly considered, followed by CAT and SGO. When asked to select their preferred intervention, traditional talk therapy was the first choice among all three groups, controlling for treatment history and PHQ-9 score. About one-third of pregnant women chose some form of computer-based therapy as their top choice. While computer-based therapies were acceptable to most pregnant women in this sample, traditional talk therapy was the preferred option. Future research should consider how to tailor computer-based therapies to the unique needs of perinatal women.

  16. Selenium and vitamin E modulates radiation-induced liver toxicity in pregnant and nonpregnant rat: effects of colemanite and hematite shielding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gençel, Osman; Naziroglu, Mustafa; Celik, Omer; Yalman, Kadir; Bayram, Dilek

    2010-06-01

    The levels of liver lipid peroxidation, glutathione peroxidase, reduced glutathione, and vitamins A and E were used to follow the level of oxidative damage caused by ionizing radiation in pregnant rats. The possible protective effects of selenium and vitamin E supplemented to rats housed in concrete-protected cages using hematite and colemanite were tested and compared to untreated controls. Ninety-six rats were randomly divided into four main equal groups namely control (A), normal concrete (B), concrete containing colemanite (C), and concrete containing hematite (D). Except group A, all groups exposed to 7 Gy radiation. The four main groups were divided into four subgroups each as follows: subgroups 1 (n = 6): nonpregnant control rats. Subgroups 2 (n = 6): selenium and vitamin E combination was intraperitoneally (i.p.) given to the nonpregnant rats for 20 days. Subgroups 3 (n = 6): pregnant control rats. Subgroups 4 (n = 6): selenium and vitamin E combination was i.p. given to the pregnant rats for concessive 20 days. Lactate dehydrogenate, alkaline phosphates, and lipid peroxidation values were higher in subgroups 1 and 3 than in no radiation group although glutathione peroxidase and vitamin E levels in liver were lower in radiation group than in no radiation group. Lactate dehydrogenate activity and lipid peroxidation levels were found to be decreased in subgroups 2 and 4 protected with concrete containing hematite and colemanite when compared to subgroup 1 and 3 with normal concrete. The radiation doses in rats housed by concrete without colemanite and hematite exposed radiation clearly showed liver degeneration. In conclusion, selenium and vitamin E supplementations and housing by concrete with colemanite was found to offer protection against gamma-irradiation-induced liver damage and oxidative stress in rats, probably by exerting a protective effect against liver necrosis via its free radical scavenging and membrane stabilizing. Protective effects of

  17. A study at 10 medical centers of the safety and efficacy of 48 flexible sigmoidoscopies and 8 colonoscopies during pregnancy with follow-up of fetal outcome and with comparison to control groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cappell, M S; Colon, V J; Sidhom, O A

    1996-12-01

    To analyze the risks versus benefits of flexible sigmoidoscopy and colonoscopy to the pregnant female and fetus, we conducted a multiyear, retrospective study at 10 hospitals of 46 patients undergoing 48 sigmoidoscopies and 8 patients undergoing 8 colonoscopies during pregnancy. Sigmoidoscopy controls included two study control groups and the average American pregnancy outcomes. Sigmoidoscopy indications included hematochezia in 28, diarrhea in 10, abdominal pain in 4, and other in 3. Thirteen patients were in the first trimester of pregnancy, 18 were in the second trimester, and 15 were in the third trimester. Twenty-seven patients had a lesion diagnosed by sigmoidoscopy, including reactivated or newly diagnosed inflammatory bowel disease, bleeding internal hemorrhoids, and other colitidies. Twenty-two of 29 patients with rectal bleeding had a significant lesion identified by sigmoidoscopy. Sigmoidoscopy was significantly more frequently diagnostic for hematochezia than for other indications (p born infant Apgar scores were 8.2+/-1.5 (SD) at 1 min and 9.0+/-0.2 at 5 min (control mean Apgar scores: 8.1+/-1.7 at 1 min and 8.8+/-1.0 at 5 min; NS, Student's t test). Three high-risk pregnancies ended with fetal demise at 8, 9, or 12 weeks after sigmoidoscopy, from causes unrelated to sigmoidoscopy. No fetal cardiac abnormalities were detected by fetal cardiac monitoring during two sigmoidoscopies. Eight pregnant females underwent colonoscopy, without complications. Pregnancy outcomes included six healthy babies delivered at full term, one voluntary abortion, and one fetal demise in a high-risk pregnancy 4 months after colonoscopy from causes unrelated to colonoscopy. This study suggests that sigmoidoscopy does not induce labor or result in congenital malformations, that sigmoidoscopy is not contraindicated during pregnancy, and that sigmoidoscopy may be beneficial in pregnant patients with significant lower gastrointestinal bleeding. Colonoscopy during pregnancy should

  18. Long-Term Outcomes of Systemic Lupus Erythematous Patients after Pregnancy: A Nationwide Population-Based Cohort Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Ting-Fang; Chuang, Ya-Wen; Lin, Cheng-Li; Yu, Tung-Min; Chung, Mu-Chi; Li, Chi-Yuan; Chung, Chi-Jung; Ho, Wen-Chao

    2016-01-01

    Background Data on long-term maternal outcomes in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) are lacking. The study aimed to explore the relationships among SLE, pregnancy, outcomes of end-stage renal disease (ESRD), and overall mortality. Methods We established a retrospective cohort study consisting of four cohorts: pregnant (case cohort) and nonpregnant SLE patients, as well as pregnant and nonpregnant non-SLE patients. One case cohort and three comparison cohorts were matched by age at first pregnancy and index date of pregnancy by using the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Dataset. All study subjects were selected based on the index date to the occurrence of ESRD or overall death. Cox proportional hazard regression models and Kaplan–Meier curves were used in the analysis. Results SLE pregnant patients exhibited significantly increased risk of ESRD after adjusting for other important confounders, including immunosuppressant and parity (HR = 3.19, 95% CI: 1.35–7.52 for pregnant non-SLE; and HR = 2.77, 95% CI: 1.24–6.15 for nonpregnant non-SLE patients). No significant differences in ESRD incidence were observed in pregnant and nonpregnant SLE patients. Pregnant SLE patients exhibited better clinical condition at the baseline and a significantly lower risk of overall mortality than nonpregnant SLE patients. Conclusions Our data support current recommendations for SLE patients to avoid pregnancy until disease activity is quiescent. Multicenter recruitment and clinical information can be used to further examine the association of SLE and ESRD (or mortality) after pregnancy. PMID:27992461

  19. Regulatory T cells protect from autoimmune arthritis during pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munoz-Suano, Alba; Kallikourdis, Marinos; Sarris, Milka; Betz, Alexander G

    2012-05-01

    Pregnancy frequently has a beneficial effect on the autoimmune disease Rheumatoid Arthritis, ranging from improvement in clinical symptoms to complete remission. Despite decades of study, a mechanistic explanation remains elusive. Here, we demonstrate that an analogous pregnancy-induced remission can be observed in a mouse model of arthritis. We demonstrate that during pregnancy mice are protected from collagen-induced arthritis, but are still capable of launching normal immune responses to influenza infections. We examine the role of regulatory T (T(R)) cells in this beneficial effect. T(R) cells are essential for many aspects of immune tolerance, including the suppression of autoimmune responses. Remarkably, transfer of regulatory T cells from pregnant 'protected' mice was sufficient to confer protection to non-pregnant mice. These results suggest that regulatory T cells are responsible for the pregnancy-induced amelioration of arthritis.

  20. Resynchronization with unknown pregnancy status using progestin-based timed artificial insemination protocol in beef cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sá Filho, M F; Marques, M O; Girotto, R; Santos, F A; Sala, R V; Barbuio, J P; Baruselli, P S

    2014-01-15

    Two experiments were designed to evaluate the use of resynchronization (RESYNCH) protocols using a progestin-based timed artificial insemination (TAI) protocol in beef cattle. In experiment 1, 475 cyclic Nelore heifers were resynchronized 22 days after the first TAI using two different inducers of new follicular wave emergence (estradiol benzoate [EB; n = 241] or GnRH [n = 234]) with the insertion of a norgestomet ear implant. At ear implant removal (7 days later), a pregnancy test was performed, and nonpregnant heifers received a dose of prostaglandin plus 0.5 mg of estradiol cypionate, with a timed insemination 48 hours later. The pregnancy rate after the first TAI was similar (P = 0.97) between treatments (EB [41.9%] vs. GnRH [41.5%]). However, EB-treated heifers (49.3%) had a greater (P = 0.04) pregnancy per AI (P/AI) after the resynchronization than the GnRH-treated heifers (37.2%). In experiment 2, the pregnancy loss in 664 zebu females (344 nonlactating cows and 320 cyclic heifers) between 30 and 60 days after resynchronization was evaluated. Females were randomly assigned to one of two groups (RESYNCH 22 days after the first TAI [n = 317] or submitted only to natural mating [NM; n = 347]). Females from the NM group were maintained with bulls from 15 to 30 days after the first TAI. The RESYNC-treated females were resynchronized 22 days after the first TAI using 1 mg of EB on the first day of the resynchronization, similar to experiment 1. No difference was found in P/AI (NM [57.1%] vs. RESYNC [61.5%]; P = 0.32) or pregnancy loss (NM [2.0%] vs. RESYNC [4.1%]; P = 0.21) after the first TAI. Moreover, the overall P/AI after the RESYNCH protocol was 47.5%. Thus, the administration of 1 mg of EB on day 22 after the first TAI, when the pregnancy status was undetermined, promotes a higher P/AI in the resynchronized TAI than the use of GnRH. Also, the administration of 1 mg of EB 22 days after the TAI did not affect the preestablished pregnancy.

  1. Reducing teenage pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fallon, Debbie

    2011-03-01

    The Teenage Pregnancy Independent Advisory Group (TPIAG) was established in 2000 to advise the government about reducing teenage pregnancy rates and supporting teenage parents to continue with their education. The group reached the end of its tenure in December 2010. This short article highlights some of the key issues from the final report and provides some insights into past achievements and future directions from an interview with Gill Frances, TPIAG's chair.

  2. Olfactory perception in women with physiologically altered hormonal status (during pregnancy and postmenopause

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Savović Slobodan N.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Olfaction is considered to be the ability to: perceive, conduct and recognize scents and odors. With its numerous connections to the limbic system and reticular formation, the olfactory system affects regulation of numerous vegetative functions, visceral functions and sexual behavior. Since estrogen and progesterone protect the olfactory function, changes in their levels in particular physiological states in women (in pregnancy and postmenopause exert an influence on the ability to feel and recognize smells. It has its role in creating emotions and adjustment of visceral and vegetative response to particular emotional states. Also, it represents the connection between higher cortical functions and the endocrine system. Material and methods Our investigation was performed at the Ear, Nose and Throat Clinic in Novi Sad. The research included 80 healthy women classified into 4 groups; 20 women aged between 20 and 30; 20 women in the first trimester of pregnancy aged between 20 and 30; 20 premenopausal women aged between 41 and 50; and 20 women at least 3 years in postmenopause, aged between 41 and 50. For our research we used an olfactometer and the Fortunato-Niccolini method. Results and discussion In pregnancy the thresholds of perception (TP and identification (TI of examined substances were slightly lower in comparison to nonpregnant women of the same ages, but without any statistical significance (p>0.05. In climacteric-postmenopausal women there was a significant decrease of olfactory ability in comparison to nonmenopausal women of the same ages (p<0.01. Conclusion All changes of the olfactory function in pregnancy are explained by mental changes of pregnant women as well as their hormonal status. Significant decrease of olfactory ability in postmenopause is explained by decline in sexual hormone levels.

  3. Not only pregnancy but also the number of fetuses in the uterus affects intraocular pressure

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    Metin Saylik

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To investigate whether, intraocular pressure (IOP is affected when there is a second fetus in the uterus during pregnancy. Materials and Methods: Eighty eyes of 40 twin pregnancies (TwPs, 80 eyes of 40 singleton pregnancies (SiPs and 80 eyes of 40 non-pregnant females (NoPs were included in the study. Statistical Analysis: Repeated measurements analysis of variance with two factors, one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA and theTukey′s multiple comparison test were used. Results: The mean IOP (MIOP values in TwPs were 14.29 ± 1.28, 11.48 ± 1.20, and 9.81 ± 1.36 mmHg and the MIOP values in SiPs were 14.42 ± 0.95, 13.12 ± 0.75, and 10.97 ± 0.89 mmHg in subsequent trimesters. The MIOP values in NoPs were 14.77 ± 1.18, 14.92 ± 1.33, and 15.08 ± 0.89 mmHg in subsequent 3-month measurements. The results show that the MIOP values for the TwPs group were significantly lower than the SiPs in all trimesters. Conclusions: During pregnancy, the number of fetuses in the uterus is an indirectly important factor that influences the decrease in IOP. We hypothesize that the increased ocular hypotensive effect of TwPs is most likely related to the presence of higher levels of hormones, particularly estrogen, progesterone and relaxin compared with SiPs.

  4. Effects of Sperm Acrosomal Integrity and Protamine Deficiency on In Vitro Fertilization and Pregnancy Rate

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    Marziyeh Tavalaee

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The objective of this study was to evaluate the relationship between protaminedeficiency, and acrosomal integrity with fertilization and pregnancy rate in patients undergone in vitrofertilization (IVF.Material &Methods: Semen samples from 70 infertile couples undergoing IVF at Isfahan Fertility andInfertility center were assessed in this study. Semen analysis was carried out according to WHO criteria.Protamine deficiency, Sperm morphology and acrosin activity were assessed by Chromomycin A3(CMA3, Papanicolaou staining and Gelatinolysis tests, respectively. Coefficients of correlation andstudent t-test were carried out using the Statistical Package for the Social Studies (SPSS 11.5 and Pvaluelower than 0.05 was considered as significant.Results: Fertilization rate, percentage of halo formation, mean halo diameter and abnormalmorphology show a significant correlation with percentage of CMA3 positivity. CMA3 positivity,percentage of halo, mean halo and sperm morphology showed a significant correlation with fertilizationrate. Among the aforementioned parameters percentage of halo had the highest correlation. In thepresent study patients were divided into two groups according to pregnancy status. None of the studiedparameters were significantly different between pregnant and non-pregnant patients. However,percentage of halo formation showed a slightly significant difference (r=0.306; P=0.058.Conclusion: The results of this study revealed that, even though sperm morphology, sperm protaminecontent and acrosome formation are events related to spermiogenesis, sperm acrosomal integrityassessed by percentage of halo formation has more profound effect on fertilization rate and pregnancyoutcome during IVF procedure.

  5. How I treat acute and chronic leukemia in pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapira, Tal; Pereg, David; Lishner, Michael

    2008-09-01

    The prevalence of pregnancy associated leukemia is approximately 1 case out of 10,000 pregnancies. This rare occurrence precludes the conducting of large, prospective studies to examine diagnostic, management and outcome issues. The treatment of a pregnant woman with leukemia may be associated with severe adverse fetal outcome including death and malformations, and therefore poses a difficult challenge for both the patient and the attending physician. Chemotherapy during the 1st trimester is associated with an increased risk for congenital malformations. However, this risk diminishes as pregnancy advances. When acute leukemia is diagnosed during the 1st trimester, patients should be treated promptly similar to non-pregnant patients. However, the aggressive induction therapy should follow pregnancy termination. When the diagnosis is made later in pregnancy standard chemotherapy regimen should be considered and usually pregnancy termination is not mandatory. However, both the mother and the fetus should be under close observation and delivery should be postponed to a non-cytopenic period. Pregnancy associated chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) can be treated with interferon throughout pregnancy with no apparent increase in adverse fetal outcome. In the very rare case of chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) during pregnancy treatment can usually be delayed until after delivery.

  6. Necessity of the detection of blood group antibody titers during pregnancy%血型抗体效价在孕期检测的必要性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭素琼; 张术华; 刘峰; 程必蕴

    2015-01-01

    Objective To explore the necessity of the detection of blood group antibody titers during pregnan‐cy .Methods 98 cases of pregnant women were selected as subjects in the study ,whose blood groups were type O in prenatal testing .The blood group antibody titers of these pregnant women were tested .The blood group test ,hemol‐ysis test and bilirubin detection were processed in 98 cases of newborns as soon as birth .The relationship between blood group antibody in pregnant women and hemolytic disease of newborns (HDN) was evaluated synthetically .Re‐sults The titer of blood group antibody in pregnant women was positively correlated with the incidence of HDN of their children ( P 0 .05) .Conclusion The blood group titer detection processing during pregnancy is helpful to find maternal - fetal blood group incompatibility cases and to reduce HDN incidence .%目的:探讨孕期检测孕妇血型抗体效价的必要性。方法以产前检测均为 O 型血的98例孕妇作为研究对象,予以血型抗体效价检测。对98例新生儿出生后行血型血清学检查、溶血试验及胆红素检测,对孕妇血型抗体与新生儿溶血病(HDN)发病率的关系进行综合评判。结果孕妇血型抗体滴度与 HDN 发病率呈正相关(P<0.05)。将父母血型不合的新生儿(母‐父‐婴)分为3组:O‐A‐A 组、O‐B‐B 组、O‐AB‐A /O‐AB‐B 组,各组 HDN发病率分别为45.5%、34.2%、33.3%,差异无统计学意义(P>0.05)。结论孕期进行血型抗体效价的检测,可以及早发现母婴血型不合的问题,降低 HDN 发病率。

  7. Quantitative analysis of hormones and inflammatory cytokines in Chlamydia trachomatis-infected women with tubal ectopic pregnancy and early intrauterine pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruijin Shao

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In this data, non-pregnant women during the menstrual cycle, women with normal intrauterine pregnancy (IUP, and women with tubal ectopic pregnancy (EP after informed consent were included. The serum levels of 17β-estradiol, progesterone, testosterone, beta-human chorionic gonadotropin, interleukin (IL-1β, IL-4, IL-6, IL-7, IL-8, IL-10, tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα, and interferon-γ (IFN-γ, epidermal growth factor, the Chlamydia (C. trachomatis IgG and HSP60 were analyzed. Receiver operating characteristic analysis was used to assess the diagnostic discrimination of tubal EP and gestational age-matched IUP. Our data show that C. trachomatis infection is associated with IL-8 levels, which had excellent discriminative validity in positively identifying tubal EP (concomitant with C. trachomatis infection from IUP and non-pregnant conditions regardless of C. trachomatis infection.

  8. Glucose kinetics in nondiabetic and diabetic women during the third trimester of pregnancy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cowett, R.M.; Susa, J.B.; Kahn, C.B.; Giletti, B.; Oh, W.; Schwartz, R.

    1983-08-01

    Glucose kinetics were measured during the third trimester of pregnancy in nine nondiabetic women, nine insulin-dependent diabetic women, six gestational diabetic women, and five control women (nonpregnant, nondiabetic) after an overnight fast. The patients not dependent on insulin were diagnosed as diabetic by oral glucose tolerance tests during the third trimester. The turnover studies were repeated post partum (6 weeks to 5 months after delivery) in 14 of the 24 pregnant subjects. All pregnant groups had a progressive fall in plasma glucose concentration during the study, but there was a steady state of plasma glucose concentration during the turnover period. In comparison to the control subjects, both the pregnant nondiabetic and pregnant insulin-dependent diabetic women had significantly higher plasma insulin concentrations throughout the study There were no differences in the glucose turnover rate between any of the pregnant groups and the control group of women patients were studied post partum, the glucose turnover rate was similar when referenced to body weight; however, because of a 9.6% to 14.5% fall in weight post partum, the absolute valueds were h in the pregnant women. We conclude that, in the basal state after an overnight fast, (1) both nondiabetic and diabetic patients accelerated their glucose turnover rate during pregnancy to provide for increased maternal and fetoplacental metabolic requirements, and (2) in the diabetic subjects the nearly normal plasma glucose and insulin concentrations and other metabolic parameters, as well as the glucose turnover rate, suggested good metabolic control during pregnancy in most of the insulin-dependent and in all of the gestational diabetic patients.

  9. [Neuroinfections and pregnancy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gusev, V A; Koniaeva, V V

    1985-01-01

    The course of neuroinfections (both acute and chronic) associated with pregnancy was studied in a series of 156 women. The patients were divided into two groups. Out of the 36 women comprising the first group who fell ill during gestation, 12 had a fulminant course of the disease with five lethal cases, 24 women had a subacute course and pregnancy progressed to a normal delivery. The second group included 120 patients who conceived in the presence of the residual manifestations of the previous cerebral arachnoiditis, arachnoencephalitis, encephalitis and diencephalitis. The authors describe the clinical course of the residual forms of neuroinfections in relation to pregnancy, parturition and puerperium and offer recommendations on the obstetrical management of pregnancy complicated by neuroinfections.

  10. Molar Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... may check for other medical problems, including: Preeclampsia Hyperthyroidism Anemia A molar pregnancy can't continue as a normal viable pregnancy. To prevent complications, the molar tissue must be removed. Treatment usually consists of one or more of the ...

  11. Ectopic Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... woman is pregnant. If you have an ectopic pregnancy, the fertilized egg grows in the wrong place, ... tubes. The result is usually a miscarriage. Ectopic pregnancy can be a medical emergency if it ruptures. ...

  12. Teenage Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... plan to get pregnant, but many do. Teen pregnancies carry extra health risks to both the mother ... later on. They have a higher risk for pregnancy-related high blood pressure and its complications. Risks ...

  13. Ectopic Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Health Growth & Development Infections Diseases & Conditions Pregnancy & Baby Nutrition & Fitness Emotions & Behavior School & Family Life First Aid & ... low blood pressure (also caused by blood loss) lower back pain continue What Causes an Ectopic Pregnancy? An ectopic ...

  14. Serum Copper and Plasma Protein Status in Normal Pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nushrat Noor, Nasim Jahan, Nayma Sultana

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available AbstractBackground: Gradual alteration of serum copper and some plasma protein levels may occur with advancement of pregnancy, which is associated with increased maternal and infant morbidity and mortality.Objective: To observe serum copper and plasma protein levels in normal pregnant women of different trimesters in order to find out their nutritional status.Methods: This cross sectional study was carried out in the Department of Physiology, Sir Salimullah Medical College (SSMC, Dhaka, between 1st January 2010 and December 2010. Ninety normal pregnant women of different trimesters with age 20-30 years were included in the study group. They were selected from Out Patient Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, SSMC. Age matched 30 non-pregnant women were taken as control. Serum copper level was measured by Spectrophotometric method, serum total protein and albumin levels were estimated by standard method. Statistical analysis was done by one way ANOVA, Bonferroni and Pearson’s correlation coefficient test as applicable.Results: Serum Cu levels were significantly higher in all trimesters of pregnant women compared to control. Again, this value was significantly higher in 3rd trimester than that of in 1st and 2nd trimester and also in 2nd trimester than that of in 1st trimester. In addition, mean serum total protein level was significantly lower in 3rd trimester than control but no statistically significant difference was observed among different trimesters. Again, mean serum albumin level was significantly lower in 2nd and 3rd trimester than 1st trimester and control. In addition, serum Cu concentration showed significant positive correlation with different trimesters of gestation.Conclusion: This study reveals that hypercupremia along with hypoproteinemia occur in pregnant women from 1st to 3rd trimester of gestation. This gradual alteration of micro and macronutrients become more profound with advancement of pregnancy.

  15. Successful Treatment of Both Mother and Infant in Pregnancy-Associated Group A Streptococcal Toxic Shock Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takayuki Tanaka

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available All perinatal cases of group A streptococcal toxic shock syndrome (STSS previously documented in English literature have been fatal for the mother, the fetus or both. We present the first report of successful treatment of a mother-infant pair with perinatal STSS. A pregnant woman developed STSS at 34 weeks’ gestation 3 h after delivery, following a 25-h history of fever and sore throat. The patient received intravenous penicillin, clindamycin and immnoglobulins and continuous hemodialysis, along with numerous supportive agents during early clinical course. The newborn infant was born with mild asphyxia and developed transient tachypnea. Both mother and infant survived without any sequelae. Streptococcus pyogenes was isolated from the patient’s blood, nasopharynx of the infant and throat of two family members. These strains were identically type T1M1 (emm1 and produced streptococcal pyrogenic exotoxins A (SPEA and B. SPEA was remarkably elevated in the maternal blood, but not in the infant’s blood. Extremely low serum anti-SPEA antibody levels might have predisposed the mother to severe invasive infection. This case highlights the importance of early recognition, prompt and intensive multimodal therapy and rapid delivery before a transfer of pathogen and its toxin to the fetus.

  16. [Immune response and reproductive consequences in experimentally infected ewes with Brucella ovis during late pregnancy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paolicchi, Fernando A; Nuñez, Marta; Fiorentino, María A; Malena, Rosana C; Trangoni, Marcos; Cravero, Silvio; Estein, Silvia M

    2013-01-01

    Ovine brucellosis by Brucella ovis is a highly prevalent disease in Argentina. This study aimed to evaluate the pathogenicity of B. ovis and the serological response in ewes during late pregnancy and in their offspring. Six adult ewes were distributed in two groupsG1 (pregnant females, n = 4) and G2 (nonpregnant females, n = 2). Three pregnant ewes at 15 days prepartum and one nonpregnant eve were inoculated with B. ovis. Sera of sheep and their offspring were analyzed by different serological tests. Samples of cervicovaginal mucus, placenta and milk were studied by bacteriology. A Brucella genus-specific PCR assay was carried out in placenta and milk samples. Placenta samples were hystopathologically processed. g1 females gave birth to live lambs, but one died hours postpartum. Serological techniques employed detected antibodies in serum of inoculated pregnant animal 5 days postchallenge. sera of female controls G1 and G2 remained negative throughout the study. Cervicovaginal mucus of infected ewes in G1 and G2 yielded negative results to bacteriology, but B. ovis was isolated from milk. The PCR assay was positive for the placenta and milk from inoculated pregnant ewes. Histopathology revealed necrotic suppurative placentitis in one placenta. However, although results demonstrated that B. ovis can invade the placenta and mammary gland, this bacterium did not cause abortion when it was inoculated intravenously at 15 days prepartum. B. ovis infection induced an early humoral response in pregnant ewes, but their lambs remained seronegative, indicating that there was no transfer of antibodies in infancy. Placenta colonization and milk excretion of B. ovis involves a potential source of infection for lambs, which could play a role as latent carriers of infection.

  17. Pregnancy-related changes in the mouse oviduct and uterus revealed by differential binding of fluoresceinated lectins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, M C; Wu, T C; Wan, Y J; Damjanov, I

    1983-01-01

    The binding of 20 fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC)-labeled lectins to various portions of the pregnant and non-pregnant murine oviduct and uterus was studied by fluorescence microscopy. Five lectins (from Ricinus communis (RCA-I), Maclura pomifera (MPA), Triticum vulgare (wheat germ-WGA), Bauhinia purpurea (BPA), and Ulex europeus (UEA-I] reacted differentially with the epithelium of pregnant as compared with the non-pregnant uterus. The binding of RCA-I, MPA and WGA delineated pregnancy-related changes in the distal oviduct and colliculus tubaris. WGA recognized also pregnancy related changes in the proximal oviduct. The reactivity of the remaining 15 lectins did not distinguish the pregnant and non-pregnant oviduct and uterus, although some of them served to identify specific components of the mouse genital tract. Thus, Soybean lectin (SBA) reacted almost exclusively with the colliculus tubaris. UEA-I alone reacted exclusively with the epithelium of the non-pregnant uterus. RCA-II reacted preferentially with the epithelium of the oviduct and uterus as compared with its weak reactivity with the stroma. Two lectins (from Pisum sativum and Lens culinaris) reacted selectively with stromal cells of the uterus and oviduct. Present data indicate that the differential binding properties of these FITC-labeled lectins can be exploited to identify certain components of the mouse oviduct and uterus and to indicate changes in the cell surface and/or cytoplasm in these structures during pregnancy.

  18. Effect of nebivolol treatment during pregnancy on the intrauterine fetal growth, mortality and pup postnatal development in the l-NAME-induced hypertensive rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altoama, Kassem; Mallem, Mohamed Yassine; Thorin, Chantal; Betti, Eric; Desfontis, Jean-Claude

    2016-11-15

    The present study was carried out to evaluate the effect of nebivolol vs. bisoprolol treatment on the intrauterine fetal growth, mortality and postnatal development in N(ω)-Nitro-l-arginine methyl ester hydrochloride (l-NAME)-induced hypertensive rats. Hypertension was induced in normotensive pregnant Wistar rats by daily administration of l-NAME (100mg/kg/day, in the drinking water) for the period of pregnancy. After 9 days of l-NAME treatment, rats with systolic and diastolic blood pressure (SBP and DBP) more than 140/90mmHg were considered hypertensive. Then, some of them were treated from day 11 to day 18 of pregnancy with nebivolol (8mg/kg/day) or bisoprolol (10mg/kg/day) via oral gavage. SBP, DBP and heart rate (HR) were re-evaluated by tail cuff method on day 19 of pregnancy and morphometrical or histological studies were performed on day 20. In addition, the mortality and postnatal development of newborn pups were assessed in all groups. The l-NAME administration during pregnancy induced an increase in SBP and DBP while HR did not change. Nebivolol or bisoprolol treatment completely prevented the elevation of SBP and DBP induced by l-NAME with a reduction in HR in pregnant and non-pregnant rats. The intra-uterine fetal growth and the postnatal development of newborn rats in nebivolol-treated hypertensive group were significantly lower vs. control and higher vs. bisoprolol-treated group with a higher mortality in the both types of treatments vs. control rats. The nebivolol and bisoprolol administration produce adverse effects on fetal growth and postnatal development, that limits their therapeutic use in females during pregnancy.

  19. Group B streptococcal bacteriuria during pregnancy as a risk factor for maternal intrapartum colonization: a prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Moreno, Mar Olga; Picó-Plana, Ester; Grande-Armas, Jesús; Centelles-Serrano, Mª José; Arasa-Subero, Mercé; Ochoa, Núria Colomé-; Led By Mo Pérez-Moreno, Members Of The Study Group Gessagte

    2017-04-01

    Current evidence is inconclusive regarding the intrapartum administration of chemoprophylaxis, merely based on the presence of group B streptococcal (GBS) bacteriuria of any colony count, in the prevention of early-onset neonatal GBS infection. The aim of this study was to assess whether GBS bacteriuria is a risk factor for intrapartum colonization (IPC) regardless of urinary concentration or the results of late third-trimester rectovaginal screening cultures (RVSCs). Six hundred and eight pregnant women, with urine specimens cultured between May 2011 and May 2013, were enrolled in this prospective cohort study. RVSCs were available for 582 women and intrapartum rectovaginal cultures for 246. The prevalence of GBS bacteriuria and positive RVSCs was 10.8 and 16.5 %, respectively. The frequency of IPC was 15.9 % (39/246). Sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values of urine culture and of RVSC in predicting GBS IPC were 41, 94.7, 59.3 and 89.5 %, and 76.9, 95.4, 76.9 and 95.4 %, respectively. GBS bacteriuria was significantly associated with IPC, overall [relative risk (RR) 5.6] and in women with negative RVSC (RR 8.5), with bacteriuria bacteriuria and IPC. GBS bacteriuria is a risk factor for IPC, irrespective of urinary GBS concentration or of colonization status at late gestation. Therefore, microbiology laboratories should search, and report, GBS of any colony count in urine from pregnant women, and not only in the presence of ≥104 c.f.u. ml-1 as the 2010 CDC guidelines recommend.

  20. Soluble Flt-1 and PlGF: new markers of early pregnancy loss?

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Muttukrishna, Shanthi

    2012-01-31

    Recent data have indicated a relationship between placental oxygen and angiogenic protein levels in the first trimester of normal pregnancies. Our objective was to investigate if maternal serum levels of angiogenic factors Soluble vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) receptor 1 (sFlt-1), soluble Endoglin and placental growth factor (PlGF) are altered in women with symptoms of threatened miscarriage (TM) and if they are predictive of a subsequent miscarriage. Blood samples were collected at 6-10 weeks from women presenting with TM (n = 40), from asymptomatic controls (n = 32) and from non- pregnant women in their luteal phase (n = 14). All samples were assayed for serum level of sFLT-1, PlGF, sEndoglin and HSP70 using commercial ELISAs. Samples were analysed retrospectively on the basis of pregnancy outcome. TM group included 21 women with a normal pregnancy outcome and 19 with subsequent complete miscarriage. The latter subgroup had significantly lower mean maternal serum (MS) sFlt-1 (83%, P<0.001) and PlGF (44%, P<0.001) compared to those with a normal pregnancy outcome. Asymptomatic control pregnant women had similar MS levels of sFlt-1 and PlGF compared to the TM patients with a normal outcome. The mean MS sFlt-1 (>10 fold) and MS PlGF ( approximately 2 fold) levels were significantly (P<0.001) higher in control pregnant women compared to the non-pregnant group in the luteal phase of the menstrual cycle. Soluble Endoglin was not altered in the normal pregnant women compared to non pregnant women, although lower in the TM subgroup with a subsequent miscarriage ( approximately 25%, P<0.001) compared to TM with a live birth. There was no significant difference in the mean MS HSP 70 levels between the different groups. This study shows that sFlt1 and PlGF MS levels are increased by several folds in early pregnancy and that MS sFlt-1 and MS PlGF are markedly decreased in threatened miscarriage patients who subsequently have a miscarriage suggesting these

  1. Soluble Flt-1 and PlGF: new markers of early pregnancy loss?

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Muttukrishna, Shanthi

    2011-01-01

    Recent data have indicated a relationship between placental oxygen and angiogenic protein levels in the first trimester of normal pregnancies. Our objective was to investigate if maternal serum levels of angiogenic factors Soluble vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) receptor 1 (sFlt-1), soluble Endoglin and placental growth factor (PlGF) are altered in women with symptoms of threatened miscarriage (TM) and if they are predictive of a subsequent miscarriage. Blood samples were collected at 6-10 weeks from women presenting with TM (n = 40), from asymptomatic controls (n = 32) and from non- pregnant women in their luteal phase (n = 14). All samples were assayed for serum level of sFLT-1, PlGF, sEndoglin and HSP70 using commercial ELISAs. Samples were analysed retrospectively on the basis of pregnancy outcome. TM group included 21 women with a normal pregnancy outcome and 19 with subsequent complete miscarriage. The latter subgroup had significantly lower mean maternal serum (MS) sFlt-1 (83%, P<0.001) and PlGF (44%, P<0.001) compared to those with a normal pregnancy outcome. Asymptomatic control pregnant women had similar MS levels of sFlt-1 and PlGF compared to the TM patients with a normal outcome. The mean MS sFlt-1 (>10 fold) and MS PlGF (∼2 fold) levels were significantly (P<0.001) higher in control pregnant women compared to the non-pregnant group in the luteal phase of the menstrual cycle. Soluble Endoglin was not altered in the normal pregnant women compared to non pregnant women, although lower in the TM subgroup with a subsequent miscarriage (∼25%, P<0.001) compared to TM with a live birth. There was no significant difference in the mean MS HSP 70 levels between the different groups. This study shows that sFlt1 and PlGF MS levels are increased by several folds in early pregnancy and that MS sFlt-1 and MS PlGF are markedly decreased in threatened miscarriage patients who subsequently have a miscarriage suggesting these proteins are

  2. Clinical guidelines for management of thyroid nodule and cancer during pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galofré, Juan Carlos; Riesco-Eizaguirre, Garcilaso; Alvarez-Escolá, Cristina

    2014-03-01

    Special considerations are warranted in management of thyroid nodule and thyroid cancer during pregnancy. The diagnostic and therapeutic approach of thyroid nodules follows the standard practice in non-pregnant women. On the other hand, differentiated thyroid cancer management during pregnancy poses a number of challenges for the mother and fetus. The available data show that pregnancy is not a risk factor for thyroid cancer development or recurrence, although flare-ups cannot be completely ruled out in women with active disease. If surgery is needed, it should be performed during the second term or, preferably, after delivery. A majority of pregnant patients with low-risk disease only need adjustment in levothyroxine therapy. However, women with increased serum thyroglobulin levels before pregnancy or structural disease require regular thyroglobulin measurements and neck ultrasound throughout pregnancy. Pregnancy is an absolute contraindication for radioactive iodine administration.

  3. Papillary thyroid microcarcinoma might progress during pregnancy.

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    Shindo, Hisakazu; Amino, Nobuyuki; Ito, Yasuhiro; Kihara, Minoru; Kobayashi, Kaoru; Miya, Akihiro; Hirokawa, Mitsuyoshi; Miyauchi, Akira

    2014-05-01

    Papillary thyroid cancer occasionally occurs in women of childbearing age. As papillary thyroid microcarcinoma (PTMC) rarely grows or becomes clinically apparent, observation without surgery is an appropriate strategy for patients with low-risk PTMC. Human chorionic gonadotropin possesses weak thyroid-stimulating activity. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of pregnancy on PTMC. We studied 9 patients with PTMC who became pregnant between 2005 and 2011. Twenty-seven age-matched nonpregnant female PTMC patients from a database we used in our previous report served as controls. Tumor enlargement was defined as an increase in the diameter of the tumor of 3 mm or more. PTMC enlargement occurred in 44.4% (4/9 patients) of the pregnant subjects, whereas it occurred only in 11.1% (3/27 patients) of the controls (p=0.0497). Three of the pregnant patients who exhibited tumor enlargement underwent surgery after delivery. No relationship was detected between the changes in the serum thyroglobulin level, the serum thyrotropin level, and tumor size during pregnancy. Immunohistochemical examinations did not detect the estrogen receptor in the tumors of the three patients who underwent surgery. This study is an initial report indicating that the risk of PTMC enlargement might increase during pregnancy. PTMC should be carefully followed-up for possible disease aggravation during pregnancy. Even if a PTMC enlarges during pregnancy, the patient's prognosis will probably not worsen.

  4. Impact of pregnancy on underlying renal disease.

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    Baylis, Chris

    2003-01-01

    Normal pregnancy involves marked renal vasodilation and large increases in glomerular filtration rate (GFR). Studies in rats reveal that the gestational renal vasodilation is achieved by parallel reductions in tone in afferent and efferent arterioles so GFR rises without a change in glomerular blood pressure. There is some evidence from animal studies that increased renal generation of nitric oxide (NO) may be involved. Although chronic renal vasodilation has been implicated in causing progression of renal disease in nonpregnant states by glomerular hypertension, there are no long-term deleterious effects of pregnancies on the kidney when maternal renal function is normal because glomerular blood pressure remains normal. When maternal renal function is compromised before conception, there are no long-term adverse effects on renal function in most types of renal disease, providing that the GFR is well maintained before conception. When serum creatinine exceeds approximately 1.4 mg/dL, pregnancy may accelerate the renal disease increases and when serum creatinine >2 mg/dL, the chances are greater than 1 in 3 that pregnancy will hasten the progression of the renal disease. The available animal studies suggest that glomerular hypertension does not occur despite diverse injuries. Thus, the mechanisms of the adverse interaction between pregnancy and underlying renal disease remain unknown.

  5. Comparison of the world health organization and the International association of diabetes and pregnancy study groups criteria in diagnosing gestational diabetes mellitus in South Indians

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    Sivagnanam Nallaperumal

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: We aimed to compare the International Association of Diabetes and Pregnancy Study Groups (IADPSG and the World Health Organization (WHO criteria to diagnose gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM in Chennai, India. Materials and Methods: We reviewed the retrospective data of 1351 pregnant women who underwent screening for GDM at four selected diabetes centers at Chennai (three private and one government. All women underwent an oral glucose tolerance test using 75g glucose load and fasting, 1-h, and 2-h samples were collected. The IADPSG and WHO criteria were compared for diagnosis of GDM. Results: A total of 839 women had GDM by either the IADPSG or the WHO criteria, of whom the IADPSG criteria identified 699 and the WHO criteria also identified 699 women as having GDM. However, only 599/839 women (66.6% were identified by both criteria. Thus, 140/839 women (16.7% were missed by both the IADPSG and the WHO criteria. 687/699 (98.2% of the women with GDM were identified by the WHO criteria. In contrast, each value of IADPSG criteria i.e., fasting, 1 h, and 2 h identified only 12.5%, 14%, and 22%, respectively. Conclusions: A single WHO cut-point of 2 h > 140 mg/dl appears to be suitable for large-scale screening for GDM in India and other developing countries.

  6. [THE EFFECT OF PREGNANCY ON BREAST CANCER].

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    Matalon, Shelly Tartakover; Shochet, Gali Epstein; Drucker, Liat; Lishner, Michael

    2015-08-01

    Cancer and pregnancy coincide in about one in 1,000 pregnancies. One of the most common malignancies associated with pregnancy is breast cancer. Women with pregnancy-associated breast cancer (PABC) have a higher likelihood of being diagnosed with metastatic disease and estrogen receptor (ER) negative tumors than do non-pregnant women. Controversies exist regarding the effect of pregnancy on breast cancer prognosis. Some researchers suggest that pregnancy does not affect breast cancer prognosis, whereas others claim the opposite. Although PABC is usually discovered in an advanced stage, breast cancer metastasis on the placenta is a rare event. During cancer progression, the surrounding microenvironment co-evolves into an activated state through continuous communication with the malignant cells, thereby promoting tumor growth. The effect of pregnancy and placental environment on breast cancer biology is the issue of this review. Placental and cancer cells implantation processes share similar molecular pathways. This suggests that placental factors may affect breast cancer cells biology. Previously, we analyzed the effect of first trimester human placenta on breast cancer cells. Breast cancer cells were co-cultured with placental explants during their implantation on matrigel substrate. We found that the placenta reduced ER expression on the cancer cells and induced their migration and invasion abilities. As a result of it, breast cancer cells migrated away from the placental implantation sites. Hormonal pathways were involved in these phenomena. These results may explain the high incidence of metastases during pregnancy in on the one hand and the rarity of metastases on the placenta on the other hand.

  7. Dental Care in Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Share with Women Dental Care in Pregnancy Why is dental care in pregnancy important? During pregnancy, you are more likely to have problems ... There are 2 major reasons women can have dental problems during pregnancy: Pregnancy gingivitis— During pregnancy, changes ...

  8. Exercise during Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Events Advocacy For Patients About ACOG Exercise During Pregnancy Home For Patients Search FAQs Exercise During Pregnancy ... Pregnancy FAQ119, May 2016 PDF Format Exercise During Pregnancy Pregnancy Is it safe to exercise during pregnancy? ...

  9. The unplanned teenage pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.M. Ross

    1979-09-01

    Full Text Available Surveys conducted in the Durban area of Natal showed that 18 per cent of all pregnancies occurred amongst teenagers with the incidence amongst the various population groups varying bëtween Whites 14 per cent, Indians 17 per cent, Coloureds and Blacks 20 per cent. This compares with a world-wide teenage pregnancy rate of 10-15 per cent. Amongst primigravid pregnancies 33 per cent Indians and 53 per cent of Africans were found to be 18 years of age or less.

  10. Narcolepsy and pregnancy: a retrospective European evaluation of 249 pregnancies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maurovich-Horvat, Eszter; Kemlink, David; Högl, Birgit; Frauscher, Birgit; Ehrmann, Laura; Geisler, Peter; Ettenhuber, Katharina; Mayer, Geert; Peraita-Adrados, Rosa; Calvo, Elena; Lammers, Gert Jan; Van der Heide, Astrid; Ferini-Strambi, Luigi; Plazzi, Giuseppe; Poli, Francesca; Dauvilliers, Yves; Jennum, Poul; Leonthin, Helle; Mathis, Johannes; Wierzbicka, Aleksandra; Puertas, Francisco J; Beitinger, Pierre A; Arnulf, Isabelle; Riha, Renata L; Tormášiová, Maria; Slonková, Jana; Nevšímalová, Sona; Sonka, Karel

    2013-10-01

    In a retrospective cohort study undertaken in 12 European countries, 249 female narcoleptic patients with cataplexy (n = 216) and without cataplexy (n = 33) completed a self-administrated questionnaire regarding pregnancy and childbirth. The cohort was divided further into patients whose symptoms of narcolepsy started before or during pregnancy (308 pregnancies) and those in whom the first symptoms of narcolepsy appeared after delivery (106 pregnancies). Patients with narcolepsy during pregnancy were older during their first pregnancy (P narcolepsy-cataplexy during pregnancy had impaired glucose metabolism and anaemia. Three patients experienced cataplexy during delivery. The rate of caesarean sections was higher in the narcolepsy-cataplexy group compared to the narcolepsy group (P narcolepsy in 60.1% of those with narcolepsy during pregnancy. This study reports more obstetric complications in patients with narcolepsy-cataplexy during pregnancy; however, these were not severe. This group also had a higher BMI and higher incidence of impaired glucose metabolism during pregnancy. Caesarian section was conducted more frequently in narcolepsy-cataplexy patients, despite cataplexy being a rare event during delivery. Furthermore, symptoms of narcolepsy may render care of the infant more difficult.

  11. Predictive role of neutrophil-to-lymphocyte and platelet-to-lymphocyte ratios for diagnosis of acute appendicitis during pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatih Mehmet Yazar

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Acute appendicitis (AA is not uncommon during pregnancy but can be difficult to diagnose. This study evaluated the neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR and platelet-to-lymphocyte ratio (PLR in addition to conventional diagnostic indicators of the disease to diagnose AA during pregnancy. Age, gestational age, white blood cell (WBC count, Alvarado scores, C-reactive protein (CRP, lymphocyte count, NLR and PLR were compared among 28 pregnant women who underwent surgery for AA, 35 pregnant women wrongly suspected as having AA, 29 healthy pregnant women, and 30 nonpregnant healthy women. Mean WBC counts and CRP levels were higher in women with proven AA than in those of control groups (all p < 0.05. Among all the groups, the median NLR and PLR were significantly different in women with proven AA (all p < 0.05. Receiver operating characteristic analysis was used to determine cut-off values for WBC count, CRP, lymphocyte count, NLR and PLR, and multiple logistic regression analysis showed that NLR and PLR used with routine methods could diagnose AA with 90.5% accuracy. Used in addition to routine diagnostic methods, NLR and PLR increased the accuracy of the diagnosis of AA in pregnant women.

  12. Hepatic glucose metabolism in late pregnancy: normal versus high-fat and -fructose diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coate, Katie C; Smith, Marta S; Shiota, Masakazu; Irimia, Jose M; Roach, Peter J; Farmer, Ben; Williams, Phillip E; Moore, Mary Courtney

    2013-03-01

    Net hepatic glucose uptake (NHGU) is an important contributor to postprandial glycemic control. We hypothesized that NHGU is reduced during normal pregnancy and in a pregnant diet-induced model of impaired glucose intolerance/gestational diabetes mellitus (IGT/GDM). Dogs (n = 7 per group) that were nonpregnant (N), normal pregnant (P), or pregnant with IGT/GDM (pregnant dogs fed a high-fat and -fructose diet [P-HFF]) underwent a hyperinsulinemic-hyperglycemic clamp with intraportal glucose infusion. Clamp period insulin, glucagon, and glucose concentrations and hepatic glucose loads did not differ among groups. The N dogs reached near-maximal NHGU rates within 30 min; mean ± SEM NHGU was 105 ± 9 µmol·100 g liver⁻¹·min⁻¹. The P and P-HFF dogs reached maximal NHGU in 90-120 min; their NHGU was blunted (68 ± 9 and 16 ± 17 µmol·100 g liver⁻¹·min⁻¹, respectively). Hepatic glycogen synthesis was reduced 20% in P versus N and 40% in P-HFF versus P dogs. This was associated with a reduction (>70%) in glycogen synthase activity in P-HFF versus P and increased glycogen phosphorylase (GP) activity in both P (1.7-fold greater than N) and P-HFF (1.8-fold greater than P) dogs. Thus, NHGU under conditions mimicking the postprandial state is delayed and suppressed in normal pregnancy, with concomitant reduction in glycogen storage. NHGU is further blunted in IGT/GDM. This likely contributes to postprandial hyperglycemia during pregnancy, with potential adverse outcomes for the fetus and mother.

  13. T CD3+CD8+ Lymphocytes Are More Susceptible for Apoptosis in the First Trimester of Normal Human Pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorota Darmochwal-Kolarz

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims. Normal human pregnancy is a complex process of many immunoregulatory mechanisms which protect fetus from the activation of the maternal immune system. The aim of the study was to investigate the apoptosis of lymphocytes in peripheral blood of normal pregnant patients and healthy nonpregnant women. Methods. Sixty pregnant women and 17 nonpregnant women were included in the study. Lymphocytes were isolated and labeled with anti-CD3, anti-CD4, and anti-CD8 monoclonal antibodies. Apoptosis was detected by CMXRos staining and analyzed using the flow cytometric method. Results. We found significantly higher apoptosis of total lymphocytes in peripheral blood of pregnant patients when compared to healthy nonpregnant women. The percentage of apoptotic T CD3+CD8+ cells in the first trimester was significantly higher when compared to the third trimester of normal pregnancy. The ratio of T CD3+CD4+ : T CD3+CD8+ apoptotic lymphocytes was significantly lower in the first trimester when compared to other trimesters of pregnancy and to both of the phases of the menstrual cycle. Conclusions. The higher apoptosis of T CD3+CD8+ lymphocytes and the lower ratio of T CD3+CD4+ : T CD3+CD8+ apoptotic cells in the first trimester of normal pregnancy may suggest a higher susceptibility of T CD3+CD8+ cells for apoptosis as a protective mechanism at the early stage of pregnancy.

  14. Vitamin D in pregnancy: current perspectives and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiely, Mairead; Hemmingway, Andrea; O'Callaghan, Karen M

    2017-06-01

    As neonatal vitamin D status is determined by circulating maternal 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] concentrations, prevention of maternal vitamin D deficiency during pregnancy is essential for the avoidance of neonatal deficiency. However, a high prevalence of vitamin D deficiency has been extensively reported among gravidae and neonates from ethnic minorities and white populations resident at high latitude. Currently, regulatory authorities recommend vitamin D intakes for pregnant women that are similar to non-pregnant adults of the same age, at 10-15 µg/day (400-600 IU), to meet 25(OH)D thresholds of 25-50 nmol/liter. The lack of pregnancy-specific dietary recommendations is due to inadequate data indicating whether nutritional requirements for vitamin D during pregnancy differ from the non-pregnant state. In addition, there are few dose-response studies to determine the maternal 25(OH)D response to vitamin D intake throughout pregnancy at high latitude. These data are also required to determine vitamin D requirements during pregnancy for prevention of neonatal deficiency, an outcome which is likely to require a higher maternal 25(OH)D concentration than prevention of maternal deficiency only. With regard to the impact of vitamin D on perinatal health outcomes, which could guide pregnancy-specific 25(OH)D thresholds, dietary intervention studies to date have been inconsistent and recent systematic reviews have highlighted issues of low quality and a high risk of bias as drawbacks in the trial evidence to date. Many observational studies have been hampered by a reliance on retrospective data, unclear reporting, suboptimal clinical phenotyping and incomplete subject characterization. Current investigations of vitamin D metabolism during pregnancy have potentially exciting implications for clinical research. This paper provides an update of current dietary recommendations for vitamin D in pregnant women and a synopsis of the evidence relating vitamin D status with

  15. Thyroid in pregnancy: From physiology to screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Springer, Drahomira; Jiskra, Jan; Limanova, Zdenka; Zima, Tomas; Potlukova, Eliska

    2017-03-01

    Thyroid hormones are crucial for the growth and maturation of many target tissues, especially the brain and skeleton. During critical periods in the first trimester of pregnancy, maternal thyroxine is essential for fetal development as it supplies thyroid hormone-dependent tissues. The ontogeny of mature thyroid function involves organogenesis, and maturation of the hypothalamus, pituitary and the thyroid gland; and it is almost complete by the 12th-14th gestational week. In case of maternal hypothyroidism, substitution with levothyroxine must be started in early pregnancy. After the 14th gestational week, fetal brain development may already be irreversibly affected by lack of thyroid hormones. The prevalence of manifest hypothyroidism in pregnancy is about 0.3-0.5%. The prevalence of subclinical hypothyroidism varies between 4 and 17%, strongly depending on the definition of the upper TSH cutoff limit. Hyperthyroidism occurs in 0.1-1% of all pregnancies. Positivity for antibodies against thyroid peroxidase (TPOAb) is common in women of childbearing age with an incidence rate of 5.1-12.4%. TPOAb-positivity may be regarded as a manifestation of a general autoimmune state which may alter the fertilization and implantation processes or cause early missed abortions. Women positive for TPOAb are at a significant risk of developing hypothyroidism during pregnancy and postpartum. Laboratory diagnosis of thyroid dysfunction during pregnancy is based upon serum TSH concentration. TSH in pregnancy is physiologically lower than the non-pregnant population. Results of multiple international studies point toward creation of trimester-specific reference intervals for TSH in pregnancy. Screening for hypothyroidism in pregnancy is controversial and its implementation varies from country to country. Currently, the case-finding approach of screening high-risk women is preferred in most countries to universal screening. However, numerous studies have shown that one-third to one

  16. Lymphoblastic leukemia in pregnancy

    OpenAIRE

    Rojas Castrillo, Yaoska; Guevara González, José Guillermo

    2015-01-01

    Acute Leukemia occurs mainly in age groups of children under 5 years and in elderly patients, however; can also be seen in women of reproductive age. The prevalence of adult acute leukemia in young pregnant women is very rare, one case in 75,000 pregnancies and only 28% of them correspond to Lymphoblastic Leukemia occurs. The association between Acute Lymphocytic Leukemia and pregnancy poses a complex situation where you should not take or delay treatment, but the use of antineoplastic drug c...

  17. Psychological and support interventions to reduce levels of stress, anxiety or depression on women’s subsequent pregnancy with a history of miscarriage: an empty systematic review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meaney, Sarah; McNamara, Karen; O'Donoghue, Keelin

    2017-01-01

    Objective The aim of this systematic review was to assess the effect of interventions to reduce stress in pregnant women with a history of miscarriage. Design A systematic review of randomised controlled trials (RCTs). Data source A total of 13 medical, psychological and social electronic databases were searched from January 1995 to April 2016 including PUBMED, CENTRAL, Web of Science and EMBASE. Eligibility criteria This review focused on women in their subsequent pregnancy following miscarriage. All published RCTs which assessed the effect of non-medical interventions such as counselling or support interventions on psychological and mental health outcomes such as stress, anxiety or depression when compared with a control group were included. Stress, anxiety or depression had to be measured at least preintervention and postintervention. Results This systematic review found no RCT which met our initial inclusion criteria. Of the 4140 titles screened, 17 RCTs were identified. All of them were excluded. One RCT, which implemented a caring-based intervention, included pregnant women in their subsequent pregnancy; however, miscarriage was analysed as a composite variable among other pregnancy losses such as stillbirth and neonatal death. Levels of perceived stress were measured by four RCTs. Different types of non-medical interventions, time of follow-up and small sample sizes were found. Conclusion Cohort studies and RCTs in non-pregnant women suggest that support and psychological interventions may improve pregnant women’s psychological well-being after miscarriage. This improvement may reduce adverse pregnancy-related outcomes in subsequent pregnancies. However, this review found no RCTs which met our criteria. There is a need for targeted RCTs that can provide reliable and conclusive results to determine effective interventions for this vulnerable group. PMID:28882928

  18. Detection of pregnancy by radioimmunoassay of a pregnancy serum protein (PSP60) in cattle

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    Mialon, M.M.; Renand, G.; Camous, S.; Martal, J.; Menissier, F. (Institut National de Recherches Agronomiques (INRA), 78 - Jouy-en-Josas (France))

    1994-01-01

    The accuracy and efficiency of pregnancy diagnoses in cattle by pregnancy serum protein (PSP60) radioimmunoassay, a progesterone radioimmunoassay or oestrus detection were compared. Blood samples were taken from 349 suckling heifers and cows ( 1 191 inseminations) at 28, 35, 50 and 90 d post-insemination for PSP60 determination and at 22-23 d for progesterone. Females were declared nonpregnant when plasma PSP60 concentration was lower than 0.2 ng/ml at 28, 35 and 50 d and 0.5 ng/ml at 90 d. When compared with rectal palpation at 90 d, the accuracy of positive (negative) diagnoses by progesterone assay was 80% (100%) in heifers and 75% (99%) in cows. The accuracy of positive diagnoses by PSP60 assay increased with gestation stage from 90% on d 28 in heifers (74% in cows) to 100% (99% in cows) at the time of rectal palpation. This accuracy was 84% on d 28 in cows when the interval from calving to blood sampling was higher than 115 d. Whatever the stage, the accuracy of negative diagnoses was higher than 90%. Efficiency in detecting pregnant or nonpregnant females on d 28 was equivalent to the progesterone assay. The method for detecting oestrus applied in this experiment was as efficient as the PSP60 or progesterone test at any stage of gestation. The PSP60 test is very flexible, which makes its use particularly interesting in naturally mated suckling herds because of the uncertainty regarding the date of fertilization. (authors).

  19. Effect of a CIDR insert and flunixin meglumine, administered at the time of embryo transfer, on pregnancy rate and resynchronization of estrus in beef cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purcell, S H; Beal, W E; Gray, K R

    2005-09-01

    The objectives of this study were to evaluate the effects of flunixin meglumine (FM), an inhibitor of PGF(2alpha) synthesis, and insertion of an intravaginal progesterone-releasing device (CIDR), on pregnancy rates in beef cattle embryo transfer (ET) recipients, and to examine the effect of a CIDR after embryo transfer on the synchrony of the return to estrus in non-pregnant recipients. Cows (n=622) and heifers (n=90) at three locations were assigned randomly to one of four groups in a 2x2 factorial arrangement of treatments with FM administration (500 mg i.m.) 2-12 min prior to ET, and insertion of a CIDR (1.38 g progesterone) immediately following ET as main effects. Fresh or frozen embryos (Stage=4 or 5; Grade=1 or 2) were transferred on Days 6-9 of the estrous cycle and CIDR devices were removed 13 days after ET. Recipients at Location 2 only were observed for signs of return to estrus. Recipients that returned to estrus at Location 2 were either bred by AI or received an embryo 7 days after estrus. Following the initial ET, there was an FMxlocation interaction on pregnancy rate (P0.05; 65% with CIDR, 70% without CIDR), however, the timing of the return to estrus was more synchronous (P0.13). Effects of FM on pregnancy rate were location dependent and CIDR insertion at ET improved synchrony of the return to estrus.

  20. Maternity care practices and breastfeeding experiences of women in different racial and ethnic groups: Pregnancy Risk Assessment and Monitoring System (PRAMS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahluwalia, Indu B; Morrow, Brian; D'Angelo, Denise; Li, Ruowei

    2012-11-01

    Research shows that maternity care practices are important to promoting breastfeeding in the early post partum period; however, little is known about the association between maternity care practices and breastfeeding among different racial and ethnic groups. We examined the association between maternity care practices and breastfeeding duration to ≥10 weeks overall and among various racial and ethnic groups using data from the Pregnancy Risk Assessment and Monitoring System (PRAMS). PRAMS is a state, population-based surveillance system that collects information on maternal behaviors. We used maternity care practices data from 11 states and New York City with response rates ≥70% from 2004 to 2006. Multiple maternity care practices were examined and the analysis adjusted for demographic characteristics, participation in the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC), lifestyle, and infant variables. The outcome variable for multivariable analysis was breastfeeding duration to Breastfeeding patterns varied with white and Hispanic women reporting highest breastfeeding initiation and duration prevalence. Overall, practices positively associated with ≥10 duration were: breastfeeding initiated within the first hour after birth (adjusted OR [AOR] = 1.29; 95% CI: 1.16-1.45); fed breast milk only (AOR = 2.40; 95% CI: 2.15-2.68); breastfed on demand (AOR = 1.23; 95% CI 1.08-1.40) and receiving telephone support (AOR = 1.20; 95% CI: 1.03-1.39). Maternity care practices associated with breastfeeding to ≥10 weeks varied across three racial/ethnic groups. One practice, that of giving newborns breast milk only, was positively associated with breastfeeding duration of ≥10 weeks across all three groups. Maternity care practices associated with breastfeeding continuation to ≥10 weeks varied by race/ethnicity. For example: breastfeeding within the first hour, baby given a pacifier, and assistance from hospital staff, were

  1. Peak ventilatory responses during cycling and swimming in pregnant and nonpregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spinnewijn, W E; Wallenburg, H C; Struijk, P C; Lotgering, F K

    1996-08-01

    This study was designed to determine whether pregnancy affects peak O2 uptake (VO2peak) during swimming compared with cycling. We studied 11 women at 30-34 wk gestation and 8-12 wk postpartum. We measured heart rate (HR), O2 uptake (VO2), CO2 output (VCO2), minute ventilation (VE), and lactic acid concentration. Peak HR was not significantly affected by the type of exercise or by pregnancy. VO2peak was 9% lower during swimming than during cycling but was not affected by pregnancy, with values for pregnancy cycling, pregnancy swimming, postpartum cycling, and postpartum swimming of 2.36 +/- 0.12, 2.11 +/- 0.11, 2.29 +/- 0.10, and 2.12 +/- 0.07 l/min, respectively. Peak VCO2 (VCO2peak) and peak VE were significantly lower during swimming than during cycling by 18-25%, but only VCO2peak during swimming was affected by pregnancy (-10%). Lactic acid concentrations were 12-17% lower after swimming than after cycling and 17-31% lower during pregnancy than postpartum. We conclude that perceived maximal exertion is reached at a lower percent maximal VO2 in swimming than in cycling and that the reduced energy expenditure is reflected by lower VO2peak, VCO2peak, and peak VE. Pregnancy, however, does not affect VO2peak in cycling or swimming.

  2. Functional and molecular characterization of voltage-gated sodium channels in uteri from nonpregnant rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seda, Marian; Pinto, Francisco M; Wray, Susan; Cintado, Cristina G; Noheda, Pedro; Buschmann, Helmut; Candenas, Luz

    2007-11-01

    We investigated the function and expression of voltage-gated Na(+) channels (VGSC) in the uteri of nonpregnant rats using organ bath techniques, intracellular [Ca(2+)] fluorescence measurements, and RT-PCR. In longitudinally arranged whole-tissue uterine strips, veratridine, a VGSC activator, caused the rapid appearance of phasic contractions of irregular frequency and amplitude. After 50-60 min in the continuous presence of veratridine, rhythmic contractions of very regular frequency and slightly increasing amplitude occurred and were sustained for up to 12 h. Both the early and late components of the contractile response to veratridine were inhibited in a concentration-dependent manner by tetrodotoxin (TTX). In small strips dissected from the uterine longitudinal smooth muscle layer and loaded with Fura-2, veratridine also caused rhythmic contractions, accompanied by transient increases in [Ca(2+)](i), which were abolished by treatment with 0.1 microM TTX. Using end-point and real-time quantitative RT-PCR, we detected the presence of the VGSC alpha subunits Scn2a1, Scn3a, Scn5a, and Scn8a in the cDNA from longitudinal muscle. The mRNAs of the auxiliary beta subunits Scbn1b, Scbn2b, Scbn4b, and traces of Scn3b were also present. These data show for the first time that Scn2a1, Scn3a, Scn5a, and Scn8a, as well as all VGSC beta subunits are expressed in the longitudinal smooth muscle layer of the rat myometrium. In addition, our data show that TTX-sensitive VGSC are able to mediate phasic contractions maintained over long periods of time in the uteri of nonpregnant rats.

  3. Migrant women living with HIV in Europe: are they facing inequalities in the prevention of mother-to-child-transmission of HIV?: The European Pregnancy and Paediatric HIV Cohort Collaboration (EPPICC) study group in EuroCoord.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Favarato, G; Bailey, H; Burns, F; Prieto, L; Soriano-Arandes, A; Thorne, C

    2017-04-25

    In pregnancy early interventions are recommended for prevention of mother-to-child-transmission (PMTCT) of HIV. We examined whether pregnant women who live with HIV in Europe and are migrants encounter barriers in accessing HIV testing and care. Four cohorts within the European Pregnancy and Paediatric HIV Cohort Collaboration provided data for pooled analysis of 11 795 pregnant women who delivered in 2002-12 across ten European countries. We defined a migrant as a woman delivering in a country different from her country of birth and grouped the countries into seven world regions. We compared three suboptimal PMTCT interventions (HIV diagnosis in late pregnancy in women undiagnosed at conception, late anti-retroviral therapy (ART) start in women diagnosed but untreated at conception and detectable viral load (VL) at delivery in women on antenatal ART) in native and migrant women using multivariable logistic regression models. Data included 9421 (79.9%) migrant women, mainly from sub-Saharan Africa (SSA); 4134 migrant women were diagnosed in the current pregnancy, often (48.6%) presenting with CD4 count <350 cells/µl. Being a migrant was associated with HIV diagnosis in late pregnancy [OR for SSA vs. native women, 2.12 (95% CI 1.67, 2.69)] but not with late ART start if diagnosed but not on ART at conception, or with detectable VL at delivery once on ART. Migrant women were more likely to be diagnosed in late pregnancy but once on ART virological response was good. Good access to antenatal care enables the implementation of PMTCT protocols and optimises both maternal and children health outcomes generally.

  4. Hemeoxygenase-1 inhibits human myometrial contractility via carbon monoxide and is upregulated by progesterone during pregnancy.

    OpenAIRE

    Acevedo, C H; Ahmed, A

    1998-01-01

    Nitric oxide was proposed as an endogenous inhibitor of myometrial contractility during pregnancy. Carbon monoxide (CO) like nitric oxide increases cGMP and is generated during the degradation of heme to biliverdin IX by hemeoxygenases (HO). Here we report that the expression of both HO-1 (inducible) and HO-2 (constitutive) were > 15-fold higher in pregnant myometrium compared to nonpregnant myometrium (n = 4, P < 0.001, P < 0.005, respectively). Moreover, the activation of the HO-CO pathway ...

  5. Psychoneuroimmunology in Pregnancy: Immune Pathways Linking Stress with Maternal Health, Adverse Birth Outcomes, and Fetal Development

    OpenAIRE

    Christian, Lisa M.

    2011-01-01

    It is well-established that psychological stress promotes immune dysregulation in nonpregnant humans and animals. Stress promotes inflammation, impairs antibody responses to vaccination, slows wound healing, and suppresses cell-mediated immune function. Importantly, the immune system changes substantially to support healthy pregnancy, with attenuation of inflammatory responses and impairment of cell-mediated immunity. This adaptation is postulated to protect the fetus from rejection by the ma...

  6. Proteomic Analysis of Bovine Pregnancy-specific Serum Proteins by 2D Fluorescence Difference Gel Electrophoresis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jae Eun Lee

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Two dimensional-fluorescence difference gel electrophoresis (2D DIGE is an emerging technique for comparative proteomics, which improves the reproducibility and reliability of differential protein expression analysis between samples. The purpose of this study was to investigate bovine pregnancy-specific proteins in the proteome between bovine pregnant and non-pregnant serum using DIGE technique. Serums of 2 pregnant Holstein dairy cattle at day 21 after artificial insemination and those of 2 non-pregnant were used in this study. The pre-electrophoretic labeling of pregnant and non-pregnant serum proteins were mixed with Cy3 and Cy5 fluorescent dyes, respectively, and an internal standard was labeled with Cy2. Labeled proteins with Cy2, Cy3, and Cy5 were separated together in a single gel, and then were detected by fluorescence image analyzer. The 2D DIGE method using fluorescence CyDye DIGE flour had higher sensitivity than conventional 2D gel electrophoresis, and showed reproducible results. Approximately 1,500 protein spots were detected by 2D DIGE. Several proteins showed a more than 1.5-fold up and down regulation between non-pregnant and pregnant serum proteins. The differentially expressed proteins were identified by MALDI-TOF mass spectrometer. A total 16 protein spots were detected to regulate differentially in the pregnant serum, among which 7 spots were up-regulated proteins such as conglutinin precursor, modified bovine fibrinogen and IgG1, and 6 spots were down-regulated proteins such as hemoglobin, complement component 3, bovine fibrinogen and IgG2a three spots were not identified. The identified proteins demonstrate that early pregnant bovine serum may have several pregnancy-specific proteins, and these could be a valuable information for the development of pregnancy-diagnostic markers in early pregnancy bovine serum.

  7. Proteomic Analysis of Bovine Pregnancy-specific Serum Proteins by 2D Fluorescence Difference Gel Electrophoresis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jae Eun; Lee, Jae Young; Kim, Hong Rye; Shin, Hyun Young; Lin, Tao; Jin, Dong Il

    2015-01-01

    Two dimensional-fluorescence difference gel electrophoresis (2D DIGE) is an emerging technique for comparative proteomics, which improves the reproducibility and reliability of differential protein expression analysis between samples. The purpose of this study was to investigate bovine pregnancy-specific proteins in the proteome between bovine pregnant and non-pregnant serum using DIGE technique. Serums of 2 pregnant Holstein dairy cattle at day 21 after artificial insemination and those of 2 non-pregnant were used in this study. The pre-electrophoretic labeling of pregnant and non-pregnant serum proteins were mixed with Cy3 and Cy5 fluorescent dyes, respectively, and an internal standard was labeled with Cy2. Labeled proteins with Cy2, Cy3, and Cy5 were separated together in a single gel, and then were detected by fluorescence image analyzer. The 2D DIGE method using fluorescence CyDye DIGE flour had higher sensitivity than conventional 2D gel electrophoresis, and showed reproducible results. Approximately 1,500 protein spots were detected by 2D DIGE. Several proteins showed a more than 1.5-fold up and down regulation between non-pregnant and pregnant serum proteins. The differentially expressed proteins were identified by MALDI-TOF mass spectrometer. A total 16 protein spots were detected to regulate differentially in the pregnant serum, among which 7 spots were up-regulated proteins such as conglutinin precursor, modified bovine fibrinogen and IgG1, and 6 spots were down-regulated proteins such as hemoglobin, complement component 3, bovine fibrinogen and IgG2a three spots were not identified. The identified proteins demonstrate that early pregnant bovine serum may have several pregnancy-specific proteins, and these could be a valuable information for the development of pregnancy-diagnostic markers in early pregnancy bovine serum. PMID:25925056

  8. Nitric oxide-mediated changes in vascular reactivity in pregnancy in spontaneously hypertensive rats.

    OpenAIRE

    Chu, Z. M.; Beilin, L J

    1993-01-01

    1. To examine the mechanisms which may account for pregnancy-induced vasodilatation in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR), we have investigated the changes in vascular reactivity and the effects of endothelial nitric oxide (NO) inhibition in the in situ blood-perfused, mesenteric resistance vessels of 18-20 day pregnant SHR. The effects of NG-nitro-L-arginine (L-NOARG) were compared in pregnant and nonpregnant SHR and gestation matched normotensive Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rats. 2. Intra-arteria...

  9. Successful maternal and perinatal outcome of hepatitis E in pregnancy with fulminant hepatic failure

    OpenAIRE

    Meena N. Satia; Manali P. Shilotri

    2016-01-01

    Hepatitis E infection is an important cause of fulminant hepatic failure (FHF) in pregnancy in developing countries like India, with a high mortality rate. It is postulated that immunological and hormonal changes in pregnant women predispose them to developing FHF secondary to hepatitis E infection as compared to the less severe form seen in the non-pregnant population. A variation in the natural course of the disease is also seen amongst different geographical areas. Hepatitis E infection is...

  10. Aspects of physiological effects of sodium zeolite A supplementation in dry, non-pregnant dairy cows fed grass silage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enemark, J M; Frandsen, A M; Thilsing-Hansen, T

    2003-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to monitor serum and urine biochemical changes in dairy cows during and after oral administration of a synthetic sodium aluminium-silicate (zeolite A). A prospective longitudinal study involving four non-pregnant and non-lactating cows was chosen. Cows were...

  11. Effect of antiprogestin ZK 98. 734 on the ovarian cycle, early pregnancy, and on its binding to progesterone receptors in the myometrium of marmoset Callithrix jacchus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Puri, C.P.; Kholkute, S.D.; Pongubala, J.M.; Patil, R.K.; Elger, W.A.; Jayaraman, S.

    1988-04-01

    The antiprogestin ZK 98.734 (11 beta-(4-dimethylaminophenyl-17 beta-hydroxy-17 alpha-(3-hydroxy-prop-1(Z)-enyl-4,9(10)-estradien-3-one) was administered i.m. (5 mg/day) for three consecutive days to two groups of common marmosets. In one group (nonpregnant, n = 6), it was injected during the luteal phase, and to the second group (pregnant, n = 7), it was injected during early pregnancy, on Days 24-26 of the mid-cycle estradiol peak. Administration of ZK 98.734 during the luteal phase caused a sharp drop in plasma progesterone levels. The luteal phase was shortened whether the drug was administered during the early or the late luteal phase. Similarly, administration of ZK 98.734 during early pregnancy caused a significant drop in progesterone levels, and pregnancy was terminated in all of the animals. The post-treatment cycles in both groups of animals were ovulatory and of normal duration. /sup 3/H-ZK 98.734 showed specific binding to myometrial cytosol fraction. ZK 98.734 also displaced the binding of /sup 3/H-progesterone to progesterone receptors. However, progesterone had higher binding affinity than did ZK 98.734. The antifertility action of ZK 98.734 could be a result either of its luteolytic action or of its blocking the progesterone receptors in the target tissue. This study, therefore, indicates that in the common marmoset ZK 98.734 is a progesterone antagonist with a potential to terminate early pregnancy.

  12. Pregnancy and linkage to care among women diagnosed with HIV infection in 61 CDC-funded health departments in the United States, 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    FitzHarris, Lauren F; Hollis, Natasha D; Nesheim, Steven R; Greenspan, Julia L; Dunbar, Erica K

    2017-07-01

    Timely linkage to HIV care (LTC) following an HIV diagnosis is especially important for pregnant women with HIV to prevent perinatal transmission and improve maternal health. However, limited data are available on LTC among U.S. pregnant women. Our analysis aimed to identify HIV diagnoses among childbearing age (CBA) women (15-44 years old) by pregnancy status and to compare LTC of HIV-infected pregnant women to HIV-infected non-pregnant women. We analyzed 2013 CDC-funded HIV testing data from 61 health departments and 151 directly funded community-based organizations among CBA women. LTC includes linkage at any time after an HIV diagnosis and within 90 days after HIV diagnosis. Pearson's chi-square was used to compare LTC of pregnant and non-pregnant women. Data were analyzed using SAS v9.3. Among the 1,379,860 HIV testing events among CBA women in 2013, 0.3% (n = 3690) were HIV-positive. Among all HIV-positive diagnoses with an available pregnancy status (n = 1987), 7%, (n = 138) were pregnant. Among women with pregnancy status data, LTC any time after an HIV-positive diagnosis was 73.2% for pregnant women and 60.7% for non-pregnant women. LTC within 90 days was 71.7% for pregnant women and 56.2% for non-pregnant women. Pregnancy was associated with LTC any time (p < 0.01) and within 90 days of diagnosis (p < 0.01). Compared with non-pregnant women, a higher proportion of pregnant women with HIV were linked to care overall, and linked within 90 days. Pregnancy appears to facilitate better LTC, but improvements are needed for women overall and pregnant women specifically.

  13. Thrombophilia in complicated pregnancies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayşe Şahin

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate the incidence and etiology of pregnancy complications associated with thrombophilic factors. Methods: Fifty-four patients with complicated pregnancy and 40 healthy pregnant subjects were included the study. Factor V Leiden (FVL mutation, protein S, protein C, anti-thrombin deficiency levels were investigated. Results: Of the 54 patients with complicated pregnancy, 29 had preeclampsia, 18 had intra uterine growth retardation, and 7 had intrauterine fetal loss. The most common defect was FVL mutation. FVL mutations in patient group and the control group were 27.2% and 10%, respectively, which were statistically significant. The protein S, protein C, and anti-thrombin deficiencies were found higher in the patient group compared to control (p>0.05 for each. Conclusion: FVL mutation was found higher in patient group compared to the control group, Protein C deficiency and anti-thrombin deficiency were related to preeclampsia but not other pregnancy complications. Clinicians should take into account the thrombophilia in complicated pregnancy, especially preeclampsia. J Clin Exp Invest 2013; 4 (4: 497-502

  14. Desempenho, características de carcaça e composição química de diferentes cortes comerciais de novilhas mestiças não-gestantes ou gestantes terminadas em confinamento = Performance, carcass characteristics and chemical composition of nonpregnant or pregnant heifers finished in feedlot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lívia Maria Araújo Macedo

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se avaliar o efeito da gestação sobre o desempenho, características de carcaça e composição físico-química de cinco cortes de novilhas mestiças em confinamento. Utilizaram-secinco novilhas gestantes e cinco não-gestantes com 20 meses e peso corporal de 323 kg. Não houve diferença (p > 0,05 para peso final, ganho médio diário, consumo, conversão alimentar, peso de carcaça, rendimento de carcaça, área de olho de lombo e espessura de gordura de cobertura entre os tratamentos. O acém das novilhas gestantes teve maiores teores (p This work was carried out to study the effect of pregnancy on performance, carcass characteristics and chemical composition of crossbred heifers in comparison with nonpregnant heifers finished in feedlot. Five pregnant heifers and five nonpregnant heifers, 20 months old and with initial live weight of 327 kg were used. The initial live weight, final weight, average daily gain, intake, feed conversion, carcass weight, hot carcass dressing, Longissimus area and fat thickness (4.21 mm did not differ (p > 0.05 between treatments. Pregnant heifers chuck showed higher levels (p < 0.05 of moisture and ash, and lower levels (p < 0.05 of total fat, than nonpregnant heifers. Pregnant heifers rump showed higher levels (p < 0.05 of moisture. Nonpregnant heifers striploin had the highest level (p < 0.05 of moisture. The fatty acid profile of pregnant heifers chuck had the highest levels (p < 0.05 of 14:0, 16:1n7 and 20:4n6, but showed the lowest level (p < 0.05 of 17:0. Nonpregnant heifers topside showed the highest levels (p < 0.05 of 18:1t11 and 18:2c9t1. Pregnant heifers chuck showed the highest level (p < 0.05 of PUFA. Nonpregnant heifers had higher levels of n-6 fatty acids than pregnant heifers. The striploin of pregnant heifers showed higher percentage (p < 0.05 of n-3.

  15. Circulating serum trefoil factors increase dramatically during pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Samson, Mie Hessellund; Vestergaard, Else Marie; Milman, N

    2008-01-01

    in pregnant women carrying trisomy 21 foetuses and in women with normal pregnancies, throughout pregnancy and postpartum. Material and methods. Employing ELISA methods, serum collected at gestational weeks (GW) 18, 32, 39 and 8 weeks postpartum from women carrying normal foetuses (n = 141) was analysed...... comparable to concentrations previously measured in non-pregnant women. TFF1 concentrations rose throughout pregnancy and postpartum, being 1.5 times higher postpartum compared to 18 GW. No differences in the levels of TFFs were observed between women carrying trisomy 21 and those with healthy foetuses......Objective. Trefoil factors (TFF1-3) are 7-12 kDa peptides secreted by mucosal surfaces, with changing levels of expression reflected in serum concentrations. The genes for the peptides are located on chromosome 21, the chromosome duplicated in trisomy 21. We studied the levels of circulating TFFs...

  16. FACTORS ASSOCIATED wITH ADOLESCENT PREGNANCIES ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    To assess the factors associated with adolescent pregnancies among ... and health centres, while schools and peer groups contributed only 29.1% and .... WHO (1998) , Educafion levels and cultural norms influence pregnancy in Adolescents.

  17. 妊娠期高血压疾病血清胱抑素C检测的临床意义%The clinical significance of serum levels of cysc detected in patients with hypertensive disorders of pregnancy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈丹

    2011-01-01

    目的:探讨妊娠期高血压疾病(妊高病)患者血清中胱抑素C(cystatin C,CysC)的临床意义.方法:测定90例妊高病患者观察组血清中CysC、血清肌酐(Cr)、尿素氮(BUN)、尿酸(UA)水平,并同正常未孕组30名、正常晚孕组30名血清中的CysC、Cr、BUN、UA水平进行对比.结果:妊娠各组血清中CysC值均较未孕者高(P<0.01),子痫前期重度组均较妊高病组、子痫前期轻度组及正常晚孕组明显增高(P<0.01).结论:妊高病血清中CysC的水平可以反映妊高病早期肾功能损害情况,为其在产科的临床应用提供实验依据.%Objective:To investigate the clinical significance of serum levels of serum cystatin C (CysC) determination in patients with hypertensive disorders of pregnancy. Methods:The patients were divided into three groups (hypertensive disorders of pregnancy, healthy nonpregnancy and late pregnancy). The serum levels of CysC,creafinine, urea nitrogen and uric acid were determined, and the results were statistically analyzed. Results:The serum levels of CysC in pregnancy were higher than nonpregnancy( P < 0.01 ). The serum levels of CysC in serious preeclampsia were higher than hypertensive disorders of pregnancy, mild preeclampsia and late pregnancy( P <0.01 ). Conclusions :The serum levels of CysC were meaningful for the diagnosis of early kidney function damage.

  18. Pregnancy and rheumatic diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gayed, M; Gordon, C

    2007-11-01

    Pregnancy is an issue that should be discussed with all patients with rheumatic diseases who are in the reproductive age group. Infertility is rarely due to the disease but can be associated with cyclophosphamide therapy. Most rheumatic diseases that are well controlled prior to pregnancy do not deteriorate in pregnancy, providing that the patient continues with appropriate disease-modifying therapy. Some patients with inflammatory arthritis go in to remission during pregnancy. Patients with renal involvement may be at increased risk of disease flare. This needs to be distinguished from pre-eclampsia. Intrauterine growth restriction is more likely in patients with active systemic disease, hypertension, a history of thrombosis and renal involvement. Premature delivery may need to be planned to reduce the risks of stillbirth and can be associated with a variety of neonatal complications. Post-partum flare is common in all the rheumatic diseases.

  19. A Preliminary Trial on the Use of Barium Chloride for Pregnancy Diagnosis in Sows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ndu, A.

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Urine was collected twice daily (once in the morning and once in the afternoon for 5 days from 80 Yorkshire x Landrace crossbred gilts/sows made up of 40 non-pregnant and 40 pregnant pigs in an investigation to determine the possibility of using 1 % barium chloride solution for pregnancy diagnosis in pigs based on a previous report that addition of a few drops of 1 % barium chloride solution to bovine urine caused a white precipitate with non-pregnant but not with pregnant cows. The pregnant pigs were in various stages of gestation. Urine reaction to 1 % barium chloride was highly (P <0.01 dependent on the pregnancy status of the sows, the test being 100 % and 81 % effective in identifying non-pregnant and pregnant sows respectively. The sensitivity of the test in the gravid sows was significantly (P <0.05 influenced by and tended to increa-se with the stage of gestation, with 59 % of the sows in their first stage of gestation (<38 days post-coitum being correctly diagnosed as pregnant, and 95-100 % of those in their latter stages of gestation being so correctly diagnosed. Parity and time of day of performance of the test had no effect on urine reaction. It was concluded that the test was at least 95 % accurate when used as from about 39 days after breeding for pregnancy diagnosis in sows.

  20. Maternal recognition of pregnancy in the horse: a mystery still to be solved.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, C; Troedsson, M H T

    2011-01-01

    Maternal recognition of pregnancy in the horse is the sum of events leading to maintenance of pregnancy; in a narrow sense, maternal recognition of pregnancy refers to the physiological process by which the lifespan of the corpus luteum is prolonged. The horse is one of the few domestic species in which the conceptus-derived pregnancy recognition signal has not been identified. The presence of the conceptus reduces pulsatile prostaglandin F(2α) secretion by the endometrium during early gestation in the mare, partly attributed to the reduced expression of cyclooxygenase-2. Cyclooxygenase-2 has therefore been suggested as one of the regulators of endometrial prostaglandin F(2α) release modified by the antiluteolytic factor secreted by the conceptus. In addition, altered oxytocin responsiveness has been implicated in the adjustment of prostaglandin release in pregnant mares. While conceptus mobility has proven to be essential for establishment of pregnancy, conceptus-derived oestrogens and prostaglandins, principally prostaglandin E(2), have not been confirmed as the critical antiluteolytic factor. Various ways to induce prolonged luteal function in the non-pregnant mare will be highlighted in the current review, specifically, how they may pertain to the process of maternal recognition of pregnancy. Furthermore, recently published microarray experiments comparing the transcriptome of pregnant and non-pregnant endometria and different stages of conceptus development will be reviewed. Findings include the prevention of conceptus adhesion, the provision of nutrients to the conceptus and the avoidance of immunological rejection, among others.

  1. Pressure-volume characteristics of lungs of rats during pregnancy and postpartum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faridy, E E

    1981-01-01

    Measurements of lung volumes in pregnant women show that the functional residual capacity and residual volume are reduced by 17-25% at late pregnancy. The present study was conducted to test the hypothesis that a decrease in FRC at pregnancy may result from an increase in retractive forces of the lung. The air and saline pressure-volume characteristics of excised lungs were studied in rats daily during pregnancy and the postpartum period. In comparison to non-pregnancy rats, the air PV measurements indicated that: (1) the retractive forces of the lungs were increased late in pregnancy resulting in reduction in both MLV (lung air volume at 40 cm H2O Ptp) and in V%10 (volume at 10/volume at 40 cm H2O Ptp X 100); (2) MLV was greater in lactating than in non-lactating and in non-pregnant rats. Lung saline volume was also greater in lactating than in non-lactating rats at early postpartum period. Lung phospholipids content was increased at late pregnancy and in lactating rats; (3) there was an increase in MLV and in V% immediately after delivery and 2-3 days after an abrupt cessation of lactation ("dried" rats). The minimal surface tension of lung lavages also decreased in these rats. A shift to that left of the air PV curve in "dried" rats suggest that under normal circumstances lung surface forces are not at their lowest.

  2. Hepcidin and Iron Homeostasis during Pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary Dawn Koenig

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Hepcidin is the master regulator of systemic iron bioavailability in humans. This review examines primary research articles that assessed hepcidin during pregnancy and postpartum and report its relationship to maternal and infant iron status and birth outcomes; areas for future research are also discussed. A systematic search of the databases Medline and Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health returned 16 primary research articles including 10 human and six animal studies. Collectively, the results indicate that hepcidin is lower during pregnancy than in a non-pregnant state, presumably to ensure greater iron bioavailability to the mother and fetus. Pregnant women with undetectable serum hepcidin transferred a greater quantity of maternally ingested iron to their fetus compared to women with detectable hepcidin, indicating that maternal hepcidin in part determines the iron bioavailability to the fetus. However, inflammatory states, including preeclampsia, malaria infection, and obesity were associated with higher hepcidin during pregnancy compared to healthy controls, suggesting that maternal and fetal iron bioavailability could be compromised in such conditions. Future studies should examine the relative contribution of maternal versus fetal hepcidin to the control of placental iron transfer as well as optimizing maternal and fetal iron bioavailability in pregnancies complicated by inflammation.

  3. Malaria during pregnancy in a reference centre from the Brazilian Amazon: unexpected increase in the frequency of Plasmodium falciparum infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martínez-Espinosa Flor Ernestina

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Malaria remains globally the most important parasitic disease of man. Data on its deleterious effects during pregnancy have been extensively docu