WorldWideScience

Sample records for nonpregnant college females

  1. Disposition of stiripentol in the pregnant and non-pregnant female rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maurizis, J C; Rapp, M; Madelmont, J C; Gillardin, J M; Lepage, F; Labarre, P; Dupuy, J M; Veyre, A

    1993-12-01

    1. The disposition of stiripentol labelled with 14C and 3H on two positions has been studied in the pregnant and non-pregnant female rat after p.o. administration of a 200 mg/kg dose. 2. For both labelled species radioactivity was eliminated mainly in the faeces (69% within 72 h). Urinary excretion was rather low (22% within 72 h). No significant difference was found between the disposition of the two labelled species. 3. For both labelled species concentrations of radioactivity reached a plateau in the plasma and tissues between 1 and 6 h after administration. The liver, fat, mammary gland and adrenal gland were the most extensively-labelled organs. The affinity for the mammary gland was significantly greater in pregnant rats and for the adrenal gland was significantly greater in the non-pregnant rats. The fact that the concentration in the placenta was higher than in the foetus demonstrated that this membrane acts as a barrier for the penetration of the drug in the amniotic fluid. 4. Chromatographic analysis of the faeces and urine showed that an important portion of the dose remained unabsorbed through the gastrointestinal tract. The absorbed fraction undergoes an extensive first-pass metabolism involving mainly the oxidative cleavage of the methylenedioxy ring. Comparison with the results of other work conducted on the non-pregnant rat demonstrated that pregnancy did not affect the disposition and metabolic process.

  2. Fulminant hepatic failure from hepatitis E in a non-pregnant female traveller.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chris, Robert B; Keystone, Jay S

    2016-04-01

    A non-pregnant Canadian woman returning from India presented with a 1-week history of jaundice and malaise. Subsequently, she developed fulminant hepatic failure caused by hepatitis E virus (HEV). HEV can cause fulminant hepatic failure, most commonly in pregnant women and those with chronic liver disease; however, all travellers are at risk.

  3. Mathematical models and specific absorbed fractions of photon energy in the nonpregnant adult female and at the end of each trimester of pregnancy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stabin, M.G.; Watson, E.E.; Cristy, M.; Ryman, J.C.; Eckerman, K.F. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Davis, J.L. [Tennessee Univ., Chattanooga, TN (United States); Marshall, D. [Florida Univ., Gainesville, FL (United States). Dept. of Nuclear Engineering; Gehlen, M.K. [San Diego State Univ., CA (United States)

    1995-05-08

    Mathematical phantoms representing the adult female at three, six, and nine months of gestation are described. They are modifications of the 15-year-old male/adult female phantom (15-AF phantom) of Cristy and Eckerman (1987). The model of uterine contents includes the fetus, fetal skeleton, and placenta. The model is suitable for dose calculations for the fetus as a whole; individual organs within the fetus (other than the skeleton) are not modeled. A new model for the nonpregnant adult female is also described, comprising (1) the 15-AF phantom; (2) an adjustment to specific absorbed fractions for organ self-dose from photons to better match Reference Woman masses; and (3) computation of specific absorbed fractions with Reference Woman masses from ICRP Publication 23 for both penetrating and nonpenetrating radiations. Specific absorbed fractions for photons emitted from various source regions are tabulated for the new non;pregnant adult female model and the three pregnancy models.

  4. Characteristics of Female College Student Drug Use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traub, Stuart H.

    1983-01-01

    Examined female college students' (N=466) drug use, marihuana use in particular. Results indicated that the gap in marihuana usage patterns between females and males has substantially narrowed. Female marihuana users used other drugs quite extensively and had friends who use marihuana. Peer influence was a major factor in drug use. (JAC)

  5. Biotransformation of 2,3,3,3-tetrafluoropropene (HFO-1234yf) in male, pregnant and non-pregnant female rabbits after single high dose inhalation exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmidt, Tobias [Institut für Toxikologie, Universität Würzburg, Versbacher Str. 9, 97078 Würzburg (Germany); Bertermann, Rüdiger [Institut für Anorganische Chemie, Universität Würzburg, Am Hubland, 97074 Würzburg (Germany); Rusch, George M. [Honeywell, P.O. Box 1057, Morristown, NJ 07962–1057 (United States); Hoffman, Gary M. [Huntingdon Life Sciences., East Millstone, NJ (United States); Dekant, Wolfgang, E-mail: dekant@toxi.uni-wuerzburg.de [Institut für Toxikologie, Universität Würzburg, Versbacher Str. 9, 97078 Würzburg (Germany)

    2012-08-15

    2,3,3,3-Tetrafluoropropene (HFO-1234yf) is a novel refrigerant intended for use in mobile air conditioning. It showed a low potential for toxicity in rodents studies with most NOAELs well above 10,000 ppm in guideline compliant toxicity studies. However, a developmental toxicity study in rabbits showed mortality at exposure levels of 5,500 ppm and above. No lethality was observed at exposure levels of 2,500 and 4,000 ppm. Nevertheless, increased subacute inflammatory heart lesions were observed in rabbits at all exposure levels. Since the lethality in pregnant animals may be due to altered biotransformation of HFO-1234yf and to evaluate the potential risk to pregnant women facing a car crash, this study compared the acute toxicity and biotransformation of HFO-1234yf in male, female and pregnant female rabbits. Animals were exposed to 50,000 ppm and 100,000 ppm for 1 h. For metabolite identification by {sup 19}F NMR and LC/MS-MS, urine was collected for 48 h after inhalation exposure. In all samples, the predominant metabolites were S-(3,3,3-trifluoro-2-hydroxypropanyl)-mercaptolactic acid and N-acetyl-S-(3,3,3-trifluoro-2-hydroxypropanyl)-L-cysteine. Since no major differences in urinary metabolite pattern were observed between the groups, only N-acetyl-S-(3,3,3-trifluoro-2-hydroxypropanyl)-L-cysteine excretion was quantified. No significant differences in recovery between non-pregnant (43.10 ± 22.35 μmol) and pregnant female (50.47 ± 19.72 μmol) rabbits were observed, male rabbits exposed to 100,000 ppm for one hour excreted 86.40 ± 38.87 μmol. Lethality and clinical signs of toxicity were not observed in any group. The results suggest that the lethality of HFO-1234yf in pregnant rabbits unlikely is due to changes in biotransformation patterns or capacity in pregnant rabbits. -- Highlights: ► No lethality and clinical signs were observed. ► No differences in metabolic pattern between pregnant and non-pregnant rabbits. ► Rapid and similar metabolite

  6. College Women's Female Friendships: A Longitudinal View

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aleman, Ana M. Martinez

    2010-01-01

    This article presents a longitudinal qualitative study of the cognitive value of female friendships formed in college and seeks to appraise the meaning of the phenomenon for the participants. To grasp the temporal effects of the longitudinal data in this study, the author examines and assesses the relevant developmental literature, particularly…

  7. College Women's Female Friendships: A Longitudinal View

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aleman, Ana M. Martinez

    2010-01-01

    This article presents a longitudinal qualitative study of the cognitive value of female friendships formed in college and seeks to appraise the meaning of the phenomenon for the participants. To grasp the temporal effects of the longitudinal data in this study, the author examines and assesses the relevant developmental literature, particularly…

  8. Cyberbullying Behaviors among Female College Students: Witnessing, Perpetration, and Victimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selkie, Ellen M.; Kota, Rajitha; Moreno, Megan

    2016-01-01

    Problem: Cyberbullying is common among adolescents, and emerging studies also describe this phenomenon in college students. Less is known about specific cyberbullying behaviors and roles in cyberbullying incidents experienced by college females. Methods: 249 female students from 4 colleges completed online surveys assessing involvement in 11…

  9. Cyberbullying Behaviors among Female College Students: Witnessing, Perpetration, and Victimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selkie, Ellen M.; Kota, Rajitha; Moreno, Megan

    2016-01-01

    Problem: Cyberbullying is common among adolescents, and emerging studies also describe this phenomenon in college students. Less is known about specific cyberbullying behaviors and roles in cyberbullying incidents experienced by college females. Methods: 249 female students from 4 colleges completed online surveys assessing involvement in 11…

  10. Disordered eating among Brazilian female college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarenga, Marle Dos Santos; Lourenço, Bárbara Hatzlhoffer; Philippi, Sonia Tucunduva; Scagliusi, Fernanda Baeza

    2013-05-01

    This study aimed to investigate the socioeconomic and nutritional factors associated with disordered eating among Brazilian female college students (n = 2,489). Prevalence ratios of risk factors were calculated using Poisson regression models with robust variance based on responses to selected questions from the Eating Attitude Test and Disordered Eating Attitude Scale. It was found that 40.7% of students were dieting, 35.6% were using diet or compensatory methods, 23.9% skipping meals, 12.6% not eating or just drinking liquids, and 3.3%, vomiting to lose weight. A positive association was found between not eating or just drinking liquids and skipping meals and nutritional status after adjustment for age and region. A positive association was found between compensatory methods and dieting and education level of the head of the family. Disordered eating behaviors were frequent, and not eating and skipping meals were more prevalent among overweight/obese students; compensatory methods and dieting were less prevalent among students from families whose head had up to only four years of education. Prevention strategies and food education are necessary in order to decrease the prevalence of these behaviors.

  11. Risk of Eating Disorders among Female College Athletes and Nonathletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirk, Ginger; Singh, Kusum; Getz, Hildy

    2001-01-01

    Compares the prevalence of eating disorder behaviors between female collegiate athletes and female college nonathletes. Although female nonathletes had somewhat higher average scores on the Eating Attitudes Test 26, the proportion at risk for disordered eating was not different in the two groups. There was no significant difference among female…

  12. Female College Students' Perceptions of Organ Donation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boland, Kathleen; Baker, Kerrie

    2010-01-01

    The current process of organ donation in the U.S. relies on the premise of altruism or voluntary consent. Yet, human organs available for donation and transplant do not meet current demands. The literature has suggested that college students, who represent a large group of potential healthy organ donors, often are not part of donor pools. Before…

  13. Predictors of Homophobia in Female College Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basow, Susan A.; Johnson, Kelly

    2000-01-01

    Investigated how self-esteem, self-discrepancy, and gender-attribute importance related to homophobia in predominantly white college women, noting sex role attitudes, authoritarian attitudes, and extent of contact with homosexuals. The only significant predictor of homophobia was authoritarian attitudes. Other correlations included belief in sex…

  14. Female College Students' Perceptions of Organ Donation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boland, Kathleen; Baker, Kerrie

    2010-01-01

    The current process of organ donation in the U.S. relies on the premise of altruism or voluntary consent. Yet, human organs available for donation and transplant do not meet current demands. The literature has suggested that college students, who represent a large group of potential healthy organ donors, often are not part of donor pools. Before…

  15. Female College Athlete Leadership and Team Effectiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galicinao, Brianne M.

    2011-01-01

    This exploratory study contributes to the research on athlete leadership and team effectiveness in college sports. Athletic departments and sports coaches could benefit from a study about athlete leadership and team effectiveness in order to assist their student-leaders with leadership development and explore additional means to help improve team…

  16. Jealousy during Dating among Female College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khanchandani, Laveena; Durham, Thomas W.

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between several situational and personality variables and jealousy in dating relationships among 100 college women volunteers who completed a series of questionnaires about themselves and their dating situations. Six research questions were examined. Results showed that jealousy was lower for women in a steady…

  17. Health Education Prevention for Eating Disorders among College Female Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abood, Doris A.; Black, David R.

    2000-01-01

    Evaluated a health education intervention that emphasized risk factors associated with drive for thinness and body dissatisfaction among female college athletes. Surveys of athletes in intervention and comparison groups indicated that the intervention was associated with decreased drive for thinness, which in turn was associated with decreased…

  18. Psychological Type Preferences of Female Bible College Students in England

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kay, William K.; Francis, Leslie J.

    2008-01-01

    A sample of 122 female students attending a Pentecostal Bible College in England completed Form G (Anglicised) of the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI). The data demonstrated preferences for extraversion over introversion, for sensing over intuition, for feeling over thinking, and for judging over perceiving. The predominant type was ISFJ (16%),…

  19. Psychological Type Preferences of Female Bible College Students in England

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kay, William K.; Francis, Leslie J.

    2008-01-01

    A sample of 122 female students attending a Pentecostal Bible College in England completed Form G (Anglicised) of the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI). The data demonstrated preferences for extraversion over introversion, for sensing over intuition, for feeling over thinking, and for judging over perceiving. The predominant type was ISFJ (16%),…

  20. Body image satisfaction among female college students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shweta Goswami

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To determine body image satisfaction among newly entrant women students in a professional institution. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study using body image satisfaction described in words was undertaken, which also explored relationship with body mass index (BMI and other selected co-variables such as socio-demographic details, overall satisfaction in life, and particularly in academic/professional life, current health status using 5-item based Likert scale. Height, weight, hip and waist circumference measurement was carried out using standard protocol. Data collection was carried through personal interview using pre-designed, pre-tested semi-structured interview schedule by female investigators during August-September 2010 and analysis carried out by computing percentages and Chi-square test. Results: Out of 96 study samples, 16.66%, 51.04%, and 32.29% girl students perceived their body image as fair, good and excellent, respectively while overall 13.54% were dissatisfied with their body image. The body image satisfaction had significant relationship with image perception ( P<0.001, current general health status ( P<0.001 and self weight assessment ( P<0.001. Mother′s education had a statistically significant ( P=0.004 but negative relationship with outcome variable. Students with low weight (BMI <18.5 kg/m2 had a significantly higher (85.71% prevalence of body image satisfaction while overweight students (BMI≤23 kg/m2 had a significantly higher (54.54% prevalence of dissatisfaction ( P<0.001. Discussion: High body image satisfaction is reported in this study and was found to be significantly related to anthropometric measurements. On an encouraging note, this level needs to be preserved for overall mental and healthy development of students. Proactive preventive measures could be initiated on personality development, acceptance of self and individual differences while maintaining optimum weight and active life style.

  1. Risk Factors for Obesity among Saudi Female College Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahida Banu Shamsuddeen

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Obesity is alarmingly raising in young people necessitating foridentification of precise causes specific for populations. The aim of the present study is to determine independent contribution of parental socioeconomic variables and self-life style factors to obesity in Saudi female college students. We performed a cross-sectional study using a random selection of 300 women aged 18–26 years recruited from the female campus of University of Hail, Saudi Arabia and collected self-reported information to meet study objectives. Around 32 % of females were either overweight or obese and the study subjects with a family history of maternal obesity and habit of limited snacking had higher odds for obesity. No associations were found between obesity and parental income and education status; and skipping breakfast and physical activity behaviours of the subjects. Maternal obesity could be a considerable risk factor for obesity in female subjects.

  2. Majoring in nutrition influences BMI of female college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Mee Young; Shepanski, Tahirih L; Gaylis, Jaclyn B

    2016-01-01

    Maintaining healthy eating habits in college is challenging. Interventions focused on nutrition education can assist in reversing these trends of poor eating habits among college students. The purpose of the study was to identify factors affecting the dietary habits, food choices and BMI of college females majoring in nutrition (NMs) compared with non-nutrition majors (OMs). A questionnaire-based cross-sectional survey study of dietary behaviour and food frequency of 202 college females was conducted at San Diego State University. Data were analysed by using t tests, χ(2) tests and regression analysis in SPSS. NMs exhibited a lower BMI than OMs (P NMs had a BMI in the range of overweight or obese; however, prevalence was three times higher for OMs, being 9·2 %. A healthier meal option was the most influential factor in NMs' meal choices whereas convenience and weight control were influential factors in OMs' meal choices. Most NMs read nutrition labels and reported that this affects their food choices. NMs exercised longer than OMs in the NMs only (P NMs compared with OMs.

  3. Exploring Black College Females' Perceptions Regarding HIV Prevention Message Content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandler-Coley, Rasheeta; Ross, Henry; Ozoya, Oluwatobi; Lescano, Celia; Flannigan, Timothy

    2017-02-01

    Media messages can facilitate the delivery of accurate information related to HIV and sexually transmitted infection. This study's purpose was to examine preexisting media campaigns from the iMPPACS study to assess age-, gender-, and culturally appropriate components identified by African American females who attend historically Black colleges/universities. In 3 separate focus group sessions, 31 Black female college students (M age = 20) viewed 4 vignettes and heard 3 audio-only clips, then ranked and commented on them based on perceived satisfaction with HIV prevention content and appropriateness of delivery. Conventional qualitative analysis using NVivo software was performed until saturation of content was achieved and themes derived. Six major themes emerged and were designated as (a) social media; (b) mirror image; (c) visually dynamic advertisements; (d) the real world; (e) people, place, things; and (f) HIV knowledge. Visually stimulating content (i.e., graphics) was found to be most appealing in marketing HIV prevention, with brief monologue/dialogue from scenarios that resemble daily life. Socially and culturally relevant HIV prevention messages are important to Black college female students. Participants recommended creating short audiovisual messages that encompass familiar contexts like dorm rooms and appealing graphics for HIV health promotion messages, such as emojis. Future audio-only prevention advertisements for this population should use recognizable voices (e.g., celebrities). Finally, messaging should be promoted on open and closed circuit social media platforms.

  4. The Emancipation Years: Sport in the Female Colleges at the University of Sydney 1892-1958

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Jessica; Georgakis, Steve

    2015-01-01

    This paper traces the development of sport in the two female residential colleges (Women's and Sancta Sophia) at the University of Sydney. While the University of Sydney male residential colleges established an intercollegiate sporting competition in 1907 (Rawson Cup), it was not until 1958 that the female residential colleges established an…

  5. Sexual Violence, Weight Perception, and Eating Disorder Indicators in College Females

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groff Stephens, Sara; Wilke, Dina J.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To examine the relationships between sexual violence experiences, inaccurate body weight perceptions, and the presence of eating disorder (ED) indicators in a sample of female US college students. Participants: Participants were 6,090 college females 25 years of age and younger. Methods: A secondary analysis of National College Health…

  6. Social Networking of Depressed and Non-Depressed Female College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sultan, Sarwat; Hussain, Irshad

    2013-01-01

    The present study aimed at examining the interpersonal aspects of depression among female college students. A sample of 60 undergraduate female college students (50 pairs: 25 depressed and 25 non-depressed subjects along with their best friends) was drawn from Government Degree College for Women, Multan. Beck Depression Inventory (Beck et al.,…

  7. Dietary Intakes and Eating Habits of College Athletes: Are Female College Athletes Following the Current Sports Nutrition Standards?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shriver, Lenka H.; Betts, Nancy M.; Wollenberg, Gena

    2013-01-01

    Objective: The objective of this study was to assess dietary intakes and eating habits of female college athletes and compared them with the minimum sports nutrition standards. Participants: Data were obtained from 52 female college athletes from a National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) Division I university between January 2009 and May…

  8. Dietary Intakes and Eating Habits of College Athletes: Are Female College Athletes Following the Current Sports Nutrition Standards?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shriver, Lenka H.; Betts, Nancy M.; Wollenberg, Gena

    2013-01-01

    Objective: The objective of this study was to assess dietary intakes and eating habits of female college athletes and compared them with the minimum sports nutrition standards. Participants: Data were obtained from 52 female college athletes from a National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) Division I university between January 2009 and May…

  9. Rape and Sexual Assault Victimization Among College-Age Females, 1995-2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 2014 Special Report NCJ 2484 71 Rape and Sexual Assault Victimization Among College-Age Females, 1995–2013 ... 24 had the highest rate of rape and sexual assault victimizations compared to females in all other ...

  10. Body checking and avoidance in ethnically diverse female college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Emily K; Warren, Cortney S

    2013-09-01

    Although body checking and avoidance behaviors are common in women with eating disorders, minimal research has examined the nature or correlates of these behaviors in ethnically diverse female college students without eating disorders. Self-identified European American (n=268), Asian American (n=163), Latina (n=146), and African American (n=73) women completed self-report measures of body checking and avoidance, thin-ideal internalization, eating pathology, and clinical impairment. Results indicated that European and Asian American women reported significantly more body checking and avoidance than African American and Latina women. Generally, correlates of body checking and avoidance were consistent across ethnic groups: Regression analyses indicated that type of ethnicity predicted body checking and avoidance; and ethnicity, body checking, and body avoidance predicted eating pathology and clinical impairment. These associations suggest that body checking and avoidance are not benign behaviors in diverse nonclinical women.

  11. Contraceptive Use Among Nonpregnant and Postpartum Women at Risk for Unintended Pregnancy, and Female High School Students, in the Context of Zika Preparedness - United States, 2011-2013 and 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boulet, Sheree L; D'Angelo, Denise V; Morrow, Brian; Zapata, Lauren; Berry-Bibee, Erin; Rivera, Maria; Ellington, Sascha; Romero, Lisa; Lathrop, Eva; Frey, Meghan; Williams, Tanya; Goldberg, Howard; Warner, Lee; Harrison, Leslie; Cox, Shanna; Pazol, Karen; Barfield, Wanda; Jamieson, Denise J; Honein, Margaret A; Kroelinger, Charlan D

    2016-08-05

    Zika virus infection during pregnancy can cause congenital microcephaly and brain abnormalities (1,2). Since 2015, Zika virus has been spreading through much of the World Health Organization's Region of the Americas, including U.S. territories. Zika virus is spread through the bite of Aedes aegypti or Aedes albopictus mosquitoes, by sex with an infected partner, or from a pregnant woman to her fetus during pregnancy.* CDC estimates that 41 states are in the potential range of Aedes aegypti or Aedes albopictus mosquitoes (3), and on July 29, 2016, the Florida Department of Health identified an area in one neighborhood of Miami where Zika virus infections in multiple persons are being spread by bites of local mosquitoes. These are the first known cases of local mosquito-borne Zika virus transmission in the continental United States.(†) CDC prevention efforts include mosquito surveillance and control, targeted education about Zika virus and condom use to prevent sexual transmission, and guidance for providers on contraceptive counseling to reduce unintended pregnancy. To estimate the prevalence of contraceptive use among nonpregnant and postpartum women at risk for unintended pregnancy and sexually active female high school students living in the 41 states where mosquito-borne transmission might be possible, CDC used 2011-2013 and 2015 survey data from four state-based surveillance systems: the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS, 2011-2013), which surveys adult women; the Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System (PRAMS, 2013) and the Maternal and Infant Health Assessment (MIHA, 2013), which surveys women with a recent live birth; and the Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS, 2015), which surveys students in grades 9-12. CDC defines an unintended pregnancy as one that is either unwanted (i.e., the pregnancy occurred when no children, or no more children, were desired) or mistimed (i.e., the pregnancy occurred earlier than desired). The proportion of

  12. Are female college students who are diagnosed with depression at greater risk of experiencing sexual violence on college campus?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossain, Mian B; Memiah, Peter; Adeyinka, Adeyemi

    2014-08-01

    We examined the association between depression and sexual violence among 18-24 year-old female college students using National College Health Assessment survey. Data were collected from a nationally representative sample of 10,541 female students on 33 college campuses. Results showed that female students who were reportedly ever diagnosed with depression were 1.56 times more likely than those who had never been diagnosed with depression to have experienced sexual violence. Female students who had one or more sexual partners currently were found 3.17 times more likely than those who had no sexual partner to have experienced sexual violence; similarly, female students who engaged in binge drinking in the previous two weeks were found about two times more likely than their counterparts to have experienced sexual violence. Depression is a public health issue and must be addressed sooner rather than later in order to reduce and prevent sexual violence on college campuses.

  13. Perceptions of Harmful Female Advertising Stereotypes and Eating-Disordered Thinking among Female College Students: A Q Method Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gustafson, Robert L.; Thomsen, Steven R.; Popovich, Mark N.

    A study employed Q methodology, personal interviews, and a self-administered questionnaire to explore how female college students, a population segment with one of the highest incidences of anorexia nervosa and other eating disorders, rank magazine advertisements that feature a variety of potentially harmful female stereotypes. Specifically, the…

  14. Body Image, Self-Esteem and Depression in Female Adolescent College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latha, K. S.; Hegde, Supriya; Bhat, S. M.; Sharma, P. S. V. N.; Rai, Pooja

    2006-01-01

    Introduction: The purpose of this study was to examine whether Body Mass Index (BMI) and the subjective perception of body weight, and body shape satisfaction predict level of self-esteem and depression among female college students. Method: The sample comprised of 124 female college students ranging in age from 16-21 years. Self perception of…

  15. Relationship Between Math Attitudes and Achievement, Parents' Occupation, and Math Anxiety in Female College Freshmen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kincaid, Marylou Butler; Austin-Martin, George

    The reasons that cause women to take significantly fewer mathematics courses than men are investigated. The subjects consisted of 377 female college freshmen enrolled at a small, private women's liberal arts college in the Midwest. All subjects were tested as part of the college's regular placement testing program prior to the Fall semester of the…

  16. Childhood discipline, perceptions of parents, and current functioning in female college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renk, Kimberly; McKinney, Cliff; Klein, Jenny; Oliveros, Arazais

    2006-02-01

    This study examined the relationships among the childhood discipline styles experienced by 116 female college students, their perceptions of their parents, and their current functioning. Results of this study indicated that female college students' report of childhood discipline, their perceptions of their parents, and their outcomes were related uniquely when examining responses for mothers and fathers. Further, regression analyses suggested that negative perceptions of mothers may mediate the relationship between maternal psychologically assaultive discipline and female college students' depression and self-esteem and mediate partially the relationship between maternal psychologically and physically assaultive discipline and female college students' anxiety. In contrast, fathers' use of psychologically assaultive discipline and female college students' positive and negative perceptions of their fathers predicted depression, whereas only their perceptions predicted anxiety and self-esteem. These results suggested the importance of examining discipline and perceptions of parents when examining the functioning of late adolescents and emerging adults.

  17. Cyberbullying, Depression, and Problem Alcohol Use in Female College Students: A Multisite Study

    OpenAIRE

    Selkie, Ellen M.; Kota, Rajitha; Chan, Ya-Fen; Moreno, Megan

    2015-01-01

    Cyberbullying and its effects have been studied largely in middle and high school students, but less is known about cyberbullying in college students. This cross-sectional study investigated the relationship between involvement in cyberbullying and depression or problem alcohol use among college females. Two hundred and sixty-five female students from four colleges completed online surveys assessing involvement in cyberbullying behaviors. Participants also completed the Patient Health Questio...

  18. The Role Model Effect on Gender Equity: How are Female College Students Influenced by Female Teaching Assistants in Science?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebert, Darilyn

    The gender gap of women in science is an important and unresolved issue in higher education and occupational opportunities. The present study was motivated by the fact that there are typically fewer females than males advancing in science, and therefore fewer female science instructor role models. This observation inspired the questions: Are female college students influenced in a positive way by female science teaching assistants (TAs), and if so how can their influence be measured? The study tested the hypothesis that female TAs act as role models for female students and thereby encourage interest and increase overall performance. To test this "role model" hypothesis, the reasoning ability and self-efficacy of a sample of 724 introductory college biology students were assessed at the beginning and end of the Spring 2010 semester. Achievement was measured by exams and course work. Performance of four randomly formed groups was compared: 1) female students with female TAs, 2) male students with female TAs, 3) female students with male TAs, and 4) male students with male TAs. Based on the role model hypothesis, female students with female TAs were predicted to perform better than female students with male TAs. However, group comparisons revealed similar performances across all four groups in achievement, reasoning ability and self-efficacy. The slight differences found between the four groups in student exam and coursework scores were not statistically significant. Therefore, the results did not support the role model hypothesis. Given that both lecture professors in the present study were males, and given that professors typically have more teaching experience, finer skills and knowledge of subject matter than do TAs, a future study that includes both female science professors and female TAs, may be more likely to find support for the hypothesis.

  19. Factors associated with nutrition label use among female college students applying the theory of planned behavior

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hyun Jeong Lim; Min Ju Kim; Kyung Won Kim

    2015-01-01

    Use of nutrition labels in food selection is recommended for consumers. The aim of this study is to examine factors, mainly beliefs explaining nutrition label use in female college students based on the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB...

  20. STEM Aspiration: The Influence of Social Capital and Chilly Climate on Female Community College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jorstad, John; Starobin, Soko S.; Chen, Yu; Kollasch, Aurelia

    2017-01-01

    This quantitative study examined the predictive impact of a series of factors on female community college students' intention to transfer in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM). The STEM Student Success Literacy survey (SSSL) was utilized to collect data from a large, diverse community college located in Florida. After the…

  1. Exploring Chlamydia Positivity among Females on College Campuses, 2008-2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habel, Melissa A.; Leichliter, Jami S.; Torrone, Elizabeth

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Describe chlamydia positivity among young women tested at college health centers by student characteristics: age, race/ethnicity, and institution type. Participants: During 2008-2010, colleges participating in a national infertility prevention program provided chlamydia testing data from females aged 18-24. Methods: Chlamydia positivity…

  2. Pharmacokinetics of cocaine in pregnant and nonpregnant rhesus monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duhart, H M; Fogle, C M; Gillam, M P; Bailey, J R; Slikker, W; Paule, M G

    1993-01-01

    To determine pharmacokinetic parameters for cocaine in rhesus monkey plasma, samples were taken over several hours after i.m. administration of cocaine plus a tritiated cocaine tracer. Cocaine and its metabolites, benzoylecgonine and norcocaine, were isolated via HPLC and quantitated using liquid scintillation spectrometry. Pregnant subjects were dosed with cocaine at 0.3 (n = 3) or 1.0 (n = 3) mg/kg, whereas nonpregnant female subjects were dosed with 1.0 mg/kg (n = 3). For the pregnant subjects, pharmacokinetic studies were conducted on about gestational day 125 and areas under the concentration versus time curve (AUCs, ng/mL x h) were 64 +/- 26 (+/- SEM) and 143 +/- 12; half-lives (t1/2s, h) were 1.9 +/- 0.6 and 1.1 +/- 0.1 after 0.3 and 1.0 mg/kg i.m., respectively. For nonpregnant subjects dosed acutely with 1.0 mg/kg, the AUC was 262 +/- 63 and the t1/2 was 1.4 +/- 0.3. There appear to be few differences in the pharmacokinetic parameters of cocaine and benzoylecgonine between pregnant and nonpregnant monkeys in this study.

  3. A Comparison of Female College Athletes and Nonathletes: Eating Disorder Symptomatology and Psychological Well-Being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiBartolo, Patricia Marten; Shaffer, Carey

    2002-01-01

    Examined eating attitudes, body satisfaction, reasons for exercise, and psychological wellbeing among female nonathletes and college athletes. Data from participant surveys revealed less eating disorder symptomatology and more healthy psychological functioning among athletes, suggesting that female athletic involvement could be associated with…

  4. Body Build Perceptions in Male and Female College Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Roger C.; Hankins, Norman E.

    1979-01-01

    Results from scores on the Somatotype Rating Scale (SRS) indicated that, while there was close agreement between males and females on the measures, females exhibited more dissatisfaction with their body build and greater congruency between their self-concept and their same-sex stereotype than did males. (Author)

  5. Examining Ageism: Do Male and Female College Students Differ?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalavar, Jyotsna M.

    2001-01-01

    College students (n=200) expressed their preferences for the ages of 13 service providers such as doctors, pilots, and mechanics. The mean age preferred was below 40. Except for barbers/beauticians, no gender differences were found. However, scores on the Fraboni Scale of Ageism showed that male students had more ageist attitudes. (SK)

  6. Effect of Spinal Manipulation on Pelvic Floor Functional Changes in Pregnant and Nonpregnant Women: A Preliminary Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haavik, Heidi; Murphy, Bernadette A; Kruger, Jennifer

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether a single session of spinal manipulation of pregnant women can alter pelvic floor muscle function as measured using ultrasonographic imaging. In this preliminary, prospective, comparative study, transperineal ultrasonographic imaging was used to assess pelvic floor anatomy and function in 11 primigravid women in their second trimester recruited via notice boards at obstetric caregivers, pregnancy keep-fit classes, and word of mouth and 15 nulliparous women recruited from a convenience sample of female students at the New Zealand College of Chiropractic. Following bladder voiding, 3-/4-dimensional transperineal ultrasonography was performed on all participants in the supine position. Levator hiatal area measurements at rest, on maximal pelvic floor contraction, and during maximum Valsalva maneuver were collected before and after either spinal manipulation or a control intervention. Levator hiatal area at rest increased significantly (P pregnant women, with no change postmanipulation in the nonpregnant women at rest or in any of the other measured parameters. Spinal manipulation of pregnant women in their second trimester increased the levator hiatal area at rest and thus appears to relax the pelvic floor muscles. This did not occur in the nonpregnant control participants, suggesting that it may be pregnancy related. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  7. Awareness of heart disease among female college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz, Laura R; Etnyre, Annette; Adams, Melinda; Herbers, Sharon; Witte, Amy; Horlen, Cheryl; Baynton, Sally; Estrada, Rosanna; Jones, Mary Elaine

    2010-12-01

    Awareness of heart disease as the leading cause of death in women has increased over the past 10 years, but little is known about the awareness level of college students. This study evaluated the level of awareness and knowledge of heart disease in women among college students. Using a cross-sectional design, a sample of 320 women from a private university was queried. A 13-item survey assessed demographic information and awareness of cardiovascular disease (CVD). The mean age was 23 years; the majority were single and of Hispanic ethnicity. Almost one third believed breast cancer was the greatest problem facing women. One half recognized CVD as the leading cause of death among women. Students aged 18-24 years were significantly less likely to identify heart disease/heart attack as the leading cause of death in women compared with students aged 25-34 years. Significant ethnic differences in perceptions of risk were found. Family history and obesity were seen as major contributors to CVD; less than a fourth ever discussed CVD with their healthcare provider. Information was gained primarily from television, magazines, and the Internet. Exercise and maintenance of healthy blood pressure were viewed as priorities in prevention of CVD. Results add to the body of research on CVD risk and the need for intervention to increase awareness and knowledge of heart disease risk among younger and ethnically diverse young women and raises questions about the role of colleges and universities in promotion of student health. Colleges and universities may provide the last opportunity to reach youth as a group to affect lifestyle changes.

  8. Prevalence and Characteristics of Sexual Hookups Among First-Semester Female College Students

    OpenAIRE

    Fielder, Robyn L.; Michael P. Carey

    2010-01-01

    First-semester female college students (N = 118) completed (a) surveys to estimate the prevalence of sexual hookups and (b) event-level assessments to clarify the behavioral characteristics of their most recent hookup. Hookups involving oral, vaginal, or anal sex were reported by 51% prior to college, 36% during their first semester, and 60% by the end of their first semester. Event-level analyses revealed that hookups were more likely to involve friends (47%) or acquaintances (23%) rather th...

  9. The Life Concept in Female College Students: An Exploratory Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papalia-Finlay, Diane Ellen

    1978-01-01

    A two-part animism questionnaire was adminstered to 200 female undergraduates with extensive backgrounds in science. When students classified objects as "living" or "nonliving," 67 percent gave evidence of animistic thought. Yet when subjects identified statements which reflected their own definition of living, 66 percent…

  10. Effect of exposure to photographs of thin models on self-consciousness in female college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wegner, B S; Hartmann, A M; Geist, C R

    2000-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the immediate influence of brief exposure to images taken from print media on the general self-consciousness and body self-consciousness of 67 college women. After viewing photographs of either thin female models or control photographs, the women completed the Self-consciousness Scale and the Body Self-consciousness Questionnaire. Although alpha was .45, the college women who looked at images of thin female models gave immediate ratings significantly (p Self-consciousness and Body Self-consciousness than those who looked at control images.

  11. Are hookups replacing romantic relationships? A longitudinal study of first-year female college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fielder, Robyn L; Carey, Kate B; Carey, Michael P

    2013-05-01

    To assess the prevalence and frequency of sexual hookups across the first year of college and to compare rates of hookups and romantic relationship sex. We surveyed 483 first-year female college students (mean age, 18.1 years; range, 18-21 years, 64% white) monthly over the first year of college about the frequency of sexual behavior in the context of hookups and romantic relationships. The prevalence of hookups involving oral or vaginal sex was 34% before college and 40% during the first year, compared with 58% and 56%, respectively, with romantic partners. Fewer than one in five participants (7%-18%) had a sexual hookup each month, whereas 25%-38% had sex in the context of relationships each month. Hooking up varies in frequency over the first year in college, but remains less common than sex in the context of relationships. Copyright © 2013 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. A Pilot Examination of Differences in College Adjustment Stressors and Depression and Anxiety Symptoms between White, Hispanic and White, Non-Hispanic Female College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holliday, Ryan; Anderson, Elizabeth; Williams, Rush; Bird, Jessica; Matlock, Alyse; Ali, Sania; Edmondson, Christine; Morris, E. Ellen; Mullen, Kacy; Surís, Alina

    2016-01-01

    Differences in four adjustment stressors (family, interpersonal, career, and academic), and depression and anxiety symptoms were examined between White, non-Hispanic and White, Hispanic undergraduate college female students. White, Hispanic female college students reported significantly greater academic and family adjustment stressors than White,…

  13. Grief Experiences Among Female American and Arab Undergraduate College Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varga, Mary Alice; McClam, Tricia M; Hassane, Sofoh

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the incidence of grief among American and Arab female undergraduate students, the effects of their grief, and risk of prolonged grief disorder. A total of 471 female undergraduate students, 308 (65.4%) from the United Arab Emirates and 163 (34.6%) from the United States, completed a survey about their grief experiences. Students experiencing a significant loss also completed the Prolonged Grief Disorder Questionnaire. Findings revealed that overall approximately 38.4% (n = 181) of all 471 students experienced the loss of a significant person in their lives within the past 24 months; a similar percentage was found in each sub group. Students reported various grief effects with American students experiencing more effects related to sleep, relationships, academics, physical well-being, religion/spirituality, and outlook on life than Arab students. Only a small number (10, 5.52%) of students met the criteria for prolonged grief disorder; however, most students were female Arab students. Limitations of the study and recommendations for future research are provided.

  14. Fit Minded College Edition Pilot Study: Can a Magazine-Based Discussion Group Improve Physical Activity in Female College Freshmen?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellitteri, Katelyn; Huberty, Jennifer; Ehlers, Diane; Bruening, Meg

    Initial efficacy of a magazine-based discussion group for improving physical activity (PA), self-worth, and eating behaviors in female college freshmen. Randomized control trial. A large university in southwestern United States. Thirty-seven female college freshmen were randomized to the intervention (n = 17) and control groups (n = 20) in September 2013. Participants completed an 8-week magazine-based discussion group program, Fit Minded College Edition, adapted from Fit Minded, a previously tested theory-based intervention. Education on PA, self-worth, and nutrition was provided using excerpts from women's health magazines. Participants also had access to a Web site with supplementary health and wellness material. The control group did not attend meetings or have access to the Web site but received the magazines. Interventions focusing on concepts of self-worth with less focus on weight and appearance may promote long term PA participation and healthy eating behaviors in college women. Self-reported PA, global self-worth, knowledge self-worth, self-efficacy, social support, eating behaviors (ie, fruit/veggie/junk food/sugar-sweetened beverage consumption), satisfaction, and Web site usage. Mean age of participants was 18.11 (SD = 0.32) years. Time × Intervention effects were observed for PA minutes per week (Partial η = 0.34), knowledge self-worth (Partial η = 0.02), and daily sugar-sweetened beverage consumption (Partial η = 0.17) (P < .05), with the intervention group reporting greater increases in PA and knowledge self-worth and greater decreases in sugar-sweetened beverage consumption. A magazine-based discussion group may provide a promising platform to improve health behaviors in female college freshmen.

  15. Perceptions of Body Image and Psychosocial Development: An Examination of First-Year Female College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckley, Jennifer Lynne

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to help higher education practitioners and researchers better understand the role that body image plays in first-year traditional-aged college females' development of physical competence and also provide new insights regarding the role that body image plays in the psychosocial development of first-year…

  16. The Relationship of Problem Solving and Reframing to Stress and Depression in Female College Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brack, Gregory; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Examined effects of stress on depression in female commuter college students (n=106). Results indicate that problem-solving confidence was important moderating variable and suggest that perception of long-term stress directly affects current depression level. Positive long-term experiences seemed to moderate subsequent negative experiences that…

  17. Male and Female: Career Development of African American College Athletes and Non-Athletes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Jamie Dowdy

    2015-01-01

    Tendency to foreclose on careers, vocational exploration, and career commitment were examined in relationship to racial-ethnic socialization, parental responsiveness, and career-related verbal encouragement and emotional support among 228 African American male and female college athletes and non-athletes. A number of tests were conducted to test…

  18. Childhood Sexual Abuse, Attachment, and Trauma Symptoms in College Females: The Moderating Role of Attachment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aspelmeier, Jeffery E.; Elliott, Ann N.; Smith, Christopher H.

    2007-01-01

    Objective: The present study tests a model linking attachment, childhood sexual abuse (CSA), and adult psychological functioning. It expands on previous work by assessing the degree to which attachment security moderates the relationship between a history of child sexual abuse and trauma-related symptoms in college females. Method: Self-reports of…

  19. Theory of planned behavior and multivitamin supplement use in Caucasian college females

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of this study was to identify predictors of the use of multivitamin supplements among Caucasian college females utilizing the Theory of Planned Behavior. Variables of the Theory of Planned Behavior and the self-reported use of multivitamin supplements were measured by two separate surv...

  20. Anorexic Eating Attitudes and Behaviors of Male and Female College Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Wendy L.; Hughes, Honore M.; Katz, Barry; Searight, H. Russell

    1999-01-01

    Examines gender differences in eating attitudes and behaviors in undergraduate college students (N=471). Anorexic symptomatology was found for 20% of the females and 10% of the males. In general, students without symptomatic attitudes and behaviors had a more positive self-concept and reported less psychological distress than did those with eating…

  1. Attitudes and Correlates of Turkish College Students in Relation to Female Honour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumcagiz, Hatice; Dadashzadeh, Rahim

    2017-01-01

    Honour is closely associated with such concepts as dignity, integrity, and morals, and also causes changes in people's attitudes and behaviours as well as in their cultural environment. The present study is intended to investigate attitudes and correlates of female honour in college students. A correlational study was conducted on 2924…

  2. Correlates of AUDIT Risk Status for Male and Female College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeMartini, Kelly S.; Carey, Kate B.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: The current study identified gender-specific correlates of hazardous drinker status as defined by the AUDIT. Participants: A total of 462 college student volunteers completed the study in 2006. The sample was predominantly Caucasian (75%) and female (55%). Methods: Participants completed a survey assessing demographics, alcohol use…

  3. Intellectual and Moral Development in College Student and Graduate Female Nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conroy, Sherrill

    This study of seven female nurses who were presently students at or had graduated from John Abbott College was conducted to determine whether the moral and intellectual development of the participants followed parallel courses; whether the participants adopted a "justice" or a "care" approach to moral questions per Carol Gilligan's model; whether…

  4. The Motivations and Experiences of Underage Female Students Who Choose to Abstain from Drinking in College

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gravelle, Deborah

    2012-01-01

    For decades, research has been conducted regarding alcohol consumption and behaviors, binge drinking, alcohol prevention, and education programs; however, there is limited research investigating a student's decision not to drink. In particular, there is minimal research on the experiences of underage female college students who have chosen to…

  5. Ethnic Identity and Body Image among Black and White College Females

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baugh, Eboni; Mullis, Ron; Mullis, Ann; Hicks, Mary; Peterson, Gary

    2010-01-01

    Objective: This study examines ethnic identity and body image in black and white college females. Participants: Researchers surveyed 118 students at 2 universities, 1 traditionally white and 1 historically black. Methods: Correlations and multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) were used to investigate the relationship between race, ethnic…

  6. (Un)Intended Consequences: The First-Year College Experience of Female Students with Dual Credits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobolowsky, Barbara F.; Allen, Taryn Ozuna

    2016-01-01

    Using Merton's (1957) anticipatory socialization theory, this qualitative study explored how participation in dual credit in high school helped introduce 12 female students to the academic and social aspects of college to ease their first-year transitions. These students, who entered one Texas university with between 15 and 78 dual credits,…

  7. Individual and Familial Correlates of Body Satisfaction in Male and Female College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sira, Natalia; White, Carmel Parker

    2010-01-01

    Objective: This study investigates the relative contributions of global self-esteem, body mass index (BMI), dieting behaviors, and perceived parental control and care on body satisfaction among a nonclinical sample of college students. Participants and Methods: Participants (49 males and 299 females) reported weight and height (to calculate BMI)…

  8. High Math-Anxious Female College Freshmen: What Do They Have in Common?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Marylou; Austin-Martin, George

    Presented is a study which investigated the relationship of mathematics anxiety to mathematics attitudes and mathematics achievement for 62 high math-anxious female college freshmen. Subjects were given the Fennema-Sherman Mathematics Attitude Inventory, including a mathematics anxiety scale, and a mathematics achievement test. High math-anxious…

  9. Individual and Familial Correlates of Body Satisfaction in Male and Female College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sira, Natalia; White, Carmel Parker

    2010-01-01

    Objective: This study investigates the relative contributions of global self-esteem, body mass index (BMI), dieting behaviors, and perceived parental control and care on body satisfaction among a nonclinical sample of college students. Participants and Methods: Participants (49 males and 299 females) reported weight and height (to calculate BMI)…

  10. Evaluative Concerns and Personal Standards Perfectionism as Predictors of Body Dissatisfaction in Asian and European American Female College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Edward C.; Yu, Tina; Chang, Olivia D.; Jilani, Zunaira

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: The present study examined perfectionism (viz, evaluative concerns and personal standards) and ethnicity as predictors of body dissatisfaction in female college students. Participants: Participants were 298 female college students sampled by December of 2013. Methods: A self-report survey with measures of body dissatisfaction,…

  11. Frequency of tetanus toxoid immunization among college/university female students of Karachi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qadir, Murad; Murad, Rafat; Mumtaz, Seema; Azmi, Abdul Azim; Rehman, Rehana; Omm-E-Hani; Aziz, Nasir

    2010-01-01

    Tetanus is a deadly infectious disease for which immunisation is available in EPI at both infant level and for females of reproductive age. More than 95% of patients who develop tetanus have not been previously immunised. Objectives of the study were to determine the frequency of tetanus vaccination and to access the awareness of immunisation among females studying in 11 girls' colleges of Karachi and University of Karachi. A cross sectional study was conducted among 1,407 females studying in colleges and University of Karachi from April to August 2007 using a prescribed questionnaire. Among 1,407 female students who were interviewed for the study, 232 (16.48%) were not aware about tetanus immunisation program for females of reproductive age. Only 560 students (39.80%) received at least 1 of 5 recommended doses. Only 41 female students (2.91%) received complete course of 5 doses. Coverage of tetanus immunisation among literate females in most populous city of the country is far behind satisfactory. There is need for awareness and crash programs of tetanus immunisation.

  12. Factors associated with future commitment and past history of human papilloma virus vaccination among female college students in northern Taiwan

    OpenAIRE

    Kuo, Ping-Fen; Yeh, Ying-Tse; Sheu, Shuh-Jen; Wang, Tze-Fang

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate factors influencing commitment to human papilloma virus (HPV) vaccination and prior vaccination among female college students in northern Taiwan. Methods A quota sample of 400 female college students was recruited from nine colleges in northern Taiwan during March 2013. Of these, 398 completed the self administered questionnaire which was designed based on the health promotion model. Results The results showed that factors associated with prior vaccination behavior we...

  13. Precollege Predictors of Incapacitated Rape Among Female Students in Their First Year of College.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carey, Kate B; Durney, Sarah E; Shepardson, Robyn L; Carey, Michael P

    2015-11-01

    The first year of college is an important transitional period for young adults; it is also a period associated with elevated risk of incapacitated rape (IR) for female students. The goal of this study was to identify prospective risk factors associated with experiencing attempted or completed IR during the first year of college. Using a prospective cohort design, we recruited 483 incoming first-year female students. Participants completed a baseline survey and three follow-up surveys over the next year. At baseline, we assessed precollege alcohol use, marijuana use, sexual behavior, and, for the subset of sexually experienced participants, sex-related alcohol expectancies. At the baseline and all follow-ups, we assessed sexual victimization. Approximately 1 in 6 women (18%) reported IR before entering college, and 15% reported IR during their first year of college. In bivariate analyses, precollege IR history, precollege heavy episodic drinking, number of precollege sexual partners, and sex-related alcohol expectancies (enhancement and disinhibition) predicted first-year IR. In multivariate analyses with the entire sample, only precollege IR (odds ratio = 4.98, p year. IR during the first year of college is independently associated with a history of IR and with expectancies about alcohol's enhancement of sexual experience. Alcohol expectancies are a modifiable risk factor that may be a promising target for prevention efforts.

  14. Prevalence and characteristics of sexual hookups among first-semester female college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fielder, Robyn L; Carey, Michael P

    2010-01-01

    First-semester female college students (N = 118) completed surveys to estimate the prevalence of sexual hookups and event-level assessments to clarify the behavioral characteristics of their most recent hookup. Hookups involving oral, vaginal, or anal sex were reported by 51% before college, 36% during their first semester, and 60% by the end of their first semester. Event-level analyses revealed that hookups were more likely to involve friends (47%) or acquaintances (23%) rather than strangers (14%); alcohol use (median = 3 drinks) preceded 64% of hookups. Condoms were used during 69% of vaginal sex hookups.

  15. Body Composition, Fitness Status, and Health Behaviors Upon Entering College: An Examination of Female College Students From Diverse Populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Amanda A.; Whitt-Glover, Melicia C.; Kraus, Caroline L.; McKenzie, Michael J.

    2016-01-01

    Although poor health-related behaviors that impact development of chronic diseases begin much earlier than when actual disease is evident, few studies have examined health behaviors in college students, who may be at an important transitional period where early intervention could prevent development of chronic diseases. The purpose of this study was to examine health-related factors in female college students (N = 61) by race/ethnicity and weight status. We found significant differences in health profiles between non-Hispanic White (White) and African American students, including greater physical fitness and healthier diets among White students. Overweight/obese students had worse health profiles than healthy BMI students. Furthermore, weight status was significantly associated with cardiovascular fitness. This supports a focus on PA promotion for interventions in the period of emerging adulthood, alongside the other healthy behaviors, to elicit improvements in weight status and potential reduction of chronic disease risks. PMID:27279760

  16. Body Composition, Fitness Status, and Health Behaviors Upon Entering College: An Examination of Female College Students From Diverse Populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Amanda A; Whitt-Glover, Melicia C; Kraus, Caroline L; McKenzie, Michael J

    2016-01-01

    Although poor health-related behaviors that impact development of chronic diseases begin much earlier than when actual disease is evident, few studies have examined health behaviors in college students, who may be at an important transitional period where early intervention could prevent development of chronic diseases. The purpose of this study was to examine health-related factors in female college students (N = 61) by race/ethnicity and weight status. We found significant differences in health profiles between non-Hispanic White (White) and African American students, including greater physical fitness and healthier diets among White students. Overweight/obese students had worse health profiles than healthy BMI students. Furthermore, weight status was significantly associated with cardiovascular fitness. This supports a focus on PA promotion for interventions in the period of emerging adulthood, alongside the other healthy behaviors, to elicit improvements in weight status and potential reduction of chronic disease risks.

  17. The Distribution Pattern of Skinfold Thickness in College Female Judo Players

    OpenAIRE

    長谷川, 優; 竹内, 外夫; 湯浅, 景元; Masaru, HASEGAWA; Hokao, TAKEUCHI; Kagemoto, YUASA

    1994-01-01

    A study was carried out to investigate the distribution pattern of the skinfold thickness in female college judo players. A total of 17 judo players were divided into two groups : -56kg and +56kg groups. These players were compared to non-trained female subjects of similar age. Skinfold thickenesses were measured on 30 body sites with using B-mode ultrasonic device employing a 5MHz tansducer. The +56kg group showed significantly thicker skinfold than-56kg group at the sites of above and under...

  18. Career group counseling in undecided college female seniors' state anxiety and career indecision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, H

    2001-06-01

    A sample of female college seniors experiencing career indecision participated in a career group counseling (n: 16), a wait-list control group (n: 8), and an additional career-counseling group (n: 11). Participants were administered the Career Decision Scale and the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory at pretest and posttest. Analysis of covariance of state anxiety scores and career indecision scores yielded significant main effects for treatment. Participants in the career-counseling groups showed a decrease in scores on state anxiety and career indecision. Implications for research and female career group counseling are also discussed.

  19. Female College Students’ Media Use and Academic Outcomes: Results from a Longitudinal Cohort Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Jennifer L.; Fielder, Robyn L.; Carey, Kate B.; Carey, Michael P.

    2013-01-01

    This longitudinal study describes women’s media use during their first year of college and examines associations between media use and academic outcomes. Female students (N = 483, Mage = 18.1 years) reported on their use of 11 media forms and their grade point average, academic behaviors, academic confidence, and problems affecting schoolwork. Allowing for multi-tasking, women reported nearly 12 hours of media use per day; use of texting, music, the Internet, and social networking was heaviest. In general, media use was negatively associated with academic outcomes after controlling for prior academics and demographics. Exceptions were newspaper reading and music listening, which were positively associated with academic outcomes. There were significant indirect effects of magazine reading and social networking on GPA via academic behaviors, confidence, and problems. Results show that female college students are heavy users of new media, and that some forms of media use may adversely impact academic performance. PMID:24505554

  20. Female College Students' Media Use and Academic Outcomes: Results from a Longitudinal Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Jennifer L; Fielder, Robyn L; Carey, Kate B; Carey, Michael P

    2013-09-01

    This longitudinal study describes women's media use during their first year of college and examines associations between media use and academic outcomes. Female students (N = 483, Mage = 18.1 years) reported on their use of 11 media forms and their grade point average, academic behaviors, academic confidence, and problems affecting schoolwork. Allowing for multi-tasking, women reported nearly 12 hours of media use per day; use of texting, music, the Internet, and social networking was heaviest. In general, media use was negatively associated with academic outcomes after controlling for prior academics and demographics. Exceptions were newspaper reading and music listening, which were positively associated with academic outcomes. There were significant indirect effects of magazine reading and social networking on GPA via academic behaviors, confidence, and problems. Results show that female college students are heavy users of new media, and that some forms of media use may adversely impact academic performance.

  1. Bidirectional relations between different forms of prosocial behaviors and substance use among female college student athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Alexandra N; Carlo, Gustavo; Hardy, Sam A; Olthuis, Janine V; Zamboanga, Byron L

    2016-12-02

    Bidirectional, longitudinal relations between alcohol and marijuana use and prosocial behaviors in women college student athletes were examined. Participants were 187 female college students (Mage = 19.87 years; 91% White) who completed questionnaires on their use of marijuana and alcohol, and six forms of prosocial behaviors across 6 years (2004-2010). The findings yield overall evidence that earlier marijuana use predicted lower levels of most specific forms of prosocial behaviors for women athletes in later young adulthood. Early expressions of altruistic behaviors predicted less marijuana use in later young adulthood. Expression of public prosocial behaviors early in young adulthood predicted higher levels of hazardous drinking in late young adulthood. These novel findings have important implications for links between prosocial development and substance use in women college athletes.

  2. Evaluation of safety and tolerability of antiretroviral therapy in pregnant and non-pregnant women

    OpenAIRE

    Kamini Tyagi; Veena Gupta

    2015-01-01

    Background: The study was conducted to evaluate safety and tolerability of different components of combined antiretroviral therapy (CART) in pregnant and non-pregnant women and to find out substitute of the drug causing intolerance. Methods: An observational study on 75 pregnant and 125 non pregnant, HIV infected women receiving CART, over a period of 1 year (Jan 2013-Jan 20140 in SRN Hospital affiliated to MLN Medical college, Allahabad. All women were examined clinically and investigated...

  3. Female College Students’ Media Use and Academic Outcomes: Results from a Longitudinal Cohort Study

    OpenAIRE

    Walsh, Jennifer L.; Fielder, Robyn L.; Carey, Kate B.; Carey, Michael P.

    2013-01-01

    This longitudinal study describes women’s media use during their first year of college and examines associations between media use and academic outcomes. Female students (N = 483, Mage = 18.1 years) reported on their use of 11 media forms and their grade point average, academic behaviors, academic confidence, and problems affecting schoolwork. Allowing for multi-tasking, women reported nearly 12 hours of media use per day; use of texting, music, the Internet, and social networking was heavies...

  4. Abortion in university and college female students of Arba Minch town, Ethiopia, 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Animaw, Worku; Bogale, Binyam

    2014-03-01

    Globally, unsafe abortion is a significant cause of maternal mortality and morbidity. One of the commonest problems facing university and college students is unwanted pregnancy followed by abortion. This study has aimed to assess abortion practice of university and college female students and to identify contributing factors. Cross-sectional study design was used in 2011. Female students from one university and three colleges of Arba Minch town were selected by proportional probability sampling method. Quantitative data were collected using a self-administered structured questionnaire and focus group discussions were also conducted. Eight hundred and thirteen study participants with median age 20 have been involved in the study. Among participants 173 (21.3%) had had sex, 54 (6.6%) had been pregnant, and out of the students who had been pregnant 23 (43.4%) had an induced abortion, 4 (17.3%) of which were done under unsafe conditions. Students' current living residence and knowledge of abortion law are the identified contributing factors to their abortion practices. A significant proportion of pregnancies in university and college students were terminated with induced abortion. Unsafe sex is the commonest cause of unplanned pregnancy that leads to abortion induction. Campus residents are more vulnerable to abortion induction. Knowledge of abortion law and abortion induction practices are statistically interrelated. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Cyberbullying, depression, and problem alcohol use in female college students: a multisite study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selkie, Ellen M; Kota, Rajitha; Chan, Ya-Fen; Moreno, Megan

    2015-02-01

    Cyberbullying and its effects have been studied largely in middle and high school students, but less is known about cyberbullying in college students. This cross-sectional study investigated the relationship between involvement in cyberbullying and depression or problem alcohol use among college females. Two hundred and sixty-five female students from four colleges completed online surveys assessing involvement in cyberbullying behaviors. Participants also completed the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9) to assess depressive symptoms and the Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test (AUDIT) to assess problem drinking. Logistic regression tested associations between involvement in cyberbullying and either depression or problem drinking. Results indicated that 27% of participants had experienced cyberbullying in college; 17.4% of all participants met the criteria for depression (PHQ-9 score ≥10), and 37.5% met the criteria for problem drinking (AUDIT score ≥8). Participants with any involvement in cyberbullying had increased odds of depression. Those involved in cyberbullying as bullies had increased odds of both depression and problem alcohol use. Bully/victims had increased odds of depression. The four most common cyberbullying behaviors were also associated with increased odds for depression, with the highest odds among those who had experienced unwanted sexual advances online or via text message. Findings indicate that future longitudinal study of cyberbullying and its effects into late adolescence and young adulthood could contribute to the prevention of associated comorbidities in this population.

  6. Emergency contraception amongst female college students – knowledge, attitude and practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wendwosen T. Nibabe

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Unwanted teenage pregnancies have a notable detrimental impact on the learners’ trajectory and have been associated with jeopardising the students’ educational progress and future career prospects. These pregnancies are mostly unplanned and unintended and many are terminated, either legally or illegally.Aim: The aim of this study was to explore the contributory role played by the knowledge, attitude and practices of female college students with respect to the utilisation of emergency contraceptives.Setting: Three tertiary institutions in Dessie, Ethiopia.Methods: Quantitative self-administered questionnaires were used to collect descriptive data from 352 female college students.Results: The study revealed that there was a high percentage (78.3% of unwanted pregnancies amongst those engaging in sex. Significantly, nearly half (43.3% of these unwanted pregnancies resulted in abortion. Only 10% of the students sampled admitted to ever having used emergency contraception. Even though more than half (69.9% of the students knew about emergency contraception, only 27% of them felt confident that they understood when it was most effective.Conclusion: These and other observed findings confirm the need for improvement of female college students’ knowledge and timely utilisation of emergency contraception.

  7. Emergency contraception amongst female college students – knowledge, attitude and practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wendwosen T. Nibabe

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Unwanted teenage pregnancies have a notable detrimental impact on the learners’ trajectory and have been associated with jeopardising the students’ educational progress and future career prospects. These pregnancies are mostly unplanned and unintended and many are terminated, either legally or illegally.Aim: The aim of this study was to explore the contributory role played by the knowledge, attitude and practices of female college students with respect to the utilisation of emergency contraceptives.Setting: Three tertiary institutions in Dessie, Ethiopia.Methods: Quantitative self-administered questionnaires were used to collect descriptive data from 352 female college students.Results: The study revealed that there was a high percentage (78.3% of unwanted pregnancies amongst those engaging in sex. Significantly, nearly half (43.3% of these unwanted pregnancies resulted in abortion. Only 10% of the students sampled admitted to ever having used emergency contraception. Even though more than half (69.9% of the students knew about emergency contraception, only 27% of them felt confident that they understood when it was most effective.Conclusion: These and other observed findings confirm the need for improvement of female college students’ knowledge and timely utilisation of emergency contraception.

  8. Evaluation of the BOD POD for estimating percent fat in female college athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vescovi, Jason D; Hildebrandt, Leslie; Miller, Wayne; Hammer, Roger; Spiller, Amanda

    2002-11-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to examine the accuracy of percent body fat (%BF) estimates obtained by air displacement plethysmography (ADP) using the BOD POD Body Composition System compared with hydrostatic weighing (HW) in a group of female college athletes (n = 80). In addition, %BF estimates by skinfold measures (SF) were also obtained for comparison. A lean subset (n = 39) of the sample was also examined. Mean %BF estimated for the entire sample by ADP (21.2 +/- 5.9%) was significantly greater than that determined by HW (19.4 +/- 6.4%) and SF (18.8 +/- 5.5%). Results from the lean subset also revealed that %BF determined by ADP (17.1 +/- 3.7%) was significantly higher than %BF estimates by HW (14.3 +/- 2.8%) and SF (15.2 +/- 3.2%). The regression equation for the entire sample (%BF HW = 0.937%BF ADP - 0.452, r(2) = 0.73, standard error of estimates (SEE) = 3.34) did not differ from the line of identity. In contrast, the line of identity differed significantly from the regression equation for the lean subset of female athletes (%BF HW = 0.48%BF ADP + 6.115, r(2) = 0.41, SEE = 2.18). The results of this investigation indicate that ADP significantly overestimated %BF by 8% in female athletes and by 16% for a leaner subset of the sample compared with HW. It appears that %BF estimates by SF may be more accurate than those obtained by ADP for female college athletes, regardless of body composition. Coaches and trainers evaluating body composition should consider the use of SF before ADP when measuring %BF in female college athletes. Sports scientists should continue to examine the possible gender and body composition bias for ADP.

  9. Overweight Perception: Associations with Weight Control Goals, Attempts, and Practices among Chinese Female College Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanenbaum, Hilary C; Felicitas, Jamie Q; Li, Yawen; Tobias, Malaika; Chou, Chih-Ping; Palmer, Paula H; Spruijt-Metz, Donna; Reynolds, Kim D; Anderson Johnson, C; Xie, Bin

    2016-03-01

    Concurrent with the dramatic cultural and economic shifts occurring as mainland China becomes increasingly "Westernized," the weight perceptions, ideal body weight, and weight management goals and practices of Chinese females have also undergone significant changes. To investigate relationships between overweight status, weight perception patterns, and weight management goals and practices in Chinese female college students. A cross-sectional analysis was conducted with data from 902 female subjects aged 18 to 25 years participating in the China Seven Cities Study, a health promotion and smoking prevention study conducted in mainland China in 2003. Logistic regression models were used to explore associations between overweight status, weight perception, specific weight management goals and practices, and current levels of vigorous-intensity physical activity and food consumption. Based on World Health Organization standards for Asian adults, 16.7% of college females were overweight or obese, although 50.8% considered themselves to be "too heavy." Among participants perceiving themselves as overweight (n=458), 69.2% (n=371) were inaccurate and did not meet criteria for overweight or obese. The percentage of participants attempting weight loss was 48.2%, and 33.1% wanted to maintain their current weight. Attempts to lose or maintain weight were related to actual and perceived weight status, but not to increased vigorous-intensity physical activity or fruit and vegetable intake, nor to decreased consumption of sweets, soda, Western fast foods, and fried foods. Only 21.5% of participants desiring weight loss or maintenance reported using a combination of vigorous-intensity physical activity and a reduced-fat and -calorie diet, whereas 20.2% tried extreme methods such as fasting, using diet pills, vomiting, or smoking. Our findings underscore the need to promote healthy weight management practices among Chinese female college students, with an emphasis on diet and

  10. Vitamin D status and periodontal disease among pregnant and non-pregnant women in an underdeveloped district of Pakistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Farhan R.; Ahmad, Tashfeen; Hussain, Rabia; Bhutta, Zulfiqar A.

    2016-01-01

    Aim: To compare pregnant and non-pregnant females for vitamin D level and periodontal status and to determine if there is any association between the periodontal health and hypovitaminosis D in pregnant women. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in Jhelum, Pakistan. Participants were pregnant females at ~ 12 weeks of gestation (n = 36) and non-pregnant (n = 35) females selected from the same locality. Periodontal parameters such as probing depth, bleeding on probing, and attachment loss were recorded. Serum samples were taken to measure blood indices and vitamin D levels. Chi-square test and Odds ratio were applied to determine the association between hypovitaminosis D and periodontal status. Results: Vitamin D deficiency was common in the pregnant group compared to non-pregnant (P < 0.001). Blood indices (hemoglobin, hematocrit, mean corpuscular volume) were significantly lower among the pregnant compared to the non-pregnant group (P < 0.001). However, there was no significant difference between the two groups for probing depth and attachment loss. Conclusions: Pregnant women were more deficient in Vitamin D than non-pregnant women. However, no association between low vitamin D levels and periodontal disease was seen in the studied population. PMID:27382540

  11. Depressive mood, eating disorder symptoms, and perfectionism in female college students: a mediation analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Villamisar, Domingo; Dattilo, John; Del Pozo, Araceli

    2012-01-01

    Although perfectionism has long been established as an important risk factor for depressive mood and eating disorders, the mechanisms through which this temperamental predisposition mediates the relationship between depressive mood and eating disorder symptoms are still relatively unclear. In this study we hypothesized that both perfectionism dimensions, self-oriented perfectionism and socially prescribed perfectionism, would mediate the relationship between current symptoms of depression and eating disorders in a non-clinical sample of Spanish undergraduate females. Two hundred sixteen female undergraduate students of the University Complutense of Madrid (Spain) completed the Spanish versions of the Eating Attitudes Test (EAT-40), the Multidimensional Perfectionism Scale (MPS), OBQ-44, and BDI-II and BAI. Results demonstrated the importance of socially prescribed perfectionism in mediation of the relationship between depressive mood and symptoms of eating disorders. Socially prescribed perfectionism mediates the relationship between depressive mood and eating disorder symptoms for female college students.

  12. Parent Support and Stress among First-Generation and Continuing-Generation Female Students during the Transition to College

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sy, Susan R.; Fong, Kristen; Carter, Rebecca; Boehme, Julia; Alpert, Amy

    2012-01-01

    This study compares first-generation and continuing-generation female college students in terms of: (a) level of parents' emotional and informational support; (b) level of students' stress; and (c) the relationship between both types of parent support and students' stress during the transition to college. We collected survey data from an…

  13. Parent Support and Stress among First-Generation and Continuing-Generation Female Students during the Transition to College

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sy, Susan R.; Fong, Kristen; Carter, Rebecca; Boehme, Julia; Alpert, Amy

    2012-01-01

    This study compares first-generation and continuing-generation female college students in terms of: (a) level of parents' emotional and informational support; (b) level of students' stress; and (c) the relationship between both types of parent support and students' stress during the transition to college. We collected survey data from an…

  14. US Female College Students' Breast Health Knowledge, Attitudes, and Determinants of Screening Practices: New Implications for Health Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Early, Jody; Armstrong, Shelley Nicole; Burke, Sloane; Thompson, Doris Lee

    2011-01-01

    Objective: This study examined female college students' knowledge, attitudes, and breast cancer screening and determined significant predictors of breast self-examination, clinical breast examination, and mammography among this population. Participants: A convenience sample of 1,074 college women from 3 universities participated in the research.…

  15. US Female College Students' Breast Health Knowledge, Attitudes, and Determinants of Screening Practices: New Implications for Health Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Early, Jody; Armstrong, Shelley Nicole; Burke, Sloane; Thompson, Doris Lee

    2011-01-01

    Objective: This study examined female college students' knowledge, attitudes, and breast cancer screening and determined significant predictors of breast self-examination, clinical breast examination, and mammography among this population. Participants: A convenience sample of 1,074 college women from 3 universities participated in the research.…

  16. Crack in the Pipeline: Why Female Underrepresented Racial Minority College Students Leave Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vazquez-Akim, Jenny Amanda

    Female and underrepresented racial minority (URM) students are indicating their interest in STEM fields at increasing rates, yet when examining the engineering discipline specifically disparities in degree completion rates between female URM students and others in the racial or gender majority are even more severe. This study explored female URM college student perceptions of school and classroom climate and the impact these factors had on their decision to persist or to leave engineering. Through a qualitative interview methodology grounded in Social Cognitive Career Theory (SCCT), this study explored factors including self-efficacy, perceived barriers and supports, other-group orientation and outcome expectations that influenced students' academic decision-making. Interview participants consisted of 5 female URM students that matriculated into an engineering major at a top tier, private university but subsequently left the discipline in pursuit of another field of study. The perceptions of this target population were juxtaposed with interview data from 4 male non-URM, 4 female non-URM, and 4 male URM leavers in addition to 7 female URM engineering persisters. As a final component in the research design, 9 undergraduate engineering faculty were interviewed to understand their perceptions of why female URM students leave engineering in pursuit of other disciplines. With faculty being a central component of the academic environment, their perceptions of female URM students, as well as how they view their role in these students' retention, provided insight on this other side of retention question. Salient findings emerged that differentiated female URM leavers' experiences in engineering from other student populations. Female URM leavers were less likely to call upon self-directed learning strategies in response to academic challenges. Perceived academic barriers such as heavy course loads, lack of connection between material and application, and perceived academic

  17. Similar but Different: Sociocultural Attitudes towards Appearance, Body Shape Dissatisfaction, and Weight Control Behaviors among Male and Female College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeBate, Rita; Lewis, Melissa; Zhang, Yan; Blunt, Heather; Thompson, Sharon H.

    2008-01-01

    Background: Although females have a higher incidence of eating disorders than males, there is evidence that among college students both males and females are vulnerable to risk factors associated with eating disorders. Purpose: To explore the relationship between sociocultural attitudes towards appearance (SCATA), body shape (dis)satisfaction…

  18. The Influence of Cyberbullying on the College Objectives of Female Undergraduates Who Were Victims in High School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas, Militza

    2012-01-01

    Cyberbullying has a negative influence on academic grades, school attendance, and graduation rates, and occurs more frequently among female high school students. The purpose of this study was to analyze the influence of cyberbullying on the college objectives of female undergraduates who were victims in high school. Goleman's theory of…

  19. HPV Vaccination Status and Mandate Support for School-Aged Adolescents among College Females: A Descriptive Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Kelly L.; Smith, Matthew Lee; Rosen, Brittany L.; Pulczinski, Jairus C.; Ory, Marcia G.

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe college-aged females' human papillomavirus (HPV) knowledge and beliefs, perceptions and perceived benefits of the HPV vaccine, and identify characteristics associated with vaccination status and support for HPV vaccine mandates. Data were collected from 1,105 females by an Internet-delivered questionnaire…

  20. Physical Activity, Disordered Eating Risk, and Anthropometric Measurement: A Comparison of College Female Athletes and Non Athletes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malinauskas, Brenda M.; Cucchiara, Andrew J.; Aeby, Victor G.; Bruening, Christi C.

    2007-01-01

    Opportunities for women in sport have expanded, whereas the media-driven ideal female continues to have a slender body. To attain the body that society has promoted, college-age females are vulnerable to psychological disordered eating risk. This study examines relationships among physical activity, body composition, and psychological eating…

  1. Attitude Differences between Male and Female Students at Clovis Community College and Their Relationships to Math Anxiety: A Case Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendershot, Richard Lane

    The purpose of this study was to examine the attitudes of males and females at Clovis Community College towards math anxiety and to look for possible factors that could be used to assist in the assignment of students to various math classes. The subjects in the study were fifty male students and fifty female students. Subjects responded to a math…

  2. An electrophysiological correlate of Eating Attitudes Test scores in female college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, J F; Mercer, J C

    1990-11-01

    Eating Attitudes Test (EAT) scores of forty female college students were compared to their electrodermal activity (EDA) responses when offered a plate of chocolate chip cookies. A significant positive correlation was detected between the EAT scores and the skin conductivity measures associated with the presentation of food. Women with the highest EAT scores also exhibited the greatest sympathetic nervous system responses to a plate of cookies. This finding supports the conclusion that the EAT is capable of identifying individuals who are preoccupied with food or anxious about eating.

  3. Comparison of Sexual Functions in Pregnant and Non-Pregnant Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aydin, Mustafa; Cayonu, Neval; Kadihasanoglu, Mustafa; Irkilata, Lokman; Atilla, Mustafa Kemal; Kendirci, Muammer

    2015-11-14

    The physiology and anatomy of pregnant women change during pregnancy. Pregnancy is an anatomically and physiologically amended process experienced by women and as a result of these changes, sexual life of pregnant women alters during pregnancy. We aimed to compare sexual functions of pregnant and non-pregnant women. Sexually active 246 pregnant women were included into this cross-sectional controlled study. A total of 210 non-pregnant women were served as control. Both groups were compared in terms of age, gestational age, presence of urinary incontinence, body mass index, and obstetrical history. Sexual functions of the women were evaluated with Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI). Data were analyzed using chi-square, Mann-Whitney U, Fisher's Exact, Shapiro Wilk, Kruskal Wallis and Dunnett's tests where appropriate. The Pvalues < .05 were considered statistically significant. Mean age in both groups were comparable (P = .053). Median total FSFI scores in the pregnant women were significantly lower than those non-pregnant (18.9 vs. 22.7; P < .05). Additionally, the subgroup analyses of the FSFI scores were found that, total FSFI score is significantly lower in the pregnant group compared to non-pregnant group (P < .05). Furthermore, rate of sexual dysfunction in pregnant women was significantly higher than those non-pregnant women (91.08% vs. 67.61%, P = .0001). However, in pregnant women, no meaningful difference in rate of sexual dysfunction was found according to the trimesters (P = .632). Moreover, gravidity and parity exhibited negative impacts on the sexual functions. But number of abortions did not affect sexual function. These data demonstrate that pregnancy significantly diminishes sexual function in women. We believe that, couples need to be counseled regarding the impact of pregnancy on sexual functions.

  4. Sex education among Asian American college females: who is teaching them and what is being taught.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Christine; Tran, Denise Yen; Thoi, Deanna; Chang, Melissa; Wu, Lisa; Trieu, Sang Leng

    2013-04-01

    Many parents are reluctant to educate their Asian American adolescents on sexual health topics because sexuality is taboo in most Asian cultures. A survey was conducted with Chinese, Filipina, Korean, and Vietnamese college females ages 18-25 to assess sources of abstinence and birth control education and age of sexual debut. Parents were the least reported source of sex education for all four ethnic groups, with the majority of respondents reporting school as their source of sex education. Respondents who reported family as their source of abstinence education had a sexual debut of 6 months later than those who did not. Females who reported family as their source of birth control education began having sex more than 7 months later than those who reported other sources. Disaggregation of data by Asian ethnic groups and examining differences in delivery of sex education among ethnic groups may improve school curricula and sexual health.

  5. Personality Disorders in Female and Male College Students With Internet Addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jo Yung-Wei; Ko, Huei-Chen; Lane, Hsien-Yuan

    2016-03-01

    A high rate of personality disorders (PDs) was found in individuals with Internet addiction (IA) in previous studies using clinical and limited sample sizes. The present study further made comparisons between sex and incorporated a control group to compare the frequencies of PD between individuals with IA and those without IA. Five hundred fifty-six college students (341 females) completed self-report surveys and were later given diagnostic interviews to assess for a PD diagnosis. Males with IA showed a higher frequency of narcissistic PD, whereas females with IA showed a higher frequency of borderline, narcissistic, avoidant, or dependent PD when compared with those without IA. The high rate of PD among Internet addicts may be associated with the core features of specific PD psychopathology. Sex differences in the PD frequencies among IA individuals provide indications for understanding the psychopathological characteristics of PDs in Internet addicts.

  6. Female science faculty in liberal arts colleges and research universities: A case study of building careers

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCartney, Kerry Michelle

    2001-07-01

    This study investigates the lives of twelve female science faculty in higher education, in both the Liberal Arts College and the Research University environments. The study focuses on two areas---the gender issue and women's positive experiences in being science faculty. The methods used are qualitative, including interviews and self-esteem, achievement-motivation, and self-descriptive word ranking scales, which were used to determine success and determination to understand the desire to continue in the field of academic science. The central findings of the study focused on the rampant gender and sexual discrimination that was apparent at the Liberal Arts College science department, and the desire to balance a family with a career. The common misperception that a woman cannot be an academic science and have a family appeared to have troubled most of the subjects in the study. It appeared that the support of a spouse and family are two factors that have led to the continuation of the majority of the women to want to remain in academic science. The issue of gender touched on the lack of financial compensation among some of the female science faculty in the study, as well as the need for more institutional and structural support for human relations within the science departments.

  7. Influence of carrying a backpack on pelvic tilt, rotation, and obliquity in female college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Barbara; Ashton, Kelly M; Bohl, Danielle; Clark, Richard C; Metheny, J Brooke; Klassen, Stephanie

    2006-04-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to examine the influence of different methods of backpack carriage on pelvic tilt, obliquity and rotation of college-age females. Thirty subjects (mean age 22.4 years) participated in three conditions: walking without a backpack, carrying a backpack unilaterally, and carrying a backpack over both shoulders. The backpack was loaded with material that comprised 15% of the subject's body weight. Gait was analyzed using the Oxford Metrics VICON Clinical Manager system while the subject walked with no backpack, with a backpack unilaterally and bilaterally. Repeated measures analysis of variance was used to determine differences in angular motion and range of motion in pelvic tilt, rotation, and obliquity in three complete trials during the three walking conditions. Angular pelvic tilt was greatest with bilateral backpack carriage compared to unilateral carriage or walking without a backpack. Angles of pelvic obliquity and rotation were not changed across the three walking conditions. Range of motion for pelvic obliquity and rotation was significantly decreased when walking with a backpack. These results suggest that backpack carriage could cause permanent posture deviations in young female college students. More study is required to evaluate compressive forces during various walking conditions.

  8. Factors associated with nutrition label use among female college students applying the theory of planned behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Hyun Jeong; Kim, Min Ju

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES Use of nutrition labels in food selection is recommended for consumers. The aim of this study is to examine factors, mainly beliefs explaining nutrition label use in female college students based on the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB). SUBJECTS/METHODS The subjects were female college students from a university in Seoul, Korea. The survey questionnaire was composed of items examining general characteristics, nutrition label use, behavioral beliefs, normative beliefs, corresponding motivation to comply, and control beliefs. The subjects (n = 300) responded to the questionnaire by self-report, and data from 275 students were analyzed using t-test or χ2-test. RESULTS The results showed that 37.8% of subjects were nutrition label users. Three out of 15 behavioral beliefs differed significantly by nutrition label use. Nutrition label users agreed more strongly on the benefits of using nutrition labels including 'comparing and selecting better foods' (P nutrition label use. Twelve out of 15 control beliefs differed significantly by nutrition label use. These included beliefs regarding constraints of using nutrition labels (e.g., time, spending money for healthy foods) and lack of nutrition knowledge (P nutrition labels in food selection was also significantly related to nutrition label use (P nutrition label use. To promote nutrition label use, nutrition education might focus on increasing perceived control over constraints of using nutrition labels, acquiring skills for checking nutrition labels, as well as the benefits of using nutrition labels and receiving support from significant others for nutrition label use. PMID:25671070

  9. Facebook for Health Promotion: Female College Students' Perspectives on Sharing HPV Vaccine Information Through Facebook.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ni; Tsark, JoAnn; Campo, Shelly; Teti, Michelle

    2015-04-01

    Facebook, a social network site, has been widely used among young adults. However, its potential to be used as a health promotion medium has not been fully examined. This study explored Facebook's potential for sharing human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine information among female college students in Hawai'i. Culturally tailored flyers and handouts were developed and distributed at one large university in Hawai'i to recruit female college students between the age of 18 and 26 having an active Facebook account. Three focus group meetings were conducted to gather student perspectives about how information about HPV vaccine may be best shared via Facebook. We found that students believed Facebook is a good awareness tool but they needed more knowledge about the HPV vaccine to feel comfortable sharing the information. Participants preferred forwarding information to chatting about HPV. Some participants expressed concern that their Facebook friends would think the HPV vaccine information they forwarded on Facebook is spam. Participants suggested prefacing the posted HPV vaccine information with a personal note in their own words to make the message more interesting and relevant to their Facebook friends. Future interventions using Facebook to promote HPV vaccine could provide students with HPV vaccine information from credible sources and ask students to attach personal testimonials or endorsements while forwarding the information on Facebook.

  10. Skipping breakfast is associated with reproductive dysfunction in post-adolescent female college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujiwara, Tomoko; Nakata, Rieko

    2010-12-01

    Although increasing attention has been paid to the adverse effects of skipping breakfast on quality of life, there are very few reports concerning the relationship between skipping breakfast and reproductive function. Therefore, we examined this issue by conducting a questionnaire survey of female college students aged from 18 to 20 years old. The 5 annual surveys of questionnaire demonstrated that the severity of dysmenorrhea was significantly higher in the population that skipped breakfast. The incidence of irregular menses was also higher in the population that skipped breakfast, although there was no difference in the incidence of premenstrual symptoms. The group that skipped breakfast showed a tendency to suffer from constipation. In addition, despite no difference in body mass index, there was a significantly higher incidence of a self-perception of poor general health among the group that skipped breakfast. These findings suggest that skipping breakfast is associated with menstrual disorders, and affects the physical condition of female college students who are undergoing post-adolescent maturation. Since these menstrual disorders may influence the quality of life of young women not only in the present but also in the future, skipping breakfast should be re-evaluated from the perspective of future reproductive function.

  11. Obesity and weight control measures: Findings from female college students of Agra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H K Thakkar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Obesity has negative health impacts. Obese people have higher risk of non-communicable diseases (NCDs. Overweight and obesity during young adulthood can track into later adulthood along with its higher risk for NCDs. Aims: To identify the weight control intention and dietary practices used among normal, overweight, and obese college females and to know the reasons for discontinuation among ever tried subjects. Settings and Design : A cross-sectional study conducted in urban and rural colleges of Agra. Materials and Methods: This was a cross-sectional study among 400 female college students. Height and weight were measured to assess body composition according to BMI (Body Mass Index criteria (WHO 2002. Study included a semi-structured and semi-open-ended instrument to assess practices related to weight control. Their responses were collected, tabulated, analyzed, and interpreted. Statistical analysis used: Frequency. Results: The prevalence of overweight and obesity was found to be 18.5% and 4.5%, respectively, according to BMI (WHO 2002. One third of the subjects were recording their weight monthly. Slightly less than half of the subjects (46% were trying to maintain optimum weight. Almost one third of these subjects (33.5% were presently trying to lose weight. About one fifth of total 400 subjects (20.5% were not concerned about their weight status. Majority of the subjects (85% irrespective of their obesity status did not take any professional advice. More than half (52.7% were resorting to physical activity to lose weight. Taking more fruits/vegetables (44.7% was found to be the most common healthy dieting practices and most unhealthy was fasting (15.3%. More than one fourth (28.8% of the subjects abandoned weight control practices because of shortage of time followed by 22.4% due to physical weakness. Conclusions: Collectively, results indicate female college students, regardless of weight status, would benefit from open discussions

  12. [Effect of tobacco smoke on permeability of capillary of pregnant and non-pregnant rats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Florek, Tewa; Ignatowicz, Ewa; Piekoszewski, Wojciech; Wachowiak, Anna; Wrzosek, Jagna

    2006-01-01

    From among 4200 chemical compounds contained in the tobacco smoke, nicotine and carbon monoxide are responsible for changes in the heart-vessel system to the greatest extent. Additionally, other toxic compounds, including the carcinogenic ones, have a significant impact on the biological activity in the tissues of blood vessels. A particularly complex picture of the detrimental impact of the tobacco smoke is presented in case of pregnant women, fetuses and newborns. The aim of the research was to assess the impact of tobacco smoke on the permeability of capillaries in different tissues of rats (lungs, brain, liver, kidneys) and testing of the potentially protective impact of rutine (3-rutinozide of quercetin). The research on the permeability of capillaries has been carried out applying Evans blue. The animals were divided into 8 research groups: pregnant animals--"control", "rutine", "tobacco smoke", "rutine+tobacco smoke", and non-pregnant animals--"control", "rutine", "tobacco smoke", "rutine+tobacco smoke". In the first stage of research (pregnant, non-pregnant-- groups: "rutine" and "rutine+tobacco smoke"), the water rutine solution in a dose of 40 mg/kg of body weight was administered. The non-pregnant and pregnant animals from groups "tobacco smoke" and "rutine+tobacco smoke" were exposed to tobacco smoke via inhalation (1500 mg CO/m3 of air) for 21 days. All the animals were injected with the water Evans blue solution in a dose of 30 mg/kg of body weight. After 30 minutes, the animals were killed by cutting the abdominal aorta, and lungs, brain, liver and kidneys were taken for further testing. The cotinine in the urine was determined by the HPLC method, using norephedrine as the internal standard, after the preceding extraction by means of the liquid-liquid technique. The concentration of cotinine in case of non-pregnant and pregnant females was respectively 11.8 +/- 1.9 pg/ml of urine and 12.0 +/- 2.5 microg/ml of urine. In case of the rats, which

  13. Romanticism and self-esteem among pregnant adolescents, adolescent mothers, and nonpregnant, nonparenting teens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medora, N P; Goldstein, A; von der Hellen, C

    1994-10-01

    Feelings of romanticism and self-esteem among pregnant adolescents, adolescent mothers, and a control group of nonpregnant, nonparenting adolescents were investigated. The Bachman Self-Esteem Scale (Bachman, O'Malley, & Johnston, 1978) and the Dean Romanticism Scale (Dean, 1961) were distributed to 649 U.S. female adolescents--255 pregnant adolescents, 121 adolescent mothers, and 273 teenagers in the control group. For romanticism, the results indicated a significant main effect for group (pregnant teens, teen mothers, and a control group consisting of nonpregnant, nonparenting teenagers) and ethnicity (White, Hispanic, African American, and Asian) but not for age (13 to 15 years and 16 to 19 years). The pregnant teens and teen mothers thus had a higher degree of romanticism than the control group did. For self-esteem, there was a significant main effect for race, but not for group or for age. This main effect was qualified by a significant interaction between ethnicity and age.

  14. Effects of low-decibel infrasound on the ovary of non-pregnancy female rats, embryos and neonatal rats%低声压级水平次声波对未孕大鼠卵巢及孕鼠胚胎和仔鼠的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩小雪; 丁玉珍; 邓裕钦; 鲍正清; 李瑞满

    2014-01-01

    目的:研究低声压级水平次声波(2~25 Hz/70 dB)对未孕大鼠卵巢结构和分泌功能的影响,同时探讨其对孕鼠的胚胎和仔鼠的影响.方法:将40只雌性大鼠随机分组:对照组A1与次声组A2各8只,处理后观察卵巢结构并测定血清中的雌二醇、睾酮、黄体生成素(LH)和卵泡刺激素(FSH);其余雌鼠合笼,将孕鼠分为对照组B1与次声组B2、B3各6只,妊娠第6、12、18 d测血清中的雌三醇和孕酮;孕鼠分娩后记录仔鼠情况.结果:A 1和A2组及B 1、B2和B3组性激素水平均无统计学意义,A 1和A2组卵泡的数量及形态无明显差别,但A2组髓质层血管明显扩张.与B1组比较,B2、B3组仔鼠的体质量明显增加(P<0.05).结论:低声压级水平次声波可以增加卵巢的血液供应,但对卵泡的发育、卵巢的内分泌功能无明显影响;可增加仔鼠的体质量,但对胚胎无明显影响,低声压级水平次声波应用于孕妇是安全的.%Aim:To investigate the effects of low-decibel infrasound(2~25 Hz/70 dB)on the ovarian structure and the endocrine function of non-pregnancy female rats,and meanwhile to explore its influence on embryos and neonatal rats.Methods:Forty female rats were used,of which 16 were randomly divided into 2 groups with 8 in each:the control group A1 ,and the infrasound group A2.Then serum hormones were determined and the structure of ovary tissue was examined.The other female rats were mated.18 pregnant rats were equally divided into 3 groups:the blank group B1 and the infrasound groups,B2, B3.The serum estradiol and progesterone were determined at post-pregnant day 6,12,and 18,respec-tively.The neonatal rats were examined soon after delivery.Results:All of the serum hormone levels tested showed no statistically significant difference in this study.There were many different follicles ob-served,but no evident difference in quantity and morphology was found

  15. The Use of Alcohol Among NCAA Division I Female College Basketball, Softball, and Volleyball Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, M

    1998-04-01

    To identify and describe alcohol use among NCAA Division I female college basketball, softball, and volleyball players and to determine to what extent the players have been exposed to alcohol or other drug education programs. Mailed self-reporting questionnaire, sample of convenience. The study was conducted in the Department of Physical Education at the University of South Carolina. NCAA Division I athletic trainers of ten female basketball teams, ten female softball teams, and eleven female volleyball teams received questionnaires. A total of 371 participants returned questionnaires: 106 basketball players, 138 softball players, and 127 volleyball players. After reviewing the related literature, I developed a questionnaire and pilot tested it with a group of female swimmers and track and field athletes. The questionnaire consisted of three sections: demographic information, alcohol use, and alcohol education. I analyzed the questionnaires descriptively (frequencies, percentages, and means) and collectively, on the total population, and separately, on all teams. To validate and further understand information gained from the questionnaires, I conducted multiple face-to-face interviews with forty (11%) of the participants. Almost 79% of the subjects consumed alcohol, with light beers being the most popular beverage. Most started using alcohol before 18 years of age. More softball (89.1%) and volleyball (88.9%) athletes reported drinking than did basketball (63.2%) athletes. Quantity and frequency of alcohol use decreased during the competitive sport season but increased out of season. Almost 60% (55.9%) of the participants engaged in binge drinking (defined as four or more drinks per drinking episode) out of season and 35% in season. Female athletes who lived off campus drank more frequently than those who lived in residence halls, but athletes living in residence halls reported drinking in larger quantities. The most common reasons subjects chose not to use alcohol

  16. Physical Activity and Fruit and Vegetable Intake among Black and White Female College Students at Two- and Four-Year Colleges and Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodwin, Sherell Brown; Stratton, Erin; Lowe, Kincaid; Grimsley, Linda; Rodd, Jan; Williams, Catherine; Mattox, Cheri; Foster, Bruce

    2014-01-01

    Objective We compared fruit and vegetable (FV) intake, physical activity (PA), and overweight/ obesity among Black and White females attending two- and four-year colleges. Methods We recruited 24,055 students at six colleges in the Southeast to complete an online survey, yielding 4840 responses (20.1% response rate). The current analyses focused on the 2276 Black and White females. Results Binary logistic regression analyses indicated that recommended FV intake among White females was associated with greater extraversion (Odds Ratio [OR] = 1.05, 95% Confidence Interval [CI] 1.00, 1.11, p = 0.05) and greater conscientiousness (OR = 1.08, CI 1.02, 1.14, p = 0.01), whereas among Black females correlates included greater openness to experience (OR = 1.08, CI 1.01, 1.15, p = 0.03). Ordinal logistic regression analyses indicated that, among White females, greater PA was associated with attending a four-year college (Beta = 0.27, CI 0.01, 0.53, p = 0.04), whereas among Black females, correlates were with younger age (Beta = 0.01, CI 0.17, 0.03, p = 0.003) and greater emotional stability (Beta = 0.07, CI 0.01, 0.13, p = 0.02). Binary logistic regression analyses indicated that, among White females, being overweight or obese was associated with older age (OR = 1.08, CI 1.01, 1.16, p = 0.03), attending a two-year college (OR = 1.62, CI 1.22, 2.16, p = 0.001), and lower satisfaction with life (OR = 0.96, CI 0.94, 0.98, p = 0.002), whereas among Black females, being overweight or obese was associated with older age (OR = 1.87, CI 1.10, 1.28, p < 0.001). Conclusions Identifying factors related to obesity-related factors is critical in developing interventions targeting factors associated with overweight and obesity among Black and White females attending two- and four-year colleges. Moreover, understanding different college settings and the contextual factors associated with overweight/obesity is critical. PMID:25328836

  17. Behavioral Perceptions of Oakland University Female College Students towards Human Papillomavirus Vaccination.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aishwarya Navalpakam

    Full Text Available Human Papillomavirus (HPV vaccination decreases the risk for cervical cancer. However, the uptake of HPV vaccine remains low when compared with other recommended vaccines. This study evaluates the knowledge and attitudes towards HPV infection and vaccination, and the readiness for the uptake of HPV vaccine amongst female students attending Oakland University (OU in Michigan, United States. This is a cross-sectional study targeting a randomized sample of a 1000 female OU students using an online questionnaire. The data were statistically analyzed using SPSS software. A total of 192 female students, with the mean age of 24 years completed the survey. The majority of participants had previous sexual experience with occasional use of contraceptives (78.1%, were non-smokers (92.7%, and non-alcohol drinkers (54.2%. The participants had a mean knowledge score of 53.0% with a standard error of 2.3% translating to a moderately informed population. The majority agreed that HPV is life threatening (79%, the vaccine prevents cervical cancer (62%, and that side effects would not deter them from vaccination (63%. Although two thirds (67% believed that, based on sexual practices in the United States, female college students in Michigan have a higher chance of contracting HPV, about 50% did not believe they themselves were at risk. Higher knowledge correlated with increased recommendation for the vaccine (correlation-factor 0.20, p = 0.005. Results suggested that the best predictor for improvement of vaccination was the awareness level and health education. This indicates a need for an educational intervention to raise awareness, increase HPV vaccine uptake, and decrease the incidence of cervical cancer.

  18. Behavioral Perceptions of Oakland University Female College Students towards Human Papillomavirus Vaccination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navalpakam, Aishwarya; Dany, Mohammed; Hajj Hussein, Inaya

    2016-01-01

    Human Papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination decreases the risk for cervical cancer. However, the uptake of HPV vaccine remains low when compared with other recommended vaccines. This study evaluates the knowledge and attitudes towards HPV infection and vaccination, and the readiness for the uptake of HPV vaccine amongst female students attending Oakland University (OU) in Michigan, United States. This is a cross-sectional study targeting a randomized sample of a 1000 female OU students using an online questionnaire. The data were statistically analyzed using SPSS software. A total of 192 female students, with the mean age of 24 years completed the survey. The majority of participants had previous sexual experience with occasional use of contraceptives (78.1%), were non-smokers (92.7%), and non-alcohol drinkers (54.2%). The participants had a mean knowledge score of 53.0% with a standard error of 2.3% translating to a moderately informed population. The majority agreed that HPV is life threatening (79%), the vaccine prevents cervical cancer (62%), and that side effects would not deter them from vaccination (63%). Although two thirds (67%) believed that, based on sexual practices in the United States, female college students in Michigan have a higher chance of contracting HPV, about 50% did not believe they themselves were at risk. Higher knowledge correlated with increased recommendation for the vaccine (correlation-factor 0.20, p = 0.005). Results suggested that the best predictor for improvement of vaccination was the awareness level and health education. This indicates a need for an educational intervention to raise awareness, increase HPV vaccine uptake, and decrease the incidence of cervical cancer.

  19. Acculturative Stress, Self-Esteem, and Eating Pathology in Latina and Asian American Female College Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claudat, Kimberly; White, Emily K; Warren, Cortney S

    2016-01-01

    The overarching purpose of this study was to explore the relationships among acculturative stress, self-esteem, and eating pathology in Asian American and Latina female college students. Participants (N = 638, mean age = 19.88) completed self-report measures of the variables of interest online. Bivariate correlations indicated that for women of both ethnic groups, acculturative stress was negatively correlated with self-esteem and positively correlated with eating pathology. Multigroup structural equation modeling indicated that for Asian American and Latina women, self-esteem partially mediated the relationship between acculturative stress and eating pathology. However, self-esteem did not serve as a significant moderator of this relationship for either ethnic group. Overall, data suggest that acculturative stress is associated with increased eating pathology and self-esteem may mediate this relationship. These relationships suggest that assessment of eating pathology and self-esteem may be indicated for women presenting clinically with acculturative stress concerns. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Dieting behaviours, obesity and predictors of dieting among female college students at Palestinian universities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayyari, W D; Henry, L J; Jones, C

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore dieting practices of female Palestinian college students. Participants ( = 410) were selected by cluster-sampling from 4 Palestinian universities. A regression model investigated dieting using: body mass index (BMI); body satisfaction; self-esteem; dress style; exercise; sociocultural factors; residence; strength of faith; perceived impact of weight on social interaction; and number of previous times dieting. Significant predictors of dieting were low body satisfaction, number of previous dieting times, perceived media pressure, regular exercising, BMI, and perceived impact of weight on social interaction, The model accounted for 45% of the variance in dieting. Body satisfaction was not significantly correlated with self-esteem or strength of faith, which indicates that "internalization of thinness" may be becoming evident among populations in certain developing countries, as in "Western" countries.

  1. Attachment and personality predicts engagement in sexual harassment by male and female college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mènard, Kim S; Shoss, Naomi E; Pincus, Aaron L

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine a trait model of personality (Five-Factor Model) as a mediator of the relationship between attachment styles and sexually harassing behavior in a sample of male (N = 148) and female (N = 278) college students. We found that gender (male) and low Agreeableness predicted engaging in sexual harassment and all three of its subtypes; gender harassment, unwanted sexual attention, and sexual coercion. Further, low Conscientiousness predicted overall sexual harassment, gender harassment, and unwanted sexual attention. Personality traits mediated the relationship between insecure attachment styles (Preoccupation with Relationships and Relationships as Secondary) and sexually harassing behaviors. Thus, factors beyond gender can help predict students' propensity to sexually harass others.

  2. Female Sexual Victimization Among College Students: Assault Severity, Health Risk Behaviors, and Sexual Functioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turchik, Jessica A; Hassija, Christina M

    2014-02-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine the relationship between college women's sexual victimization experiences, health risk behaviors, and sexual functioning. A sample of 309 college women at a mid-sized Midwestern university completed measures assessing sexual victimization, sexual risk taking, substance use behaviors, sexual desire, sexual functioning, prior sexual experiences, and social desirability. Severity of sexual victimization was measured using a multi-item, behaviorally specific, gender-neutral measure, which was divided into four categories based on severity (none, sexual contact, sexual coercion, rape). Within the sample, 72.8% (n = 225) of women reported at least one experience of sexual victimization since age 16. Results from MANCOVAs and a multinomial logistic regression, controlling for social desirability and prior sexual experience, revealed that sexual victimization among female students was related to increased drug use, problematic drinking behaviors, sexual risk taking, sexual dysfunction, and dyadic sexual desire. In addition, findings indicated that women exposed to more severe forms of sexual victimization (i.e., rape) were most likely to report these risk-taking behaviors and sexual functioning issues. Implications for sexual assault risk reduction programming and treatment are discussed.

  3. Psychometric evaluation of dietary self-efficacy and outcome expectation scales in female college freshmen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kedem, Leia E; Evans, Ellen M; Chapman-Novakofski, Karen

    2014-11-01

    Lifestyle interventions commonly measure psychosocial beliefs as precursors to positive behavior change, but often overlook questionnaire validation. This can affect measurement accuracy if the survey has been developed for a different population, as differing behavioral influences may affect instrument validity. The present study aimed to explore psychometric properties of self-efficacy and outcome expectation scales-originally developed for younger children-in a population of female college freshmen (N = 268). Exploratory principal component analysis was used to investigate underlying data patterns and assess validity of previously published subscales. Composite scores for reliable subscales (Cronbach's α ≥ .70) were calculated to help characterize self-efficacy and outcome expectation beliefs in this population. The outcome expectation factor structure clearly comprised of positive (α = .81-.90) and negative outcomes (α = .63-.67). The self-efficacy factor structure included themes of motivation and effort (α = .75-.94), but items pertaining to hunger and availability cross-loaded often. Based on cross-loading patterns and low Cronbach's alpha values, respectively, self-efficacy items regarding barriers to healthy eating and negative outcome expectation items should be refined to improve reliability. Composite scores suggested that eating healthfully was associated with positive outcomes, but self-efficacy to do so was lower. Thus, dietary interventions for college students may be more successful by including skill-building activities to enhance self-efficacy and increase the likelihood of behavior change.

  4. Barrier versus oral contraceptive use: a study of female college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radius, S M; Joffe, A; Gall, M J

    1991-09-01

    Although they provide birth control and are easier to use, oral contraceptives (OCPs) are not the preferred approach to preventing sexually transmitted disease (STD). Do the knowledge, attitudes, and experiences of oral contraceptive users place them at greater risk for STDs than those who employ barrier methods? This study examined differences between sexually active female college students (ie, those who reported ever having had vaginal intercourse) who used OCPs and those who employed barrier methods of contraception at the time of their most recent intercourse. The authors analyzed HIV- and other STD-related knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors from three consecutive annual health surveys of young women about to begin their first year of college. Findings showed barrier and OCP users to be comparable in knowledge about the effectiveness of various contraceptive methods in protecting them against STDs, perceived personal susceptibility to HIV, and experiences with alcohol before sexual intercourse. Oral contraceptive users, compared with those in the group who used barrier methods, reported a greater number of recent partners (p less than .03) and greater perceived vulnerability to STDs (p less than .03). Student healthcare providers must develop creative educational strategies to encourage simultaneous use of both oral contraceptives and barrier methods to protect students against STDs and pregnancy.

  5. Effect of Motivation by “Instagram” on Adherence to Physical Activity among Female College Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Einas Al-Eisa

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To investigate the efficacy of using “Instagram application” with a “home-exercise program” as a motivational stimulus in improving physical activity (PA adherence levels among female college students. Methods. Fifty-eight female undergraduate students with the mean age 20.3±0.96 years participated. Participants were divided into two groups: intervention and the control group; both the groups received an exercise program and the intervention group was additionally motivated by “Instagram.” Adherence to PA was measured by using an adherence sheet. The Exercise Motivation Inventory (EMI-2 was used to assess the motivational factors. Results. The most frequent motivational factors were extrinsic as assessed using the EMI-2. “Positive health” was the most frequent factor mentioned of the two types with 47% of the sample. The intervention group adhered with 17% more to the activity program compared to the control group. Moreover, 72% of the participants in the intervention and control groups found the activity program flexible enough to be performed at home; they agreed about its effectiveness on adherence (53%. Conclusions. The use of Instagram with the home exercise program as a motivational modality could be attractive and effective to reinforce adherence and maintain an appropriate PA level.

  6. Is Hypersexuality Dimensional or Categorical? Evidence From Male and Female College Samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Franklyn J; Walters, Glenn D; Harris, Danielle A; Knight, Raymond A

    2016-01-01

    The recent attempt to introduce hypersexual disorder into the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5), has increased empirical scrutiny of the construct. Consensus on its definition and underlying structure remains elusive. Whereas some conceptualizations favor a categorical latent structure, others speculate that hypersexual behavior is dimensional. Research on the latent structure of hypersexual behavior, however, has been sparse. This is unfortunate, because determination of the latent structure can contribute to more accurate assessment, diagnosis, and understanding of etiological process. To date the only study on hypersexuality's latent structure found consistent evidence of a dimensional structure for males but less clear results for females. In the present study the Multidimensional Inventory of Development, Sex, and Aggression (MIDSA), a self-report, contingency-based inventory, was administered to 1,146 college students. Four indices of hypersexual behavior and six indices of sexual compulsivity were analyzed, using three taxometric methods (mean above minus below a cut [MAMBAC], maximum covariance [MAXCOV], and latent mode factor analysis [L-Mode]). Evidence supported a dimensional latent structure for hypersexuality in male and female samples. Future assessments of hypersexuality must focus on adequate reliability and discriminant validity across the continuum of sexual behavior rather than on attempts to differentiate between arbitrarily developed diagnostic categorizations.

  7. A Survey on the Sexual and Contraceptive Behaviors in Chinese Female College Students

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    To get information in the sexual and contraceptive behaviors in Chinese female college students, a randomized cluster sampling was conducted in colleges and universities in Wuhan Area,China, in terms of types of colleges, subjects (literature, sciences, medicines, art etc), and grades etc.A total number of 2450 questionnaires were distributed, with 2365 questionnaires returned being valid. The return rate of valid questionnaires was 96.6%. The questionnaire investigation was conducted on a multiple-choice and anonymous basis. Data were input into computer and SPSS12.0software package was employed for statistical analysis. Among the female students, 1196 had the experiences of hugging and kissing (50.57%) and 423 (17.89%) had sexual experiences (sexual intercourse). The first sexual intercourse took place at the age of 19.23±1.74 y. There were significant differences in the sexual experiences among the majors of different subjects, with the rate of sexual experiences in art majors (43.17%) and high-grade students (34.31%) being the highest. The causes of the first sexual intercourse included sexual impulse, curiosity, intention to strengthen the relationship or to show loyalty to boyfriend and sometimes violence. While the motives of the sexual intercourse within the past one year before the investigation were to satisfy the sexual needs and to strengthen the relation with their boyfriends. With both first intercourse and sexual experiences within last one year,the partners of the sexual intercourse were mainly their boyfriends (95.7% and 97.3% respectively),but the partners also included acquaintances, "one night stand" partners and customers of sex trade.Some of them had multiple sexual partners, with the highest number of the sexual partners being 11.In the first sexual intercourse of the subjects, 44.0% of them did not take any contraceptive measures;only 16.4 % of them used condoms. In the sexual intercourse within the last one year, only 44.6%took

  8. Evaluation of sleep problems in preeclamptic, healthy pregnant and non-pregnant women.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Habibolah Khazaie

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Sleep problems are common complaints among pregnant women. This study was designed to compare subjective sleep problems in non-pregnancy condition, healthy and preeclamptic pregnancy as a major complication of pregnancy. We hypothesized that some sleep problems are more prevalent in females with preeclampsia.In this cross-sectional study, 102 women with preeclampsia, 106 healthy pregnant women in the third trimester and 103 healthy non-pregnant women were selected through random sampling. Age and parity were matched in the three groups. We used Global sleep assessment questionnaire (GSAQ to check the subjective sleep problems, and then we performed statistical analysis using Analysis of variance (ANOVA and Pearson Chi-square tests.Our findings revealed significant differences in initial insomnia (p = 0.034, fragmented sleep (p = 0.022, snoring (p<0.001, non-idiopathic insomnia (p = 0.045 and sadness and anxiety (p = 0.001 between the three groups. Some sleep problems were more common in preeclampctic compared to healthy pregnant women including initial insomnia, fragmented sleep, snoring, sleep apnea and non-idiopathic insomnia. Moreover, the subjects with preeclampsia revealed more fragmented sleep, snoring, sadness and anxiety and lack of getting enough sleep due to other activities compared to non-pregnant women.Different kinds of sleep problems can occur in subjects with preeclampsia in comparison with the non-pregnant and healthy pregnant subjects. Sleep problems should be evaluated during pregnancy, particularly in pregnant women with preeclampsia, and suitable treatment should be provided for any specific sleep problem.

  9. SHORT-TERM JUMP ACTIVITY ON BONE METABOLISM IN FEMALE COLLEGE-AGED NON-ATHLETES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kohei Kishimoto

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available There have been few studies examining the short-term effect of high-impact activities on bone metabolism measured by bone serum marker concentrations. The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of short-term high-impact jump activity on bone turnover in female college-aged non-athletes. Twenty six healthy females were randomly assigned to a control or jump group. The subjects jumped 5 days per week for 2 weeks. The participants completed 10 jumps per session. A general health questionnaire and a bone-specific physical activity assessment instrument (BPAQ were completed. BPAQ scores were calculated based on the past history of exercise. Blood draws were taken in both groups before and after the two-week experimental period. The vertical ground reaction force (VGRF of all jumps and jump height were measured for each subject daily and the osteogenic index (OI was measured. Concentrations of serum osteocalcin (OC, Bone Specific Alkaline Phosphatase (BAP, C-Terminal Telopeptides of Type I Collagen (CTX and plasma Tartrate-Resistant Acid Phosphatase (TRAP5b were assessed pre and post jump protocol to measure bone formation and resoprtion respectively. A significant interaction (time x group was found in TRAP5b, and BAP values (p < 0.05. There was a significant decrease in CTX and BAP values in the jump group (p < 0.05 after the two week jump protocol. No significant interactions or changes were observed in OC values for either the jump or the control group. Two weeks of jump activity consisting of 10 jumps/day for 5 days/week with a weekly osteogenic index of 52.6 significantly decreased markers of bone resorption (TRAP5b and CTX and bone formation (BAP in young female non- athletes.

  10. The Differential Influence of Authoritative Parenting on the Initial Adjustment of Male and Female Traditional College Freshmen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hickman, Gregory P.; Toews, Michelle L.; Andrews, David W.

    2001-01-01

    Surveyed college freshmen to examine the relationship between gender, authoritative parenting, aptitude, self-esteem, initial academic achievement, and overall adjustment. Found that authoritative parenting style was positively related to males' initial grade point average, but not significantly associated with females'. (EV)

  11. Efficacy Trial of a Selective Prevention Program Targeting Both Eating Disorder Symptoms and Unhealthy Weight Gain among Female College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stice, Eric; Rohde, Paul; Shaw, Heather; Marti, C. Nathan

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Evaluate a selective prevention program targeting both eating disorder symptoms and unhealthy weight gain in young women. Method: Female college students at high-risk for these outcomes by virtue of body image concerns (N = 398; M age = 18.4 years, SD = 0.6) were randomized to the Healthy Weight group-based 4-hr prevention program,…

  12. Body Image, Self-Esteem, and Health-Related Behaviors among Male and Female First Year College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowery, Sarah E.; Kurpius, Sharon E. Robinson; Befort, Christie; Blanks, Elva Hull; Sollenberger, Sonja; Nicpon, Megan Foley; Huser, Laura

    2005-01-01

    This study examined the relationships among self-esteem, body image, and health-related behaviors of 267 female and 156 male first-year college students. Data were collected in 23 classrooms. Instruments included a demographic sheet, the Objectified Body Consciousness Scale, the Weight and Appearance Visual Analogue Scales, the Contour Drawing…

  13. The Differential Influence of Authoritative Parenting on the Initial Adjustment of Male and Female Traditional College Freshmen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hickman, Gregory P.; Toews, Michelle L.; Andrews, David W.

    2001-01-01

    Surveyed college freshmen to examine the relationship between gender, authoritative parenting, aptitude, self-esteem, initial academic achievement, and overall adjustment. Found that authoritative parenting style was positively related to males' initial grade point average, but not significantly associated with females'. (EV)

  14. Exploring Representations of "Super" Women in Popular Culture: Shaping Critical Discussions with Female College Students with Learning Exceptionalities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taber, Nancy; Woloshyn, Vera; Munn, Caitlin; Lane, Laura

    2014-01-01

    In this article, we discuss how our analysis of several popular culture artifacts featuring "super" women characters (superheroes and supernatural) provided the foundation for a media discussion group for female college students with learning exceptionalities. We explore the use of popular culture in discussion groups as well as discuss…

  15. Body Image, Self-Esteem, and Health-Related Behaviors among Male and Female First Year College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowery, Sarah E.; Kurpius, Sharon E. Robinson; Befort, Christie; Blanks, Elva Hull; Sollenberger, Sonja; Nicpon, Megan Foley; Huser, Laura

    2005-01-01

    This study examined the relationships among self-esteem, body image, and health-related behaviors of 267 female and 156 male first-year college students. Data were collected in 23 classrooms. Instruments included a demographic sheet, the Objectified Body Consciousness Scale, the Weight and Appearance Visual Analogue Scales, the Contour Drawing…

  16. Physical Activity Promotion on Campus: Using Empirical Evidence to Recommend Strategic Approaches to Target Female College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milroy, Jeffrey J.; Orsini, Muhsin Michael; D'Abundo, Michelle Lee; Sidman, Cara Lynn; Venezia, Diana

    2015-01-01

    Problem: A large number of American adults do not meet national physical activity (PA) guidelines for aerobic PA and muscle strengthening. Similarly, many American college students, specifically females do not engage in regular PA. Self Determination Theory can provide a basis for investigating motivational processes of PA. The purpose of this…

  17. Efficacy Trial of a Selective Prevention Program Targeting Both Eating Disorder Symptoms and Unhealthy Weight Gain among Female College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stice, Eric; Rohde, Paul; Shaw, Heather; Marti, C. Nathan

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Evaluate a selective prevention program targeting both eating disorder symptoms and unhealthy weight gain in young women. Method: Female college students at high-risk for these outcomes by virtue of body image concerns (N = 398; M age = 18.4 years, SD = 0.6) were randomized to the Healthy Weight group-based 4-hr prevention program,…

  18. Breast Self-Examination: Attitude and Knowledge of Female College Students from USA, Thailand, Costa Rica, and Puerto Rico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kay, Noy S.; Torabi, Mohammad R.; Ding, Kele; Fernandez, Xinia; Encarnacion, Haydee

    2002-01-01

    Examined attitudes and knowledge among U.S., Thai, Costa Rican, and Puerto Rican female college students regarding breast self-examination (BSE). Students completed surveys before and after watching an instructional video on BSE. BSE practice was low in all four countries. Students considered BSE a necessary part of individual healthy behaviors.…

  19. What's Life Got to Do with It? The Role of Life Experiences in Shaping Female Community College Students' Transfer Intent in STEM Fields of Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wickersham, Kelly; Wang, Xueli

    2016-01-01

    Transfer in science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM) fields from community colleges to 4-year institutions holds great policy significance in alleviating the female underrepresentation in the STEM pipeline, with proportionately more female students attending community colleges. Considering the knowledge gap on this often overlooked topic,…

  20. Dieting practices, weight perceptions, and body composition: A comparison of normal weight, overweight, and obese college females

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smith Jean L

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Of concern to health educators is the suggestion that college females practice diet and health behaviors that contradict the 2005 dietary guidelines for Americans. In this regard, there remain gaps in the research related to dieting among college females. Namely, do normal weight individuals diet differently from those who are overweight or obese, and are there dieting practices used by females that can be adapted to promote a healthy body weight? Since it is well recognized that females diet, this study seeks to determine the dieting practices used among normal, overweight, and obese college females (do they diet differently and identify dieting practices that could be pursued to help these females more appropriately achieve and maintain a healthy body weight. Methods A total of 185 female college students aged 18 to 24 years participated in this study. Height, weight, waist and hip circumferences, and skinfold thickness were measured to assess body composition. Surveys included a dieting practices questionnaire and a 30-day physical activity recall. Participants were classified according to body mass index (BMI as normal weight (n = 113, overweight (n = 35, or obese (n = 21. Data were analyzed using JMP IN® software. Descriptive statistics included means, standard deviations, and frequency. Subsequent data analysis involved Pearson X2 and one-way analysis of variance with comparison for all pairs that were significantly different using Tukey-Kramer honestly significant difference test. Results Outcomes of this study indicate the majority of participants (83% used dieting for weight loss and believed they would be 2% to 6% greater than current weight if they did not diet; normal weight, overweight, and obese groups perceived attractive weight to be 94%, 85%, and 74%, respectively, of current weight; 80% of participants reported using physical activity to control weight, although only 19% exercised at a level that would

  1. Media exposure, internalization of the thin ideal, and body dissatisfaction: comparing Asian American and European American college females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nouri, Mahsa; Hill, Laura G; Orrell-Valente, Joan K

    2011-09-01

    Internalization of the thin ideal mediates the media exposure-body dissatisfaction relation in young adult European American females. There is little related research on Asian Americans. We used structural equations modeling to test: (1) whether media exposure was associated with body dissatisfaction in Asian American young adult females, (2) internalization of the thin ideal mediated any such association, and (3) whether the mediational model provided equivalent fit for European American and Asian American samples. Participants were 287 college females (154 Asian Americans, 133 European Americans). Internalization of the thin ideal explained the media exposure-body dissatisfaction association equally well for both groups. Results suggest that Asian Americans may be employing unhealthy weight control behaviors, and may be prone to developing eating disorders, at rates similar to European American young adult females. Clinicians need to screen carefully for body dissatisfaction, unhealthy weight control behaviors, and eating disorders in Asian American females. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Effectiveness of resilience training versus cognitive therapy on reduction of depression in female Iranian college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamirinejad, Somayeh; Hojjat, Seyed Kaveh; Golzari, Mahmoud; Borjali, Ahmad; Akaberi, Arash

    2014-06-01

    Depression is the most common mental illness among women. Its prevalence in women is two to three times that of men. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the effectiveness of resilience training on the reduction of depression in female college students. This semi-empirical study was carried out with two experimental groups and one control group. The research sample was women with symptoms of depression who were 18-22 years of age and living in a college dormitory. One experimental group was given eight 90-minute resilience training sessions, while the other received eight 90-minute cognitive therapy sessions. The control group didn't receive any interventions. The three groups under study were evaluated using the Beck II depression inventory before and after the interventions and two months after the treatment had ended. The three groups didn't have significant differences in age, marital status, or depression scores on the pretest. The resilience training group and cognitive therapy group showed a significant decrease in the average depression score from pretest to posttest and from pretest to follow-up. The main effect of groups, stage, and interaction between groups and stage also were significant (all were p depression but there was a significant difference between these two treatment groups and the control group. The effectiveness of resilience training was just as good as the effectiveness of cognitive therapy. The effects of resilience training on depression remained stable from the posttest to the follow-up, like that of cognitive therapy.

  3. Sexual Aggression Victimization and Perpetration among Male and Female College Students in Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuster, Isabell; Krahé, Barbara; Ilabaca Baeza, Paola; Muñoz-Reyes, José A.

    2016-01-01

    Evidence on the prevalence of sexual aggression among college students is primarily based on studies from Western countries. In Chile, a South American country strongly influenced by the Catholic Church, little research on sexual aggression among college students is available. Therefore, the purpose of the present study was to examine the prevalence of sexual aggression victimization and perpetration since the age of 14 (the legal age of consent) in a sample of male and female students aged between 18 and 29 years from five Chilean universities (N = 1135), to consider possible gender differences, and to study the extent to which alcohol was involved in the reported incidents of perpetration and victimization. Sexual aggression victimization and perpetration was measured with a Chilean Spanish version of the Sexual Aggression and Victimization Scale (SAV-S), which includes three coercive strategies (use or threat of physical force, exploitation of an incapacitated state, and verbal pressure), three victim-perpetrator constellations (current or former partners, friends/acquaintances, and strangers), and four sexual acts (sexual touch, attempted sexual intercourse, completed sexual intercourse, and other sexual acts, such as oral sex). Overall, 51.9% of women and 48.0% of men reported at least one incident of sexual victimization, and 26.8% of men and 16.5% of women reported at least one incident of sexual aggression perpetration since the age of 14. For victimization, only few gender differences were found, but significantly more men than women reported sexual aggression perpetration. A large proportion of perpetrators also reported victimization experiences. Regarding victim-perpetrator relationship, sexual aggression victimization and perpetration were more common between persons who knew each other than between strangers. Alcohol use by the perpetrator, victim, or both was involved in many incidents of sexual aggression victimization and perpetration, particularly

  4. Female College Drinking and the Social Learning Theory: An Examination of the Developmental Transition Period from High School to College.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaBrie, Joseph W; Huchting, Karie; Pedersen, Eric R; Hummer, Justin F; Shelesky, Kristin; Tawalbeh, Summer

    2007-05-01

    Problematic drinking among college students remains a national issue with large percentages of college students reporting heavy episodic or binge drinking (Wechsler, Dowdall, Davenport, & Castillo, 1995) and experiencing severe alcohol-related consequences ranging from poor academic performance, to sexual assault, vandalism, and even death (Hingson, Heeren, Winter, & Wechsler, 2005; Wechsler et al., 2002). According to the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA, 2002), the first 6 weeks on a college campus are critical to first-year student success. However, during these first weeks many students initiate heavy drinking that may interfere with their ability to adapt to campus life, and patterns of drinking established during these first weeks persist throughout college (Schulenberg et al., 2001). Approximately one third of first-year students fail to enroll for their second year due to difficulties with the transition to college (Upcraft, 1995). Drinking may compromise successful negotiation of the transition into college and therefore jeopardize overall collegiate success. Therefore, the ability to identify specific students as they enter college who may develop problematic drinking patterns and related negative consequences would allow student affairs personnel to more effectively design and target risk-reduction programs and interventions.

  5. Longitudinal effects of college type and selectivity on degrees conferred upon undergraduate females in physical science, life science, math and computer science, and social science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Stacy Mckimm

    There has been much research to suggest that a single-sex college experience for female undergraduate students can increase self-confidence and leadership ability during the college years and beyond. The results of previous studies also suggest that these students achieve in the workforce and enter graduate school at higher rates than their female peers graduating from coeducational institutions. However, some researchers have questioned these findings, suggesting that it is the selectivity level of the colleges rather than the comprised gender of the students that causes these differences. The purpose of this study was to justify the continuation of single-sex educational opportunities for females at the post-secondary level by examining the effects that college selectivity, college type, and time have on the rate of undergraduate females pursuing majors in non-traditional fields. The study examined the percentage of physical science, life science, math and computer science, and social science degrees conferred upon females graduating from women's colleges from 1985-2001, as compared to those at comparable coeducational colleges. Sampling for this study consisted of 42 liberal arts women's (n = 21) and coeducational (n = 21) colleges. Variables included the type of college, the selectivity level of the college, and the effect of time on the percentage of female graduates. Doubly multivariate repeated measures analysis of variance testing revealed significant main effects for college selectivity on social science graduates, and time on both life science and math and computer science graduates. Significant interaction was also found between the college type and time on social science graduates, as well as the college type, selectivity level, and time on math and computer science graduates. Implications of the results and suggestions for further research are discussed.

  6. Female college students and cosmetic surgery: an investigation of experiences, attitudes, and body image.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarwer, David B; Cash, Thomas F; Magee, Leanne; Williams, Emily Fleming; Thompson, J Kevin; Roehrig, Megan; Tantleff-Dunn, Stacey; Agliata, Allison Kanter; Wilfley, Denise E; Amidon, Amy D; Anderson, Drew A; Romanofski, Michelle

    2005-03-01

    This large, multisite study investigated female college students' experiences with and attitudes about cosmetic surgery. The study also assessed the relationship between several aspects of body image, including appearance satisfaction and investment and symptoms of body dysmorphic disorder, and interest in cosmetic surgery. Thirty (5 percent) of the 559 women surveyed reported that they had undergone cosmetic surgery. Two thirds of respondents reported knowing someone who had received cosmetic surgery, and approximately one third indicated that a family member had undergone surgery. Overall, participants held relatively favorable attitudes about surgery. Regression analysis suggested that a greater psychological investment in physical appearance and greater internalization of mass media images of beauty predicted more favorable attitudes toward cosmetic surgery. Fourteen women (2.5 percent) screened positive for body dysmorphic disorder based on the nature and severity of their self-reported body-image concerns. Results of this study provide new information on young women's experiences and attitudes about cosmetic surgery and how these attitudes relate to body image.

  7. DSM-5 Pathological Personality Traits and Intimate Partner Violence Among Male and Female College Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowgwillo, Emily A; Ménard, Kim S; Krueger, Robert F; Pincus, Aaron L

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine associations between pathological personality traits identified in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (5th ed., DSM-5) Section III alternative model of personality disorder (using the Personality Inventory for DSM-5; PID-5) and intimate partner violence (IPV; using the Conflict Tactics Scale [CTS]) in a sample of male (N = 1,106) and female (N = 1,338) college students. In this sample, self and partner perpetration of CTS Relationship Violence and CTS Negotiation tactics loaded onto 2 separate factors. The PID-5 facets and domains were differentially associated with these factors for both men and women. Facets and domains explained 10.1%-16.1% and 5.8%-10.6% of the variance in CTS Relationship Violence tactics, respectively. For both genders, detachment was positively associated with relationship violence. Antagonism was uniquely associated with relationship violence for women, whereas disinhibition was uniquely associated with relationship violence for men. Associations with lower level pathological personality facets were also examined. Overall, results indicate that DSM-5 pathological personality traits are associated with IPV reported by both men and women.

  8. The investigation on somatotype of female college students of Han nationality in Cangzhou by heath-carter method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Yuanyuan; Sui Yuelin; Yin Shuai; Ding Wenfeng; Mu Zhaoxin

    2015-01-01

    Objective:In order to obtain the data for diet and physical exercise, we analyzed the rules and characteristics of somatotype distribution of college students in Cangzhou by Heath-carter method. Methods:332 college students (172 males and 160 females) of Han nationality aged 19 to 24 were somatotyped by Health-carter anthropometry. Every index was measured 3 times and average values were adopted, and compared to that of other regions. Results:①The mean somatotype for female was 4. 3-3. 6-2. 9. The values of HWR, SAM, BMI and the rate of body fat were 42. 9, 2. 0, 20. 6 and 19. 7%, respectively. The mean somatotype for male was 3. 8-4. 3-3. 3. The values of HWR, SAM, BMI and the rate of body fat were 43. 5, 2. 4, 21. 5 and 17. 7%, respectively. The significant sexual difference was found in somatotype of Han nationality college students (P<0. 01). ②The weight, height, perimeter of the upper arm, calf girth, biepicondylar breadth of the humerus and biepicondylar breadth of the femur of male samples were greater than the female samples, the skinfold of the male samples were thinner than the male samples ( P<0 . 05 ) . ③The somatotypes of Han nationality in Changzhou were closer to the Han nationali-ty in Shandong province, but the gap was larger with Manchu and Mongolian nationality. ④Compared with foreign female college students, except Czechoslovakia and Canada, the somatotypes of Han nationality in Changzhou were similar to other countries. Conclusions:①The characteristics of male showed less body fat, stronger skeletal mus-cles, while that of female showed more body fat. ②Compared with other groups, it showed that somatotypes may be related to innate genetic, geographical climate, lifestyle, eating habits and other factors.

  9. Female College Drinking and the Social Learning Theory: An Examination of the Developmental Transition Period from High School to College

    OpenAIRE

    LaBrie, Joseph W.; Huchting, Karie; Pedersen, Eric R.; Hummer, Justin F.; Shelesky, Kristin; TAWALBEH, SUMMER

    2007-01-01

    Problematic drinking among college students remains a national issue with large percentages of college students reporting heavy episodic or binge drinking (Wechsler, Dowdall, Davenport, & Castillo, 1995) and experiencing severe alcohol-related consequences ranging from poor academic performance, to sexual assault, vandalism, and even death (Hingson, Heeren, Winter, & Wechsler, 2005; Wechsler et al., 2002). According to the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA, 2002), the ...

  10. A Comparison of HIV Knowledge, Attitudes, and Sources of STI Information Between Female and Male College Students in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tung, Wei-Chen; Cook, Daniel M; Lu, Minggen; Ding, Kele

    2015-01-01

    Taiwan withdrew from the United Nations in 1971, which led to missed opportunities for participating in global HIV/AIDS programs and made Taiwan more vulnerable to HIV. Employing a questionnaire of 996 college students in Taiwan, the authors assessed and compared female and male HIV/AIDS-related knowledge, attitudes, and sources of HIV/sexually transmitted infections (STI) information. Students reported moderate knowledge and attitudes. Females had more positive attitudes toward people with HIV/AIDS than males. Most participants reported learning about HIV and STIs from traditional media, school teachers, and the Internet. We suggest evidence-based educational interventions for students should include targeted electronic and cultural awareness strategies.

  11. The accuracy of hand-to-hand bioelectrical impedance analysis in predicting body composition in college-age female athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esco, Michael R; Olson, Michele S; Williford, Henry N; Lizana, Suheil N; Russell, Angela R

    2011-04-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to determine the accuracy of hand-to-hand bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) for estimating body composition in college-age female athletes using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) as the criterion measure. Forty National Association for Intercollegiate Athletics college female athletes volunteered to participate in this study. For each participant, total body fat percentage (BF%) and fat-free mass (FFM) were obtained via BIA and DEXA. The mean BF% and FFM values obtained by BIA were compared with the criterion DEXA measure. The DEXA strongly correlated to the BIA for BF% (r = 0.74, R2 = 0.55, SEE = 3.60, and p < 0.01) and FFM (r = 0.84, R2 = 0.71, SEE = 2.45, p < 0.01). However, when compared with the DEXA, the mean values for BIA were significantly lower for BF% (DEXA = 27.6 ± 5.3%, BIA = 22.5 ± 3.5%, p < 0.01) and higher for FFM (DEXA = 47.2 ± 4.5 kg, BIA = 50.6 ± 4.6 kg, p < 0.01). The results of this investigation indicate that hand-to-hand BIA significantly underestimates BF% and overestimated FFM in college-age female athletes when compared with the criterion DEXA. Practitioners should use caution when analyzing body composition with hand-held BIA in a population of athletic women.

  12. Sweet taste threshold for sucrose inversely correlates with depression symptoms in female college students in the luteal phase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagai, Masanori; Matsumoto, Sayaka; Endo, Junko; Sakamoto, Reiko; Wada, Maki

    2015-03-15

    Influences of depression symptoms on the sweet taste threshold were investigated in healthy college students (30 males and 40 females). Depression symptoms were scored by SDS (Self-Rating Depression Scale), and anxiety levels by STAI (State- and Trait-Anxiety Inventory). Recognition thresholds for sucrose were determined. In female students, the menstrual phase on the day of the experiment was self-reported. Depression symptoms, anxiety levels, and the recognition threshold for sucrose were not different among the 3 groups, i.e. males, females in the follicular phase, and females in the luteal phase. Depression symptoms were positively correlated with state and trait anxiety in all groups. The sweet taste threshold was inversely correlated with depression symptoms (r=-0.472, p=0.031) and trait anxiety (r=-0.506, p=0.019) in females in the luteal phase. In males as well as females in the follicular phase, however, no correlation between sweet taste threshold and depression was found. The results show that the recognition threshold for sucrose reduces with increased depression in females with a higher anxiety trait, but only in the luteal phase. It is hypothesized that brain regions, which spatially overlap and are responsible for both aversive emotions and gustatory processing, are susceptible to periodic changes in gonadal hormones due to the menstrual cycle.

  13. Prevalence, frequency, and initiation of hookah tobacco smoking among first-year female college students: a one-year longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fielder, Robyn L; Carey, Kate B; Carey, Michael P

    2012-02-01

    Hookah tobacco smoking has become increasingly prevalent among college students, but little is known about frequency of use or patterns of use over time, including during the transition to college. The goals of this longitudinal cohort study were to assess the: (a) lifetime prevalence, (b) current prevalence, (c) frequency of use, and (d) pattern of initiation of hookah tobacco smoking among female students during the first year of college. First-year female college students (N=483) at a large private university in upstate New York completed 13 monthly online surveys about their hookah tobacco use from August 2009 to August 2010. Lifetime prevalence of hookah use increased from 29% at college entry to 45% at one-year follow-up. The highest rates of hookah initiation occurred in the first two months of students' first semester of college. Current (past 30 days) hookah use ranged from 5% to 13% during the year after college entry. On average, hookah users reported smoking hookah two days per month. Hookah tobacco use is common among female college students. The transition to college is a vulnerable time for hookah initiation. Preventive efforts should begin in high school and continue through college, with a focus on students' first few months on campus. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Analysis of psychological problems of female college students%当代女大学生心理问题浅析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    石海英; 范琳琳

    2013-01-01

      随着社会的发展,女大学生越来越受到人们的关注,她们是大学生中的一个极富个性的群体,位于女性群体的较高层次上,但女大学生要在竞争中脱颖而出,需要付出比男生更多的努力,这对女大学生产生了一定的心理压力。分析女大学生心理问题成因并研究其对策,有利于提高女大学生素质,促进女大学生更好地成长与发展。%With the development of society, the female college students attract more and more attention by people, they are a group of college students with personality, at the higher level in female group, but female students to show themselves in the competition, need to pay more efforts than boys, which produces a certain psychological stress of female college students. Study on the countermeasures and analysis of the causes of the psychological problem of female college students, helps to improve the quality of female college students, to promote the better growth and development of female college students.

  15. 21 CFR 862.1275 - Estrogens (total, nonpregnancy) test system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Estrogens (total, nonpregnancy) test system. 862.1275 Section 862.1275 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... infertility, amenorrhea (absence of menses) differentiation of primary and secondary ovarian...

  16. Oral changes in pregnant and nonpregnant women: A case-control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santosh R Patil

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The numerous changes occurring during pregnancy affect every body system, resulting in localized physical alterations in almost all parts of the body, including the oral cavity. The aim of the present study was to find the incidence of oral conditions seen particularly in the pregnant women than in the nonpregnant women. Materials and Methods: The oral health condition of 120 pregnant women referred to the outpatient department of Jodhpur Dental College General Hospital from a gynecology clinic were examined and compared with 120 nonpregnant women. The pregnant women were divided in a 3 groups of 40 each, according to the stage of pregnancy. The common oral conditions seen during pregnancy were assessed. Results: Pregnant women had a higher incidence of gingivitis and pyogenic granuloma. Gingivitis and erosion of teeth due to vomiting was seen commonly in the 3 rd trimester. The results indicated that pregnancy had an effect on the oral condition, which was mainly due to the hormonal changes seen during this period rather than other factors. Conclusion: Women planning a pregnancy or those already pregnant should be informed about the role of oral health during pregnancy and the possible outcomes of these conditions for the welfare of their foetus. They should be referred to the dental clinician for necessary counselling for preventive oral self-care and treatment, if required.

  17. The Effects of Childhood Tomboyism and Family Experiences on the Self-Esteem of College Females

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Volkom, Michele

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if being a tomboy in childhood is related to high self-esteem in college women. Different aspects of participants' family experiences were analyzed as well. This study revealed that feeling overprotected in childhood as well as currently was related to lower self-esteem in college women. Participants who…

  18. Thin-Ideal Internalization and Comparison Process as Mediators of Social Influence and Psychological Functioning in the Development of Disturbed Eating Habits in Croatian College Females

    OpenAIRE

    Alessandra Pokrajac-Bulian; Neala Ambrosi-Randić; Miljana Kukić

    2008-01-01

    This study examined the role of internalization and comparison as mediators of relationships between socio-cultural pressures to be thin, psychological factors, restrictive and bulimic behaviours in college females. Participants were 262 Croatian college females (mean age = 21.22 ± 1.47 years) who completed self-report questionnaires. Regression analysis was used to test a model in which internalization and social comparison mediated the impact of socio-cultural pressure (parents and peers di...

  19. Proximal relationships between PTSD symptoms and drinking among female college students: results from a daily monitoring study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaysen, Debra; Atkins, David C; Simpson, Tracy L; Stappenbeck, Cynthia A; Blayney, Jessica A; Lee, Christine M; Larimer, Mary E

    2014-03-01

    Self-medication has been theorized to explain comorbidity between posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and drinking, whereupon problem drinking develops in order to modulate negative affect and ameliorate PTSD symptoms. Daily monitoring methodologies may help refine our understanding of proximal relations between PTSD, affect, and alcohol use. One hundred thirty-six female college drinkers with a past history of sexual victimization and 38 female college drinkers with no past trauma history completed electronic monitoring of PTSD symptoms, affect, alcohol use, and alcohol cravings, daily for 4 weeks. A two-part mixed hurdle model was used to examine likelihood of drinking and amount of alcohol consumed on drinking days. We found significant relationships between daily PTSD symptoms, affect, and drinking. On days women experienced more intrusive and behavioral avoidance symptoms of PTSD, they experienced stronger urges to drink and were more likely to drink on that day. On days in which women experienced more negative affect than their average, they experienced stronger urges to drink, whereas on days in which women experienced more of the dysphoric symptoms associated with PTSD than their average, they drank less. On days with higher positive affect, women reported stronger urges to drink and were more likely to drink. Results suggest the need to examine both aspects of affect and specific PTSD symptoms as they may differentially predict drinking behavior. Differences in the ways in which PTSD symptoms and affect influence drinking suggest that interventions more specifically address the function of drinking behaviors in reducing alcohol use among college women.

  20. Population pharmacokinetics of artesunate and dihydroartemisinin in pregnant and non-pregnant women with malaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bose Carl

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The World Health Organization endorses the use of artemisinin-based combination therapy for treatment of acute uncomplicated falciparum malaria in the second and third trimesters of pregnancy. However, the effects of pregnancy on the pharmacokinetics of artemisinin derivatives, such as artesunate (AS, are poorly understood. In this analysis, the population pharmacokinetics of oral AS, and its active metabolite dihydroartemisinin (DHA, were studied in pregnant and non-pregnant women at the Kingasani Maternity Clinic in the DRC. Methods Data were obtained from 26 pregnant women in the second (22 - 26 weeks or the third (32 - 36 weeks trimester of pregnancy and from 25 non-pregnant female controls. All subjects received 200 mg AS. Plasma AS and DHA were measured using a validated LC-MS method. Estimates for pharmacokinetic and variability parameters were obtained through nonlinear mixed effects modelling. Results A simultaneous parent-metabolite model was developed consisting of mixed zero-order, lagged first-order absorption of AS, a one-compartment model for AS, and a one-compartment model for DHA. Complete conversion of AS to DHA was assumed. The model displayed satisfactory goodness-of-fit, stability, and predictive ability. Apparent clearance (CL/F and volume of distribution (V/F estimates, with 95% bootstrap confidence intervals, were as follows: 195 L (139-285 L for AS V/F, 895 L/h (788-1045 L/h for AS CL/F, 91.4 L (78.5-109 L for DHA V/F, and 64.0 L/h (55.1-75.2 L/h for DHA CL/F. The effect of pregnancy on DHA CL/F was determined to be significant, with a pregnancy-associated increase in DHA CL/F of 42.3% (19.7 - 72.3%. Conclusions In this analysis, pharmacokinetic modelling suggests that pregnant women have accelerated DHA clearance compared to non-pregnant women receiving orally administered AS. These findings, in conjunction with a previous non-compartmental analysis of the modelled data, provide further evidence that

  1. Female college student awareness of exposures to environmental toxins in personal care products and their effect on preconception health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Lisa M; Chalupka, Stephanie M; Barrett, Roseann

    2015-02-01

    This research study investigated college women's usage of personal care products and their views on health effects from exposures during the preconception period. Many personal care products and cosmetics contain chemical ingredients that have been known to disrupt human endocrine and neurological systems, and contribute to infertility and adverse birth outcomes. Seventy-two female college students from a single, medium-sized university campus completed a researcher-developed questionnaire. Findings provide insight into the daily exposures young women experience during their reproductive years. Results can inform occupational and environmental health nurses about the personal daily exposures of young women when conducting risk assessments in the workplace or at a school, and can aid in developing interventions that support the environmental health of employees or future employees. © 2015 The Author(s).

  2. Daddy's Little Girl Goes to College: An Investigation of Females' Perceived Closeness with Fathers and Later Risky Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rostad, Whitney L.; Silverman, Paul; McDonald, Molly K.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The present study investigated the extent to which father-daughter relationships predicted risk-taking in a sample of female college students. Specifically, this study examined whether female adolescents' models of father psychological presence predicted substance use and sexual risk-taking, over and above impulsivity, depression,…

  3. More Girls Go to College: Exploring the Social and Academic Factors behind the Female Postsecondary Advantage among Hispanic and White Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riegle-Crumb, Catherine

    2010-01-01

    This study examines the female postsecondary advantage in matriculation among Hispanic and white youth with the goal of exploring whether social capital, in addition to academic performance and orientation, function similarly to help explain females' higher likelihood of college attendance for each group. Utilizing data from the Texas Higher…

  4. An investigation of factors affecting elementary female student teachers' choice of science as a major at college level in Zimbabwe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mlenga, Francis Howard

    The purpose of the study was to determine factors affecting elementary female student teachers' choice of science as a major at college level in Zimbabwe. The study was conducted at one of the Primary School Teachers' Colleges in Zimbabwe. A sample of two hundred and thirty-eight female student teachers was used in the study. Of these one hundred and forty-two were non-science majors who had been randomly selected, forty-one were science majors and forty-five were math majors. Both science and math majors were a convenient sample because the total enrollment of the two groups was small. All the subjects completed a survey questionnaire that had sixty-eight items. Ten students from the non-science majors were selected for individual interviews and the same was done for the science majors. A further eighteen were selected from the non-science majors and divided into three groups of six each for focus group interviews. The same was done for the science majors. The interviews were audio taped and transcribed. Data from the survey questionnaires were analyzed using Binary Logistic Regression which predicted factors that affected students' choice of science as a major. The transcribed interview data were analyzed used using domain, taxonomic and componential analyses. Results of the study indicated that elementary female students' choice of science as a major at college level is affected by students' attitudes toward science, teacher behavior, out-of-school experiences, role models, gender stereotyping, parental influence, peer influence, in-school experiences, and societal expectations, namely cultural and social expectations.

  5. Canine herpesvirus during pregnancy and non-pregnant luteal phase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ström Holst, B; Hagberg Gustavsson, M; Grapperon-Mathis, M; Lilliehöök, I; Johannisson, A; Isaksson, M; Lindhe, A; Axnér, E

    2012-12-01

    Canine herpesvirus (CHV) is a widespread infection among dogs that typically get latently infected after exposure and can reactivate the infection after stress. The aim of the present study was to study the effects of latent CHV infection during pregnancy on pregnancy outcome, and to study if there are signs of genital viral reactivation during pregnancy or during non-pregnant luteal phase. Twelve mated bitches and eight control bitches were followed and sampled regularly during pregnancy or non-pregnant luteal phase. Blood samples were taken for antibody analysis and vaginal swabs for real-time PCR analysis. Three of the pregnant bitches were vaccinated against CHV during pregnancy. All bitches had antibodies to CHV. Two pregnant bitches that were not vaccinated had a twofold or larger increase in CHV titre, with no negative effects detected on pregnancy. Higher titres were not associated with smaller litters or with vaccination. There was no consistent variation in antibody titres due to pregnancy or non-pregnant luteal phase. Vaginal excretion of CHV was not detected from any of the bitches.

  6. Oral Mucosal Disorders in Pregnant versus Non-Pregnant Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fahimeh Rezazadeh

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The effects of pregnancy on the Oral Mucosa Disorder (OMD have been sporadically documented in some developed countries. Less known is the status of OMD during pregnancy in less developed/developing countries. Iran is no exception. This study assesses the prevalence of OMD in 200 pregnant women and compares the findings with the findings from a 200 non-pregnant woman of similar age distribution in Iran. The participants had been referred to a clinic to receive reproductive age-related services. Participants suffering from systemic chronic diseases, those on medications/drugs, smokers, needing biopsies, and those with urgent Oral Mucosal Lesion (OML treatments were excluded from the study. Oral mucosal of all 400 participants were examined. The participants’ age ranges were from 17 to 47; with the average age of 33.14 for one group; and 30.23 for the other group. Both groups had the same level of formal education. Out of 400 examined women; 62 had lesions, including 47 pregnant (23.5%; and 15 non-pregnant (7.5% women. This result shows that the OMD rate of occurrence was significantly higher among the pregnant women. Higher OML prevalence in pregnant women, as compared to the non-pregnant women, indicates the importance of timely oral examination of pregnant women and subsequent treatment plans for them.

  7. Role of Uniforms in the Body Image of Female College Volleyball Players

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinfeldt, Jesse A.; Zakrajsek, Rebecca A.; Bodey, Kimberly J.; Middendorf, Katharine G.; Martin, Scott B.

    2013-01-01

    Female student athletes often desire a muscular body to be successful in sport, but this body type does not conform to traditional cultural norms of femininity. In this study, the authors qualitatively examined the experiences of female intercollegiate volleyball players to better understand their beliefs about their bodies--both as athletes and…

  8. Role of Uniforms in the Body Image of Female College Volleyball Players

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinfeldt, Jesse A.; Zakrajsek, Rebecca A.; Bodey, Kimberly J.; Middendorf, Katharine G.; Martin, Scott B.

    2013-01-01

    Female student athletes often desire a muscular body to be successful in sport, but this body type does not conform to traditional cultural norms of femininity. In this study, the authors qualitatively examined the experiences of female intercollegiate volleyball players to better understand their beliefs about their bodies--both as athletes and…

  9. The reasoned/reactive model: A new approach to examining eating decisions among female college dieters and nondieters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruhl, Holly; Holub, Shayla C; Dolan, Elaine A

    2016-12-01

    Female college students are prone to unhealthy eating patterns that can impact long-term health. This study examined female students' healthy and unhealthy eating behaviors with three decision-making models. Specifically, the theory of reasoned action, prototype/willingness model, and new reasoned/reactive model were compared to determine how reasoned (logical) and reactive (impulsive) factors relate to dietary decisions. Females (N=583, Mage=20.89years) completed measures on reasoned cognitions about foods (attitudes, subjective norms, nutrition knowledge, intentions to eat foods), reactive cognitions about foods (prototypes, affect, willingness to eat foods), dieting, and food consumption. Structural equation modeling (SEM) revealed the new reasoned/reactive model to be the preeminent model for examining eating behaviors. This model showed that attitudes were related to intentions and willingness to eat healthy and unhealthy foods. Affect was related to willingness to eat healthy and unhealthy foods, whereas nutrition knowledge was related to intentions and willingness to eat healthy foods only. Intentions and willingness were related to healthy and unhealthy food consumption. Dieting status played a moderating role in the model and revealed mean-level differences between dieters and nondieters. This study highlights the importance of specific factors in relation to female students' eating decisions and unveils a comprehensive model for examining health behaviors. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Mercury 203 distribution in pregnant and nonpregnant rats following systemic infusions with thiol-containing amino acids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aschner, M.; Clarkson, T.W.

    1987-12-01

    Near-term pregnant (gestational day 17) and nonpregnant Long-Evans female rats were continuously infused into the external jugular vein with 0.1 mmole/hour L-cysteine, 0.1 mmole/hour L-leucine, or saline. At 24, 48, and 72 hours, 50 mumole/hour (/sup 203/Hg)-MeHgCl was administered over 1 hour. Total /sup 203/Hg body burden, brain, kidney, liver, and blood /sup 203/Hg concentrations were determined at 96 hours by gamma scintillation spectrometry. Despite significantly greater /sup 203/Hg whole body retention in the pregnant animals /sup 203/Hg concentrations in blood, brain, kidney, and liver were higher in nonpregnant rats. In addition, brain /sup 203/Hg concentrations in both pregnant and virgin rats were significantly higher in L-cysteine-treated rats compared with controls. These results suggest that the fetus may act as a sink for MeHg, thus decreasing /sup 203/Hg concentrations in maternal blood, brain, kidney, and liver. Furthermore, the data indicate that brain uptake of methylmercury in both pregnant and nonpregnant rats is enhanced by chronic L-cysteine infusion, lending support to the hypothesis that methylmercury in the rat may be translocated across the blood-brain barrier by the neutral amino acid carrier transport system.

  11. Female peer mentors early in college increase women’s positive academic experiences and retention in engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dasgupta, Nilanjana

    2017-01-01

    Scientific and engineering innovation is vital for American competitiveness, quality of life, and national security. However, too few American students, especially women, pursue these fields. Although this problem has attracted enormous attention, rigorously tested interventions outside artificial laboratory settings are quite rare. To address this gap, we conducted a longitudinal field experiment investigating the effect of peer mentoring on women’s experiences and retention in engineering during college transition, assessing its impact for 1 y while mentoring was active, and an additional 1 y after mentoring had ended. Incoming women engineering students (n = 150) were randomly assigned to female or male peer mentors or no mentors for 1 y. Their experiences were assessed multiple times during the intervention year and 1-y postintervention. Female (but not male) mentors protected women’s belonging in engineering, self-efficacy, motivation, retention in engineering majors, and postcollege engineering aspirations. Counter to common assumptions, better engineering grades were not associated with more retention or career aspirations in engineering in the first year of college. Notably, increased belonging and self-efficacy were significantly associated with more retention and career aspirations. The benefits of peer mentoring endured long after the intervention had ended, inoculating women for the first 2 y of college—the window of greatest attrition from science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) majors. Thus, same-gender peer mentoring for a short period during developmental transition points promotes women’s success and retention in engineering, yielding dividends over time. PMID:28533360

  12. Effects of auricular acupressure using Sinapsis alba seeds on obesity and self-efficacy in female college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dongwon; Ham, Ok Kyung; Kang, Changwan; Jun, Eunmi

    2014-04-01

    To examine the effects of auricular acupressure with Sinapsis alba seeds on obesity and self-efficacy. Randomized controlled trial. College settings located in metropolitan areas of Korea. A total of 49 female college students who were overweight or obese (body-mass index [BMI] ≥25.0 kg/m(2)) were recruited and randomly assigned to the experimental group (n=25) or the control group (n=24). The experimental group applied three S. alba seeds to each of five auricular points (Shenmen, mouth, stomach, endocrine, and small intestine points). These participants were asked to stimulate those points 10 times at a rate of two times per second 30 minutes before mealtime, three times daily, for 1 month. They performed the procedure for each earlobe for alternating weeks (a total of 2 weeks' treatment for each ear). The obesity index included weight (kg), BMI (kg/m(2)), percentage body fat, and waist-to-hip ratio. Self-efficacy was measured by using a self-efficacy scale. Female students in the experimental group showed significant decreases in weight (t=10.76; p0.05) and waist-to-hip ratio (t=0.60; p>0.05) changes did not significantly differ between the two groups. These findings suggest that auricular acupressure using S. alba seeds may be an effective intervention for decreasing weight and BMI and increasing self-efficacy of overweight and obese individuals.

  13. Health impact of bioaccessible metal in lip cosmetics to female college students and career women, northeast of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Peng; Liu, Sa; Zhang, Zhaohan; Meng, Ping; Lin, Nan; Lu, Binyu; Cui, Fuyi; Feng, Yujie; Xing, Baoshan

    2015-02-01

    Actual measure-based studies have estimated ingestion rate of moderate and high daily use to female college students and career women in northeast of China. Sequential extraction analyses showed that total bioaccessible metals concentration in lipstick ranged from 2.103 to 31.103 μg/g and in lip balm ranged from 0.100 to 3.716 μg/g. The relationship between total bioaccessible metal concentrations and the cost of lip cosmetics showed a negative correlation. Lead was detected in all 30 products (100%), with an average concentration of 0.346 for lip balm and 0.407 μg/g for lipstick. With the exception of chromium content in three lipsticks, the estimated exposure in female college students and career women to target metals via lipstick and lip balm ingestion (calculated for moderate and high use) were much lower than the acceptable reference limits. The findings strongly emphasize the need to focus on the health risk of lip balm. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Substance Use, Aggression Perpetration, and Victimization: Temporal Co-Occurrence in College Males and Females

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margolin, Gayla; Ramos, Michelle C.; Baucom, Brian R.; Bennett, Diana C.; Guran, Elyse L.

    2013-01-01

    Many studies have documented associations of substance use with aggression perpetration and aggression victimization; however, little is known about the co-occurrence of these problem behaviors within the same day in college students. The present study investigated whether substance use and aggression increase the likelihood of each other and…

  15. The Benefits of Dispositional Mindfulness in Physical Health: A Longitudinal Study of Female College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Megan J.; Mermelstein, Liza C.; Edwards, Katie M.; Gidycz, Christine A.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: This article examines the relationship between dispositional mindfulness, health behaviors (e.g., sleep, eating, and exercise), and physical health. Participants: Participants included 441 college women. Methods: Women completed self-report surveys at the beginning and end of a 10-week academic quarter. The study was conducted over 5…

  16. Career Development and the Needs of Young College-Educated Females in Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lien, Bella Ya-Hui

    2005-01-01

    This interpretive study examined the lived experiences of young college-educated Taiwanese women employed as clerical workers. Using hermeneutic phenomenology as the research methodology, the study explored the meanings of the participants' lived experiences. Systematic text analysis of the data revealed various experiences and expectations.…

  17. Change in Diet, Physical Activity, and Body Weight in Female College Freshman

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Scott M.; Black, David R.; Blue, Carolyn L.; Gretebeck, Randall J.

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To examine diet, physical activity, and body-weight changes associated with relocation from home to university. Methods: Diet, fitness/physical activity, body-weight parameters and self-efficacy were assessed among 54 freshman women upon college entry and 5 months later. Results: Although caloric intake significantly decreased, a…

  18. Male-Female Student Retention in HBCUs: A Comparative Analysis of Sample Data across Five Colleges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezeala-Harrison, Fidel

    2014-01-01

    Several factors contribute to the college retention rates of black students. There could be issues related to the student's own personality attributes, personal and/or family circumstances, financial factors, background events, social factors, as well as a myriad of institutional factors associated with the school system and/or a particular school…

  19. Different Pathways Explain Alcohol-Related Problems in Female and Male College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedrelli, Paola; Collado, Anahi; Shapero, Benjamin G.; Brill, Charlotte; MacPherson, Laura

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Comprehensive models elucidating the intricate associations of depressive symptoms, coping motives, alcohol use, alcohol-related problems (ARPs), and gender among young adults have been scarcely examined. This study investigated relationships among these variables and the effect of gender on these pathways. Methods: College students (N…

  20. Comparison of pregnant and non-pregnant occupant crash and injury characteristics based on national crash data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manoogian, Sarah

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to provide specific characteristics of injuries and crash characteristics for pregnant occupants from the National Automotive Sampling System/Crashworthiness Data System (NASS/CDS) database for pregnant women as a group, broken down by trimester, and compared to non-pregnant women. Using all NASS/CDS cases collected between the years 2000 and 2012 with at least one pregnant occupant, the entire pregnant data set included 321,820 vehicles, 324,535 occupants, and 640,804 injuries. The pregnant occupant data were compared to the characteristics of NASS/CDS cases for 14,719,533 non-pregnant females 13-44 years old in vehicle crashes from 2000 to 2012. Sixty five percent of pregnant women were located in the front left seat position and roughly the same percentage of pregnant women was wearing a lap and shoulder belt. The average change in velocity was 11.6 mph for pregnant women and over 50% of crashes for pregnant women were frontal collisions. From these collisions, less than seven percent of pregnant women sustained MAIS 2+ injuries. Minor differences between the pregnant and non-pregnant occupants were identified in the body region and source of injuries sustained. However, the data indicated no large differences in injury or crash characteristics based on trimester of pregnancy. Moreover, the risk of an MAIS 2+ level injury for pregnant occupants is similar to the risk of injury for non-pregnant occupants based on the total vehicle change in velocity. Overall this study provides useful data for researchers to focus future efforts in pregnant occupant research. Additionally, this study reinforces that more detailed and complete data on pregnant crashes needs to be collected to understand the risk for pregnant occupants.

  1. ERPs to Alcohol Images among Hispanic and Non-Hispanic Female College Freshmen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalie Ceballos

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Research suggests that young women, particularly Latinas, may be at risk for problem drinking during the home-to-college transition. In this study, we used ERP cue-reactivity to explore physiological correlates of alcohol use and expectancies across the freshman year in Hispanic (H and Non-Hispanic White (N-H women. In the fall (t1 and spring (t2 semesters of their freshman year of college, 40 women (16 H reported alcohol use and expectancies. At each session, N200 and P300 ERPs were elicited by two oddball tasks (counterbalanced within session: 1 to detect alcohol targets while ignoring control items (household object distracters and frequently presented nonsense shapes and 2 to detect object targets while ignoring alcohol distracters and nonsense shapes. P300 amplitude was larger for targets (versus non-targets and for alcohol images (versus control images, but did not change over time or differ by ethnicity. P300 latency results included time x target and ethnicity x target interactions. Latency differences for target images were attenuated at t2, and N-Hs were more reactive to stimuli classed as targets regardless of whether these depicted alcohol or control images. N200s had higher amplitude and longer latency at t2, suggesting a change with acclimation to the college setting, but did not differ by target status, image type or ethnic group. P300 latency was positively correlated with the personalismo subscale of acculturation indicating that individuals with more social, people-oriented personalities were more distracted by alcohol images when they appeared as non-targets. N200 amplitude was correlated with positive alcohol expectancies, and this pattern changed over time (t1 versus t2, suggesting subtle, expectancy-related changes in alcohol processing as students acclimated to the college setting. Taken together, these results suggest that the cue-reactivity paradigm described here may be a useful tool for examining subtle physiological

  2. A Study of Knowledge, Attitudes and Practice of Emergency Contraceptive Pills among Female College Students in Udaipur, Rajasthan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arun Kumar, Keerti, Chandra P Sharma, Chetan K Jain

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Emergency contraception is administered after unprotected intercourse to prevent unintended pregnancy. Sexually active young and adolescent women are at greatest risk of unintended pregnancy and thus unsafe abortion related morbidity and mortality. Objective: Purpose of this study was to evaluate knowledge, attitude and experiences on emergency contraceptive pill (ECP by female college students of Udaipur. Study design: Cross-sectional, pre-structured questionnaire based study. Material and methods: Study was conducted among 600 college going female students (arts, science and commerce faculty of two randomly selected girls colleges of Sukhadia University Udaipur. Data were analyzed statistically by simple proportions and test of significance (Chi square test and Mann Whitney U test using SPSS ver.16. Results: Students included in study were of 16-29 years age group (mean age 18.6±3.2 years, 225 (37.5% had adequate knowledge about emergency contraceptive pills, statistically significant difference in knowledge is seen among students who got knowledge from literary sources and health personnel (p<0.05. Majority of the science stream students (50% were having adequate knowledge followed by commerce and arts stream students respectively but statistically significant difference in knowledge is seen among all faculty students(p<0.05. Majority of students (78% know about the correct timing of EC pills administration. Among all the students only 201 (33.5% students shown positive attitude regarding EC pills. No significant association seen between adequate knowledge and positive attitude (p>0.05.Only 3% students had already used EC pills. Conclusion: Awareness of EC pills is low and there is a gap between knowledge and attitude. Appropriate awareness programme needed.

  3. Exploring Counseling Services and Their Impact on Female, Underrepresented Minority Community College Students in Science, Technology, Engineering, and Math: A Qualitative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strother, Elizabeth

    The economic future of the United States depends on developing a workforce of professionals in science, technology, engineering and mathematics (Adkins, 2012; Mokter Hossain & Robinson, 2012). In California, the college population is increasingly female and underrepresented minority, a population that has historically chosen to study majors other than STEM. In California, community colleges provide a major inroad for students seeking to further their education in one of the many universities in the state. The recent passage of Senate Bill 1456 and the Student Success and Support Program mandate increased counseling services for all California community college students (California Community College Chancellors Office, 2014). This dissertation is designed to explore the perceptions of female, underrepresented minority college students who are majoring in an area of science, technology, engineering and math, as they relate to community college counseling services. Specifically, it aims to understand what counseling services are most effective, and what community college counselors can do to increase the level of interest in STEM careers in this population. This is a qualitative study. Eight participants were interviewed for the case study, all of whom are current or former community college students who have declared a major in a STEM discipline. The semi-structured interviews were designed to help understand what community college counselors can do to better serve this population, and to encourage more students to pursue STEM majors and careers. Through the interviews, themes emerged to explain what counseling services are the most helpful. Successful STEM students benefited from counselors who showed empathy and support. Counselors who understood the intricacies of educational planning for STEM majors were considered the most efficacious. Counselors who could connect students with enrichment activities, such as internships, were highly valued, as were counseling

  4. Comparing the Physiological, Socio-economic and Nutritional Status among Male and Female Undergraduate College Students of Metropolitan City of Kolkata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sengupta, P

    2014-07-01

    In the present days, increasing trend of eating disorders are noticed among college students (both male and female) which can disturb their overall physiological and health status. It is more prevalent in metropolitan cities, like Kolkata. But, the existing literature about the physiological and nutritional status of the undergraduate college students of Kolkata is insufficient. Thus, the objective of this small-scale cross-sectional study is to report and compare the prevalence of malnutrition (both obesity and undernutrition) among undergraduate male and female college students of Kolkata, based on body mass index (BMI) and some direct and derived anthropometric measures describing the body composition of the subjects. This cross-sectional study conducted in October-December 2011. The present investigation was carried out in randomly selected male (mean age 20.9 [2.25]) and female college students (mean age 20.3 [2.34]) of Kolkata. A total of 100 students of different colleges has participated, having the age of 18-22 years. Measures included a total of 24 variables which included thirteen direct anthropometric measures and 11 derived variables. Analysis of collected data showed significantly higher BMI, fat mass, body adiposity index, but, lower waist-to-hip ratio, conicity index in female students. Anthropometric data also showed lower waist circumference and abdominal extension in female college students. Conversely, male students showed a higher fat free mass (FFM), mid-upper arm circumference (MUAC) and thigh circumferences (TCs). Based on the findings of the present study, it can be reported that higher body fat distribution and increased propensity of being overweight/obese was observed in female students, though they have shown lower abdominal fat distribution, which is a cue of female physical attractiveness. However, male students are found to have a higher FFM, MUAC and TCs, which is the indicator of strength and energy.

  5. Comparing the Physiological, Socio-economic and Nutritional Status among Male and Female Undergraduate College Students of Metropolitan City of Kolkata

    OpenAIRE

    Sengupta, P.

    2014-01-01

    Background: In the present days, increasing trend of eating disorders are noticed among college students (both male and female) which can disturb their overall physiological and health status. It is more prevalent in metropolitan cities, like Kolkata. But, the existing literature about the physiological and nutritional status of the undergraduate college students of Kolkata is insufficient. Aim: Thus, the objective of this small-scale cross-sectional study is to report and compare the prevale...

  6. Association between Physical Activity and Insomnia among Saudi Female College Students

    OpenAIRE

    Al-Eisa, Einas; Buragadda, Syamala; Melam, Ganeswara Rao; Al-Osaimi, Atheer O.; Al-Mubarak, Huda A.; Al-Huwaimel, Noura A.

    2013-01-01

    [Purpose] Insomnia is quite common and it can affect the quality of life of an individual. Students undergo stress due to various academic demands leading to sleeplessness and daytime sleepiness. This study was conducted to investigate the association between physical activity and insomnia among female Saudi students. [Subjects] 62 female students with a mean age of 21 ± 1.5 years took part in a motivational program to increase the number of steps taken per day for three weeks. [Methods] Afte...

  7. Sedentary behavior patterns in non-pregnant and pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkins, Marquis; Kim, Youngdeok; Gabriel, Kelley Pettee; Rockette-Wagner, Bonny Jane; Chasan-Taber, Lisa

    2017-06-01

    Sedentary behavior has been associated with adverse health outcomes among pregnant women; however, few studies have characterized sedentary behavior patterns in this population. We described patterns of accelerometer-determined indicators of sedentary behavior among a national sample of US pregnant (n = 234) women and non-pregnant (n = 1146) women participating in the NHANES 2003-06 cycles. We included women with ≥ 4 days of accelerometer wear of ≥ 10 h/day. A count threshold of sedentary behavior as: 1) total accumulated sedentary time by bout length categories; 2) accumulated sedentary time within discrete bout length categories; 3) mean, median, and usual bout length; and 4) and bout frequency. Both non-pregnant and pregnant women spent up to 60% of their accelerometer wear time in sedentary behavior depending on the minimum bout threshold applied. Sedentary time was higher among pregnant women compared to non-pregnant women when lower bout thresholds (i.e. 10 min or less) were applied. The majority of total sedentary time was accumulated in bouts lasting sedentary bouts (i.e., ≥ 30 min) per day, which accounted for nearly 20% of total accumulated sedentary time. When applying a minimum threshold of at least 15 min, sedentary time increased across pregnancy trimesters, while sedentary time was similar across trimesters when using lower thresholds. These findings provide the first characterization of accelerometer-determined indicators of sedentary behavior in pregnant women. The minimum bout threshold applied influenced estimates of sedentary time and patterns sedentary time accumulation across pregnancy trimesters.

  8. Body Dissatisfaction, Drive for Thinness, and Self-Esteem in African American College Females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Kimberly A.; Phelps, LeAdelle; Bross, Andrea L.

    2001-01-01

    Evaluates African American undergraduate females (N=95) for body dissatisfaction, drive for thinness, and on four dimensions of self-concept. Results indicate body dissatisfaction and drive for thinness at levels commensurate with Caucasian samples. A hierarchical multiple regression found a combination of physical self-concept, drive for…

  9. Depressive Symptoms among Female College Students Experiencing Gender-Based Violence in Awassa, Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelaye, Bizu; Arnold, Dodie; Williams, Michelle A.; Goshu, Miruts; Berhane, Yemane

    2009-01-01

    Little epidemiologic research has focused on the mental health effects of gender-based violence among sub-Saharan African women. The objective of this study was to assess risk of depression and depressive symptoms among 1,102 female undergraduate students who were victims of gender-based violence. Students who reported experience of any…

  10. Digital Literacy in the Marketing Curriculum: Are Female College Students Prepared for Digital Jobs?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Karen E.; Wilder, Kelly; Mishra, Aneil K.

    2017-01-01

    Employers seeking to capitalize on current marketing graduates' technological savvy may find a disappointing gap between their expectations and students' digital preparedness. This study examines these issues by investigating female students' attitudes and expectations with regard to using digital tools in marketing coursework and in a future…

  11. Eating Disorders in Female College Athletes: Risk Factors, Prevention, and Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, Frances C.; Rivers, Tara C.

    2006-01-01

    Female athletes are at risk for developing eating disorders because of the pressures that are placed on them by society, their peers, their coaches, and the sports culture itself. This paper reviews the literature on the risk factors involved and various methods of prevention and treatment. The authors conclude that individual and group approaches…

  12. The Disappeared Ones: Female Student Veterans at a Four-Year College

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heitzman, Amy Claire; Somers, Patricia

    2015-01-01

    Since the end of the military draft in 1973, women have entered military service in greater numbers: Women currently account for 16 percent of active-duty service personnel; by 2035, they will account for 15 percent of the total veteran population (National Center for Veterans Analysis and Statistics 2011). The profile of female veterans differs…

  13. Depressive Symptoms among Female College Students Experiencing Gender-Based Violence in Awassa, Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelaye, Bizu; Arnold, Dodie; Williams, Michelle A.; Goshu, Miruts; Berhane, Yemane

    2009-01-01

    Little epidemiologic research has focused on the mental health effects of gender-based violence among sub-Saharan African women. The objective of this study was to assess risk of depression and depressive symptoms among 1,102 female undergraduate students who were victims of gender-based violence. Students who reported experience of any…

  14. 贫困女大学生就业心理问题探析%Employment Psychological Problems of Poor Female College Students

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姬咏华; 杜咏梅

    2016-01-01

    解决贫困女大学生就业心理问题契合了习近平总书记提出的“精准扶贫”的重要指示。在对贫困女大学生就业心理问题进行相关调研的基础上,本文提出了贫困女大学生与非贫困女大学生就业的外在差异,分析了贫困女大学生就业心理问题的具体表现和成因,提出了解决贫困女大学生就业心理问题的对策。%Solving the employment psychological problems of poor female college students conforms to the instructions and guidelines for“removing poverty precisely” put forward by the general secretary Xi Jinping .Based on the related research on the employment psycho-logical problems of the Impoverished Female College Graduates , this paper shows the external differences of the employment of poor fe-male college students and non impoverished female students , and makes analysis of the specific outcome and causes of poverty female college students employment psychological problems , In doing so, the writer aims to provide practical solutions to the problem these women are facing .

  15. Human papillomavirus vaccination: assessing knowledge, attitudes, and intentions of college female students in Lebanon, a developing country.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dany, Mohammed; Chidiac, Alissar; Nassar, Anwar H

    2015-02-18

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is a common cause for genital warts and cervical cancer. Developing countries in the Middle East such as Lebanon are traditionally considered to be conservative societies with low incidence of sexually transmitted infections. However, nowadays, there is an unexpected increase in the incidence of HPV infections among Middle Eastern females. Thus, the objective of this study is to assess the behavioral perceptions of HPV vaccination among female students attending an academic institution in Lebanon. This cross-sectional study invited 512 students to complete a self-administered questionnaire that assessed the knowledge, attitudes, and intentions towards HPV vaccination. Data analysis included the calculation of knowledge scores ranging from 0 to 100, attitude scores ranging from most positive (1) to most negative (5), and intention scores ranging from lowest intention (0) to highest intention (10). With a response rate of n=215 (42%), 36.5% never heard of the vaccine before, and only 16.5% were already HPV vaccinated. The median knowledge score of 52.7% ± 1.71 reflects poor to moderate knowledge. Still, the median attitude score of 2.47 ± 0.05 shows a general positive attitude towards HPV vaccination where most of the participants agreed that female college students in Lebanon have a good chance of contracting HPV (62.1%) and that all gynecologists should recommend the vaccine (76.0%). Students in graduate programs, health related majors, and those who are vaccinated had significantly higher knowledge scores compared with students in undergraduate programs, non-health related majors, and HPV non-vaccinated students, respectively. Finally, the survey helped in increasing the intention to obtain HPV vaccine as the intention score increased significantly from 5.24 ± 0.27 before the students went through the survey to 6.98 ± 0.22 after the students completed the survey. Our study highlights the importance of offering guidance to

  16. Child maltreatment, alcohol use and drinking consequences among male and female college students: An examination of drinking motives as mediators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, Abby L; Flett, Gordon L; Wekerle, Christine

    2010-06-01

    Although the relationship between child maltreatment and alcohol use and drinking problems is well established, the mechanisms involved in this relationship remain largely unknown and research has focused primarily on women. Using the Modified Drinking Motives Questionnaire-Revised (M-DMQ-R; Grant, Stewart, O'Connor, Blackwell & Conrod, 2007), drinking motives were examined as mediators in the relationship between childhood maltreatment and alcohol consumption and consequences among male and female college student drinkers (N = 218, 60.6% women). Participants completed questionnaires assessing child maltreatment, drinking motives, alcohol consumption and alcohol consequences. Enhancement motives in particular mediated the relationship between childhood abuse and alcohol consequences for men, whereas coping-depression motives mediated this relationship for women. Implications of these findings for alcohol interventions and future research are discussed, along with limitations of the present study.

  17. Comparing Smoking Topography and Subjective Measures of Usual Brand Cigarettes Between Pregnant and Non-Pregnant Smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergeria, Cecilia L; Heil, Sarah H; Bunn, Janice Y; Sigmon, Stacey C; Higgins, Stephen T

    2017-06-27

    Most pregnant smokers report abruptly reducing their cigarettes per day (CPD) by ~50% after learning of pregnancy and making further smaller reductions over the remainder of their pregnancy. Laboratory and naturalistic studies with non-pregnant smokers have found that these types of reductions often lead to changes in smoking topography (i.e., changes in smoking intensity to maintain a desired blood-nicotine level). If pregnant women smoke more intensely, they may expose themselves and their offspring to similar levels of toxicants despite reporting reductions in CPD. Pregnant and non-pregnant female smokers (n = 20 and 89, respectively) participated. At the experimental session, after biochemical confirmation of acute abstinence, participants smoked one usual brand cigarette ad lib through a Borgwaldt CReSS Desktop Smoking Topography device. Carbon monoxide (CO) and measures of nicotine withdrawal, craving, and reinforcement derived from smoking were also collected. The two groups did not differ on demographic or smoking characteristics at screening, except nicotine metabolism rate, which as expected, was faster in pregnant smokers. Analyses suggest that none of the smoking topography parameters differed between pregnant and non-pregnant smokers, although pregnant smokers had a significantly smaller CO boost. Both groups reported similar levels of relief of withdrawal and craving after smoking, but other subjective effects suggest that pregnant smokers find smoking less reinforcing than non-pregnant smokers. Pregnant smokers do not smoke cigarettes differently than non-pregnant women, but appear to find smoking comparatively less pleasurable. This is the first study to assess smoking topography in pregnant women. Pregnant women appear to be at increased risk for smoking cigarettes with more intensity because of (1) their tendency to make significant abrupt reductions in the number of cigarettes they smoke each day after learning of pregnancy and (2) an increase in

  18. A Nuanced Look at Women in STEM Fields at Two-Year Colleges: Factors That Shape Female Students' Transfer Intent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xueli; Chan, Hsun-yu; Soffa, Sara Jimenez; Nachman, Brett Ranon

    2017-01-01

    In this study, we explored the relationship between the intent to transfer upward and a set of motivational, contextual, and socio-demographic background factors among 696 female students beginning in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) programs or courses at two-year colleges in a Midwestern state. Drawing upon survey data and administrative records, our multinomial logistic regression analysis revealed that students' math and science self-efficacy beliefs, as well as transfer-oriented interaction, were significant and positive predictors for their intent to transfer into STEM fields as opposed to having no intent to transfer. In addition, the association between transfer intent and these key motivational and contextual factors was moderated by students' racial/ethnic backgrounds, marital status, and childcare obligations. For example, despite the positive relationship between transfer-oriented interaction and the intention to transfer into STEM fields, Black women were less likely to have intent to transfer into STEM fields than White students until Black students reported a moderate level of transfer-oriented interaction. Conversely, Hispanic students were more likely to report intent to transfer into STEM fields than their White peers, even when Hispanic students reported a relatively low level of engagement in transfer-oriented interaction. These and other reported findings bear important and nuanced implications as policymakers, educators, and researchers continue to discover ways to better support women's educational pathways and success in STEM fields at and through two-year colleges. PMID:28220102

  19. A Nuanced Look at Women in STEM Fields at Two-Year Colleges: Factors That Shape Female Students' Transfer Intent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xueli; Chan, Hsun-Yu; Soffa, Sara Jimenez; Nachman, Brett Ranon

    2017-01-01

    In this study, we explored the relationship between the intent to transfer upward and a set of motivational, contextual, and socio-demographic background factors among 696 female students beginning in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) programs or courses at two-year colleges in a Midwestern state. Drawing upon survey data and administrative records, our multinomial logistic regression analysis revealed that students' math and science self-efficacy beliefs, as well as transfer-oriented interaction, were significant and positive predictors for their intent to transfer into STEM fields as opposed to having no intent to transfer. In addition, the association between transfer intent and these key motivational and contextual factors was moderated by students' racial/ethnic backgrounds, marital status, and childcare obligations. For example, despite the positive relationship between transfer-oriented interaction and the intention to transfer into STEM fields, Black women were less likely to have intent to transfer into STEM fields than White students until Black students reported a moderate level of transfer-oriented interaction. Conversely, Hispanic students were more likely to report intent to transfer into STEM fields than their White peers, even when Hispanic students reported a relatively low level of engagement in transfer-oriented interaction. These and other reported findings bear important and nuanced implications as policymakers, educators, and researchers continue to discover ways to better support women's educational pathways and success in STEM fields at and through two-year colleges.

  20. Sexual Well-Being in Single, Sexually Active College Females: A Matter of Agency and Openness

    OpenAIRE

    Evans, Larissa Michelle

    2013-01-01

    This study explored multiple predictors of sexual well-being in a sample of 253 single, sexually active undergraduate females at a public Mid-Atlantic university. Several factors were identified from past research that might impact sexual well-being: casual sex, sexual agency, sexual attitudes, and sexual desire. Of the four factors, only sexual agency and sexual attitudes were found as significant predictors of sexual well-being. The results suggest that -- of single, sexually active undergr...

  1. Association between Physical Activity and Insomnia among Saudi Female College Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Eisa, Einas; Buragadda, Syamala; Melam, Ganeswara Rao; Al-Osaimi, Atheer O; Al-Mubarak, Huda A; Al-Huwaimel, Noura A

    2013-11-01

    [Purpose] Insomnia is quite common and it can affect the quality of life of an individual. Students undergo stress due to various academic demands leading to sleeplessness and daytime sleepiness. This study was conducted to investigate the association between physical activity and insomnia among female Saudi students. [Subjects] 62 female students with a mean age of 21 ± 1.5 years took part in a motivational program to increase the number of steps taken per day for three weeks. [Methods] After obtaining subject's informed consent all the subjects were assessed for insomnia using the insomnia severity index (ISI), They were then given pedometers to calculate the number of steps they took per day. A physical activity log was kept for three weeks. Pre- and post -intervention ISI scores were calculated and correlated with the 3-week physical activity log. [Results] 50% of the subjects had no clinically significant insomnia (NCSI), 42% had sub threshold (STI), and 8% had moderate clinical (MCI) insomnia. There was a moderate negative correlation between physical activity and ISI scores after the 3-week motivation program. [Conclusion] Prevalence of insomnia was common among female Saudi students and increase in physical activity appears to improve the sleep pattern.

  2. Analysis of ehealth search perspectives among female college students in the health professions using Q methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stellefson, Michael; Hanik, Bruce; Chaney, J Don; Tennant, Bethany

    2012-04-27

    The current "Millennial Generation" of college students majoring in the health professions has unprecedented access to the Internet. Although some research has been initiated among medical professionals to investigate the cognitive basis for health information searches on the Internet, little is known about Internet search practices among health and medical professional students. To systematically identify health professional college student perspectives of personal eHealth search practices. Q methodology was used to examine subjective perspectives regarding personal eHealth search practices among allied health students majoring in a health education degree program. Thirteen (n = 13) undergraduate students were interviewed about their attitudes and experiences conducting eHealth searches. From the interviews, 36 statements were used in a structured ranking task to identify clusters and determine which specific perceptions of eHealth search practices discriminated students into different groups. Scores on an objective measure of eHealth literacy were used to help categorize participant perspectives. Q-technique factor analysis of the rankings identified 3 clusters of respondents with differing views on eHealth searches that generally coincided with participants' objective eHealth literacy scores. The proficient resourceful students (pattern/structure coefficient range 0.56-0.80) described themselves as using multiple resources to obtain eHealth information, as opposed to simply relying on Internet search engines. The intermediate reluctant students (pattern/structure coefficient range 0.75-0.90) reported engaging only Internet search engines to locate eHealth information, citing undeveloped evaluation skills when considering sources of information located on the Internet. Both groups of advanced students reported not knowing how to use Boolean operators to conduct Internet health searches. The basic hubristic students (pattern/structure coefficient range 0

  3. Child maltreatment, personality pathology, and stalking victimization among male and female college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ménard, Kim S; Pincus, Aaron L

    2014-01-01

    Self-report college student surveys on childhood maltreatment, and borderline and narcissistic personality features are examined to determine their influence on stalking victimization vulnerability. Stalking victimization was measured using Spitzberg and Cupach's (2008) Obsessive Relational Intrusion scale. Ordinary least squares (OLS) regression models were run separately for men (N = 677) and women (N = 1,017). Results indicated childhood sexual maltreatment and borderline traits were associated with stalking victimization among both men and women. These were the only significant relationships for men (R2 = .10). For women, stalking victimization was also associated with narcissistic grandiosity and vulnerability and with a child sexual abuse by borderline features interaction (R2 = .13), demonstrating women reporting prior sexual abuse and borderline personality pathology are especially vulnerable. Methodological and policy implications are discussed.

  4. Aerobic Exercise As a Potential Way to Improve Self-Control after Ego-Depletion in Healthy Female College Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Zhiling; Liu, Yang; Xie, Jing; Huang, Xiting

    2016-01-01

    To test whether aerobic exercise can help build self-control stamina in healthy female young adults. Stamina in this context is defined as the capability to endure ego depletion, which can be measured with a self-control task following another activity also requiring self-control. Forty-five healthy undergraduate women were randomized to either an experimental group or control group. Participants in the experimental group were required to run in their campus running field for 30 min for a period of 5 weeks. Individuals in the control group were required to do diary entries regarding self-control in their daily lives, also for a period of 5 weeks. Before and after the 5-week intervention, participants completed a pain threshold test, a color word Stroop task and the following Cold Pressor Task (CPT) (with and without a distraction component). There was significant decrease of pain tolerance in session 2 relative to session 1 in the control group, but no such decline was found in the experimental group (though the improvement of pain tolerance was not significant), possibly suggesting successful self-control against this kind of decline. Five weeks of aerobic exercise increased self-control after ego depletion in terms of pain tolerance. These findings suggest that aerobic exercise may serve as a potential effective intervention for enhancing self-control in a college female population.

  5. An examination of an aspect of the worldview of female college science teachers as revealed by their concepts of nature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tryon, Lisa A.

    American citizens are confronted every day with scientific issues such as global warming, alternative energy technologies, stem cell research, and the use of genetically modified foods. A scientifically literate adult should be able to understand these issues, see how they relate to their own lives, and make choices that reflect their knowledge of the problems at hand. Research has indicated that the majority of U.S. students are not prepared to take a proactive role in current scientific issues and so undergraduate educators are being charged with the task of improving the relevancy of science to the nonscience student. One method for exploring this problem has been the application of worldview theory, which seeks to analyze the thoughts and attitudes of teachers and students with regard to science in their lives. This qualitative case study sought to uncover the worldviews of female science college professors particularly as they related to nature and to examine how these educators felt their worldviews might influence their students. A series of established card sort activities used in previous worldview studies, in combination with an in-depth interview facilitated the data collection from female science professors teaching at universities in New England.

  6. Effect of Caffeine on near Maximal Blood Pressure and Blood Pressure Recovery in Physically-Active, College-Aged Females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connahan, Laura E; Ott, Christopher A; Barry, Vaughn W

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine how caffeine affects exercise blood pressure (BP) and active and passive recovery BP after vigorous intensity exercise in physically active college-aged females. Fifteen physically active, ACSM stratified low-risk females (age (y): 23.53 ± 4.07, weight (kg): 60.34 ± 3.67, height (cm): 165.14 ± 7.20, BMI (kg/m(2)): 22.18 ± 1.55) participated in two Bruce protocol exercise tests. Before each test participants consumed 1) a placebo or 2) 3.3 mg·kg(-1) of caffeine at least one hour before exercise in a counterbalanced double-blinded fashion. After reaching 85% of their age-predicted maximum heart rate, BP was taken and participants began an active (i.e. walking) recovery phase for 6 minutes followed by a passive (i.e. sitting) recovery phase. BP was assessed every two minutes in each phase. Recovery times were assessed until active and passive BP equaled 20 mmHg and 10 mmHg above resting, respectively. Participants completed each test 1-2 weeks a part. Maximal systolic and diastolic blood pressures were not significantly different between the two trials. Active recovery, passive recovery, and total recovery times were all significantly longer during the caffeine trial than the placebo trial. Furthermore, the time to reach age-predicted maximum heart rate was significantly shorter in the placebo trial than the caffeine trial. While caffeine consumption did not significantly affect maximal blood pressure, it did affect active and passive recovery time following vigorous intensity exercise in physically active females. Exercise endurance also improved after consuming caffeine in this population.

  7. Effect of Caffeine on near Maximal Blood Pressure and Blood Pressure Recovery in Physically-Active, College-Aged Females

    Science.gov (United States)

    CONNAHAN, LAURA E.; OTT, CHRISTOPHER A.; BARRY, VAUGHN W.

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine how caffeine affects exercise blood pressure (BP) and active and passive recovery BP after vigorous intensity exercise in physically active college-aged females. Fifteen physically active, ACSM stratified low-risk females (age (y): 23.53 ± 4.07, weight (kg): 60.34 ± 3.67, height (cm): 165.14 ± 7.20, BMI (kg/m2): 22.18 ± 1.55) participated in two Bruce protocol exercise tests. Before each test participants consumed 1) a placebo or 2) 3.3 mg·kg−1 of caffeine at least one hour before exercise in a counterbalanced double-blinded fashion. After reaching 85% of their age-predicted maximum heart rate, BP was taken and participants began an active (i.e. walking) recovery phase for 6 minutes followed by a passive (i.e. sitting) recovery phase. BP was assessed every two minutes in each phase. Recovery times were assessed until active and passive BP equaled 20 mmHg and 10 mmHg above resting, respectively. Participants completed each test 1–2 weeks a part. Maximal systolic and diastolic blood pressures were not significantly different between the two trials. Active recovery, passive recovery, and total recovery times were all significantly longer during the caffeine trial than the placebo trial. Furthermore, the time to reach age-predicted maximum heart rate was significantly shorter in the placebo trial than the caffeine trial. While caffeine consumption did not significantly affect maximal blood pressure, it did affect active and passive recovery time following vigorous intensity exercise in physically active females. Exercise endurance also improved after consuming caffeine in this population. PMID:28344739

  8. A working memory task reveals different patterns of impulsivity in male and female college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mei, Xiaolin; Tian, Lin; Xue, Zhaoxia; Li, Xinwang

    2017-05-01

    Impulsivity is an important personality trait that affects people's lives every day. Because of the complicated structures and various measurements of impulsivity, the conclusion that whether there were gender differences on impulsivity remained controversial. In our study, we used delay discounting and probability discounting to measure impulsive choice and employed stop signal reaction time task (SSRT) to measure impulsive action within the same subjects. No inherent gender differences were found, either on impulsive choice or on impulsive action. However, after adding a working memory (WM) task, we found an interaction between gender and WM: males made more impulsive choices in the delay discounting task, but females remained no change, and this only occurred when the reward amount was large; in the SSRT, the males showed better inhibitory control under the WM load condition, but females did not. These results demonstrate that gender difference does not exist on impulsivity biologically, but the increased working memory load could affect the gender's sense of delay gratification and the ability of inhibitory control differently. These findings can contribute to the studies of gender differences on impulsivity and draw attention to the need for further research that gender factors should be considered more carefully when exploring the effects of working memory. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. The Degree of Applying the Theoretical Frameworks of Child-Raising Specialty Courses in the Field of Training among the Female Students of Princess Alia University College

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tweeikat, Mashhour Mohammad; AL-Kaddah, Muhammad Ibrahim

    2014-01-01

    This paper aims at studying to what extent the female students in Child Education department at Princess Alia University College manage to apply the theoretical part in field training program. The data, which is the scope of this study, consists of 42 staff members and 36 educational supervisors responsible for the program. The two researchers…

  10. Efficacy Trial of a Selective Prevention Program Targeting Both Eating Disorders and Obesity among Female College Students: 1- and 2-Year Follow-Up Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stice, Eric; Rohde, Paul; Shaw, Heather; Marti, C. Nathan

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Evaluate the effects of a prevention program targeting both eating disorders and obesity at 1- and 2-year follow-ups. Method: Female college students at risk for these outcomes because of body image concerns (N = 398) were randomized to the "Healthy Weight 2" group-based 4-hr prevention program, which promotes lasting healthy…

  11. Cognitive Styles Field Dependence/Independence and Scientific Achievement of Male and Female Students of Zamfara State College of Education Maru, Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhammad, Tukur; Daniel, Esther Gananamalar Sarojini; Abdurauf, Rose Amnah

    2015-01-01

    This study was conducted to examine the association between cognitive styles (Field dependence/Independence) and scientific achievement in Male and Female student of Biology and Integrated science Department of Zamfara State College of Education Maru, the is correlational. A population of 700 students were used, in which 150 were randomly selected…

  12. Attitudes of Female Faculty toward the Use of Computer Technologies and the Barriers that Limit Their Use of Technologies in Girls' Colleges in Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almuqayteeb, Taghreed Abdulaziz

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine female faculty members' use of computer technologies, their attitudes toward computers, the factors that best predict their attitudes toward computers, and the barriers that limit their use of computer technologies in girls' colleges in Dammam and Jubail, Saudi Arabia. Also, this study examined how female…

  13. Evaluation of the Relationship between Critical Thinking Skills and Affective Control in Child Training Students of the Female Technical and Vocational College in the City of Broujerd

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esmaeili, Zohreh; Bagheri, Mahdi

    2015-01-01

    This study is a descriptive-correlational study with the purpose of evaluating the relationship between critical thinking skills and affective control in child training students of the female technical and Vocational College in the city of Broujerd. Statistical population of this study consisted of all students in the field of child training of…

  14. Parents' Divorce Is More Strongly Related to the Self-Perceived Promiscuity and Drinking Behavior of Male than of Female College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stringfellow, Erica L.; McAndrew, Francis T.

    2010-01-01

    A study of 357 students (112 males, 245 females) responding to an online survey at a Midwestern liberal arts college revealed that males and children from divorced families perceived themselves as more promiscuous and drank more than did students from intact families. However, a significant interaction between the gender of the students and the…

  15. Glomerular immunoglobulin deposits induce glomerular inflammation in pregnant but not in non-pregnant rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Faas, MM; Van Der Schaaf, G; Schipper, M; Moes, H

    2003-01-01

    PROBLEM: Does an inflammatory stimulus evoke a more intense inflammatory response in pregnant rats as compared with nonpregnant rats? METHOD OF STUDY: Non-pregnant rats were injected with antibodies against the glomerular basement membrane (GBM), 14 days before pregnancy, to induce a subclinical glo

  16. Hyperprolactinemia in nonpregnant women due to pituitary tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolstoi, L G

    1986-06-02

    The human prolactin molecule has been isolated and its structure characterized. This anterior pituitary hormone plays an important function in the induction and maintenance of lactation in the post-partum nursing mother. Prolactin-producing tumors cause inappropriate lactation in the nonpregnant woman. Bromocriptine, an ergot derivative, mimics the action of dopamine in the anterior pituitary gland and does not cure the underlying pathology. Prior to the development of bromocriptine, there was no effective treatment for the symptoms of amenorrhea and galactorrhea. Although the methods of therapy are more sophisticated today, there remain a number of unanswered questions. The unknown long-term risks of bromocriptine therapy must be balanced against the potential risk of osteopenia.

  17. Telephone smoking cessation quitline use among pregnant and non-pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bombard, Jennifer M; Farr, Sherry L; Dietz, Patricia M; Tong, Van T; Zhang, Lei; Rabius, Vance

    2013-08-01

    To describe characteristics, referrals, service utilization, and self-reported quit rates among pregnant and non-pregnant women enrolled in a smoking cessation quitline. This information can be used to improve strategies to increase pregnant and non-pregnant smokers' use of quitlines. We examined tobacco use characteristics, referral sources, and use of services among 1,718 pregnant and 24,321 non-pregnant women aged 18-44 years enrolled in quitline services in 10 states during 2006-2008. We examined self-reported 30-day quit rates 7 months after enrollment among 246 pregnant and 4,123 non-pregnant women and, within groups, used Chi-square tests to compare quit rates by type of service received. The majority of pregnant and non-pregnant callers, respectively, smoked ≥10 cigarettes per day (62 %; 83 %), had recently attempted to quit (55 %; 58 %), smoked 5 or minutes after waking (59 %; 55 %), and lived with a smoker (63 %; 48 %). Of callers, 24.3 % of pregnant and 36.4 % of non-pregnant women were uninsured. Pregnant callers heard about the quitline most often from a health care provider (50 %) and non-pregnant callers most often through mass media (59 %). Over half of pregnant (52 %) and non-pregnant (57 %) women received self-help materials only, the remainder received counseling. Self-reported quit rates at 7 months after enrollment in the subsample were 26.4 % for pregnant women and 22.6 % for non-pregnant women. Quitlines provide needed services for pregnant and non-pregnant smokers, many of whom are uninsured. Smokers should be encouraged to access counseling services.

  18. American College of Sports Medicine position stand. The female athlete triad.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nattiv, Aurelia; Loucks, Anne B; Manore, Melinda M; Sanborn, Charlotte F; Sundgot-Borgen, Jorunn; Warren, Michelle P

    2007-10-01

    The female athlete triad (Triad) refers to the interrelationships among energy availability, menstrual function, and bone mineral density, which may have clinical manifestations including eating disorders, functional hypothalamic amenorrhea, and osteoporosis. With proper nutrition, these same relationships promote robust health. Athletes are distributed along a spectrum between health and disease, and those at the pathological end may not exhibit all these clinical conditions simultaneously. Energy availability is defined as dietary energy intake minus exercise energy expenditure. Low energy availability appears to be the factor that impairs reproductive and skeletal health in the Triad, and it may be inadvertent, intentional, or psychopathological. Most effects appear to occur below an energy availability of 30 kcal.kg(-1) of fat-free mass per day. Restrictive eating behaviors practiced by girls and women in sports or physical activities that emphasize leanness are of special concern. For prevention and early intervention, education of athletes, parents, coaches, trainers, judges, and administrators is a priority. Athletes should be assessed for the Triad at the preparticipation physical and/or annual health screening exam, and whenever an athlete presents with any of the Triad's clinical conditions. Sport administrators should also consider rule changes to discourage unhealthy weight loss practices. A multidisciplinary treatment team should include a physician or other health-care professional, a registered dietitian, and, for athletes with eating disorders, a mental health practitioner. Additional valuable team members may include a certified athletic trainer, an exercise physiologist, and the athlete's coach, parents and other family members. The first aim of treatment for any Triad component is to increase energy availability by increasing energy intake and/or reducing exercise energy expenditure. Nutrition counseling and monitoring are sufficient

  19. Fitness Intention and Its Relationship With Eating Attitudes: A Cross-Sectional Study of Iranian Female Medical College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseini, Seyyed Nasrollah; Emdadi, Shohreh; Jalilian, Farzad; Karami Matin, Behzad; Ataee, Mari; Mirzaei Alavijeh, Mehdi

    2016-01-01

    Background Fitness is a very important goal among young adults that may lead to eating disorders. Objectives The aim of this study was to identify the factors influencing fitness intention based on the theory of planned behavior (TPB) and its relationship to eating attitudes. Materials and Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted among 231 female college students during the winter of 2012. Participants were randomly selected in proportion to their distribution among the different faculties at Hamadan University of Medical Sciences. A structured questionnaire was applied for collecting data and data was analyzed by SPSS version 21 using a T-test, ANOVA, bivariate correlations, and linear regression at a 95% significant level. Results Nearly 21.6% of the participants had abnormal eating attitudes. The TPB variables accounted for 40% of the variation in fitness intention. Bivariate correlations indicated a positive correlation between fitness intention and eating attitude (r = 0.417, P < 0.05). Conclusions Based on our results, it seems that designing and implementing educational programs to reduce positive attitudes and encourage subjective norms toward fitness may be useful for preventing abnormal eating attitudes. PMID:27284282

  20. A daily diary study of self-compassion, body image, and eating behavior in female college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Allison C; Stephen, Elizabeth

    2016-06-01

    Although self-compassion is associated with healthier body image and eating behavior, these findings have generally emerged at the between-persons level only. The present study investigated the unique contributions of within-person variability in self-compassion, and between-persons differences in self-compassion, to body image and eating behavior. Over seven days, 92 female college students completed nightly measures of self-compassion, self-esteem, dietary restraint, intuitive eating, body appreciation, body satisfaction, and state body image. Multilevel modeling revealed that within-persons, day-to-day fluctuations in self-compassion contributed to day-to-day fluctuations in body image and eating. Between-persons, participants' average levels of self-compassion across days contributed to their average levels of body image and eating over the week. Results generally held when controlling for within- and between-persons self-esteem. Evidently, the eating and body image benefits of self-compassion may come not only from being a generally self-compassionate person, but also from treating oneself more self-compassionately than usual on a given day.

  1. Academic Outcomes of Developmental Community College Online and Face-to-Face Classes: The Differences between Male and Female Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Gailynn

    2013-01-01

    Earning a college degree has become a near necessity for men and women to compete in the U.S. workforce today. Despite this necessity, many students graduate from high school without the necessary skills to succeed in college. A large number of those students look to the U.S. community college system to bolster their skills in reading, English,…

  2. Different digital paths to the keg? How exposure to peers' alcohol-related social media content influences drinking among male and female first-year college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyle, Sarah C; LaBrie, Joseph W; Froidevaux, Nicole M; Witkovic, Yong D

    2016-06-01

    Despite speculation that peers' alcohol-related content on social media sites (SMS) may influence the alcohol use behaviors of SMS frequenting college students, this relationship has not been investigated longitudinally. The current prospective study assesses the relationship between exposure to peers' alcohol-related SMS content and later-drinking among first-year college students. Among 408 first-year students, total exposure to peers' alcohol-related content on Facebook, Instagram, and Snapchat during the initial 6 weeks of college predicted alcohol consumption 6 months later. The rather robust relationship persisted even after students' and close friends drinking were accounted for, indicating that alcohol references on SMS do not simply reflect alcohol use behaviors that would otherwise be observed in the absence of SMS and be predictive of later alcohol use. Findings also illuminate important gender differences in the degree to which peers' alcohol-related SMS content influenced later drinking behavior as well as psychological mediators of this relationship. Among females, enhancement drinking motives and beliefs about the role of alcohol in the college experience fully mediated the relationship between SMS alcohol exposure and later drinking. Males, however, evidenced a much stronger predictive relationship between SMS alcohol exposure and second semester drinking, with this relationship only partially explained by perceptions of drinking norms, enhancement drinking motives, and beliefs about the role of alcohol in the college experience. Implications of these findings for college drinking prevention efforts and directions for future research are discussed.

  3. 女性大学生身体自我与健身休闲行为关系研究%On the Relationship between Physical Self and Leisure Behaviors of Female College Students

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王方; 李信阳

    2015-01-01

    健身休闲运动可以促进女性大学生身心健康的发展能帮助女性大学生塑造健美形体,能丰富女性大学生的学校生活,可以满足女性大学生个性拓展的体育需求。文章从健身休闲概念与内涵、女性大学生身体自我来探究女性大学生身体自我与健身休闲行为的关系。%The fitness and leisure sports can promote the development of female college students' physical and mental health, can help female college students to shape the body, can enrich the school life of female college students, can meet the needs of female college students' personality development. This research is to explore the relationship between the physical self of the female college students and the physical fitness and leisure behavior of female college students from the concept and connotation of physical fitness, and the physical self of female college students.

  4. Telephone Smoking Cessation Quitline Use Among Pregnant and Non-pregnant Women

    OpenAIRE

    Bombard, Jennifer M.; Farr, Sherry L.; Dietz, Patricia M.; Tong, Van T.; Zhang, Lei; Rabius, Vance

    2013-01-01

    To describe characteristics, referrals, service utilization, and self-reported quit rates among pregnant and non-pregnant women enrolled in a smoking cessation quitline. This information can be used to improve strategies to increase pregnant and non-pregnant smokers’ use of quitlines. We examined tobacco use characteristics, referral sources, and use of services among 1,718 pregnant and 24,321 non-pregnant women aged 18–44 years enrolled in quitline services in 10 states during 2006–2008. We ...

  5. 高校女教师生活满意度状况调查%Life satisfaction of female college teachers and its relationship with positive psychological quality

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵加伟; 杨绍清; 朱小茼

    2016-01-01

    [ABSTRAT] Objective To evaluate female colleges teachers'current life satisfaction and its relation‐ship with positive psychological quality .Methods The Satisfaction with Life Scale (SWLS) and positive mental health scale (PM H ± 14 Chinese version) were used to survey 670 female college teachers .Re‐sults About 72 percent of female college teachers meet the basic satisfaction over their lives ,including different monthly income ,age ,marital status between the colleges and universities teacher life satisfac‐tion significantly differences( F =3 0.44 ,P <0 0.5 ;F =2 8.87 ,P <0 0.5;F = 5 1.73 ,P <0 0.5);Fe‐male teachers'positive psychological quality and life satisfaction were significantly positive correlation ( r =0 4.74 ,P <0 0.5) .Conclusion Nearly three -quarters of female college teachers having a better life satisfaction ,monthly income ,age and marital status are the factors of university teacher life satisfac‐tion;the higher of female college teachers'positive psychological quality ,the higher of it's life satisfac‐tion .%①目的了解高校女教师生活满意度现状。②方法采用生活满意度量表(SWLS)对670名高校女教师进行调查。③结果720.%的高校女教师对其生活达到基本满意以上,其中不同月收入、不同年龄、不同婚姻状况之间的高校女教师生活满意度存在显著差异( F =30.44,28.87,51.73;P <00.5);④结论近720.%的高校女教师生活满意度状况较好,月收入、年龄和婚姻状况是高校女教师生活满意度的影响因素。

  6. Humor and College Adjustment: The Predictive Nature of Humor, Academic Achievement, Authoritative Parenting Styles on the Initial Adjustment of Male and Female First-Year College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hickman, Gregory P.; Andrews, David W.

    2003-01-01

    A self-report questionnaire on academic achievement, birth order, and family structure; the Student Adaptation to College Questionnaire; the Parental Authority Questionnaire; and the Coping Humor Scale were administered to 257 first-year college students. Researchers examined the relationships among (a) authoritative parenting style, (b) family…

  7. Humor and College Adjustment: The Predictive Nature of Humor, Academic Achievement, Authoritative Parenting Styles on the Initial Adjustment of Male and Female First-Year College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hickman, Gregory P.; Andrews, David W.

    2003-01-01

    A self-report questionnaire on academic achievement, birth order, and family structure; the Student Adaptation to College Questionnaire; the Parental Authority Questionnaire; and the Coping Humor Scale were administered to 257 first-year college students. Researchers examined the relationships among (a) authoritative parenting style, (b) family…

  8. 高校女性馆员职业成就的影响因素浅析%Analysis on the Factors Influencing the Professional Achievements of Female Librarians in Colleges and Universities

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈贞夷

    2014-01-01

    This paper expounds the status of the professional development of female librarians in colleges and universities, analyzes some factors influencing the professional achievements of female librarians in colleges and universities, and puts forward some countermeasures for promoting the professional development of female librarians in colleges and universities.%阐述了高校女性馆员的职业发展状况,分析了影响高校女性馆员职业成就的因素,提出了促进高校女性馆员职业发展的对策。

  9. Structural studies of innervation on nonpregnant rat uterus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garfield, R E

    1986-07-01

    Whole-mount preparations of the uterus and mesentery from nonpregnant rats were examined after staining with glyoxylic acid or acetylcholinesterase to demonstrate the innervation. Some uterine tissues were also evaluated by electron microscopy. Glyoxylic acid fluorescent nerves were present in the mesentery, mesometrium, and uterine wall exclusively around blood vessels. Acetylcholinesterase positive nerve fibers from Frankenhäuser's plexus (cervical ganglia) were associated with blood vessels and muscle in the uterine wall but not in the mesentery. Electron microscopy revealed nerve varicosities with granular vesicles associated with blood vessels and varicosities with agranular vesicles located near blood vessels and muscle cells. Treatment of animals for 3 days with 5- and 6-hydroxydopamine, respectively, increased granular size and damaged the varicosities with granular vesicles but did not change nerves with agranular vesicles or induce the presence of gap junctions. The results of this study suggest that blood vessels in the uterus are highly innervated by both adrenergic and other types of nerves that probably control blood flow. Nonadrenergic but not adrenergic nerves may also directly control myometrial contractility.

  10. Weight-gain misperceptions and the third-person effect in Black and White college-bound females: potential implications for healthy weight management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Jennifer B; Butler-Ajibade, Phoebe; Robinson, Seronda A; Lee, Shanique J

    2013-08-01

    Elements of social norm theory and communication theory on the third-person effect may prove useful in efforts to prevent excessive weight gain among emerging adults entering college. The present study explored the associations of race/ethnicity and BMI status with these socio-cognitive factors that may affect first-year weight regulation in a sample of Black (N = 247) and White (N = 94) college-bound females. Participants completed an online survey assessing first-year weight-gain perceived norms along with weight-change expectations and concerns. Results provided evidence of the persistence of the myth of the "Freshman 15", belief in the typicality of gaining weight during the first year of college, and significant concern about first-year weight gain. Initial findings further revealed a robust third-person effect whereby despite nearly 90% of the sample endorsing that first-year weight gain was common, only 12% expected they would experience weight gain. Main effects of race/ethnicity, BMI status, and their interaction further uncovered distinct patterns of findings. Preliminary results highlight the need for college health officials at both predominantly White as well as minority-serving institutions to adequately address the significant concern over first-year weight gain in conjunction with the desire to lose weight expressed by an appreciable number of incoming college females. Findings also advocate the utility of evaluating social norm theory and the third-person perceptual bias in the context of first-year weight gain to potentially enhance the design and effectiveness of healthy weight management initiatives among ethnically-diverse young women entering college. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Female College Students' Vocational Ability Framework Design from Accounting Department%会计学专业女大学生职业能力框架设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张月玲; 王静

    2012-01-01

    Female college students' employment of accounting major meets great challenges, which are caused by traditional gender concept, large graduates number, contradiction between intellectual supply and demand, employment units' benefits consideration, and factors by female college students themselves. This paper attempts to design female college students' vocational ability framework of accounting major from basic knowledge and skill level, potential ability level, and quality level using qualification model and iceberg theory%高校会计学专业女大学生就业情况不容乐观,主要原因来自传统性别观念、毕业生数量攀升、人才需求矛盾、用人单位成本效益考虑及女生自身因素等方面。我们可以运用能力素质模型、冰山理论,从体现一般绩效水平的基本知识与技能层、体现杰出绩效水平的深藏能力层、体现女性特质的能力层三个层面,设计高校会计学专业女大学生职业能力框架结构。

  12. Urinary proteomic and non-prefractionation quantitative phosphoproteomic analysis during pregnancy and non-pregnancy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Zheng, Jianhua; Liu, Liguo; Wang, Jin; Jin, Qi

    2013-01-01

    .... Furthermore, we also apply a non-prefractionation quantitative phosphoproteomic approach using mTRAQ labeling to evaluate the expression of specific phosphoproteins during pregnancy comparison with non-pregnancy...

  13. Screening for Hepatitis B Virus Infection in Nonpregnant Adolescents and Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Understanding Task Force Recommendations Screening for Hepatitis B Virus Infection in Nonpregnant Adolescents and Adults The U.S. Preventive Services Task Force (Task Force) has issued a final recommendation statement on ...

  14. Right Here, Right Now: Career Advancement of Generation X Female Mid-Level Administrators in Community Colleges in the Southeast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Terri Suzanne Holston

    2012-01-01

    Community colleges in the United States are facing what some researchers are calling a "crisis" (Piland & Wolf, 2003; Shults, 2001). The current generation of community college leaders, those born to the birth cohort known as the Baby Boomers, are eligible to retire early in the 21st century. These retirements will leave a…

  15. 职业院校女学生体育课兴趣培养研究%Vocational College Female Students' Interest Development in Physical Education

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邵丽霞

    2015-01-01

    体育教学是职业院校教育的重要组成部分,肩负着提高学生身体素质,促进学生心理健康发展的重任,通过体育教学研究发现,当前职业院校女学生体育课学习兴趣低,对体育教学不认可,体育锻炼参加意识较差,本文采用文献资料法、专家访谈法、问卷调查法、数理统计法就职业院校女学生体育课兴趣的影响因素进行调查研究,指出了当前造成女学生体育课兴趣较低的原因,并针对这些影响因素提出了一些合理化建议,希望为提高职业院校女学生体育课学习兴趣提供一些参考。%Physical education is an important part of education in vocational schools, shoulder to improve student fitness, and promote the healthy development of students 'mental responsibility, through the teaching of PE found that the current low PE vocational college female students' interest in learning, teaching does not endorse sports , poor sense of participating in physical exercise, we use the literature, expert interviews, questionnaires, mathematical statistics to investigate and study the factors affecting vocational college female students 'interests in physical, pointed out the cause of female students' sports in-terests lower reasons for these factors and made some reasonable suggestions, hoping to provide some reference for impro-ving vocational colleges PE female students' interest in learning.

  16. Exfoliative cytology in pregnant and non-pregnant females of Lagostomus maximus

    OpenAIRE

    Flamini, Mirta Alicia; Barbeito, Claudio Gustavo; Portiansky, Enrique Leo

    2016-01-01

    La citología exfoliativa o colpocitograma es un método de laboratorio de uso frecuente para reconocer cambios cíclicos en el epitelio vaginal. Se describen los tipos de células del epitelio vaginal de la vizcacha (Lagostomus maximus) y se establece un patrón de referencia de los cambios morfológicos que experimenta la vagina de estas hembras en sus diferentes estados fisiológicos. Los animales fueron divididos en cuatro grupos: no preñadas en anestro, no preñadas en fase folicular, con preñad...

  17. On the Improvement of Mental Hygiene of Female College Students%浅谈女大学生心理保健能力的培养

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚英

    2011-01-01

    提高女大学生心理保健能力,是优化高校心理健康教育效果,培养适应社会需要的人才,促进女大学生顺利成长成才的需要。高校要针对女大学生在心理保健方面存在的问题,要通过整合心理健康教育资源,建立高校女大学生心理保健系统,提高心理健康课程的针对性和实效性,开展形式多样的校园文体活动,帮助学生掌握自我心理调节的方法,培养女大学生心理保健能力。%To improve female college students' mental health is the premise to optimize the college psychological education and train market-oriented talents.According to the problems of mental hygiene among female students,college should integrate resources on mental health education,establish mental health system among students and improve effectiveness of mental health programs,carrying out various sports activities on campus to help them find the way of self-regulation on mental problems and improve their self-care ability.

  18. Analysis of Female College Students’ Motivation and Behavior of Misunderstanding%女大学生减肥动机及行为误区浅析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田鹏; 师捷璇

    2014-01-01

    从心理学,行为学,社会学的角度出发,采用问卷调查、专家访谈、数理统计等方法,对山西省8所高校的女大学生减肥动机及行为现状进行调查分析。研究表明,受社会压力及现阶段人们审美观的影响,当前部分女大学生对自身身体质量存在错误的评价。高校中大学女生减肥行为也存在普遍性。由于她们对科学减肥方式的不了解,导致她们的减肥行为以健康和不健康方式并存。根据上述现状,针对女大学生减肥过程中出现的误区提出建议,旨在为女大学生的减肥行为提供参考,为高校学生肥胖知识普及和减肥行为的引导提供依据。%From the perspectives of psychology , behavior and sociology , using a questionnaire survey , expert in-terviews and mathematical statistics , this paper attempts to investigate and analyze female college students ’ moti-vation and behavior status of 8 universities in Shanxi province .The result shows that the affected people ’ s social pressure and the aesthetic , the part of female college students on their body mass errors evaluation .The female college students weight loss behavior also exists .Because they do not understand the scientific way to lose weight , leading to weight loss coexists with a healthy and unhealthy way .According to the above situation , aiming at the misunderstanding of female university students in the process of weight loss suggestions , in order to provide reference for female university students , diet behavior , provide the basis for the college student obesity knowledge and diet behavior guidance .

  19. Power and pulsed Doppler evaluation of ovarian hemodynamic changes during diestrus in pregnant and nonpregnant bitches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polisca, A; Zelli, R; Troisi, A; Orlandi, R; Brecchia, G; Boiti, C

    2013-01-15

    The aim of the study was to further characterize the relationship between hemodynamic changes in the ovary and luteal function in pregnant and nonpregnant bitches. Fourteen German Shepherd bitches were monitored three times a week from the first day of cytological diestrus (D1) until parturition or the end of diestrus (progesterone pregnant versus nonpregnant group was significantly shorter (P pregnant group versus nonpregnant group from D31 to D61 and from D49 to D58 respectively. Moreover, a significantly decrease (P pregnant group was observed from D46 to D58 and from D49 to D55, respectively. The resistive and pulsatility indices showed an increase during diestrus and the values were significantly lower (P pregnant group from D49 to D61. By means of PD, the pixel number was significantly higher (P pregnant versus nonpregnant group from D40 to D61. In particular, a significant decrease (P pregnant group was observed from D46 to D61. The comparison of the P4 values with the ovarian pixel number in the pregnant and nonpregnant group showed a direct correlation (r = 0.792, N = 59 and r = 0.774, N = 59, respectively). In particular, the P4 values were higher (P pregnant than in the nonpregnant group from D37 to D52. In conclusion, significant physiological differences between pregnant and nonpregnant bitches in terms of P4 and ovarian blood supply are reported. In addition it was possible to define that blood flow pattern during diestrus in pregnant bitches is not always closely related with P4 production. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. 高校女生选修健美操课程的动机分析%Analysis on Motivation for Elective Aerobics Course of College Female Students

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李春娥

    2012-01-01

    Through using the method of literature review,questionnaire and mathematical statistics,this paper makes analysis on motivation for elective aerobics course of female students from five universities in Guangdong province.The result shows that enhancing the physical fitness,shaping the bodybuilding physique,perfecting personality,improving the aesthetic ability and regulating the brain is the main motivation of female students learning aerobics.So inspiring and guiding the female college students actively participating in aerobics training can effectively promote the development of college aerobics sports.%本文通过运用文献资料法、问卷调查法和数理统计法等科研方法,对广东省五所高校女生选修健美操课程的学习动机进行了分析与研究,得出增强体质、增进健康、塑造健美体形、完善个性品格、提高审美能力以及调节大脑是女生学习健美操的主要动机。故而启发和引导女大学生积极参加健美操锻炼,能有效地推动高校健美操运动的普及与发展。

  1. Navigating the science, technology, engineering, and mathematics pipeline: How social capital impacts the educational attainment of college-bound female students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Rebecca Elizabeth

    Despite the proliferation of women in higher education and the workforce, they have yet to achieve parity with men in many of the science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM) majors and careers. The gap is even greater in the representation of women from lower socioeconomic backgrounds. This study examined pre-college intervention strategies provided by the University of Southern California's Math, Engineering, Science Achievement (MESA) program, as well as the relationships and experiences that contributed to the success of underrepresented female high school students in the STEM pipeline. A social capital framework provided the backdrop to the study. This qualitative study takes an ethnographic approach, incorporating 11 interviews, 42 hours of observation, and document analysis to address the research questions: How does involvement in the MESA program impact female students' decisions to pursue a mathematics or science major in college? What is the role of significant others in supporting and encouraging student success? The findings revealed a continuous cycle of support for these students. The cycle started in the home environment, where parents were integral in the early influence on the students' decisions to pursue higher education. Relationships with teachers, counselors, and peers provided critical networks of support in helping these students to achieve their academic goals. Participation in the MESA program empowered the students and provided additional connections to knowledge-based resources. This study highlights the interplay among family, school, and the MESA program in the overall support of underrepresented female students in the STEM pipeline.

  2. Craving and Withdrawal Symptoms During Smoking Cessation: Comparison of Pregnant and Non-Pregnant Smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berlin, Ivan; Singleton, Edward G; Heishman, Stephen J

    2016-04-01

    Although pregnant smokers are aware of the negative peri- and postnatal health consequences of smoking, the cessation rate in pregnancy is low, raising the question of why pregnant smokers have difficulty quitting. Reasons might be that pregnant smokers experience more intense craving and withdrawal symptoms than non-pregnant smokers. We compared craving and withdrawal in 306 pregnant smokers versus 93 non-pregnant women using data from two smoking cessation trials. Complete data were analyzed using pre-quit and post-quit (2 weeks after quit date) craving and withdrawal measured by the 12-item French Tobacco Craving Questionnaire (FTCQ-12) and French Minnesota Nicotine Withdrawal Scale (FMNWS). Pregnant smokers started smoking and smoked regularly earlier and succeeded far less at quitting smoking by week 2 than the general population of smokers (11% versus 43%). Post-quit date FTCQ-12 general score was higher in pregnant smokers compared to comparison groups, and was driven by elevated emotionality and expectancy. FMNWS decreased significantly less among pregnant smokers than among non-pregnant smokers. Insufficient reduction of craving and withdrawal symptoms in response to a quit attempt may partially explain why pregnant smokers may have more difficulty quitting than non-pregnant smokers. Because this was a historical comparison, findings are preliminary; however, they might foster further investigation of differences in craving and withdrawal symptoms in pregnant versus non-pregnant smokers.

  3. A comparison of three different scoring methods for self-report measures of psychological aggression in a sample of college females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shorey, Ryan C; Brasfield, Hope; Febres, Jeniimarie; Cornelius, Tara L; Stuart, Gregory L

    2012-01-01

    Psychological aggression in females' dating relationships has received increased empirical attention in recent years. However, researchers' have used numerous measures of psychological aggression and various scoring methods with these measures, making it difficult to compare across studies on psychological aggression. In addition, research has yet to examine whether different scoring methods for psychological aggression measures may affect the psychometric properties of these instruments. This study examined three self-report measures of psychological aggression within a sample of female college students (N = 108), including their psychometric properties when scored using frequency, sum, and variety scores. Results showed that the Revised Conflict Tactics Scales (CTS2) had variable internal consistency depending on the scoring method used and good validity; the Multidimensional Measure of Emotional Abuse (MMEA) and the Follingstad Psychological Aggression Scale (FPAS) both had good internal consistency and validity across scoring methods. Implications of these findings for the assessment of psychological aggression and future research are discussed.

  4. Tribal Colleges and Universities in the 21st Century: Native American Female Leadership in Tribal Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sitting Crow, Karen Paetz

    2013-01-01

    The dynamics of Native American female leadership is becoming a more prevalent topic in the scholarly literature as more educated Native American women become visible in tribal higher education. This qualitative case study explored Native American female leadership, as a growing number of Native American women enter higher education and earn…

  5. Thin-Ideal Internalization and Comparison Process as Mediators of Social Influence and Psychological Functioning in the Development of Disturbed Eating Habits in Croatian College Females

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Pokrajac-Bulian

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the role of internalization and comparison as mediators of relationships between socio-cultural pressures to be thin, psychological factors, restrictive and bulimic behaviours in college females. Participants were 262 Croatian college females (mean age = 21.22 ± 1.47 years who completed self-report questionnaires. Regression analysis was used to test a model in which internalization and social comparison mediated the impact of socio-cultural pressure (parents and peers dieting, teasing, pressure to be thin, media influences, self-esteem, anxiety, depression, and perfectionism in restrictive and bulimic behaviours. Internalization is a significant mediator of the relationships between all predictors included in this research and disturbed eating habits. Social comparison is relevant as a mediator between social influence, negative affect, self-esteem, perfectionism and restrictive behaviour but does not mediate bulimic behaviour. These findings could be seful in understanding processes that may predispose young women to develop eating dysfunctions and indicate the need for prevention programs that incorporate formative influences and processes such as internalization of societal norms and comparison in the construction of therapeutic strategies.

  6. The Female as Administrator: An Assessment and Comparison of Perceptions of Certain Groups of the El Camino College Community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stinson, Janet Carol Gelder

    A study was conducted at El Camino College in Torrance, California to assess and compare the perceptions of students, faculty, and administrators toward women as administrators. The study focused on double-standard conflicts, promotional possibilities, advancement aspirations, and parity perceptions. Questionnaires were administered to all faculty…

  7. A systematic review of studies comparing body image concerns among female college athletes and non-athletes, 1997-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varnes, Julia R; Stellefson, Michael L; Janelle, Christopher M; Dorman, Steven M; Dodd, Virginia; Miller, M David

    2013-09-01

    Research prior to 2001 indicated that athletes experienced better body image than non-athletes, with no differences among sport types. Since then, female athletes have become increasingly sexually objectified in the media, and the sociocultural beauty ideal has shifted to emphasize appearing both athletic and thin. Part I of this paper explores the literature describing these changes. Part II presents a systematic and comprehensive literature review of 10 recent studies comparing body image concerns (BIC) among collegiate female athletes and non-athletes to identify the current status of BIC in female athletes. Findings indicate that involvement in collegiate athletics provides some protection from BIC; however, this protection appears attenuated for athletes in more feminine sports (e.g., gymnastics), and higher level athletes (Division I). Researchers should examine how sociocultural pressures unrelated to competition predict female athletes' BIC using measures that focus on objectification, positive body image, body functionality, and thin- and athletic-ideal internalization.

  8. Management of Nonpregnant Women with Elevated Human Chorionic Gonadotropin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernd C. Schmid

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG is useful in evaluating and monitoring early pregnancy as well as trophoblastic disease. Here we describe the management of women with elevated serum human chorionic gonadotropin in a case of a 51-year-old female who was unsuccessfully treated for ectopic pregnancy. She was subsequently diagnosed with pituitary hCG production, which should be considered as differential diagnosis before treatment is initiated.

  9. 论女大学生在就业与婚恋观上的性别角色意识%The Gender Role Consciousness of Employment and Marriage Views of Female College Students

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    井莹; 刘少航

    2012-01-01

    Female college students' gender role consciousness is the important component of female self - aware- ness and femal,e psychological quality. However, the variability and contradiction of contemporary female college students' social gender views lead to the blindness and cowardice of their career choice. The unfair evaluation of the highly educated women makes the present marriage situation of female college students a focus. The traditional concept forces them to return to the family helplessly on the way to seek refuge. The remodeling of female college students' employment and marriage views needs an equal and harmonious gender environment. Female college students should have new gender role views. We should strengthen the education of female college students' mar- riage view, improve their self - cognitive ability. The families should bear the responsibility to encourage female college students to enter the society and enhance the social attention so as to let female students find the social rec- ognition.%女大学生的性别角色意识是女性自我意识乃至女性的心理素质的重要组成部分。当代女大学生社会性别观念的多变性和矛盾性,导致了她们在职业选择时的盲目、怯懦;有些对高学历女性的不公允评价,使女大学生的婚恋现状成为关注焦点;传统观念压力使得她们在寻求避风港湾的路上无奈地选择回归家庭。重塑女大学生的就业观与婚恋观,需要营造平等和谐的性别环境,使女大学生具备新的性别角色观;加强女大学生婚恋观教育,提高其自我认知能力;家庭要承担起鼓励女大学生走进社会的责任;增强社会关注度,使女大学生找到社会认同感。

  10. Menstrual disorder factors and countermeasure analysis of nursing-major female college students in our College%我院护理专业女大学生月经失调因素及对策分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑海燕; 张新志; 王志宏; 王庭瑞

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To explore menstrual disorder related factors of the nursing major female college students in our school,and put forward the nursing intervention measures. Methods:The questionnaire survey was randomly conducted in 700 nursing girls in grade 1 ~ 3 in our school,the analysis of data statistics was made by professionals. Mental health edu-cation,knowledge education,psychological health education and drug therapy were used for menstrual disorder female col-lege students so that female college students could set up the correct attitude for menstrual disorder reproductive health be-haviors. Results:Premenstrual syndrome and dysmenorrheal had high incidences of 64% and 52. 86% respectively;bad health and behavior habits during menstruation,mental factors,strenuous sports,attention to keeping warm and sex activity during menstruation had a significant effect on menstruation(P ﹤ 0. 01);lack of attention to keep warm and sexual activity during menstrual period had an impact on menstrual duration(P ﹤ 0. 01). Conclusion:The factors influencing menstrual disorders of the nursing major female college students in our school mainly were lack of attention to keeping warm,not washing your hands before the change of sanitary napkin,infrequent change of sanitary napkin and nervous anxiety. The in-tervention measures of health knowledge,through popularizing psychological stress release and attention to keeping warm should be conducted to strengthen the awareness of self health care consciousness and raise the level of female college studentsˊ reproductive health.%目的:了解我院护理专业女大学生月经失调相关因素,并提出护理干预对策。方法随机抽取我院护理专业1~3年级女生700名进行问卷调查,由专业人员统一进行资料统计与分析,对月经失调女大学生进行月经期知识宣教、饮食调理、心理健康教育及药物治疗等干预对策,使女大学生对月经失调生殖健康行为树立正

  11. 40 CFR 26.1704 - Prohibition of reliance on unethical human research with non-pregnant, non-nursing adults...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Prohibition of reliance on unethical human research with non-pregnant, non-nursing adults conducted before April 7, 2006. 26.1704 Section 26... Prohibition of reliance on unethical human research with non-pregnant, non-nursing adults conducted...

  12. 40 CFR 26.1705 - Prohibition of reliance on unethical human research with non-pregnant, non-nursing adults...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Prohibition of reliance on unethical human research with non-pregnant, non-nursing adults conducted after April 7, 2006. 26.1705 Section 26... Prohibition of reliance on unethical human research with non-pregnant, non-nursing adults conducted...

  13. Impact of sociodemographic characteristics, nutritional status and perceived stress in body weight concern of female college students

    OpenAIRE

    Dias, Juliana Chioda Ribeiro [UNESP; Silva, Wanderson Roberto da [UNESP; Maroco,João; Juliana Alvares Duarte Bonini CAMPOS

    2016-01-01

    Aim: to estimate the contribution of nutritional status, perceived stress and sociodemographic variables in college students’ body weight concern. Method: participated 850 Brazilian students of one public university. Information such as age, area of study and schedule of the undergraduate course, body weight and height, economic status, household’s education level, household, studies funding and medication intake due to studies and labour activity were collected. Perceived stress and body wei...

  14. Factor structure of the Eating Disorder Examination Questionnaire (EDE-Q) in male and female college athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darcy, Alison M; Hardy, Kristina K; Crosby, Ross D; Lock, James; Peebles, Rebecka

    2013-06-01

    The study explored the psychometric properties of the Eating Disorder Examination Questionnaire (EDE-Q) among 1637 university students. Participants were divided into male (n=432) and female (n=544) competitive athletes, and male (n=229) and female (n=429) comparison groups comprised of individuals who had not engaged in competitive sports for at least one year. All groups were subjected to confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) to test the fit of the published factor structure in this population, and then exploratory FA (EFA). A three-factor solution was the best fit for three out of four groups, with a two-factor solution providing best fit for the male comparison group. The first factor for all groups resembled a combined Shape and Weight Concern subscale. The factor structure among male and female competitive athletes was remarkably similar; however, non-competitive athletic/low activity males appear qualitatively different from other groups.

  15. Treatment of pregnant and non-pregnant rheumatic patients : a survey among Dutch rheumatologists

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vroom, F.; van de Laar, M. A. J. F.; van Roon, E. N.; Brouwers, J. R. B. J.; den Berg, L. T. W. de Jong-van

    2008-01-01

    Background: The aim of this study was to explore, among Dutch rheumatologists, aspects such as attitude towards guidelines, pharmacotherapy and information needs in the treatment of pregnant as well as non-pregnant rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients. Methods: Fifteen rheumatologists from nine differ

  16. Treatment of pregnant and non-pregnant rheumatic patients: a survey among Dutch rheumatologists

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vroom, F.; Laar, van de M.A.F.J.; Roon, van E.N.; Brouwers, J.R.B.J.; Jong-van den Berg, de L.T.W.

    2008-01-01

    Background: The aim of this study was to explore, among Dutch rheumatologists, aspects such as attitude towards guidelines, pharmacotherapy and information needs in the treatment of pregnant as well as non-pregnant rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients. - Methods: Fifteen rheumatologists from nine dif

  17. Isolated large vulvar varicose veins in a non-pregnant woman

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullah M Al Wahbi

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Vulvar varicosities are often asymptomatic, and they may be associated with varicose veins of the lower extremity. Also, they may be a part of pelvic congestion syndrome and usually occur during pregnancy. We present a case of a huge isolated and disfiguring vulvar varicosities in a non-pregnant women managed successfully by combination of surgery and sclerotherapy.

  18. Isolated large vulvar varicose veins in a non-pregnant woman

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Wahbi, Abdullah M

    2016-01-01

    Vulvar varicosities are often asymptomatic, and they may be associated with varicose veins of the lower extremity. Also, they may be a part of pelvic congestion syndrome and usually occur during pregnancy. We present a case of a huge isolated and disfiguring vulvar varicosities in a non-pregnant women managed successfully by combination of surgery and sclerotherapy.

  19. Influence of female college students’ losing contact events on female public social psychology%女大学生失联事件对女性公众社会心态的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗维; 韩蓁

    2015-01-01

    目的:调查女性公众对女大学生失联事件的认识及归因,对安全教育的心理需求,探索为女性公众提供心理健康服务的有效方法。方法媒体报道女大学生失联事件发生后3个月,自编《女大学生失联事件调查问卷》对女大学生、女生母亲、女教师3个群体共计1200名女性公众展开问卷调查。结果58.39%~78.53%的女性公众归因于女大学生缺乏自我防范意识(χ2=31.001,P<0.001);50.0%~58.11%的女性公众关注失联事件(χ2=26.803,P=0.001),28.31%~40.76%的女性公众出现担心、伤心、焦虑情绪(χ2=47.439,P<0.001),34.1%~47.0%的女性公众限制出行;女生母亲比女教师认为女大学生遭遇危险的可能性更高(χ2=31.001,P<0.001);安全讲座、宣传单、座谈会是女性公众更为接受的预防方法(χ2=168.392,P<0.001)。结论失联事件对女性公众带来明显的负面影响,新闻报道依然是影响社会舆论的主要方法,加强教育和社会监管的同时,个人需要提高自身的安全隐患意识。%Objective To investigate the understanding and attribution of female public on female college students’ losing contact events and their psychological demands for safety education, and to explore effective methods to provide mental health services for female public. Methods Three months after the losing contact events, the research was carried out among 1 200 females including college students, teachers and mothers with Questionnaire of Female Students ’ Losing Contact Events designed by the researchers.Results Totally 58.39%~78.53%of the female public attributed it to the lack of self-protection sense among female students (χ2 =31.001,P<0.001). There were 50.6%-58.3%of the female public paying attention to the events (χ2 =26.803,P=0.001), 28.31%-40.76% suffering fear, sadness and anxiety (

  20. 大学生汉字自由联想的性别差异的实验研究%Experimental Study on Differences in the Free Association of Chinese Characters between Male and Female College Students

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张建英; 姚本先

    2012-01-01

    目的:了解大学生汉字自由联想的性别差异.方法:运用实验法对110名大学生的汉字自由联想进行分析.结果:(1)男女大学生对音联和字联的回忆率存在差异;(2)男女大学生对感觉情绪词的回忆率存在差异;(3)男女大学生对反映心理的关键字的回忆率存在差异;(4)男女大学生自由联想汉字的偏旁部首存在差异.结论:汉字自由联想法可以用来分析大学生的思维、个性和心理健康状况.%Aim: to probe the differences in the free association of Chinese characters between male and female college students. Method: analyzing the free association of Chinese characters among 110 college students by an experimental study. Results: (l)There is difference in recall rale of thyme association and word association between male and female college students; (2)There is difference in recall rate of identifying emotional words between male and female college students; (3)There is difference in recall rate of key words reflecting psychological world between male and female college students; (4)There is difference in free association of radicals of Chinese characters between male and female college students. Conclusion: the free association of Chinese characters can be applied to analyze the college students' thoughts, personalities and psychological health status.

  1. Analysis of Factors Affecting Female College Graduates' Job Satisfaction%女性高校毕业生工作满意度影响因素分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张再生; 董磷茜

    2012-01-01

    在文献回顾基础上,文章将女性高校毕业生工作满意度量表分为工作回报、自我发展、工作本身、领导行为、团结合作5个维度。女性高校毕业生在在整体工作满意度、工作回报、自我成就、工作本身3个维度上,与男性高校毕业生没有显著性差异,而在领导行为、团体合作两个维度上所体会到的满意度均显著高于男性。影响女性高校毕业生工作满意度的因素主要涉及工作回报因子、自我发展因子、团结合作因子以及其毕业学校类型。这些因素在专业、学校类型等人口统计学变量上产生了差异性特征。%In fight of existing literature, this article divides newly recruited college graduates' job satisfaction scale into five factors (work rewards, self-development, work itself, leadership behavior, group cooperation). We find that there is no significant difference between male college graduates and female college graduates in overall job satisfaction, in terms of satisfaction with work rewards, self-develop- ment, and work itself. However, there is significant difference in areas of leadership behavior and group cooperation, over which wom- en expressed a higher level of satisfaction than men. Factors that affect female college graduates' job satisfaction mainly involve work rewards, self-development, group cooperation and the type of universities where they have graduated. These four factors produce differ- ent characteristics in demographic variables such as profession and types of schools.

  2. The Influence of Self-Concept to Mental Health of Female College Students%来访女大学生自我概念及其心理健康研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张云喜; 王瑞临

    2016-01-01

    To study the relationship between female college students’self-concept and mental health.228 fe-male college students were assessed with Tennessee Self-concept Scale and SCL-90.The female college students had social anxiety problem obviously.There was a negative correlation between female college students’self con-cept and mental health.There existed significant negative effect between family self concept and mental health of female college students.The Self-concept was important factor to affect the mental health of female college students.%探讨因人际关系、社交焦虑等问题预约心理咨询的女大学生的自我概念对其心理健康的影响。采用田纳西自我概念问卷(TSCS)和症状自评量表(SCL-90)对来访女大学生进行调查。结果表明:来访女大学生在强迫症状、人际关系敏感、抑郁、焦虑、偏执以及精神病性因子上的得分超过2分,普遍存在社交焦虑等问题。来访女大学生的自我概念与心理健康各因子间存在显著的负相关。家庭自我概念对来访女大学生心理健康各阳性因子具有显著的负向预测作用。自我概念是影响女大学生心理健康的重要因素。

  3. The Effect of Classroom Web Applications on Teaching, Learning and Academic Performance among College of Education Female Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aljraiwi, Seham Salman

    2017-01-01

    The current study proposes web applications-based learning environment to promote teaching and learning activities in the classrooms. It also helps teachers facilitate learners' contributions in the process of learning and improving their motivation and performance. The case study illustrated that female students were more interested in learning…

  4. Prevalence of Disordered Eating Behaviors and Bulimia Nervosa in a Sample of Mexican American Female College Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lester, Regan; Petrie, Trent A.

    1998-01-01

    Disordered eating behaviors and bulimia nervosa were examined in a sample of female Mexican Americans. Results showed that 1.45% to 4.3% could be classified with bulimia. Just over 11% indicated regular binge eating. Dieting and exercising were the primary techniques used for weight control. Implications for intervention are briefly discussed.…

  5. Determinants of negative preference for female fetuses amongst women of reproductive age group at rural medical college

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepti Shrivastava

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: India is experiencing lowest child sex ratio of the world. The deficit of girl children has been progressively increasing, in spite of so many laws to favour them like Sharda act, act against dowry and law against female feticide, i.e. PC & PNDT. The present study attempted to explore the determinants of negative preference of female fetuses at rural setup and preferences for prevention of female foeticide. Methods: In a prospective, multicentric, cohort study, 2203 married women of reproductive age group were interviewed by pretested piloted structured questionnaire. SPSS software was used for statistical analysis. Results: Common causes for not preferring daughters were related to their marriages expenses, dowry along with exogamy and practices regarding death ceremonies of parents. Self deprived image of today’s woman by herself is mainly responsible for not allowing her to welcome another girl child in a family. Conclusions: Female foeticide is still in practice inspite of awareness programmes and existing law. Main reason for it is societal need due to marriage related customs and cultures along with unethical practices by service providers. To increase in self-esteem of women can only reduce the volume of service receiver along with upliftment of moral and ethical values of service providers from the beginning of their medical training can prevent it to happen. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2013; 2(1.000: 67-73

  6. Lived Experiences of Female Undergraduate Students, at a Nursing College in Abu Dhabi, about Nursing as a Profession

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hantash, Dania Abu; Van Belkum, Corrien

    2016-01-01

    Aim: To explore the lived experiences of female undergraduate nursing students about nursing as a profession and the circumstances that have influenced their experience. Introduction: Nursing as a profession is a relatively new practice, and thus in the developmental stage, in the UAE. The number of national students (Emirati) who enrol in the…

  7. Differential expression of uterine NO in pregnant and nonpregnant rats with intrauterine bacterial infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, L; Nowicki, B; Yallampalli, C

    2001-05-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that nitric oxide (NO) is involved in the uterine host defense against bacterial infection. In nonpregnant rats, NO production in the uterus was shown to be lower, and inducible NO synthase (NOS) expression was undetectable. However, studies in pregnant rats show abundant expression of inducible NOS with significant elevation in NO production in the uterus. We have recently reported that intrauterine Escherichia coli infection caused a localized increase in uterine NO production and inducible NOS expression in the nonpregnant rat. In our present study, we examined whether the uterine NO production, NOS expression, and uterine tumor necrosis factor-alpha protein are increased in pregnant rats with intrauterine pathogenic Escherichia coli infection. Unlike the nonpregnant state, the NO production in the infected uterine horn of pregnant rats was not significantly elevated after bacterial inoculation compared with the contralateral uterine horn. The expression of uterine NOS (types II and III) also did not show significant upregulation in the infected horn. This is in contrast to that in nonpregnant animals, in which type II NOS was induced in the uterus on infection. Moreover, intrauterine infection induced an elevated expression of tumor necrosis factor-alpha protein in the infected horn both of nonpregnant and of pregnant rats. These data suggest that the sequential stimulation of NOS expression, especially the inducible isoform, and generation of uterine NO are lacking during pregnancy despite an elevated tumor necrosis factor-alpha after infection. In summary, NO synthesis response may be maximal at pregnancy, and infection may not further induce the NO system. Present studies, together with our previous report that intrauterine infection-induced lethality in pregnancy rats was amplified with the inhibition of NO, suggest that pregnancy is a state predisposed for increased complications associated with intrauterine infection and

  8. An observational assessment of the sublingual microcirculation of pregnant and non-pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, R B; Munro, A; Abdo, I; McKeen, D M; Lehmann, C

    2014-02-01

    The microcirculation is responsible for distribution of blood within tissues, delivery of oxygen and other nutrients, and regulation of blood pressure. The objective of this study was to compare the sublingual microcirculation of pregnant participants to that of comparable non-pregnant volunteers. Two groups of participants were recruited: a group of pregnant, non-laboring women with singleton pregnancies at term gestation and a control group of age-comparable non-pregnant volunteers. A sidestream dark field imaging device was applied to the sublingual mucosal surface obtaining a steady image for at least 20 s duration, in five visual fields. The resultant five video clips per participant were analyzed blindly and at random to prevent coupling between images. The mean microvascular flow index values for each group were compared using a paired t-test. Thirty-seven participants were recruited (19 pregnant, 18 non-pregnant); a single pregnant participant was withdrawn because of technical issues. Baseline characteristics were similar with the exception of weight and body mass index. The mean microvascular flow index was significantly higher in the pregnant group 2.7 ± 0.2 compared to the non-pregnant group 2.5 ± 0.3 (P = 0.021), while the perfused vessel density and proportion of perfused vessels were not significantly different (P = 0.707 and 0.403, respectively). The microvascular flow index of pregnant women is higher than a comparable non-pregnant group, which appears to correlate with the physiological changes of pregnancy. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Prevalence of human papillomavirus infection in pregnant versus non-pregnant women in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salcedo, Mila M B P; Damin, Andrea P S; Agnes, Grasiela; Pessini, Suzana A; Beitune, Patricia El; Alexandre, Claudio O P; Schmeler, Kathleen M; da Silveira, Gustavo Py Gomes

    2015-12-01

    To investigate the prevalence of human papillomavirus (HPV) in cervical samples of pregnant and non-pregnant women in South-Brazil. A prospective study of 91 pregnant and 92 non-pregnant women with no previous history of cervical dysplasia or cancer was carried out. Cervical samples for HPV testing and cytology were collected in each trimester of pregnancy and in the puerperium for pregnant women and at matched intervals for the non-pregnant women. All samples were analyzed through PCR with consensus primers GP5+/GP6+. Genotyping was performed using specific primers. To control for confounding factors, the analysis of multivariate logistic regression was applied. The measure of odds ratio (OR) and the 95 % confidence interval (95 % CI) were used. The level of statistical significance was set at 5 % (P ≤ 0.05). HPV DNA was detected in 23/91 (25.3 %) cervical samples from the pregnant women and in 12/92 (13 %) cervical samples from non-pregnant women (P = 0.035). There was a significant association among cervical HPV infection and young age, number of lifetime sexual partners, and the presence of abnormal cervical cytology. HPV16 and HPV18 were the viral types more frequently detected. Out of the 23 HPV-positive pregnant women, 17 (73.9 %) had normal cervical cytology. Our results suggest a higher prevalence of HPV infection in pregnant vs. non-pregnant women. This finding may be related to the relative immunosuppression observed in pregnant women, outlining the importance of the appropriate monitoring of the viral infection in this specific population.

  10. Factors associated with Genital Hygiene Behaviours in pregnant and non-pregnant women in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyhan Çankaya

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: This descriptive study was conducted to determine the factors associated with genital hygiene behaviours in pregnant and non-pregnant women.Method and material: Seventy pregnant women and 70 non-pregnant women, aged between 25 and 45 years, who were in the third trimester of pregnancy and presented to the Gynecology and Obstetrics Clinic at the Faculty of Medicine in Konya Province, Turkey, were included in the study. The data were gathered using a questionnaire with 26 questions designed by the researcher using the Genital Hygiene Behavior Inventory (GHBI.Results: There was no significant difference between the GHBI scores of the pregnant and non-pregnant women (p>0.05. Therefore, both groups were combined, and it was aimed to discover the factors associated with genital hygiene behaviours more effectively. A positive correlation between the GHBI scores and the monthly income was found, whereas there was a negative correlation between the GHBI scores and age, marriage age, number of pregnancies, and birth (p<0.05. There was a significant difference between the GHBI scores and the educational status of the women and their husbands, the employment status of the women and the perceived income status (p<0.05. A statistically significant difference was found between the groups in terms of GHBI scores and the women’s pain and/or bleeding experience during sexual intercourse, vaginal douching, and training on the hygiene of the genital area (p<0.05.Conclusion: There was no significant difference in genital hygiene behaviours between the pregnant and non-pregnant women. This may be attributed to the fact that the genital hygiene practices of women who did not have sufficient knowledge of genital hygiene before they became pregnant did not change during pregnancy. Therefore, we suggest that midwives provide both pregnant and non-pregnant women with training on genital hygiene.

  11. The Predictive Role of Self-efficacy, Outcome Expectancies, Past Behavior and Attitudes on Condom Use in a Sample of Female College Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniele Artistico

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the impact of self-efficacy in relation to condom use. A sample of 87 female college students completed self-report measures related to their sexual history, attitudes towards condoms and past condom use, as well as their outcome expectancy and intention to use condoms in the future. The results showed a positive correlation between self-efficacy and positive attitudes towards condom use, as well as correlations between past behavior, self-efficacy and intention to use condoms in the future. Multiple linear regression models were used to further explore the relationship between self-efficacy, past condom use, outcome expectancy and attitudes toward condoms, with the intention to use condoms in the future. The results demonstrated that both self-efficacy and past condom use are significant predictors of an individual’s intention to use condoms in the future.

  12. Complexities of measuring perfectionism: three popular perfectionism measures and their relations with eating disturbances and health behaviors in a female college student sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Edward C; Ivezaj, Valentina; Downey, Christina A; Kashima, Yuri; Morady, Aviva R

    2008-01-01

    The present study investigated the relationships between three popular measures of perfectionism [the Eating Disorders Inventory - Perfectionism scale (EDI-P), the Frost Multidimensional Perfectionism Scale (FMPS), and the Multidimensional Perfectionism Scale (MPS)] and measures of eating disturbances and health behaviors, in a sample of 248 female college students. Results indicated that the adaptiveness or maladaptiveness of certain perfectionism dimensions should still be questioned. Also, self-oriented and socially prescribed perfectionism (from the MPS) were consistently found to be the most important predictors of both eating disturbances and health behaviors. Surprisingly, scores on the EDI-P were not found to be significant predictors of eating disturbances when FMPS and MPS scores were included in regression analyses. Implications of the present findings are discussed.

  13. ASSESSMENT OF KNOWLEDGE, ATTITUDE, AND PRACTICE TOWARDS EMERGENCY CONTRACEPTIVES AMONG FEMALE COLLEGE STUDENTS AT MEKELLE TOWN, TIGRAY REGION, ETHIOPIA: A CROSS SECTIONAL STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haftom Gebrehiwot*, Berhane Gebrekidan, Haftu Berhe and Kalayou Kidanu

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Death related to unintended pregnancy associated events is a series public health concern in Ethiopia. This is very common in young adolescents for whom life is full of adventure and temptation with very little knowledge about the consequences of their reckless activities. Emergency contraceptives are the only method that can be used within short time after sexual intercourse, offering a second chance to prevent unwanted pregnancy. Objectives: To assess the knowledge, attitude and practice of emergency contraceptives among female college students at Mekelle town, Ethiopia.Methods: An institutional based cross-sectional survey was conducted among 616 female college students at Mekelle town from March to July, 2011. Multistage sampling technique with Probabilities proportional to size was used. Data were analyzed by SPSS window version 16.0 software package and presented using frequencies, percentages. Crude & adjusted odds ratio were used to control the possible confounding variables. Results: Of the total respondents, 393(67.3% of them replied that they have heard about emergency contraceptives. Among those who have ever heard of emergency contraceptives, 224 (57% mentioned pills only, 9 (2.3% mentioned intrauterine contraceptive devices only and 154(39.2% mentioned both pill & IUCDs. 263(45% of the respondents were knowledgeable towards ECs, and about 271(46.4% of the students had positive attitude towards emergency contraceptives. Of the sexually active respondents 70(24.2% only reported that they had used emergency contraceptive methods previously. Whereas, 219(75.8% were not used emergency contraceptives; some of the reasons were lack of knowledge about ECs (42.9%; no desire to use (22.8% and inaccessibility toward emergency contraceptives (16.4%.Conclusion: The study indicated low level of knowledge; very low level of practice and majority showed negative attitude towards emergency contraceptives.

  14. Dietary taurine intake, nutrients intake, dietary habits and life stress by depression in Korean female college students: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Ji-Yeon; You, Jeong-Soon; Chang, Kyung-Ja

    2010-08-24

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the dietary taurine intake, nutrients intake, dietary habits and life stress by depression in Korean female college students. In this study, research data were collected in March 2009 and 65 patients with depression and 65 controls without depression participated. The CES-D (Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression) scale was used for depression measure and controls were matched for age. A 3-day recall method was used for dietary assessment (2 weekdays and 1 weekend day). Average height, weight and body mass index (BMI) were 161.3+/-0.5 cm, 55.3+/-1.0 kg and 21.2+/-0.4 kg/m2 for depression patients and those of control group were 161.4+/-0.7 cm, 53.1+/-0.8 kg and 20.3+/-0.2 kg/m2, respectively. Average dietary taurine intakes of depression patients and control group were 89.1 and 88.0 mg/day, respectively. There was no significant difference in dietary taurine intake between depression patients and control group. The average intakes of vitamin A (pnutrition status. Also depression patients have higher life stress score.Therefore, continuous nutrition education and counselling for good dietary habits and balanced nutrition status are needed to prevent depression in Korean college students.

  15. Psychosocial Characteristics of Female Students in the Allied Health and Medical Colleges: Psychometrics of the Measures and Personality Profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hojat, Mohammadreza; Lyons, Kevin

    1998-01-01

    For the purpose of developing a comprehensive assessment method of predicting academic and professional success among health professions' students, a set of 12 psychosocial measures were administered and their psychometric properties were examined. Participants were 141 female allied health and 71 female medical students. Alpha and test-retest reliabilities and construct and concurrent validities of the measures were studied, and most of the measures were found to have satisfactory psychometric properties. Comparisons were also made between medical and allied health sciences students using the 12 psychosocial measures. Allied health students scored higher on loneliness, anxiety, depression, and scored lower on perception of general health and perception of their fathers as compared to medical students. Implications of the findings for development of prediction models of academic and professional performance are discussed.

  16. Comparison of Sexual Knowledge, Attitude, and Behavior between Female Chinese College Students from Urban Areas and Rural Areas: A Hidden Challenge for HIV/AIDS Control in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Min; Liao, Yong; Liu, Jia; Fang, Wenjie; Hong, Nan; Ye, Xiaofei; Li, Jianjun; Tang, Qinglong; Pan, Weihua; Liao, Wanqing

    2016-01-01

    Currently, research in sexual behavior and awareness in female Chinese college students (FCCSs) is limited, particularly regarding the difference and the influencing factors between students from rural areas and urban areas. To fill the gap in available data, a cross-sectional study using anonymous questionnaires was conducted among 3193 female students from six universities located in Beijing, Shanghai, and Guangzhou, China, from February to June, 2013. Of the 2669 respondents, 20.6% and 20.9% of the students from urban and rural areas, respectively, reported being sexually experienced. The proportion of students who received safe-sex education prior to entering university from rural areas (22.4%, 134/598) was lower (P Sexual behavior has become increasingly common among FCCSs, including high-risk sexual behavior such as unprotected commercial sex. However, knowledge concerning human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) transmission and the risks is insufficient, particularly for those from rural areas, which is a challenge for HIV/AIDS control in China. The Chinese government should establish more specific HIV/AIDS prevention policies for Chinese young women, strengthen sex education, and continue to perform relevant research.

  17. Comparison of Sexual Knowledge, Attitude, and Behavior between Female Chinese College Students from Urban Areas and Rural Areas: A Hidden Challenge for HIV/AIDS Control in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Chen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Currently, research in sexual behavior and awareness in female Chinese college students (FCCSs is limited, particularly regarding the difference and the influencing factors between students from rural areas and urban areas. To fill the gap in available data, a cross-sectional study using anonymous questionnaires was conducted among 3193 female students from six universities located in Beijing, Shanghai, and Guangzhou, China, from February to June, 2013. Of the 2669 respondents, 20.6% and 20.9% of the students from urban and rural areas, respectively, reported being sexually experienced. The proportion of students who received safe-sex education prior to entering university from rural areas (22.4%, 134/598 was lower (P<0.0001 than the proportion from urban areas (41.8%, 865/2071. Sexual behavior has become increasingly common among FCCSs, including high-risk sexual behavior such as unprotected commercial sex. However, knowledge concerning human immunodeficiency virus (HIV/acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS transmission and the risks is insufficient, particularly for those from rural areas, which is a challenge for HIV/AIDS control in China. The Chinese government should establish more specific HIV/AIDS prevention policies for Chinese young women, strengthen sex education, and continue to perform relevant research.

  18. Progesterone (PR), oestrogen (ER-α and ER-β) and oxytocin (OTR) gene expression in the oviduct and uterus of pregnant and non-pregnant bitches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derussi, A A P; de Souza, R W A; Volpato, R; Guaitolini, C R F; Ackermann, C L; Taffarel, M O; Cardoso, G S; Dal-Pai-Silva, M; Lopes, M D

    2012-12-01

    The aim was to assess hormone receptor gene expression in the oviduct and uterus during canine pregnancy. Nineteen pregnant bitches divided into four groups were ovariohysterectomized (OVH) at either day 8, 12, 21 or 60 of pregnancy, and five non-pregnant females underwent OVH 12 days after the pre-ovulatory Luteinizant Hormone (LH) surge and served as controls. RT-qPCR for progesterone (PR), oestrogen (ER-α and ER-β) and oxytocin (OTR) receptors was performed on the oviduct and uterine tissue. The mRNA PR expression in the uterus during early stages of pregnancy and the luteal phase was higher than at other times. The mRNA ER-β expression in the oviduct during early pregnancy was less than in non-pregnant bitches. In the uterus, the mRNA ER-β expression was higher in the initial stages of pregnancy. The ER-α expression was higher in the oviduct and uterus in advanced stages of pregnancy. The mRNA OTR expression in the oviduct was lower than in the uterus in control group. The expression of this receptor in oviduct and the uterus was higher in the final stages of pregnancy, when compared with other phases. These data suggested that the serum progesterone concentrations probably exert a direct control on the PR and ER (α and β) expression and indirectly on OTR expression in the bitch oviduct and uterus.

  19. Jogging on the Exercise Habits of Female College Students’ Physical Health%慢跑对不同运动习惯女大学生体质健康的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘晓莹; 陈锦

    2012-01-01

    In this study we focus on the lack of the research of different exercise habits and physical health of female college students,through experimentation,literature,interviews,statistics and other methods of jogging on the physical health of different exercise habits of female college students,and found that jogging can improve physical health,the stimuli of female college students of no exercise habits on the jogging is more obvious,provide a theoretical and data support to physical health promotion for female college students.%针对对不同运动习惯女大学生体质健康研究的不足,通过实验法、文献资料法、访谈法、数理统计法等方法,研究慢跑对不同运动习惯女大学生体质健康的影响,发现慢跑运动可以增进体质健康,且无运动习惯的女生对慢跑刺激的反应更加明显,为女大学生体质健康促进提供一定的理论及数据支撑。

  20. Metabolic syndrome in the non-pregnant state is associated with the development of preeclampsia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Geum Joon; Park, Jong Heon; Shin, Soon-Ae; Oh, Min-Jeong; Seo, Hong Seog

    2016-01-15

    The aim of this study was to investigate the association between metabolic syndrome in the non-pregnant state and the development of preeclampsia. We enrolled 212,463 Korean women who had their first delivery between January, 2011 and December, 2012 and had undergone a national health screening examination through the National Health Insurance during the 1-2 years before their first delivery. Women who had hypertension in the non-pregnant state were excluded. The presence of metabolic syndrome was defined using the modified criteria published in National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III criteria. The prevalence of metabolic syndrome in non-pregnant state was 1.2%. Preeclampsia developed in 3.1% and its prevalence among women with and without metabolic syndrome was 7.3% and 3.0%, respectively. The pre-pregnancy prevalence of metabolic syndrome was higher in women who developed preeclampsia compared to that in those who had a normal pregnancy (1.1% vs. 2.8%; ppreeclampsia (odds ratio: 1.48; 95% CI: 1.26 to 1.74) compared to that in those without metabolic syndrome, after adjusting for age, family history of hypertension, smoking status, and pre-pregnancy body mass index. The risk of preeclampsia increased with a rise in the number of components of metabolic syndrome. Metabolic syndrome in the non-pregnant state was associated with the development of preeclampsia. Further studies are needed to evaluate whether early intervention for metabolic syndrome before pregnancy can decrease the risk of developing preeclampsia. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Periodontal status in pregnant women in comparison with non-pregnant individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Surekha

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Our understanding of pathogenesis of periodontal disease has changed remarkably over a few decades. Rather than being confined to periodontium, periodontal disease may have a wide ranging systemic effects. It is now recognized that it shares most of the common risk factors for diabetes, coronary heart disease preterm low birth weight, miscarriage or early pregnancy loss and preeclampsia. Materials and Methods: The study group comprised of 400 women (200 pregnant women and 200 non-pregnant with an age range of 18-40 years. Maternal demographic and medical data were collected. Periodontal examinations included: Oral hygiene index (OHI-S, gingival index (GI, pocket probing depth and clinical attachment loss (CAL. Results: The results were analyzed using test of proportion when OHI-S was compared in pregnant women with that of non-pregnant individuals, there was no significant difference in good oral hygiene group (P = 0.187, Z = 1.32. When the GI index was evaluated, a definite statistical difference was noted in mild, moderate and severe gingivitis (P - 0.000, Z = 0.365; P - 0.00, Z = 4.17; P - 0.000, Z = 0.75. CAL index revealed a statistical difference was observed healthy periodontium, mild, moderate and severe periodontitis in both pregnant and non-pregnant women (P = −0.000, Z = 3.65; P - 0.000, Z = 5.83; P - 0.001, Z - 3.24; P - 0.000, Z - 6.47. Conclusion: The present study conducted supports the hypothesis that there is a definite correlation between the pregnant women and poor oral hygiene (gingivitis and periodontitis as compared with the non-pregnant controls.

  2. Humoral and cell mediated immune responses to a pertussis containing vaccine in pregnant and nonpregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huygen, Kris; Caboré, Raïssa Nadège; Maertens, Kirsten; Van Damme, Pierre; Leuridan, Elke

    2015-08-07

    Vaccination of pregnant women is recommended for some infectious diseases in order to protect both women and offspring through high titres of maternal IgG antibodies. Less is known on the triggering of cellular immune responses by vaccines administered during pregnancy. In an ongoing study on maternal pertussis vaccination (2012-2014) 18 pregnant women were vaccinated with a tetanus-diphtheria-acellular pertussis (Tdap) containing vaccine (Boostrix®) during the third pregnancy trimester. Sixteen age-matched nonpregnant women received the same vaccine in the same time period. A blood sample was taken at the moment of, but before vaccination and one month and one year after vaccination. Anti-Pertussis Toxin (PT), filamentous hemagglutinin (FHA), pertactin (Prn), tetanus toxin (TT) and diphtheria toxin (DT) antibodies were measured by ELISA. Cellular immune responses were analyzed using a diluted whole blood assay, measuring proliferation, and cytokine release in response to vaccine antigens PT, FHA, TT, and to pokeweed mitogen (PWM) as polyclonal stimulus. Antibody levels to all five vaccine components increased significantly and to the same extent after vaccination in pregnant and nonpregnant women. One year after vaccination, antibody titres had decreased particularly to PT, but they were still significantly higher to all antigens than before vaccination. In contrast, proliferative and IFN-γ responses were increased to TT, PT, and FHA in nonpregnant women one month after vaccination, whereas in pregnant women only TT specific T cell responses were increased and to a lesser extent than in the control group. One year after vaccination, cellular responses equaled the baseline levels detected prior to vaccination in both groups. In conclusion, a Tdap vaccination can increase vaccine specific IgG antibodies to the same extent in pregnant and in nonpregnant women, whereas the stimulation of vaccine specific Th1 type cellular immune responses with this acellular vaccine

  3. Characteristics of male and female students who experienced success or failure in their first college science course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deboer, George E.

    The purpose of this study was to identify correlates of success for male and female students in their first collegiate science course. The factors that were examined included the personality variables of persistence, future orientation, and the tendency toward reckless and rash behavior, as well as cognitive attributions for success and failure. In addition, two scales from the Omnibus Personality Inventory that focused on the direction of a student's academic orientation were examined for their relationship to science achievement. Level of success x gender ANOV As showed no interactions for cognitive attributions or for the direction of academic orientation. Interactions for persistence, reckless and rash behavior, and future orientation indicated that these factors were more important to the science success of women than to that of men.

  4. On Career Decision-making Self-efficacy of Female Students in Higher Vocational Colleges%高职女生职业决策自我效能感研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张侠

    2011-01-01

    Career decision-making self-efficacy directly influences the career decision-making ability of female students in higher vocational colleges. Furthermore, it influences the employment rate, stability and development of higher vocational colleges. Taking partial female students in Jiangsu Jianzhu Institute as examinee, this paper tests the reliability and validity of career decision-making self-efficacy scale which has been revised for female students in higher vocational colleges in order to study the current situation of career decision-making self-efficacy of female students in higher vocational colleges and help the students to understand and improve their career decision-making ability. The result shows that the reliability and validity of career decision-making self-efficacy scale for female students in higher vocational colleges are fairly good and the students' career decision-making self-efficacy varies in grades, academic achievements and living regions.%职业决策自我效能感直接影响着高职女生的职业决策能力,进而影响着高职学院的就业率及高职学校的稳定和发展.以江苏建筑职业技术学院的部分女生为测试结果,对修订后的高职女生职业决策自我效能量表的信度和效度进行了检验.结果显示,高职女生职业决策自我效能感在年级、学习成绩、家庭居住地等方面存在某些差异,其职业决策自我效能量表的信度、效度较好.

  5. Eating Habits Investigation Report for the Female College Students of Garment Design Specialty%服装设计专业女大学生饮食行为习惯调查报告

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    范敏

    2012-01-01

    目的:了解服装设计专业女大学生饮食行为习惯和营养状况,为学校开展食品营养教育、指导学生合理膳食提供帮助。方法:选取湖南女大148名服装设计专业女大学生,采用自编饮食情况调查表进行问卷调查。结果:服装设计专业女大学生营养不良率为27.59%,女大学生中存在不良饮食行为习惯、食品营养知识缺乏,膳食搭配不合理等状况。结论:服装设计专业女大学生应加强食品营养教育和膳食指导,以提高本专业女大学生的营养状况。%Objectives:To investigate the eating habits and nutritional status of the female college students of garment design specialty and help for food nutrition and reasonable meal education.Methods:148 female college students of garment design specialty were investigated,and self designed eating habits questionnaire was used for the investigation.Results:The malnutrition rate of the female college students of garment design specialty is 27.59 %.Some of the female college students have poor eating habits,lack the knowledge of food nutrition,and unreasonable diet structure.Conclusion:The food nutrition and reasonable meal education for the female college students of garment design specialty should be strengthen,so as to enhance the nutritional status of the students.

  6. The effect of potassium channel opener pinacidil on the non-pregnant rat uterus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novakovic, Radmila; Milovanovic, Slobodan; Protic, Dragana; Djokic, Jelena; Heinle, Helmut; Gojkovic-Bukarica, Ljiljana

    2007-09-01

    The effects of the K(+) channel opener, pinacidil on the spontaneous rhythmic contractions and contractions provoked by electrical field stimulation (50 Hz) or by oxytocin were investigated in the isolated uterus of the non-pregnant rat in oestrus. Pinacidil produced more potent inhibition of oxytocin-elicited contractions than of spontaneous rhythmic contractions or electrical field stimulation-induced contractions. Glibenclamide, a selective blocker of adenosine triphosphate (ATP)-sensitive K(+) (K(ATP)) channels, antagonized the pinacidil-induced inhibition of contractions elicited by oxytocin in a competitive manner. However, the pinacidil-induced inhibition of electrical field stimulation-elicited contractions and spontaneous rhythmic contractions was antagonized non-competitively by glibenclamide. In the uterine strips pre-contracted with 80 mM K(+), the pinacidil-induced maximal relaxation was not affected. The present data show that pinacidil exhibits potent relaxant properties in the rat non-pregnant uterus in oestrus and therefore should be taken into account as a possible agent for treatment of dysmenorrhoea. Based on glibenclamide affinity, it appears that the inhibitory response to pinacidil involves K(ATP )channels. We need further investigations to explain why the interaction between glibenclamide and pinacidil in this experimental model depends on the nature of contractions. The ability of pinacidil to completely relax the rat non-pregnant uterus pre-contracted with K(+)-rich solution suggests that K(+) channel-independent mechanism(s) also play a part in its relaxant effect.

  7. Muscle sympathetic nerve activity and volume regulating factors in healthy pregnant and non-pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charkoudian, Nisha; Usselman, Charlotte W; Skow, Rachel J; Staab, Jeffery S; Julian, Colleen Glyde; Stickland, Michael K; Chari, Radha S; Khurana, Rshmi; Davidge, Sandra T; Davenport, Margie H; Steinback, Craig D

    2017-07-21

    Healthy, normotensive human pregnancies are associated with striking increases in both plasma volume and vascular sympathetic nerve activity (SNA). In non-pregnant humans, volume regulatory factors including plasma osmolality, vasopressin and the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system have important modulatory effects on control of sympathetic outflow. We hypothesized that pregnancy would be associated with changes in the relationships between SNA (measured as muscle SNA) and volume regulating factors, including plasma osmolality, plasma renin activity and arginine vasopressin (AVP). We studied 46 healthy, normotensive young women (23 pregnant and 23 non-pregnant). We measured SNA, arterial pressure, plasma osmolality, plasma renin activity, AVP and other volume regulatory factors in resting, semi-recumbent posture. Pregnant women had significantly higher resting SNA (38 ± 12 vs. non-pregnant: 23 ± 6 bursts/minute), lower osmolality and higher plasma renin activity and aldosterone (all P pregnant] vs. 5.17 ± 2.03 [pregnant], P > 0.05). However, regression analysis detected a significant relationship between individual values for SNA and AVP in pregnant (r = 0.71, P pregnant women (r = 0.04). No relationships were found for other variables. These data suggest that the link between AVP release and resting SNA becomes stronger in pregnancy, which may contribute importantly to blood pressure regulation in healthy women during pregnancy. Copyright © 2017, American Journal of Physiology-Heart and Circulatory Physiology.

  8. A linear study of pulmonary function tests in normal pregnant and non-pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Lata; Dixit, R

    2013-10-01

    Pregnancy is principally a phenomenon of maternal adaptation to the increasing demands of the growing foetus. Pregnancy causes many visible and invisible changes in human body and it represents one of the best example of selective adaptation in terms of respiratory physiology. To evaluate the changes in dynamic pulmonary function tests in all three trimesters of pregnancy and compare the results between normal pregnant women (case group) and normal non-pregnant women (control group) and also to compare the results of the study with other studies, 50 subjects were selected and divided into two groups, non-pregnant women (n = 20, mean age = 26.5 +/- 2.69 years) and normal pregnant women of all three trimesters (n = 30, mean age = 24.84 +/- 3.00 years). Pulmonary function tests were done by medspiror. Significant decrease in all the parameters of pulmonary function tests like forced vital capacity, forced expiratory volume in one second, peak expiratory flow rate, maximum ventilation volume, were noticed in all trimesters of normal pregnant women as compared to normal non-pregnant women. The data suggest that there is alteration in pulmonary function tests in pregnant women. Continuous Monitoring of pulmonary function tests may prove to be of great value in maternal healthcare as cases of restriction and obstruction in lungs during pregnancy can be identified early and its deterioration can be prevented by proper management.

  9. Two Live Births following Robotic-Assisted Abdominal Cerclage in Nonpregnant Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmet Göçmen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. To report the robotic-assisted abdominal cerclage performed in two nonpregnant women and the success of live birth outcomes. Presentation of Cases. A 36-year-old woman with a complaint of recurrent second trimester pregnancy losses and a 35-year-old patient with a complaint of preterm deliveries and cervical insufficiency underwent robotic assisted abdominal cervicoisthmic cerclage placement in nonpregnant period. The two patients had spontaneous pregnancy after the robotic-assisted abdominal cerclage and delivered healthy infants. Discussion. The limitations of traditional laparoscopic abdominal cerclage have been accomplished with robotic surgery advantages especially intuitive movements and increased range of motion. There are only a few studies in the literature including robotic assisted abdominal cerclage in nonpregnant women, and only five successful live birth outcomes were reported. In this paper, we reported the sixth and seventh cases of achieved live pregnancy after robotic assisted abdominal cerclage in the literature. Conclusion. Robotic assisted abdominal cerclage is a good alternative surgical method with successful pregnancy outcomes.

  10. [Vaginal colonization by genital mycoplasmas in pregnant and non-pregnant women].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castellano-González, Maribel; Ginestre-Pérez, Messaria; Perozo-Mena, Armindo; Alaña, Freddy; Fernández-Bravo, Marisol; Rincón-Villalobos, Gresleida

    2007-12-01

    To compare vaginal colonization by genital micoplasmas in pregnant and non pregnant women and to determine the association between pregnancy and colonization by these microorganisms, samples of exocervix an endocervix from pregnant (n = 80) and non pregnant (n = 65) women, from two health centers of Maracaibo, Zulia State, Venezuela were processed. The Mycoplasma-Lyo kit (bioMérieux laboratories) was used for the culture and identification of genital micoplasmas. In pregnant women, prevalences of 10% for M. hominis and 26.25% for Ureaplasma spp. were found; 35.38% for M. hominis and 20% for Ureaplasma spp. in non-pregnant, were obtained. Among the pregnant, Ureaplasma spp. was the most frequently isolated micoplasma, in symptomatic and asymptomatic; while in the non pregnant group, M. hominis was more common among the symptomatic patients; only one case (1.54%) was an asymptomatic carrier of Ureaplasma spp. The highest positivity percentages were obtained in primigravidas (48.71%) and during the second gestational trimester (34.21%). No statistically significant differences were found between vaginal colonization by genital micoplasmas according to age, number of pregnancy and gestational trimester; but they were found between the presented symptomatology and vaginal colonization by genital micoplasmas. Genital micoplasmas were isolated from gravid women at approximately the same recovery rate as in non-pregnant women; being M. hominis the most frequently isolated in non-pregnant women and Ureaplasma spp. in the pregnant group.

  11. Protein turnover and 3-methylhistidine excretion in non-pregnant, pregnant and gestational diabetic women

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fitch, W.L.; King, J.C.

    1986-03-01

    Protein turnover was studied in nine non-pregnant (NP) women, eight pregnant (P) and two gestational diabetic (GDM) women. Whole body protein turnover, synthesis and catabolism rates were measured using a single oral dose of /sup 15/N-glycine followed by measurement of enrichment of urinary ammonia. Urinary 3-methylhistidine (3MH) excretion was measured for three consecutive days, including the day of the protein turnover study. Whole body protein turnover and synthesis rates did not differ between the P and NP women, although the synthesis rates tended to be higher in the P group. Gestational diabetic women appeared to have considerably higher rates of both turnover and synthesis. Pregnant women excreted significantly more urinary 3MH than did non-pregnant women. GDM women appeared to have lower 3MH excretion than the P women. Correlation between 3MH excretion and protein turnover rates was nearly significant (p = .06) in the NP women, but was poorly correlated (p = .43) in the P women, suggesting that muscles may be a less important site of whole body protein turnover in pregnancy than in the non-pregnant state.

  12. Biomathematical pattern of EMG signal propagation in smooth muscle of the non-pregnant porcine uterus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domino, Malgorzata; Pawlinski, Bartosz; Gajewski, Zdzislaw

    2017-01-01

    Uterine contractions are generated by myometrial smooth muscle cells (SMCs) that comprise most of the myometrial layer of the uterine wall. Aberrant uterine motility (i.e., hypo- or hyper-contractility or asynchronous contractions) has been implicated in the pathogenesis of infertility due to the failure of implantation, endometriosis and abnormal estrous cycles. The mechanism whereby the non-pregnant uterus initiates spontaneous contractions remains poorly understood. The aim of the present study was to employ linear synchronization measures for analyzing the pattern of EMG signal propagation (direction and speed) in smooth muscles of the non-pregnant porcine uterus in vivo using telemetry recording system. It has been revealed that the EMG signal conduction in the uterine wall of the non-pregnant sow does not occur at random but it rather exhibits specific directions and speed. All detectable EMG signals moved along the uterine horn in both cervico-tubal and tubo-cervical directions. The signal migration speed could be divided into the three main types or categories: i. slow basic migration rhythm (SBMR); ii. rapid basic migration rhythm (RBMR); and iii. rapid accessory migration rhythm (RAMR). In conclusion, the EMG signal propagation in smooth muscles of the porcine uterus in vivo can be assessed using a linear synchronization model. Physiological pattern of the uterine contractile activity determined in this study provides a basis for future investigations of normal and pathologicall myogenic function of the uterus. PMID:28282410

  13. Changes in ectocervical surface area in women throughout pregnancy compared to non-pregnant and postpartum states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Xueya; Jiang, Yanmin; Liu, Lei; Shi, Shao-Qing; Garfield, Robert E; Liu, Huishu

    2016-11-01

    The objective of this study is to estimate changes in the surface area of the ectocervix (CA) in women during pregnancy and compare this to postpartum and non-pregnant states. CA was evaluated in 210 normal nulliparous women divided into groups from early to late gestation, 40 postpartum women, and 25 non-pregnant women. CA in cm(2) was estimated from analysis of images taken with an endoscope of the cervical face and an mm scale. An mm scale was also used to determine fornix length and fornix area computed. The face, fornix, and total areas of the CA of non-pregnant and postpartum groups are significantly smaller (p 75% area compared with CA of non-pregnant patients and then reverts back to low CA postpartum. (2) Increases in CA during pregnancy occur in both the face and fornix areas. (3) Increases in CA reflect enlargement in cervical volume and remodeling during pregnancy.

  14. Status of underrepresented minority and female faculty at medical schools located within Historically Black Colleges and in Puerto Rico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily M. Mader

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background and objectives: To assess the impact of medical school location in Historically Black Colleges and Universities (HBCU and Puerto Rico (PR on the proportion of underrepresented minorities in medicine (URMM and women hired in faculty and leadership positions at academic medical institutions. Method: AAMC 2013 faculty roster data for allopathic medical schools were used to compare the racial/ethnic and gender composition of faculty and chair positions at medical schools located within HBCU and PR to that of other medical schools in the United States. Data were compared using independent sample t-tests. Results: Women were more highly represented in HBCU faculty (mean HBCU 43.5% vs. non-HBCU 36.5%, p=0.024 and chair (mean HBCU 30.1% vs. non-HBCU 15.6%, p=0.005 positions and in PR chair positions (mean PR 38.23% vs. non-PR 15.38%, p=0.016 compared with other allopathic institutions. HBCU were associated with increased African American representation in faculty (mean HBCU 59.5% vs. non-HBCU 2.6%, p=0.011 and chair (mean HBCU 73.1% vs. non-HBCU 2.2%, p≤0.001 positions. PR designation was associated with increased faculty (mean PR 75.40% vs. non-PR 3.72%, p≤0.001 and chair (mean PR 75.00% vs. non-PR 3.54%, p≤0.001 positions filled by Latinos/Hispanics. Conclusions: Women and African Americans are better represented in faculty and leadership positions at HBCU, and women and Latino/Hispanics at PR medical schools, than they are at allopathic peer institutions.

  15. Hormone Responses to an Acute Bout of Low Intensity Blood Flow Restricted Resistance Exercise in College-Aged Females

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eonho Kim

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to determine whether the acute hormone response to exercise differed between low intensity blood flow restricted resistance exercise and traditional high-intensity resistance exercise in college-aged women. A total of 13 healthy women (aged 18-25 yrs, who were taking oral contraceptives, volunteered for this randomized crossover study. Subjects performed a session of low intensity blood flow restricted resistance exercise (BFR (20% of 1-RM, 1 set 30 reps, 2 sets 15 reps and a session of traditional high intensity resistance exercise without blood flow restriction (HI (3 sets of 10 repetitions at 80% of 1-RM on separate days. Fasting serum cortisol and growth hormone (GH and blood lactate responses were measured in the morning pre and post exercise sessions. GH (Change: HI: 6.34 ± 1.72; BFR: 4.22 ± 1.40 ng·mL-1 and cortisol (Change: HI: 4.46 ± 1.53; BFR: 8.10 ± 2.30 ug·dL-1 significantly (p < 0.05 increased immediately post exercise for both protocols compared to baseline and there were no significant differences between the protocols for these responses. In contrast, blood lactate levels (HI: 7.35 ± 0.45; BFR: 4.02 ± 0.33 mmol·L-1 and ratings of perceived exertion were significantly (p < 0.01 higher for the HI protocol. In conclusion, acute BFR restricted resistance exercise stimulated similar increases in anabolic and catabolic hormone responses in young women.

  16. 高校女大学生婚前性行为的影响因素%Influencing factors of premarital sexual behavior of female college students

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘缨; 张建芳; 张媛媛; 陈必良

    2012-01-01

    Objective To study the influencing factors of premarital sexual behavior of female college students, so as to provide evidence for their reproductive health interventions. Methods An anonymous survey was conducted with self-designed questionnaires among 838 female college students aged 18-24 from 5 randomly selected universities in Xi' an. Altogether 786 effective questionnaires were collected. Results Among the students surveyed, 5. 3% students had unplanned pregnancy, 17. 1% students had sexual behavior but were not pregnant, and 77. 6% students had no sexual behavior. The correct rate of sexual knowledge of sexual behavior group ( not pregnant ) was remarkably higher than that of no-sexual behavior group (χ2=9. 317-17. 126,P =0. 000-0. 003 ), and the sexual tolerance of former group ( not pregnant ) was also remarkably higher than that of latter group( χ2 =22.497, P = 0. 000 ). In sexual attitude towards the influence of premarital sex on body and mind and future family, the cognition of sexual behavior group was remarkably lower than that of no-sexual behavior group (χ2 =7. 162-16. 876,P = 0. 000-0. 022 ). Logistic regression analysis showed that grade, knowledge of contraception,side effect of premarital sex on future family and sexual tolerance were influencing factors of premarital sex. Conclusion Sexual attitude is an important influencing factor of premarital sex of female college students.%目的 探讨影响高校女大学生婚前性行为的因素,为大学女性生殖健康干预提供有参考价值的客观数据.方法 采用自编问卷调查法,随即抽取西安5所高校的838名18~24岁的女大学生为调查对象.结果 收回786份有效问卷进行分析,结果为①5.3%的女大学生承认有计划外妊娠行为,17.1%承认有性经历但无妊娠行为,77.6%无性经历;②在性知识掌握的正确率方面,有性经历组(未妊娠)高于无性经历组(χ2=9.317~17.126,P=0.000~0.003);③在对婚前性行为的容许度方面,

  17. High human immunodeficiency virus incidence in a cohort of Rwandan female sex workers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.L. Braunstein; C.M. Ingabire; E. Kestelyn; A.U. Uwizera; L. Mwamarangwe; J. Ntirushwa; D. Nash; N.J. Veldhuijzen; A. Nel; J. Vyankandondera; J.H.H.M. van de Wijgert

    2011-01-01

    Measurement of human immunodeficiency virus(HIV) incidence among female sex workers in Rwanda is a key part of preparing for HIV prevention trials. HIV-negative, nonpregnant female sex workers (N =397) were tested for HIV-1, sexually transmitted infections, and pregnancy quarterly for 12 months, and

  18. Using a practical approach for determining the most effective stretching strategy in female college division I volleyball players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruse, Nicholas T; Barr, Marcus W; Gilders, Roger M; Kushnick, Michael R; Rana, Sharon R

    2013-11-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to quantify the effects that a practical bout of static stretching (SS) and dynamic stretching (DS) has on maximal countermovement jump (CMJ) height across a time spectrum of 25 minutes in National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I varsity volleyball players. Eleven female varsity volleyball players (mean ± SD; age 20.00 ± 1.55 years; height 1.78 ± 0.08 m; mass 74.55 ± 12.18 kg) volunteered for this investigation. Three days of randomized experimental testing (SS, DS, control) were completed. The SS protocol consisted of stretching 7 muscle groups. The DS protocol consisted of the volleyball team's actual DS routine of equal duration (30 seconds) to SS. Poststretch performance measures of CMJ were determined at 1, 5, 15, and 25 minutes poststretch. Countermovement jump had an acute significant trial-by-time interaction, indicating that DS was found to produce significantly higher scores than the SS and control session at 1 and 5 minutes poststretch, but not at 15 and 25 minutes poststretch. Additionally, there was a timing interaction within trials where SS scores were significantly lower at 1 minute poststretch compared with 5 and 25 minutes poststretch, and DS scores were significantly higher at 1 and 5 minutes poststretch compared with 15 and 25 minutes poststretch. Athletes engaging in competitive power sports should continue to utilize their DS routine but may need to do so within 5 minutes before activity.

  19. Acute aerobic exercise increases cortical activity during working memory: a functional MRI study in female college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lin; Men, Wei-Wei; Chang, Yu-Kai; Fan, Ming-Xia; Ji, Liu; Wei, Gao-Xia

    2014-01-01

    There is increasing evidence that acute aerobic exercise is associated with improved cognitive function. However, neural correlates of its cognitive plasticity remain largely unknown. The present study examined the effect of a session of acute aerobic exercise on working memory task-evoked brain activity as well as task performance. A within-subjects design with a counterbalanced order was employed. Fifteen young female participants (M = 19.56, SD = 0.81) were scanned using functional magnetic resonance imaging while performing a working memory task, the N-back task, both following an acute exercise session with 20 minutes of moderate intensity and a control rest session. Although an acute session of exercise did not improve behavioral performance, we observed that it had a significant impact on brain activity during the 2-back condition of the N-back task. Specifically, acute exercise induced increased brain activation in the right middle prefrontal gyrus, the right lingual gyrus, and the left fusiform gyrus as well as deactivations in the anterior cingulate cortexes, the left inferior frontal gyrus, and the right paracentral lobule. Despite the lack of an effect on behavioral measures, significant changes after acute exercise with activation of the prefrontal and occipital cortexes and deactivation of the anterior cingulate cortexes and left frontal hemisphere reflect the improvement of executive control processes, indicating that acute exercise could benefit working memory at a macro-neural level. In addition to its effects on reversing recent obesity and disease trends, our results provide substantial evidence highlighting the importance of promoting physical activity across the lifespan to prevent or reverse cognitive and neural decline.

  20. Acute aerobic exercise increases cortical activity during working memory: a functional MRI study in female college students.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Li

    Full Text Available There is increasing evidence that acute aerobic exercise is associated with improved cognitive function. However, neural correlates of its cognitive plasticity remain largely unknown. The present study examined the effect of a session of acute aerobic exercise on working memory task-evoked brain activity as well as task performance. A within-subjects design with a counterbalanced order was employed. Fifteen young female participants (M = 19.56, SD = 0.81 were scanned using functional magnetic resonance imaging while performing a working memory task, the N-back task, both following an acute exercise session with 20 minutes of moderate intensity and a control rest session. Although an acute session of exercise did not improve behavioral performance, we observed that it had a significant impact on brain activity during the 2-back condition of the N-back task. Specifically, acute exercise induced increased brain activation in the right middle prefrontal gyrus, the right lingual gyrus, and the left fusiform gyrus as well as deactivations in the anterior cingulate cortexes, the left inferior frontal gyrus, and the right paracentral lobule. Despite the lack of an effect on behavioral measures, significant changes after acute exercise with activation of the prefrontal and occipital cortexes and deactivation of the anterior cingulate cortexes and left frontal hemisphere reflect the improvement of executive control processes, indicating that acute exercise could benefit working memory at a macro-neural level. In addition to its effects on reversing recent obesity and disease trends, our results provide substantial evidence highlighting the importance of promoting physical activity across the lifespan to prevent or reverse cognitive and neural decline.

  1. New trends and countermeasures of female college students’sexual misconduct%女大学生性罪错新趋势与应对措施

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄燕; 熊伟; 何春渝; 阮鹏

    2015-01-01

    There are some new trends in female college students’sexual misconduct,such as having sexual intercourse with people outside the school,lack of awareness of contraception leading to pregnancy abortion,to solve their problems through openly seeking prostitution,having sex trade with the instructors,making perverted sex and revenge crimes of sexual situations.The article,from the lessons of negative examples,advocates the establishment of female students’sexual misconduct oversight and intervention system,attention to serious school regulations, cleanup campus atmosphere,strictly regulating medical abortion market behavior,and the expansion of government functions and other countermeasures.%当前女大学生性罪错出现了一些新的趋势,如性交往对象向校外转移,避孕意识缺失导致怀孕堕胎事件发生,为解决生活问题不惜公开求包养、卖淫,与导师进行性交易,以及出现性报复犯罪等情况。文章还以反面教材进行警示教育,建立女大学生性罪错监督与干预体系,重视高校自身名誉严肃校规校纪,整治校园周边环境,净化校园风气,从严整治人流市场规范医疗行为,扩展政府职能让计生委、妇联进高校等方面提出了应对措施。

  2. Evaluation of the indications for performing magnetic resonance imaging of the female pelvis at a referral center for cancer, according to the American College of Radiology criteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boaventura, Camila Silva; Rodrigues, Daniel Padilha; Silva, Olimpio Antonio Cornehl; Beltrani, Fabrício Henrique; de Melo, Rayssa Araruna Bezerra; Bitencourt, Almir Galvão Vieira; Mendes, Gustavo Gomes; Chojniak, Rubens

    2017-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the indications for performing magnetic resonance imaging of the female pelvis at a referral center for cancer. Materials and Methods This was a retrospective, single-center study, conducted by reviewing medical records and imaging reports. We included 1060 female patients who underwent magnetic resonance imaging of the pelvis at a cancer center between January 2013 and June 2014. The indications for performing the examination were classified according to the American College of Radiology (ACR) criteria. Results The mean age of the patients was 52.6 ± 14.8 years, and 49.8% were perimenopausal or postmenopausal. The majority (63.9%) had a history of cancer, which was gynecologic in 29.5% and nongynecologic in 34.4%. Of the patients evaluated, 44.0% had clinical complaints, the most common being pelvic pain (in 11.5%) and bleeding (in 9.8%), and 34.7% of patients had previously had abnormal findings on ultrasound. Most (76.7%) of the patients met the criteria for undergoing magnetic resonance imaging, according to the ACR guidelines. The main indications were evaluation of tumor recurrence after surgical resection (in 25.9%); detection and staging of gynecologic neoplasms (in 23.3%); and evaluation of pelvic pain or of a mass (in 17.1%). Conclusion In the majority of the cases evaluated, magnetic resonance imaging was clearly indicated according to the ACR criteria. The main indication was local recurrence after surgical treatment of pelvic malignancies, which is consistent with the routine protocols at cancer centers. PMID:28298725

  3. Evaluation of the indications for performing magnetic resonance imaging of the female pelvis at a referral center for cancer, according to the American College of Radiology criteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boaventura, Camila Silva; Rodrigues, Daniel Padilha; Silva, Olimpio Antonio Cornehl; Beltrani, Fabrício Henrique; de Melo, Rayssa Araruna Bezerra; Bitencourt, Almir Galvão Vieira; Mendes, Gustavo Gomes; Chojniak, Rubens

    2017-01-01

    To evaluate the indications for performing magnetic resonance imaging of the female pelvis at a referral center for cancer. This was a retrospective, single-center study, conducted by reviewing medical records and imaging reports. We included 1060 female patients who underwent magnetic resonance imaging of the pelvis at a cancer center between January 2013 and June 2014. The indications for performing the examination were classified according to the American College of Radiology (ACR) criteria. The mean age of the patients was 52.6 ± 14.8 years, and 49.8% were perimenopausal or postmenopausal. The majority (63.9%) had a history of cancer, which was gynecologic in 29.5% and nongynecologic in 34.4%. Of the patients evaluated, 44.0% had clinical complaints, the most common being pelvic pain (in 11.5%) and bleeding (in 9.8%), and 34.7% of patients had previously had abnormal findings on ultrasound. Most (76.7%) of the patients met the criteria for undergoing magnetic resonance imaging, according to the ACR guidelines. The main indications were evaluation of tumor recurrence after surgical resection (in 25.9%); detection and staging of gynecologic neoplasms (in 23.3%); and evaluation of pelvic pain or of a mass (in 17.1%). In the majority of the cases evaluated, magnetic resonance imaging was clearly indicated according to the ACR criteria. The main indication was local recurrence after surgical treatment of pelvic malignancies, which is consistent with the routine protocols at cancer centers.

  4. 非妊娠期单核细胞增生李斯特菌败血症35例临床分析%Clinical characteristics of 35 non-pregnant patients with Listeria monocytogenes sepsis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王澎; 陈颖茜; 王焕玲; 李太生; 徐英春

    2016-01-01

    目的 通过分析非妊娠期单核细胞增生李斯特菌(李斯特菌)败血症基础疾病特点和临床特征,提高对非妊娠期李斯特菌败血症的认识.方法 回顾性分析北京协和医院2002年1月至2014年12月诊治的35例经血培养确诊的非妊娠期李斯特菌败血症的临床特点.结果 (1)35例非妊娠期李斯特菌败血症患者发病年龄(49.1±17.0)岁,男性占40%;(2)33例(94.3%)患有基础疾病/状况,其中以自身免疫病(15例,42.9%)、恶性肿瘤(12例,34.3%)常见;(3)起病中位时间为3d,常见的临床表现为发热(34/35例,97.1%)、中枢神经系统(CNS)症状(17/35例,48.6%)、胃肠道症状(13/35例,37.1%)等;(4) 14例(40.0%)经过脑脊液(CSF)检查证实合并脑膜炎,其中11例CSF培养有李斯特菌生长;(5) 19例(54.3%)初始经验性抗微生物药物选用头孢菌素.25例(71.4%)在经血培养确诊李斯特菌败血症后,抗微生物药物方案进行了调整;(6)21例(60.0%)经过治疗后好转或痊愈,8例(22.9%)因病情危重放弃治疗或出院后死亡,6例(17.1%)在住院期间死亡.结论 非妊娠期李斯特菌败血症多累及原有自身免疫病、恶性肿瘤等基础疾病的患者,临床表现为发热、CNS症状及胃肠道症状,经验性选用抗微生物药物的李斯特菌有效覆盖率低,病死率高.提示应提高临床医生的认识,对于存在导致免疫功能低下疾病的高危人群出现急性发热、临床怀疑败血症时,经验性抗菌药物应包括有效覆盖李斯特菌的青霉素类.%Objective To better understand the clinical characteristics and predisposing factors in non-pregnant patients with Listeria monocytogenes (Listeria) sepsis.Methods Clinical data were collected at Peking Union Medical College Hospital between January 2002 and December 2014.A case with non-pregnant Listeria sepsis is defined as a non-pregnant person with clinically compatible illness and from whom Listeria was isolated from

  5. 提高女大学生就业能力的必要性及价值分析%Social Exclusion Condition Investigation in Female College Students' Employment Process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张亚强; 梁彦红

    2012-01-01

    To understand the current employment status of female students, this paper analyzed the main reason for "the difficult employment" and social exclusion of female college students, and put forward relevant countermeasures. In the survey on female college students' employment, it found that the girls were more difficult to get a job than boys and the biggest harder that girls faced was sex discrimination and social exclusion. Government departments, the employer and the schools should adopt positive improvement measures to help female college students' employment and reduce social exclusion.%为把握了解当前女大学生的就业现状,分析女大学生“就业难”和社会排挤的主要原因,研究分析并提出相关对策建议,我们对某高校女大学生就业情况进行问卷调查.调查中我们发现就业过程中确实存在女生比男生更难就业,女生就业面临的最大困难就是性别歧视和社会排挤.政府部门、用人单位与学校应采用积极的改进措施帮助女大学生就业和减少社会排挤.

  6. Motivational and neural correlates of self-control of eating: A combined neuroimaging and experience sampling study in dieting female college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Richard B; Milyavskaya, Marina; Hofmann, Wilhelm; Heatherton, Todd F

    2016-08-01

    Self-regulation is a critical ability for maintaining a wide range of health behaviors, especially in preventing overeating and weight gain. Previous work has identified various threats to self-control in the eating domain, chief among which are desire strength and negative affect. In the present study, we examined individual differences in college-aged dieters' experiences of these threats as they encountered temptations to eat in their daily lives, and tested whether these differences characterized sub-groups of dieters with divergent self-control outcomes. Specifically, 75 dieting females (age range: 18-23) participated in a combined functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and experience sampling study. Participants passively viewed food cues during a fMRI session, and then reported their daily eating behaviors for one week via ecological momentary assessment. We examined the characteristics of dieters who exhibited the most favorable combination of the aforementioned factors (i.e., low desire strength and positive mood) and who were thus most successful at regulating their eating. These dieters endorsed more autonomous reasons for their self-regulatory goals, and during the food cue reactivity task more readily recruited the inferior frontal gyrus, a brain region associated with inhibitory control. We suggest that these motivational and neural correlates may also be implicated in self-regulation of other important health behaviors.

  7. Uncooked rice of relatively low gelatinization degree resulted in lower metabolic glucose and insulin responses compared with cooked rice in female college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Eun Young; Suh, Hyung Joo; Hong, Wan Soo; Kim, Dong Geon; Hong, Yang Hee; Hong, In Sun; Chang, Un Jae

    2009-07-01

    Cooking processes that gelatinize granules or disrupt structure might increase the glucose and insulin responses because a disruption of the structure of starch by gelatinization increases its availability for digestion and absorption in the small intestine. We hypothesized that the uncooked form of rice, which has a relatively low degree of gelatinization even though in powder form, would result in lower metabolic glucose and insulin responses compared with cooked rice (CR). To assess the effects of the gelatinization of rice on metabolic response of glucose and insulin, we investigated the glucose and insulin responses to 3 rice meals of different gelatinization degree in female college students (n = 12): CR (76.9% gelatinized), uncooked rice powder (UP; 3.5% gelatinized), and uncooked freeze-dried rice powder (UFP; 5.4% gelatinized). Uncooked rice powders (UP and UFP) induced lower glucose and insulin responses compared with CR. The relatively low gelatinization degree of UPs resulted in low metabolic responses in terms of the glycemic index (CR: 72.4% vs UP: 49.7%, UFP: 59.8%) and insulin index (CR: 94.8% vs UP: 74.4%, UFP: 68.0%). In summary, UPs that were less gelatinized than CR induced low postprandial glucose and insulin responses.

  8. 健美操对女学生形体塑身的影响研究%The Influence of Aerobic Exercise on Female College Students Body Shape

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李慧林

    2011-01-01

    Aerobic exercise can not only enhance physical fitnne and improve mental health, and can effectively shape the body, make people close to the ideal body standards. The paper systematically counts and analyzes height, weight, chest, hip, waist, thigh, leg, pelvis and shoulder of 20 girls of Jincheng Institute of Technology, and find that aerobic exercise has a positive impact for the different parts of the circumference of female college students'body and contributes to shape the beautiful body.%健美操锻炼不仅能增强体质,提高心理健康水平,而且能有效地塑造形体,使人形体接近理想的标准。文章运用文献资料法、实验法、数理统计法对晋城职业技术学院20名女学生的身高、体重、胸围、臀围、腰围、大腿、小腿、骨盆、肩宽进行系统的、详细的统计与分析,认为健美操对女学生身体各部位的围度都会产生积极的影响,达到形体塑身的效果。

  9. Study on the Changes and Countermeasures of Female College Students View of Women in the New Media Environment%试论新媒体视域下女大学生女性观变化及对策

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁洁

    2016-01-01

    在新媒体的影响下,社会上形成了很多歪曲的女大学生媒体形象。女大学生对自身的定位也不甚清晰,女性观也渐渐发生了一些变化。当然,随着新媒体的监管加强,主流媒体传播的女大学生正面信息也逐渐增多,女大学生在择业择偶方面也发生着变化。通过分析原因,对其中正面的影响加以深入引导,一些负面的影响提出了切实的对策,让女大学生树立起积极健康的女性观,从而提高自身社会价值,重塑社会荣誉。%Under the influence of new media, a lot of media images of female college students' are distorted in the society. Some female college students don't have a clear self-identity. On the other hand, the concept of women also gradually changes. Of course, with the strengthening of supervision on the new media, positive information of female college students is on the rise. Also, female college students are experiencing changes in job hunting. This paper analyzes the reasons, encourages the positive influences and puts up with countermeasures to negative effects, hoping to help the female students to establish a positive and healthy outlook on women, so as to enhance their social value and reshape social honor.

  10. The Effect of Social Gender Theory on the Ideological and Political Education of Female College Students%社会性别理论在女大学生思想政治教育中的作用探微

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    在当前高校女大学生思想政治教育工作中,应当挖掘和运用社会性别理论的科学观点,发挥其独特作用。在教育过程中,应当引领女大学生树立女性主体意识和“四自”精神,培育正确的人生观;教育女大学生科学认识性别和性别差异,树立积极的发展观;引导女大学生克服传统的性别角色束缚,重建正确的女性价值观;帮助女大学生克服性别刻板印象,促进自身多元化发展。%Under the current circumstances, we should tap and utilize gender theory from a scientific standpoint and develop its unique role in the ideological and political education of female college students. Doing so will help lead female college students to foster women’s subjective consciousness and the spirit of“four selves”,cultivate among them a positive outlook on life, educate female college students through a scientific understanding of gender and gender difference, establish a positive view of development, guide the female college students to overcome the traditional roles by which genders have been bound, correctly reconstruct women’s values, help female students overcome gender stereotypes, and promote their own diversified development.

  11. Discussions on Gender Discrimination and Solutions of Employing College Female Graduates%高校女毕业生就业性别歧视及其对策

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程霄; 黄彪; 余振辉

    2012-01-01

    高校毕业生就业市场屡屡出现性别歧视的现象并产生了不容忽视的消极影响。这一现象的产生主要缘于根深蒂固的传统观念的影响、女性在生理心理方面居于弱势、女性自然附着成本过高、相关法律法规不健全和生育保险制度不完善等原因。要改变这一现状不可能一蹴而就,应该采取加大宣传性别文化的观念、建立新型生育保险机制、建立健全相关法律法规等一系列措施来逐步推进改革的步伐,最大限度地保障女毕业生的合法权益不受侵害,消除这一不合理的现象。%The problems of gender discrimination in the employment of college graduates have appeared and have produced obvious negative influence.This is due to some reasons,such as: deep-rooted conventional concept has great influence;the female are inferior to men physically and psychologically;female has too much naturally attached cost;the concerned laws and regulations are inadequate and the childbirth insurance system is imperfect.There will be a long way to change the situation of gender discrimination.Therefore,in order to gradually promote the reform and guarantee the female graduates' legitimate rights and interests,and eliminate this unreasonable phenomenon,some steps should be adopted,such as: strengthen the propaganda for the culture of gender,build the new childbirth insurance system and set up and perfect some certain laws and regulations.

  12. Seafood consumption among pregnant and non-pregnant women of childbearing age in the United States, NHANES 1999–2006

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hilda Razzaghi

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids found in seafood are essential for optimal neurodevelopment of the fetus. However, concerns about mercury contamination of seafood and its potential harm to the developing fetus have created uncertainty about seafood consumption for pregnant women. We compared fish and shellfish consumption patterns, as well as their predictors, among pregnant and non-pregnant women of childbearing age in the US. Methods: Data from 1,260 pregnant and 5,848 non-pregnant women aged 16–49 years from the 1999 to 2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES were analyzed. Frequency and type of seafood consumed and adjusted associations of multiple characteristics with seafood consumption were estimated for pregnant and non-pregnant women, separately. Time trends were also examined. Results: There were no significant differences in the prevalence of fish or shellfish consumption, separately or combined, between pregnant and non-pregnant women using either the 30-day questionnaire or the Day 1, 24-h recall. Seafood consumption was associated with higher age, income, and education among pregnant and non-pregnant women, and among fish consumers these groups were more likely to consume ≥3 servings in the past 30 days. Tuna and shrimp were the most frequently reported fish and shellfish, respectively, among both pregnant and non-pregnant women. We observed no significant time trends. Conclusion: There were no differences in seafood consumption between pregnant and non-pregnant women, and the factors related to seafood consumption were similar for both groups. Our data suggest that many women consume less than the recommended two servings of seafood a week.

  13. The diagnostic performance of ultrasound for acute appendicitis in pregnant and young nonpregnant women: A case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segev, Lior; Segev, Yakir; Rayman, Shlomi; Nissan, Aviram; Sadot, Eran

    2016-10-01

    Ultrasonography is frequently used to diagnose acute appendicitis in women of reproductive age, but its diagnostic value in pregnant patients remains unclear. This study sought to compare the diagnostic performance of ultrasound in pregnant and young nonpregnant women with suspected acute appendicitis. The database of a single tertiary medical center was reviewed for all women of reproductive age who underwent appendectomy either during pregnancy (2000-2014) or in the nonpregnant state (2004-2007) following ultrasound evaluation. The performance of ultrasound in terms of predicting the final pathologic diagnosis was compared between the pregnant and non pregnant groups using receiver operating characteristic curve analysis. Of 586 young women treated for appendicitis during the study periods (92 pregnant, 494 non-pregnant), 200 underwent preoperative ultrasound [67 pregnant, and 133 nonpregnant young women]. The pregnant and nonpregnant groups were comparable in age and presenting symptoms. There was no significant difference in the predictive performance of ultrasound between the two groups (AUC 0.76 and 0.73 respectively, p = 0.78) or within the pregnant group, by trimester [first (n = 23), AUC 0.73; second (n = 32), AUC 0.67; third (n = 12), AUC 0.86; p = 0.4]. Ultrasound had a positive predictive value of 0.94 in the pregnant group and 0.91 in the nonpregnant group; corresponding negative predictive values were 0.40 and 0.43. There appears to be no difference in the ability of ultrasound to predict the diagnosis of acute appendicitis between pregnant women and nonpregnant women of reproductive age. Therefore, similar preoperative imaging algorithms may be used in both patient populations. Copyright © 2016 IJS Publishing Group Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Effects of dexamethasone on the glucogenic capacity of fetal, pregnant, and non-pregnant adult sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franko, K L; Giussani, D A; Forhead, A J; Fowden, A L

    2007-01-01

    Fetal glucocorticoids have an important role in the pre-partum maturation of physiological systems essential for neonatal survival such as glucogenesis. Consequently, in clinical practice, synthetic glucocorticoids, like dexamethasone, are given routinely to pregnant women threatened with pre-term delivery to improve the viability of their infants. However, little is known about the effects of maternal dexamethasone treatment on the glucogenic capacity of either the fetus or mother. This study investigated the effects of dexamethasone treatment using a clinically relevant dose and regime on glycogen deposition and the activities of glucose-6-phosphatase (G6Pase) and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK) in the liver and kidney of pregnant ewes and their fetuses, and of non-pregnant ewes. Dexamethasone administration increased the glycogen content of both the fetal and adult liver within 36 h of beginning treatment. It also increased G6Pase activity in the liver and kidney of the fetuses but not of their mothers or the non-pregnant ewes. Neither hepatic nor renal PEPCK activity was affected by dexamethasone in any group of animals. These changes in glycogen content and G6Pase activity were accompanied by rises in the plasma glucose and insulin concentrations and by a fall in the plasma cortisol level in the fetus and both groups of adult animals. In addition, dexamethasone treatment raised fetal plasma tri-iodothyronine (T(3)) concentrations and reduced maternal levels of plasma T(3) and thyroxine, but had no effect on thyroid hormone concentrations in the non-pregnant ewes. These findings show that maternal dexamethasone treatment increases the glucogenic capacity of both the mother and fetus and has major implications for glucose availability both before and after birth.

  15. 不同性别角色类型男女大学生的职业倾向差异%The Differences of Career Orientation between Male and Female College Students with Different Sex Role

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    闻军明; 梁庆; 孙一兰

    2011-01-01

    According to the test of CSRI and Chinese vocational interest inventory of Holland type scale in 338 college students in the sex role and career orientation and by using variance analysis and mean comparison to compare the differences of career orientation among college students with different sex and sex role, it is found that male college students with the R,I type of career orientation obviously get higher scores than the female college students and get lower scores in the A,S,C types of career orientation. As for the differences of sex role with these six types of career orientation, double-sexual college students get higher scores than the feminizing college students and undifferential ones ; the college students with masculinity in the S ,E type of career orientation get higher scores than the feminizing college students and undifferential ones.%采用CSRI和霍氏中国职业兴趣量表测查338名大学生的性别角色和职业倾向得分。用方差分析和均值比较方法比较不同性别和不同性别角色类型大学生的职业倾向差异。结果发现:男性在R、I类职业倾向得分显著高于女性,在A、S、C类职业倾向得分显著低于女性;性别角色差异:在所有6类职业倾向得分上。双性化者显著高于女性化和未分化者,男性化者在s、E类职业倾向得分显著高于女性化和未分化者。

  16. Relationship between Academic Environment and Subjective Well-being among Female College Teachers in Henan%河南省高校女教师学术环境与主观幸福感的关系

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨扬

    2012-01-01

    通过对高校女教师所处的学术环境与主观幸福感之间的关系的探讨,发现学术环境能够影响女教师的幸福感水平,其中学术人际环境最能影响幸福感的总体状况。%This paper discusses the relationship between academic environment and subjective well-being in college female teachers, and it was found the academic environment can influence the female teachers' level of happiness. Academic interpersonal environment can influence the overall condition of happiness.

  17. Clinical profile and outcome of critically ill pregnant females with H1N1 influenza

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minal Shastri

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background Record based review of the 2009 H1N1 Influenza pandemic suggests that pregnant women are at higher risk for hospitalization and death due to H1N1 Influenza. Aims To study the clinical profile and outcome of critically ill pregnant females admitted in intensive care unit (ICU with real-time recombinant polymerase chain reaction (rRT-PCR proven positive H1N1 cases. Methods A retrospective record-review based study was conducted at Sir SayajiRao General Hospital (SSGH and Medical College, Vadodara on data of confirmed rRT-PCR H1N1 pregnant females admitted during the pandemics of 2010and 2015. Demographics, clinical profile and laboratory investigations were recorded and outcomes (survived or expired were analysed. Results There were a total of 20 H1N1 positive pregnant females requiring ICU admission. With equal demographic distribution among rural and urban population, cough and fever were the most common presenting complaints. 65 per cent were in third trimester, the subgroup which also had the highest mortality. Mean days from onset until presentation was 5.05 days. 12 (60 per cent patients’ required invasive mode of ventilation and all died. Average hospital stay was 7 days. Foetus had favourable outcome in patients who recovered from H1N1 acute illness. Conclusion Pregnant females in our study had 60 per cent mortality. Thus, awareness, early diagnosis and treatment should be provided to them. Guidelines, policy changes and government protocols are required specifically for pregnant females with H1N1 Influenza A infection. Our study was an observational study and comparisons with non-pregnant females were not done, conclusions applicable to entire pregnant population was not derived.

  18. A Practice Study on the Physical and Psychological Effects of Teaching of Aerobics Dancing to Female College Students%健美操教学对高校女大学生身心影响的实践研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李莹

    2012-01-01

      Being one of key parts of the physical education for female college students, the aerobics dancing, inherently connecting with music and dance, not only helps a lot to the physical health of female college students, but also plays a key role in cultivating their moral sentiment and aesthetic consciousness.%  健美操作为高校女大学生体育课的重要组成部分,其音乐与舞蹈相结合的固有特点,不仅对女大学生的身体健康起到重要的作用,而且对她们的道德情操和审美意识也起到核心作用。

  19. The Analysis of Effect of Domestic Family Ethics Play to Female College Spouse-Selection View%国产家庭伦理剧对女大学生择偶观的影响分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈阳

    2015-01-01

    通过对辽宁省五所高校女大学生的调查,分析了国产家庭伦理剧对女大学生择偶观的影响。系统地探讨了我国家庭伦理剧的概念界定、分类和发展脉络,并讨论了概念背后蕴含的社会意义。其次,通过对已有女性择偶观研究的梳理,重新在性观念、择偶标准、女性权利意识及对婚姻生活看法四个维度上界定了女大学生的择偶观。最后,基于对女大学生家庭伦理剧观看状况和择偶观的统计分析结果,提出了相关建议。%This study analyzes the effects of domestic family ethics to spouse-selection view of female college students by investigating female college students of five universities in liaoning province. First of all,through literature review,the research systematically probes into the development of Chinese family ethics play and social significance. In addition,through the previous study of spouse-selection view for women,we now redefine the spouse-selection view of female college students from the four dimensions of sexual concept,standards,women's rights consciousness and perceptions about marriage. Finally,based on the results of statistical analysis of female college students’watching family ethics play and the spouse-selection view,we put forward correspondent analysis and related suggestions.

  20. Effect of the ethanolic extract of Nauclea latifolia (Family: Rubiaceae on the isolated uterus of non-pregnant rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nworgu Z.A.M.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The plant Nauclea latifolia has been reported to be used by traditional healers to arrest pre-term labour. The ethanolic extract of the root of N. latifolia was screened for activity via agonist-induced contractions of uterine smooth muscles in non-pregnant female albino rats. The extract, at 0.1 and 0.2 mg/ml (final bath concentration, was tested against oxytocin (4×10 -5 to 8×10 -2 I.U/ml: final bath concentration, acetylcholine (0.04 to 40 µg/ml: final bath concentration and ergometrine (0.05 to 100 µg/ml: final bath concentration induced contractions invitro. The effect of the extract was compared to that of (0.004 µg/ml: final bath concentration salbutamol and (0.004 µg/ml: final bath concentration atropine. Both concentrations of the extract significantly shifted the concentration response curves of oxytocin ( P < 0.01, acetylcholine ( P < 0.0001 and ergometrine ( P < 0.0001 to the right with a slight depression of the Emax. This shift was more with the 0.2 mg/ml concentration, thus suggesting the possibility of a dose dependent action. There was no statistical significant decrease in Emax by 0.1 mg/ml of the extract, while the 0.2 mg/ml produced a significant depression ( P < 0.05 of the Emax, which like salbutamol could not be overwhelmed by higher concentrations of oxytocin. Similarly a significant reduction of the Emax of acetylcholine induced contractions was produced by 0.2 mg/ml, while both concentrations (0.1 and 0.2 mg/ml produced significant ( P < 0.0001 reduction in Emax of ergometrine. It can thus be concluded that N latifolia root extract reduces oxytocin, acetylcholine and ergometrine-induced uterine contractions. These inhibitions were non-competitive. The result indicates an anti-abortifacient property.

  1. Iron deficiency, an independent risk factor for isolated hypothyroxinemia in pregnant and nonpregnant women of childbearing age in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Xiaohui; Shan, Zhongyan; Li, Chenyan; Mao, Jinyuan; Wang, Weiwei; Xie, Xiaochen; Liu, Aihua; Teng, Xiaochun; Zhou, Weiwei; Li, Chenyang; Xu, Bin; Bi, Lihua; Meng, Tao; Du, Jianling; Zhang, Shaowei; Gao, Zhengnan; Zhang, Xiaomei; Yang, Liu; Fan, Chenling; Teng, Weiping

    2015-04-01

    Isolated hypothyroxinemia during early pregnancy may irreversibly damage the neurodevelopment of offspring. However, the causes are not well clarified. To explore the association of iron deficiency (ID) with hypothyroid function of women in early pregnancy and nonpregnant women. A total of 7953 pregnant women of ≤ 12 weeks gestation and 2000 childbearing-aged women were recruited. A subpopulation including 3340 pregnant women and 1052 nonpregnant women with sufficient iodine intake and negative thyroid peroxidase antibody were studied. Mild and severe cases of hypothyroxinemia were defined as free T4 levels below the 10th percentile and the 5th percentile, respectively, with normal TSH. Total body iron, serum ferritin, and serum transferrin receptor were used as indicators for iron nutrition. Serum free T4 levels were significantly lower in both pregnant and nonpregnant women with ID compared with the corresponding groups without ID (both P women with ID than those without, in both pregnant and nonpregnant women (all P pregnant and nonpregnant childbearing-aged women, independent of the effects of iodine and thyroid autoimmunity. We speculate that ID may be a pathogenic factor for hypothyroxinemia, even in pregnant women during the first trimester.

  2. Obese Female College Students:Their Personality Traits and SCL-90 Results%肥胖女大学生的个性特征和SCL-90测试结果及分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王云飞; 张妮

    2016-01-01

    运用问卷调查法和数理统计法对湖南3所高校的180名肥胖女大学生和正常女大学生进行个性特征和SCL-90测试分析,研究发现:肥胖女大学生个性特征中的情绪性、倔强性和SCL-90测试结果明显高于正常体重的女大学生,这表明肥胖女大学生因为体形肥胖而易于出现个性特征异常,从而引发心理健康问题。%Using mathematical statistics and SCL-90 Symptom Check List, the author studies the personality traits of 180 female college students. Some of them are overweight, and some have normal weight. The study shows that the overweight female college students are more emotional and obstinate and have higher scores in SCL-90 than those with normal weight. This suggests that female college students tend to have abnormal personality traits due to obesity and thus suffer from psychological problems.

  3. Characteristics and Promotion Strategies of Personality Charm of Female M anagers in Colleges and U niversities%高校女性管理者人格魅力特征及提升策略

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨玲

    2015-01-01

    目前关于高校女教师从事管理工作的研究大多集中在角色分析、管理风格及领导力等方面,鲜有关于人格的研究。文章运用积极心理学理论,分析了高校女性管理者的人格魅力在管理中的作用,揭示了积极心理学视域下高校女教师的人格魅力特征,并提出了高校女教师自我提升人格魅力的策略选择。%In current researches about female teachers in colleges and universities engaged in manage‐ment work ,most have been focused on role analysis ,management style ,leadership and so on ,yet few have touched upon their personality .Based on the positive psychology ,the significance of person‐ality charm of female managers in colleges and universities to their management work is analyzed .The characteristics of personality charm of female teachers in colleges and universities are explored from the perspective of positive psychology and the strategies for promoting their personality charm are also put forward .

  4. 女大学生原发性痛经的多因素Logistic回归分析%Logistic regression analysis on the multi-factors of primary dysmenorrhea of female college students

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈丽娟; 闫妍

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the relative factors of the primary dysmenorrhea of college female students. Methods:Taking class as a group in the method of chester sampling, 1574 female college students randomly were surveyed by self-made questionnaires. And relative factors influencing dysmenorrhea were statistically analyzed. Results: In 1574 selected subjects, the incidence of primary dysmenorrheal in female college students was 65.0% (1023/1574), including 757 mild cases (74.0%), 192 moderate cases (18.8%), 74 severe cases (7.2%). According to Logistic regression analysis, mother with history of dysmenorrhea [OR=1. 352, 95% CI (1.087~1.569), P25 [OR=0.695, 95% CI (0.554~0.951), P8 h [ OR=0. 331, 95% CI ( 0. 225~0. 452 ) , P25[OR=0.695,95%CI(0.554~0.951),P8h [OR=0.331,95%CI(0.225~0.452),P<0.05]是原发性痛经的保护因素。结论:女大学生的原发性痛经发生率较高,不良社会心理环境是引起女大学生原发性痛经的主要危险因素,避免体重偏低和充足睡眠可预防痛经的发生。

  5. The Investigation to the Effect of Yoga on the Psychological Adjustment to the Female Teachers in Colleges and Universities%瑜伽对高校女教职工心理调节影响的调查研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王金林

    2014-01-01

    Selecting part of college female faculty participating in yoga exercises as the object , using methods of literature data, questionnaire, mathematical statistics and experiment , this paper analyzes the psychological and physiological situation of college female faculty who taking part in exercise , to establish suitable plan for female teachers with high physical and mental pressure , to urge them to finish every day, to help them relieve the pressure of body and mind .The study aims to provide reference for colleges and universities work.%以部分高校参加瑜伽锻炼女教职工为研究对象,通过文献资料法、调查问卷法、数理统计法和实验法对参与锻炼高校女教职工的心理和生理情况进行分析,为身心压力较大的高校女教职工制定适宜的计划,每天督促按时完成,帮助其缓解身心的压力,为服务高校工作提供参考。

  6. 构建女大学生就业促进机制的调查与思考%The Investigation and Reflection on the Construction of the Employment Promotion System for Female College Students

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱广花; 赵晓琳

    2015-01-01

    With the development of the socialist market economy and the personnel system, the employment system of college students guided by the market, regulated by the government, recommended by the colleges and universities and two-way selected both by the students and the employers.With the enhancement of the enrollment scale of the higher education, the number of the college graduates increases a lot.The issue of the employment of college students arise great attention in the society.The employment promotion system has been built up with the national policy support, the employment base set up by the colleges and universities as well as the individual competitions of the college students, which plays a positive role in the employment issues of the college graduates.However, as for the employment disadvantages of the female college students owing to gender inequality, some more effective social supports are required to be offered.More effective actions should be taken to promote the employment of the female college students from the perspective of gender.%随着高等院校的扩招,大学毕业生急剧增加,大学生就业问题引起社会的广泛关注。为解决大学生就业,我国在实践中形成了国家政策支持、高校牵头搭建就业平台和毕业生自主竞争为主的就业促进机制。该机制对大学生就业起到了积极作用,但是女大学生基于传统性别文化形成的就业弱势仍需要更为有效的社会支持,应该在社会性别的视角下采取有效措施促进女大学生就业。

  7. 医学院校女大学毕业生就业焦虑及其影响因素分析%A study on the employment anxiety of medical college female graduates and the influnce factors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李杰

    2011-01-01

    目的 探讨医学院校女大学毕业生就业焦虑的现状及其影响因素,为预防和干预医学院校女大学生就业焦虑提供理论依据.方法 采用自编学生基本情况调查表、焦虑自评量表作为测评工具,对305名医学院校女大学毕业生进行焦虑情绪测定,并分析专业、学校类别和家庭经济收入水平等因素对毕业生焦虑状况的影响.结果 医学院校女大学毕业生就业焦虑的总体检出率为26.56%,其中轻度焦虑为16.72%,中度焦虑为8.20%,重度焦虑为1.64%;不同专业的医学院校女大学毕业生就业焦虑水平,差别无统计学意义(P>0.05);高职高专院校女大学毕业生的就业焦虑程度高于重点院校、普本院校和三本院校,家庭经济困难的医学院校女大学毕业生就业焦虑水平高于家庭经济良好和家庭经济一般者,差别均具有统计学意义(P<0.05).结论 学校及家庭对医学院校女大学毕业生就业焦虑影响程度明显,应有针对性地对女大学毕业生开展就业前心理卫生健康和就业指导教育等工作.%Objective Through investigating the employment anxiety of medical college female graduates and the influ ence factors,to provide the theoretical basis for preventing and interventing the employment anxiety of medical eollege female graduates. Methods Basic self-investigating questionnaire and self-rating anxiety scale were used as the measurements to test the anxiety for 305 medical college female graduates and analyze the factors like their majors , college categories , and household economy incomes etc. Results The detection rate of the employment anxiety of medical college female graduates was 26. 56% ,which included 16. 72% of mild anxiety,8. 20% of moderate anxiety, and 1. 64% of severe anxiety. There was no significant difference among the medical college female graduates with different majors ( P > 0. 05 ) . The level of anxiety of fe male graduates in vocational

  8. 瑜伽对女大学生体质健康的影响%Yoga on female college students'physical health effects

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    薛志慧

    2012-01-01

    运用文献资料法、数理统计法对陕西师范大学瑜伽协会的新学员共52人进行调查与分析。期间对瑜伽练习者进行17周,每周3次,每次1小时的隔天练习。实验结果:瑜伽锻炼者的身体形态、身体机能、身体素质在习练瑜伽前后及与不练习者的各项指标呈显著差异(P〈0.05)或者非常显著差异(P〈0.01)。结论:瑜伽锻炼对女大学生的体质健康有积极的影响。%Using the method of literature, mathematical statistics to the new association of Shaanxi Normal Univer- sity, a total of 52 students were investigated with the analysis. During the period of yoga for 17 weeks, 3 times per week, 1 hour each day to practice. Results : yoga exercise their body shape, physical function, physical quality in the practice of yoga and practitioner of each index shows significant difference ( P 〈 0. 05 ) or very significant difference ( P 〈 0. 01 ). Conclusion: yoga exercise on female college students" physical health has positive effects on.

  9. Study on the physiological mechanism of yoga to improve the psychological health of female college students%瑜伽促进女大学生心理健康生理机制研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    仝珏娟; 郑琦; 朱玉华; 金其贯

    2014-01-01

    目的:为了探讨瑜伽锻炼对女大学生心理健康的影响激起生理机制。方法:对36名女大学生进行为期12周的瑜伽锻炼,在锻炼前后采用《中国大学生心理应急量表》测定锻炼前后女大学生的心理应激状态,并测定血液中皮质醇、β-内啡肽的含量。结果:与锻炼前比较,瑜伽锻炼后女大学生在生活、社交、发展、正性、负性、生活事件、生活琐事等分量表的得分和总分均显著降低,而血液中皮质醇含量显著降低(P<0.01),β-内啡肽含量显著升高(P<0.05)。结论:(1)长期的瑜伽锻炼是可以显著降低女大学生的心理应激状态,对促进女大学生心理健康具有积极的作用。(2)长期的瑜伽锻炼可以通过促进机体β-内啡肽的分泌,减少皮质醇的分泌来降低机体的心理应激水平,提高女大学生心理健康水平。%Objectives:To investigate the effects of yoga exercise training on psychological health of female college students and it’ s physiological mechanism. METHODS:for 12 weeks of yoga exercise on 36 female college students,“the Chinese College Student Psychological Stress Scale(CCSPSS)”was used to measure psychological stress of female college students before and after exercise training,and the serum cortisol and beta endorphin contents were measured. RESULTS:Compared with that before exercise,the subscales score in the life,social,development,positive events,negative events,life events,trivia of life and total score in the female college students were significantly decreased after yoga exercise training,and serum cortisol content decreased significantly(P<0.01),β-endorphin content increased significantly(P<0.05).CONCLUSION:(1)long-term of yoga exercise training can significantly reduce the psychological stress of female college students,and plays a positive role in promoting mental health of female college students.(2)long-term of yoga exercise training can

  10. 晋中市高校女大学生开设瑜伽课的可行性分析%Feasible Analysis on College Female Students Setting up Yoga Course in Jinzhong

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    盖甜甜; 崔鑫

    2014-01-01

    论文以女大学生为研究对象,采用文献资料法,问卷调查法,数理统计法对晋中市女大学生开设瑜伽课的可行性进行研究分析。得出瑜伽训练对女生的身体形态、生理机能、心理等有着显著的影响。瑜伽选修课的开设不仅促进了广大女生的身心健康,而且还能丰富体育教学的内容。为晋中市高校女大学生开设瑜伽课提供了一定的依据,同时也使瑜伽得到了更好的发展。%Taking female college students as the research object , using the method of literature review , question-naire , mathematical statistics , this paper makes feasible analysis on college female students setting up Yoga course in Jinzhou.The result shows that the Yoga training has significant influence on female students ’ physical shape, physiological function and mental health .A Yoga elective course not only promotes the majority of female students’ physical and mental health , but also enriches the content of physical teaching .The main purpose is to provide certain basis for setting up yoga course for college female students in Jinzhou city and obtain a better de -velopment .

  11. Comparing the Physiological, Socio-economic and Nutritional Status among Male and Female Undergraduate College Students of Metropolitan City of Kolkata

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sengupta, P

    2014-01-01

    .... It is more prevalent in metropolitan cities, like Kolkata. But, the existing literature about the physiological and nutritional status of the undergraduate college students of Kolkata is insufficient...

  12. 高校女教师专业发展困境及其实现策略研究%A Research on the Dilemma and Realization Strategy of the Professional Development of Female Teachers in Colleges and Universities

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黎钰林

    2016-01-01

    当前,我国高校女教师专业成长与发展存在学科领域内女性性别角色长期不在场、学术话语权缺失等问题。女教师在事业与家庭之间不断地转换角色,容易导致角色双重冲突与混乱,影响其身心健康。因而,社会、学校、家庭与女教师自身四者应当形成合力,采取有效的策略推动高校女教师顺利实现专业发展,成就理想人生。%At present,there exists the issues in the field of professional growth and development of female teachers in China,such as the gender roles in the field subject is not present for a long time,the lack of academic discourse power, and so on. Female teachers easily lead to role conflict and confusion in the conversion between the career and family roles, which will affect their physical and mental health. Therefore, society, college, family and female teachers should mix their power,and adopt effective strategies to promote college female teachers to achieve professional development and ideal lives.

  13. Relationship Between Iron Deficiency Anemia and Obesity in Female College Students in Kasetsart University%农业大学女大学生缺铁性贫血与肥胖情况的关系分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵春慧

    2016-01-01

    Objective To explore the relationship between iron deifciency anemia and obesity in female college students in Kasetsart University. Methods3 250 female college students who participated in physical examination, laboratory examination and health questionnaire were cases. Analysis of the incidence of iron deficiency anemia, and to explore the relationship between iron deifciency anemia and obesity. Results Obesity and quality of female college students, normal body mass of female students with iron deficiency anemia prevalence rates were 24.0% and 17.7%, signiifcant difference (P<0.05), effects of obesity and super quality factors of female students with iron deifciency anemia, including food and snacks, carnivorous, menstruation, fruit, blood products.Conclusion It is necessary to strengthen the health education of female college students, to promote the formation of good eating habits, in order to reduce the incidence of obesity and iron deifciency anemia.%目的:探讨农业大学女大学生缺铁性贫血与肥胖情况的关系。方法以农业大学自愿参与体格检查、实验室检查及健康问卷调查的女大学生为研究对象,共3250例。分析其缺铁性贫血发生率,并探讨缺铁性贫血与肥胖的关系。结果肥胖及超质量女大学生、体质量正常女大学生缺铁性贫血患病率分别为24.0%、17.7%,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05);影响肥胖及超体质量女大学生缺铁性贫血的因素包括偏食、零食、肉食、月经、水果、血制品。结论需加强女大学生健康宣教,促使其形成良好的饮食习惯,以减少肥胖及缺铁性贫血的发生。

  14. 女大学生就业性别歧视问题研究%A Study on the Issue of Gender Discrimination against Female College Students in Employment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周燕; 张尹莉; 余凯

    2014-01-01

    In recent years , with the expansion of college enrollment ,employment situation for graduates is becoming increasingly grim .For various reasons ,female college students undergo gender discrimination in em-ployment .How to successfully resolve this difficult problem has become a general concern for the academia and political circles of society .Analyzing the issue of gender discrimination against female college students in Employment , probing into the deep reasons and offering the corresponding countermeasures not only can help female college students to treat this problem rationally ,but also can maintain the equal employment rights and interests of women and promote the harmonious development of the whole society .%近年来伴随着高校扩招,我国大学生就业形势日益严峻。女大学生由于种种原因,更遭受着求职就业中的性别歧视。如何破解这一难题应成为当今政界和学界共同关注的重要课题。分析女大学生的就业性别歧视问题及其背后的深层次原因,并给出相应对策建议,不仅能够帮助女大学生理性地对待这一问题,也有利于维护女性的平等就业权,促进全社会的和谐发展。

  15. 瑜伽对女大学生心理机能指标的调节作用%Yoga's Regulation Function to Female College Students' Mental Function Index

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张雷

    2011-01-01

    Through psychological questionnaires, 30 female college students with depression, anxiety and other psychological problems are selected for the survey.According to all kinds of function yoga to people's physical and psychological health, the yoga prescription which is adapted to college students' mental feature is made and according to the principle of gradual and orderly progress, an exercise of 15 weeks long and 3 times a week is conducted to college students at extra-curricular activity.Female college students' physical, mental and psychological health before and after experiment are measured by SCL-90 scales and the statistical analysis is counted and comes to the conclusion that after the targeted yoga training, college students' all kinds of psychological function indicators have changed significantly.%通过心理问卷调查法选取在抑郁、焦虑等方面存在心理问题的女大学生30人,根据瑜伽对人体身心健康具有的各种功效,制定出符合大学生心理特点的瑜伽处方,依据循序渐进的原则,在课外活动时间对大学生进行为期15周,每周3次的隔天练习,采用SCL-90量表分别测出实验前后女大学生身体自尊、心境及其心理健康水平,并进行统计分析,证明受试者在通过有针对性设计的瑜伽体位法训练之后,各项心理机能指标都有明显变化.

  16. Research on Improving Psychological Frustration Resisting Ability of Female College Students in View of Harmony%和谐视域下女大学生心理耐挫能力提高研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马丽萍

    2012-01-01

    当今女大学生心理压力日益增大,挫折产生的诱因多种多样,比如传统性别角色要求与自我价值实现相矛盾;社会转型期各种急剧变化带来强烈价值观冲突;女性特有的细腻、敏感、脆弱等心理特质的影响;青春期向青年期过渡阶段身心发展的特殊性等.针对女大学生挫折产生的诱因提出如下建议和对策:女大学生应树立现代女性观,挑战传统性别角色观念;应培养良好的个性品质,保持乐观的生活态度;应学习并运用心理健康知识,增强心理素质.%Nowadays,the psychological stress of female college students has been increasing rapidly. The frustration arises from various incentives ,for example, the contradiction between requirement of traditional gender role and realization of self-worth ,the intense conflict of values brought about by different rapid changes in the period of social transition ,the influence of female specific characters such as exquisite ,sensitive and fragile,and the specialty of mental and physical development from adolescence to adulthood. Aiming at the incentives which lead to frustrations of female college students,this paper puts forward suggestions and solutions. The female col- lege students should adopt modern female values and challenge the concept of traditional female role, cultivate good characters and qualities,and keep optimistic attitude to life. Moreover,they should acquire and apply knowledge of mental health to improve their psychological qualities.

  17. Prevalence of vulvovaginal candidiasis among nonpregnant women attending a tertiary health care facility in Abuja, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emeribe AU

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Anthony Uchenna Emeribe,1 Idris Abdullahi Nasir,2 Justus Onyia,2 Alinwachukwu Loveth Ifunanya31Department of Medical Laboratory Science, University of Calabar, Calabar, Cross River State, Nigeria; 2Department of Medical Microbiology, University of Abuja Teaching Hospital, Gwagwalada, Federal Capital Territory, Nigeria; 3Department of Medical Laboratory, School of Health Technology, Tsafe, Zamfara State, NigeriaBackground: Candida spp. are normal flora of the vagina that eventually become pathogenic under some prevailing conditions, and thus present as a common etiology of vulvovaginitis. When prompt recognition and laboratory confirmation is not achieved, this could lead to devastating genital discomfort and a major reason for frequent hospital visits.Aims: This was a cross-sectional prospective study that aimed to determine the prevalence and some associated risk factors of vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC among nonpregnant women attending University of Abuja Teaching Hospital, Gwagwalada.Subjects and methods: A pair of high vaginal swab and endocervical swab samples was collected from each of 200 individual participating subjects. They were separately inoculated on Sabouraud's dextrose agar and incubated aerobically at 33°C for 48 hours. Ten percent KOH wet mount and Gram staining was done on swabs and colonies, respectively. Structured questionnaires were used to obtain sociodemographic and clinical data.Results: Of the 200 participating subjects, the prevalence of Candida albicans was 6.5% and that of non-albicans candidiasis 7.5%. Candidiasis was observed mostly among the 20- to 30-year age-group. All subjects with Candida-positive culture had been on antibacterial therapy prior to participating in this study – 28 (100%. There was a statistical relationship between the prevalence of VVC with previous antibacterial therapy (P<0.05, but not with age or other prevailing health conditions studied (P>0.05.Conclusion: The outcome of this study

  18. Detection and identification of plasma progesterone metabolites in the female Florida manatee (Trichechus manatus latirostris) using GC/MS/MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripp, K M; Dubois, M; Delahaut, P; Verstegen, J P

    2009-08-01

    Florida manatees (Trichechus manatus latirostris) have relatively low peripheral concentrations of progesterone (P4). The objective of this study was to determine if these relatively low P4 concentrations are associated with a high ratio of progestin metabolites and to document metabolite concentrations from individual blood samples obtained from manatees during diestrus or pregnancy. Metabolites known to exist in elephants-terrestrial manatee relatives-were targeted. These included 5alpha-reduced progestins (5alpha-pregnane-3,20-dione [5alpha-DHP] and 3alpha-hydroxy-5alpha-pregnan-20-one [5alpha-P3-OH]) and 17alpha-hydroxyprogesterone (17alpha-OHP), which occurs in Asian elephants. An additional, inactive metabolite, 20alpha-hydroxyprogesterone (20alpha-OHP), indicative of P4 overproduction, was also targeted. Progesterone itself was the predominant progestin detected in pregnant and nonpregnant manatee plasma (n = 10) using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry with tandem quadrupole detectors (GC/MS/MS). Progesterone concentrations in pregnant females varied from early (moderate to high) through mid and late (low) pregnancy. Progesterone concentrations ranged from low to high in nonpregnant, nonlactating females. The most commonly detected metabolite was 5alpha-P3-OH (n = 7), which occurred in pregnant (lower limit of detection [LLOD] to high) and nonpregnant (trace to high) females. The 5alpha-DHP metabolite was also detected in pregnant (LLOD to moderate) and nonpregnant (low) females. The 17alpha-OHP metabolite was not detected in any tested female. The 20alpha-OHP metabolite was detected in one nonpregnant, nonlactating, captive female (LLOD). Metabolites were most prevalent during early pregnancy, concurrent with maximum P4 concentrations. Based on their concentrations in peripheral circulation, we inferred that these metabolites may have, opposite to elephants, a limited physiologic role during luteal, pregnant, and nonpregnant phases in the manatee.

  19. 珠海市女大学生性知识态度行为状况%Sexual knowledge attitude and practice among female college students in Zhuhai

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李光友; 向涛

    2012-01-01

    目的 了解珠海市女大学生性知识、性态度和性行为,为改善女大学生性健康状况提供依据.方法 整群抽取珠海市高校不同专业一、二年级女生2 228名进行问卷调查.结果 理科和文科类女大学生在自慰(10.08%,11.21%)、认可同性恋(68.73%,60.34%)和被性骚扰方面(17.05%,17.24%)明显高于医学院校(4.17%,33.33%和8.33%)的女大学生(P值均<0.05);医学院校的女大学生对避孕知识的了解(8.33%)、希望有性经历(25.00%)方面高于理科(4.39%,14.99%)和文科类(6.03%,19.83%)女大学生(P值均<0.05).二年级女大学生在担心性功能(77.16%)、被性骚扰(29.74%)、有性生活经历(11.64%)、对大学生性行为接受程度(58.19%)以及避孕知识(9.05%)了解方面明显高于一年级(58.77%,14.68%,7.92%,35.82%,4.66%)女大学生(P值均<0.05).结论 不同专业、不同年级女大学性行为、性态度和性知识差异明显.%Objective To know the female college students' sexual knowledge, attitude and sexual behavior, and to provide evidence for improving their sexual health. Methods A cluster sample of 2 228 female undergraduates of the first and second grade were questionnaire surveyed. Results On the aspect of masturbation(10.08% and 11. 21% ) , recognition of homosexuality (68.73% and 60.34% ) , sexual harassment) 17.05% and 17.24% ) , science and liberal arts female students was significantly higher than the female students of medical colleges(4. 17% , 33. 33% and 8. 33% ). On the aspect of understanding of contraceptive knowledge(8. 33% ) and want to get sexual experience) 25. 00% ) , female medicos was higher than female students in science (4. 39% and 14. 99% ) and liberal arts(6. 03% and 19. 83% ). On the aspect of worry about sexual function(77. 16% ) , sexual harassment(29.74% ) and sex experience) 11.64% ) , acceptance to the college students' behavior(58. 19% ) and contraceptive knowledge) 9. 05

  20. Cognizance and utilization about breast cancer screening among the health professional female students and staffs of University Kuala Lumpur, Royal College of Medicine Perak, Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ATM Emdadul Haque

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Breast cancer (BC is a major life-threatening problem and a global concern including Malaysia. BC is an equal threat for both developing and developed countries. The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between sociodemographic factors with knowledge, attitude, and perception on BC screening among the females of University Kuala Lumpur, Royal College of Medicine Perak (UniKL RCMP. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted from 2015 to 2016. The populations included were the students and staff of UniKL RCMP. The simple sampling method was used and a set of questionnaire was prepared and distributed to the participants who were willing to participate. The data were analyzed by using the SPSS version 17. Results: Of the 220 only 203 questionnaires were returned. Nearly 87.7% of participants indicated genetic factors as the cause of BC, followed by exposure to carcinogenic and X-ray. Excessive smoking (54.2% and sedentary lifestyle (52.2% were the risk factors of the BC. 100% of participants thought that breast self-examination (BSE is important to detect a breast lump and most of them (76.8% knew what a mammogram is but only 2.0% went for a mammogram. Chemotherapy (71.9% and surgery (71.9% were treatments options according to study participants. Nearly 91.1% agreed that regular mammogram could help to detect BC at an early stage. Nearly 88.2% thought BC is not easily curable. Finally, for the attitude on BC screening, most of them knew how to perform BSE (69.0% with the frequency of 36.0% doing it once a year. Conclusions: The majority of the participants found the good knowledge on BC and on how to perform BSE. Although most of them knew what a mammogram is, only a few have gone for it since perhaps it is recommended for those who are above 50-year-old. Therefore, researchers believe and trust that there is an urgent need of state-funded multicenter study to prevent and early diagnosis of BC in

  1. Cognizance and utilization about breast cancer screening among the health professional female students and staffs of University Kuala Lumpur, Royal College of Medicine Perak, Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haque, A T M Emdadul; Mohd Hisham, Muhammad Afif Bin; Ahmad Adzman, Noor Azwa Laili Binti; Azudin, Nur Atiqah Binti; Shafri, Nursakinah Binti; Haque, Mainul

    2016-01-01

    Breast cancer (BC) is a major life-threatening problem and a global concern including Malaysia. BC is an equal threat for both developing and developed countries. The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between sociodemographic factors with knowledge, attitude, and perception on BC screening among the females of University Kuala Lumpur, Royal College of Medicine Perak (UniKL RCMP). This cross-sectional study was conducted from 2015 to 2016. The populations included were the students and staff of UniKL RCMP. The simple sampling method was used and a set of questionnaire was prepared and distributed to the participants who were willing to participate. The data were analyzed by using the SPSS version 17. Of the 220 only 203 questionnaires were returned. Nearly 87.7% of participants indicated genetic factors as the cause of BC, followed by exposure to carcinogenic and X-ray. Excessive smoking (54.2%) and sedentary lifestyle (52.2%) were the risk factors of the BC. 100% of participants thought that breast self-examination (BSE) is important to detect a breast lump and most of them (76.8%) knew what a mammogram is but only 2.0% went for a mammogram. Chemotherapy (71.9%) and surgery (71.9%) were treatments options according to study participants. Nearly 91.1% agreed that regular mammogram could help to detect BC at an early stage. Nearly 88.2% thought BC is not easily curable. Finally, for the attitude on BC screening, most of them knew how to perform BSE (69.0%) with the frequency of 36.0% doing it once a year. The majority of the participants found the good knowledge on BC and on how to perform BSE. Although most of them knew what a mammogram is, only a few have gone for it since perhaps it is recommended for those who are above 50-year-old. Therefore, researchers believe and trust that there is an urgent need of state-funded multicenter study to prevent and early diagnosis of BC in Malaysia.

  2. A Cross-sectional Study of the Pattern of Body Image Perception among Female Students of BBM College in Vijayapur, North Karnataka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashmi, B M; Patil, Shailaja S; Angadi, Mahabaleshwar Mahantappa; Pattankar, Tanuja P

    2016-07-01

    Body image is an essential aspect of young girls' self-definition and individual identity which is influenced by various biological, psychological and social factors. Excessive concern about body image, body image misconception are leading to dissatisfaction, disturbed eating patterns, affecting the nutritional status and also leading to depression and anxiety disorders. This concept of body image has been less explored in Indian context, especially among young girls. The objectives of the study were to assess the body image perception among young college going girls, using a visual analog scale and to compare body image perception and satisfaction with their BMI levels and weight changing methods adopted. An exploratory cross-sectional study was conducted among 63 female students studying BBM course at a private commerce institution in Vijayapur city. Data was collected using a self administered questionnaire containing details of basic socio-demographic information and a validated visual analogue scale. Height was measured by Seca Stadiometer, weight was measured using Digital weighing machine and Body Mass Index levels were calculated. Percentages were calculated for descriptive variables. Chi-square test was applied for analysing categorical variables. Spearman Rank correlation test was applied for analysing ordinal data. A 39.7% of participants were underweight and 15.9% were overweight/obese. Majority of underweight and overweight girls (72% and 89%, respectively) perceived themselves as normal weight. Body image satisfaction of participants was found to be significantly associated with their body image perception, mothers' educational status and also with relatives' and peer group's opinions about their body weight. Unhealthy weight changing patterns like skipping meals (13%), increasing quantity and frequency of meals (17%) were reported among study participants. This exploratory study highlights the gap between young girls' body image perception and their

  3. Explored Issues of Post 95 Generation Female College Students'Dormitory Interpersonal%95后女大学生宿舍人际现状及冲突探究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁洁

    2016-01-01

    Dormitory,as the second home of college students,plays an important role in their study and development.In this paper,through the analysis of post 95 generation female college students dormitory interpersonal relationship and interpersonal conflict concept definition,find out the reason,then puts forward some countermeasures;to better prevent and resolve 95 gen-eration female college students dormitory interpersonal conflict,and create a good atmosphere in the dormitory.%宿舍作为高校大学生的第二个家,对大学生的学习与成长起着重要的作用。本文以95后女大学生特殊群体为切入点,通过对95后女大学生宿舍人际关系现状分析及人际冲突概念界定,剖析问题原因,并提出相应的对策;旨在更好地预防和化解95后女大学生宿舍人际冲突,营造良好的宿舍氛围。

  4. Drug use by pregnant women and comparable non-pregnant women in The Netherlands with reference to the Australian classification system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schirm, Eric; Meijer, W.M.; Tobi, H; de Jong-van den Berg, Lolkje Theodora Wilhelmina

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To describe drug use in pregnancy, and compare drug use of pregnant women with non-pregnant women with respect to possible teratogenicity. Study design: A cross-sectional study based on pharmacy records from 1997 to 2001 was performed. Pregnant women and matched non-pregnant women (same p

  5. Drug use by pregnant women and comparable non-pregnant women in The Netherlands with reference to the Australian classification system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schirm, Eric; Meijer, W.M.; Tobi, H; de Jong-van den Berg, Lolkje Theodora Wilhelmina

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To describe drug use in pregnancy, and compare drug use of pregnant women with non-pregnant women with respect to possible teratogenicity. Study design: A cross-sectional study based on pharmacy records from 1997 to 2001 was performed. Pregnant women and matched non-pregnant women (same p

  6. Transient osteoporosis of the hip in a non-pregnant woman.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, Kanakeya Bachha; Sareen, Atul; Kanojia, Rajesh Kumar; Prakash, Jatin

    2015-06-04

    Transient osteoporosis of the hip is a rare, self-limiting condition, occurring most commonly in middle-aged men, but also sometimes in women, usually in late pregnancy. It is characterised by gradual onset of hip pain aggravated by weight bearing without any associated history of trauma and systemic illness. It is usually of unknown aetiology, but pregnancy is a recognised risk factor for women. Other conditions that can mimic transient osteoporosis of the hip on MRI are osteonecrosis, osteomyelitis and neoplasms. We present a case of a 38-year-old non-pregnant woman with transient osteoporosis of the hip, managed conservatively, leading to a full recovery. Treatment is conservative, including protected weight bearing, physical therapy and non-steroidal analgesics. The patient was completely painless and symptom free at 2-year follow-up. 2015 BMJ Publishing Group Ltd.

  7. Functional and molecular characterization of voltage-gated sodium channels in uteri from nonpregnant rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seda, Marian; Pinto, Francisco M; Wray, Susan; Cintado, Cristina G; Noheda, Pedro; Buschmann, Helmut; Candenas, Luz

    2007-11-01

    We investigated the function and expression of voltage-gated Na(+) channels (VGSC) in the uteri of nonpregnant rats using organ bath techniques, intracellular [Ca(2+)] fluorescence measurements, and RT-PCR. In longitudinally arranged whole-tissue uterine strips, veratridine, a VGSC activator, caused the rapid appearance of phasic contractions of irregular frequency and amplitude. After 50-60 min in the continuous presence of veratridine, rhythmic contractions of very regular frequency and slightly increasing amplitude occurred and were sustained for up to 12 h. Both the early and late components of the contractile response to veratridine were inhibited in a concentration-dependent manner by tetrodotoxin (TTX). In small strips dissected from the uterine longitudinal smooth muscle layer and loaded with Fura-2, veratridine also caused rhythmic contractions, accompanied by transient increases in [Ca(2+)](i), which were abolished by treatment with 0.1 microM TTX. Using end-point and real-time quantitative RT-PCR, we detected the presence of the VGSC alpha subunits Scn2a1, Scn3a, Scn5a, and Scn8a in the cDNA from longitudinal muscle. The mRNAs of the auxiliary beta subunits Scbn1b, Scbn2b, Scbn4b, and traces of Scn3b were also present. These data show for the first time that Scn2a1, Scn3a, Scn5a, and Scn8a, as well as all VGSC beta subunits are expressed in the longitudinal smooth muscle layer of the rat myometrium. In addition, our data show that TTX-sensitive VGSC are able to mediate phasic contractions maintained over long periods of time in the uteri of nonpregnant rats.

  8. Traditional Modern Female and Modern Traditional Female: The Role Dilemma of the Highly Educated Female Teachers in Colleges%“传统的现代女人”与“现代的传统女人”之惑——高校高学历女教师之角色困境

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨宇辰; 王伟

    2012-01-01

    As traditional modern female, the highly educated female teachers in colleges have intensive self-development needs, subieetive consciousness and achievement motivation, although they are often troubled by the academic pressure. As modern traditional female, a part of them who are single have some troubles in "structural surplus", another part of them who have married are hovering between family and career painfully. The various role pressures are rooted in the conflict between the he traditional social expectations and modern pursuit of value. It needs the whole society to ease these pressures, improve benign development of the gender culture. The highly educated female teachers also should reasonably cognize themSelves to promote the ability of adapting different roles.%作为“传统的现代女人”,高校高学历女教师有着强烈的自我发展需求、主体意识和成就动机,但在沉重的学术压力面前她们更容易出现职业倦怠。作为“现代的传统女人”,未婚的高学历女教师往往面临“结构性剩余”的境地,已婚的高学历女教师则在事业与家庭之间作着“鱼与熊掌”的艰难选择。多种角色压力归根到底是由于传统社会期待与现代价值追求的冲突,疏解这些压力要全社会共同努力,推进社会性别文化的良性发展,高学历女教师自身也要对自我作理性认知,提高对不同角色的适应能力。

  9. The Experimental Research of Three Kinds of Sports to Female College Students Physical Effects%三项体育运动对女大学生体质影响的实验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜凌云

    2012-01-01

    Experiments demonstrate that physical exercise can significantly improve the female college students vital capacity and the standing long jump results. The experiment is consist of 12 weeks aerobics, basketball, or table tennis physical exercise 3 times every week, each time 80 min. Aerobics exercise is the most obvious effect. Obviously aerobics exercise can reduce weight of the female college students and improve the 800m running per- formance. Three kinds of physical exercise have little impact to griping ability and heart rate for female undergradu- ate.%实验表明:通过12周健美操、篮球、和乒乓球的单项体育锻炼(每周锻炼3次,每次80min),均可显著提高女大学生的肺活量和立定跳远成绩,其中健美操单项锻炼效果最明显;健美操单项锻炼对女生减轻体重和提高800m跑成绩效果显著;三项体育锻炼对女生握力和心率影响不大.

  10. 女大学生异常心理与体育教学调控治疗的研究%Study of Female College Students'Abnormal Psychology and Regulatory Treatment of Physical Education

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李照清

    2014-01-01

    Abnormal psychological problem has become an important issue , which cannot be ignored , of female college students'comprehensive healthy development as well as the national medium and long -term education reform and development .Through the interpretation of female college students'abnormal psychology , psychological discomfort , mental disorder , mental disease and other psychological types are summarized , and mechanism and principle of sports regulatory treatment for abnormal psychology are analyzed .On this basis, it develops the measures that regulate and treat female students with abnormal psychological problem by physical education .%异常心理问题已成为女大学生全面健康发展以及国家中长期教育改革和发展不可忽视的重要问题。通过对女大学生异常心理的解读,归纳出心理不适、心理障碍、心理疾病等异常心理类型,分析了体育运动调控治疗异常心理的机制和原理,在此基础上制定出体育教学对女大学生异常心理调控和治疗的措施。

  11. Immunohistochemical distribution of oestrogen and progesterone receptors and tissue concentrations of oestrogens in the cervix of non-pregnant cows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Breeveld-Dwarkasing, V.N.A.; Boer-Brouwer, de M.; Mostl, E.; Soede, N.M.; Weijden, van der G.C.; Taverne, M.A.M.; Dissel-Emiliani, van F.M.F.

    2002-01-01

    An immunohistochemical study of the expression of oestrogen (ER) and progesterone receptors (PR) in different regions along the longitudinal and vertical axes of the cervix of non-pregnant cows was performed. Animals were separated into two groups depending on the presence or absence of a functional

  12. Serum iron level, ferritin and total iron binding capacity level among nonpregnant women with and without melasma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elham Behrangi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Melasma is a common acquired disorder characterized by symmetric, hyperpigmented patches with an irregular outline, occurring most commonly on the face. It is most prevalent among young to middle-aged women. Although iron overload affects skin pigmentation, effect of iron deficiency on skin is not clear. So, we evaluated serum iron level, ferritin and total iron binding capacity (TIBC level among nonpregnant women with and without melasma. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional case study was conducted in 2012 at university dermatologic department on 33 nonpregnant women with melasma (case and 33 nonpregnant women without melasma (control. Serum iron level, TIBC and ferritin in the two groups was measured and compared. Results: Serum iron level was lower in the case group (85 ± 11 in comparison with control group (102 ± 9, but the difference was not significant (P: 0.9. Mean TIBC and Ferritin were higher in the case group (TIBC: 329.4 ± 29, ferritin: 6 ± 18 than the control group (TIBC: 329.3 ± 29, ferritin: 33 ± 6 without significant difference. Conclusion: Although the serum iron level was lower in nonpregnant women with mealsma, it was not significant compared with those without melasma.

  13. Serum iron level, ferritin and total iron binding capacity level among nonpregnant women with and without melasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behrangi, Elham; Baniasadi, Farzaneh; Esmaeeli, Shooka; Hedayat, Kosar; Goodarzi, Azade; Azizian, Zahra

    2015-01-01

    Background: Melasma is a common acquired disorder characterized by symmetric, hyperpigmented patches with an irregular outline, occurring most commonly on the face. It is most prevalent among young to middle-aged women. Although iron overload affects skin pigmentation, effect of iron deficiency on skin is not clear. So, we evaluated serum iron level, ferritin and total iron binding capacity (TIBC) level among nonpregnant women with and without melasma. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional case study was conducted in 2012 at university dermatologic department on 33 nonpregnant women with melasma (case) and 33 nonpregnant women without melasma (control). Serum iron level, TIBC and ferritin in the two groups was measured and compared. Results: Serum iron level was lower in the case group (85 ± 11) in comparison with control group (102 ± 9), but the difference was not significant (P: 0.9). Mean TIBC and Ferritin were higher in the case group (TIBC: 329.4 ± 29, ferritin: 6 ± 18) than the control group (TIBC: 329.3 ± 29, ferritin: 33 ± 6) without significant difference. Conclusion: Although the serum iron level was lower in nonpregnant women with mealsma, it was not significant compared with those without melasma. PMID:26109976

  14. Comparative evaluation of subgingival plaque microflora in pregnant and non-pregnant women: A clinical and microbiologic study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rishi Emmatty

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Gingival changes in pregnancy have been attributed to changes in the subgingival biofilm related to hormonal variations. Aims: To evaluate the subgingival plaque microflora in pregnant and nonpregnant women to determine if pregnancy induces any alterations in the subgingival plaque and to associate these changes with changes in periodontal status. Settings and Design: Thirty pregnant and 10 nonpregnant women within the age group of 20-35 years having a probing pocket depth (PPD of 3-4 mm were included in the study. The pregnant women were equally divided into 3 groups of 10, each belonging to I, II, and III trimester. Materials and Methods: Plaque index, gingival index, PPD, and microbiologic evaluation for specific bacterial counts for Prevotella intermedia, Porphyromonas gingivalis, Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, Parvimonas micra, and Fusobacterium nucleatum were carried out for all subjects. Statistical Analysis: Mann-Whitney U test. Results: Increase in gingival inflammation was observed in II and III trimester as compared with I trimester and control. Plaque scores did not show any significant difference between pregnant and nonpregnant women. Specific bacterial examination revealed an increase in proportion of P. intermedia in pregnant women of both II and III trimester as compared with I trimester and nonpregnant women. Conclusions: A definite increase in proportions of P. intermedia occurs in subgingival plaque microflora in pregnancy that may be responsible for the exaggerated gingival response.

  15. Platelet reactivity changes significantly throughout all trimesters of pregnancy compared with the nonpregnant state: a prospective study.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Burke, N

    2013-12-01

    Platelets play an important role in the pathophysiology of uteroplacental disease and platelet reactivity may be an important marker of uteroplacental disease activity. However, platelet reactivity has not been evaluated comprehensively in normal pregnancy. We sought to evaluate platelet reactivity using a number of agonists at defined time points in pregnancy using a novel platelet assay and compare these with a nonpregnant cohort.

  16. The effect of heparin on pregnancy associated plasma protein-A concentration in healthy, non-pregnant individuals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jespersen, Camilla H B; Vestergaard, Kirstine R; Schou, Morten

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study was to determine the differences in pregnancy associated plasma protein-A (PAPP-A) concentrations in heparin naive and heparin treated healthy men and non-pregnant women, to find a possible difference in different age groups, and to determine the response...

  17. Aspects of physiological effects of sodium zeolite A supplementation in dry, non-pregnant dairy cows fed grass silage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enemark, J M; Frandsen, A M; Thilsing-Hansen, T

    2003-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to monitor serum and urine biochemical changes in dairy cows during and after oral administration of a synthetic sodium aluminium-silicate (zeolite A). A prospective longitudinal study involving four non-pregnant and non-lactating cows was chosen. Cows were...

  18. Influencing Factors and Their Optimization on Female College Students ’ Physical Exercises%女大学生体育锻炼的影响因素及其优化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄铁梅

    2013-01-01

    Female college students are not active in physical exercises due to various subjective and objective factors . They should be guided to grasp the skills and know the ways of physical exercises with full awareness so as to improve their physical fitness through the work of colleges and universities with enhanced organization and developed equipment .%受种种主客观因素影响,女大学生参加课外体育锻炼积极性不高。高校应通过加强组织,配备设施,引导女大学生掌握运动技能和锻炼手段,切实提高其锻炼意识,强化体质。

  19. Clinical analysis of gynecopathia among female college students:report of 236 cases%女大学生妇科疾病236例临床分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭虹

    2011-01-01

    目的:探讨女大学生这一特殊群体生殖健康状态,为高校构建全面、系统的性与生殖健康服务体系及制定保健干预措施提供理论依据.方法:整理近3年来诊治的236例女大学生妇科疾病的临床资料,并进行统计学分析.结果:女大学生妇科疾病的发病率最高为月经失调(39.8%),其次为痛经(20.3%),妇科炎症为17.79%占第3位,闭经发病率最低.结论:月经失调、痛经、妇科炎症、闭经是困扰女大学生的主要妇科疾病,加强生殖健康知识教育,有助于提高女大学生生理健康.%Objective:To investigate the state of reproductive health in frmale college students, and to provide the theory evidence about building a sexual and reproductive health service system and health care interventions. Methods : Retrospective analysis the clinic data of female college students (n= 236) in recent three years. Results: The incidence rate of menstruation disorder was 39. 8%, dysmenorrheal was 20. 3%,gynecological inflammation was 17. 79% and amenorrhea was rare in the study. Conclusion: The common gynecologic disease in female college students were menstruation disorder, dysmenorrheal, gynecological inflammation and amenorrhea. The education about reproductive knowledge was helpful in promote reproductive health in college students.

  20. 基于篮球运动的女大学生抑郁心理干预研究%Psychological Intervention in Depression of Female College Students Based on Basketball

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王毅; 刘晓军

    2012-01-01

    32 female college students in depression are in the test group and control group, and the control group were trained basketball basic skills and went through the intervention activities for 12 weeks to research on the affect of school basketball activities on students' depression. The result shows : after intervention, depression scores of female college students in test group decreased significantly ( P ~〈 0.01 ) than that in the control group ( P ~〈 0.05). Basketball teaching has a good intervention in the depression of female college students, based on teaching basic basketball skills and having basketball competition.%以32名存在抑郁心境状态的女大学生为研究对象,随机分为实验组和对照组,对实验组进行为期12周的篮球基本技战术教学和竞赛活动的心理干预,研究学校篮球教学对抑郁心理的影响效果.结果显示:经过干预后,实验组女大学生的抑郁因子得分显著下降(P≤O.01),比对照组女大学生的抑郁得分显著性降低(P≤0.05).研究结论得出,基于篮球基本技战术和教学竞赛的篮球教学活动对女大学生的抑郁情绪有良好的干预效果.

  1. Effects of Yoga on Female College Students'Physical Fitness,the Quality of Sleep and Anxiety%瑜伽对女大学生身体素质、睡眠质量和焦虑的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    牟玉梅

    2015-01-01

    Through using the method of literature review,questionnaire survey,experimental and mathematical statistics,this paper studies the effects of Yoga of 16 weeks on female college students'physical fitness,sleep quality and anxiety.The results showed that Yoga of low -frequency time can effectively improve the physical fitness of female college students;Yoga of low -frequency time had no significant effects on female college students'sleep quality and anxiety;Students ’ extracurricular physical training situation has a significant correlation with sleep quality,but has no significant correlation with the state anxiety.%通过文献资料法、问卷调查法、实验法和数理统计法,研究16周瑜伽练习(1次/周,90min/次)对女大学生身体素质、睡眠质量和状态焦虑的影响。结果显示:低频次的瑜伽练习可有效改善女大学生身体素质;低频次的瑜伽练习对女大学生睡眠质量和状态焦虑无显著性影响;学生课外体育锻炼情况与睡眠质量呈显著性相关,与状态焦虑无显著性相关。

  2. 普通女大学生隐性肥胖现状测试与分析%The Analysis and Test of Masked Obesity in Female College Students

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈玉娟; 李立; 翟凤鸣; 崔巴特尔

    2011-01-01

    目的:了解当前女大学生身体成分特征。方法:采用日本产DF830体脂肪计,对822名普通女大学生进行测试。结果:当前女大学生体重平均水平不存在超重情况,84.31%的女大学生实际体重低于标准体重;体重虽然不高,但身体成分中脂肪含量的比例却比较高,65.57%的女大学生体脂肪率大于或等于25%,32.12%的女大学生体脂肪率大于或等于30%,女大学生中“隐性肥胖”的比率为24.09%。结论:当前女大学生身体成分比例不容乐观,体脂肪量比例较高,存在较严重的“隐性肥胖”现象;导致这一结果的原因可能是女学生为了减肥瘦身,不适宜的节制饮食、使用各种减肥剂,却厌倦体育活动。减掉的不是脂肪而是筋肉量所致。%Purpose This research wanted to study the characteristics of body composition in female college students. Method The test used the DF830 body fat test machine (Japan) to study the body composition of 822 ordinary female college students. Results There is no overweight in test objectives and 84. 31 percent are lower than standard ; while the ratio of body fat is high, 65. 57 percent of body fat surpass 25% and 32. 12 percent surpass 30% ; The ratio of masked obesity is 24. 09% in female college students. Conclusion The current proportion of body composition in female college students can not be optimistic. They have a higher proportion of body fat and serious " masked obesity". The reason may be inappropriate diet control, weight loss medicine abusing and physical inactivity to lead to muscle loss and fat increase.

  3. Study on the Personal Relations and Subjective Happiness of Female College Students%当代女大学生人际关系与主观幸福感的关系研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周红伟

    2012-01-01

    To investigate the personal relations and subjective happiness of female college students and discuss their relationships. Methods Interpersonal relationship scale and subjective happiness scale were used for testing. Results ①44.06% female college students did not have much disturbance of personal relations, 35. 66% had some disturbance of personal relations, and 20. 28% have serious disturbance of personal relations. There are significant differences of disturbance of personal relations between different grades. ②In general, subjective happiness of female college students was at the normal level. There are significant differences of satisfaction, positive affect and negative affect between different grades. ?Personal relations have significant influence on the subjective happiness of female college students. Conclusions The subjective happiness can be predicted by the disturbance of personal relations.%目的 了解当代女大学生人际关系及主观幸福感状况,并探讨两者之间的关系.方法 利用人际关系综合诊断量表、主观幸福感量表进行测试.结果 ①女大学生中较少人际关系困扰占44.06%,有一定程度人际关系困扰的占35.66%,有严重人际关系困扰的占20.28%,人际关系困扰各维度在不同年级之间存在显著差异;②女大学生主观幸福感总体上处于中等水平,在生活满意度、正性情感、负性情感3个方面存在显著的年级差异;③人际关系对女大学生主观幸福感有重要影响.结论 人际关系困扰可以预测主观幸福感.

  4. Being the Same Isn't Enough: Impact of Male and Female Mentors on Computer Self-Efficacy of College Students in IT-Related Fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goh, Debbie; Ogan, Christine; Ahuja, Manju; Herring, Susan C.; Robinson, Jean C.

    2007-01-01

    This study investigates the relationship between computer self-efficacy, mentoring, and the gender of mentors and students. The decline of women in IT-related programs of U.S. universities has led scholars to suggest that making more female faculty mentors available could raise female students' computer self-efficacy. This could address women's…

  5. Energy requirements of Dorper×thin-tailed Han crossbred ewes during non-pregnancy and lactation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LOU Can; DIAO Qi-yu; SI Bing-wen; DENG Kai-dong; MA Tao; JIANG Cheng-gang; TU Yan; ZHANG Nai-feng; JI Shou-kun; CHEN Dan-dan

    2015-01-01

    This experiment was conducted to investigate the energy requirement of Dorper×thin-tailed Han crossbred ewes during non-pregnancy and lactation. Fifteen ewes after parturition were randomly assigned to three treatments:ad libitum(100%) feed intake and 80 or 60%ad libitum intake, and another nine non-pregnant ewes were assigned to a blank control group. Digestibility trials were performed in the non-pregnant ewes and in the lactating ewes on the 20th, 50th, and 80th d of lactation. In paralel with the digestibility trial, a respirometry experiment was conducted to determine the methane and carbon dioxide production with an open-circuit respirometry system that was equipped with respiratory chambers. The net energy (NE) and metabolizable energy (ME) requirements for maintenance and growth were calculated using the carbon and nitrogen balance method. The results revealed that the carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) excretions and energy losses at faeces and urine, as wel as the output of methane and CO2, increased signiifcantly with decreasing feed intake (P<0.01). The apparent digestibilities of C in the stages of non-pregnancy and early, middle and late lactation were 55.8–58.3%, 62.5–73.8%, 64.8–71.3%, and 61.7–65.0%, respectively, and the apparent digestibilities of N were 45.2–51.3%, 73.7–82.7%, 72.8–80.5%, and 73.6–76.5%, respectively. The corresponding energy apparent digestibilities were 52.0–56.3%, 60.7–76.6%, 61.0–68.8%, and 61.4–67.7%, respectively. The ME/DE (digestible energy) values were 79.5–85.9%, 79.4–83.5%, 81.0%–85.3% and 78.6–82.9%, respectively. The maintenance requirements of NE, ME, and the efifciencies of ME utilisation for maintenance during the stages of non-pregnancy and early, middle and late lactation were 215.5, 253.1, 247.7, and 244.7 kJ kg–1 BW0.75 d, and 372.4, 327.1, 320.9, and 362.0 kJ kg–1 BW0.75 d, and 0.58, 0.77, 0.77, and 0.68, respectively. The ME requirement for the growth of non-pregnant ewes was

  6. 浅析形体练习对女大学生综合素质的影响%Physique Training Contributes to the Influence of the Integrated Quality of Female students at College

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李秀东; 李永春

    2012-01-01

    通过对女大学生开展16周的普拉提(Pilates)运动形态训练,分析形体练习对女大学生身体形态、身体素质、身体机能等指标的影响,提出形体练习对高校女大学生的影响体现在有益于增强体魄和形体美,提升女大学生的气质以及调节心理健康等三个方面.形体练习促使大学生能够正确的认知美,塑造美,提高整体的综合素质,深化健康的理念,进而得到身心的全面发展.%After sixteen weeks of Pilates exercise to female college students, analyzing the influence of it on the body shape, physical quality and body function of them, this paper proposed that physique training can exercise the healthy body, improve the elegant temperament and adjust the healthy state of female students at college, through to can correctly know beauty, shape beautiful body and improve integrated quality, deepening the concept of health, so that they will get the all - round development of the body and mind.

  7. 论市场经济语境下女大学生职业生涯规划的演绎佳境%On Female College Students' Career Plan Deductive in Marketing Economy Discourse

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张举

    2011-01-01

    市场经济时代对女大学生职业生涯规划提出了新的挑战,也为女大学生合理规划和顺利实现职业生涯提供了更为良好的选择空间和实现条件。为此,对女大学生职业生涯规划的辅导应注重采用“体验”、“活动”、“激励”、“共享”等活泼形式,从而最终开创“全员参与,通力合作,服务于全体学生”的实施格局。%The marketing economy era presented new challenge for female college students' career plan, and it also offers more opportunities and conditions to realize their plan. Thus the instruction for female college students shouldattach importance to flexible forms like "experience", "activity", "motivation", "sharing" and so on, thus "staff participation, cooperation, serving all students" pattern is formed.

  8. Influence of Cheerleading Practice Group on Female College Students’ Self-esteem%团体啦啦操练习对女大学生身体自尊的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王君如; 姚丽琴

    2014-01-01

    目的:为全面地认识团体啦啦操练习对身体自尊的影响。方法:本研究采用实验法对湖州师范学院17名在校女大学生进行身体自尊研究。结果:短期内团体啦啦操练习对身体自尊的影响不存在显著差异,但对身体自尊中的身体吸引力和身体自尊总分有明显的影响。结论:通过啦啦操练习,对女大学生的身体形态、表现力和自信心全面提升。%Objective:To fully understand the impact on the community cheerleading practice physical self -es-teem.Methods:In this study, experimental method is adopted on 17 female students from Huzhou Teachers Col-lege at the school for physical self -esteem research .Results: The short -term impact of exercise on the body corporate Cheerleading esteem there is no significant difference , but there is a significant impact on the physical attractiveness of physical self -esteem and body esteem scores .Conclusion: Through cheerleading practice , the body shape and the performance of power and self -confidence of female college students can be fullyenhanced .

  9. The influence of college female students' premarital sexual behavior to reproductive health and the preventive measures%高校女生婚前性行为对生殖健康的影响及预防对策

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王爱宁

    2015-01-01

    It is an indisputable fact that the incidence of premarital sexual behavior of college female students has risen in recent years, and the premarital sex behaviors can cause the risk of genital tract infection and non intention pregnancy and artificial abortion. The promotion of sexual morality education and contraception in universities can reduce the incidence of genital tract infections and unwanted pregnancy and induced abortion, so as to guarantee the physical and mental health of female college students.%近年来,高校女生婚前性行为发生率的升高已是一个不争的事实,而婚前性行为存在着生殖道感染及非意愿妊娠及人工流产的风险。在高校中开展性道德教育及避孕知识的宣传,能起到降低生殖道感染及非意愿妊娠及人工流产的发生率,从而保证女大学生的身心健康。

  10. Humane Consideration and Thought on Female College Students' Love and Marriage%在校女大学生婚恋问题的人文关怀与思考

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘晓伟; 李东风

    2012-01-01

    Female college students' view on love and marriage is related to their growth,career and happiness which should draw attention and thoughts from educators and administrators.This paper analyzes features of female college students' view on love and marriage,and explores its specialty from perspectives of sociology,psychology and ethnics.Thus educators should pay attention to their love and marriage questions from humane point of view.%在校女大学生的婚恋观关系到女大学生成长、成才与一生的幸福,值得高校教育者和管理者的高度关注与思考。女大学生的婚恋观有其自身特点,从社会学、心理学和伦理学的角度分析其产生的特殊性,对从人文视角关注在校女大学生的婚恋问题具有重要的指导意义。

  11. The Representation of Minority, Female, and Non-Traditional Stem Majors in the Online Environment at Community Colleges: A Nationally Representative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wladis, Claire; Hachey, Alyse C.; Conway, Katherine M.

    2015-01-01

    Using data from more than 2,000 community college science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) majors in the National Postsecondary Student Aid Study, this research investigates how ethnicity, gender, non-traditional student risk factors, academic preparation, socio-economic status, and English-as-second-language/citizenship status…

  12. Navigating the Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics Pipeline: How Social Capital Impacts the Educational Attainment of College-Bound Female Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Rebecca Elizabeth

    2011-01-01

    Despite the proliferation of women in higher education and the workforce, they have yet to achieve parity with men in many of the science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM) majors and careers. The gap is even greater in the representation of women from lower socioeconomic backgrounds. This study examined pre-college intervention strategies…

  13. 普通高校女生体育锻炼习惯培养实验研究%Experimental Research into Cultivating the Habit of Doing Exercises of Female College Students

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周惠娟

    2014-01-01

    我国在校大学生中女生人数已超过半数,其体质状况持续下降令人担忧,因而大学女生体育锻炼习惯的培养成为学校体育工作的重要内容。通过本校教学实验研究大学女生体育锻炼习惯养成的条件和效果,不难发现,大部分学生余暇用于上网的时间大于体育锻炼的时间;对学生体育锻炼进行合理的引导和一定强制的监督能够有效使学生体验到体育锻炼带来的益处;体育社团中学生伙伴关系有助于维持学生锻炼的习惯;学生习惯养成后进行自觉锻炼,能在一定时间上维持自身体质处于较好水平。%While the number of female students exceeds the number of male students in colleges, cultivating exercise habits for women college students has become essential work in collegiate physical education because of the worrying physiques of college students. This study reveals the necessary conditions and possible outcomes of female college students cultivating habits of doing exercises by didactic experiments and research. The results prove most college students use their spare time to surf the Internet rather than exercise, thus rational guidance and mandatory supervision, as well as participation in sports associations, will be of great help for students to further develop the benefits of exercise and maintain exercise habits at the same time. Self-motivated exercise habits will definitely lead to better physical condition of students.

  14. Effects of cheerleading dance exercise on sleep quality of female college students%舞蹈啦啦操锻炼对女大学生睡眠质量的干预研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    时倩

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To study the effect of cheerleading dance exercises on sleep quality of female college students.METHODS 72 female college students were collected and their sleep quality before and after participating in cheerleading dance exercise was surveyed and analyzed by the questionnaire of PSQI.RESULTS the PSQI of female college students after cheerleading dance exercise had positive benefits compared with that before exercise and the sleep efficiency had a statistical difference before and after participating in cheerleading dance compared before and after participated in cheerleading dance (P < 0.01).Sleep quality,enter sleep time and sleeping pills had a statistical differences (P < 0.05).Sleep time,sleep disturbance and daytime function had no statistical difference (P > 0.05).The PSQI scores had statistical differences (P < 0.01).CONCLUSION The moderate cheerleading dance exercise can obviously improves the sleep quality of female college students and plays an active role of the mental health of female college students.%目的 探讨舞蹈啦啦操锻炼对女大学生睡眠质量的影响.方法 运用标准化量表匹兹堡睡眠质量指数,对72名女大学生在参加舞蹈啦啦操锻炼前后的睡眠质量进行调查,通过分析,探求舞蹈啦啦操锻炼对女大学生睡眠质量的影响.结果 经过9周舞蹈啦啦操的锻炼,受试者睡眠质量的各因子均有积极效益,在睡眠效率因子上,锻炼前后差异有统计学意义(P<0.01);在睡眠质量、入睡时间和安眠药物3个因子方面,锻炼前后比较差异有统计学意义(P<0.05);睡眠时间、睡眠障碍和日间功能这3个因子虽然锻炼后平均值都有所降低,但差异无统计学意义(P>0.05);运动后PSQI总分与运动前比较有较显著性的下降,且差异有统计学意义(P<0.01).结论 通过9周舞蹈舞蹈啦啦操学习能够有效提高或改善女大学生的睡眠质量,对女大学生的心理健康起到积极的作用.

  15. The study of serum Carnitine, Triglyceride and Cholesterol changes in pregnant and non-pregnant women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahraei M

    1993-04-01

    Full Text Available Carnitine is a water-soluble quaternary amine which increases the long-chain fatty acid metabolism by facilitation of their transport to the oxidation site (mitochondria. Carnitine most likely is present in all animal species, in many microorganisms, and in many plants. In this study, we determined the carnitine level of sera in pregnant and non-pregnant women by segade modified method. Average concentration of carnitine in the sera of fifty pregnant women was about 25/83 umol/I: First trimester-30.96 umol/I. Second trimester-29.11 umol/I. Third trimester-25.11 umol/I. concentration of cholesterol and triglyceride in the above-mentioned group was the following: Cholesterol: 258.84 mg/dl triglyceride: 267.02 mg/dl. The above values show that the carnitine level in sera of pregnant women decreases significantly and this decrease is tolerated well by pregnant women. According to our results, the serum carnitine concentration in pregnant women gradually decreases as gestation proceeds. So that the end of this period, is half of its concentration before conception. During pregnancy, there was an inverse correlation between carnitine level and that of cholesterol and triglycerides. Decrease in carnitine concentration and increase in cholesterol and triglyceride levels may be due to the following factors: 1 Increase in FFA oxidation in pregnancy. 2 Hormones. 3 Dilution of the blood. 4 Decrease in Fe storage in pregnant women.

  16. Reproductive Pathological Changes Associated with Experimental Subchronic Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis Infection in Nonpregnant Boer Does

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. Othman

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis causes caseous lymphadenitis (CLA, which is a contagious and chronic disease in sheep and goats. In order to assess the histopathological changes observed in the reproductive organs of nonpregnant does infected with the bacteria, 20 apparently healthy adult Boer does were divided into four inoculation groups, intradermal, intranasal, oral, and control, consisting of five goats each. Excluding the control group, which was unexposed, other does were inoculated with 107 CFU/1 mL of live C. pseudotuberculosis through the various routes stated above. Thirty days after infection, the ovaries, uterus, and iliac lymph nodes were collected for bacterial recovery and molecular detection, as well as histopathological examination. The mean changes in necrosis, congestion, inflammatory cell infiltration, and oedema varied in severity among the ovaries, uterus, and iliac lymph nodes following different inoculation routes. Overall, the intranasal route of inoculation showed more severe (p<0.05 lesions in all the organs examined. The findings of this study have shown that C. pseudotuberculosis could predispose to infertility resulting from pathological lesions in the uterus and ovaries of does.

  17. Expression of nucleophosmin in glandular epithelium of non-pregnant human endometrium during the menstrual cycle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    KUANG Ye; XU Peng; WEN Hai-xia; KONG Xian-chao; GUAN Li-li; LI Pei-ling

    2011-01-01

    Background Nucleophosmin plays a critical role in embryonic development. This study aimed to examine the expression pattern of nucleophosmin in glandular epithelium of human endometrium during the menstrual cycle.Methods Endometrial tissues used for this study were obtained from 46 non-pregnant patients who underwent hysterectomy which had been performed to treat benign diseases. Nucleophosmin expression was assessed by in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry.Results At the early-, mid- and late-proliferative phase, nucleophosmin mRNA was highly expressed in glandular epithelium of human endometrium. At the secretory phase, the expression of nucleophosmin mRNA was reduced in glandular epithelium in early-secretory phase, and the expression in mid- and late-secretory phases was not detected.Similarly, nucleophosmin protein was strongly expressed in endometrial glands throughout the proliferative phase, but was gradually reduced during secretory phase.Conclusion Nucleophosmin mRNA and protein are expressed in glandular epithelium of human endometrium throughout the menstrual cycle.

  18. Comparative study on body surface area computation formula of the female college students%女大学生体表面积计算公式的比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高国柱

    2013-01-01

    Objective:To research the scientific rationality of five kinds of body surface area calculation formula.Methods:Based on physical health test data of 2 496 female college students in 2010,using mathematical statistics and osculating value method to study five kinds of differences in surface area calculation formula.Results:All of these five formulas showed that body surface area of female college students had significant individual differences.Analysis of variance of repeated measurement indicated that there were also significant differences among the five computational formulas,which came from different algorithms,and the optimum results of osculating value method to female body surface area formula were different from Wu Gengye studies.Conclusion:All of the five kinds of body surface area formula can reflect the human body surface area,and differ in degree of closeness of real results,suggesting that can be used in the research of the surface area formula of female college students.%目的:研究5种体表面积计算公式的科学合理性.方法:以2 496名女大学生2010年体质健康测试数据,利用数理统计和密切值法研究5种体表面积计算公式的差异.结果:5种计算公式均反映出女大学生体表面积存在显著的个体差异,重复测量方差分析表明,5种计算公式间也存在显著的差异,这种差异来源于不同的算法.密切值法对女性体表面积公式的优选结果与吴暅晔的研究不同.结论:5种体表面积公式均能反映出人体体表面积,只是接近真实结果的程度不同,建议女大学生体表面积公式采用赵松山等的研究结果.

  19. Use of urinary renal biomarkers to evaluate the nephrotoxic effects of melamine or cyanuric acid in non-pregnant and pregnant rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandele, O J; Stine, C B; Ferguson, M; Black, T; Olejnik, N; Keltner, Z; Evans, E R; Crosby, T C; Reimschuessel, R; Sprando, R L

    2014-12-01

    Although traditional assessments of renal damage detect loss of kidney function, urinary renal biomarkers are proposed to indicate early changes in renal integrity. The recent adulteration of infant formula and other milk-based foods with melamine revealed a link between melamine ingestion and nephropathy. Thus, the effects of melamine and related analogs (e.g., cyanuric acid) should be assessed in other potentially sensitive groups. We evaluated whether urinary Kim-1, clusterin, and osteopontin could detect the effects of high doses of melamine or cyanuric acid in pregnant and non-pregnant female rats gavaged with 1000 mg/kg bw/day for 10 days. We demonstrate that these biomarkers can differentiate the severity of effects induced by melamine or cyanuric acid. All melamine-treated animals experienced adverse effects; however, pregnant rats were most sensitive as indicated by increased SCr, BUN, and kidney weights, decreased body weight, and presence of renal crystals. These effects coincided with elevated urinary biomarker levels as early as day 2 of exposure. One cyanuric acid-treated rat displayed effects similar to melamine, including increased urinary biomarker levels. This work illustrates that these biomarkers can detect early effects of melamine or cyanuric acid crystal-induced nephropathy and further supports the use of urinary protein immunoassays as a powerful, non-invasive method to assess nephrotoxicity.

  20. Unusual presentation and inconlusive biopsy render fibroadenoma in two young females a diagnostic dilemma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D Meerkotter

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Two young non-lactating females presented with acutely painful breast masses. Sonographic features showed mixed echogenic masses. Core biopsy was non-diagnostic in both and surgical excision revealed infarcted fibroadenomas. Although fibroadenomas are common, they do not commonly infarct and only rarely in non-lactating and non-pregnant females. These two cases highlight the clinical and imaging characteristics of this important differential diagnosis.

  1. Parity related changes in obesity and some antioxidant vitamins in non-pregnant women of South-Eastern Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nwagha, U I; Iyare, E E; Ejezie, F E; Ogbodo, S O; Dim, C C; Anyaehie, B U

    2012-01-01

    The delivery of many children at short interval is associated with micronutrient depletion and weight gain. However, the relationship between the levels of the micronutrients and the body weight is yet to be ascertained. To determine the relationship between parity, body weight and some antioxidant vitamins in non-pregnant Nigerian women. Randomly recruited 200 non-pregnant women, comprising 82 primiparous and 118 multiparous women completed the study. Their age, parity, mid-arm circumference (MAC), waist circumference (WC), weight, height and body mass index (BMI) were determined. The serum levels of vitamins A, C and E were assayed using standard methods. Results : The mean BMI, WC and MAC of the multiparous subjects (parity = 3.0 ± 0.58) were significantly higher than that of the primiparous subjects (parity = 1), (P pregnant Nigerian women.

  2. Teachers and Tea-Fetchers – What the Future Holds for Japan's Junior College Graduates: Female student perceptions of the status, purpose, and value of a Junior College education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WALKER, Patricia

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Throughout Japan, enrolments in junior colleges, previously the higher education destination of choice for nearly 500 000 women a year at their peak in 1990, has plummeted recently to half that number. It is therefore of interest to investigate the quality of experience and post-graduation aspirations of the decreasing numbers of women who have elected to take up the short- term route. This study investigates the mission of the junior college in the 21st century, the quality and status of the courses, the extent to which they prepare women for their career goals, and the value of the exit qualification in the employment market. In an intensive period of fieldwork in a small college on the Tokyo/Yokohama borders in the summer of 2005 the views of students and their tutors were elicited. It was found that, on the whole, high numbers of women were resigned to the gendered roles for which they have been socialized throughout their life course but that a growing minority were resolved to use their junior college degree to open up possibilities for further study and enter an arena where their economic outcomes could be expanded.

  3. Seafood consumption among pregnant and non-pregnant women of childbearing age in the United States, NHANES 1999-2006

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: Long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids found in seafood are essential for optimal neurodevelopment of the fetus. However, concerns about mercury contamination of seafood and its potential harm to the developing fetus have created uncertainty about seafood consumption for pregnant women. We compared fish and shellfish consumption patterns, as well as their predictors, among pregnant and non-pregnant women of childbearing age in the US.Methods: Data from 1,260 pregnant and 5,848 non...

  4. Effects of Yoga Teaching on Self-confidence of the Female College Students%瑜珈教学对女大学生自信人格的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王立清

    2012-01-01

    运用体育学、心理学、教育学等相关学科原理,立足于自信人格的理论研究,以选修瑜珈课程的学生为研究对象,从体育运动对自信人格的影响视角出发,探讨瑜珈教学与自信人格的相关因素,研究瑜珈教学对女大学生自信人格的具体影响,并进行相应分析。瑜珈教学实验前后,女大学生在整体自信维度、身体自信维度存在显著性差异,自信人格总分、学业自信维度、社交自信维度存在非常显著性差异。瑜珈训练对培养女大学生自信人格有显著正向价值。%Using the related principles of Sports science, Psychology, Education, based on the the- oretical researches of self-confidence, from the angle of sportsI influence on confident personali-ty, the paper discussed the specific effects of Yoga Teaching on the female students' self-confi- dence, and analyzed the correlated factors. The results of the pre and post questionnaires about the effects of Yoga teaching on the female college students suggested that there is a significant difference between the dimensions of overall confidence and the dimensions of physical confi-dence. Highly significant differences were found between the self-confidence in personality scores, academic self-confidence, and social self-confidence. Yoga training has significant value on cultivating female college students' self-confidence in personality.

  5. Lack of Innovation Capability and Its Re-modeling of Female Higher Vocational College Students%高职院校女大学生创新能力的缺失与重塑

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑红; 刘亨荣; 王路遥

    2014-01-01

    高等职业院校女大学生创新能力的缺失不仅表现为人格上的顺从、依赖,也表现为行为上的自我低要求和自我价值感过低,这种现状是社会文化导向、教育缺失和女大学生人格弱点与自我认可缺失共同作用的结果。针对高职院校女大学生创新能力缺失的原因,构建有利于高职院校女大学生创新能力培养的文化氛围、课程内容体系并激发女性创造性人格的发展,都是提高女大学生创新能力的有效措施。%Lack of innovation ability to pick vocational college female students not only for obedience personality, dependence, also showed too low on self-demanding behavior and sense of self-worth, this situation is a socio-cultural orientation, lack of education and women Students’ Personality weakness and lack of self-recognition result of the role. Female-students for the reasons for the lack of innovation capability, build conducive to innovation Ability Female - students’culture, curriculum content system and stimulate the development of female creative personality, are effective measures to improve the innovation ability of female students.

  6. Apamin inhibits NO-induced relaxation of the spontaneous contractile activity of the myometrium from non-pregnant women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kleszczewski Tomasz

    2003-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract There is now considerable evidence for the involvement of K+ channels in nitric oxide (NO induced relaxation of smooth muscles including the myometrium. In order to assess whether apamin-sensitive K+ channels play a role in NO – induced relaxation of the human uterus, we have studied the effect of specific blockers of these channels on the relaxation of myometrium from non-pregnant women. In vitro isometric contractions were recorded in uterine tissues from non-pregnant premenopausal women who had undergone hysterectomy. Apamin (10 nM and scyllatoxin (10 nM did not alter spontaneous myometrial contractions. However, 15-min pretreatment of the myometrium strips with apamin completely inhibited relaxation caused by diethylamine-nitric oxide (DEA/NO. The pretreatment with scyllatoxin significantly reduced (about 2.6 times maximum relaxation of the strips induced by DEA/NO (p 2+ and voltage dependent charybdotoxin-sensitive (CTX-sensitive K+ channels, apamin-sensitive K+ channels are also present in the human non-pregnant myometrium. These channels offer an additional target in the development of new tocolytic agents.

  7. Localization of interleukin-6 receptor mRNA in the pregnant and non-pregnant mouse uterus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hondo, Eiichi; Kokubu, Keiji; Kato, Kahori; Kiso, Yasuo

    2005-12-01

    To understand roles of interleukin 6 (IL-6) family cytokines for pregnancy in mice, localization of IL-6 receptor (IL-6R) mRNA was investigated in non- and early pregnant uteri by in situ hybridization. IL-6R mRNA was expressed in all non-pregnant uteri and in pregnant uteri from the third day (Day 3) to the sixth day of pregnancy (Day 6; the day of plug = Day 1). IL-6R mRNA signals were detected in non-pregnant mice in the luminal and glandular epithelium. Signal strength varied according to the sexual cycle. There was no correlation between the signal strength of the IL-6R mRNA and the serum concentrations of progesterone and 17beta-estradiol, which show a monophasic rise in the non-pregnant sexual cycle. In pregnant mice, slight signals were detectable in the luminal and glandular epithelium on Day 3. IL-6R mRNA messages increased with progression towards Day 4, however, localization changed drastically on Day 5. Stromal cells abruptly expressed their mRNA on Day 5, and these cells strongly expressed it on Day 6. The function of IL-6R in the luminal and glandular epithelium might be different from that in the stroma during the implantation period. In addition, few signals were identified in the stromal cells adjacent to the luminal epithelium on Day 6. This suggests that there are two types of stromal cells on Day 6 in mice.

  8. Changes in cerebral autoregulation in the second half of pregnancy and compared to non-pregnant controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Veen, Teelkien R; Panerai, Ronney B; Haeri, Sina; van den Berg, Paul P; Zeeman, Gerda G; Belfort, Michael A

    2016-10-01

    The mechanism by which pregnancy affects the cerebral circulation is unknown, but it has a central role in the development of neurological complications in preeclampsia, which is believed to be related to impaired autoregulation. We evaluated the cerebral autoregulation in the second half of pregnancy, and compared this with a control group of healthy, fertile non-pregnant women. In a prospective cohort analysis, cerebral blood flow velocity of the middle cerebral artery (determined by transcranial Doppler), blood pressure (noninvasive arterial volume clamping), and end-tidal carbon dioxide (EtCO2) were simultaneously collected for 7min. The autoregulation index (ARI) was calculated. ARI values of 0 and 9 indicated absent and perfect autoregulation, respectively. ANOVA and Pearson's correlation coefficient were used, with ppregnant and 18 non-pregnant women were included. The ARI did not change during pregnancy, but pregnant women had a significantly higher ARI than non-pregnant controls (ARI 6.7±0.9 vs. 5.3±1.4, ppregnant fertile women, even after controlling for EtCO2. The autoregulation does not change with advancing gestational age. Copyright © 2016 International Society for the Study of Hypertension in Pregnancy. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Changes in blood glucose, plasma non-esterified fatty acids and insulin in pregnant and non-pregnant goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, J R; Ludri, R S

    2002-02-01

    The blood glucose and the plasma non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA) and insulin concentrations were estimated in jugular blood samples from 18 Alpine x Beetal and Sannen x Beetal goats during pregnancy and compared with samples from non-pregnant goats and from goats during the periparturient period. The blood glucose levels in the pregnant goats rose to a peak of about 60 +/- 1.36 mg/ml at 42-56 days and then declined to about 46 +/- 2.37 mg/ml at 112-126 days. In non-pregnant goats, the blood glucose levels were significantly (p goats, except between days 42 and 70 (59 +/- 1.36 mg/ml). On the day of kidding, the levels declined significantly (p goats from days 56 to 126. The NEFA concentration increased on the day of kidding, followed by a transient fall by day 3. The plasma insulin concentration was usually higher in pregnant than in non-pregnant goats, except between days 56 and 70 and from day 126 onwards. The insulin concentration fell late in pregnancy, but there was a transient increase 2 days after parturition. The blood glucose and plasma NEFA concentrations can be used as indices of nutritional status during pregnancy in goats.

  10. MULTILEVEL LINEAR REGRESSION ANALYSIS OF FACTORS INFLUENCING BODY MASS INDEX AMONG BANGLADESHI MARRIED NON-PREGNANT WOMEN.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamruzzaman, Md; Mamun, A S M A; Bakar, Sheikh Muhammad Abu; Saw, Aik; Kamarul, T; Islam, Md Nurul; Hossain, Md Golam

    2016-11-21

    The aim of this study was to investigate the socioeconomic and demographic factors influencing the body mass index (BMI) of non-pregnant married Bangladeshi women of reproductive age. Secondary (Hierarchy) data from the 2011 Bangladesh Demographic and Health Survey, collected using two-stage stratified cluster sampling, were used. Two-level linear regression analysis was performed to remove the cluster effect of the variables. The mean BMI of married non-pregnant Bangladeshi women was 21.60±3.86 kg/m2, and the prevalence of underweight, overweight and obesity was 22.8%, 14.9% and 3.2%, respectively. After removing the cluster effect, age and age at first marriage were found to be positively (pchildren was negatively related with women's BMI. Lower BMI was especially found among women from rural areas and poor families, with an uneducated husband, with no television at home and who were currently breast-feeding. Age, total children ever born, age at first marriage, type of residence, education level, level of husband's education, wealth index, having a television at home and practising breast-feeding were found to be important predictors for the BMI of married Bangladeshi non-pregnant women of reproductive age. This information could be used to identify sections of the Bangladeshi population that require special attention, and to develop more effective strategies to resolve the problem of malnutrition.

  11. Disordered eating among Brazilian female college students Comer trastornado entre universitarias brasileñas Comer transtornado entre universitárias brasileiras

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia Tucunduva Philippi

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to investigate the socioeconomic and nutritional factors associated with disordered eating among Brazilian female college students (n = 2,489. Prevalence ratios of risk factors were calculated using Poisson regression models with robust variance based on responses to selected questions from the Eating Attitude Test and Disordered Eating Attitude Scale. It was found that 40.7% of students were dieting, 35.6% were using diet or compensatory methods, 23.9% skipping meals, 12.6% not eating or just drinking liquids, and 3.3%, vomiting to lose weight. A positive association was found between not eating or just drinking liquids and skipping meals and nutritional status after adjustment for age and region. A positive association was found between compensatory methods and dieting and education level of the head of the family. Disordered eating behaviors were frequent, and not eating and skipping meals were more prevalent among overweight/obese students; compensatory methods and dieting were less prevalent among students from families whose head had up to only four years of education. Prevention strategies and food education are necessary in order to decrease the prevalence of these behaviors.El estudio investigó factores socioeconómicos y nutricionales asociados a la alteración del orden de las comidas en universitarias brasileñas (n = 2.489. Modelos de regresión de Poisson con variancia robusta estimaron razones de prevalencia de factores asociados a comer trastornado -evaluado por preguntas del Test de Actitudes Alimentarias y la Disordered Eating Attitude Scale. Se halló que un 40,7% hacían régimen para adelgazar; un 35,6% seguían una dieta o métodos compensatorios; un 23,9% se saltaban comidas y un 12,6% comían a base de líquidos o se quedaban sin comer para adelgazar; y un 3,3% vomitaban. Ajustado por edad y región, quedarse sin comer o sólo con líquidos y saltarse comidas se asoció positivamente con el estado

  12. Can we reduce eating disorder risk factors in female college athletes? A randomized exploratory investigation of two peer-led interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Carolyn Black; McDaniel, Leda; Bull, Stephanie; Powell, Marc; McIntyre, Kevin

    2012-01-01

    Female athletes are at least as at risk as other women for eating disorders (EDs) and at risk for the female athlete triad (i.e., inadequate energy availability, menstrual disorders, and osteoporosis). This study investigated whether two evidence-based programs appear promising for future study if modified to address the unique needs of female athletes. Athletes were randomly assigned to athlete-modified dissonance prevention or healthy weight intervention (AM-HWI). ED risk factors were assessed pre/post-treatment, and 6-week and 1-year follow-up. Results (analyzed sample, N=157) indicated that both interventions reduced thin-ideal internalization, dietary restraint, bulimic pathology, shape and weight concern, and negative affect at 6 weeks, and bulimic pathology, shape concern, and negative affect at 1 year. Unexpectedly we observed an increase in students spontaneously seeking medical consultation for the triad. Qualitative results suggested that AM-HWI may be more preferred by athletes.

  13. A Survey about Sexual Cognition and Attitude among Female College Students in Hefei%合肥某高校大学女生性知识与性观念的调查研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵敏; 王丽君; 程男平; 石雪梅; 孙玉荣; 王慧; 武松

    2013-01-01

    Objective To survey the current situation of female college students' understanding condition of sexual knowledge,and the conditions of demand for sexual health education with an aim to provide theoretical basis for the related health education conducted by colleges.Methods We conducted the whole group sampling questionnaire survey of 920 students aged 18-25 years old students.Then used the statistical software SPSS to input and analyze the raw materials.Results Female college students had incomprehensive and unsystematical knowledge of scientific sexual knowledge;their sexual concepts were influenced by both traditional thought and western culture and there existed misunderstandings;their ways to acquire sexual knowledge were limited and informal.Conclusion Colleges should conduct the related courses of sexual health education at regular intervals,which can spread the scientific sexual knowledge,set up the health sexual concept.%目的 调查某高校在校大学女生性知识认知现状、性健康教育的需求情况,为高校开展相关课程提供理论依据.方法 对某高校18~25岁大学女生920人进行整群抽样问卷调查,原始数据用SPSS统计软件进行录入与分析.结果 大学女生对科学的性知识掌握零散、不系统;性观念受传统思想和西方文化的共同影响,存在误区;获取性知识渠道狭窄、不正规.结论 高校应定期开展面向大学女生的性健康教育课程,普及科学的性知识,树立健康性观念,促进大学女生的身心健康发展.

  14. Analysis on the results of general investigation of gynecological diseases in 2 928 female college teachers%2928例高校女教工妇科疾病普查结果分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨东福

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To explore the prevalence and related factors of gynecological diseases in female college teachers, provide a scientific basis for reproductive health, prevention and health care of female college teachers. Methods; The data of general investigation of 2 928 person - limes in Yunnan university were analyzed retrospectively. Results-. The prevalence rates of gynecological diseases in younger group and elder group were 85. 7% and 61. 1% , respectively. In younger group, the incidence of breast diseases was the highest (43. 2% ) , followed by cervicitis (30.7% ) , the incidence of hysteromyoma ranked the fourth place, showing an obvious increasing trend. In elder group, the incidence of vaginitis was the highest (41, 5% ) , followed by breast diseases (18.6% ) . Conclusion; The reproductive health status of female college teachers is not optimistic, breast diseases and reproductive tract infection are the key points for prevention and treatment of gynecological diseases currently.%目的:探讨高校女教职工妇科疾病的发病情况及其相关因素,为女教工生殖健康及预防保健工作提供科学依据.方法:回顾性分析云南大学2928人次妇科病普查资料.结果:低龄组和高龄组患病率分别为85.7%和61.1%.低龄组以乳腺疾病居第1位(43.2%),宫颈炎为第2位(30.7%),子宫肌瘤居第4位且逐年上升趋势明显.高龄组以阴道炎居首位(41.5%),乳腺疾病居其次(18.6%).结论:高校女教职工的生殖健康状况不容乐观,乳腺疾病及生殖道感染是当前妇女病防治工作的重点.

  15. An Analysis of Female College Students’Views on Wealth, Love and Marriage and Financial Education%浅议女大学生的婚恋财富观及理财教育

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宫严慧

    2014-01-01

    个人理财已经进入终身理财时代,女性由于在家庭中承担着“管家”职责,其价值取向与理财观念直接影响到家庭稳定与社会和谐。90后女大学生逐渐步入适婚年龄,其婚恋财富观念已趋于成熟。调查显示,女大学生的婚恋财富观整体上比较健康,但理财意识和理财能力存在着专业差异。专业背景的学生财务敏感度更高,婚姻观念更为务实与理性。大学有必要在全校范围内开设个人理财课程,将社会主义核心价值观与理财教育相结合,使学生树立正确的人生价值取向和财富观,依靠勤奋工作和适当的理财技能创造家庭财富,实现个人价值与家庭梦想。%Personal finance has been organized in an age of lifelong finance. As female play the roles of housekeepers in families, their value orientations and financial views will influence families’stability and social harmony. Female college students born in the 1990s have arrived at the age of marriage. The questionnaire shows there are generally healthy attitudes toward wealth among most female college students, while professional differences exist in a financial sense and financial ability. There is a greater degree of financial sense among professional students whose marriage views are practical and rational. It’s necessary for colleges to set up personal finances courses in curricula, and education should connect core socialist values and financial management effectively.

  16. Serotonin regulates contractile activity of the uterus in non-pregnant rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lychkova, Alla Edward; De Pasquale, Valeria; Avallone, Luigi; Puzikov, Alexander Michael; Pavone, Luigi Michele

    2014-09-01

    Serotonin (5-HT) can stimulate the cholinergic system of the uterus by indirect actions on the modulation of reflexes and a direct action on smooth muscles. We investigated the role of 5-HT in the regulation of the cholinergic activity in the uterine parts of non-pregnant rabbits. The right vagus or pelvic nerve and the left sympathetic trunk were stimulated by an electrical field, and the uterine contractile activity was evaluated by measuring the amplitude and frequency of slow wave electromyogram (EMG), with the surface of microelectrodes applied to the uterus bottom, body, and cervix, respectively. Double stimulation of the vagus or pelvic nerve and the sympathetic trunk increased the frequency and the amplitude of the slow wave EMG in all the uterine parts. Furthermore, the administration of exogenous 5-HT increased the vagus or pelvic induced EMG activity in all parts of the uterus. Overall our results demonstrate that 5-HT enhances the vagus contractile activity with a magnitude of the effect decreasing from the bottom to the cervix, whereas 5-HT enhances the pelvic nerve contractile functions with a magnitude of the response increasing from the bottom to the cervix. The administration of droperidol, a 5-HT3 and 4 receptor inhibitor, and spiperone, a 5-HT2 receptor antagonist, inhibited the effect of the serotoninergic fibers of the sympathetic trunk to increase the vagus and pelvic nerve EMG activity. These data suggest that 5-HT stimulation of the parasympathetic nerves results in the induction of uterine contraction via the activation of 5-HT2, 3, and 4 receptor subfamilies.

  17. Branched-Chain Amino Acid Plus Glucose Supplement Reduces Exercise-Induced Delayed Onset Muscle Soreness in College-Age Females

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leahy, Danielle T.; Pintauro, Stephen J.

    2013-01-01

    Supplementation with branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs) has been used to stimulate muscle protein synthesis following exercise. The purpose of this study was to determine if supplementation with BCAAs in combination with glucose would reduce exercise-induced delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS). Using a double-blind crossover design, 20 subjects (11 females, 9 males) were randomly assigned to either BCAA (n = 10) or placebo (n = 10) groups. Subjects performed a squatting exercise to elicit DOMS and rated their muscle soreness every 24 hours for four days following exercise while continuing to consume the BCAA or placebo. Following a three-week recovery period, subjects returned and received the alternate BCAA or placebo treatment, repeating the same exercise and DOMS rating protocol for the next four days. BCAA supplementation in female subjects resulted in a significant decrease in DOMS versus placebo at 24 hours following exercise (P = 0.018). No significant effect of BCAA supplementation versus placebo was noted in male subjects nor when male and female results were analyzed together. This gender difference may be related to dose per body weight differences between male and female subjects. PMID:24967261

  18. Reproductive health education model for female college students from ethnic minorities%少数民族女大学生生殖健康教育模式研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曲红梅; 魁发瑞; 袁晓梅; 周宾堂

    2013-01-01

    目的:探讨少数民族女大学生生殖健康教育模式.方法:采用匿名自填式问卷,对450名女大学生进行调查.结果:教育前后对生理的认识、避孕知识、怀孕流产,性病艾滋病知识有大幅度的提高,对婚前性行为、同居、性行为中使用避孕套的态度也发生了变化,对教学目标与教学理念赞同的占80%,教学内容85.6%,教学计划76.5%,教学手段75.7%.结论:在少数民族女大学生中开展生殖健康教育采取理论授课+咨询的模式是有效的.%Objectives: To explore the reproductive health education model for female undergraduates from ethnic minorities. Methods: An anonymous questionnaire survey was conducted among 450 minority female college students. Results: After receiving relevant education, they have an obvious improvement in the knowledge about physiology, contraception, pregnancy, a-bortion, venereal disease and AIDS. Their attitudes towards pre martial sex, cohabitation and the usage of condoms changed. 80% of female undergraduate agreed with the education goal and education conception. 85.6% agreed with the teaching content, 76. 5% agreed with the teaching plan and 75. 7% agreed with the teaching method. Conclusion:Education and consulting model was effective in reproductive health education for minority female.

  19. Experimental Study of Zumba on Physical Health Status of College Female Students%尊巴舞对女大学生体质健康状态的实验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨乙元; 袁建伟; 康熙

    2014-01-01

    Based on Zumba for the promotion of human health with a variety of functions,this paper develops a suitable psychological and physiological characteristics of female college students Zumba courses in accordance with the principle of gradual and orderly progress in extracurricular activities for a period of time for female students 16 weeks the next exercise four times a week.The experimental results showed that Zumba courses conducted exercise can improve body shape of female college students;improve physical fitness,enhanced physical function,regulating mental health.Using teaching Zumba curricular courses conducted outside teaching more scientific,relevant,and interesting and generalization.And the use of Zumba dance fitness program based on the theory and practice of female students,while the Zumba dance courses in the country play a role in promoting the popularization and promotion.%根据尊巴舞对促进人体身心健康具备的各种功能,制定出适合于女大学生心理和生理特点的尊巴舞课程,遵照循序渐进的原则,在课余活动时间对女大学生进行为期16周,每周4次的隔天练习。实验结果表明:进行尊巴舞课程的锻炼能有效地改善女大学生的身体形态、提高身体素质、增强身体机能、调节心理健康等。采用尊巴舞课程的教学方式进行课内、外教学更具有科学性、针对性、趣味性和推广性。并对利用尊巴舞课程为女大学生提供健身理论和实践的依据,同时对尊巴舞课程在国内的普及和推广起到促进作用。

  20. 四川省高校女大学生体育锻炼习惯的培养研究%Research on Cultivating the Exercise Habits of Female College Students in Sichuan Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑勇; 刘珊珊

    2016-01-01

    Through investigating the current situation of female college students’physical exercise in six universities of Sichuan province,this paper puts forward that cultivating female college students’physical exercise habit needs to focus on the following aspects:fully understanding the value of physical exercise and the importance of good hab-its of physical exercise;strengthening the female college students’self management and cognizing sports benefits;increasing investment for sports infrastructure construction and equipment and creating a good place for sports exer-cise;strengthening the teaching of physical education theory,choosing and adopting the new and practical teaching materials and combining their specialty characteristics to give them classification guidance.Besides,universities should set up the sports clubs and other sports organizations to gradually cultivate female college students to form good sports consciousness and exercise habits,which is beneficial for them to play a good solid foundation for their future work.Above all ,they will enjoy lifelong benefit.%通过对四川省6所普通高校的女大学生体育锻炼的现状进行调查,提出培养女大学生体育锻炼的习惯需要从以下几个方面进行:1.充分认识体育锻炼的价值和良好的体育锻炼习惯的重要性;2.加强高校女大学生的自我管理,认知体育锻炼的益处;3.加大对体育基础设施的建设和器材的投入,营造良好的体育锻炼场所以及方便的热水洗浴住宿条件;4.加强体育理论教学,选用并采取新颖实用的教材,结合学生专业特色,进行分类指导;5.在大学设置具有学校官方扶持的体育项目俱乐部或者建立适合女生锻炼的体育社团组织等方式和途径,逐步培养女大学生形成良好的体育意识和锻炼习惯,为她们将来走向社会参加工作打好坚实的身体基础,使其终身受益。

  1. Family affection as a protective factor against the negative effects of perceived Asian values gap on the parent-child relationship for Asian American male and female college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Yong S; Vo, Leyna P; Tsong, Yuying

    2009-01-01

    The study examined whether family affection (i.e., affective responsiveness, affectionate communication, and affective orientation) protected against the negative effects of perceived parent-child Asian values gap on the quality of their parent relationships for 259 female and 77 male Asian American college students. Asian values gap was higher for women than men, and inversely related to a perceived healthy parent-child relationship for both genders. Participants rated the relationship with their mothers as more positive and affectionate than with their fathers. Both parents were reported to communicate more supportive affection than verbal and nonverbal affection. Affective responsiveness was identified as a protective factor in the father-son relationship whereas verbal affection protected the mother-daughter relationship. The study also revealed that daughters' affective orientation had beneficial effects on the father-daughter relationship at lower levels of Asian values gap. Clinical implications and directions for future research are discussed.

  2. 影响高等师范院校女生体育锻炼因素的研究%Research on the Influence Factors of Sport Exercise for Female Students in College

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙桂芳

    2001-01-01

    The factors that influence first year female students sport exercise in college include education, interest, emotion, behavior and social factor. These factors have directly influence on awaking the interest of sport exercise, intensifying the behavior of physical activity, promoting the effect of physical activity an d realizing the goal of physical activity.%影响大学一年级女生体育锻炼的因素包括教育、兴趣、情感、意识、行为及社会因素等,这些因素对女生体育锻炼兴趣的激发、健身行为的强化、健身效果的提高、身心健康目标的实现具有直接的影响。

  3. Effect of different forms of exercise on the cardiopulmonary function of female college students%不同运动形式对女大学生心肺功能的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    车广伟

    2015-01-01

    为了分析不同形式有氧运动对女大学生心肺功能的影响,采用对照组、匀速组、完全恢复组和不完全恢复组对参加有氧运动的女大学生心肺功能进行测量研究.研究显示:经过16周不同形式有氧运动,匀速组、完全恢复组和不完全恢复组女大学生心肺功能都有所提升,其中匀速组和不完全恢复组的心率指标呈现显著性改变(P<0.05);肺活量(VC)、每分最大通气量(MVV)、用力肺活量(FVC)和第1秒用力呼气量(FEV1)各指标在运动前后也呈显著性改变(P<0.05);不完全恢复组各心肺功能指标的改变均优于其它组.说明有持续有规律的有氧健身运动对女大学生心肺功能的改变有积极意义,从三种运动形式对心肺功能的改变情况看:不完全恢复组最优,匀速组次之,完全恢复组较差.%In order to analyze the different forms of the effect of Aerobics on female college students'' heart and lung function, the control group, uniform group, complete recovery group and incomplete recovery group to participate in the exercise of female college students'' heart and lung function measurements were performed on. Study shows: after 16 weeks of different forms of aerobic exercise, uniform group, complete recovery group and incomplete recovery of heart and lung function of female college students have improved, the indexes of the uniform group and incomplete recovery group of heart rate index shows a significant change (P < 0. 05); vital capacity (VC), every maximal ventilatory volume (MVV), forced vital capacity (FVC) and one second forced expiratory volume (FEV1) before and after exercise was also significantly changed (P < 0.05); incomplete recovery group, heart and lung function index were higher than those of other groups. Continue to have regular aerobic exercise on female college students'' heart and lung function change has a positive meaning, from three forms of exercise on cardiopulmonary function changes

  4. Effects of Socio-cultural Pressures on Body Satisfaction of College Females%社会文化压力对女大学生身体满意度影响机制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张林; 刘燊; 周盈英; 李玥

    2015-01-01

    This study conducted a questionnaire to investigate 378 participants to examine the interactive effects of appearance comparison and thin-ideal internalization on the sociocultural pressures and body satisfaction of college females. The results indicated that there were significant negative correlations between factors of family background, peer influence, media, appearance comparison, thin-ideal internalization and body satisfaction of college females, that socio-cultural pressures had negative effects on females’ body satisfaction via appearance comparison and thin-ideal internalization, and that appearance comparison mediated the relationship between thin-ideal internalization and body satisfaction.%为探讨外貌比较和理想瘦内化在社会文化压力与女大学生身体满意度间的作用,本研究采用问卷调查法,对378名女大学生进行调查。结果发现:女大学生身体满意度与家庭因素、同伴影响、媒体影响、外貌比较、理想瘦内化呈显著负相关;社会文化压力对女大学生身体满意度有显著负向影响,而外貌比较和理想瘦内化在其中起完全中介作用;同时,外貌比较也是理想瘦内化和身体满意度之间的中介变量。

  5. Prevalence and the treatment of breast fibroadenoma among female college students in Bengbu%蚌埠市女大学生乳腺纤维腺瘤发病及诊治情况分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邹杰; 胡继洋; 王凯

    2011-01-01

    目的 探讨女大学生乳腺纤维腺瘤发病情况及诊治方法为寻求防治方法提供参考.方法 回顾分析2005-2010年蚌埠市高校女大学生乳腺纤维腺瘤就医情况及诊治结果.结果 2005-2010年某医院肿瘤外科共诊治女大学生乳腺纤维腺瘤121人,单发109例,多发22例,单侧108例,双侧13例.美容切口手术治疗98例,拒绝治疗失访8例,观察随访15例.结论 女大学生乳腺纤维瘤发病有逐年增多趋势,微创美容切口更适合对年轻女性乳腺纤维瘤的治疗需求.%Objective To explore the prevalence of breast fibroadenoma and the treatment among female college students and to provide reference for the prevention and treatment. Methods The information of cure and treatment of breast fibroadenoma in 2005 - 2010 were retrospectively analyzed. Results Totally 121 female college students were diagnosed for breast fibroadenoma during 2005 - 2010 in a hospital, among which 109 were solitary, 22 were multiple, 108 were one-sided and 13 were both sided. Ninety-eight cases were treated by plastic incision, eight cases refused treatment and 15 cases received follow-up observation. Conclusion The prevalence rate of breast fibroadenoma is increasing by years. The microtraumatic plastic incision is more suitable for young women' s treatment necessary.

  6. Investigation and Analysis on Physical Behavior of Female Students and Sports Values in Vocational Colleges%高职院校女大学生体育行为与体育价值观念的调查分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于向海

    2014-01-01

    本文采用问卷法、访问法、数理统计法对赤峰工业职业技术学院女大学生体育行为及价值观状况进行调查分析,对女大学生体育锻炼价值观念、课余时间安排内容、参加体育锻炼等情况进行了调查。同时也对女大学生的体育态度进行了分析,并提出了相应的对策。%In this paper questionnaire, interview and mathematical statistics method was conducted to investigate and analyze the concept of physical behavior of female students of Chifeng Industry Vocational Technology College, and their physical training values, spare time arrangement, participating in physical exercise and so on. College students' sports attitudes were analyzed, and the corresponding countermeasures were put forward.

  7. 一例女大学生轻度抑郁症沙盘治疗案例分析%Sandplay Treatment to A Female College Student wity mild Depression Intemational University

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑洁

    2016-01-01

    By reporting a case suffering from mild depression of female callege student of sand play therapy process,the effectiveness of sandplay therapy on college students wity the mild depressio.According to the psychological test (SCL-90, SDS),clinical observation,and in combination with the previous history of the psychological assessment of the visitor.After a semester of sandplay treatment,the emotional state of the visitor was significantly improved.The psychological test results went back to normal.Therefore,the clinical treatment of college students with mild depression via sandplay therapy is proved to be effective.%通过报告一例患有轻度抑郁症女大学生沙盘游戏治疗的详细过程,探索沙盘游戏在大学生轻度抑郁症心理治疗中的有效性。依据心理测验(SCL-90,SDS)、临床谈话观察,并结合既往病史对来访者进行心理评估。经过一学期的沙盘游戏治疗,来访者情绪状态明显好转,心理测验结果提示无抑郁。因此,沙盘游戏疗法对大学生轻度抑郁症的临床改善是有效的。

  8. 男女大学生体力活动及行为学特征的比较研究%Study on comparison of physical activity and behavior characteristics between male and female college students

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马申; 王白山; 杨欣海

    2011-01-01

    目的 比较男女大学生体力活动、自我效能、阶段变化及锻炼行为之间的差异.方法 利用国际体力活动问卷(IPAQ)、自我效能量表、体育锻炼行为阶段状况调查表、自编体育锻炼行为量表,对浙江省部分高校男女大学生进行调查研究.结果 高活动组男生人数比率为40.43%,明显高于女生的26.09%,男女大学生1周体力活动消耗的能量[分别为(3462.79±976.31)MET和(3118.63±944.29)MET],两者之间差异显著(P<0.05).男生处在行动期和持续期的人数比率为44.68%,明显高于女生的25.00%;男女大学生各个阶段呈现明显的体力活动特征(F=31.380、F=6.012,P<0.01).男女大学生行为得分呈现明显的阶段变化特征(F=13.071、F=7.461,P<0.01).男大学生的态度、认知控制、行为意向、自我效能4个因子进入了MET的回归方程,且β系数达到显著水平(t=2.138~3.789,P<0.05),而女大学生只有行为态度因子进入了MET回归方程.结论 大学生在体力活动、阶段变化、行为特征及自我效能上性别差异明显.%Objective To compare the differences in physical activity (PA), self-efficacy, stages of change and physical exercise behaviour in college students. Methods International physical activivty questionnaire( IPAQ), scales of self-efficacy, questionnaire of stage of change in physical exercise behaviour, and scales of physical behaviour were used to make a study on college students from Zhejiang province. Results The rate of males (40.43%) was signficant higher than that of females (26.09%) MET in the high activity tertile. There was significantly more energy expenditure in males (( 3462.79 ± 976.31 ) MET) than in females (( 3118.63 ±944.29 ) MET) (P < 0.05 ). The rate of males (44.68 % ) was more than females (25.00%) in maintainanee period and period of action. PA characteristics were shown significant defferences in different stages (F= 31. 380, F=6.012, P < 0.01 ). Characteristics

  9. 在校女大学生的择业倾向及其影响因素--基于北京市大学生的调查%An Analysis on the Tendency in the Occupational Selection of the Female College Students and Its Influence Factors:Based on the Survey among the College Students in Beijing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    侯典牧; 张丽琍

    2015-01-01

    By questionnaire method, the survey of the occupational selection of the college students in more than 30 colleges and universities in Beijing indicates that most female college students take the stability in jobs as the most im-portant thing and they prefer working in economically developed large and medium-sized cities.Most of them require a more or less connection between their work and their majors with the expected monthly salaries from 2500 RMB to 5000 RMB, of whom the primary working objective is self-fulfillment.More female college students choose to work af-ter graduation in low-income families, yet more intend to study abroad in high-income families.With the increase of the annual income of family, the number of the female college students who are willing to work in grassroots decrea-ses.The female college students in high-income families pay more attention to their growth in their first jobs, yet the ones in low-income families aim to earn their own livings according to their first jobs.The girls who do well in study and exams may mostly choose to pursue advanced studies, yet those who do not well enough in academic achievements may probably decide to work after graduation.%用问卷调查法对北京市30多所高校大学生就其择业倾向的调查结果显示:大部分女大学生把工作稳定排在首位;首选的就业地区是经济发达的大中城市;大部分认为工作与所学专业要有一定关联;期望的月薪集中在2500~5000元之间,工作的首要目的是实现自我价值;低收入家庭选择找工作的比例高,高收入家庭选择准备出国的比例高;愿到基层就业的女大学生总体趋势随着家庭年收入的增加而下降;高收入家庭的学生更看重第一份工作对自我成长的价值,而低收入家庭的相对看重先自食其力;成绩排名靠前的学生选择继续深造的比例高,成绩排名靠后的选择找工作的比例高。

  10. 影响女大学生负面身体意象形成的因素及对策研究%On the Negative Influence and Countermeasures of Body Image Formation in Female College Students

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    边菊平

    2012-01-01

    With the unanimous pursue of being slim in the cross cultural background,the female college students have body image cognitive impairment by the mass media culture shock,peer influence and campus culture education aesthetic the lack of the body and the individual body image cognitive status.So to change these "high standard consistency" body aesthetic culture concept,you need through standard the mass media industry,strengthen the construction of campus culture of ethics,full of sports and health class the teaching of the content,strengthen physical self perception practice,and improve college students' media literacy methods of female college students to guide the mold healthy body image.To build up a healthy body aesthetic culture,this can better understand physical self,body perception and body behavior.To reduce negative body image bring distress,strengthen body and mind cheerful feeling.%在当今女性对"瘦"的追求出现跨文化一致性的背景下,女大学生也因受大众传媒文化的冲击、同伴的影响和校园身体审美文化教育的缺失、个体身体意象的认知状况等因素的影响,造成身体意象认知障碍。因此,要转变这些"高标准一致性"身体审美文化观念,就需要通过规范大众传媒行业操守、加强校园文化建设、充实体育与健康课上的传授内容、加强身体自我感知实践及提高大学生媒介素养等方法,引导女大学生塑造健康的身体意象,建立健康的身体审美文化观,从而能够更好地认识身体自我、身体感知与身体行为,减少负面身体意象带来的苦恼,增强身心愉悦的感悟。

  11. Evaluating nitrogen utilization efficiency of nonpregnant dry cows offered solely fresh cut grass at maintenance levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stergiadis, S; Chen, X J; Allen, M; Wills, D; Yan, T

    2015-02-01

    The present study aimed to identify key parameters influencing N utilization and develop prediction equations for manure N output (MN), feces N output (FN), and urine N output (UN). Data were obtained under a series of digestibility trials with nonpregnant dry cows fed fresh grass at maintenance level. Grass was cut from 8 different ryegrass swards measured from early to late maturity in 2007 and 2008 (2 primary growth, 3 first regrowth, and 3 second regrowth) and from 2 primary growth early maturity swards in 2009. Each grass was offered to a group of 4 cows and 2 groups were used in each of the 8 swards in 2007 and 2008 for daily measurements over 6 wk; the first group (first 3 wk) and the second group (last 3 wk) assessed early and late maturity grass, respectively. Average values of continuous 3-d data of N intake (NI) and output for individual cows ( = 464) and grass nutrient contents ( = 116) were used in the statistical analysis. Grass N content was positively related to GE and ME contents but negatively related to grass water-soluble carbohydrates (WSC), NDF, and ADF contents ( grass WSC contents and ratios of N:WSC, N:digestible OM in total DM (DOMD), and N:ME ( grass N contents and lower grass WSC, NDF, ADF, DOMD, and ME concentrations were significantly associated with greater MN, FN, and UN ( grass lower in N and greater in fermentable energy in animals fed solely fresh grass at maintenance level can improve N utilization, reduce N outputs, and shift part of N excretion toward feces rather than urine. These outcomes are highly desirable in mitigation strategies to reduce nitrous oxide emissions from livestock. Equations predicting N output from BW and grass N content explained a similar amount of variability as using NI and grass chemical composition (excluding DOMD and ME), implying that parameters easily measurable in practice could be used for estimating N outputs. In a research environment, where grass DOMD and ME are likely to be available, their

  12. The effects of adjuvant arthritis on the myometrial adrenergic functions in the nonpregnant and the late-pregnant rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Csik, G; Spiegl, G; Minorics, R; Falkay, G; Zupko, I

    2010-10-01

    The beneficial effects of pregnancy on the symptoms of inflammatory diseases are well documented. The modulation in the uterine functions in the presence of generalized inflammation, however, is much less characterized. The aim of the present study was to explore the modulatory action of adjuvant arthritis on the adrenergic functions of the uterus in nonpregnant and late pregnant rats. Adjuvant arthritis was induced by the subplantar injection of M. butyricum. Presynaptic functions were characterized by a superfusion technique and by registration of the contractions of isolated uterine rings elicited by electric field stimulation. The functions of the adrenoceptors were characterized by constructing concentration-response curves with agonists for both α- and β-receptors. Where these curves differed significantly from the control, the expressions of these receptors at the mRNA level were additionally determined. Adjuvant arthritis substantially decreased the uptake and release of [(3)H]noradrenaline in myometrial samples from nonpregnant rats, but caused no change at term. The electrically induced contractions were decreased by inflammation in both gestational states. Arthritis resulted in decreased β-adrenoceptor-mediated relaxation (in both the nonpregnant and the late-pregnant animals) and an increase in α-mediated contraction at term. It can be concluded that adjuvant arthritis deteriorates the adrenergic innervation of the uterus. The effects of exogenous sympathomimetics are shifted, favoring a state of higher contractility. If similar mechanisms are operative in humans, the present results could imply that β-adrenoceptor agonists are not ideal tocolytics when pregnancy is complicated by generalized inflammation.

  13. 女大学生减肥行为及其认知现状调查与分析%Investigation and analysis of female college students' losing-weight behaviors and their cognitive status

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚红梅; 刘云霞; 郭璇; 廖侠; 宋戈; 鲜瑶; 李卫敏

    2015-01-01

    目的 了解女大学生对肥胖及减肥的认知状况及减肥行为,指导肥胖者科学减肥、健康减肥. 方法 采用分层整群抽样方法对西安某高校1~3年级300名女大学生进行问卷调查,内容主要包括对肥胖及减肥知识的认知情况,减肥实施情况、减肥效果和产生的不良反应等3个方面,并对结果进行分析. 结果 在300名女大学生中有30.39%为过轻体重,66.78%为标准体重;大部分女大学生对自己的期望体质量指数( BMI)小于实际数值,对减肥知识的认知相对片面,实际平均BMI值为19.53 ± 1.97kg/m2,期望平均BMI值为17.44 ±1.42kg/m2,两者比较有显著性差异(t=14.907,P<0.001),实际BMI分布与期望BMI分布比较有显著性差异(χ2 =152.205,P<0.001);有53.36%的女大学生实施过减肥行为,主要方式为调整饮食结构(60.26%)、节食(19.21%)、运动(4.64%);减肥女大学生中有56.95%的人在减肥过程中出现了不良反应. 结论 女大学生对自身体重及体型认识不正确,存在盲目减肥情况,学校和社会应加大对肥胖知识的宣传和减肥行为引导,避免盲目减肥行为的发生.%Objective To know female college students' cognitive status of obesity and weight loss and their losing-weight behaviors, so as to provide scientific guidance for their scientific and healthy weight loss.Methods A questionnair survey was conducted among 300 female college students from freshmen to juniors of one university in Xi' an selected by stratified sampling and cluster sampling.The main contents of the questionnaire mainly included cognition on obesity, weight loss knowledge, practice of losing-weight, effect of losing-weight and adverse reactions of losing-weight.Results Among the 300 female college students, 30.39%were underweight and 66.78% had standard body weight.Most of the female students' expectation on their body mass index ( BMI) was smaller than actual BMI, and their cognition on knowledge of weight loss

  14. Effect of self-efficacy on breast self-examination behavior among female college students%高校女生自我效能感对其乳房自检行为影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王玲; 李惠萍; 王德斌; 林波

    2013-01-01

    Objective To explore the effect of self-efficacy on breast self-examination behavior among female college students.Methods A questionnaire survey was conducted in 623 female college students in terms of their characteristics,breast self-examination behavior and self-efficacy.Results The rate of breast self-examination was 30.2% (188/623) in the students and for the 188 students having breast self-examination,57.6% had the examination regularly.The total score of self-efficacy was 26.32 ± 8.44 for the 623 students.The total score of self-efficacy in the students who undertook breast self-examination (27.92 ± 4.46) was higher than that of the students did not undertake breast self-examination(18.12 ± 3.26),with a statistically significant difference (P < 0.05).The total score of self-efficacy in the students who undertook regularly breast self-examination(31.02 ± 7.45) was higher than that of the studetns undertaking breast self-examination(25.14 ± 5.13) irregularly,with a statistically significant difference (P < 0.05).Conclusion The rate of breast self-examination in female college students is low,and the college students who have a higher self-efficacy score are more likely to undertake breast self-examination regularly.%目的 探讨高校女生自我效能感对其乳房自检行为的影响.方法 采用一般资料调查表、自我效能量表、乳房自检行为调查表对安徽省六安市某高校623名女生进行调查.结果 623名高校女生中,进行乳房自检188人(30.2%),其中规律乳房自检108人(57.4%);623名女生自我效能总分为(26.32±8.44)分,进行乳房自检的女生自我效能总分为(27.92±4.46)分,高于未进行乳房自检女生的(18.12±3.26)分,差异有统计学意义(t=12.61,P<0.05);规律乳房自检的女生自我效能总分为(31.02±7.45)分,高于不规律乳房自检女生的(25.14±5.13)分,差异有统计学意义(t=5.03,P<0.00).结论 高校女生乳房自检行为不容乐

  15. PP097. Cardiac output and systemic vascular resistance in normal pregnancy and in control non-pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalil, A; Goodyear, Gemma; Joseph, Ehizele; Khalil, Asma

    2012-07-01

    Changes in cardiac output (CO) and systemic vascular resistance (SVR) have been shown to precede the clinical onset of pregnancy complications, such as pre-eclampsia and fetal growth restriction. CO and SVR undergo major changes during normal pregnancy. However, assessment of these vascular parameters requires intensive training and expensive techniques, so currently can be performed only in specialised centres. The aim of this study was to investigate maternal cardiovascular function measured using an ultrasonic cardiac output monitor (USCOM), a simple non-invasive continuous wave Doppler device, in a cohort of pregnant women and non-pregnant controls. This was a cross sectional study including 185 women with normal singleton pregnancies at 11-40weeks of gestation and 49 non-pregnant controls. Stroke volume (SV), CO and SVR were measured using the USCOM device. All measurements were performed with the patients in supine position. All women with a gestational age of >20weeks were in a left lateral position by placing a wedge-shaped pillow under their right side to prevent vena cava compression. In a group of 25 pregnant women, each measurement was repeated three times to evaluate the reproducibility of this technique. Cardiac index (CI), SV index (SVI) and SVR index (SVRI) relate CO, SV and SVR to the body surface area. The data were normally distributed after logarithmic transformation. Comparisons between pregnant and non-pregnant women were performed using Studentt-test, Chi-Square test or multiple regression analysis, when adjustment for potential confounders was necessary. Data analysis was performed using SPSS 16.0. In the first trimester, all of the following vascular parameters were higher in pregnant women compared to non-pregnant controls: CO [median (IQR): 4.86 (4.45-5.57) vs 5.57 (4.76-6.52)L/min, PPregnant women had significantly lower SVR [median (IQR): 1458 (1261-1649) vs 1165 (1023-1406)sec/cm(-5), P<0.001] and SVRI [median (IQR): 2646 (2307

  16. 某医学院“90后”女大学生恋爱动机调查研究%Female students' love motivation in medical college

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨帆

    2013-01-01

    目的:探明“90后”女大学生恋爱的动机,为革新大学生性教育提供科学依据.方法:对200名在校女大学生进行恋爱动机问卷调查,并按照是否有恋爱经历及户口来源情况进行分组比较,结果用SPSS13.0进行统计学检验.结果:有恋爱组与未恋爱组在“情感消遣”(x2=26.4,P=0.000 <0.01)、“从众面子”(x2=6.051,P=0.017 <0.05)两个方面存在显著差异.来自农村和来自城镇的女大学生只在“生理需求”(x2=18.11,P=0.000 <0.01)、“从众面子”(x2=21.5,P=0.000 <0.01)两个方面存在显著差异.谈过恋爱的女大学生中超过55%发生过性行为.结论:恋爱过的女大学生恋爱动机倾向于排遣寂寞,未恋爱的女大学生则觉得恋爱关乎个人的面子,进而产生从众行为;城镇女大学生的恋爱主要是为了满足生理需要,而农村女大学生则更看重恋爱带来的面子效益.%Objectives:To inquire female college students' love motivation in order to provide innovating scientific basis for sex education among them.Methods:Questionnaires on love motivation were conducted among 200 female college students.According to whether they have love experiences or not and their home places,they were divided into different groups.The results were statistically tested by SPSS13.0.Results:The students who were in love and those who were not were significantly different in terms of emotional pleasure (x2 =26.4,P=0.000 < 0.01) and their reputation (x2 =6.051,P=0.017 < 0.05).The students came from the rural areas and those from the urban areas were different in physiological needs (x2 =18.11,P =0.000 < 0.01) and reputation (x2 =21.5,P =0.000 < 0.01).55% of the female students who once had love experience had sexual behaviors.Conclusions:For the female students who had love experience,their motivation is due to loneliness while those having no love experience are just for conformity and vanity.In addition,the female students

  17. The Influence of Cheerleading Teaching on Self-Confidence of Female College Students%啦啦操教学对女大学生自信的影响研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    滕凤仙

    2014-01-01

    By using the methods of teaching experiment and mathematical statistics, this paper research the influence of cheerleading teaching on self-confidence of female college students. The results shows that the level of their overall self-confidence, school self-confidence, physical self-confidence and social self-confidence had significant difference (P<0.05) compared with which before the 12 weeks' experiment, and we can see the overall self-confidence, physical self-confidence and social self-confidence level of female college students among cheerleading group, sports dancing teaching and aerobics teaching group had significant differences (P<0.01) through the multiple comparisons. It is means that the cheerleading group has the most remarkable effect on improving female students overall self-confidence,physical self-confidence and social self-confidence compared with the other two groups.%采用教学实验、数理统计等方法,研究啦啦操教学对女大学生自信的影响。研究结果表明:经过12周的啦啦操教学,女大学生在整体自信、学业自信、身体自信和社交自信上差异显著(P约0.05),啦啦操教学组与健美操和体育舞蹈教学组女大学生的整体自信、身体自信和社交自信水平差异显著(P约0.01)。啦啦操教学对女大学生的整体自信、身体自信和社交自信几个维度上的自信水平影响显著,并且与健美操和体育舞蹈教学相比,对提升女大学生整体自信、身体自信和社交自信上的效果更显著。

  18. 高校女处级干部和高级职称人员的延迟退休态度的调查%Research of Attitude of College Female Department Cadre and Senior Staff to Postponed Retirement

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    叶霞

    2016-01-01

    女处级干部和高级职称人员延迟退休是党在新时期深化实施“人才强国”、充分发挥女性人才资源优势的战略举措。调查显示,北京印刷学院等高校女性处级干部和高级职称人员职业认同感总体较强,普遍认可这一政策,但也有一定顾虑。本文从营造支持延迟退休的氛围,建立相关配套政策,争取上级主管部门的支持等方面进行了调查和思考。%Policy of postponed retirement to female department cadres and senior staffs is the Party’s strategic measure in the new period to deepen the implementation of the “talent powerful country”, gives full play to the advantages of female human resources. The survey shows that the female department cadres and senior staffs of Beijing Institute of Graphic Community and other college generally accept this policy, and have some concerns, and put forward some thinking and expectation to play a role after postponed retirement. On this basis the thinking has been made to create supporting atmosphere for women delay retirement, establish related policies, and seek the support of higher authorities.

  19. An Investigation on Vocabulary Leraning Strategies of Female Students in Tertiary College%职业技术学院女性学生词汇学习策略调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    余书琴

    2014-01-01

    以二语习得的认知过程为理论框架,调查了202位职业技术学院女性英语专业学生的词汇学习策略和词汇量。经过定量分析,发现本次调查的女性学生能够大量运用元认知和认知策略来提高词汇学习,其中包括一些深度加工的词汇学习策略,也包括一些较机械的学习策略。研究还发现,女性学生词汇学习策略和词汇测试成绩之间存在极大关联,并提出一些对女性学生词汇学习帮助较大的词汇学习策略。%Vocabulary learning is one of the crucial steps in second language acquisition .Effective vocabulary learning strategies facilitate students improve their vocabulary levels to a large extent .Based on cognitive process of SLA ,this study investigated 202 female students in tertiary college on their vocabulary learning strategies and tested their vocabula-ry size .The finding showed that female students can employ lots of metacognitive and cognitive strategies to improve vo-cabulary learning including deep level processing and mechanical strategies .In addition ,correlation was found between vocabulary learning strategies ,which were helpful to vocabulary learning ,and test results in female students .

  20. The Correlation Investigation of Female College Students Menstrual Function and Mental Health in a University%某高校女大学生月经机能与心理健康状况相关性调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    方洁; 张洪波

    2011-01-01

    To inquire female undergraduates status of menstruation situation, physiological hyginene, and mental health in menstruation situation, methods of A self-designed questionnaire survey was conducted among more than 600 female undergraduates from Department of Nursing in certain Medical College in Wuhu, Anhui Province. Our results demonstrated that the frequency of female undergraduates happening dysmentorrhea and premenstrual syndrome is higher, the occurrence of these circumstanes was closely related to personal mental condition, lack of the physiology hygiene knowledge etc. Therefore, we should conduct health education of menstruation and necessary sex knowledge, behavior, attitude, to raise physical and mental healthy levels.%为了解在校女大学生的月经状况、月经期生理卫生知识的掌握情况以及月经期心理健康状况,本文采用自制问卷的方法对安徽省芜湖市某医学院校护理系女生600余人进行调查.结果显示在校女大学生病经及经前期综合征发生率较高,原因与个人心理状况、缺乏生理卫生知识等密切相关.为此,应对女大学生进行月经健康教育及必要的性知识、性行为、性态度方面教育,以提高女大学生身心健康水平.

  1. Changes in the spinal curvature, degree of pain, balance ability, and gait ability according to pregnancy period in pregnant and nonpregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Hyunju; Shin, Doochul; Song, Changho

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The aim of this study was to investigate the changes in pain intensity, spinal curvature, and balance and gait ability according to the pregnancy period. [Subjects] Nineteen pregnant women and fifteen nonpregnant women were recruited in this study. [Methods] The pain intensity, spinal curvature, gait, and balance of pregnant women were measured according to the pregnant period (2nd and 3rd trimester). The changes in the pregnant women were also compared with those in the nonpregnant women. [Results] The pain intensity and spinal curvature in the third trimester of pregnancy were significantly increased compared with the second trimester. Only the lumbar spine curvature in the third trimester pregnancy was significantly greater in the pregnant women than in non-pregnant women. The gait velocity and cadence in the third trimester of pregnancy showed a significant decrease compared with the second trimester. The gait speed in the second and third trimester of pregnancy showed a significant decrease in the pregnant women compared with nonpregnant women. Balance in the third trimester of pregnancy showed significant improvement compared with the second trimester. The balance of the pregnant women showed a significant decrease compare with that nonpregnant women only on unstable surfaces. [Conclusion] These research findings can be used as basic data for health promotion programs for sound daily activities in pregnant women.

  2. Evaluation of the macula, retinal nerve fiber layer and choroid in preeclampsia, healthy pregnant and healthy non-pregnant women using spectral-domain optical coherence tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ataş, Mustafa; Açmaz, Gökhan; Aksoy, Hüseyin; Demircan, Süleyman; Ataş, Fatma; Gülhan, Ahmet; Zararsız, Gökmen

    2014-08-01

    To evaluate the macular, retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) and choroidal thickness alterations by using spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) in preeclampsia and compare with healthy pregnant and healthy non-pregnant controls. The study population included healthy pregnant control group (n: 25), healthy non-pregnant control group (n: 26) and study group with preeclampsia (n: 27). Retinal thickness parameters were measured by SD-OCT. There was a statistically significant difference among all of the groups for choroidal thickness (p Choroidal thickness in preeclamptic women was significantly thinner than healthy pregnant women. The most thick choroid layer was detected in healthy pregnant group, and also the most thin choroidal thickness was detected in healthy non-pregnant group (p thickness were significantly thinner in preeclamptic study and healthy pregnant groups than healthy non-pregnant group (p thickness. Average of RNFL thickness was significantly thicker in healthy pregnant group than healthy non-pregnant group (p = 0.004). This study revealed that choroidal thickness measured using SD-OCT increased in women with preeclampsia and healthy pregnant women but the increase in choroidal thickness in preeclampsia was lower than the healthy pregnant controls. This lower rise in choroidal thickness can be generally attributed to the markedly increased systemic vascular vasospasm secondary to preeclampsia.

  3. Salivary flow rate, pH, and concentrations of calcium, phosphate, and sIgA in Brazilian pregnant and non-pregnant women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lindemann Laura

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Studies on salivary variables and pregnancy in Latin America are scarce. This study aimed to compare salivary flow rate, pH, and concentrations of calcium, phosphate, and sIgA of unstimulated whole saliva in pregnant and non-pregnant Brazilians. Methods Cross-sectional study. Sample was composed by 22 pregnant and 22 non-pregnant women attending the Obstetrics and Gynecology Clinics, São Lucas Hospital, in Porto Alegre city, South region of Brazil. Unstimulated whole saliva was collected to determine salivary flow rate, pH, and biochemical composition. Data were analyzed by Student t test and ANCOVA (two-tailed α = 0.05. Results No difference was found for salivary flow rates and concentrations of total calcium and phosphate between pregnant and non-pregnant women (p > 0.05. Pregnant women had lower pH (6.7 than non-pregnant women (7.5 (p Conclusion Some of the tested variables of unstimulated whole saliva were different between pregnant and non-pregnant Brazilians in this sample. Overall, the values of the tested salivary parameters were within the range of international references of normality.

  4. One year outcomes of a mentoring scheme for female academics: a pilot study at the Institute of Psychiatry, King's College London

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fear Nicola T

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The professional development of under-represented faculty may be enhanced by mentorship, but we understand very little about the mechanisms by which mentoring brings about change. Our study posed the research question, what are the mechanisms by which mentoring may support professional development in under-represented groups? The study aims to: (i to pilot a mentoring scheme for female academics; (ii to compare various health-related and attitudinal measures in mentees at baseline, 6 months, and 1 year into the mentoring relationship and, (iii to compare pre-mentoring expectations to outcomes at 6 months and 1 year follow-up for mentees and mentors. Methods Female academic mentees were matched 1:1 or 2:1 with more senior academic mentors. Online surveys were conducted to compare health-related and attitudinal measures and expectations of mentoring at baseline with outcomes at 6 months and 1 year using paired t-tests and McNemar's test for matched cohort data. Results N = 46 mentoring pairs, 44 (96% mentees completed the pre-mentoring survey, 37 (80% at 6 months and 30 (65% at 1 year. Job-related well-being (anxiety-contentment, self-esteem and self-efficacy all improved significantly and work-family conflict diminished at 1 year. Highest expectations were career progression (39; 89%, increased confidence (38; 87%, development of networking skills (33; 75%, better time-management (29; 66% and better work-life balance (28; 64%. For mentees, expectations at baseline were higher than perceived achievements at 6 months or 1 year follow-up. For mentors (N = 39, 36 (92% completed the pre-mentoring survey, 32 (82% at 6 months and 28 (72% at 1 year. Mentors' highest expectations were of satisfaction in seeing people progress (26; 69%, seeing junior staff develop and grow (19; 53%, helping solve problems (18; 50%, helping women advance their careers (18; 50% and helping remove career obstacles (13; 36%. Overall, gains at 6 months and 1

  5. 高校女生阳光体育情况调查%Investigation of Female College Students Participation in Sunshine Sports

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张飞鹏

    2012-01-01

    By means of literature review, questionnaire survey, mathematical statistics, Xi'an University of Arts and a girl, girls participated in extracurricular physical exercises of investigation and analysis, and to Xi'an University of Arts and a girl, girls participate in extra - curricular physical exercise motivation, exercise time, in the form and participation in physical exercise programs and other data analysis to explore the college girls to participate in extra- curricular physical activity problems, for better development of national efforts to promote sports activities on cam- pus sun reference.%采用文献资料、问卷调查、数理统计等方法,对西安文理学院女大女生参加课外体育锻炼的现状进行调查分析,并就西安文理学院女大女生参加课外体育锻炼的动机、锻炼时间、形式以及参加体育锻炼的项目等进行数据分析,探究高校女生参加课外体育锻炼中存在的问题,为更好地开展国家大力提倡的校园阳光体育活动提供参考。

  6. Reproductive health status of higher vocational college female students and health promotion research%渭南市高职女生生殖健康现状及促进研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李丰收; 毕育学

    2013-01-01

    目的 了解高职在校女大学生生殖健康知识、态度、行为的现状,探讨与评价高职女生生殖健康教育的内容、方法 和效果,为今后在高职院校进一步开展生殖健康促进及服务决策提供科学依据.方法 对渭南职业技术学院997名女学生进行问卷调查,并采用以讲座为核心的参与式互动教育模式,针对存在的问题进行生殖健康教育,并在健康教育活动后再次进行问卷调查,通过前后对照,对可行性和效果进行科学的评价.结果 高职在校女学生生殖健康状况不容乐观,生殖和避孕知识的认知正答率低于50.0%,41.9%的学生可以接受婚前性行为,77.9%的学生不知道尖锐湿疣属于性病,55.8%的学生不知道使用安全套可以预防艾滋病.健康教育活动后,女大学生的生殖健康知识认知度显著提高,态度和行为更趋积极,教育前后在安全期计算方法 (χ2=47.881,P=0.000<0.01)、正常排卵时间(χ2=429.452,P=0.000<0.01)、安全套使用时机(χ2=127.423,P=0.000<0.01)等认知项目正答率上有显著差异;对婚前性行为及未婚怀孕的态度转变差异均有统计学意义(χ2=值分别为41.850、16.753,均P<0.01).结论 生殖健康教育十分必要,以讲座为核心的参与式互动教育模式对大学生生殖健康教育效果明显,方法 可行.%Objective To understand the reproductive health knowledge , attitudes and practice of vocational college female students and to discuss and evaluate the content , method and effect of reproductive health education for them , so as to provide scientific basis for promoting reproductive health service and decision snaking in higher vocational colleges . Methods In Weinan Vocational and Technical College 997 female college students were surveyed with questionnaires . Participatory interactive education model with lectures as the core was taken to conduct reproductive health education in view of the existing problems

  7. Effectiveness of Different Rest Intervals Following Whole-Body Vibration on Vertical Jump Performance between College Athletes and Recreationally Trained Females

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole C. Dabbs

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of different rest intervals following whole-body vibration on counter-movement vertical jump performance. Sixteen females, eight recreationally trained and eight varsity athletes volunteered to participate in four testing visits separated by 24 h. Visit one acted as a familiarization visit where subjects were introduced to the counter-movement vertical jump and whole-body vibration protocols. Visits 2–4 contained 2 randomized conditions. Whole-body vibration was administered in four bouts of 30 s with 30 s rest between bouts. During whole-body vibration subjects performed a quarter squat every 5 s, simulating a counter-movement vertical jump. Whole-body vibration was followed by three counter-movement vertical jumps with five different rest intervals between the vibration exposure and jumping. For a control condition, subjects performed squats with no whole-body vibration. There was a significant (p < 0.05 main effect for time for vertical jump height, peak power output, and relative ground reaction forces, where a majority of individuals max jump from all whole-body vibration conditions was greater than the control condition. There were significant (p < 0.05 group differences, showing that varsity athletes had a greater vertical jump height and peak power output compared to recreationally trained females. There were no significant (p > 0.05 group differences for relative ground reaction forces. Practitioners and/or strength and conditioning coaches may utilize whole-body vibration to enhance acute counter-movement vertical jump performance after identifying individuals optimal rest time in order to maximize the potentiating effects.

  8. Body image perception and its association with body mass index and nutrient intakes among female college students aged 18-35 years from Tabriz, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alipour, Beitullah; Abbasalizad Farhangi, Mahdieh; Dehghan, Parvin; Alipour, Mahdieh

    2015-12-01

    Recent studies have shown that body image perception is an important factor in weight management and can be influenced by several social or cultural factors in Western or non-Western societies; however, body image perception and its nutritional and demographic determinants in Iran have not been extensively studied. In the current study, we aimed to evaluate body image perception and its socio-demographic and nutritional determinants among female university students in Tabriz City of Iran. In the current cross-sectional survey, 184 female students aged 18-35 years from Tabriz, Iran, were enrolled. Anthropometric variables including weight, height, waist and hip circumference were measured and body mass index (BMI) and waist to hip ratio (WHR) were calculated. Body image perception and distortion were assessed by Figure Rating Scale (FRS) developed by Stunkard consisting of nine silhouettes. Nutrition intake was assessed by a 3-day 24-h dietary recall method and analyzed by Nutritionist IV software. Most of the participants in the underweight (41.66%), normal weight (67.71%) and overweight (57.14%) categories of BMI selected the thinnest figure as their desirable or ideal body image perception. The total prevalences of body image dissatisfaction and distortion were 51.63% and 64.13%, respectively. Subjects who had undistorted body image perception consumed more time for physical activity and had more night sleeping hours compared with others (P nutritional status compared with others. Due to high prevalence of body image dissatisfaction, the need for appropriate interventional programs to prevent the associated co-morbidities is emphasized.

  9. 女大学生经前期综合征与学校适应性相关性分析%Correlation between premenstrual syndrome and adaptability for female college students

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋培歌; 王代娣; 吴恺君; 刘兆; 谢红

    2013-01-01

    目的 了解女大学生经前期综合征与学校适应性及两者的相关性,为采取有针对性的入学教育提供建议.方法 便利整群抽取北京大学医学部2011年新入学女大学生445名,采用一般资料调查表、经前期综合征调查表、经前期综合征症状打分表、学校适应水平量表进行调查.结果 新入学女大学生中46.3%有不同程度的经前期综合征,突出表现的症状为易激动、注意力不集中、嗜睡及焦虑;新人学女大学生总体适应性水平得分为(244.97 ±30.89)分,城镇生源在角色适应性和环境的总体认同上优于农村生源(P值均<0.01);除职业选择适应性维度之外,新人学女大学生经前期综合征严重程度与总体学校适应性及其余各维度均呈负相关(P值均<0.01).结论 经前期综合征与学校适应性之间呈负相关,应引起学校的高度重视,通过各种途径改善女大学生的生理心理卫生状况.%Objective To study the prevalence and the relationship of premenstrual syndrome ( PMS) and adaptability in female college students. Methods For convenience, a cluster sampling of the 445 newly enrolled female students from the Health Science Centre of Peking University in 2011 was surveyed for data collection by using of series of questionnaires; The general information questionnaire, the questionnaire of premenstrual syndrome, the level of premenstrual syndrome, and the school adaption questionnaire. Results It was found that 46. 3% of female college students suffered from premenstrual syndrome and the major symptoms were irritability, impaired concentration, drowsiness and anxiety. Further study revealed that the average score of the o-verall adaptability of the newly enrolled female students was (244. 97 ± 30. 89) , and score in self-adaptability and environmental general evaluation for urban students were significantly better than that for rural students ( P <0. 01). Finally, in addition to

  10. Research on Relations of Anti-Frustration Ability and Depression of Female College Students%女大学生抗挫折心理能力与抑郁关系的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张丽萍

    2012-01-01

    该文使用大学生抗挫折心理能力问卷、SCL-90量表中的抑郁分量表对1314名女大学生施测,以探讨其抗挫折心理能力与抑郁的关系。结果表明:(1)女大学生抗挫折心理能力总体水平良好,她们应对挫折时以积极抗挫为主,其抑郁倾向高于全国成人常模。非独生女大学生的抑郁倾向显著高于独生的,来自农村的女大学生的抑郁倾向显著高于来自城市的。理工科女大学生的抗挫折心理能力及其诸因子方面的能力显著高于体育、艺术、文科专业的女生。女大学生抗挫折心理能力及其诸因子的年级差异极其显著,表现出随年级升高呈波浪武发展趋势。大二女生的抑郁倾向极显著地高于其他年级的女生。(2)女大学生抗挫折心理能力与抑郁存在非常显著负相关,并对抑郁具有极显著的负向预测效应。%This research uses questionnaire on anti-frustration ability, depression scale in SCL-90 scale to measure 1314 female college students to discuss the relations of anti-frustration ability and depression. The results indicate, the general level of anti-frustration ability on the part of female college students is satisfactory. They ex- hibit mainly active counteract against frustration. Their depression tendency is higher than average national norm of adults. Engineering and science major female students exhibit significantly higher anti-frustration ability and that in relation to various factors than students of PE / athletics, art and liberal arts. Anti-frustration ability and that in re- lation to various factors also exhibit differences significantly varying with year grade, in a manner of wave-like esca- lating tendency. Sophomore female students exhibit strong depression tendency, significantly higher than females of other grades. Anti-frustration ability exhibits negative relevance with depressive psychology and negative prediction effect to depression.

  11. Effectiveness of the Gold Standard Programmes (GSP for Smoking Cessation in Pregnant and Non-Pregnant Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mette Rasmussen

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Smoking is considered the most important preventable risk factor in relation to the development of complications during pregnancy and delivery. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of an intensive 6-week gold standard programme (GSP on pregnant women in real life. Methods: This was a prospective cohort study based on data from a national Danish registry on smoking cessation interventions. The study population included 10,682 women of a fertile age. The pregnancy status of the study population was identified using the National Patient Registry. Results: The response rate to follow up was 76%. The continuous abstinence rate for both pregnant and non-pregnant smokers was 24–32%. The following prognostic factors for continuous abstinence were identified: programme format (individual/group, older age, heavy smoking, compliance with the programme, health professional recommendation, and being a disadvantaged smoker. Conclusions: The GSP seems to be as effective among pregnant smokers as among non-pregnant smoking women. Due to the relatively high effect and clinical significance, the GSP would be an attractive element in smoking cessation intervention among pregnant women.

  12. Evaluation of the automated urine particle analyzer UF-1000i screening for urinary tract infection in nonpregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Qingkai; Jiang, Yongmei; Shi, Hua; Zhou, Wei; Zhou, Shengjie; Yang, Hui

    2014-01-01

    Urinary tract infection (UTI) is a widespread disease in women. Urine culture is still the "gold standard" diagnostic test for UTI, but most of them are negative. To reduce unnecessary culture, we evaluated the automated urine particle analyzer UF-1000i screening for UTI in nonpregnant women. The urine specimens submitted to our laboratory were submitted for culture and tested by the Sysmex UF-1000i. Bacteria and white blood cell (WBC) counts were compared to standard urine culture results to assess the best cutoff values. In this study, 272 urine samples were included, of which 98 (36.0%) were culture positive with a bacterial cutoff value of 10 x 10(5) CFU/mL. A combination of bacterial (> 95/microL) and/or WBC count (> 24/microL) provided the best screening for UTI, with a sensitivity of 0.99 and a specificity of 0.82 compared with the urine culture. Sysmex UF-1000i could be used as a screening test for UTI in nonpregnant women. According to the distribution and range of the bacterial scattergram, we could primarily identify and differentiate between Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria.

  13. [Facilitating cervix dilatation of the non-pregnant uterus by intracervical administration of gels containing prostaglandin and calcium chloride].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rath, W; Hüther, G; Hilgers, R; Meyer, A; Kuhn, W; Neuhoff, V

    1987-01-01

    In a prospective, randomised study, 50 non-pregnant patients were treated intracervically with 3 ml 5% tylose, 50 micrograms sulprostone, 100 micrograms sulprostone gel, 3 ml 2.5 mM or 9.0 mM calcium chloride gel in order to soften the cervix 12-14 hours before diagnostic curettage. The gel was not used in a further 20 patients. To objectively demonstrate the priming effect, the force required for dilatation of the cervical canal was measured in Newtons, using a mechanical tonometer both before gel application and before the operation. In comparison with the administration of tylose only, the intracervical application of either sulprostone gel or calcium chloride gel led to a significant improvement in cervical dilatability. Tylose alone had a slight but measurable effect on the cervix. An increase in sulprostone from 50 micrograms to 100 micrograms or calcium molarity from 2.5 mM to 9.0 mM brought no further improvement in the dilatory effect. Dilatation-induced cervical lesions could be avoided by preoperative cervical ripening. After application of sulprostone, 3 out of 20 patients experienced doses-dependent uterine cramps, while all patients treated with calcium chloride gel were free of side effects. The intracervical administration of sulprostone and calcium chloride gel allowed gentle dilatation of the non-pregnant cervix, thus lowering the risk of uterine lesions. Under clinical aspects, cervical priming facilitates diagnostic and therapeutic procedures, which, in exceptional cases, can be performed without anaesthesia.

  14. Posture analysis of lifting a load for head carriage and comparison between pregnant and non-pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumas, G A; Preston, D; Beaucage-Gauvreau, E; Lawani, M

    2014-01-01

    In Western Africa, women continue performing heavy physical work that includes carrying loads on their heads during pregnancy. Women may adapt to pregnancy related body changes by modifying their postures to perform such tasks. The objectives of this biomechanical task analysis study were to 1) determine sagittal plane postures of the trunk and upper extremities at specific events during the task of lifting and lowering a load to be carried on the head, 2) compare postures of pregnant and non-pregnant participants, 3) evaluate risk for musculo-skeletal disorders (MSD) with the rapid entire body assessment (REBA) criteria. Twenty-six pregnant (26 ± 5 years, 159 ± 9 cm, 63 ± 15 kg, 25 ± 9 weeks of pregnancy) and 25 paired non-pregnant retail merchants were recruited in Porto-Novo (Benin). Participants were recorded on video in a laboratory setting while they lifted a tray (20% body weight) from a stool to their head and then put it back down. Trunk inclination and knee, shoulder and elbow flexion angles were determined using Dartfish® software. The trunk was bent by more than 80° at pick-up and set-down and knees were moderately flexed, significantly less (pregnant women, possibly because it was harder to lift the trunk, or for stability. For all postures analysed, the majority of trials were classified as "high" risk or "very high risk" for MSD. Future research should investigate prevalence of MSDs in this population to confirm the results of this study.

  15. Interactions between subtotal nephrectomy and salt: effects on blood pressure and renal function in pregnant and nonpregnant ewes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Karen J; Boyce, Amanda C; Thomson, Clare L; Chinchen, Sarah; Lumbers, Eugenie R

    2008-04-01

    The effects of high salt intake on blood pressure and renal function were studied in nine subtotally nephrectomized pregnant ewes (STNxP) and seven intact pregnant ewes (IntP) in late gestation and in eight subtotally nephrectomized nonpregnant ewes (STNxNP) and seven intact nonpregnant ewes (IntNP). STNxP had higher mean arterial pressures (P High salt (0.17 M NaCl as drinking water for 5 days) did not change blood pressure in either STNxP or IntP. STNxNP had higher mean arterial pressures (P = 0.03) and plasma creatinine levels (P blood pressure increased with high salt intake and there was a positive relationship between diastolic pressure and sodium balance (r = 0.497, P = 0.05). This relationship was not present in IntNP, STNxP, or IntP. Because high salt intake did not cause an increase in blood pressure in STNxP, it is concluded that they were protected by pregnancy from further rises in blood pressure. The observed increase in glomerular filtration rate (P high salt may have contributed to this protection. As well, the increased production of vasorelaxants in pregnancy may selectively protect against the occurrence of salt-sensitive hypertension in pregnancy.

  16. Economics of resynchronization strategies including chemical tests to identify nonpregnant cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giordano, J O; Fricke, P M; Cabrera, V E

    2013-02-01

    Our objectives were to assess (1) the economic value of decreasing the interval between timed artificial insemination (TAI) services when using a pregnancy test that allows earlier identification of nonpregnant cows; and (2) the effect of pregnancy loss and inaccuracy of a chemical test (CT) on the economic value of a pregnancy test for dairy farms. Simulation experiments were performed using a spreadsheet-based decision support tool. In experiment 1, we assessed the effect of changing the interbreeding interval (IBI) for cows receiving TAI on the value of reproductive programs by simulating a 1,000-cow dairy herd using a combination of detection of estrus (30 to 80% of cows detected in estrus) and TAI. The IBI was incremented by 7d from 28 to 56 d to reflect intervals either observed (35 to 56 d) or potentially observed (28 d) in dairy operations. In experiment 2, we evaluated the effect of accuracy of the CT and additional pregnancy loss due to earlier testing on the value of reproductive programs. The first scenario compared the use of a CT 31 ± 3 d after a previous AI with rectal palpation (RP) 39 ± 3 d after AI. The second scenario used a CT 24 ± 3 d after AI or transrectal ultrasound (TU) 32 d after AI. Parameters evaluated included sensitivity (Se), specificity (Sp), questionable diagnosis (Qd), cost of the CT, and expected pregnancy loss. Sensitivity analysis was performed for all possible combinations of parameter values to determine their relative importance on the value of the CT. In experiment 1, programs with a shorter IBI had greater economic net returns at all levels of detection of estrus, and use of chemical tests available on the market today might be beneficial compared with RP. In experiment 2, the economic value of programs using a CT could be either greater or less than that of RP and TU, depending on the value for each of the parameters related to the CT evaluated. The value of the program using the CT was affected (in order) by (1) Se, (2

  17. “阳光体育”背景下高校女大学生课外健美操活动开展的研究%Study on Extra-curricular Aerobics Exercise of Female College Students in the Context of "Sunshine Sports"

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘宗杰

    2011-01-01

    Issues that female college students conduct extra-curricular aerobics exercise are discussed, and "sunshine sports" is combined, so as to mobilize the female students to participate in physical exercise actively, carry out the "sunshine sports" enduringly, which has important significance in promoting physical and mental development of female college students.%针对普通高校女大学生课外进行健美操锻炼问题进行探讨,并结合“阳光体育运动”,以调动女大学生积极参加体育锻炼,持久开展“阳光体育运动”,促进女大学生身心健康发展具有重要意义.

  18. 女大学生面部痤疮与蠕形螨感染的关系调查分析%The relationship between facial acne and demodex infection in female college students

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘安怡; 汪作琳; 张振东

    2016-01-01

    目的:探讨女大学生面部痤疮患病率以及与蠕形螨感染的相关性。方法对阜阳职业技术学院医学专业306名女大学生进行面部痤疮的检查及蠕形螨感染的鉴定,同时对学生的皮肤类型、饮食习惯等进行问卷调查。结果120名学生确诊痤疮,患病率39.22%(120/306),面部蠕形螨的感染率23.20%(71/306)。蠕形螨感染的学生痤疮患病率高于非蠕形螨感染的学生(P<0.05),且痤疮患病程度高于未感染者(P<0.001),中重度蠕形螨感染的学生,痤疮患病程度高于轻度感染者(P<0.05)。油性皮肤、饮食习惯和化妆频率均与痤疮发病有一定的相关性(P<0.05)。结论女大学生面部痤疮患病较普遍,蠕形螨感染是痤疮患病的相关因素,感染的程度与痤疮分度有相关性。另外,痤疮的患病率还与皮肤性质、饮食习惯等有关。%ObjectiveTo investigate the relationship between the prevalence of facial acne and demodex infection in female college students.MethodsIdentification of facial acne and demodex infection of Fuyang Vocational and Technical College medical professional 306 female college students was carried out. A questionnaire on their skin types and diet habits was performed simultaneously.Results120 students were diagnosed with acne, the prevalence rate was 39.22%(120/306).71 students were with demodex infection with a total infection rate of 23.20%(71/306). Acne prevalence rate of students with demodex infection was higher than that of student withput demodex infection. The acne degree of students with moderate and severe demodex infection was higher than that of students with mild infection(P< 0.05).Oily skin,diet habits and make-up frequency have a certain correlation with the incidence of acne(P<0.05),and the degree of acne was higher than that of non infected persons.ConclusionFemale students of medicine profession in the Fuyang vocational and technical school

  19. Investigation on cognition on menstruation and menstrual health care among female students in a vocational college%某高职学院女生月经及经期保健认知状况调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙淑云; 杨文方

    2012-01-01

    目的 了解在校女大学生月经及经期保健认知现况,为更好地指导和促进女大学生经期保健工作提供科学依据.方法 采用分层整群抽样方法,随机抽取陕西渭南职业技术学院女生共1 778人进行问卷调查.结果 女大学生平均初潮年龄为12.8岁.错误的或不适宜的经期保健认知频率在5.5%~32.9%,三年制学生和五年制学生在经期饮食方面的认知存在显著性差异(χ2=54.790,P0.05).月经知识来源于学校教育的仅占10.4%,城市和城镇的学生其知识来源与乡村学生之间存在显著性差异(χ2=214.411,P0.05 ). Only 10. 4% of menstrual knowledge of students came from school education. Significant difference existed in knowledge sources between students living in city or town and those living in countryside (x2 =214. 411 ,P <0. 001 ). There were 86. 6% students considering that sex education provided by college was necessary. Conclusion Female college students lack menstrual health care knowledge, and their health care behaviors during menstruation need to be strengthened and improved. Family, school and society should cooperate mutually to develop pertinent reproductive health education.

  20. 绘画疗法改善肥胖女大学生抑郁的实验研究%Experimental study of art therapy on the obesity college female students' depression

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    牛振海; 曹运华

    2011-01-01

    目的 探讨绘画艺术疗法改善肥胖女大学生抑郁情绪的有效性,为提高肥胖女大学生的学习和生活质量提供依据.方法 在大学生中招募志愿者16名随机分为2组:8人为实验组,8人为对照组.实验组参加团体绘画艺术疗法,每周1次,每次2 h,共8次;对照组不采取任何干预.以抑郁自评量表(SDS)、症状自评量表(SCL-90)抑郁项和自尊量表(SES)为测量工具,在团体干预实施前、实施后1周对被试进行测量.结果 与对照组相比,实验组被试在干预前后的抑郁自评量表得分显著下降(t=6.75,P<0.01);SCL-90抑郁项均分干预前后比较差异有统计学意义(t=4.32,P<0.05).实验组被试在干预后的自尊量表得分显著提高(t=5.43,P<0.01).结论 绘画艺术疗法是干预肥胖女大学生抑郁症状的有效途径之一.%Objective To investigate the influence of art therapy on the obesity college female students' depression.Methods Sixteen freshmen were recruited and randomly divided into two groups:8 of them received group psychology counseling, the other 8 were taken as control group.The two groups were tested by using SDS, SCL - 90 and SES.Results Compared with the control group, the scores of the experimental group of SDS before and after were significantly decreased( t =6.75 ,P <0.01 ) and the scores of SCL -90 depression factors also decreased( t =4.32 ,P <0.05 ).The experimental group had been remarkably better than control group in the scale of SES ( t = 5.43, P < 0.01 ).Conclusion The group art therapy has great positive effects on improving the obesity college female students' depressive symptoms.

  1. Changes in the constitution of female college students before and after the aerobic exercise%女大学生参与有氧运动前后的体质变化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王智慧; 苑高兴; 李福祥

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Nowadays, aerobic exercise has been a theme of mod ern body-building. Therefore, there are practical significance of under standing and mastering the effect of aerobic exercise on the constitution of body builder in instructing body-building practice. OBJECTIVE: To observe the effect of aerobic exercise on body composi tion, cardiore spiratory function and body figure of female college students. DESIGN: Non-randomized concurrent control experiment. SETTING: China Female College. PARTICIPANTS: The experiment was conducted from May 2003 to Oc tober 2004. 100 female college students were randomly selected from Chi na Female College and other three colleges and taken as the aerobic exer cise group. Another 100 female college students of the same age without systematic aerobic exercise were taken as the control group. METHODS: ①The course for aerobic exercise group were mainly aero bics, ballroom dancing and hexagram boxing, including 5-15 minutes of warming up, 30-45 minutes of aerobic exercise [the target heart rate in (75% maximal heart rate) exercise lasted for at least 15 minutes] and 15-20 minutes of cooling down, which were conducted for 60 minutes each time and twice a week. The exercise should be performed at 2.5 hours before supper for 1.5 years.②Subjects in the control group were not inter fered but kept in same diet and resting time as the aerobic exercise group. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: ①Body figure indexes: body height, body mass, chest circumference, waistline, hip circumferences.②Skinfold thickness, fat mass index and lean body mass. ③ Lung capacity, maximal breathing capacity in each minute, stroke volume, cardiac output, ejection fraction, heart rate, ejection time, mean normalized systolic ejection rate (MNSER) and left velocity of circumferential fiber shortening (LVCf). RESULTS: A total of 200 subjects, who had accomplished all tests were involved in the analysis of results. ①The waistline was smaller after exer cise in the

  2. 16S rRNA gene-based metagenomic analysis reveals differences in bacteria-derived extracellular vesicles in the urine of pregnant and non-pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Jae Young; Rho, Mina; You, Young-Ah; Kwon, Eun Jin; Kim, Min-Hye; Kym, Sungmin; Jee, Young-Koo; Kim, Yoon-Keun; Kim, Young Ju

    2016-02-05

    Recent evidence has indicated that bacteria-derived extracellular vesicles (EVs) are important for host-microbe communication. The aims of the present study were to evaluate whether bacteria-derived EVs are excreted via the urinary tract and to compare the composition of bacteria-derived EVs in the urine of pregnant and non-pregnant women. Seventy-three non-pregnant and seventy-four pregnant women were enrolled from Dankook University and Ewha Womans University hospitals. DNA was extracted from urine EVs after EV isolation using the differential centrifugation method. 16S ribosomal RNA (16S rRNA) gene sequencing was performed using high-throughput 454 pyrosequencing after amplification of the V1-V3 region of the 16S rDNA. The composition of 13 taxa differed significantly between the pregnant and non-pregnant women. At the genus level, Bacillus spp. EVs were more significantly enriched in the urine of the pregnant women than in that of the non-pregnant women (45.61% vs 0.12%, respectively). However, Pseudomonas spp. EVs were more dominant in non-pregnant women than in pregnant women (13.2% vs 4.09%, respectively). Regarding the compositional difference between pregnant women with normal and preterm delivery, EVs derived from Ureaplasma spp. and the family Veillonellaceae (including Megasphaera spp.) were more abundant in the urine of preterm-delivered women than in that of women with normal deliveries. Taken together, these data showed that Bacillus spp. EVs predominate in the urine of pregnant women, whereas Pseudomonas spp. EVs predominate in the urine of non-pregnant women; this suggests that Bacillus spp. EVs might have an important role in the maintenance of pregnancy.

  3. Pharmacokinetics of a single oral dose of vitamin D3 (70,000 IU in pregnant and non-pregnant women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roth Daniel E

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Improvements in antenatal vitamin D status may have maternal-infant health benefits. To inform the design of prenatal vitamin D3 trials, we conducted a pharmacokinetic study of single-dose vitamin D3 supplementation in women of reproductive age. Methods A single oral vitamin D3 dose (70,000 IU was administered to 34 non-pregnant and 27 pregnant women (27 to 30 weeks gestation enrolled in Dhaka, Bangladesh (23°N. The primary pharmacokinetic outcome measure was the change in serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentration over time, estimated using model-independent pharmacokinetic parameters. Results Baseline mean serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentration was 54 nmol/L (95% CI 47, 62 in non-pregnant participants and 39 nmol/L (95% CI 34, 45 in pregnant women. Mean peak rise in serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentration above baseline was similar in non-pregnant and pregnant women (28 nmol/L and 32 nmol/L, respectively. However, the rate of rise was slightly slower in pregnant women (i.e., lower 25-hydroxyvitamin D on day 2 and higher 25-hydroxyvitamin D on day 21 versus non-pregnant participants. Overall, average 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentration was 19 nmol/L above baseline during the first month. Supplementation did not induce hypercalcemia, and there were no supplement-related adverse events. Conclusions The response to a single 70,000 IU dose of vitamin D3 was similar in pregnant and non-pregnant women in Dhaka and consistent with previous studies in non-pregnant adults. These preliminary data support the further investigation of antenatal vitamin D3 regimens involving doses of ≤70,000 IU in regions where maternal-infant vitamin D deficiency is common. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT00938600

  4. 女大学生的抽象颜色偏好及其与人格特征的关系%Abstract Color Preference and Characteristics among Its Relationship with Personality Female College Students

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    逯平平; 崔小迪; 陈国鹏; 许荻枫

    2012-01-01

    Color preferences can be affected by many factors, such as culture, race, gender, age, personality and so on, in addition, these factors are interacted. Eysenck (1981) stated that extrovert people preferred "arousing" colors to increase inner arousal level, whereas introvert people preferred "clam" colors to decrease it. To better explore relationship between color preference and personality, the study focuses on single gender. So the study is to investigate abstract color preference of female college students and its relationship with personality characteristics. Paired-comparisons method and EPQ were adopted to measure 412 female college students' color preferences and personality characteristics respectively. Participants were females aged 18-25, minored in psychology, and reported no color blindness or color weakness. The study chose red, orange, yellow, green, blue, and purple (see CMYK of each color in table 1) as materials. Each color was printed in the form of square (1.45cm * 1.45cm), and 6 colors were paired each other to generate 30 color pairs. 30 color pairs were counterbalanced and arranged in 3 pieces of matt art paper (210mm * 297mm). Subjects were asked to finish color preference test and EPQ in the form of group test. The results showed that the sequence of subjects' color preference was blue, red, yellow, purple, orange, green (see table 2), and there was significant difference among 6 colors' chosen times, F(5, 1800)=35.603, p=0.000. Color preferences in the study confirmed the result of Eysenck (1941), so time influences people's color preference to some extent, it follows some rules though. Regardless of personality characteristics, subjects liked blue most (see table 3 and table 4). Red, orange, and yellow belong to "warm" colors, in addition, blue, green, and purple belong to "cold" colors, so subjects' preference for "warm" or "cold" colors can be obtained. There was significant difference about preference for "warm" or "cold" colors on

  5. M-cholinoreactivity of erythrocytes of non-pregnant and pregnant women evaluated by changes in the rate of erythrocyte agglutination under the influence of acetylcholine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strelnikova, A I; Tsirkin, V I; Krysova, A V; Hlybova, S V; Dmitrieva, S L

    2012-12-01

    Acetylcholine (5.5×10(-10)-5.5×10(-6)M) accelerated erythrocyte agglutination in men, non-pregnant women in follicular phase of the menstrual cycle, and pregnant women in the first trimester. The effect was blocked with atropine (5.5×10(-6)M). Acetylcholine had no effect on the rate of erythrocyte agglutination in non-pregnant women in the luteal phase and pregnant women in the second and third trimesters, which coincided with the development of myometrium refractoriness to acetylcholine in pregnant women. The results indicate that erythrocytes can reflect M-cholinoreactivity of internal organs.

  6. 长春市高校女大学生参加课外体育锻炼的现状及对策%Current Situation and Countermeasures of Female College Students Parti-cipating in Extracurricular Physical Exercise in Changchun Universities

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张媛

    2016-01-01

    The female university students in Changchun university participate in extracurricular sports activities as the object, in the form of a questionnaire about Changchun City, female college students to participate in extracurricular sports activities in the frequency, motivation, attitude and influencing factors, gave the feasible countermeasures in view of the present situ-ation, in order to provide a theoretical basis for improving the extracurricular physical exercise of female college students in Colleges and universities in Changchun City, and to provide a basis for college sports curriculum theory research.%文章以长春高校女大学生参与课外体育活动作为对象,以调查问卷形式了解长春市高校女大学生参与课外体育活动的频度、动机、态度及影响因素,针对现状给予可行对策,为提高长春市高校女大学生课外体育锻炼提供理论依据,为高校体育课程理论研究提供依据。

  7. Poor Female College Students' Preventive Employment Psychological Guidance Mode Research under Psychological Capital Perspective%心理资本视阈下贫困女大学生预防性就业心理指导模式研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刁佳

    2014-01-01

    In the increasingly severe employment situation, negative emotion restricts improve poor female college students' employment competitiveness. Investigation of poor female college students' employment psychology and other aspects of the research group under the guidance of psychological capital theory, the poor female college students' psychological capital construction under the guidance of the theory of preventive employment psychological guidance mode, guide the employ-ment psychology of College education.%在愈加严峻的就业形势下,消极情绪严重制约了贫困女大学生就业竞争力的有效提升。课题组在心理资本理论指导下开展贫困女大学生就业心理等方面的调查研究,提出构建心理资本理论指导下的贫困女大学生预防性就业心理指导模式,指导高校就业心理教育。

  8. Female circumcision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu Daia, J M

    2000-10-01

    It is uncertain when female circumcision was first practiced, but it certainly preceded the founding of both Christianity and Islam. A review of past and current historical, popular and professional literature was undertaken, and 4 types of female circumcision were identified. Typically female circumcision is performed by a local village practitioner, lay person or by untrained midwives. Female genital mutilation is not accepted by any religious or medical opinion, and is a violation of human rights against helpless individuals who are unable to provide informed consent and who must therefore be protected through education and legislation. Complications of female circumcision can present after many years. Any medical practitioner (either for adult or pediatric) can be confronted with this issue of female circumcision, even in countries where this custom is not present, thus mandating the understanding of this complex issue.

  9. Female epispadias

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M V Krishna Shetty

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Isolated female epispadias without bladder exstrophy is an extremely rare congenital anomaly. The symptoms of female epispadias are primary urinary incontinence and abnormal anatomical features. A 7-year-old girl presented with partial incontinence of urine. On physical examination, bifid clitoris and labia minora were seen. The vagina and hymen were normal. Voiding cystourethrogram showed no reflux. With the diagnosis of isolated female epispadias, single stage reconstruction of the urethra, labia minora and clitoris was performed.

  10. Discussion on the Enhancing Awareness of Safeguarding the Rights and Interests of Female College Students%女大学生增强权益维护意识刍议

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周素勤

    2014-01-01

    At present, the number of girls in Higher Education in China has exceeded the number of boys. However, it is often seen that female college students' rights and interests is damaged due to their special physiological structure, psychological immature, the lack of social experience and other reasons. To effectively protect their legitimate rights and interests, they must enhance the awareness of safeguarding rights and interests, to be self-reliance, self-esteem, self-discipline, self-protection, self-care, and sensibly safeguard rights and interests.%目前,我国高校中的女生人数已经超过男生人数。然而,由于生理结构特殊,心理不够成熟、社会经验欠缺等原因,女大学生权益受损的现象屡见不鲜。要有力捍卫自身合法权益,女大学生必须增强维权意识,自强自立、自重自爱、自制自律、自防自护,理智维权。

  11. Study on the Cultivation of the Consciousness of Female College Students under the Background of the Subject of Feminism%女权主义背景下女大学生主体意识培育研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田艳华; 王立荣

    2016-01-01

    女权主义在当今社会越来越受到广大女性的追捧,并且社会各界也对此给予了更高的关注。但是随着女性解放的发展,也滋生了与其初衷背道而驰的消极方面。女大学生作为女性中的一个特殊群体,正确的引导女权主义对其的影响就显得很有必要。%Feminism in today's society more and more sought after by the majority of women, and the community has also given a higher concern. But with the development of women's liberation, it also breeds the negative aspects of its original in-tention. Female college students as a special group of women, the correct guidance of Feminism on its impact is very necessary.

  12. The efficacy and mechanism of Yoga treatment for primary dysmenorrhea suf-fered by female college students%瑜伽治疗女大学生原发性痛经的疗效及其机理

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱荣; 傅姗

    2013-01-01

    In order to observe the effects of Yoga exercise on the uterine blood flow and endometrial secretions PGF2α, PGE2 and AVP of female college students suffering primary dysmenorrhea during their menstrual periods, and to probe into the mechanism of dysmenorrheal symptom improvement made by Yoga exercise, the authors di-vided 20 female college students, who had been diagnosed as having primary dysmenorrhea by doctors, randomly into 2 groups, namely, an experiment group which contained 11 female college students and a control group which contained 9 female college students, let the testees in the experiment group do the Yoga exercise for 3 months, 3 times per week, 1 hour per time, while the testees in the control group did not do the Yoga exercise, before the ex-periment, after 2 months of experiment, and after 3 months of experiment, used a color Doppler ultrasound instrument to measure the changing of the resistance index (RI), pulsation index (PI) and ratio of peak systolic blood flow to peak diastolic blood flow (S/D) of the uterine and arcuate arteries of the testees within 24 hours after menses, applied the ELISA method to measure the PGF2α, PGE2 and AVP concentrations of menstrual blood, used a dysmenorrheal symptom evaluation form to evaluate the degree of menstrual pain before and after the experiment, and revealed the following findings:after 3 months of exercising, the S/D, RI and PI of the arcuate artery and the S/D and RI of the uterine artery and the degree of pain of the testees in the experiment group were all lower than those measured be-fore the experiment (P<0.05), in which the RI of the arcuate and uterine arteries and the degree of pain of the testees in the experiment group were significantly lower than those of the testees in the control group (P<0.05);the ratio of PGF2αto PGE2 and AVP concentration of menstrual blood of the testees in the experiment group were significantly lower than those of the testees in the control group (P<0.05). The

  13. 健美操教学对女大学生终身体育习惯形成的影响%Influence of Aerobics Teaching on Female College Students' Life- long Physical Exercise Habit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    文兰颖

    2011-01-01

    College physical education is the last stage of entering society and the efficient one of cultivating students' life - long physical exercise. This paper relies on the status quo of the aerobics teaching in the five uni- versities of Zhengzhou, and analyzes the influence of aerobics on female students' life - long physical exercise habit by the traits and value of aerobics.%大学体育是学生步入社会的最后阶段,也是培养学生终身健身的最有效阶段。本文以郑州市5所省属本科院校健美操的教学现状为落脚点,从健美操的特点切入,结合健美操的价值,分析了健美操有助于女大学生终身健身习惯的形成。

  14. [Role of oxytocin in activation of spontaneous electrical activity of uterine body and uterine tubes in non-pregnant rats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazarian, K V; Unanian, N G; Meliksetian, I B; Akopian, R R; Saakian, A A

    2011-01-01

    The work studies effects of various doses of oxytocin (0.01, 0.1, 1 and 10 microg/kg) on duration of discharges of spontaneous electrical activity and frequency of spikes in various parts of uterine tubes and of uterine body of non-pregnant rats. Under these conditions, changes in these parameters for ovarian parts of the uterine tubes had similar character unlike those in cervical parts of the tubes and in the middle part of the uterine body, so the latter parts can be grouped together owing to peculiarities of their changes. The longest duration of genesis of electric discharges has been shown for the ovarian part of uterine tubes at a concentration of 10 microg/kg of oxytocin. Morphological experiments revealed that among all studies areas the ovarian parts of uterine tubes were characterized by the highest amount of atypical cells that have the maximally pronounced functional activity.

  15. Aspects of physiological effects of sodium zeolite A supplementation in dry, non-pregnant dairy cows fed grass silage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enemark, J M; Frandsen, A M; Thilsing-Hansen, T

    2003-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to monitor serum and urine biochemical changes in dairy cows during and after oral administration of a synthetic sodium aluminium-silicate (zeolite A). A prospective longitudinal study involving four non-pregnant and non-lactating cows was chosen. Cows were...... was observed in the experimental group at initiation of supplementation, whereas an increment in these parameters was recorded after withdrawal of zeolite supplementation. It is assumed, that zeolite caused a reduction in the availability of dietary calcium during supplementation, which possibly elicited...... and magnesium is presumed to result from a combination of interference of zeolite with intestinal absorption and a marginal dietary supplementation of these minerals....

  16. Influence of pregnancy on locomotor and feeding performances of the skink, Mabuya multifasciata: why do females shift thermal preferences when pregnant?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chi-Xian; Zhang, Ling; Ji, Xiang

    2008-01-01

    It has been documented in the many-lined sun skink (Mabuya multifasciata) that pregnant females select lower body temperatures (27.6-30.8 degrees C) than do nonpregnant females and adult males (29.7-35.7 degrees C). We therefore used the skink to test the hypothesis that the maximization of reproductive benefits should be achieved in pregnant females by shifting thermal preferences towards the levels optimal for embryonic development but entailing relatively small costs of reproduction. Data on adult males showed that temperatures maximizing swimming stamina (indicative of locomotor endurance) fell within the range of body temperatures selected by nonpregnant females and adult males. Data on swimming stamina and feeding performance of pregnant females, nonpregnant females and adult males measured at 26 and 30 degrees C showed that: (1) pregnancy impaired locomotor and feeding performances, but such impairments did not persist after parturition; (2) the degree of locomotor impairment during pregnancy was greater at 26 degrees C than at 30 degrees C, but the degree of feeding impairment during pregnancy was greater at 30 degrees C than at 26 degrees C. Pregnant females of M. multifasciata selecting body temperatures at about 29 degrees C could not only produce good-quality offspring in a relatively short gestation length but also reduce reproductive costs associated with locomotor and feeding impairments to some extent. Thus, data from M. multifasciata validate the above hypothesis.

  17. 广州市高中和大学女生吸烟现况%Cross-sectional study of tobacco use of female high school and college students in Guangzhou

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈磊; 叶小华; 许雅; 徐英; 陈敏; 杨翌

    2013-01-01

    To describe the smoking status and discuss the influencing factors of tobacco use among female high school and college students in Guangzhou.Methods A cross-sectional study was carried out among 1 879 female students by multi-steps random samplings.Chi-square test was used to compare the difference of ever smokers and non ever smokers.Results The ever smoking rate,the current smoking rate and the regular smoking rate were 16.14%,1.15% and 0.16%,respectively.There were significant differences between the smoking environment,the response of smoking,the attitude towards women smoking,cigarettes for women,prohibition against retailing cigarettes to minors and smoking-related advertisement in ever smokers and non ever smokers.Conclusion The ever smoking rate of female high school and college students in Guangzhou is low,and the influence of peers and family,the attitude related to tobacco influence the smoking behaviors.The school,family and society should be joined up to carry out relevant education and intervention.%目的 了解广州市高中、大学女生吸烟现状及其尝试吸烟的影响因素,为减少女性青少年吸烟行为提供依据.方法 采用多阶段分层随机抽样方法,抽取广州市1879名高中和大学女生进行问卷调查.结果 广州市高中和大学女生的尝试吸烟率为16.14%,现在吸烟率为1.15%,常吸烟率为0.16%.与非尝试吸烟者相比,尝试吸烟者周围人群的吸烟情况严重、对自己吸烟更少感到生气、对年轻女性吸烟及“女士香烟”接受程度高、对禁止向未成年人销售香烟和禁止所有烟草广告的赞成度低.结论 广州市高中和大学女生的尝试吸烟率处于较低水平,且与同伴及家庭影响、吸烟相关态度有关.应联合学校,家庭和社会开展相关控制宣教和干预活动.

  18. Steroid hormones level in milk of non-pregnant and pregnant river buffalos at various gestational trimesters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaser Shahbazi

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Milk is a valuable sources of nutrition in the human diet however; there are reports on safety of milk steroid hormones contain. This study designed to determine the level of steroid hormones including estrone (E1, 17β-estradiol (E2, and estriol (E3 in raw and pasteurized milk from non-pregnant and pregnant buffalos.Methods: Steroids was extracted using liquid extraction, enzymatical deconjugation, and C18 solid-phase extraction from collected milk samples. Estrogens were analyzed using high performance liquid chromatography equipped by fluorescence detector.Results: Free E1 (554.1±77.0 ng/L and deconjugated E1 (701.6±44.7 ng/L was found highest level estrogen followed by E2, while E3 level was under the detection limit (10 ng/L. The lowest E1: 554.1±77.0 and E2: 28.1±4.4ng/L estrogens level were determined in raw milk from non-pregnant and highest E1: 1014.7±123.8 and E2: 108.2±9.1 ng/L estrogens were found in milk of animals in the third trimester of gestation. The estrogens concentration in pasteurized milk did not show significant (P>0.05 differences with those in raw milk.Conclusion: As buffalo milk poses more fat than cow's milk, it may contain higher level of steroid hormones. Since consumption of buffalo's milk with higher amount of steroidal hormones could be considered one of the potential risk factors for carcinogenesis.

  19. Prediction of uterine dehiscence using ultrasonographic parameters of cesarean section scar in the nonpregnant uterus: a prospective observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pomorski, Michal; Fuchs, Tomasz; Zimmer, Mariusz

    2014-10-29

    Every year 1.5 million cesarean section procedures are performed worldwide. As many women decide to get pregnant again, the population of pregnant women with a history of cesarean section is growing rapidly. For these women prediction of cesarean section scar performance is still a serious clinical problem. Starting in 2005, the study included 308 nonpregnant women with a history of low transverse cesarean section. The following ultrasonographic parameters of the cesarean section scar in the nonpregnant uterus were assessed: the residual myometrial thickness (RMT) and the width (W) and the depth (D) of the triangular hypoechoic scar niche. During 8 years of follow-up, 41 of these women were referred to our department for delivery. In all cases, a repeat cesarean section was performed and the lower uterine segment was assessed. Two independent statistical methods namely the logit model and Decision Tree analysis were used to determine the relation between the appearance of the cesarean section scar in the nonpregnat state and the performance of the scar in the next pregnancy. The logit model revealed that the D/RMT ratio showed significant correlation with cesarean section scar dehiscence (P-value of 0.007). Specifically, a D/RMT ratio value greater than 1.3035 indicated that the likelihood of dehiscence was greater than 50%. The Decision Tree analysis revealed that a diagnosis of dehiscence versus non-dehiscence could be based solely on one criterion, a D/RMT ratio of at least 0.785. The sensitivity of this method was 71%, and the specificity was 94%. Assessment of the cesarean section scar in the nonpregant uterus can be used to predict the occurrence of scar dehiscence in the next pregnancy.

  20. [The course of recurrent urinary tract infections in non-pregnant women of childbearing age, the consequences for daily life and the ideas of the patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groen, S.; Lagro-Janssen, A.L.M.

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the natural history of recurrent urinary tract infections in women of childbearing age and to gain insight into their consequences and the ideas of the patients. DESIGN: Historical cohort-study and interviews with patients. METHOD: All non-pregnant women in the age-range 15

  1. Comparing the pharmacokinetics of doxylamine/pyridoxine delayed-release combination in nonpregnant women of reproductive age and women in the first trimester of pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matok, Ilan; Clark, Shannon; Caritis, Steve; Miodovnik, Menachem; Umans, Jason; Hankins, Gary; Koren, Gideon

    2013-03-01

    Although Diclectin (doxylamine/pyridoxine delayed-released combination) is widely used in Canada, its pharmacokinetics (PK) during pregnancy has never been described. The objective of this study was to compare the PK of doxylamine/pyridoxine delayed-released combination in pregnant versus nonpregnant women. The apparent clearances (CL) of doxylamine and pyridoxal 5'-phosphate (PLP; the active metabolite of vitamin B(6) ) during the first-trimester pregnancy in women who participated in a Diclectin randomized trial were compared with those of healthy, adult, nonpregnant women who participated in a voluntary PK trial. Eighteen nonpregnant women were compared with 50 pregnant women who were treated with Diclectin. There was no difference in the apparent CL of doxylamine in women in their first trimester of pregnancy when compared with nonpregnant women on day 4 (median = 196.7 vs 249.5 mL/h/kg, respectively, P = .065), day 8 (median = 248.4 vs 249.5 mL/h/kg, respectively, P = .82), and day 15 (median = 200.9 vs 249.5 mL/h/kg, respectively, P = .55). No difference was found in the apparent CL of PLP on day 15 (median = 342.3 vs 314.7 mL/h/kg, respectively, P = .92). There was no pregnancy-induced effect in the apparent CL of either doxylamine or PLP in women during the first trimester of pregnancy despite the existence of morning sickness.

  2. The influence of 1800 MHz GSM-like signals on hepatic oxidative DNA and lipid damage in nonpregnant, pregnant, and newly born rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomruk, Arin; Guler, Goknur; Dincel, Aylin Sepici

    2010-01-01

    The aim of our study is to evaluate the possible biological effects of whole-body 1800 MHz GSM-like radiofrequency (RF) radiation exposure on liver oxidative DNA damage and lipid peroxidation levels in nonpregnant, pregnant New Zealand White rabbits, and in their newly borns. Eighteen nonpregnant and pregnant rabbits were used and randomly divided into four groups which were composed of nine rabbits: (i) Group I (nonpregnant control), (ii) Group II (nonpregnant-RF exposed), (iii) Group III (pregnant control), (iv) Group IV (pregnant-RF exposed). Newborns of the pregnant rabbits were also divided into two groups: (v) Group V (newborns of Group III) and (vi) Group VI (newborns of Group III). 1800 MHz GSM-like RF radiation whole-body exposure (15 min/day for a week) was applied to Group II and Group IV. No significant differences were found in liver 8 OHdG/10(6) dG levels of exposure groups (Group II and Group IV) compared to controls (Group I and Group III). However, in Group II and Group IV malondialdehyde (MDA) and ferrous oxidation in xylenol orange (FOX) levels were increased compared to Group I (P 0.05, Mann-Whitney) while liver FOX levels were found significantly increased in Group VI with respect to Group V (P GSM-like RF radiation exposure may lead to oxidative destruction as being indicators of subsequent reactions that occur to form oxygen toxicity in tissues.

  3. [The course of recurrent urinary tract infections in non-pregnant women of childbearing age, the consequences for daily life and the ideas of the patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groen, S.; Lagro-Janssen, A.L.M.

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the natural history of recurrent urinary tract infections in women of childbearing age and to gain insight into their consequences and the ideas of the patients. DESIGN: Historical cohort-study and interviews with patients. METHOD: All non-pregnant women in the age-range

  4. Differential effect of neocuproine, a copper(I) chelator, on contractile activity in isolated ovariectomized non-pregnant rat, pregnant rat and pregnant human uterus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumcu, Eda Karabal; Büyüknacar, Hacer Sinem Göktürk; Göçmen, Cemil; Evrüke, Ismail Cüneyt; Onder, Serpil

    2009-03-01

    The study was conducted to examine effects of a selective copper(I) chelator, neocuproine on the spontaneous or oxytocin-induced contractions in isolated ovariectomized non-pregnant rat, pregnant rat and pregnant human uterus. Uterus activity was evaluated in tissues obtained from bilaterally ovariectomized non-pregnant rats on the 21st day of the operation (n = 24), pregnant rats on the 19-21st day of gestation (n = 24) and women undergoing caesarean section at 38-42 weeks of pregnancy (n = 15). Neocuproine (100 microM) significantly suppressed the amplitude and frequency of the spontaneous contractions in the ovariectomized non-pregnant rat uterus while this agent facilitated the frequency of the spontaneous or oxytocin-induced contractions in the pregnant rat and human uterus without altering the amplitude of these contractions. At high concentration of 200 microM, neocuproine could enhance the amplitude of the contractions in the pregnant uterus. These effects were blocked by a purinergic receptor antagonist, suramin (100 microM) and did not occur following the administration of neocuproine-copper(I) complex or copper(II) chelator cuprizone. alpha, beta-methylene ATP increased the amplitude and frequency of contractions in the pregnant uterus, but not affected the contractions in the ovariectomized non-pregnant rat uterus, and neocuproine potentiated this facilitation effect. However, the suppressive effect of neocuproine on the ovariectomized non-pregnant rat uterus increased in the presence of alpha,beta-methylene ATP. Beta-adrenoceptor blocker, propranolol or nitric oxide synthase inhibitor, L-nitroarginine did not affect the responses to neocuproine. These findings suggest that neocuproine can affect the uterus contractile activity by modulation purinergic excitatory responses and that copper(I)-sensitive mechanisms may play a role in this effect.

  5. Do pregnant women contact their general practitioner? A register-based comparison of healthcare utilisation of pregnant and non-pregnant women in general practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feijen-de Jong Esther I

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Midwives and obstetricians are the key providers of care during pregnancy and postpartum. Information about the consultations with a general practitioner (GP during this period is generally lacking. The aim of this study is to compare consultation rates, diagnoses and GP management of pregnant women with those of non-pregnant women. Methods Data were retrieved from the Netherlands Information Network of General Practice (LINH, a nationally representative register. This register holds longitudinal data on consultations, prescriptions and the referrals of all patients listed at 84 practices in the Netherlands in 2007–2009, including 15,123 pregnant women and 102,564 non-pregnant women in the same age-range (15 to 45 years. We compared consultation rates (including all contacts with the practice, diagnoses (ICPC-1 coded, medication prescriptions (coded according to the Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical classification system, and rate and type of referrals from the start of the pregnancy until six weeks postpartum (336 days. Results Pregnant women contacted their GP on average 3.6 times, compared to 2.2 times for non-pregnant women. The most frequently recorded diagnoses for pregnant women were ‘pregnancy’ and ‘cystitis/urinary infection’, and ‘cystitis/urinary infection’ and ‘general disease not otherwise specified’ for non-pregnant women. The mean number of prescribed medications was lower in pregnant women (2.1 against 4.4. For pregnant women, the most frequent referral indication concerned obstetric care, for non-pregnant women this concerned physiotherapy. Conclusions GP consultation rates in pregnancy and postpartum shows that GPs are important providers of care for pregnant women. Therefore, the involvement of GPs in collaborative care during pregnancy and postpartum should be reinforced.

  6. Estimation of daily energy expenditure in pregnant and non-pregnant women using a wrist-worn tri-axial accelerometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Hees, Vincent T; Renström, Frida; Wright, Antony; Gradmark, Anna; Catt, Michael; Chen, Kong Y; Löf, Marie; Bluck, Les; Pomeroy, Jeremy; Wareham, Nicholas J; Ekelund, Ulf; Brage, Søren; Franks, Paul W

    2011-01-01

    Few studies have compared the validity of objective measures of physical activity energy expenditure (PAEE) in pregnant and non-pregnant women. PAEE is commonly estimated with accelerometers attached to the hip or waist, but little is known about the validity and participant acceptability of wrist attachment. The objectives of the current study were to assess the validity of a simple summary measure derived from a wrist-worn accelerometer (GENEA, Unilever Discover, UK) to estimate PAEE in pregnant and non-pregnant women, and to evaluate participant acceptability. Non-pregnant (N = 73) and pregnant (N = 35) Swedish women (aged 20-35 yrs) wore the accelerometer on their wrist for 10 days during which total energy expenditure (TEE) was assessed using doubly-labelled water. PAEE was calculated as 0.9×TEE-REE. British participants (N = 99; aged 22-65 yrs) wore accelerometers on their non-dominant wrist and hip for seven days and were asked to score the acceptability of monitor placement (scored 1 [least] through 10 [most] acceptable). There was no significant correlation between body weight and PAEE. In non-pregnant women, acceleration explained 24% of the variation in PAEE, which decreased to 19% in leave-one-out cross-validation. In pregnant women, acceleration explained 11% of the variation in PAEE, which was not significant in leave-one-out cross-validation. Median (IQR) acceptability of wrist and hip placement was 9(8-10) and 9(7-10), respectively; there was a within-individual difference of 0.47 (p<.001). A simple summary measure derived from a wrist-worn tri-axial accelerometer adds significantly to the prediction of energy expenditure in non-pregnant women and is scored acceptable by participants.

  7. Estimation of daily energy expenditure in pregnant and non-pregnant women using a wrist-worn tri-axial accelerometer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincent T van Hees

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Few studies have compared the validity of objective measures of physical activity energy expenditure (PAEE in pregnant and non-pregnant women. PAEE is commonly estimated with accelerometers attached to the hip or waist, but little is known about the validity and participant acceptability of wrist attachment. The objectives of the current study were to assess the validity of a simple summary measure derived from a wrist-worn accelerometer (GENEA, Unilever Discover, UK to estimate PAEE in pregnant and non-pregnant women, and to evaluate participant acceptability. METHODS: Non-pregnant (N = 73 and pregnant (N = 35 Swedish women (aged 20-35 yrs wore the accelerometer on their wrist for 10 days during which total energy expenditure (TEE was assessed using doubly-labelled water. PAEE was calculated as 0.9×TEE-REE. British participants (N = 99; aged 22-65 yrs wore accelerometers on their non-dominant wrist and hip for seven days and were asked to score the acceptability of monitor placement (scored 1 [least] through 10 [most] acceptable. RESULTS: There was no significant correlation between body weight and PAEE. In non-pregnant women, acceleration explained 24% of the variation in PAEE, which decreased to 19% in leave-one-out cross-validation. In pregnant women, acceleration explained 11% of the variation in PAEE, which was not significant in leave-one-out cross-validation. Median (IQR acceptability of wrist and hip placement was 9(8-10 and 9(7-10, respectively; there was a within-individual difference of 0.47 (p<.001. CONCLUSIONS: A simple summary measure derived from a wrist-worn tri-axial accelerometer adds significantly to the prediction of energy expenditure in non-pregnant women and is scored acceptable by participants.

  8. Dental caries and periodontal disease among U.S. pregnant women and nonpregnant women of reproductive age, National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 1999-2004.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azofeifa, Alejandro; Yeung, Lorraine F; Alverson, C J; Beltrán-Aguilar, Eugenio

    2016-09-01

    This study assessed and compared the prevalence and severity of dental caries and the prevalence of periodontal disease among pregnant and nonpregnant women of reproductive age (15-44 years) using data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, NHANES (1999-2004). Estimates were derived from a sample of 897 pregnant women and 3,971 nonpregnant women. Chi-square and two-sample t-tests were used to assess differences between groups stratified by age, race/ethnicity, education, and poverty. Bonferroni method was applied to adjust for multiple comparisons. In general, there were no statistically significant differences in the prevalence estimates of dental caries and periodontal disease between pregnant women and nonpregnant women. However, results showed significant differences when stratified by sociodemographic characteristics. For example, the prevalence of untreated dental caries among women aged 15-24 years was significantly higher in pregnant women than in nonpregnant women (41 percent versus 24 percent, P = 0.001). Regardless of their pregnancy status, racial/ethnic minorities or women with less education or lower family income had higher prevalence of untreated dental caries, severity of dental caries, and periodontal disease compared to the respective reference groups of non-Hispanic whites or women with more education or higher family income. Results of this study show few clinical differences in dental caries and periodontal disease between pregnant and nonpregnant women but persistent disparities by sociodemographic characteristics. In order to reduce oral health disparities in the United States, it is important to improve access to oral health care particularly among vulnerable groups. Integrating oral health into the overall health care could benefit and improve women's oral health outcomes. © 2016 American Association of Public Health Dentistry.

  9. Dental caries and periodontal disease among U.S. pregnant women and nonpregnant women of reproductive age, National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 1999–2004

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azofeifa, Alejandro; Yeung, Lorraine F.; Alverson, C. J.; Beltrán-Aguilar, Eugenio

    2016-01-01

    Objectives This study assessed and compared the prevalence and severity of dental caries and the prevalence of periodontal disease among pregnant and nonpregnant women of reproductive age (15–44 years) using data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, NHANES (1999–2004). Methods Estimates were derived from a sample of 897 pregnant women and 3,971 nonpregnant women. Chi-square and two-sample t-tests were used to assess differences between groups stratified by age, race/ethnicity, education, and poverty. Bonferroni method was applied to adjust for multiple comparisons. Results In general, there were no statistically significant differences in the prevalence estimates of dental caries and periodontal disease between pregnant women and nonpregnant women. However, results showed significant differences when stratified by sociodemographic characteristics. For example, the prevalence of untreated dental caries among women aged 15–24 years was significantly higher in pregnant women than in nonpregnant women (41 percent versus 24 percent, P=0.001). Regardless of their pregnancy status, racial/ethnic minorities or women with less education or lower family income had higher prevalence of untreated dental caries, severity of dental caries, and periodontal disease compared to the respective reference groups of non-Hispanic whites or women with more education or higher family income. Conclusion Results of this study show few clinical differences in dental caries and periodontal disease between pregnant and nonpregnant women but persistent disparities by sociodemographic characteristics. In order to reduce oral health disparities in the United States, it is important to improve access to oral health care particularly among vulnerable groups. Integrating oral health into the overall health care could benefit and improve women’s oral health outcomes. PMID:27154283

  10. 女大学生创业的心理障碍分析——传统社会性别观念的影响%The Psychology Analysis of Female College Students in the EntrepreneUrial Behavior --with the Influence of Traditional Social Gender Concept

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孟彩

    2011-01-01

    The social value of female college student twas partly denied and underestimated in traditional Social Gender concept, which had negative influence in female college students' entrepreneurial intention and behavior. In order to promote female college students" entrepreneurial behavior, correct analysis must be used to release the negative part in traditional Social Gender concept, entrepreneurial lessons/the short cut for entrepreneurial/the psychological quality training camp/extracurricular activities/the "four self-dependent" education etc, all about those channels should be used for libreate female college students" to emancipate, and expractice should be offered for promoting and inhence the entrepreneurial behavior.%传统社会性别观念中存在的对女性价值的否定和贬低。使女大学生对创业形成了心理障碍,正确的分析和看待传统社会性别观念中对女性价值的负面评价,从创业培训课、创业绿色通道、女大学生心理素质训练营、二课堂活动、女性“四自”教育方面入手,为女大学生解除思想包袱,提供演练条件,提供配套服务,解除女大学生创业的心理障碍,鼓励和推动女大学生创业。

  11. Female Infertility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Infertility means not being able to get pregnant after at least one year of trying (or 6 ... woman keeps having miscarriages, it is also called infertility. Female infertility can result from age, physical problems, ...

  12. Investigation of the relationship between the mobile phone dependence and compulsive tendency of female Students in a College%某高校女生手机依赖与强迫倾向的关系调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李群; 操基玉

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the use of mobile phone among the college students,and explore the relationship between the mobile phone dependence and compulsive tendency. Methods:Two hundred and ninety-one female students of nursing profession from a Anhui college were anonymously investigated using the cluster sampling, self-rating questionnaire for adolescent problematic mobile phone use and Yale-Brown obsessive compulsive scale,the general condition and mobile phone use were analyzed. Results:The total average score of mobile phone dependence was(24. 45 ± 5. 807),the high scores in 80 cases were found. The differences of the mobile dependence between different daily usage time and years of usage students were statistical significance(P<0. 01 and P<0. 05). The differences of the mobile dependence between different scores ranking and make-up examination subjects students were statistical significance(P<0. 01). The phone dependence total score was positively correlation with compulsive symptom score(P<0. 01). A linear stepwise regression analysis indicated that the total score of mobile dependence can predict the total score of compulsive symptom (β=0. 202,P<0. 01). Conclusions:The college student with more dependence of mobile phone is prone to compulsive tendency. Effective reducing the use time of mobile phone can help prevent the dependence of mobile phone and compulsive tendency.%目的::调查大学生手机使用现状,探讨手机依赖与强迫倾向之间的关系。方法:采用整群抽样的方法,通过青少年手机使用依赖自评问卷、YALE-BROWN强迫调查量表对安徽省某高校291名护理专业女生进行匿名问卷调查,了解其一般情况和手机使用情况。结果:手机依赖总均分为(24.45±5.807)分,其中手机依赖高分组80名。每天使用手机时间和使用手机年限不同的学生手机依赖总分差异均有统计学意义(P<0.01和P<0.05)。不同班级成绩排名、不同补考课程数的学生

  13. 290 A Relational Study of Male and Female Students' Academic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    female students' academic performance in radio communication in technical colleges in Delta State. ... students performed better than their rural counterpart in the same .... Table 1 shows the institution, population of each technical college and their ... and rural technical colleges was the major instrument used at bringing out.

  14. 高校青年女教师职业初期发展问题的特殊性与自我调适%Specificity and Self-adjustment of Young Female College Teachers’ Development in Their Early Career

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    关健

    2016-01-01

    高校青年女教师的成长是伴随其职业生涯发展过程进行的。从发展总趋势看,她们是一个能不断追求和实现职业发展的群体,但发展过程中的不同时期却有着各自的特点。而职业初期是其职业生涯发展的关键期,入职年龄及性别特点使其职初期发展问题极具特殊性,职业生涯起步阶段充满困难和艰辛。深入分析其特殊问题的成因,厘清其负面影响所及,探求其自我调适之策,有利于优化她们的职业发展进程,助推她们在职业初期实现职业发展。%The growth of young female college teachers is accompanied by the development process of their ca-reer. From the general trend of development, they are a group that can pursue and realize the professional devel-opment, but the development process has its own characteristics. The early career is the critical period of their de-velopment of careers, the entry age and gender characteristics that make it very special nature of early career, so that the initial stage of their career is full of difficulties and hardships. Careful analysis of the causes of its special problems, to clarify its negative impact, to explore its self adaptation strategy, is conducive to optimize their ca-reer development process, boost their career development in the early career.

  15. 女大学生自卑心理的咨询及合理情绪疗法研究%Research on the Inferiority Complex and Logical Emotional Cure for Female College Students

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张娜

    2011-01-01

    Base on a case which used the logical emotional cure to a female college students who is bothered by inferiority complex,research her psychologic problems,use the inferiority complex,the make a consultation goal and a plan with her.The consultation has th%通过一例运用合理情绪疗法对一名由自卑心理导致一般心理问题的女大学生进行心理咨询的案例,根据其心理问题的特征,采用合理情绪疗法,与求助者共同协商制定了咨询目标与方案。咨询过程经过诊断评估与咨询关系的确立,心理咨询,结束与巩固三个阶段。整个过程以消除错误的认知模式,建立新的合理的认知模式为核心,循序渐进地矫正不良认知,建立新的合理的认知模式。经过六次的心理咨询,来访者焦虑、抑郁情绪缓解,自卑心理显著改善,心理承受能力提高。本案例成功运用了合理情绪疗法,对改善求助者的自卑心理有显著的效果。

  16. A case study on the association of variation of bitter-taste receptor gene TAS2R38 with the height, weight and energy intake in Japanese female college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, Hiroko; Yamakawa-Kobayashi, Kimiko; Suzuki, Yuichi; Nakano, Teruyo; Hayashi, Hisayoshi; Kuwano, Toshiko

    2013-01-01

    One of the critical factors that determines individual differences in dietary behavior and nutritional status is the sensory-affecting quality of food, in particular its taste. Variation of one bitter taste receptor gene, TAS2R38, which is associated with the differential sensitivity to phenylthiocarbamide (PTC) and 6-n-propylthiouracil (PROP), has been demonstrated to affect the dietary intake pattern. A case study was performed to examine the association of the TAS2R38 genotypes/haplotypes with the body size (height, weight and BMI) and with the food and nutrient intake. Eighty-four college students, all females, with an age range of 18-21 y were recruited from the University of Shizuoka. The genotypes of two common single nucleotide polymorphisms in TAS2R38 (A49P and I296V) were determined by PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) method. The height, weight and body mass index (BMI), and (in a subgroup of 47 subjects) food and nutrition intake estimated from 3 d of food recording, were compared between homozygotes for the PTC/PROP-nontaster haplotype (AI haplotype) and carriers with the PTC/PROP-taster haplotype (PV haplotype). The results show that the homozygotes with AI haplotype were taller and heavier than the carriers of PV haplotype, while BMI values were similar between them. The former group also had higher energy and carbohydrate intakes than the latter group. Neither vegetable nor dairy product intake was different between the homozygotes with AI haplotype and the carriers of PV haplotype. In conclusion, the PTC/PROP-nontaster TAS2R38 genotype/haplotype was associated with height and weight but not with BMI, which may in turn have influenced the energy and carbohydrate intakes.

  17. Supplemental Colleges

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — The Supplemental Colleges layer attempts to capture additional Post Secondary Education campuses of colleges and universities associated with a single campus listed...

  18. Swine flu (H1N1 infection: An autoimmune endocrine condition in pregnant females

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shilpa Shah

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: H1N1 infection tends to be more severe in pregnant than nonpregnant women. It is not known whether this is due to hormonal changes during pregnancy and/or immune responses to hormones. Aims: Whether the effect of pregnancy on responses to the H1N1 pandemic is mediated by the effects of immune responses to hormones resulting in anti-hormone antibody production requires investigation. Settings and Design: A prospective study was designed, and H1N1-infected pregnant women were recruited from the Intensive Care Unit of a hospital during the period 2009-2010. Materials and Methods: Differences in the levels of anti-estrogen and anti-progesterone antibodies were determined in H1N1-infected pregnant patients and healthy pregnant and healthy non-pregnant women, using the Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay technique. Statistical Analysis: Statistical Package for the Social Sciences 16.0 (SPSS inc, Chicago, USA software was used for all statistical procedures. Results: Pregnant women showed nonsignificant trends for higher immunoglobulin G (IgG and IgM anti-estrogen-antibodies as compared to the healthy non-pregnant women. IgG, IgM, and IgE anti-progesterone-antibodies were also higher in pregnant women than in nonpregnant women, with marginally significant effects for IgG and IgE. H1N1 infection was associated with increased anti-estrogen IgG and IgA relative to healthy pregnant females. Conclusion: Findings about elevated anti-estrogen and anti-progesterone antibodies might improve our understanding of higher susceptibility of pregnant females to swine flu, and thereby lead to better management of this disease.

  19. Pica associated with iron deficiency or depletion: clinical and laboratory correlates in 262 non-pregnant adult outpatients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barton James C

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There are many descriptions of the association of pica with iron deficiency in adults, but there are few reports in which observations available at diagnosis of iron deficiency were analyzed using multivariable techniques to identify significant predictors of pica. We sought to identify clinical and laboratory correlates of pica in adults with iron deficiency or depletion using univariable and stepwise forward logistic regression analyses. Methods We reviewed charts of 262 non-pregnant adult outpatients (ages ≥18 y who required treatment with intravenous iron dextran. We tabulated their sex, age, race/ethnicity, body mass index, symptoms and causes of iron deficiency or depletion, serum iron and complete blood count measures, and other conditions at diagnosis before intravenous iron dextran was administered. We excluded patients with serum creatinine >133 μmol/L or disorders that could affect erythrocyte or iron measures. Iron deficiency was defined as both SF Results There were 230 women (184 white, 46 black; ages 19-91 y and 32 men (31 white, 1 black; ages 24-81 y. 118 patients (45.0% reported pica; of these, 87.3% reported ice pica (pagophagia. In univariable analyses, patients with pica had lower mean age, black race/ethnicity, and higher prevalences of cardiopulmonary and epithelial manifestations. The prevalence of iron deficiency, with or without anemia, did not differ significantly between patients with and without pica reports. Mean hemoglobin and mean corpuscular volume (MCV were lower and mean red blood cell distribution width (RDW and platelet count were higher in patients with pica. Thrombocytosis occurred only in women and was more prevalent in those with pica (20.4% vs. 8.3%; p = 0.0050. Mean total iron-binding capacity was higher and mean serum ferritin was lower in patients with pica. Nineteen patients developed a second episode of iron deficiency or depletion; concordance of recurrent pica (or absence of

  20. Survey on menses and health care during menstrual period in female students in Shaanxi higher vocational college%陕西高职女生月经及经期保健知识调查分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贾彤; 于学文

    2014-01-01

    目的:了解陕西高职院校女生月经及经期保健情况,为进一步做好学生生殖健康教育提供资料支持。方法采用随机整群抽样的方法选择陕西某高职院校590名大一女生进行月经情况及月经保健知识问卷调查。结果该组大学生的平均月经初潮年龄为14.11±1.42岁;89.3%的学生月经周期及75.3%的学生经期在正常范围内。在对月经的认知方面,认为在月经期可以适当运动、认为经期可以淋浴的城市来源学生要优于农村来源学生,差异均有统计学意义(χ2值分别为80.531、45.859,均P<0.05)。有64.1%的学生在月经来潮期间会出现不同程度的痛经,仅有28.8%的人在月经异常时向医护人员求助。结论针对女大学生的月经状况特点,应加强对女大学生月经相关知识的健康教育,对提高女大学生的学习生活质量有重要意义。%Objective To understand the basic menstruation information and health care during menstrual period of the female students in higher vocational college , so as to provide data support for better health care education .Methods A cross-sectional investigation of menstruation and menstrual health care was conducted among 590 female freshmen by random cluster sampling .Results The average age of menarche was 14.11 ±1.42.The menstrual cycle of 89.3% students and menstruation of 75.3% students were normal .Students from urban had better knowledge about menstruation health care on proper activity and shower than those from the countryside , and the difference was statistically significant (χ2 value was 80.531 and 45.859, respectively, both P<0.05).There were 64.1%of students suffering from different degrees of primary dysmenorrhea , but only 28.8% of them would seek medical help when menstruation was abnormal . Conclusion The healthcare education on menstruation among female students should be strengthened to improve students

  1. 女性的教育成就與大學畢業後初期位置之關係 Female College Students’ Preference for Fields of Study and Their First-year Jobs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    陳建州 Jian-Jhou Chen

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available 女性偏好的教育種類(學類)雖未能帶給她們與男性相當的職業地位,但是長期以來,女性投入某些學類的傾向卻維持著穩定性。本研究認為,如果這些學類能連結女性偏好的職業,便可補充說明女性教育選擇傾向穩定的現象。在考量女性就業需求之後,本研究依據滿足女性就業需求的程度差異,將勞動市場劃分成數組區隔的部門,其中,屬於女性的「好工作」是公部門與非營利機構。本研究採用2006 年「臺灣高等教育資料庫」中大學畢業後一年之女性為樣本,以多元邏輯迴歸分析估計家庭背景、學校類型、學類、證照等變項,針對大學畢業後一年的狀態,描繪女性的教育成就與勞動市場的連結情形。研究發現:(一)升研究所階段的教育轉換具有社經階層差異。(二)公立大學畢業者取得公部門與非營利機構工作的勝算最高,私立技職院校畢業者的勝算最低。(三)女性偏好的學類連結至公部門與非營利機構的機率,高於男性投入較高的學類,此種連結關係可能穩定了女性的教育選擇傾向。(四)除了通過公職考試或國家專業技術考試較有利於取得好工作,其他專業證照或認證並無助益。 This research explores the characteristics of women’s employment and their desire for rewards in different labor market sectors, analyzes the effects of the types of university, fields of study, and professional certifications on higher educated women’s early jobs, and explains the stable distribution of female college students in different fields of study. Using data retrieved from the “Taiwan Higher Education Data System,” the entire analysis includes 7,547 higher educated women who had graduated from universities one year ago. The results of the multinomial logit regression suggest 1 women from upper socio-economic status were more

  2. Survey on smoking and attempting smoking behavior and their influencing factors among female students of a medical college in Chongqing%重庆市某医学院校女大学生吸烟和尝试吸烟行为及影响因素调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    雷春萍; 熊鸿燕

    2014-01-01

    Objective To understand the current situation of smoking and the influencing factors among female students of a medical college in Chongqing .Methods By applying the stratified cluster random sampling method ,992 female students were sam-pled from 5 faculties 3 grades in this college for conducting the smoking questionnaire investigation .Results The smoking rate a-mong female students was 3 .51% and the attempting smoking rate was 9 .18% .Among them ,the higher smoking rate mainly fo-cused on the students from urban area ,which was 9 .30% .The female students without opposite attitude to college student′s smok-ing had the smoking rate of 12 .11% and the female students with peripheral friends smoking had the smoking rate of 28 .22% .The influencing factors of smoking among female students included the place where the students came from ,student′s attitudes to smok-ing ,the smoking status of their peripheral friends ,etc .Conclusion The smoking rate among female students in the medical college is basically consistent to that of the national level of female smoking ,but the total cigarette contact rate is higher .It is necessary to strengthen the frequent smoking control education and intervention on the female students in the medical colleges for effectively re-ducing the smoking rate and decreasing the smoking harm to the female health .%目的:了解重庆市某医学院校女大学生吸烟水平及影响因素。方法随机抽取该校5个系部,3个年级共计992名女大学生进行吸烟问卷调查。结果该校女大学生吸烟率3.51%,尝试吸烟率9.18%,其中吸烟率主要集中在:城市生源吸烟率9.30%,对大学生吸烟持不反对态度的香烟接触率为16.99%,周围朋友都吸烟的吸烟率28.22%。不同年级、专业吸烟率之间差异无统计学意义(P>0.05)。吸烟影响因素有生源地、对待大学生吸烟的态度、周围朋友吸烟情况等。结论该校女大学生

  3. Serum levels of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines in non-pregnant women, during pregnancy, labour and abortion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Vassiliadis

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Disturbance of the cytokine equilibrium has been accused for many pathological disorders. Microbial infections, autoimmune diseases, graft rejection have been correlated to over- or under-production of specific cytokines which are produced as responder molecules to the various immune stimuli. The sole naturally occurring immune reaction in the organism is developed during the gestational period where, despite the presence of a semi-allogeneic graft, maternal immunoreactivity is driven to support fetal growth. The successful embryo development has been attributed to the important intervention of cytokines where some have been characterized as indispensable and others deleterious to fetal growth. However, the physiological levels of many factors during the gestational process have not been determined. Thus, in the present study we have measured and established the values of IL-1α, IL-2, IL-3, IL-4, IL-6, IL-10, IL-12, GM-CSF, TNF- α and IFN-γ during all phases of human pregnancy (first, second and third trimester of pregnancy, labour, abortions of the first trimester as well as in the non-pregnant control state. This is an attempt to assess serum protein concentrations and present the physiological levels of these cytokines at certain time intervals providing thus a diagnostic advantage in pregnancy cases where the mother cannot immunologically support the fetus. Exploitation of this knowledge and further research may be useful for therapeutic interventions in the future.

  4. Changes in ovaries and uterus after aglepristone administration in the third week of luteal phase of non-pregnant bitches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kacprzak, Kamil; Jurka, Piotr; Dolka, Izabella; Czopowicz, Michał; Ruszczak, Anna; Duszewska, Anna

    2015-01-01

    The mechanism of aglepristone action in the placentation time in the bitch remains unclear. The aim of this study was to describe the mechanism by which aglepristone influences ovaries and uterus and to measure the levels of steroid sex hormones in non-pregnant bitches. Fourteen bitches assigned to a study (n=9) and control (n=5) group were given aglepristone and saline solution, respectively, on the 19th and 20th day after LH peak. On the 26th day after LH peak an ovariohysterectomy was performed. Blood samples were screened for estradiol and progesterone concentrations. Ovaries and uterine horns and bodies were isolated for histological and morphometrical diagnosis and immunohistochemistry analysis of α-estrogen and progesterone receptor expression. A decrease of progesterone (pbody (pbody of study bitches were significantly thicker than in the control group (pbody was thicker than myometrium of horns (pbody (pbody within groups. To the knowledge of the authors this is the first study, which describes the inflammatory effect developing in uterus in response to aglepristone administration, and attempts to elucidate its mechanisms.

  5. Nutritional Intake and Status of Cobalamin and Folate among Non-Pregnant Women of Reproductive Age in Bhaktapur, Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ram K. Chandyo

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Cobalamin and folate are especially important for women of childbearing age due to their ubiquitous role in fetal growth and development. Population-based data on cobalamin and folate status are lacking from Nepal, where diets are mostly vegetarian. The objectives of the study were to investigate cobalamin and folate intake and status, and to explore associations with socio-demographics, anthropometrics, anemia, and dietary habits. Following a random selection of geographical clusters, we collected blood samples from 500 non-pregnant women and 24-h dietary recalls and food frequency questionnaires from a subsample of 379 women. Twenty percent of the women did not consume any food containing cobalamin during the days recalled, and in 72% nutritional cobalamin intake was <1 μg/day. Eighty-four percent of the women had cobalamin intake lower than the estimated average requirement (EAR (<2 μg/day. In contrast, only 12% of the women had a folate intake less than 100 μg per day, whereas 62% had intake between 100 and 320 μg. Low plasma cobalamin (<150 pmol/L was found in 42% of the women, most of whom (88% also had elevated levels of methylmalonic acid. Our results indicated a high prevalence of nutritional cobalamin deficiency, while folate deficiency was uncommon.

  6. 女大学生补水类化妆品中的细菌污染的主要因素%Main factors of bacterial contamination in female college students'hydrating cosmetics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高扬帆; 关云凤; 高晗; 王红; 孙腾; 杨勇

    2015-01-01

    目的::了解女大学生正在使用的补水类化妆品的细菌污染状况,探讨影响女大学生使用补水类化妆品细菌总数的主要因素。方法:随机抽取46份女大学生使用的补水类化妆品,按照《化妆品微生物标准检验方法》(GB7918-87)中规定的细菌检验方法进行检验,并对其进行自填式问卷调查。结果:经检测46份样品中,合格率为82.61%,Logistic回归分析得出保存方法、保存时间、保存位置和剂型为相关因素,不避光保存和避光保存的合格率之间有统计学差异(P﹤0.05);置于潮湿处和干燥处的合格率之间有统计学差异(P﹤0.05);水剂和乳液的合格率之间有统计学意义(P﹤0.05);不同使用时间下存在统计学差异(P﹤0.05)。结论:在非避光条件下保存的化妆品污染较重;置于潮湿处比干燥处的化妆品污染严重;在剂型方面,水剂的污染较重;使用时间越长污染越严重。建议大家正确合理使用化妆品以减少细菌污染。%Objective:To explore status of bacterial contamination in hydrating cosmetics, which are being used byfemale col-lege students, and investigate its main influencing factors. Methods:46 samples were randomly collected and determined using stand-ard method of microbiological forcosmetics (GB7918-87). These female college students were investigated with a self-administrated questionnaire. Results:82. 61% of the 46 detected samples were qualified. The logistic regression analysis showed that storage meth-od, storage time, storage location and dosage forms were important related factors. There were significant differencesin the qualified rate between avoiding lightstorage and not avoiding light storage (P﹤0. 05), between storage in moisture place and dry place (P﹤0. 05), and between water and emulsion (P﹤0. 05). A statistically significant difference was observed in different using time (P﹤0. 05 ) . Conclusions:The cosmetics

  7. Relaxant effect of the calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) on the nonpregnant and pregnant rat uterus. Comparison with vascular tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anouar, A; Schirar, A; Germain, G

    1998-04-01

    To explore the role of calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) in rat pregnancy, we determined the density of myometrial CGRP-encoded nerve fibre terminals and examined, in an organ bath, the relaxant effect of the peptide on uterine strips near parturition. Comparisons were made with the uterus and aorta of nonpregnant rats. In the myometrium, CGRP immunoreactive nerve fibers were abundant in nonpregnant rats and scarce at the parturient stage. In the aorta there was no variation in the density of CGRP fibres with gestation. In nonpregnant rats only, CGRP relaxed spontaneous and tetrodotoxin (TTX)-sensitive electrically-evoked uterine contractions (EC50 40 nM, Emax 80%). The effect was antagonized by CGRP[8-37] (pKB 6.47) but was not affected by either blockers of nitricoxid synthase or ATP-sensitive potassium channels. CGRP was also able to relax contractions evoked by direct depolarization of the cells (TTX-insensitive contractions) (EC50, 2 nM, Emax 70%). In aorta contracted with arginine vasopressin, CGRP-induced relaxation was the same in nonpregnant and parturient animals. It was antagonized by CGRP [8-371 (pKB 6.90) and was abolished in presence of the nitric oxide synthase inhibitor Nomega-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME). Amylin neither relaxed the uterus nor the aorta. In pregnant rats, the relaxant effect of CGRP on the uterus was limited on day 21 and was totally absent on day 22 of gestation. We conclude that the primary relaxant effect of CGRP on the uterus occurs at the level of myometrial smooth muscle cells. In the myometrium, gestation decreases CGRP innervation and impairs the relaxant responses to CGRP. Such changes are not observed in vascular tissues like aorta.

  8. Effectiveness of a preventative intervention to risk factors of eating disorder in college female students%预防性干预对女大学生摄食障碍危险因素的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢韬; 王牮; 缪绍疆; 童俊

    2012-01-01

    Objective To imply a preventative intervention to eating disorder within a small sample from two universities located in central China, and to evaluate the effectiveness of this intervention on eating disorder. Methods A total of 20 college female students with a risk factor of eating disorder were conveniently arranged into control group and intervention group, 12 participants into the control group and 8 into the intervention group. The intervention group participated received six— session intervention which lasted 3 weeks, while the control group did not have any intervention. Both groups accepted pre— assessment and post — assessment, and the outcomes were analyzed. Results There were significant differences between the intervention group and control group across time on the thin—ideal internaliza-tion, weight concern, shape concern, and eating concern, which were that the intervention group showed more decreases in these aspects than the control group (P < 0. 05). Conclusions The expected effects of the intervention were achieved which was that the thin—ideal internalization, eating concern, weight and shape concern were reduced.%目的 在华中地区的两所高校做一个小样本的摄食障碍预防性干预,并检验干预的效果.方法 将19例有摄食障碍倾向的女大学生根据所在学校分为对照组(11例)和干预组(8例).干预组接受6次为期3周的干预课程,同期间对照组不做任何处理.两组分别干预前评估和干预后评估,并进行结果比较.结果 两组在内化瘦身理想、饮食关注、体重和体型关注4个方面的改变差异有统计学意义(P<0.05).比较于对照组,干预组的这四个指标显著降低了.结论 研究结果表明此次干预在内化瘦身理想,饮食关注,体重和体型关注4个方面发挥了预期的效益,干预使得这4项指标都有所降低.

  9. 大一女生非典型摄食障碍的初步调查%Preliminary study of eating disorder of not otherwise specified in female college freshmen

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨帆; 邱欣红; 缪绍缰; 童俊

    2012-01-01

    目的 了解非典型摄食障碍(EDNOS)的特征表现.方法 采用进食情况调查表(EDI)进行自评问卷调查、摄食障碍检查问卷( EDE)和SCID —I的H部分进行访谈的方法,对8 600名大一女生筛选和确诊摄食障碍,并获取各类摄食障碍的心理行为特征.结果 EDNOS的发病率最高,为7.277‰.EDNOS的代偿行为基本少于神经性厌食症和神经性贪食症;EDNOS群体中,选择剧烈运动和采取一种代偿行为所占的比例相对较高,分别为38.7%和43.5%.三类摄食障碍的EDI与EDE所有因子分的差异均无统计学意义;EDE的条目中,EDNOS的空腹和体重重要性分值低于神经性厌食症,而秘密进食分值低于神经性贪食症.结论 EDNOS总体上具有摄食障碍的所有临床特征,在某些症状上表现较轻,需要鉴别和引起重视.%Objective To explore specific manifestations of eating disorder of not otherwise specified (EDNOS). Methods Screening and diagnosing eating disorder among 8600 female college freshmen were done using EDI, EDE and SCID- I , and manifestations of every type of eating disorder were recorded. Results Compared with anorexia nervosa (AN) and bulimia nervosa (BN) girls, EDNOS girls had the highest incidence (7. 277‰) and less compensatory behavior in general, and tended to choose strenuous exercise (38. 7%) and single compensatory behavior (43. 5%). The statistical difference had not been found in any factors of EDI and EDE among these 3 types. But EDNOS girls' scores of limosis and importance of weight were lower than ANs', and their score of secret eating was lower than BNs'. Conclusions EDNOS has all manifestations of eating disorder, with some mild symptoms, and need to be diagnosed and managed early.

  10. Gene expression of BDNF and its receptors, TrkB and p75 in the uterus and oviduct of pregnant and non-pregnant ewes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirshokraei, P; Hassanpour, H; Rahnama, A; Foster, W G

    2013-08-01

    To compare genes expression of BDNF and its receptors, TrkB and p75 between pregnant and non-pregnant uterine and oviductal tissues of ewes, semi-quantitative RT-PCR was performed. BDNF, TrkB and p75 genes are normally expressed in the ovine uterus and oviduct. The relative amounts of BDNF mRNA were increased in the uterine segments of the pregnant samples with compared to non-pregnant samples. This increasing was only significant (Ppregnant samples. In contrast, the relative amounts of BDNF mRNA were decreased in the oviductal segments of the pregnant samples and were undetectable in the isthmus. Variations of the relative amounts of TrkB and p75 mRNAs between the pregnant and non-pregnant samples were not significant (P>0.05) although TrkB mRNA in the caruncle and cervix and p75 mRNA in the cervix of pregnant samples were too less to be detected by RT-PCR method. It is probably that these changes of BDNF/receptors genes expression are necessary for normal pregnancy, and abnormal variations in the expression of these genes may be involved in the pathophysiological conditions.

  11. Expression and localization of IL-18 in the hypothalamic-pituitary-ovarian axis of non-pregnant, pregnant, and abortive rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yuesi; Zhang, Xiuli; Zhang, Yan; Xu, Hui; Fang, Guangli

    2011-12-01

    Cytokines present in the reproductive system play an important role both in the modulation of immune responses to infectious challenge and in the establishment and maintenance of pregnancy. Interleukin 18 (IL-18) has been regarded as an important regulator of innate and acquired immune response, but its expression and distribution in the hypothalamic-pituitary-ovarian axis remain unclear. In this paper, the expression and distribution of IL-18 in non-pregnant, pregnant, and early abortive rats were examined using an ultra-sensitive immunohistochemical streptavidin-peroxidase method, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. The results showed that IL-18 expression in the pituitary, in follicular ovaries, and in the corpus luteum of abortive rats were significantly lower than that of pregnant and non-pregnant rats. However, the staining of IL-18 in the hypothalamus, interstitial glands of the ovary, and uterus of abortive rats was strikingly stronger than those of the non-pregnant ones. IL-18 mRNA expression in rat uterus was detected in all groups, whereas IL-18 mRNA content in abortive rat uterus was significantly higher than in normal pregnant rats. Further, IL-18 in the peripheral blood serum of abortive rats was significantly lower than in same-period normal pregnant rats. The differential expression of IL-18 in early abortion suggests that IL-18 may be related to the underlying mechanisms of abortion.

  12. von Willebrand factor-cleaving protease (ADAMTS13) activity in normal non-pregnant women, pregnant and post-delivery women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Luceros, Analía; Farías, Cristina E; Amaral, María M; Kempfer, Ana C; Votta, Roberto; Marchese, Carlos; Salviú, María J; Woods, Adriana I; Meschengieser, Susana S; Lazzari, María A

    2004-12-01

    ADAMTS13 dysfunction has been involved in the pathogenesis of Thrombotic Thrombocytopenic Purpura. This disorder occurs more frequently in women and, in 13% of them, is associated with pregnancy. However, there is little information on the protease behaviour in normal pregnancy. We studied von Willebrand factor and ADAMTS13 activity changes in normal non-pregnant, pregnant and post-delivery women. Fifty-five non-pregnant women, normal blood bank donors, who were not taking contraceptive pills were included as controls. A prospective cross-sectional study of 270 normal pregnant and post-delivery women was carried out. ADAMTS13 activity decreased progressively as from the period of 12-16 weeks up to the end of early puerperium (mean 52%, range 22-89, p < 0.0001), to increase slightly thereafter. Nulliparous presented mildly lower levels of ADAMTS13 activity than parous women (65% vs. 83 %, p = 0.0003), and primigravidae than multigravidae between 6-11 weeks up to 17-23 weeks of pregnancy (69% vs. 80%, p = 0.005). Although in all women the protease levels were the same by blood groups, the O blood group non-pregnant women showed a higher mean of ADAMTS13 activity than those non-O (78% vs. 69%, p = 0.064). Our results suggest that the changing levels of protease activity during pregnancy and puerperium, induced by unidentified mechanisms, could render the peripartum time more vulnerable to developed thrombotic microangiopathies.

  13. The influence of 1800 MHz GSM-like signals on blood chemistry and oxidative stress in non-pregnant and pregnant rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kismali, Gorkem; Ozgur, Elcin; Guler, Goknur; Akcay, Aytac; Sel, Tevhide; Seyhan, Nesrin

    2012-05-01

    Environmental electromagnetic fields originate from man-made sources, such as mobile phones and base stations, and have led to increasing public concern about their possible adverse health effects. We aimed to investigate the possible effects of radiofrequency radiation (RFR) generated from these devices on oversensitive animals, such as pregnant rabbits. In the present study, the effects of whole body 1800 MHz Global System for Mobile Communications (GSM)-like RFR exposure for 15 min/day for seven days on blood chemistry and lipid peroxidation levels in both non-pregnant and pregnant New Zealand White rabbits were investigated. Thirteen-month-old rabbits were studied in the following four groups: Non-pregnant control, non-pregnant RFR-exposed, pregnant control and pregnant RFR-exposed. Lipid peroxidation, namely malondialdehyde (MDA) levels, did not change after RFR exposure. However, blood chemistry parameters, such as cholesterol (CHO), total protein (TP), albumin (ALB), uric acid, creatinin and creatine kinase (CK) and creatine kinase-myocardial band isoenzyme (CK-MB) changed due to both pregnancy and RFR exposure. Our investigations have been shown that no indication for oxidative stress was detected in the blood of pregnant rabbits upon RF exposure at specific conditions employed in the present study. Minor changes in some blood chemistry parameters were detected but CK-MB and CK increases were found remarkable. Studies on RFR exposure during pregnancy will help establish international standards for the protection of pregnant women from environmental RFR.

  14. Global, regional, and national trends in haemoglobin concentration and prevalence of total and severe anaemia in children and pregnant and non-pregnant women for 1995-2011: a systematic analysis of population-representative data

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Stevens, Gretchen A; Finucane, Mariel M; De-Regil, Luz Maria; Paciorek, Christopher J; Flaxman, Seth R; Branca, Francesco; Peña-Rosas, Juan Pablo; Bhutta, Zulfiqar A; Ezzati, Majid

    2013-01-01

    .... We estimated trends in the distributions of haemoglobin concentration and in the prevalence of anaemia and severe anaemia in young children and pregnant and non-pregnant women between 1995 and 2011...

  15. Female sexuality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, T.S. Sathyanarana; Nagaraj, Anil Kumar M.

    2015-01-01

    Sex is a motive force bringing a man and a woman into intimate contact. Sexuality is a central aspect of being human throughout life and encompasses sex, gender identities and roles, sexual orientation, eroticism, pleasure, intimacy, and reproduction. Sexuality is experienced and expressed in thoughts, fantasies, desires, beliefs, attitudes, values, behaviors, practices, roles and relationships. Though generally, women are sexually active during adolescence, they reach their peak orgasmic frequency in their 30 s, and have a constant level of sexual capacity up to the age of 55 with little evidence that aging affects it in later life. Desire, arousal, and orgasm are the three principle stages of the sexual response cycle. Each stage is associated with unique physiological changes. Females are commonly affected by various disorders in relation to this sexual response cycle. The prevalence is generally as high as 35–40%. There are a wide range of etiological factors like age, relationship with a partner, psychiatric and medical disorders, psychotropic and other medication. Counseling to overcome stigma and enhance awareness on sexuality is an essential step in management. There are several effective psychological and pharmacological therapeutic approaches to treat female sexual disorders. This article is a review of female sexuality. PMID:26330647

  16. zeta-, epsilon-, and gamma-Globin mRNA in blood samples and CD71(+) cell fractions from fetuses and from pregnant and nonpregnant women, with special attention to identification of fetal erythroblasts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høgh, A M; Hviid, T V; Christensen, B

    2001-01-01

    nonpregnant and 10 of 14 pregnant women (at 9-13 weeks of gestation) were positive for gamma-globin mRNA (Fisher's exact test, P = 0.13), and those from 3 of 20 nonpregnant and 5 of 14 pregnant women were positive for zeta-globin mRNA (Fisher's exact test, P = 0.23). No epsilon-globin mRNA was detected in CD...

  17. 高职院校女大学生恋爱观浅析--以南通四所高职院校为例%Analysis on Female Students’ Views on Campus Love---With Examples of Four Vocational Colleges in Nantong

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚英

    2013-01-01

    With the changes of society and times, female students’views on love in vocational colleges appear to be diverse under the influence of interaction of social-cultural, physiological, psychological and environ-mental factors. By sampling questionnaire surveys among female students in vocational universities of Nan-tong, the author classifies and analyzes essential elements of view on love, such as their understanding of love, attitudes towards love and behavioral tendencies of love, proposing to promote education on visions of love a-mong female students in vocational colleges.%随着社会和时代的变迁,高职女大学生受社会文化、生理、心理和环境因素交互作用的影响,恋爱观呈现出多元化趋势。文章通过对南通地区高职院校女大学生的抽样问卷调查,归类并分析她们对爱情的认识、恋爱的态度及恋爱行为倾向等恋爱观要素,进而提出加强高职院校女大学生恋爱观教育的路径。

  18. The Effect of Long-term Regular Exercises on Static Postural Balance of Female College Students%长期有规律锻炼对女大学生静态平衡能力的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李广周; 何本祥; 刘建宇; 吴成亮

    2016-01-01

    This study sought to the effect of long-term regular exercises on static postural balance of female college students. It takes 80 healthy female college students as the subjects to test their general stability, Fourier spectrum, weight distribution index and the synchronization of the eight postures by Tetrax balance and stability testing system. The results are as follows: 1) The experimental group showed lower SI than the control group in all assessed conditions, with a statistically significant difference (P<0.05) in the conditions of NC, HL, HB, HF and PC. 2) The experimental group had lower values than the control group in all frequency bands. There was a statistically significant difference (P<0.05) between groups in F1 bands in the condition of HF, in the F2~F4 bands in the condition of NC, PO, PC, HR, HL, HB, HF. 3) The experimental group showed lower WDI than the control group in all assessed conditions, with a statistically significant difference (P<0.05) in the condition of PC. 4) There was a statistically significant difference (P<0.05) between groups, with lower values in the experimental group, in AC, BD, AD and BC synchronizations in the condition of NO; in AD synchronizations in the condition of HB. According to the data, the paper get the conclusion that long-term regular exercise can improve the general stability index of the body, reduce the dependence of visual sense, and through the long-term regular exercise, the peripheral vestibular function, the central vestibular function and proprioception in the maintenance of static postural balance can be strengthened and improved.%以80名健康女大学生为研究对象,采用 Tetrax 平衡及稳定性测试系统测试其八种姿势下的总体稳定性、傅立叶频谱、体重分布指数及同步性,探讨长期有规律锻炼对女大学生静态平衡能力的影响.结果:(1)八种姿势下实验组的 ST 均小于对照组,实验组的 ST 在 NC、HL 两种姿

  19. A study on the differences of social cognition of classmates' personality traits between male and female college students%大学生对熟知同学人格特征社会认知的性别差异

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨志新; 何曲枝; 高志强

    2009-01-01

    Objective To explore the accuracy of college students' social cognition of their acquaintances' personalities, and the differences in accuracy between male and female students. Methods 84 participants were tested with Big Five Inventory to evaluate their acquaintances' personalities, while their acquaintances were tested to evaluate their own personalities.Results In the female group, a correlation between the participants' perceptions of their acquaintances and the acquaintances' self-perception turned out to be significant in dimension of extroversion(r=0.564,P<0.01) and in openness(r=0.508,P<0.01);however, in dimensions of neuroticism,extroversion and conscientiousness,significant differences were found (21.20±3.95 vs 24.76±5.01,t=4.254,P<0.01;27.33±5.36 vs 25.42±5.53,t=2.519,P<0.05; 30.76±5.18 vs 28.51±4.85, t=2.384,P<0.05);In the male group, correlation only existed in extroversion (r=0.404,P<0.05); in dimensions of extroversion and conscientiousness, differences were significant (28.28±5.21 vs 25.90±5.10,t=2.646,P<0.05;30.75±5.37 vs 28.18±5.81,t=2.315,P<0.05). Conclusions The accuracy of college students' social cognition of their acquaintances' personalities varies both in personality dimensions and in gender; students tend to evaluate their acquaintances' personalities as those which will conform to social expectancy or be of a benefit to their acquaintances.%目的 探讨大学生被试对熟知同学人格特征社会认知的正确性,及其性别上的差异.方法 采用中文版"大五"人格量表,让84名大学生自己和熟知者在该量表上对其人格特征进行评定.统计分析自己评定与熟知者评定之间的相关性,并对双方评定数据进行相关样本的t检验分析.结果 女大学生在外倾性、开放性人格维度上,对熟知者评定与熟知者自己评定之间相关显著(r=0.564,P<0.01;r=0.508,P<0.01);在神经质、外倾性和认真性维度上,女大学生对熟知者的评定[分别为(21.20±3

  20. Out of the Beautiful Ivory Tower to a Long Job-Hunting Way--The Analysis on Gender Discrimination behind the Employment Difficulty of Female College Students%探究女大学生就业难背后的就业性别歧视

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    井莹; 宋国英

    2013-01-01

    Behind the phenomenon of the difficult employment of female college students , gender discrimination accounts for a large proportion .In addition to overt discrimination , there is also invisible discrimination which shows discrimination for job opportunities and employment benefits .Causes of gender discrimination in employ-ment mainly lie in the traditional gender structure , more supply of female college students than demanded in em-ployment market and the female students'self-quality.To explore gender discrimination in employment can help to create harmonious employment environment and enable society to develop towards the just and fair trend . Therefore , to eliminate gender discrimination in employment , it is necessary to improve employment system , op-timize female students'employment environment , provide guidance for employment and develop female students'self comprehensive quality .%女大学生就业难现象的背后,性别歧视占了很大比重,除显性歧视外还有隐形歧视,表现为就业机会和就业待遇的歧视。究其原因,主要有传统性别结构束缚、就业市场供大于求和女大学生自身素质等因素。探究女大学生就业中的性别歧视不仅可以回答其就业难的原因,也有利于营造和谐的就业环境,促使社会走向公正公平。解决就业性别歧视应完善就业制度,优化女大学生就业环境,也要加强对女大学生就业提供指导,提高女大学生自身综合素质。