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Sample records for nonpolarizable inorganic salt

  1. Stable colloids in molten inorganic salts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hao; Dasbiswas, Kinjal; Ludwig, Nicholas B; Han, Gang; Lee, Byeongdu; Vaikuntanathan, Suri; Talapin, Dmitri V

    2017-02-15

    A colloidal solution is a homogeneous dispersion of particles or droplets of one phase (solute) in a second, typically liquid, phase (solvent). Colloids are ubiquitous in biological, chemical and technological processes, homogenizing highly dissimilar constituents. To stabilize a colloidal system against coalescence and aggregation, the surface of each solute particle is engineered to impose repulsive forces strong enough to overpower van der Waals attraction and keep the particles separated from each other. Electrostatic stabilization of charged solutes works well in solvents with high dielectric constants, such as water (dielectric constant of 80). In contrast, colloidal stabilization in solvents with low polarity, such as hexane (dielectric constant of about 2), can be achieved by decorating the surface of each particle of the solute with molecules (surfactants) containing flexible, brush-like chains. Here we report a class of colloidal systems in which solute particles (including metals, semiconductors and magnetic materials) form stable colloids in various molten inorganic salts. The stability of such colloids cannot be explained by traditional electrostatic and steric mechanisms. Screening of many solute-solvent combinations shows that colloidal stability can be traced to the strength of chemical bonding at the solute-solvent interface. Theoretical analysis and molecular dynamics modelling suggest that a layer of surface-bound solvent ions produces long-ranged charge-density oscillations in the molten salt around solute particles, preventing their aggregation. Colloids composed of inorganic particles in inorganic melts offer opportunities for introducing colloidal techniques to solid-state science and engineering applications.

  2. Stable colloids in molten inorganic salts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hao; Dasbiswas, Kinjal; Ludwig, Nicholas B.; Han, Gang; Lee, Byeongdu; Vaikuntanathan, Suri; Talapin, Dmitri V.

    2017-02-01

    A colloidal solution is a homogeneous dispersion of particles or droplets of one phase (solute) in a second, typically liquid, phase (solvent). Colloids are ubiquitous in biological, chemical and technological processes, homogenizing highly dissimilar constituents. To stabilize a colloidal system against coalescence and aggregation, the surface of each solute particle is engineered to impose repulsive forces strong enough to overpower van der Waals attraction and keep the particles separated from each other. Electrostatic stabilization of charged solutes works well in solvents with high dielectric constants, such as water (dielectric constant of 80). In contrast, colloidal stabilization in solvents with low polarity, such as hexane (dielectric constant of about 2), can be achieved by decorating the surface of each particle of the solute with molecules (surfactants) containing flexible, brush-like chains. Here we report a class of colloidal systems in which solute particles (including metals, semiconductors and magnetic materials) form stable colloids in various molten inorganic salts. The stability of such colloids cannot be explained by traditional electrostatic and steric mechanisms. Screening of many solute–solvent combinations shows that colloidal stability can be traced to the strength of chemical bonding at the solute–solvent interface. Theoretical analysis and molecular dynamics modelling suggest that a layer of surface-bound solvent ions produces long-ranged charge-density oscillations in the molten salt around solute particles, preventing their aggregation. Colloids composed of inorganic particles in inorganic melts offer opportunities for introducing colloidal techniques to solid-state science and engineering applications.

  3. Stable colloids in molten inorganic salts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Hao; Dasbiswas, Kinjal; Ludwig, Nicholas B.; Han, Gang; Lee, Byeongdu; Vaikuntanathan, Suri; Talapin, Dimitri V.

    2017-02-16

    A colloidal solution is a homogeneous dispersion of particles or droplets of one phase (solute) in a second, typically liquid, phase (solvent). Colloids are ubiquitous in biological, chemical and technological processes1, 2, homogenizing highly dissimilar constituents. To stabilize a colloidal system against coalescence and aggregation, the surface of each solute particle is engineered to impose repulsive forces strong enough to overpower van der Waals attraction and keep the particles separated from each other2. Electrostatic stabilization3, 4 of charged solutes works well in solvents with high dielectric constants, such as water (dielectric constant of 80). In contrast, colloidal stabilization in solvents with low polarity, such as hexane (dielectric constant of about 2), can be achieved by decorating the surface of each particle of the solute with molecules (surfactants) containing flexible, brush-like chains2, 5. Here we report a class of colloidal systems in which solute particles (including metals, semiconductors and magnetic materials) form stable colloids in various molten inorganic salts. The stability of such colloids cannot be explained by traditional electrostatic and steric mechanisms. Screening of many solute–solvent combinations shows that colloidal stability can be traced to the strength of chemical bonding at the solute–solvent interface. Theoretical analysis and molecular dynamics modelling suggest that a layer of surface-bound solvent ions produces long-ranged charge-density oscillations in the molten salt around solute particles, preventing their aggregation. Colloids composed of inorganic particles in inorganic melts offer opportunities for introducing colloidal techniques to solid-state science and engineering applications.

  4. Sol-gel processing with inorganic metal salt precursors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Zhong-Cheng

    2004-10-19

    Methods for sol-gel processing that generally involve mixing together an inorganic metal salt, water, and a water miscible alcohol or other organic solvent, at room temperature with a macromolecular dispersant material, such as hydroxypropyl cellulose (HPC) added. The resulting homogenous solution is incubated at a desired temperature and time to result in a desired product. The methods enable production of high quality sols and gels at lower temperatures than standard methods. The methods enable production of nanosize sols from inorganic metal salts. The methods offer sol-gel processing from inorganic metal salts.

  5. Inorganic salt mixtures as electrolyte media in fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angell, Charles Austen (Inventor); Belieres, Jean-Philippe (Inventor); Francis-Gervasio, Dominic (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    Fuel cell designs and techniques for converting chemical energy into electrical energy uses a fuel cell are disclosed. The designs and techniques include an anode to receive fuel, a cathode to receive oxygen, and an electrolyte chamber in the fuel cell, including an electrolyte medium, where the electrolyte medium includes an inorganic salt mixture in the fuel cell. The salt mixture includes pre-determined quantities of at least two salts chosen from a group consisting of ammonium trifluoromethanesulfonate, ammonium trifluoroacetate, and ammonium nitrate, to conduct charge from the anode to the cathode. The fuel cell includes an electrical circuit operatively coupled to the fuel cell to transport electrons from the cathode.

  6. Comparison of several ethanol productions using xylanase, inorganic salts, surfactant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yan; Lu, Jie; Yang, Rui-feng; Song, Wen-jing; Li, Hai-ming; Wang, Hai-song; Zhou, Jing-hui

    2017-03-01

    Liquid hot water (LHW) pretreatment is an effective and environmentally friendly method to produce bioethanol with lignocellulosic materials. Corn stover was pretreated with liquid hot water (LHW) and then subjected to semi-simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (S-SSF) to obtain high ethanol concentration and yield. The present study aimed to confirm the effect of several additives on the fermentation digestibility of unwashed WIS of corn stover pretreated with LHW. So we also investigated the process, such as enzyme addition, inorganic salts, surfactant and different loading Triton. Results show that high ethanol concentration is necessary to add xylanase in the stage of saccharification. The ethanol concentration increased mainly with magnesium ion on fermentation. Comparing with Tween 80, Span 80 and Polyethylene glycol, Triton is the best surfactant. In contrast to using xylanase and Triton respectively, optimization can make up the lack of stamina and improve effect of single inorganic salts.

  7. Influence of inorganic salt on aerobic biodegradability of dyestuffs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    this paper, the influence of inorganic salt on aerobic biodegradability of dyestuffs was studied by means of semicontinuous activated sludge method. It was found that: biodegradability of dyestuffs would decrease with the increase of the concentration of NaCl; however, biodegradability in the condition of NaCl = 30 g/L was better than that in the condition of NaCl =15 g/L; in the three NaCl conditions, biodegradability of tasted dyestuffs followed the following order: NaCl= 0 g/L > NaCl= 30g/L>NaCl= 15 g/L.

  8. Accounting for electronic polarization in nonpolarizable force fields

    CERN Document Server

    Leontyev, Igor

    2015-01-01

    The issues of electronic polarizability in molecular dynamics simulations are discussed. We argue that the charges of ionized groups in proteins, and charges of ions in conventional non-polarizable force fields such as CHARMM, AMBER, GROMOS, etc should be scaled by a factor about 0.7. Our model explains why a neglect of electronic solvation energy, which typically amounts to about a half of total solvation energy, in non-polarizable simulations with un-scaled charges can produce a correct result; however, the correct solvation energy of ions does not guarantee the correctness of ion-ion pair interactions in many non-polarizable simulations. The inclusion of electronic screening for charged moieties is shown to result in significant changes in protein dynamics and can give rise to new qualitative results compared with the traditional non-polarizable force field simulations. The model also explains the striking difference between the value of water dipole $\\mu$~3D reported in recent ab initio and experimental s...

  9. Effect of inorganic salts on crystallization of poly(ethylene glycol) in frozen solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izutsu, Ken-ichi; Aoyagi, Nobuo

    2005-01-06

    The effect of inorganic salts on eutectic crystallization of poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) 1500-20,000 in frozen solution was studied to model the polymer and inorganic salt interaction in freeze-dried formulations. Thermal analysis of an aqueous PEG 3000 solution showed a eutectic PEG crystallization exotherm at approximately -47 degrees C and a subsequent PEG crystal melting endotherm at -14.9 degrees C. Addition of sodium chloride prevented the PEG crystallization in the freeze-concentrated solution surrounding ice crystals. Higher concentration NaCl was required to retain higher molecular weight PEG in the amorphous state. Various inorganic salts prevented the PEG crystallization to varying degrees depending mainly on the position of the anion in the Hofmeister's lyotropic series. Some salting-in and 'intermediate' salts (NaSCN, NaI, NaBr, NaCl, LiCl, KCl, and RbCl) inhibited the crystallization of PEG 7500 in frozen solutions. On the other hand, salting-out salts (NaH2PO4, Na2HPO4, Na2SO4, and NaF) did not show an apparent effect on the PEG crystallization. Some salting-out salts induced PEG crystallization in PEG and sucrose combination frozen solutions. The varying abilities of salts to prevent the PEG crystallization in frozen solutions strongly suggested that the solutes had different degrees of miscibility in the freeze-concentrates.

  10. [Solubilization of nitrobenzene in micellar solutions of Tween 80 and inorganic salts].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Sui; Zhao, Yong-sheng; Xu, Wei; Dai, Ning

    2008-04-01

    The solubilization of nitrobenzene by a nonionic surfactant Tween 80 was investigated at 10 degrees C. Experimental results indicated that the solubility of nitrobenzene in water was greatly enhanced by Tween 80 at surfactant concentration above CMC(critical micelle concentration) and a linear relationship was obtained between surfactant concentration and nitrobenzene concentration from the solubility curve. The molar solubilization ratio (MSR) value was 5.093 and IgKm was 3.499. The solubilization was attributed to the ethoxylation group in Tween 80 micellar. Effect of four inorganic salts such as NaCl, KCl, CaCl2 , MgCl2 on water solubilities of nitrobenzene in Tween 80 micellar solutions was also investigated by a matrix of batch experiments. Mix the Tween 80-inorganic salts at the total mass ratios of 2:1, 5:1 and 10:1. The results show that the inorganic salts at a high concentration( > or = 500 mg x L(-1)) can enhance the solubilization capacities of Tween 80 micellar solution and increase the value of MSR and IgKm . Because of the salting-out effect between the micellar of Tween 80 and inorganic salts, the volume of micelle turns bigger, which may provide larger solubility volume for nitrobenzene. The mixture of nonionic surfactant and inorganic salts can be used in subsurface remediation as a flushing solution.

  11. Mechanism study of organic antioxidant and inorganic salt on suppressing coal oxidation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU Shui-jun; YU Ming-gao; JIA Hai-lin; ZUO Qiu-ling

    2007-01-01

    The advantages and disadvantages of Organic antioxidant and inorganic salt on suppressing coal oxidation were analyzed on the basis of the theory that coal oxidation mechanisms can be attributed to the free radical chain-type reaction mechanism.The inhibition curves on suppressing coal oxidation of the different type and different concentration of Organic antioxidant and inorganic salt were given through experimental study and data processing.Then some conclusions can be gained from the experimental study combining with theoretical analysis.First the inhibition mechanism of the organic antioxidant and inorganic salt is different.The former is that the chemical action is the dominant position.It can be called as the chain termination theory because the free radical is captured during coal oxidation.And the later is that the physical effect is the dominant position.It can be called as the decreasing-temperature theory because the liquid membrane which was formed by the inorganic salt can make coal body be the state of wetness and prevent oxygen from coal surface.Second the inhibition effect of the organic antioxidant is higher than the inorganic salt in the later period.But it is lower in the early period.

  12. Accounting for electronic polarization in non-polarizable force fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leontyev, Igor; Stuchebrukhov, Alexei

    The issues of electronic polarizability in molecular dynamics simulations are discussed. We argue that the charges of ionized groups in proteins, and charges of ions in conventional non-polarizable force fields such as CHARMM, AMBER, GROMOS, etc should be scaled by a factor about 0.7. Our model explains why a neglect of electronic solvation energy, which typically amounts to about a half of total solvation energy, in non-polarizable simulations with un-scaled charges can produce a correct result; however, the correct solvation energy of ions does not guarantee the correctness of ion-ion pair interactions in many non-polarizable simulations. The inclusion of electronic screening for charged moieties is shown to result in significant changes in protein dynamics and can give rise to new qualitative results compared with the traditional non-polarizable force field simulations. The model also explains the striking difference between the value of water dipole $\\mu$~3D reported in recent ab initio and experimental studies with the value $\\mu_{eff}$~2.3D typically used in the empirical potentials, such as TIP3P or SPC/E. It is shown that the effective dipole of water can be understood as a scaled value $\\mu_{eff}=\\mu/\\sqrt{\\epsilon_{el}}$, where $\\epsilon_{el}$=1.78 is the electronic (high-frequency) dielectric constant of water. This simple theoretical framework provides important insights into the nature of the effective parameters, which is crucial when the computational models of liquid water are used for simulations in different environments, such as proteins, or for interaction with solutes.

  13. Prediction of heat capacities of solid inorganic salts from group contributions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mostafa, A.T.M.G.; Eakman, J.M. [New Mexico State Univ., Las Cruces, NM (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering; Yarbro, S.L. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)

    1997-01-01

    A group contribution technique is proposed to predict the coefficients in the heat capacity correlation, C{sub p} = a + bT + c/T{sup 2} + dT{sup 2}, for solid inorganic salts. The results from this work are compared with fits to experimental data from the literature. It is shown to give good predictions for both simple and complex solid inorganic salts. Literature heat capacities for a large number (664) of solid inorganic salts covering a broad range of cations (129), anions (17) and ligands (2) have been used in regressions to obtain group contributions for the parameters in the heat capacity temperature function. A mean error of 3.18% is found when predicted values are compared with literature values for heat capacity at 298{degrees} K. Estimates of the error standard deviation from the regression for each additivity constant are also determined.

  14. Effect of salt stress on growth, inorganic ion and proline ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PRECIOUS

    2010-01-11

    Jan 11, 2010 ... Key word: Aromatic rice, osmoprotectant, callus culture, salt stress. ... adversely affect the overall metabolic activities and cause plant demise (Roychoudury ..... Proline accumulation in response to environmental stresses has ...

  15. Effects of system parameters and inorganic salts on the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2012-11-09

    Nov 9, 2012 ... 1Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science and Mathematics, ... well as the presence of salts, (NaCl, Na2SO4, NaNO3, NaH2PO4) on dye decolourisation was examined. ..... 1.3 x 108 M–1 s–1 for reaction of •OH radical with NO3 ... The authors would like to acknowledge the financial support of.

  16. Sorption of inorganic salts on carbon nanomaterials and magnetite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyu, Sh. T.; Troshkina, I. D.; Rakov, E. G.

    2016-11-01

    Magnetic composites based on graphene oxides and functionalized carbon nanotubes containing magnetite nanoparticles are synthesized. The dispersing ability of these composites in water at different pH values is studied. It is shown that the solubility of Fe3O4 composites is constant in the pH range of 3.5-10, though these composites are unstable at both lower and higher pH values. Magnetic sorbents for extracting Ce(NO3)3 and La(NO3)3 from solutions are tested. Dependences of the volume on the sorbent's composition, pH value, and salt concentration in the solution are found. Maximum sorption capacity in relation to Ce3+ and La3+ at pH 7.5 and 8.5 are found to be 1040 and 920 mg/g respectively.

  17. Decolorization of reactive black 5 using dielectric barrier discharge in the presence of inorganic salts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dojčinović Biljana P.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Inorganic salts improve the coloration of textiles, which increase pollution load on dyehouse effluent in general. Decolorization of reactive textile dye C.I. Reactive Black 5 was studied using Advanced Oxidation Processes (AOPs in a non-thermal plasma reactor, based on coaxial water falling film Dielectric Barrier Discharge (DBD. Initial dye concentration in the solution was 40.0 mg L-1. The effects of addition of inorganic salt different high concentrations (NaCl, Na2SO4 and Na2CO3 on the degree of decolorization were studied. Recirculation of dye solution through the DBD reactor with applied energy density 45-315 kJ L-1 was used. The influence of residence time was investigated after 5 minutes and 24 hours of plasma treatment. Decolorization of the dyes was monitored by spectrophotometric measurement. Changes of pH values and the conductivity of dye solution after each recirculation were tested. The most effective decolorization of over 90% was obtained with the addition of NaCl (50 g L-1, applied energy density of 135 kJ L-1 and after residence time of 24 hours of plasma treatment. Decolorization of solutions containing inorganic salts Na2SO4 and Na2CO3 were lower than for the solution without salt.

  18. Effect of inorganic salts on bacterial omega-3 PUFA production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abd Elrazak, Ahmed; Ward, Alan C; Glassey, Jarka

    2017-03-16

    The increasing demand of omega-3 in the market and the challenges facing its conventional supplies led to an increasing interest to microbial omega-3 sources. This research concentrates on the statistical role of some metal ions on the biosynthesis and productivity of eicosapentaenoic acid (essential omega-3 element) in bacterial isolate, Shewanella 717. A Plackett-Burman design was applied to screen the main effect of all metal salts entrenched in the artificial sea water medium components. Four salts, in particular, in addition to the interaction among them were highlighted as having a statistically significant effect upon the growth and/or eicosapentaenoic acid production. A subsequent central composite design was performed to determine the exact optimum concentration of each of the chosen variables which was found to be 2.5, 1.8, 1.2, and 23 g/l, for Na2HPO4, MgSO4, KCl, and NaCl, respectively. All the experiments were performed with the minimal amount of carbon and nitrogen to eliminate any potential masking effect. A bioreactor batch run was operated and the ion uptake was monitored, using EDAX® electron microscopy, concluding that the process of microbial omega-3 production could be a phosphate-limited process. Optimizing the concentration of the tested metal ions led to a remarkable increase in the omega-3 productivity resulted in a 30, 9, and 10 times increase in yield, concentration, and percentage to the total fatty acids, respectively, even though the carbon and nitrogen were kept constant all over the research work.

  19. A study on the effect of inorganic salts in transungual drug delivery of terbinafine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nair, Anroop B; Sammeta, Srinivasa M; Vaka, Siva Ram K; Narasimha Murthy, S

    2009-04-01

    The poor success rate of topical therapy in nail disorders is mainly because of the low permeability of keratinized nail plates. This can be overcome by utilizing potent perungual drug penetration enhancers that facilitate the drug permeation across the nail plate. This study evaluated the efficacy of inorganic salts in enhancing the trans-nail permeation using a model potent antifungal agent, terbinafine hydrochloride. Permeation studies were carried out across human cadaver nail in a Franz diffusion cell using terbinafine solution (1 mg/ml; pH 3). Preliminary studies were carried out to assess the effect of salts (0.5 M) on the terbinafine permeation into and through the nail. Further, the influence of salt concentration (0.25-3 M) on permeation, the mechanism for the enhancement and the suitability of developing a formulation were also studied. Terbinafine permeation (3-5 fold) through the nail and drug load (4-7 fold) in the nail were enhanced significantly when salts were used at 0.5 M concentration. Increase in salt concentration up to 1 M increased the permeation, which decreased with further increase in salt concentration (>1 M). Mechanistic studies revealed that the enhanced permeation by salts was mainly due to their ability to increase the nail hydration and also to increase the thermodynamic activity of the drug. The cumulative amount of terbinafine permeated at 24 h from the formulated gel (9.70 +/- 0.93 microg/cm(2)) was comparable with that of a solution (11.45 +/- 1.62 microg/cm(2)). Given the promising results from the permeation and drug load studies, it was concluded that inorganic salts could be used as potent transungual permeation enhancers.

  20. Joint effect of organic acids and inorganic salts on cloud droplet activation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Frosch

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available We have investigated CCN properties of internally mixed particles composed of one organic acid (oxalic acid dihydrate, succinic acid, adipic acid, citric acid, cis-pinonic acid, or Nordic reference fulvic acid and one inorganic salt (sodium chloride or ammonium sulphate. Surface tension and water activity of aqueous model solutions with concentrations relevant for CCN activation were measured using a tensiometer and osmometry, respectively. The measurements were used to calculate Köhler curves and critical supersaturations, which were compared to measured critical supersaturations of particles with the same chemical compositions, determined with a cloud condensation nucleus counter. Surfactant surface partitioning was not accounted for. For the aqueous solutions containing cis-pinonic acid and fulvic acid, a depression of surface tension was observed, but for the remaining solutions the effect on surface tension was negligible at concentrations relevant for cloud droplet activation. The surface tension depression of aqueous solutions containing both organic acid and inorganic salt was approximately the same as or smaller than that of aqueous solutions containing the same mass of the corresponding pure organic acids. Water activity was found to be highly dependent on the type and amount of inorganic salt. Sodium chloride was able to decrease water activity more than ammonium sulphate and both inorganic salts are predicted to have a smaller Raoult term than the studied organic acids. Increasing the mass ratio of the inorganic salt led to a decrease in water activity. Water activity measurements were compared to results from the E-AIM model and values estimated from both constant and variable van't Hoff factors. The correspondence between measurements and estimates was overall good, except for highly concentrated solutions. Critical supersaturations calculated with Köhler theory based on measured water activity and surface tension, but not

  1. Systematization of the mass spectra for speciation of inorganic salts with static secondary ion mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Ham, Rita; Van Vaeck, Luc; Adams, Freddy C; Adriaens, Annemie

    2004-05-01

    The analytical use of mass spectra from static secondary ion mass spectrometry for the molecular identification of inorganic analytes in real life surface layers and microobjects requires an empirical insight in the signals to be expected from a given compound. A comprehensive database comprising over 50 salts has been assembled to complement prior data on oxides. The present study allows the systematic trends in the relationship between the detected signals and molecular composition of the analyte to be delineated. The mass spectra provide diagnostic information by means of atomic ions, structural fragments, molecular ions, and adduct ions of the analyte neutrals. The prediction of mass spectra from a given analyte must account for the charge state of the ions in the salt, the formation of oxide-type neutrals from oxy salts, and the occurrence of oxidation-reduction processes.

  2. Joint effect of organic acids and inorganic salts on cloud droplet activation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Frosch

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available We have investigated CCN properties of internally mixed particles composed of one organic acid (oxalic acid, succinic acid, adipic acid, citric acid, cis-pinonic acid, or nordic reference fulvic acid and one inorganic salt (sodium chloride or ammonium sulphate. Surface tension and water activity of aqueous model solutions with concentrations relevant for CCN activation were measured using a tensiometer and osmometry, respectively. The measurements were used to calculate Köhler curves, which were compared to measured critical supersaturations of particles with the same chemical compositions, determined with a cloud condensation nucleus counter. Surfactant surface partitioning was not accounted for. For the mixtures containing cis-pinonic acid or fulvic acid, a depression of surface tension was observed, but for the remaining mixtures the effect on surface tension was negligle at concentrations relevant for cloud droplet activation, and water activity was the more significant term in the Köhler equation. The surface tension depression of aqueous solutions containing both organic acid and inorganic salt was approximately the same as or smaller than that of aqueous solutions containing the same mass of the corresponding pure organic acids. Water activity was found to be highly dependent on the type and amount of inorganic salt. Sodium chloride was able to decrease water activity more than ammonium sulphate and both inorganic compounds had a higher effect on water activity than the studied organic acids, and increasing the mass ratio of the inorganic compound led to a decrease in water activity. Water activity measurements were compared to results from the E-AIM model and values estimated from both constant and variable van't Hoff factors to evaluate the performance of these approaches. The correspondence between measuments and estimates was overall good, except for highly concentrated solutions. Critical supersaturations calculated with K

  3. Safety Assessment of Citric Acid, Inorganic Citrate Salts, and Alkyl Citrate Esters as Used in Cosmetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiume, Monice M; Heldreth, Bart A; Bergfeld, Wilma F; Belsito, Donald V; Hill, Ronald A; Klaassen, Curtis D; Liebler, Daniel C; Marks, James G; Shank, Ronald C; Slaga, Thomas J; Snyder, Paul W; Andersen, F Alan

    2014-05-26

    The CIR Expert Panel (Panel) assessed the safety of citric acid, 12 inorganic citrate salts, and 20 alkyl citrate esters as used in cosmetics, concluding that these ingredients are safe in the present practices of use and concentration. Citric acid is reported to function as a pH adjuster, chelating agent, or fragrance ingredient. Some of the salts are also reported to function as chelating agents, and a number of the citrates are reported to function as skin-conditioning agents but other functions are also reported. The Panel reviewed available animal and clinical data, but because citric acid, calcium citrate, ferric citrate, manganese citrate, potassium citrate, sodium citrate, diammonium citrate, isopropyl citrate, stearyl citrate, and triethyl citrate are generally recognized as safe direct food additives, dermal exposure was the focus for these ingredients in this cosmetic ingredient safety assessment.

  4. Inorganic Salt Interference on CO2(+) in Aerodyne AMS and ACSM Organic Aerosol Composition Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pieber, Simone M; El Haddad, Imad; Slowik, Jay G; Canagaratna, Manjula R; Jayne, John T; Platt, Stephen M; Bozzetti, Carlo; Daellenbach, Kaspar R; Fröhlich, Roman; Vlachou, Athanasia; Klein, Felix; Dommen, Josef; Miljevic, Branka; Jiménez, José L; Worsnop, Douglas R; Baltensperger, Urs; Prévôt, André S H

    2016-10-04

    Aerodyne aerosol mass spectrometer (AMS) and Aerodyne aerosol chemical speciation monitor (ACSM) mass spectra are widely used to quantify organic aerosol (OA) elemental composition, oxidation state, and major environmental sources. The OA CO2(+) fragment is among the most important measurements for such analyses. Here, we show that a non-OA CO2(+) signal can arise from reactions on the particle vaporizer, ion chamber, or both, induced by thermal decomposition products of inorganic salts. In our tests (eight instruments, n = 29), ammonium nitrate (NH4NO3) causes a median CO2(+) interference signal of +3.4% relative to nitrate. This interference is highly variable between instruments and with measurement history (percentiles P10-90 = +0.4 to +10.2%). Other semi-refractory nitrate salts showed 2-10 times enhanced interference compared to that of NH4NO3, while the ammonium sulfate ((NH4)2SO4) induced interference was 3-10 times lower. Propagation of the CO2(+) interference to other ions during standard AMS and ACSM data analysis affects the calculated OA mass, mass spectra, molecular oxygen-to-carbon ratio (O/C), and f44. The resulting bias may be trivial for most ambient data sets but can be significant for aerosol with higher inorganic fractions (>50%), e.g., for low ambient temperatures, or laboratory experiments. The large variation between instruments makes it imperative to regularly quantify this effect on individual AMS and ACSM systems.

  5. Investigating primary marine aerosol properties: CCN activity of sea salt and mixed inorganic-organic particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Stephanie M; Butcher, Andrew C; Rosenoern, Thomas; Coz, Esther; Lieke, Kirsten I; de Leeuw, Gerrit; Nilsson, E Douglas; Bilde, Merete

    2012-10-02

    Sea spray particles ejected as a result of bubbles bursting from artificial seawater containing salt and organic matter in a stainless steel tank were sampled for size distribution, morphology, and cloud condensation nucleus (CCN) activity. Bubbles were generated either by aeration through a diffuser or by water jet impingement on the seawater surface. Three objectives were addressed in this study. First, CCN activities of NaCl and two types of artificial sea salt containing only inorganic components were measured to establish a baseline for further measurements of mixed organic-inorganic particles. Second, the effect of varying bubble residence time in the bulk seawater solution on particle size and CCN activity was investigated and was found to be insignificant for the organic compounds studied. Finally, CCN activities of particles produced from jet impingement were compared with those produced from diffuser aeration. Analyses indicate a considerable amount of organic enrichment in the jet-produced particles relative to the bulk seawater composition when sodium laurate, an organic surfactant, is present in the seawater. In this case, the production of a thick foam layer during impingement may explain the difference in activation and supports hypotheses that particle production from the two methods of generating bubbles is not equal.

  6. Inorganic Salts Effect on Adsorption Behavior of Surfactant AEC at Liquid/Liquid Interface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Changhua Yang

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Behaviors of nonionic-anionic surfactant sodium fatty Alcohol polyoxyethylene Ether Carboxylate (AEC at dodecane/water interface influenced by inorganic salts NaCl, CaCl2 and MgCl2 were investigated by interfacial tension methods and molecular dynamics simulation. Contrasted distributions of various salts at interface and in aqueous solutions and resulting lowering the interfacial tension have been observed. Composition of surfactants-salts complex at interface surrounding different cations within 2.5 Å were found to be in two categories: (i the octahedral complexation of divalent cation was generated by the participation of surfactant head group and water molecule, (ii only water molecules were involved in the complexation. According to the simulation results, all the Na+ involved in type ii, without any direct interaction with surfactant head group, while Ca2+ and Mg2+ involved in type I, following the formula: Ca2++4 (surfactant +2(H2 O⇄ [Ca (surfactant4 [(H2 O]2]2+ M2+g+(surfactant+5 (H2 O⇄[Mg (surfactant [(H2 O]5 ]2+ This strongly chelate interaction between Ca2+ and surfactants makes surfactants more stretched at interface, thus more effective in oil/water interface.

  7. Room temperature inorganic ``quasi-molten salts`` as alkali-metal electrolytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, K.; Zhang, S.; Angell, C.A. [Arizona State Univ., Tempe, AZ (United States). Dept. of Chemistry

    1996-11-01

    Room temperature inorganic liquids of high ionic conductivity have been prepared by reacting Lewis acid AlCl with sulfonyl chlorides. The mechanism is not clear at this time since a crystal structure study of the 1:1 complex with CH{sub 3}SO{sub 2}Cl (T{sub m} = 30 C) is not consistent with a simple chloride transfer to create AlClO{sub 4}{sup {minus}} anions. The liquid is in a state somewhere between ionic and molecular. A new term quasi-molten salt is adopted to describe this state. A comparably conducting liquid can be made using BCL{sub 3} in place of AlCl{sub 3}. Unlike their organic counterparts based on ammonium cations (e.g., pyridinium or imidazolium) which reduce in the presence of alkali metals, this inorganic class of cation shows great stability against electrochemical reduction (ca. {minus}1.0 V vs. Li{sup +}/Li), with the useful consequence that reversible lithium and sodium metal deposition/stripping can be supported. The electrochemical window for these quasi-salts with AlCl{sub 3} ranges up to 5.0 V, and their room temperature conductivities exceed 10{sup {minus}4} S/cm. They dissolve lithium and sodium tetrachloroaluminates up to mole fraction {approximately} 0.6 at 100 C and intermediate compositions are permanently stable at ambient. The resultant lithium or sodium salt solutions exhibit electrochemical windows of 4.5--5.0 V vs. Li{sup +}/Li or Na{sup +}/Na and show room temperature conductivities of 10{sup {minus}3.0}--10{sup {minus}2.5} S/cm. In preliminary charge/discharge tests, the cell Li/``quasi-ionic liquid electrolyte``/Li{sub 1+x}Mn{sub 2}O{sub 4} showed a discharge capacity of ca. 110 mAh/(g of cathode) and sustained 80% of the initial capacity after 60 cycles, indicating that these quasi-molten salt-based electrolytes are promising candidates for alkali-metal batteries.

  8. Effect of inorganic salts on the senescence of Dianthus caryophyllus flowers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mayak, S.; Kofranek, A.M.; Tirosh, T.

    1978-01-01

    Certain inorganic salts like KNO/sub 3/, KCl, K/sub 2/SO/sub 4/, Ca(NO/sub 3/)/sub 2/ and NH/sub 4/NO/sub 3/ extend longevity of cut carnation flowers. The effect of KNO/sub 3/ was studied in some detail. There is an osmotic adjustment in response to KNO/sub 3/ treatment. The osmotic concentration change occurred in the external as well as in the internal compartments. The osmotic concentration change in the external compartment is well correlated with extension of longevity. The effect of KNO/sub 3/ on the sensitivity to ethylene, and its significance in delaying senescence is discussed. 20 references, 3 figures, 2 tables.

  9. Development of an immobilization method by encapsulating inorganic metal salts forming hollow microcapsules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ji, Hong-Bing; Kuang, Jin-Gao; Qian, Yu [School of Chemical and Energy Engineering, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510640 (China)

    2005-08-15

    In the present paper, a facile and cost effective method was developed to fabricate micrometer-sized hollow polyurea microcapsule via W/O emulsion, with the inorganic metal salts as encapsulated materials. The size of porosities and non-porous parts were uniform with diameter ranging from 20 to 40nm for both interior and exterior surfaces. The immobilized nickel nanoparticle was well dispersed with diameter under 30nm. Polyurea hollow microcapsules encapsulated with NiCl{sub 2} presented better thermal stability than polyurea itself. The immobilization of NiCl{sub 2} was rather effective, and no leaching could be observed under ethanol, toluene and water at 110{sup o}C while stirring for 5h. This heterogeneous microcapsule with NiCl{sub 2} could be reused for benzaldehyde reduction with no loss of activity or selectivity, meaning that it is an effective immobilization method.

  10. Heat Transfer and Latent Heat Storage in Inorganic Molten Salts for Concentrating Solar Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mathur, Anoop [Terrafore Inc.

    2013-08-14

    A key technological issue facing the success of future Concentrating Solar Thermal Power (CSP) plants is creating an economical Thermal Energy Storage (TES) system. Current TES systems use either sensible heat in fluids such as oil, or molten salts, or use thermal stratification in a dual-media consisting of a solid and a heat-transfer fluid. However, utilizing the heat of fusion in inorganic molten salt mixtures in addition to sensible heat , as in a Phase change material (PCM)-based TES, can significantly increase the energy density of storage requiring less salt and smaller containers. A major issue that is preventing the commercial use of PCM-based TES is that it is difficult to discharge the latent heat stored in the PCM melt. This is because when heat is extracted, the melt solidifies onto the heat exchanger surface decreasing the heat transfer. Even a few millimeters of thickness of solid material on heat transfer surface results in a large drop in heat transfer due to the low thermal conductivity of solid PCM. Thus, to maintain the desired heat rate, the heat exchange area must be large which increases cost. This project demonstrated that the heat transfer coefficient can be increase ten-fold by using forced convection by pumping a hyper-eutectic salt mixture over specially coated heat exchanger tubes. However,only 15% of the latent heat is used against a goal of 40% resulting in a projected cost savings of only 17% against a goal of 30%. Based on the failure mode effect analysis and experience with pumping salt at near freezing point significant care must be used during operation which can increase the operating costs. Therefore, we conclude the savings are marginal to justify using this concept for PCM-TES over a two-tank TES. The report documents the specialty coatings, the composition and morphology of hypereutectic salt mixtures and the results from the experiment conducted with the active heat exchanger along with the lessons learnt during

  11. Synthesis and characterization of four organic-inorganic salts: sulfates of 2-aminopyridinium derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bednarchuk, Tamara J; Kinzhybalo, Vasyl; Pietraszko, Adam

    2016-11-01

    Hybrid materials, fabricated by the combination of inorganic and organic components, have potential applications in chemistry and are endowed with the advantages of both building elements. There are several types of intermolecular interactions present in these hybrid compounds, including electrostatic forces, π-π stacking and hydrogen-bonding interactions, the latter playing an important role in the construction of three-dimensional architectures and stabilizing supramolecular crystal structures. Analysis of the intermolecular interactions and their influence on packing modes therefore requires focused scientific attention. Four new organic-inorganic salts, namely 2-amino-4-methyl-3-nitropyridinium hydrogen sulfate, C6H8N3O2(+)·HSO4(-), bis(2-amino-4-methyl-3-nitropyridinium) sulfate, 2C6H8N3O2(+)·SO4(2-), 2-amino-3-methylpyridinium hydrogen sulfate, C6H9N2(+)·HSO4(-), and bis(2-amino-3-methylpyridinium) sulfate monohydrate, 2C6H9N2(+)·SO4(2-)·H2O, have been synthesized and characterized by X-ray diffraction. The crystal structures are stabilized by intra- and intermolecular hydrogen bonds, as well as by weak π-π stacking and lp-π (lp is lone pair) interactions. Hirshfeld surface analysis was employed in order to study intermolecular interactions.

  12. Polarizable molecular interactions in condensed phase and their equivalent nonpolarizable models

    CERN Document Server

    Leontyev, Igor

    2015-01-01

    Earlier, using phenomenological approach, we showed that in some cases polarizable models of condensed phase systems can be reduced to nonpolarizable equivalent models with scaled charges. Examples of such systems include ionic liquids, TIPnP-type models of water, protein force fields, and others, where interactions and dynamics of inherently polarizable species can be accurately described by nonpolarizable models. To describe electrostatic interactions, the effective charges of simple ionic liquids are obtained by scaling the actual charges of ions by a factor of 1/sqrt(eps_el), which is due to electronic polarization screening effect; the scaling factor of neutral species is more complicated. Here, using several theoretical models, we examine how exactly the scaling factors appear in theory, and how, and under what conditions, polarizable Hamiltonians are reduced to nonpolarizable ones. These models allow one to trace the origin of the scaling factors, determine their values, and obtain important insights o...

  13. Aggregation and phase separation behavior of an amphiphilic drug promazine hydrochloride under the influence of inorganic salts and ureas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rub, Malik Abdul, E-mail: malikrub@gmail.com [Center of Excellence for Advanced Materials Research, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah 21589 (Saudi Arabia); Chemistry Department, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah 21589 (Saudi Arabia); Asiri, Abdullah M.; Azum, Naved; Khan, Anish; Khan, Aftab Aslam Parwaz; Khan, Sher Bahadar; Rahman, Mohammed M. [Center of Excellence for Advanced Materials Research, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah 21589 (Saudi Arabia); Chemistry Department, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah 21589 (Saudi Arabia); Kabir-ud-Din [Department of Chemistry, Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh 202002 (India)

    2013-12-20

    Highlights: • Aggregation and clouding behavior of PMZ-additive (salts/ureas) mixtures have been investigated. • Both urea and thiourea, at low concentrations, decrease the cmc but, at high concentrations, increase it. • However, ΔH{sub m}° for pure drug/drug–additive systems is negative at low temperature and positive at higher temperature. • The ΔS{sub m}° values are positive, their magnitude being more at T = 303.15 K and above. - Abstract: Self-association and phase separation phenomena of an amphiphilic phenothiazine drug promazine hydrochloride (PMZ) in the absence and presence of inorganic salts (NaF, NaCl and NaBr) and ureas (urea and thiourea) have been investigated in the present study. By the increase in temperature the critical micelle concentration (cmc) of drug PMZ first increases then decreases. Maximum cmc values were obtained at 303.15 K in presence or absence of additives (salts/ureas). Decrease in cmc occurs by the addition of the inorganic salts which is explained on the basis of nature and ion size. Ureas (urea and thiourea) decreased the cmc at low concentration; however, at higher concentrations, increase in cmc was observed with both the additives. Increasing inorganic salt concentrations caused an increase in the cloud point (CP) of PMZ, whereas urea decreased the CP. Significant thermodynamic parameters were also evaluated and discussed.

  14. Speciation of the major inorganic salts in atmospheric aerosols of Beijing, China: Measurements and comparison with model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Xiong; Zhang, Xiaoshan; Ci, Zhijia; Guo, Jia; Wang, Jiaqi

    2016-05-01

    In the winter and summer of 2013-2014, we used a sampling system, which consists of annular denuder, back-up filter and thermal desorption set-up, to measure the speciation of major inorganic salts in aerosols and the associated trace gases in Beijing. This sampling system can separate volatile ammonium salts (NH4NO3 and NH4Cl) from non-volatile ammonium salts ((NH4)2SO4), as well as the non-volatile nitrate and chloride. The measurement data was used as input of a thermodynamic equilibrium model (ISORROPIA II) to investigate the gas-aerosol equilibrium characteristics. Results show that (NH4)2SO4, NH4NO3 and NH4Cl were the major inorganic salts in aerosols and mainly existed in the fine particles. The sulfate, nitrate and chloride associated with crustal ions were also important in Beijing where mineral dust concentrations were high. About 19% of sulfate in winter and 11% of sulfate in summer were associated with crustal ions and originated from heterogeneous reactions or direct emissions. The non-volatile nitrate contributed about 33% and 15% of nitrate in winter and summer, respectively. Theoretical thermodynamic equilibrium calculations for NH4NO3 and NH4Cl suggest that the gaseous precursors were sufficient to form stable volatile ammonium salts in winter, whereas the internal mixing with sulfate and crustal species were important for the formation of volatile ammonium salts in summer. The results of the thermodynamic equilibrium model reasonably agreed with the measurements of aerosols and gases, but large discrepancy existed in predicting the speciation of inorganic ammonium salts. This indicates that the assumption on crustal species in the model was important for obtaining better understanding on gas-aerosol partitioning and improving the model prediction.

  15. Intertidal salt marshes as an important source of inorganic carbon to the coastal ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhaohui Aleck; Kroeger, Kevin D.; Ganju, Neil K.; Gonneea, Meagan; Chu, Sophie N.

    2016-01-01

    Dynamic tidal export of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) to the coastal ocean from highly productive intertidal marshes and its effects on seawater carbonate chemistry are thoroughly evaluated. The study uses a comprehensive approach by combining tidal water sampling of CO2parameters across seasons, continuous in situ measurements of biogeochemically-relevant parameters and water fluxes, with high-resolution modeling in an intertidal salt marsh of the U.S. northeast region. Salt marshes can acidify and alkalize tidal water by injecting CO2 (DIC) and total alkalinity (TA). DIC and TA generation may also be decoupled due to differential effects of marsh aerobic and anaerobic respiration on DIC and TA. As marsh DIC is added to tidal water, the buffering capacity first decreases to a minimum and then increases quickly. Large additions of marsh DIC can result in higher buffering capacity in ebbing tide than incoming tide. Alkalization of tidal water, which mostly occurs in the summer due to anaerobic respiration, can further modify buffering capacity. Marsh exports of DIC and alkalinity may have complex implications for the future, more acidified ocean. Marsh DIC export exhibits high variability over tidal and seasonal cycles, which is modulated by both marsh DIC generation and by water fluxes. The marsh DIC export of 414 g C m−2 yr−1, based on high-resolution measurements and modeling, is more than twice the previous estimates. It is a major term in the marsh carbon budget and translates to one of the largest carbon fluxes along the U.S. East Coast.

  16. The use of inorganic salts to improve the dissolution characteristics of tablets containing Soluplus®-based solid dispersions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughey, Justin R; Keen, Justin M; Miller, Dave A; Kolter, Karl; Langley, Nigel; McGinity, James W

    2013-03-12

    The dissolution enhancement advantages inherent to amorphous solid dispersions systems are often not fully realized once they are formulated into a solid dosage form. The objective of this study was to investigate the ability of inorganic salts to improve the dissolution rate of carbamazepine (CBZ) from tablets containing a high loading of a Soluplus®-based solid dispersion. Cloud point and viscometric studies were conducted on Soluplus® solutions to understand the effect of temperature, salt type and salt concentration on the aqueous solubility and gelling tendencies of Soluplus®, properties that can significantly impact dissolution performance. Studies indicated that Soluplus® exhibited a cloud point that was strongly dependent on the salt type and salt concentration present in the dissolving medium. The presence of kosmotropic salts dehydrated the polymer, effectively lowering the cloud point and facilitating formation of a thermoreversible hydrogel. The ability of ions to impact the cloud point and gel strength generally followed the rank order of the Hofmeister series. Solid dispersions of CBZ and Soluplus® were prepared by KinetiSol® Dispersing, characterized to confirm an amorphous composition was formed and incorporated into tablets at very high levels (70% w/w). Dissolution studies demonstrated the utility of including salts in tablets to improve dissolution properties. Tablets that did not contain a salt or those that included a chaotropic salt hydrated at the tablet surface and did not allow for sufficient moisture ingress into the tablet. Conversely, the inclusion of kosmotropic salts allowed for rapid hydration of the entire tablet and the formation of a gel structure with strength dependent on the type of salt utilized. Studies also showed that, in addition to allowing tablet hydration, potassium bicarbonate and potassium carbonate provided effervescence which effectively destroyed the gel network and allowed for rapid dissolution of CBZ

  17. ORGANIC-INORGANIC HYBRIDS PREPARED FROM ALKYL PHOSPHONIUM SALTS INTERCALATED MONTMORILLONITES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SAHELI GANGULY

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Present investigation is focused on systematic and detailed characterization of alkyl phosphonium intercalated montmorillonite (MMT. The objective of the work is to provide a better understanding of the specific changes in properties of the hybrid material with changes in structure of incoming organic cations. In the present work, Na-MMT was intercalated with phosphonium salts of two different cationic head compositions namely alkyl triphenyl and alkyl tributyl groups. Length of alkyl chain was also varied. Resultant organic-inorganic hybrids were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD, Transmission electron microscopy (TEM, Thermogravimetry (TG and Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy (FTIR. Effective volume occupied by the cationic heads influenced interlayer arrangements. Intercalated MMT with two different cationic heads behaved differently in relation to thermal decomposition patterns. Possible explanation was given based on hybridization of bonds. Van der Waals attachment of alkyl chains influenced the interlayer stacking and organic loading. Attempts were made to correlate the changes in properties of intercalated MMT with the structural aspects of incoming organic cations.

  18. Inorganic salt-induced phase control and optical characterization of cadmium sulfide nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tai, Guo'an; Zhou, Jianxin; Guo, Wanlin

    2010-04-01

    Phase-controlled synthesis of CdS nanoparticles from zinc-blende to wurtzite has been successfully realized by an inorganic salt-induced process with no use of surfactants or other ligands in an ultrasound-assisted microwave synthesis system. Pure zinc-blende CdS nanoparticles were produced without adding NaCl, while mixed zinc-blende and wurtzite nanoparticles were obtained by adding NaCl/Cd2 + molar ratios below 1, and pure wurtzite nanoparticles were produced at a molar ratio of 1. The energy bandgap (Eg) of the CdS nanoparticles calculated from optical absorption spectra increases as the phase transformation from zinc-blende to wurtzite occurs. Additionally, the CdS nanoparticles showed a 489 nm band-edge emission without adding NaCl, and a 501 nm emission when the molar ratios of NaCl to Cd2 + are 0.25, 0.5 and 1. It was found that the phase transformation originates from the effect of the halide ion Cl - . We also found that some other halide ions such as Br - and I - can induce the phase transformation. It is shown that the phase, size and optical properties of the anisotropic nanoparticles can be well tuned by varying the concentration of the halide ions.

  19. Inorganic salt-induced phase control and optical characterization of cadmium sulfide nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tai, Guo' an; Zhou Jianxin; Guo Wanlin, E-mail: taiguoan@nuaa.edu.cn, E-mail: wlguo@nuaa.edu.cn [Institute of Nanoscience, Nanjing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics, 29 Yudao Street, Nanjing 210016 (China)

    2010-04-30

    Phase-controlled synthesis of CdS nanoparticles from zinc-blende to wurtzite has been successfully realized by an inorganic salt-induced process with no use of surfactants or other ligands in an ultrasound-assisted microwave synthesis system. Pure zinc-blende CdS nanoparticles were produced without adding NaCl, while mixed zinc-blende and wurtzite nanoparticles were obtained by adding NaCl/Cd{sup 2+} molar ratios below 1, and pure wurtzite nanoparticles were produced at a molar ratio of 1. The energy bandgap (E{sub g}) of the CdS nanoparticles calculated from optical absorption spectra increases as the phase transformation from zinc-blende to wurtzite occurs. Additionally, the CdS nanoparticles showed a 489 nm band-edge emission without adding NaCl, and a 501 nm emission when the molar ratios of NaCl to Cd{sup 2+} are 0.25, 0.5 and 1. It was found that the phase transformation originates from the effect of the halide ion Cl{sup -}. We also found that some other halide ions such as Br{sup -} and I{sup -} can induce the phase transformation. It is shown that the phase, size and optical properties of the anisotropic nanoparticles can be well tuned by varying the concentration of the halide ions.

  20. Effect of inorganic salts, soaps and detergents on dissolution and larvicidal activity of alginate formulation of Bacillus sphaericus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vijayan, V; Balaraman, K

    1995-03-01

    Various inorganic salts and commonly used soaps and detergents were tested in the laboratory for their effect on the dissolution and larvicidal residual activity of a slow-release alginate encapsulated granular formation of Bacillus sphaericus. Fluoride, chloride and sulphate salts and a detergent powder affected the residual activity of this formulation drastically by rupturing it but did not effect its larvicidal activity. Nitrates and phosphates of sodium and potassium also had the same effect but to a moderate level. The safest concentration of these water impurities for effective functioning of the alginate encapsulated B. sphaericus formulation have been determined.

  1. Postharvest application of organic and inorganic salts to control potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) storage soft rot: plant tissue-salt physicochemical interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaganza, E S; Tweddell, R J; Arul, J

    2014-09-24

    Soft rot caused by Pectobacterium sp. is a devastating disease affecting stored potato tubers, and there is a lack of effective means of controlling this disease. In this study, 21 organic and inorganic salts were tested for their ability to control soft rot in potato tubers. In the preventive treatment, significant control of soft rot was observed with AlCl3 (≥66%) and Na2S2O3 (≥57%) and to a lesser extent with Al lactate and Na benzoate (≥34%) and K sorbate and Na propionate (≥27%). However, only a moderate control was achieved by curative treatment with AlCl3 and Na2S2O3 (42%) and sodium benzoate (≥33%). Overall, the in vitro inhibitory activity of salts was attenuated in the presence of plant tissue (in vivo) to different degrees. The inhibitory action of the salts in the preventive treatment, whether effective or otherwise, showed an inverse linear relationship with water ionization capacity (pK') of the salt ions, whereas in the curative treatment, only the effective salts showed this inverse linear relationship. Salt-plant tissue interactions appear to play a central role in the attenuated inhibitory activity of salts in potato tuber through reduction in the availability of the inhibitory ions for salt-bacteria interactions. This study demonstrates that AlCl3, Na2S2O3, and Na benzoate have potential in controlling potato tuber soft rot and provides a general basis for understanding of specific salt-tissue interactions.

  2. Inorganic salts and intracellular polyphosphate inclusions play a role in the thermotolerance of the immunobiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus CRL 1505.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correa Deza, María A; Grillo-Puertas, Mariana; Salva, Susana; Rapisarda, Viviana A; Gerez, Carla L; Font de Valdez, Graciela

    2017-01-01

    In this work, the thermotolerance of Lactobacillus rhamnosus CRL1505, an immunobiotic strain, was studied as a way to improve the tolerance of the strain to industrial processes involving heat stress. The strain displayed a high intrinsic thermotolerance (55°C, 20 min); however, after 5 min at 60°C in phosphate buffer a two log units decrease in cell viability was observed. Different heat shock media were tested to improve the cell survival. Best results were obtained in the mediumcontaining inorganic salts (KH2PO4, Na2HPO4, MnSO4, and MgSO4) likely as using 10% skim milk. Flow cytometry analysis evinced 25.0% live cells and a large number of injured cells (59.7%) in the inorganic salts medium after heat stress. The morphological changes caused by temperature were visualized by transmission electronic microscopy (TEM). In addition, TEM observations revealed the presence of polyphosphate (polyP) granules in the cells under no-stress conditions. A DAPI-based fluorescence technique, adjusted to Gram-positive bacteria for the first time, was used to determine intracellular polyP levels. Results obtained suggest that the high initial polyP content in L. rhamnosus CRL 1505 together with the presence of inorganic salts in the heat shock medium improve the tolerance of the cells to heat shock. To our knowledge, this is the first report giving evidence of the relationship between polyP and inorganic salts in thermotolerance of lactic acid bacteria.

  3. Analysis of trace inorganic anions in weak acid salts by single pump cycling-column-switching ion chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Zhongping; Ni, Chengzhu; Zhu, Zhuyi; Pan, Zaifa; Wang, Lili; Zhu, Yan

    2015-05-01

    The application of ion chromatography with the single pump cycling-column-switching technique was described for the analysis of trace inorganic anions in weak acid salts within a single run. Due to the hydrogen ions provided by an anion suppressor electrolyzing water, weak acid anions could be transformed into weak acids, existing as molecules, after passing through the suppressor. Therefore, an anion suppressor and ion-exclusion column were adopted to achieve on-line matrix elimination of weak acid anions with high concentration for the analysis of trace inorganic anions in weak acid salts. A series of standard solutions consisting of target anions of various concentrations from 0.005 to 10 mg/L were analyzed, with correlation coefficients r ≥ 0.9990. The limits of detection were in the range of 0.67 to 1.51 μg/L, based on the signal-to-noise ratio of 3 and a 25 μL injection volume. Relative standard deviations for retention time, peak area, and peak height were all less than 2.01%. A spiking study was performed with satisfactory recoveries between 90.3 and 104.4% for all anions. The chromatographic system was successfully applied to the analysis of trace inorganic anions in five weak acid salts.

  4. [Synthesis of a nano-antibacterial inorganic filler containing a quaternary ammonium salt with long chain alkyl and its effect on dental resin composites].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junling, Wu; Kaiyun, Zhou; Ting, Zhu; Chuanjian, Zhou

    2014-10-01

    This study aimed to synthesize a novel nano-antibacterial inorganic filler that contains a quaternary ammonium salt with long chain alkyl and to report the antibacterial property of dental resin composites. A novel nano-antibacterial inorganic filler that contains a quaternary ammonium salt with long chain alkyl was synthesized based on previous research. The antibacterial property of the filler was measured. The surface of the novel nano-antibacterial inorganic filler was modified by a coupling agent to achieve a good interfacial bonding between the filler and the resin matrix. Infrared spectrum analysis was carried out. The modified novel nano-antibacterial inorganic fillers were then incorporated into the dental resin matrix. The dispersion of the fillers was observed and compared with those incorporated into Tetric N-Ceram, a commercial resin composite, under a scanning electron microscope. Streptococcus mutans was used in testing the antibacterial property of the dental resin composites. A quaternary ammonium salt with a long chain alkyl was successfully grafted onto the surface of nano-silica particles. The novel nano-antibacterial inorganic filler that contains quaternary ammonium salt with a long chain alkyl showed stronger antibacterial efficacy than the antibacterial inorganic filler that contains quaternary ammonium salt with a short chain alkyl. The modified novel antibacterial inorganic fillers displayed a homogeneous dispersion in the resin composite bulk and combined closely with the resin matrix, similar to the Tetric N-Ceram. The resin composites that contain novel antibacterial inorganic fillers showed stronger antibacterial effect on Streptococcus mutans compared with the control group. The novel nano-antibacterial inorganic filler that contains a quaternary ammonium salt with long chain alkyl showed a strong antibacterial property. It also exhibited good compatibility with the dental resin matrix after undergoing coupling treatment.

  5. Spatial variation of salt-marsh organic and inorganic deposition and organic carbon accumulation: Inferences from the Venice lagoon, Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roner, M.; D'Alpaos, A.; Ghinassi, M.; Marani, M.; Silvestri, S.; Franceschinis, E.; Realdon, N.

    2016-07-01

    Salt marshes are ubiquitous features of the tidal landscape governed by mutual feedbacks among processes of physical and biological nature. Improving our understanding of these feedbacks and of their effects on tidal geomorphological and ecological dynamics is a critical step to address issues related to salt-marsh conservation and response to changes in the environmental forcing. In particular, the spatial variation of organic and inorganic soil production processes at the marsh scale, a key piece of information to understand marsh responses to a changing climate, remains virtually unexplored. In order to characterize the relative importance of organic vs. inorganic deposition as a function of space, we collected 33 shallow soil sediment samples along three transects in the San Felice and Rigà salt marshes located in the Venice lagoon, Italy. The amount of organic matter in each sample was evaluated using Loss On Ignition (LOI), a hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) treatment, and a sodium hypochlorite (NaClO) treatment following the H2O2 treatment. The grain size distribution of the inorganic fraction was determined using laser diffraction techniques. Our study marshes exhibit a weakly concave-up profile, with maximum elevations and coarser inorganic grains along their edges. The amount of organic and inorganic matter content in the samples varies with the distance from the marsh edge and is very sensitive to the specific analysis method adopted. The use of a H2O2+NaClO treatment yields an organic matter density value which is more than double the value obtained from LOI. Overall, inorganic contributions to soil formation are greatest near the marsh edges, whereas organic soil production is the main contributor to soil accretion in the inner marsh. We interpret this pattern by considering that while plant biomass productivity is generally lower in the inner part of the marsh, organic soil decomposition rates are highest in the better aerated edge soils. Hence the higher

  6. Contribution and distribution of inorganic ions and organic compounds to the osmotic adjustment in Halostachys caspica response to salt stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Youling; Li, Ling; Yang, Ruirui; Yi, Xiaoya; Zhang, Baohong

    2015-09-09

    The mechanism by which plants cope with salt stress remains poorly understood. The goal of this study is to systematically investigate the contribution and distribution of inorganic ions and organic compounds to the osmotic adjustment (OA) in the halophyte species Halostachys caspica. The results indicate that 100-200 mM NaCl is optimal for plant growth; the water content and degree of succulence of the assimilating branches are higher in this treatment range than that in other treatments; parenchyma cells are more numerous with 100 mM NaCl treatment than they are in control. Inorganic ions (mainly Na+ and Cl-) may play a more important role than organic compounds in NaCl-induced OA and are the primary contributors in OA in H. caspica. The inorganic ions and organic solutes display a tissue-dependent distribution. Na+ and Cl- are accumulated in the reproductive organs and within assimilating branches, which may represent a mechanism for protecting plant growth by way of salt ion dilution and organ abscission. Additionally, OA via increased accumulation of organic substances also protected plant growth and development. This finding provides additional evidence for plant tolerance to salinity stress which can be used for breeding new cultivars for stress tolerance.

  7. A molecular dynamic study on the dissociation mechanism of SI methane hydrate in inorganic salt aqueous solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jiafang; Chen, Zhe; Liu, Jinxiang; Sun, Zening; Wang, Xiaopu; Zhang, Jun

    2017-08-01

    Gas hydrate is not only a potential energy resource, but also almost the biggest challenge in oil/gas flow assurance. Inorganic salts such as NaCl, KCl and CaCl2 are widely used as the thermodynamic inhibitor to reduce the risk caused by hydrate formation. However, the inhibition mechanism is still unclear. Therefore, molecular dynamic (MD) simulation was performed to study the dissociation of structure I (SI) methane hydrate in existence of inorganic salt aqueous solution on a micro-scale. The simulation results showed that, the dissociation became stagnant due to the presence of liquid film formed by the decomposed water molecules, and more inorganic ions could shorten the stagnation-time. The diffusion coefficients of ions and water molecules were the largest in KCl system. The structures of ion/H2O and H2O/H2O were the most compact in hydrate/NaCl system. The ionic ability to decompose hydrate cells followed the sequence of: Ca(2+)>2K(+)>2Cl(-)>2Na(+). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. In Vitro and In Vivo Antibacterial Activity of Some Organic and Inorganic Salts Against Asiatic Citrus Canker Agent Xanthomonas Citri Subsp. Citri

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vahideh Hasabi

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Asiatic citrus canker caused by Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri is becoming a disease of high economic impact, affecting all types of important citrus crops. In this study, the potential antibacterial activity of ten organic and inorganic salts on X. citri subsp. citri and on citrus canker disease development was evaluated. Among the salt compounds, copper, iron and zinc inorganic salts particularly zinc (with the highest diameter of inhibition, the lowest MIC and MBC values and the highest bacterial growth inhibitory effect had direct antibacterial activity and strongly reduced the development of canker disease and bacterial population of lime plants.

  9. Establishing the interfacial nano-structure and elemental composition of homeopathic medicines based on inorganic salts: a scientific approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temgire, Mayur Kiran; Suresh, Akkihebbal Krishnamurthy; Kane, Shantaram Govind; Bellare, Jayesh Ramesh

    2016-05-01

    Extremely dilute systems arise in homeopathy, which uses dilution factors 10(60), 10(400) and also higher. These amounts to potencies of 30c, 200c or more, those are far beyond Avogadro's number. There is extreme skepticism among scientists about the possibility of presence of starting materials due to these high dilutions. This has led modern scientists to believe homeopathy may be at its best a placebo effect. However, our recent studies on 30c and 200c metal based homeopathic medicines clearly revealed the presence of nanoparticles of starting metals, which were found to be retained due to the manufacturing processes involved, as published earlier.(9,10) Here, we use HR-TEM and STEM techniques to study medicines arising from inorganic salts as starting materials. We show that the inorganic starting materials are present as nano-scale particles in the medicines even at 1 M potency (having a large dilution factor of 10(2000)). Thus this study has extended our physicochemical studies of metal based medicines to inorganic based medicines, and also to higher dilution. Further, we show that the particles develop a coat of silica: these particles were seen embedded in a meso-microporous silicate layer through interfacial encapsulation. Similar silicate coatings were also seen in metal based medicines. Thus, metal and inorganic salt based homeopathic medicines retain the starting material as nanoparticles encapsulated within a silicate coating. On the basis of these studies, we propose a universal microstructural hypothesis that all types of homeopathic medicines consist of silicate coated nano-structures dispersed in the solvent. Copyright © 2015 The Faculty of Homeopathy. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Capture and Solidification of Rare Earth Nuclide (Nd) in LiCl-KCl Eutectic Salt Using a Synthetic Inorganic Composite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Na-Young; Eun, Hee-Chul; Park, Hwan-Seo; Ahn, Do-Hee [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-06-15

    In this study, neodymium (Nd) nuclides in LiCl-KCl eutectic salts were captured and solidified using a synthetic inorganic composite (Li{sub 2}O-SiO{sub 2}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}-B{sub 2}O{sub 3}), a process that allows the selective capture of Nd and fabrication of a composite with Nd captured from waste, without additional additives or mixing. The Nd nuclides in the LiCl-KCl eutectic salt were mainly captured in the form of LiNdSiO{sub 4}, and it was confirmed that NdSiO{sub 3} can be formed in the composite with captured Nd when the content of Nd in the composite is increased. The capture efficiency was higher than about 98 wt%. It was thought that the salt recovered from the Nd capture test was a renewable form could be reused in the pyroprocessing of used nuclear fuel, because the composite has high chemical durability in a LiCl-KCl eutectic salt at 900 ℃. The composite captured Nd was fabricated into a homogeneous glass form and a stable ceramic form.

  11. Temperature effects on geotechnical and hydraulic properties of bentonite hydrated with inorganic salt solutions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rashid, H. M. A.; Kawamoto, K.; Saito, T.

    2015-01-01

    © 2015, International Journal of GEOMATE. This study investigated the combined effect of temperature and single-species salt solutions on geotechnical properties (swell index and liquid limit) and hydraulic conductivity of bentonite applying different cation types, concentrations, and temperature...

  12. Polyamide 6 Nanocomposites with Inorganic Particles Modified with Three Quaternary Ammonium Salts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hélio de Lucena Lira

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to obtain polyamide 6 nanocomposites with national organically modified clay with three quaternary ammonium salts. The obtained results confirm the intercalation of molecules of salt in the clay layers, and a good interaction with the polymer, showing the formation of intercalated and/or partially exfoliated structures. The nanocomposites showed similar thermal stability compared to pure polymer, and the mechanical properties presented interesting and promising results.

  13. Investigating primary marine aerosol properties: CCN activity of sea salt and mixed inorganic-organic particles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    King, S.M.; Butcher, A.C.; Rosenoern, T.; Coz, E.; Lieke, K.I.; Leeuw, G. de; Nilsson, E.D.; Bilde, M.

    2012-01-01

    Sea spray particles ejected as a result of bubbles bursting from artificial seawater containing salt and organic matter in a stainless steel tank were sampled for size distribution, morphology, and cloud condensation nucleus (CCN) activity. Bubbles were generated either by aeration through a

  14. Investigating primary marine aerosol properties: CCN activity of sea salt and mixed inorganic-organic particles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    King, S.M.; Butcher, A.C.; Rosenoern, T.; Coz, E.; Lieke, K.I.; Leeuw, G. de; Nilsson, E.D.; Bilde, M.

    2012-01-01

    Sea spray particles ejected as a result of bubbles bursting from artificial seawater containing salt and organic matter in a stainless steel tank were sampled for size distribution, morphology, and cloud condensation nucleus (CCN) activity. Bubbles were generated either by aeration through a diffuse

  15. [Dental plaque microcosm biofilm behavior on a resin composite incorporated with nano-antibacterial inorganic filler containing long-chain alkyl quaternary ammonium salt].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junling, Wu; Qiang, Zhang; Ruinan, Sun; Ting, Zhu; Jianhua, Ge; Chuanjian, Zhou

    2015-12-01

    To develop a resin composite incorporated with nano-antibacterial inorganic filler containing long-chain alkyl quaternary ammonium salt, and to measure its effect on human dental plaque microcosm biofilm. A novel nano-antibacterial inorganic filler containing long-chain alkyl quaternary ammonium salt was synthesized according to methods introduced in previous research. Samples of the novel nano-antibacterial inorganic fillers were modified by a coupling agent and then added into resin composite at 0%, 5%, 10%, 15% or 20% mass fractions; 0% composite was used as control. A flexural test was used to measure resin composite mechanical properties. Results showed that a dental plaque microcosm biofilm model with human saliva as inoculum was formed. Colony-forming unit (CFU) counts, lactic acid production, and live/dead assay of biofilm on the resin composite were calculated to test the effect of the resin composite on human dental plaque microcosm biofilm. The incorporation of nano-antibacterial inorganic fillers with as much as 15% concentration into the resin composite showed no adverse effect on the mechanical properties of the resin composite (P > 0.05). Resin composite containing 5% or more nano-antibacterial inorganic fillers significantly inhibited the metabolic activity of dental plaque microcosm biofilm, suggesting its strong antibacterial potency (P resin composite exhibited a strong antibacterial property upon the addition of up to 5% nano-antibacterial inorganic fillers, thereby leading to effective caries inhibition in dental application.

  16. Decomposition of diverse solid inorganic matrices with molten ammonium bifluoride salt for constituent elemental analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Hara, Matthew J.; Kellogg, Cyndi M.; Parker, Cyrena M.; Morrison, Samuel S.; Corbey, Jordan F.; Grate, Jay W.

    2017-09-01

    Ammonium bifluoride (ABF, NH4F·HF) is a well-known reagent for converting metal oxides to fluorides and for its applications in breaking down minerals and ores in order to extract useful components. It has been more recently applied to the decomposition of inorganic matrices prior to elemental analysis. Herein, a sample decomposition method that employs molten ABF sample treatment in the initial step is systematically evaluated across a range of inorganic sample types: glass, quartz, zircon, soil, and pitchblende ore. Method performance is evaluated across the two variables: duration of molten ABF treatment and ABF reagent mass to sample mass ratio. The degree of solubilization of these sample classes are compared to the fluoride stoichiometry that is theoretically necessary to enact complete fluorination of the sample types. Finally, the sample decomposition method is performed on several soil and pitchblende ore standard reference materials, after which elemental constituent analysis is performed by ICP-OES and ICP-MS. Elemental recoveries are compared to the certified values; results indicate good to excellent recoveries across a range of alkaline earth, rare earth, transition metal, and actinide elements.

  17. Dielectric and terahertz spectroscopy of polarizable and nonpolarizable water models: a comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sega, M; Schröder, C

    2015-03-01

    Using extensive classical molecular dynamics simulations, we compute the dielectric and far-infrared spectra of nine popular water models, including polarizable and nonpolarizable ones. We analyze the dielectric spectra using a two-relaxation model that allows one to extract the characteristic time of both the main dielectric relaxation and the fast relaxation. The use of a Cole-Cole functional form permits also quantitative assessment of the absence of deviations from the Debye form of the main dielectric peak. In the THz region of the spectrum, we compute the infrared absorbance caused by molecular libration, which appears to be qualitatively different for three main groups of molecular models. The complexity of the librational band is further investigated by decomposing the spectrum into the contributions of water fractions with a different number of hydrogen-bonded neighbors.

  18. Fluorescence metrology of silica sol-gels - The effect of D2O and inorganic salts

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    D J S Birch; C D Geddes

    2000-06-01

    We have developed a new method for measuring in-situ the growth of the nanometre-size silica particles which lead to the formation of sol-gel glasses. This technique is based on the decay of fluorescence polarisation anisotropy due to Brownian rotation of dye molecules bound to the particles. Results to date give near ångstrom resolution and demonstrate the feasibility of the approach both for providing industrial quality control and helping fundamental research. Our approach has several key advantages over traditional techniques for nanometre metrology, such as small angle X-ray and neutron scattering and electron microscopy. In this paper we present silica particle growth dynamics in a hydrogel as detected by two near-infrared dyes, the effect of adding D2O on the hydrodynamic radius and the effect of salt addition.

  19. Thermal Behavior of d-Ribose Adsorbed on Silica: Effect of Inorganic Salt Coadsorption and Significance for Prebiotic Chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akouche, Mariame; Jaber, Maguy; Zins, Emilie-Laure; Maurel, Marie-Christine; Lambert, Jean-Francois; Georgelin, Thomas

    2016-10-24

    Understanding ribose reactivity is a crucial step in the "RNA world" scenario because this molecule is a component of all extant nucleotides that make up RNA. In solution, ribose is unstable and susceptible to thermal destruction. We examined how ribose behaves upon thermal activation when adsorbed on silica, either alone or with the coadsorption of inorganic salts (MgCl2 , CaCl2 , SrCl2 , CuCl2 , FeCl2 , FeCl3 , ZnCl2 ). A combination of (13) C NMR, in situ IR, and TGA analyses revealed a variety of phenomena. When adsorbed alone, ribose remains stable up to 150 °C, at which point ring opening is observed, together with minor oxidation to a lactone. All the metal salts studied showed specific interactions with ribose after dehydration, resulting in the formation of polydentate metal ion complexes. Anomeric equilibria were affected, generally favoring ribofuranoses. Zn(2+) stabilized ribose up to higher temperatures than bare silica (180 to 200 °C). Most other cations had an adverse effect on ribose stability, with ring opening already upon drying at 70 °C. In addition, alkaline earth cations catalyzed the dehydration of ribose to furfural and, to variable degrees, its further decarbonylation to furan. Transition-metal ions with open d-shells took part in redox reactions with ribose, either as reagents or as catalysts. These results allow the likelihood of prebiotic chemistry scenarios to be evaluated, and may also be of interest for the valorization of biomass-derived carbohydrates by heterogeneous catalysis.

  20. Deliquescence Relative Humidities of Organic and Inorganic Salts Important in the Atmosphere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroeder, Jason R; Beyer, Keith D

    2016-12-22

    The deliquescence relative humidities (DRH) as a function of temperature have been determined for several salts of atmospheric importance using humidity controlled thermogravimetric analysis (HTGA): sodium hydrogen oxalate monohydrate (NaHC2O4·H2O), sodium oxalate (Na2C2O4), sodium ammonium sulfate dihydrate (NaNH4SO4·2H2O, lecontite), sodium hydrogen malonate monohydrate (NaHC3H2O4·H2O), sodium malonate monohydrate (Na2C3H2O4·H2O), and ammonium hydrogen malonate (NH4HC3H2O4). The temperature-dependent onset DRH values (where a dry mixture begins to take up water) were also determined for mixtures of ammonium sulfate with malonic acid, and ammonium sulfate with sodium oxalates and sodium malonates, respectively. We demonstrate that the onset DRH is independent of the ratio of solids in the mixture. In general, onset DRH values were always lower than the pure component DRH values.

  1. 重量法和电导法测定无机盐含盐量的比较%Measure the Salt Content of Inorganic Salts Using Gravimetric Method and Conductivity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘盼盼; 白玲

    2015-01-01

    Analyzed the relationship between electrical conductivity and salt content of inorganic salts and the relationship between gravimetric method salinity and salt content. The result showed:( a) Both the EC of single salts and mixed salts were linearly related to their respective salt contents. (b) Gravimetric method salinity had large error when high salt water contained MgCl2 or Na3PO4. Therefore, for complex industry wastewater, electrical conductance method was better to reflect the actual salt content than gravimetric method.%笔者分析了各类无机盐电导率以及重量法含盐量与实际含盐量的关系,结果表明,单一无机盐及混合无机盐电导率与实际含盐量都呈显著线性相关关系。当高盐水中含有MgCl2或 Na3PO4时,用重量法测其含盐量误差较大。因此,针对复杂的行业废水监测,相比重量法,电导法更能反映实际含盐量。

  2. Structural Peculiarities of Ion-Conductive Organic-Inorganic Polymer Composites Based on Aliphatic Epoxy Resin and Salt of Lithium Perchlorate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matkovska, Liubov; Iurzhenko, Maksym; Mamunya, Yevgen; Tkachenko, Igor; Demchenko, Valeriy; Synyuk, Volodymyr; Shadrin, Andriy; Boiteux, Gisele

    2017-06-01

    The article is concerned with hybrid amorphous polymers synthesized basing on epoxy oligomer of diglycide aliphatic ester of polyethylene glycol that was cured by polyethylene polyamine and lithium perchlorate salt. Structural peculiarities of organic-inorganic polymer composites were studied by differential scanning calorimetry, wide-angle X-ray spectra, infrared spectroscopic, scanning electron microscopy, elemental analysis, and transmission and reflective optical microscopy. On the one hand, the results showed that the introduction of LiClO4 salt into epoxy polymer leads to formation of the coordinative metal-polymer complexes of donor-acceptor type between central Li+ ion and ligand. On the other hand, the appearance of amorphous microinclusions, probably of inorganic nature, was also found.

  3. Inorganic Contaminant Concentrations and Body Condition in Wintering Waterfowl from Great Salt Lake, Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vest, J.; Conover, M.; Perschon, C.; Luft, J.

    2006-12-01

    The Great Salt Lake (GSL) is the fourth largest terminal lake in the world and is an important region for migratory and breeding waterbirds. Because the GSL is a closed basin, contaminants associated with industrial and urban development may accumulate in this system. Recently, water and sediment samples from the GSL revealed high concentrations of Hg and Se and methylmercury concentrations in GSL water samples were among the highest ever recorded in surface water by the USGS Mercury Laboratory. Thus, GSL waterbirds are likely exposed to these contaminants and elevated contaminant concentrations may adversely affect survival and reproduction in waterfowl. Our objectives were to 1) estimate mercury (Hg), selenium (Se), cadmium (Cd), copper (Cu), and zinc (Zn) concentrations in wintering waterfowl from GSL and, 2) evaluate relationships between measures of waterfowl body condition and internal organ masses (hereafter body condition) with trace metal concentrations. We collected common goldeneye (COGO), northern shoveler (NSHO), and American green-winged teal (AGWT) from the GSL during early winter. We used ICP-MS to analyze liver and muscle tissue samples for contaminant concentrations. We developed species specific regression models for each of 5 condition indices, including ingesta-free plucked body mass (IFPBM), abdominal fat mass, spleen, liver, and pancreas masses. Independent variables were comprised of Hg, Se, Cd, Cu, and Zn and we included sex and age as covariates in each regression. We used Akaike's Information Criterion adjusted for small sample size to select best and competing models. Subsequently, we used partial correlations to depict inverse relationships identified in competing models. Hg concentrations in COGO and NSHO muscle tissue generally exceeded or approached the 1 ppm wet weight (ww) threshold considered unsafe for human consumption in fish and game. Hg concentrations in liver tissue exceeded or were among the highest reported in published

  4. Sea salt aerosols as a reactive surface for inorganic and organic acidic gases in the arctic troposphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. W. Chi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Sea salt aerosols (SSA are dominant particles in the arctic atmosphere and determine the polar radiative balance. SSA react with acidic pollutants that lead to changes of physical and chemical properties of their surface, which in turn alter their hygroscopic and optical properties. Transmission electron microscopy with energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometry was used to analyze morphology, composition, size, and mixing state of individual SSA at Ny-Ålesund, Svalbard in summertime. Individual fresh SSA contained cubic NaCl coated by certain amounts of MgCl2 and CaSO4. Individual partially aged SSA contained irregular NaCl coated by a mixture of NaNO3, Na2SO4, Mg(NO32, and MgSO4. The comparison suggests the hydrophilic MgCl2 coating in fresh SSA likely intrigued the heterogeneous reactions at the beginning of SSA and acidic gases. Individual fully aged SSA normally had Na2SO4 cores and an amorphous coating of NaNO3. Elemental mappings of individual SSA particles revealed that as the particles ageing Cl gradually decreased but the C, N, O, and S content increased. 12C14N− mapping from nanoscale secondary ion mass spectrometry indicates that organic matter increased in the aged SSA compared with the fresh SSA. 12C14N− line scans further show that organic matter was mainly concentrated on the aged SSA surface. These new findings indicate that this mixture of organic matter and NaNO3 on particle surfaces determines their hygroscopic and optical properties. These abundant SSA, whose reactive surfaces absorb inorganic and organic acidic gases in the arctic troposphere, need to be incorporated into atmospheric chemical models.

  5. The use of laminar inorganic salts to make organic molecules display new properties at the supramolecular level in the solid state

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brunet, E; Alhendawi, H M H; Alonso, M; Cerro, C; Jimenez, L; Juanes, O; Mata, M J; Salvador, A; Victoria, M; Rodriguez-Payan, E; Rodriguez-Ubis, J C, E-mail: ernesto.brunet@uam.e [Department of Organic Chemistry, Faculty of Sciences Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, 28049-Madrid (Spain)

    2010-06-01

    The design of porous solids of controlled molecular geometry for umpteen applications is a challenge of enormous technological and scientific importance. The placing of organic molecules between the layers of certain inorganic salts leads to enduring solid materials where the confinement makes the organic molecules change their properties or even display new ones at the supramolecular level. Past and ongoing results of our research group concerning the chemistry of metal phosphates/phosphonates are reviewed in relation with recognition, chemically-driven porosity changes, chiral memory and supramolecular chirality, luminescence signaling, photoinduced electron-transfer, gas storage and drug confinement.

  6. The use of laminar inorganic salts to make organic molecules display new properties at the supramolecular level in the solid state

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunet, E.; Alhendawi, H. M. H.; Alonso, M.; Cerro, C.; Jiménez, L.; Juanes, O.; Mata, M. J.; Salvador, A.; Victoria, M.; Rodríguez-Payán, E.; Rodríguez-Ubis, J. C.

    2010-06-01

    The design of porous solids of controlled molecular geometry for umpteen applications is a challenge of enormous technological and scientific importance. The placing of organic molecules between the layers of certain inorganic salts leads to enduring solid materials where the confinement makes the organic molecules change their properties or even display new ones at the supramolecular level. Past and ongoing results of our research group concerning the chemistry of metal phosphates/phosphonates are reviewed in relation with recognition, chemically-driven porosity changes, chiral memory and supramolecular chirality, luminescence signaling, photoinduced electron-transfer, gas storage and drug confinement.

  7. Post-synthetic modification of porphyrin-encapsulating metal-organic materials by cooperative addition of inorganic salts to enhance CO 2/CH 4 selectivity

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, ZhenJie

    2012-08-21

    Keeping MOM: Reaction of biphenyl-3,4\\',5-tricarboxylate and Cd(NO 3) 2 in the presence of meso-tetra(N-methyl-4-pyridyl) porphine tetratosylate afforded porph@MOM-11, a microporous metal-organic material (MOM) that encapsulates cationic porphyrins and solvent in alternating open channels. Porph@MOM-11 has cation and anion binding sites that facilitate cooperative addition of inorganic salts (such as M +Cl -) in a stoichiometric fashion. © 2012 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. Assessing the high frequency behavior of non-polarizable electrodes for spectral induced polarization measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdulsamad, Feras; Florsch, Nicolas; Schmutz, Myriam; Camerlynck, Christian

    2016-12-01

    During the last decades, the usage of spectral induced polarization (SIP) measurements in hydrogeology and detecting environmental problems has been extensively increased. However, the physical mechanisms which are responsible for the induced polarization response over the usual frequency range (typically 1 mHz to 10-20 kHz) require better understanding. The phase shift observed at high frequencies is sometimes attributed to the so-called Maxwell-Wagner polarization which takes place when charges cross an interface. However, SIP measurements of tap water show a phase shift at frequencies higher than 1 kHz, where no Maxwell-Wagner polarization may occur. In this paper, we enlighten the possible origin of this phase shift and deduce its likely relationship with the types of the measuring electrodes. SIP Laboratory measurements of tap water using different types of measuring electrodes (polarizable and non-polarizable electrodes) are carried out to detect the origin of the phase shift at high frequencies and the influence of the measuring electrodes types on the observed complex resistivity. Sodium chloride is used to change the conductivity of the medium in order to quantify the solution conductivity role. The results of these measurements are clearly showing the impact of the measuring electrodes type on the measured phase spectrum while the influence on the amplitude spectrum is negligible. The phenomenon appearing on the phase spectrum at high frequency (> 1 kHz) whatever the electrode type is, the phase shows an increase compared to the theoretical response, and the discrepancy (at least in absolute value) increases with frequency, but it is less severe when medium conductivity is larger. Additionally, the frequency corner is shifted upward in frequency. The dependence of this phenomenon on the conductivity and the measuring electrodes type (electrode-electrolyte interface) seems to be due to some dielectric effects (as an electrical double layer of small

  9. Effect of inorganic salts on the clouding behavior of hydroxypropyl methyl cellulose in presence of amphiphilic drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Iqrar Ahmad; Anjum, Kahkashan; Koya, P Ajmal; Kabir-Ud-Din

    2013-03-01

    In this paper we report the effect of two cationic (imipramine hydrochloride (IMP) and promazine hydrochloride (PMZ)) and one anionic (sodium salt of ibuprofen (IBF)) drugs on the clouding behavior of a nonionic polymer hydroxypropyl methyl cellulose (HPMC). Though all the three drugs increase the cloud point (CP) of HPMC, the effect was found to be minimum in the case of IBF. Further, the effect of adding salts (NaF, NaCl, NaBr, NaNO(3), Na(2)SO(4), Na(3)PO(4), KCl, KBr, KNO(3)) in the presence of amphiphilic drugs (IMP and PMZ) on the CP of HPMC was seen. Almost linear decrease in the CP was observed with the [salt] at fixed concentrations of these drugs whereas in the absence of drugs the decrement in the CP was slight. The energetic parameters (ΔG(c)(0), ΔH(c)(0) and TΔS(c)(0)) were evaluated and it implies that the disruption of water structure becomes significantly prominent at lower concentrations of the drugs at fixed salt concentrations.

  10. Bioavailability of Cu, Zn and Mn from Mineral Chelates or Blends of Inorganic Salts in Growing Turkeys Fed with Supplemental Riboflavin and/or Pyridoxine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salami, S A; Oluwatosin, O O; Oso, A O; Fafiolu, A O; Sogunle, O M; Jegede, A V; Bello, F A; Pirgozliev, V

    2016-09-01

    An 84-day feeding trial was conducted in growing turkeys to measure the bioavailability of Cu, Zn and Mn from a commercial mineral chelate and corresponding inorganic salts in composite feeds containing supplemental riboflavin (B2) and/or pyridoxine (B6). A total of 320, 28-day-old British United Turkeys (BUT) were assigned to eight dietary treatments in a 2 × 4 factorial arrangement comprising two trace mineral sources: chelated trace mineral blend (CTMB) and its corresponding inorganic trace minerals blend (ITMB) fed solely or with supplements of vitamin B2 (8 ppm) or B6 (7 ppm) or 8 ppm B2 + 7 ppm B6. Each treatment was replicated four times with 10 turkeys each. It was observed that turkeys fed with diets supplemented solely with ITMB elicited higher (P < 0.05) Zn excretion than their counterparts fed with diets containing ITMB with supplements of vitamins B2 and/or B6. Manganese retention was lower (P < 0.05) in turkeys fed with diets supplemented solely with ITMB than those fed with diets containing vitamins B2 and/or B6 additives. Combination of CTMB or ITMB with B6 improved (P < 0.05) the concentration of Mn in the liver and Cu in the bone. It was concluded that the minerals in CTMB were more available to the animals than ITMB. Furthermore, vitamins B2 and/or B6 supplementation improved the bioavailability of the inorganic Cu, Zn and Mn in growing turkeys and tended to reduce the concentration of these trace elements in birds' excreta.

  11. A comparison of the effect of certain inorganic salts on suppression acute skin irritation by human biometric assay: A randomized, double-blind clinical trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sayedali Fatemi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Strontium, zinc, and potassium salts have been demonstrated to inhibit irritation and inflammation when applied topically. Particularly, strontium chloride (SC and potassium nitrate (KN are reported to reduce skin and tooth sensitivity. The aim of the present study was to compare the anti-irritant effects of four inorganic salts and assign the ingredient which can suppress skin irritation due to chemical or environmental exposure, more effectively. We compared the anti-inflammatory effects of SC, strontium nitrate (SN, KN, and zinc chloride (ZC. Materials and Methods: This double-blind trial was conducted on 32 healthy volunteers with sensitive skin. Irritation was induced by 24 h exposure with 1.0% sodium lauryl sulfate on arms.. Treatments were applied by an ointment of SN, SC hexahydrate, KN, and ZC and their 1%, 3%, and 5% (w/v concentrations were prepared. The dosage was twice daily for 6 days to the irritated areas. Skin reactions were evaluated instrumentally. Results: SC had a beneficial effect that was significant overall. All other treatments exert a protective effect in skin barrier function but not significantly. With the exception of ZC, all test substances improved skin hydration but the effect of SC was significant. In respect of colorimetric assessment, all treatments, excluding ZC, reduced erythema significantly compared with an untreated control 7 days after treatment start. There was no support for a dose-response effect. Conclusion: Analysis of the biometric measurements revealed that the strontium salts are best, not treating is worst, and there is little difference between the other treatments. Hence, the skin care products containing SC and SN may reduce the signs and symptoms of irritant contact dermatitis.

  12. 不同种类无机盐对环氧树脂热性能的影响研究%Effect of Different Types of Inorganic Salt on the Thermal Behaviors of Epoxy Resin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李红山; 黄泗平; 何江

    2012-01-01

    采用热失重-差热分析(TG-DTA)研究了不同种类无机盐对双酚A环氧树脂热性能的影响.结果表明,由无机盐改性的双酚A环氧树脂在热氧分解过程中放热量减少很多,其中以添加铜盐、锌盐的环氧树脂的放热量减小幅度最明显.复合材料放热量的减小与所添加无机盐的金属离子种类有关,而与阴离子无关.%In this paper, the effects of different types of inorganic salt on thermal behaviors of bisphenol A - type epoxy resin were investigated by thermo gravimetric-differential thermal analysis (TG - DTA) methods. The results showed that the heat released from thermo - oxidation decomposition process was reduced in epoxy filled with inorganic salts, especially in case of copper salt and zinc salt. The output of heat was only related with the metallic ion of the salt added, not effected by the types of negative ion of the salt.

  13. Modeling wet deposition of inorganics over Northeast Asia with MRI-PM/c and the effects of super large sea salt droplets at near-the-coast stations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Kajino

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available We conducted a regional-scale simulation (with grid spacing = 60 km over Northeast Asia for the entire year of 2006 by using an aerosol chemical transport model, the lateral and upper boundary concentrations of which we predicted with a global stratospheric and tropospheric chemistry-climate model, with a horizontal resolution of T42 (grid spacing ~300 km and a time resolution of 1 h. The present one-way nested global-through-regional-scale model is called the Meteorological Research Institute – Passive-tracers Model system for atmospheric Chemistry (MRI-PM/c. We evaluated the model performance with respect to the major inorganic components in rain and snow measured by stations of the Acid Deposition Monitoring Network in East Asia (EANET. Through statistical analysis, we show that the model successfully reproduced the regional-scale processes of emission, transport, transformation, and wet deposition of major inorganic species derived from anthropogenic and natural sources, including SO42−, NH4+, NO3, Na+ and Ca2+. Interestingly, the only exception was Na+ in precipitation at near-coastal stations (where the distance from the coast was from 150 to 700 m, concentrations of which were significantly underestimated by the model, by up to a factor of 30. This result suggested that the contribution of short-lived, super-large sea salt droplets (SLSD; D > 10–100 μm was substantial in precipitation samples at stations near the coast of Japan; thus samples were horizontally representative only within the traveling distances of SLSD (from 1 to 10 km. Nevertheless, the calculated effect of SLSD on precipitation pH was very low, a change of about +0.014 on average, even if the ratio of SLSD to all sea salt in precipitation was assumed to be 90%.

  14. Removal of inorganic mercury and methylmercury from surface waters following coagulation of dissolved organic matter with metal-based salts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henneberry, Y.K.; Kraus, T.E.C.; Fleck, J.A.; Krabbenhoft, D.P.; Bachand, P.M.; Horwath, W.R.

    2011-01-01

    The presence of inorganic mercury (IHg) and methylmercury (MeHg) in surface waters is a health concern worldwide. This study assessed the removal potential use of metal-based coagulants as a means to remove both dissolved IHg and MeHg from natural waters and provides information regarding the importance of Hg associations with the dissolved organic matter (DOM) fraction and metal hydroxides. Previous research indicated coagulants were not effective at removing Hg from solution; however these studies used high concentrations of Hg and did not reflect naturally occurring concentrations of Hg. In this study, water collected from an agricultural drain in the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta was filtered to isolate the dissolved organic matter (DOM) fraction. The DOM was then treated with a range of coagulant doses to determine the efficacy of removing all forms of Hg from solution. Three industrial-grade coagulants were tested: ferric chloride, ferric sulfate, and polyaluminum chloride. Coagulation removed up to 85% of DOM from solution. In the absence of DOM, all three coagulants released IHg into solution, however in the presence of DOM the coagulants removed up to 97% of IHg and 80% of MeHg. Results suggest that the removal of Hg is mediated by DOM-coagulant interactions. There was a preferential association of IHg with the more aromatic, higher molecular weight fraction of DOM but no such relationship was found for MeHg. This study offers new fundamental insights regarding large-scale removal of Hg at environmentally relevant regarding large-scale removal of Hg at environmentally relevant concentrations.

  15. Comparison of select polarizable and non-polarizable water models in predicting solvation dynamics of water confined between MgO slabs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamath, Ganesh; Deshmukh, Sanket A; Sankaranarayanan, Subramanian K R S

    2013-07-31

    We present a molecular dynamics simulation study in which we compare and contrast the performance of a polarizable shell water potential model and non-polarizable water force field-extended simple point charge (SPC/EF) model in predicting the solvation dynamics of confined water molecules sandwiched between MgO(100) slabs. Structural features based on radial distribution functions, atomic density profiles, adsorption patterns, orientational ordering and dynamical correlations such as diffusional characteristics, hydrogen bonding lifetimes and residence probabilities are used as metrics for comparison. The simulations yield significant ordering of water molecules in the two layers adjacent to the oxide interface and the extent of ordering decreases with increasing distance from the oxide-water interface. These results elucidate that the dependence of local ordering and solvation dynamics on the molecular geometry and charge distribution, observed for typical three- and four-site water models, is generally lost for confined water if polarization is explicitly included. While the interfacial water structure predicted by the polarizable and non-polarizable models are similar, the confinement and interface proximity effects on the solvation dynamics are seen to be more pronounced for polarizable water models in comparison to non-polarizable ones. The study also shows that the polarizable water model over predicts the orientational order and under predicts the transport properties of confined water. In addition, analysis of the orientational preferences and hydrogen bonding characteristics of water near oxide interfaces suggests a higher degree of tetrahedral disorder in the polarizable shell compared to the non-polarizable SPC/E flexible model. The origin of the differences in solvation behavior of confined water between oxide slabs is analyzed based on the energetic contributions of the dispersive and electrostatic terms in the two force fields. Our findings suggest

  16. Screening and optimization of some inorganic salts for the production of ergot alkaloids from Penicillium species using surface culture fermentation process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahid, Memuna Ghafoor; Nadeem, Muhammad; Baig, Shahjehan; Cheema, Tanzeem Akbar; Atta, Saira; Ghafoor, Gul Zareen

    2016-03-01

    The present study deals with the production of ergot alkaloids from Penicillium commune and Penicillium citrinum, using surface culture fermentation process. Impact of various inorganic salts was tested on the production of ergot alkaloids during the optimization studies of fermentation medium such as impact of various concentration levels of succinic acid, ammonium chloride, MgSO4, FeSO4, ZnSO4, pH and the effect of various incubation time periods was also determined on the production of ergot alkaloids from Penicillium commune and Penicillium citrinum. Highest yield of ergot alkaloids was obtained when Penicillium commune and Penicillium citrinum that were grown on optimum levels of ingredients such as 2 g succinic acid, 1.5 and 2 g NH4Cl, 1.5 g MgSO4, 1 g FeSO4, 1 and 1.5 g ZnSO4 after 21 days of incubation time period using pH 5 at 25(°)C incubation temperature in the fermentation medium. Ergot alkaloids were determined using Spectrophotometry and Thin Layer Chromatography (TLC) techniques.

  17. 无机盐预处理对棉秆酶水解的影响%The inlfuence of inorganic salt pretreatment on cotton enzyme hydrolysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贾桂娟; 杜晓霞; 董元锋

    2013-01-01

    The paper focused on the use of inorganic salts to pretreat raw materials, which can partly break up the protect structure of lignin and hemicelluloses. It can improve the conversion efifciency of enzymatic hydrolysis. Selecting different amount of sulfuric acid, sulphurous acid and inorganic salts to the pretreatment, separating the solid and spent liquor, determination the removal rate of lignin, the dissolution of pentosan. The substrate was enzymatic hydrolyzed under a settled condition, then calculating the conversion efifciency of enzymatic hydrolysis. All the glucose, pentosan and lignin were measured in the experiment to do calculation of material-balance. The experiment results show that the lignin removal rate, and the conversion rate of enzymatic hydrolysis were gradually increasing by adding NaHSO3 to the pretreatment when H2SO4 was used to pretreated the cotton stalk;when H2SO3 was used to pretreated the cotton stalk, the removal rate of lignin, and the conversion rate of enzymatic hydrolysis were gradually decreasing by adding NaCl to the pretreatment;when FeCl3 and ZnCl2 were used to pretreated the cotton stalk, both the removal rate of lignin, and the conversion rate of enzymatic hydrolysis were very low.%利用无机盐对棉秆原料进行预处理,使部分木素和半纤维素溶出,从而提高酶水解效率。采用不同用量的硫酸、亚硫酸以及添加无机盐对棉秆进行预处理,分离固液相,测定木素脱除率、戊聚糖溶出率,将固相物质在50℃下进行酶水解,测定酶水解转化率;对实验过程中的葡萄糖、戊聚糖、木素进行物料衡算。结果表明:用硫酸对原料进行预处理时,添加亚硫酸氢钠能在原有的基础上,进一步提高木素的脱除率和酶水解的转化率;用亚硫酸对原料进行预处理时,添加氯化钠后,随着氯化钠添加量的增加,木素脱除率和酶水解转化率呈现下降的趋势;

  18. Dissolved inorganic nitrogen pools and surface flux under different brackish marsh vegetation types, common reed (Phragmites australis) and salt hay (Spartina patens)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Windham-Myers, L.

    2005-01-01

    The current expansion of Phragmites australis into the high marsh shortgrass (Spartina patens, Distichlis spicata) communities of eastern U.S. salt marshes provided an opportunity to identify the influence of vegetation types on pools and fluxes of dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN). Two brackish tidal marshes of the National Estuarine Research Reserve system were examined, Piermont Marsh of the Hudson River NERR in New York and Hog Island in the Jacques Coustaeu NERR of New Jersey. Pools of DIN in porewater and rates of DIN surface flux were compared in replicated pairs of recently-expanded P. australis and neighboring S. patens-dominated patches on the high marsh surface. Both marshes generally imported nitrate (NO3-) and exported ammonium (NH4+), such that overall DIN was exported. No differences in surface exchange of NO3- or NH4+ were observed between vegetation types. Depth-averaged porewater NH4+ concentrations over the entire growing season were 56% lower under P. australis than under S. patens (average 1.4 vs. 3.2 mg NH4+ L-1) with the most profound differences in November. Porewater profiles showed an accumulation of NH4+ at depth in S. patens and constant low concentrations in P. australis from the soil surface to 50 cm depth, with no significant differences in porewater salinity. Despite these profound differences in porewater, NH 4+ diffusion from soils of P. australis and S. patens were not measurably different, were similar to other published rates, and were well below estimated rates based on passive diffusion alone. Rapid adsorption and uptake by litter and microbes in surface soils of both communities may buffer NH4+ loss to flooding tides in both communities, thereby reducing the impact of P. australis invasion on NH4+ flux to flooding waters. ?? Springer 2005.

  19. Inorganic analytes in light-footed clapper rail eggs, in their primary prey, and in sediment from two California salt marsh habitats

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The salt marshes of California have undergone significant changes in the last century. The increased human population in California has reduced the viability of salt...

  20. Physicochemical basis for the inhibitory effects of organic and inorganic salts on the growth of Pectobacterium carotovorum subsp. carotovorum and Pectobacterium atrosepticum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaganza, Elian-Simplice; Tweddell, Russell J; Arul, Joseph

    2009-03-01

    Twenty-one salts were tested for their effects on the growth of Pectobacterium carotovorum subsp. carotovorum and Pectobacterium atrosepticum. In liquid medium, 11 salts (0.2 M) exhibited strong inhibition of bacterial growth. The inhibitory action of salts relates to the water-ionizing capacity and the lipophilicity of their constituent ions.

  1. Physicochemical Basis for the Inhibitory Effects of Organic and Inorganic Salts on the Growth of Pectobacterium carotovorum subsp. carotovorum and Pectobacterium atrosepticum▿

    OpenAIRE

    Yaganza, Elian-Simplice; Tweddell, Russell J.; Arul, Joseph

    2008-01-01

    Twenty-one salts were tested for their effects on the growth of Pectobacterium carotovorum subsp. carotovorum and Pectobacterium atrosepticum. In liquid medium, 11 salts (0.2 M) exhibited strong inhibition of bacterial growth. The inhibitory action of salts relates to the water-ionizing capacity and the lipophilicity of their constituent ions.

  2. Hybrid molecular materials based upon organic pi-electron donors and inorganic metal complexes. Conducting salts of bis(ethylenediseleno)tetrathiafulvalene (BEST) with the octahedral anions hexacyanoferrate(III) and nitroprusside

    CERN Document Server

    Clemente-Leon, M; Galan-Mascaros, J R; Giménez-Saiz, C; Gómez-García, C J; Fabre, J M; Mousdis, G A; Papavassiliou, G C

    2002-01-01

    The synthesis, structure and physical characterization of three new radical salts formed by the organic donor bis(ethylenediseleno)tetrathiafulvalene (BEDS-TTF or BEST) and the paramagnetic hexacyanoferrate(III) anion [Fe(CN) sub 6] sup 3 sup - or the photochromic nitroprusside anion [Fe(CN) sub 5 NO] sup 2 sup - are reported: (BEST) sub 4 [Fe(CN) sub 6] (1), (BEST) sub 3 [Fe(CN) sub 6] sub 2 centre dot H sub 2 O (2) and (BEST) sub 2 [Fe(CN) sub 5 NO] (3). Salts 1 and 3 show a layered structure with alternating organic (beta-type packing) and inorganic slabs. Salt 2 shows an original interpenetrated structure probably due to the unprecedented presence of (BEST) sup 2 sup + dications. The three salts are semiconductors although salt 1 exhibits a high room temperature conductivity and a semiconducting-semiconducting transition at ca. 150 K which has been attributed to a dimerization in the organic sublattice.

  3. Organic/inorganic nanocomposite polymer electrolyte

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Qi; Shao Jun Dong

    2007-01-01

    The organic/inorganic nanocomposites polymer electrolytes were designed and synthesized. The organic/inorganic nanocom posites membrane materials and their lithium salt complexes have been found thermally stable below 200 ℃. The conductivity of the organic/inorganic nanocomposites polymer electrolytes prepared at room temperature was at magnitude range of 10-6 S/cm.

  4. Process of black sealing with inorganic salts for aluminum alloy after anodic oxidation%铝合金阳极氧化后无机盐黑色封闭工艺

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨改航

    2012-01-01

    Considering the disadvantages of black sealing with organic dyes for anodic oxidation film on aluminum alloy, black sealing with inorganic salts based on the principle of A-B blackening process was carried out for anodized aluminum alloy products. Three kinds of inorganic salt black sealing processes were introduced, including Co(CH3COOH)r-Na2S, FeSO4-(NH4)2S, and NiSO4-(NH4)2S. The anodic oxidation films treated by black sealing were examined by heat and moisture test, salt spray test, high temperature test, and solar radiation test according to related standards. It is proved that the three kinds of anodized aluminum alloy samples after black sealing treatment meet the requirement of standard. The inorganic salt black sealing processes eliminate the defects of easily dissolving in organic solvents as well as fall-off and discoloration, and easy discoloration under strong illumination after sealing by using traditional organic dyes.%针对铝合金阳极氧化有机染料染黑封闭的缺点,采用无机盐A-B染黑工艺对铝合金阳极氧化产品进行黑色封闭处理.介绍了Co(CH3COOH)2-Na2S、FeSO4-(NH4)2S、NiSO4-(NH4)2S等3种无机盐黑色封闭处理工艺,根据相关标准对经黑色封闭处理后的铝合金阳极氧化膜进行了湿热、盐雾、高温及太阳辐射试验.结果表明,3种铝合金阳极氧化黑色封闭处理试样均符合标准要求.无机盐黑色封闭工艺消除了传统有机染料封闭后易溶于有机溶剂而脱落变色以及在强光照射下易变色的缺陷.

  5. The influence of the amorphous polymer on conductivity, morphologies and thermal properties of polyether-based blends with addition of inorganic salt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, C. H.; Sim, L. H.; Kammer, H. W.; Tan, W.

    2012-06-01

    Thermodynamic control of the dispersion of lithium (Li) salt in different phases of semicrystalline/amorphous polymer blends is elucidated in this study. Solid polymer electrolytes of poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO), epoxidized natural rubber (ENR), random copolymer of poly(acrylate) (PAc) and as well as polymer blends of PEO with ENR and PAc doped with various concentrations of Li salt were studied. The salt concentrations (CLi) of solid polymer electrolytes vary between CLi = 0.02 and 0.15. The influence of the ENR or PAc on the properties of PEO after addition of Li salt is discussed. Blends of PEO/ENR and PEO/PAc are immiscible by elucidation of the glass transition temperature (Tg) as well as the morphological analyses. PEO, ENR and PAc possess oxygen in their respective chemical structures, which may be able to coordinate with the Li salt added. Non uniformity of Li salt concentration in different phases of the blends is highlighted for both systems. The conductivity of PEO/ENR and PEO/PAc blends doped with Li salt is primarily governed by PEO. The results for Tg suggest that higher solubility of Li salt in PEO as compared to ENR in the former case and restricted ion transport in the glassy PAc (with Tg≈30°C after addition of Li salt in the latter system. These may be the attributing factors for the enhancement of conductivity of the doped-PEO/ENR blends as compared to that of the doped-PEO/PAc blends. This suggests that PEO exhibits greater extent of complexation with LiClO4 as compared to that of the ENR and PAc as supported by Fourier-transform infra-red (FTIR) studies.

  6. Prediction of activity coefficients in liquid aerosol particles containing organic compounds, dissolved inorganic salts, and water—Part 1: Organic compounds and water by consideration of short- and long-range effects using X-UNIFAC.1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdakos, Garnet B.; Asher, William E.; Seinfeld, John H.; Pankow, James F.

    The semi-empirical group contribution method (GCM) of Kikic et al. [Chem. Eng. Sci. 46 (1991) 2775-2780] for estimating activity coefficient ( ζ) values of neutral organic compounds and water in solutions composed of organic compounds, dissolved inorganic salts, and water is adapted for application to atmospheric particulate matter (PM). It is assumed that ζ values are determined by a combination of short- and long-range interactions. The ζ expression involves conventional UNIFAC terms and a Debye-Hückel term, with the former computed using group-group interaction parameters. Organic-organic interaction parameters are assigned the values from the UNIFAC-LLE model of Magnussen et al. [Ind. Eng. Chem. Process Design Develop. 20 (1981) 331-339]. Forty interaction parameters (ion-solvent group and anion-cation) were obtained from Kikic et al. [Chem. Eng. Sci. 46 (1991) 2775-2780], Achard et al. [Fluid Phase Equilibria 98 (1994) 71-89], and Ming and Russell [Am. Inst. Chem. Eng. J. 48 (2002) 1331-1348]. Twenty additional interaction parameters (ion-solvent group) are estimated based on 879 UNIQUAC-fitted ζ values for organic compounds and water. The fitted ζ values are based on liquid-liquid equilibrium (LLE) data for a range of ternary and quaternary organic/inorganic salt/water mixtures at 293-308 K. The UNIQUAC fits are analogous to those described by Fredenslund et al. [Vapor-Liquid Equilibria Using UNIFAC: A Group-Contribution Method, Elsevier Scientific Publishing, New York, 1977]. The LLE mixture compositions range from primarily organic solutions to primarily aqueous solutions with maximum ionic strengths of ˜5 mol kg -1. The groups characteristic of organic compounds found in atmospheric PM considered here include: CH 3-, -CH 2-, -CH|-, -C||-, -OH, -CH 2CO-, and -COOH. These are: single bonded carbon with three, two, one, and zero hydrogens, respectively, hydroxyl, -CH 2-carbonyl, and carboxyl, respectively. The inorganic salts represented in the mixture

  7. Removal and separation of impurity ions in preparation of high-purity inorganic salts%高纯无机盐制备中杂质离子的去除与分离

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    石磊

    2012-01-01

    介绍了在制备高纯无机盐过程中,有害杂质离子——重有色金属离子(Cu、Mg、Zn、Pd、Cd等)、铁离子、砷化物的去除与分离方法:氧化-还原法、难溶金属氢氧化物沉淀法、硫化物沉淀法.%Introduced in the preparation of high purity inorganic salt process, harmful impurity ion-heavy non-ferrous metal ion (Cu,Mg,Zn,Pd,CDS,etc. ) ,iron ion,arsenide in removing and separation methods : oxidation-reduction method and difficult to thick metal hydroxide precipitation, sulfide precipitation.

  8. 无机盐对短链菊粉凝胶性能影响的研究%Effect of inorganic salts on short-chain inulin gelation performance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗登林; 刘娟; 曹偲霆; 徐宝成; 任广跃; 李鹏燕

    2014-01-01

    目的:研究无机盐对短链菊粉凝胶指数和保水性的影响,为其实际应用提供理论指导。方法添加不同量的 NaCl和CaCl2,测定短链菊粉水溶液凝胶体系的凝胶指数和保水性的变化规律。结果当无机盐添加量一定时,短链菊粉含量越高越有利于凝胶的形成;当菊粉添加量一定时,随无机盐添加量的增加,菊粉的凝胶指数和保水性都呈先增大后减小的趋势, NaCl和CaCl2的添加量分别在4%和5%时达最大值,此时凝胶指数分别为86.68%和94.58%,保水性分别为200.14%和274.86%;在无机盐的添加量相同时, CaCl2对菊粉凝胶性能的影响比 NaCl 更显著;当菊粉添加量为35%时差异最显著,添加1%CaCl2的凝胶指数和保水性分别比1%NaCl高11.24%和42.85%。结论无机盐能促进短链菊粉凝胶的形成,增加菊粉凝胶的凝胶指数和保水性, CaCl2比NaCl的这种作用更明显。%Objective The effects of inorganic salts on the gel index and water holding capability of short-chain inulin gel was explored to provide theoretical guidance for applications. Methods Adding differ-ent amounts of NaCl and CaCl2 to short-chain inulin solution, the changes of gel index and water holding capa-bility were analyzed. Results Under a certain amounts of inorganic salts, the more the amounts of short-chain inulin, the more conducive to the formation of inulin gel. Under a certain content of inulin, with the amounts of inorganic salt increasing, the gel index and water holding capability increased first and then decreased, and reached the maximum value with the addition of 4%NaCl and 5%CaCl2, respectively, corresponding to the gel index of 86.68%and 94.58%, and the water holding capability of 200.14%and 274.86%. The impact of CaCl2 on the gelling was more significant than that of NaCl at the same amounts addition. It was the most significant difference when the content of inulin was 35%, the gel index and water holding capability with the

  9. Research on vacuum membrane distillation technique disposing of high concentration inorganic salt reverse osmosis dense dewatering%减压膜蒸馏技术处理无机高盐 RO 浓排水研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭建中; 路全忠; 杨才伟

    2012-01-01

      针对无机高盐 RO 浓排水具有含盐量高难处理的特点,本文研究了减压膜蒸馏技术处理无机高盐RO 浓排水试验阶段中不同料液温度、真空度、流速对膜通量的影响.结果表明:料液温度、真空度、流速与膜通量存在相关性.随着料液温度和真空度的提高,膜通量会相应增加;随着料液流速的增加膜通量也有增加,但流速小于0.2 m/s 时对膜通量的影响明显,当流速大于0.2m/s 时对膜通量影响小%  Aimed at the characteristic of high salinity and difficult dispose of high concentration inorganic salt reverse osmosis dewatering, this paper studies the vacuum membrane distillation technique dispose of high concentration inorganic salt reverse osmosis dewatering, and analyse the influence of different vacuum, material fluid temperature, flow velocity to membrane flux. The result shows that there is a correlation between membrane flux and vacuum, material fluid temperature and flow velocity. With increasing of vacuum and material fluid temperature, membrane flux increased accordingly; and when the velocity increased and membrane flux increased at the same time. With the velocity was less than 0.2 m/s, the influence to membrane flux came to be obvious, when the velocity was above 0.2 m/s, the influence to membrane flux went light.

  10. Chromium-free conversion coatings based on inorganic salts (Zr/Ti/Mn/Mo) for aluminum alloys used in aircraft applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santa Coloma, P., E-mail: patricia.santacoloma@tecnalia.com [TECNALIA Research & Innovation, Parque Tecnológico de San Sebastián, Mikeletegi Pasealekua 2, E-20009 Donostia-San Sebastián, Gipuzkoa (Spain); Izagirre, U.; Belaustegi, Y.; Jorcin, J.B.; Cano, F.J. [TECNALIA Research & Innovation, Parque Tecnológico de San Sebastián, Mikeletegi Pasealekua 2, E-20009 Donostia-San Sebastián, Gipuzkoa (Spain); Lapeña, N. [Boeing Research & Technology Europe, S.L.U., Avenida Sur del Aeropuerto de Barajas 38, Building 4 – 3rd Floor, E-28042 Madrid (Spain)

    2015-08-01

    Highlights: • Chromium-free conversion coatings for corrosion protection of aluminum alloys. • Salt spray and potentiodynamic sweep tests to study the corrosion behavior. • Local deposits on Cu-rich intermetallic particles enhanced corrosion resistance. • Surface characterization to relate bath's composition and corrosion resistance. • Best corrosion protection with conversion baths without titanium salts. - Abstract: Novel chromium-free conversion coatings based on Zr/Ti/Mn/Mo compounds were developed at a pilot scale to improve the corrosion resistance of the AA2024-T3 and AA7075-T6 aluminum alloys for aircraft applications. The influence of the presence of Zr and Ti in the Zr/Ti/Mn/Mo conversion bath's formulation on the corrosion resistance of the coated alloys was investigated. The corrosion resistance provided by the conversion coatings was evaluated by salt spray exposure and potentiodynamic sweeps. Optical and scanning electron microscopy coupled with energy dispersive spectroscopy (SEM/EDS) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) operating in the Kelvin Probe mode (SKPFM) were used to provide microstructural information of the coated samples that achieved the best results in the corrosion tests. The salt spray test evidenced the higher corrosion resistance of the coated samples compared to the bare surfaces for both alloys. The potentiodynamic tests showed that the corrosion current density decreased for coated AA7075-T6 and AA2024-T3 alloys, which indicated an obvious improvement of the corrosion resistance with all the processes for both alloys. Although the corrosion resistance of the coated samples appeared to be higher for the alloy AA7075-T6 than for the alloy AA2024-T3, both alloys achieved the best corrosion protection with the coatings deposited from conversion bath formulations containing no titanium salts. The microscopy analysis on the coated AA7075-T6 samples revealed that a local deposition of Zr compounds and, possibly, an

  11. Unprecedented conformational variability in main group inorganic chemistry: the tetraazidoarsenite and -antimonite salts A+ [M(N3)4]- (A = NMe4, PPh4, (Ph3P)2N; M = As, Sb), five similar salts, five different anion structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haiges, Ralf; Rahm, Martin; Christe, Karl O

    2013-01-07

    A unique example for conformational variability in inorganic main group chemistry has been discovered. The arrangement of the azido ligands in the pseudotrigonal bipyramidal [As(N(3))(4)](-) and [Sb(N(3))(4)](-) anions theoretically can give rise to seven different conformers which have identical MN(4) skeletons but different azido ligand arrangements and very similar energies. We have now synthesized and structurally characterized five of these conformers by subtle variations in the nature of the counterion. Whereas conformational variability is common in organic chemistry, it is rare in inorganic main group chemistry and is usually limited to two. To our best knowledge, the experimental observation of five distinct single conformers for the same type of anion is unprecedented. Theoretical calculations at the M06-2X/cc-pwCVTZ-PP level for all seven possible basic conformers show that (1) the energy differences between the five experimentally observed conformers are about 1 kcal/mol or less, and (2) the free monomeric anions are the energetically favored species in the gas phase and also for [As(N(3))(4)](-) in the solid state, whereas for [Sb(N(3))(4)](-) associated anions are energetically favored in the solid state and possibly in solutions. Raman spectroscopy shows that in the azide antisymmetric stretching region, the solid-state spectra are distinct for the different conformers, and permits their identification. The spectra of solutions are solvent dependent and differ from those of the solids indicating the presence of rapidly exchanging equilibria of different conformers. The only compound for which a solid with a single well-ordered conformer could not be isolated was [N(CH(3))(4)][As(N(3))(4)] which formed a viscous, room-temperature ionic liquid. Its Raman spectrum was identical to that of its CH(3)CN solution indicating the presence of an equilibrium of multiple conformers.

  12. Development of the separation of small molecular organic/inorganic salt mixtures by nanofiltration membrane:A review%有机小分子/无机盐混合溶液纳滤膜分离研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王韬; 王枢; 张兆利; 柳琦杰; 王娇

    2012-01-01

    工业生产中料液体系成分复杂,用纳滤技术对其中小分子有机物及电解质盐实施有效分离越发重要。本文概述了小分子有机物及电解质盐的纳滤分离机制,从纳滤膜分离糖类、氨基酸、染料、PEG等有机小分子及电解质盐混合溶液出发,总结了纳滤技术分离溶液中有机小分子及电解质盐的研究进展,但该体系各溶质截留情况未得出一致结论。同时指出分离机制的研究、高性能膜的制备、扩大溶质种类及不同条件进行试验是纳滤技术分离有机/无机复杂体系的研究方向,并对纳滤技术用于该体系分离的应用前景进行了展望。%This paper summarized the separation mechanisms of small molecular organic compounds(such as sugars,amino acids,PEG,dyes) and electrolyte salt with nanofiltration membranes.This paper reviewed the development of the small molecular organic and electrolyte salt mixtures separations.The key factors of the separation of organic/inorganic complex system using nanofiltration technologies,such as separation mechanism,preparation of membranes with high performance,expanding the solute types and different conditions were also discussed.The application of the separation form the complex system by nanofiltration membrane was prospected.

  13. 双极膜技术在无机盐工业中的应用%Application of Bipolar Membrane Technique on Inorganic Salt Industry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈巧平; 谢鸿芳; 肖艳春; 陈双; 陈震

    2011-01-01

    The new achivement of bipolar membrane(BPM) technique in the last decade was introduced.Especially,the application of BPM on the chlorone-base industry without evolution of chlorone at the anode was described in detail.The application of the bipolar membrane cell in the chlorone-base factrories will construct a new balance between chlorone and base,and it also is efficient for preparing the acid and base in the kali salt industries.%介绍了近十年来双极膜技术的最新研究成果及其在无机盐产酸、产碱工艺中的应用。将双极膜技术应用于氯碱工业中,在阳极上,以析氧反应替代传统的析氯反应。将双极膜电解槽与现行的氯氢离子膜电解槽连用,可构建出新的氯氢平衡的体系,以实现氯碱厂中析氯量的有效控制。在钾盐生产的工艺中联产硫酸和烧碱。

  14. Comparison of microenvironments of aqueous sodium dodecyl sulfate micelles in the presence of inorganic and organic salts: a time-resolved fluorescence anisotropy approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutt, G B

    2005-11-08

    Microenvironments of aqueous sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) micelles was examined in the presence of additives such as sodium chloride and p-toluidine hydrochloride (PTHC) by monitoring the fluorescence anisotropy decays of two hydrophobic probes, 2,5-dimethyl-1,4-dioxo-3,6-diphenylpyrrolo[3,4-c]pyrrole (DMDPP) and coumarin 6 (C6). It has been well-established that SDS micelles undergo a sphere-to-rod transition and that their mean hydrodynamic radius increases from 19 to 100 A upon the addition of 0.0-0.7 M NaCl at 298 K. A similar size and shape transition is induced by PTHC at concentrations that are 20 times lower compared to that of NaCl. This study was undertaken to find out how the microviscosity of the micelles is influenced under these circumstances. It was noticed that the microviscosity of the SDS/NaCl system increased by approximately 45%, whereas there was a less than 10% variation in the microviscosity of the SDS/PTHC system. The large increase in the microviscosity of the former system with salt concentration has been rationalized on the basis of the high concentration of sodium ions in the headgroup region of the micelles and their ability to strongly coordinate with the water present in this region, which decreases the mobility of the probe molecules.

  15. The effectiveness of organic PCM based on lauric acid from coconut oil and inorganic PCM based on salt hydrate CaCl2.6H2o as latent heat energy storage system in Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    U, Sri Rahayu A.; Putri, Widya A.; Sutjahja, I. M.; Kurnia, D.; Wonorahardjo, S.

    2016-08-01

    A latent heat energy storage system utilizing phase change materials (PCM) is an alternative strategy to reduce the use of Air Conditioning (AC) system in big cities in Indonesia in order for energy conservation in the future. In this research we used two kinds of materials, namely organic PCM based on lauric acid from coconut oil (CO) and inorganic PCM based on salt hydrate CaCl2.6H2O, because they have thermophysical parameters suitable for human's thermal comfort application in the building. The CO which contained more than 50% lauric acid has the melting temperature (Tm ) of about 26 °C and heat entalphy (ΔH) around 103 kJ/kg, while CaCl2.6H2O has the melting point of 29 °C and heat entalphy of 190 kJ/kg. In this paper we report the effectiveness of those two kinds of PCM in reducing the air temperature as one of some criteria for human's thermal comfort. The experiments were performed in a close and adiabatic room and the time-temperature measurements were done automatically using Arduino microcontroller and LM35 temperature sensor connected to the PC.

  16. Processing method for molten salt waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ito, Shuichi; Sawa, Toshio; Hoshikawa, Tadahiro; Suzuoki, Akira

    1999-01-06

    The present invention concerns a processing method for selectively adsorbing and removing radioactive metal ingredients contained in high temperature molten salts by an inorganic ion exchanger and separating radioactive metal ingredients from the molten salts as high level radioactive wastes upon reprocessing of spent nuclear fuels by using molten salts. The molten salts occluded in the inorganic ion exchanger are desorbed with highly purified water. Successively, saturation adsorbed radioactive metal ingredients are desorbed by an aqueous solution of alkali metal salt or an aqueous solution of alkaline earth metal salt. The desorbed molten salts and radioactive metal ingredients are formed into at least two kinds of radioactive waste solidification materials depending on each of radioactivity level. As the inorganic ion exchanger, at least one of aluminosilicate and hydroxides is used. Then, molten salt wastes generated upon a dry-type reprocessing can be processed as a stable borosilicate glass solidification material or as a similar homogeneous solid material. (T.M.)

  17. Free energetics of carbon nanotube association in aqueous inorganic NaI salt solutions: Temperature effects using all-atom molecular dynamics simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ou, Shu-Ching; Cui, Di; Wezowicz, Matthew; Taufer, Michela; Patel, Sandeep

    2015-06-15

    In this study, we examine the temperature dependence of free energetics of nanotube association using graphical processing unit-enabled all-atom molecular dynamics simulations (FEN ZI) with two (10,10) single-walled carbon nanotubes in 3 m NaI aqueous salt solution. Results suggest that the free energy, enthalpy and entropy changes for the association process are all reduced at the high temperature, in agreement with previous investigations using other hydrophobes. Via the decomposition of free energy into individual components, we found that solvent contribution (including water, anion, and cation contributions) is correlated with the spatial distribution of the corresponding species and is influenced distinctly by the temperature. We studied the spatial distribution and the structure of the solvent in different regions: intertube, intratube and the bulk solvent. By calculating the fluctuation of coarse-grained tube-solvent surfaces, we found that tube-water interfacial fluctuation exhibits the strongest temperature dependence. By taking ions to be a solvent-like medium in the absence of water, tube-anion interfacial fluctuation shows similar but weaker dependence on temperature, while tube-cation interfacial fluctuation shows no dependence in general. These characteristics are discussed via the malleability of their corresponding solvation shells relative to the nanotube surface. Hydrogen bonding profiles and tetrahedrality of water arrangement are also computed to compare the structure of solvent in the solvent bulk and intertube region. The hydrophobic confinement induces a relatively lower concentration environment in the intertube region, therefore causing different intertube solvent structures which depend on the tube separation. This study is relevant in the continuing discourse on hydrophobic interactions (as they impact generally a broad class of phenomena in biology, biochemistry, and materials science and soft condensed matter research), and

  18. Welcome to Inorganics: A New Open Access, Inclusive Forum for Inorganic Chemistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duncan H. Gregory

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available One of the beauties of inorganic chemistry is its sheer diversity. Just as chemistry sits at the centre of the sciences, inorganic chemistry sits at the centre of chemistry itself. Inorganic chemists are fortunate in having the entire periodic table at their disposal, providing a palette for the creation of a multitude of rich and diverse compounds and materials from the simplest salts to the most complex of molecular species. It follows that the language of inorganic chemistry can thus be a demanding one, accommodating sub-disciplines with very different perspectives and frames of reference. One could argue that it is the unequivocal breadth of inorganic chemistry that empowers inorganic chemists to work at the interfaces, not just between the traditional Inorganic-Organic-Physical boundaries of the discipline, but in the regions where chemistry borders the other physical and life sciences, engineering and socio-economics. [...

  19. Prediction of activity coefficients in liquid aerosol particles containing organic compounds, dissolved inorganic salts, and water—Part 2: Consideration of phase separation effects by an X-UNIFAC model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Elsa I.; Pankow, James F.

    A thermodynamic model is presented for predicting the formation of particulate matter (PM) within an aerosol that contains organic compounds, inorganic salts, and water. Neutral components are allowed to partition from the gas phase to the PM, with the latter potentially composed of both a primarily aqueous ( α) liquid phase and a primarily organic ( β) liquid phase. Partitioning is allowed to occur without any artificial restraints: when both α and β PM phases are present, ionic constituents are allowed to partition to both. X-UNIFAC.2, an extended UNIFAC method based on Yan et al. (1999. Prediction of vapor-liquid equilibria in mixed-solvent electrolyte systems using the group contribution concept. Fluid Phase Equilibria 162, 97-113), was developed for activity coefficient estimation. X-UNIFAC.2 utilizes the standard UNIFAC terms, a Debye-Hückel term, and a virial equation term that represents the middle-range (MR) contribution to activity coefficient effects. A large number (234) of MR parameters are already available from Yan et al. (1999). Six additional MR parameters were optimized here to enable X-UNIFAC.2 to account for interactions between the carboxylic acid group and Na +, Cl -, and Ca 2+. Predictions of PM formation were made for a hypothetical sabinene/O 3 system with varying amounts of NaCl in the PM. Predictions were also made for the chamber experiments with α-pinene/O 3 (and CaCl 2 seed) carried out by Cocker et al. (2001. The effect of water on gas-particle partitioning of secondary organic aerosol. Part I. α-pinene/ozone system. Atmospheric Environment 35, 6049-6072); good agreement between the predicted and chamber-measured PM mass concentrations was achieved.

  20. Molecular dynamics analysis of the effect of electronic polarization on the structure and single-particle dynamics of mixtures of ionic liquids and lithium salts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lesch, Volker; Montes-Campos, Hadrián; Méndez-Morales, Trinidad; Gallego, Luis Javier; Heuer, Andreas; Schröder, Christian; Varela, Luis M

    2016-11-28

    We report a molecular dynamics study on the effect of electronic polarization on the structure and single-particle dynamics of mixtures of the aprotic ionic liquid 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium bis-(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)-imide ([EMIM][TFSI]) doped with a lithium salt with the same anion at 298 K and 1 bar. In particular, we analyze the effect of electron density fluctuations on radial distribution functions, velocity autocorrelation functions, cage correlation functions, mean-squared displacements, and vibrational densities of states, comparing the predictions of the quantum-chemistry-based Atomistic Polarizable Potential for Liquids, Electrolytes, & Polymers (APPLE&P) with those of its nonpolarizable version and those of the standard non-polarizable Optimized Potentials for Liquid Simulations-All Atom (OPLS-AA). We found that the structure of the mixture is scarcely modified by the fluctuations in electron charge of their constituents, but their transport properties are indeed quite drastically changed, with larger mobilities being predicted for the different species in the bulk mixtures with the polarizable force field. Specifically, the mean-squared displacements are larger for the polarizable potentials at identical time intervals and the intermediate subdiffusive plateaus are greatly reduced, so the transition to the diffusive regime takes place much earlier than in the non-polarizable media. Moreover, the correlations of the added cations inside their cages are weakened out earlier and their vibrational densities of states are slightly red-shifted, reflecting the weakening effect of the electronic polarization on the Coulomb coupling in these dense ionic media. The comparison of OPLS-AA with non-polarizable APPLE&P indicates that adding polarization to OPLS-AA is not sufficient to achieve results close to experiments.

  1. Molecular dynamics analysis of the effect of electronic polarization on the structure and single-particle dynamics of mixtures of ionic liquids and lithium salts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lesch, Volker; Montes-Campos, Hadrián; Méndez-Morales, Trinidad; Gallego, Luis Javier; Heuer, Andreas; Schröder, Christian; Varela, Luis M.

    2016-11-01

    We report a molecular dynamics study on the effect of electronic polarization on the structure and single-particle dynamics of mixtures of the aprotic ionic liquid 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium bis-(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)-imide ([EMIM][TFSI]) doped with a lithium salt with the same anion at 298 K and 1 bar. In particular, we analyze the effect of electron density fluctuations on radial distribution functions, velocity autocorrelation functions, cage correlation functions, mean-squared displacements, and vibrational densities of states, comparing the predictions of the quantum-chemistry-based Atomistic Polarizable Potential for Liquids, Electrolytes, & Polymers (APPLE&P) with those of its nonpolarizable version and those of the standard non-polarizable Optimized Potentials for Liquid Simulations-All Atom (OPLS-AA). We found that the structure of the mixture is scarcely modified by the fluctuations in electron charge of their constituents, but their transport properties are indeed quite drastically changed, with larger mobilities being predicted for the different species in the bulk mixtures with the polarizable force field. Specifically, the mean-squared displacements are larger for the polarizable potentials at identical time intervals and the intermediate subdiffusive plateaus are greatly reduced, so the transition to the diffusive regime takes place much earlier than in the non-polarizable media. Moreover, the correlations of the added cations inside their cages are weakened out earlier and their vibrational densities of states are slightly red-shifted, reflecting the weakening effect of the electronic polarization on the Coulomb coupling in these dense ionic media. The comparison of OPLS-AA with non-polarizable APPLE&P indicates that adding polarization to OPLS-AA is not sufficient to achieve results close to experiments.

  2. Radiochemical determination of Beryllium-7 in a fission-product mixture containing many inorganic salts; Determination radiochimique du beryllium-7 dans un melange de produits de fission riche en sels mineraux

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prigent, Y.; Van Kote, F. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Bruyeres-le-Chatel (France). Centre d' Etudes

    1969-07-01

    A radiochemical method is described for analysing beryllium-7 in a mixture of fission products containing many inorganic salts. By studying the influence of various parameters it has been possible to speed up the decontamination on an anionic resin using an HCl isopropanol mixture, as proposed by KORKISCH- and al. Be(OH){sub 2} is first precipitated in the presence of E.D.T.A.; the main contaminants are then fixed on Dowex 1 x 10 in 12 M HCl and on Dowex 1 x 8 in a 3 M HCl (20 per cent)-isopropanol (80 per cent) (vol/vol) mixture. The Be, which is not fixed, is precipitated by NH{sub 4}H{sub 2}PO{sub 4} in the presence of E.D.T.A., ignited as Be{sub 2}P{sub 2}O{sub 7}, filtered, weighed, and analyzed by gamma spectrometry. The method makes it possible to dose 4 samples in 16 hours with a chemical yield of 80 per cent, using a 4 day-old fission product solution. The overall decontamination factor, exceeds 10{sup 8}. (authors) [French] On decrit un procede d'analyse radiochimique du beryllium-7 a partir d'un melange de produits de fission riche en sels mineraux. L'etude de l'influence de differents parametres a permis d'accelerer la decontamination sur resine anionique en milieu HCl-isopropanol proposee par KORKISCH et COLL. On precipite d'abord Be(OH){sub 2} en presence d'E.D.T.A., puis fixe les principaux contaminants sur Dowex 1 x 10 en milieu HCl 12 M et sur Dowex 1 x 8 en milieu HCl 3 M (20 pour cent)-isopropanol (80 pour cent) (v/v). Be, non fixe, est precipite par NH{sub 4}H{sub 2}PO{sub 4} en presence d'E.D.T.A., calcine en Be{sub 2}P{sub 2}O{sub 7}, filtre, pese et analyse par spectrometrie gamma. La methode permet de traiter quatre echantillons en 16 h, avec un rendement de 80 pour cent, a partir d'une solution de produits de fission vieille de quatre jours. Le facteur de decontamination global depasse 10{sup 8}. (auteurs)

  3. 无机盐对酶促大豆蛋白胶凝特性的影响%Effects of Inorganic Salts on the Gel Properties of Enzymatic -Induced Soybean Protein

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    笪久香; 胡亚云; 栾广忠; 严陇兵; 辰巳英三

    2015-01-01

    In order to investigate the effects of inorganic salt on thermal dynamic properties and gel strength of enzymatic -induced soybean protein gel,the dispersions of soybean protein isolate (4%,m/m)have been coagula-ted by papain.The clotting time was calculated on basis of the different concentrations of NaCl,KCl,CaCl2 ,MgCl2 and MgSO4 solution respectively.The activation energy was obtained from Arrhenius equation.A gel strength model as a function of three variables -the concentration of calcium ion,temperature and enzyme dosage,was developed from the experimental of Box -Behnken center -united design.The results showed that adding salts (NaCl,KCl, CaCl2 ,MgCl2 and MgSO4 )could lower the activation energy of gelling reaction,but all Arrhenius curve could keep to be linear,which indicated that the gelling followed the same mechanism.According to the analysis of significance and response surface method,the gel strength mold showed a high fitting degree.The gel strength was affected by the dosage of papain significantly (P <0.05).The reciprocal effect of Ca2 + concentration and temperature on the gel strength was significant (P <0.01).The simultaneous increase or decease in both temperature and Ca2 + concentra-tion would weaken the gel strength.%为了探究无机盐对大豆蛋白酶促胶凝过程热动力学特性及凝胶强度的影响规律,以大豆分离蛋白分散液(Dispersion of soybean protein isolate,DSPI,4%,m/m)为材料,以木瓜蛋白酶为凝固剂进行酶促胶凝试验,测定不同无机盐种类及浓度下的胶凝时间,并通过 Arrhenius 方程求出反应活化能;以凝胶强度为指标,利用 Box -Behnken 中心组合设计试验建立以 Ca2+浓度、温度及酶添加量为参数的凝胶强度模型。结果表明添加无机盐(NaCl、KCl、CaCl2、MgCl2和 MgSO4)可降低酶促 DSPI 凝胶的活化能,但 Arrhenius 曲线仍呈线性关系,说明无机盐可加快反应速度,但胶凝反应仍

  4. 无机金属盐对微波辅助酸预处理毛竹酶解的影响%Effect of Inorganic Salts on Enzymatic Saccharification of Moso Bamboo Pretreated by Microwave-Dilute Acid

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李志强; 费本华; 江泽慧

    2014-01-01

    采用加入无机金属盐的稀酸溶液预处理毛竹,分析预处理后底物的化学组成、预处理后的废液组成、糖降解发酵抑制物的生成量等。结果表明:稀酸预处理主要以脱除半纤维素为主,而对木质素的脱除没有明显效果。当硫酸用量为2%( w/w)、预处理温度为180℃时,竹材中绝大部分半纤维素已被脱除,底物纤维素转化为葡萄糖的收率可达52.72%。加入硫酸铁催化后的稀酸预处理能提高底物的酶水解性能,可使纤维素转化为葡萄糖的收率提高到72.15%。硫酸钠、硫酸亚铁、硫酸铜和硼砂等催化后的稀酸预处理底物的酶水解性能均有不同程度的下降,其中以硫酸铜催化预处理底物的酶水解性能最差。铜离子在预处理中可以被竹材底物吸附,并且在酶水解过程中可以脱附进入水解液中。%Global warming and energy shortage are the main challenges and puzzles that government and the public around the world are facing. It is believed that one of the solutions is to use biomass as a potential renewable energy resource for producing liquid fuels such as bioethanol and biodiesel. Bamboo,with cellulose and hemicellulose as its main components,is a kind of fast growth and cheap renewable resource for bioethanol production. In the study,inorganic salts were studied as promoter in the dilute acid pretreatment of moso bamboo for the enzymatic saccharification. The chemical composition of the substrates and spent liquors,the enzymatic hydrolyability of substrates were analyzed. The results showed that dilute acid pretreatment ( DA) enhances the digestibility of lignocellulose mainly by dissolving hemicellulose and partially prehydrolyzing cellulose. DA has no delignified. The cellulose-to-glucose conversion yield of 2% sulfuric acid( w/w) pretreated substrate was 52. 72%. Sulfuric acid with Fe2 ( SO4 ) 3 pretreated substrate had the higher cellulose-to-glucose conversion yield

  5. Inorganic Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Černý, Radovan

    The separation of compounds by inorganic/organic boundary is of less importance for the structure determination by diffraction methods. More important for the diffraction is how the atoms build up larger building units and the crystal itself. A molecular/non-molecular boundary is therefore relevant for the choice of a structure determination method. Non-molecular compounds - also called extended solids - are constructed by bonds that extend "infinitely" in three dimensions through a crystal. These non-molecular crystals usually crystallize with higher symmetries, and atoms often occupy special Wyckoff positions. A review of actual methodology is given first, and then highlights and pitfalls of structure determination from powder diffraction, its problems and their solutions are shown and discussed using selected examples.

  6. Science Update: Inorganic Chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rawls, Rebecca

    1981-01-01

    Describes areas of inorganic chemistry which have changed dramatically in the past year or two, including photochemistry, electrochemistry, organometallic complexes, inorganic reaction theory, and solid state chemistry. (DS)

  7. Synthesis of a nano-antibacterial inorganic filler containing a quaternary ammonium salt with long chain alkyl and ;its effect on dental resin composites%含长链烷基季铵盐的纳米抗菌无机填料的合成及其在牙科复合树脂中的应用研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴峻岭; 周凯运; 朱婷; 周传健

    2014-01-01

    目的:设计合成新型的含长链烷基季铵盐的纳米抗菌无机填料,以赋予牙科复合树脂更优良的抗菌性能。方法在分子设计和筛选的基础上,制备了长链烷基季铵盐修饰的纳米抗菌二氧化硅填料,并对填料的抗菌性能进行评价。为进一步提高抗菌填料与树脂的结合力,采用硅烷偶联剂对抗菌填料表面进行了处理,并用红外光谱法对其结构特征进行分析;然后将新型纳米抗菌无机填料加入牙科复合树脂中,观察其在复合树脂基体中的分散情况,同时与商品化的TetricN-Ceram纳米瓷化复合树脂进行对比;并以变异链球菌为对象,研究复合树脂的抗菌性能。结果长链烷基季铵盐成功接枝到纳米二氧化硅颗粒表面;新型纳米抗菌无机填料的抗菌性能优于含短链烷基季铵盐的抗菌无机填料;偶联处理后的纳米抗菌无机填料在树脂基体中分散均匀,与树脂结合紧密,与TetricN-Ceram纳米瓷化复合树脂类似;改性后的复合树脂抗菌性能良好。结论含长链烷基季铵盐的纳米抗菌无机填料抗菌性能良好,经过表面偶联处理后可以很好地与牙科复合树脂共混,提高了牙科复合树脂的抗菌性能。%Objective This study aimed to synthesize a novel nano-antibacterial inorganic filler that contains a quaternary ammonium salt with long chain alkyl and to report the antibacterial property of dental resin composites. Methods A novel nano-antibacterial inorganic filler that contains a quaternary ammonium salt with long chain alkyl was synthesized based on previous research. The antibacterial property of the filler was measured. The surface of the novel nano-antibacterial inorganic filler was modified by a coupling agent to achieve a good interfacial bonding between the filler and the resin matrix. Infrared spectrum analysis was carried out. The modified novel nano-antibacterial inorganic fillers were

  8. Molecular biology of cyanobacterial salt acclimation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagemann, Martin

    2011-01-01

    High and changing salt concentrations represent major abiotic factors limiting the growth of microorganisms. During their long evolution, cyanobacteria have adapted to aquatic habitats with various salt concentrations. High salt concentrations in the medium challenge the cell with reduced water availability and high contents of inorganic ions. The basic mechanism of salt acclimation involves the active extrusion of toxic inorganic ions and the accumulation of compatible solutes, including sucrose, trehalose, glucosylglycerol, and glycine betaine. The kinetics of these physiological processes has been exceptionally well studied in the model Synechocystis 6803, leading to the definition of five subsequent phases in reaching a new salt acclimation steady state. Recent '-omics' technologies using the advanced model Synechocystis 6803 have revealed a comprehensive picture of the dynamic process of salt acclimation involving the differential expression of hundreds of genes. However, the mechanisms involved in sensing specific salt stress signals are not well resolved. In the future, analysis of cyanobacterial salt acclimation will be directed toward defining the functions of the many unknown proteins upregulated in salt-stressed cells, identifying specific salt-sensing mechanisms, using salt-resistant strains of cyanobacteria for the production of bioenergy, and applying cyanobacterial stress genes to improve the salt tolerance of sensitive organisms.

  9. Synthesis of an organic-inorganic salt of (C2H5NO22H4SiW12O40 and investigation of its anti-viral effect on the Tobacco Mosaic Virus (TMV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majid Saghi

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Polyoxometalates (POMs are important inorganic compounds that have been considered specifically in recent years due to abundant attributes and applications. Those POMs that have one central tetrahedral atom called keggin. The binding Amino-acid groups to keggin structure give the antivirus effect to these compounds. A new organic-inorganic hybrid structure, with formula (C2H5NO22H4SiW12O40 was synthesized (C2H5NO2 = Glycine = Gly. Investigation on Anti-viral effect of this compound showed the (Gly2H4SiW12O40 prevents infection of Tobacco Mosaic Virus (TMV on the Nicotiana tabacum plants.

  10. Effect of the presence of inorganic salts on the photocatalytic inactivation of E. Coli in water Efecto de la presencia de sales inorgánicas sobre la inactivación fotocatalítica de E. Coli en agua

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edwing Velasco

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the effect of inorganic salts MgSO4, NaCl and CaCO3 on the photocatalytic water disinfection. TiO2-P25 was used as a photocatalyst, and E. Coli was used as a contaminant. Disinfection tests were performed by controlling lighting of batch reactors loaded with contaminated water, salts and TiO2. The results of these tests were used to determine the kinetic parameters of a type Langmuir-Hinshelwood model. It was found that the salts have a strong influence on the photocatalytic inactivation of E. Coli and that each salt and its concentration affect disinfection differently in the following order: NaCl>CaCO3>>MgSO4. Additionally, the value of the calculated parameters was different for each salt, showing that the salts affect the process by several mechanisms related to the ion-bacteria interactions, ion-oxidizing species and ion-TiO2.En este artículo se presenta el efecto de las sales inorgánicas MgSO4, NaCl y CaCO3 en la desinfección fotocatalítica del agua. Se usó TiO2-P25 como fotocatalizador y E. Coli como microorganismo contaminante. Las pruebas de desinfección se realizaron mediante la iluminación controlada de reactores batch cargados con agua contaminada, sales y TiO2. Los resultados de estas pruebas fueron usados para determinar los parámetros cinéticos de un modelo tipo Langmuir-Hinshelwood. Se encontró que las sales tienen una fuerte influencia sobre la inactivación fotocatalítica de E. Coli, y que cada sal y su concentración afectan la desinfección de forma diferente y en el siguiente orden: NaCl>CaCO3>>MgSO4. Adicionalmente, el valor de los parámetros calculados fue diferente para cada sal, evidenciando que las sales afectan el proceso por varios mecanismos relacionados con las interacciones ion-bacteria, ion-especie oxidante e ion-TiO2.

  11. 无机诱导法去除反渗透浓缩液中结垢盐类%Scaling salts removal in RO concentrates by inorganic induced method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨庆峰

    2005-01-01

    @@ Introduction Scaling on heat transfer surface[1,2] and reverse osmosis (RO) membrane surface[3] is one of the main problems in desalination processes. To mitigate scales, anti-scalants are often used. For RO system, membrane concentrates contain high amounts of dissolved salts and anti-scalants. Commonly, concentrates are discharged directly.

  12. Inorganic nanolayers: structure, preparation, and biomedical applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saifullah, Bullo; Hussein, Mohd Zobir B

    2015-01-01

    Hydrotalcite-like compounds are two-dimensional inorganic nanolayers also known as clay minerals or anionic clays or layered double hydroxides/layered hydroxy salts, and have emerged as a single type of material with numerous biomedical applications, such as drug delivery, gene delivery, cosmetics, and biosensing. Inorganic nanolayers are promising materials due to their fascinating properties, such as ease of preparation, ability to intercalate different type of anions (inorganic, organic, biomolecules, and even genes), high thermal stability, delivery of intercalated anions in a sustained manner, high biocompatibility, and easy biodegradation. Inorganic nanolayers have been the focus for researchers over the last decade, resulting in widening application horizons, especially in the field of biomedical science. These nanolayers have been widely applied in drug and gene delivery. They have also been applied in biosensing technology, and most recently in bioimaging science. The suitability of inorganic nanolayers for application in drug delivery, gene delivery, biosensing technology, and bioimaging science makes them ideal materials to be applied for theranostic purposes. In this paper, we review the structure, methods of preparation, and latest advances made by inorganic nanolayers in such biomedical applications as drug delivery, gene delivery, biosensing, and bioimaging. PMID:26366081

  13. Inorganic nanolayers: structure, preparation, and biomedical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saifullah, Bullo; Hussein, Mohd Zobir B

    2015-01-01

    Hydrotalcite-like compounds are two-dimensional inorganic nanolayers also known as clay minerals or anionic clays or layered double hydroxides/layered hydroxy salts, and have emerged as a single type of material with numerous biomedical applications, such as drug delivery, gene delivery, cosmetics, and biosensing. Inorganic nanolayers are promising materials due to their fascinating properties, such as ease of preparation, ability to intercalate different type of anions (inorganic, organic, biomolecules, and even genes), high thermal stability, delivery of intercalated anions in a sustained manner, high biocompatibility, and easy biodegradation. Inorganic nanolayers have been the focus for researchers over the last decade, resulting in widening application horizons, especially in the field of biomedical science. These nanolayers have been widely applied in drug and gene delivery. They have also been applied in biosensing technology, and most recently in bioimaging science. The suitability of inorganic nanolayers for application in drug delivery, gene delivery, biosensing technology, and bioimaging science makes them ideal materials to be applied for theranostic purposes. In this paper, we review the structure, methods of preparation, and latest advances made by inorganic nanolayers in such biomedical applications as drug delivery, gene delivery, biosensing, and bioimaging.

  14. Tendzin Phuntso's Chemistry of Salts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZhangSheng; CaiJingfeng

    2003-01-01

    An examination of large quantities of Tibetan data for a project entitled "Alchemy and Alchemic Medicines of Tibet revealed that ancient Tibetan terminology for and classification of inorganic salts have much in common with modern chemistry. This is particularly true of research conducted by Tendzin Phuntso (born in 1672 in Gongjo Count, Chamdo, Tibet) and his representative work, "gso rig gcesb dus rin chen phreng ba bzugs so". This work summarizes Tibetan recognition of inorganic salts in chemistry over the course of 1000 years or more, and is of great significance in the world history of science and technolgy.

  15. The solubility of toluene in aqueous salt solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poulson, S; Harrington, R; Drever, J

    1999-03-01

    The solubility of toluene has been measured in distilled water, and in various inorganic salt solutions. Values of the Setschenow constant, K(S), which quantify toluene solubility versus salt concentration, have been determined for each salt. Values of K(S) are compared to the activity of water for the salt solutions. Data from this study, consistent with earlier data, suggests that the effects of salts upon toluene solubility are non-additive. This contrasts the additive behavior of inorganic salts upon the solubility of nonpolar organic compounds, such as benzene and naphthalene, reported in the literature. Specific interaction between slightly polar toluene and ions in solution is suggested as a possible explanation for the non-additive effect of salts on the solubility of toluene.

  16. Heat-resistant inorganic binders.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KUDRYAVTSEV Pavel Gennadievich,

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The authors consider some aspects of production of inorganic heat-resistant composite materials in which new classes of inorganic binders - the basic salts of various metals – are applied. The possibility to use hydroxochlorides and hydroxonitrates of aluminum, zirconium, chromium and a number of other metals as the binder has been shown. The main products of the thermal decomposition of all types of binders discussed in this paper are nano-dispersed highly refractory oxides. Increased pressure in the manufacture of these materials shifts the position of the minimum of the dependence «production strength – production temperature» in the direction of low temperatures. This effect is caused by decreased film thickness of the binder located between filler particles and hence by increased rate of transfer of the matter to the interface and by facilitated sintering process. Materials based on the systems containing chromium and some other elements in transitional oxidation states are colour. For this reason, they have the worst thermal conductivity under the same heat resistance compared to colorless materials.

  17. Inorganic nanolayers: structure, preparation, and biomedical applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saifullah B

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Bullo Saifullah, Mohd Zobir B HusseinMaterials Synthesis and Characterization Laboratory, Institute of Advanced Technology (ITMA, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Serdang, MalaysiaAbstract: Hydrotalcite-like compounds are two-dimensional inorganic nanolayers also known as clay minerals or anionic clays or layered double hydroxides/layered hydroxy salts, and have emerged as a single type of material with numerous biomedical applications, such as drug delivery, gene delivery, cosmetics, and biosensing. Inorganic nanolayers are promising materials due to their fascinating properties, such as ease of preparation, ability to intercalate different type of anions (inorganic, organic, biomolecules, and even genes, high thermal stability, delivery of intercalated anions in a sustained manner, high biocompatibility, and easy biodegradation. Inorganic nanolayers have been the focus for researchers over the last decade, resulting in widening application horizons, especially in the field of biomedical science. These nanolayers have been widely applied in drug and gene delivery. They have also been applied in biosensing technology, and most recently in bioimaging science. The suitability of inorganic nanolayers for application in drug delivery, gene delivery, biosensing technology, and bioimaging science makes them ideal materials to be applied for theranostic purposes. In this paper, we review the structure, methods of preparation, and latest advances made by inorganic nanolayers in such biomedical applications as drug delivery, gene delivery, biosensing, and bioimaging.Keywords: inorganic nanolayers, layered double hydroxides, layered hydroxy salts, drug delivery, biosensors, bioimaging

  18. Inorganic Chemicals Kept Bullish

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ Raw salt China's price of raw salt remained stable in June 2007, with the average ex-work price of RMB200-250/t. The output of raw salt presented overall growth,in East China the output increased because the rain was less,and in Southwest regions the superrain contributed to the output decrease.

  19. Inorganic Chemicals Cooled Down

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ Demand for raw salt was still weak The price of raw salt came down in March 2007, with the price of sea salt in the south of Liaoning province dropping by RMB10/t to RMB165/t, compared with that of February 2007.

  20. Biosynthetic inorganic chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yi

    2006-08-25

    Inorganic chemistry and biology can benefit greatly from each other. Although synthetic and physical inorganic chemistry have been greatly successful in clarifying the role of metal ions in biological systems, the time may now be right to utilize biological systems to advance coordination chemistry. One such example is the use of small, stable, easy-to-make, and well-characterized proteins as ligands to synthesize novel inorganic compounds. This biosynthetic inorganic chemistry is possible thanks to a number of developments in biology. This review summarizes the progress in the synthesis of close models of complex metalloproteins, followed by a description of recent advances in using the approach for making novel compounds that are unprecedented in either inorganic chemistry or biology. The focus is mainly on synthetic "tricks" learned from biology, as well as novel structures and insights obtained. The advantages and disadvantages of this biosynthetic approach are discussed.

  1. Screening of Carbon and Nitrogen Sources and Inorganic Salts Mycelium Culture Medium of Phlebopus portentosus%暗褐网柄牛肝菌菌丝体培养基的碳源、氮源及无机盐的筛选研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何明霞; 张春霞; 纪开萍; 侯建勇; 刘静; 王文兵

    2009-01-01

    By the single factor test and orthogonal test, the effects of different sources of carbon, nitrogen and inorganic salts on the growth of Phlebopus portentosus mycelia were studied. The results showed that the best carbon source and nitrogen source were glucose and yeast cream, respectively. KH_2PO_4 and MgSO_4·7H_2O were the most suitable mineral salts. The optimal compositions were as follows: glucose 20 g, yeast cream 1 g, MgSO_4·7H_2O 1.5g, KH_2PO_4 1 g, potato 200 g, agar 20 g, H_2O 1 L.%通过单因子试验和正交试验,研究了不同碳源、氮源及无机盐对暗褐网柄牛肝菌菌丝生长的影响.结果表明:暗褐网柄牛肝菌菌丝生长的最佳碳源为葡萄糖,最佳氮源为酵母膏,最适无机盐为KH_2PO_4和MgSO_4·7H_2O.最佳培养基配比为:葡萄糖20 g,酵母膏1 g,MgSO_4·7H_2O 1.5 g, KH_2PO_4 1 g,去皮马铃薯200 g,琼脂20 g,H2O 1 L.

  2. Aqueous SARA ATRP using Inorganic Sulfites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abreu, Carlos M R; Fu, Liye; Carmali, Sheiliza; Serra, Arménio C; Matyjaszewski, Krzysztof; Coelho, Jorge F J

    2017-01-14

    Aqueous supplemental activator and reducing agent atom transfer radical polymerization (SARA ATRP) using inorganic sulfites was successfully carried out for the first time. Under optimized conditions, a well-controlled poly[oligo(ethylene oxide) methyl ether acrylate] (POEOA) was obtained with sulfites (e.g. Na2S2O4) were continuously fed into the reaction mixture. The mechanistic studies proved that these salts can activate alkyl halides directly and regenerate the activator complex. The effects of the feeding rate of the SARA agent (inorganic sulfites), ligand and its concentration, halide salt and its concentration, sulfite used, and copper concentration, were systematically studied to afford fast polymerizations rates while maintaining the control over polymerization. The kinetic data showed linear first-order kinetics, linear evolution of molecular weights with conversion, and polymers with narrow molecular weight distributions (Đ ~1.2) during polymerization even at relatively high monomer conversions (~80%). "One-pot" chain extension and "one-pot" block copolymerization experiments proved the high chain-end functionality. The polymerization could be directly regulated by starting or stopping the continuous feeding of the SARA agent. Under biologically relevant conditions, the aqueous SARA ATRP using inorganic sulfites was used to synthesize a well-defined protein-polymer hybrid by grafting of P(OEOA480) from BSA-O-[iBBr]30.

  3. Science Update: Inorganic Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rawls, Rebecca

    1978-01-01

    This first in a series of articles describing the state of the art of various branches of chemistry reviews inorganic chemistry, including bioinorganic, photochemistry, organometallic, and solid state chemistries. (SL)

  4. Inorganic Coatings Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The inorganic Coatings Lab provides expertise to Navy and Joint Service platforms acquisition IPTs to aid in materials and processing choices which balance up-front...

  5. Phosphate salts

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... levels that are too high, and for preventing kidney stones. They are also taken for treating osteomalacia (often ... But intravenous phosphate salts should not be used. Kidney stones (nephrolithiasis). Taking potassium phosphate by mouth might help ...

  6. Salt cookbook

    CERN Document Server

    Saha, Anirban

    2015-01-01

    If you are a professional associated with system and infrastructure management, looking at automated infrastructure and deployments, then this book is for you. No prior experience of Salt is required.

  7. 无机盐阴离子对果胶水基润滑液减摩性能的影响%Friction Reducing Properties of Water-based Lubricant of Pectin Affected by Inorganic Salt Anion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    屠婷婷; 王伟旭; 万勇; 蒲吉斌

    2014-01-01

    利用微摩擦磨损试验机评价果胶作为水基润滑添加剂的摩擦学性能,采用扫描电子显微镜分析磨痕表面形貌,并采用能量色散光谱仪分析摩擦磨损机制。同时还考察工业用水中存在的阴离子对含果胶水基润滑液摩擦学性能的影响。结果表明:在去离子水中加入少量的果胶就可显著改善水的摩擦学性能,并且随着果胶添加量的增大,减摩性能得到进一步提高,这主要是由于果胶在表面吸附形成的润滑膜起到良好的减摩效果;不同阴离子对果胶的摩擦学性能具有不同的影响,其影响的实质是盐析作用和吸附作用。%The tribologial performance of pectin polysaccharide as additive of water-based lubricant was studied by using micro friction and wear tester.The lubricating mechanisms of aqueous solution of pectin were analyzed by SEM and EDS. And the effect of the anions existed in the industrial water on the tribologial performance of water-based lubricant of pectin was investigated.The results pectin polysaccharide shows low friction when used as an additive in water.With the increase of the additive amount of pectin polysaccharide in water,the friction reducing performance is improved.This is mainly due to formed lubrication film by adsorption of the pectin on the surface.The types and concentration of anions shows different impacts on the friction reduction performance of the water-based lubricant of pectin,it is because of the salting-out effect and the adsorption of anions on the steel surfaces.

  8. Effect of several different inorganic salts,vitamins and plant hormones on the mycelial growth of Hypsizigus mermoreus (Peck) Bigelow%无机盐、维生素及生长调节剂对斑玉蕈茵丝生长的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴秀珍; 王秋玲; 杜双田; 樊玉萍; 方尚瑜

    2012-01-01

    【目的】寻找对斑玉蕈菌丝生长有促进作用的无机盐、维生素及植物生长调节剂,为斑玉蕈液体菌种的进一步开发与利用提供参考。【方法】以斑玉蕈菌株HM-2为材料,向培养基中加入不同种类及质量浓度的无机盐、维生素和植物生长调节剂,于(23±1)℃、空气相对湿度70%-75%的条件下培养12d后测定菌落直径,研究上述物质对斑玉蕈菌丝生长的影响。【结果】与不添加任何无机盐的培养基相比,0.5-2.0g/L的MgSO4、NaC1和KCl对斑玉蕈菌丝生长均有一定的促进作用,且均以1.5g/L时促进作用最大,菌落直径分别达到81.04,78.93和80.29mm;而0.5-2.0g/L的CaC12、KH2P04和0.01-0.04g/L的ZnS04对斑玉蕈菌丝的生长具有不同程度的抑制作用。与不添加任何维生素的培养基相比,2.0-10.0mg/L的烟酸、叶酸、Vn-和Vnz对斑玉蕈菌丝生长均有一定的促进作用,以2.0mg/L叶酸的促进作用最大,菌落直径达到67.76mm;而2.0-10.0mg/L的Vns对斑玉蕈菌丝生长无明显的促进和抑制作用。与不添加任何植物生长调节剂的培养基相比,2.0-10.0mg/L的IBA、GA。和NAA对斑玉蕈菌丝生长均有极显著的促进作用,以2.0mg/LIBA的促进作用最大,菌落直径达到69.33mm;而2.0-10.0mg/L的KT与6-BA对斑玉蕈菌丝生长的促进作用相对较弱。【结论】在培养基中添加适量的MgSO4、NaC1、KC1、烟酸、叶酸、VB1、VB2、IBA、GA3和NAA,可促进斑玉蕈菌丝的生长。%[Objective] The research was made to look for several different kinds of inorganic salts,vi- tamins and plant hormones which have definite promotion on the mycelial growth of Hypsizigus mar- moreus (Peck) Bigelow,in order to provide reference information for development and application of H. rnarmoreus (Peck) Bigelow liquid cultivation. [Method] H. marmoreus

  9. Inorganic UV filters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eloísa Berbel Manaia

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, concern over skin cancer has been growing more and more, especially in tropical countries where the incidence of UVA/B radiation is higher. The correct use of sunscreen is the most efficient way to prevent the development of this disease. The ingredients of sunscreen can be organic and/or inorganic sun filters. Inorganic filters present some advantages over organic filters, such as photostability, non-irritability and broad spectrum protection. Nevertheless, inorganic filters have a whitening effect in sunscreen formulations owing to the high refractive index, decreasing their esthetic appeal. Many techniques have been developed to overcome this problem and among them, the use of nanotechnology stands out. The estimated amount of nanomaterial in use must increase from 2000 tons in 2004 to a projected 58000 tons in 2020. In this context, this article aims to analyze critically both the different features of the production of inorganic filters (synthesis routes proposed in recent years and the permeability, the safety and other characteristics of the new generation of inorganic filters.

  10. Microfluidics in inorganic chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abou-Hassan, Ali; Sandre, Olivier; Cabuil, Valérie

    2010-08-23

    The application of microfluidics in chemistry has gained significant importance in the recent years. Miniaturized chemistry platforms provide controlled fluid transport, rapid chemical reactions, and cost-saving advantages over conventional reactors. The advantages of microfluidics have been clearly established in the field of analytical and bioanalytical sciences and in the field of organic synthesis. It is less true in the field of inorganic chemistry and materials science; however in inorganic chemistry it has mostly been used for the separation and selective extraction of metal ions. Microfluidics has been used in materials science mainly for the improvement of nanoparticle synthesis, namely metal, metal oxide, and semiconductor nanoparticles. Microfluidic devices can also be used for the formulation of more advanced and sophisticated inorganic materials or hybrids.

  11. Geological and Inorganic Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, L. L.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Presents a review focusing on techniques and their application to the analysis of geological and inorganic materials that offer significant changes to research and routine work. Covers geostandards, spectroscopy, plasmas, microbeam techniques, synchrotron X-ray methods, nuclear activation methods, chromatography, and electroanalytical methods.…

  12. Funky inorganic fibers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Wit, Patrick

    2017-01-01

    Inorganic porous hollow fibers (IPHF) are interesting for various applications that can benefit from a high surface-area-to-volume ratio. Examples include membranes, catalysts, electrodes, and combinations of these. The thesis starts with providing an overview of conceivable materials of which IPHF

  13. Synthetic Dye - Inorganic Salt Hybrid Colorants for Application in Thermoplastics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong-Wen Gao

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Common synthetic dyes, e.g., Weak Acid Pink Red B (APRB, C.I. 18073, Mordant Blue 9 (MB, C.I.14855 and Acid Brilliant Blue 6B (ABB6B, C.I. 42660, can be removed from water by in situ hybridization with CaCO3, BaSO4 and Ca3(PO42 and the resulting hybrids thus prepared used as plastic colorants. All the hybrids can be processed into polypropylene (PP at 200 °C with good color intensity, color brightness and homogeneous dispersion. The BaSO4-MB hybrid exhibits better migration resistance to acid and alkali, and stronger covering power than the BaSO4-MB mixture. The thermal stability and UV resistance of the Ca3(PO42-ABB6B hybrid are better than those of the Ca3(PO42-ABB6B mixture. The crystallinity of PP is enhanced by incorporation of these hybrids and the use of these hybrids as colorants in PP instead of the dyes alone is determined to be feasible.

  14. Inorganic Analytical Chemistry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berg, Rolf W.

    The book is a treatise on inorganic analytical reactions in aqueous solution. It covers about half of the elements in the periodic table, i.e. the most important ones : H, Li, B, C, N, O, Na, Mg, Al, P, S, Cl, K, Ca, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Se, Br, Sr, Mo, Ag, Cd, Sn, Sb, I, Ba, W,...

  15. Inorganic Analytical Chemistry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berg, Rolf W.

    The book is a treatise on inorganic analytical reactions in aqueous solution. It covers about half of the elements in the periodic table, i.e. the most important ones : H, Li, B, C, N, O, Na, Mg, Al, P, S, Cl, K, Ca, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Se, Br, Sr, Mo, Ag, Cd, Sn, Sb, I, Ba, W......, Hg, Tl, Pb, Bi. The subjects of compound identification and bringing insoluble compounds in solution by alcaline melt digestion are also treated. A high number of small experiments are described....

  16. Inorganic Crystal Structure Database (ICSD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    SRD 84 FIZ/NIST Inorganic Crystal Structure Database (ICSD) (PC database for purchase)   The Inorganic Crystal Structure Database (ICSD) is produced cooperatively by the Fachinformationszentrum Karlsruhe(FIZ) and the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST). The ICSD is a comprehensive collection of crystal structure data of inorganic compounds containing more than 140,000 entries and covering the literature from 1915 to the present.

  17. Inorganic bromine in the marine boundary layer: a critical review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Sander

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available The cycling of inorganic bromine in the marine boundary layer (mbl has received increased attention in recent years. Bromide, a constituent of sea water, is injected into the atmosphere in association with sea-salt aerosol by breaking waves on the ocean surface. Measurements reveal that supermicrometer sea-salt aerosol is depleted in bromine by about 50% relative to conservative tracers, whereas marine submicrometer aerosol is often enriched in bromine. Model calculations, laboratory studies, and field observations strongly suggest that these depletions reflect the chemical transformation of particulate bromide to reactive inorganic gases that influence the processing of ozone and other important constituents of marine air. However, currently available techniques cannot reliably quantify many chem{Br}-containing compounds at ambient concentrations and, consequently, our understanding of inorganic Br cycling over the oceans and its global significance are uncertain. To provide a more coherent framework for future research, we have reviewed measurements in marine aerosol, the gas phase, and in rain. We also summarize sources and sinks, as well as model and laboratory studies of chemical transformations. The focus is on inorganic bromine over the open oceans, excluding the polar regions. The generation of sea-salt aerosol at the ocean surface is the major tropospheric source producing about 6.2 Tg/a of bromide. The transport of  Br from continents (as mineral aerosol, and as products from biomass-burning and fossil-fuel combustion can be of local importance. Transport of degradation products of long-lived Br-containing compounds from the stratosphere and other sources contribute lesser amounts. Available evidence suggests that, following aerosol acidification, sea-salt bromide reacts to form Br2 and BrCl that volatilize to the gas phase and photolyze in daylight to produce atomic Br and Cl. Subsequent transformations can destroy

  18. Inorganic bromine in the marine boundary layer: a critical review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Sander

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The cycling of inorganic bromine in the marine boundary layer (mbl has received increased attention in recent years. Bromide, a constituent of sea water, is injected into the atmosphere in association with sea-salt aerosol by breaking waves on the ocean surface. Measurements reveal that supermicrometer sea-salt aerosol is substantially depleted in bromine (often exceeding 50% relative to conservative tracers, whereas marine submicrometer aerosol is often enriched in bromine. Model calculations, laboratory studies, and field observations strongly suggest that the supermicrometer depletions reflect the chemical transformation of particulate bromide to reactive inorganic gases that influence the processing of ozone and other important constituents of marine air. Mechanisms for the submicrometer enrichments are not well understood. Currently available techniques cannot reliably quantify many Br containing compounds at ambient concentrations and, consequently, our understanding of inorganic Br cycling over the oceans and its global significance are uncertain. To provide a more coherent framework for future research, we have reviewed measurements in marine aerosol, the gas phase, and in rain. We also summarize sources and sinks, as well as model and laboratory studies of chemical transformations. The focus is on inorganic bromine over the open oceans outside the polar regions. The generation of sea-salt aerosol at the ocean surface is the major tropospheric source producing about 6.2 Tg/a of bromide. The transport of Br from continents (as mineral aerosol, and as products from biomass-burning and fossil-fuel combustion can be of local importance. Transport of degradation products of long-lived Br containing compounds from the stratosphere and other sources contribute lesser amounts. Available evidence suggests that, following aerosol acidification, sea-salt bromide reacts to form Br2 and BrCl that volatilize to the gas phase and photolyze in daylight

  19. Ion-binding of glycine zwitterion with inorganic ions in biologically relevant aqueous electrolyte solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedotova, Marina V; Kruchinin, Sergey E

    2014-06-01

    The ion-binding between inorganic ions and charged functional groups of glycine zwitter-ion in NaCl(aq), KCl(aq), MgCl2(aq), and CaCl2(aq) has been investigated over a wide salt concentration range by using integral equation theory in the 3D-RISM approach. These systems mimic biological systems where binding of ions to charged residues at protein surfaces is relevant. It has been found that the stability of ion pairs formed by the carboxylate group and added inorganic cations decreases in the sequence Mg(2+)>Ca(2+)>Na(+)>K(+). However, all formed ion pairs are weak and decrease in stability with increasing salt concentration. On the other hand, at a given salt concentration the stability of (-NH3(+):Cl(-))aq ion pairs is similar in all studied systems. The features of ion-binding and the salt concentration effect on this process are discussed.

  20. Selective inorganic thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phillips, M.L.F.; Weisenbach, L.A.; Anderson, M.T. [Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM (United States)] [and others

    1995-05-01

    This project is developing inorganic thin films as membranes for gas separation applications, and as discriminating coatings for liquid-phase chemical sensors. Our goal is to synthesize these coatings with tailored porosity and surface chemistry on porous substrates and on acoustic and optical sensors. Molecular sieve films offer the possibility of performing separations involving hydrogen, air, and natural gas constituents at elevated temperatures with very high separation factors. We are focusing on improving permeability and molecular sieve properties of crystalline zeolitic membranes made by hydrothermally reacting layered multicomponent sol-gel films deposited on mesoporous substrates. We also used acoustic plate mode (APM) oscillator and surface plasmon resonance (SPR) sensor elements as substrates for sol-gel films, and have both used these modified sensors to determine physical properties of the films and have determined the sensitivity and selectivity of these sensors to aqueous chemical species.

  1. Structural crystallography of inorganic oxysalts

    CERN Document Server

    Krivovichev, Sergey V

    2009-01-01

    Inorganic oxysalts are chemical compounds that contain oxygen - the most abundant element in the Earth's core. This book is the first systematic survey of structures of inorganic oxysalts considered from the viewpoint of modern scientific methods of description and visualisation of complex atomic arrangements.

  2. Modeling the Thermodynamics of Mixed Organic-Inorganic Aerosols to Predict Water Activities and Phase Equilibria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuend, A.; Marcolli, C.; Luo, B.; Peter, T.

    2008-12-01

    Tropospheric aerosol particles contain mixtures of inorganic salts, acids, water, and a large variety of organic compounds. Interactions between these substances in liquid mixtures lead to discrepancies from ideal thermodynamic behavior. While the thermodynamics of aqueous inorganic systems at atmospheric temperatures are well established, little is known about the physicochemistry of mixed organic-inorganic particles. Salting-out and salting-in effects result from organic-inorganic interactions and are used to improve industrial separation processes. In the atmosphere, they may influence the aerosol phases. Liquid-liquid phase separations into a mainly polar (aqueous) and a less polar organic phase may considerably influence the gas/particle partitioning of semi-volatile substances compared to a single phase estimation. Moreover, the phases present in the aerosol define the reaction medium for heterogeneous and multiphase chemistry occurring in aerosol particles. A correct description of these phases is needed when gas- or cloud-phase reaction schemes are adapted to aerosols. Non-ideal thermodynamic behavior in mixtures is usually described by an expression for the excess Gibbs energy. We present the group-contribution model AIOMFAC (Aerosol Inorganic-Organic Mixtures Functional groups Activity Coefficients), which explicitly accounts for molecular interactions between solution constituents, both organic and inorganic, to calculate activities, chemical potentials and the total Gibbs energy of mixed systems. This model allows to compute vapor-liquid (VLE), liquid-liquid (LLE) and solid-liquid (SLE) equilibria within one framework. Focusing on atmospheric applications we considered eight different cations, five anions and a wide range of alcohols/polyols as organic compounds. With AIOMFAC, the activities of the components within an aqueous electrolyte solution are very well represented up to high ionic strength. We show that the semiempirical middle

  3. Organic/inorganic hybrid coatings for anticorrosion

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Zhouying

    Compared to organic coatings, organic-inorganic hybrid coatings can potentially improve the anticorrosion performance. The organic phase provides the excellent mechaincal and barrier properties while the inorganic phase acts as an adhesion promoter and corrosion inhibitor. Despite that many studies on alkoxylsilane-based hybrid coatings have been developed and studied, their weatherability and anticorrosion performance has been rarely evaluated. On the other hand, organic-inorganic hybrid coatings based on mixed sol-gel precursors have received much less attention compared to alkoxylsilane-based hybrid coatings. In the first part, polyurethane hybrid coatings with a unique hybrid crosslinked structure as an improved unicoat were successfully prepared. The effect of polyesters on physical properties of the hybrid coatings was studied. Polyurethane coatings derived from cycloaliphatic polyester show comparable properties than those derived from the commercially viable aromatic polyester. Introducing the polysiloxane part into the polyurethane coatings enhanced the crosslinking density, Tg, mechanical properties, and general coating properties. The increased adhesion between the hybrid coating and the substrate make the hybrid coating a good candidate for anticorrosion application, which is shown by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The degradation mechanism of the polyurethane/polysiloxane hybrid coatings under various weathering conditions was shown to be the scission of the urethane and ester groups in the organic phase along with reorganizing and rearranging of the inorganic phase. The anticorrosion performance of the cycloaliphatic hybrid was much better than that of aromatic based hybrid under outdoor weathering based on visual observation and EIS analysis. Acid undercutting is an issue for TEOS based hybrid coating. In the second part, design of experiments (DOEs) was used to statistically investigate on the effect of sol-gel precursors. The

  4. Recent advances in inorganic materials for LDI-MS analysis of small molecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, C Y; Deng, C H

    2016-05-10

    In this review, various inorganic materials were summarized for the analysis of small molecules by laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry (LDI-MS). Due to its tremendous advantages, such as simplicity, high speed, high throughput, small analyte volumes and tolerance towards salts, LDI-MS has been widely used in various analytes. During the ionization process, a suitable agent is required to assist the ionization, such as an appropriate matrix for matrix assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry (MALDI-MS). However, it is normally difficult to analyze small molecules with the MALDI technique because conventional organic matrices may produce matrix-related peaks in the low molecular-weight region, which limits the detection of small molecules (m/z molecules. These inorganic materials can transfer energy and improve the ionization efficiency of analytes. In addition, functionalized inorganic materials can act as both an adsorbent and an agent in the enrichment and ionization of small molecules. In this review, we mainly focus on present advances in inorganic materials for the LDI-MS analysis of small molecules in the last five years, which contains the synthetic protocols of novel inorganic materials and the detailed results achieved by inorganic materials. On the other hand, this review also summarizes the application of inorganic materials as adsorbents in the selective enrichment of small molecules, which provides a new field for the application of inorganic materials.

  5. Selective inorganic thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phillips, M.L.F.; Pohl, P.I.; Brinker, C.J. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1997-04-01

    Separating light gases using membranes is a technology area for which there exists opportunities for significant energy savings. Examples of industrial needs for gas separation include hydrogen recovery, natural gas purification, and dehydration. A membrane capable of separating H{sub 2} from other gases at high temperatures could recover hydrogen from refinery waste streams, and facilitate catalytic dehydrogenation and the water gas shift (CO + H{sub 2}O {yields} H{sub 2} + CO{sub 2}) reaction. Natural gas purification requires separating CH{sub 4} from mixtures with CO{sub 2}, H{sub 2}S, H{sub 2}O, and higher alkanes. A dehydrating membrane would remove water vapor from gas streams in which water is a byproduct or a contaminant, such as refrigeration systems. Molecular sieve films offer the possibility of performing separations involving hydrogen, natural gas constituents, and water vapor at elevated temperatures with very high separation factors. It is in applications such as these that the authors expect inorganic molecular sieve membranes to compete most effectively with current gas separation technologies. Cryogenic separations are very energy intensive. Polymer membranes do not have the thermal stability appropriate for high temperature hydrogen recovery, and tend to swell in the presence of hydrocarbon natural gas constituents. The authors goal is to develop a family of microporous oxide films that offer permeability and selectivity exceeding those of polymer membranes, allowing gas membranes to compete with cryogenic and adsorption technologies for large-scale gas separation applications.

  6. Nanoscale precipitation coating: the deposition of inorganic films through step-by-step spray-assembly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popa, Gabriela; Boulmedais, Fouzia; Zhao, Peng; Hemmerlé, Joseph; Vidal, Loïc; Mathieu, Eric; Félix, Olivier; Schaaf, Pierre; Decher, Gero; Voegel, Jean-Claude

    2010-08-24

    Thin films and surface coatings play an important role in basic and applied research. Here we report on a new, versatile, and simple method ("precipitation coating") for the preparation of inorganic films, based on the alternate spraying of complementary inorganic salt solutions against a receiving surface on which the inorganic deposit forms. The method applies whenever the solubility of the deposited material is smaller than that of the salts in the solutions of the reactants. The film thickness is controlled from nanometers to hundreds of micrometers simply by varying the number of spraying steps; 200 spray cycles, corresponding to less than 15 min deposition time, yield films with thicknesses exceeding one micrometer and reaching tens of micrometers in some cases. The new solution-based process is also compatible with conventional layer-by-layer assembly and permits the fabrication of multimaterial sandwich-like coatings.

  7. Determination of some electrical parameters for composite inorganic membranes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benavente, J.; Ramos-Barrado, J.R.; Cabeza, A. [Universidad de Malaga (Spain)

    1994-12-31

    Composite inorganic membranes were obtained by deposition of an inorganic precipitate layer (uranyl phosphonate: UO{sub 2}(O{sub 3}PC{sub 6}H{sub 5}) or UPP) on a commercial porous alumina membrane (Anopore{trademark}, 0.2 {mu}m pore size). Salt diffusion and membrane potential for the whole membrane were measured for NaCl and other electrolytes containing the precipitate generating ions, and for concentration ranging between 10{sup -4}M and 210{sup -2}M. Dielectric parameters (resistance and capacitance) were obtained from impedance spectroscopy measurements, and the equivalent circuits associated to the membrane/electrolyte systems were also determined. From the experimental results, other parameters such as cation transport numbers and ionic permeabilities were obtained. Concentration dependence of all these parameters was also considered. Measurements were carried out with the composite inorganic membrane and the alumina porous support. A comparison of the results found for both membranes gives information about the value of all these parameters in the layer formed by the inorganic UPP precipitate.

  8. Essentials of inorganic materials synthesis

    CERN Document Server

    Rao, C N R

    2015-01-01

    This compact handbook describes all the important methods of synthesis employed today for synthesizing inorganic materials. Some features: Focuses on modern inorganic materials with applications in nanotechnology, energy materials, and sustainability Synthesis is a crucial component of materials science and technology; this book provides a simple introduction as well as an updated description of methods Written in a very simple style, providing references to the literature to get details of the methods of preparation when required

  9. Inorganic materials in industrial processes

    OpenAIRE

    Demadis, Konstantinos

    2015-01-01

    Although inorganic materials represent a small number to the extreme number of the organic ones, they play a number of crucial roles in several processes of industrial interest. Two significant technologically processes have been selected as “case studies” for this presentation: metallic corrosion and its control, and mitigation of inorganic deposits, both related to industrial water systems. Universidad de Málaga. Campus de Excelencia Internacional Andalucía Tech.

  10. The behaviour of salt and salt caverns

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fokker, P.A.

    1995-01-01

    Salts are mined for both storage and extraction purposes, either via dry or solution mining techniques. For operational, environmental and geological purposes, it is important to understand and predict the in situ behaviour of salt, in particular the creep and strength characteristics. A micro-mecha

  11. Tetraalkylphosphonium polyoxometalate ionic liquids: novel, organic-inorganic hybrid materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rickert, Paul G; Antonio, Mark R; Firestone, Millicent A; Kubatko, Karrie-Ann; Szreder, Tomasz; Wishart, James F; Dietz, Mark L

    2007-05-10

    Pairing of a Keggin or Lindqvist polyoxometalate (POM) anion with an appropriate tetraalkylphosphonium cation is shown to yield the first members of a new family of ionic liquids (ILs). Detailed characterization of one of them, an ambient-temperature "liquid POM" comprising the Lindqvist salt of the trihexyl(tetradecyl) phosphonium cation, by voltammetry, viscometry, conductimetry, and thermal analysis indicates that it exhibits conductivity and viscosity comparable to those of the one previously described inorganic-organic POM-IL hybrid but with substantially improved thermal stability.

  12. Tetraalkylphosphonium polyoxometalate ionic liquids : novel, organic-inorganic hybrid materials.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rickert, P. G.; Antonio, M. P.; Firestone, M. A.; Kubatko, K.-A.; Szreder, T.; Wishart, J. F.; Dietz, M. L.; Chemistry; Univ. of Notre Dame; BNL

    2007-01-01

    Pairing of a Keggin or Lindqvist polyoxometalate (POM) anion with an appropriate tetraalkylphosphonium cation is shown to yield the first members of a new family of ionic liquids (ILs). Detailed characterization of one of them, an ambient-temperature 'liquid POM' comprising the Lindqvist salt of the trihexyl(tetradecyl) phosphonium cation, by voltammetry, viscometry, conductimetry, and thermal analysis indicates that it exhibits conductivity and viscosity comparable to those of the one previously described inorganic-organic POM-IL hybrid but with substantially improved thermal stability.

  13. Salt splitting using ceramic membranes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurath, D.E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

    1997-10-01

    Many radioactive aqueous wastes in the DOE complex have high concentrations of sodium that can negatively affect waste treatment and disposal operations. Sodium can decrease the durability of waste forms such as glass and is the primary contributor to large disposal volumes. Waste treatment processes such as cesium ion exchange, sludge washing, and calcination are made less efficient and more expensive because of the high sodium concentrations. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) and Ceramatec Inc. (Salt Lake City UT) are developing an electrochemical salt splitting process based on inorganic ceramic sodium (Na), super-ionic conductor (NaSICON) membranes that shows promise for mitigating the impact of sodium. In this process, the waste is added to the anode compartment, and an electrical potential is applied to the cell. This drives sodium ions through the membrane, but the membrane rejects most other cations (e.g., Sr{sup +2}, Cs{sup +}). The charge balance in the anode compartment is maintained by generating H{sup +} from the electrolysis of water. The charge balance in the cathode is maintained by generating OH{sup {minus}}, either from the electrolysis of water or from oxygen and water using an oxygen cathode. The normal gaseous products of the electrolysis of water are oxygen at the anode and hydrogen at the cathode. Potentially flammable gas mixtures can be prevented by providing adequate volumes of a sweep gas, using an alternative reductant or destruction of the hydrogen as it is generated. As H{sup +} is generated in the anode compartment, the pH drops. The process may be operated with either an alkaline (pH>12) or an acidic anolyte (pH <1). The benefits of salt splitting using ceramic membranes are (1) waste volume reduction and reduced chemical procurement costs by recycling of NaOH; and (2) direct reduction of sodium in process streams, which enhances subsequent operations such as cesium ion exchange, calcination, and vitrification.

  14. Cooking without salt

    Science.gov (United States)

    DASH diet; High blood pressure - DASH; Hypertension - DASH; Low-salt diet - DASH ... Explore cooking with salt substitutes. Add a splash of lemon and other citrus fruits, or wine, to soups and other dishes. Or use them ...

  15. The salts of Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, B. C.; Van Hart, D. C.

    1981-01-01

    Salt compounds are apparently an important component of the fine-grained regolith on Mars. Salt enrichment may be explained either as a secondary concentration of chemical weathering products or as direct incorporation of planetary released volatiles. Geochemical measurements and chemical relationships constrain the salt species and resultant physicochemical consequences. A likely assemblage is dominated by (Mg,Na)SO4, NaCl, and (Mg,Ca)CO3. Formation of brine in equilibrium with such a salt mixture is unlikely under the temperature and water-vapor restrictions prevalent over most, if not all, of the Martian surface. Acidic conditions, accompanying salt formation, favor the preferential destruction of susceptible igneous minerals.

  16. Recent developments in Inorganic polymers: A Review with focus on Si-Al based inorganic polymers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shrray Srivastava

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Inorganic polymers are a unique classification of polymers. They contain inorganic atoms in the main chain. Hybrids with organic polymers as well as those chains that contain metals as pendant groups are considered in a special sub-classification as organo-metallic polymers. The networks containing only inorganic elements in main chain are called inorganic polymers. The silicone rubber is the most commercial inorganic polymer. The organo-metallic and inorganic polymers have a different set of applications. The current paper is a review of current applications of polymers with inorganic back-bone networks, especially focusing on Si and Al based inorganic polymeric materials.

  17. Prices of Inorganic Chemicals Changed Differently

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ Raw salt China's raw salt market price remained relatively stable in July 2007. The average ex-work prices of raw salt in Hebei province and the south of Liaoning province were RMB150/t and RMB165/t respectively.

  18. Inorganic Reaction Mechanisms. Part I

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooke, D. O.

    1976-01-01

    Provides a collection of data on the mechanistic aspects of inorganic chemical reactions. Wherever possible includes procedures for classroom demonstration or student project work. The material covered includes gas phase reactions, reactions in solution, mechanisms of electron transfer, the reaction between iron III and iodine, and hydrolysis. (GS)

  19. Inorganic nanomedicine--part 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekhon, Bhupinder S; Kamboj, Seema R

    2010-08-01

    Inorganic nanomedicine refers to the use of inorganic or hybrid nanomaterials and nanosized objects to achieve innovative medical breakthroughs for drug and gene discovery and delivery, discovery of biomarkers, and molecular diagnostics. Potential uses for fluorescent quantum dots include cell labeling, biosensing, in vivo imaging, bimodal magnetic-luminescent imaging, and diagnostics. Biocompatible quantum dot conjugates have been used successfully for sentinel lymph node mapping, tumor targeting, tumor angiogenesis imaging, and metastatic cell tracking. Magnetic nanowires applications include biosensing and construction of nucleic acids sensors. Magnetic cell therapy is used for the repair of blood vessels. Magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) are important for magnetic resonance imaging, drug delivery, cell labeling, and tracking. Superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles are used for hyperthermic treatment of tumors. Multifunctional MNPs applications include drug and gene delivery, medical imaging, and targeted drug delivery. MNPs could have a vital role in developing techniques to simultaneously diagnose, monitor, and treat a wide range of common diseases and injuries. From the clinical editor: This review serves as an update about the current state of inorganic nanomedicine. The use of inorganic/hybrid nanomaterials and nanosized objects has already resulted in innovative medical breakthroughs for drug/gene discovery and delivery, discovery of biomarkers and molecular diagnostics, and is likely to remain one of the most prolific fields of nanomedicine.

  20. Organic - Inorganic Hybrids made from Polymerizable Precursors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Uricanu, V.I.; Donescu, D.; Banu, A.G.; Serban, S.; Olteanu, M.; Dudau, M.

    2004-01-01

    Organic–inorganic hybrid films were prepared based on a recipe using organoalkoxysilanes’ ability to create an inorganic network combined with polymer network formation via radical polymerization of the organic groups. The starting mixtures included different triethoxysilanes (RTES), where the

  1. Submarine Salt Karst Terrains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nico Augustin

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Karst terrains that develop in bodies of rock salt (taken as mainly of halite, NaCl are special not only for developing in one of the most soluble of all rocks, but also for developing in one of the weakest rocks. Salt is so weak that many surface-piercing salt diapirs extrude slow fountains of salt that that gravity spread downslope over deserts on land and over sea floors. Salt fountains in the deserts of Iran are usually so dry that they flow at only a few cm/yr but the few rain storms a decade so soak and weaken them that they surge at dm/day for a few days. We illustrate the only case where the rates at which different parts of one of the many tens of subaerial salt karst terrains in Iran flows downslope constrains the rates at which its subaerial salt karst terrains form. Normal seawater is only 10% saturated in NaCl. It should therefore be sufficiently aggressive to erode karst terrains into exposures of salt on the thousands of known submarine salt extrusions that have flowed or are still flowing over the floors of hundreds of submarine basins worldwide. However, we know of no attempt to constrain the processes that form submarine salt karst terrains on any of these of submarine salt extrusions. As on land, many potential submarine karst terrains are cloaked by clastic and pelagic sediments that are often hundreds of m thick. Nevertheless, detailed geophysical and bathymetric surveys have already mapped likely submarine salt karst terrains in at least the Gulf of Mexico, and the Red Sea. New images of these two areas are offered as clear evidence of submarine salt dissolution due to sinking or rising aggressive fluids. We suggest that repeated 3D surveys of distinctive features (± fixed seismic reflectors of such terrains could measure any downslope salt flow and thus offer an exceptional opportunity to constrain the rates at which submarine salt karst terrains develop. Such rates are of interest to all salt tectonicians and the many

  2. Modeling the surface tension of complex, reactive organic-inorganic mixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwier, A. N.; Viglione, G. A.; Li, Z.; McNeill, V. Faye

    2013-11-01

    Atmospheric aerosols can contain thousands of organic compounds which impact aerosol surface tension, affecting aerosol properties such as heterogeneous reactivity, ice nucleation, and cloud droplet formation. We present new experimental data for the surface tension of complex, reactive organic-inorganic aqueous mixtures mimicking tropospheric aerosols. Each solution contained 2-6 organic compounds, including methylglyoxal, glyoxal, formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, oxalic acid, succinic acid, leucine, alanine, glycine, and serine, with and without ammonium sulfate. We test two semi-empirical surface tension models and find that most reactive, complex, aqueous organic mixtures which do not contain salt are well described by a weighted Szyszkowski-Langmuir (S-L) model which was first presented by Henning et al. (2005). Two approaches for modeling the effects of salt were tested: (1) the Tuckermann approach (an extension of the Henning model with an additional explicit salt term), and (2) a new implicit method proposed here which employs experimental surface tension data obtained for each organic species in the presence of salt used with the Henning model. We recommend the use of method (2) for surface tension modeling of aerosol systems because the Henning model (using data obtained from organic-inorganic systems) and Tuckermann approach provide similar modeling results and goodness-of-fit (χ2) values, yet the Henning model is a simpler and more physical approach to modeling the effects of salt, requiring less empirically determined parameters.

  3. Modeling the surface tension of complex, reactive organic-inorganic mixtures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. N. Schwier

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Atmospheric aerosols can contain thousands of organic compounds which impact aerosol surface tension, affecting aerosol properties such as cloud condensation nuclei (CCN ability. We present new experimental data for the surface tension of complex, reactive organic-inorganic aqueous mixtures mimicking tropospheric aerosols. Each solution contained 2–6 organic compounds, including methylglyoxal, glyoxal, formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, oxalic acid, succinic acid, leucine, alanine, glycine, and serine, with and without ammonium sulfate. We test two surface tension models and find that most reactive, complex, aqueous organic mixtures which do not contain salt are well-described by a weighted Szyszkowski–Langmuir (S–L model which was first presented by Henning et al. (2005. Two approaches for modeling the effects of salt were tested: (1 the Tuckermann approach (an extension of the Henning model with an additional explicit salt term, and (2 a new implicit method proposed here which employs experimental surface tension data obtained for each organic species in the presence of salt used with the Henning model. We recommend the use of method (2 for surface tension modeling because the Henning model (using data obtained from organic-inorganic systems and Tuckermann approach provide similar modeling fits and goodness of fit (χ2 values, yet the Henning model is a simpler and more physical approach to modeling the effects of salt, requiring less empirically determined parameters.

  4. Problems in structural inorganic chemistry

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Wai-Kee; Mak, Thomas Chung Wai; Mak, Kendrew Kin Wah

    2013-01-01

    This book consists of over 300 problems (and their solutions) in structural inorganic chemistry at the senior undergraduate and beginning graduate level. The topics covered comprise Atomic and Molecular Electronic States, Atomic Orbitals, Hybrid Orbitals, Molecular Symmetry, Molecular Geometry and Bonding, Crystal Field Theory, Molecular Orbital Theory, Vibrational Spectroscopy, and Crystal Structure. The central theme running through these topics is symmetry, molecular or crystalline. The problems collected in this volume originate in examination papers and take-home assignments that have been part of the teaching of the book's two senior authors' at The Chinese University of Hong Kong over the past four decades. The authors' courses include Chemical Bonding, Elementary Quantum Chemistry, Advanced Inorganic Chemistry, X-Ray Crystallography, etc. The problems have been tested by generations of students taking these courses.

  5. Inorganic semiconductors for flexible electronics.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Y.; Rogers, J. A.; Center for Nanoscale Materials; Univ. of Illinois

    2007-08-03

    This article reviews several classes of inorganic semiconductor materials that can be used to form high-performance thin-film transistors (TFTs) for large area, flexible electronics. Examples ranging from thin films of various forms of silicon to nanoparticles and nanowires of compound semiconductors are presented, with an emphasis on methods of depositing and integrating thin films of these materials into devices. Performance characteristics, including both electrical and mechanical behavior, for isolated transistors as well as circuits with various levels of complexity are reviewed. Collectively, the results suggest that flexible or printable inorganic materials may be attractive for a range of applications not only in flexible but also in large-area electronics, from existing devices such as flat-panel displays to more challenging (in terms of both cost and performance requirements) systems such as large area radiofrequency communication devices, structural health monitors, and conformal X-ray imagers.

  6. Inorganic Chemicals Showed Different Price Change

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ Raw salt The price of raw salt went down in May 2007, with the average price of sea salt in Shandong province dropping by RMB10/t to RMB80/t, compared with that of April 2007. The unduly output growth of raw salt caused the price downturn.

  7. SALT for Language Acquisition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bancroft, W. Jane

    1996-01-01

    Discusses Schuster's Suggestive-Accelerative Learning Techniques (SALT) Method, which combines Lozanov's Suggestopedia with such American methods as Asher's Total Physical Response and Galyean's Confluent Education. The article argues that students trained with the SALT Method have higher achievement scores and better attitudes than others. (14…

  8. Hydroxycarboxylic acids and salts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kiely, Donald E; Hash, Kirk R; Kramer-Presta, Kylie; Smith, Tyler N

    2015-02-24

    Compositions which inhibit corrosion and alter the physical properties of concrete (admixtures) are prepared from salt mixtures of hydroxycarboxylic acids, carboxylic acids, and nitric acid. The salt mixtures are prepared by neutralizing acid product mixtures from the oxidation of polyols using nitric acid and oxygen as the oxidizing agents. Nitric acid is removed from the hydroxycarboxylic acids by evaporation and diffusion dialysis.

  9. SALT for Language Acquisition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bancroft, W. Jane

    1996-01-01

    Discusses Schuster's Suggestive-Accelerative Learning Techniques (SALT) Method, which combines Lozanov's Suggestopedia with such American methods as Asher's Total Physical Response and Galyean's Confluent Education. The article argues that students trained with the SALT Method have higher achievement scores and better attitudes than others. (14…

  10. Geomechanics of bedded salt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serata, S.; Milnor, S.W.

    1979-06-08

    Creep data from the literature search is reinterpreted by SGI, resulting in a better understanding of the temperature and stress state dependence of the octahedral creep rate and the octahedral shear strength. The concept of a transition strength between the elastic and the plastic states is in agreement with the data. The elastic and rheological properties of salt are described, and a set of constitutive equations is presented. The dependence of material properties on parameters such as temperature is considered. Findings on the permeability of salt are summarized, and the in-situ behavior of openings in bedded salt is described based on extensive engineering experience. A stress measuring system utilizing a finite element computer code is discussed. Geological factors affecting the stability of salt openings are considered, and the Stress Control Technique for designing stable openings in bedded salt formations is explained.

  11. Salt Tolerance in Soybean

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tsui-Hung Phang; Guihua Shao; Hon-Ming Lam

    2008-01-01

    Soybean is an Important cash crop and its productivity is significantly hampered by salt stress. High salt Imposes negative impacts on growth, nodulation, agronomy traits, seed quality and quantity, and thus reduces the yield of soybean. To cope with salt stress, soybean has developed several tolerance mechanisms, including: (I) maintenance of ion homeostasis; (ii) adjustment in response to osmotic stress; (iii) restoration of osmotic balance; and (iv) other metabolic and structural adaptations. The regulatory network for abiotic stress responses in higher plants has been studied extensively in model plants such as Arabidopsis thaliana. Some homologous components involved in salt stress responses have been identified in soybean. In this review, we tried to integrate the relevant works on soybean and proposes a working model to descdbe Its salt stress responses at the molecular level.

  12. Salt and nephrolithiasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ticinesi, Andrea; Nouvenne, Antonio; Maalouf, Naim M; Borghi, Loris; Meschi, Tiziana

    2016-01-01

    Dietary sodium chloride intake is nowadays globally known as one of the major threats for cardiovascular health. However, there is also important evidence that it may influence idiopathic calcium nephrolithiasis onset and recurrence. Higher salt intake has been associated with hypercalciuria and hypocitraturia, which are major risk factors for calcium stone formation. Dietary salt restriction can be an effective means for secondary prevention of nephrolithiasis as well. Thus in this paper, we review the complex relationship between salt and nephrolithiasis, pointing out the difference between dietary sodium and salt intake and the best methods to assess them, highlighting the main findings of epidemiologic, laboratory and intervention studies and focusing on open issues such as the role of dietary salt in secondary causes of nephrolithiasis.

  13. Organic-inorganic nanostructures for luminescent indication in the near-infrared range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondratenko, T. S.; Ovchinnikov, O. V.; Grevtseva, I. G.; Smirnov, M. S.

    2016-04-01

    Amplifying and quenching of IR luminescence of colloidal Ag2S quantum dots were revealed to take place when they couple to organic dye molecules of 3,3'-di-(γ-sulfopropyl)-9-ethyl-4,5,4',5'-dibenzothiacarbocyanine betaine and erytrosine pyridinium salts, respectively. The observed effects are explained as due to the formation of organic-inorganic heterostructures with different mutual arrangement of electronic states of the dyes and the quantum dots.

  14. Reference repository design concept for bedded salt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carpenter, D.W.; Martin, R.W.

    1980-10-08

    A reference design concept is presented for the subsurface portions of a nuclear waste repository in bedded salt. General geologic, geotechnical, hydrologic and geochemical data as well as descriptions of the physical systems are provided for use on generic analyses of the pre- and post-sealing performance of repositories in this geologic medium. The geology of bedded salt deposits and the regional and repository horizon stratigraphy are discussed. Structural features of salt beds including discontinuities and dissolution features are presented and their effect on repository performance is discussed. Seismic hazards and the potential effects of earthquakes on underground repositories are presented. The effect on structural stability and worker safety during construction from hydrocarbon and inorganic gases is described. Geohydrologic considerations including regional hydrology, repository scale hydrology and several hydrological failure modes are presented in detail as well as the hydrological considerations that effect repository design. Operational phase performance is discussed with respect to operations, ventilation system, shaft conveyances, waste handling and retrieval systems and receival rates of nuclear waste. Performance analysis of the post sealing period of a nuclear repository is discussed, and parameters to be used in such an analysis are presented along with regulatory constraints. Some judgements are made regarding hydrologic failure scenarios. Finally, the design and licensing process, consistent with the current licensing procedure is described in a format that can be easily understood.

  15. Integrated demonstration of molten salt oxidation with salt recycle for mixed waste treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hsu, P.C.

    1997-11-01

    Molten Salt Oxidation (MSO) is a thermal, nonflame process that has the inherent capability of completely destroying organic constituents of mixed wastes, hazardous wastes, and energetic materials while retaining inorganic and radioactive constituents in the salt. For this reason, MSO is considered a promising alternative to incineration for the treatment of a variety of organic wastes. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) has prepared a facility and constructed an integrated pilot-scale MSO treatment system in which tests and demonstrations are performed under carefully controlled (experimental) conditions. The system consists of a MSO processor with dedicated off-gas treatment, a salt recycle system, feed preparation equipment, and equipment for preparing ceramic final waste forms. This integrated system was designed and engineered based on laboratory experience with a smaller engineering-scale reactor unit and extensive laboratory development on salt recycle and final forms preparation. In this paper we present design and engineering details of the system and discuss its capabilities as well as preliminary process demonstration data. A primary purpose of these demonstrations is identification of the most suitable waste streams and waste types for MSO treatment.

  16. Influence of additives (inorganic/organic on the clouding behavior of amphiphilic drug solutions: Some thermodynamic studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malik Abdul Rub

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Herein we provide a detailed result about the effect of various additives, viz. inorganic salts, quaternary ammonium bromides (QABs and amino acids on clouding behavior of amphiphilic drug amitriptyline hydrochloride (AMT. The continuous increase in the cloud point (CP of drug by increase in inorganic salt concentration and the magnitude of increases rely upon the position of the salts in Hofmeister series and hydrated radii. The QABs also influence continuous increase in the CP, which is illustrated in terms of the alkyl chain length of peculiar QAB. The effect of amino acids on CP of the drug solution is dependent upon the characteristics (acidic, basic, polar or nonpolar of particular amino acids. The overall behavior of additives has been analyzed and discussed on the basis of electrostatic repulsion or interaction, micellar growth, and mixed micelle formation between the ingredients. In addition to this, thermodynamic parameters are also evaluated.

  17. Crushed Salt Constitutive Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Callahan, G.D.

    1999-02-01

    The constitutive model used to describe the deformation of crushed salt is presented in this report. Two mechanisms -- dislocation creep and grain boundary diffusional pressure solution -- are combined to form the basis for the constitutive model governing the deformation of crushed salt. The constitutive model is generalized to represent three-dimensional states of stress. Upon complete consolidation, the crushed-salt model reproduces the Multimechanism Deformation (M-D) model typically used for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) host geological formation salt. New shear consolidation tests are combined with an existing database that includes hydrostatic consolidation and shear consolidation tests conducted on WIPP and southeastern New Mexico salt. Nonlinear least-squares model fitting to the database produced two sets of material parameter values for the model -- one for the shear consolidation tests and one for a combination of the shear and hydrostatic consolidation tests. Using the parameter values determined from the fitted database, the constitutive model is validated against constant strain-rate tests. Shaft seal problems are analyzed to demonstrate model-predicted consolidation of the shaft seal crushed-salt component. Based on the fitting statistics, the ability of the model to predict the test data, and the ability of the model to predict load paths and test data outside of the fitted database, the model appears to capture the creep consolidation behavior of crushed salt reasonably well.

  18. Solid-liquid (S-L) an liquid (L-L) phase transfer of salts via ‘encapsulated’ crown ether cation complexes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reinhoudt, D.N.

    1983-01-01

    In recent years crown ethers have been successfully used for the transport of salts, both inorganic and organic, from an aqueous phase to organic solvents. Our work has extended the applicability of these crown ethers to the transport of salts from the solid state into solution both aqueous and nona

  19. Electrodialysis-ion exchange for the separation of dissolved salts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baroch, C.J. [Wastren, Inc., Westminster, CO (United States); Grant, P.J. [Wastren, Inc., Hummelstown, PA (United States)

    1995-10-01

    The Department of Energy generates and stores a significant quantity of low level, high level, and mixed wastes. As some of the DOE facilities are decontaminated and decommissioned, additional and possibly different forms of wastes will be generated. A significant portion of these wastes are aqueous streams containing acids, bases, and salts, or are wet solids containing inorganic salts. Some of these wastes are quite dilute solutions, whereas others contain large quantities of nitrates either in the form of dissolved salts or acids. Many of the wastes are also contaminated with heavy metals, radioactive products, or organics. Some of these wastes are in storage because a satisfactory treatment and disposal processes have not been developed. There is considerable interest in developing processes that remove or destroy the nitrate wastes. Electrodialysis-Ion Exchange (EDIX) is a possible process that should be more cost effective in treating aqueous waste steams. This report describes the EDIX process.

  20. Some Physiological Responses of Chinese Iris to Salt Stress

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    BAI Wen-Bo; LI Pin-Fang; LI Bao-Guo; H. FUJIYAMA; FAN Fen-Cheng

    2008-01-01

    Chinese iris (Iris lactea Pall. Var. Chinensis (Fisch) Koidz.), a robust iridaceous plant, is widesprcad in arid and semiarid regions with high salinity. However, the mechanism of its salt tolerance is not well understood. In this study,plant growth, water status, content and distribution of inorganic ions, cell membrane permeability, and proline content of I. Lactea under salt stress were investigated using nutrient solutions with six NaCl concentrations ranging from 0 to 350 mmol L-1. The results indicated that the biomass, height, fresh weight, K+ content, and K+/Na+ and Ca2+/Na+ratios decreased with increasing NaCl stress, whereas plant water deficit and contents of Na+ and Cl- increased with increasing NaCl stress. In all salt treatments, water deficit of shoots was found to be higher than that of roots and had a positive correlation with salt concentration. When the NaCl concentration was less than 280 mmol L-1, the ion absorption selectivity ratio and the transportation selectivity ratio sharply increased with increasing NaCl stress. Under medium salt stress, I. Lactea exhibited a strong K+ selective absorption and the transportation of K+ from roots to shoots increased, whereas Na+ was not transported and was mostly retained in roots. The plants were able to maintain osmotic adjustment through the accumulation of Na+, Cl-, and proline. On the basis of its biomass production under salt stress,I. Lactea could be considered as a facultative halophyte.

  1. Gases in molten salts

    CERN Document Server

    Tomkins, RPT

    1991-01-01

    This volume contains tabulated collections and critical evaluations of original data for the solubility of gases in molten salts, gathered from chemical literature through to the end of 1989. Within the volume, material is arranged according to the individual gas. The gases include hydrogen halides, inert gases, oxygen, nitrogen, hydrogen, carbon dioxide, water vapor and halogens. The molten salts consist of single salts, binary mixtures and multicomponent systems. Included also, is a special section on the solubility of gases in molten silicate systems, focussing on slags and fluxes.

  2. The inorganic constituents of echinoderms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, F.W.; Wheeler, W.C.

    1915-01-01

    In a recent paper on the composition of crinoid skeletons we showed that crinoids contain large quantities of magnesia, and that its proportion varies with the temperature of the water in which the creatures live. This result was so novel and surprising that it seemed desirable to examine other echinoderms and to ascertain whether they showed the same characteristics and regularity. A number of sea urchins and starfishes were therefore studied, their inorganic constituents being analyzed in the same manner as those of the crinoids

  3. Plasma chemistry for inorganic materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, O.

    1980-01-01

    Practical application of plasma chemistry to the development of inorganic materials using both low temperature and warm plasmas are summarized. Topics cover: the surface nitrification and oxidation of metals; chemical vapor deposition; formation of minute oxide particles; the composition of oxides from chloride vapor; the composition of carbides and nitrides; freezing high temperature phases by plasma arc welding and plasma jet; use of plasma in the development of a substitute for petroleum; the production of silicon for use in solar cell batteries; and insulating the inner surface of nuclear fusion reactor walls.

  4. [Development of salt concentrates for mineralization of recycled water aboard the space station].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skliar, E F; Amiragov, M S; Bobe, L S; Gavrilov, L I; Kurochkin, M G; Solntseva, D P; Krasnov, M S; Skuratov, V M

    2006-01-01

    Recycled water can be brought up to the potable grade by adding minimal quantities of three soluble concentrates with the maximal content of inorganic salts. The authors present results of 3-year storage of potable water mineralized with makeup concentrates and analysis of potable water prepared with the use of the salt concentrates stored over this period of time. A water mineralization unit has been designed based on the principle of cyclic duty to produce physiologically healthy potable water with a preset salt content.

  5. Salt Pomo: An Ethnogeography

    OpenAIRE

    McCarthy, Helen

    1986-01-01

    Recent research in Salt Pomo territory has produced new ethnogeographic data to add to the named villages identified in much earlier studies (Barrett 1904, 1908; Merriam MS, 1966, 1977). This new information is of particular interest because it significantly increases our general knowledge of the Salt Pomo, about whom little is otherwise known, and because it contributes to an understanding of their settlement pattern as well as to broader, regional land-use analyses. In addition, the study a...

  6. Infrared Spectra of Simple Inorganic Ion Pairs in Solid Solution: A Physical Inorganic Chemistry Experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Philip J.; Tong, William G.

    1980-01-01

    Presents a physical inorganic experiment in which large single crystals of the alkali halides doped with divalent ion impurities are prepared easily. Demonstrates the ion pairing of inorganic ions in solid solution. (CS)

  7. Hygroscopic Salts on Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melchiorri, R.; Davila, A. F.; Chittenden, J.; Haberle, R. M.

    2008-12-01

    We present preliminary results on the influence of a salt-rich regolith in the water cycle of Mars. Global climate modeling shows that the relative humidity on the Martian surface often reaches values above the deliquescence point of salts that are common components of the regolith. At the deliquescence point, these salts will absorb atmospheric water vapor and form a saturated, transient liquid solution that is stable under a range of temperatures. If atmospheric temperatures fall below the eutectic point of the solution, the later will freeze in the pore space of the regolith, thereby resulting in a net transport of water from the vapor phase in the atmosphere, to the solid state in the regolith. This simple model partially accounts for some the distribution of water on the Martian surface as revealed by Mars Odyssey, in particular, we find that: even though the Cl and surface water distributions detected by HEND/ODYSSEY are highly correlated, salt deliquescence under the the present atmospheric conditions does not explain the overall distribution of water in the near surface regolith. However deliquescence of salt-rich soils could be an important contributor to the distribution of water in the regolith at high obliquity. In that scenario the water in the near-surface regolith would be the remnant of high obliquity conditions salt deliquescence is still active in different regions on Mars today, and it should be introduced as a parameter in the modern GCMs as a new ground/atmosphere interaction

  8. Inorganic and hybrid inorganic-organic systems for conservative treatments of stone and wood materials

    OpenAIRE

    Bergamonti, Laura

    2015-01-01

    Inorganic and hybrid inorganic-organic systems for conservative treatments of stone and wood materials The research has focused on the synthesis, characterization and application of inorganic and hybrid inorganic-organic systems for conservative treatments of stone and wood. The wood preservatives synthesized and tested for biocidal activity are polyamidoamines functionalized with hydroxyl and siloxane groups, while the coatings applied on the stones are water based TiO2 nanosols with ...

  9. Cationic Organic/Inorganic Hybrids and Their Swelling Properties

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    E. S. Dragan; L. Ghimici; M. Cazacu

    2005-01-01

    @@ 1Introduction Specific properties of poly(dimethylsiloxanes), such as low glass transition temperature, low surface energy, good insulating properties, biological and chemical inertness, high diffusion coefficient of gases, make them very attractive for practical applications in the daily life. However, there is a great interest last time in the preparation of ionic organic/inorganic materials with new properties for new applications. Quaternary ammonium salt(QAS) groups included in siloxane copolymers could induce new interesting properties such as:permanent fungicidal and bactericidal properties, which make them very attractive as materials for sanitary applications, improved selectivity coefficients of the gas-separation membranes, ion-exchange properties and so forth. So far, QAS groups have been located in the side chain[1,2]. Our interest was focused on the preparation of some novel cationic polysiloxane copolymers containing QAS groups of both integral type and pendent type[3,4]. Our objectives for the present study concern the synthesis of some cationic organic/siloxane hybrid materials with swelling properties controlled by both the nature of cationic organic component and the ratio between the organic and inorganic counterparts. Such cationic hybrid materials could be of interest for the preparation of new stimuli-responsive hydrogels[5,6].

  10. Inorganic nanosheet liquid crystals and their applications (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyamoto, Nobuyoshi

    2016-09-01

    Liquid crystal (LC) phase of inorganic nanosheets is fascinating system in the field of condensed matter physics and for potential applications in many fields. In this lecture, I present my research on the LC nanosheet colloids derived from clay minerals, layered niobates, layered titnates, and layered perovskites. Structural analyses by small angle X-ray scattering and confocal laser scanning microscopy reveals not only meso-scale lamellar or nematic structures in the LC phase but also fractal-like porous structures. In that structure, the nanosheets show translational and rotational Brownian motions as revealed by fast-scanning confocal microscopy. The structure is tunable by many factors such as nanosheet concentration, nanosheet lateral size, salt concentration, solvent, counter cations, and charge density of the nanosheets. Some optimized systems show variable structural colors which will be useful for color materials and sensor devices. Under ac-electric field, the orientation of the nanosheets and LC domain is easily controllable; the electric field response is applicable for fabrication of electro-optic devices and formation of anisotropic composite materials. Among many future applications, inorganic nanosheet/ polymer composites with precisely controllable hierarchical structure are fascinating. We synthesized a cm-scale mono-domain gel of exfoliated LC clay/polymer composite. The gel is printable with a dye and the colored part shows photo-induced anomalous deformation behavior, which will be applicable as chemical actuators.

  11. Inorganic treatments for the consolidation and protection of stone artefacts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauro Matteini

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Consolidation and protection are two of the principal kinds of treatments through which the decay of old statues, stone facades, plasters and mural paintings caused by both natural atmospheric agents and, above all in the last five decades, by atmospheric pollution, is faced. The most traditional approach has been and is mainly based on the use of organic polymeric materials. They offer the advantage of easy application procedures and the possibility to obtain, at short times, very satisfying results. Different is their behaviour at long times. Some drawbacks come out over time both under the esthetical point of view as well as to the durability, compatibility and efficacy. Particularly critical is the situation when porous materials and soluble salts - gypsum above all - are simultaneously present. In such a situation inorganic treatments demonstrate to be much more appropriate. They assure durable and compatible results. In the present paper two of the most efficient and appropriate inorganic methods are reviewed in detail: the barium hydroxide method, both as desulfating and consolidating agent, and the ammonium oxalate method as passivating agent, consolidant and as a treatment capable of improving the natural colour contrast of the stone, when it is lost due to decay processes.

  12. Salt disposition alternatives filtration at SRTC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walker, B. W.; Hobbs, D.

    2000-01-27

    Several of the prospective salt disposition alternative technologies require a monosodium titanate (MST) contact to remove strontium and actinides from inorganic salt solution feedstock. This feedstock also contains sludge solids from waste removal operations and may contain defoamers added in the evaporator systems. Filtration is required to remove the sludge and MST solids before sending the salt solution for further processing. This report describes testing performed using the Parallel Theological Experimental Filter (PREF). The PREF contains two single tube Mott sintered metal crossflow filters. For this test one filter was isolated so that the maximum velocities could be achieved. Previous studies showed slurries of MST and sludge in the presence of sodium tetraphenylborate (NaTPB) were filterable since the NaTPB slurry formed a filter cake which aided in removing the smaller MST and sludge particles. Some of the salt disposition alternative technologies do not use NaTPB raising the question of how effective crossflow filtration is with a feed stream containing only sludge and MST. Variables investigated included axial velocity, transmembrane pressure, defoamer effects, and solids concentration (MST and sludge). Details of the tests are outlined in the technical report WSRC-RP-98-O0691. Key conclusions from this study are: (1) Severe fouling of the Mott sintered metal filter did not occur with any of the solutions filtered. (2) The highest fluxes, in the range of .46 to 1.02 gpm/f{sup 2}, were obtained when salt solution decanted from settled solids was fed to the filter. These fluxes would achieve 92 to 204 gpm filtrate production for the current ITP filters. The filtrate fluxes were close to the flux of 0.42 gpm/f{sup 2} reported for In Tank Precipitation Salt Solution by Morrisey. (3) For the range of solids loading studied, the filter flux ranged from .04 to .17 gpm/f{sup 2} which would result in a filtrate production rate of 9 to 31 gpm for the current HP

  13. Comparison of glyphosate and Roundup preparations influence on inorganic pyrophosphatase activity and available phosphorus content in sandy loam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maciej Płatkowski

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to compare the effect of glyphosate and its formulations: Roundup 360 SL (containing isopropylamine salt of glyphosate and polyethoxylated tallow amine and Roundup TransEnergy 450 SL (containing potassium salt of glyphosate and polyethoxylated ether amine on inorganic pyrophosphatase activity and available phosphorus content in soil. The experiment was carried out on loamy sand with organic carbon content 10.9 g·kg-1. Glyphosate and its salts amounts added to soil were: 0 (control, 1, 10, 100 mg·kg-1. Samples were adjusted to 60% maximum water capacity and they were incubated in temperature 20°C. Inorganic pyrophosphatase and available phosphorus content were measured on days 1, 7, 14, 28 and 56. The obtained results show that the observed effect of glyphosate and its formulations depended on the dosage and day of experiment. The largest changes of the measured parameters were observed after application of Roundup 360 SL – formulation containing glyphosate isopro­pylamine salt and polyethoxylated tallow amine. The positive statistically significant correlation between inorganic pyrophosphatase activity and available phosphorus content was reported only in soil treated with Roundup 360 SL.

  14. Attachment of inorganic moieties onto aliphatic polyurethanes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliane Ayres

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Polyurethanes have been used in a series of applications due basically to their versatility in terms of controlling the behavior by altering basically the type of reagents used. However, for more specific and advanced applications, such as in membranes, biomaterials and sensors, well-organized and defined chemical functionalities are necessary. In this work, inorganic functionalities were incorporated into aliphatic polyurethanes (PU having different macromolecular architectures. Polyurethanes were synthesized using a polyether diol and dicyclohexylmethane 4,4' diisocyanate (H12-MDI. Polyurethanes having carboxylic acid groups were also produced by introducing 2,2- bis (hydroxymethyl propionic acid in the polymerization process. Inorganic functionalities were inserted into polyurethanes by reacting isocyanate end capped chains with aminopropyltriethoxysilane followed by tetraethoxysilane. PU having carboxylic acid groups yielded transparent samples after the incorporation of inorganic entities, as an evidence of smaller and better dispersed inorganic entities in the polymer network. FTIR and swelling measurements showed that polyurethanes having carboxylic acid groups had inorganic domains less packed, condensed and cross-linked when compared to polyurethanes with no carboxylic acid groups. Results also suggested that the progressive incorporation of inorganic moieties in both types of polyurethanes occurred in regions previously activated with inorganic functionalities, instead of by the creation of new domains. The temperatures of thermal decomposition and glass transition were also shifted to higher temperatures when inorganic functionalities were incorporated into polyurethanes.

  15. 29 CFR 1926.1118 - Inorganic arsenic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Inorganic arsenic. 1926.1118 Section 1926.1118 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR... Inorganic arsenic. Note: The requirements applicable to construction work under this section are...

  16. 29 CFR 1915.1018 - Inorganic arsenic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Inorganic arsenic. 1915.1018 Section 1915.1018 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR... § 1915.1018 Inorganic arsenic. Note: The requirements applicable to shipyard employment under...

  17. A thermodynamic model of mixed organic-inorganic aerosols to predict activity coefficients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuend, A.; Marcolli, C.; Luo, B. P.; Peter, T.

    2008-08-01

    Tropospheric aerosols contain mixtures of inorganic salts, acids, water, and a large variety of organic compounds. Interactions between these substances in liquid mixtures lead to discrepancies from ideal thermodynamic behaviour. By means of activity coefficients, non-ideal behaviour can be taken into account. We present here a thermodynamic model named AIOMFAC (Aerosol Inorganic-Organic Mixtures Functional groups Activity Coefficients) that is able to calculate activity coefficients covering inorganic, organic, and organic-inorganic interactions in aqueous solutions over a wide concentration range. This model is based on the activity coefficient model LIFAC by Yan et al. (1999) that we modified and reparametrised to better describe atmospherically relevant conditions and mixture compositions. Focusing on atmospheric applications we considered H+, Li+, Na+, K+, NH+4, Mg2+, Ca2+, Cl-, Br-, NO-3, HSO-4, and SO2-4 as cations and anions and a wide range of alcohols/polyols composed of the functional groups CHn and OH as organic compounds. With AIOMFAC, the activities of the components within an aqueous electrolyte solution are well represented up to high ionic strength. Most notably, a semi-empirical middle-range parametrisation of direct organic-inorganic interactions in alcohol+water+salt solutions strongly improves the agreement between experimental and modelled activity coefficients. At room temperature, this novel thermodynamic model offers the possibility to compute equilibrium relative humidities, gas/particle partitioning and liquid-liquid phase separations with high accuracy. In further studies, other organic functional groups will be introduced. The model framework is not restricted to specific ions or organic compounds and is therefore also applicable for other research topics.

  18. A thermodynamic model of mixed organic-inorganic aerosols to predict activity coefficients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Zuend

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Tropospheric aerosols contain mixtures of inorganic salts, acids, water, and a large variety of organic compounds. Interactions between these substances in liquid mixtures lead to discrepancies from ideal thermodynamic behaviour. By means of activity coefficients, non-ideal behaviour can be taken into account. We present here a thermodynamic model named AIOMFAC (Aerosol Inorganic-Organic Mixtures Functional groups Activity Coefficients that is able to calculate activity coefficients covering inorganic, organic, and organic-inorganic interactions in aqueous solutions over a wide concentration range. This model is based on the activity coefficient model LIFAC by Yan et al. (1999 that we modified and reparametrised to better describe atmospherically relevant conditions and mixture compositions. Focusing on atmospheric applications we considered H+, Li+, Na+, K+, NH+4, Mg2+, Ca2+, Cl, Br, NO3, HSO4, and SO2−4 as cations and anions and a wide range of alcohols/polyols composed of the functional groups CHn and OH as organic compounds. With AIOMFAC, the activities of the components within an aqueous electrolyte solution are well represented up to high ionic strength. Most notably, a semi-empirical middle-range parametrisation of direct organic-inorganic interactions in alcohol+water+salt solutions strongly improves the agreement between experimental and modelled activity coefficients. At room temperature, this novel thermodynamic model offers the possibility to compute equilibrium relative humidities, gas/particle partitioning and liquid-liquid phase separations with high accuracy. In further studies, other organic functional groups will be introduced. The model framework is not restricted to specific ions or organic compounds and is therefore also

  19. Measured and modeled humidification factors of fresh smoke particles from biomass burning: role of inorganic constituents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. L. Hand

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available During the 2006 FLAME study (Fire Laboratory at Missoula Experiment, laboratory burns of biomass fuels were performed to investigate the physico-chemical, optical, and hygroscopic properties of fresh biomass smoke. As part of the experiment, two nephelometers simultaneously measured dry and humidified light scattering coefficients (bsp(dry and bsp(RH, respectively in order to explore the role of relative humidity (RH on the optical properties of biomass smoke aerosols. Results from burns of several biomass fuels from the west and southeast United States showed large variability in the humidification factor (f(RH=bsp(RH/bsp(dry. Values of f(RH at RH=80–85% ranged from 0.99 to 1.81 depending on fuel type. We incorporated measured chemical composition and size distribution data to model the smoke hygroscopic growth to investigate the role of inorganic compounds on water uptake for these aerosols. By assuming only inorganic constituents were hygroscopic, we were able to model the water uptake within experimental uncertainty, suggesting that inorganic species were responsible for most of the hygroscopic growth. In addition, humidification factors at 80–85% RH increased for smoke with increasing inorganic salt to carbon ratios. Particle morphology as observed from scanning electron microscopy revealed that samples of hygroscopic particles contained soot chains either internally or externally mixed with inorganic potassium salts, while samples of weak to non-hygroscopic particles were dominated by soot and organic constituents. This study provides further understanding of the compounds responsible for water uptake by young biomass smoke, and is important for accurately assessing the role of smoke in climate change studies and visibility regulatory efforts.

  20. Measured and modeled humidification factors of fresh smoke particles from biomass burning: role of inorganic constituents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. L. Hand

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available During the 2006 FLAME study (Fire Laboratory at Missoula Experiment, laboratory burns of biomass fuels were performed to investigate the physico-chemical, optical, and hygroscopic properties of fresh biomass smoke. As part of the experiment, two nephelometers simultaneously measured dry and humidified light scattering coefficients (bsp(dry and bsp(RH, respectively in order to explore the role of relative humidity (RH on the optical properties of biomass smoke aerosols. Results from burns of several biomass fuels showed large variability in the humidification factor (f(RH=bsp(RH/bsp(dry. Values of f(RH at RH=85–90% ranged from 1.02 to 2.15 depending on fuel type. We incorporated measured chemical composition and size distribution data to model the smoke hygroscopic growth to investigate the role of inorganic and organic compounds on water uptake for these aerosols. By assuming only inorganic constituents were hygroscopic, we were able to model the water uptake within experimental uncertainty, suggesting that inorganic species were responsible for most of the hygroscopic growth. In addition, humidification factors at 85–90% RH increased for smoke with increasing inorganic salt to carbon ratios. Particle morphology as observed from scanning electron microscopy revealed that samples of hygroscopic particles contained soot chains either internally or externally mixed with inorganic potassium salts, while samples of weak to non-hygroscopic particles were dominated by soot and organic constituents. This study provides further understanding of the compounds responsible for water uptake by young biomass smoke, and is important for accurately assessing the role of smoke in climate change studies and visibility regulatory efforts.

  1. Salt treatment Fukushima

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schaefer, Stefan [NUKEM Technologies GmbH, Alzenau (Germany)

    2013-07-01

    The Task of NUKEM Technologies GmbH is to develop a technical solution for the treatment of salt containing effluents at Fukushima Daiichi. The target of the treatment is a solidified product suitable for the safe storage on site. Therefore, NUKEM investigated several technologies (direct cementation, drying and storage, drying and subsequent cementation) in order to find a fit for purpose solution. The following tasks have been considered: (a) Mechanical strength and homogeneity of the product; (b) Cost efficient solution (cost for the drying system vs. reduced amount of storage containers); (c) Proven technology; (d) On site storage. NUKEM made some practical test in parallel with different recipes. The aim was to embed as much as possible salt quantity into the cement matrix, but still meet the requested mechanical strength and required homogeneity. As a result NUKEM recommended to apply the following technologies (a) a drying system, to produce a dry salt product (b) a cementation facility, to generate a homogeneous salt/cement matrix (c) a filling station with attached CMS (Container measuring station) to fill the resulting cement/salt matrix into containers suitable for the storage at Fukushima Daiichi. (orig.)

  2. Inorganic materials synthesis in ionic liquids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christoph Janiak

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The field of "inorganic materials from ionic liquids" (ILs is a young and dynamically growing research area for less than 10 years. The ionothermal synthesis in ILs is often connected with the preparation of nanomaterials, the use of microwave heating and in part also ultrasound. Inorganic material synthesis in ILs allows obtaining phases which are not accessible in conventional organic or aqueous solvents or with standard methods of solid-state chemistry or under such mild conditions. Cases at hand include "ligand-free" metal nanoparticles without added stabilizing capping ligands, inorganic or inorganic-organic hybrid solid-state compounds, large polyhedral clusters and exfoliated graphene from low-temperature synthesis. There are great expectations that ILs open routes towards new, possibly unknown, inorganic materials with advantageous properties that cannot (or only with great difficulty be made via conventional processes.

  3. On some problems of inorganic supramolecular chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pervov, Vladislav S; Zotova, Anna E

    2013-12-02

    In this study, some features that distinguish inorganic supramolecular host-guest objects from traditional architectures are considered. Crystalline inorganic supramolecular structures are the basis for the development of new functional materials. Here, the possible changes in the mechanism of crystalline inorganic supramolecular structure self-organization at high interaction potentials are discussed. The cases of changes in the host structures and corresponding changes in the charge states under guest intercalation, as well as their impact on phase stability and stoichiometry are considered. It was demonstrated that the deviation from the geometrical and topological complementarity conditions may be due to the additional energy gain from forming inorganic supramolecular structures. It has been assumed that molecular recognition principles can be employed for the development of physicochemical analysis and interpretation of metastable states in inorganic crystalline alloys.

  4. Mechanism for salt scaling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valenza, John J., II

    Salt scaling is superficial damage caused by freezing a saline solution on the surface of a cementitious body. The damage consists of the removal of small chips or flakes of binder. The discovery of this phenomenon in the early 1950's prompted hundreds of experimental studies, which clearly elucidated the characteristics of this damage. In particular it was shown that a pessimum salt concentration exists, where a moderate salt concentration (˜3%) results in the most damage. Despite the numerous studies, the mechanism responsible for salt scaling has not been identified. In this work it is shown that salt scaling is a result of the large thermal expansion mismatch between ice and the cementitious body, and that the mechanism responsible for damage is analogous to glue-spalling. When ice forms on a cementitious body a bi-material composite is formed. The thermal expansion coefficient of the ice is ˜5 times that of the underlying body, so when the temperature of the composite is lowered below the melting point, the ice goes into tension. Once this stress exceeds the strength of the ice, cracks initiate in the ice and propagate into the surface of the cementitious body, removing a flake of material. The glue-spall mechanism accounts for all of the characteristics of salt scaling. In particular, a theoretical analysis is presented which shows that the pessimum concentration is a consequence of the effect of brine pockets on the mechanical properties of ice, and that the damage morphology is accounted for by fracture mechanics. Finally, empirical evidence is presented that proves that the glue-small mechanism is the primary cause of salt scaling. The primary experimental tool used in this study is a novel warping experiment, where a pool of liquid is formed on top of a thin (˜3 mm) plate of cement paste. Stresses in the plate, including thermal expansion mismatch, result in warping of the plate, which is easily detected. This technique revealed the existence of

  5. Photoluminescence of urine salts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bordun, O.; Drobchak, O.

    2008-02-01

    Photoexcitation and luminescence spectra of dried urine sample under laser excitation were studied. Luminescence spectra of urine are determined by luminescence of urea which is the main component of urine. The presence of pathological salts in urine leads to the long-wave shifting of maxima of luminescence and to the decreasing of luminescence intensity.

  6. Learning SaltStack

    CERN Document Server

    Myers, Colton

    2015-01-01

    If you are a system administrator who manages multiple servers, then you know how difficult it is to keep your infrastructure in line. If you've been searching for an easier way, this book is for you. No prior experience with SaltStack is required.

  7. What Are Bath Salts?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... in Missouri. She won the 3rd place 2013 Addiction Science Award . Read More » 0 Comments Bath Salts: An Emerging Danger February 05, 2013 / Sara Bellum ... copy Listen Drug Facts ... Nicotine, & E-Cigarettes Brain and Addiction Drug Overdoses in Youth HIV/AIDS and Drug ...

  8. Inorganic biomaterials structure, properties and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Xiang C

    2014-01-01

    This book provides a practical guide to the use and applications of inorganic biomaterials. It begins by introducing the concept of inorganic biomaterials, which includes bioceramics and bioglass. This concept is further extended to hybrid biomaterials consisting of inorganic and organic materials to mimic natural biomaterials. The book goes on to provide the reader with information on biocompatibility, bioactivity and bioresorbability. The concept of the latter is important because of the increasing role resorbable biomaterials are playing in implant applications. The book also introduces a n

  9. Nanocomposites Derived from Polymers and Inorganic Nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    In-Yup Jeon

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Polymers are considered to be good hosting matrices for composite materials because they can easily be tailored to yield a variety of bulk physical properties. Moreover, organic polymers generally have long-term stability and good processability. Inorganic nanoparticles possess outstanding optical, catalytic, electronic and magnetic properties, which are significantly different their bulk states. By combining the attractive functionalities of both components, nanocomposites derived from organic polymers and inorganic nanoparticles are expected to display synergistically improved properties. The potential applications of the resultant nanocomposites are various, e.g. automotive, aerospace, opto-electronics, etc. Here, we review recent progress in polymer-based inorganic nanoparticle composites.

  10. Inorganic Nanoparticles Conjugated with Biofunctional Molecules

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    J.H.Choy

    2007-01-01

    1 Results We have attempted to conjugate inorganic nanoparticles with biofunctional molecules.Recently we were quite successful in demonstrating that a two-dimensional inorganic compound like layered double hydroxide (LDH),and natural and synthetic clays can be used as gene or drug delivery carriers1-4.To the best of our knowledge,such inorganic vectors are completely new and different from conventionally developed ones such as viruses and cationic liposomes,those which are limited in certain cases of ap...

  11. Carpinteria Salt Marsh Habitat Polygons

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — We identified five common habitat types in Carpinteria Salt Marsh: channels, pans (flats), marsh, salt flat and upland. We then drew polygons around each habitat...

  12. Inorganic chemically active adsorbents (ICAAs)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ally, M.R. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Tavlarides, L.

    1997-10-01

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) researchers are developing a technology that combines metal chelation extraction technology and synthesis chemistry. They begin with a ceramic substrate such as alumina, titanium oxide or silica gel because they provide high surface area, high mechanical strength, and radiolytic stability. One preparation method involves silylation to hydrophobize the surface, followed by chemisorption of a suitable chelation agent using vapor deposition. Another route attaches newly designed chelating agents through covalent bonding by the use of coupling agents. These approaches provide stable and selective, inorganic chemically active adsorbents (ICAAs) tailored for removal of metals. The technology has the following advantages over ion exchange: (1) higher mechanical strength, (2) higher resistance to radiation fields, (3) higher selectivity for the desired metal ion, (4) no cation exchange, (5) reduced or no interference from accompanying anions, (6) faster kinetics, and (7) easy and selective regeneration. Target waste streams include metal-containing groundwater/process wastewater at ORNL`s Y-12 Plant (multiple metals), Savannah River Site (SRS), Rocky Flats (multiple metals), and Hanford; aqueous mixed wastes at Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL); and scrubber water generated at SRS and INEL. Focus Areas that will benefit from this research include Mixed Waste, and Subsurface Contaminants.

  13. The quest for inorganic fullerenes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pietsch, Susanne; Dollinger, Andreas; Strobel, Christoph H.; Ganteför, Gerd, E-mail: gerd.gantefoer@uni-konstanz.de, E-mail: ydkim91@skku.edu [Department of Physics, University of Konstanz, D-78457 Konstanz (Germany); Park, Eun Ji; Kim, Young Dok, E-mail: gerd.gantefoer@uni-konstanz.de, E-mail: ydkim91@skku.edu [Department of Chemistry, Sungkyunkwan University, 440-746 Suwon (Korea, Republic of); Seo, Hyun Ook [Center for Free-Electron Laser Science/DESY, D-22607 Hamburg (Germany); Idrobo, Juan-Carlos [Center for Nanophase Materials Sciences, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831 (United States); Pennycook, Stephen J. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National University of Singapore, Singapore 117575 (Singapore)

    2015-10-07

    Experimental results of the search for inorganic fullerenes are presented. Mo{sub n}S{sub m}{sup −} and W{sub n}S{sub m}{sup −} clusters are generated with a pulsed arc cluster ion source equipped with an annealing stage. This is known to enhance fullerene formation in the case of carbon. Analogous to carbon, the mass spectra of the metal chalcogenide clusters produced in this way exhibit a bimodal structure. The species in the first maximum at low mass are known to be platelets. Here, the structure of the species in the second maximum is studied by anion photoelectron spectroscopy, scanning transmission electron microscopy, and scanning tunneling microcopy. All experimental results indicate a two-dimensional structure of these species and disagree with a three-dimensional fullerene-like geometry. A possible explanation for this preference of two-dimensional structures is the ability of a two-element material to saturate the dangling bonds at the edges of a platelet by excess atoms of one element. A platelet consisting of a single element only cannot do this. Accordingly, graphite and boron might be the only materials forming nano-spheres because they are the only single element materials assuming two-dimensional structures.

  14. Salt ingestion caves.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lundquist Charles A.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Large vertebrate herbivores, when they find a salt-bearing layer of rock, say in a cliff face, can produce sizable voids where, overgenerations, they have removed and consumed salty rock. The cavities formed by this natural animal process constitute a uniqueclass of caves that can be called salt ingestion caves. Several examples of such caves are described in various publications. Anexample in Mississippi U.S.A., Rock House Cave, was visited by the authors in 2000. It seems to have been formed by deer orbison. Perhaps the most spectacular example is Kitum Cave in Kenya. This cave has been excavated to a length over 100 metersby elephants. An ancient example is La Cueva del Milodon in Chile, which is reported to have been excavated by the now extinctmilodon, a giant ground sloth. Still other possible examples can be cited. This class of caves deserves a careful definition. First, thecavity in rock should meet the size and other conventions of the locally accepted definition of a cave. Of course this requirement differsin detail from country to country, particularly in the matter of size. The intent is to respect the local conventions. The characteristicthat human entry is possible is judged to be a crucial property of any recognized cave definition. Second, the cavity should besignificantly the result of vertebrate animal consumption of salt-bearing rock. The defining process is that rock removed to form thecave is carried away in the digestive track of an animal. While sodium salts are expected to be the norm, other salts for which thereis animal hunger are acceptable. Also some other speleogenesis process, such as solution, should not be excluded as long as it issecondary in formation of a cave in question.

  15. L-缬氨酸产生菌JVHK597的选育及无机盐对其产酸量的影响%Breeding of of L-valine Producing Strain JVHK597 and Influence of Inorganic Salt on Its Acid Production

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘焕民; 葛向阳; 张伟国

    2011-01-01

    [目的]筛选L-缬氨酸高产菌株并研究其发酵条件.[方法]以黄色短杆菌(Brebvibacterium flavum)突变株ZGH61.28为出发菌株,采用紫外线(UV)、硫酸二乙酯(DES)和亚硝基胍(NTG)3种诱变剂进行诱变处理,通过摇瓶培养筛选出L-缬氨酸高产突变菌株.[结果]经过UV、DES和NTG3种诱变剂处理菌株ZGH6128,逐步获得菌株JVHK597,并具有Leu营养缺陷、Ile营养缺陷、Met营养缺陷、α-AB抗性、2-TA抗性5种遗传标记.在未优化的条件下,菌株JVHK597摇瓶发酵72 h的产酸量达41.2 g/L.8次传代试验结果表明,菌株JVHK597的产酸能力稳定,经鉴定,菌株JVHK597的基因型为(Leu-,Ile-,Met-,α-ABr,2 -TAr),遗传标记具有稳定性.发酵培养基中硫酸镁( MgSO4·7H2O)和磷酸二氢钾的含量分别为0.6和1.4 g/L时,最有利于菌株生产L-缬氨酸.[结论]试验筛选出了L-缬氨酸高产菌株JVHK597,并为其发酵培养提供了指导.%[Objective]The aim was to screen superior strain of L-valine and study its fermentation condition. [ Method] With the mutant strain ZGH6128 of Brebvibacterium flavum as initial strain, 3 kinds of mutagens of ultraviolet (UV), diethyl sulfate (DES) and nitrosoguani-dine (NTG) were used in its mutagene treatments, its superior mutant strain of L-valine was screened out through shaking culture. [ Result] The strain ZGH6128 was treated with 3 kinds of mutagens of UV, DES and NTG and the mutant strain JVHK597 was obtained progressively. This mutant strain possessed 5 genetic marks of Leu auxotroph, Ile auxotroph, Met auxotroph, a-AB resistance and 2-TA resistance. Under non-optimized condition, the production of acid from the strain JVHK597 reached 41.2 g/L after fermentation for 72 h. The experimental results of 8 passages showed that the acid producing ability of the strain JVHK597 was stable and its genotype was identified to be (Leu-, Ile-, Met-, α-AB', 2-TA') and its genetic marks had stability. When the contents of bitter salt (Mg

  16. Salt fluoridation and oral health

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas M. Marthaler

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to make known the potential of fluoridated salt in community oral health programs, particularly in South Eastern Europe. Since 1922, the addition of iodine to salt has been successful in Switzerland. Goiter is virtually extinct. By 1945, the cariesprotective effect of fluorides was well established. Based on the success of water fluoridation, a gynecologist started adding of fluoride to salt. The sale of fluoridated salt began in 1956 in the Swiss Canton of Zurich,...

  17. Inorganic chemistry. Synthesis and characterization of P₂N₃⁻: an aromatic ion composed of phosphorus and nitrogen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velian, Alexandra; Cummins, Christopher C

    2015-05-29

    Aromaticity is predominantly associated with carbon-rich compounds but can also occur in all-inorganic ones. We report the synthesis of the diphosphatriazolate anion, a rare example of a planar aromatic inorganic species. Treatment of azide (N3(-)) in tetrahydrofuran solution with P2A2 (A = C14H10), a source of P2, produced P2N3(-), which we isolated as its [Na-kryptofix-221](+) salt in 22% yield and characterized by single-crystal x-ray diffraction. Salts [Na-kryptofix-221] [P2N3] and [Na-kryptofix-221] [P2(15)NN2] were analyzed by infrared and Raman spectroscopy, (15)N and (31)P nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, and mass spectrometry. The formation of the P2N3(-) anion was investigated using density functional theory, and its aromatic character was confirmed by NICS (nucleus-independent chemical shift) and QTAIM (quantum theory of atoms in molecules) methods.

  18. Lowering Salt in Your Diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... sodium, per serving. back to top Q. Are salt substitutes safe? A. Many salt substitutes contain potassium chloride and can be used by ... heart disease. Check with your doctor before using salt substitutes. back to top Q. What is FDA's role ...

  19. Biomedical inorganic polymers bioactivity and applications of natural and synthetic polymeric inorganic molecules

    CERN Document Server

    Müller, Werner E G; Schröder, Heinz C; Schroder, Heinz C

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, inorganic polymers have attracted much attention in nano-biomedicine, in particular in the area of regenerative medicine and drug delivery. This growing interest in inorganic polymers has been further accelerated by the development of new synthetic and analytical methods in the field of nanotechnology and nanochemistry. Examples for biomedical inorganic polymers that had been proven to exhibit biomedical effects and/or have been applied in preclinical or clinical trials are polysilicate / silica glass (such as naturally formed "biosilica" and synthetic "bioglass") and inorganic polyphosphate. Some members of the mentioned biomedical inorganic polymers have already been applied e.g. as "bioglass" for bone repair and bone tissue engineering, or they are used in food processing and in dental care (inorganic polyphosphates). However, there are a number of further biological and medicinal properties of these polymers, which have been elucidated in the last few years but not yet been applied for tr...

  20. Inorganic nanoparticles for cancer imaging and therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Huang-Chiao; Barua, Sutapa; Sharma, Gaurav; Dey, Sandwip K; Rege, Kaushal

    2011-11-07

    Inorganic nanoparticles have received increased attention in the recent past as potential diagnostic and therapeutic systems in the field of oncology. Inorganic nanoparticles have demonstrated successes in imaging and treatment of tumors both ex vivo and in vivo, with some promise towards clinical trials. This review primarily discusses progress in applications of inorganic nanoparticles for cancer imaging and treatment, with an emphasis on in vivo studies. Advances in the use of semiconductor fluorescent quantum dots, carbon nanotubes, gold nanoparticles (spheres, shells, rods, cages), iron oxide magnetic nanoparticles and ceramic nanoparticles in tumor targeting, imaging, photothermal therapy and drug delivery applications are discussed. Limitations and toxicity issues associated with inorganic nanoparticles in living organisms are also discussed.

  1. Salt supply to and significance of asymmetric salt diapirs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koyi, H.; Burliga, S.; Chemia, Zurab

    2012-01-01

    Salt diapirs can be asymmetric both internally and externally reflecting their evolution history. As such, this asymmetry bear a significant amount of information about the differential loading (± lateral forces) and in turn the salt supply that have shaped the diapir. In two dimensions......, In this study we compare results of analogue and numerical models of diapirs with two natural salt diapris (Klodawa and Gorleben diapirs) to explain their salt supply and asymmetric evolution. In a NW-SE section, the Gorleben salt diapir possesses an asymmetric external geometry represented by a large...... southeastern overhang due to salt extrusion during Middle Cretaceous followed by its burial in Tertiary. This external asymmetry is also reflected in the internal configuration of the diapir which shows different rates of salt flow on the two halves of the structure. The asymmetric external and internal...

  2. Salt supply to and significance of asymmetric salt diapirs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koyi, H.; Burliga, S.; Chemia, Zurab

    2012-01-01

    Salt diapirs can be asymmetric both internally and externally reflecting their evolution history. As such, this asymmetry bear a significant amount of information about the differential loading (± lateral forces) and in turn the salt supply that have shaped the diapir. In two dimensions......, In this study we compare results of analogue and numerical models of diapirs with two natural salt diapris (Klodawa and Gorleben diapirs) to explain their salt supply and asymmetric evolution. In a NW-SE section, the Gorleben salt diapir possesses an asymmetric external geometry represented by a large...... southeastern overhang due to salt extrusion during Middle Cretaceous followed by its burial in Tertiary. This external asymmetry is also reflected in the internal configuration of the diapir which shows different rates of salt flow on the two halves of the structure. The asymmetric external and internal...

  3. Inorganic particle analysis of dental impression elastomers

    OpenAIRE

    Carlo,Hugo Lemes; FONSECA, Rodrigo Borges; Soares, Carlos José; Correr,Américo Bortolazzo; Correr-Sobrinho, Lourenço; Sinhoreti,Mário Alexandre Coelho

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine quantitatively and qualitatively the inorganic particle fraction of commercially available dental elastomers. The inorganic volumetric fraction of two addition silicones (Reprosil Putty/Fluid and Flexitime Easy Putty/Fluid), three condensation silicones (Clonage Putty/Fluid, Optosil Confort/Xantopren VL and Silon APS Putty/Fluid), one polyether (Impregum Soft Light Body) and one polysulfide (Permlastic Light Body) was accessed by weighing a previously de...

  4. Structure and properties of layered inorganic materials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xue Duan

    2010-01-01

    @@ Inorganic layered materials are a class of advanced functional materials that have attracted considerable attention by virtue of their practical applications in a wide variety of fields. Sys-tematic studies of structure, design, synthesis, and fabrication processing may extend the range of practical utility of inor-ganic layered functional materials, in areas such as food industry,chemical industry, energy engineering, environmental engineer-ing, drug and gene delivery, electronics technology, and materials protection.

  5. Fabrication of organic-inorganic perovskite thin films for planar solar cells via pulsed laser deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Yangang; Yao, Yangyi; Zhang, Xiaohang; Hsu, Wei-Lun; Gong, Yunhui; Shin, Jongmoon; Wachsman, Eric D.; Dagenais, Mario; Takeuchi, Ichiro

    2016-01-01

    We report on fabrication of organic-inorganic perovskite thin films using a hybrid method consisting of pulsed laser deposition (PLD) of lead iodide and spin-coating of methylammonium iodide. Smooth and highly crystalline CH3NH3PbI3 thin films have been fabricated on silicon and glass coated substrates with fluorine doped tin oxide using this PLD-based hybrid method. Planar perovskite solar cells with an inverted structure have been successfully fabricated using the perovskite films. Because of its versatility, the PLD-based hybrid fabrication method not only provides an easy and precise control of the thickness of the perovskite thin films, but also offers a straightforward platform for studying the potential feasibility in using other metal halides and organic salts for formation of the organic-inorganic perovskite structure.

  6. Fabrication of organic-inorganic perovskite thin films for planar solar cells via pulsed laser deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liang, Yangang; Zhang, Xiaohang; Gong, Yunhui; Shin, Jongmoon; Wachsman, Eric D.; Takeuchi, Ichiro, E-mail: takeuchi@umd.edu [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland 20740 (United States); Yao, Yangyi; Hsu, Wei-Lun; Dagenais, Mario [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland 20740 (United States)

    2016-01-15

    We report on fabrication of organic-inorganic perovskite thin films using a hybrid method consisting of pulsed laser deposition (PLD) of lead iodide and spin-coating of methylammonium iodide. Smooth and highly crystalline CH{sub 3}NH{sub 3}PbI{sub 3} thin films have been fabricated on silicon and glass coated substrates with fluorine doped tin oxide using this PLD-based hybrid method. Planar perovskite solar cells with an inverted structure have been successfully fabricated using the perovskite films. Because of its versatility, the PLD-based hybrid fabrication method not only provides an easy and precise control of the thickness of the perovskite thin films, but also offers a straightforward platform for studying the potential feasibility in using other metal halides and organic salts for formation of the organic-inorganic perovskite structure.

  7. Fabrication of organic-inorganic perovskite thin films for planar solar cells via pulsed laser deposition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yangang Liang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We report on fabrication of organic-inorganic perovskite thin films using a hybrid method consisting of pulsed laser deposition (PLD of lead iodide and spin-coating of methylammonium iodide. Smooth and highly crystalline CH3NH3PbI3 thin films have been fabricated on silicon and glass coated substrates with fluorine doped tin oxide using this PLD-based hybrid method. Planar perovskite solar cells with an inverted structure have been successfully fabricated using the perovskite films. Because of its versatility, the PLD-based hybrid fabrication method not only provides an easy and precise control of the thickness of the perovskite thin films, but also offers a straightforward platform for studying the potential feasibility in using other metal halides and organic salts for formation of the organic-inorganic perovskite structure.

  8. Photochemical alkylation of inorganic selenium in the presence of low molecular weight organic acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Xuming; Sturgeon, Ralph E; Mester, Zoltán; Gardner, Graeme J

    2003-12-15

    Using a flow-through photochemical reactor and a low pressure mercury lamp as a UV source, alkyl selenium species are formed from inorganic selenium(IV) in the presence of low molecular weight organic acids (LMW acids). The volatile alkyl Se species were cryogenically trapped and identified by GC-MS and GC-ICP-MS. In the presence of formic, acetic, propionic and malonic acids, inorganic selenium(IV) is converted by UV irradiation to volatile selenium hydride and carbonyl, dimethylselenide and diethylselenide, respectively. Se(IV) was successfully removed from contaminated agricultural drainage waters (California, U.S.A.) using a batch photoreactor system Se. Photochemical alkylation may thus offer a promising means of converting toxic selenium salts, present in contaminated water, to less toxic dimethylselenide. The LMW acids and photochemical alkylation process may also be key to understanding the source of atmospheric selenium and are likely involved in its mobility in the natural anaerobic environment.

  9. Tailoring the properties of magnetite nanoparticles clusters by coating with double inorganic layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petran, Anca; Radu, Teodora; Culic, Bogdan; Turcu, Rodica

    2016-12-01

    New magnetic nanoparticles based on Fe3O4 clusters covered with a double layer of inorganic salts/oxides with high magnetization for incorporation in security materials such as security paper were synthesized. For the inorganic layers ZnO, SiO2 and BaSO4 were used. The microstructure and composition of the products were determined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Magnetization measurements on the obtained samples show a straightforward correlation between the saturation magnetization (Ms) and morphology of the samples. The results obtained from color parameter assessment are discussed in relation with the morphology and microstructure of the prepared samples.

  10. Atmospheric significance of aeolian salts in the sandy deserts of northwestern China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B.-Q. Zhu

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Large sandy deserts in the middle latitudes of northwestern China were investigated for soluble salt variations in modern and ancient aeolian sediments, aiming to explore the environmental significance of "aeolian salts". Results revealed that aeolian salt variations have a clear relationship with the changing meridional and zonal gradients of the desert locations and the aeolian differentiation effect, but are weakly linked to local geological conditions. It suggests that the natural system of aeolian salts is hydrologically open and the chemistry of the parent brines are different from that predicted for hydrologically closed systems. Atmospheric depositions of water-soluble chemical species are an important process/source contributing to aeolian salt. Sequential variations of soluble salts in sedimentary profiles interbedded with aeolian and non-aeolian deposits and their palaeoenvironmental implications in the hinterland areas of these deserts were further evaluated, based on the constraints of OSL dating and radiocarbon dating data. The results indicate that the inorganic salts may be a latent geoproxy in revealing regional palaeoclimatic changes in desert areas for the sediments deposited under onefold depositional environment, but the interpretation should be more careful for the sediments deposited under diverse depositional conditions. This study presents the evidence of atmospheric origin of aeolian salt in sandy deserts, with limited climatic significance in palaeoenvironmental reconstruction.

  11. Organic-Inorganic Composites Toward Biomaterial Application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyazaki, Toshiki; Sugawara-Narutaki, Ayae; Ohtsuki, Chikara

    2015-01-01

    Bioactive ceramics are known to exhibit specific biological affinities and are able to show direct integration with surrounding bone when implanted in bony defects. However, their inadequate mechanical properties, such as low fracture toughness and high Young's modulus in comparison to natural bone, limit their clinical application. Bone is a kind of organic-inorganic composite where apatite nanocrystals are precipitated onto collagen fibre networks. Thus, one way to address these problems is to mimic the natural composition of bone by using bioactive ceramics via material designs based on organic-inorganic composites. In this chapter, the current research on the development of the various organic-inorganic composites designed for biomaterial applications has been reviewed. Various compounds such as calcium phosphate, calcium sulphate and calcium carbonate can be used for the inorganic phases to design composites with the desired mechanical and biological properties of bone. Not only classical mechanical mixing but also coating of the inorganic phase in aqueous conditions is available for the fabrication of such composites. Organic modifications using various polymers enable the control of the crystalline structure of the calcium carbonate in the composites. These approaches on the fabrication of organic-inorganic composites provide important options for biomedical materials with novel functions. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  12. Frost formation with salt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guadarrama-Cetina, J.; Mongruel, A.; González-Viñas, W.; Beysens, D.

    2015-06-01

    The formation of frost in presence of salt (NaCl) crystal is experimentally investigated on a hydrophobic surface. It presents several remarkable features due to the interplay of salty-water saturation pressure evolution, initially lower than the saturation pressure of ice and water, and the percolating propagation of ice dendrites from defects throughout the supercooled water droplet pattern. In particular, it is remarkable that nucleation of supercooled water and/or ice is prevented around the salty drop in a region of inhibited condensation where the substrate remains dry. As condensation proceeds, salt concentration decreases to eventually become lower than ice's, allowing ice dendrites to hit the salty drop. Salty water then melts ice but eventually freezes as an effect of dilution.

  13. Mixed salt crystallisation fouling

    CERN Document Server

    Helalizadeh, A

    2002-01-01

    The main purpose of this investigation was to study the mechanisms of mixed salt crystallisation fouling on heat transfer surfaces during convective heat transfer and sub-cooled flow boiling conditions. To-date no investigations on the effects of operating parameters on the deposition of mixtures of calcium sulphate and calcium carbonate, which are the most common constituents of scales formed on heat transfer surfaces, have been reported. As part of this research project, a substantial number of experiments were performed to determine the mechanisms controlling deposition. Fluid velocity, heat flux, surface and bulk temperatures, concentration of the solution, ionic strength, pressure and heat transfer surface material were varied systematically. After clarification of the effect of these parameters on the deposition process, the results of these experiments were used to develop a mechanistic model for prediction of fouling resistances, caused by crystallisation of mixed salts, under convective heat transfer...

  14. Study of the composition and gas-phase release characteristics of salt material extracted from MSW ash particles using STA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arvelakis, Stelios; Frandsen, Flemming; Koukios, E.G.

    2007-01-01

    The ash material generated from the MSW incineration contains large amounts of alkali metals, heavy metals, chlorine and sulfur mainly deposited as inorganic salts and/or oxides on the surface of the Si-rich ash particles. In this work, the composition and gas-phase release characteristics of salt...... material extracted from MSW ash particles using a six-stage leaching process is studied using simultaneous thermal analysis (STA). The produced results provide useful information regarding the composition of the salt material and its melting behavior that is considered to play an important role...

  15. Thermochemical Properties of Nicotine Salts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riggs DM

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC results presented in this report clearly show that the thermal stability and the endothermic peak nicotine release temperatures are different for different nicotine salts and these temperatures appear to be linked to the general microstructural details of the salt itself. In addition, the peak nicotine release temperatures are highly dependent upon the sample size used. The heat of vaporization for neat (non-protonated nicotine is also sample-size dependent. The TGA data showed that the least stable of the salts tested at elevated temperatures was the liquid salt nicotine triacetate followed by the crystalline materials (e.g., nicotine gallate and finally, the amorphous salts (e.g., nicotine alginate. The DSC results revealed that the liquid and crystalline salts exhibit nicotine release endotherms that are strongly related to the sample weight being tested. The amorphous salts show nicotine endotherm peak temperatures that are nearly independent of the sample weight. The range of peak nicotine release temperatures varied depending upon the specific salts and the sample size from 83 oC to well over 200 oC. Based on these results, the evolution of nicotine from the nicotine salt should be expected to vary based on the composition of the salt, the details of its microstructure, and the amount of nicotine salt tested.

  16. Frost formation with salt

    OpenAIRE

    Guadarrama-Cetina, J.; Mongruel, A; González-Viñas, W; Beysens, D. A.

    2015-01-01

    The formation of frost in presence of salt (NaCl) crystal is experimentally investigated on a hydrophobic surface. It presents several remarkable features due to the interplay of salty-water saturation pressure evolution, initially lower than the saturation pressure of ice and water, and the percolating propagation of ice dendrites from defects throughout the supercooled water droplet pattern. In particular, it is remarkable that nucleation of supercooled water and/or ice is prevented around ...

  17. A thermodynamic model of mixed organic-inorganic aerosols to predict activity coefficients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Zuend

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Tropospheric aerosols contain mixtures of inorganic salts, acids, water, and a large variety of organic compounds. Interactions between these substances in liquid mixtures lead to discrepancies from ideal thermodynamic behaviour. By means of activity coefficients, non-ideal behaviour can be taken into account. We present here a thermodynamic model named AIOMFAC (Aerosol Inorganic–Organic Mixtures Functional groups Activity Coefficients that is able to calculate activity coefficients covering inorganic, organic, and organic–inorganic interactions in aqueous solutions over a wide concentration range. This model is based on the activity coefficient model LIFAC by Yan et al. (1999 that we modified and reparametrised to better describe atmospherically relevant conditions and mixture compositions. Focusing on atmospheric applications we considered H+, Li+, Na+, K+, NH4+, Mg2+, Ca2+, Cl, Br, NO3, HSO4, and SO42− as cations and anions and a wide range of alcohols/polyols composed of the functional groups CHn and OH as organic compounds. With AIOMFAC, the activities of the components within an aqueous electrolyte solution are well represented up to high ionic strength. Most notably, a semi-empirical middle-range parametrisation of direct organic–inorganic interactions in alcohol + water + salt solutions strongly improves the agreement between experimental and modelled activity coefficients. At room temperature, this novel thermodynamic model offers the possibility to compute equilibrium relative humidities, gas/particle partitioning and liquid–liquid phase separations with high accuracy. In further studies, other organic functional groups will be introduced. The model framework is not restricted to specific ions or organic compounds and is therefore

  18. Uptake of HNO3 to deliquescent sea-salt particles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. W. Gäggeler

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available The uptake of HNO3 to deliquescent airborne sea-salt particles (RH = 55%, P = 760 torr, T = 300 K at concentrations from 2 to 575 ppbv is measured in an aerosol flow tube using 13N as a tracer. Small particles (~ 70 nm diameter are used in order to minimize the effect of diffusion in the gas phase on the mass transfer. Below 100 ppbv, an uptake coefficient (gupt of 0.50 ± 0.20 is derived. At higher concentrations, the uptake coefficient decreases along with the consumption of aerosol chloride. Data interpretation is further supported by using the North American Aerosol Inorganics Model (AIM, which predicts the aqueous phase activities of ions and the gas-phase partial pressures of H2O, HNO3, and HCl at equilibrium for the NaCl/HNO3/H2O system. These simulations show that the low concentration data are obtained far from equilibrium, which implies that the uptake coefficient derived is equal to the mass accommodation coefficient under these conditions. The observed uptake coefficient can serve as input to modeling studies of atmospheric sea-salt aerosol chemistry. The main sea-salt aerosol burden in the marine atmosphere is represented by coarse mode particles (> 1 mm diameter. This implies that diffusion in the gas-phase is the limiting step to HNO3 uptake until the sea-salt has been completely processed.

  19. Borate in mummification salts and bones from Pharaonic Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaup, Yoka; Schmid, Mirjam; Middleton, Andrew; Weser, Ulrich

    2003-03-01

    Mummification processes in Pharaonic Egypt were successful using sodium salts. Quite frequently sodium concentrations in mummified bones ranged from 300 to 4000 micromol/g. In the search for an effective inorganic conservation compound our choice fell on boric acid. The possible presence of borate in mummification salts used in Pharaonic Egypt was of special interest both historically and biochemically. In two salt samples, one from the embalming material of Tutankhamen (18th dynasty, 1336-1327 BC) and the second from Deir el-Bahari (25th dynasty, 700-600 BC) borate was found, amounting to 2.1+/-0.2 and 3.9+/-0.1 micromol/g, respectively. In five of the examined bone fragments from the Junker excavation at Giza (Old Kingdom) similar borate concentrations i.e., 1.2 micromol borate/g bone were seen. It must be emphasized that the usual borate content of contemporary autopsy is far below the detection limit. The elevated borate content in both mummification salt and ancient bone samples support the suggestion that borate-containing salt had been used. There is a striking correlation of both borate concentration and alkaline phosphatase activity. When both sodium salts and borate were essentially absent no activity at all was detectable. With increasing borate concentrations the enzyme activity rises significantly. Attributable to the distinct biochemistry of the tetrahydroxyborate anion it was of interest whether or not borate may stabilize alkaline phosphatase, an important and richly abundant bone enzyme. This enzyme was chosen, as it is known to survive more than 4000 years of mummification. In the presence of borate oligomeric species of this zinc-magnesium-glycoprotein at 400,000 Da became detectable. Attributable to this borate-dependent stabilization of the enzyme molecule a significant temperature resistant increase of the enzymic activity was measured in the presence of up to 2.5 mM borate.

  20. Inhibition of methane oxidation in slurry surface crust by inorganic nitrogen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duan, Yun-Feng; Elsgaard, Lars; Petersen, Søren O

    2013-01-01

    Livestock slurry is an important source of methane (CH4). Depending on dry matter content, a floating crust may form where methane-oxidizing bacteria (MOB) and CH4 oxidation activity have been found, suggesting that surface crusts may reduce CH4 emissions from slurry. However, it is not known how...... MOB in this environment interact with inorganic nitrogen (N). We studied inhibitory effects of ammonium (NH4+), nitrate (NO3–) and nitrite (NO2–) on potential CH4 oxidation in a cattle slurry surface crust. Methane oxidation was assayed at salt concentrations up to 500 mM at 100 and 10,000 ppmv...

  1. Investigating primary marine aerosol properties: CCN activity of sea salt and mixed particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, S. M.; Butcher, A. C.; Rosenoern, T.; Coz, E.; Lieke, K. I.; de Leeuw, G.; Nilsson, E. D.; Bilde, M.

    2012-04-01

    Sea salt particles ejected as a result of bubbles bursting from artificial seawater in a closed stainless steel tank were sampled for size distribution, morphology, and cloud condensation nucleus (CCN) activity. The two-component artificial seawater consisted of salt, either NaCl or sea salt, and one organic compound in deionized water. Several organic molecules representative of oceanic organic matter were investigated. Bubbles were generated either by aeration through a porous diffuser or by water jet impingement on the surface of the artificial seawater. The effect of bubble lifetime, which was controlled by varying the depth of the diffuser in the water column, on particle size and CCN activity was investigated and was found to be insignificant for the organic compounds studied. The CCN activities of particles produced from diffuser-generated bubbles were generally governed by the high hygroscopicity of salt, such that activation was indistinguishable from that of salt, except in the case of very low mass ratio of salt to organic matter in the seawater solution. There was, however, a considerable decrease in CCN activity for particles produced from jet impingement on seawater that had a salinity of 10‰ and contained 0.45 mM of sodium laurate, an organic surfactant. The production of a thick foam layer from impingement may explain the difference in activation and supports hypotheses that particle production from the two methods of generating bubbles is not similar. Accurate conclusions from observed CCN activities of particles from artificial seawater containing organic matter require knowledge of the CCN activity of the inorganic component, especially as a small amount of the inorganic can heavily influence activation. Therefore, the CCN activity of both artificial sea salt and NaCl were measured and compared. Part of the discrepancy observed between the CCN activities of the two salts may be due to morphological differences, which were investigated using

  2. Salt Effects on the Conformational Stability of the Visual G-Protein-Coupled Receptor Rhodopsin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes-Alcaraz, Arfaxad; Martínez-Archundia, Marlet; Ramon, Eva; Garriga, Pere

    2011-01-01

    Membrane protein stability is a key parameter with important physiological and practical implications. Inorganic salts affect protein stability, but the mechanisms of their interactions with membrane proteins are not completely understood. We have undertaken the study of a prototypical G-protein-coupled receptor, the α-helical membrane protein rhodopsin from vertebrate retina, and explored the effects of inorganic salts on the thermal decay properties of both its inactive and photoactivated states. Under high salt concentrations, rhodopsin significantly increased its activation enthalpy change for thermal bleaching, whereas acid denaturation affected the formation of a denatured loose-bundle state for both the active and inactive conformations. This behavior seems to correlate with changes in protonated Schiff-base hydrolysis. However, chromophore regeneration with the 11-cis-retinal chromophore and MetarhodopsinII decay kinetics were slower only in the presence of sodium chloride, suggesting that in this case, the underlying phenomenon may be linked to the activation of rhodopsin and the retinal release processes. Furthermore, the melting temperature, determined by means of circular dichroism and differential scanning calorimetry measurements, was increased in the presence of high salt concentrations. The observed effects on rhodopsin could indicate that salts favor electrostatic interactions in the retinal binding pocket and indirectly favor hydrophobic interactions at the membrane protein receptor core. These effects can be exploited in applications where the stability of membrane proteins in solution is highly desirable. PMID:22261069

  3. Performing organic chemistry with inorganic compounds: electrophilic reactivity of selected nitrosyl complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doctorovich, Fabio; Di Salvo, Florencia

    2007-10-01

    The inorganic nitrosyl (NO(+)) complexes [Fe(CN) 5NO](2-), [Ru(bpy)2(NO)Cl](2+), and [IrCl 5(NO)](-) are useful reagents for the nitrosation of a variety of organic compounds, ranging from amines to the relatively inert alkenes. Regarding [IrCl 5(NO)](-), its high electrophilicity and inertness define it as a unique reagent and provide a powerful synthetic route for the isolation and stabilization of coordinated nitroso compounds that are unstable in free form, such as S-nitrosothiols and primary nitrosamines. Related to the high electrophilicity of [IrCl 5(NO)](-), an unusual behavior is described for its PPh 4(+) salt in the solid state, showing an electronic distribution represented by Ir(IV)-NO(*) instead of Ir (III)-NO(+) (as for the K(+) and Na(+) salts).

  4. Inorganic-organic composite nanoengineered films using self-assembled monolayers for directed zeolite film growth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dye, R.C.; Hermes, R.E.; Martinez, M.G.; Peachey, N.M.

    1997-10-01

    This is the final report of a one-year, Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). Zeolites, or molecular sieves, are aluminosilicate cage structures that are typically grown from a heterogeneous mixture of organic template molecules, inorganic salts of alumina and silica, and water. These zeolites are used in industry for catalytic cracking of hydrocarbons (gasoline manufacture from oil), and contaminant removal from chemical production processes. Within one year, we developed a viable method for the deposition of a quaternary ammonium salt amphiphile onto silicon wafer substrates. Using a biomimetic growth process, we were also able to demonstrate the first thin-film formation of a zeolite structure from such an organic template. Additionally, we synthesized the precursor to another amphiphile which was to be for further studies.

  5. Foundation Coursework in Undergraduate Inorganic Chemistry: Results from a National Survey of Inorganic Chemistry Faculty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raker, Jeffrey R.; Reisner, Barbara A.; Smith, Sheila R.; Stewart, Joanne L.; Crane, Johanna L.; Pesterfield, Les; Sobel, Sabrina G.

    2015-01-01

    A national survey of inorganic chemists explored the self-reported topics covered in foundation-level courses in inorganic chemistry at the postsecondary level; the American Chemical Society's Committee on Professional Training defines a foundation course as one at the conclusion of which, "a student should have mastered the vocabulary,…

  6. Foundation Coursework in Undergraduate Inorganic Chemistry: Results from a National Survey of Inorganic Chemistry Faculty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raker, Jeffrey R.; Reisner, Barbara A.; Smith, Sheila R.; Stewart, Joanne L.; Crane, Johanna L.; Pesterfield, Les; Sobel, Sabrina G.

    2015-01-01

    A national survey of inorganic chemists explored the self-reported topics covered in foundation-level courses in inorganic chemistry at the postsecondary level; the American Chemical Society's Committee on Professional Training defines a foundation course as one at the conclusion of which, "a student should have mastered the vocabulary,…

  7. Thermodynamic Modeling of Organic-Inorganic Aerosols with the Group-Contribution Model AIOMFAC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuend, A.; Marcolli, C.; Luo, B. P.; Peter, T.

    2009-04-01

    Liquid aerosol particles are - from a physicochemical viewpoint - mixtures of inorganic salts, acids, water and a large variety of organic compounds (Rogge et al., 1993; Zhang et al., 2007). Molecular interactions between these aerosol components lead to deviations from ideal thermodynamic behavior. Strong non-ideality between organics and dissolved ions may influence the aerosol phases at equilibrium by means of liquid-liquid phase separations into a mainly polar (aqueous) and a less polar (organic) phase. A number of activity models exists to successfully describe the thermodynamic equilibrium of aqueous electrolyte solutions. However, the large number of different, often multi-functional, organic compounds in mixed organic-inorganic particles is a challenging problem for the development of thermodynamic models. The group-contribution concept as introduced in the UNIFAC model by Fredenslund et al. (1975), is a practical method to handle this difficulty and to add a certain predictability for unknown organic substances. We present the group-contribution model AIOMFAC (Aerosol Inorganic-Organic Mixtures Functional groups Activity Coefficients), which explicitly accounts for molecular interactions between solution constituents, both organic and inorganic, to calculate activities, chemical potentials and the total Gibbs energy of mixed systems (Zuend et al., 2008). This model enables the computation of vapor-liquid (VLE), liquid-liquid (LLE) and solid-liquid (SLE) equilibria within one framework. Focusing on atmospheric applications we considered eight different cations, five anions and a wide range of alcohols/polyols as organic compounds. With AIOMFAC, the activities of the components within an aqueous electrolyte solution are very well represented up to high ionic strength. We show that the semi-empirical middle-range parametrization of direct organic-inorganic interactions in alcohol-water-salt solutions enables accurate computations of vapor-liquid and liquid

  8. Rheology of rock salt for salt tectonics modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shi-Yuan Li

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Numerical modeling of salt tectonics is a rapidly evolving field; however, the constitutive equations to model long-term rock salt rheology in nature still remain controversial. Firstly, we built a database about the strain rate versus the differential stress through collecting the data from salt creep experiments at a range of temperatures (20–200 °C in laboratories. The aim is to collect data about salt deformation in nature, and the flow properties can be extracted from the data in laboratory experiments. Moreover, as an important preparation for salt tectonics modeling, a numerical model based on creep experiments of rock salt was developed in order to verify the specific model using the Abaqus package. Finally, under the condition of low differential stresses, the deformation mechanism would be extrapolated and discussed according to microstructure research. Since the studies of salt deformation in nature are the reliable extrapolation of laboratory data, we simplified the rock salt rheology to dislocation creep corresponding to power law creep (n = 5 with the appropriate material parameters in the salt tectonic modeling.

  9. RIVERINE INORGANIC CARBON DYNAMICS: OVERVIEW AND PERSPECTIVE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAO Guan-rong; GAO Quan-zhou

    2006-01-01

    Inorganic carbon, the great part of the riverine carbon exported to the ocean, plays an important role in the global carbon cycle and ultimately impacts the coupled carbon-climate system. An overview was made on both methods and results of the riverine inorganic carbon researches. In addition to routine in situ survey, measurement and calculation,the direct precipitation method and the gas evolution technique were commonly used to analyze dissolved inorganic carbon in natural water samples. Soil CO2, carbonate minerals and atmospheric CO2 incorporated into riverine inorganic carbon pool via different means, with bicarbonate ion being the dominant component. The concentration of inorganic carbon, the composition of carbon isotopes (δ13C and △14C), and their temporal or spatial variations in the streams were controlled by carbon input, output and changes of carbon biogeochemistry within the riverine system. More accurate flux estimation, better understanding of different influential processes, and quantitative determination of various inputs or outputs need to be well researched in future.

  10. Process to separate alkali metal salts from alkali metal reacted hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gordon, John Howard; Alvare, Javier; Larsen, Dennis; Killpack, Jeff

    2017-06-27

    A process to facilitate gravimetric separation of alkali metal salts, such as alkali metal sulfides and polysulfides, from alkali metal reacted hydrocarbons. The disclosed process is part of a method of upgrading a hydrocarbon feedstock by removing heteroatoms and/or one or more heavy metals from the hydrocarbon feedstock composition. This method reacts the oil feedstock with an alkali metal and an upgradant hydrocarbon. The alkali metal reacts with a portion of the heteroatoms and/or one or more heavy metals to form an inorganic phase containing alkali metal salts and reduced heavy metals, and an upgraded hydrocarbon feedstock. The inorganic phase may be gravimetrically separated from the upgraded hydrocarbon feedstock after mixing at a temperature between about 350.degree. C. to 400.degree. C. for a time period between about 15 minutes and 2 hours.

  11. Electrochromic Salts, Solutions, and Devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burrell, Anthony K. (Los Alamos, NM); Warner, Benjamin P. (Los Alamos, NM); McClesky, T. Mark (Los Alamos, NM)

    2008-11-11

    Electrochromic salts. Electrochromic salts of dicationic viologens such as methyl viologen and benzyl viologen associated with anions selected from bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide, bis(perfluoroethylsulfonyl)imide, and tris(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)methide are produced by metathesis with the corresponding viologen dihalide. They are highly soluble in molten quarternary ammonium salts and together with a suitable reductant provide electrolyte solutions that are used in electrochromic windows.

  12. Electrochromic Salts, Solutions, and Devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burrell, Anthony K. (Los Alamos, NM); Warner, Benjamin P. (Los Alamos, NM); McClesky, T. Mark (Los Alamos, NM)

    2008-10-14

    Electrochromic salts. Electrochromic salts of dicationic viologens such as methyl viologen and benzyl viologen associated with anions selected from bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide, bis(perfluoroethylsulfonyl)imide, and tris(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)methide are produced by metathesis with the corresponding viologen dihalide. They are highly soluble in molten quarternary ammonium salts and together with a suitable reductant provide electrolyte solutions that are used in electrochromic windows.

  13. Electrochromic salts, solutions, and devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burrell, Anthony K. (Los Alamos, NM); Warner, Benjamin P. (Los Alamos, NM); McClesky,7,064,212 T. Mark (Los Alamos, NM)

    2006-06-20

    Electrochromic salts. Electrochromic salts of dicationic viologens such as methyl viologen and benzyl viologen associated with anions selected from bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide, bis(perfluoroethylsulfonyl)imide, and tris(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)methide are produced by metathesis with the corresponding viologen dihalide. They are highly soluble in molten quarternary ammonium salts and together with a suitable reductant provide electrolyte solutions that are used in electrochromic windows.

  14. Salt fluoridation and oral health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas M. Marthaler

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to make known the potential of fluoridated salt in community oral health programs, particularly in South Eastern Europe. Since 1922, the addition of iodine to salt has been successful in Switzerland. Goiter is virtually extinct. By 1945, the cariesprotective effect of fluorides was well established. Based on the success of water fluoridation, a gynecologist started adding of fluoride to salt. The sale of fluoridated salt began in 1956 in the Swiss Canton of Zurich, and several other cantons followed suit. Studies initiated in the early seventies showed that fluoride, when added to salt, inhibits dental caries. The addition of fluoride to salt for human consumption was officially authorized in 1980-82. In Switzerland 85% of domestic salt consumed is fluoridated and 67% in Germany. Salt fluoridation schemes are reaching more than one hundred million in Mexico, Colombia, Peru and Cuba. The cost of salt fluoridation is very low, within 0.02 and 0.05 € per year and capita. Children and adults of the low socio-economic strata tend to have substantially more untreated caries than higher strata. Salt fluoridation is by far the cheapest method for improving oral health. Conclusions. Salt fluoridation has cariostatic potential like water fluoridation (caries reductions up to 50%. In Europe, meaningful percentages of users have been attained only in Germany (67% and Switzerland (85%. In Latin America, there are more than 100 million users, and several countries have arrived at coverage of 90 to 99%. Salt fluoridation is by far the cheapest method of caries prevention, and billions of people throughout the world could benefit from this method.

  15. Intercalation compounds involving inorganic layered structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CONSTANTINO VERA R. L.

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Two-dimensional inorganic networks can shown intracrystalline reactivity, i.e., simple ions, large species as Keggin ions, organic species, coordination compounds or organometallics can be incorporated in the interlayer region. The host-guest interaction usually causes changes in their chemical, catalytic, electronic and optical properties. The isolation of materials with interesting properties and making use of soft chemistry routes have given rise the possibility of industrial and technological applications of these compounds. We have been using several synthetic approaches to intercalate porphyrins and phthalocyanines into inorganic materials: smectite clays, layered double hydroxides and layered niobates. The isolated materials have been characterized by elemental and thermal analysis, X-ray diffraction, surface area measurements, scanning electronic microscopy, electronic and resonance Raman spectroscopies and EPR. The degree of layer stacking and the charge density of the matrices as well their acid-base nature were considered in our studies on the interaction between the macrocycles and inorganic hosts.

  16. Inorganic nanocarriers for platinum drug delivery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ping’an Ma

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays platinum drugs take up almost 50% of all the clinically used anticancer drugs. Besides cisplatin, novel platinum agents including sterically hindered platinum (II drugs, chemically reductive platinum (IV drugs, photosensitive platinum (IV drugs, and multinuclear platinum drugs have been developed recently, with a few entering clinic trials. Rapid development of nanobiotechnology makes targeted delivery of anticancer platinum agents to the tumor site possible, while simultaneously minimizing toxicity and maximizing the drug efficacy. Being versatile drug carriers to deliver platinum drugs, inorganic nanovehicles such as gold nanoparticles, iron oxide nanomaterials, carbon nanotubes, mesoporous nanosilica, metal-organic frameworks (MOFs, have been extensively studied over the past decades. In contrast to conventional polymeric and lipid nanoparticles, inorganic nanoparticles based drug carriers are peculiar as they have shown excellent theranostic effects, revealing themselves an indispensable part of future nanomedicine. Here, we will elaborate recent research advances on fabrication of inorganic nanoparticles for platinum drug delivery.

  17. Microporous Inorganic Membranes as Proton Exchange Membranes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vichi, F.M. Tejedor-Tejedor, M.I. Anderson, Marc A

    2002-08-28

    Porous oxide electrolyte membranes provide an alternative approach to fabricating proton exchange membrane fuel cells based on inorganic materials. This study focused on elucidating the properties of these inorganic membranes that make them good electrolyte materials in membrane electrode assemblies; in particular, we investigated several properties that affect the nature of proton conductivity in these membranes. This report discusses our findings on the effect of variables such as site density, amount of surface protonation and surface modification on the proton conductivity of membranes with a fixed pore structure under selected conditions. Proton conductivities of these inorganic membranes are similar to conductivities of nafion, the polymeric membrane most commonly used in low temperature fuel cells.

  18. Inorganic Nanoparticles for Multimodal Molecular Imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Swierczewska

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Multimodal molecular imaging can offer a synergistic improvement of diagnostic ability over a single imaging modality. Recent development of hybrid imaging systems has profoundly impacted the pool of available multimodal imaging probes. In particular, much interest has been focused on biocompatible, inorganic nanoparticle-based multimodal probes. Inorganic nanoparticles offer exceptional advantages to the field of multimodal imaging owing to their unique characteristics, such as nanometer dimensions, tunable imaging properties, and multifunctionality. Nanoparticles mainly based on iron oxide, quantum dots, gold, and silica have been applied to various imaging modalities to characterize and image specific biologic processes on a molecular level. A combination of nanoparticles and other materials such as biomolecules, polymers, and radiometals continue to increase functionality for in vivo multimodal imaging and therapeutic agents. In this review, we discuss the unique concepts, characteristics, and applications of the various multimodal imaging probes based on inorganic nanoparticles.

  19. Methods for predicting properties and tailoring salt solutions for industrial processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ally, Moonis R.

    1993-01-01

    An algorithm developed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory accurately and quickly predicts thermodynamic properties of concentrated aqueous salt solutions. This algorithm is much simpler and much faster than other modeling schemes and is unique because it can predict solution behavior at very high concentrations and under varying conditions. Typical industrial applications of this algorithm would be in manufacture of inorganic chemicals by crystallization, thermal storage, refrigeration and cooling, extraction of metals, emissions controls, etc.

  20. Swelling compositions based polycarboxylic acids and bentonite clays in solutions of salts of metals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Sarshesheva

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This work is devoted to the synthesis of chemical cross-linked composite materials made of natural inorganic polymer bentonite clay of Manrak deposit, and polyacrylic and polymethacrylic acids. The swelling ability of the composition in solutions of salts of heavy metals (Ni2+ and Pb2+, influence of solution of concentration, pH and temperature on the swelling ability is investigated.

  1. The rejection of anionic dyes and salt from water solutions using a polypropylene microfilter

    OpenAIRE

    Gomes, Arlindo Caniço; Porter, John Jefferson

    2010-01-01

    Previous work reported by this laboratory showed that inorganic membranes such as stainless steel and ceramic microfilters were capable of rejecting anionic dyes and sodium nitrate from water solutions. It was of interest of see if this were possible with organic membranes such as propylene micrifilters. Experimental data are presented showing that propylene microfilter will reject both salt and Direct Red 2 from aqueous solutions when the conductivity of the solution is below 500 microS. The...

  2. Combining piracetam and lithium salts: ionic co-crystals and co-drugs?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braga, Dario; Grepioni, Fabrizia; Maini, Lucia; Capucci, Davide; Nanna, Saverio; Wouters, Johan; Aerts, Luc; Quéré, Luc

    2012-08-25

    Mechanochemical reaction of solid piracetam with the inorganic salts LiCl and LiBr yields ionic co-crystals which are also co-drugs, characterized by markedly different thermal properties with respect to pure components, also depending on the method for preparation and/or conditions of measurements; single crystal and powder X-ray diffraction at variable temperatures, DSC, TGA, hot stage microscopy (HSM) and intrinsic dissolution rate have been used to fully characterize the solid products.

  3. Pathophysiology of salt sensitivity hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ando, Katsuyuki; Fujita, Toshiro

    2012-06-01

    Dietary salt intake is the most important factor contributing to hypertension, but the salt susceptibility of blood pressure (BP) is different in individual subjects. Although the pathogenesis of salt-sensitive hypertension is heterogeneous, it is mainly attributable to an impaired renal capacity to excrete sodium (Na(+) ). We recently identified two novel mechanisms that impair renal Na(+) -excreting function and result in an increase in BP. First, mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) activation in the kidney, which facilitates distal Na(+) reabsorption through epithelial Na(+) channel activation, causes salt-sensitive hypertension. This mechanism exists not only in models of high-aldosterone hypertension as seen in conditions of obesity or metabolic syndrome, but also in normal- or low-aldosterone type of salt-sensitive hypertension. In the latter, Rac1 activation by salt excess causes MR stimulation. Second, renospecific sympathoactivation may cause an increase in BP under conditions of salt excess. Renal beta2 adrenoceptor stimulation in the kidney leads to decreased transcription of the gene encoding WNK4, a negative regulator of Na(+) reabsorption through Na(+) -Cl (-) cotransporter in the distal convoluted tubules, resulting in salt-dependent hypertension. Abnormalities identified in these two pathways of Na(+) reabsorption in the distal nephron may present therapeutic targets for the treatment of salt-sensitive hypertension.

  4. Dietary Salt Intake and Hypertension

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Over the past century, salt has been the subject of intense scientific research related to blood pressure elevation and cardiovascular mortalities. Moderate reduction of dietary salt intake is generally an effective measure to reduce blood pressure. However, recently some in the academic society and lay media dispute the benefits of salt restriction, pointing to inconsistent outcomes noted in some observational studies. A reduction in dietary salt from the current intake of 9-12 g/day to the recommended level of less than 5-6 g/day will have major beneficial effects on cardiovascular health along with major healthcare cost savings around the world. The World Health Organization (WHO) strongly recommended to reduce dietary salt intake as one of the top priority actions to tackle the global non-communicable disease crisis and has urged member nations to take action to reduce population wide dietary salt intake to decrease the number of deaths from hypertension, cardiovascular disease and stroke. However, some scientists still advocate the possibility of increased risk of CVD morbidity and mortality at extremes of low salt intake. Future research may inform the optimal sodium reduction strategies and intake targets for general populations. Until then, we have to continue to build consensus around the greatest benefits of salt reduction for CVD prevention, and dietary salt intake reduction strategies must remain at the top of the public health agenda. PMID:25061468

  5. Engineered inorganic core/shell nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mélinon, Patrice, E-mail: patrice.melinon@univ-lyon1.fr [Institut Lumière matière Université Claude Bernard Lyon 1 et CNRS et OMNT, Domaine Scientifique de la Doua, Bâtiment Léon Brillouin, 43 Boulevard du 11 Novembre 1918, F 69622 Villeurbanne (France); Begin-Colin, Sylvie [IPCMS et OMNT, 23 rue du Loess BP 43, 67034 STRASBOURG Cedex 2 (France); Duvail, Jean Luc [IMN UMR 6502 et OMNT Campus Sciences : 2 rue de la Houssinire, BP32229, 44322 Nantes Cedex3 (France); Gauffre, Fabienne [SPM et OMNT : Institut des sciences chimiques de Rennes - UMR 6226, 263 Avenue du General Leclerc, CS 74205, 35042 RENNES Cedex (France); Boime, Nathalie Herlin [IRAMIS-NIMBE, Laboratoire Francis Perrin (CEA CNRS URA 2453) et OMNT, Bat 522, CEA Saclay, 91191 Gif sur Yvette Cedex (France); Ledoux, Gilles [Institut Lumière Matière Université Claude Bernard Lyon 1 et CNRS et OMNT, Domaine Scientifique de la Doua, Bâtiment Alfred Kastler 43 Boulevard du 11 Novembre 1918 F 69622 Villeurbanne (France); Plain, Jérôme [Universit de technologie de Troyes LNIO-ICD, CNRS et OMNT 12 rue Marie Curie - CS 42060 - 10004 Troyes cedex (France); Reiss, Peter [CEA Grenoble, INAC-SPrAM, UMR 5819 CEA-CNRS-UJF et OMNT, Grenoble cedex 9 (France); Silly, Fabien [CEA, IRAMIS, SPEC, TITANS, CNRS 2464 et OMNT, F-91191 Gif sur Yvette (France); Warot-Fonrose, Bénédicte [CEMES-CNRS, Université de Toulouse et OMNT, 29 rue Jeanne Marvig F 31055 Toulouse (France)

    2014-10-20

    It has been for a long time recognized that nanoparticles are of great scientific interest as they are effectively a bridge between bulk materials and atomic structures. At first, size effects occurring in single elements have been studied. More recently, progress in chemical and physical synthesis routes permitted the preparation of more complex structures. Such structures take advantages of new adjustable parameters including stoichiometry, chemical ordering, shape and segregation opening new fields with tailored materials for biology, mechanics, optics magnetism, chemistry catalysis, solar cells and microelectronics. Among them, core/shell structures are a particular class of nanoparticles made with an inorganic core and one or several inorganic shell layer(s). In earlier work, the shell was merely used as a protective coating for the core. More recently, it has been shown that it is possible to tune the physical properties in a larger range than that of each material taken separately. The goal of the present review is to discuss the basic properties of the different types of core/shell nanoparticles including a large variety of heterostructures. We restrict ourselves on all inorganic (on inorganic/inorganic) core/shell structures. In the light of recent developments, the applications of inorganic core/shell particles are found in many fields including biology, chemistry, physics and engineering. In addition to a representative overview of the properties, general concepts based on solid state physics are considered for material selection and for identifying criteria linking the core/shell structure and its resulting properties. Chemical and physical routes for the synthesis and specific methods for the study of core/shell nanoparticle are briefly discussed.

  6. Conjunctive and mineralization impact of municipal solid waste compost and inorganic fertilizer on lysimeter and pot studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalid, Iqbal; Nadeem, Amana; Ahmed, Rauf; Husnain, Anwer

    2014-01-01

    Objectives of the present study were to investigate the physico-chemical properties of municipal solid waste (MSW)-enriched compost and its effect on nutrient mineralization and subsequent plant growth. The enrichment of MSW compost by inorganic salts enhanced the humification rate and reduced the carbon nitrogen (C/N) ratio in less time than control compost. The chemical properties of compost, C/N ratio, humic acid, fulvic acid, degree of polymerization and humification index revealed the significant correlation amid properties. A laboratory-scale experiment evaluated the conjunctive effect of MSW compost and inorganic fertilizer on tomato plants in a pot experiment. In the pot experiment five treatments, Inorganic fertilizer (T1), enriched compost (T2), enriched compost 80% + 20% inorganic fertilizer (T3), enriched compost 60% + 40% inorganic fertilizer (T4) were defined including control (Ts), applied at the rate of 110 kg-N/ha and results revealed that all treatments significantly enhanced horticultural production of tomato plant; however T4 was most effectual as compared with control, T1, T2 and T3. Augmentation in organic matter and available phosphorus (P) potassium (K) and nitrogen (N) were also observed in compost treatments. The leachability and phytoavailability of phosphorus (P), potassium (K) and nitrogen (N) from sandy soil, amended with enriched, control compost and inorganic fertilizer at rates of 200, 400 and 600 kg-N/ha were evaluated in a lysimeter study. Results illustrated that concentration of mineral nitrogen was elevated in the leachate of inorganic fertilizer than enriched and control composts; therefore compost fortifies soil with utmost nutrients for plants' growth.

  7. Inorganic-organic hybrid white light phosphors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ming-Sheng; Guo, Guo-Cong

    2016-11-03

    Light-emitting diodes (LEDs) and organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) have brought about a revolution in lighting and display. A very hot field in recent years has been to develop white-light phosphors, aiming to achieve better colour stability, better reproducibility, and a simpler fabrication process for LEDs and OLEDs. This feature article reviews the development of inorganic-organic hybrid white-light phosphors, including coordination compounds of small organic molecules, organically templated inorganic compounds (phosphates, borates, sulfides, halides), metal-functionalized organic polymers, and organically coated nanoparticles.

  8. Temporal contrast of salt delivery in mouth increases salt perception

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Busch, J.L.H.C.; Tournier, C.; Knoop, J.E.; Kooyman, G.; Smit, G.

    2009-01-01

    The impact of salt delivery in mouth on salt perception was investigated. It was hypothesized that fast concentration changes in the delivery to the receptor can reduce sensory adaptation, leading to an increased taste perception. Saltiness ratings were scored by a panel over time during various

  9. How sea level rise affects sedimentation, plant growth, and carbon accumulation on coastal salt marshes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mudd, S. M.; Howell, S. M.; Morris, J. T.

    2009-12-01

    The rate of accretion on coastal salt marshes depends on feedbacks between flow, macrophyte growth, and sedimentation. Under favourable conditions, marsh accretion rates will keep pace with the local rate of sea level rise. Marsh accretion is driven by both organic and inorganic sedimentation; mineral rich marshes will need less organic sedimentation to keep pace with sea level rise. Here we use a numerical model of marsh accretion, calibrated by sediment cores, to explore the relationship between sea level rise and carbon sequestration on salt marshes in the face of differing supplies of inorganic sediment. The model predicts that changes in carbon storage resulting from changing sediment supply or sea-level rise are strongly dependant on the background sediment supply: if inorganic sediment supply is reduced in an already sediment poor marsh the storage of organic carbon will increase to a far greater extent than in a sediment-rich marsh, provided that the rate of sea-level rise does not exceed a threshold. These results imply that altering sediment supply to estuaries (e.g., by damming upstream rivers or altering littoral sediment transport) could lead to significant changes in the carbon budgets of coastal salt marshes.

  10. Tropospheric Chemistry of Internally Mixed Sea Salt and Organic Particles: Surprising Reactivity of NaCl with Weak Organic Acids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laskin, Alexander; Moffet, Ryan C.; Gilles, Marry K.; Fast, Jerome D.; Zaveri, Rahul A.; Wang, Bingbing; Nigge, P.; Shutthanandan, Janani I.

    2012-08-03

    Chemical imaging analysis of internally mixed sea salt/organic particles collected on board the Department of Energy (DOE) G-1 aircraft during the 2010 Carbonaceous Aerosols and Radiative Effects Study (CARES) was performed using electron microscopy and X-ray spectro-microscopy techniques. Substantial chloride depletion in aged sea salt particles was observed, which could not be explained by the known atmospheric reactivity of sea salt with inorganic nitric and sulfuric acids. We present field evidence that chloride components in sea salt particles may effectively react with organic acids releasing HCl gas to the atmosphere, leaving behind particles depleted in chloride and enriched in the corresponding organic salts. While formation of the organic salts products is not thermodynamically favored for bulk aqueous chemistry, these reactions in aerosol are driven by high volatility and irreversible evaporation of the HCl product from drying particles. These field observations were corroborated in a set of laboratory experiments where NaCl particles mixed with organic acids were found to be depleted in chloride. Combined together, the results indicate substantial chemical reactivity of sea salt particles with secondary organics that has been largely overlooked in the atmospheric aerosol chemistry. Atmospheric aging, and especially hydration-dehydration cycles of mixed sea salt/organic particles may result in formation of organic salts that will modify acidity, hygroscopic and optical properties of aged particles.

  11. Hygroscopic properties of organic and inorganic aerosols[Dissertation 17260

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sjoegren, N.O.Staffan

    2007-07-01

    The atmosphere contains gases and particulate matter (aerosol). Organic material is present both in the gas phase and in the aerosol phase. Biogenic sources such as vegetation and anthropogenic sources such as biomass burning, fossil fuel use and various industries contribute to their emissions. The study of organic compounds in aerosol particles is of importance because they affect the water uptake (hygroscopicity) of inorganic aerosol, and hence the radiation budget of the Earth through the direct and indirect aerosol effects. The hygroscopicity of mixed organic/inorganic aerosol particles produced in the laboratory was characterized. This work reports on the following substances, and mixtures of them with ammonium sulfate (AS): adipic acid (AA), citric acid (CA), glutaric acid (GA) and humic acid sodium salt (NaHA). The AA and NaHA mixtures with AS were found to require up to tens of seconds for equilibrium water content to be reached. Therefore, measurements carried out on timescales shorter than a few seconds underestimate the hygroscopic growth factor (GF) with up to 10%, for samples containing a solid phase. Conversely, the GA and CA mixtures with AS were found to take up water readily and were well described by the Zdanovskii-Stokes-Robinson (ZSR) mixing rule. The distinct deliquescence and efflorescence points of AS could be seen to gradually disappear as the CA content was increased. Furthermore mineral dust (standard Arizona test dust) was investigated, as well as the influence of nitric acid (HNO{sub 3}) uptake thereon. Mineral dust is hydrophobic, but after processing with HNO{sub 3} turns slightly hygroscopic. Large amounts of dust are injected to the atmosphere (largely from the Sahara and the Gobi deserts, but also from human land-use). Mineral dust is important as ice nuclei, and due to its larger sizes it can also contribute as cloud condensation nuclei. Mineral dust also offers surface for heterogeneous chemistry, and can play an important role

  12. Synthetic dye--inorganic salt hybrid colorants for application in thermoplastics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Yan-Ping; Li, Tian; Gao, Hong-Wen

    2011-06-17

    Common synthetic dyes, e.g., Weak Acid Pink Red B (APRB, C.I. 18073), Mordant Blue 9 (MB, C.I.14855) and Acid Brilliant Blue 6B (ABB6B, C.I. 42660), can be removed from water by in situ hybridization with CaCO(3), BaSO(4) and Ca(3)(PO(4))(2) and the resulting hybrids thus prepared used as plastic colorants. All the hybrids can be processed into polypropylene (PP) at 200 °C with good color intensity, color brightness and homogeneous dispersion. The BaSO(4)-MB hybrid exhibits better migration resistance to acid and alkali, and stronger covering power than the BaSO(4)-MB mixture. The thermal stability and UV resistance of the Ca(3)(PO(4))(2)-ABB6B hybrid are better than those of the Ca(3)(PO(4))(2)-ABB6B mixture. The crystallinity of PP is enhanced by incorporation of these hybrids and the use of these hybrids as colorants in PP instead of the dyes alone is determined to be feasible.

  13. Simultaneous ammonium and phosphate removal by metal inorganic salt modification of natural zeolite

    OpenAIRE

    Ventosa i Capell, Blanca

    2015-01-01

    Nutrients discharge into receiving waters can cause an environmental problem capable of deathly altering ecosystems. Natural zeolites are low cost resources with ion exchange capacity that have been widely studied. This study deals with simultaneous adsorption of nutrients; viz. ammonium and phosphate, onto different modifications of natural zeolite, clinoptilolite. Research has been focused on the optimization of surface modification procedures to raise clinoptilolite efficien...

  14. Cloud droplet activation and surface tension of mixtures of slightly soluble organics and inorganic salt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Henning

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available Critical supersaturations for internally mixed particles of adipic acid, succinic acid and sodium chloride were determined experimentally for dry particles sizes in the range 40–130 nm. Surface tensions of aqueous solutions of the dicarboxylic acids and sodium chloride corresponding to concentrations at activation were measured and parameterized as a function of carbon content. The activation of solid particles as well as solution droplets were studied and particle phase was found to be important for the critical supersaturation. Experimental data were modelled using Köhler theory modified to account for limited solubility and surface tension lowering.

  15. Preconceptual design of a salt splitting process using ceramic membranes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurath, D.E.; Brooks, K.P.; Hollenberg, G.W.; Clemmer, R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Balagopal, S.; Landro, T.; Sutija, D.P. [Ceramatec, Inc., Salt Lake City, UT (United States)

    1997-01-01

    Inorganic ceramic membranes for salt splitting of radioactively contaminated sodium salt solutions are being developed for treating U. S. Department of Energy tank wastes. The process consists of electrochemical separation of sodium ions from the salt solution using sodium (Na) Super Ion Conductors (NaSICON) membranes. The primary NaSICON compositions being investigated are based on rare- earth ions (RE-NaSICON). Potential applications include: caustic recycling for sludge leaching, regenerating ion exchange resins, inhibiting corrosion in carbon-steel tanks, or retrieving tank wastes; reducing the volume of low-level wastes volume to be disposed of; adjusting pH and reducing competing cations to enhance cesium ion exchange processes; reducing sodium in high-level-waste sludges; and removing sodium from acidic wastes to facilitate calcining. These applications encompass wastes stored at the Hanford, Savannah River, and Idaho National Engineering Laboratory sites. The overall project objective is to supply a salt splitting process unit that impacts the waste treatment and disposal flowsheets and meets user requirements. The potential flowsheet impacts include improving the efficiency of the waste pretreatment processes, reducing volume, and increasing the quality of the final waste disposal forms. Meeting user requirements implies developing the technology to the point where it is available as standard equipment with predictable and reliable performance. This report presents two preconceptual designs for a full-scale salt splitting process based on the RE-NaSICON membranes to distinguish critical items for testing and to provide a vision that site users can evaluate.

  16. Deep Eutectic Salt Formulations Suitable as Advanced Heat Transfer Fluids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raade, Justin; Roark, Thomas; Vaughn, John; Bradshaw, Robert

    2013-07-22

    Concentrating solar power (CSP) facilities are comprised of many miles of fluid-filled pipes arranged in large grids with reflective mirrors used to capture radiation from the sun. Solar radiation heats the fluid which is used to produce steam necessary to power large electricity generation turbines. Currently, organic, oil-based fluid in the pipes has a maximum temperature threshold of 400 °C, allowing for the production of electricity at approximately 15 cents per kilowatt hour. The DOE hopes to foster the development of an advanced heat transfer fluid that can operate within higher temperature ranges. The new heat transfer fluid, when used with other advanced technologies, could significantly decrease solar electricity cost. Lower costs would make solar thermal electricity competitive with gas and coal and would offer a clean, renewable source of energy. Molten salts exhibit many desirable heat transfer qualities within the range of the project objectives. Halotechnics developed advanced heat transfer fluids (HTFs) for application in solar thermal power generation. This project focused on complex mixtures of inorganic salts that exhibited a high thermal stability, a low melting point, and other favorable characteristics. A high-throughput combinatorial research and development program was conducted in order to achieve the project objective. Over 19,000 candidate formulations were screened. The workflow developed to screen various chemical systems to discover salt formulations led to mixtures suitable for use as HTFs in both parabolic trough and heliostat CSP plants. Furthermore, salt mixtures which will not interfere with fertilizer based nitrates were discovered. In addition for use in CSP, the discovered salt mixtures can be applied to electricity storage, heat treatment of alloys and other industrial processes.

  17. Caenorhabditis elegans response to salt

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    O.O. Umuerri (Oluwatoroti Omowayewa)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractThis thesis describes my work, where I used genetic methods to identify new genes involved in salt taste in C. elegans. In addition, I used calcium imaging to characterize the cellular response of C. elegans to salt. The thesis is divided into five sections and each section is summarized

  18. Caenorhabditis elegans response to salt

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    O.O. Umuerri (Oluwatoroti Omowayewa)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractThis thesis describes my work, where I used genetic methods to identify new genes involved in salt taste in C. elegans. In addition, I used calcium imaging to characterize the cellular response of C. elegans to salt. The thesis is divided into five sections and each section is summarized

  19. 29 CFR 1910.1018 - Inorganic arsenic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...) Engineering plans and studies used to determine methods selected for controlling exposure to inorganic arsenic... such exposures. The following three sections quoted from “Occupational Diseases: A Guide to Their.... Arsenic; chronic human intoxication. J. Occup. Med. 2:137. Elkins, H. B. 1959. The Chemistry of...

  20. Modelling inorganic material in activated sludge systems

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    driniev

    2004-04-02

    Apr 2, 2004 ... organic models above, predictive models for the reactor inorganic ... included TSS as a non-conservative compound (Gujer and Lawson,. 1995) .... The OHO and PAO fractions of the VSS (favOHO, favPAO) are defined by, and ...

  1. Salt Action on Concrete.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-08-01

    CaCOH) 2 + CaCO 3 + H 2P (3) Na 2SO 4 + Ca(OH) 2 + CaSO 4 + 2NaOH (4) N&2S0 4 + CaC12 + CaS0,, + 2NaCl (5) MgCD 3 + CaOH) 2 * 14g(Ofl) 2 + C aCO 3 (6...or Na2 SO present in small amounts in seawater, or possibly in the field as a trace component of ground- water or crude NaCI deicer, or arising from...particularly evi- dent and recognized for salts that form several hydrates at common tempera- 0 tures, e.g. Na2SO4, MgS04, CaSO 4, CaCl2. Use is made of

  2. Salt resistant crop plants

    KAUST Repository

    Roy, Stuart J.

    2014-04-01

    Soil salinity is a major constraint to agriculture. To improve salinity tolerance of crops, various traits can be incorporated, including ion exclusion, osmotic tolerance and tissue tolerance. We review the roles of a range of genes involved in salt tolerance traits. Different tissues and cells are adapted for specific and often diverse function, so it is important to express the genes in specific cell-types and to pyramid a range of traits. Modern biotechnology (marker- assisted selection or genetic engineering) needs to be increasingly used to introduce the correct combination of genes into elite crop cultivars. Importantly, the effects of introduced genes need to be evaluated in the field to determine their effect on salinity tolerance and yield improvement.

  3. Salt Lake in Chaidamu Basin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王良华

    2007-01-01

    Chaidamu Basin(柴达木盆地) is in the west of China. It covers an area(地区) of 220,000 square kilometres(平方公里). The number of salt lakes(盐湖) is more than twenty in it. Chaerhan(察尔汗) Salt Lake is the largest in this area. If you get here, you will find that in the lake there is no water but a thick layer(层) of salt. You can walk in it without difficulty, and cars can come and go across it. The thickest layer of salt in this basin is about fifty metres thick. People tried their best to use the salt to build house...

  4. Thermoplastic Polymer Nanocomposites Based on Inorganic Fullerene-like Nanoparticles and Inorganic Nanotubes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Naffakh

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Using inorganic fullerene-like (IF nanoparticles and inorganic nanotubes (INT in organic-inorganic hybrid composite, materials provide the potential for improving thermal, mechanical, and tribological properties of conventional composites. The processing of such high-performance hybrid thermoplastic polymer nanocomposites is achieved via melt-blending without the aid of any modifier or compatibilizing agent. The incorporation of small quantities (0.1–4 wt.% of IF/INTs (tungsten disulfide, IF-WS2 or molybdenum disulfide, MoS2 generates notable performance enhancements through reinforcement effects and excellent lubricating ability in comparison with promising carbon nanotubes or other inorganic nanoscale fillers. It was shown that these IF/INT nanocomposites can provide an effective balance between performance, cost effectiveness, and processability, which is of significant importance for extending the practical applications of diverse hierarchical thermoplastic-based composites.

  5. Striking a Balance: Experiment and Concept in Undergraduate Inorganic Chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frey, John E.

    1990-01-01

    Described is an inorganic chemistry course based on the premise that a balanced understanding of inorganic chemistry requires knowledge of the experimental, theoretical, and technological aspects of the subject. A detailed description of lectures and laboratories is included. (KR)

  6. Inorganic Nitrogen Wet Deposition for the Conterminous United States, 1962

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Annual inorganic nitrogen wet deposition were estimated for the conterminous United States for 1962. The estimates were derived from inorganic nitrogen...

  7. Striking a Balance: Experiment and Concept in Undergraduate Inorganic Chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frey, John E.

    1990-01-01

    Described is an inorganic chemistry course based on the premise that a balanced understanding of inorganic chemistry requires knowledge of the experimental, theoretical, and technological aspects of the subject. A detailed description of lectures and laboratories is included. (KR)

  8. Preparation, Properties and Application of Polymeric Organic-Inorganic Nanocomposites

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任杰; 刘艳; 唐小真

    2003-01-01

    Six preparation methods for polymeric organic-inorganic nanocomposites and their respective mechanisms and features are reviewed. The extraordinary properties of polymeric organic-inorganic nanocomposites are discussed,and their potential applications are evaluated.

  9. Inorganic Nitrogen Wet Deposition for the Conterminous United States, 1984

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Annual inorganic nitrogen wet deposition were estimated for the conterminous United States for 1984. The estimates were derived from inorganic nitrogen...

  10. Influence of Organic and Inorganic Sources of Fertilizer on Growth ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Influence of Organic and Inorganic Sources of Fertilizer on Growth and Leaf Yield of ... the effect of Tithonia diversifolia, farmyard manure and inorganic sources of ... Leaf yield was assessed by both cumulative leaf weight per given plant and ...

  11. Inorganic Nitrogen Wet Deposition for the Conterminous United States, 1963

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Annual inorganic nitrogen wet deposition were estimated for the conterminous United States for 1963. The estimates were derived from inorganic nitrogen...

  12. Inorganic Nitrogen Wet Deposition for the Conterminous United States, 1983

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Annual inorganic nitrogen wet deposition were estimated for the conterminous United States for 1983. The estimates were derived from inorganic nitrogen...

  13. Inorganic Nitrogen Wet Deposition for the Conterminous United States, 1961

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Annual inorganic nitrogen wet deposition were estimated for the conterminous United States for 1961. The estimates were derived from inorganic nitrogen...

  14. Inorganic Nitrogen Wet Deposition for the Conterminous United States, 1964

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Annual inorganic nitrogen wet deposition were estimated for the conterminous United States for 1964. The estimates were derived from inorganic nitrogen...

  15. Genesis of Tuzla salt basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sušić, Amir; Baraković, Amir; Komatina, Snezana

    2017-04-01

    Salt is condition for the survival of the human race, and holds a special place in the exploitation of mineral resources. It is the only mineral raw material used in direct feeding, and therefore has its own specialty. Salt is a crystalline mineral that is found in seawater, as well as in underground areas where it is formed by deposition of salt sediments. Occurrences of salt water near Tuzla and Gornja Tuzla have been known since the time of the Romans as "ad salinas". The name itself connects Bosnia with its richness in salt, because the word barefoot, which is preserved in a north-Albanian dialect, means a place where boiling salted water are obtained. At the time of the Bosnian kings, these regions are named Soli, which is in connection with occurences of saline sources. Geological studies of rock salt in the area of Tuzla basin are practically began after the annexation of Bosnia and Herzegovina by the Austro-Hungarian Empire, in the period from 1878 to 1918. Geological field work was conducted K. Paul, H. Hefer, E. Tietze and F. Katzer. Monomineral deposit of rock salt Tetima is made of halite and anhydrite mixed with marl belt, while the bay of salt in Tuzla is polymineral and contains a considerable amount of thenardite (Na2SO4) and rare minerals: nortupit, nahkolit, bradleit, probertit, glauberite and others. Both salt deposits were created as a product of chemical sedimentation in the lower Miocene Badenian sediments. The main objective of this paper is to show the genesis of the deposits and the spatial and genetic connection. In addition, genesis of geological research in the areas of Tuzla basin will be presented.

  16. Molten Salt Promoting Effect in Double Salt CO2 Absorbents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Keling; Li, Xiaohong S.; Chen, Haobo; Singh, Prabhakar; King, David L.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to elaborate on the concept of molten salts as catalysts for CO2 absorption by MgO, and extend these observations to the MgO-containing double salt oxides. We will show that the phenomena involved with CO2 absorption by MgO and MgO-based double salts are similar and general, but with some important differences. This paper focuses on the following key concepts: i) identification of conditions that favor or disfavor participation of isolated MgO during double salt absorption, and investigation of methods to increase the absorption capacity of double salt systems by including MgO participation; ii) examination of the relationship between CO2 uptake and melting point of the promoter salt, leading to the recognition of the role of pre-melting (surface melting) in these systems; and iii) extension of the reaction pathway model developed for the MgO-NaNO3 system to the double salt systems. This information advances our understanding of MgO-based CO2 absorption systems for application with pre-combustion gas streams.

  17. Low temperature property of Metaphosphatecopper(II/I) salt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swain, Trilochan; Brahma, Gouri Sankhar

    2016-04-01

    An inorganically template metaphosphoric acid containing copper salt, nanomaterial, has been synthesized and characterized with different measurement techniques such as Differential Scanning Calorimeter (DSC), UV-Vis-NIR, HRTEM, VSM, PPMS and X-RD. The thermal property of this salt has been studied at a low temperature up to 223 K from 298 K with DSC. The specific heat capacity of this complex has been measured in atmospheric O2 at a rate of 10 K min-1 from 298 K to 223 K and vice versa in two thermal cycles. The net specific heat capacity of this salt is found -88.28 J/gm.K and - 86.56 J/gm.K in first and second thermal cycles, respectively. There is a discontinuity in the specific heat at 106 s while measuring the specific heat capacity of the above nanomaterial at constant temperature 283 K. This particle size of this nanomaterial is ˜ 10 nm. The paramagnetic Curie temperature (θP) and Curie constant (C) are 18.29 K and 1.35x10-3 respectively. This material founds insulator from PPMS and UV-Vis-NIR measurements. So, it can be used as thermal interface material as a composite component with some organic polymers such as paraffin wax, ethylene-vinyl acetate etc.

  18. NOVEL SALTS OF GRAPHITE AND A BORON NITRIDE SALT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bartlett, Neil; Biagioni, R.N.; McQuillan, B.W.; Robertson, A.S.; Thompson, A.C

    1977-12-01

    Graphite is oxidized by O{sub 2}{sup +} AsF{sub 6}{sup -} and by OsF{sub 6} to give first-stage graphite salts C{sub 8}{sup +} MF{sub 6}{sup -} and S{sub 2}O{sub 6}F{sub 2} oxidizes both graphite and boron nitride to yield the salts C{sub 12}{sup +} SO{sub 3}F{sup -} and (BN){sub 4}{sup +} SO{sub 3}F{sup -}, the latter being the first example of a first-stage boron nitride salt.

  19. Ambient and laboratory observations of organic ammonium salts in PM1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlag, P; Rubach, F; Mentel, T F; Reimer, D; Canonaco, F; Henzing, J S; Moerman, M; Otjes, R; Prévôt, A S H; Rohrer, F; Rosati, B; Tillmann, R; Weingartner, E; Kiendler-Scharr, A

    2017-08-24

    Ambient measurements of PM1 aerosol chemical composition at Cabauw, the Netherlands, implicate higher ammonium concentrations than explained by the formation of inorganic ammonium salts. This additional particulate ammonium is called excess ammonium (eNH4). Height profiles over the Cabauw Experimental Site for Atmospheric Research (CESAR) tower, of combined ground based and airborne aerosol mass spectrometric (AMS) measurements on a Zeppelin airship show higher concentrations of eNH4 at higher altitudes compared to the ground. Through flights across the Netherlands, the Zeppelin based measurements furthermore substantiate eNH4 as a regional phenomenon in the planetary boundary layer. The excess ammonium correlates with mass spectral signatures of (di-)carboxylic acids, making a heterogeneous acid-base reaction the likely process of NH3 uptake. We show that this excess ammonium was neutralized by the organic fraction forming particulate organic ammonium salts. We discuss the significance of such organic ammonium salts for atmospheric aerosols and suggest that NH3 emission control will have benefits for particulate matter control beyond the reduction of inorganic ammonium salts.

  20. Will salt repositories be dry?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bredehoeft, John D.

    The National Academy of Science committee that considered geologic disposal of nuclear waste in the mid-1950s recommended salt as a repository medium, partly because of its high thermal conductivity and because it was believed to be “dry” (perhaps the appropriate thought is “impermeable”). Certainly, the fact that Paleozoic salt deposits exist in many parts of t h e world is evidence for very low rates of dissolution by moving groundwater. The fact that the dissolution rates were so small led many scientists to the conclusion that the salt beds were nearly impermeable. The major source of brine within the salt beds was thought to be fluid inclusions within salt crystals, which could migrate through differential solution toward a source of high heat. The idea that salt was uniformly “dry” was revised when exploratory drilling in the vicinity of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) in New Mexico encountered brines within the Castile Formation, an evaporite deposit below the Salado Formation. The brine reservoirs were thought to be isolated pockets of brine in an otherwise “impermeable” salt section.

  1. Effects on antioxidant enzyme activities and osmolytes in Halocnemum strobilaceum under salt stress

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TianPeng Gao; Rui Guo; XiangWen Fang; ZhiGang Zhao; GuoHua Chang; YinQuan Chen; Qing Zhang

    2016-01-01

    The seedlings ofHalocnermum strobilaceum were cultivated in 0.5% hoagland nutrient solution containing 0.0%, 0.9%, 2.7% and 5.4% of NaCl as well as composite salt (Na+, Ca2+, K+, Si4+) for 20 days; all the contents are in weight ratio. Succulent level, inorganic ions (Na+, K+), organics such as betaine, proline, malondialdehyde, and antioxidant enzyme activities including superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), peroxidase (POD), betaine aldehyde dehydrogenase (BADH) were measured to reveal its salt tolerance mechanism. When the composite salt concentration reaches 5.4%, SOD activity level, and MDA content is five times the control group; when it reaches 2.7%, the succulent level of seedlings, and the content of K+ in roots is nearly two times the NaCl treatment; the dry weight is more than three times the control group; with the NaCl treatment, MDA is three times the contrast; when the salt concentration is 2.7%, POD reaches the maximum. Results indicate that Si4+, K+, and Ca2+ from composite salt in the roots ofH. strobilaceum improved the water-holding capacity. The activities of antioxidant enzyme were raised by the accumulation of proline and betaine, which increased the salt tolerance. The absorption of K+ promoted the high ratio of K+/Na+ and alleviated the damage of cell membranes ofH. strobilaceum, which is associated with osmotic contents such as betaine and proline.

  2. Metal salts for molecular ion yield enhancement in organic secondary ion mass spectrometry: a critical assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delcorte, A; Bertrand, P

    2005-04-01

    In a search for molecular ion signal enhancement in organic SIMS, the efficiency of a series of organic and inorganic salts for molecular cationization has been tested using a panel of nonvolatile molecules with very different chemical characteristics (leucine enkephalin, Irganox 1010, tetraphenylnaphthalene, polystyrene). The compounds used for cationization include alkali bromide and group Ib metal salts (XBr with X = Li, Na, K; CF3CO2Ag; AgNO3; [CH3COCH=C(O-)CH3]2Cu; AuCl3). Alkali ions, very good for polar molecule cationization, prove to be of limited interest for nonpolar molecules such as polystyrene. Silver trifluoroacetate displays excellent results for all the considered molecules, except for leucine enkephalin (which might be due to the use of different solvents for the analyte and the salt). Instead, silver nitrate mixed with leucine enkephalin in an ethanol solution provides intense molecular signals. The influence of the respective concentrations of analyte and salt in solution, of the silver trifluoroacetate solution stability, and of the sample microstructure on the secondary ion intensities are also investigated. The results of other combinations of analyte and salts are reported. Finally, the use of salts is critically compared to other sample preparation procedures previously proposed for SIMS analysis of large organic molecules.

  3. Organic and inorganic inputs and losses in an irrigated corn field after inorganic fertilizer or manure application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little is known about inorganic fertilizer or manure effects on organic carbon (OC) and inorganic C (IC) losses from a furrow irrigated field, particularly in the context of other system C gains or losses. In 2003 and 2004, we measured dissolved organic and inorganic C (DOC, DIC), particulate OC an...

  4. Influence of Aqueous Inorganic Anions on the Reactivity of Nanoparticles in TiO2 Photocatalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farner Budarz, Jeffrey; Turolla, Andrea; Piasecki, Aleksander F; Bottero, Jean-Yves; Antonelli, Manuela; Wiesner, Mark R

    2017-03-21

    The influence of inorganic anions on the photoreactivity and aggregation of titanium dioxide nanoparticles (NPs) was assessed by dosing carbonate, chloride, nitrate, phosphate, and sulfate as potassium salts at multiple concentrations. NP stability was monitored in terms of aggregate morphology and electrophoretic mobility (EPM). Aggregate size and fractal dimension were measured over time by laser diffraction, and the isoelectric point (IEP) as a function of anion and concentration was obtained by measuring EPM versus pH. Phosphate, carbonate, and to a lesser extent, sulfate decreased the IEP of TiO2 and stabilized NP suspensions owing to specific surface interactions, whereas this was not observed for nitrate and chloride. TiO2 NPs were exposed to UV-A radiation, and the photoreactivity was assessed by monitoring the production of reactive species over time both at the NP surface (photogenerated holes) and in the bulk solution (hydroxyl radicals) by observing their reactions with the selective probe compounds iodide and terephthalic acid, respectively. The generation of photogenerated holes and hydroxyl radicals was influenced by each inorganic anion to varying degrees. Carbonate and phosphate inhibited the oxidation of iodide, and this interaction was successfully described by a Langmuir-Hinshelwood mechanism and related to the characteristics of TiO2 aggregates. Chloride and nitrate do not specifically interact with TiO2, and sulfate creates relatively weak interactions with the TiO2 surface such that no decrease in photogenerated hole reactivity was observed. A decrease in hydroxyl radical generation was observed for all inorganic anions. Quenching rate constants for the reaction of hydroxyl radicals with each inorganic anion do not provide a comprehensive explanation for the magnitude of this decrease, which arises from the interplay of several physicochemical phenomena. This work shows that the reactivity of NPs will be strongly influenced by the makeup of

  5. A curved multi-component aerosol hygroscopicity model framework: Part 1 – Inorganic compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. O. Topping

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available A thermodynamic modelling framework to predict the equilibrium behaviour of mixed inorganic salt aerosols is developed, and then coupled with a technique for finding a solution to the Kohler equation in order to create a diameter dependent hygroscopic aerosol model (Aerosol Diameter Dependent Equilibrium Model – ADDEM. The model described here provides a robust and accurate inorganic basis using a mole fraction based activity coefficient model and adjusted energies of formation for treating solid precipitation. The model framework can accommodate organic components, though this added complexity is considered in a companion paper, this paper describes the development of the modelling architecture to be used and predictions of an inorganic model alone. The modelling framework has been developed to flexibly use a combination of mixing rules and other potentially more accurate techniques where available to calculate the water content. Comparisons with other state-of-the-art general equilibrium models and experimental data are presented and show excellent agreement. The Kelvin effect can be considered in this scheme using a variety of surface tension models. Comparison of predicted diameter dependent phenomena, such as the increased relative humidity for onset of deliquescence with decreasing diameter, with another diameter dependent model is very good despite the different approach used. The model is subject to various sensitivities. For the inorganic systems studied here, the model is sensitive to choice of surface tension scheme used, which decreases for larger aerosol. Large sensitivities are found for the value of dry density used. It is thus likely that the history of the aerosol studied in a hygroscopic tandem differential mobility analyser (HTDMA, specifically the nature of the drying process that will influence the final crystalline form, will create systematic uncertainties upon comparisons with theoretical predictions. However, the

  6. A curved multi-component aerosol hygroscopicity model framework: 1 – Inorganics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Coe

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available A thermodynamic modelling framework to predict the equilibrium behaviour of mixed inorganic salt aerosols is developed, and then coupled with a technique for finding a solution to the Köhler equation in order to create a diameter dependent hygroscopic aerosol model (Aerosol Diameter Dependent Equilibrium Model – ADDEM. The model described here provides a robust and accurate inorganic basis using a mole fraction based activity coefficient model and adjusted energies of formation for treating solid precipitation. The model framework can accommodate organic components, though this added complexity is considered in a companion paper, whereas this paper describes the development of the modelling architecture to be used and predictions of an inorganic model alone. The modelling framework has been developed to flexibly use a combination of mixing rules and other potentially more accurate techniques where available to calculate the water content. Comparisons with other state-of-the-art general equilibrium models and experimental data are presented and show excellent agreement. The Kelvin effect can be considered in this scheme using a variety of surface tension models. Comparison of predicted diameter dependent phenomena, such as the increased relative humidity for onset of deliquescence with decreasing diameter, with another diameter dependent model is very good despite the different approach used. The model is subject to various sensitivities. For the inorganic systems studied here, the model is sensitive to choice of surface tension scheme used, which decreases for larger aerosol. Large sensitivities are found for the value of dry density used. It is thus likely that the history of the aerosol studied in a hygroscopic tandem differential mobility analyser (HTDMA, specifically the nature of the drying process that will influence the final crystalline form, will create systematic uncertainties upon comparisons with theoretical predictions. However

  7. Alterations in nanoparticle protein corona by biological surfactants: impact of bile salts on β-lactoglobulin-coated gold nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winuprasith, Thunnalin; Chantarak, Sirinya; Suphantharika, Manop; He, Lili; McClements, David Julian

    2014-07-15

    The impact of biological surfactants (bile salts) on the protein (β-lactoglobulin) corona surrounding gold nanoparticles (200 nm) was studied using a variety of analytical techniques at pH 7: dynamic light scattering (DLS); particle electrophoresis (ζ-potential); UV-visible (UV) spectroscopy; transmission electron microscopy (TEM); and surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS). The bile salts adsorbed to the protein-coated nanoparticle surfaces and altered their interfacial composition, charge, and structure. SERS spectra of protein-coated nanoparticles after bile salt addition contained bands from both protein and bile salts, indicating that the protein was not fully displaced by the bile salts. UV, DLS and TEM techniques also indicated that the protein coating was not fully displaced from the nanoparticle surfaces. The impact of bile salts could be described by an orogenic mechanism: mixed interfaces were formed that consisted of islands of aggregated proteins surrounded by a sea of bile salts. This knowledge is useful for understanding the interactions of bile salts with protein-coated colloidal particles, which may be important for controlling the fate of colloidal delivery systems in the human gastrointestinal tract, or the gastrointestinal fate of ingested inorganic nanoparticles.

  8. Thermodynamic characterization of salt components for Molten Salt Reactor fuel

    OpenAIRE

    Capelli, E.

    2016-01-01

    The Molten Salt Reactor (MSR) is a promising future nuclear fission reactor technology with excellent performance in terms of safety and reliability, sustainability, proliferation resistance and economics. For the design and safety assessment of this concept, it is extremely important to have a thorough knowledge of the physico-chemical properties of molten fluorides salts, which are one of the best options for the reactor fuel. This dissertation presents the thermodynamic description of the ...

  9. CONTRIBUTION FROM DEICING SALT TO CHEMICAL COMPOSITION OF SALT SUPPLYED TO AREA UNDER THE BRIDGES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takebe, Masamichi; Ohya, Makoto; Hirose, Nozomu; Ochibe, Keishi; Aso, Toshihiko

    Salt is known to accelerate the corrosion of weathering steel bridges. The origin of salt around girders is valuable information in terms of the maintenance for anti-corrosion of steel bridges. Salt around girders generally originates from sea-salt and deicing salt. Since salt of both origin increases in winter, contribution of deicing salt is hard to be estimated only from fluctuation of total abundance of salt around the bridge. In this study, abundance of Mg2+ as well as that of Cl- in salt sampled under bridges is analyzed. As a result, this study revealed that the supply of deicing salt declines Mg2+/Cl- ratio of salt on the girder. In addition, examination of Mg2+/Cl- ratio of salt sampled under the examined bridge near sea revealed that the fluctuation of quantity of air-born salt under the bridge is ascribed to the fluctuation of supply of sea salt.

  10. Rock salt constitutive modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nickell, R.E.

    1980-03-18

    The Serata model is the best operational model available today because it incorporates: (1) a yield function to demarcate between viscoelastic and viscoplastic behavior of rock salt; (2) a pressure and temperature dependence for yield stresses; and (3) a standard linear solid, which can be readily extended into the non-linear regime, to represent creep behavior. Its only deficiencies appear to be the lack of secondary creep behavior (a free dashpot) and some unsettling arbitrariness about the Poisson's ratio (..nu.. ..-->.. 0.5) argument for viscoplasticity. The Sandia/WIPP model will have good primary and secondary creep capability, but lacks the viscoplastic behavior. In some cases, estimated inelastic strains may be underpredicted. If a creep acceleration mechanism associated with brine inclusions is observed, this model may require extensive revision. Most of the other models available (SAI, RE-SPEC, etc.) are only useful for short-term calculations, because they employ temporal power law (t/sup n/) primary creep representations. These models are unsatisfactory because they cannot represent dual mechanisms with differing characteristic times. An approach based upon combined creep and plasticity is recommended in order to remove the remaining deficiency in the Serata model. DOE/Sandia/WIPP should be encouraged to move aggressively in this regard.

  11. Young Stars with SALT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riedel, Adric R.; Alam, Munazza K.; Rice, Emily L.; Cruz, Kelle L.; Henry, Todd J.

    2017-05-01

    We present a spectroscopic and kinematic analysis of 79 nearby M dwarfs in 77 systems. All of these dwarfs are low-proper-motion southern hemisphere objects and were identified in a nearby star survey with a demonstrated sensitivity to young stars. Using low-resolution optical spectroscopy from the Red Side Spectrograph on the South African Large Telescope, we have determined radial velocities, H-alpha, lithium 6708 Å, and potassium 7699 Å equivalent widths linked to age and activity, and spectral types for all of our targets. Combined with astrometric information from literature sources, we identify 44 young stars. Eighteen are previously known members of moving groups within 100 pc of the Sun. Twelve are new members, including one member of the TW Hydra moving group, one member of the 32 Orionis moving group, 9 members of Tucana-Horologium, one member of Argus, and two new members of AB Doradus. We also find 14 young star systems that are not members of any known groups. The remaining 33 star systems do not appear to be young. This appears to be evidence of a new population of nearby young stars not related to the known nearby young moving groups. Based on observations made with the Southern African Large Telescope (SALT).

  12. Cerebral salt wasting syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harshal Dholke

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Traumatic brain injury (TBI is on the rise, especially in today′s fast-paced world. TBI requires not only neurosurgical expertise but also neurointensivist involvement for a better outcome. Disturbances of sodium balance are common in patients with brain injury, as the central nervous system plays a major role in sodium regulation. Hyponatraemia, defined as serum sodium <135 meq/L is commonly seen and is especially deleterious as it can contribute to cerebral oedema in these patients. Syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion (SIADH, is the most well-known cause of hyponatraemia in this subset of patients. Cerebral Salt Wasting Syndrome (CSWS, leading to renal sodium loss is an important cause of hyponatraemia in patients with TBI. Although incompletely studied, decreased renal sympathetic responses and cerebral natriuretic factors play a role in the pathogenesis of CSWS. Maintaining a positive sodium balance and adequate hydration can help in the treatment. It is important to differentiate between SIADH and CSWS when trying to ascertain a case for patients with acute brain injury, as the treatment of the two are diametrically opposite.

  13. Young Stars with SALT

    CERN Document Server

    Riedel, Adric R; Rice, Emily L; Cruz, Kelle L; Henry, Todd J

    2016-01-01

    We present a spectroscopic and kinematic analysis of 79 nearby M dwarfs in 77 systems. All are low-proper-motion southern hemisphere objects and were identified in a nearby star survey with a demonstrated sensitivity to young stars. Using low-resolution optical spectroscopy from the Red Side Spectrograph (RSS) on the South African Large Telescope (SALT), we have determined radial velocities, H-alpha, Lithium 6708\\AA, and Potassium 7699\\AA~equivalent widths linked to age and activity, and spectral types for all our targets. Combined with astrometric information from literature sources, we identify 44 young stars. Eighteen are previously known members of moving groups within 100 parsecs of the Sun. Twelve are new members, including one member of the TW Hydra moving group, one member of the 32 Orionis moving group, nine members of Tucana-Horologium, one member of Argus, and two new members of AB Doradus. We also find fourteen young star systems that are not members of any known groups. The remaining 33 star syst...

  14. Salt intake, plasma sodium, and worldwide salt reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Feng J; Macgregor, Graham A

    2012-06-01

    There is overwhelming evidence that a reduction in salt intake from the current level of approximately 9-12 g/d in most countries of the world to the recommended level of 5-6 g/d lowers blood pressure (BP) in both hypertensive and normotensive individuals. A further reduction to 3-4 g/d has a greater effect. Prospective studies and outcome trials have demonstrated that a lower salt intake is related to a reduced risk of cardiovascular disease. Cost-effectiveness analyses have documented that salt reduction is more or at the very least just as cost-effective as tobacco control in reducing cardiovascular disease, the leading cause of death and disability worldwide. The mechanisms whereby salt raises blood pressure and increases cardiovascular risk are not fully understood. The existing concepts focus on the tendency for an increase in extracellular fluid volume. Increasing evidence suggests that small increases in plasma sodium may have a direct effect on BP and the cardiovascular system, independent of extracellular volume. All countries should adopt a coherent and workable strategy to reduce salt intake in the whole population. Even a modest reduction in population salt intake will have major beneficial effects on health, along with major cost savings.

  15. Photochromic organic-inorganic hybrid materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pardo, Rosario; Zayat, Marcos; Levy, David

    2011-02-01

    Photochromic organic-inorganic hybrid materials have attracted considerable attention owing to their potential application in photoactive devices, such as optical memories, windows, photochromic decorations, optical switches, filters or non-linear optics materials. The growing interest in this field has largely expanded the use of photochromic materials for the purpose of improving existing materials and exploring new photochromic hybrid systems. This tutorial review summarizes the design and preparation of photochromic hybrid materials, and particularly those based on the incorporation of organic molecules in organic-inorganic matrices by the sol-gel method. This is the most commonly used method for the preparation of these materials as it allows vitreous hybrid materials to be obtained at low temperatures, and controls the interaction between the organic molecule and its embedding matrix, and hence allows tailoring of the performance of the resulting devices.

  16. Electrostatically gated membrane permeability in inorganic protocells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Mei; Harbron, Rachel L.; Weaver, Jonathan V. M.; Binks, Bernard P.; Mann, Stephen

    2013-06-01

    Although several strategies are now available to produce functional microcompartments analogous to primitive cell-like structures, little progress has been made in generating protocell constructs with self-controlled membrane permeability. Here we describe the preparation of water-dispersible colloidosomes based on silica nanoparticles and delineated by a continuous semipermeable inorganic membrane capable of self-activated, electrostatically gated permeability. We use crosslinking and covalent grafting of a pH-responsive copolymer to generate an ultrathin elastic membrane that exhibits selective release and uptake of small molecules. This behaviour, which depends on the charge of the copolymer coronal layer, serves to trigger enzymatic dephosphorylation reactions specifically within the protocell aqueous interior. This system represents a step towards the design and construction of alternative types of artificial chemical cells and protocell models based on spontaneous processes of inorganic self-organization.

  17. Applications of inorganic nanoparticles in diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elhabush, Nada Atiya Omar

    Diabetes Mellitus (DM) is an endocrine and metabolic disease that has become a global emergency because of the rapid rise in morbidity and mortality rates worldwide. Since the direct delivery of biomolecules, such as insulin, to treat DM is inefficient and subjected to enzymatic degradation, nanotechnology and nanomedicine research have been devoted to the development of more effective methods to treat DM. Nanoparticles (NP), organic, inorganic, or hybrid, have served as potential carrier for safe and efficient transport for insulin. Additionally, several NP have biological activities that help treat and/or prevent DM and diabetes complications, such as antioxidant, anti-apoptotic, or insulin-mimetic activities. Moreover, physicochemical properties of some NP allow them to be used in diagnostic tools for potential diagnosis or monitoring purposes. This work highlights the applications of inorganic NP such as, gold, selenium, silver, calcium phosphate, zinc oxide, cerium oxide, and iron oxide and in the treatment or diagnosis of DM.

  18. QM/MM methods in inorganic chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bo, Carles; Maseras, Feliu

    2008-06-14

    Quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics (QM/MM) methods are a useful tool for the computational study of inorganic systems. They allow a quantitative description of systems larger than those treatable with pure QM methods, in principle with a comparable quality. QM/MM calculations are being currently applied to the research in a variety of topics, including structural effects of ligand bulk, selectivity in homogeneous catalysis and mechanical embedding in heterogeneous catalysis. The QM/MM approach is also useful for the separation of steric and electronic contributions, and as an auxiliary tool for geometry optimization when full QM methods are mandatory. The power of QM/MM methods in inorganic chemistry is illustrated in this Perspective with a summary of recent representative applications.

  19. Direct optical lithography of functional inorganic nanomaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yuanyuan; Fedin, Igor; Zhang, Hao; Talapin, Dmitri V.

    2017-07-01

    Photolithography is an important manufacturing process that relies on using photoresists, typically polymer formulations, that change solubility when illuminated with ultraviolet light. Here, we introduce a general chemical approach for photoresist-free, direct optical lithography of functional inorganic nanomaterials. The patterned materials can be metals, semiconductors, oxides, magnetic, or rare earth compositions. No organic impurities are present in the patterned layers, which helps achieve good electronic and optical properties. The conductivity, carrier mobility, dielectric, and luminescence properties of optically patterned layers are on par with the properties of state-of-the-art solution-processed materials. The ability to directly pattern all-inorganic layers by using a light exposure dose comparable with that of organic photoresists provides an alternate route for thin-film device manufacturing.

  20. Microwave chemistry for inorganic nanomaterials synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilecka, Idalia; Niederberger, Markus

    2010-08-01

    This Feature Article gives an overview of microwave-assisted liquid phase routes to inorganic nanomaterials. Whereas microwave chemistry is a well-established technique in organic synthesis, its use in inorganic nanomaterials' synthesis is still at the beginning and far away from having reached its full potential. However, the rapidly growing number of publications in this field suggests that microwave chemistry will play an outstanding role in the broad field of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology. This article is not meant to give an exhaustive overview of all nanomaterials synthesized by the microwave technique, but to discuss the new opportunities that arise as a result of the unique features of microwave chemistry. Principles, advantages and limitations of microwave chemistry are introduced, its application in the synthesis of different classes of functional nanomaterials is discussed, and finally expected benefits for nanomaterials' synthesis are elaborated.

  1. Sealed Primary Lithium-Inorganic Electrolyte Cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-02-01

    Battery , Thionyl Chloride , Lithium , Lithium Aluminum Chloride , Hermetic Lithium Battery , D Cell, Voltage-Delay, Shelf Life, High Energy Density Battery ... lithium - thionyl chloride , inorganic electrclyte system is one of the highest energy density systems known to date (1-4). The cells contain an Li anoae, a...However, this is not tne case with te thionyl chloride system. A completely discharged battery , while sitting on

  2. Attachment of inorganic moieties onto aliphatic polyurethanes

    OpenAIRE

    Eliane Ayres; Wander Luiz Vasconcelos; Rodrigo Lambert Oréfice

    2007-01-01

    Polyurethanes have been used in a series of applications due basically to their versatility in terms of controlling the behavior by altering basically the type of reagents used. However, for more specific and advanced applications, such as in membranes, biomaterials and sensors, well-organized and defined chemical functionalities are necessary. In this work, inorganic functionalities were incorporated into aliphatic polyurethanes (PU) having different macromolecular architectures. Polyurethan...

  3. Ion-Conducting Organic/Inorganic Polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinder, James D.; Meador, Mary Ann B.

    2007-01-01

    Ion-conducting polymers that are hybrids of organic and inorganic moieties and that are suitable for forming into solid-electrolyte membranes have been invented in an effort to improve upon the polymeric materials that have been used previously for such membranes. Examples of the prior materials include perfluorosulfonic acid-based formulations, polybenzimidazoles, sulfonated polyetherketone, sulfonated naphthalenic polyimides, and polyethylene oxide (PEO)-based formulations. Relative to the prior materials, the polymers of the present invention offer greater dimensional stability, greater ease of formation into mechanically resilient films, and acceptably high ionic conductivities over wider temperature ranges. Devices in which films made of these ion-conducting organic/inorganic polymers could be used include fuel cells, lithium batteries, chemical sensors, electrochemical capacitors, electrochromic windows and display devices, and analog memory devices. The synthesis of a polymer of this type (see Figure 1) starts with a reaction between an epoxide-functionalized alkoxysilane and a diamine. The product of this reaction is polymerized by hydrolysis and condensation of the alkoxysilane group, producing a molecular network that contains both organic and inorganic (silica) links. The silica in the network contributes to the ionic conductivity and to the desired thermal and mechanical properties. Examples of other diamines that have been used in the reaction sequence of Figure 1 are shown in Figure 2. One can use any of these diamines or any combination of them in proportions chosen to impart desired properties to the finished product. Alternatively or in addition, one could similarly vary the functionality of the alkoxysilane to obtain desired properties. The variety of available alkoxysilanes and diamines thus affords flexibility to optimize the organic/inorganic polymer for a given application.

  4. Flexible Hybrid Organic-Inorganic Perovskite Memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Chungwan; Lee, Jang-Sik

    2016-05-24

    Active research has been done on hybrid organic-inorganic perovskite materials for application to solar cells with high power conversion efficiency. However, this material often shows hysteresis, which is undesirable, shift in the current-voltage curve. The hysteresis may come from formation of defects and their movement in perovskite materials. Here, we utilize the defects in perovskite materials to be used in memory operations. We demonstrate flexible nonvolatile memory devices based on hybrid organic-inorganic perovskite as the resistive switching layer on a plastic substrate. A uniform perovskite layer is formed on a transparent electrode-coated plastic substrate by solvent engineering. Flexible nonvolatile memory based on the perovskite layer shows reproducible and reliable memory characteristics in terms of program/erase operations, data retention, and endurance properties. The memory devices also show good mechanical flexibility. It is suggested that resistive switching is done by migration of vacancy defects and formation of conducting filaments under the electric field in the perovskite layer. It is believed that organic-inorganic perovskite materials have great potential to be used in high-performance, flexible memory devices.

  5. Inorganic particle analysis of dental impression elastomers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlo, Hugo Lemes; Fonseca, Rodrigo Borges; Soares, Carlos José; Correr, Américo Bortolazzo; Correr-Sobrinho, Lourenço; Sinhoreti, Mário Alexandre Coelho

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine quantitatively and qualitatively the inorganic particle fraction of commercially available dental elastomers. The inorganic volumetric fraction of two addition silicones (Reprosil Putty/Fluid and Flexitime Easy Putty/Fluid), three condensation silicones (Clonage Putty/Fluid, Optosil Confort/Xantopren VL and Silon APS Putty/Fluid), one polyether (Impregum Soft Light Body) and one polysulfide (Permlastic Light Body) was accessed by weighing a previously determined mass of each material in water before and after burning samples at 600 ºC, during 3 h. Unsettled material samples were soaked in acetone and chloroform for removal of the organic portion. The remaining filler particles were sputter-coated with gold evaluation of their morphology and size, under scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Flexitime Easy Putty was the material with the highest results for volumetric particle fraction, while Impregum Soft had the lowest values. Silon 2 APS Fluid presented the lowest mean filler size values, while Clonage Putty had the highest values. SEM micrographs of the inorganic particles showed several morphologies - lathe-cut, spherical, spherical-like, sticks, and sticks mixed to lathe-cut powder. The results of this study revealed differences in particle characteristics among the elastometic materials that could lead to different results when testing mechanical properties.

  6. Impact of Inorganic Arsenicals on Vegetative Growth of Two Pakistani Origins Sunflower Cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Asif Imran

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Inorganic arsenicals impact on vegetative growth of two sunflower (Helianthus annuus L. cultivars (FH-385 as Hybrid 1 and FH-405 as Hybrid 2 was monitored. Various levels of two different sodium salts of arsenic, namely, sodium arsenate (Na2HAsO4·7H2O as source of As5+ and sodium arsenite (NaAsO2 as source of As3+, were used to evaluate the effect of arsenic on plant water relation parameters. Significant stress effects were found when arsenic was higher in concentrations (>60 mg/kg soil of both salts as compared to control plants. Genotype FH-405 showed higher levels for shoot and root length, water contents, number of leaves, and leaf area, which indicates well adaptation of this cultivar in arsenic contaminated environment. T5 (100 mg/kg of both salts showed notable stressful impacts as compared to low arsenic concentrations (20, 40 mg/kg and especially control plants in case of all morphophysiological parameters of sunflower cultivars.

  7. Fabricating porous materials using interpenetrating inorganic-organic composite gels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Dong-Kyun; Volosin, Alex

    2016-06-14

    Porous materials are fabricated using interpenetrating inorganic-organic composite gels. A mixture or precursor solution including an inorganic gel precursor, an organic polymer gel precursor, and a solvent is treated to form an inorganic wet gel including the organic polymer gel precursor and the solvent. The inorganic wet gel is then treated to form a composite wet gel including an organic polymer network in the body of the inorganic wet gel, producing an interpenetrating inorganic-organic composite gel. The composite wet gel is dried to form a composite material including the organic polymer network and an inorganic network component. The composite material can be treated further to form a porous composite material, a porous polymer or polymer composite, a porous metal oxide, and other porous materials.

  8. Microbiology of solar salt ponds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javor, B.

    1985-01-01

    Solar salt ponds are shallow ponds of brines that range in salinity from that of normal seawater (3.4 percent) through NaCl saturation. Some salterns evaporate brines to the potash stage of concentration (bitterns). All the brines (except the bitterns, which are devoid of life) harbor high concentrations of microorganisms. The high concentrations of microorganisms and their adaptation to life in the salt pond are discussed.

  9. Liking, salt taste perception and use of table salt when consuming reduced-salt chicken stews in light of South Africa's new salt regulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Kock, H L; Zandstra, E H; Sayed, N; Wentzel-Viljoen, E

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the impact of salt reduction on liking, salt taste perception, and use of table salt when consuming chicken stew in light of South Africa's new salt recommendations. In total, 432 South-African consumers (aged 35.2 ± 12.3 years) consumed a full portion of a chicken stew meal once at a central location. Four stock cube powders varying in salt content were used to prepare chicken stews: 1) no reduction - 2013 Na level; regular salt level as currently available on the South African market (24473 mg Na/100 g), 2) salt reduction smaller than 2016 level, i.e. 10%-reduced (22025 mg Na/100 g), 3) 2016 salt level, as per regulatory prescriptions (18000 mg Na/100 g), 4) 2019 salt level, as per regulatory prescriptions (13000 mg Na/100 g). Consumers were randomly allocated to consume one of the four meals. Liking, salt taste perception, and use of table salt and pepper were measured. Chicken stews prepared with reduced-salt stock powders were equally well-liked as chicken stews with the current salt level. Moreover, a gradual reduction of the salt in the chicken stews resulted in a reduced salt intake, up to an average of 19% for the total group compared to the benchmark 2013 Na level stew. However, 19% of consumers compensated by adding salt back to full compensation in some cases. More salt was added with increased reductions of salt in the meals, even to the point of full compensation. Further investigation into the impacts of nutrition communication and education about salt reduction on salt taste perception and use is needed. This research provides new consumer insights on salt use and emphasises the need for consumer-focused behaviour change approaches, in addition to reformulation of products.

  10. Cerebral Salt Wasting Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Salih Sevdi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available A serum sodium (Na value below 135 mEq/L is evaluated as hyponatremia. Hyponatremia is the most common electrolyte abnormality observed in hospitalized patients in particular. Hypovolemic hypoosmolar hyponatremia is the most frequent clinical table. One of the reasons of this is cerebral salt-wasting syndrome (CSWS. CSWS is a rare condition progressing with low plasma osmolality, urine osmolality above 100-150 mOsm/kg and urine- Na concentration above 20 mEq/L. In the blood and urine sample analysis performed upon sudden loss of consciousness on the 15th day of the intensive care unit follow-up of 79-year-old female patients due to falling from stairs, blood biochemistry Na value was 120 mEq/L, plasma osmolality was 250 mOsm/kg, urine Na value was 180 mEq/L, urine osmolality was 1200 mOsm/kg, urine diuresis was >3 mL/kg/hour. The central venous pressure was 2 mmHg. The patient, considered to be diagnosed with CSWS, was treated with 9% NaCl and 3% hypertonic saline solution. Her clinical course was improved on the 18th day. She died on the 81st day secondary to septicemia in the subsequent follow-up. In this article, it was aimed to report a patient with CSWS which progresses with low percentage in intensive care unit patients with head trauma, is frequently confused with inappropriate antidiuretic hormone syndrome and progresses mortally when not diagnosed distinctively well.

  11. A closer look at salt loaded microstructures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rooij, M.R. de

    2006-01-01

    Many walls of ancient buildings are covered with plaster layers. Amongst the most recurrent causes of damage of plasters and substrates are moisture and salt decay processes. To combat these salt problems, special salt resistant plasters have been developed for application on salt loaded substrates.

  12. A closer look at salt loaded microstructures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rooij, M.R. de

    2006-01-01

    Many walls of ancient buildings are covered with plaster layers. Amongst the most recurrent causes of damage of plasters and substrates are moisture and salt decay processes. To combat these salt problems, special salt resistant plasters have been developed for application on salt loaded substrates.

  13. Reactions of inorganic nitrogen species in supercritical water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dell`Orco, P.C. [Texas Univ., Austin, TX (United States)

    1994-12-31

    Redox reactions of nitrate salts with NH3 and methanol were studied in near-critical and supercritical water at 350 to 530 C and constant pressure of 302 bar. Sodium nitrate decomposition reactions were investigated at similar conditions. Reactions were conducted in isothermal tubular reactor under plug flow. For kinetic modeling, nitrate and nitrite reactants were lumped into an NO{sub x}{sup -} reactant; kinetic expressions were developed for MNO{sub 3}/NH{sub 4}X and sodium nitrate decomposition reactions. The proposed elementary reaction mechanism for MNO{sub 3}/NH{sub 4}X reaction indicated that NO{sub 2} was the primary oxidizing species and that N{sub 2}/N{sub 2}O selectivities could be determined by the form of MNO{sub 3} used. This suggest a nitrogen control strategy for use in SCWO (supercritical water oxidation) processes; nitrate or NH3 could be used to remove the other, at reaction conditions far less severe than required by other methods. Reactions of nitrate with methanol indicated that nitrate was a better oxidant than oxygen in supercritical water. Nitrogen reaction products included NH3 and nitrite, while inorganic carbon was the major carbon reaction product. Analysis of excess experiments indicated that the reaction at 475 C was first order in methanol concentration and second order in NO{sub x}{sup -} concentration. In order to determine phase regimes for these reactions, solubility of sodium nitrate was determined for some 1:1 nitrate electrolytes. Solubilities were measured at 450 to 525 C, from 248 to 302 bar. A semi-empirical solvation model was shown to adequately describe the experimental sodium nitrate solubilities. Solubilities of Li, Na, and K nitrates revealed with cations with smaller ionic radii had greater solubilities with nitrate.

  14. Inorganic and carbonaceous components in indoor/outdoor particulate matter in two residential houses in Oslo, Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazaridis, Mihalis; Aleksandropoulou, Victoria; Hanssen, Jan Erik; Dye, Christian; Eleftheriadis, Kostantinos; Katsivela, Eleftheria

    2008-03-01

    A detailed analysis of indoor/outdoor physicochemical aerosol properties has been performed. Aerosol measurements were taken at two dwellings, one in the city center and the other in the suburbs of the Oslo metropolitan area, during summer/fall and winter/spring periods of 2002-2003. In this paper, emphasis is placed on the chemical characteristics (water-soluble ions and carbonaceous components) of fine (PM2.5) and coarse (PM2.5-10) particles and their indoor/outdoor relationship. Results demonstrate that the carbonaceous species were dominant in all fractions of the PM10 particles (cut off size: 0.09-11.31 microm) during all measurement periods, except winter 2003, when increased concentrations of water-soluble inorganic ions were predominant because of sea salt transport. The concentration of organic carbon was higher in the fine and coarse PM10 fractions indoors, whereas elemental carbon was higher indoors only in the coarse fraction. In regards to the carbonaceous species, local traffic and secondary organic aerosol formation were, probably, the main sources outdoors, whereas indoors combustion activities such as preparation of food, burning of candles, and cigarette smoking were the main sources. In contrast, the concentrations of water-soluble inorganic ions were higher outdoors than indoors. The variability of water-soluble inorganic ion concentrations outdoors was related to changes in emissions from local anthropogenic sources, long-range transport of particles, sea salt emissions, and resuspension of roadside and soil dusts. In the indoor environment the infiltration of the outdoor air indoors was the major source of inorganic ions.

  15. Organic materials as templates for the formation of mesoporous inorganic materials and ordered inorganic nanocomposites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziegler, Christopher R.

    Hierarchically structured inorganic materials are everywhere in nature. From unicellular aquatic algae such as diatoms to the bones and/or cartilage that comprise the skeletal systems of vertebrates. Complex mechanisms involving site-specific chemistries and precision kinetics are responsible for the formation of such structures. In the synthetic realm, reproduction of even the most basic hierarchical structure effortlessly produced in nature is difficult. However, through the utilization of self-assembling structures or "templates", such as polymers or amphiphilic surfactants, combined with some favorable interaction between a chosen inorganic, the potential exists to imprint an inorganic material with a morphology dictated via synthetic molecular self-assembly. In doing so, a very basic hierarchical structure is formed on the angstrom and nanometer scales. The work presented herein utilizes the self-assembly of either surfactants or block copolymers with the desired inorganic or inorganic precursor to form templated inorganic structures. Specifically, mesoporous silica spheres and copolymer directed calcium phosphate-polymer composites were formed through the co-assembly of an organic template and a precursor to form the desired mesostructured inorganic. For the case of the mesoporous silica spheres, a silica precursor was mixed with cetyltrimethylammonium bromide and cysteamine, a highly effective biomimetic catalyst for the conversion of alkoxysilanes to silica. Through charge-based interactions between anionic silica species and the micelle-forming cationic surfactant, ordered silica structures resulted. The incorporation of a novel, effective catalyst was found to form highly condensed silica spheres for potential application as catalyst supports or an encapsulation media. Ordered calcium phosphate-polymer composites were formed using two routes. Both routes take advantage of hydrogen bonding and ionic interactions between the calcium and phosphate precursors

  16. Fracture and Healing of Rock Salt Related to Salt Caverns

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chan, K.S.; Fossum, A.F.; Munson, D.E.

    1999-03-01

    In recent years, serious investigations of potential extension of the useful life of older caverns or of the use of abandoned caverns for waste disposal have been of interest to the technical community. All of the potential applications depend upon understanding the reamer in which older caverns and sealing systems can fail. Such an understanding will require a more detailed knowledge of the fracture of salt than has been necessary to date. Fortunately, the knowledge of the fracture and healing of salt has made significant advances in the last decade, and is in a position to yield meaningful insights to older cavern behavior. In particular, micromechanical mechanisms of fracture and the concept of a fracture mechanism map have been essential guides, as has the utilization of continuum damage mechanics. The Multimechanism Deformation Coupled Fracture (MDCF) model, which is summarized extensively in this work was developed specifically to treat both the creep and fracture of salt, and was later extended to incorporate the fracture healing process known to occur in rock salt. Fracture in salt is based on the formation and evolution of microfractures, which may take the form of wing tip cracks, either in the body or the boundary of the grain. This type of crack deforms under shear to produce a strain, and furthermore, the opening of the wing cracks produce volume strain or dilatancy. In the presence of a confining pressure, microcrack formation may be suppressed, as is often the case for triaxial compression tests or natural underground stress situations. However, if the confining pressure is insufficient to suppress fracture, then the fractures will evolve with time to give the characteristic tertiary creep response. Two first order kinetics processes, closure of cracks and healing of cracks, control the healing process. Significantly, volume strain produced by microfractures may lead to changes in the permeability of the salt, which can become a major concern in

  17. Stretchable, curvilinear electronics based on inorganic materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dae-Hyeong; Xiao, Jianliang; Song, Jizhou; Huang, Yonggang; Rogers, John A

    2010-05-18

    All commercial forms of electronic/optoelectronic technologies use planar, rigid substrates. Device possibilities that exploit bio-inspired designs or require intimate integration with the human body demand curvilinear shapes and/or elastic responses to large strain deformations. This article reviews progress in research designed to accomplish these outcomes with established, high-performance inorganic electronic materials and modest modifications to conventional, planar processing techniques. We outline the most well developed strategies and illustrate their use in demonstrator devices that exploit unique combinations of shape, mechanical properties and electronic performance. We conclude with an outlook on the challenges and opportunities for this emerging area of materials science and engineering.

  18. Inorganic pyrophosphatases: structural diversity serving the function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samygina, V. R.

    2016-05-01

    The review is devoted to ubiquitous enzymes, inorganic pyrophosphatases, which are essential in all living organisms. Despite the long history of investigations, these enzymes continue to attract interest. The review focuses on the three-dimensional structures of various representatives of this class of proteins. The structural diversity, the relationship between the structure and some properties of pyrophosphatases and various mechanisms of enzyme action related to the structural diversity of these enzymes are discussed. Interactions of pyrophosphatase with other proteins and possible practical applications are considered. The bibliography includes 56 references.

  19. Magnetic field processing of inorganic polymers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kunerth, D.C.; Peterson, E.S. [Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    1995-05-01

    The purpose of this project is to investigate, understand, and demonstrate the use of magnetic field processing (MFP) to modify the properties of inorganic-based polymers and to develop the basic technical knowledge required for industrial implementation. Polyphosphazene membranes for chemical separation applications are being emphasized by this project. Previous work demonstrated that magnetic fields, appropriately applied during processing, can be used to beneficially modify membrane morphology. MFP membranes have significantly increased flux capabilities while maintaining the same chemical selectivity as the unprocessed membranes.

  20. Microbiological disproportionation of inorganic sulfur compounds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Finster, Kai

    2008-01-01

    The disproportionation of inorganic sulfur intermediates at moderate temperatures (0-80 °C) is a microbiologically catalyzed chemolithotrophic process in which compounds like elemental sulfur, thiosulfate, and sulfite serve as both electron donor and acceptor, and generate hydrogen sulfide...... or phototrophic sulfide oxidizers. Investigations bridging geology and microbiology have found strong evidence for disproportionating bacteria participating in and enhancing the rate at which pyrite forms and being partly responsible for the isotopic signatures of sulfidic minerals in recent and old sediments...

  1. Nanoscale investigation of organic - inorganic halide perovskites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cacovich, S.; Divitini, G.; Vrućinić, M.; Sadhanala, A.; Friend, R. H.; Sirringhaus, H.; Deschler, F.; Ducati, C.

    2015-10-01

    Over the last few years organic - inorganic halide perovskite-based solar cells have exhibited a rapid evolution, reaching certified power conversion efficiencies now surpassing 20%. Nevertheless the understanding of the optical and electronic properties of such systems on the nanoscale is still an open problem. In this work we investigate two model perovskite systems (based on iodine - CH3NH3PbI3 and bromine - CH3NH3PbBr3), analysing the local elemental composition and crystallinity and identifying chemical inhomogeneities.

  2. Designing an optimally proportional inorganic scintillator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, Jai, E-mail: jai.singh@cdu.edu.au [School of Engineering and IT, B-Purple-12, Faculty of EHSE, Charles Darwin University, NT 0909 (Australia); Koblov, Alexander [School of Engineering and IT, B-Purple-12, Faculty of EHSE, Charles Darwin University, NT 0909 (Australia)

    2012-09-01

    The nonproportionality observed in the light yield of inorganic scintillators is studied theoretically as a function of the rates of bimolecular and Auger quenching processes occurring within the electron track initiated by a gamma- or X-ray photon incident on a scintillator. Assuming a cylindrical track, the influence of the track radius and concentration of excitations created within the track on the scintillator light yield is also studied. Analysing the calculated light yield a guideline for inventing an optimally proportional scintillator with optimal energy resolution is presented.

  3. Efficient Organic/Inorganic Hybrid Solar Cell Integrating Polymer Nanowires and Inorganic Nanotetrapods

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Xu, Weizhe; Tan, Furui; Liu, Xiansheng; Zhang, Weifeng; Qu, Shengchun; Wang, Zhijie; Wang, Zhanguo

    2017-01-01

    ...% in the hybrid solar cell, up to 42% enhancement compared to the reference solar cell with traditional P3HT molecules as electron donor. Our work provides a promising hybrid structure for efficient organic/inorganic bulk-heterojunction solar cells.

  4. Magnesium degradation influenced by buffering salts in concentrations typical of in vitro and in vivo models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agha, Nezha Ahmad; Feyerabend, Frank; Mihailova, Boriana; Heidrich, Stefanie; Bismayer, Ulrich; Willumeit-Römer, Regine

    2016-01-01

    Magnesium and its alloys have considerable potential for orthopedic applications. During the degradation process the interface between material and tissue is continuously changing. Moreover, too fast or uncontrolled degradation is detrimental for the outcome in vivo. Therefore in vitro setups utilizing physiological conditions are promising for the material/degradation analysis prior to animal experiments. The aim of this study is to elucidate the influence of inorganic salts contributing to the blood buffering capacity on degradation. Extruded pure magnesium samples were immersed under cell culture conditions for 3 and 10 days. Hank's balanced salt solution without calcium and magnesium (HBSS) plus 10% of fetal bovine serum (FBS) was used as the basic immersion medium. Additionally, different inorganic salts were added with respect to concentration in Dulbecco's modified Eagle's medium (DMEM, in vitro model) and human plasma (in vivo model) to form 12 different immersion media. Influences on the surrounding environment were observed by measuring pH and osmolality. The degradation interface was analyzed by electron-induced X-ray emission (EIXE) spectroscopy, including chemical-element mappings and electron microprobe analysis, as well as Fourier transform infrared reflection micro-spectroscopy (FTIR).

  5. Development of salt hydrate eutectics as latent heat storage for air conditioning and cooling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Efimova, Anastasia [Brandenburgische Technische Universität (BTU) Cottbus – Senftenberg, Chair of Inorganic Chemistry, Großenhainer Str. 57, 01968 Senftenberg (Germany); Pinnau, Sebastian; Mischke, Matthias; Breitkopf, Cornelia [Technische Universität Dresden, Chair of Technical Thermodynamics, Helmholtzstr. 14, 01069 Dresden (Germany); Ruck, Michael [Technische Universität Dresden, Chair of Inorganic Chemistry, Bergstr. 66, 01062 Dresden (Germany); Schmidt, Peer, E-mail: peer.schmidt@hs-lausitz.de [Brandenburgische Technische Universität (BTU) Cottbus – Senftenberg, Chair of Inorganic Chemistry, Großenhainer Str. 57, 01968 Senftenberg (Germany)

    2014-01-10

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Inorganic salt hydrates. • Latent heat thermal energy storage. • Thermal behavior of melting and crystallization. • Cycling stability. • Nucleation. - Abstract: Sustainable air conditioning systems require heat reservoirs that operate between 4 and 20 °C. A systematic search for binary and ternary eutectics of inorganic salts and salt hydrates with melting temperatures in this temperature regime and with high enthalpies of fusion has been performed by means of differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Promising results were obtained for the pseudo-ternary system Zn(NO{sub 3}){sub 2}·6H{sub 2}O, Mn(NO{sub 3}){sub 2}·4H{sub 2}O, and KNO{sub 3} with the melting temperature range 18–21 °C and the enthalpy of fusion of about 110 kJ kg{sup −1}. Suitable nucleating and thickening agents have been found and tested to prevent the mixture from supercooling and phase separation.

  6. Salt splitting with ceramic membranes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurath, D. [Pacific Northwest National Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

    1996-10-01

    The purpose of this task is to develop ceramic membrane technologies for salt splitting of radioactively contaminated sodium salt solutions. This technology has the potential to reduce the low-level waste (LLW) disposal volume, the pH and sodium hydroxide content for subsequent processing steps, the sodium content of interstitial liquid in high-level waste (HLW) sludges, and provide sodium hydroxide free of aluminum for recycle within processing plants at the DOE complex. Potential deployment sites include Hanford, Savannah River, and Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). The technical approach consists of electrochemical separation of sodium ions from the salt solution using sodium (Na) Super Ion Conductors (NaSICON). As the name implies, sodium ions are transported rapidly through these ceramic crystals even at room temperatures.

  7. Salt effects in electromembrane extraction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seip, Knut Fredrik; Jensen, Henrik; Kieu, Thanh Elisabeth

    2014-01-01

    Electromembrane extraction (EME) was performed on samples containing substantial amounts of NaCl to investigate how the presence of salts affected the recovery, repeatability, and membrane current in the extraction system. A group of 17 non-polar basic drugs with various physical chemical...... this loss and the physical chemical properties of these substances was seen. The recovery loss was hypothesized to be caused by ion pairing in the SLM, and a mathematical model for the extraction recovery in the presence of salts was made according to the experimental observations. Some variations...... to the EME system reduced this recovery loss, such as changing the SLM solvent from NPOE to 6-undecanone, or by using a different EME setup with more favorable volume ratios. This was in line with the ion pairing hypothesis and the mathematical model. This thorough investigation of how salts affect EME...

  8. Protein aggregation in salt solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kastelic, Miha; Kalyuzhnyi, Yurij V.; Hribar-Lee, Barbara; Dill, Ken A.; Vlachy, Vojko

    2015-01-01

    Protein aggregation is broadly important in diseases and in formulations of biological drugs. Here, we develop a theoretical model for reversible protein–protein aggregation in salt solutions. We treat proteins as hard spheres having square-well-energy binding sites, using Wertheim’s thermodynamic perturbation theory. The necessary condition required for such modeling to be realistic is that proteins in solution during the experiment remain in their compact form. Within this limitation our model gives accurate liquid–liquid coexistence curves for lysozyme and γ IIIa-crystallin solutions in respective buffers. It provides good fits to the cloud-point curves of lysozyme in buffer–salt mixtures as a function of the type and concentration of salt. It than predicts full coexistence curves, osmotic compressibilities, and second virial coefficients under such conditions. This treatment may also be relevant to protein crystallization. PMID:25964322

  9. Examination of the solution behaviors of the giant inorganic-organic amphiphilic hybrids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Baofang

    Presently, the self-assembly behaviors of traditional small surfactants and amphiphilic block copolymers are fairly well understood. In comparison, rather little is known about the self-assembly behaviors of the giant inorganic-organic amphiphilic hybrids in solution. It remains a wide open field to explore. Giant inorganic-organic amphiphilic hybrids, consisting of nanoscale inorganic clusters and organic functional groups, represent a novel class of functional hybrid materials. They have unique physical and chemical properties and potential applications in catalysis, electronic, optics, magnetic materials, medicine and biology. Therefore, as emerging building blocks, they have promising prospects in the advanced materials. In this PhD work, several representative giant inorganic-organic amphiphilic hybrids (triangular-shaped polyoxometalate (POM)-containing inorganic/organic amphiphilic hybrids, POM-containing fluorosurfactants hybrids, POM-containing peptide hybrids POM-peptide hybrids and polyhedral oligometric silsesquioxane (POSS)-polystyrene (PS) are chosen for studying their self-assembly behaviors in solution. Based on the knowledge of the physical chemistry, colloid and polymer science, we focus on the mechanism of the self-assembly process, and the morphology control of the supramolecular structures through the internal and external conditions, such as the composition of the giant amphiphilies, molecular architectures, solvent nature, temperature, concentration, and extrally added salts. It is found that the counterion-meditated interactions dominate the self-assembly of triangular-shaped hybrids in acetone/water mixed solutions, due to the highly dominant hydrophilic portions; the solvent-swelling effect, instead of the charge effect, dominates the whole self-assembly process of the POM-containing fluorosurfactants; the analogy between small surfactants and giant amphiphiles POSS-PS allows a rough assessment of the possible morphologies of the

  10. Organic/inorganic hybrid materials formed from TiO2 nanoparticles and polyaniline

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schnitzler Danielle C.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the synthesis and characterization of organic/inorganic hybrid materials formed from TiO2 nanoparticles and polyaniline (PANI. The preparation method is based on a sol-gel technique using titanium tetra-isopropoxide as oxide precursor, and two synthetic routes to the hybrids formation were employed, based on the addition of aniline after or before the sol formation. Different amounts of aniline were used to verify this effect on the characteristics of the formed materials. Samples were characterized by electronic spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy, thermal analysis, X-ray diffractometry and cyclic voltammetry. Results show that the different experimental routes are successful to produce hybrids formed by oxides nanoparticles and polyaniline in its conducting form, the emeraldine salt. There are no strong differences between the samples obtained by the two synthetic routes employed, except by the amount of polymer in the final material.

  11. Review: Circulation of Inorganic Elements in Combustion of Alternative Fuels in Cement Plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cortada Mut, Maria del Mar; Nørskov, Linda Kaare; Jappe Frandsen, Flemming;

    2015-01-01

    Cement production is an energy-intensive process, which traditionally has been dependent on fossil fuels. However, the use of alternative fuels, i.e., selected waste, biomass, and byproducts with recoverable calorific value, is constantly increasing. Combustion of these fuels is more challenging......, compared to fossil fuels, because of a lack of experience and different chemical and physical properties. When complete oxidation Of fuels in the calciner and main burner is not achieved, they burn in direct contact with the bed material of the rotary kiln, causing local reducing conditions and increasing...... the internal circulation of S, Cl, Na, and K. Compounds containing these elements, such as alkali salts, evaporate when exposed to high temperatures and subsequently condense in colder parts of the plant. The transformation of the volatile inorganic species at different locations in the cement plant...

  12. Effect of inorganic nitrogenous fertilizer on productivity of recently reclaimed saline sodic soils with and without biofertilizer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehdi, S M; Sarfraz, M; Shabbir, G; Abbas, G

    2007-07-15

    Saline sodic soils after reclamation become infertile due to leaching of most of the nutrients along with salts from the rooting medium. Microbes can play a vital role in the productivity improvement of such soils. In this study a saline sodic field having EC, 6.5 dS m(-1), pH, 9.1 and gypsum requirement (GR) 3.5 tons acre(-1) was reclaimed by applying gypsum at the rate of 100% GR. Rice and wheat crops were transplanted/sown for three consecutive years. Inorganic nitrogenous fertilizer was used with and without biofertilizers i.e., Biopower (Azospirillum) for rice and diazotroph inoculums for wheat. Nitrogen was applied at the rate of 0, 75% of recommended dose (RD), RD, 125% of RD and 150% of RD. Recommended dose of P without K was applied to all the plots. Biopower significantly improved Paddy and straw yield of rice over inorganic nitrogenous fertilizer. In case of wheat diazotroph inoculum improved grain and straw yield significantly over inorganic nitrogenous fertilizer. Among N fertilizer rates, RD + 25% additional N fertilizer was found to be the best dose for rice and wheat production in recently reclaimed soils. Nitrogen concentration and its uptake by paddy, grain and straw were also increased by biopower and diazotroph inoculum over inorganic nitrogenous fertilizer. Among N fertilizer rates, RD + 25% additional N fertilizer was found to be the best dose for nitrogen concentration and its uptake by paddy, grain and straw. Total soil N, available P and extractable K were increased while salinity/sodicity parameters were decreased with the passage of time. The productivity of the soil was improved more by biofertilizers over inorganic N fertilizers.

  13. Part 6: The Literature of Inorganic Chemistry, Revised.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douville, Judith A.

    2002-01-01

    Presents a list of resources on inorganic chemistry that includes general surveys, nomenclature, dictionaries, handbooks, compilations, and treatises. Selected for use by academic and student chemists. (DDR)

  14. Applications of Raman Spectroscopy to Inorganic Chemistry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    RobinJHClarkFRS

    1995-01-01

    The renaissance in Raman spectroscopy some 25-30 years ago had particular and immediate impact on Inorganic Chemistry,viz in areas such as the study of deeply coloued compounds,structural changes on change of state,equilibria,vapour phase band contour analysis,Raman band intensities and the nature of the chemical bond,metal-metal bonding,species in melts,identification of species in solution and of radicals by time-resolved techniques,in bioinorganic chemistry,and of linear-chain semiconductors.More recently,much attention has been directed at the quantitative level at the evaluation of geometric changes in molecules on excitation by resonance Raman spectroscopy.At the qualitative level Raman microscopy is now recognised to be the most effective technique for the identification of pigments-particularly the inorganic ones-on medieval manuscripts and especially of the components(down to grain sizes of -1 um)of pigment mixtures,It is thus a very important technique at the Arts/Science borderling in conservation science.

  15. Polyoxometalates: from inorganic chemistry to materials science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casañ-Pastor, Nieves; Gómez-Romero, Pedro

    2004-05-01

    Polyoxometalates have been traditionally the subject of study of molecular inorganic chemistry. Yet, these polynuclear molecules, reminiscent of oxide clusters, present a wide range of structures and with them ideal frameworks for the deployment of a plethora of useful magnetic, electroionic, catalytic, bioactive and photochemical properties. With this in mind, a new trend towards the application of these remarkable species in materials science is beginning to develop. In this review we analyze this trend and discuss two main lines of thought for the application of polyoxometalates as materials. On the one hand, there is their use as clusters with inherently useful properties on themselves, a line which has produced fundamental studies of their magnetic, electronic or photoelectrochemical properties and has shown these clusters as models for quantum-sized oxides. On the other hand, the encapsulation or integration of polyoxometalates into organic, polymeric or inorganic matrices or substrates opens a whole new field within the area of hybrid materials for harnessing the multifunctional properties of these versatile species in a wide variety of applications, ranging from catalysis to energy storage to biomedicine.

  16. Inorganic Surface Modification of Nonwoven Polymeric Substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halbur, Jonathan Chandler

    In this study, atomic layer deposition (ALD), a vapor phase inorganic thin film deposition technique, is used to modify the surface of a range of industrially relevant polymers to enhance surface properties or impart additional functionalities. Several unique demonstrations of polymer surface modification are presented including uniform nanomaterial photodeposition to the surface of nonowoven fabrics and the first application of photocatalytic thin film coated nonwovens for advanced filtration of heavy metals from solution. Recent advances in polymer synthesis and processing technologies have resulted in the production of novel polymer systems with unique chemistries and sub-micron scale dimensions. As a result, advanced fiber systems have received much attention for potential use in a wide range of industrially and medically important applications such as advanced and selective filtration, catalysis, flexible electronics, and tissue engineering. However, tailoring the surface properties of the polymer is still needed in order to realize the full range of advanced applications, which can be difficult given the high complexity and non-uniformity of nonwoven polymeric structures. Uniform and controllable inorganic surface modification of nonwovens allows the introduction or modification of many crucial polymer properties with a wide range of application methods.

  17. From stretchable to reconfigurable inorganic electronics

    KAUST Repository

    Nassar, Joanna M.

    2016-05-06

    Today’s state-of-the-art electronics are high performing, energy efficient, multi-functional and cost effective. However, they are also typically rigid and brittle. With the emergence of the Internet of Everything, electronic applications are expanding into previously unexplored areas, like healthcare, smart wearable artifacts, and robotics. One major challenge is the physical asymmetry of target application surfaces, which often cause mechanical stretching, contracting, twisting and other deformations to the application. In this review paper, we explore materials, processes, mechanics and devices that enable physically stretchable and reconfigurable electronics. While the concept of stretchable electronics is commonly used in practice, the notion of physically reconfigurable electronics is still in its infancy. Because organic materials are commonly naturally stretchable and physically deformable, we predominantly focus on electronics made from inorganic materials that have the capacity for physical stretching and reconfiguration while retaining their intended attributes. We emphasize how applications of electronics dictate theory to integration strategy for stretchable and reconfigurable inorganic electronics.

  18. Inorganic nanomaterials for printed electronics: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Wei

    2017-06-08

    Owing to their capability of bypassing conventional high-priced and inflexible silicon based electronics to manufacture a variety of devices on flexible substrates by using large-scale and high-volume printing techniques, printed electronics (PE) have attracted increasing attention in the field of manufacturing industry for electronic devices. This simple and cost-effective approach could enhance current methods of constructing a patterned surface for nanomaterials and offer opportunities for developing fully-printed functional devices, especially offering the possibility of ubiquitous low-cost and flexible devices. This review presents a summary of work to date on the inorganic nanomaterials involved in PE applications, focused on the utilization of inorganic nanomaterials-based inks in the successful preparation of printed conductive patterns, electrodes, sensors, thin film transistors (TFTs) and other micro-/nanoscale devices. The printing techniques, sintering methods and printability of functional inks with their associated challenges are discussed, and we look forward so you can glimpse the future of PE applications.

  19. Oxidation properties of "Solar Salt"

    OpenAIRE

    BENAISSA, Wassila; Carson, Douglas

    2011-01-01

    International audience; Solar Salt is a name sometimes given to a molten salt mixture made up of about 60% of sodium nitrate (NaNO3) and 40% of potassium nitrate (KNO3). This composition is near the eutectic point and is thermally stable until 600°C. It is popular in Industrial Solar Energy Projects and is used for storing energy in the form of heat to smooth out the peaks in electricity production. However for some technologies, combustible substances, like a thermal fluid for example, may c...

  20. Cerebral salt wasting syndrome: review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerdà-Esteve, M; Cuadrado-Godia, E; Chillaron, J J; Pont-Sunyer, C; Cucurella, G; Fernández, M; Goday, A; Cano-Pérez, J F; Rodríguez-Campello, A; Roquer, J

    2008-06-01

    Hyponatremia is the most frequent electrolyte disorder in critically neurological patients. Cerebral salt wasting syndrome (CSW) is defined as a renal loss of sodium during intracranial disease leading to hyponatremia and a decrease in extracellular fluid volume. The pathogenesis of this disorder is still not completely understood. Sympathetic responses as well as some natriuretic factors play a role in this syndrome. Distinction between SIADH and CSW might be difficult. The essential point is the volemic state. It is necessary to rule out other intermediate causes. Treatment requires volume replacement and maintenance of a positive salt balance. Mineral corticoids may be useful in complicated cases.

  1. 21 CFR 100.155 - Salt and iodized salt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... as the name of salt for human food use to which iodide has been added in the form of cuprous iodide or potassium iodide permitted by §§ 184.1265 and 184.1634 of this chapter. In the labeling of such... supplies iodide, a necessary nutrient” shall appear on the label immediately following the name and...

  2. Thermodynamic characterization of salt components for Molten Salt Reactor fuel

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Capelli, E.

    2016-01-01

    The Molten Salt Reactor (MSR) is a promising future nuclear fission reactor technology with excellent performance in terms of safety and reliability, sustainability, proliferation resistance and economics. For the design and safety assessment of this concept, it is extremely important to have a thor

  3. Protic Salt Polymer Membranes: High-Temperature Water-Free Proton-Conducting Membranes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gervasio, Dominic Francis [Univ. of Arizona, Tucson, AZ (United States)

    2010-09-30

    This research on proton-containing (protic) salts directly addresses proton conduction at high and low temperatures. This research is unique, because no water is used for proton ionization nor conduction, so the properties of water do not limit proton fuel cells. A protic salt is all that is needed to give rise to ionized proton and to support proton mobility. A protic salt forms when proton transfers from an acid to a base. Protic salts were found to have proton conductivities that are as high as or higher than the best aqueous electrolytes at ambient pressures and comparable temperatures without or with water present. Proton conductivity of the protic salts occurs providing two conditions exist: i) the energy difference is about 0.8 eV between the protic-salt state versus the state in which the acid and base are separated and 2) the chemical constituents rotate freely. The physical state of these proton-conducting salts can be liquid, plastic crystal as well as solid organic and inorganic polymer membranes and their mixtures. Many acids and bases can be used to make a protic salt which allows tailoring of proton conductivity, as well as other properties that affect their use as electrolytes in fuel cells, such as, stability, adsorption on catalysts, environmental impact, etc. During this project, highly proton conducting (~ 0.1S/cm) protic salts were made that are stable under fuel-cell operating conditions and that gave highly efficient fuel cells. The high efficiency is attributed to an improved oxygen electroreduction process on Pt which was found to be virtually reversible in a number of liquid protic salts with low water activity (< 1% water). Solid flexible non-porous composite membranes, made from inorganic polymer (e.g., 10%indium 90%tin pyrophosphate, ITP) and organic polymer (e.g., polyvinyl pyridinium phosphate, PVPP), were found that give conductivity and fuel cell performances similar to phosphoric acid electrolyte with no need for hydration at

  4. Why does salt start to move?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waltham, David

    1997-12-01

    This paper concerns mechanisms of salt (and ductile shale) movement. It investigates salt flow due to differential loading, folding of the overburden during compression and drag by a moving overburden. The approach is to compare the salt flux caused by these processes to that generated by buoyancy. It is demonstrated that overburden folding and drag by the overburden can, under commonly encountered conditions, result in greater amounts of salt movement than that produced by buoyancy or differential loading. These conclusions apply during the early stages of salt anticline, salt pillow and salt roller formation but not during the later stages of salt diapir and salt wall growth when buoyancy dominates. The quantitative significance of these alternatives to buoyancy is determined by considering an elastic plate overlying a viscous fluid. This is the simplest mathematical model that can reproduce the processes considered. The model shows that: (1) Under certain conditions, these mechanisms produce more salt movement than buoyancy. Differential loading dominates when the surface slopes become more than a small fraction of the slope of the salt top. Overburden buckling dominates if the in-plane stress exceeds a critical value. Drag dominates when the salt layer is thinner than a few hundred metres. (2) The strength of the overburden inhibits formation of salt diapirs, even those due to buoyancy, on wavelengths less than about 12 km.

  5. Experimental techniques to determine salt formation and deposition in supercritical water oxidation reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chan, J.P.C.; LaJeunesse, C.A.; Rice, S.F.

    1994-08-01

    Supercritical Water Oxidation (SCWO) is an emerging technology for destroying aqueous organic waste. Feed material, containing organic waste at concentrations typically less than 10 wt % in water, is pressurized and heated to conditions above water`s critical point where the ability of water to dissolve hydrocarbons and other organic chemicals is greatly enhanced. An oxidizer, is then added to the feed. Given adequate residence time and reaction temperature, the SCWO process rapidly produces innocuous combustion products. Organic carbon and nitrogen in the feed emerge as CO{sub 2} and N{sub 2}; metals, heteroatoms, and halides appear in the effluent as inorganic salts and acids. The oxidation of organic material containing heteroatoms, such as sulfur or phosphorous, forms acid anions. In the presence of metal ions, salts are formed and precipitate out of the supercritical fluid. In a tubular configured reactor, these salts agglomerate, adhere to the reactor wall, and eventually interfere by causing a flow restriction in the reactor leading to an increase in pressure. This rapid precipitation is due to an extreme drop in salt solubility that occurs as the feed stream becomes supercritical. To design a system that can accommodate the formation of these salts, it is important to understand the deposition process quantitatively. A phenomenological model is developed in this paper to predict the time that reactor pressure begins to rise as a function of the fluid axial temperature profile and effective solubility curve. The experimental techniques used to generate effective solubility curves for one salt of interest, Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4}, are described, and data is generated for comparison. Good correlation between the model and experiment is shown. An operational technique is also discussed that allows the deposited salt to be redissolved in a single phase and removed from the affected portion of the reactor. This technique is demonstrated experimentally.

  6. Hydrological indications of aeolian salts in mid-latitude deserts of northwestern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Bing-Qi

    2016-06-01

    Large sandy deserts in middle latitude of northwestern China were studied on salt variations in modern and ancient aeolian sediments, aiming to explore their hydrological indications at the present and past. Globally, sulphate is rich in arid to semi-arid deserts, including the aeolian loess sediments in China and soils in low-latitude deserts, but is less common in the aeolian sediments from the mid-latitude deserts in this study. The compositional differences between aeolian salts and local natural waters is evident, indicating the chemistry of aeolian salts and the associated parent brines may be significantly different than that predicted for hydrologically closed systems. The formation of aeolian salts in the studied deserts is strongly controlled by earth surface processes in a large scale but not in a local scale. Vertical changes in facies and salinities are abrupt in the studied palaeo-aeolian sediment samples, which were interbedded by lacustrine/fluvial sediments with OSL and 14C ages ranging between 40 and 2 ka BP, reflecting rapid high-amplitude changes in hydrological settings during late Pleistocene to later Holocene in these ancient playa systems. A great difference in salt composition between aeolian and lacustrine sediments suggests that the inorganic salt is a latent geoproxy in revealing local hydrological variations and climate change in the desert areas. But the environmental indications could be amphibolous for the sedimentary sequences with dual/multiple depositional end-members; under this situation an increase in sequence salinity does not always represent an enhanced environmental aridity. Ancient playas are arid or humid at the same time based on several sporadic records is not a valid approach to correlation of salt deposits in adjacent saline playa basin in the studied areas. Effects of earth surface processes including erosion, deposition and other processes on sediment properties will bias the hydrological implications of sediment

  7. The recent developments in dispersive liquid–liquid microextraction for preconcentration and determination of inorganic analytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.M. Al-Saidi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Recently, increasing interest on the use of dispersive liquid–liquid microextraction (DLLME developed in 2006 by Rezaee has been found in the field of separation science. DLLME is miniaturized format of liquid–liquid extraction in which acceptor-to-donor phase ratio is greatly reduced compared with other methods. In the present review, the combination of DLLME with different analytical techniques such as atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS, inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES, gas chromatography (GC, and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC for preconcentration and determination of inorganic analytes in different types of samples will be discussed. Recent developments in DLLME, e.g., displacement-DLLME, the use of an auxiliary solvent for adjustment of density of extraction mixture, and the application of ionic liquid-based DLLME in determination of inorganic species even in the presence of high content of salts are presented in the present review. Finally, comparison of DLLME with the other liquid-phase microextraction approaches and limitations of this technique are provided.

  8. Influence of Inorganic Ions and Organic Substances on the Degradation of Pharmaceutical Compound in Water Matrix

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edyta Kudlek

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The paper determined the influence of inorganic substances and high-molecular organic compounds on the decomposition of diclofenac, ibuprofen, and carbamazepine in the process of photocatalysis conducted with the presence of Titanium dioxide (TiO2. It was determined that the presence of such ions as CO 3 2 − , HCO 3 − , HPO 4 2 − as well as SO 4 2 − inhibited the decomposition of carbamazepine, whereas the efficiency of diclofenac degradation was decreased only by the presence of CO 3 2 − and HCO 3 − anions. In case of ibuprofen sodium salt (IBU, all investigated anions influenced the increase in its decomposition rate. The process of pharmaceutical photooxidation conducted in suspensions with Al3+ and Fe3+ cations was characterized by a significantly decreased efficiency when compared to the solution deprived of inorganic compounds. The addition of Ca2+, Mg2+ and NH4+ affected the increase of reaction rate constant value of diclofenac and ibuprofen decomposition. On the other hand, high molecular organic compounds present in the model effluent additionally catalysed the degradation process of pharmaceutical compounds and constituted an additional sorbent that enabled to decrease their concentration. Toxicological analysis conducted in deionized water with pharmaceutical compounds’ patterns proved the production of by-products from oxidation and/or reduction of micropollutants, which was not observed for model effluent irradiation.

  9. Precipitation of minerals by 22 species of moderately halophilic bacteria in artificial marine salts media: influence of salt concentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivadeneyra, M A; Delgado, R; Párraga, J; Ramos-Cormenza, A; Delgado, G

    2006-01-01

    Precipitation of minerals was shown by 22 species of moderately halophilic bacteria in both solid and liquid artificial marine salts media at different concentration and different Mg2+-to-Ca2+ ratio. Precipitation of minerals was observed for all the bacteria used. When salt concentration increased, the quantity and the size of bioliths decreased, the time required for precipitation being increased. The precipitated minerals were calcite, magnesian calcite, aragonite, dolomite, monohydrocalcite, hydromagnesite and struvite in variable proportions, depending on the bacterial species, the salinity and the physical state of the medium; the Mg content of the magnesian calcite also varied according to the same parameters. The precipitated minerals do not correspond exactly to those which could be precipitated inorganically according to the saturation indices. Scanning electron microscopy showed that the formation of the bioliths is initiated by grouping of calcified cells and that the dominant final morphologies were spherulitic with fibrous radiated interiors. It was demonstrated that moderately halophilic bacteria play an active role in the precipitation of carbonates and we hypothesize about this process of biomineralization.

  10. Salt decay of Morley limestone

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijland, T.G.; Van Hees, R.P.J.

    2009-01-01

    Salt weathering is one of the main causes of decay of natural stone, and by consequence a major problem to the conservation of cultural heritage. In the present case, the performance of Morley limestone from the Département Meuse, France, as a replacement stone under saltloaded conditions is evaluat

  11. Inorganic Nanoparticle Nucleation on Polymer Matrices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosteleski, Adrian John

    The introduction of inorganic nanoparticles into organic materials enhances both the mechanical and chemical properties of the material. Metallic nanoparticles, like silver and gold, have been introduced into polymers for use as antimicrobial coatings or dielectric materials, respectively. The challenge in creating these materials currently is the difficulty to homogeneously disperse the particles throughout the polymer matrix. The uneven dispersion of nanoparticles can lead to less than optimal quality and undesired properties. By creating a polymer nanocomposite material with well-controlled size inorganic materials that are evenly dispersed throughout the polymer matrix; we can improve the materials performance and properties. The objective for this research is to use polymer networks for the in situ mineralization of silver and other metallic materials to create intricate inorganic structures. The work performed here studied the ability to nucleate silver nanoparticles using poly (acrylic acid) (PAA) as the templating agent. Ionic silver was chemically reduced by sodium borohydride (NaBH4) in the presence of PAA. The effect of varying reactant concentrations of silver, NaBH 4, and PAA on particle size was studied. Reaction conditions in terms of varying temperature and pH levels of the reaction solution were monitored to observe the effect of silver nanoparticle size, shape, and concentration. By monitoring the UV spectra over time the reaction mechanism of the silver reduction process was determined to be an autocatalytic process: a period of slow, continuous nucleation followed by rapid, autocatalytic growth. The reaction kinetics for this autocatalytic process is also reported. PAA was crosslinked both chemically and physically to 3 biopolymers; ELP, an elastin like peptide, cotton fabrics, and calcium alginate hydrogels. Various compositions of PAA were physically crosslinked with calcium alginate gels to design an antimicrobial hydrogel for use in wound

  12. Americans Buying Less Salt-Laden Foods

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of how much salt you consume. Dr. David Katz is president of the American College of Lifestyle ... reduced intake could be very beneficial to health," Katz said. Because most of the salt people eat ...

  13. Chlorine Salts at the Phoenix Landing Site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanley, J.; Horgan, B.

    2016-09-01

    Although chlorine salts (perchlorates, chlorides) are known to exist at the Phoenix landing site, their distribution and type have not been positively identified yet. We look for these salts through a novel NIR remote sensing technique.

  14. Public health impact of salt reduction

    OpenAIRE

    Hendriksen, M.A.H.

    2015-01-01

    The health and economic burden related to cardiovascular diseases is substantial and prevention of these diseases remains a challenge. There is convincing evidence that high salt intake affects blood pressure and the risk of cardiovascular diseases. As salt intake is far above the recommended maximum level of intake, salt reduction may help to reduce cardiovascular disease incidence. However, the effect of salt reduction initiatives on intake levels and long-term health is largely unknown. Th...

  15. Reconsolidated Salt as a Geotechnical Barrier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansen, Francis D. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Gadbury, Casey [USDOE Carlsbad Field Office, NM (United States)

    2015-11-01

    Salt as a geologic medium has several attributes favorable to long-term isolation of waste placed in mined openings. Salt formations are largely impermeable and induced fractures heal as stress returns to equilibrium. Permanent isolation also depends upon the ability to construct geotechnical barriers that achieve nearly the same high-performance characteristics attributed to the native salt formation. Salt repository seal concepts often include elements of reconstituted granular salt. As a specific case in point, the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant recently received regulatory approval to change the disposal panel closure design from an engineered barrier constructed of a salt-based concrete to one that employs simple run-of-mine salt and temporary bulkheads for isolation from ventilation. The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant is a radioactive waste disposal repository for defense-related transuranic elements mined from the Permian evaporite salt beds in southeast New Mexico. Its approved shaft seal design incorporates barrier components comprising salt-based concrete, bentonite, and substantial depths of crushed salt compacted to enhance reconsolidation. This paper will focus on crushed salt behavior when applied as drift closures to isolate disposal rooms during operations. Scientific aspects of salt reconsolidation have been studied extensively. The technical basis for geotechnical barrier performance has been strengthened by recent experimental findings and analogue comparisons. The panel closure change was accompanied by recognition that granular salt will return to a physical state similar to the halite surrounding it. Use of run-of-mine salt ensures physical and chemical compatibility with the repository environment and simplifies ongoing disposal operations. Our current knowledge and expected outcome of research can be assimilated with lessons learned to put forward designs and operational concepts for the next generation of salt repositories. Mined salt

  16. Inorganic photocatalysts for overall water splitting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Jun; Fang, Wen Qi; Zhao, Hui Jun; Yang, Hua Gui

    2012-04-01

    Photocatalytic water splitting using semiconductor photocatalysts has been considered as a "green" process for converting solar energy into hydrogen. The pioneering work on electrochemical photolysis of water at TiO(2) electrode, reported by Fujishima and Honda in 1972, ushered in the area of solar fuel. As the real ultimate solution for solar fuel-generation, overall water splitting has attracted interest from researchers for some time, and a variety of inorganic photocatalysts have been developed to meet the challenge of this dream reaction. To date, high-efficiency hydrogen production from pure water without the assistance of sacrificial reagents remains an open challenge. In this Focus Review, we aim to provide a whole picture of overall water splitting and give an outlook for future research.

  17. Carbon dioxide removal with inorganic membranes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Judkins, R.R.; Fain, D.E. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, TN (United States)

    1993-12-31

    The increasing concentrations of greenhouse gases, particularly carbon dioxide, in the atmosphere has sparked a great deal of interest in the removal of CO{sub 2} from flue gases of fossil fueled plants. Presently, several techniques for the removal of CO{sub 2} are considered to have potential, but are lacking in practicality. For example, amine scrubbing of flue gas streams is potential, but are lacking in practically. For example, amine scrubbing of flue gas streams is effective in removing CO{sub 2}, but costs are high; efficiency suffers; and other acid gases must be removed prior to amine stripping. Membrane systems for CO{sub 2} removal are held in high regard, and inorganic, particularly ceramic, membranes offer the potential for high temperature, thus energy saving, removal.

  18. Recent trends in inorganic mass spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, D.H.; Barshick, C.M.; Duckworth, D.C.; Riciputi, L.R.

    1996-10-01

    The field of inorganic mass spectrometry has seen substantial change in the author`s professional lifetime (over 30 years). Techniques in their infancy 30 years ago have matured; some have almost disappeared. New and previously unthought of techniques have come into being; some of these, such as ICP-MS, are reasonably mature now, while others have some distance to go before they can be so considered. Most of these new areas provide fertile fields for researchers, both in the development of new analytical techniques and by allowing fundamental studies to be undertaken that were previously difficult, impossible, or completely unforeseen. As full coverage of the field is manifestly impossible within the framework of this paper, only those areas with which the author has personal contact will be discussed. Most of the work originated in his own laboratory, but that of other laboratories is covered where it seemed appropriate.

  19. Semiconductor quantum dot-inorganic nanotube hybrids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreizman, Ronen; Schwartz, Osip; Deutsch, Zvicka; Itzhakov, Stella; Zak, Alla; Cohen, Sidney R; Tenne, Reshef; Oron, Dan

    2012-03-28

    A synthetic route for preparation of inorganic WS(2) nanotube (INT)-colloidal semiconductor quantum dot (QD) hybrid structures is developed, and transient carrier dynamics on these hybrids are studied via transient photoluminescence spectroscopy utilizing several different types of QDs. Measurements reveal efficient resonant energy transfer from the QDs to the INT upon photoexcitation, provided that the QD emission is at a higher energy than the INT direct gap. Charge transfer in the hybrid system, characterized using QDs with band gaps below the INT direct gap, is found to be absent. This is attributed to the presence of an organic barrier layer due to the relatively long-chain organic ligands of the QDs under study. This system, analogous to carbon nanotube-QD hybrids, holds potential for a variety of applications, including photovoltaics, luminescence tagging and optoelectronics.

  20. Mechanisms of inorganic and organometallic reactions

    CERN Document Server

    The purpose of this series is to provide a continuing critical review of the literature concerned with mechanistic aspects of inorganic and organo­ metallic reactions in solution, with coverage being complete in each volume. The papers discussed are selected on the basis of relevance to the elucidation of reaction mechanisms and many include results of a nonkinetic nature when useful mechanistic information can be deduced. The period of literature covered by this volume is July 1982 through December 1983, and in some instances papers not available for inclusion in the previous volume are also included. Numerical results are usually reported in the units used by the original authors, except where data from different papers are com­ pared and conversion to common units is necessary. As in previous volumes material included covers the major areas of redox processes, reactions of the nonmetallic elements, reaction of inert and labile metal complexes and the reactions of organometallic compounds. While m...

  1. Scintillation response of organic and inorganic scintillators

    CERN Document Server

    Papadopoulos, L M

    1999-01-01

    A method to evaluate the scintillation response of organic and inorganic scintillators to different heavy ionizing particles is suggested. A function describing the rate of the energy consumed as fluorescence emission is derived, i.e., the differential response with respect to time. This function is then integrated for each ion and scintillator (anthracene, stilbene and CsI(Tl)) to determine scintillation response. The resulting scintillation responses are compared to the previously reported measured responses. Agreement to within 2.5% is observed when these data are normalized to each other. In addition, conclusions regarding the quenching parameter kB dependence on the type of the particle and the computed values of kB for certain ions are included. (author)

  2. Inorganic nanoparticles engineered to attack bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Kristen P; Wang, Lei; Benicewicz, Brian C; Decho, Alan W

    2015-11-01

    Antibiotics were once the golden bullet to constrain infectious bacteria. However, the rapid and continuing emergence of antibiotic resistance (AR) among infectious microbial pathogens has questioned the future utility of antibiotics. This dilemma has recently fueled the marriage of the disparate fields of nanochemistry and antibiotics. Nanoparticles and other types of nanomaterials have been extensively developed for drug delivery to eukaryotic cells. However, bacteria have very different cellular architectures than eukaryotic cells. This review addresses the chemistry of nanoparticle-based antibiotic carriers, and how their technical capabilities are now being re-engineered to attack, kill, but also non-lethally manipulate the physiologies of bacteria. This review also discusses the surface functionalization of inorganic nanoparticles with small ligand molecules, polymers, and charged moieties to achieve drug loading and controllable release.

  3. Ion conducting organic/inorganic hybrid polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meador, Maryann B. (Inventor); Kinder, James D. (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    This invention relates to a series of organic/inorganic hybrid polymers that are easy to fabricate into dimensionally stable films with good ion-conductivity over a wide range of temperatures for use in a variety of applications. The polymers are prepared by the reaction of amines, preferably diamines and mixtures thereof with monoamines with epoxy-functionalized alkoxysilanes. The products of the reaction are polymerized by hydrolysis of the alkoxysilane groups to produce an organic-containing silica network. Suitable functionality introduced into the amine and alkoxysilane groups produce solid polymeric membranes which conduct ions for use in fuel cells, high-performance solid state batteries, chemical sensors, electrochemical capacitors, electro-chromic windows or displays, analog memory devices and the like.

  4. Practical approaches to biological inorganic chemistry

    CERN Document Server

    Louro, Ricardo O

    2012-01-01

    The book reviews the use of spectroscopic and related methods to investigate the complex structures and mechanisms of biological inorganic systems that contain metals. Each chapter presents an overview of the technique including relevant theory, clearly explains what it is and how it works and then presents how the technique is actually used to evaluate biological structures. Practical examples and problems are included to illustrate each technique and to aid understanding. Designed for students and researchers who want to learn both the basics, and more advanced aspects of bioinorganic chemistry. It includes many colour illustrations enable easier visualization of molecular mechanisms and structures. It provides worked examples and problems that are included to illustrate and test the reader's understanding of each technique. It is written by a multi-author team who use and teach the most important techniques used today to analyse complex biological structures.

  5. Applications of inorganic nanoparticles as therapeutic agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Taeho; Hyeon, Taeghwan

    2014-01-01

    During the last decade, various functional nanostructured materials with interesting optical, magnetic, mechanical and chemical properties have been extensively applied to biomedical areas including imaging, diagnosis and therapy. In therapeutics, most research has focused on the application of nanoparticles as potential delivery vehicles for drugs and genes, because nanoparticles in the size range of 2-100 nm can interact with biological systems at the molecular level, and allow targeted delivery and passage through biological barriers. Recent investigations have even revealed that several kinds of nanomaterials are intrinsically therapeutic. Not only can they passively interact with cells, but they can also actively mediate molecular processes to regulate cell functions. This can be seen in the treatment of cancer via anti-angiogenic mechanisms as well as the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases by effectively controlling oxidative stress. This review will present recent applications of inorganic nanoparticles as therapeutic agents in the treatment of disease.

  6. Simulation of perovskite solar cells with inorganic hole transporting materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Yan; Xia, Zhonggao; Liu, Yiming

    2015-01-01

    Device modeling organolead halide perovskite solar cells with planar architecture based on inorganic hole transporting materials (HTMs) were performed. A thorough understanding of the role of the inorganic HTMs and the effect of band offset between HTM/absorber layers is indispensable for further...

  7. Computer information resources of inorganic chemistry and materials science

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kiselyova, N N; Dudarev, V A; Zemskov, V S [A.A.Baikov Institute of Metallurgy and Materials Science, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2010-02-28

    Information systems used in inorganic chemistry and materials science are considered. The following basic trends in the development of modern information systems in these areas are highlighted: access to information via the Internet, merging of documental and factual databases, involvement of experts in the evaluation of the data reliability, supplementing databases with information analysis tools on the properties of inorganic substances and materials.

  8. Synthesis of Porous Inorganic Hollow Fibers without Harmful Solvents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shukla, S.; Wit, de Patrick; Luiten-Olieman, Mieke W.J.; Kappert, Emiel J.; Nijmeijer, Arian; Benes, Nieck E.

    2015-01-01

    A route for the fabrication of porous inorganic hollow fibers with high surface-area-to-volume ratio that avoids harmful solvents is presented. The approach is based on bio-ionic gelation of an aqueous mixture of inorganic particles and sodium alginate during wet spinning. In a subsequent thermal tr

  9. Sustainable Route to Inorganic Porous Hollow Fibers with Superior Properties

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hussein Qasim Hussein, H.Q.H.; de Wit, Patrick; Kappert, Emiel; Benes, Nieck Edwin

    2015-01-01

    This research article presents a method for the fabrication of inorganic porous hollow fibers, using ecologically benign feed materials instead of organic solvents and harmful additives. Our method is based on ionic cross-linking of an aqueous mixture of sodium alginate, inorganic particles, and a c

  10. Sustainable Route to Inorganic Porous Hollow Fibers with Superior Properties

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hussein Qasim Hussein, H.Q.H.; de Wit, Patrick; Kappert, Emiel; Benes, Nieck Edwin

    2015-01-01

    This research article presents a method for the fabrication of inorganic porous hollow fibers, using ecologically benign feed materials instead of organic solvents and harmful additives. Our method is based on ionic cross-linking of an aqueous mixture of sodium alginate, inorganic particles, and a

  11. Inorganic Analyses in Water Quality Control Programs. Training Manual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroner, Audrey; And Others

    This lecture/laboratory manual for a five-day course deals with the analysis of selected inorganic pollutants. The manual is an instructional aid for classroom presentations to those with little or no experience in the field, but having one year (or equivalent) of college level inorganic chemistry, one semester of college level quantitative…

  12. Human health hazards of persistent inorganic and carbon nanoparticles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reijnders, L.

    2012-01-01

    Persistent inorganic and carbon nanoparticles are increasingly engineered for applications and may also be present in conventional materials such as carbon black. Furthermore, they may originate from conventional non particulate materials by processes such as wear and tear. Persistent inorganic and

  13. Optical Waveguides from Organic/Inorganic Hybrid Materials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    Organic/inorganic material has attracted great attentions because its importance as photonic materials. We report on our recent results on organic/inorganic hybrid sol-gel materials and optical waveguides like splitter, thermo-optic switch and micro-cavity laser.

  14. Organometallic-inorganic hybrid electrodes for lithium-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Qian; Lemmon, John P.; Choi, Daiwon; Cosimbescu, Lelia

    2016-09-13

    Disclosed are embodiments of active materials for organometallic and organometallic-inorganic hybrid electrodes and particularly active materials for organometallic and organometallic-inorganic hybrid cathodes for lithium-ion batteries. In certain embodiments the organometallic material comprises a ferrocene polymer.

  15. Optical Waveguides from Organic/Inorganic Hybrid Materials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liying Liu; Lei Xu; Wencheng Wang

    2003-01-01

    Organic/inorganic material has attracted great attentions because its importance as photonic materials. We report on our recent results on organic/inorganic hybrid sol-gel materials and optical waveguides like splitter,thermo-optic switch and micro-cavity laser.

  16. Transport of inorganic compounds through compacted clay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liao, W.P.

    1989-01-01

    Compacted clay liners are widely utilized as leachate barrier in landfills for waste. The main purpose of this research was to study the transport of inorganic compounds through compacted clay. The subjects of interest included the diffusional migration of chemicals at low flow rates, the effective porosity of fine-grained soils, the transport of solutes in unsaturated clays, and the effect of adsorption processes on the transport of reactive solutes. Two clay soils, kaolinite and Lufkin clay, were used in the laboratory column tests and subjected to constant hydraulic gradients of 1 to 50. Inorganic tracers (Cl{sup {minus}} Br{sup {minus}}, K{sup +}, and Zn{sup 2+}) were added to the permeating water as a step input. Conclusions are: (a) the experimental data from soil specimens subjected to various gradients showed that diffusional transport did affect the migration of the tracers in fine-grained media. At low gradients, hydrodynamic dispersion was almost solely related to molecular diffusion rather than mechanical mixing; (b) the breakthrough curves for kaolinite specimens showed that the ratios of effective porosity to total porosity were 0.25 to 1.0. The effect of low effective porosity on transport of the tracers was much greater than that of diffusion; (c) the soils that were not presoaked before tracers were introduced had lower effective porosity and greater dispersion of solutes that did the presoaked soils; (d) no evidence of the existence of a threshold gradient was observed; and (e) the retardation factors predicted from batch equilibrium tests matched the results from column tests poorly, probably due to hydrodynamic effects or geochemical differences between the two soil/solution systems.

  17. Nucleotides and inorganic phosphates as potential antioxidants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, Yael; Fischer, Bilha

    2006-11-01

    Highly reactive OH radicals, formed in an iron-ion catalyzed Fenton reaction, are implicated in many pathological conditions. The quest for Fenton reaction inhibitors, either radical scavenger or metal-ion chelator antioxidants, spans the previous decades. Purine nucleotides were previously studied as natural modulators of the Fenton reaction; however, the modulatory role of purine nucleotides remained in dispute. Here, we have resolved this long-standing dispute and demonstrated a concentration-dependent biphasic modulation of the Fenton reaction by nucleotides. By electron spin resonance measurements with 0.1 mM Fe(II), we observed an increase of *OH production at low purine nucleotide concentrations (up to 0.15 mM), while at higher nucleotide concentrations, an exponential decay of *OH concentration was observed. We found that the phosphate moiety, not the nucleoside, determines the pro/antioxidant properties of a nucleotide, suggesting a chelation-based modulation. Furthermore, the biphasic modulation mode is probably due to diverse nucleotide-Fe(II) complexes formed in a concentration-dependent manner. At ATP concentrations much greater than Fe(II) concentrations, multiligand chelates are formed which inhibit the Fenton reaction owing to a full Fe(II) coordination sphere. In addition to natural nucleotides, we investigated a series of base- or phosphate-modified nucleotides, dinucleotides, and inorganic phosphates, as potential biocompatible antioxidants. Ap5A, inorganic thiophosphate and ATP-gamma-S proved highly potent antioxidants with IC50 values of 40, 30, and 10 microM, respectively. ATP-gamma-S proved 100 and 20 times more active than ATP and the potent antioxidant Trolox, respectively. In the presence of 30 microM ATP-gamma-S no *OH was detected after 5 min in the Fenton reaction mixture. The most potent antioxidants identified inhibit the Fenton reaction by forming full coordination sphere chelates.

  18. Determination of potassium iodide in table salt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajković Miloš B.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The samples of table salt bought in Belgrade supermarkets are analysed in this paper. The method of indirect iodometry was used in the process of the analysis, and received results were converted into the content of KI in mg/kg of salt. Beside the content of KI, the content of NaCl was also determined, counted to dry meter and water content, and received results were compared with the requests determined by Regulations of Table Salt Quality Meant for Human Diet and by manufacturers' declaration. Received results show that the volumetric method of indirect iodometry, applied in this analysis, is very reliable for determination of potassium iodine in table salt, because of its high precision and reproducibility of the analysis results. All received results show that the samples of table salt which can be bought in supermarkets are according to the demands given by Regulations. Only one sample (evaporated salt has significantly less mass of KI than it is determined by Regulations, but also by manufacturer's declaration. Measured humidity in the samples of table salt received from sea salt (sample 1 is higher than humidity in the samples received from rock salt as the result of magnesium presence in sea salt, which is hygroscopic material. Although samples 5 and 6 also originate from sea salt, their smaller humidity is the result of additional heating and salt processing. .

  19. 40 CFR 721.7655 - Alkylsulfonium salt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Alkylsulfonium salt. 721.7655 Section... Substances § 721.7655 Alkylsulfonium salt. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as alkylsulfonium salt (PMN P-93-1166) is...

  20. 7 CFR 58.328 - Salt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Salt. 58.328 Section 58.328 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections....328 Salt. The salt shall be free-flowing, white refined sodium chloride and shall meet the...

  1. 7 CFR 58.721 - Salt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Salt. 58.721 Section 58.721 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections....721 Salt. Salt shall be free flowing, white refined sodium chloride and shall meet the requirements of...

  2. 7 CFR 58.437 - Salt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Salt. 58.437 Section 58.437 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections....437 Salt. The salt shall be free-flowing, white refined sodium chloride and shall meet the...

  3. Efficient Organic/Inorganic Hybrid Solar Cell Integrating Polymer Nanowires and Inorganic Nanotetrapods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Weizhe; Tan, Furui; Liu, Xiansheng; Zhang, Weifeng; Qu, Shengchun; Wang, Zhijie; Wang, Zhanguo

    2017-01-01

    Constructing a highly efficient bulk-heterojunction is of critical importance to the hybrid organic/inorganic solar cells. Here in this work, we introduce a novel hybrid architecture containing P3HT nanowire and CdSe nanotetrapod as bicontinuous charge channels for holes and electrons, respectively. Compared to the traditionally applied P3HT molecules, the well crystallized P3HT nanowires qualify an enhanced light absorption at the long wavelength as well as strengthened charge carrier transport in the hybrid active layer. Accordingly, based on efficient dissociation of photogenerated excitons, the interpercolation of these two nano-building blocks allows a photovoltaic conversion efficiency of 1.7% in the hybrid solar cell, up to 42% enhancement compared to the reference solar cell with traditional P3HT molecules as electron donor. Our work provides a promising hybrid structure for efficient organic/inorganic bulk-heterojunction solar cells.

  4. Efficient Organic/Inorganic Hybrid Solar Cell Integrating Polymer Nanowires and Inorganic Nanotetrapods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Weizhe; Tan, Furui; Liu, Xiansheng; Zhang, Weifeng; Qu, Shengchun; Wang, Zhijie; Wang, Zhanguo

    2017-12-01

    Constructing a highly efficient bulk-heterojunction is of critical importance to the hybrid organic/inorganic solar cells. Here in this work, we introduce a novel hybrid architecture containing P3HT nanowire and CdSe nanotetrapod as bicontinuous charge channels for holes and electrons, respectively. Compared to the traditionally applied P3HT molecules, the well crystallized P3HT nanowires qualify an enhanced light absorption at the long wavelength as well as strengthened charge carrier transport in the hybrid active layer. Accordingly, based on efficient dissociation of photogenerated excitons, the interpercolation of these two nano-building blocks allows a photovoltaic conversion efficiency of 1.7% in the hybrid solar cell, up to 42% enhancement compared to the reference solar cell with traditional P3HT molecules as electron donor. Our work provides a promising hybrid structure for efficient organic/inorganic bulk-heterojunction solar cells.

  5. Augmentation of bacterial homeostasis by regulating in situ buffer capacity: Significance of total dissolved salts over acidogenic metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkata Mohan, S; Srikanth, S; Nikhil, G N

    2017-02-01

    During anaerobic fermentation, consequent accumulation of acidic fermented products leads to the failure of pH homeostasis. The present study aimed to comprehend the changes in buffering capacity with addition of sodium salts of hydroxide, bicarbonate and phosphate. The results showed notable augmentation in buffer capacity and cumulative hydrogen production (CHP) compared to control. The influential factor is the amount of undissociated volatile fatty acids released that affected the cell metabolism and consequently biohydrogen generation. It is inferred that among the tested salts, sodium bicarbonate has substantial buffering capacity (β, 0.035± mol) ensuing maximum CHP (468± mL). Besides, bioelectrochemical analysis revealed variations in redox currents that aligned with biohydrogen production. The study provides valuable information on the role of inorganic dissolved salts that would be required to regulate H2 generation and acidogenesis in the aspects of acid-gas phase system.

  6. Semiconducting organic-inorganic nanocomposites by intimately tethering conjugated polymers to inorganic tetrapods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Jaehan; Yoon, Young Jun; Lin, Zhiqun

    2016-04-01

    Semiconducting organic-inorganic nanocomposites were judiciously crafted by placing conjugated polymers in intimate contact with inorganic tetrapods via click reaction. CdSe tetrapods were first synthesized by inducing elongated arms from CdSe zincblende seeds through seed-mediated growth. The subsequent effective inorganic ligand treatment, followed by reacting with short bifunctional ligands, yielded azide-functionalized CdSe tetrapods (i.e., CdSe-N3). Finally, the ethynyl-terminated conjugated polymer poly(3-hexylthiophene) (i.e., P3HT-&z.tbd;) was tethered to CdSe-N3 tetrapods via a catalyst-free alkyne-azide cycloaddition, forming intimate semiconducting P3HT-CdSe tetrapod nanocomposites. Intriguingly, the intimate contact between P3HT and CdSe tetrapod was found to not only render the effective dispersion of CdSe tetrapods in the P3HT matrix, but also facilitate the efficient electronic interaction between these two semiconducting constituents. The successful anchoring of P3HT chains onto CdSe tetrapods was substantiated through Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy measurements. Moreover, the absorption and photoluminescence studies further corroborated the intimate tethering between P3HT and CdSe tetrapods. The effect of the type of bifunctional ligands (i.e., aryl vs. aliphatic ligands) and the size of tetrapods on the device performance of hybrid organic-inorganic solar cells was also scrutinized. Interestingly, P3HT-CdSe tetrapod nanocomposites produced via the use of an aryl bifunctional ligand (i.e., 4-azidobenzoic acid) exhibited an improved photovoltaic performance compared to that synthesized with their aliphatic ligand counterpart (i.e., 5-bromovaleric acid). Clearly, the optimal size of CdSe tetrapods ensuring the effective charge transport in conjunction with the good dispersion of CdSe tetrapods rendered an improved device performance. We envision that the click-reaction strategy enabled by

  7. In-Depth Coursework in Undergraduate Inorganic Chemistry: Results from a National Survey of Inorganic Chemistry Faculty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raker, Jeffrey R.; Reisner, Barbara A.; Smith, Sheila R.; Stewart, Joanne L.; Crane, Johanna L.; Pesterfield, Les; Sobel, Sabrina G.

    2015-01-01

    A national survey of inorganic chemists explored the self-reported topics covered in in-depth inorganic chemistry courses at the postsecondary level; an in-depth course is defined by the American Chemical Society's Committee on Professional Training as a course that integrates and covers topics that were introduced in introductory and foundation…

  8. In-Depth Coursework in Undergraduate Inorganic Chemistry: Results from a National Survey of Inorganic Chemistry Faculty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raker, Jeffrey R.; Reisner, Barbara A.; Smith, Sheila R.; Stewart, Joanne L.; Crane, Johanna L.; Pesterfield, Les; Sobel, Sabrina G.

    2015-01-01

    A national survey of inorganic chemists explored the self-reported topics covered in in-depth inorganic chemistry courses at the postsecondary level; an in-depth course is defined by the American Chemical Society's Committee on Professional Training as a course that integrates and covers topics that were introduced in introductory and foundation…

  9. Salt-enhanced removal of 2-ethyl-1-hexanol from aqueous solutions by adsorption on activated carbon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Ganggang; Bao, Zongbi; Zhang, Zhiguo; Xing, Huabin; Su, Baogen; Yang, Yiwen; Ren, Qilong

    2013-12-15

    2-Ethyl-1-hexanol has extensive industrial applications in solvent extraction, however, in view of its potential pollution to environment, the removal and recovery of 2-ethyl-1-hexanol is considered an essential step toward its sustainable use in the future. In this work, we report the removal of 2-ethyl-1-hexanol from aqueous solutions containing salts in high concentrations by adsorption on a coal-based activated carbon. Adsorption thermodynamics showed that the experimental isotherms were conformed well to the Langmuir equation. Also it was found that inorganic salts, i.e. MgCl2 and CaCl2 in high concentration significantly enhanced the adsorption capacity from 223 mg/g in the deionized water to 277 mg/g in a saline water. This phenomenon of adsorption enhancement could be ascribed to the salt-out effect. Kinetic analysis indicated that adsorption kinetics follows the pseudo-second-order equation and the adsorption rate constants increase with the salt concentration. The dynamic breakthrough volume and adsorbed amount of 2-ethyl-1-hexanol were significantly elevated when the salt is present in the water. The dynamic saturated adsorption amount increased from 218.3mg/g in the deionized water to 309.5mg/g in a salt lake brine. The Tomas model was well applied to predict the breakthrough curves and determine the characteristics parameters of the adsorption column.

  10. Enhanced removal of sodium salts supported by in-situ catalyst synthesis in a supercritical water oxidation process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, F; Sun, Z R; Fukushi, K; Oshima, Y; Yamamoto, K

    2012-01-01

    For practical applications of supercritical water oxidation to wastewater treatment, the deposition of inorganic salts in supercritical phase must be controlled to prevent a reactor from clogging. This study investigated enhanced removal of sodium salts with titanium particles, serving as a salt trapper and a catalyst precursor, and sodium recovery by sub-critical water. When Na(2)CO(3) was tested as a model salt, sodium removal efficiency was higher than theoretically maximum efficiency defined by Na(2)CO(3) solubility. The enhanced sodium removal resulted from in-situ synthesis of sodium titanate, which could catalyse acetic acid oxidation. The kinetics of sodium removal was described well by a diffusion mass-transfer model combined with a power law-type rate model of sodium titanate synthesis. Titanium particles showed positive effect on sodium removal in the case of NaOH, Na(2)SO(4) and Na(3)PO(4). However, they had negligible effect for NaCl and negative effect for Na(2)CrO(4), respectively. More than 99% of trapped sodium was recovered by sub-critical water except for Na(2)CrO(4). In contrast, sodium recovery efficiency remained less than 50% in the case of Na(2)CrO(4). Reused titanium particles showed the same performance for enhanced sodium removal. Enhanced salt removal supported by in-situ catalyst synthesis has great potential to enable both salt removal control and catalytic oxidation.

  11. Novel Salt-Assisted Combustion Synthesis of High Surface Area Ceria Nanopowders by An Ethylene Glycol-Nitrate Combustion Process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    A novel salt-assisted combustion process with ethylene glycol as a fuel and nitrate as an oxidant to synthesize high surface area ceria nanopowders was reported. The effects of various tunable conditions, such as fuel-to-oxidant ratio, type of salts, and amount of added salts, on the characteristics of the as-prepared powders were investigated by X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy and BET surface area measurement. A mechanism scheme was proposed to illustrate the possible formation processes of well-dispersed ceria nanoparticles in the salt-assisted combustion synthesis. It was verified that the simple introduction of leachable inert inorganic salts as an excellent agglomeration inhibitor into the redox mixture precursor leads to the formation of well-dispersed ceria particles with particle size in the range of 4~6 nm and a drastic increase in the surface area. The presence of KCl results in an over ten-fold increment in specific surface area from 14.10 m2·g-1 for the produced ceria powders via the conventional combustion synthesis process to 156.74 m2·g-1 for the product by the salt-assisted combustion synthesis process at the same molar ratio of ethylene glycol-nitrate.

  12. Magnesium degradation influenced by buffering salts in concentrations typical of in vitro and in vivo models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agha, Nezha Ahmad; Feyerabend, Frank [Helmholtz-Zentrum Geesthacht, Institute of Material Research, Division of Metallic Biomaterials, Max-Planck-Str. 1, 21502 Geesthacht (Germany); Mihailova, Boriana; Heidrich, Stefanie; Bismayer, Ulrich [University of Hamburg, Department of Earth Sciences, Grindelallee 48, 20146 Hamburg (Germany); Willumeit-Römer, Regine [Helmholtz-Zentrum Geesthacht, Institute of Material Research, Division of Metallic Biomaterials, Max-Planck-Str. 1, 21502 Geesthacht (Germany)

    2016-01-01

    Magnesium and its alloys have considerable potential for orthopedic applications. During the degradation process the interface between material and tissue is continuously changing. Moreover, too fast or uncontrolled degradation is detrimental for the outcome in vivo. Therefore in vitro setups utilizing physiological conditions are promising for the material/degradation analysis prior to animal experiments. The aim of this study is to elucidate the influence of inorganic salts contributing to the blood buffering capacity on degradation. Extruded pure magnesium samples were immersed under cell culture conditions for 3 and 10 days. Hank's balanced salt solution without calcium and magnesium (HBSS) plus 10% of fetal bovine serum (FBS) was used as the basic immersion medium. Additionally, different inorganic salts were added with respect to concentration in Dulbecco's modified Eagle's medium (DMEM, in vitro model) and human plasma (in vivo model) to form 12 different immersion media. Influences on the surrounding environment were observed by measuring pH and osmolality. The degradation interface was analyzed by electron-induced X-ray emission (EIXE) spectroscopy, including chemical-element mappings and electron microprobe analysis, as well as Fourier transform infrared reflection micro-spectroscopy (FTIR). - Highlights: • Influence of blood buffering salts on magnesium degradation was studied. • CaCl{sub 2} reduced the degradation rate by Ca–PO{sub 4} layer formation. • MgSO{sub 4} influenced the morphology of the degradation interface. • NaHCO{sub 3} induced the formation of MgCO{sub 3} as a degradation product.

  13. Awareness of salt restriction is not reflected in the actual salt intake in Japanese hypertensive patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Nobuyuki; Tanabe, Kazuaki; Adachi, Tomoko; Nakashima, Ryuma; Sugamori, Takashi; Endo, Akihiro; Ito, Takafumi; Yoshitomi, Hiroyuki; Ishibashi, Yutaka

    2015-01-01

    The Japanese guidelines for hypertension management recommend reducing salt intake to awareness of the recommended reduced salt diet correlates with their actual intake. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between actual salt intake of Japanese hypertensive patients and their awareness of the recommended guidelines for reduced dietary salt intake. In total, 236 outpatients (146 males and 90 females) with a mean age 69.7 ± 12.5 years were included in this study. Daily dietary salt intake was estimated using sodium and creatinine concentrations detected in spot urine samples. The patients filled out a questionnaire regarding their awareness of recommended salt restriction for hypertension management. The questionnaire distinguished the patients' awareness of recommended salt restriction in four levels (low, moderate, high and very high). The mean estimated salt intake was 9.72 ± 2.43 g/day. Patients' awareness regarding salt intake in all levels provided in the questionnaire did not correlate with actual salt intake (p = 0.731). Our results demonstrated that Japanese hypertensive outpatients consumed higher levels of salt than the target value recommended by Japanese guidelines. There was no correlation between actual salt intake and patients' awareness of the recommended reduction in salt. These results suggest that monitoring salt intake and informing patients of their actual salt intake are necessary for effective hypertension management.

  14. Thermophysical properties of reconsolidating crushed salt.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bauer, Stephen J. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Urquhart, Alexander [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2014-03-01

    Reconsolidated crushed salt is being considered as a backfilling material placed upon nuclear waste within a salt repository environment. In-depth knowledge of thermal and mechanical properties of the crushed salt as it reconsolidates is critical to thermal/mechanical modeling of the reconsolidation process. An experimental study was completed to quantitatively evaluate the thermal conductivity of reconsolidated crushed salt as a function of porosity and temperature. The crushed salt for this study came from the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). In this work the thermal conductivity of crushed salt with porosity ranging from 1% to 40% was determined from room temperature up to 300°C, using two different experimental methods. Thermal properties (including thermal conductivity, thermal diffusivity and specific heat) of single-crystal salt were determined for the same temperature range. The salt was observed to dewater during heating; weight loss from the dewatering was quantified. The thermal conductivity of reconsolidated crushed salt decreases with increasing porosity; conversely, thermal conductivity increases as the salt consolidates. The thermal conductivity of reconsolidated crushed salt for a given porosity decreases with increasing temperature. A simple mixture theory model is presented to predict and compare to the data developed in this study.

  15. Rice's Salt Tolerance Gene Cloned

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    @@ In cooperation with US colleagues, CAS researchers have made significant progress in their studies into functional genes for key agronomic traits by cloning SKC1, a salt-tolerant functional gene of rice and making clear its biological functions and mechanisms. This pioneering work,which was reported in the Oct. issue of Nature Genetics (37:1141-1146), is believed to hold promise to increase the output of the crop plant in this country.

  16. On Biochemical Formation of Salt Deposits

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    A water/salt system in an evaporative environment is both a physicochemical region and a biological one. All the parameters of the system, such as the salinity, temperature and CO2 partial pressure, are affected by halophilic bacteria. The system controls salt deposition but is modified by an accompanying ecological system; therefore it should be called a water/salt/biological system. Salt minerals result from accumulation of the remains of bacteria/algae, namely, bacteria/algae formation; whereas biological, biophysical and biochemical processes provide full evidence for organic involvement. Consequently, salt deposits should not be called purely chemical but biological/chemical ones. This new argument supplements and develops the traditional idea and helps perfect the mineralization theory of salts and even general deposits, thus giving guidance to prospecting for salt deposits.

  17. Inorganic ion composition in Tardigrada: cryptobionts contain a large fraction of unidentified organic solutes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halberg, Kenneth Agerlin; Larsen, Kristine Wulff; Jørgensen, Aslak; Ramløv, Hans; Møbjerg, Nadja

    2013-04-01

    Many species of tardigrades are known to tolerate extreme environmental stress, yet detailed knowledge of the mechanisms underlying the remarkable adaptations of tardigrades is still lacking, as are answers to many questions regarding their basic biology. Here, we present data on the inorganic ion composition and total osmotic concentration of five different species of tardigrades (Echiniscus testudo, Milnesium tardigradum, Richtersius coronifer, Macrobiotus cf. hufelandi and Halobiotus crispae) using high-performance liquid chromatography and nanoliter osmometry. Quantification of the ionic content indicates that Na(+) and Cl(-) are the principal inorganic ions in tardigrade fluids, albeit other ions, i.e. K(+), NH4(+), Ca(2+), Mg(2+), F(-), SO4(2-) and PO4(3-) were also detected. In limno-terrestrial tardigrades, the respective ions are concentrated by a large factor compared with that of the external medium (Na(+), ×70-800; K(+), ×20-90; Ca(2+) and Mg(2+), ×30-200; F(-), ×160-1040, Cl(-), ×20-50; PO4(3-), ×700-2800; SO4(2-), ×30-150). In contrast, in the marine species H. crispae, Na(+), Cl(-) and SO4(2-) are almost in ionic equilibrium with (brackish) salt water, while K(+), Ca(2+), Mg(2+) and F(-) are only slightly concentrated (×2-10). An anion deficit of ~120 mEq l(-1) in M. tardigradum and H. crispae indicates the presence of unidentified ionic components in these species. Body fluid osmolality ranges from 361±49 mOsm kg(-1) in R. coronifer to 961±43 mOsm kg(-1) in H. crispae. Concentrations of most inorganic ions are largely identical between active and dehydrated groups of R. coronifer, suggesting that this tardigrade does not lose large quantities of inorganic ions during dehydration. The large osmotic and ionic gradients maintained by both limno-terrestrial and marine species are indicative of a powerful ion-retentive mechanism in Tardigrada. Moreover, our data indicate that cryptobiotic tardigrades contain a large fraction of unidentified

  18. Inorganic/organic hybrid nanocomposite coating applications: Formulation, characterization, and evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eyassu, Tsehaye

    Nanotechnology applications in coatings have shown significant growth in recent years. Systematic incorporation of nano-sized inorganic materials into polymer coating enhances optical, electrical, thermal and mechanical properties significantly. The present dissertation will focus on formulation, characterization and evaluation of inorganic/organic hybrid nanocomposite coatings for heat dissipation, corrosion inhibition and ultraviolet (UV) and near infrared (NIR) cut applications. In addition, the dissertation will cover synthesis, characterization and dispersion of functional inorganic fillers. In the first project, we investigated factors that can affect the "Molecular Fan" cooling performance and efficiency. The investigated factors and conditions include types of nanomaterials, size, loading amount, coating thickness, heat sink substrate, substrate surface modification, and power input. Using the optimal factors, MF coating was formulated and applied on commercial HDUs, and cooling efficiencies up to 22% and 23% were achieved using multi-walled carbon nanotube and graphene fillers. The result suggests that molecular fan action can reduce the size and mass of heat-sink module and thus offer a low cost of LED light unit. In the second project, we report the use of thin organic/inorganic hybrid coating as a protection for corrosion and as a thermal management to dissipate heat from galvanized steel. Here, we employed the in-situ phosphatization method for corrosion inhibition and "Molecular fan" technique to dissipate heat from galvanized steel panels and sheets. Salt fog tests reveal successful completion of 72 hours corrosion protection time frame for samples coated with as low as ~0.7microm thickness. Heat dissipation measurement shows 9% and 13% temperature cooling for GI and GL panels with the same coating thickness of ~0.7microm respectively. The effect of different factors, in-situ phosphatization reagent (ISPR), cross-linkers and nanomaterial on corrosion

  19. Trifluoromethylmetallate anions as components of molecular charge transfer salts and superconductors.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schlueter, J. A.

    1998-10-14

    Whereas polymeric and common inorganic anions frequently deprive the synthetic chemist of a chance to modify a charge transfer salt's structure through anion alterations, discrete organometallic anions provide a vast opportunity to probe the structure/property correlations of a material through rational synthetic methods. We have recently undertaken a research effort aimed at the crystallization of conducting charge transfer salts which possess modifiable, organometallic anions as the charge compensating entities. This research has been richly rewarded with the discovery of a new family of bis(ethylenedithio) tetrathiafulvalene (BEDT-TTF or ET) based molecular superconductors. Herein is presented a summary of over twenty {kappa}(ET){sub 2}M(CF{sub 3}){sub 4}(1,1,2-trihaloethane) (M = Cu, Ag, Au) superconducting salts. Three new related salts are also reported: (ET){sub 2} [trans-Ag(CF{sub 3}),(CN){sub 2}], {kappa}{sub L}(BEDT-TSF){sub 2}Ag(CF{sub 3}){sub 4}(TCE), and {kappa}{sub L}(ET){sub 2}Ag(CF{sub 3}){sub 3}Cl(TCE).

  20. The Role of Salts in the Evolution of Modern Orb-Webs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahni, Vasav; Miyoshi, Toshikazu; Chen, Kelley; Jain, Dharamdeep; Blamires, Sean J.; Blackledge, Todd A.; Dhinojwala, Ali

    2014-03-01

    The evolution of modern viscid silk webs from ancient cribellate silk webs is associated with a 95% increase in diversity of orb-weaving spiders, and their dominance as predators of flying insects. Yet the transition's mechanistic basis is an evolutionary puzzle. Ancient cribellate silk is a dry adhesive that functions through van der Waals interactions. Viscid threads adhere more effectively than cribellate threads due to high extensibility of their axial silk fibers, and firm adhesion of the viscid glue droplets. The organic and inorganic salts present in viscid glue sequester atmospheric water that plasticizes the axial silk fibers and renders them extensible. Here, we provide direct molecular and macro-scale evidence to show that salts also generate adhesion by directly solvating the glycoproteins, regardless of water content, thus imparting viscoelasticity and enabling the glue droplets to establish good contact. This `dual role' of salts provides a crucial link to the evolutionary transition from cribellate silk to viscid silk. In addition, salts also provide a simple mechanism to adhere even at the extremes of relative humidity, a feat eluding most synthetic adhesives. The work was done when I was at University of Akron.

  1. Descriptive Inorganic Chemistry (by Geoff Rayner-Canham)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabinovich, Daniel

    1998-06-01

    Geoff Rayner-Canham. W. H. Freeman: New York, 1996. 492 pp. ISBN: 0-7167-2819-2. $67.95. There are plenty of good inorganic chemistry books on the market, from venerable reference works (e.g., Cotton and Wilkinson's Advanced Inorganic Chemistry, Greenwood and Earnshaw's Chemistry of the Elements) to "comprehensive" two-semester textbooks (e.g., Huheey, Keiter, and Keiter's Inorganic Chemistry: Principles of Structure and Reactivity, Douglas, McDaniel, and Alexander's Concepts and Models of Inorganic Chemistry). Undergraduate students, especially those new to inorganic chemistry, frequently find these books overwhelming in depth and length (not to mention weight!). Alternatively, some shorter books with less ambitious goals present an oversimplified view of the field or sacrifice conceptual material on behalf of sections on environmental, industrial, or biological chemistry. Rayner-Canham's Descriptive Inorganic Chemistry, a one-semester book aimed specifically at the introductory (sophomore) level, provides an excellent balance of theory and descriptive material, with a fresh look at traditional and current areas of interest in inorganic chemistry.

  2. Inorganic arsenic levels in baby rice are of concern

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meharg, Andrew A. [School of Biological Sciences, University of Aberdeen, Cruickshank Building, St. Machar Drive, Aberdeen AB24 3UU (United Kingdom)], E-mail: a.meharg@abdn.ac.uk; Sun, Guoxin [Research Centre for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100085 (China); Williams, Paul N. [School of Biological Sciences, University of Aberdeen, Cruickshank Building, St. Machar Drive, Aberdeen AB24 3UU (United Kingdom); Research Centre for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100085 (China); Adomako, Eureka; Deacon, Claire [School of Biological Sciences, University of Aberdeen, Cruickshank Building, St. Machar Drive, Aberdeen AB24 3UU (United Kingdom); Zhu, Yong-Guan [Research Centre for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100085 (China); Feldmann, Joerg; Raab, Andrea [Department of Chemistry, University of Aberdeen, Meston Building, Meston Walk, Aberdeen AB24 3UE (United Kingdom)

    2008-04-15

    Inorganic arsenic is a chronic exposure carcinogen. Analysis of UK baby rice revealed a median inorganic arsenic content (n = 17) of 0.11 mg/kg. By plotting inorganic arsenic against total arsenic, it was found that inorganic concentrations increased linearly up to 0.25 mg/kg total arsenic, then plateaued at 0.16 mg/kg at higher total arsenic concentrations. Inorganic arsenic intake by babies (4-12 months) was considered with respect to current dietary ingestion regulations. It was found that 35% of the baby rice samples analysed would be illegal for sale in China which has regulatory limit of 0.15 mg/kg inorganic arsenic. EU and US food regulations on arsenic are non-existent. When baby inorganic arsenic intake from rice was considered, median consumption (expressed as {mu}g/kg/d) was higher than drinking water maximum exposures predicted for adults in these regions when water intake was expressed on a bodyweight basis. - Median consumption of organic arsenic levels for UK babies from baby rice is above threshold considered safe.

  3. Inorganic arsenic levels in baby rice are of concern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meharg, Andrew A; Sun, Guoxin; Williams, Paul N; Adomako, Eureka; Deacon, Claire; Zhu, Yong-Guan; Feldmann, Joerg; Raab, Andrea

    2008-04-01

    Inorganic arsenic is a chronic exposure carcinogen. Analysis of UK baby rice revealed a median inorganic arsenic content (n=17) of 0.11 mg/kg. By plotting inorganic arsenic against total arsenic, it was found that inorganic concentrations increased linearly up to 0.25 mg/kg total arsenic, then plateaued at 0.16 mg/kg at higher total arsenic concentrations. Inorganic arsenic intake by babies (4-12 months) was considered with respect to current dietary ingestion regulations. It was found that 35% of the baby rice samples analysed would be illegal for sale in China which has regulatory limit of 0.15 mg/kg inorganic arsenic. EU and US food regulations on arsenic are non-existent. When baby inorganic arsenic intake from rice was considered, median consumption (expressed as microg/kg/d) was higher than drinking water maximum exposures predicted for adults in these regions when water intake was expressed on a bodyweight basis.

  4. Hybrid organic-inorganic rotaxanes and molecular shuttles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chin-Fa; Leigh, David A; Pritchard, Robin G; Schultz, David; Teat, Simon J; Timco, Grigore A; Winpenny, Richard E P

    2009-03-19

    The tetravalency of carbon and its ability to form covalent bonds with itself and other elements enables large organic molecules with complex structures, functions and dynamics to be constructed. The varied electronic configurations and bonding patterns of inorganic elements, on the other hand, can impart diverse electronic, magnetic, catalytic and other useful properties to molecular-level structures. Some hybrid organic-inorganic materials that combine features of both chemistries have been developed, most notably metal-organic frameworks, dense and extended organic-inorganic frameworks and coordination polymers. Metal ions have also been incorporated into molecules that contain interlocked subunits, such as rotaxanes and catenanes, and structures in which many inorganic clusters encircle polymer chains have been described. Here we report the synthesis of a series of discrete rotaxane molecules in which inorganic and organic structural units are linked together mechanically at the molecular level. Structural units (dialkyammonium groups) in dumb-bell-shaped organic molecules template the assembly of essentially inorganic 'rings' about 'axles' to form rotaxanes consisting of various numbers of rings and axles. One of the rotaxanes behaves as a 'molecular shuttle': the ring moves between two binding sites on the axle in a large-amplitude motion typical of some synthetic molecular machine systems. The architecture of the rotaxanes ensures that the electronic, magnetic and paramagnetic characteristics of the inorganic rings-properties that could make them suitable as qubits for quantum computers-can influence, and potentially be influenced by, the organic portion of the molecule.

  5. Anticorrosive organic/inorganic hybrid coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Tongzhai

    Organic/inorganic hybrid coating system was developed for anticorrosion applications using polyurea, polyurethane or epoxide as the organic phase and polysiloxane, formed by sol-gel process, as the inorganic phase. Polyurea/polysiloxane hybrid coatings were formulated and moisture cured using HDI isocyanurate, alkoxysilane-functionalized HDI isocyanurate, and tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS) oligomers. Two urethanes were prepared using the same components as abovementioned in addition to the oligoesters derived from either cyclohexane diacids (CHDA) and 2-butyl-2-ethyl-1,3-propanediol (BEPD) or adipic acid (AA), isophthalic acid (IPA), 1,6-hexanediol (HD), and trimethylol propane (TMP). Accelerated weathering and outdoor exposure were performed to study the weatherability of the polyurethane/polysiloxane hybrid coating system. FTIR and solid-state 13C NMR revealed that the degradation of the hybrid coatings occurred at the urethane and ester functionalities of the organic phase. DMA and DSC analyses showed the glass transition temperature increased and broadened after weathering. SEM was employed to observe the change of morphology of the hybrid coatings and correlated with the gloss variation after weathering. Rutile TiO2 was formulated into polyurethane/polysiloxane hybrid coatings in order to investigate the effect of pigmentation on the coating properties and the sol-gel precursor. Chemical interaction between the TiO2 and the sol-gel precursor was investigated using solid-state 29Si NMR and XPS. The morphology, mechanical, viscoelastic, thermal properties of the pigmented coatings were evaluated as a function of pigmentation volume concentration (PVC). Using AFM and SEM, the pigment were observed to be well dispersed in the polymer matrix. The thermal stability, the tensile modulus and strength of the coatings were enhanced with increasing PVC, whereas the pull-off adhesion and flexibility were reduced with increasing PVC. Finally, the pigmented coatings were

  6. The biological inorganic chemistry of zinc ions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krężel, Artur; Maret, Wolfgang

    2016-12-01

    The solution and complexation chemistry of zinc ions is the basis for zinc biology. In living organisms, zinc is redox-inert and has only one valence state: Zn(II). Its coordination environment in proteins is limited by oxygen, nitrogen, and sulfur donors from the side chains of a few amino acids. In an estimated 10% of all human proteins, zinc has a catalytic or structural function and remains bound during the lifetime of the protein. However, in other proteins zinc ions bind reversibly with dissociation and association rates commensurate with the requirements in regulation, transport, transfer, sensing, signalling, and storage. In contrast to the extensive knowledge about zinc proteins, the coordination chemistry of the "mobile" zinc ions in these processes, i.e. when not bound to proteins, is virtually unexplored and the mechanisms of ligand exchange are poorly understood. Knowledge of the biological inorganic chemistry of zinc ions is essential for understanding its cellular biology and for designing complexes that deliver zinc to proteins and chelating agents that remove zinc from proteins, for detecting zinc ion species by qualitative and quantitative analysis, and for proper planning and execution of experiments involving zinc ions and nanoparticles such as zinc oxide (ZnO). In most investigations, reference is made to zinc or Zn(2+) without full appreciation of how biological zinc ions are buffered and how the d-block cation Zn(2+) differs from s-block cations such as Ca(2+) with regard to significantly higher affinity for ligands, preference for the donor atoms of ligands, and coordination dynamics. Zinc needs to be tightly controlled. The interaction with low molecular weight ligands such as water and inorganic and organic anions is highly relevant to its biology but in contrast to its coordination in proteins has not been discussed in the biochemical literature. From the discussion in this article, it is becoming evident that zinc ion speciation is

  7. Hydrological indications of aeolian salts in mid-latitude deserts of northwestern China

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Bing-Qi Zhu

    2016-06-01

    Large sandy deserts in middle latitude of northwestern China were studied on salt variations in modernand ancient aeolian sediments, aiming to explore their hydrological indications at the present and past.Globally, sulphate is rich in arid to semi-arid deserts, including the aeolian loess sediments in China andsoils in low-latitude deserts, but is less common in the aeolian sediments from the mid-latitude desertsin this study. The compositional differences between aeolian salts and local natural waters is evident,indicating the chemistry of aeolian salts and the associated parent brines may be significantly differentthan that predicted for hydrologically closed systems. The formation of aeolian salts in the studieddeserts is strongly controlled by earth surface processes in a large scale but not in a local scale. Verticalchanges in facies and salinities are abrupt in the studied palaeo-aeolian sediment samples, which wereinterbedded by lacustrine/fluvial sediments with OSL and ^{14}C ages ranging between 40 and 2 ka BP,reflecting rapid high-amplitude changes in hydrological settings during late Pleistocene to later Holocenein these ancient playa systems. A great difference in salt composition between aeolian and lacustrinesediments suggests that the inorganic salt is a latent geoproxy in revealing local hydrological variationsand climate change in the desert areas. But the environmental indications could be amphibolous for thesedimentary sequences with dual/multiple depositional end-members; under this situation an increase insequence salinity does not always represent an enhanced environmental aridity. Ancient playas are aridor humid at the same time based on several sporadic records is not a valid approach to correlation of saltdeposits in adjacent saline playa basin in the studied areas. Effects of earth surface processes includingerosion, deposition and other processes on sediment properties will bias the hydrological implications ofsediment salinity.

  8. Research and development of hydrogen separation technology with inorganic membranes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fain, D.E.

    1999-07-01

    Inorganic membrane technology has long been expected to provide new economical methods for industrial and waste management processes. At this time, the only commercially valuable inorganic membranes are the ultra filters derived from the French process that was used to produce the barrier for the French Gaseous Diffusion Plants. But these membranes are very expensive and have limited areas of application. Over the past fifteen years, scientists now in the Inorganic Membrane Technology Laboratory (IMTL) in Oak Ridge, Tennessee have developed theories and processes for inorganic membranes that can be used to design and produce inorganic membranes for a very broad range of applications. A part of the fabrication process is an adaptive spinoff from the still classified process used to manufacture barriers for the U.S. Gaseous Diffusion Process. Although that part of the process is classified, it is a very flexible and adaptable process and it can be used with a broad range of materials. With the theories and design capabilities developed in the last fifteen years, this new adaptive manufacturing technology can be used to manufacture commercial inorganic membranes that are not useful for the separation of uranium isotopes and they have little or no relation to the barriers that were used to separate uranium isotopes. The development and deployment of such inorganic membranes can be very beneficial to U.S. industry. Inorganic membranes can be specifically designed and manufactured for a large number of different applications. Such membranes can greatly improve the efficiency of a broad range of industrial processes and provide new technology for waste management. These inorganic membranes have the potential for major energy savings and conservation of energy. They can provide the means for significant improvements in the competitiveness of US Industry and improve the economy and health and welfare of the nation.

  9. Teaching Chemistry in the New Century: Inorganic Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorhout, Peter K.

    2001-09-01

    At the San Diego ACS meeting, members of the academic community came together to share their visions for teaching inorganic chemistry. They discussed new laboratory experiences, virtual textbooks, integration of computers in the laboratory, undergraduate research experiences, and new ways of classifying reactions to enable students to recognize and categorize reaction types. It was clear from the presentations that, while the toolbox of the inorganic chemist is not now as sophisticated as the organic chemist's, that toolbox must evolve (and is evolving) if we are to understand just a fraction of the unique chemistry that is inorganic.

  10. Physiological and Molecular Features of Puccinellia tenuiflora Tolerating Salt and Alkaline-Salt Stress

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xia Zhang; Liqin Wei; Zizhang Wang; Tai Wang

    2013-01-01

    Saline-alkali soil seriously threatens agriculture productivity; therefore,understanding the mechanism of plant tolerance to alkaline-salt stress has become a major challenge.Halophytic Puccinellia tenuiflora can tolerate salt and alkaline-salt stress,and is thus an ideal plant for studying this tolerance mechanism.In this study,we examined the salt and alkaline-salt stress tolerance of P.tenuiflora,and analyzed gene expression profiles under these stresses.Physiological experiments revealed that P.tenuiflora can grow normally with maximum stress under 600 mmol/L NaCl and 150 mmol/L Na2CO3 (pH 11.0)for 6 d.We identified 4,982 unigenes closely homologous to rice and barley.Furthermore,1,105 genes showed differentially expressed profiles under salt and alkaline-salt treatments.Differentially expressed genes were overrepresented in functions of photosynthesis,oxidation reduction,signal transduction,and transcription regulation.Almost all genes downregulated under salt and alkaline-salt stress were related to cell structure,photosynthesis,and protein synthesis.Comparing with salt stress,alkaline-salt stress triggered more differentially expressed genes and significantly upregulated genes related to H+ transport and citric acid synthesis.These data indicate common and diverse features of salt and alkalinesalt stress tolerance,and give novel insights into the molecular and physiological mechanisms of plant salt and alkaline-salt tolerance.

  11. Improved Corrosion and Abrasion Resistance of Organic-Inorganic Composite Coated Electro-galvanized Steels for Digital TV Panels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jo, Du-Hwan; Noh, Sang-Geol; Park, Jong-Tae; Kang, Choon-Ho [POSCO Technical Research Laboratories, Pohang (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    Recently, household electronic industries require environmentally-friendly and highly functional steels in order to enhance the quality of human life. Customers especially require both excellent corrosion and abrasion resistant anti-fingerprint steels for digital TV panels. Thus POSCO has developed new functional electro-galvanized steels, which have double coated layers with organic-inorganic composites on the zinc surface of the steel for usage as the bottom chassis panel of TVs. The inorganic solution for the bottom layer consists of inorganic phosphate, magnesium, and zirconium compounds with a small amount of epoxy binder, and affords both improved adhesion properties by chemical conversion reactions and corrosion resistance due to a self-healing effect. The composite solution for the top layer was prepared by fine dispersion of organic-inorganic ingredients that consist of a urethane modified polyacrylate polymer, hardener, silica sol and a titanium complex inhibitor in aqueous media. Both composite solutions were coated on the steel surface by using a roll coater and then cured through an induction furnace in the electro-galvanizing line. New anti-fingerprint steel was evaluated for quality performance through such procedures as the salt spray test for corrosion resistance, tribological test for abrasion resistance, and conductivity test for surface electric conductance regarding to both types of polymer resin and coating weight of composite solution. New composite coated anti-fingerprint steels afford both better corrosion resistance and abrasion properties compared to conventional anti-fingerprint steel that mainly consists of acrylate polymers. Detailed discussions of both composite solutions and experimental results suggest that urethane modifications of acrylate polymers of composite solutions play a key role in enhanced quality performances.

  12. Inorganic ion exchangers for nuclear waste remediation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clearfield, A.; Bortun, A.; Bortun, L.; Behrens, E. [Texas A& M Univ., College Station, TX (United States)

    1997-10-01

    The objective of this work is to provide a broad spectrum of inorganic ion exchangers that can be used for a range of applications and separations involving remediation of groundwater and tank wastes. The authors intend to scale-up the most promising exchangers, through partnership with AlliedSignal Inc., to provide samples for testing at various DOE sites. While much of the focus is on exchangers for removal of Cs{sup +} and Sr{sup 2+} from highly alkaline tank wastes, especially at Hanford, the authors have also synthesized exchangers for acid wastes, alkaline wastes, groundwater, and mercury, cobalt, and chromium removal. These exchangers are now available for use at DOE sites. Many of the ion exchangers described here are new, and others are improved versions of previously known exchangers. They are generally one of three types: (1) layered compounds, (2) framework or tunnel compounds, and (3) amorphous exchangers in which a gel exchanger is used to bind a fine powder into a bead for column use. Most of these exchangers can be regenerated and used again.

  13. Natural hybrid organic-inorganic photovoltaic devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Padova, Paola; Lucci, Massimiliano; Olivieri, Bruno; Quaresima, Claudio; Priori, Sandro; Francini, Roberto; Grilli, Antonio; Hricovini, Karol; Davoli, Ivan

    2009-06-01

    Natural hybrid organic-inorganic photovoltaic devices based on TiO 2 have been realized. Chlorophyll A (from anacystis nidulans algae), chlorophyll B (from spinach), carmic acid (from insect Coccus cacti L.), synthetic trans- β-carotene, natural fresh picked Morus nigra, and their mixtures have been used as an organic photo active layer to fabricate photovoltaic prototypes. In order to reduce the charge's interfacial recombination, different thicknesses (5-45 nm) of Si layers, subsequently oxidized in air, were inserted between the TiO 2 and chlorophyll B. Scanning electron microscopy of TiO 2 and Si/TiO 2 systems shows the coexistence at least of four classes of nanoparticles of 60, 100, 150 and 250 nm in size. Auger electron spectroscopy of the Si L 2,3V V transition demonstrates the presence of silica and SiO x suboxides. Photocurrent measurements versus radiation wavelength in the range 300-800 nm exhibit different peaks according to the absorption spectra of the organic molecules. All realized photovoltaic devices are suitable for solar light electric energy conversion. Those made of a blend of all organic molecules achieved higher current and voltage output. The Si/TiO 2-based devices containing chlorophyll B exhibited an enhanced photocurrent response with respect to those with TiO 2 only.

  14. Plant cell proliferation inside an inorganic host.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perullini, Mercedes; Rivero, María Mercedes; Jobbágy, Matías; Mentaberry, Alejandro; Bilmes, Sara A

    2007-01-10

    In recent years, much attention has been paid to plant cell culture as a tool for the production of secondary metabolites and the expression of recombinant proteins. Plant cell immobilization offers many advantages for biotechnological processes. However, the most extended matrices employed, such as calcium-alginate, cannot fully protect entrapped cells. Sol-gel chemistry of silicates has emerged as an outstanding strategy to obtain biomaterials in which living cells are truly protected. This field of research is rapidly developing and a large number of bacteria and yeast-entrapping ceramics have already been designed for different applications. But even mild thermal and chemical conditions employed in sol-gel synthesis may result harmful to cells of higher organisms. Here we present a method for the immobilization of plant cells that allows cell growth at cavities created inside a silica matrix. Plant cell proliferation was monitored for a 6-month period, at the end of which plant calli of more than 1 mm in diameter were observed inside the inorganic host. The resulting hybrid device had good mechanical stability and proved to be an effective barrier against biological contamination, suggesting that it could be employed for long-term plant cell entrapment applications.

  15. Nanoscale Organic−Inorganic Hybrid Lubricants

    KAUST Repository

    Kim, Daniel

    2011-03-15

    Silica (SiO2) nanoparticles densely grafted with amphiphilic organic chains are used to create a family of organic-inorganic hybrid lubricants. Short sulfonate-functionalized alkylaryl chains covalently tethered to the particles form a dense corona brush that stabilizes them against aggregation. When these hybrid particles are dispersed in poly-α-olefin (PAO) oligomers, they form homogeneous nanocomposite fluids at both low and high particle loadings. By varying the volume fraction of the SiO2 nanostructures in the PAO nanocomposites, we show that exceptionally stable hybrid lubricants can be created and that their mechanical properties can be tuned to span the spectrum from simple liquids to complex gels. We further show that these hybrid lubricants simultaneously exhibit lower interfacial friction coefficients, enhanced wear and mechanical properties, and superior thermal stability in comparison with either PAO or its nanocomposites created at low nanoparticle loadings. Profilometry and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopic analysis of the wear track show that the enhanced wear characteristics in PAO-SiO2 composite lubricants originate from two sources: localization of the SiO2 particles into the wear track and extension of the elastohydrodynamic lubrication regime to Sommerfeld numbers more than an order of magnitude larger than for PAO. © 2011 American Chemical Society.

  16. Chromosome distribution studies after inorganic lead exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verschaeve, L.; Driesen, M.; Kirsch-Volders, M.; Hens, L.; Susanne, C.

    1979-06-19

    We studied the chromosome distribution in persons professionally exposed to inorganic lead. The degree of lead exposure was evaluated by biochemical measurements and cytogenetic analysis. The chromosome distribution was analyzed from trypsin banded karyotypes; in particular we studied centromere distances (delta2) and centromere-metaphase-center distances (d2) which were obtained by computer-aided mathematical transformation of the individual metaphase coordinates. Higher concentrations of blood lead and urine delta-ALA and a statistically significant increase in aneuploidy, hypoploidy, and type-B chromosome aberrations revealed appreciable exposure although none of the subjects showed signs of excessive lead absorption. However, study of the chromosome distribution showed no major differences with that of the controls indicating that lead acts preferentially (directly or indirectly) on the chromosomes rather than on the spindle apparatus. A dissociation of the acrocentric chromosomes was observed in the lead group when compared with the controls. This is thought to reflect a secondary action of lead on the nucleolar organizer regions.

  17. Magnetic Thin Films of Inorganic Nanosheets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Takashi; Namba, Hiroaki; Einaga, Yasuaki

    2012-02-01

    Molecule-based magnets have been fascinating materials because of the potential applications in information storage, electronic and spintronic devices. However, such applications would require arraying the active materials on a substrate or interfacing with other components. Here, we focus on fabricating multi-functional magnetic films using inorganic nanosheets as a building block. The thin films could be prepared by the modified Langmuir-Blodgett, LB, technique or the layer-by-layer, LbL, method, which are representative wet-processings for film preparation. As the magnetic LB film, we chose semiconductive titania nanosheets and magnetic Prussian Blue. Upon band gap excitation of titania nanosheets, electron injection into Prussian Blue was achieved with scavenging interlayer water molecules, leading to photoreduction to Prussian White. As the magnetic LbL film, we chose magnetic layered double hydroxide, LDH, nanosheets and non-magnetic smectite nanosheets. In powdered LDH, a coercivity increased with expanding the interlayer spacing. On the other hand, despite the larger interlayer spacing for the LbL film, a coercivity was less than that of the comparative powdered LDH. It is indicated LDH nanosheets are integrated in an anisotropic manner in the LbL films.

  18. Tuberculosis: An Inorganic Medicinal Chemistry Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viganor, Livia; Skerry, Ciaran; McCann, Malachy; Devereux, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) which is caused by the resilient pathogen Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) has re-emerged to become a leading public health problem in the world. The growing number of multi-drug resistant MTB strains and the more recently emerging problem with the extensively drug resistant strains of the pathogen are greatly undermining conventional anti-TB therapeutic strategies which are lengthy and expose patients to toxicity and other unwanted side effects. The search for new anti-TB drugs essentially involves either the repurposing of existing organic drugs which are now off patent and already FDA approved, the synthesis of modified analogues of existing organic drugs, with the aim of shortening and improving drug treatment for the disease, or the search for novel structures that offer the possibility of new mechanisms of action against the mycobacterium. Inorganic medicinal chemistry offers an alternative to organic drugs through opportunities for the design of therapeutics that target different biochemical pathways. The incorporation of metal ions into the molecular structure of a potential drug offers the medicinal chemist an opportunity to exploit structural diversity, have access to various oxidation states of the metal and also offer the possibility of enhancing the activity of an established organic drug through its coordination to the metal centre. In this review, we summarize what is currently known about the antitubercular capability of metal complexes, their mechanisms of action and speculate on their potential applications in the clinic.

  19. Salt bridges: geometrically specific, designable interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donald, Jason E; Kulp, Daniel W; DeGrado, William F

    2011-03-01

    Salt bridges occur frequently in proteins, providing conformational specificity and contributing to molecular recognition and catalysis. We present a comprehensive analysis of these interactions in protein structures by surveying a large database of protein structures. Salt bridges between Asp or Glu and His, Arg, or Lys display extremely well-defined geometric preferences. Several previously observed preferences are confirmed, and others that were previously unrecognized are discovered. Salt bridges are explored for their preferences for different separations in sequence and in space, geometric preferences within proteins and at protein-protein interfaces, co-operativity in networked salt bridges, inclusion within metal-binding sites, preference for acidic electrons, apparent conformational side chain entropy reduction on formation, and degree of burial. Salt bridges occur far more frequently between residues at close than distant sequence separations, but, at close distances, there remain strong preferences for salt bridges at specific separations. Specific types of complex salt bridges, involving three or more members, are also discovered. As we observe a strong relationship between the propensity to form a salt bridge and the placement of salt-bridging residues in protein sequences, we discuss the role that salt bridges might play in kinetically influencing protein folding and thermodynamically stabilizing the native conformation. We also develop a quantitative method to select appropriate crystal structure resolution and B-factor cutoffs. Detailed knowledge of these geometric and sequence dependences should aid de novo design and prediction algorithms.

  20. Infrared and Raman spectra of inorganic and coordination compounds theory and applications in inorganic chemistry

    CERN Document Server

    Nakamoto, Kazuo

    2008-01-01

    The Sixth Edition of this classic work comprises the most comprehensive and current guide to infrared and Raman spectra of inorganic, organometallic, bioinorganic, and coordination compounds. From fundamental theories of vibrational spectroscopy to applications in a variety of compound types, this has been extensively updated. New topics include the theoretical calculations of vibrational frequencies (DFT method), chemical synthesis by matrix co-condensation reactions, time-resolved Raman spectroscopy, and more. This volume is a core reference for chemists and medical professionals working with infrared or Raman spectroscopies and an excellent textbook for graduate courses.

  1. Synthesis, Properties and Mineralogy of Important Inorganic Materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Warner, Terence Edwin

    , ferroelectric, thermoelectric, luminescent, photochromic and magnetic materials; are technologically important classes of material, that are represented by numerous inorganic phases. Yet how many of us are aware of their precise chemical compositions, and have sufficient knowledge to actually make them...

  2. Forage maize nutritional quality according to organic and inorganic fertilization

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Alejandro Moreno-Reséndez; Jesús Enrique Cantú Brito; José Luis Reyes-Carrillo; Viridiana Contreras-Villarreal

    2017-01-01

    ... to establish the effect of two fertilization sources – organic and inorganic, upon the nutritional quality of forage maize during the spring - summer cycle with a r andomized block experimental design. T 1 = Acadian soil +Acadian foliage...

  3. Effects of organic and inorganic amendments on soil erodibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nutullah Özdemir

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present investigation is to find out the effect of incorporating of various organic and inorganic matter sources such as lime (L, zeolit (Z, polyacrylamide (PAM and biosolid (BS on the instability index. A bulk surface (0–20 cm depth soil sample was taken from Samsun, in northern part of Turkey. Some soil properties were determined as follows; fine in texture, modarete in organic matter content, low in pH and free of alkaline problem. The soil samples were treated with the inorganic and organic materials at four different levels including the control treatments in a randomized factorial block design. The soil samples were incubated for ten weeks. After the incubation period, corn was grown in all pots. The results can be summarized as organic and inorganic matter treatments increased structure stability and decreased soil erodibility. Effectiveness of the treatments varied depending on the types and levels of organic and inorganic materials.

  4. Inorganic Chemistry from the Perspective of an Industrial Chemist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laudise, R. A.

    1980-01-01

    Presents a very brief description of solid state chemistry, its industrial applications, and rationale for its inclusion in the inorganic chemistry curriculum. The topic is intellectually challenging, economically useful and, in the view of the author, fun. (Author/JN)

  5. Biomineralization in vivo by substained release of inorganic phosphate ions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Habibovic, Pamela; Bassett, David C.; Doillon, Charles J.; Gerard, Catherine; McKee, Marc D.; Barralet, Jake E.

    2010-01-01

    A new strategy for mineralized tissue formation in vivo is presented based on localized sustained delivery of inorganic orthophosphate (Pi) sufficient to supersaturate tissue surrounding an implant and induce mineralization of collagen. After 15 days implantation mineral formation around the

  6. Inorganic Nanostructured High-Temperature Magnet Wires Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This project will develop a high-temperature tolerant electrically-insulating coating for magnet wires. The Phase I program will result in a flexible, inorganic...

  7. Surface Chemistry and Spectroscopy of Chromium in Inorganic Oxides

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weckhuysen, B.M.; Wachs, I.E.; Schoonheydt, R.A.

    1996-01-01

    Focuses on the surface chemistry and spectroscopy of chromium in inorganic oxides. Characterization of the molecular structures of chromium; Mechanics of hydrogenation-dehydrogenation reactions; Mobility and reactivity on oxidic surfaces.

  8. Sol-gel Synthesis of a Biotemplated Inorganic Photocatalyst

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boffa, Vittorio; Yue, Yuanzheng; He, Wen

    2012-01-01

    chemistry and photocatalysis, provides an opportunity to teach valuable laboratory skills and to introduce students to the synthesis, isolation, and characterization of inorganic materials. This laboratory activity is adaptable to a range of educational levels and to various instrumental techniques....

  9. Incorporation of inorganic carbon by Antarctic cryptoendolithic fungi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, R. J. Jr; Friedmann, E. I.

    1988-01-01

    Fungi isolated from the cryptoendolithic community of the Ross Desert are capable of fixing inorganic carbon. Results suggest that lichen mycobionts and parasymbionts are adapted to different water regimes in the cryptoendolithic environment.

  10. Sol-gel Synthesis of a Biotemplated Inorganic Photocatalyst

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boffa, Vittorio; Yue, Yuanzheng; He, Wen

    2012-01-01

    chemistry and photocatalysis, provides an opportunity to teach valuable laboratory skills and to introduce students to the synthesis, isolation, and characterization of inorganic materials. This laboratory activity is adaptable to a range of educational levels and to various instrumental techniques....

  11. Inorganic-organic hybrid polymers for food packaging

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Kesavan Pillai, Sreejarani

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available packaging application. Numerous hybrid inorganic-organic materials have been developed using low temperature sol-gel chemistry, which enables the tailoring of the nanostructure and the resulting material is often multifunctional, offering a wide range...

  12. Carpinteria salt marsh habitat polygons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lafferty, Kevin D.; Dunham, Eleca J.; Mancini, Frank T.; Stewart, Tara E.; Hechinger, Ryan F.

    2017-01-01

    We identified five common habitat types in Carpinteria Salt Marsh: channels, pans (flats), marsh, salt flat and upland.  We then drew polygons around each habitat type identified from a registered and orthorectified aerial photograph and created a GIS shapefile. Polygons were ground-truthed in the field. From these habitat polygons, one can use GIS applications to estimate the area of each habitat type in this estuary. These data support the following publications: Kuris, Armand M., et al. "Ecosystem energetic implications of parasite and free-living biomass in three estuaries." Nature 454.7203 (2008): 515-518.Hechinger, Ryan F., Kevin D. Lafferty, Andy P. Dobson, James H. Brown, and Armand M. Kuris. "A common scaling rule for abundance, energetics, and production of parasitic and free-living species." Science 333, no. 6041 (2011): 445-448.Hechinger, Ryan F., Kevin D. Lafferty, John P. McLaughlin, Brian L. Fredensborg, Todd C. Huspeni, Julio Lorda, Parwant K. Sandhu et al. "Food webs including parasites, biomass, body sizes, and life stages for three California/Baja California estuaries." Ecology 92, no. 3 (2011): 791-791.Buck, J.C., Hechinger, R.F., Wood, A.C., Stewart, T.E., Kuris, A.M., and Lafferty, K.D., "Host density increases parasite recruitment but decreases host risk in a snail-trematode system." Manuscript submitted for publication. Lafferty, K.D., Stewart, T.E., and Hechinger, R.F. (in press). Bird distribution surveys at Carpinteria Salt Marsh, California USA, January 2012 to March 2013: U.S. Geological Survey data release, http://dx.doi.org/10.5066/F7F47M95. 

  13. Holleman-Wiberg's Inorganic Chemistry edited by Nils Wiberg

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, William B.

    2002-08-01

    Despite these reservations, I strongly recommend this book. I found interesting and useful information on every topic I looked up. It is a model of thoroughness and organization and a must reference book for every serious teacher, whether of freshman chemistry or advanced inorganic chemistry. It would also make a wonderful textbook, though its size would naturally limit its use to those schools which offer at least a full year's sequence in inorganic chemistry.

  14. Annual reports in inorganic and general syntheses 1974

    CERN Document Server

    Niedenzu, Kurt

    1975-01-01

    Annual Reports in Inorganic and General Syntheses-1974 presents an organized annual summary of synthetic developments in inorganic chemistry and its related areas. The book discusses the chemistry of simple and complex metal hydrides of main groups I, II, and III, boron, aluminium, gallium, indium, thallium, silicon, germanium, tin, lead, phosphorus, arsenic, antimony, bismuth, chalcogens, halogens, and pseudohalogens. The text also describes the chemistry of scandium, yttrium, lanthanides, actinides, titanium, zirconium, hafnium, vanadium, niobium, tantalum, chromium, molybdenum, tungsten, ma

  15. Inorganic Chemistry: A Prestigious History and a Bright Future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yam, Vivian Wing-Wah

    2015-07-13

    "…︁Inorganic chemistry has evolved from fundamental studies to the forefronts of interdisciplinary research. What was considered to be impossible or elusive has now become feasible. While we still keep our identity as inorganic chemists, the sharp demarcation between the divisions of different subject disciplines or subdisciplines is no longer relevant …︁" Read more in the Editorial by Vivian W.-W. Yam.

  16. Ionic Transfer in Hybrid Inorganic/Organic Membranes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    A.B.Yaroslavtsev; I.A.Stenina; A.S.Shalimov

    2007-01-01

    1 Results In last years increasing interest has been devoted to the development and research of transport properties of hybrid organic/inorganic membranes. Traditionally, these membranes are used as electrolyte in fuel cells. However a number of their properties allow considering them as perspective materials for water treatment and substance purification. In this work transport properties of some ion exchange membranes modified by inorganic nanoparticles (hydrated oxides or solid acids) are discussed. ...

  17. Annual reports in inorganic and general syntheses 1972

    CERN Document Server

    Niedenzu, Kurt

    1973-01-01

    Annual Reports in Inorganic and General Syntheses-1972 presents an organized annual summary of synthetic developments in inorganic chemistry and its related areas. The book discusses alkali and alkaline earth elements, alloys, silver, gold, zinc, cadmium, mercury, boron, aluminum, gallium, indium, thallium, yttrium, scandium, lanthanides, actinides, titanium, zirconium, hafnium, Group V and VI transition elements, manganese, technetium, rhenium, iron, cobalt, nickel, ruthenium, osmium, rhodium, and iridium. The text also describes the chemistry of palladium, platinum, silicon, germanium, tin,

  18. Annual reports in inorganic and general syntheses 1973

    CERN Document Server

    Niedenzu, Kurt

    1974-01-01

    Annual Reports in Inorganic and General Syntheses-1973 presents an organized annual summary of synthetic developments in inorganic chemistry and its related areas. The book covers the synthetic aspects and structural or mechanistic features of elements, including the main group hydrides, alkali and alkaline earth elements, boron, aluminium, gallium, indium, thallium, silicon, germanium, tin, and lead, nitrogen, phosphorus, arsenic, antimony, bismuth, chalcogens, halogens and pseudohalogens, and noble gases. The text also discusses the synthetic aspects and structural or mechanistic features of

  19. Inorganic-whisker-reinforced polymer composites synthesis, properties and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Sun, Qiuju

    2015-01-01

    Inorganic-Whisker-Reinforced Polymer Composites: Synthesis, Properties and Applications gives a comprehensive presentation of inorganic microcrystalline fibers, or whiskers, a polymer composite filler. It covers whisker synthesis, surface modification, applications for reinforcing polymer-matrix composites, and analysis of resulting filled polymer composites. It focuses on calcium carbonate whiskers as a primary case study, introducing surface treatment methods for calcium carbonate whiskers and factors that influence them.Along with calcium carbonate, the book discusses potassium titanate and

  20. Controlled Interactions between Two Dimensional Layered Inorganic Nanosheets and Polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-15

    polymers . 2. Introduction . Research objectives: This research aims to study the physical (van der Waals forces: crystal epitaxy and π-π...AFRL-AFOSR-JP-TR-2016-0071 Controlled Interactions between Two Dimensional Layered Inorganic Nanosheets and Polymers Cheolmin Park YONSEI UNIVERSITY...Interactions between Two Dimensional Layered Inorganic Nanosheets and Polymers 5a.  CONTRACT NUMBER 5b.  GRANT NUMBER FA2386-14-1-4054 5c.  PROGRAM ELEMENT

  1. Near-infrared sensitive organic-inorganic photorefractive device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marinova, Vera; Liu, Ren-Chung; Lin, Shiuan-Huei; Chen, Ming-Syuan; Lin, Yi-Hsin; Hsu, Ken-Yuh

    2016-10-01

    Organic-inorganic hybrid structure, assembled by Rh-doped Bi12TiO20 crystal and liquid crystal (LC) layer, operating at near-infrared range is proposed and demonstrated. Due to the photorefractive properties of inorganic substrate, light illumination caused a space charge field which acts as a driving force for LC molecules re-alignment and subsequent refractive index modulation. All optically controlled phase retardation ability has been demonstrated supporting possibilities for further infrared applications.

  2. Casting fine grained, fully dense, strong inorganic materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, Sam W.; Spencer, Larry S.; Phillips, Michael R.

    2015-11-24

    Methods and apparatuses for casting inorganic materials are provided. The inorganic materials include metals, metal alloys, metal hydrides and other materials. Thermal control zones may be established to control the propagation of a freeze front through the casting. Agitation from a mechanical blade or ultrasonic energy may be used to reduce porosity and shrinkage in the casting. After solidification of the casting, the casting apparatus may be used to anneal the cast part.

  3. [Study on Salt Tolerance of Echinacea purpurea].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Tao; Jia, Xiao-dong; Liu, Yong-zhi; Xuan, Ji-ping; Guo, Zhong-ren; Qiao, Yu-shan

    2015-12-01

    To explore the salt tolerance of Echiancea purpurea and its mechanism. Echiancea purpurea was used as test material in this study and six salinity levels (0, 30, 60, 90, 120 and 150 mmol/L NaCl) were set. Effects on seed germination and salt tolerance relevant physiological and biochemical indexes of Echiancea purpurea were studied. Salt stress suppressed the germination of Echiancea purpurea seeds, induced osmotic adjustment substances proline, soluble sugar and K+ to increase, and activities of POD and SOD to rise, and meanwhile resulted in accumulation of Na+ and decrease of K+/Na+. Echiancea purpurea can tolerant salt stress to a certain degree, but in case of high salt concentrations, severe salt injury would remarkably suppress the growth of Echinacea purpurea.

  4. Novel inorganic heterocycles from dimetalated carboranylamidinates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harmgarth, Nicole; Gräsing, Daniel; Dröse, Peter; Hrib, Cristian G; Jones, Peter G; Lorenz, Volker; Hilfert, Liane; Busse, Sabine; Edelmann, Frank T

    2014-04-07

    Mono- and dianionic carboranylamidinates are readily available in one-pot reactions directly from o-carborane (1). In situ-monolithiation of 1 followed by treatment with N,N'-diisopropylcarbodiimide, (i)PrN=C=N(i)Pr, or N,N'-dicyclohexylcarbodiimide, CyN=C=NCy, provided the lithium carboranylamidinates (o-C2B10H10C(NH(i)Pr)(=N(i)Pr)-κ(2)C,N)Li(DME) (2a) and (o-C2B10H10C(NH(i)Cy)(=N(i)Cy)-κ(2)C,N)Li(THF)2 (2b). Controlled hydrolysis of 2a,b afforded the free carboranylamidines o-C2B10H11C(NH(i)R)(=N(i)R) (3a: R = (i)Pr, 3b: R = Cy). The first dimetalated carboranylamidinates, o-C2B10H10C(N(i)Pr)(=N(i)Pr)Li2(DME)2 (4a) (DME = 1,2-dimethoxyethane) and o-C2B10H10C(N(i)Pr)(=N(i)Pr)Li2(THF)4 (4b), were prepared in high yield (83% yield) directly from 1 using a simple one-pot synthetic protocol. Treatment of 4b with 2 equiv. of Me3SiCl afforded the disilylated derivative o-C2B10H10-κ(2)C,N-[C(N(i)PrSiMe3)(=N(i)Pr)]SiMe3 (5). Dianionic 4b also served as an excellent precursor for novel inorganic heterocycles incorporating the closo-1,2-C2B10H10 cage, including the unsymmetrical distannene [o-C2B10H10C(N(i)Pr)(=N(i)Pr)-κ(2)C,N]Sn=Sn[((i)PrN)2C(n)Bu]2 (6) and the azaphosphole derivative [o-C2B10H10C(N(i)Pr)(=N(i)Pr)-κ(2)C,N]PPh (7). Surprisingly, it was found that the synthesis of new inorganic ring systems from dianionic carboranylamidinates can also be achieved by employing only 1 equiv. of n-butyllithium in the generation of the anionic carboranylamidinate intermediates. Using this straightforward one-pot synthetic protocol, the Group 14 metallacycles [o-C2B10H10C(NCy)(=NCy)-κ(2)C,N]SiR2 (R = Cl (8), Me (9), Ph (10)) and [o-C2B10H10C(NCy)([=NCy)-κ(2)C,N]GeCl2 (11) have become accessible. The same synthetic strategy could be successfully adapted to prepare the corresponding Group 4 metallocene derivatives Cp2Ti[o-C2B10H10C(NCy)(=NCy)-κ(2)C,N] (12) and Cp2Zr[o-C2B10H10C(NCy)(=NCy)-κ(2)C,N] (13). The molecular structures of 2b, 3b, 4b, 5, 6, 7, 10, 12, and 13 were

  5. High temperature inorganic membranes for separating hydrogen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fain, D.E.; Roettger, G.E. [Oak Ridge K-25 Site, TN (United States)

    1995-08-01

    Effort has continued to accumulate data on the transport of gases over the temperature range from room temperature to 275{degrees}C with inorganic membranes having a range of pore radii from approximately 0.25 nm to 3 mn. An experimental alumina membrane having an estimated mean pore radius of 0.25 nm has been fabricated and tested. Extensive testing of this membrane indicated that the separation factor for helium and carbon tetrafluoride at 250{degrees}C was 59 and the extrapolated high temperature separation factor was 1,193. For safety reasons, earlier flow measurements concentrated on helium, carbon dioxide, and carbon tetrafluoride. New data have been acquired with hydrogen to verify the agreement with the other gases. During the measurements with hydrogen, it was noted that a considerable amount of moisture was present in the test gas. The source of this moisture and its effect on permeance was examined. Improvements were implemented to the flow test system to minimize the water content of the hydrogen test gas, and subsequent flow measurements have shown excellent results with hydrogen. The extrapolation of separation factors as a function of temperature continues to show promise as a means of using the hard sphere model to determine the pore size of membranes. The temperature dependence of helium transport through membranes appears to be considerably greater than other gases for the smallest pore sizes. The effort to extend temperature dependence to the hard sphere model continues to be delayed, primarily because of a lack of adequate adsorption data.

  6. Test Research for Basic Mechanics Performance of Inorganic Polymer Concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huihong Liu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this study is to evaluate the basic mechanics properties (compressive strength, modulus of elasticity, Poisson’s ratio and splitting tensile strength of inorganic polymer concrete whose mix proportion is ripe recipe and try to provide an experimental and theoretical foundation for application of inorganic polymer concrete in the practical engineering. In this study, the basic mechanics properties of inorganic polymer concrete have been studied by test. At the same time, the same tests researches are made for the common Portland cement concrete for comparison. Through the comparison research, it can be found that the compressive bearing capacity of inorganic polymer concrete is stronger and the modulus of elasticity and Poisson’s ratio is slightly bigger than those of common concrete and that the splitting tensile strength is as poor as those of ordinary Portland cement concrete. In order to investigate its long-term performance, the shrinkage and creep tests of inorganic polymer concrete have been studied as well. The change rules of shrinkage and creep in inorganic polymer concrete with time are obtained. It is that initial deformation is bigger and late deformation gradually becomes small and stable. These rules are basic similar as common Portland cement concrete.

  7. Quest for new materials: Inorganic chemistry plays a crucial role

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    J Gopalakrishnan; Rohini Mani

    2009-05-01

    There is an endless quest for new materials to meet the demands of advancing technology. Thus, we need new magnetic and metallic/semiconducting materials for spintronics, new low-loss dielectrics for telecommunication, new multi-ferroic materials that combine both ferroelectricity and ferromagnetism for memory devices, new piezoelectrics that do not contain lead, new lithium containing solids for application as cathode/anode/electrolyte in lithium batteries, hydrogen storage materials for mobile/transport applications and catalyst materials that can convert, for example, methane to higher hydrocarbons, and the list is endless! Fortunately for us, chemistry - inorganic chemistry in particular - plays a crucial role in this quest. Most of the functional materials mentioned above are inorganic non-molecular solids, while much of the conventional inorganic chemistry deals with isolated molecules or molecular solids. Even so, the basic concepts that we learn in inorganic chemistry, for example, acidity/basicity, oxidation/reduction (potentials), crystal field theory, low spin-high spin/inner sphere-outer sphere complexes, role of -electrons in transition metal chemistry, electron-transfer reactions, coordination geometries around metal atoms, Jahn-Teller distortion, metal-metal bonds, cation-anion (metal-nonmetal) redox competition in the stabilization of oxidation states - all find crucial application in the design and synthesis of inorganic solids possessing technologically important properties. An attempt has been made here to illustrate the role of inorganic chemistry in this endeavour, drawing examples from the literature as well as from the research work of my group.

  8. Synthesis of Chitosan Quaternary Ammonium Salts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    A series of N-alkyl or N-aryl chitosan quaternary ammonium salts were prepared via Schiffs base intermediates. Quaternization of N-substituted chitosan derivatives was carried out using methyl iodide to produce water-soluble cationic chitosan quaternary ammonium salt. The products were characterized by IR, 1HNMR and elemental analysis. The degree of substitution of chitosan quaternary ammonium salt was calculated by elemental analysis.

  9. Monitoring Change in Great Salt Lake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naftz, David; Angeroth, Cory; Freeman, Michael; Rowland, Ryan; Carling, Gregory

    2013-08-01

    Great Salt Lake is the largest hypersaline lake in the Western Hemisphere and the fourth largest terminal lake in the world (Figure 1). The open water and adjacent wetlands of the Great Salt Lake ecosystem support millions of migratory waterfowl and shorebirds from throughout the Western Hemisphere [Aldrich and Paul, 2002]. In addition, the area is of important economic value: Brine shrimp (Artemia franciscana) residing in Great Salt Lake support an aquaculture shrimp cyst industry with annual revenues as high as $60 million.

  10. Evaluation of salt content in school meals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cláudia Alexandra Colaço Lourenço Viegas

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: High blood pressure is a major rick factor for cardiovascular disease, and it is closely associated with salt intake. Schools are considered ideal environments to promote health and proper eating habits. Therefore the objective of this study was to evaluate the amount of salt in meals served in school canteens and consumers' perceptions about salt. METHODS: Meals, including all the components (bread, soup, and main dish were retrieved from school canteens. Salt was quantified by a portable salt meter. For food perception we constructed a questionnaire that was administered to high school students. RESULTS: A total of 798 food samples were analysed. Bread had the highest salt content with a mean of 1.35 g/100 g (SD=0.12. Salt in soups ranged from 0.72 g/100 g to 0.80 g/100 g (p=0.05 and, in main courses, from 0.71 g/100 to 0.97 g/100g (p=0.05. The salt content of school meals is high with a mean value of 2.83 to 3.82 g of salt per meal. Moreover, a high percentage of students consider meals neither salty nor bland, which shows they are used to the intensity/amount of salt consumed. CONCLUSION: The salt content of school meals is high, ranging from 2 to 5 times more than the Recommended Dietary Allowances for children, clearly exceeding the needs for this population, which may pose a health risk. Healthy choices are only possible in environments where such choices are possible. Therefore, salt reduction strategies aimed at the food industry and catering services should be implemented, with children and young people targeted as a major priority.

  11. Electrochemistry and Electrochemical Methodology in Molten Salts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-09-01

    similar conditions. A manuscript based on this work has been published in the Journal of the Electrochemical Society (34). 2) Melt and co-solvent As...Temperature Molten Salt," In "Proceedings of the 2nd International Symposium on Molten Salts," 3. Braunstein, Ed., published by The Electrochemical Society , in...Jones and L. G. Boxall, "Electrochemical Studies in Molten Chloroaluminates," Symposium on Fused Salt Tech- nology, Electrochemical Society Meeting

  12. Granular Salt Summary: Reconsolidation Principles and Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansen, Frank; Popp, Till; Wieczorek, Klaus; Stuehrenberg, Dieter

    2014-07-01

    The purposes of this paper are to review the vast amount of knowledge concerning crushed salt reconsolidation and its attendant hydraulic properties (i.e., its capability for fluid or gas transport) and to provide a sufficient basis to understand reconsolidation and healing rates under repository conditions. Topics covered include: deformation mechanisms and hydro-mechanical interactions during reconsolidation; the experimental data base pertaining to crushed salt reconsolidation; transport properties of consolidating granulated salt and provides quantitative substantiation of its evolution to characteristics emulating undisturbed rock salt; and extension of microscopic and laboratory observations and data to the applicable field scale.

  13. Fried Bamboo Shoots with Salted Vegetables

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1995-01-01

    Ingredients: 250 grams of canned bamboo shoots; 75 grams of salted potherb mustard leaves; 5 grams of cooking wine, 1 gram of salt and 500 grams of vegetable oil (15 grams will be consumed). MSG to taste. Directions: 1. Chop the bamboo shoots into rectangles 4 centimeters by 1.65 centimeters. Marinate the bamboo shoots in salt and cooking wine. Clean the salted potherb mustard leaves (or any other kind of vegetable leaves) with hot water and chop into 3.5-centimeter segments.

  14. Brine Transport Experiments in Granular Salt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jordan, Amy B. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Boukhalfa, Hakim [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Caporuscio, Florie Andre [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Stauffer, Philip H. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-06-06

    To gain confidence in the predictive capability of numerical models, experimental validation must be performed to ensure that parameters and processes are correctly simulated. The laboratory investigations presented herein aim to address knowledge gaps for heat-generating nuclear waste (HGNW) disposal in bedded salt that remain after examination of prior field and laboratory test data. Primarily, we are interested in better constraining the thermal, hydrological, and physicochemical behavior of brine, water vapor, and salt when moist salt is heated. The target of this work is to use run-of-mine (RoM) salt; however during FY2015 progress was made using high-purity, granular sodium chloride.

  15. Electrolytic orthoborate salts for lithium batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angell, Charles Austen; Xu, Wu

    2008-01-01

    Orthoborate salts suitable for use as electrolytes in lithium batteries and methods for making the electrolyte salts are provided. The electrolytic salts have one of the formulae (I). In this formula anionic orthoborate groups are capped with two bidentate chelating groups, Y1 and Y2. Certain preferred chelating groups are dibasic acid residues, most preferably oxalyl, malonyl and succinyl, disulfonic acid residues, sulfoacetic acid residues and halo-substituted alkylenes. The salts are soluble in non-aqueous solvents and polymeric gels and are useful components of lithium batteries in electrochemical devices.

  16. Salt reduction initiatives around the world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webster, Jacqueline L; Dunford, Elizabeth K; Hawkes, Corinna; Neal, Bruce C

    2011-06-01

    To provide an overview of national salt reduction initiatives around the world, describe core characteristics and develop a framework for future strategy development. National strategies were identified from existing reviews and from searches of the literature and relevant websites. Standardized information was extracted about governance and strategy development, baseline assessments and monitoring and implementation. Thirty-two country salt reduction initiatives were identified. The majority of activity was in Europe (19 countries). Most countries (27) had maximum population salt intake targets, ranging from 5 to 8 g/person per day. Twenty-six of the 32 strategies were led by government, five by nongovernment organizations and one by industry. Twenty-eight countries had some baseline data on salt consumption and 18 had data on sodium levels in foods. Twenty-eight countries were working with the food industry to reduce salt in foods, 10 had front-of-pack labelling schemes and 28 had consumer awareness or behaviour change programs. Five countries had demonstrated an impact, either on population salt consumption, salt levels in foods or consumer awareness. These strategies were led by government and were multifaceted including food reformulation, consumer awareness initiatives and labelling actions. This is the first review to concisely summarize the most important elements of the many existing salt reduction programmes and highlight the characteristics most likely to be important to programme efficacy. For most countries, implementing a national salt reduction programme is likely to be one of simplest and most cost-effective ways of improving public health.

  17. Strategies for salt reduction in foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toldrá, Fidel; Barat, José M

    2012-04-01

    The amounts of sodium chloride in the formulation of a variety of foods like bakery, meats and dairy foods, ready meals, sauces and snacks, are relatively large and thus, have a strong contribution on the salt dietary intake. There is a clear demand by the consumers and medical associations to reduce the salt content in foods. Different strategies have been proposed and most of them consist of the replacement of sodium chloride by other salts and the addition of other substances for an acceptable sensory quality. The recent patents for salt reduction and their applications in foods are reviewed in this manuscript.

  18. Anion- interactions in layered structures of salts of 5-(hydroxyimino) quinolin-8-one and related salts

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Prithiviraj Khakhlary; Jubaraj B Baruah

    2015-01-01

    Relevance of anion- interactions in chloride, bromide, nitrate and perchlorate salts of 5-(hydroxyimino)quinolin-8-one are discussed. Structures of nitrate salt of 5-aminoquinoline as well as nitrate salt of 4-hydroxyquinazoline are compared with the structure of nitrate salt of 5-(hydroxyimino)quinolin-8-one. From such a comparison, two different arrangements of nitrate ions with respect to the respective cations are discerned. Nitrate ions are sandwiched between aromatic planes of cations in nitrate salts of 5-(hydroxyimino)quinolin-8-one or 4-hydroxyquinazoline; whereas, nitrate ions are in oblique positions with respect to aromatic planes of counter cations in nitrate salt of 5-aminoquinoline. Binding constants of different nitrate salts in solution are determined by UV-visible spectroscopic titrations. Solution study shows formation of ion-pairs of these salts in solution.

  19. Proposed nomenclature for salt intake and for reductions in dietary salt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Norm R C; Correa-Rotter, Ricardo; Cappuccio, Francesco P; Webster, Jacqui; Lackland, Daniel T; Neal, Bruce; MacGregor, Graham A

    2015-04-01

    There is considerable confusion about what ranges of dietary salt(a) could be considered low, normal, or high and also what ranges of reduction in dietary salt are small or large. The World Hypertension League with other organizations involved in dietary salt reduction have proposed a standardized nomenclature based on normal ancestral levels of salt intake and also on ranges of reduction in salt intake in clinical and population interventions. Low daily salt (sodium) intake where harm due to deficiency would be expected to occur is recommended to remain undefined because of inadequate research but likely 10 to 15 g (4000-6000 mg), and extremely high >15 g (6000 mg). Reductions in daily salt (sodium) intake are recommended to be called small if 5.0 g (2000 mg). Use of this nomenclature is likely to result in less confusion about salt intake and interventions to reduce dietary sodium.

  20. Metal salts of alkyl catechol dithiophosphoric acids and oil compositions containing the salts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamaguchi, E.S.; Liston, T.V.

    1988-03-08

    Metal salts of alkyl catechol esters of dithiophosphoric acid suitable as additives in oil compositions are disclosed in this patent. Oil compositions containing the salts of such esters show improved extreme pressure/anti-wear and anit-oxidant properties.

  1. Crystal growth in salt efflorescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zehnder, Konrad; Arnold, Andreas

    1989-09-01

    Salt efflorescences strongly affect wall paintings and other monuments. The external factors governing the crystal habits and aggregate forms are studied phenomenologically in laboratory experiments. As salt contaminated materials dry, slats crystallize forming distinct sequences of crystal habits and aggregate forms on and underneath the surfaces. Four phases may be distinguished: (1) Large individual crystals with equilibrium forms grow immersed in a thick solution film; (2) granular crusts of small isometric crystals grow covered by a thin solution film; (3) fibrous crusts of columnar crystals grow from a coherent but thin solution film so that the crystals are in contact with solution only at their base; (4) whiskers grow from isolated spots of very thin solution films into the air. The main factor governing these morphologies is the humidity of the substrate. A porous material cracks while granular crystals (approaching their equilibrium forms) grow within the large pores. As the fissures widen, the habits pass into columnar crystals and then into whiskers. Because this succession corresponds to the crystallization sequence on the substrate surface it can be traced back to the same growth conditions.

  2. Electronic Spectra of Chevreul's Salts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silva Luciana A. da

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The isomorphic series of double sulfites with empirical formula Cu2SO3.MSO3.2H 2O (where M is Cu, Fe, Mn, or Cd have been prepared from the Cu(II replacement by transition metal ions such as Mn(II, Fe(II and Cd(II ions in Chevreul's salt, Cu2SO3.CuSO3.2H 2O. As a consequence, the isomorphic species present distinct colors. Molecular modeling calculations were carried out for the dimeric [CuI2(SO3 2(SO32]6- center. The electronic spectra of the Chevreul's salt consist of a charge-transfer band around 425 nm associated with the [CuI2(SO3 2(SO32]6- chromophore and two ligand field transitions at 785 and 1000 nm involving the Jahn-Teller splitting of the Cu(II levels. An additional intervalence-transfer band, responsible for its characteristic red color, can be found at 500 nm. The replacement of the Cu(II ions for Fe(II, Mn(II and Cd(II does not eliminate the absorption band at 425 nm, supporting its assignment as a charge-transfer transition centered on the Cu(I sites; while the original band at 500 nm disappears, in agreement with its intervalence transfer nature.

  3. Salt-Restriction-Spoon Improved the Salt Intake among Residents in China

    OpenAIRE

    Juan Chen; Ye Tian; Yixing Liao; Shuaishuai Yang; Zhuoting Li; Chao He; Dahong Tu; Xinying Sun

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effect of an improved salt-restriction spoon on the attitude of salt-restriction, the using rate of salt-restriction-spoon, the actual salt intake, and 24-hour urinary sodium excretion (24HUNa). DESIGN: A community intervention study. SETTING: Two villages in Beijing. PARTICIPANTS: 403 local adult residents being responsible for home cooking. INTERVENTION: Participants were randomly assigned to the intervention group or the control group. Those in the intervention g...

  4. Anaglyph, Salt Lake City, Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    The 2002 Winter Olympics are hosted by Salt Lake City at several venues within the city, in nearby cities, and within the adjacent Wasatch Mountains. This anaglyph image provides a stereoscopic map view of north central Utah that includes all of these Olympic sites. In the south, next to Utah Lake, Provo hosts the ice hockey competition. In the north, northeast of the Great Salt Lake, Ogden hosts curling and the nearby Snowbasin ski area hosts the downhill events. In between, southeast of the Great Salt Lake, Salt Lake City hosts the Olympic Village and the various skating events. Further east, across the Wasatch Mountains, the Park City ski resort hosts the bobsled, ski jumping, and snowboarding events. The Winter Olympics are always hosted in mountainous terrain. This view shows the dramatic landscape that makes the Salt Lake City region a world-class center for winter sports.The stereoscopic effect of this anaglyph was created by first draping a Landsat satellite image over a Shuttle Radar Topography Mission digital elevation model and then generating two differing perspectives, one for each eye. When viewed through special glasses, the result is a vertically exaggerated view of Earth's surface in its full three dimensions. Anaglyph glasses cover the left eye with a red filter and cover the right eye with a blue filter.Landsat has been providing visible and infrared views of the Earth since 1972. SRTM elevation data matches the 30-meter (98-foot) resolution of most Landsat images and will substantially help in analyzing the large and growing Landsat image archive, managed by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS).Elevation data used in this image was acquired by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on Feb. 11, 2000. SRTM used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. SRTM was designed

  5. Record of the accumulation of sediment and trace metals in a Connecticut, U. S. A. , salt marsh. [Dating deposition of trace metals from polluted air masses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCaffrey, R.J.

    1977-01-01

    The nonlinear rate of accretion of a Connecticut salt marsh during the past century was estimated from the /sup 210/Pb distribution with depth by assuming a constant flux of /sup 210/Pb to the surface. This rate was found to be in general agreement with the smoothed record of relative mean sea level rise measured independently by the New York City tide gage since 1893. The rate of deposition of Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn, Pb and total inorganic matter on the surface of the salt marsh may be calculated from the age and sediment properties measured at small depth increments. Changes in the inorganic matter content are attributed to variations in land use on the watershed since it was cleared for agriculture. Fe, Mn, and inorganic matter are principally derived from stream transport of eroding soil, while the observed increases in the fluxes of Cu, Zn, and Pb are largely explained as increased supply via the atmosphere during the period of industrialization since the Civil War. Salt marshes thus may supply a refined record of the deposition of trace metals from polluted air masses over long periods of time.

  6. Computation of liquid-liquid equilibria and phase stabilities: implications for RH-dependent gas/particle partitioning of organic-inorganic aerosols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Zuend

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Semivolatile organic and inorganic aerosol species partition between the gas and aerosol particle phases to maintain thermodynamic equilibrium. Liquid-liquid phase separation into an organic-rich and an aqueous electrolyte phase can occur in the aerosol as a result of the salting-out effect. Such liquid-liquid equilibria (LLE affect the gas/particle partitioning of the different semivolatile compounds and might significantly alter both particle mass and composition as compared to a one-phase particle. We present a new liquid-liquid equilibrium and gas/particle partitioning model, using as a basis the group-contribution model AIOMFAC (Zuend et al., 2008. This model allows the reliable computation of the liquid-liquid coexistence curve (binodal, corresponding tie-lines, the limit of stability/metastability (spinodal, and further thermodynamic properties of multicomponent systems. Calculations for ternary and multicomponent alcohol/polyol-water-salt mixtures suggest that LLE are a prevalent feature of organic-inorganic aerosol systems. A six-component polyol-water-ammonium sulphate system is used to simulate effects of relative humidity (RH and the presence of liquid-liquid phase separation on the gas/particle partitioning. RH, salt concentration, and hydrophilicity (water-solubility are identified as key features in defining the region of a miscibility gap and govern the extent to which compound partitioning is affected by changes in RH. The model predicts that liquid-liquid phase separation can lead to either an increase or decrease in total particulate mass, depending on the overall composition of a system and the particle water content, which is related to the hydrophilicity of the different organic and inorganic compounds. Neglecting non-ideality and liquid-liquid phase separations by assuming an ideal mixture leads to an overestimation of the total particulate mass by up to 30% for the composition and RH range considered in the six

  7. Computation of liquid-liquid equilibria and phase stabilities: implications for RH-dependent gas/particle partitioning of organic-inorganic aerosols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Zuend

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Semivolatile organic and inorganic aerosol species partition between the gas and aerosol particle phases to maintain thermodynamic equilibrium. Liquid-liquid phase separation into an organic-rich and an aqueous electrolyte phase can occur in the aerosol as a result of the salting-out effect. Such liquid-liquid equilibria (LLE affect the gas/particle partitioning of the different semivolatile compounds and might significantly alter both particle mass and composition as compared to a one-phase particle. We present a new liquid-liquid equilibrium and gas/particle partitioning model, using as a basis the group-contribution model AIOMFAC (Zuend et al., 2008. This model allows the reliable computation of the liquid-liquid coexistence curve (binodal, corresponding tie-lines, the limit of stability/metastability (spinodal, and further thermodynamic properties of the phase diagram. Calculations for ternary and multicomponent alcohol/polyol-water-salt mixtures suggest that LLE are a prevalent feature of organic-inorganic aerosol systems. A six-component polyol-water-ammonium sulphate system is used to simulate effects of relative humidity (RH and the presence of liquid-liquid phase separation on the gas/particle partitioning. RH, salt concentration, and hydrophilicity (water-solubility are identified as key features in defining the region of a miscibility gap and govern the extent to which compound partitioning is affected by changes in RH. The model predicts that liquid-liquid phase separation can lead to either an increase or decrease in total particulate mass, depending on the overall composition of a system and the particle water content, which is related to the hydrophilicity of the different organic and inorganic compounds. Neglecting non-ideality and liquid-liquid phase separations by assuming an ideal mixture leads to an overestimation of the total particulate mass by up to 30% for the composition and RH range considered in the six

  8. Comparison of salt taste thresholds and salt usage behaviours between adults in Myanmar and Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Hyungjin; Kim, So Mi; Jeong, Seong Su; Kim, Soon Bae

    2016-12-01

    Excessive oral salt intake can induce hypertension. According to previous studies, the prevalence of hypertension is higher in Myanmar than in Korea. We postulated that Myanmar adults had higher salt taste thresholds and eat much saltier food. This study aimed to compare salt taste thresholds and salt usage behaviour scores between adults in Myanmar and Korea. This cross-sectional study enrolled patients who visited volunteer medical service clinics at Ansung in Korea and Hlegu and Bago in Myanmar in August 2014. We measured the vital signs, heights, and weights of each patient and evaluated detection thresholds, recognition thresholds, and salt preferences. All patients underwent urinalysis and spot urine Na tests. Additionally, they each completed a salt usage behaviour questionnaire. A total of 131 patients were enrolled, including 64 Myanmarese patients and 67 Korean patients. Blood pressure was significantly higher in the Myanmarese than in the Koreans. Detection and recognition thresholds, salt preferences, and spot urine sodium and salt usage behaviour scores were also higher in the Myanmarese than in the Korean subjects. We calculated correlation coefficients between systolic blood pressure and parameters that were related to salt intake. The detection and recognition thresholds were significantly correlated with systolic blood pressure. All parameters related to salt intake, including detection and recognition thresholds, salt preference, salt usage behaviour scores and spot urine sodium concentrations, are significantly higher in Myanmarese than in Korean individuals.

  9. Developmental and reproductive toxicity of inorganic arsenic: animal studies and human concerns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golub, M S; Macintosh, M S; Baumrind, N

    1998-01-01

    Information on the reproductive and developmental toxicity of inorganic arsenic is available primarily from studies in animals using arsenite and arsenate salts and arsenic trioxide. Inorganic arsenic has been extensively studied as a teratogen in animals. Data from animal studies demonstrate that arsenic can produce developmental toxicity, including malformation, death, and growth retardation, in four species (hamsters, mice, rats, rabbits). A characteristic pattern of malformations is produced, and the developmental toxicity effects are dependent on dose, route, and the day of gestation when exposure occurs. Studies with gavage and diet administration indicate that death and growth retardation are produced by oral arsenic exposure. Arsenic is readily transferred to the fetus and produces developmental toxicity in embryo culture. Animal studies have not identified an effect of arsenic on fertility in males or females. When females were dosed chronically for periods that included pregnancy, the primary effect of arsenic on reproduction was a dose-dependent increase in conceptus mortality and in postnatal growth retardation. Human data are limited to a few studies of populations exposed to arsenic from drinking water or from working at or living near smelters. Associations with spontaneous abortion and stillbirth have been reported in more than one of these studies, but interpretation of these studies is complicated because study populations were exposed to multiple chemicals. Thus, animal studies suggest that environmental arsenic exposures are primarily a risk to the developing fetus. In order to understand the implications for humans, attention must be given to comparative pharmacokinetics and metabolism, likely exposure scenarios, possible mechanisms of action, and the potential role of arsenic as an essential nutrient.

  10. Flood regime and leaf fall determine soil inorganic nitrogen dynamics in semiarid riparian forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, J J Follstad; Dahm, C N

    2008-04-01

    Flow regulation has reduced the exchange of water, energy, and materials between rivers and floodplains, caused declines in native plant populations, and advanced the spread of nonnative plants. Naturalized flow regimes are regarded as a means to restore degraded riparian areas. We examined the effects of flood regime (short [SIFI] vs. long [LIFI] inter-flood interval) on plant community and soil inorganic nitrogen (N) dynamics in riparian forests dominated by native Populus deltoides var. wislizenii Eckenwalder (Rio Grande cottonwood) and nonnative Tamarix chinensis Lour. (salt cedar) along the regulated middle Rio Grande of New Mexico. The frequency of inundation (every 2-3 years) at SIFI sites better reflected inundation patterns prior to the closure of an upstream dam relative to the frequency of inundation at LIFI sites (> or =10 years). Riparian inundation at SIFI sites varied from 7 to 45 days during the study period (April 2001-July 2004). SIFI vs. LIFI sites had higher soil moisture but greater groundwater table elevation fluctuation in response to flooding and drought. Rates of net N mineralization were consistently higher at LIFI vs. SIFI sites, and soil inorganic N concentrations were greatest at sites with elevated leaf-litter production. Sites with stable depth to ground water (approximately 1.5 m) supported the greatest leaf-litter production. Reduced leaf production at P. deltoides SIFI sites was attributed to drought-induced recession of ground water and prolonged inundation. We recommend that natural resource managers and restoration practitioners (1) utilize naturalized flows that help maintain riparian groundwater elevations between 1 and 3 m in reaches with mature P. deltoides or where P. deltoides revegetation is desired, (2) identify areas that naturally undergo long periods of inundation and consider restoring these areas to seasonal wetlands, and (3) use native xeric-adapted riparian plants to revegetate LIFI and SIFI sites where

  11. The chemical composition of inorganic and carbonaceous materials in PM 2.5 in Nanjing, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hong; Yu, Jian Zhen; Ho, Steven Sai Hang; Xu, Jinhui; Wu, Wai-Shing; Wan, Chun Hong; Wang, Xiaodong; Wang, Xiaorong; Wang, Liansheng

    PM 2.5 samples were collected at an urban and a suburban site in Nanjing, China in 2001. They were analyzed for inorganic ions, elemental carbon, organic carbon (OC), water-soluble organic carbon (WSOC), and individual WSOC and nonpolar organic species. Sulfate and organic matter were the two most abundant constituents in these samples. Sulfate accounted for an average of 23% (urban site) and 30% (suburban site) of the identified aerosol mass. Organic matter accounted for an average of 37% (urban) and 28% (suburban) of the identified aerosol mass. WSOC was a significant portion of OC, accounting for about one-third of OC at the urban site and 45% of OC at the suburban site. The suburban-urban gradient in the WSOC/OC ratio also reflected that the aerosol OC was more aged at the suburban location. The correlations of WSOC with sulfate and nitrate suggest that the WSOC fraction was dominated by secondary organics. More than 30 individual WSOC species in the compound classes of organic anions, amino acids, aliphatic amines, and carbohydrates were quantified, accounting for approximately 8% of the WSOC on a carbon mass basis. In addition, 46 individual nonpolar organic compounds in the compound classes of n-alkanes, hopanes, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons were quantified using an in-injection port thermal desorption technique. These nonpolar organic species accounted for less than 7% of the OC on a carbon mass basis. The quantification of individual compounds allowed the identification of major aerosol sources through principal component analysis. Coal combustion, vehicular emissions, secondary inorganic and organic aerosols, and road/sea salt were the major contributing sources to the identified PM 2.5 aerosol mass.

  12. Studies on crystal structures, optical and electrical properties of viologen cation salts of d10 metal halide anions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Haijuan; Li, Yaru; Xu, Manman; Niu, Yunyin; Hou, Hongwei

    2017-04-01

    Construction of viologen cation salts of d10 metal halide anions (inorganic-organic hybrid materials) with semiconducting properties via supramolecular design and aggregate enable the hybrid materials multifunctionality. Our interest focused on the use of the viologen derivatives as the building units because they were redox-active units and more suited to yield new generation of multifunctional networks. In the present investigation, three new inorganic-organic hybrid semiconductors {[bbpyb]·[AgBr3]}n (1) [1, 3-PMBP][Zn2Cl5.1Br0.9] (2) and [1, 3-PMBP][Zn2Br6] (3) (bbpyb = 1,1″-(1,4-butanediyl)bis[4,4‧-bipyridinium]bis[bromide], 1,3-PMBP = 1,1″-[1,3-phenylene-bis(methylene)]bis-4,4‧-bipyridinium-bisbromide) were synthesized. More importantly, great efforts were devoted to investigate their properties, such as optical and electrical properties. 1-3 exhibited photochromism, which can be ascribed to the intermolecular charge transfer to yield radicals. Fabricating the appropriate inorganic and organic units controllably within photosensitive materials at a molecular level is critical for the development of new photochromic inorganic-organic hybrids.

  13. Salting-out phenomenon and 1-octanol/water partition coefficient of metalaxyl pesticide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saab, J; Bassil, G; Abou Naccoul, R; Stephan, J; Mokbel, I; Jose, J

    2011-02-01

    In this paper, we present the effect of inorganic cations such as Na+, K+, Ca2+, Mg2+ on the salting-out phenomenon of metalaxyl from pure water to aqueous salt solutions. Moreover the 1-octanol/water partition coefficient in pure water is presented. To accomplish this, aqueous solubility of metalaxyl was determined in pure water, in different salt solution (NaCl, KCl, CaCl2 and MgCl2), and at different concentration level ranging from 0.01 to 1.5 M. The 1-octanol/water partition coefficient was determined using the static shake-flask method. Solubility was determined using dynamic saturation method for pure water in the range of 298.15-325.15 K and at 298.15 K for different salt solutions. The solubility value in pure water for studied interval was found constant (m=3.118×10(-2) mol kg(-1)). Solubility values were used to calculate the standard molar Gibbs free energy of dissolution (ΔsolG°) and transfer (ΔtrG°) at 298.15 K. The values of ΔtrG° from pure to all studied aqueous salt solutions did not exceed 2 kJ mol(-1), the value of ΔsolG° of dissolution is 18.5 ±0.72 kJ mol(-1). The 1-octanol/water partition coefficient in pure water log Ko/w is equal to 1.69. The obtained results confirm the classification of the neutral metalaxyl as a slightly hydrophobic molecule.

  14. Leveling effects of ammonium salts on thermal stabilities of polyethylene glycols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Juan; Song, Le Xin; Liu, Wei; Teng, Yue

    2013-10-28

    In this work, the thermal stabilities of a series of polyethylene glycols (PEG 4000, 6000 and 10000) were investigated after compositing with different kinds of inorganic salts, such as ammonium molybdate tetrahydrate (AMT), NH4VO3, (NH4)2SO4, NH4NO3, Na2SO4, Na2MoO4. It was first observed that all the ammonium salts exerted leveling effects for the thermal stabilities of the PEGs. In other words, the presence of the ammonium salts caused the occurrence of the maximum decomposition rates of the PEGs with the same repeat sequence but different chain lengths at almost the same temperatures. Leveling effects were defined by three parameters: leveling spans, leveling degrees and dispersion degrees of leveling. Further experiments revealed that leveling effects also occur in similar types of polymers: polypropylene glycols (PPG 2000, 3000 and 4000). A series of independent experiments including Fourier transformation infrared spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, differential scanning calorimetry, time-of-flight mass spectrometry, conductivity and field-emission scanning electron microscopy were performed to explore the origin of leveling effects. We consider that the interaction between inorganic ions and polymer molecules and the Hofmeister effect of ions in solution are two important factors affecting the stability of salt–polymer composites, because they can contribute to decrease the interaction between the polymer chains, leading to changes in the conformation and pyrolysis mode of polymers. We believe that the finding of leveling effects would be significant for both basic and applied research of soft matter.

  15. Rumen Microorganisms Decrease Bioavailability of Inorganic Selenium Supplements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galbraith, M L; Vorachek, W R; Estill, C T; Whanger, P D; Bobe, G; Davis, T Z; Hall, J A

    2016-06-01

    Despite the availability of selenium (Se)-enriched trace mineral supplements, we have observed low Se status in cattle and sheep offered traditional inorganic Se supplements. Reasons for this may include inadequate intake or low bioavailability of inorganic Se sources. The objective of this study was to determine whether rumen microorganisms (RMO) alter the bioavailability of Se sources commonly used in Se supplements. Rumen microorganisms were isolated from ewes (n = 4) and incubated ex vivo with no Se (control), with inorganic Na selenite or Na selenate, or with organic selenomethionine (SeMet). Total Se incorporated into RMO and the amount of elemental Se formed were determined under equivalent conditions. Incorporation of Se from Na selenite, Na selenate, or SeMet into RMO was measured as fold change compared with control (no added Se). Incorporation of Se into microbial mass was greater for SeMet (13.2-fold greater than no-Se control) compared with inorganic Se supplements (P = 0.02); no differences were observed between inorganic Na selenate (3.3-fold greater than no-Se control) and Na selenite (3.5-fold greater than no-Se control; P = 0.97). Formation of non-bioavailable, elemental Se was less for RMO incubated with SeMet compared with inorganic Se sources (P = 0.01); no differences were observed between Na selenate and Na selenite (P = 0.09). The clinical importance of these results is that the oral bioavailability of organic SeMet should be greater compared with inorganic Se sources because of greater RMO incorporation of Se and decreased formation of elemental Se by RMO.

  16. Recent advances in the molten salt destruction of energetic materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pruneda, C. O., LLNL

    1996-09-01

    We have demonstrated the use of the Molten Salt Destruction (MSD) Process for destroying explosives, liquid gun propellant, and explosives-contaminated materials on a 1.5 kg of explosive/hr bench- scale unit (1, 2, 3, 4, 5). In our recently constructed 5 kg/hr pilot- scale unit we have also demonstrated the destruction of a liquid gun propellant and simulated wastes containing HMX (octogen). MSD converts the organic constituents of the waste into non-hazardous substances such as carbon dioxide, nitrogen, and water. Any inorganic constituents of the waste, such as metallic particles, are retained in the molten salt. The destruction of energetic materials waste is accomplished by introducing it, together with air, into a vessel containing molten salt (a eutectic mixture of sodium, potassium, and lithium carbonates). The following pure explosives have been destroyed in our bench-scale experimental unit located at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory`s (LLNL) High Explosives Applications Facility (HEAF): ammonium picrate, HMX, K- 6 (keto-RDX), NQ, NTO, PETN, RDX, TATB, and TNT. In addition, the following compositions were also destroyed: Comp B, LX- IO, LX- 1 6, LX- 17, PBX-9404, and XM46 (liquid gun propellant). In this 1.5 kg/hr bench-scale unit, the fractions of carbon converted to CO and of chemically bound nitrogen converted to NO{sub x} were found to be well below 1%. In addition to destroying explosive powders and compositions we have also destroyed materials that are typical of residues which result from explosives operations. These include shavings from machined pressed parts of plastic-bonded explosives and sump waste containing both explosives and non-explosive debris. Based on the process data obtained on the bench-scale unit we designed and constructed a next-generation 5 kg/hr pilot-scale unit, incorporating LLNL`s advanced chimney design. The pilot unit has completed process implementation operations and explosives safety reviews. To date, in this

  17. Reactivity of NaCl with Secondary Organic Acids: An Important Mechanism of the Chloride Depletion in Sea Salt Particles Mixed with Organic Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, B.; Laskin, A.; Kelly, S.; Gilles, M. K.; Shilling, J. E.; Zelenyuk, A.; Wilson, J. M.; Tivanski, A.

    2012-12-01

    Sea salt particles, one of the major sources of atmospheric aerosols, undergo complex multi-phase reactions and have profound consequences on their physical and chemical properties, thus on climate. Depletion of chloride in sea salt particles was reported in previous field studies and was attributed to the acid displacement of sea salt chlorides with inorganic acids, such as nitric and sulfuric acids. Some studies have also showed that the chloride deficit cannot be fully compensated for this mechanism. We present an important pathway contributing to this chloride depletion: reactions of weak organic acids with sea salt particles. NaCl particles internally mixed with secondary organic materials generated from the reactions of limonene and alpha-pinene with ozone served as surrogates for sea salt particles mixed with organic materials. Chemical imaging analysis of these particles was conducted using complementary techniques including computer controlled scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive analysis of X-rays (CCSEM/EDX), scanning transmission X-ray microscopy with near edge X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy (STXM/NEXAFS), and micro-fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (micro-FTIR). Substantial chloride depletion and formation of organic salts were observed along with distinctive changes in particle morphology after hydration/dehydration processes. The results indicate that secondary organic acids can effectively react with NaCl particles resulting in displacement of chloride and release of gaseous HCl. This is consistent with a recent field study showing chloride depletion in sea salt particles mixed with organic materials which cannot be fully compensated by inorganic acid displacement. Although the formation of the organic salts is not thermodynamically favored in bulk aqueous solution, these reactions are driven by the high volatility and evaporation of gaseous HCl in particles, especially during hydration/dehydration processes. The

  18. Acyclic telluroiminium salts: isolation and characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutoh, Yuichiro; Murai, Toshiaki; Yamago, Shigeru

    2004-12-29

    The isolation, structure, and reactions of acyclic telluroiminium salts were disclosed. The delocalization of electrons on the tellurium atom and the partial double-bond character of C-Te bonds in the salts are discussed on the basis of X-ray molecular structure analysis, 13C and 125Te NMR spectroscopy, and molecular orbital calculation.

  19. Nitrate Salt Surrogate Blending Scoping Test Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anast, Kurt Roy [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-11-13

    Test blending equipment identified in the “Engineering Options Assessment Report: Nitrate Salt Waste Stream Processing”. Determine if the equipment will provide adequate mixing of zeolite and surrogate salt/Swheat stream; optimize equipment type and operational sequencing; impact of baffles and inserts on mixing performance; and means of validating mixing performance

  20. Morning sickness: impact on offspring salt preference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crystal, S R; Bernstein, I L

    1995-12-01

    These studies examined the relationship between salt preference of adult offspring and their mothers' symptoms of morning sickness during pregnancy. College students who could provide information about their mothers' symptoms of morning sickness completed a survey about their dietary salt intake (study 1; n = 169) or rated and consumed ten snack foods (study 2; n = 66). In study 1 a salt-use score was calculated based on responses to the Salt Intake Questionnaire; offspring of women with moderate or severe vomiting reported a significantly higher level of salt use (p < 0.01) than those whose mothers report little or no symptoms. In study 2 saltiness and pleasantness ratings of high-salt foods, intake of those foods and total sodium intake were the focus of analysis. Offspring of women reporting moderate or severe vomiting showed a significantly greater preference for the snack food subjects rated as saltiest than those whose mothers reported no or mild vomiting. They also ate more of that food and consumed more total sodium during the test session. Effects were stronger in Caucasian than Asian subjects. These studies suggest that moderate to severe vomiting during pregnancy can be associated with significantly higher salt intake in offspring. Thus, a gestational event may be an important determinant of salt intake and preference in adulthood.