Sample records for nonpolar solvent cyclohexane

  1. Measurement and Modeling of Carbon Dioxide Solubility in Polar and Nonpolar Solvent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hojatollah Ahmadi


    Full Text Available The solubility of gases is an important issue in the industries. Carbon Dioxide Through gas transmission line exists as sour gas therefore it is eliminated by solvent in industry. Carbone Dioxide is nonpolar molecule that has lower solubility in liquid solvent. In this study the solubility of carbon dioxide in some polar and nonpolar solvents (include Acetone, Acetic Acid, Benzene, Carbon Tetra Chloride, Chlorobenzene, Chloroform, Cyclo-hexane, Di-Methyl Formamid, Ethanol, Ethyl acetate, Methanol, NButanol, N-Heptane, N-Hexane at atmospheric pressure and temperatures range from 5-35ºC was determined. A laboratory unit was made for this experience and the solubility of CO2 was reported. The solubility of carbon dioxide in these solvent was low due to unreactivity and nonpolarity nature of these material. The solubility of CO2 in Ethyl Acetate and Methanol was highest and lowest respectively. This investigation showed that the solvent with carbonyl group have higher activity than other.

  2. Solvent density mode instability in non-polar solutions

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Susmita Kar; Ranjit Biswas; J Chakrabarti


    We analyse the origin of the multiple long time scales associated with the long time decay observed in non-polar solvation dynamics by linear stability analysis of solvent density modes where the effects of compressibility and solvent structure are systematically incorporated. The coupling of the solute–solvent interactions at both ground and excited states of the solute with the compressibility and solvent structure is found to have important effects on the time scales. The present theory suggests that the relatively longer time constant is controlled by the solvent compressibility, while the solvent structure at the nearest-neighbour length scale dominates the shorter time constant.

  3. Solvent systems with n-hexane and/or cyclohexane in countercurrent chromatography--Physico-chemical parameters and their impact on the separation of alkyl hydroxybenzoates. (United States)

    Englert, Michael; Vetter, Walter


    Countercurrent chromatography (CCC) is an efficient preparative separation technique based on the liquid-liquid distribution of compounds between two phases of a biphasic liquid system. The crucial parameter for the successful application is the selection of the solvent system. Especially for nonpolar analytes the selection options are limited. On the search for a suitable solvent system for the separation of an alkyl hydroxybenzoate homologous series, we noted that the substitution of cyclohexane with n-hexane was accompanied with unexpected differences in partitioning coefficients of the individual analytes. In this study, we investigated the influence of the subsequent substitution of n-hexane with cyclohexane in the n-hexane/cyclohexane/tert-butylmethylether/methanol/water solvent system family. Exact phase compositions and polarity, viscosity and density differences were determined to characterize the different mixtures containing n-hexane and/or cyclohexane. Findings were confirmed by performing CCC separations with different mixtures, which led to baseline resolution for positional isomers when increasing the amount of cyclohexane while the resolution between two pairs of structural isomers decreased. With the new methodology described, structurally similar compounds could be resolved by choosing a certain ratio of n-hexane to cyclohexane.

  4. Structure and mobility of cyclohexane as a solvent for Trans-Polyisoprene


    Faller, Roland


    Solutions of {\\it trans}$-$polyisoprene in cyclohexane are investigated in atomistic detail at different compositions at two different temperatures. We investigate the influence of polymer concentration on the dynamics of the solvent molecules and the structure of the solvation shell. The double bonds along the polymer backbone are preferentially approached by the solvent molecules. The mobility of cyclohexane molecules decreases with increasing polymer concentration at ambient conditions. Th...

  5. Methods for recovering a solvent from a fluid volume and methods of removing at least one compound from a nonpolar solvent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ginosar, Daniel M.; Wendt, Daniel S.; Petkovic, Lucia M.


    A method of removing a nonpolar solvent from a fluid volume that includes at least one nonpolar compound, such as a fat, an oil or a triglyceride, is provided. The method comprises contacting a fluid volume with an expanding gas to expand the nonpolar solvent and form a gas-expanded solvent. The gas-expanded solvent may have a substantially reduced density in comparison to the at least one nonpolar compound and/or a substantially reduced capacity to solubilize the nonpolar compound, causing the nonpolar compounds to separate from the gas-expanded nonpolar solvent into a separate liquid phase. The liquid phase including the at least one nonpolar compound may be separated from the gas-expanded solvent using conventional techniques. After separation of the liquid phase, at least one of the temperature and pressure may be reduced to separate the nonpolar solvent from the expanding gas such that the nonpolar solvent may be recovered and reused.

  6. The role of solvent cohesion in nonpolar solvation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Otto, Sijbren


    Understanding hydrophobic interactions requires a molecular-level picture of how water molecules adjust to the introduction of a nonpolar solute. New insights into the latter process are derived from the observation that the Gibbs energies of solvation of the noble gases and linear alkanes by a wide

  7. The solution properties of mefenamic acid and a closely related analogue are indistinguishable in polar solvents but significantly different in nonpolar environments. (United States)

    Lee, Eun Hee; Byrn, Stephen R; Pinal, Rodolfo


    This study investigates the cosolute effects of mefenamic acid (XA) and flufenamic acid (FA). These compounds serve as model of a drug discovery lead compound and a structural analogue. The activity coefficients of XA and FA in different solvents were obtained from solubility measurements at 25°C. The effect of varying concentrations of FA on the solubility of XA in four different solvents, including toluene, cyclohexane, ethanol, and an ethanol-water mixture (80:20, v/v), was investigated. The magnitude of change in the activity coefficient of XA in the presence of FA in different solvents was used to elucidate the thermodynamic effect of FA on the solubility of XA. Nuclear magnetic resonance and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy were used to obtain molecular level information about the interactions of the compounds in solution. The presence of FA increases XA solubility in toluene and in cyclohexane as much as seven-fold. Conversely, in ethanol and the ethanol-water mixture, similar levels of FA have essentially no effect on the solubility of XA. The solution properties investigated show that despite the close structural similarity between XA and FA, the two compounds are strongly distinguishable in nonpolar solvents. Conversely, the solution properties of the same two solutes are indistinguishable in polar solvents. A solubilization model based on solute-cosolute interactions is presented.

  8. Tuning of Activated Carbon for Solvent-Free Oxidation of Cyclohexane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Sadiq


    Full Text Available Activated carbon (AC was prepared from carbonization of phosphoric acid soaked peanut shell at 380°C under inert atmosphere followed by activation with hydrogen peroxide. The AC was characterized by SEM, EDX, FTIR, TGA, and BET surface area and pore size analyzer. The potential of AC as a catalyst for solvent-free oxidation of cyclohexane to cyclohexanol and cyclohexanone (the mixture is known as KA oil in the presence of molecular oxygen at moderate temperature was investigated in a self-designed double-walled three-necked batch reactor. The effect of different reaction parameters/additive was optimized. The maximum productivity value (2.14 mmolg−1 h−1, without base, and 4.85 mmolg−1 h−1, with 0.2 mmol NaOH of the desired product was achieved under optimal reaction parameters: vol 12.5 mL, cat 0.4 g, time 14 h, oxygen flow 40 mL/min (pO2 760 Torr, stirring 1100 rpm, and temp 75°C. The AC shows recyclability for multiple runs without any significant loss in activity. Thus, the AC can be an efficient catalyst, due to low cost, ease of synthesis, easy recovery, nonleaching, and recyclability for multiple uses for the solvent-free oxidation of cyclohexane.

  9. Non-polar Solvent Microwave-Assisted Extraction of Volatile Constituents from Dried Zingiber Officinale Rosc.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU Yong; WANG Zi-Ming; WANG Yu-Tang; LI Tie-Chun; CHENG Jian-Hua; LIU Zhong-Ying; ZHANG Han-Qi


    A new method, non-polar solvent microwave-assisted extraction (NPSMAE), was applied to the extraction of essential oil from Zingiber officinale Rosc. in closed-vessel system. By adding microwave absorption mediumcarbonyl iron powders (CIP) into extraction system, the essential oil was extracted by the non-polar solvent (ether)which can be heated by CIP. The constituents of essential oil obtained by NPSMAE were comparable with those obtained by hydrodistillation (HD) by GC-MS analysis, which indicates that NPSMAE is a feasible way to extract essential oil from dried plant materials. The NPSMAE took much less extraction time (5 min) than HD (180 min),and its extraction efficiency was much higher than that of conventional polar solvent microwave-assisted extraction (PSMAE) and mixed solvent microwave-assisted extraction (MSMAE). It can be a good alternative for the extraction of volatile constituents from dried plant samples.

  10. Determinatin of the Dipole Moment of Polar Compounds in Nonpolar Solvents. (United States)

    Janini, George M.; Katrib, Ali H.


    Proposes a simple experiment based on the procedure of Guggenheim and Smith for the determinatin of the dipole moments of two isomeric compounds in nonpolar solvents. Provides background information, laboratory procedures, sample data, results of least squares analysis and discussion of results. (JM)

  11. Lipophilic polyelectrolyte gels as super-absorbent polymers for nonpolar organic solvents. (United States)

    Ono, Toshikazu; Sugimoto, Takahiro; Shinkai, Seiji; Sada, Kazuki


    Polyelectrolyte gels that are known as super-absorbent polymers swell and absorb water up to several hundred times their dried weights and have become ubiquitous and indispensable materials in many applications. Their superior swelling abilities originate from the electrostatic repulsion between the charges on the polymer chains and the osmotic imbalance between the interior and exterior of the gels. However, no super-absorbent polymers for volatile organic compounds (VOCs), and especially for nonpolar organic solvents (epsilonpolymer networks. This expands the potential of polyelectrolytes that have been used only in aqueous solutions or highly polar solvents, and provides soft materials that swell in a variety of media. These materials could find applications as protective barriers for VOCs spilled in the environment and as absorbents for waste oil.

  12. Nitrobenzene anti-parallel dimer formation in non-polar solvents

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    Toshiyuki Shikata


    Full Text Available We investigated the dielectric and depolarized Rayleigh scattering behaviors of nitrobenzene (NO2-Bz, which is a benzene mono-substituted with a planar molecular frame bearing the large electric dipole moment 4.0 D, in non-polar solvents solutions, such as tetrachloromethane and benzene, at up to 3 THz for the dielectric measurements and 8 THz for the scattering experiments at 20 °C. The dielectric relaxation strength of the system was substantially smaller than the proportionality to the concentration in a concentrated regime and showed a Kirkwood correlation factor markedly lower than unity; gK ∼ 0.65. This observation revealed that NO2-Bz has a tendency to form dimers, (NO2-Bz2, in anti-parallel configurations for the dipole moment with increasing concentration of the two solvents. Both the dielectric and scattering data exhibited fast and slow Debye-type relaxation modes with the characteristic time constants ∼7 and ∼50 ps in a concentrated regime (∼15 and ∼30 ps in a dilute regime, respectively. The fast mode was simply attributed to the rotational motion of the (monomeric NO2-Bz. However, the magnitude of the slow mode was proportional to the square of the concentration in the dilute regime; thus, the mode was assigned to the anti-parallel dimer, (NO2-Bz2, dissociation process, and the slow relaxation time was attributed to the anti-parallel dimer lifetime. The concentration dependencies of both the dielectric and scattering data show that the NO2-Bz molecular processes are controlled through a chemical equilibrium between monomers and anti-parallel dimers, 2NO2-Bz ↔ (NO2-Bz2, due to a strong dipole-dipole interaction between nitro groups.

  13. Efficient Extraction of Astaxanthin from Phaffia rhodozyma with Polar and Non-polar Solvents after Acid Washing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YIN Chunhua; YANG Shuzhen; LIU Xiaolu; YAN Hai


    method of extracting astaxanthin from Phaffia rhodozyma with various solvents after acid washing was investigated.The extraction efficiency was distinctly increased after acid washing of P.rhodozyma cells.When the concentration of HCl was 0.4 mol·L-,the highest extraction efficiency of astaxanthin was achieved which was about three times higher than the control.Acetone or benzene as single polar or non-polar solvent was the most effective solvent in our research.With a combination of isopropanol and n-hexane (volume ratio of 2 ∶ 1),the maximal extraction efficiency was achieved,approximately 60% higher than that obtained with a single solvent.The liquid-solid ratio and the extracting time were also optimized.Under the optimum extraction conditions,the extraction yield of astaxanthin exceeded 98%.

  14. Modeling the structure and absorption spectra of stilbazolium merocyanine in polar and nonpolar solvents using hybrid QM/MM techniques. (United States)

    Murugan, N Arul; Kongsted, Jacob; Rinkevicius, Zilvinas; Aidas, Kestutis; Ågren, Hans


    We have performed Car-Parrinello mixed quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics (CP-QM/MM) calculations for stilbazolium merocyanine (SM) in polar and nonpolar solvents in order to explore the role of solute molecular geometry, solvation shell structure, and different interaction mechanisms on the absorption spectra and its dependence on solvent polarity. On the basis of the average bond length values and group charge distributions, we find that the SM molecule remains in a neutral quinonoid form in chloroform (a nonpolar solvent) while it transforms to a charge-separated benzenoid form in water (a polar solvent). Based on a quantum mechanical/molecular mechanical response technique, with different MM descriptions for the water environment, absorption spectra were obtained as averages over configurations derived from the CP-QM/MM simulations. We show that for SM in water the solute polarization plays a major role in predictions of the λ(max) and solvatochromic shift and that once this effect is included the contributions from solvent polarization and intermolecular charge transfer become less important. For SM in chloroform and water solvents, we have also performed absorption spectra calculations using a polarizable continuum model in order to address its relative performance compared to the QM/MM response technique. In the case of SM in water, our study supports the notion that, in order to predict accurate absorption spectra and solvatochromic shifts, it is important to use a discrete description of the solvent when it, as in water, is involved in site-specific interaction with the solute molecule. The technique is thus shown to outperform the more conventional polarizable continuum model in predicting the solvatochromic shift.

  15. Automatic parametrization of non-polar implicit solvent models for the blind prediction of solvation free energies (United States)

    Wang, Bao; Zhao, Zhixiong; Wei, Guo-Wei


    In this work, a systematic protocol is proposed to automatically parametrize the non-polar part of implicit solvent models with polar and non-polar components. The proposed protocol utilizes either the classical Poisson model or the Kohn-Sham density functional theory based polarizable Poisson model for modeling polar solvation free energies. Four sets of radius parameters are combined with four sets of charge force fields to arrive at a total of 16 different parametrizations for the polar component. For the non-polar component, either the standard model of surface area, molecular volume, and van der Waals interactions or a model with atomic surface areas and molecular volume is employed. To automatically parametrize a non-polar model, we develop scoring and ranking algorithms to classify solute molecules. The their non-polar parametrization is obtained based on the assumption that similar molecules have similar parametrizations. A large database with 668 experimental data is collected and employed to validate the proposed protocol. The lowest leave-one-out root mean square (RMS) error for the database is 1.33 kcal/mol. Additionally, five subsets of the database, i.e., SAMPL0-SAMPL4, are employed to further demonstrate that the proposed protocol. The optimal RMS errors are 0.93, 2.82, 1.90, 0.78, and 1.03 kcal/mol, respectively, for SAMPL0, SAMPL1, SAMPL2, SAMPL3, and SAMPL4 test sets. The corresponding RMS errors for the polarizable Poisson model with the Amber Bondi radii are 0.93, 2.89, 1.90, 1.16, and 1.07 kcal/mol, respectively.

  16. Stable nonpolar solvent droplet generation using a poly(dimethylsiloxane) microfluidic channel coated with poly-p-xylylene for a nanoparticle growth. (United States)

    Lim, Heejin; Moon, SangJun


    Applications of microfluidic devices fabricated in poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) have been limited to water-based analysis rather than nonpolar solvent based chemistry due to a PDMS swelling problem that occurs by the absorption of the solvents. The absorption and swelling causes PDMS channel deformation in shape, and changes the cross sectional area making it difficult to control the flow rate and concentrations of solution in PDMS microfluidic channels. We propose that poly-p-xylylene polymers (parylenes) are chemical vapors deposited on the surfaces of PDMS channels that alleviate the effect of solvents on the absorption and swelling. The parylene coated surface sustains 3 h with a small volumetric change (less than 22 % of PDMS swelling ratio). By generating an air-nonpolar solvent interface based on droplets in PDMS channel, we confirmed poly-p-xylylene coated PDMS microfluidic channels have the potential to be applicable to nanocrystal growth using nonpolar solvents.

  17. ``Living polymers'' in organic solvents : stress relaxation in bicopper tetracarboxylate/tert-butyl cyclohexane solutions (United States)

    Terech, P.; Maldivi, P.; Dammer, C.


    Viscoelastic solutions of a bicopper tetracarboxylate complex in tert-butylcyclohexane have been studied by dynamic rheology in a wide range of concentrations (0.5-1.5 % volume fraction). The zero shear viscosity, the elastic modulus, the terminal stress relaxation time and the height of the high-frequency dip, in a Cole-Cole representation of the complex elastic modulus, follow scaling laws. The related exponents are discussed in the context of the physics of “living polymers” : a term used to describe worm-like species undergoing scission/recombination reactions competing mainly with the reptation motions of the chains. The current system, made up of molecular threads (17.5 Å diameter) of Cu2(O2C-CH(C2H5)C4H9)4 in the apolar solvent, is representative of a “living polymer” where, instead of mechanisms involving transient star polymeric crosslinks, a reversible scission mechanism prevails. The dynamics in the high-frequency range evolves from a regime where reptation is the dominant relaxation mechanism to a cross-over regime where “breathing” fluctuations and Rouse motions become important. Large modifications of the stress relaxation function occur for more concentrated systems. The binary system is the first example of a “living polymer” in an organic solvent and exhibits elastic moduli (G ≈ ca. 120 Pa à φ = 1 %) which are at least 20 times larger than those found for the aqueous “living polymer” systems. Les solutions viscoélastiques d'un tétracarboxylate binucléaire de cuivre dans le tert-butylcyclohexane sont étudiées par rhéologie en mode dynamique dans une gamme étendue de concentrations (0,5 %-15,5 %). La viscosité à gradient nul, le module élastique, le temps terminal de relaxation et la hauteur du puits à haute fréquence, dans une représentation Cole-Cole du module élastique complexe, suivent des lois d'échelles. Les exposants correspondants sont discutés dans le contexte de la physique des “polymères vivants

  18. Strong guest binding by cyclodextrin hosts in competing nonpolar solvents and the unique crystalline structure. (United States)

    Kida, Toshiyuki; Iwamoto, Takuya; Fujino, Yoshinori; Tohnai, Norimitsu; Miyata, Mikiji; Akashi, Mitsuru


    6-O-Modified β-cyclodextrins, such as heptakis(6-O-triisopropylsilyl)-β-cyclodextrin (TIPS-β-CD) and heptakis(6-O-tert-butyldimethylsilyl)-β-cyclodextrin (TBDMS-β-CD), formed 2:1 inclusion complexes with pyrene in benzene and cyclohexane with high association constants. The X-ray crystalline structure of the TIPS-β-CD-pyrene complex obtained from the benzene solution showed that one pyrene molecule was incorporated in the form of a sandwich-type complex with two benzene molecules within the cavity of the dimer formed by two TIPS-β-CD molecules.

  19. Empirical valence bond model of an SN2 reaction in polar and nonpolar solvents (United States)

    Benjamin, Ilan


    A new model for the substitution nucleophilic reaction (SN2) in solution is described using the empirical valence bond (EVB) method. The model includes a generalization to three dimensions of a collinear gas phase EVB model developed by Mathis et al. [J. Mol. Liq. 61, 81 (1994)] and a parametrization of solute-solvent interactions of four different solvents (water, ethanol, chloroform, and carbon tetrachloride). The model is used to compute (in these four solvents) reaction free energy profiles, reaction and solvent dynamics, a two-dimensional reaction/solvent free energy map, as well as a number of other properties that in the past have mostly been estimated.

  20. Dielectric behaviour of some amides and formamides dissolved in nonpolar solvents under static electric field

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    S Sahoo; S K Sit


    Structural and associational aspects of polar amides () like formamide, acetamide, Nmethyl acetamide (NMA), N,N-dimethyl formamide (DMF), N,N-dimethyl acetamide (DMA) and acetanilide dissolved in the nonpolar solvent () benzene or 1,4-dioxan have been estimated from the measured static relative permittivity 0 and high-frequency permittivity ∞ at different weight fractions s of polar solute at 35°C under static electric field using Debye model of polar liquid molecule. The static dipole moments s are compared with s reported from conductivity method and theoretical theos to get exact cal $\\cdot$ theos of the molecules are predicted from the available bond angles and bond moments where difference in electron affinity exists between two adjacent atoms of a polar group due to inductive, mesomeric and electromeric effects in them. Solute–solute molecular association for NMA in benzene and solute–solvent association for other amides are ascertained to arrive at their conformational structures.

  1. Microhydration effects on a model SN2 reaction in a nonpolar solvent (United States)

    Nelson, Katherine V.; Benjamin, Ilan


    Using a recently developed empirical valence bond model for the nucleophilic substitution reaction (SN2) in solution, we examine microhydration effects on the benchmark Cl-+CH3Cl reaction in liquid chloroform. Specifically, the effect of the hydration of the reactive system by one to five water molecules on the reaction-free energy profile and the rate constant is examined. We find that the activation-free energy is highly sensitive to the number of water molecules hydrating the nucleophile, increasing the barrier by about 4 kcal/mol by the first water molecule. With five water molecules, the barrier height is 10 kcal/mol larger than the barrier in bulk chloroform and only 3 kcal/mol below the barrier in bulk water. A number of properties vary monotonically with the number of water molecules, including the rate of change in the system's electronic structure and the solvent stabilization of the transition state. These and other properties are a rapidly varying function of the reaction coordinate. Deviation from transition state theory due to barrier recrossing is not large and falls between the behavior in bulk water and bulk chloroform.

  2. Small-angle X-ray scattering study of self-assembling lipophilic guanines in organic solvents: G-quadruplex formation and cation effects in cyclohexane. (United States)

    Gonnelli, A; Ortore, M G; Baldassarri, E J; Spada, G P; Pieraccini, S; Perone, R C; Funari, S S; Mariani, P


    Lipophilic guanilic derivatives (lipoGs) dissolved in organic solvents can undergo different self-assembly pathways based on different H-bonded motifs, e.g., the cyclic discrete G-quartet, which forms in the presence of alkali-metal ions, and the "infinite" tape-like G-ribbon observed in the absence of ions. Using in-solution small-angle X-ray scattering, we analyzed a series of lipoGs dissolved in cyclohexane in the presence of different salts. The formation of G-quartet based supramolecular aggregates has been confirmed, evidencing the coexistence equilibrium of octamers and noncovalent molecular nanowires (the so-called G-quadruplexes). By global fitting the scattering data, the concentration of the two kinds of particles as well as the nanowire length have been derived as a function of temperature for the different compounds and salts. The thermodynamic parameters show that the self-assembly aggregation process is enthalpy driven, while the observed enthalpy-entropy compensation suggests that similar stacking interactions control the self-assembly of the different compounds. However, the strength of the stacking interactions, and then the nanowire stability, depends on the nature of templating cations and on their capacity to fill the central cavity of quadruplexes, with the order Sr(+) < Na(+) ≲ K(+).

  3. An absorbing microwave micro-solid-phase extraction device used in non-polar solvent microwave-assisted extraction for the determination of organophosphorus pesticides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang Ziming, E-mail: [College of Chemistry, Jilin University, 2699 Qianjin Street, Changchun 130012 (China); College of Environment and Resources, Jilin University, 2699 Qianjin Street, Changchun 130012 (China); Zhao Xin; Xu Xu; Wu Lijie; Su Rui; Zhao Yajing; Jiang Chengfei; Zhang Hanqi [College of Chemistry, Jilin University, 2699 Qianjin Street, Changchun 130012 (China); Ma Qiang [Chinese Academy of Inspection and Quarantine, Beijing 100123 (China); Lu Chunmei [College of Technology Center, Jilin Entry-Exit Inspection and Quarantine Bureau, Changchun 130062 (China); Dong Deming [College of Environment and Resources, Jilin University, 2699 Qianjin Street, Changchun 130012 (China)


    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer An absorbing microwave {mu}-SPE device packed with activated carbon was used. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Absorbing microwave {mu}-SPE device was made and used to enrich the analytes. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Absorbing microwave {mu}-SPE device was made and used to heat samples directly. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer MAE-{mu}-SPE was applied to the extraction of OPPs with non-polar solvent only. - Abstract: A single-step extraction-cleanup method, including microwave-assisted extraction (MAE) and micro-solid-phase extraction ({mu}-SPE), was developed for the extraction of ten organophosphorus pesticides in vegetable and fruit samples. Without adding any polar solvent, only one kind of non-polar solvent (hexane) was used as extraction solvent in the whole extraction step. Absorbing microwave {mu}-SPE device, was prepared by packing activated carbon with microporous polypropylene membrane envelope, and used as not only the sorbent in {mu}-SPE, but also the microwave absorption medium. Some experimental parameters effecting on extraction efficiency was investigated and optimized. 1.0 g of sample, 8 mL of hexane and three absorbing microwave {mu}-SPE devices were added in the microwave extraction vessel, the extraction was carried out under 400 W irradiation power at 60 Degree-Sign C for 10 min. The extracts obtained by MAE-{mu}-SPE were directly analyzed by GC-MS without any clean-up process. The recoveries were in the range of 93.5-104.6%, and the relative standard deviations were lower than 8.7%.

  4. Double relaxation phenomena of associated binary polar liquid mixture in non-polar solvent under high frequency electric field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sahoo, S. [Department of Electronics and Instrumentation Engg (India)], E-mail:; Sit, S.K. [Department of Physics, Dr. Meghnad Saha Institute of Technology, Debhog, Haldia, Purba Medinipore, West Bengal 721657 (India)


    Double relaxation times {tau}{sub 2} and {tau}{sub 1} due to whole molecular rotation and the flexible parts of the binary polar liquid mixture (jk) 3-bromoaniline and 1-propanol dissolved in non-polar solvent (i) benzene were estimated in terms of measured real {chi}{sup '}{sub ijk}, imaginary {chi}{sup ''}{sub ijk} parts of complex high frequency orientational susceptibility {chi}{sub ijk}{sup *} and {chi}{sub 0ijk} which is real at 20, 30, 40 and 47 deg. C experimental temperatures for 0.0, 0.25, 0.50,0.75 and 1.00 mole fractions x{sub j}'s of 1-propanol under 9.1 GHz electric field. The slopes {omega}({tau}{sub 2} + {tau}{sub 1}) and intercepts {omega}{sup 2}{tau}{sub 2}{tau}{sub 1} of the analytical straight line equations used to estimate {tau}{sub 2} and {tau}{sub 1} were derived from Bergmann's equation [U. Saha, S.K. Sit, R.C. Basak, S. Acharyya, J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 27 (1994) 596] based on two Debye type dispersion model of binary polar mixture. The systems 3-bromoaniline in C{sub 6}H{sub 6} and 1-propanol in C{sub 6}H{sub 6} show {tau}{sub 2} and {tau}{sub 1} only at 47 deg. C temperature like 3-bromoaniline + 1-propanol in C{sub 6}H{sub 6} at 20 and 47 deg. C temperatures for 0.25 and 0.50 mole fractions x{sub j}'s of 1-propanol. The binary polar mixture for x{sub j} = 0.75 of 1-propanol is an exception exhibiting double relaxation times at all the experimental temperatures. The relative contributions c{sub 1} and c{sub 2} due to {tau}{sub 1} and {tau}{sub 2} for eight non-rigid systems were calculated from Froehlich's equation as well as graphical plots of {chi}{sup '}{sub ijk}/{chi}{sub 0ijk}-w{sub jk} and {chi}{sup ''}{sub ijk}/{chi}{sub 0ijk}-w{sub jk} curve at w{sub jk}{yields}0. c{sub 1} and c{sub 2} are positive for Froehlich's method whereas most of the c{sub 2}'s are negative for graphical method. The dipole moments {mu}{sub 2} and {mu}{sub 1} for all the systems are calculated from

  5. New Vistas on the Anionic Polymerization of Styrene in Non-Polar Solvents by Means of Density Functional Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hideo Morita


    Full Text Available The elementary processes of anionic styrene polymerization in the gas phase and in cyclohexane were studied using M062X (a recently developed density functional theory (DFT method combined with the 6-31+G(d basis sets, in order to clarify the complicated phenomena caused by the association of the active chain-ends and elucidate the details of the polymerization mechanism. Three types of HSt2Li (a model structure of polystyryllithium chain-ends were obtained; the well-known first structure in which Li is coordinated to the side chain, the second structure in which Li is coordinated to the phenyl ring, (both without the penultimate unit coordination, and the third structure in which Li is coordinated to both the chain-end unit and the penultimate styrene unit. Although the third HSt2Li is the most stable as expected, the free energy for the transition state of its reaction with styrene is higher than those for the other two transition states due to its steric hindrance. The free energy for the transition state of the reaction of the second HSt2Li with styrene is the lowest, suggesting that the route through it is the predominant reaction path. The penultimate unit effect, slower addition of styrene to HSt2Li than to HStLi, is attributed to coordination of the penultimate styrene units of the polystyryllithium dimer (one of the starting materials to its Li atoms. The calculated enthalpy for the reaction barrier of the second HSt2Li with styrene in cyclohexane was found to agree with the observed apparent activation energy in benzene.

  6. Photoreactions of 2-(furan-2-yl)-3-hydroxy-4H-chromen-4-one and 3-hydroxy-2-(thiophene-2-yl)-4H-chromen-4-one using cyclohexane and acetonitrile as solvents. (United States)

    Kaur, Kulvir; Kaur, Ranbir; Tomar, Jyoti; Bansal, Manisha


    Photolysis of the titled chromenones was carried out at their longest absorption band (∼360 nm) using cyclohexane (CH) and acetonitrile (ACN) as solvents, in both aerated and de-aerated solutions. Different dimeric photoproducts were formed with both chromenones in aerated solutions. On photolysing 2-(furan-2-yl)-3-hydroxy-4H-chromen-4-one (FHC) in aerated cyclohexane, 2-(furan-2-yl)-2-{[2-(furan-2yl)-4-oxo-4H-chromen-3-yl]oxy}-2H-chromene-3,4-dione (a dehydrodimer) was formed, and on photolysing 3-hydroxy-2-(thiophene-2-yl)-4H-chromen-4-one (THC) in aerated ACN, a different dimeric product was isolated and identified. The corresponding 3-aryl-3-hydroxy-1,2-indandiones were also detected with FHC in ACN and with THC in CH, in addition to the dimeric products in both cases. On the other hand, in the de-aerated solutions, only the corresponding 1,2-indandiones were detected. 3-(Furan-2-yl)isobenzofuran-1(3H)-one as a secondary product was also detected with FHC in both solvents. An attempt was made to isolate the spectra of the photoproducts in situ. Excited State Intramolecular Proton Transfer (ESIPT) and Excited State Intramolecular Charge Transfer (ESICT) processes complicate the photodynamics of the reaction, making it difficult to predict the mechanisms of the photoreactions. However, tentative mechanisms have been proposed for the formation of the photoproducts.

  7. In silico study of amphiphilic nanotubes based on cyclic peptides in polar and non-polar solvent

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vijayakumar, Vinodhkumar; Vijayaraj, Ramadoss; Peters, Günther H.J.


    The stability of cyclic peptide assemblies (CPs) forming a macromolecular nanotube structure was investigated in solvents of different polarity using computational methods. The stability and structure of the complexes were studied using traditional molecular dynamics (MD). Energy of dissociation...... was estimated from steered MD in combination with umbrella sampling simulations. A cyclic peptide nanotube (CPNT) was constructed by stacking of eight cyclo[(d-Trp-l-Gln-d-Trp-l-Glu)2], and hereafter is referred to as (WQWE)8. Its dissociation was studied by pulling 1, 2, or 3 subunits from the nanotube....... The crucial point in the dissociation event of the CP subunit(s) is the breaking of backbone–backbone hydrogen bonds and consecutive annihilation of side chain interactions. Gibbs free energy calculations to estimate the binding affinity of CP subunit(s) reveal that the (WQWE)8 nanotube is significantly more...

  8. 萃取精馏法分离环己烷-环己烯-苯物系的新溶剂选择方法%A Novel Method for Selection of Solvent for Extractive Distillation for Separating Cyclohexane- Cyclohexene - Benzene

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨振生; 李春利; 吴锦元


    提出了一种快速、准确的萃取精馏溶剂筛选方法——UNIFAC预测法、溶解度参数预测法基础上的液上气相色谱试验法。较以往方法筛选面宽,可信度高。确认了分离环己烷-环己烯-苯物系的两种较优溶剂N-甲基-吡咯烷酮和γ-丁内酯,分离性能和溶剂物性优于文献报道过的溶剂N,N-二甲基乙酰胺和己二腈%A rapid and accurate approach for selection of solvent for extractive distillation is presented. The candidate solvents are generated by using UNIFAC & Solubility Parameter Model and tested with headspace gas chromatography. The approach enlarges the size of the possible search space and improves reliability of the result. N - methylpyrrolidone, γ - butyrolactone are found to be appropriate solvents for cyclohexane - cyclohexene- benzene separation by extractive distillation, and are superior to N, N - dimethylacetamide, adiponitrile introduced in the literature


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ming Yao; Hai-yan Zhang; Xing-ying Zhang; Shu-he Zhao


    Multifunctional organolithium initiator was prepared in cyclohexane solvent. The process started with adding the cyclohexane solution of butadiene to naphthalene-lithium in batches to produce butadiene oligomer dilithium with 4-8 butadiene repeating units. In the first feeding, the maximum loading of cyclohexane and the minimum concentration of butadiene cyclohexane solution must be controlled under Vcyclohexane ≤ 1.33 VTHnF and p ≥ 40.6cN. Then, SnC14 was added and eventually the multifunctional organolithium initiator containing Sn atom was synthesized through coupling reaction.Experiment results showed that adding the cyclohexane solution in batches was effective in overcoming some difficulties,such as insolubility of naphthalene-lithium in cyclohexane, low efficiency of naphthalene-lithium in initiating butadiene. In practice, benzene can be replaced by cyclohexane completely, which can not only reduce environmental pollution from benzene, but also overcome the difficulty of solvent recovery caused by similar boiling point between benzene and cyclohexane. Prepared with multifunctional organolithium containing Sn atom as initiator, the star-shaped solution polymerized styrene-butadiene rubber (star S-SBR) with better vulcanization performances, lower rolling resistance and higher wet-skid resistance was obtained.

  10. Solvent Extraction and Characterization of Neutral Lipids in Oocystis sp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renil eAnthony


    Full Text Available Microalgae are a favorable feedstock for bioproducts and biofuels due to their high oil content, fast growth rates and low resource demands. Solvent lipid extraction efficiency from microalgae is dependent on algal strain and the extraction solvent. Four non-polar extraction solvents were evaluated for the recovery of neutral cellular lipids from microalgae Oocystis sp. (UTEX LB2396. Methylene chloride, hexane, diethyl ether, and cyclohexane were selected as the extraction solvents. All solvent extracts contained hexadecanoic acid, linoleic acid and linolenic acid; accounting for 70% of total lipid content with a proportional wt% composition of the three fatty acids, except for the hexane extracts that showed only hexadecanoic acid and linoleic acid. While not statistically differentiated, methylene chloride proved to be the most effective solvent for Oocystis sp. among the four solvents tested with a total average neutral lipid recovery of 0.25% of dry weight followed by diethyl ether (0.18%, cyclohexane (0.14% and hexane (0.11%. This research presents a simple methodology to optimize the selection of lipid specific extraction solvents for the microalgal strain selected.


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jin-wen Qian; Jing Li; Guo-rong Qi; Lin-xian Feng


    Critical association concentration (CA) of ethylene-vinyl acetate copolymer (EVA) in selective solvent mixtures of 1,2-dichloroethane (DCE) (polar solvent) and cyclohexane (CYH) (non-polar solvent)was investigated. DCE is a good solvent for polyvinyl acetate (PVAc) and a poor solvent for paraffin,whereas CYH is a good solvent for the paraffin and a precipitant for PVAc. Viscosities of EVA in different compositions of the solvent mixture with and without additives were measured. Viscosity results were used to determine the CA value of the systems. It is shown that CA was markedly dependent on the composition of the solvent mixture and concentration and structure of the additive. Solvation and competition between hydrogen bonding and micellisation were suggested for qualitative description of the changing of CA value observed.

  12. Bis{μ-cis-1,3-bis[(di-tert-butylphosphanyloxy]cyclohexane-κ2P:P′}bis[carbonylnickel(0] including an unknown solvent molecule

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klara J. Jonasson


    Full Text Available The title compound, [Ni2(C22H46P2O22(CO2], is located about a centre of inversion with the Ni0 atom within a distorted trigonal–planar geometry. The cyclohexyl rings are in the usual chair conformation with the 1,3-cis substituents equatorially oriented. No specific intermolecular interactions are noted in the crystal packing. A region of disordered electron density, most probably a disordered deuterobenzene solvent molecule, was treated using the SQUEEZE routine in PLATON [Spek (2009. Acta Cryst. D65, 148–155]. Its formula mass and unit-cell characteristics were not taken into account during refinement.

  13. Prediction of cyclohexane-water distribution coefficients with COSMO-RS on the SAMPL5 data set (United States)

    Klamt, Andreas; Eckert, Frank; Reinisch, Jens; Wichmann, Karin


    The Conductor-Like-Screening-Model for Real Solvents (COSMO-RS) method has been used for the blind prediction of cyclohexane-water distribution coefficients logD within the SAMPL challenge. The partition coefficient logP of the neutral species was calculated first and then corrected for dissociation or protonation, as appropriate for acidic or basic solutes, to obtain the cyclohexane-water logD. Using the latest version of the COSMO therm implementation, this approach in combination with a rigorous conformational sampling yielded a predictive accuracy of 2.11 log units (RMSD) for the 53 compounds of the blind prediction dataset. By that it was the most accurate of all contest submissions and it also achieved the best rank order. The RMSD mainly arises from a group of outliers in the negative logD range, which at least partly may arise from dimerization or other experimental problems coming up for very polar molecules in very non-polar solvents.

  14. Behavior of anionic molybdenum(IV, VI) and tungsten(IV, VI) complexes containing bulky hydrophobic dithiolate ligands and intramolecular NH···S hydrogen bonds in nonpolar solvents. (United States)

    Hasenaka, Yuki; Okamura, Taka-aki; Tatsumi, Miki; Inazumi, Naoya; Onitsuka, Kiyotaka


    Molybdenum(IV, VI) and tungsten(IV, VI) complexes, (Et4N)2[M(IV)O{1,2-S2-3,6-(RCONH)2C6H2}2] and (Et4N)2[M(VI)O2{1,2-S2-3,6-(RCONH)2C6H2}2] (M = Mo, W; R = (4-(t)BuC6H4)3C), with bulky hydrophobic dithiolate ligands containing NH···S hydrogen bonds were synthesized. These complexes are soluble in nonpolar solvents like toluene, which allows the detection of unsymmetrical coordination structures and elusive intermolecular interactions in solution. The (1)H NMR spectra of the complexes in toluene-d8 revealed an unsymmetrical coordination structure, and proximity of the counterions to the anion moiety was suggested at low temperatures. The oxygen-atom-transfer reaction between the molybdenum(IV) complex and Me3NO in toluene was considerably accelerated in nonpolar solvents, and this increase was attributed to the favorable access of the substrate to the active center in the hydrophobic environment.

  15. A combined interfacial and in-situ polymerization strategy to construct well-defined core-shell epoxy-containing SiO2-based microcapsules with high encapsulation loading, super thermal stability and nonpolar solvent tolerance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yin Jia


    Full Text Available SiO2-based microcapsules containing hydrophobic molecules exhibited potential applications such as extrinsic self-healing, drug delivery, due to outstanding thermal and chemical stability of SiO2. However, to construct SiO2-based microcapsules with both high encapsulation loading and long-term structural stability is still a troublesome issue, limiting their further utilization. We herein design a single-batch route, a combined interfacial and in-situ polymerization strategy, to fabricate epoxy-containing SiO2-based microcapsules with both high encapsulation loading and long-term structural stability. The final SiO2-based microcapsules preserve high encapsulation loading of 85.7 wt% by controlling exclusively hydrolysis and condensed polymerization at oil/water interface in the initial interfacial polymerization step. In the subsequent in-situ polymerization step, the initial SiO2-based microcapsules as seeds could efficiently harvest SiO2 precursors and primary SiO2 particles to finely tune the SiO2 wall thickness, thereby enhancing long-term structural stability of the final SiO2-based microcapsules including high thermal stability with almost no any weight loss until 250°C, and strong tolerance against nonpolar solvents such as CCl4 with almost unchanged core-shell structure and unchanged core weight after immersing into strong solvents for up to 5 days. These SiO2-based microcapsules are extremely suited for processing them into anticorrosive coating in the presence of nonpolar solvents for self-healing application.

  16. Solvent


    Hamida Y. Mostafa; Ebaa A. El-Shamy; Amal S. Farag; Nadia G. Kandile


    Neat ethylacetoacetate (EAA) and its mixtures with a co-solvent and an anti-solvent have been studied for refining of heavy wax distillate fraction to produce substantially non-carcinogenic base oil. The co-solvent and anti-solvent used are dipropylene glycol (DPG) and ethylene glycol (EG) respectively. The solubility characteristics of the main solvent and its mixed solvent systems were studied. Selection of the optimum solvent mixture and extraction variables has been studied. The effect of...

  17. Variation in Scent Compounds of Oil-Bearing Rose (Rosa damascena Mill.) Produced by Headspace Solid Phase Microextraction, Hydrodistillation and Solvent Extraction


    Sabri Erbaş; Hasan Baydar


    In this research, rose oil and rose water were hydro-distilled from the fresh oil-bearing rose flowers (Rosa damascena Mill.) using Clevenger-type apparatus. Rose concretes were extracted from the fresh rose flowers by using non-polar solvents, e.g. diethyl ether, petroleum ether, cyclo-hexane, chloroform and n-hexane, and subsequently by evaporation of the solvents under vacuum. Absolutes were produced from the concretes with ethyl alcohol extraction at -20°C, leaving behind the wax and othe...

  18. Cyclohexane, a potential drug of abuse with pernicious effects for the brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar eGonzalez-Perez


    Full Text Available Cyclohexane is a volatile solvent used as a harmless substitute for dangerous organic solvents in several products, such as paint thinners, gasoline and adhesives. Many of these products are used as drugs of abuse and can severely damage neural tissue and impair neurological functions. However, there is very little information on the effects of cyclohexane on the brain. In humans, cyclohexane produces headaches, sleepiness, dizziness, limb weakness, motor changes and verbal memory impairment. Recent studies in mice have demonstrated behavioral alterations, reactive gliosis, microglial reactivity and oxidative stress in the brains of cyclohexane-exposed animals. This indicates that cyclohexane may represent a potential problem for public health. Therefore, studies are needed to clarify the neurobiological effects of this volatile compound, including the cellular and molecular mechanisms of neurotoxicity, and to minimize the human health risk posed by the intentional or accidental inhalation of this potential drug of abuse.

  19. Separation of Benzene and Cyclohexane by Batch Extractive Distillation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Jiao; ZHANG Weijiang; GUI Xia


    Azeotropic liquid mixture cannot be separated by conventional distillation. But extractive distillation or combination of the two can be valid for them. An experiment to separate benzene and cyclohexane by batch extractive distillation was carried out with N, N-dimethylformide (DMF), dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) and their mixture as extractive solvent. The effect of the operation parameterssuch as solvent flow rate and reflux ratio on the separation was studied under the same operating conditions. The results show that the separation effect was improved with the increase of solvent flow rate and the reflux ratio; all the three extractive solvents can separate benzene and cyclohexane, with DMF being the most efficient one, the mixture the second, and DMSO the least. In the experiment the best operation conditions are with DMF as extractive solvent, the solvent flow rate being 12.33 mL/min, and the reflux ratio being 6. As a result, we can get cyclohexane from the top of tower with the average product content being 86.98%, and its recovering ratio being 83.10%.

  20. Water based on a molecular model behaves like a hard-sphere solvent for a nonpolar solute when the reference interaction site model and related theories are employed (United States)

    Hayashi, Tomohiko; Oshima, Hiraku; Harano, Yuichi; Kinoshita, Masahiro


    For neutral hard-sphere solutes, we compare the reduced density profile of water around a solute g(r), solvation free energy μ, energy U, and entropy S under the isochoric condition predicted by the two theories: dielectrically consistent reference interaction site model (DRISM) and angle-dependent integral equation (ADIE) theories. A molecular model for water pertinent to each theory is adopted. The hypernetted-chain (HNC) closure is employed in the ADIE theory, and the HNC and Kovalenko-Hirata (K-H) closures are tested in the DRISM theory. We also calculate g(r), U, S, and μ of the same solute in a hard-sphere solvent whose molecular diameter and number density are set at those of water, in which case the radial-symmetric integral equation (RSIE) theory is employed. The dependences of μ, U, and S on the excluded volume and solvent-accessible surface area are analyzed using the morphometric approach (MA). The results from the ADIE theory are in by far better agreement with those from computer simulations available for g(r), U, and μ. For the DRISM theory, g(r) in the vicinity of the solute is quite high and becomes progressively higher as the solute diameter d U increases. By contrast, for the ADIE theory, it is much lower and becomes further lower as d U increases. Due to unphysically positive U and significantly larger |S|, μ from the DRISM theory becomes too high. It is interesting that μ, U, and S from the K-H closure are worse than those from the HNC closure. Overall, the results from the DRISM theory with a molecular model for water are quite similar to those from the RSIE theory with the hard-sphere solvent. Based on the results of the MA analysis, we comparatively discuss the different theoretical methods for cases where they are applied to studies on the solvation of a protein.

  1. Aggregation behavior of amphiphilic cyclodextrins in a nonpolar solvent: evidence of large-scale structures by atomistic molecular dynamics simulations and solution studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppina Raffaini


    Full Text Available Chemically modified cyclodextrins carrying both hydrophobic and hydrophilic substituents may form supramolecular aggregates or nanostructures of great interest. These systems have been usually investigated and characterized in water for their potential use as nanocarriers for drug delivery, but they can also aggregate in apolar solvents, as shown in the present paper through atomistic molecular dynamics simulations and dynamic light scattering measurements. The simulations, carried out with a large number of molecules in vacuo adopting an unbiased bottom-up approach, suggest the formation of bidimensional structures with characteristic length scales of the order of 10 nm, although some of these sizes are possibly affected by the assumed periodicity of the simulation cell, in particular at longer lengths. In any case, these nanostructures are stable at least from the kinetic viewpoint for relatively long times thanks to the large number of intermolecular interactions of dipolar and dispersive nature. The dynamic light scattering experiments indicate the presence of aggregates with a hydrodynamic radius of the order of 80 nm and a relatively modest polydispersity, even though smaller nanometer-sized aggregates cannot be fully ruled out. Taken together, these simulation and experimental results indicate that amphiphilically modified cyclodextrins do also form large-scale nanoaggregates even in apolar solvents.

  2. Solar photonitrosation of cyclohexane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riffelmann, K.J.; Funken, K.H. [Deutsche Forschungsanstalt fuer Luft- und Raumfahrt e.V., Koeln (Germany). Hauptabteilung Energietechnik


    The photonitrosation of cyclohexane with nitrosyl chloride (PNC-process) is the central reaction step of photochemical production of {epsilon}-caprolactam. As compared to other, i.e. thermal routes for manufacture of {epsilon}-caprolactam the photochemical synthesis path is the shortest one, economizing the effective use of raw materials by having the highest yield and selectivity. In 1991 the world-wide capacity of {epsilon}-caprolactam was 3.1 mio metric tons/a. Although the photochemical route is most effective as to the materials costs, only 160 000 metric tons (i.e. 5%) were produced via the photochemical path. To provide the light doped high pressure mercury lamps were used. Disadvantages of the conventional PNC-process are strongly corrosive properties of nitrosyl chloride, high power costs and limited lifetime of the lamps. The last two disadvantages may be avoided using sunlight as clean source of photons. A simplified cost study showed that the solar process has a chance to be realized industrially as an alternative to the conventional technique. In this paper results of a project are dealt with aiming at the experimental investigation of the solar PNC-process to demonstrate that cyclohexanone oxime can be produced in a quality as required by the chemical industry. A solar reactor made of titanium was constructed and tested in the high flux solar furnace at the DLR research center, Koeln. Chemical efficiency and selectivity of the reaction, as well as quality of cyclohexanone oxime produced are presented. (orig.)

  3. Studies of Cyclohexane Catalytic Oxidation Processes over Titanium Silicate-1 Zeolite

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cheng Shibiao; Wu Wei; Sun Bin; Min Enze


    The catalytic oxidation processes for cyclohexane/H2O2/acetone system over the TS-1 zeolite was studied. Study results have revealed that the cyclohexane conversion was 27% after the reaction proceeded at 100C for 2 hours at a cyclohexane/H2O2 molar ratio of 0.8. The cyclohexanol/cyclohexanone molar ratio was 1.3along with a certain amount of organic acids and esters, the formation of which was closely associated with the oxidation of reaction solvent and deep oxidation of cyclohexanone and cyclohexanol contained in the reaction products. With respect to the catalytic oxidation of cyclohexane/H2O2 system the selection of appropriate solvent was critically important.

  4. Colloidosomes formed by nonpolar/polar/nonpolar nanoball amphiphiles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Hung-Yu; Sheng, Yu-Jane, E-mail:, E-mail: [Department of Chemical Engineering, National Taiwan University, Taipei 106, Taiwan (China); Tu, Sheng-Hung [Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering, National Central University, Jhongli 320, Taiwan (China); Tsao, Heng-Kwong, E-mail:, E-mail: [Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering and Department of Physics, National Central University, Jhongli 320, Taiwan (China)


    Fullerene-based amphiphiles are able to form bilayer vesicles in aqueous solution. In this study, the self-assembly behavior of polymer-tethered nanoballs (NBs) with nonpolar/polar/nonpolar (n-p-n{sup ′}) motif in a selective solvent is investigated by dissipative particle dynamics. A model NB bears two hydrophobic polymeric arms (n{sup ′}-part) tethered on an extremely hydrophobic NB (n-part) with hydrophilic patch (p-part) patterned on its surface. Dependent on the hydrophobicity and length of tethered arms, three types of aggregates are exhibited, including NB vesicle, core-shell micelle, and segmented-worm. NB vesicles are developed for a wide range of hydrophobic arm lengths. The presence of tethered arms perturbs the bilayer structure formed by NBs. The structural properties including the order parameter, membrane thickness, and area density of the inner leaflet decrease with increasing the arm length. These results indicate that for NBs with longer arms, the extent of interdigitation in the membrane rises so that the overcrowded arms in the inner corona are relaxed. The transport and mechanical properties are evaluated as well. As the arm length grows, the permeability increases significantly because the steric bulk of tethered arms loosens the packing of NBs. By contrast, the membrane tension decreases owing to the reduction of NB/solvent contacts by the polymer corona. Although fusion can reduce membrane tension, NB vesicles show strong resistance to fusion. Moreover, the size-dependent behavior observed in small liposomes is not significant for NB vesicles due to isotropic geometry of NB. Our simulation results are consistent with the experimental findings.

  5. Colloidosomes formed by nonpolar/polar/nonpolar nanoball amphiphiles. (United States)

    Chang, Hung-Yu; Tu, Sheng-Hung; Sheng, Yu-Jane; Tsao, Heng-Kwong


    Fullerene-based amphiphiles are able to form bilayer vesicles in aqueous solution. In this study, the self-assembly behavior of polymer-tethered nanoballs (NBs) with nonpolar/polar/nonpolar (n-p-n') motif in a selective solvent is investigated by dissipative particle dynamics. A model NB bears two hydrophobic polymeric arms (n'-part) tethered on an extremely hydrophobic NB (n-part) with hydrophilic patch (p-part) patterned on its surface. Dependent on the hydrophobicity and length of tethered arms, three types of aggregates are exhibited, including NB vesicle, core-shell micelle, and segmented-worm. NB vesicles are developed for a wide range of hydrophobic arm lengths. The presence of tethered arms perturbs the bilayer structure formed by NBs. The structural properties including the order parameter, membrane thickness, and area density of the inner leaflet decrease with increasing the arm length. These results indicate that for NBs with longer arms, the extent of interdigitation in the membrane rises so that the overcrowded arms in the inner corona are relaxed. The transport and mechanical properties are evaluated as well. As the arm length grows, the permeability increases significantly because the steric bulk of tethered arms loosens the packing of NBs. By contrast, the membrane tension decreases owing to the reduction of NB/solvent contacts by the polymer corona. Although fusion can reduce membrane tension, NB vesicles show strong resistance to fusion. Moreover, the size-dependent behavior observed in small liposomes is not significant for NB vesicles due to isotropic geometry of NB. Our simulation results are consistent with the experimental findings.

  6. Experimental study and thermodynamic modeling for determining the effect of non-polar solvent (hexane)/polar solvent (methanol) ratio and moisture content on the lipid extraction efficiency from Chlorella vulgaris. (United States)

    Malekzadeh, Mohammad; Abedini Najafabadi, Hamed; Hakim, Maziar; Feilizadeh, Mehrzad; Vossoughi, Manouchehr; Rashtchian, Davood


    In this research, organic solvent composed of hexane and methanol was used for lipid extraction from dry and wet biomass of Chlorella vulgaris. The results indicated that lipid and fatty acid extraction yield was decreased by increasing the moisture content of biomass. However, the maximum extraction efficiency was attained by applying equivolume mixture of hexane and methanol for both dry and wet biomass. Thermodynamic modeling was employed to estimate the effect of hexane/methanol ratio and moisture content on fatty acid extraction yield. Hansen solubility parameter was used in adjusting the interaction parameters of the model, which led to decrease the number of tuning parameters from 6 to 2. The results indicated that the model can accurately estimate the fatty acid recovery with average absolute deviation percentage (AAD%) of 13.90% and 15.00% for the two cases of using 6 and 2 adjustable parameters, respectively.

  7. A solvent tolerant isolate of Enterobacter aerogenes. (United States)

    Gupta, Anshu; Singh, Rajni; Khare, S K; Gupta, M N


    A solvent tolerant strain of Enterobacter aerogenes was isolated from soil by cyclohexane enrichment. Presence of cyclohexane (20%) in culture media prolonged the lag phase and caused reduction in biomass. Transmission electron micrographs showed convoluted cell membrane and accumulation of solvent in case of the cells grown in cyclohexane. The Enterobacter isolate was able to grow in the range of organic solvents having log P above 3.2 and also in presence of mercury, thus showing potential for treatment of solvent rich wastes.

  8. 异丙醇-环己烷混合溶剂浸出菜籽饼溶剂的分离回收工艺研究%Separation and recovery of mixed solvents from rapeseed cake leached by isopropanol and cyclohexane

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘大良; 张韩芳; 魏冰; 杨帆; 孟橘


    On the basis of oil extraction from rapeseed cake by mixed solvents of isopropanol and cyclohexane, extraction conditions of rapeseed cake, removal of impurities (polysaccharide) from miscella, separation and recovery of mixed solvents and desolventizing of wet meal and miscella were studied. The optimal conditions were obtained as follows:moisture content of rapeseed cake less than 10% ,leaching temperature 62℃,ratio of liquid to solid 3:1,mixed solvents 95% isopropanol and cyclohexane(3:1) , washing temperature of miscella 60℃, dosage of hot water 0.8-1 times of 95% isopropanol,evaporation temperature of isopropanol water solution 100℃, mass fraction of potassium carbonate solution in salting -out extraction 50% , volume ratio of 50% potassium carbonate solution to 95% isopropanol 2:1 and evaporation temperature of potassium carbonate solution 59℃under vacuum of 0.095 MPa.%在异丙醇-环己烷混合溶剂浸出菜籽饼工艺研究的基础上,进一步对浸出菜籽饼的浸出条件、混合油中多糖类杂质的脱除、混合溶剂的分离回收、湿粕的脱溶、混合油的脱溶等进行研究.得出适宜的工艺条件为:菜籽饼水分含量小于10%,浸出温度62℃,液料比3∶1,浸出溶剂95%异丙醇-环己烷(3∶1);混合油水洗温度60℃,热水加入量0.8~1倍95%异丙醇;异丙醇水溶液蒸发温度100℃,盐效萃取中碳酸钾溶液的质量分数50%,50%碳酸钾溶液与95%异丙醇体积比2∶1;碳酸钾溶液的蒸发温度59℃,真空度0.095 MPa.

  9. Limit of Superheat of Polystyrene-Cyclohexane Solutions: Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Howland Jennings


    Full Text Available A theory for the surface tension of polymer solutions is used along with classical nucleation theory to predict the temperature rise above the solvent limit of superheat due to addition of polymer.  Polystyrene, of 2000 and 4000 molecular weight, was added to cyclohexane and it produced a linear rise in the superheat to an extent that depends upon both molecular weight and concentration.  The theory is used in the athermal case (dT = 0 to give the additional temperature rise with respect to weight fraction.

  10. Balancing Hydrogen Bonding and van der Waals Interactions in Cyclohexane-Based Bisamide and Bisurea Organogelators

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zweep, Nick; Hopkinson, Andrew; Meetsma, Auke; Browne, Wesley R.; Feringa, Ben L.; van Esch, Jan H.; Zweep, Niek


    The solvent dependence of the gelation properties, the thermotropic behavior, and the melting enthalpy of a series of enantiomerically pure cyclohexane-based bisamide and bisurea compounds are reported. The two series of gelators examined are related structurally with the intermolecular interactions

  11. Selective oxidation of cyclohexane on a novel catalyst Mg-Cu/SBA-15 by molecular oxygen. (United States)

    Duan, Xiaogang; Liu, Weimin; Yue, Lumin; Fu, Wei; Ha, Minh Ngoc; Li, Jun; Lu, Guanzhong


    The novel catalysts xMg-2.3Cu/SBA-15 with copper and magnesium oxide co-supported on mesoporous silica were synthesized by an impregnation method. The newly synthesized catalysts were characterized using a series of techniques such as BET, XRD, H2-TPR, UV-vis, XPS, EDS and TEM. The catalytic performance was evaluated by using selective oxidation of cyclohexane with molecular oxygen as the oxidant in a solvent free system. The incorporation of magnesium improved the dispersion of copper oxide and prevented the deep oxidation of cyclohexanol and cyclohexanone. The selectivity of K/A oil was up to 99.3% with 12% conversion of cyclohexane over the 1.2Mg-2.3Cu/SBA-15 catalyst. To our knowledge, this is the best result for the heterogeneous oxidation of cyclohexane by O2.

  12. Measuring experimental cyclohexane-water distribution coefficients for the SAMPL5 challenge (United States)

    Rustenburg, Ariën S.; Dancer, Justin; Lin, Baiwei; Feng, Jianwen A.; Ortwine, Daniel F.; Mobley, David L.; Chodera, John D.


    Small molecule distribution coefficients between immiscible nonaqueuous and aqueous phases—such as cyclohexane and water—measure the degree to which small molecules prefer one phase over another at a given pH. As distribution coefficients capture both thermodynamic effects (the free energy of transfer between phases) and chemical effects (protonation state and tautomer effects in aqueous solution), they provide an exacting test of the thermodynamic and chemical accuracy of physical models without the long correlation times inherent to the prediction of more complex properties of relevance to drug discovery, such as protein-ligand binding affinities. For the SAMPL5 challenge, we carried out a blind prediction exercise in which participants were tasked with the prediction of distribution coefficients to assess its potential as a new route for the evaluation and systematic improvement of predictive physical models. These measurements are typically performed for octanol-water, but we opted to utilize cyclohexane for the nonpolar phase. Cyclohexane was suggested to avoid issues with the high water content and persistent heterogeneous structure of water-saturated octanol phases, since it has greatly reduced water content and a homogeneous liquid structure. Using a modified shake-flask LC-MS/MS protocol, we collected cyclohexane/water distribution coefficients for a set of 53 druglike compounds at pH 7.4. These measurements were used as the basis for the SAMPL5 Distribution Coefficient Challenge, where 18 research groups predicted these measurements before the experimental values reported here were released. In this work, we describe the experimental protocol we utilized for measurement of cyclohexane-water distribution coefficients, report the measured data, propose a new bootstrap-based data analysis procedure to incorporate multiple sources of experimental error, and provide insights to help guide future iterations of this valuable exercise in predictive modeling.

  13. Energetic analyses of chair and boat conformations of maleimide substituted cyclohexane derivatives. (United States)

    Remmert, Sarah; Parish, Carol


    An analysis of the conformational preferences of two maleimide substituted cyclohexane derivatives proposed as scaffolds for HIV-1 fusion inhibitors is presented. Hybrid Low Mode-Monte Carlo (1:1) conformational searches using seven different force fields were performed in combination with the GBSA(water) solvent model. Low energy structures identified in this way were subjected to geometry optimization on the B3LYP/6-31G** surface. Solvent effects were included in the quantum calculation using the self-consistent reaction field model for water. Quantum results indicate that the 1,3,5-maleimide functionalized 1,3,5-methyl cyclohexane is more stable in the boat conformation, whereas 1,3,5-maleimide functionalized cyclohexane adopts the expected chair conformation with equatorial arms. None of the force fields studied was able to predict the unexpected preference for the boat conformation of 1,3,5-maleimide functionalized 1,3,5-methyl cyclohexane. Comparison of low energy and experimental structures was also performed.

  14. A molecular dynamics study of intramolecular proton transfer reaction of malonaldehyde in solution based upon a mixed quantum–classical approximation. II. Proton transfer reaction in non-polar solvent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kojima, H.; Yamada, A.; Okazaki, S., E-mail: [Department of Applied Chemistry, Nagoya University, Furo-cho, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya 464-8603 (Japan)


    The intramolecular proton transfer reaction of malonaldehyde in neon solvent has been investigated by mixed quantum–classical molecular dynamics (QCMD) calculations and fully classical molecular dynamics (FCMD) calculations. Comparing these calculated results with those for malonaldehyde in water reported in Part I [A. Yamada, H. Kojima, and S. Okazaki, J. Chem. Phys. 141, 084509 (2014)], the solvent dependence of the reaction rate, the reaction mechanism involved, and the quantum effect therein have been investigated. With FCMD, the reaction rate in weakly interacting neon is lower than that in strongly interacting water. However, with QCMD, the order of the reaction rates is reversed. To investigate the mechanisms in detail, the reactions were categorized into three mechanisms: tunneling, thermal activation, and barrier vanishing. Then, the quantum and solvent effects were analyzed from the viewpoint of the reaction mechanism focusing on the shape of potential energy curve and its fluctuations. The higher reaction rate that was found for neon in QCMD compared with that found for water solvent arises from the tunneling reactions because of the nearly symmetric double-well shape of the potential curve in neon. The thermal activation and barrier vanishing reactions were also accelerated by the zero-point energy. The number of reactions based on these two mechanisms in water was greater than that in neon in both QCMD and FCMD because these reactions are dominated by the strength of solute–solvent interactions.

  15. Detailed Chemical Kinetic Modeling of Cyclohexane Oxidation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silke, E J; Pitz, W J; Westbrook, C K; Ribaucour, M


    A detailed chemical kinetic mechanism has been developed and used to study the oxidation of cyclohexane at both low and high temperatures. Reaction rate constant rules are developed for the low temperature combustion of cyclohexane. These rules can be used for in chemical kinetic mechanisms for other cycloalkanes. Since cyclohexane produces only one type of cyclohexyl radical, much of the low temperature chemistry of cyclohexane is described in terms of one potential energy diagram showing the reaction of cyclohexyl radical + O{sub 2} through five, six and seven membered ring transition states. The direct elimination of cyclohexene and HO{sub 2} from RO{sub 2} is included in the treatment using a modified rate constant of Cavallotti et al. Published and unpublished data from the Lille rapid compression machine, as well as jet-stirred reactor data are used to validate the mechanism. The effect of heat loss is included in the simulations, an improvement on previous studies on cyclohexane. Calculations indicated that the production of 1,2-epoxycyclohexane observed in the experiments can not be simulated based on the current understanding of low temperature chemistry. Possible 'alternative' H-atom isomerizations leading to different products from the parent O{sub 2}QOOH radical were included in the low temperature chemical kinetic mechanism and were found to play a significant role.

  16. Analyzing Benzene and Cyclohexane Emulsion Droplet Collisions on Ultramicroelectrodes. (United States)

    Li, Yan; Deng, Haiqiang; Dick, Jeffrey E; Bard, Allen J


    We report the collisions of single emulsion oil droplets with extremely low dielectric constants (e.g., benzene, ε of 2.27, or cyclohexane, ε of 2.02) as studied via emulsion droplet reactor (EDR) on an ultramicroelectrode (UME). By applying appropriate potentials to the UME, we observed the electrochemical effects of single-collision signals from the bulk electrolysis of single emulsion droplets. Different hydrophobic redox species (ferrocene, decamethyl-ferrocene, or metalloporphyrin) were trapped in a mixed benzene (or cyclohexane) oil-in-water emulsion using an ionic liquid as the supporting electrolyte and emulsifier. The emulsions were prepared using ultrasonic processing. Spike-like responses were observed in each i-t response due to the complete electrolysis of all of the above-mentioned redox species within the droplet. On the basis of these single-particle collision results, the collision frequency, size distribution, i-t decay behavior of the emulsion droplets, and possible mechanisms are analyzed and discussed. This work demonstrated that bulk electrolysis can be achieved in a few seconds in these attoliter reactors, suggesting many applications, such as analysis and electrosynthesis in low dielectric constant solvents, which have a much broader potential window.

  17. Additive diffusion from LDPE slabs into contacting solvents as a function of solvent absorption

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Helmroth, I.E.; Dekker, M.; Hankemeier, Th.


    This article describes the simultaneous diffusion of a migrant and a solvent in low density polyethylene (LDPE). The migrant (Irganox 1076) moves out of the slab, while the solvent (isooctane, n-heptane or cyclohexane) moves inwards. Solvent absorption was measured separately by following the increa

  18. Additive Diffusion from LDPE Slabs into Contacting Solvents as a Function of Solvent Absorption

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Helmroth, I.E.; Dekker, M.; Hankemeier, T.


    This article describes the simultaneous diffusion of a migrant and a solvent in low density polyethylene (LDPE). The migrant (Irganox 1076) moves out of the slab, while the solvent (isooctane, n-heptane or cyclohexane) moves inwards. Solvent absorption was measured separately by following the increa

  19. Thermomolecular Orientation of Nonpolar Fluids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Römer, F.; Bresme, F.; Muscatello, J.; Bedeaux, D.; Rubi, J.M.


    We investigate the response of molecular fluids to temperature gradients. Using nonequilibrium molecular dynamics computer simulations we show that nonpolar diatomic fluids adopt a preferred orientation as a response to a temperature gradient. We find that the magnitude of this thermomolecular orien

  20. An ab initio investigation of the Buckingham birefringence of furan, thiophene, and selenophene in cyclohexane solution (United States)

    Rizzo, Antonio; Frediani, Luca; Ruud, Kenneth


    Using a recently developed quadratic response methodology for the calculation of frequency-dependent third-order properties of molecules in solution, we investigate the Buckingham birefringence of furan, thiophene, and selenophene in cyclohexane solution. These systems are chosen since accurate experimental data are available, allowing for a direct comparison of experimental observations with our theoretical estimates. Our model for describing the solvent effects is based on a dielectric continuum approach for the solvent, and uses a molecule-shaped cavity. Our results show qualitatively different Buckingham constants and effective quadrupole centers calculated with and without the solvent, and only when the solvent is included are the qualitative trends observed experimentally reproduced. It is demonstrated that a significant part of this effect arises from the geometry relaxation of the molecules in the solvent.

  1. NMR relaxation and micro-imaging study of polystyrene in concentrated cyclohexane solution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    毛诗珍; 丁广良; 袁汉珍; 冯汉桥; 杜有如


    13C-NMR relaxation times of polystyrene (PS) in its 8 solvent, cyclohexane, are measured at different temperatures. A two-step model for the dissolution is proposed. Swelling of the polymer below the 8 temperature is eventually the dispersion of the side group phenyl rings only. While above the 6 temperature, complete dissolution is the dispersion of the main chain at a molecular level. The results of T1(C) are confirmed by 1H-NMR imaging. NMR and its imaging are powerful tools to study the dynamic behavior of dissolution process of polymers in their 6 solvents.

  2. Solvent-Dependent Structure of Iridium Dihydride Complexes: Different Geometries at Low and High Dielectricity of the Medium. (United States)

    Polukeev, Alexey V; Marcos, Rocío; Ahlquist, Mårten S G; Wendt, Ola F


    The hydride iridium pincer complex [(PCyP)IrH2] (PCyP=cis-1,3-bis[(di-tert-butylphosphino)methyl]cyclohexane, 1) reveals remarkably solvent-dependent hydride chemical shifts, isotope chemical shifts, JHD and T1(min), with rHH increasing upon moving to more polar medium. The only known example of such behaviour (complex [(POCOP)IrH2], POCOP=2,6-(tBu2PO)2C6H3) was explained by the coordination of a polar solvent molecule to the iridium (J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2006, 128, 17114). Based on the existence of an agostic bond between α-C-H and iridium in 1 in all solvents, we argue that the coordination of solvent can be rejected. DFT calculations revealed that the structures of 1 and [(POCOP)IrH2] depend on the dielectric permittivity of the medium and these compounds adopt trigonal-bipyramidal geometries in non-polar media and square-pyramidal geometries in polar media.

  3. Theoretical study of chlorophyll a hydrates formation in aqueous organic solvents. (United States)

    Ben Fredj, Arij; Ruiz-López, Manuel F


    A theoretical analysis of chlorophyll a (Chla) hydration processes in aqueous organic solvents has been carried out by means of quantum chemistry calculations. A detailed knowledge of the thermodynamics of these processes is fundamental in order to better understand the organization of chlorophyll molecules in vivo, specifically the structure of chlorophyll pairs in photosystems I and II. In the present work, we assumed a Chla model in which the phytyl chain is replaced by a methyl group. Calculations were performed at the B3LYP/6-31G(d) level corrected for basis set superposition errors and dispersion interaction energy. This computational scheme was previously shown to provide data close to MP2/6-311++(2d,2p) results. Solvents effects were taken into account using either continuum (for nonpolar solvents) or discrete-continuum (for polar coordinating solvents) methods. In the latter case, we first examined the structure of Chla in rigorously dry solutions. Two types of solvents were characterized according to Mg-atom coordination: In type I solvents (acetone, acetonitrile, DMSO), Mg exhibits five-coordination, whereas in type II solvents (THF, pyridine), Mg exhibits six-coordination. Hydration processes are quite dependent on solvent nature. In nonpolar or low-polarity solvents such as cyclohexane or chloroform, hydration is always exothermic and exergonic, despite a large entropy term that strongly opposes hydration. In polar solvents of type II, hydration is quite unfavorable, and essentially no hydrates are expected in these media, except perhaps at very large water concentrations (although, in such a case, the medium cannot be simply described as an organic solvent). In polar solvents of type I, the situation is intermediate, and dihydration is favorable in some cases (acetone, acetonitrile) and unfavorable in others (DMSO). It is interesting to note that first hydration processes in coordinating solvents (of either type I or type II), where a water molecule

  4. Vapor-liquid (VLE) and liquid-liquid (LLE) phase equilibria calculations for polystyrene plus methyleyclohexane and polystyrene plus cyclohexane solutions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wilczura-Wachnik, H.; Jonsdottir, Svava Osk


    This paper presents the vapor-liquid (VLE) and liquid-liquid (LLE) phase equilibria predictions for polystyrene in two theta solvents: cyclohexane and methylcyclohexane. VLE calculations were performed with the Elbro free volume method and a modified version of the PC-SAFT method, as well...... as with three UNIFAC type group contribution models: Entropic Free Volume + UNIFAC VLE 1 coeff., Entropic Free Volume + UNIFAC VLE 2coeff., and Oishi-Prausnitz + UNIFAC VLE 2coeff. Solvent activities were calculated for the polystyrene + cyclohexane and polystyrene + methylcyclohcxane solutions, and compared...

  5. Thermomolecular orientation of nonpolar fluids. (United States)

    Römer, Frank; Bresme, Fernando; Muscatello, Jordan; Bedeaux, Dick; Rubí, J Miguel


    We investigate the response of molecular fluids to temperature gradients. Using nonequilibrium molecular dynamics computer simulations we show that nonpolar diatomic fluids adopt a preferred orientation as a response to a temperature gradient. We find that the magnitude of this thermomolecular orientation effect is proportional to the strength of the temperature gradient and the degree of molecular anisotropy, as defined by the different size or mass of the molecular atomic sites. We show that the preferred orientation of the molecules follows the same trends observed in the Soret effect of binary mixtures. We argue this is a general effect that should be observed in a wide range of length scales.

  6. Far infrared studies of solid cyclohexane (United States)

    Sciesinska, E.; Sciesinski, J.; Wasiutynski, T.; Godlewska, M.; Wurflinger, A.


    Far infrared spectra of cyclohexane C 6H 12 in the frequency range of 100 - 650 cm -1 and C 6D 12 in the range of 50 - 650 cm -1 for phases I and II were measured at various temperatures. In the spectra some Raman active internal modes are observed. Four crystal multiplet components of the ν 16(e u) mode for phase II are resolved and assigned using the oriented gas model. Temperature dependence of the ν 32(e u) and ν 16(a 2u) vibrational excitons for phase II is discussed.

  7. Influence of solvent absorption on the migration of Irganox 1076 from LDPE

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Helmroth, I.E.; Dekker, M.; Hankemeier, T.


    The effect of solvent absorption on additive migration was studied by relating the diffusion coefficient (D) of Irganox 1076 to the maximum solvent absorption of different solvents in low-density polyethylene (LDPE) film. Solvents tested were ethanol, isopropanol, isooctane, ethylacetate, cyclohexan

  8. Toward Consistent Terminology for Cyclohexane Conformers in Introductory Organic Chemistry (United States)

    Nelson, Donna J.; Brammer, Christopher N.


    Recommended changes in use of cyclohexane conformers and their nomenclature will remedy inconsistencies in cyclohexane conformers and their nomenclature that exist across currently used organic chemistry textbooks. These inconsistencies prompted this logical analysis and the resulting recommendations. Recommended conformer names are "chair",…

  9. Raman spectroscopic study of cyclohexane at pressures below 1000 MPa (United States)

    Qiao, Erwei; Zheng, Haifei


    At present, the room temperature freezing pressure of cyclohexane is still uncertain, and the phase transition pressure of solid I - solid III is not reliable at ambient temperature. In this work, we have performed a Raman spectroscopic study of cyclohexane in a Moissanite anvil cell at pressures below 1000 MPa at 25 °C, and analyzed the characteristic of Raman brands νs(CH2), νas(CH2) and νb(Ring). Two phase transition pressures 80 MPa and 550 MPa were determined by a quartz pressure gauge, and they are the room temperature freezing pressure of cyclohexane and the phase transition pressure of solid I to solid III, respectively. Furthermore, from the phase diagram of cyclohexane, it is inferred that pressure plays an important role on the stability of cyclohexane as the main constituent of oil, and it can be beneficial to understanding the formation, migration and preservation of petroleum in subterranean rock strata.

  10. Vapor-liquid (VLE) and liquid-liquid (LLE) phase equilibria calculations for polystyrene plus methyleyclohexane and polystyrene plus cyclohexane solutions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wilczura-Wachnik, H.; Jonsdottir, Svava Osk


    This paper presents the vapor-liquid (VLE) and liquid-liquid (LLE) phase equilibria predictions for polystyrene in two theta solvents: cyclohexane and methylcyclohexane. VLE calculations were performed with the Elbro free volume method and a modified version of the PC-SAFT method, as well...

  11. Pulse radiolysis of solutions of stilbene. 2. Ionic and free radical species in benzene and cyclohexane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robinson, E.A.; Salmon, G.A.


    The spectra of the radical cation and anion of trans-stilbene in benzene and cyclohexane have been resolved using various electron and positive charge scavengers. The decay of the ions is second order in both solvents. In cyclohexane only part of the yield of solvent cations is scavengeable by trans-stilbene; in benzene the stilbene cation is converted to the dimer in the presence of high stilbene concentrations. The electron scavengers N/sub 2/O and c-C/sub 6/F/sub 12/ compete directly with trans-stilbene for electrons and we deduce rate constants for the reactions of electrons with c-C/sub 6/F/sub 12/ and trans-stilbene of (1.2 +- 0.6) x 10/sup 12/ and (0.72 +- 0.5) x 10/sup 12/ M/sup -1/ s/sup -1/, respectively. SF/sub 6/ reduces the yield of trans-stilbene anion more efficiently than can be attributed solely to electron scavenging and it is shown that electron transfer from trans-stilbene anion to SF/sub 6/ occurs at a rate constant, k/sub 4/ = (3.9 +- 0.4) x 10/sup 9/ M/sup -1/ s/sup -1/. The presence of either aniline or n-butylamine causes enhancement of the yield of stilbene anion, the effect being particularly marked in the case of aniline. Possible explanations of the effect are considered. It is proposed that the UV absorptions are due to radical species, which in cyclohexane solution are most probably formed by the addition of cyclohexyl radicals to the olefinic double bond of the stilbenes.

  12. Highly organosoluble and transparent polyamides containing cyclohexane and trifluoromethyl moieties: Synthesis and characterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)


    Full Text Available New aromatic diamine with cyclohexane moiety substituted with trifluoromethyl group in the side chain, 4,4’-(cyclohexane-1,4-diylbis(oxybis(3-(trifluoromethylaniline (2, was successfully synthesized through the Williamson reaction of 1,4-cyclohexanediol and 2-chloro-5-nitrobenzotrifluoride, to yield the intermediate dinitro compound 1, followed by catalytic reduction with hydrazine and Pd/C to afford the diamine 2. This diamine monomer leads to a series of organic-soluble polyamides (4a–d when reacted with different commercially available aromatic diacids (a–d via a direct polycondensation with triphenyl phosphite and pyridine. The resulting polymers had inherent viscosities ranging from 0.89 to 1.29 dl/g. All the polymers showed outstanding solubility and could be easily dissolved in amide-type polar aprotic solvents and even dissolved in less polar solvents. All the polymers formed transparent, strong, and flexible films with tensile strengths of 54–68 MPa, Young’s moduli of 1.6–1.9 GPa, and elongations at break of 13.3–15.5%. These polyamide films have low dielectric constants of 2.15–2.88 at 1 MHz and low water absorptions of 1.96–2.84%. Wide-angle X-ray diffraction measurements revealed that these polyamides were amorphous in nature.

  13. Covalent and non-covalent functionalization and solubilization of double-walled carbon nanotubes in nonpolar and aqueous media

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    L S Panchakarla; A Govindaraj


    Double-walled carbon nanotubes (DWNTs) have been functionalized by both covalent and non-covalent means. Covalent functionalization has been carried out by attaching an aliphatic amide function to DWNTs which enable solubilization in non-polar solvents. Solubilization in non-polar solvents has also been accomplished by non-covalent functionalization by using 1-pyrenebutanoicacid succinimidyl ester (PYBS). Non-covalent functionalization of DWNTs has been carried out by using polyethylene glycol (PEG) and polyoxyethylene(40)nonylphenyl ether (IGPAL), both of which enable solubilization in aqueous media. These functionalized DWNTs have been characterized by transmission electron microscopy, IR and Raman spectroscopy.

  14. Dramatic effects of halogen substitution and solvent on the rates and mechanisms of nucleophilic substitution reactions of aziridines. (United States)

    Banks, Harold D


    In a previous study we reported that fluorine substitution at the carbon positions of aziridine results in profound enhancements of the rate of reaction with ammonia, a typical nucleophile, in the gas phase. In this study the investigation is extended to include chloro- and bromoaziridines. Because syntheses are largely performed in the condensed phase, the present computational investigation [(MP2(Full)/6-311++G(d,p)//MP2(Full)/6-31+G(d) level] was conducted with three typical solvents that cover a wide range of polarity: THF, CH3CN, and H2O. Nucleophiles can react with haloaziridines 1 by displacing a substituted amide ion by means of an SN2 mechanism (pathway a), producing 1,2-diaminohaloethanes (from the initially formed dipolar species 2). Alternatively, a rearrangement mechanism involving rate-determining departure of a halide ion (pathway b) to form an imidoyl halide, 3, is possible. Transition-state theory was used to compute relative reaction rates of these mechanistic possibilities and to assess the role of the halogen substituents and the reaction solvent. Gas-phase results provided the basis of mechanistic insights that were more apparent in the absence of intermolecular interactions. Fluoroaziridines were found to react at accelerated rates relative to aziridine exclusively by means of the a Menshutkin-type mechanism (SN2) in each solvent tested, while the reactions of the chloro- and bromoaziridines could be directed toward 2 in the highly nonpolar solvent, cyclohexane, or toward 3 in the more polar solvents. An assessment is made of the feasibility of using this chemistry of the haloazirdines in the synthetic laboratory.

  15. Gold nanoparticles supported on mesoporous silica: origin of high activity and role of Au NPs in selective oxidation of cyclohexane (United States)

    Wu, Pingping; Bai, Peng; Yan, Zifeng; Zhao, George X. S.


    Homogeneous immobilization of gold nanoparticles (Au NPs) on mesoporous silica has been achieved by using a one-pot synthesis method in the presence of organosilane mercapto-propyl-trimethoxysilane (MPTMS). The resultant Au NPs exhibited an excellent catalytic activity in the solvent-free selective oxidation of cyclohexane using molecular oxygen. By establishing the structure-performance relationship, the origin of the high activity of mesoporous supported Au catalyst was identified to be due to the presence of low-coordinated Au (0) sites with high dispersion. Au NPs were confirmed to play a critical role in the catalytic oxidation of cyclohexane by promoting the activation of O2 molecules and accelerating the formation of surface-active oxygen species.

  16. Birefringent non-polarizing thin film design

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QI Hongji; HONG Ruijin; HE Hongbo; SHAO Jianda; FAN Zhengxiu


    In this paper, 2×2 characteristic matrices of uniaxially anisotropic thin film for extraordinary and ordinary wave are deduced at oblique incidence. Furthermore, the reflectance and transmittance of thin films are calculated separately for two polarizations, which provide a new concept for designing non-polarizing thin films at oblique incidence. Besides, using the multilayer birefringent thin films, non-polarizing designs, such as beam splitter thin film at single wavelength, edge filter and antireflection thin film over visible spectral region are obtained at oblique incidence.

  17. Conformational preferences of 1-amino-2-phenylcyclohexanecarboxylic acid, a phenylalanine cyclohexane analogue. (United States)

    Alemán, Carlos; Jiménez, Ana I; Cativiela, Carlos; Nussinov, Ruth; Casanovas, Jordi


    The intrinsic conformational preferences of the restricted phenylalanine analogue generated by including the alpha and beta carbon atoms into a cyclohexane ring (1-amino-2-phenylcyclohexanecarboxylic acid, c(6)Phe) have been determined using quantum mechanical calculations. Specifically, the conformational profile of the N-acetyl-N'-methylamide derivative of the c(6)Phe stereoisomers exhibiting either a cis or a trans relative orientation between the amino and phenyl substituents has been analyzed in different environments (gas phase, chloroform, and aqueous solutions). Calculations were performed using B3LYP, MP2, and HF methods combined with the 6-31+G(d,p) and 6-311++G(d,p) basis sets, and a self-consistent reaction-field (SCRF) method was applied to analyze the influence of the solvent. The amino acids investigated can be viewed as constrained phenylalanine analogues with a rigidly oriented aromatic side chain that may interact with the peptide backbone not only sterically but also electronically through the aromatic pi orbitals. Their conformational propensities have been found to be strongly influenced by the specific orientation of the aromatic substituent in each stereoisomer and the conformation adopted by the cyclohexane ring, as well as by the environment.

  18. Silylation of montmorillonite surfaces: dependence on solvent nature. (United States)

    Su, Linna; Tao, Qi; He, Hongping; Zhu, Jianxi; Yuan, Peng; Zhu, Runliang


    Silylation of clay mineral surfaces has attracted much attention due to their extensive applications in materials science and environmental engineering. Silylation of montmorillonite surfaces with 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane was carried out in polar-protic and nonpolar solvents. The swelling property of the silylated montmorillonites was investigated by intercalating with cetyltrimethylammonium bromide. Silylated montmorillonites prepared in nonpolar solvents showed a larger amount of loaded silane and a higher extent of condensation among different silane molecules, comparing with those prepared in polar-protic solvents with high dielectric constant. Meanwhile, the silylated montmorillonites prepared in nonpolar solvents displayed poor swelling property due to the linkage between silane oligomers and clay layers, that is, the neighboring clay layers were locked by the silane oligomers. The present study demonstrated that the polarity of the solvents used had an important influence on the extent of grafting, interlayer structure, and swelling property of the silylated products. This is of high importance for synthesis and application of silylated clay minerals.

  19. Solubilization of benzene and cyclohexane by sodium deoxycholate micelles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christian, S.D.; Smith, L.S.; Bushong, D.S.; Tucker, E.E.


    Vapor pressure-solubility data were obtained for the aqueous systems benzene-sodium deoxycholate and cyclohexane- sodium deoxycholate at 25/sup 0/C. The results are consistent with a mass action model similar to the BET equation. Equilibrium constants are inferred to characterize interactions of hydrocarbons with solubilization sites assumed to consist of units of four deoxycholate anions. Although addition of sodium chloride increases the middle aggregation number, solubilization results are affected very little by variation in salt concentration. When pure liquid hydrocarbon standard states are employed, solubilization results for benzene and cyclohexane (at varying salt concentrations) are quite similar. 26 references.

  20. RuO2 supported on V2O5–Al2O3 material as heterogeneous catalyst for cyclohexane oxidation reaction

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Yasmina Nesrine Tchenar; Abderrahim Choukchou-Braham; Redouane Bachir


    RuO2 supported on V2O5–Al2O3 mixed oxide material was prepared by impregnation method and characterized by XRD, nitrogen adsorption–desorption, SEM, UV-visible and FT–IR spectroscopic techniques. The catalytic activity of the prepared catalyst was evaluated for the liquid-phase oxidation of cyclohexane under mild conditions. In this reaction, conversion of cyclohexane to cyclohexanol and cyclohexanone and the selectivity ratio of cyclohexanol to cyclohexanone were greatly affected by the solvent and the oxidant agent used. The results show that the catalyst exhibit good conversion in polar solvents. The use of acetic acid gives more than 26% conversion in presence of TBHP as oxidant and an ∼40% conversion with hydrogen peroxide as oxidant in presence of an initiator, with 92% selectivity for cyclohexanol product.

  1. Catalytic oxidation of cyclohexane to cyclohexanone and cyclohexanol by tert-butyl hydroperoxide over Pt/oxide catalysts

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    I Rekkab-Hammoumraoui; A Choukchou-Braham; L Pirault-Roy; C Kappenstein


    Heterogeneous oxidation of cyclohexane with tertiobutyl hydroperoxide was carried out on Pt/oxide (Al2O3, TiO2 and ZrO2) catalysts in the presence of different solvents (acetic acid and acetonitrile). The catalysts were prepared using Pt(NH3)2(NO2)2 as a precursor and characterized by chemical analysis using the ICP–AES method, XRD, TEM, FTIR and BET surface area determination. The oxidation reaction was carried out at 70°C under atmospheric pressure. The results showed the catalytic performance of Pt/Al2O3 as being very high in terms of turnover frequency.

  2. Proteomic analysis of Pseudomonas putida reveals an organic solvent tolerance-related gene mmsB.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ye Ni

    Full Text Available Organic solvents are toxic to most microorganisms. However, some organic-solvent-tolerant (OST bacteria tolerate the destructive effects of organic solvent through various accommodative mechanisms. In this work, we developed an OST adapted strain Pseudomonas putida JUCT1 that could grow in the presence of 60% (v/v cyclohexane. Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis was used to compare and analyze the total cellular protein of P. putida JUCT1 growing with or without 60% (v/v cyclohexane. Under different solvent conditions, five high-abundance protein spots whose intensity values show over 60% discrepancies were identified by MALDI-TOF/TOF spectra. Specifically, they are arginine deiminase, carbon-nitrogen hydrolase family putative hydrolase, 3-hydroxyisobutyrate dehydrogenase, protein chain elongation factor EF-Ts, and isochorismatase superfamily hydrolase. The corresponding genes of the latter three proteins, mmsB, tsf, and PSEEN0851, were separately expressed in Escherichia coli to evaluate their effect on OST properties of the host strain. In the presence of 4% (v/v cyclohexane, E. coli harboring mmsB could grow to 1.70 OD(660, whereas cell growth of E. coli JM109 (the control was completely inhibited by 2% (v/v cyclohexane. Transformants carrying tsf or PSEEN0851 also showed an increased resistance to cyclohexane and other organic solvents compared with the control. Of these three genes, mmsB exhibited the most prominent effect on increasing OST of E. coli. Less oxidation product of cyclohexane was detected because mmsB transformants might help keep a lower intracellular cyclohexane level. This study demonstrates a feasible approach for elucidating OST mechanisms of microorganisms, and provides molecular basis to construct organic-solvent-tolerant strains for industrial applications.

  3. Indentation of polydimethylsiloxane submerged in organic solvents


    Hu, Yuhang; Chen, Xin; Whitesides, George McClelland; Vlassak, Joost J.; Suo, Zhigang


    This work uses a method based on indentation to characterize a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) elastomer submerged in an organic solvent (decane, heptane, pentane, or cyclohexane). An indenter is pressed into a disk of a swollen elastomer to a fixed depth, and the force on the indenter is recorded as a function of time. By examining how the relaxation time scales with the radius of contact, one can differentiate the poroelastic behavior from the viscoelastic behavior. By matching the relaxation c...

  4. Predicting cyclohexane/water distribution coefficients for the SAMPL5 challenge using MOSCED and the SMD solvation model (United States)

    Diaz-Rodriguez, Sebastian; Bozada, Samantha M.; Phifer, Jeremy R.; Paluch, Andrew S.


    We present blind predictions using the solubility parameter based method MOSCED submitted for the SAMPL5 challenge on calculating cyclohexane/water distribution coefficients at 298 K. Reference data to parameterize MOSCED was generated with knowledge only of chemical structure by performing solvation free energy calculations using electronic structure calculations in the SMD continuum solvent. To maintain simplicity and use only a single method, we approximate the distribution coefficient with the partition coefficient of the neutral species. Over the final SAMPL5 set of 53 compounds, we achieved an average unsigned error of 2.2± 0.2 log units (ranking 15 out of 62 entries), the correlation coefficient ( R) was 0.6± 0.1 (ranking 35), and 72± 6 % of the predictions had the correct sign (ranking 30). While used here to predict cyclohexane/water distribution coefficients at 298 K, MOSCED is broadly applicable, allowing one to predict temperature dependent infinite dilution activity coefficients in any solvent for which parameters exist, and provides a means by which an excess Gibbs free energy model may be parameterized to predict composition dependent phase-equilibrium.

  5. Extraction of rubidium by t-BAMBP in cyclohexane

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jiawei Wang; Dehua Che; Wei Qin


    4-Tert-butyl-2-(α-methylbenzyl) phenol (t-BAMBP) was used in cyclohexane in the extraction of rubidium from brine sources containing lithium. The effect of t-BAMBP concentration and aqueous phase pH on the rubidium and lithium extraction equilibrium was studied. t-BAMBP/cyclohexane was efficient and selective for rubidium extraction with optimal operating conditions being pH of 13.0 and initial t-BAMBP concentration of 1.0 mol·L−1. The stoichiometry of the complex of t-BAMBP with rubidium is 4:1. The apparent extraction equilibrium constant of rubidium was calculated by fitting the experimental data.

  6. (±-Cyclohexane-1,2-diyl bis(4-nitrobenzoate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Barker


    Full Text Available The crystal structure of the title compound, C20H18N2O8, has been investigated to establish the relative stereochemistry between the ester groups. The cyclohexane ring adopts a chair conformation, in which the two ester groups occupy the adjacent equatorial positions in a trans relationship with each other. The molecules assemble in the crystal as chains along the c axis via C—H...π interactions between the cyclohexane ring and a pair of nitrophenyl rings of the neighbouring molecule. Also observed are π–π stacking interactions between the nitrophenyl rings of neighbouring chains, with a perpendicular distance between these rings of 3.409 Å and a slippage of 0.969 Å.

  7. Factors affecting high-pressure solvent extraction (accelerated solvent extraction) of additives from polymers. (United States)

    Vandenburg, H J; Clifford, A A; Bartle, K D; Zhu, S A; Carroll, J; Newton, I D; Garden, L M


    Irganox 1010 (pentaerythritol tetrakis[3-(3,5-di-tert-butyl-4-hydroxyphenyl)] propionate) is successfully extracted from polypropylene using solvents at high temperatures and pressures in a homemade accelerated solvent extraction system. For example, using freeze-ground polymer, 90% extraction is possible within 5 min with 2-propanol at 150 °C. Extraction curves for 2-propanol and acetone fit well to the "hot ball" model, previously developed for supercritical fluid extraction. Diffusion coefficients are determined for extractions with 2-propanol, acetone, and cyclohexane over a range of temperatures, and the activation energies for the diffusion are 134, 107, and 61 kJ mol(-)(1), respectively. The lower figure for acetone and cyclohexane indicates that these solvents swell the polymer more than does 2-propanol. The polymer dissolves in the solvent at too high a temperature, which causes blockage of the transfer lines. For maximum extraction rates, the highest temperature for each solvent that avoids dissolution of the polymer should be used. The use of mixed solvents is investigated and shows advantages in some cases, with the aim of producing a solvent that will swell the polymer but not dissolve it.

  8. A novel three-dimensional Zn(II) coordination polymer with 1,3,5-tris(imidazol-1-ylmethyl)benzene and cyclohexane-1,3,5-tricarboxylate ligands. (United States)

    Zhong, Kai-Long


    In the Zn(II) compound poly[[bis(μ3-cyclohexane-1,3,5-tricarboxylato)bis[μ3-1,3,5-tris(imidazol-1-ylmethyl)benzene]trizinc(II)] hexahydrate], {[Zn3(C18H18N6)2(C9H9O6)2]·6H2O}n, based on mixed 1,3,5-tris(imidazol-1-ylmethyl)benzene and cyclohexane-1,3,5-tricarboxylate ligands, there are two types of crystallographically independent Zn(II) centres, one in a general position and one on a crystallographic twofold axis. They have similar fourfold distorted tetrahedral coordination geometries, ligated by two monodentate carboxylate groups from two cyclohexane-1,3,5-tricarboxylate ligands and by two N atoms from two 1,3,5-tris(imidazol-1-ylmethyl)benzene ligands. The cyclohexane-1,3,5-tricarboxylate anions link the Zn(II) cations to generate a two-dimensional layered metal-organic structure running parallel to the (201) plane. Adjacent layers are further connected by tripodal 1,3,5-tris(imidazol-1-ylmethyl)benzene ligands, resulting in a three-dimensional network. The solvent water molecules are linked to the cyclohexane-1,3,5-tricarboxylate ligands via water-carboxylate O-H···O hydrogen bonds.

  9. (Liquid + liquid) equilibria in ternary aqueous mixtures of phosphoric acid with organic solvents at T = 298.2 K

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghanadzadeh, H., E-mail: [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, University of Guilan, Rasht (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Guilan, Rasht (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Ghanadzadeh, A., E-mail: [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, University of Guilan, Rasht (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Aghajani, Z.; Abbasnejad, S.; Shekarsaraee, S. [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, University of Guilan, Rasht (Iran, Islamic Republic of)


    (Liquid + liquid) equilibrium (LLE) data for the ternary mixtures of left bracewater (1) + phosphoric acid (2) + organic solvents (3)right brace were determined at T = 298.2 K and atmospheric pressure. The organic solvents were cyclohexane, 2-methyl-2-butanol (tert-amyl alcohol), and isobutyl acetate. All the investigated systems exhibit Type-1 behaviour of LLE. The immiscibility region was found to be larger for the (water + phosphoric acid + cyclohexane) ternary system. The experimental LLE results were correlated with the NRTL model, and the binary interaction parameters were obtained. The reliability of the experimental tie-line results was tested through the Othmer-Tobias and Bachman correlation equations. Distribution coefficients and separation factors were evaluated over the immiscibility regions and a comparison of the extracting capabilities of the solvents was made with respect to these factors. The experimental results indicate the superiority of cyclohexane as the preferred solvent for the extraction of phosphoric acid from its aqueous solutions.

  10. The SAMPL5 challenge for embedded-cluster integral equation theory: solvation free energies, aqueous p K a, and cyclohexane-water log D (United States)

    Tielker, Nicolas; Tomazic, Daniel; Heil, Jochen; Kloss, Thomas; Ehrhart, Sebastian; Güssregen, Stefan; Schmidt, K. Friedemann; Kast, Stefan M.


    We predict cyclohexane-water distribution coefficients (log D 7.4) for drug-like molecules taken from the SAMPL5 blind prediction challenge by the "embedded cluster reference interaction site model" (EC-RISM) integral equation theory. This task involves the coupled problem of predicting both partition coefficients (log P) of neutral species between the solvents and aqueous acidity constants (p K a) in order to account for a change of protonation states. The first issue is addressed by calibrating an EC-RISM-based model for solvation free energies derived from the "Minnesota Solvation Database" (MNSOL) for both water and cyclohexane utilizing a correction based on the partial molar volume, yielding a root mean square error (RMSE) of 2.4 kcal mol-1 for water and 0.8-0.9 kcal mol-1 for cyclohexane depending on the parametrization. The second one is treated by employing on one hand an empirical p K a model (MoKa) and, on the other hand, an EC-RISM-derived regression of published acidity constants (RMSE of 1.5 for a single model covering acids and bases). In total, at most 8 adjustable parameters are necessary (2-3 for each solvent and two for the p K a) for training solvation and acidity models. Applying the final models to the log D 7.4 dataset corresponds to evaluating an independent test set comprising other, composite observables, yielding, for different cyclohexane parametrizations, 2.0-2.1 for the RMSE with the first and 2.2-2.8 with the combined first and second SAMPL5 data set batches. Notably, a pure log P model (assuming neutral species only) performs statistically similarly for these particular compounds. The nature of the approximations and possible perspectives for future developments are discussed.

  11. Predicting the Solution Morphology of a Sulfonated Pentablock Copolymer in an Arbitrary Solvent Mixture (United States)

    Ford, Jamie; Kyei-Manu, William; Winey, Karen


    Block copolymers self assemble into a wide array of morphologies in solvents. To predict the solution morphology of the polymer, we assess the interactions between the individual blocks and the solvent or solvents. Here, we use the Hansen solubility parameters to calculate the interactions between a library of solvents and an ABCBA pentablock copolymer with non-polar A and B blocks and a polar, sulfonated C block to predict the expected morphology for a given solvent and compare it to our small-angle X-ray scattering data. In non-polar solvents, we observe micelles with a C core and an A-B corona. We observe inverted micelles in polar solvents - an A-B core with a C corona. We extended our methodology to mixed polar/non-polar solvent systems to predict the solvent ratios corresponding to the transition from micelles to inverted micelles.

  12. Isolating the non-polar contributions to the intermolecular potential for water-alkane interactions. (United States)

    Ballal, Deepti; Venkataraman, Pradeep; Fouad, Wael A; Cox, Kenneth R; Chapman, Walter G


    Intermolecular potential models for water and alkanes describe pure component properties fairly well, but fail to reproduce properties of water-alkane mixtures. Understanding interactions between water and non-polar molecules like alkanes is important not only for the hydrocarbon industry but has implications to biological processes as well. Although non-polar solutes in water have been widely studied, much less work has focused on water in non-polar solvents. In this study we calculate the solubility of water in different alkanes (methane to dodecane) at ambient conditions where the water content in alkanes is very low so that the non-polar water-alkane interactions determine solubility. Only the alkane-rich phase is simulated since the fugacity of water in the water rich phase is calculated from an accurate equation of state. Using the SPC/E model for water and TraPPE model for alkanes along with Lorentz-Berthelot mixing rules for the cross parameters produces a water solubility that is an order of magnitude lower than the experimental value. It is found that an effective water Lennard-Jones energy ε(W)/k = 220 K is required to match the experimental water solubility in TraPPE alkanes. This number is much higher than used in most simulation water models (SPC/E-ε(W)/k = 78.2 K). It is surprising that the interaction energy obtained here is also higher than the water-alkane interaction energy predicted by studies on solubility of alkanes in water. The reason for this high water-alkane interaction energy is not completely understood. Some factors that might contribute to the large interaction energy, such as polarizability of alkanes, octupole moment of methane, and clustering of water at low concentrations in alkanes, are examined. It is found that, though important, these factors do not completely explain the anomalously strong attraction between alkanes and water observed experimentally.

  13. Contact angles and wettability of ionic liquids on polar and non-polar surfaces. (United States)

    Pereira, Matheus M; Kurnia, Kiki A; Sousa, Filipa L; Silva, Nuno J O; Lopes-da-Silva, José A; Coutinho, João A P; Freire, Mara G


    Many applications involving ionic liquids (ILs) require the knowledge of their interfacial behaviour, such as wettability and adhesion. In this context, herein, two approaches were combined aiming at understanding the impact of the IL chemical structures on their wettability on both polar and non-polar surfaces, namely: (i) the experimental determination of the contact angles of a broad range of ILs (covering a wide number of anions of variable polarity, cations, and cation alkyl side chain lengths) on polar and non-polar solid substrates (glass, Al-plate, and poly-(tetrafluoroethylene) (PTFE)); and (ii) the correlation of the experimental contact angles with the cation-anion pair interaction energies generated by the Conductor-like Screening Model for Real Solvents (COSMO-RS). The combined results reveal that the hydrogen-bond basicity of ILs, and thus the IL anion, plays a major role through their wettability on both polar and non-polar surfaces. The increase of the IL hydrogen-bond accepting ability leads to an improved wettability of more polar surfaces (lower contact angles) while the opposite trend is observed on non-polar surfaces. The cation nature and alkyl side chain lengths have however a smaller impact on the wetting ability of ILs. Linear correlations were found between the experimental contact angles and the cation-anion hydrogen-bonding and cation ring energies, estimated using COSMO-RS, suggesting that these features primarily control the wetting ability of ILs. Furthermore, two-descriptor correlations are proposed here to predict the contact angles of a wide variety of ILs on glass, Al-plate, and PTFE surfaces. A new extended list is provided for the contact angles of ILs on three surfaces, which can be used as a priori information to choose appropriate ILs before a given application.

  14. Contact angles and wettability of ionic liquids on polar and non-polar surfaces† (United States)

    Sousa, Filipa L.; Silva, Nuno J. O.; Lopes-da-Silva, José A.; Coutinho, João A. P.; Freire, Mara G.


    Many applications involving ionic liquids (ILs) require the knowledge of their interfacial behaviour, such as wettability and adhesion. In this context, herein, two approaches were combined aiming at understanding the impact of the IL chemical structures on their wettability on both polar and non-polar surfaces, namely: (i) the experimental determination of the contact angles of a broad range of ILs (covering a wide number of anions of variable polarity, cations, and cation alkyl side chain lengths) on polar and non-polar solid substrates (glass, Al-plate, and poly-(tetrafluoroethylene) (PTFE)); and (ii) the correlation of the experimental contact angles with the cation–anion pair interaction energies generated by the Conductor-like Screening Model for Real Solvents (COSMO-RS). The combined results reveal that the hydrogen-bond basicity of ILs, and thus the IL anion, plays a major role through their wettability on both polar and non-polar surfaces. The increase of the IL hydrogen-bond accepting ability leads to an improved wettability of more polar surfaces (lower contact angles) while the opposite trend is observed on non-polar surfaces. The cation nature and alkyl side chain lengths have however a smaller impact on the wetting ability of ILs. Linear correlations were found between the experimental contact angles and the cation–anion hydrogen-bonding and cation ring energies, estimated using COSMO-RS, suggesting that these features primarily control the wetting ability of ILs. Furthermore, two-descriptor correlations are proposed here to predict the contact angles of a wide variety of ILs on glass, Al-plate, and PTFE surfaces. A new extended list is provided for the contact angles of ILs on three surfaces, which can be used as a priori information to choose appropriate ILs before a given application. PMID:26554705

  15. Novel solvent systems for in situ extraterrestrial sample analysis



    The life marker chip (LMC) is being designed to test for the chemical signature of life in the soil and rocks of Mars. It will use an antibody array as part of its detection and characterisation system and aims to detect both polar and non-polar molecules at the sub-ppm to tens of ppb level. It is necessary to use a solvent to transfer organic compounds from the Martian samples to the LMC itself, but organic solvents such as dichloromethane or hexane, commonly used to dissolve non-polar molec...

  16. 应用石墨为微波吸收介质非极性溶剂微波提取孜然挥发油成分%Application of graphite Powder for Non-polar Solvent Microwave Extraction of Essential Oils Cumimm Cyminum L.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于永; 王玉堂; 汪子明; 李铁纯; 张寒琦


    1引言微波加热效率高低主要取决于体系中物质吸收微波的能力大小,由于非极性溶剂不吸收微波因而通常不能单独作为微波辅助提取的提取溶剂。乙醚是一种常用的非极性溶剂,在蒸馏-提取法(simultaneous distillation and solvent extraction,SDE)中被用作提取溶剂,石墨是一种良好的微波吸收介质,本实验通过在乙醚中加入石墨建立了孜然中挥发油组分的非极性溶剂微波提取法(non-polar solvent microwave extraction,NPSME),

  17. Polar Solvents Trigger Formation of Reverse Micelles. (United States)

    Khoshnood, Atefeh; Firoozabadi, Abbas


    We use molecular dynamics simulations and molecular thermodynamics to investigate the formation of reverse micelles in a system of surfactants and nonpolar solvents. Since the early observation of reverse micelles, the question has been whether the existence of polar solvent molecules such as water is the driving force for the formation of reverse micelles in nonpolar solvents. In this work, we use a simple coarse-grained model of surfactants and solvents to show that a small number of polar solvent molecules triggers the formation of large permanent aggregates. In the absence of polar molecules, both the thermodynamic model and molecular simulations show that small aggregates are more populated in the solution and larger ones are less frequent as the system evolves over time. The size and shape of reverse micelles depend on the size of the polar core: the shape is spherical for a large core and ellipsoidal for a smaller one. Using the coarse-grained model, we also investigate the effect of temperature and surfactant tail length. Our results reveal that the number of surfactant molecules in the micelle decreases as the temperature increases, but the average diameter does not change because the size of the polar core remains invariant. A reverse micelle with small polar core attracts fewer surfactants when the tail is long. The uptake of solvent particles by a micelle of longer surfactant tail is less than shorter ones when the polar solvent particles are initially distributed randomly.

  18. Highly Solvent Tolerance in Serratia marcescens IBBPo15

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihaela Marilena Stancu

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The aim of this study was to investigate the solvent tolerance mechanisms in Serratia marcescens strain IBBPo15 (KT315653. Serratia marcescens IBBPo15 exhibited remarkable solvent-tolerance, being able to survive in the presence of high concentrations (above 40% of toxic organic solvents, such as cyclohexane, n-hexane, n-decane, toluene, styrene, and ethylbenzene. S. marcescens IBBPo15 produced extracellular protease and the enzyme production decreased in cells exposed to 5% cyclohexane, n-hexane, toluene, styrene, and ethylbenzene, as compared with the control and n-decane exposed cells. S. marcescens IBBPo15 cells produced carotenoid pigments and alteration of pigments profile (i.e., phytoene, lycopene were observed in cells exposed to 5% cyclohexane, n-hexane, n-decane, toluene, styrene, and ethylbenzene. The exposure of S. marcescens IBBPo15 cells to 5% cyclohexane, n-hexane, n-decane, toluene, styrene, ethylbenzene induced also changes in the intracellular (e.g., 50 kDa protein and extracellular (e.g., 39, 41, 43, 53, 110 kDa proteins proteins profile. Significant RAPD, ARDRA, rep-PCR and PCR pattern modifications were not observed in DNA extracted from S. marcescens IBBPo15 cells exposed to 5% cyclohexane, n-hexane, n-decane, toluene, styrene, and ethylbenzene. Though only HAE1 and acrAB genes were detected in the genome of S. marcescens IBBPo15 cells, the unspecific amplification of other fragments being observed also when the primers for ompF and recA genes were used.

  19. EDITORIAL: Non-polar and semipolar nitride semiconductors Non-polar and semipolar nitride semiconductors (United States)

    Han, Jung; Kneissl, Michael


    Throughout the history of group-III-nitride materials and devices, scientific breakthroughs and technological advances have gone hand-in-hand. In the late 1980s and early 1990s, the discovery of the nucleation of smooth (0001) GaN films on c-plane sapphire and the activation of p-dopants in GaN led very quickly to the realization of high-brightness blue and green LEDs, followed by the first demonstration of GaN-based violet laser diodes in the mid 1990s. Today, blue InGaN LEDs boast record external quantum efficiencies exceeding 80% and the emission wavelength of the InGaN-based laser diode has been pushed into the green spectral range. Although these tremenduous advances have already spurred multi-billion dollar industries, there are still a number of scientific questions and technological issues that are unanswered. One key challenge is related to the polar nature of the III-nitride wurtzite crystal. Until a decade ago all research activities had almost exclusively concentrated on (0001)-oriented polar GaN layers and heterostructures. Although the device characteristics seem excellent, the strong polarization fields at GaN heterointerfaces can lead to a significant deterioration of the device performance. Triggered by the first demonstration non-polar GaN quantum wells grown on LiAlO2 by Waltereit and colleagues in 2000, impressive advances in the area of non-polar and semipolar nitride semiconductors and devices have been achieved. Today, a large variety of heterostructures free of polarization fields and exhibiting exceptional electronic and optical properties have been demonstrated, and the fundamental understanding of polar, semipolar and non-polar nitrides has made significant leaps forward. The contributions in this Semiconductor Science and Technology special issue on non-polar and semipolar nitride semiconductors provide an impressive and up-to-date cross-section of all areas of research and device physics in this field. The articles cover a wide range of

  20. Oxidation of cyclohexane catalyzed by metal-ion-exchanged zeolites. (United States)

    Sökmen, Ilkay; Sevin, Fatma


    The ion-exchange rates and capacities of the zeolite NaY for the Cu(II), Co(II), and Pb(II) metal ions were investigated. Ion-exchange equilibria were achieved in approximately 72 h for all the metal ions. The maximum ion exchange of metal ions into the zeolite was found to be 120 mg Pb(II), 110 mg Cu(II), and 100 mg Co(II) per gram of zeolite NaY. It is observed that the exchange capacity of a zeolite varies with the exchanged metal ion and the amount of metal ions exchanged into zeolite decreases in the sequence Pb(II) > Cu(II) > Co(II). Application of the metal-ion-exchanged zeolites in oxidation of cyclohexane in liquid phase with visible light was examined and it is observed that the order of reactivity of the zeolites for the conversion of cyclohexane to cyclohexanone and cyclohexanol is CuY > CoY > PbY. It is found that conversion increases by increase of the empty active sites of a zeolite and the formation of cyclohexanol is favored initially, but the cyclohexanol is subsequently converted to cyclohexanone.

  1. Prediction of cyclohexane-water distribution coefficients for the SAMPL5 data set using molecular dynamics simulations with the OPLS-AA force field (United States)

    Kenney, Ian M.; Beckstein, Oliver; Iorga, Bogdan I.


    All-atom molecular dynamics simulations were used to predict water-cyclohexane distribution coefficients D_{cw} of a range of small molecules as part of the SAMPL5 blind prediction challenge. Molecules were parameterized with the transferable all-atom OPLS-AA force field, which required the derivation of new parameters for sulfamides and heterocycles and validation of cyclohexane parameters as a solvent. The distribution coefficient was calculated from the solvation free energies of the compound in water and cyclohexane. Absolute solvation free energies were computed by an established protocol using windowed alchemical free energy perturbation with thermodynamic integration. This protocol resulted in an overall root mean square error in log D_{cw} of almost 4 log units and an overall signed error of -3 compared to experimental data. There was no substantial overall difference in accuracy between simulating in NVT and NPT ensembles. The signed error suggests a systematic error but the experimental D_{cw} data on their own are insufficient to uncover the source of this error. Preliminary work suggests that the major source of error lies in the hydration free energy calculations.

  2. Cyclo-hexa-peptides at the water/cyclohexane interface: a molecular dynamics simulation. (United States)

    Cen, Min; Fan, Jian Fen; Liu, Dong Yan; Song, Xue Zeng; Liu, Jian; Zhou, Wei Qun; Xiao, He Ming


    Molecular dynamic (MD) simulations have been performed to study the behaviors of ten kinds of cyclo-hexa-peptides (CHPs) composed of amino acids with the diverse hydrophilic/hydrophobic side chains at the water/cyclohexane interface. All the CHPs take the "horse-saddle" conformations at the interface and the hydrophilicity/hydrophobicity of the side chains influences the backbones' structural deformations. The orientations and distributions of the CHPs at the interface and the differences of interaction energies (ΔΔE) between the CHPs and the two liquid phases have been determined. RDF analysis shows that the H-bonds were formed between the O(C) atoms of the CHPs' backbones and H(w) atoms of water molecules. N atoms of the CHPs' backbones formed the H-bonds or van der Waals interactions with the water solvent. It was found that there is a parallel relationship between ΔΔE and the lateral diffusion coefficients (D ( xy )) of the CHPs at the interface. The movements of water molecules close to the interface are confined to some extent, indicating that the dynamics of the CHPs and interfacial water molecules are strongly coupled.

  3. Adsorption, Diffusion and Thermal Desorption Features of Cyclopentane and Cyclohexane in Silicalite-1

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DUAN, Lin-Hai; SONG, Li-Juan; ZHANG, Xiao-Tong; TANG, Ke; DAI, Zhen-Hua; SUN, Zhao-Lin


    Adsorption, diffusion and thermal desorption features of cyclopentane and cyclohexane in silicalite-1 have been investigated using the intelligent gravimetric technique. Both the saturation adsorption loadings and diffusion coefficient of cyclopentane were greater than those of cyclohexane. The diffusivity of cyclopentane was about one order of magnitude greater than that of cyclohexane at the same temperature and initial loading. For cyclopentane, there was only one kind of desorption process at adsorption loadings lower than 4 muc (molecule per unit cell), but two desorption processes appeared at the adsorption loadings higher than 4 muc. While for cyclohexane, one desorption process was found in the whole range of loadings. Both thermal desorption peaks of cyclopentane and cyclohexane moved to higher temperature region with increasing loading.

  4. Chemoenzymatic preparation of optically active trans-cyclohexane-1,2-diamine derivatives: an efficient synthesis of the analgesic U-(-)-50,488. (United States)

    González-Sabín, Javier; Gotor, Vicente; Rebolledo, Francisca


    Stereoespecific syntheses of (+/-)-trans-N,N-cyclohexane-1,2-diamines ((+/-)-4 a-g) were carried out from the corresponding (+/-)-trans-N,N-dialkylaminocyclohexanols by successive treatment with mesyl chloride and aqueous ammonia. The stereochemical outcome indicates the formation of a meso-aziridinium ion intermediate. Kinetic resolutions of diamines (+/-)-4 were efficiently accomplished in aminolysis reactions catalyzed by lipase B from Candida antarctica with ethyl acetate as the solvent and acyl donor. Acetamides and the remaining diamines, isolated as the benzyloxycarbonyl derivatives, were obtained with very high ee values (92-99%). One of the carbamates was used as a precursor of the analgesic U-(-)-50,488.

  5. Extended solvent-contact model approach to blind SAMPL5 prediction challenge for the distribution coefficients of drug-like molecules (United States)

    Chung, Kee-Choo; Park, Hwangseo


    The performance of the extended solvent-contact model has been addressed in the SAMPL5 blind prediction challenge for distribution coefficient (LogD) of drug-like molecules with respect to the cyclohexane/water partitioning system. All the atomic parameters defined for 41 atom types in the solvation free energy function were optimized by operating a standard genetic algorithm with respect to water and cyclohexane solvents. In the parameterizations for cyclohexane, the experimental solvation free energy (Δ G sol ) data of 15 molecules for 1-octanol were combined with those of 77 molecules for cyclohexane to construct a training set because Δ G sol values of the former were unavailable for cyclohexane in publicly accessible databases. Using this hybrid training set, we established the LogD prediction model with the correlation coefficient ( R), average error (AE), and root mean square error (RMSE) of 0.55, 1.53, and 3.03, respectively, for the comparison of experimental and computational results for 53 SAMPL5 molecules. The modest accuracy in LogD prediction could be attributed to the incomplete optimization of atomic solvation parameters for cyclohexane. With respect to 31 SAMPL5 molecules containing the atom types for which experimental reference data for Δ G sol were available for both water and cyclohexane, the accuracy in LogD prediction increased remarkably with the R, AE, and RMSE values of 0.82, 0.89, and 1.60, respectively. This significant enhancement in performance stemmed from the better optimization of atomic solvation parameters by limiting the element of training set to the molecules with experimental Δ G sol data for cyclohexane. Due to the simplicity in model building and to low computational cost for parameterizations, the extended solvent-contact model is anticipated to serve as a valuable computational tool for LogD prediction upon the enrichment of experimental Δ G sol data for organic solvents.

  6. Energetics of cyclohexane isomers: a density-functional study

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, C Y


    The binding energies and the geometric structures of conformational isomers of cyclohexane (C sub 6 H sub 1 sub 2) are determined from the density-functional theory combined with ultrasoft pseudopotentials and gradient-corrected nonlocal exchange-correlation functionals. The ground-state chair conformation is found to have a binding energy of 99.457 eV, and the metastable twist-boat conformation has 99.161 eV. The chair conformation converts to another conformation via a half-chair conformation with an energy barrier of 0.507 eV whereas the twist-boat conformation converts to another twist-boat conformation via a boat conformation with a much smaller energy barrier of 0.015 eV.

  7. Adsorption of benzene, cyclohexane and hexane on ordered mesoporous carbon. (United States)

    Wang, Gang; Dou, Baojuan; Zhang, Zhongshen; Wang, Junhui; Liu, Haier; Hao, Zhengping


    Ordered mesoporous carbon (OMC) with high specific surface area and large pore volume was synthesized and tested for use as an adsorbent for volatile organic compound (VOC) disposal. Benzene, cyclohexane and hexane were selected as typical adsorbates due to their different molecular sizes and extensive utilization in industrial processes. In spite of their structural differences, high adsorption amounts were achieved for all three adsorbates, as the pore size of OMC is large enough for the access of these VOCs. In addition, the unusual bimodal-like pore size distribution gives the adsorbates a higher diffusion rate compared with conventional adsorbents such as activated carbon and carbon molecular sieve. Kinetic analysis suggests that the adsorption barriers mainly originated from the difficulty of VOC vapor molecules entering the pore channels of adsorbents. Therefore, its superior adsorption ability toward VOCs, together with a high diffusion rate, makes the ordered mesoporous carbon a promising potential adsorbent for VOC disposal.

  8. Juniperus extraction: a comparison of species and solvents (United States)

    The effectiveness of the three solvents, hexane, methanol and ethanol were compared for their ability to extract non-polar and polar materials from sawdust from three species of Juniperus (i.e., J. virginianna, J. occidentalis and J. ashei). These species studied represent the junipers with the grea...

  9. Selective nonspecific solvation under dielectric saturation and fluorescence spectra of dye solutions in binary solvents. (United States)

    Bakhshiev, N G; Kiselev, M B


    The influence of selective nonspecific solvation on the fluorescence spectra of three substitutedN-methylphthalimides in a binary solvent system consisting of a nonpolar (n-heptane) and a polar (pyridine) component has been studied under conditions close to dielectric saturation. The substantially nonlinearity of the effect is confirmation that the spectral shifts of fluorescence bands depend on the number of polar solvent molecules involved in solvating the dye molecule. The measured fluorescence spectral shifts determined by substituting one nonpolar solvent molecula with a polar one in the proximity of the dye molecule agree quantitatively with the forecasts of the previously proposed semiempirical theory which describes this nonlinear solvation phenomenon.

  10. Variation in Scent Compounds of Oil-Bearing Rose (Rosa damascena Mill. Produced by Headspace Solid Phase Microextraction, Hydrodistillation and Solvent Extraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabri Erbaş


    Full Text Available In this research, rose oil and rose water were hydro-distilled from the fresh oil-bearing rose flowers (Rosa damascena Mill. using Clevenger-type apparatus. Rose concretes were extracted from the fresh rose flowers by using non-polar solvents, e.g. diethyl ether, petroleum ether, cyclo-hexane, chloroform and n-hexane, and subsequently by evaporation of the solvents under vacuum. Absolutes were produced from the concretes with ethyl alcohol extraction at -20°C, leaving behind the wax and other paraffinic substances. Scent compounds of all these products detected by gas chromatography (GC-FID/GC-MS were compared with the natural scent compounds of fresh rose flower detected by using headspace solid phase microextraction (HS-SPME with carboxen/polydimethylsiloxane (CAR/PDMS fiber. A total of 46 compounds analysis were identified by HS-SPME-GC-MS in the fresh flower, and a total of 15 compounds were identified by GC-MS in the hydrodistilled rose oil. While main compounds in rose oil were geraniol (35.4%, citronellol (31.6%, and nerol (15.3%, major compound in fresh rose flower, rose water and residue water was phenylethyl alcohol (43.2, 35.6 and 98.2%, respectively. While the highest concrete yield (0.7% was obtained from diethyl ether extraction, the highest absolute yield (70.9% was obtained from the n-hexane concrete. The diethyl ether concrete gave the highest productivity of absolute, as 249.7 kg of fresh rose flowers was needed to produce 1 kg of absolute.

  11. Molecular Dynamics Simulations on Parallel Computers: a Study of Polar Versus Nonpolar Media Effects in Small Molecule Solvation. (United States)

    Debolt, Stephen Edward

    Solvent effects were studied and described via molecular dynamics (MD) and free energy perturbation (FEP) simulations using the molecular mechanics program AMBER. The following specific topics were explored:. Polar solvents cause a blue shift of the rm nto pi^* transition band of simple alkyl carbonyl compounds. The ground- versus excited-state solvation effects responsible for the observed solvatochromism are described in terms of the molecular level details of solute-solvent interactions in several modeled solvents spanning the range from polar to nonpolar, including water, methanol, and carbon tetrachloride. The structure and dynamics of octanol media were studied to explore the question: "why is octanol/water media such a good biophase analog?". The formation of linear and cyclic polymers of hydrogen-bonded solvent molecules, micelle-like clusters, and the effects of saturating waters are described. Two small drug-sized molecules, benzene and phenol, were solvated in water-saturated octanol. The solute-solvent structure and dynamics were analysed. The difference in their partitioning free energies was calculated. MD and FEP calculations were adapted for parallel computation, increasing their "speed" or the time span accessible by a simulation. The non-cyclic polyether ionophore salinomycin was studied in methanol solvent via parallel FEP. The path of binding and release for a potassium ion was investigated by calculating the potential of mean force along the "exit vector".

  12. An acetylcholinesterase (AChE) biosensor with enhanced solvent resistance based on chitosan for the detection of pesticides. (United States)

    Warner, John; Andreescu, Silvana


    Solvent tolerance of immobilized enzymes is important for many biosensing and biotechnological applications. In this paper we report an acetylcholinesterase (AChE) biosensor based on chitosan that exhibits high solvent resistance and enables sensitive detection of pesticides in presence of a high content of organic solvents. The solvent effect was established comparatively for the enzyme immobilized in chitosan and covalently cross-linked with glutaraldehyde. The activity of the immobilized AChE was dependent on the immobilization method and solvent type. The enzyme entrapped in chitosan fully conserved its activity in up to 25% methanol, 15% acetonitrile and 100% cyclohexane while the enzyme cross-linked with glutaraldehyde gradually lost its activity starting at 5% acetonitrile and methanol, and showed variable levels in cyclohexane. The detection limits of the biosensor for paraoxon were: 7.5 nM in 25% methanol, 100 nM in 15% acetonitrile and 2.5 μM in 100% cyclohexane. This study demonstrates that chitosan provides an excellent immobilization environment for AChE biosensors designed to operate in environments containing high amounts of organic solvents. It also highlights the effect of the immobilization material and solvent type on enzyme stability. These findings can enable future selection of the immobilization matrix and solvent type for the development of organic phase enzyme based systems.

  13. Efficient Aerobic Oxidation of Cyclohexane to KA Oil Catalyzed by Pt-Sn supported on MWCNTs

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Mohammad Sadiq; Muhammad Ali; Rashid Iqbal; Khalid Saeed; Aimal Khan; Muhammad Naveed Umar; Haroon Ur Rashid


    Pt-Sn supported on MWCNTs were synthesized and characterized by SEM, EDX, XRD, XRF and surface area and pore size analyzer. The catalyst was used for the partial oxidation of cyclohexane in a Parr type reactor. It was found that Pt-Sn supported on MWCNTs can act as an efficient catalyst for the partial oxidation of cyclohexane into cyclohexanol and cyclohexanone, generating both in a high yield under mild reaction conditions.

  14. Ship-in-bottle synthesis of NaY zeolite encapsulated Cosalen complex and its catalytic performance for cyclohexane oxidation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YUAN Xia; LI Fang; LUO He'an


    N,N'-bis(salicylidene)ethylenediiminocobalt (Cosalen) was encapsulated into microporous NaY zeolite via the technique of "ship-in-bottle".The encapsulated complex (Cosalen-NaY) was characterized by Fourier-transform infrared spectrum,ultraviolet-visible spectrum, Bmnauer-Emmett-Teller surface areas, X-ray diffraction,thermogravimetry-differential thermal analysis and scanning electron microscope.The reaction of cyclohexane oxidation using oxygen was chosen to investigate the catalytic performance of Cosalen-NaY, and the effects of oxygen pressure. temperature and reaction time were also studied.The results show that Cosalen complex is encapsulated into the supercage of the zeolite and the structure of NaY zeolite remains integrity and the thermal stabilitv of Cosalen is greatly enhanced after encapsulation.Cosalen-NaY shows the better activity in the oxidation of eyclohexane without reductant and solvent.The conversion of cyclohexane is up to 13.4%at 150 ℃ for 3 h under oxygen pressure of 0.85 MPa, with the higher total selectivity to cyclohexanol, cyclohexanone, cyclohexyl hydroperoxide(CHHP)and acid (79.2%)than the neat complex(55.5%). NaY zeolite carrier maybe contributes to the results. There is no obviPUS induction period to initiate the reaction;furthermore. the amount of CHHP among the products is small, which indicates that the Cosalen-NaY has the strong abilitv to accelerate the decomposition of CHHP. Recycling tests show that the hybrid material can be used repeatedly with a negligible loss of active sites.

  15. Crystal structure of a ring-cleaving cyclohexane-1,2-dione hydrolase, a novel member of the thiamine diphosphate enzyme family. (United States)

    Steinbach, Alma; Fraas, Sonja; Harder, Jens; Warkentin, Eberhard; Kroneck, Peter M H; Ermler, Ulrich


    The thiamine diphosphate (ThDP) dependent flavoenzyme cyclohexane-1,2-dione hydrolase (CDH) (EC catalyses a key step of a novel anaerobic degradation pathway for alicyclic alcohols by converting cyclohexane-1,2-dione (CDO) to 6-oxohexanoate and further to adipate using NAD(+) as electron acceptor. To gain insights into the molecular basis of these reactions CDH from denitrifying anaerobe Azoarcus sp. strain 22Lin was structurally characterized at 1.26 Å resolution. Notably, the active site funnel is rearranged in an unprecedented manner providing the structural basis for the specific binding and cleavage of an alicyclic compound. Crucial features include a decreased and displaced funnel entrance, a semi-circularly shaped loop segment preceding the C-terminal arm and the attachment of the C-terminal arm to other subunits of the CDH tetramer. Its structural scaffold and the ThDP activation is related to that observed for other members of the ThDP enzyme family. The selective binding of the competitive inhibitor 2-methyl-2,4-pentane-diol (MPD) to the open funnel of CDH reveals an asymmetry of the two active sites found also in the dimer of several other ThDP dependent enzymes. The substrate binding site is characterized by polar and non-polar moieties reflected in the structures of MPD and CDO and by three prominent histidine residues (His28, His31 and His76) that most probably play a crucial role in substrate activation. The NAD(+) dependent oxidation of 6-oxohexanoate remains enigmatic as the redox-active cofactor FAD seems not to participate in catalysis, and no obvious NAD(+) binding site is found. Based on the structural data both reactions are discussed.

  16. Anaerobic degradation of cyclohexane by sulfate-reducing bacteria from hydrocarbon-contaminated marine sediments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulrike eJaekel


    Full Text Available The fate of cyclohexane, often used as a model compound for the biodegradation of cyclic alkanes due to its abundance in crude oils, in anoxic marine sediments has been poorly investigated. In the present study, we obtained an enrichment culture of cyclohexane-degrading sulfate-reducing bacteria from hydrocarbon-contaminated intertidal marine sediments. Microscopic analyses showed an apparent dominance by oval cells of 1.5×0.8 m. Analysis of a 16S rRNA gene library, followed by whole-cell hybridization with group- and sequence-specific oligonucleotide probes showed that these cells belonged to a single phylotype, and were accounting for more than 80% of the total cell number. The dominant phylotype, affiliated with the Desulfosarcina-Desulfococcus cluster of the Deltaproteobacteria, is proposed to be responsible for the degradation of cyclohexane. Quantitative growth experiments showed that cyclohexane degradation was coupled with the stoichiometric reduction of sulfate to sulfide. Substrate response tests corroborated with hybridization with a sequence-specific oligonucleotide probe suggested that the dominant phylotype apparently was able to degrade other cyclic and n-alkanes, including the gaseous alkanes propane and n-butane. Based on GC-MS analyses of culture extracts cyclohexylsuccinate was identified as a metabolite, indicating an activation of cyclohexane by addition to fumarate. Other metabolites detected were 3-cyclohexylpropionate and cyclohexanecarboxylate providing evidence that the overall degradation pathway of cyclohexane under anoxic conditions is analogous to that of n-alkanes.

  17. High-pressure studies of cyclohexane to 40 GPa. (United States)

    Pravica, Michael; Shen, Yongrong; Quine, Zachary; Romano, Edward; Hartnett, David


    We present data from two room temperature synchrotron X-ray powder diffraction studies of cyclohexane up to approximately 40 and approximately 20 GPa. In the first experiment, pressure cycling was employed wherein pressure was varied up to approximately 16 GPa, reduced to 3.5 GPa, and then raised again to 40 GPa. Initially, the sample was found to be in the monoclinic phase (P12(1)/n1) at approximately 8.4 GPa. Beyond this pressure, the sample adopted triclinic unit cell symmetry (P1) which remained so even when the pressure was reduced to 3.5 GPa, indicating significant hysteresis and metastability. In the second experiment, pressure was more slowly varied, and the monoclinic unit cell structure (P12(1)/n1) was observed at lower pressures up to approximately 7 GPa, above which a phase transformation into the P1 triclinic unit cell symmetry occurred. Thus, the pressure onset of the triclinic phase may be dependent upon the pressurizing conditions. High-pressure Raman data that further emphasize a phase transition (probably into phase VI) around 10 GPa are also presented. We also have further evidence for a phase VII, which is probably triclinic.

  18. Solvent substitution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    The DOE Environmental Restoration and Waste Management Office of Technology Development and the Air Force Engineering and Services Center convened the First Annual International Workshop on Solvent Substitution on December 4--7, 1990. The primary objectives of this joint effort were to share information and ideas among attendees in order to enhance the development and implementation of required new technologies for the elimination of pollutants associated with industrial use of hazardous and toxic solvents; and to aid in accelerating collaborative efforts and technology transfer between government and industry for solvent substitution. There were workshop sessions focusing on Alternative Technologies, Alternative Solvents, Recovery/Recycling, Low VOC Materials and Treatment for Environmentally Safe Disposal. The 35 invited papers presented covered a wide range of solvent substitution activities including: hardware and weapons production and maintenance, paint stripping, coating applications, printed circuit boards, metal cleaning, metal finishing, manufacturing, compliance monitoring and process control monitoring. This publication includes the majority of these presentations. In addition, in order to further facilitate information exchange and technology transfer, the US Air Force and DOE solicited additional papers under a general Call for Papers.'' These papers, which underwent review and final selection by a peer review committee, are also included in this combined Proceedings/Compendium. For those involved in handling, using or managing hazardous and toxic solvents, this document should prove to be a valuable resource, providing the most up-to-date information on current technologies and practices in solvent substitution. Individual papers are abstracted separated.

  19. Long-Wavelength Phonon Scattering in Nonpolar Semiconductors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lawætz, Peter


    The long-wavelength acoustic- and optical-phonon scattering of carriers in nonpolar semiconductors is considered from a general point of view. The deformation-potential approximation is defined and it is shown that long-range electrostatic forces give a nontrivial correction to the scattering. Fo...

  20. Solvent effects on hydrogen bonding between primary alcohols and esters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    The interaction by hydrogen bond formation of some primary alcohols (1-heptanol, 1-octanol and 1-decanol) with esters (methyl methacrylate, ethyl methacrylate and butyl methacrylate) was investigated in non-polar solvents viz., n-heptane,CCh and benzene by means of FTIR spectroscopy. Formation constants and free energy changes of complex formation were determined. The dependence of the equilibrium constants and free energy changes of complex formation on the alkyl chain length of both the alcohols and esters are discussed. The solvent effect on the hydrogen bond formation is discussed in terms of specific interaction between the solute and solvent.

  1. Filming the Birth of Molecules and Accompanying Solvent Rearrangement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lee, Jae Hyuk; Wulff, Michael; Bratos, Savo;


    Molecules are often born with high energy and large-amplitude vibrations. In solution, a newly formed molecule cools down by transferring energy to the surrounding solvent molecules. The progression of the molecular and solute−solvent cage structure during this fundamental process has been elusive......, and spectroscopic data generally do not provide such structural information. Here, we use picosecond X-ray liquidography (solution scattering) to visualize timedependent structural changes associated with the vibrational relaxation of I2 molecules in two different solvents, CCl4 and cyclohexane. The birth...... and vibrational relaxation of I2 molecules and the associated rearrangement of solvent molecules are mapped out in the form of a temporally varying interatomic distance distribution. The I−I distance increases up to ∼4 Å and returns to the equilibrium distance (2.67 Å) in the ground state, and the first solvation...

  2. Alternative solvents for improving the greenness of normal phase liquid chromatography of lipid classes. (United States)

    Prache, Nolwenn; Abreu, Sonia; Sassiat, Patrick; Thiébaut, Didier; Chaminade, Pierre


    An evaluation of solvents alternative to n-heptane (d-limonene and hexamethyldisiloxane) and chloroform (cyclopentyl methyl ether, 2-methyltetrahydrofuran and isopentyl acetate) was developed for lipid classes separation of non-polar cholesteryl ester to highly polar phospholipids by high-performance liquid chromatography on bare silica stationary phase and evaporative light-scattering detection. Screening of alternative solvents was used to estimate their compatibility with liquid chromatography and evaporative light-scattering detection and to evaluate their chromatographic selectivity. This work shows that n-heptane can be advantageously replaced by hexamethyldisiloxane. An increase of non-polar lipids retention is observed with hexamethyldisiloxane as weak solvent. Chloroform, which is largely used for lipid analysis, might be replaced efficaciously by cyclopentyl methyl ether, 2-methyltetrahydrofuran or isopentyl acetate. Aside from offering a different selectivity, the gradients composed by one or both alternative solvents gave efficient and comparable or even better separations than those obtained with conventional solvents.

  3. Liquid crystalline phases in suspensions of pigments in non-polar solvents (United States)

    Klein, Susanne; Richardson, Robert M.; Eremin, Alexey

    We will discuss colloid suspensions of pigments and compare their electro-optic properties with those of traditional dyed low molecular weight liquid crystal systems. There are several potential advantages of colloidal suspensions over low molecular weight liquid crystal systems: a very high contrast because of the high orientational order parameter of suspensions of rod shaped nano-particles, the excellent light fastness of pigments as compared to dyes and high colour saturations resulting from the high loading of the colour stuff. Although a weak `single-particle' electro-optic response can be observed in dilute suspensions, the response is very much enhanced when the concentration of the particles is sufficient to lead to a nematic phase. Excellent stability of suspensions is beneficial for experimental observation and reproducibility, but it is a fundamental necessity for display applications. We therefore discuss a method to achieve long term stability of dispersed pigments and the reasons for its success. Small angle X-ray scattering was used to determine the orientational order parameter of the suspensions as a function of concentration and the dynamic response to an applied electric field. Optical properties were investigated for a wide range of pigment concentrations. Electro-optical phenomena, such as field-induced birefringence and switching, were characterised. In addition, mixtures of pigment suspensions with small amounts of ferrofluids show promise as future magneto-optical materials.

  4. Green solvents and technologies for oil extraction from oilseeds. (United States)

    Kumar, S P Jeevan; Prasad, S Rajendra; Banerjee, Rintu; Agarwal, Dinesh K; Kulkarni, Kalyani S; Ramesh, K V


    Oilseeds are crucial for the nutritional security of the global population. The conventional technology used for oil extraction from oilseeds is by solvent extraction. In solvent extraction, n-hexane is used as a solvent for its attributes such as simple recovery, non-polar nature, low latent heat of vaporization (330 kJ/kg) and high selectivity to solvents. However, usage of hexane as a solvent has lead to several repercussions such as air pollution, toxicity and harmfulness that prompted to look for alternative options. To circumvent the problem, green solvents could be a promising approach to replace solvent extraction. In this review, green solvents and technology like aqueous assisted enzyme extraction are better solution for oil extraction from oilseeds. Enzyme mediated extraction is eco-friendly, can obtain higher yields, cost-effective and aids in obtaining co-products without any damage. Enzyme technology has great potential for oil extraction in oilseed industry. Similarly, green solvents such as terpenes and ionic liquids have tremendous solvent properties that enable to extract the oil in eco-friendly manner. These green solvents and technologies are considered green owing to the attributes of energy reduction, eco-friendliness, non-toxicity and non-harmfulness. Hence, the review is mainly focussed on the prospects and challenges of green solvents and technology as the best option to replace the conventional methods without compromising the quality of the extracted products.

  5. Enantioselective hydrolysis of epichlorohydrin using whole Aspergillus niger ZJB-09173 cells in organic solvents

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Huo-Xi Jin; Zhong-Ce Hu; Yu-Guo Zheng


    The enantioselective hydrolysis of racemic epichlorohydrin for the production of enantiopure ()-epichloro-hydrin using whole cells of Aspergillus niger ZJB-09173 in organic solvents was investigated. Cyclohexane was used as the reaction medium based on the excellent enantioselectivity of epoxide hydrolase from A. niger ZJB-09173 in cyclohexane. However, cyclohexane had a negative effect on the stability of epoxide hydrolase from A. niger ZJB-09173. In the cyclohexane medium, substrate inhibition, rather than product inhibition of catalysis, was observed in the hydrolysis of racemic epichlorohydrin using A. niger ZJB-09173. The racemic epichlorohydrin concentration was markedly increased by continuous feeding of substrate without significant decline of the yield. Ultimately, 18.5% of ()-epichlorohydrin with 98% enantiomeric excess from 153.6 mM of racemic epichlorohydrin was obtained by the dry cells of A. niger ZJB-09173, which was the highest substrate concentration in the production of enantiopure ()-epichlorohydrin by epoxide hydrolases using an organic solvent medium among the known reports.

  6. Kinetic and geometric isotope effects originating from different adsorption potential energy surfaces: cyclohexane on Rh(111). (United States)

    Koitaya, Takanori; Shimizu, Sumera; Mukai, Kozo; Yoshimoto, Shinya; Yoshinobu, Jun


    Novel isotope effects were observed in desorption kinetics and adsorption geometry of cyclohexane on Rh(111) by the use of infrared reflection absorption spectroscopy, temperature programmed desorption, photoelectron spectroscopy, and spot-profile-analysis low energy electron diffraction. The desorption energy of deuterated cyclohexane (C(6)D(12)) is lower than that of C(6)H(12). In addition, the work function change by adsorbed C(6)D(12) is smaller than that by adsorbed C(6)H(12). These results indicate that C(6)D(12) has a shallower adsorption potential than C(6)H(12) (vertical geometric isotope effect). The lateral geometric isotope effect was also observed in the two-dimensional cyclohexane superstructures as a result of the different repulsive interaction between interfacial dipoles. The observed isotope effects should be ascribed to the quantum nature of hydrogen involved in the C-H···metal interaction.


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gao-fei Xu; Wei-pu Zhu


    P(AA-MA) copolymers composed of acrylic acid and methyl acrylate with different molecular weights and sequence structures were synthesized by combination of ATRP and selective hydrolysis. These copolymers were used as membrane materials to separate benzene/cyclohexane mixture by pervaporation. The effects of molecular weight and sequence structure of the copolymers on the pervaporation performance were investigated in detail. For the random copolymers, the permeate flux decreased rapidly with the increasing of molecular weight. The separation factor was also influenced by the molecular weight, which was changed from no selectivity to cyclohexane selectivity with increasing the molecular weight. Contrarily, the block copolymer membrane showed good benzene selectivity with separation factor of 4.3 and permeate flux of 157 g/(m2h) to 50 wt% benzene/cyclohexane mixture.

  8. Fluctuation capture in non-polar gases and liquids

    CERN Document Server

    Cocks, D G


    We present a new model to identify natural fluctuations in fluids, allowing us to describe localization phenomena in the transport of electrons, positrons and positronium through non-polar fluids. The theory contains no free parameters and allows for the calculation of capture cross sections $\\sigma_{cap}(\\epsilon)$ of light-particles in any non-polar fluid, required for non-equilibrium transport simulations. We postulate that localization occurs through large shallow traps before stable bound states are formed. Our results allow us to explain most of the experimental observations of changes in mobility and annihilation rates in the noble gases and liquids as well as make predictions for future experiments. Quantities which are currently inaccessible to experiment, such as positron mobilities, can be obtained from our theory. Unlike other theoretical approaches to localization, the outputs of our theory can be applied in non-equilibrium transport simulations and an extension to the determination of waiting ti...

  9. Nanoencapsulation of Fullerenes in Organic Structures with Nonpolar Cavities (United States)

    Murthy, C. N.


    The formation of supramolecular structures, assemblies, and arrays held together by weak intermolecular interactions and non-covalent binding mimicking natural processes has been used in applications being anticipated in nanotechnology, biotechnology and the emerging field of nanomedicine. Encapsulation of C60 fullerene by cyclic molecules like cyclodextrins and calixarenes has potential for a number of applications. Similarly, biomolecules like lysozyme also have been shown to encapsulate C60 fullerene. This poster article reports the recent trends and the results obtained in the nanoencapsulation of fullerenes by biomolecules containing nonpolar cavities. Lysozyme was chosen as the model biomolecule and it was observed that there is no covalent bond formed between the bimolecule and the C60 fullerene. This was confirmed from fluorescence energy transfer studies. UV Vis studies further supported this observation that it is possible to selectively remove the C60 fullerene from the nonpolar cavity. This behavior has potential in biomedical applications

  10. Nanoencapsulation of Fullerenes in Organic Structures with Nonpolar Cavities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murthy, C. N. [M.S. University of Baroda, Applied Chemistry Department, Faculty of Technology and Engineering (India)


    The formation of supramolecular structures, assemblies, and arrays held together by weak intermolecular interactions and non-covalent binding mimicking natural processes has been used in applications being anticipated in nanotechnology, biotechnology and the emerging field of nanomedicine. Encapsulation of C{sub 60} fullerene by cyclic molecules like cyclodextrins and calixarenes has potential for a number of applications. Similarly, biomolecules like lysozyme also have been shown to encapsulate C{sub 60} fullerene. This poster article reports the recent trends and the results obtained in the nanoencapsulation of fullerenes by biomolecules containing nonpolar cavities. Lysozyme was chosen as the model biomolecule and it was observed that there is no covalent bond formed between the bimolecule and the C{sub 60} fullerene. This was confirmed from fluorescence energy transfer studies. UV-Vis studies further supported this observation that it is possible to selectively remove the C{sub 60} fullerene from the nonpolar cavity. This behavior has potential in biomedical applications

  11. Synthesis of chiral cyclohexanes and carbasugars by 6-exo-dig radical cyclisation reactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)


    Full Text Available Treatment of 5-(tert-butyldimethylsilyl-2,3-O-isopropylidene-D-ribose with lithium acetylides gave mixtures of syn- and anti-alkynols 2a–2c which were separated following protection as methoxymethyl ethers. These were converted to the corresponding iodides which underwent 6-exo-dig radical cyclisation to afford chiral cyclohexanes and carbasugars. Oxidation of the primary alcohols 6a–b gave the corresponding aldehydes which on treatment with Grignard reagents afforded a mixture of alcohols. The corresponding iodides underwent similar 6-exo-dig cyclisation to give fully functionalised cyclohexanes.

  12. Cyclohexane triggers staged growth of pure and vertically aligned single wall carbon nanotubes (United States)

    Ayala, P.; Grüneis, A.; Grimm, D.; Kramberger, C.; Engelhard, R.; Rümmeli, M.; Schumann, J.; Kaltofen, R.; Büchner, B.; Schaman, C.; Kuzmany, H.; Gemming, T.; Barreiro, A.; Pichler, T.


    An innovative staged chemical vapor deposition (SCVD) approach providing flexible control over the feedstock type during single wall carbon nanotube (SWNTs) growth is proposed. The efficiency of staged growth by means of a cyclohexane/methane system using thin film catalysts is here illustrated. The mechanism involves the nucleation stage efficiently triggered by cyclohexane, followed by methane assisting a growth stage yielding high purity SWNTs vertically aligned with lengths of several hundred μm. In addition, SCVD also facilitates catalyst free SWNT detachment enabling repeated growth.

  13. Effect of L-cysteine on the oxidation of cyclohexane catalyzed by manganeseporphyrin. (United States)

    Zhou, Wei-You; Tian, Peng; Chen, Yong; He, Ming-Yang; Chen, Qun; Chen, Zai Xin


    Effect of L-cysteine as the cocatalyst on the oxidation of cyclohexane by tert-butylhydroperoxide (TBHP) catalyzed by manganese tetraphenylporphyrin (MnTPP) has been investigated. The results showed that L-cysteine could moderately improve the catalytic activity of MnTPP and significantly increase the selectivity of cyclohexanol. Different from imidazole and pyridine, the L-cysteine may perform dual roles in the catalytic oxidation of cyclohexane. Besides as the axial ligand for MnTPP, the L-cysteine could also react with cyclohexyl peroxide formed as the intermediate to produce alcohol as the main product.

  14. Selective oxidation of benzene and cyclohexane using amorphous microporous mixed oxides; Selektive Oxidation von Benzol und Cyclohexan mit amorphen mikroporoesen Mischoxiden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stoeckmann, M.


    Phenol was to be produced by direct oxidation of benzene with environment-friendly oxidants like hydrogen peroxide, oxygen, or ozone. Catalysts were amorphous microporous mixed oxides whose properties can be selected directly in the sol-gel synthesis process. Apart from benzene, also cyclohexane was oxidized with ozone using AMM catalysts in order to get more information on the potential of ozone as oxidant in heterogeneously catalyzed reactions. [German] Ziel dieser Arbeit war die Herstellung von Phenol durch die Direktoxidation von Benzol mit umweltfreundlichen Oxidationsmitteln wie Wasserstoffperoxid, Sauerstoff oder Ozon. Als Katalysatoren dienten amorphe mikroporoese Mischoxide, da deren Eigenschaften direkt in der Synthese durch den Sol-Gel-Prozess gezielt eingestellt werden koennen. Neben Benzol wurde auch Cyclohexan mit Ozon unter der Verwendung von AMM-Katalysatoren oxidiert, um das Potential von Ozon als Oxiationsmittel in heterogen katalysierten Reaktionen naeher zu untersuchen. (orig.)

  15. Thermodiffusion in binary and ternary nonpolar hydrocarbon + alcohol mixtures (United States)

    Eslamian, Morteza; Saghir, M. Ziad


    Thermodiffusion in complex mixtures, such as associating, molten metal, and polymer mixtures is difficult to model usually owing to the occurrence of a sign change in the thermodiffusion coefficient when the mixture concentration and temperature change. A mixture comprised of a nonpolar hydrocarbon and an alcohol is a complex and highly non-ideal mixture. In this paper an existing binary non-equilibrium thermodynamics model (Eslamian and Saghir, Physical Review E 80, 061201, 2009) developed for aqueous mixtures of alcohols is examined against the experimental data of binary nonpolar hydrocarbon and alcohol mixtures. For ternary mixtures, non-equilibrium thermodynamic expressions developed by the authors for aqueous mixtures of alcohols (Eslamian and Saghir, Canadian Journal of Chemical Engineering, DOI 10.1002/cjce.20581) is used to predict thermodiffusion coefficients of ternary nonpolar hydrocarbon and alcohol mixtures. The rationale behind the sign change is elucidated and attributed to an anomalous change in the molecular structure and therefore viscosity of such mixtures. Model predictions of thermodiffusion coefficients of binary mixtures predict a sign change consistent with the experimental data although the model is still too primitive to capture all structural complexities. For instance, in the methanol-benzene mixture where the model predictions are poorest, the viscosity data show that when concentration varies, the mixture's molecular structure experiences a severe change twice, the first major change leading to a maximum in the thermodiffusion coefficient, whereas the second change causes a sign change.

  16. Solvent effects on some new meso-aryl substituted octabromoporphyrins

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Regimol G George; M Padmanabhan


    A series of porphyrins with tolyl and naphthyl substituents at the meso positions, their octabromoderivatives (OBP) with Br substituents at -pyrrole positions are synthesised and characterised by chemical analysis, 1H NMR and electronic spectral studies. It is seen that all the OBPs exhibit pronounced red shifts in both the Soret and bands of their electronic spectra compared to their nonbrominated form in various polar and nonpolar solvents, the energy difference $\\bar{v}$ being in the range 2300-2700 cm-1. The high energy band of naphthyl porphyrins (both brominated and nonbrominated) are found to be more red-shifted than that of tolyl porphyrins, owing to the noticeable mesomeric effect of the naphthyl groups. Detailed spectral studies reveal that while none of the nonbrominated porphyrin show solvent-dependent change in their and bands, all the OBPs manifest significant shifts depending on the nature of solvents. Solvent-solute interaction can be considered to be of strong dipole-dipole nature for OBPs with polar solvents and of - type with aromatic non-polar solvents. In the brominated form we find two categories of porphyrins exhibiting distinctly different absorption phenomena in aromatic solvents. The OBPs having meso-groups not shielding the porphyrin -framework exhibit additional absorption peaks (split Soret peaks and broadened Q bands) in some aromatic solvents. This could be explained in terms of - type donor-acceptor (DA) complex formation between such bromoporphyrins (acceptor) and the aromatic solvent molecules (donor) that is not possible for OBPs that have bulky meso groups that block the approach of aromatic solvent molecules close to the porphyrin framework.

  17. Nickel Catalyzed Conversion of Cyclohexanol into Cyclohexylamine in Water and Low Boiling Point Solvents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunfei Qi


    Full Text Available Nickel is found to demonstrate high performance in the amination of cyclohexanol into cyclohexylamine in water and two solvents with low boiling points: tetrahydrofuran and cyclohexane. Three catalysts, Raney Ni, Ni/Al2O3 and Ni/C, were investigated and it is found that the base, hydrogen, the solvents and the support will affect the activity of the catalyst. In water, all the three catalysts achieved over 85% conversion and 90% cyclohexylamine selectivity in the presence of base and hydrogen at a high temperature. In tetrahydrofuran and cyclohexane, Ni/Al2O3 exhibits better activity than Ni/C under optimal conditions. Ni/C was stable during recycling in aqueous ammonia, while Ni/Al2O3 was not due to the formation of AlO(OH.

  18. Spectroscopic and DFT study of solvent effects on the electronic absorption spectra of sulfamethoxazole in neat and binary solvent mixtures. (United States)

    Almandoz, M C; Sancho, M I; Blanco, S E


    The solvatochromic behavior of sulfamethoxazole (SMX) was investigated using UV-vis spectroscopy and DFT methods in neat and binary solvent mixtures. The spectral shifts of this solute were correlated with the Kamlet and Taft parameters (α, β and π(*)). Multiple lineal regression analysis indicates that both specific hydrogen-bond interaction and non specific dipolar interaction play an important role in the position of the absorption maxima in neat solvents. The simulated absorption spectra using TD-DFT methods were in good agreement with the experimental ones. Binary mixtures consist of cyclohexane (Cy)-ethanol (EtOH), acetonitrile (ACN)-dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO), ACN-dimethylformamide (DMF), and aqueous mixtures containing as co-solvents DMSO, ACN, EtOH and MeOH. Index of preferential solvation was calculated as a function of solvent composition and non-ideal characteristics are observed in all binary mixtures. In ACN-DMSO and ACN-DMF mixtures, the results show that the solvents with higher polarity and hydrogen bond donor ability interact preferentially with the solute. In binary mixtures containing water, the SMX molecules are solvated by the organic co-solvent (DMSO or EtOH) over the whole composition range. Synergistic effect is observed in the case of ACN-H2O and MeOH-H2O, indicating that at certain concentrations solvents interact to form association complexes, which should be more polar than the individual solvents of the mixture.

  19. A π-electron deficient diaminotriazine functionalized MOF for selective sorption of benzene over cyclohexane

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Manna, B.; Mukherjee, S.; Desai, A.V.; Sharma, S.; Krishna, R.; Ghosh, S.K.


    A diaminotriazine functionalized novel MOF (DAT-MOF-1) has been synthesized stemming out of a π-electron-deficient pore-surface functionalization based linker-design principle, which results in efficient selectivity of benzene sorption over its aliphatic analogue cyclohexane, crucial from the indust

  20. Synthesis of tetrahydrokhusitone. Annulation of the cyclohexane ring by free radical and carbanionic sequence of reactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available The synthesis of norcadinane sesquiterpene tetrahydrokhusitone 1 has been achieved by a new method for annulation of cyclohexane ring involving a sequence of free radical d-alkylation of the non-activated carbon atom and intramolecular carbanionic alkylation. (–-Menthol was used as the starting compound.

  1. The effect of Au on TiO2 catalyzed selective photocatalytic oxidation of cyclohexane

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carneiro, Joana T.; Savenije, Tom J.; Moulijn, Jacob A.; Mul, Guido


    Gold does not induce visible light activity of anatase Hombikat UV100 in the selective photo-oxidation of cyclohexane, as can be concluded from in situ attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) measurements. Extremely small conductance values measured at 530 nm in Time Resol

  2. Quantitative interpretation to the chain mechanism of free radical reactions in cyclohexane pyrolysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yingxian Zhao; Bo Shen; Feng Wei


    Pyrolysis of cyclohexane was conducted with a plug flow tube reactor in the temperature range of 873-973 K.Based on the experimental data,the mechanism and kinetic model of cyclohexane pyrolysis reaction were proposed.The kinetic analysis shows that overall conversion of cyclohexane is a first order reaction,of which the rate constant increased from 0.0086 to 0.0225 to 0.0623 s- 1 with the increase of temperature from 873 to 923 to 973 K,and the apparent activation energy was determined to be 155.0+1.0 kJ.mo1-1.The mechanism suggests that the cyclohexane is consumed by four processes:the homolysis of C-C bond (Path Ⅰ),the homolysis of C-H bond (Path Ⅱ) in reaction chain initiation,the H-abstraction of various radicals from the feed molecules in reaction chain propagation (Path Ⅲ),and the process associated with coke formation (Path Ⅳ).The reaction path probability (RPP) ratio of Xpath Ⅰ ∶ Xpath Ⅱ∶ XPath Ⅲ ∶ XPath Ⅳ was 0.5420 ∶ 0.0045 ∶ 0.3897 ∶ 0.0638 at 873 K,and 0.4336 ∶ 0.0061 ∶ 0.4885 ∶ 0.0718 at 973 K,respectively.

  3. A π-electron deficient diaminotriazine functionalized MOF for selective sorption of benzene over cyclohexane

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Manna, B.; Mukherjee, S.; Desai, A.V.; Sharma, S.; Krishna, R.; Ghosh, S.K.


    A diaminotriazine functionalized novel MOF (DAT-MOF-1) has been synthesized stemming out of a π-electron-deficient pore-surface functionalization based linker-design principle, which results in efficient selectivity of benzene sorption over its aliphatic analogue cyclohexane, crucial from the

  4. Photocatalytic oxidation of cyclohexane by titanium dioxide: Catalyst deactivation and regeneration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carneiro, Joana T.; Moulijn, Jacob A.; Mul, Guido


    Two commercially available TiO2 catalysts were compared in the selective photocatalytic oxidation of cyclohexane: Hombikat UV100 (as received (H), and after calcination at 600 °C (H600)), and Solaronix, S450. Hombikat UV100 shows the highest initial activity on a g−1 catalyst basis, followed by H600

  5. How Gold Deposition Affects Anatase Performance in the Photo-catalytic Oxidation of Cyclohexane

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carneiro, Joana T.; Yang, Chieh-Chao; Moma, John A.; Moulijn, Jacob A.; Mul, Guido


    Gold deposition on Hombikat UV100 was found to negatively affect the activity of this Anatase catalyst in selective photo-oxidation of cyclohexane. By ammonia TPD and DRIFT spectroscopy it was determined that the Au deposition procedure leads to a significant decrease in OH-group density (mol m−2 BE

  6. Cyclohexane bis-urea compounds for the gelation of water and aqueous solutions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Loos, M; Friggeri, A; van Esch, J; Kellogg, RM; Feringa, Bernard


    A new class of efficient hydrogelators has been developed by a simple modification of the peripheral substituents of cyclohexane bis-urea organogelators with hydrophilic hydroxy or amino functionalities. These bis-urea hydrogelators were synthesised in two or three steps using an alternative procedu

  7. Molecular dynamics study on the solvent dependent heme cooling following ligand photolysis in carbonmonoxy myoglobin. (United States)

    Zhang, Yong; Fujisaki, Hiroshi; Straub, John E


    The time scale and mechanism of vibrational energy relaxation of the heme moiety in myoglobin was studied using molecular dynamics simulation. Five different solvent models, including normal water, heavy water, normal glycerol, deuterated glycerol and a nonpolar solvent, and two forms of the heme, one native and one lacking acidic side chains, were studied. Structural alteration of the protein was observed in native myoglobin glycerol solution and native myoglobin water solution. The single-exponential decay of the excess kinetic energy of the heme following ligand photolysis was observed in all systems studied. The relaxation rate depends on the solvent used. However, this dependence cannot be explained using bulk transport properties of the solvent including macroscopic thermal diffusion. The rate and mechanism of heme cooling depends upon the detailed microscopic interaction between the heme and solvent. Three intermolecular energy transfer mechanisms were considered: (i) energy transfer mediated by hydrogen bonds, (ii) direct vibration-vibration energy transfer via resonant interaction, and (iii) energy transfer via vibration-translation or vibration-rotation interaction, or in other words, thermal collision. The hydrogen bond interaction and vibration-vibration interaction between the heme and solvent molecules dominates the energy transfer in native myoglobin aqueous solution and native myoglobin glycerol solutions. For modified myoglobin, the vibration-vibration interaction is also effective in glycerol solution, different from aqueous solution. Thermal collisions form the dominant energy transfer pathway for modified myoglobin in water solution, and for both native myoglobin and modified myoglobin in a nonpolar environment. For native myoglobin in a nonpolar solvent solution, hydrogen bonds between heme isopropionate side chains and nearby protein residues, absent in the modified myoglobin nonpolar solvent solution, are key interactions influencing the

  8. Understanding surface interactions in aqueous miscible organic solvent treated layered double hydroxides.


    Erastova, Valentina; Degiacomi, Matteo T.; O'Hare, Dermot; Greenwell, H. Chris


    Layered materials are of interest for use in a wealth of technological applications, many of which require a high surface area for optimal properties and performance. Recently, an industrially scalable method to create high surface area layered double hydroxide (LDH) materials, which may be readily dispersed in non-polar solvents, has been developed. This method involves treatment of LDHs with aqueous miscible organic (AMO) solvents. Here, molecular modeling is exploited to elucidate the AMO ...

  9. Photonic Crystal Polarizing and Non-Polarizing Beam Splitters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUAN Chun-Ying; SHI Jin-Hui; YUAN Li-Bo


    A polarizing beam splitter(PBS)and a non-polarizing beam splitter(NPBS)based on a photonic crystal(PC)directional coupler are demonstrated.The photonic crystal directional coupler consists of a hexagonal lattice of dielectric pillars in air and has a complete photonic band gap.The photonic band structure and the band gap map are calculated using the plane wave expansion(PWE)method.The splitting properties of the splitter are investigated numerically using the finite difference time domain(FDTD)method.

  10. Improper hydrogen bonded cyclohexane C-Hax···Yax contacts: theoretical predictions and experimental evidence from 1H NMR spectroscopy of suitable axial cyclohexane models. (United States)

    Kolocouris, Antonios; Zervos, Nikolaos; De Proft, Frank; Koch, Andreas


    C-H(ax)···Y(ax) contacts are a textbook prototype of steric hindrance in organic chemistry. The nature of these contacts is investigated in this work. MP2/6-31+G(d,p) calculations predicted the presence of improper hydrogen bonded C-H(ax)···Y(ax) contacts of different strength in substituted cyclohexane rings. To support the theoretical predictions with experimental evidence, several synthetic 2-substituted adamantane analogues (1-24) with suitable improper H-bonded C-H(ax)···Y(ax) contacts of different strength were used as models of a substituted cyclohexane ring. The (1)H NMR signal separation, Δδ(γ-CH(2)), within the cyclohexane ring γ-CH(2)s is raised when the MP2/6-31+G(d,p) calculated parameters, reflecting the strength of the H-bonded C-H(ax)···Y(ax) contact, are increased. In molecules with enhanced improper H-bonded contacts C-H(ax)···Y(ax), like those having sterically crowded contacts (Y(ax) = t-Bu) or contacts including considerable electrostatic attractions (Y(ax) = O-C or O═C) the calculated DFT steric energies of the γ-axial hydrogens are considerably reduced reflecting their electron cloud compression. The results suggest that the proton H(ax) electron cloud compression, caused by the C-H(ax)···Y(ax) contacts, and the resulting increase in Δδ(γ-CH(2)) value can be effected not just from van der Waals spheres compression, but more generally from electrostatic attraction forces and van der Waals repulsion, both of which are improper H-bonding components.

  11. Roles of urea and TMAO on the interaction between extended non-polar peptides (United States)

    Su, Zhaoqian; Dias, Cristiano

    Urea and trimethylamine n-oxide (TMAO) are small molecules known to destabilize and stabilize, respectively, the structure of proteins when added to aqueous solution. To unravel the molecular mechanisms of these cosolvents on protein structure we perform explicit all-atom molecular dynamics simulations of extended poly-alanine and polyleucine dimers. We use an umbrella sampling protocol to compute the potential of mean force (PMF) of dimers at different concentrations of urea and TMAO. We find that the large non-polar side chain of leucine is affected by urea whereas backbone atoms and alanine's side chain are not. Urea is found to occupy positions between leucine's side chains that are not accessible to water. This accounts for extra Lennard-Jones bonds between urea and side chains that favors the unfolded state. These bonds compete with urea-solvent interactions that favor the folded state. The sum of these two energetic terms provide the enthalpic driving force for unfolding. We show here that this enthalpy correlate with the potential of mean force of poly-leucine dimers. Moreover, the framework developed here is general and may be used to provide insights into effects of other small molecules on protein interactions. The effect of the TMAO will be in the presentation. Department of Physics, University Heights, Newark, New Jersey, 07102-1982.

  12. Phosphatidylcholine reverse micelles on the wrong track in molecular dynamics simulations of phospholipids in an organic solvent (United States)

    Vierros, S.; Sammalkorpi, M.


    Here, we examine a well-characterized model system of phospholipids in cyclohexane via molecular dynamics simulations using a force field known for reproducing both phospholipid behavior in water and cyclohexane bulk properties to a high accuracy, CHARMM36, with the aim of evaluating the transferability of a force field parametrization from an aqueous environment to an organic solvent. We compare the resulting reverse micelles with their expected experimental shape and size, and find the model struggles with reproducing basic, experimentally known reverse micellar structural characteristics for common phosphadidylcholine lipids such as 1,2-dipalmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphatidylcholine (DPPC), 1,2-dioleyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphatidylcholine (DOPC), and 1,2-dilinoleyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphatidylcholine (DLPC) in cyclohexane solvent. We find evidence that the deviation from the experimental behavior originates from an underestimation of the lipid tail-cyclohexane interaction in the model. We compensate for this, obtain reverse micellar structures within the experimentally expected range, and characterize these structurally in molecular detail. Our findings indicate extra caution and verification of model applicability is warranted in simulational studies employing standard biomolecular models outside the usual aqueous environment.

  13. Electrophoretic Retardation of Colloidal Particles in Nonpolar Liquids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filip Strubbe


    Full Text Available We have measured the electrophoretic mobility of single, optically trapped colloidal particles, while gradually depleting the co-ions and counterions in the liquid around the particle by applying a dc voltage. This is achieved in a nonpolar liquid, where charged reverse micelles act as co-ions and counterions. By increasing the dc voltage, the mobility first increases when the concentrations of co-ions and counterions near the particle start to decrease. At sufficiently high dc voltage (around 2 V, the mobility reaches a saturation value when the co-ions and counterions are fully separated. The increase in mobility is larger when the equilibrium ionic strength is higher. The dependence of the experimental data on the equilibrium ionic strength and on the applied voltage is in good agreement with the standard theory of electrophoretic retardation, assuming that the bare particle charge remains constant. This method is useful for studying the electrophoretic retardation effect and charging mechanisms for nonpolar colloids, and it sheds light on previously unexplained particle acceleration in electronic ink devices.

  14. Observation of water dangling OH bonds around dissolved nonpolar groups. (United States)

    Perera, P N; Fega, K R; Lawrence, C; Sundstrom, E J; Tomlinson-Phillips, J; Ben-Amotz, Dor


    We report the experimental observation of water dangling OH bonds in the hydration shells around dissolved nonpolar (hydrocarbon) groups. The results are obtained by combining vibrational (Raman) spectroscopy and multivariate curve resolution (MCR), to reveal a high-frequency OH stretch peak arising from the hydration shell around nonpolar (hydrocarbon) solute groups. The frequency and width of the observed peak is similar to that of dangling OH bonds previously detected at macroscopic air-water and oil-water interfaces. The area of the observed peak is used to quantify the number of water dangling bonds around hydrocarbon chains of different length. Molecular dynamics simulation of the vibrational spectra of water molecules in the hydration shell around neopentane and benzene reveals high-frequency OH features that closely resemble the experimentally observed dangling OH vibrational bands around neopentyl alcohol and benzyl alcohol. The red-shift of approximately 50 cm(-1) induced by aromatic solutes is similar to that previously observed upon formation of a pi-H bond (in low-temperature benzene-water clusters).

  15. Correlation between thermal diffusion and solvent self-diffusion in semidilute and concentrated polymer solutions. (United States)

    Rauch, J; Hartung, M; Privalov, A F; Köhler, W


    We have performed measurements of thermal diffusion coefficients DT and solvent self-diffusion coefficients Dss in semidilute to concentrated polymer solutions. Solutes of different glass transition temperatures and solvents of different solvent qualities have been used. The investigated systems are in detail: poly(dimethyl-siloxane) in toluene, tristyrene in toluene, polystyrene in toluene, polystyrene in tetrahydrofuran, polystyrene in benzene, and polystyrene in cyclohexane. The thermal diffusion data are compared to our data and literature data for solvent self-diffusion coefficients. In all systems the concentration dependence of DT closely parallels the one of Dss which may be viewed as a local probe for friction on a length scale of the size of one polymer segment. This identifies local friction as the dominating parameter determining the concentration dependence of DT. Solvent quality, in contrast, has no influence on DT.

  16. Temperature dependence of the positronium yields in polar and nonpolar pure liquids; an experimental test of a phenomenological model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levay, B


    A phenomenological model describing the temperature dependence of the positronium yields (I{sub Ps}, %) was tested in pure liquids of different polarity. The investigated solvents were: m-xylene (m-Xy) and iso-octane (i-C8) as aromatic and aliphatic nonpolar hydrocarbons, methanol (MeOH), water and dimethyl formamide as polar solvents with and without OH group. Arrhenius type linear relationship predicted by the model for the lnQ vs 1/T function, where Q=(100/I{sub Ps}-1), was found to be valid in all cases. The slopes of the lines correspond to the activation energy differences ({delta}E{sup *}=E{sub rec}-E{sub Ps}) between the two main competing reaction pathways in the positron spur, i.e., solvent recombination (e{sup -} + M{sup +}) and positronium formation (e{sup -} + e{sup +}). The slopes were positive, i.e., {delta}E{sup *}<0 and E{sub rec}

  17. Reactive Extraction of L (+ Tartaric Acid by Amberlite LA-2 in Different Solvents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Inci


    Full Text Available The extraction of L(+ tartaric acid from aqueous solutions by amberlite LA-2 is a secondary amine mixture in different diluent solvents. Extraction equilibria of L(+ tartaric acid by amberlite LA-2 in 1-octanol, cyclohexane, isooctane, hexane, methyl isobutyl ketone (MIBK solvents at temperature 298.15 K have been measured. The batch extraction experiments distribution coefficients (D, loading factors ( Z and extraction efficiency (E were calculated. The maximum removal of L(+ tartaric acid is 91 % with MIBK and 0.92 mol.L-1 initial concentration of Amberlite LA-2.

  18. Photophysics of a Fluorescent Probe of the Laurdan Molecule in Homogeneous and Binary Solvents (United States)

    Titova, T. Yu.; Morozova, Yu. P.; Korolev, B. V.


    The spectral and luminescent properties of the laurdan molecule (6-dodecanol 2-dimethylamino-naphthalene) are investigated by experimental and theoretical methods of time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT). The fluorescence spectra of laurdan in homogeneous and binary solvents are analyzed using derivative spectroscopy method. It is shown that the fluorescence band (in hexane, cyclohexane, and triton X-100) is complex: two structures having energy difference 1000-1500 cm-1 are manifested for the molecule. The calculated data show the non-rigidity of its structure. The effect of proton-donor solvents is considered with allowance for not only dipole-dipole interactions, but also formation of the hydrogen bond.

  19. Understanding kinetic solvent effects on hydrogen abstraction reactions from carbon by the cumyloxyl radical. (United States)

    Bietti, Massimo; Martella, Roberto; Salamone, Michela


    A kinetic study of the hydrogen abstraction reactions from tetrahydrofuran (THF) and cyclohexane (CHX) by the cumyloxyl radical was carried out in different solvents. With THF, a 4.5-fold decrease in rate constant (k(H)) was observed on going from isooctane to 2,2,2-trifluoroethanol. An opposite behavior was observed with CHX, where k(H) increased by a factor 4 on going from isooctane to 2,2,2-trifluoroethanol. The important role of substrate structure and of the solvent hydrogen bond donor ability is discussed.

  20. C-H(ax)...Y(ax) contacts in cyclohexane derivatives revisited-identification of improper hydrogen-bonded contacts. (United States)

    Kolocouris, Antonios


    The structure of 111 cyclohexane derivatives bearing the axial substitution Y(ax)-C was optimized at the B3LYP/6-31+G(d,p) level. The natural bond orbital analysis revealed the presence of overlap interactions between the axial substituent and the antibonding sigma*(C-Hax) orbitals; these calculated hyperconjugative interactions suggest the presence of improper H-bonded contacts. The addition of an appropriate bridging fragment between the axial substituent and cyclohexane carbon strengthens significantly the hydrogen-bonding component of the contact and several structures of axially substituted cyclohexane derivatives including such hydrogen-bonded C-H(ax)...Y(ax)-C contacts were retrieved from the Cambridge Crystallographic Database. Overall, the calculations predicted that the C-H(ax)...Y(ax)-C contacts in common cyclohexane derivatives that are generally thought to be steric in nature (Pauli repulsive forces) include an improper hydrogen-bonding component.

  1. Plasmonic cyclohexane-sensing by sputter-deposited Au nanoparticle array on SiO{sub 2}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawaguchi, Kazuhiro [Department of Chemistry and Materials Technology, Kyoto Institute of Technology, Matsugasaki, Sakyo, Kyoto 606-8585 (Japan); Yamamoto, Shunya; Yoshikawa, Masahito [Quantum Beam Science Directorate, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, 1233 Watanuki, Gunma 370-1292 (Japan); Takahiro, Katsumi, E-mail: [Department of Chemistry and Materials Technology, Kyoto Institute of Technology, Matsugasaki, Sakyo, Kyoto 606-8585 (Japan)


    We have examined the plasmonic sensing ability of Au nanoparticle (NP) arrays for dilute cyclohexane. Au NP arrays were fabricated on SiO{sub 2} by a sputter deposition technique. The change in an extinction spectrum of Au NP arrays before and after exposure of cyclohexane vapor enabled us to detect it. The Au NP array prepared with 4.4 × 10{sup 16} Au atoms/cm{sup 2} by heating at 300 °C was densely arranged on the substrate and exhibited a high sensitivity for cyclohexane. The experimentally detectable concentration of cyclohexane was as low as 0.5 vol%, much lower than its explosion limit (1.3 vol%). Furthermore, the detection limit was estimated to be ∼ 0.3 vol%, which was approximately one fourth of the explosion limit.

  2. Estimation of Kinetic Parameters for Autocatalytic Oxidation of Cyclohexane Based on a Modified Adaptive Genetic Algorithm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘平乐; 邹丽珊; 罗和安; 王良芥; 郑金华


    A modified genetic algorithm of multiple selection strategies, crossover strategies and adaptive operator is constructed, and it is used to estimate the kinetic parameters in autocatalytic oxidation of cyclohexane. The influences of selection strategy, crossover strategy and mutation strategy on algorithm performance are discussed. This algorithm with a specially designed adaptive operator avoids the problem of local optimum usually associated with using standard genetic algorithm and simplex method. The kinetic parameters obtained from the modified genetic algorithm are credible and the calculation results using these parameters agree well with experimental data. Furthermore, a new kinetic model of cyclohexane autocatalytic oxidation is established and the kinetic parameters are estimated by using the modified genetic algorithm.


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jun-fang Li; Yi-jie Lu; Guang-zhao Zhang; Chi Wu


    A high molecular weight (Mw=1.85×107) polystyrene (PS) with narrow distribution was prepared by high vacuum anionic polymerization in tetrahydrofuran.By use of dynamic light scattering,the dynamics of PS chains in cyclohexane was studied around the 0 temperature.For the first time,we have observed the internal motion of polymer chains in solutions below the θ temperature by using dynamic light scattering at smaller angles (even qRg<1).

  4. Inhibition of Ps Formation in Benzene and Cyclohexane by CH3CI and CH3Br

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wikander, G.; Mogensen, O. E.; Pedersen, Niels Jørgen


    of the inhibition of Ps formation by CH3Br was ten times that of CH3Cl in cyclohexane, because the CH3Br− anion debrominates rapidly, while CH3Cl− is long-lived (= 30 ns) compared to the maximum time of Ps formation of 400–500 ps. as shown in radiation chemistry. The positron can pick off the electron from the CH3X...

  5. e,e-trans-Cyclohexane-1,4-carboxylic acid–hexamethylenetetramine (1/2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Lemmerer


    Full Text Available The asymmetric unit of the title compound, 2C6H12N4·C8H12O4, contains one half-molecule of e,e-trans-cyclohexane-1,4-dicarboxylic acid (the complete molecule being generated by inversion symmetry and one molecule of hexamethylenetetramine (HMTA, which are connected by O—H...N hydrogen bonds. This forms isolated trimers that pack in a herringbone fashion.

  6. Coherent Control of Vibrational State Population in a Nonpolar Molecule

    CERN Document Server

    Picón, A; Jaron-Becker, A; Becker, A; 10.1103/PhysRevA.83.023412


    A coherent control scheme for the population distribution in the vibrational states of nonpolar molecules is proposed. Our theoretical analysis and results of numerical simulations for the interaction of the hydrogen molecular ion in its electronic ground state with an infrared laser pulse reveal a selective two-photon transition between the vibrational states via a coupling with the first excited dissociative state. We demonstrate that for a given temporal intensity profile the population transfer between vibrational states, or a superposition of vibrational states, can be made complete for a single chirped pulse or a train of chirped pulses, which accounts for the accumulated phase difference due to the AC Stark effect. Effects of a spatial intensity (or, focal) averaging are discussed.

  7. Polarity inversion in polar-nonpolar-polar heterostructures. (United States)

    Cho, S; Youn, S J; Kim, Y; DiVenere, A; Wong, G K; Freeman, A J; Ketterson, J B


    We have observed an epilayer-thickness-dependent polarity inversion for the growth of CdTe on Sb(Bi)/CdTe(111)B. For films with Sb(Bi) thicknesses of less than 40 A (15 A), the CdTe layer shows a B (Te-terminated) face, but it switches to an A (Cd-terminated) face for thicker layers. On the other hand, a CdTe layer grown on Bi(Sb)/CdTe(111)A always shows the A face regardless of Sb or Bi layer thicknesses. In order to address the observations we have performed ab initio calculations, which suggest that the polarity of a polar material on a nonpolar one results from the binding energy difference between the two possible surface configurations.

  8. Efficient removal of naphthalene-2-ol from aqueous solutions by solvent extraction. (United States)

    Shao, Jingjing; Cheng, Yan; Yang, Chunping; Zeng, Guangming; Liu, Wencan; Jiao, Panpan; He, Huijun


    Naphthalene-2-ol is a typical biologically recalcitrant pollutant in dye wastewater. Solvent extraction of naphthalene-2-ol from aqueous solutions using mixed solvents was investigated. Various extractants and diluents were evaluated, and the effects of volume ratio of extractant to diluent, initial pH, initial concentration of naphthalene-2-ol in aqueous solution, extraction time, temperature, volume ratio of organic phase to aqueous phase (O/A), stirring rate and extraction stages, on extraction efficiency were examined separately. Regeneration and reuse of the spent extractant were also investigated. Results showed that tributyl phosphate (TBP) achieved 98% extraction efficiency for naphthalene-2-ol in a single stage extraction, the highest among the 12 extractants evaluated. Extraction efficiency was optimized when cyclohexane and n-octane were used as diluents. The solvent combination of 20% TBP, 20% n-octanol and 60% cyclohexane (V/V) obtained the maximum extraction efficiency for naphthalene-2-ol, 99.3%, within 20min using three cross-current extraction stages under the following extraction conditions: O/A ratio of 1:1, initial pH of 3, 25°C and stirring rate of 150r/min. Recovery of mixed solvents was achieved by using 15% (W/W) NaOH solution at an O:A ratio of 1:1 and a contact time of 15min. The mixed solvents achieved an extraction capacity for naphthalene-2-ol stably higher than 90% during five cycles after regeneration.

  9. Bioremediation potential of a newly isolate solvent tolerant strain Bacillus thermophilus PS11

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available The increased generation of solvent waste has been stated as one of the most critical environmental problems. Though microbial bioremediation has been widely used for waste treatment but their application in solvent waste treatment is limited since the solvents have toxic effects on the microbial cells. A solvent tolerant strain of Bacillus thermophilus PS11 was isolated from soil by cyclohexane enrichment. Transmission electron micrograph of PS11 showed convoluted cell membrane and accumulation of solvents in the cytoplasm, indicating the adaptation of the bacterial strain to the solvent after 48h of incubation. The strain was also capable of growing in presence of wide range of other hydrophobic solvents with log P-values below 3.5. The isolate could uptake 50 ng/ml of uranium in its initial 12h of growth, exhibiting both solvent tolerance and metal resistance property. This combination of solvent tolerance and metal resistance will make the isolated Bacillus thermophilus PS11 a potential tool for metal bioremediation in solvent rich wastewaters.


    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shi Yun-yu, [No Value; Wang Lu, [No Value; Van Gunsteren, W. F.


    The molecular simulation technique of stochastic dynamics (SD) is tested by application to the immunosuppressive drug cyclosporin A (CPA). Two stochastic dynamics simulations are performed, one (SDCCl4) with atomic friction coefficients proportional to the viscosity of the nonpolar solvent CCl4, and

  11. Flowsheet Simulation and Parameter Analysis of Separating BenzeneCyclohexane by Batch Extractive Distillation%间歇萃取精馏分离苯-环己烷的流程模拟及参数分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李文秀; 贾庆波; 张志刚; 连利燕; 刘雷


    In the chemical industry, benzene-cyclohexane mixture is very typical binary azeotrope. In this paper, dimethylsulfoxide(DMSO) and N-methylpyrrolidone(NMP) (DMSO : NMP=1 : 3) were used as the mixed solvent, based on previous experimental validation, a BatchFrac unit operation block in ASPEN PLUS 11.1 was adopted, simulation calculation of the batch extractive distillation for the separation of binary azeotropic benzene-cyclohexane mixture was carried out by choosing UNIFAC as the calculation method of physical property and by changing operation parameters. The simulation results show that the mass rate of overhead cyclohexane is up to 98%. The application of simulation calculation can provide a good theoretical basis for deep study and design reference.%苯和环己烷混合物是化工中非常典型的二元共沸物系.选用二甲基亚砜( DMSO)和N-甲基吡咯烷酮(NMP)的质量配比为DMSO∶NMP=1∶3作为混合溶剂,在前期实验验证基础上,采用ASPEN PLUS11.1化工模拟软件中的BatchFrac单元操作模块,采用UNIFAC物性计算方法,通过改变各操作参数,对苯和环己烷二元共沸物系的分离进行间歇萃取精馏模拟计算.模拟结果表明:常压操作条件下,塔顶环己烷质量分率可达到98%,模拟计算的运用能够为实验进一步研究提供很好的理论依据和设计参考.

  12. Oil recovery from petroleum sludge through ultrasonic assisted solvent extraction. (United States)

    Hu, Guangji; Li, Jianbing; Huang, Shuhui; Li, Yubao


    The effect of ultrasonic assisted extraction (UAE) process on oil recovery from refinery oily sludge was examined in this study. Two types of UAE treatment including UAE probe (UAEP) system and UAE bath (UAEB) system were investigated. Their oil recovery efficiencies were compared to that of mechanical shaking extraction (MSE). Three solvents including cyclohexane (CHX), ethyl acetate (EA), and methyl ethyl ketone (MEK) were examined as the extraction solvents. The influence of experimental factors on oil and solvent recovery was investigated using an orthogonal experimental design. Results indicated that solvent type, solvent-to-sludge (S/S) ratio, and treatment duration could have significant effects on oil recovery in UAE treatment. Under the optimum conditions, UAEP treatment can obtain an oil recovery of 68.8% within 20 s, which was higher than that (i.e., 62.0%) by MSE treatment after 60 min' extraction. UAEB treatment can also obtain a promising oil recovery within shorter extraction duration (i.e., 15 min) than MSE. UAE was thus illustrated as an effective and improved approach for oily sludge recycling.

  13. Effect of Solvents on the Product Distribution and Reaction Rate of a Buchwald-Hartwig Amination Reaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, H.; Kiil, Søren; Dam-Johansen, Kim;


    The Buchwald-Hartwig amination reaction between p-bromotoluene and piperazine in the presence of the homogeneous catalytic system Pd(dba)(2)/(+/-)-BINAP and the base NaO-t-Bu was investigated in two different classes of solvents: aprotic, nonpolar and aprotic, polar. The reaction was carried out...... solvent for the Buchwald-Hartwig amination reaction under the conditions applied was m-xylene....

  14. Non-polar Extraction Effect Analysis of Mimusops elengi (L. bark to Larvae of Aedes aegypti (L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mutiara Widawati


    Full Text Available Tanjung or Mimusops elengi is one of a tree that has many therapeutic effects and has been widely studied as an alternative drug like anti-inflammatory agent, diarrhea, and asthma. This study tested the larvicidal ability of Tanjung bark extract for larvae of Aedes aegypti. The solvent that will be used for Mimusops elengi stem extraction in this research is semi-polar and non-polar solvent, which is ethyl acetate and hexane. The method used in this research was reflux extraction and proceed further with fractionation that has been analyzed by thin layer chromatography. The larvicidal activity of Mimusops elengi extract was tested using a bioassay method that has been established by WHO to determine LC50 and LC9O which can be processed further in order to compare the ejjicacy ofsolvent used. The LC50 value of the extract 1,2 and 3, were each 59.36 ppm, 82.53 ppm, and 110.42 ppm. The experimental results showed that hexane has the most powerful larvicidal ability compared to other extracts.

  15. (Co-)solvent selection for single-wall carbon nanotubes: best solvents, acids, superacids and guest-host inclusion complexes. (United States)

    Torrens, Francisco; Castellano, Gloria


    Analysis of 1-octanol-water, cyclohexane-water and chloroform (CHCl(3))-water partition coefficients P(o-ch-cf) allows calculation of molecular lipophilicity patterns, which show that for a given atom log P(o-ch-cf) is sensitive to the presence of functional groups. Program CDHI does not properly differentiate between non-equivalent atoms. The most abundant single-wall carbon nanotube (SWNT), (10,10), presents a relatively small aqueous solubility and large elementary polarizability, P(o-ch-cf) and kinetic stability. The SWNT solubility is studied in various solvents, finding a class of non-hydrogen-bonding Lewis bases with good solubility. Solvents group into three classes. The SWNTs in some organic solvents are cationic while in water/Triton X mixture are anionic. Categorized solubility is semiquantitatively correlated with solvent parameters. The coefficient of term β is positive while the ones of ε and V negative. The electron affinity of d-glucopyranoses (d-Glcp(n)) suggests the formation of colloids of anionic SWNTs in water. Dipole moment for d-Glcp(n)-linear increases with n until four in agreement with 18-fold helix. The I(n)(z-) and SWNT(-) are proposed to form inclusion complexes with cyclodextrin (CD) and amylose (Amy). Starch, d-Glcp, CD and Amy are proposed as SWNT co-solvents. Guests-hosts are unperturbed. A central channel expansion is suggested.

  16. Molecular near-field antenna effect in resonance hyper-Raman scattering: Intermolecular vibronic intensity borrowing of solvent from solute through dipole-dipole and dipole-quadrupole interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shimada, Rintaro; Hamaguchi, Hiro-o, E-mail: [Department of Applied Chemistry and Institute of Molecular Science, National Chiao Tung University, 1001 University Road, Hsinchu 30010, Taiwan (China)


    We quantitatively interpret the recently discovered intriguing phenomenon related to resonance Hyper-Raman (HR) scattering. In resonance HR spectra of all-trans-β-carotene (β-carotene) in solution, vibrations of proximate solvent molecules are observed concomitantly with the solute β-carotene HR bands. It has been shown that these solvent bands are subject to marked intensity enhancements by more than 5 orders of magnitude under the presence of β-carotene. We have called this phenomenon the molecular-near field effect. Resonance HR spectra of β-carotene in benzene, deuterated benzene, cyclohexane, and deuterated cyclohexane have been measured precisely for a quantitative analysis of this effect. The assignments of the observed peaks are made by referring to the infrared, Raman, and HR spectra of neat solvents. It has been revealed that infrared active and some Raman active vibrations are active in the HR molecular near-field effect. The observed spectra in the form of difference spectra (between benzene/deuterated benzene and cyclohexane/deuterated cyclohexane) are quantitatively analyzed on the basis of the extended vibronic theory of resonance HR scattering. The theory incorporates the coupling of excited electronic states of β-carotene with the vibrations of a proximate solvent molecule through solute–solvent dipole–dipole and dipole–quadrupole interactions. It is shown that the infrared active modes arise from the dipole–dipole interaction, whereas Raman active modes from the dipole–quadrupole interaction. It is also shown that vibrations that give strongly polarized Raman bands are weak in the HR molecular near-field effect. The observed solvent HR spectra are simulated with the help of quantum chemical calculations for various orientations and distances of a solvent molecule with respect to the solute. The observed spectra are best simulated with random orientations of the solvent molecule at an intermolecular distance of 10 Å.

  17. Density and Phase State of a Confined Nonpolar Fluid (United States)

    Kienle, Daniel F.; Kuhl, Tonya L.


    Measurements of the mean refractive index of a spherelike nonpolar fluid, octamethytetracylclosiloxane (OMCTS), confined between mica sheets, demonstrate direct and conclusive experimental evidence of the absence of a first-order liquid-to-solid phase transition in the fluid when confined, which has been suggested to occur from previous experimental and simulation results. The results also show that the density remains constant throughout confinement, and that the fluid is incompressible. This, along with the observation of very large increases (many orders of magnitude) in viscosity during confinement from the literature, demonstrate that the molecular motion is limited by the confining wall and not the molecular packing. In addition, the recently developed refractive index profile correction method, which enables the structural perturbation inherent at a solid-liquid interface and that of a liquid in confinement to be determined independently, was used to show that there was no measurable excess or depleted mass of OMCTS near the mica surface in bulk films or confined films of only two molecular layers.

  18. Design of non-polarizing thin film edge filters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GU Pei-fu; ZHENG Zhen-rong


    The separation between s- and p-polarization components invariably affects thin film edge filters used for tilted incidence and is a difficult problem for many applications, especially for optical communication. This paper presents a novel design method to obtain edge filters with non-polarization at incidence angle of 45°. The polarization separation at 50% transmittance for a long-wave-pass filter and a short-wave-pass filter is 0.3 nm and 0.1 nm respectively. The design method is based on a broadband Fabry-Perot thin-film interference filter in which the higher or lower interference band at both sides of the main transmittance peak can be used for initial design of long-wave-pass filter or short-wave-pass filter and then can be refined to reduce the transmittance ripples. The spacer 2H2L2H or 2L2H2L of the filter is usually taken. Moreover, the method for expanding the bandwidth of rejection and transmission is explained. The bandwidth of 200 nm for both rejection region and transmission band is obtained at wavelength 1550 nm. In this way, the long-wave-pass and short-wave-pass edge filters with zero separation between two polarization components can easily be fabricated.

  19. Tandem dinucleophilic cyclization of cyclohexane-1,3-diones with pyridinium salts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mostafa Kiamehr


    Full Text Available The cyclization of cyclohexane-1,3-diones with various substituted pyridinium salts afforded functionalized 8-oxa-10-aza-tricyclo[,7]trideca-2(7,11-dienes. The reaction proceeds by regioselective attack of the central carbon atom of the 1,3-dicarbonyl unit to 4-position of the pyridinium salt and subsequent cyclization by base-assisted proton migration and nucleophilic addition of the oxygen atom to the 2-position, as was elucidated by DFT computations. Fairly extensive screening of bases and additives revealed that the presence of potassium cations is essential for formation of the product.

  20. Heteroarylazo derivatives of cyclohexane-1,3-dione and their metal complexes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ummathur Muhammed Basheer


    Full Text Available The coupling of diazotized 2-aminothiazole and 2-aminobenzo-thiazole with cyclohexane-1,3-dione yielded a new type of tridentate ligand systems (HL. Analytical, IR, 1H NMR, 13C NMR and mass spectral data indicate the existence of the compounds in the intramolecularly hydrogen bonded azo-enol tautomeric form. Monobasic tridentate coordination of the compounds in their [CuL(OAc] and [ML2] complexes [M = Ni(II and Zn(II] has been established on the basis of analytical and spectral data. The Zn(II chelates are diamagnetic while Cu(II and Ni(II complexes showed normal paramagnetic moment.

  1. Effects of solvent and substituent on the electronic absorption spectra of some substituted Schiff bases: a chemometrics study. (United States)

    Hemmateenejad, Bahram; Yazdani, Mahdieh; Sharghi, Hashem


    A series of Schiff bases were studied for their delicate changes in absorption electronic spectra by changing substituents and solvents. UV/vis absorbance spectra of Schiff base derivatives of different substituents ranging from electron withdrawing to electron donating (Br, CF(3), Cl, CN, CO(2)H, F, Me, NO(2), OH, OMe, H) were studied in different solvents (acetonitrile, chloroform, cyclohexane, dioxane, dimethylsulfoxide and methanol). Linear relationships were established to investigate the effect of solute structure and solvatochromic parameters of solvents on the absorbance spectra. Meaningful chemical factors and then regression models were provided utilizing factor analysis (FA) and multiple linear regression (MLR). It was found that the frequency of maximum absorbance was mainly controlled by the solvent's dipolarity/polarizability. The λ(max) of the ortho-nitro derivative represented the largest dependency on solvents' polarity/polarizability so that it can be used as a solvatochromic probe. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Solvent-extraction methods applied to the chemical analysis of uranium. III. Study of the extraction with inert solvents; Metodos de extraccion con disolventes aplicados al analisis quimico del uranio. III. Estudio de la extraccion con disolvente inertes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vera Palomino, J.; Palomares Delgado, F.; Petrement Eguiluz, J. C.


    The extraction of uranium on the trace level is studied by using tributylphosphate as active agent under conditions aiming the attainment of quantitative extraction by means of a single step process using a number of salting-out agents and keeping inside the general lines as reported in two precedent papers. Two inert solvents were investigated, benzene and cyclohexane, which allowed to derive the corresponding empirical equations describing the extraction process and the results obtained were compared with those previously reported for solvents which, like ethyl acetate and methylisobuthylketone, favour to a more or less extend the extraction of uranium. (Author) 4 refs.

  3. Metabolic Activation of Nonpolar Sediment Extracts Results in enhanced Thyroid Hormone Disrupting Potency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Montano, M.; Weiss, J.; Hoffmann, L.; Gutleb, A.C.; Murk, A.J.


    Traditional sediment risk assessment predominantly considers the hazard derived from legacy contaminants that are present in nonpolar sediment extracts, such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), dioxins, furans (PCDD/Fs), and polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Although in vivo experiments with these

  4. Adsorption of polar, nonpolar, and substituted aromatics to colloidal graphene oxide nanoparticles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, Fang; Haftka, Joris J H; Sinnige, Theo L.; Hermens, Joop L M; Chen, Wei


    We conducted batch adsorption experiments to understand the adsorptive properties of colloidal graphene oxide nanoparticles (GONPs) for a range of environmentally relevant aromatics and substituted aromatics, including model nonpolar compounds (pyrene, phenanthrene, naphthalene, and 1,3-dichlorobenz

  5. On the origins of kinetic resolution of cyclohexane-1,2-diols through stereoselective acylation by chiral tetrapeptides. (United States)

    Shinisha, C B; Sunoj, Raghavan B


    The relative energies of cyclohexane-1,2-diols and chiral tetrapeptide (2 (Boc) or 3 (Moc)) complexes calculated using DFT indicate a thermodynamic preference for chiral recognition toward (1R,2R)(e,e)-alpha isomer. The barrier for stereoselective acyl transfer is identified as lower for trans-(1R,2R)-cyclohexane-1,2-diol, leading to the kinetic resolution (KR) of trans-(1S,2S)-cyclohexane-1,2-diol. The prediction is in concert with the reported experiments for trans-diols, while that for hitherto unknown cis-diol demands experimental verification. It is proposed that desymmetrization would enable the resolution of cis-(1R,2S)-2-hydroxycyclohexyl acetate.

  6. Acousto-optic modulation and deflection of terahertz electromagnetic radiation in nonpolar liquids (United States)

    Nikitin, P. A.; Voloshinov, V. B.; Gerasimov, V. V.; Knyazev, B. A.


    The results of a series of experiments on controlled deflection of electromagnetic radiation of a free-electron laser upon diffraction by an acoustic wave in nonpolar liquids are presented. Acoustic and optical properties of liquids that are transparent in the terahertz range are discussed. It is demonstrated that nonpolar liquids may turn out to be a more efficient acousto-optic interaction medium than dielectric crystals or semiconductors.

  7. Polar-Nonpolar Radical Copolymerization under Li+ Catalysis (United States)


    description of our copolymerization results. The polyisobutylene (b- PIB ) that is produced by homopolymerization of IB in an inert solvent such as 1,2...the linear polyisobutylene (l- PIB ) produced under the usual cationic initiation. The difference is clear in spectral (NMR) and physical (DSC, TGA...HPLC) properties. A detailed 2D-NMR examination of b- PIB obtained from ordinary IB and several isotopically labeled versions of IB revealed that its

  8. Study on Properties of Microemulsion AEO-9/Butanol/Cyclohexane/Salt Aqueous Solution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qiu Guanming; Chen Yongjie; Tian Yiguang; Fang Li; Xiao Linjiu; Sun Yanbin


    The microemulsion AEO-9/butanol/cyclohexane/nitrate aqueous solution (or ammonium salt aqueous solution) was studied, which was used as 'micro-reactor' in preparing long afterglow phosphor materials SrAl2O4: Eu2+ ,Dy3+. The phase behavior of microemulsion was investigated. The radius of inner water droplet Rw and the change of standard free energy ΔG*o→i were obtained by means of dilution method and theoretical calculation. The result shows that with the increase of W/S, the area of microemulsion region decreases, Rw and ΔG*o→i increase and the microemulsion stability decreases. The structure change and formation area of microemulsion AEO-9/butanol/cyclohexane/nitrate aqueous solution ( or ammonium salt aqueous solution) were offered for the adoption of a synthesis method with newly high efficiency and utility. The particular size and its distribution theory gist, fluorescence life-span, and quenching concentration parameter data were expected. A new approach was explored for finding a new preparation method of rare earths afterglow materials and increasing luminescence intensity without crashing.

  9. Effect of water contaminated with phthalate, benzene and cyclohexane on Clarias gariepinus' cellular system. (United States)

    Adeyemi, O; Oginni, O; Osubor, C C; Adeyemi, O; Oloyede, O B; Oladiji, A T; Adebayo, E A


    This study evaluates the effect of water contaminated with phthalate, benzene and cyclohexane (major components of municipal waste in Nigeria) on the cellular system of Clarias gariepinus. Standard enzyme assays were conducted for alkaline phosphatase, acid phosphatase, alanine transaminase, aspartate transaminase, lactate dehydrogenase, gamma glutamyl transpeptidase of selected tissues of C. gariepinus cultivated in contaminated water over a period of 56 days. Generally, a significant decrease in the activity of the enzymes of the tissues of C. gariepinus cultivated in contaminated water was observed relative to the control (pgariepinus cultivated in phthalate contaminated water was found to be 8.26+/-1.42 while that of control was 14.42+/-1.09. The activity of serum gamma glutamyl transpeptidase of serum of the same group of fish was found to be twice that of control. It could be inferred that membrane integrity of the tissues studied are compromised and that tissue dysfunction may result. Consumption of C. gariepinus cultivated in water contaminated with phthalate, benzene and cyclohexane could pose threats to public health.

  10. Transport properties of the binary mixtures of the three organic liquids toluene, methanol, and cyclohexane (United States)

    Lapeira, E.; Gebhardt, M.; Triller, T.; Mialdun, A.; Köhler, W.; Shevtsova, V.; Bou-Ali, M. M.


    We report on the measurements of diffusion (D), thermodiffusion (DT), and Soret (ST) coefficients in binary pairs of the ternary system toluene-methanol-cyclohexane using different instrumental techniques: microgravity measurements (SODI/DCMIX2) on the International Space Station, thermogravitational column in combination with sliding symmetric tubes, optical beam deflection, optical digital interferometry, and counter flow cell. The binary systems have large regions where the mixtures are either not miscible or the Soret coefficient is negative. All the coefficients have been measured over a wide composition range with the exception of a miscibility gap. Results from different instruments and literature data are in favorable agreement over a broad composition range. Additionally, we have carefully measured the physical properties and the optical contrast factors (∂n/∂c ) p ,T and (∂n/∂T ) p ,c. The latter ones were also calculated using the Looyenga equation. The measurements in methanol-cyclohexane mixture revealed a decay of the diffusion coefficient when approaching the miscibility gap. We have interpreted this in the spirit of the pseudospinodal concept.

  11. Thermodynamic Properties of the Azeotropic Mixture of Acetone, Cyclohexane and Methanol

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Xiu-Rong; NAN Zhao-Dong; TAN Zhi-Cheng


    Molar heat capacities of the pure samples of acetone, methanol and the azeotropic mixture composed of acetone,cyclohexane and methanol were measured by an adiabatic calorimeter from 78 to 320 K. The solid-solid and solid-liquid phase transitions of the pure samples and the mixture were determined based on the curve of the heat capacity with respect to temperature. The phase transitions took place at (126.16±0.68) and (178.96±1.47) K for the sample of acetone, (157.79±0.95) and (175.93±0.95) K for methanol, which were corresponding to the solid-solid and the solid-liquid phase transitions of the acetone and the methanol, respectively. And the phase transitions occurred in the temperature ranges of 120 to 190 K and 278 to 280 K corresponding to the solid-solid and the solid-liquid phase transitions of mixture of acetone, cyclohexane and methanol, respectively. The thermodynamic functions and the excess thermodynamic functions of the mixture relative to standard temperature of 298.15 K were derived based on the relationships of the thermodynamic functions and the function of the measured heat capacity with respect to temperature.

  12. Critical concentration of ion-pairs formation in nonpolar media. (United States)

    Dukhin, Andrei


    It is known that nonpolar liquids can be ionized by adding surfactants, either ionic or nonionic. Surfactant molecules serve as solvating agents, building inverse micelles around ions, and preventing their association back into neutral molecules. According to the Bjerrum-Onsager-Fuoss theory, these inverse micelle ions should form "ion pairs." This, in turn, leads to nonlinear dependence of the conductivity on the concentration. Surprisingly, ionic surfactants exhibit linear conductivity dependence, which implies that these inverse micelle ions do not form ion pairs. Theory predicts the existence of two ionic strength ranges, which are separated by a certain critical ion concentration. Ionic strength above the critical one is proportional to the square root of the ion concentration, whereas it becomes linear below the critical concentration. Critical ion concentration lies within the range of 10(-11) -10(-7) mol/L when ion size ranges from 1 to 3 nm. Critical ion concentration is related, but not equal, to a certain surfactant concentration (critical concentration of ion-pairs formation (CIPC)) because only a fraction of the surfactant molecules is incorporated into the micelles ions. The linear conductivity dependence for ionic surfactants indicates that the corresponding CIPC is above the range of studied concentrations, perhaps, due to rather large ion size. The same linearity is a sign that charged inverse micelles structure and fraction are concentration independent due to strong charge-dipole interaction in the charge micelle core. This also proves that CIPC is independent of critical concentration of micelle formation. Nonionic surfactants, on the other hand, exhibit nonlinear conductivity dependence apparently due to smaller ion sizes. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. The influence of non-polar lipids on tear film dynamics

    KAUST Repository

    Bruna, M.


    © 2014 Cambridge University Press. In this paper we examine the effect that physiological non-polar lipids, residing on the surface of an aqueous tear film, have on the film evolution. In our model we track the evolution of the thickness of the non-polar lipid layer, the thickness of the aqueous layer and the concentration of polar lipids which reside at the interface between the two. We also utilise a force balance in the non-polar lipid layer in order to determine its velocity. We show how to obtain previous models in the literature from our model by making particular choices of the parameters. We see the formation of boundary layers in some of these submodels, across which the concentration of polar lipid and the non-polar lipid velocity and film thickness vary. We solve our model numerically for physically realistic parameter values, and we find that the evolution of the aqueous layer and the polar lipid layer are similar to that described by previous authors. However, there are interesting dynamics for the non-polar lipid layer. The effects of altering the key parameters are highlighted and discussed. In particular, we see that the Marangoni number plays a key role in determining how far over the eye the non-polar lipid spreads.

  14. Mechanism of Nonpolar Model Substances to Inhibit Primary Gushing Induced by Hydrophobin HFBI. (United States)

    Shokribousjein, Zahra; Riveros Galan, David; Losada-Pérez, Patricia; Wagner, Patrick; Lammertyn, Jeroen; Arghir, Iulia; Golreihan, Asefeh; Verachtert, Hubert; Aydın, Ahmet Alper; De Maeyer, Marc; Titze, Jean; Ilberg, Vladimír; Derdelinckx, Guy


    In this work, the interactions of a well-studied hydrophobin with different types of nonpolar model substances and their impact on primary gushing is evaluated. The nature, length, and degree of saturation of nonpolar molecules are key parameters defining the gushing ability or inhibition. When mixed with hydrophobins, the nonpolar molecule-hydrophobin assembly acts as a less gushing or no gushing system. This effect can be explained in the framework of a competition effect between non-polar systems and CO2 to interact with the hydrophobic patch of the hydrophobin. Interactions of these molecules with hydrophobins are promoted as a result of the similar size of the nonpolar molecules with the hydrophobic patch of the protein, at the expense of the formation of nanobubbles with CO2. In order to prove the presence of interactions and to unravel the mechanisms behind them, a complete set of experimental techniques was used. Surface sensitive techniques clearly show the presence of the interactions, whose nature is not covalent nor hydrogen bonding according to infrared spectroscopy results. Interactions were also reflected by particle size analysis in which mixtures of particles displayed larger size than their pure component counterparts. Upon mixing with nonpolar molecules, the gushing ability of the protein is significantly disrupted.

  15. Extended Hansen solubility approach: naphthalene in individual solvents. (United States)

    Martin, A; Wu, P L; Adjei, A; Beerbower, A; Prausnitz, J M


    A multiple regression method using Hansen partial solubility parameters, delta D, delta p, and delta H, was used to reproduce the solubilities of naphthalene in pure polar and nonpolar solvents and to predict its solubility in untested solvents. The method, called the extended Hansen approach, was compared with the extended Hildebrand solubility approach and the universal-functional-group-activity-coefficient (UNIFAC) method. The Hildebrand regular solution theory was also used to calculate naphthalene solubility. Naphthalene, an aromatic molecule having no side chains or functional groups, is "well-behaved', i.e., its solubility in active solvents known to interact with drug molecules is fairly regular. Because of its simplicity, naphthalene is a suitable solute with which to initiate the difficult study of solubility phenomena. The three methods tested (Hildebrand regular solution theory was introduced only for comparison of solubilities in regular solution) yielded similar results, reproducing naphthalene solubilities within approximately 30% of literature values. In some cases, however, the error was considerably greater. The UNIFAC calculation is superior in that it requires only the solute's heat of fusion, the melting point, and a knowledge of chemical structures of solute and solvent. The extended Hansen and extended Hildebrand methods need experimental solubility data on which to carry out regression analysis. The extended Hansen approach was the method of second choice because of its adaptability to solutes and solvents from various classes. Sample calculations are included to illustrate methods of predicting solubilities in untested solvents at various temperatures. The UNIFAC method was successful in this regard.

  16. 40 CFR 721.2275 - N,N,N′,N′-Tetrakis(oxi-ranyl- methyl)-1,3-cyclohexane di-meth-anamine. (United States)


    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false N,N,Nâ²,Nâ²-Tetrakis(oxi-ranyl- methyl)-1,3-cyclohexane di-meth-anamine. 721.2275 Section 721.2275 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL...-cyclohexane di-meth-anamine. (a) Chemical substances and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1)...

  17. An asymmetric route to 2,3-epoxy-syn-1,4-cyclohexane diol derivatives using ring closing metathesis (RCM)

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Soumitra Maity; Subrata Ghosh


    An asymmetric route for the synthesis of highly functionalized 2,3-epoxy-syn-1,4-cyclohexane diol derivatives present in some polyketide natural products has been developed. The key step involves RCM of an appropriately constructed 1,7-dienol derived from D-mannitol to cyclohexane-1,4-diol followed by its stereoselective epoxidation.

  18. Theoretical exploration of MgH2 and graphene nano-flakes in cyclohexane: proposing a new perspective toward functional hydrogen storage material. (United States)

    Liu, Runze; Zhao, Yinghe; Chu, Tianshu


    We studied the reaction mechanism of di-n-butylmagnesium decomposing into MgH2 in cyclohexane, and found a new route easier than famous β-hydride elimination. Further, we explored the dynamic behavior of graphene nano-flakes and MgH2 in cyclohexane, and gained new insights for efficient hydrogen storage material preparation.

  19. Enhanced production and characterization of a solvent stable amylase from solvent tolerant Bacillus tequilensis RG-01: thermostable and surfactant resistant. (United States)

    Tiwari, Soni; Shukla, Neha; Mishra, Pooja; Gaur, Rajeeva


    Ten bacterial strains isolated from the soil samples in the presence of cyclohexane were screened for amylase production. Among them, culture RG-01 was adjudged as the best amylase producer and was identified as Bacillus tequilensis from MTCC, Chandigarh. The isolate showed maximum amylase production (8100 U/mL) in the presence of starch, peptone, and Ca(2+) ions at 55°C pH 7.0 within 24 h of incubation. The enzyme was stable in the presence of n-dodecane, isooctane, n-decane, xylene, toluene, n-hexane, n-butanol, and cyclohexane, respectively. The presence of benzene, methanol, and ethanol marginally reduced the amylase stability, respectively. The enzyme was showed it 100% activity at 55°C and pH 7.0 with 119% and 127% stability at 55°C and pH 7.0, respectively. The enzyme was also stable in the presence of SDS, Tween-40, Tween-60, and Tween-80 (1%) and was found stimulatory effect, respectively. Only Triton-X-100 showed a moderate inhibitory effect (5%) on amylase activity. This isolate (Bacillus tequilensis RG-01) may be useful in several industrial applications owing to its thermotolerant and organic solvents and surfactants resistance characteristics.

  20. Enhanced Production and Characterization of a Solvent Stable Amylase from Solvent Tolerant Bacillus tequilensis RG-01: Thermostable and Surfactant Resistant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soni Tiwari


    Full Text Available Ten bacterial strains isolated from the soil samples in the presence of cyclohexane were screened for amylase production. Among them, culture RG-01 was adjudged as the best amylase producer and was identified as Bacillus tequilensis from MTCC, Chandigarh. The isolate showed maximum amylase production (8100 U/mL in the presence of starch, peptone, and Ca2+ ions at 55°C pH 7.0 within 24 h of incubation. The enzyme was stable in the presence of n-dodecane, isooctane, n-decane, xylene, toluene, n-hexane, n-butanol, and cyclohexane, respectively. The presence of benzene, methanol, and ethanol marginally reduced the amylase stability, respectively. The enzyme was showed it 100% activity at 55°C and pH 7.0 with 119% and 127% stability at 55°C and pH 7.0, respectively. The enzyme was also stable in the presence of SDS, Tween-40, Tween-60, and Tween-80 (1% and was found stimulatory effect, respectively. Only Triton-X-100 showed a moderate inhibitory effect (5% on amylase activity. This isolate (Bacillus tequilensis RG-01 may be useful in several industrial applications owing to its thermotolerant and organic solvents and surfactants resistance characteristics.

  1. Miscellaneous hydrocarbon solvents. (United States)

    Bebarta, Vikhyat; DeWitt, Christopher


    The solvents discussed in this article are common solvents not categorized as halogenated, aromatic, or botanical. The solvents discussed are categorized into two groups: hydrocarbon mixtures and single agents. The hydrocarbon mixtures discussed are Stoddard solvent, naphtha, and kerosene. The remaining solvents described are n-hexane, methyl n-butyl ketone, dimethylformamide, dimethyl sulfoxide, and butyl mercaptans. Effects common to this group of agents and their unique effects are characterized. Treatment of exposures and toxic effects of these solvents is described, and physiochemical properties and occupational exposure levels are listed.

  2. Aprotic solvents effect on the UV-visible absorption spectra of bixin. (United States)

    Rahmalia, Winda; Fabre, Jean-François; Usman, Thamrin; Mouloungui, Zéphirin


    We describe here the effects of aprotic solvents on the spectroscopic characteristics of bixin. Bixin was dissolved in dimethyl sulfoxide, acetone, dichloromethane, ethyl acetate, chloroform, dimethyl carbonate, cyclohexane and hexane, separately, and its spectra in the resulting solutions were determined by UV-visible spectrophotometry at normal pressure and room temperature. We analyzed the effect of aprotic solvents on λmax according to Onsager cavity model and Hansen theory, and determined the approximate absorption coefficient with the Beer-Lambert law. We found that the UV-visible absorption spectra of bixin were found to be solvent dependent. The S0→S2 transition energy of bixin in solution was dependent principally on the refractive index of the solvents and the bixin-solvent dispersion interaction. There was a small influence of the solvents dielectric constant, permanent dipole interaction and hydrogen bonding occurred between bixin and solvents. The absorbance of bixin in various solvents, with the exception of hexane, increased linearly with concentration.

  3. Purification and characterization of organic solvent-stable lipase from organic solvent-tolerant Pseudomonas aeruginosa LST-03. (United States)

    Ogino, H; Nakagawa, S; Shinya, K; Muto, T; Fujimura, N; Yasuda, M; Ishikawa, H


    An organic solvent-stable lipase (LST-03 lipase) secreted into the culture broth of the organic solvent-tolerant Pseudomonas aeruginosa LST-03 was purified by ion-exchange and hydrophobic interaction chromatography in the presence of 2-propanol. The purified enzyme was homogeneous as determined by SDS-PAGE. The molecular mass of the lipase was estimated to be 27.1 kDa by SDS-PAGE and 36 kDa by gel filtration. The optimum pH and temperature were 6.0 and 37 degrees C. LST-03 lipase was stable at pH 5-8 and below 40 degrees C. Its hydrolytic activity was highest against tricaproin (C6), methyl octanoate (C8), and coconut oil respectively among the triacylglycerols, fatty acid methyl esters, and natural oils investigated. The enzyme cleaved not only the 1,3-positioned ester bonds, but also the 2-positioned ester bond of triolein. It exhibited high levels of activity in the presence of n-decane, n-octane, DMSO, and DMF as well as in the absence of an organic solvent. In addition, LST-03 lipase was stabler in the presence of n-decane, ethyleneglycol, DMSO, n-octane, n-heptane, isooctane, and cyclohexane than in the absence of an organic solvent.

  4. Deviations from sorption linearity on soils of polar and nonpolar organic compounds at low relative concentrations (United States)

    Chiou, C.T.; Kile, D.E.


    A series of single-solute and binary-solute sorption data have been obtained on representative samples of polar compounds (substituted ureas and phenolic compounds) and of nonpolar compounds (e.g., EDB and TCE) on a peat soil and a mineral (Woodburn) soil; the data extend to low relative solute concentrations (C(e)/S(w)). At relatively low C(e)/S(w), both the nonpolar and the polar solutes exhibit nonlinear sorption. The sorption nonlinearity approaches apparent saturation at about C(e)/S(w) = 0.010-0.015 for the nonpolar solutes and at about C(e)/S(w) = 0.10-0.13 for the polar solutes; above these C(e)/S(w) regions, the isotherms are practically linear. The nonlinear sorption capacities are greater for polar solutes than for nonpolar solutes and the peat soil shows a greater effect than the Woodburn soil. The small nonlinear sorption capacity for a nonpolar solute is suppressed indiscriminately by either a nonpolar or a polar cosolute at relatively low C(e)/S(w) of the cosolute. By contrast, the abilities of different cosolutes to suppress the nonlinear capacity of a nominal polar solute differ drastically. For polar solutes, a nonpolar cosolute exhibits a limited suppression even at high cosolute C(e)/S(w); effective suppression occurs when the cosolute is relatively polar and at various C(e)/S(w). These differences suggest that more than a single mechanism is required to account for the nonlinear sorption of both nonpolar and polar compounds at low C(e)/S(w). Mechanistic processes consistent with these observations and with soil surface areas are discussed along with other suggested models. Some important consequences of the nonlinear competitive sorption to the behavior of contaminants in natural systems are discussed.A number of conceptual models was postulated to account for the nonlinear solute sorption on soils of significant soil organic matter. A series of single-solute and binary-route sorption data was obtained representing samples of polar compounds of

  5. Solvent-induced red-shifts for the proton stretch vibrational frequency in a hydrogen-bonded complex. 1. A valence bond-based theoretical approach. (United States)

    Kiefer, Philip M; Pines, Ehud; Pines, Dina; Hynes, James T


    A theory is presented for the proton stretch vibrational frequency νAH for hydrogen (H-) bonded complexes of the acid dissociation type, that is, AH···B ⇔ A(-)···HB(+)(but without complete proton transfer), in both polar and nonpolar solvents, with special attention given to the variation of νAH with the solvent's dielectric constant ε. The theory involves a valence bond (VB) model for the complex's electronic structure, quantization of the complex's proton and H-bond motions, and a solvent coordinate accounting for nonequilibrium solvation. A general prediction is that νAH decreases with increasing ε largely due to increased solvent stabilization of the ionic VB structure A(-)···HB(+) relative to the neutral VB structure AH···B. Theoretical νAH versus 1/ε slope expressions are derived; these differ for polar and nonpolar solvents and allow analysis of the solvent dependence of νAH. The theory predicts that both polar and nonpolar slopes are determined by (i) a structure factor reflecting the complex's size/geometry, (ii) the complex's dipole moment in the ground vibrational state, and (iii) the dipole moment change in the transition, which especially reflects charge transfer and the solution phase proton potential shapes. The experimental proton frequency solvent dependence for several OH···O H-bonded complexes is successfully accounted for and analyzed with the theory.


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    The rheological behavior of polyvinyl acetate (PVAc) in N,N'-dimethylformamide (DMF), methyl ethyl ketone (MEK), 1,2-dichloroethane (DCE), tetrahydrofuran (THF) and toluene (TOL), polystyrene (PS) in DMF, MEK, DCE, THF and cyclohexane (CYH), and random ethylene-vinyl acetate (EVA) copolymer in DCE, TOL, CYH with and without surfactant of Span80 and in the DCE/CYH solvent mixtures with surfactant of Span80 was examined at high dilution. It was shown that the extent and type of the upsweep or downsweep (anomalous rheological behavior) of the reduced viscosity-concentration curves of these different polymers at high dilution are markedly dependent on the dielectric constant of the solvent and the polarity of the polymer used. The experimental results indicated that the anomalous rheological behavior of EVA copolymer, widely used as a flow improver, is related to its efficiency in reducing viscosity and depressing pour point of crude oil and waxy solvents.

  7. Solvent-induced chirality control in the enantioseparation of 1-phenylethylamine via diastereomeric salt formation. (United States)

    Kodama, Koichi; Kimura, Yuria; Shitara, Hiroaki; Yasutake, Mikio; Sakurai, Rumiko; Hirose, Takuji


    Solvent-induced chirality control in the enantioseparation of 1-phenylethylamine 1 by N-(p-toluenesulfonyl)-(S)-phenylalanine 2 via diastereomeric salt formation was studied. (S)-1·(S)-2 was preferentially crystallized as a less-soluble salt from aqueous alcohol, while (R)-1·(S)-2 salt was mainly obtained by addition of solvents with a six-membered ring such as dioxane, cyclohexane, tetrahydropyran, and cyclohexene to 2-propanol. Further investigations were carried out from the viewpoints of molecular structures, optical rotation measurement, and X-ray crystallographic analyses. Crystallographic analyses have revealed that incorporation of the six-membered ring solvent molecule in (R)-1·(S)-2 without hydrogen bonds changed the molecular conformation of (S)-2 to stabilize the salt, which changed the selectivity of 1 in the enantioseparation.

  8. Application of mass spectrometer-inverse gas chromatography to study polymer-solvent diffusivity and solubility. (United States)

    Galdámez, J Román; Danner, Ronald P; Duda, J Larry


    The application of a mass spectrometer detector in capillary column inverse gas chromatography is shown to be a valuable tool in the measurement of diffusion and solubility in polymer-solvent systems. The component specific detector provides excellent results for binary polymer-solvent systems, but it is particularly valuable because it can be readily applied to multicomponent systems. Results for a number of infinitely dilute solvents in poly(vinyl acetate) (PVAc) are reported over a range of temperature from 60 to 150 degrees C. Results are also reported for finite concentrations of toluene and methanol in PVAc from 60 to 110 degrees C. Finally, the technique was applied to study the effect of finite concentrations of toluene on the diffusion coefficients of THF and cyclohexane in PVAc. The experimental data compare well with literature values for both infinite and finite concentrations, indicating that the experimental protocol described in this work is sound.

  9. Solvent resistant nanofiltration membranes


    Dutczak, S.M.


    This thesis describes preparation and characterization of membranes for organic solvent filtration (OSF). The main aim was developing membranes for solvent resistant nanofiltration (SRNF) with molecular weight cut-off below 500 g mol-1.

  10. Solvents in novolak synthesis (United States)

    Sobodacha, Chet J.; Lynch, Thomas J.; Durham, Dana L.; Paradis, Valerie R.


    Novolac resins may be prepared with or without a solvent present. We have found that solvent power greatly affects the properties of the finished resin and thus gives the resist chemist another variable with which to `fine-tune' resist properties. Using designed experiments, we investigated the effect of solvent power, as measured by Hansen's Solubility Parameters, of a number of solvents and solvent mixtures on the final properties of the novolac resin. We found that the relative molecular weight (RMW) and dissolution rate of a novolac resin can be varied by selection of a solvent or solvent mixture with the appropriate polarity and hydrogen- bonding characteristics. The solvent polarity and hydrogen-bonding characteristics may affect the stability of the cresol/formaldehyde transition state, thus causing the observed changes in RMW and dissolution rate.

  11. Thermal diffusion factor for carbon tetrachloride-cyclohexane and benzene-n-heptane mixtures from thermogravitational column separation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Navarro, J.L.; Madariaga, J.A.; Santamaria, C.M.; Saviron, J.M.; Carrion, J.A.


    Measurements of the separation of liquid mixtures of n-heptane/benzene and carbon tetrachloride/cyclohexane in a thermogravitational column are reported. The results show that thermal diffusion columns of little mechanical precision can furnish suitable thermal diffusion factors when the diffusion coefficient, viscosity, density, and compressibility factor for the mixture are known. 23 references, 3 figures, 1 table.

  12. A novel approach for one-step forming ε-caprolactam from cyclohexane nitrozation catalyzed by transition metal salt

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Qiu Mao; BO Hua Wu; Du Lin Yin; Kui Yi You; Ping Le Liu; He An Luo


    The nitrozation reaction of cyclohexane in one-step reaction to form ε-caprolactam has been studied using transition metal salt as catalysts in this work. The results indicated that the catalysts play an especially important role. This method is expected to be a novel way to synthesize other lactam by similar reaction. The possible mechanism was suggested.

  13. Photocatalytic Oxidation of Cyclohexane over TiO2: Evidence for a Mars−van Krevelen Mechanism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Almeida, Ana Rita; Moulijn, Jacob A.; Mul, Guido


    Cyclohexane photocatalytic oxidation with 18O2 over anatase TiO2 was analyzed by in situ attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy, to gain insight in the mechanistic steps of formation of cyclohexanone and deactivating carboxylate species, respectively. Cyclohex

  14. Efficient room temperature oxidation of cyclohexane over highly active hetero-mixed WO3/V2O5 oxide catalyst

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Makgwane, PR


    Full Text Available An efficient room temperature catalyzed oxidation of cyclohexane to cyclohexanone (K) and cyclohexanol (A) was achieved over hetero-mixed tungsten–vanadia (WO(sub3)/V(sub2)O(sub5)) using H(sub2)O(sub2) oxidant. WO(sub3)/V(sub2)O(sub5) exhibited high...

  15. Photo-catalytic oxidation of cyclohexane over TiO2: a novel interpretation of temperature dependent performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Almeida, A.R.; Berger, R.; Moulijn, J.A.; Mul, G.


    The rate of cyclohexane photo-catalytic oxidation to cyclohexanone over anatase TiO2 was studied at temperatures between 23 and 60ºC by in situ ATR-FTIR spectroscopy, and the kinetic parameters were estimated using a microkinetic model. At low temperatures, surface cyclohexanone formation is limited

  16. Photo-catalytic oxidation of cyclohexane over TiO2: a novel interpretation of temperature dependent performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Almeida, Ana Rita; Berger, Rob; Moulijn, Jacob A.; Mul, Guido


    The rate of cyclohexane photo-catalytic oxidation to cyclohexanone over anatase TiO2 was studied at temperatures between 23 and 60 °C by in situATR-FTIR spectroscopy, and the kinetic parameters were estimated using a microkinetic model. At low temperatures, surface cyclohexanone formation is limited

  17. On understanding microemulsions : I. Interfacial tensions and adsorptions of SDS and pentanol at the cyclohexane/water interface

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhoeckx, G.J.; Bruyn, P.L. de; Overbeek, J.Th.G.


    We measured interfacial tensions using the spinning drop technique in two-phase oil/water (O/W) systems containing sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), n-pentanol, NaCl, cyclohexane, and water. The systems contained only small amounts of SDS (mostly

  18. Stepwise Swelling of a Thin Film of Lamellae-Forming Poly(styrene-b-butadiene) in Cyclohexane Vapor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Di, Zhenyu; Posselt, Dorthe; Smilgies, Detlef-M.


    We investigated the swelling of a thin film of lamellae-forming poly(styrene-b-butadiene) in cyclohexane vapor. The vapor pressure and thus the degree of swelling of the film are increased in a stepwise manner using a custom-built sample cell. The resulting structural changes during and after eac...

  19. Kinetics and Mechanism of the Reaction of Coherently Synchronized Oxidation and Dehydrogenation of Cyclohexane by Hydrogen Peroxide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aghamammadova S.


    Based on this experimental researches, the complex reaction, consisting of parallel-sequential oxidation and dehydrogenation reactions, which are coherently synchronized, proceeds during the process of cyclohexane oxidation with biomimetic catalyst. Depending on the reaction parameters it is possible to deliberately adjust the direction of oxidation reaction and reaction rate.

  20. Solvent-polarity-tuned morphology and inversion of supramolecular chirality in a self-assembled pyridylpyrazole-linked glutamide derivative: nanofibers, nanotwists, nanotubes, and microtubes. (United States)

    Jin, Qingxian; Zhang, Li; Liu, Minghua


    The self-assembly of a low-molecular-weight organogelator into various hierarchical structures has been achieved for a pyridylpyrazole linked L-glutamide amphiphile in different solvents. Upon gel formation, supramolecular chirality was observed, which exhibited an obvious dependence on the polarity of the solvent. Positive supramolecular chirality was obtained in nonpolar solvents, whereas it was inverted into negative supramolecular chirality in polar solvents. Moreover, the gelator molecules self-assembled into a diverse array of nanostructures over a wide scale range, from nanofibers to nanotubes and microtubes, depending on the solvent polarity. Such morphological changes could even occur for the xerogels in the solvent vapors. We found that the interactions between the pyridylpyrazole headgroups and the solvents could subtly change the stacking of the molecules and, hence, their self-assembled nanostructures. This work exemplifies that organic solvents can significantly involve the gelation, as well as tune the structure and properties, of a gel.

  1. The effect of solvent-conditioning on soil organic matter sorption affinity for diuron and phenanthrene. (United States)

    Ahangar, Ahmad Gholamalizadeh; Smernik, Ronald J; Kookana, Rai S; Chittleborough, David J


    The effect of solvent-conditioning on the sorption of diuron and phenanthrene was investigated. The organic carbon-normalized sorption coefficients (K(OC)) for diuron and phenanthrene (determined from single initial concentrations of 0.8mgL(-1) and 1.5mgL(-1), respectively) were consistently higher following solvent-conditioning of a whole soil with five organic solvents (acetonitrile, acetone, methanol, chloroform and dichloromethane). The relative increase in K(OC) was inversely related to the polarity of the conditioning solvent (i.e. greater increases in K(OC) were observed for the least polar solvents: chloroform and dichloromethane). The effect of solvent-conditioning on the sorption properties of the same soil that had been lipid-extracted using accelerated solvent extraction (ASE) was also investigated. Since lipid extraction involves treatment with a non-polar solvent (95:5 dichloromethane:methanol) one may have expected no further increase in K(OC) on solvent-conditioning. On the contrary, the lipid-extracted soil exhibited very similar increases in K(OC) as the whole soil. This demonstrated that lipid removal and solvent-conditioning, which both increased K(OC) for this soil, are quite separate phenomena.

  2. Modeling structure and flexibility of Candida antarctica lipase B in organic solvents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pleiss Jürgen


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The structure and flexibility of Candida antarctica lipase B in water and five different organic solvent models was investigated using multiple molecular dynamics simulations to describe the effect of solvents on structure and dynamics. Interactions of the solvents with the protein and the distribution of water molecules at the protein surface were examined. Results The simulated structure was independent of the solvent, and had a low deviation from the crystal structure. However, the hydrophilic surface of CALB in non-polar solvents decreased by 10% in comparison to water, while the hydrophobic surface is slightly increased by 1%. There is a large influence on the flexibility depending on the dielectric constant of the solvent, with a high flexibility in water and a low flexibility in organic solvents. With decreasing dielectric constant, the number of surface bound water molecules significantly increased and a spanning water network with an increasing size was formed. Conclusion The reduced flexibility of Candida antarctica lipase B in organic solvents is caused by a spanning water network resulting from less mobile and slowly exchanging water molecules at the protein-surface. The reduced flexibility of Candida antarctica lipase B in organic solvent is not only caused by the interactions between solvent-protein, but mainly by the formation of a spanning water network.

  3. Nanosecond flash photolysis of unsymmetrical phenol-substituted calix[4]arene in cyclohexane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feng Wen; Yuan Lihua [Sichuan Univ., Chengdu (China); Yao Side; Wang Wenfeng [Academia Sinica, Shanghai Institute of Nuclear Research, Shanghai (China)


    In the present paper the laser flash photolysis study of an unsymmetrical hindered phenol-substituted calix[4]arene(UPCA[4]OH) at 248 nm was carried out in cyclohexane at room temperature. The transient absorption spectra of UPCA[4]OH displayed two main absorption maxima at ca.330 nm and 520 nm with different grow and decay kinetics, and initial peak at 520 nm was assigned to the triplet state of the solute and the other peak at 330 nm was due to unsymmetrical phenol-substituted calix[4]aryloxyl radical. According to the kinetic analysis, the mechanism of the formation of the triplet and the calix[4]aryloxyl radical has been proposed. (author)

  4. Catalytic scope of the thiamine-dependent multifunctional enzyme cyclohexane-1,2-dione hydrolase. (United States)

    Loschonsky, Sabrina; Waltzer, Simon; Fraas, Sonja; Wacker, Tobias; Andrade, Susana L A; Kroneck, Peter M H; Müller, Michael


    The thiamine diphosphate (ThDP)-dependent enzyme cyclohexane-1,2-dione hydrolase (CDH) was expressed in Escherichia coli and purified by affinity chromatography (Ni-NTA). Recombinant CDH showed the same C-C bond-cleavage and C-C bond-formation activities as the native enzyme. Furthermore, we have shown that CDH catalyzes the asymmetric cross-benzoin reaction of aromatic aldehydes and (decarboxylated) pyruvate (up to quantitative conversion, 92-99 % ee). CDH accepts also hydroxybenzaldehydes and nitrobenzaldehydes; these previously have not (or only in rare cases) been known as substrates of other ThDP-dependent enzymes. On a semipreparative scale, sterically demanding 4-(tert-butyl)benzaldehyde and 2-naphthaldehyde were transformed into the corresponding 2-hydroxy ketone products in high yields. Additionally, certain benzaldehydes with electron withdrawing substituents were identified as potential inhibitors of the ligase activity of CDH.

  5. Cyclohexane Rings Reduce Membrane Permeability to Small Ions in Archaea-Inspired Tetraether Lipids. (United States)

    Koyanagi, Takaoki; Leriche, Geoffray; Onofrei, David; Holland, Gregory P; Mayer, Michael; Yang, Jerry


    Extremophile archaeal organisms overcome problems of membrane permeability by producing lipids with structural elements that putatively improve membrane integrity compared to lipids from other life forms. Herein, we describe a series of lipids that mimic some key structural features of archaeal lipids, such as: 1) single tethering of lipid tails to create fully transmembrane tetraether lipids and 2) the incorporation of small rings into these tethered segments. We found that membranes formed from pure tetraether lipids leaked small ions at a rate that was about two orders of magnitude slower than common bilayer-forming lipids. Incorporation of cyclopentane rings into the tetraether lipids did not affect membrane leakage, whereas a cyclohexane ring reduced leakage by an additional 40 %. These results show that mimicking certain structural features of natural archaeal lipids results in improved membrane integrity, which may help overcome limitations of many current lipid-based technologies.

  6. Heterogeneous biomimetic catalysis using iron porphyrin for cyclohexane oxidation promoted by chitosan (United States)

    Huang, Guan; Liu, Yao; Cai, Jing Li; Chen, Xiang Feng; Zhao, Shu Kai; Guo, Yong An; Wei, Su Juan; Li, Xu


    This study investigates how ligands modulate metalloporphyrin activity with the goal of producing a practical biomimetic catalyst for use in the chemical industry. We immobilized iron porphyrinate [iron-tetrakis-(4-sulfonatophenyl)-porphyrin; Fe(III) (TPPS)] on powdered chitosan (pd-CTS) to form an immobilized catalyst Fe(III) (TPPS)/pd-CTS, which was characterized using modern spectroscopic techniques and used for catalytic oxidation of cyclohexane with O2. Amino coordination to iron porphyrin in Fe(III) (TPPS)/pd-CTS altered the electron cloud density around the iron cation, probably by reducing the activation energy of Fe(III) (TPPS) and raising the reactivity of the iron ion catalytic center, thereby improving the catalytic efficiency. One milligram of Fe(III) (TPPS) catalyst can be reused three times for the oxidation reaction to yield an average of 22.9 mol% of cyclohexanone and cyclohexanol.

  7. Solvent-dependent enthalpic versus entropic anion binding by biaryl substituted quinoline based anion receptors. (United States)

    Sun, Zhan-Hu; Albrecht, Markus; Raabe, Gerhard; Pan, Fang-Fang; Räuber, Christoph


    Anion receptors based on an 8-thiourea substituted quinoline with pentafluorinated (1a) or nonfluorinated (1b) biarylamide groups in the 2-position show similar binding of halide anions with somewhat higher association constants for the more acidic fluorinated derivative. Surprisingly, binding affinities for the halides in the case of the nonfluorinated 1b are similar in nonpolar chloroform or polar DMSO as solvent. Thorough thermodynamic investigations based on NMR van't Hoff analysis show that anion binding in chloroform is mainly enthalpically driven. In DMSO, entropy is the driving force for the binding of the ions with replacement of attached solvent.

  8. Simulation of Nonpolar p-GaN/i-N/n-GaN Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming-Jer Jeng


    Full Text Available It is well known that nitride-based devices suffer the polarization effects. A promising way to overcome the polarization effects is growth in a direction perpendicular to the c-axis (nonpolar direction. Nonpolar devices do not suffer polarization charge, and then they have a chance to achieve the high solar efficiency. The understanding of the solar performance of non-polar InGaN-based solar cells will be interesting. For a pin non-polar solar cell with GaN p- and n-cladding layers, the conduction band offset (or barrier height, between an intrinsic layer and n-GaN layer is an important issue correlating to the efficiency and fill factor. The efficiency and fill factor will be seriously degraded due to sufficiently high barrier height. To reduce a high barrier height, some graded layers with an energy bandgap between the energy bandgap of n-GaN and InxGa1−xN intrinsic layer can be inserted to the interface of n-GaN and InxGa1-xN layers. From simulation, it indicates that the insertion of graded layer is an effective method to lower energy barrier when there exists a high energy band offset in non-polar nitride devices.

  9. Molecular dynamics study of self-agglomeration of charged fullerenes in solvents. (United States)

    Banerjee, Soumik


    The agglomeration of fullerenes in solvents is an important phenomenon that is relevant to controlled synthesis of fullerene-based nanowires as well as fullerene-based composites. The molecular aggregation in solvents depends on the atomistic interactions of fullerene with the solvent and is made complicated by the fact that fullerenes accrue negative surface charges when present in solvents such as water. In the present work, we simulated fullerenes of varying size and shape (C60, C180, C240, and C540) with and without surface charges in polar protic (water), polar aprotic (acetone), and nonpolar (toluene) solvents using molecular dynamics method. Our results demonstrate that uncharged fullerenes form agglomerates in polar solvents such as water and acetone and remain relatively dispersed in nonpolar toluene. The presence of surface charge significantly reduces agglomerate size in water and acetone. Additionally, the relative influence of surface charge on fullerene agglomeration depends on the size and geometry of the fullerene with larger fullerenes forming relatively smaller agglomerates. We evaluated the diffusion coefficients of solvent molecules within the solvation shell of fullerenes and observed that they are much lower than the bulk solvent and are strongly associated with the fullerenes as seen in the corresponding radial distribution functions. To correlate agglomerate size with the binding energy between fullerenes, we evaluated the potential of mean force between fullerenes in each solvent. Consistent with the solubility of fullerenes, binding energy between fullerenes is the greatest in water followed by acetone and toluene. The presence of charge decreases the binding energy of fullerenes in water and thus results in dispersed fullerenes.

  10. Solvent abuse: a review. (United States)

    Barnes, G E


    The literature on solvent abuse is reviewed. Methods of use, symptoms of use, and effects of long-term solvent abuse are discussed. Several surveys on solvent use are summarized. The highest prevalence of solvent abuse seems to occur in native peoples undergoing periods of cultural change. Environmental conditions which are postulated as leading to psychological vulnerability and solvent abuse include: low social assets, parental drug use, peer and sibling influence, and acculturative stress. Solvent abuse seems to provide a pharmacological way out of a stressful environment for people who feel helpless to improve their situation in other ways. Methods of intervention that have been proposed for dealing with solvent abuse are discussed. Methods of intervention thus far employed generally have not been evaluated in any systematic fashion. Suggestions for future research are provided.

  11. Sorption mechanism of solvent vapors to coals; Sekitan eno yobai joki no shuchaku kiko no kaiseki

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shimizu, K.; Takanohashi, T.; Iino, M. [Tohoku University, Sendai (Japan). Institute for Chemical Reaction Science


    With an objective to clarify the interactions between micropore structure of coal and solvent reagents, a sorption experiment was carried out under solvent saturated vapor pressure. Low-volatile bituminous coal, Pocahontas No. 3 coal, has the aromatic ring structure developed, and makes solvent more difficult to diffuse into coal, hence sorption amount is small. Methanol has permeated since its polarity is high. High-volatile bituminous coal, Illinois No. 6 coal, makes solvent penetrate easily, and the sorption amount was large with both of aromatic and polar solvents. Since brown coal, Beulah Zap coal, contains a large amount of oxygen, and hydrogen bonding is predominant, sorption amount of cyclohexane and benzene having no polarity is small. Methanol diffuses while releasing hydrogen bond due to its polarity, and its sorption amount is large. A double sorption model is available, which expresses the whole sorption amount as a sum of physical sorption amount and amount of permeation into coal. This model was applied when it explained successfully the sorption behavior of the solvents relative to coals, excepting some of the systems. However, also observed were such abnormal behavior as sorption impediment due to interactions between coal surface and solvents, and permeation impediment due to hydroxyl groups inside the coals. 1 ref., 10 figs., 2 tabs.

  12. Can Nonpolar Polyisobutylenes be Measured by Electrospray Ionization Mass Spectrometry? Anion-Attachment Proved to be an Appropriate Method (United States)

    Nagy, Lajos; Nagy, Tibor; Deák, György; Kuki, Ákos; Purgel, Mihály; Narmandakh, Mijid; Iván, Béla; Zsuga, Miklós; Kéki, Sándor


    Polyisobutylenes (PIBs) with different end-groups including chlorine, exo-olefin, hydroxyl, and methyl prepared from aliphatic and aromatic initiators were studied by electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS). Independently of the end-groups, presence or absence of aromatic initiator moiety, these PIB derivatives were capable of forming adduct ions with NO3 - and Cl- ions, thus allowing the direct characterization of these compounds in the negative ion mode of ESI-MS. To obtain [PIB + NO3]- and [PIB + Cl]- adduct ions with appreciable intensities, addition of polar solvents such as acetone, 2-propanol, or ethanol to the dichloromethane solution of PIBs was necessary. Furthermore, increasing both the polarity (by increasing the acetone content) and the ion-source temperature give rise to enhanced intensities for both [PIB + NO3]- and [PIB + Cl]- ions. Energy-dependent collision induced dissociation studies (CID) revealed that increasing the collision voltages resulted in the shift of the apparent molecular masses to higher ones. CID studies also showed that dissociation of the [PIB + Cl]- ions requires higher collision energy than that of [PIB + NO3]-. In addition, Density Functional Theory calculations were performed to gain insights into the nature of the interactions between the highly non-polar PIB chains and anions NO3 - and Cl- as well as to determine the zero-point corrected electronic energies for the formation of [PIB + NO3]- and [PIB + Cl]- adduct ions.

  13. Relaxation phenomena of polar non-polar liquid mixtures under low and high frequency electric field

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    K Dutta; S K Sit; S Acharyya


    Simultaneous calculation of the dipole moment and the relaxation time of a certain number of non-spherical rigid aliphatic polar liquid molecules () in non-polar solvents () under 9.8 GHz electric field is possible from real $'$ and imaginary $''$ parts of the complex relative permittivity $^{*}_{}$. The low frequency and infinite frequency permittivities 0 and ∞ measured by Purohit et al [1,2] and Srivastava and Srivastava [3] at 25, 35 and 30°C respectively are used to obtain static . The ratio of the individual slopes of imaginary and real $'$ parts of high frequency (hf) complex conductivity $^{*}_{}$ with weight fractions at → 0 and the slopes of $''_{}-'_{}$ curves for different s [4] are employed to obtain s. The former method is better in comparison to the existing one as it eliminates polar–polar interaction. The hf s in Coulomb metre (C m) when compared with static and reported s indicate that ss favour the monomer formations which combine to form dimers in the hf electric field. The comparison among s shows that a part of the molecule is rotating under X-band electric field [5]. The theoretical theos from available bond angles and bond moments of the substituent polar groups attached to the parent molecules differ from the measured s and s to establish the possible existence of mesomeric, inductive and electromeric effects in polar liquid molecules.

  14. Large organized surface domains self-assembled from nonpolar amphiphiles. (United States)

    Krafft, Marie Pierre


    unambiguously demonstrated the presence of surface micelles in monolayers of diblocks prior to LB transfer for atomic force microscopy imaging. We characterized an almost perfect two-dimensional crystal, with 12 assignable diffraction peaks, which established that self-assembly and regular nanopatterning were not caused by transfer or induced by the solid support. These experiments also provide the first direct identification of surface micelles on water, and the first identification of such large-size domains using GISAXS. Revisiting Langmuir film compression behavior after we realized that it actually was a compression of nanometric objects led to further unanticipated observations. These films could be compressed far beyond the documented film "collapse", eventually leading to the buildup of two superimposed, less-organized bilayers of diblocks on top of the initially formed monolayer of hemimicelles. Remarkably, the latter withstood the final, irreversible collapse of the composite films. "Gemini" tetrablocks, di(FnHm), with two Fn-chains and two Hm-chains, provided two superposed layers of discrete micelles, apparently the first example of thin films made of stacked discrete self-assembled nanoobjects. Decoration of solid surfaces with domains of predetermined size of these small "nonpolar" molecules is straightforward. Initial examples of applications include deposition of metal dots and catalytic oxidation of CO, and nanopatterning of SiO(2) films.

  15. Passive Sampling in Regulatory Chemical Monitoring of Nonpolar Organic Compounds in the Aquatic Environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Booij, Kees; Robinson, Craig D; Burgess, Robert M;


    We reviewed compliance monitoring requirements in the European Union, the United States, and the Oslo-Paris Convention for the protection of the marine environment of the North-East Atlantic, and evaluated if these are met by passive sampling methods for nonpolar compounds. The strengths and shor...... is the best available technology for chemical monitoring of nonpolar organic compounds. Key issues to be addressed by scientists and environmental managers are outlined.......We reviewed compliance monitoring requirements in the European Union, the United States, and the Oslo-Paris Convention for the protection of the marine environment of the North-East Atlantic, and evaluated if these are met by passive sampling methods for nonpolar compounds. The strengths...... and shortcomings of passive sampling are assessed for water, sediments, and biota. Passive water sampling is a suitable technique for measuring concentrations of freely dissolved compounds. This method yields results that are incompatible with the EU's quality standard definition in terms of total concentrations...

  16. Vegetable Oils as Alternative Solvents for Green Oleo-Extraction, Purification and Formulation of Food and Natural Products. (United States)

    Yara-Varón, Edinson; Li, Ying; Balcells, Mercè; Canela-Garayoa, Ramon; Fabiano-Tixier, Anne-Sylvie; Chemat, Farid


    Since solvents of petroleum origin are now strictly regulated worldwide, there is a growing demand for using greener, bio-based and renewable solvents for extraction, purification and formulation of natural and food products. The ideal alternative solvents are non-volatile organic compounds (VOCs) that have high dissolving power and flash point, together with low toxicity and less environmental impact. They should be obtained from renewable resources at a reasonable price and be easy to recycle. Based on the principles of Green Chemistry and Green Engineering, vegetable oils could become an ideal alternative solvent to extract compounds for purification, enrichment, or even pollution remediation. This review presents an overview of vegetable oils as solvents enriched with various bioactive compounds from natural resources, as well as the relationship between dissolving power of non-polar and polar bioactive components with the function of fatty acids and/or lipid classes in vegetable oils, and other minor components. A focus on simulation of solvent-solute interactions and a discussion of polar paradox theory propose a mechanism explaining the phenomena of dissolving polar and non-polar bioactive components in vegetable oils as green solvents with variable polarity.

  17. 异丙醇-环己烷萃取精馏过程模拟与优化%Simulation and Optimization of Extractive Distillation for Isopropanol-Cyclohexane Azeotropic Mixture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王婧娴; 乔建军; 梁金华; 白鹏


    Extractive distillation for isopropanol-cyclohexane azeotropic mixture was simulated and optimized. Simulation of extractive distillation was executed by RadFrac module of Aspen Plus simulation software using NRTL model and furfural as solvent. Sensitivity analysis was also performed to optimize the operation parameters. The simulation results show that its possible to separate isopropanol-cyclohexane a-zeotropic mixture by extractive distillation using furfural as solvent. The optimum operation parameters were as follows: in extractive distillation column, ideal stage number is 30, number of feed stage is 26, number of solvent stage is 12, mole reflux ratio is 1. 8 and ratio of solvent to feed is 3:1 ;in solvent recovery column, ideal stage number is 15, number of feed stage is 10, molar reflux ratio is 1. Under the optimized parameters, mass fraction of cyclohexane can reach 99. 74% and mass fraction of isopropanol can reach 99. 61% . The results of simulation and optimization will provide fundamental guide for the industrialization design and production.%利用化工流程模拟软件Aspen Plus对异丙醇-环己烷共沸物系的双塔连续萃取精馏过程进行了模拟计算与优化.首先根据溶剂相似相溶原理,先初选出糠醛和硝基苯作为备选溶剂,再通过汽液平衡试验及ChemCAD模拟筛选,确定糠醛为最适宜溶剂,选择NRTL模型作为物性方法,使用RadFrac模块进行模拟计算,并利用灵敏度分析模块对各工艺参数进行优化.结果表明,最适宜工艺方案为:萃取精馏塔理论塔板数为30,原料在第26块板进料,溶剂在第12块板进料,物质的量回流比为1.8,溶剂质量比为3∶1;溶剂回收塔理论板数为15,进料位置在第10块板,物质的量回流比为1.0.分离效果可达到环己烷质量分数为99.74%,异丙醇质量分数为99.61%.模拟和优化结果为分离过程的优化操作和设计提供了依据.

  18. Investigation of the Phase Equilibria and Interfacial Properties for Non-polar Fluids

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    付东; 赵毅


    A self-consistent density-functional theory (DFT) was applied to investigate the phase behavior and interfacial properties of non-polar fluids. For the bulk phases, the theory was reduced to the statistical associating fluid theory(SAFF) that provides accurate descriptions of vapor-liquid phase diagrams below the critical region. The phase diagrams in the critical region were corrected by the renormalization group theory (RGT). The density profile in the surface was obtained by minimizing the grand potential. With the same set of molecular parameters, both the phase equilibria and the interfacial properties of non-polar fluids were investigated satisfactorily.

  19. [Adsorption and desorption of organic solvent vapours using silica gel (author's transl)]. (United States)

    Takata, T; Aoki, B


    For a simple analysis of organic solvent vapours in working environmental air, we investigated the following method. First, join the adsorption tube (2 ml of 60--80 mesh silica gel packed in a 5 mm phi x 18 cm glass tube) to hand vacuum pump and suck 200 ml of the sample air. After adsorption, join this adsorption tube to the sampling bottle under reduced pressure. Second, open the cock of the sampling bottle and heat only the adsorption tube in an oven for 3 min. In the operation mentioned above, organic solvent vapours desorbed from the silica gel transfer smoothly into the sampling bottle. After desorption, take 1 ml of air from the sampling bottle and determine the sample quantities with the gas chromatograph. Sample solvents used were as follows: n-hexane, cyclohexane, benzene, toluene, m-xylene, styrene, 1.1.1-trichloroethane, dichloromethane, tetrachloroethylene, ethylacetate, acetone, methyl-ethylketone, methylisobutylketone, methanol, ethanol, n-propanol, and n-butanol. We obtained the following results. (1) 60--80 mesh silica gel is appropriate for this method. (2) Heating temperature to get 100% recovery varies with the type of organic solvent. m-Xylene and styrene require 250 degrees C, methylisobutylketone and n-butanol 200 degrees C, and the others 150 degrees C. (3) If the adsorption tube is preserved in a freezer at -20 degrees C, no decrease is observed for up to 7 days. At room temperatures, however, 1.1.1-trichloroethane, dichloromethane, tetrachloroethylene, n-hexane, and cyclohexane decreased by the amount 4-10% in the tube for each 24-hour period. These sample should be preserved at lower temperatures soon after absorbing on the silica gel. This method is simple and accurate, so valid for analysis of organic solvent vapours in the working environmental air.

  20. Solvent controlled ion association in structured copolymers: Molecular dynamics simulations in dilute solutions (United States)

    Aryal, Dipak; Perahia, Dvora; Grest, Gary S.


    Tailoring the nature of individual segments within ion containing block co-polymers is one critical design tool to achieve desired properties. The local structure including the size and distribution of the ionic blocks, as well as the long range correlations, are crucial for their transport ability. Here, we present molecular dynamics simulations on the effects of varying the concentrations of the ionizable groups on the conformations of pentablock ionomer that consist of a center block of ionic sulfonated styrene tethered to polyethylene and terminated by a bulky substituted styrene in dilute solutions. Sulfonation fractions f (0 ≤ f ≤ 0.55), spanning the range from ionomer to polyelectrolytes, were studied. Results for the equilibrium conformation of the chains in water and a 1:1 mixture of cyclohexane and heptane are compared to that in implicit poor solvents with dielectric constants ɛ = 1.0 and 77.73. In water, the pentablock collapses with the sulfonated groups on the outer surface. As f increases, the ionic, center block increasingly segregates from the hydrophobic regions. In the 1:1 mixture of cyclohexane and heptane, the flexible blocks swell, while the center ionic block collapses for f > 0. For f = 0, all blocks swell. In both implicit poor solvents, the pentablock collapses into a nearly spherical shape for all f. The sodium counterions disperse widely throughout the simulation cell for both water and ɛ = 77.73, whereas for ɛ = 1.0 and mixture of cyclohexane and heptane, the counterions largely condense onto the collapsed pentablock.

  1. Influence of Solvent-Solvent and Solute-Solvent Interaction Properties on Solvent-Mediated Potential

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Shi-Qi


    A recently proposed universal calculational recipe for solvent-mediated potential is applied to calculate excess potential of mean force between two large Lennard-Jones (LJ) or hard core attractive Yukawa particles immersed in small LJ solvent bath at supercritical state. Comparison between the present prediction with a hypernetted chain approximation adopted for solute-solute correlation at infinitely dilute limit and existing simulation data shows high accuracy for the region with large separation, and qualitative reliability for the solute particle contact region. The calculational simplicity of the present recipe allows for a detailed investigation on the effect of the solute-solvent and solvent-solvent interaction details on the excess potential of mean force. The resultant conclusion is that gathering of solvent particles near a solute particle leads to repulsive excess PMF, while depletion of solvent particles away from the solute particle leads to attractive excess PMF, and minor change of the solvent-solvent interaction range has large influence on the excess PMF.

  2. The effect of the organic solvents on the synthesis of tetrabromobisphenol-A%双酚A溴化过程中的溶剂效应

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王蕊娜; 李春英; 李效军


    以脂肪醇-水、氯苯、乙酸、环己烷、硝基苯、氯苯-醇、环己烷-醇为溶剂,采用溴素/双氧水原位溴化-氧化法合成了四溴双酚A.考察了不同溶剂对产品收率、纯度、操作工艺的影响.结果表明,弱极性的环己烷对双酚A的溶解性不佳,不适于作为合成四溴双酚A的溶剂;而环己烷-脂肪醇混合溶剂,由于加大了溶剂的极性使溴化反应成为可能;乙酸、脂肪醇、硝基苯、氯苯、氯苯-脂肪醇为极性溶剂,可加速反应,是合成四溴双酚A的良好溶剂,其中氯苯-脂肪醇混合溶剂,可避免以纯氯苯为溶剂时的碱洗、水洗操作,从而大大简化合成工艺,从工业化的角度看是很好的选择.%Tetrabromobisphenol-A was synthesized with fatty alcohols-water, chlorobenzene, acetic acid, cyclohexane, nitrobenzene, chlorobenzene-fatty alcohols, and cyclohexane-fatty alcohols as solvents from bisphenol-A, bromine and hydrogen peroxide by in-situ bromination-oxidation. The effect of the solvents on the yield, the content of the production and the process were studied in detail. It showed that cyclohexane was not a suitable solvent for the synthesis of the tetrabromobisphenol-A, since it was not able to dissolve the bisphenol-A for its weak polarity, but the bromination was realized when mixed the cyclohexane with the fatty alcohols for increasing the polarity of the solvent; while acetic acid, fatty alcohols-water, nitrobenzene, chlorobenzene, chlorobenzene mixed with fatty alcohols were all good solvents for the synthesis of the tetrabromobisphenol-A, for they were all polar solvents and can quicken the reaction. Especially, the steps of washing with the sodium sulfite and water when with chlorobenzene as the solvent were avoided when with chlorobenzene mixed with fatty alcohols as the solvent, as a result, the process of the synthesis was reduced greatly, and the time and resource were economized.

  3. Molecular and ionic hydrogen bond formation in fluorous solvents. (United States)

    O'Neal, Kristi L; Weber, Stephen G


    There are only a few studies of noncovalent association in fluorous solvents and even fewer that are quantitative. A full understanding, particularly of stoichiometry and binding strength of noncovalent interactions in fluorous solvents could be very useful in improved molecular-receptor-based extractions, advancements in sensor technologies, crystal engineering, and supramolecular chemistry. This work investigates hydrogen bonding between heterocyclic bases and a perfluoropolyether with a terminal carboxylic acid group (Krytox 157FSH (1)), chiefly in FC-72 (a mixture of perfluorohexanes). In particular, we were interested in whether or not proton transfer occurs, and if so, under what conditions in H-bonded complexes. Continuous variations experiments show that in FC-72 weaker bases (pyrazine, pyrimidine, and quinazoline) form 1:1 complexes with 1, whereas stronger bases (quinoline, pyridine, and isoquinoline) form 1:3 complexes. Ultraviolet and infrared spectral signatures reveal that the 1:1 complexes are molecular (B.HA) whereas the 1:3 complexes are ionic (BH+.A-HAHA). Infrared spectra of 1:3 ionic complexes are discussed in detail. Literature and experimental data on complexes between N-heterocyclic bases and carboxylic acids in a range of solvents are compiled to compare solvent effects on proton transfer. Polar solvents support ionic hydrogen bonds at a 1:1 mol ratio. In nonpolar organic solvents, ionic hydrogen bonds are only observed in complexes with 1:2 (base/acid) stoichiometries. In fluorous solvents, a larger excess of acid, 1:3, is necessary to facilitate proton transfer in hydrogen bonds between carboxylic acids and the bases studied.

  4. Selective catalytic oxidation of cyclohexane over Cu/SBA-15 mesoporous catalyst%环己烷在Cu/SBA-15介孔催化剂上的选择性催化氧化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕平; 孙尚屹; 包瑞新


    采用后嫁接法制备出了负载量为12%的Cu/SBA-15催化剂,借助N2吸附脱附、X射线衍射、透射扫描电子显微镜等分析检测方法表征了Cu/SBA-15催化剂的理化性质.在无任何有机溶剂及其他助剂的条件下,以空气为氧化剂使环己烷发生选择性氧化反应,评价了Cu/SBA-15催化剂的催化性能.结果表明,与SBA-15相比,Cu/SBA-15的比表面积、孔容等物理性能有所下降,能够很好地保持着SBA-15的介孔结构及长程有序性;SBA-15对环己烷的选择性氧化反应没有催化活性,Cu/SBA-15对环己烷的选择性氧化反应具有较强催化活性;使用Cu/SBA-15催化剂,环己烷转化率为41.72%,环己醇产率为14.12%,环己酮产率为27.6%.%Cu/SBA-15 (mass fraction of Cu 12%) supported catalyst was prepared by post-synthesis process and characterized by N2 adsorptiondesorption,X-ray diffraction and high resolution transmission electron microscopy.The behavior of the catalyst was evaluated through the selective catalytic oxidation of cyclohexane with air as oxidant in the absence of organic solvent and auxiliary agent.The results showed that Cu/SBA-15 maintained similar mesoporous structure and long-range order to SBA-15 and had lower specific surface area and pore volume compared to SBA-15.Cu/SBA-15 had higher catalytic activity and selectivity in the oxidation reaction of cyclohexane,but SBA-15 had no activity for the same reaction.In the presence of Cu/SBA-15,the conversion of cyclohexane was 41.72%,the yield of cyclohexanol was 14.12% and cyclohexanone 27.6%.

  5. Reference Correlation of the Thermal Conductivity of Cyclohexane from the Triple Point to 640 K and up to 175 MPa (United States)

    Koutian, A.; Assael, M. J.; Huber, M. L.; Perkins, R. A.


    New, wide-range reference equations for the thermal conductivity of cyclohexane as a function of temperature and density are presented. The equations are based in part upon a body of experimental data that has been critically assessed for internal consistency and for agreement with theory whenever possible. We estimate the uncertainty (at the 95% confidence level) for the thermal conductivity of cyclohexane from the triple point (279.86 K) to 650 K at pressures up to 175 MPa to be 4% for the compressed liquid and supercritical phases. For the low-pressure gas phase (up to 0.1 MPa) over the temperature range 280-680 K, the estimated uncertainty is 2.5%. Uncertainties in the critical region are much larger, since the thermal conductivity approaches infinity at the critical point and is very sensitive to small changes in density.

  6. Passive sampling in regulatory chemical monitoring of nonpolar organic compounds in the aquatic environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Booij, K.; Robinson, C.D.; Burgess, R.M.; Mayer, P.; Roberts, C.A.; Ahrens, L.; Allan, I.J.; Brant, J.; Jones, L.; Kraus, U.R.; Larsen, M.M.; Lepom, P.; Petersen, J.; Pröfrock, D.; Roose, P.; Schäfer, S.; Smedes, F.; Tixier, C.; Vorkamp, K.; Whitehouse, P.


    We reviewed compliance monitoring requirements in the EuropeanUnion, the United States, and the Oslo-Paris Convention for the protection of themarine environment of the North-East Atlantic, and evaluated if these are met bypassive sampling methods for nonpolar compounds. The strengths andshortcoming

  7. Response of Rhodococcus erythropolis strain IBBPo1 to toxic organic solvents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihaela Marilena Stancu


    Full Text Available Abstract Recently, there has been a lot of interest in the utilization of rhodococci in the bioremediation of petroleum contaminated environments. This study investigates the response of Rhodococcus erythropolis IBBPo1 cells to 1% organic solvents (alkanes, aromatics. A combination of microbiology, biochemical, and molecular approaches were used to examine cell adaptation mechanisms likely to be pursued by this strain after 1% organic solvent exposure. R. erythropolis IBBPo1 was found to utilize 1% alkanes (cyclohexane, n-hexane, n-decane and aromatics (toluene, styrene, ethylbenzene as the sole carbon source. Modifications in cell viability, cell morphology, membrane permeability, lipid profile, carotenoid pigments profile and 16S rRNA gene were revealed in R. erythropolis IBBPo1 cells grown 1 and 24 h on minimal medium in the presence of 1% alkanes (cyclohexane, n-hexane, n-decane and aromatics (toluene, styrene, ethylbenzene. Due to its environmental origin and its metabolic potential, R. erythropolis IBBPo1 is an excellent candidate for the bioremediation of soils contaminated with crude oils and other toxic compounds. Moreover, the carotenoid pigments produced by this nonpathogenic Gram-positive bacterium have a variety of other potential applications.

  8. Thermal-cycling-induced spectral diffusion and thermal barriers in anisole-doped cyclohexane, an unusual multiphase host-guest system. (United States)

    Somoza, Mark M; Friedrich, Josef


    The host-guest system of anisole incorporated into a cyclohexane matrix was investigated in a series of hole-burning experiments. This system is unusual in that cyclohexane can freeze into coexisting solid phases. The hole-burning experiments support the existence of two crystalline phases and one disordered phase. A second surprising characteristic of this system is that the quasi-line absorption features of the spectra appear inverted at low temperature because of unexpected dominance of fluorescence and phosphorescence.

  9. Volumetric Properties of the Mixture Trichloromethane CHCl3 + C6H12 Cyclohexane (VMSD1211, LB3566_V) (United States)

    Cibulka, I.; Fontaine, J.-C.; Sosnkowska-Kehiaian, K.; Kehiaian, H. V.

    This document is part of Subvolume A 'Binary Liquid Systems of Nonelectrolytes I' of Volume 26 'Heats of Mixing, Vapor-Liquid Equilibrium, and Volumetric Properties of Mixtures and Solutions' of Landolt-Börnstein Group IV 'Physical Chemistry'. It contains the Chapter 'Volumetric Properties of the Mixture Trichloromethane CHCl3 + C6H12 Cyclohexane (VMSD1211, LB3566_V)' providing data from direct low-pressure dilatometric measurement of molar excess volume at variable mole fraction and constant temperature.

  10. Hydrogenation of cyclohexene with LaNi5−xAlxHn metal hydrides suspended in cyclohexane or ethanol

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Snijder, E.D.; Versteeg, G.F.; Swaaij, W.P.M. van


    The hydrogenation of cyclohexene on the metal hydride forming alloys LaNi4.8Al0.2, LaNi4.9Al0.1 and LaNi5, all suspended in cyclohexane and LaNi5 suspended in ethanol, has been investigated. Two sources for hydrogen are recognized: hydrogen supplied by the gas phase and hydrogen which is available i

  11. Hydrogenation of cyclohexene with LaNi5-xAlxHn metal hydrides, suspended in cyclohexane or ethanol

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Snijder, E.D.; Versteeg, G.F.; Swaaij, van W.P.M.


    The hydrogenation of cyclohexene on the metal hydride forming alloys LaNi4.8Al0.2, LaNi4.9Al0.1 and LaNi5, all suspended in cyclohexane and LaNi5 suspended in ethanol, has been investigated. Two sources for hydrogen are recognized: hydrogen supplied by the gas phase and hydrogen which is available i

  12. Surface chemistry and electronic structure of nonpolar and polar GaN films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mishra, Monu; Krishna, T.C. Shibin; Aggarwal, Neha; Gupta, Govind, E-mail:


    Highlights: • Surface chemistry and electronic structure of polar and nonpolar GaN is reported. • Influence of polarization on electron affinity of p & np GaN films is investigated. • Correlation between surface morphology and polarity has been deduced. - Abstract: Photoemission and microscopic analysis of nonpolar (a-GaN/r-Sapphire) and polar (c-GaN/c-Sapphire) epitaxial gallium nitride (GaN) films grown via RF-Molecular Beam Epitaxy is reported. The effect of polarization on surface properties like surface states, electronic structure, chemical bonding and morphology has been investigated and correlated. It was observed that polarization lead to shifts in core level (CL) as well as valence band (VB) spectra. Angle dependent X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopic analysis revealed higher surface oxide in polar GaN film compared to nonpolar GaN film. On varying the take off angle (TOA) from 0° to 60°, the Ga−O/Ga−N ratio varied from 0.11–0.23 for nonpolar and 0.17–0.36 for polar GaN film. The nonpolar film exhibited N-face polarity while Ga-face polarity was perceived in polar GaN film due to the inherent polarization effect. Polarization charge compensated surface states were observed on the polar GaN film and resulted in downward band bending. Ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopic measurements revealed electron affinity and ionization energy of 3.4 ± 0.1 eV and 6.8 ± 0.1 eV for nonpolar GaN film and 3.8 ± 0.1 eV and 7.2 ± 0.1 eV for polar GaN film respectively. Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy measurements divulged smooth morphology with pits on polar GaN film. The nonpolar film on the other hand showed pyramidal structures having facets all over the surface.

  13. Solvent effects on photophysical properties of copper and zinc porphyrins

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Ye


    The photophysics of Zn(tetraphenylporphyrin,TPP), Zn(tetra-2,4,6-trimethylphenyl porphyrin, TMP), Zn (tetra-(o-dichlorophenyl) porphyrin, TPPCI8), Cu(tetraphenylporphyrin,TPP), Cu(tetra-2,4,6-trimethyl-phenyl porphyrin,TMP), and Cu(tetra-(o-dichlorophenyl) porphyrin, TPPCI8,TPPCI8) in several solvents have been investigated on steady state and time-resolved spectroscopy. The Cu(TPPCI8) is normal and shows no evidence of CT transition in the visible or near UV regions in nonpolar solvent. However,Cu(TPPCI8)shows a blue shift in the absorption spectrum and intramolecular CT bands at absorption spectra in polar solvent, which shows a fluorescence maximum emission at 650 nm and 8.4 ns lifetime.The reason can be attributed to two points. Firstly, the increase of solvent polarity can enlarge outer reorganisational energy, which is favorable to reduce the activation free energy of charger-transfer transition based on Marcus theory of electron transfer. Moreover, the internal heavy-atom effect on Cu(TPPCI8) is encouraging to stabilize the 2T1 state also, which increases the possibility of population to CT band from 2T1 state. This result is in accord with an earlier estimate of a 10 ns lifetime and CT absorption at 640 nm bands for the CT state of Cu (Ⅱ) octethylporphyrins. Other possible reasons arousing unusual fluorescence like H-bonding, axial ligands, molecular aggregation are excluded.

  14. Solar-thermal energy conversion and storage: cyclohexane dehydrogenation. Progress report, 30 September 1977-30 June 1978

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ritter, A.B.; DeLancey, G.B.; Schneider, J.; Silla, H.


    The objective of this project is to provide research support for the benzene/cyclohexane heat pipe development program at Sandia. The kinetics of the cyclohexane decomposition (energy collection) reaction over a commercially available naphtha reforming catalyst (RD-150, Englehard Industries) in the temperature range 400 to 800/sup 0/F and pressures of 1 to 40 atmospheres were measured. Significant amounts of side products such as toluene and butane were identified at temperatures above 550/sup 0/F at atmospheric pressure and significant mass transfer limitations on conversions were observed at the higher space velocities and higher temperatures. No significant decreases in catalyst activity were measured at temperatures below 800/sup 0/F. However, at 800/sup 0/F there was a significant decrease in catalyst activity which does not appear to be a poisoning problem but a thermal limitation on catalyst effectiveness. A test facility has been fabricated to study the behavior of the benzene/cyclohexane (or any other gas phase catalytic reaction) system and its catalysts under long term cycling at temperatures up to 1000/sup 0/F, and pressures up to 1000 psig at a wide variety of space velocities. A mathematical model was developed which simulates the dynamic behavior of the collector (endothermic) reactor and allows the evaluation of such things as startup, shutdown, switching and process control algorithms.

  15. Alternative Green Solvents Project (United States)

    Maloney, Phillip R.


    Necessary for safe and proper functioning of equipment. Mainly halogenated solvents. Tetrachloride, Trichloroethylene (TCE), CFC-113. No longer used due to regulatory/safety concerns. Precision Cleaning at KSC: Small % of total parts. Used for liquid oxygen (LOX) systems. Dual solvent process. Vertrel MCA (decafluoropentane (DFP) and trons-dichloroethylene) HFE-7100. DFP has long term environmental concerns. Project Goals: a) Identify potential replacements. b) 22 wet chemical processes. c) 3 alternative processes. d) Develop test procedures. e) Contamination and cleaning. f) Analysis. g) Use results to recommend alternative processes. Conclusions: a) No alternative matched Vertrel in this study. b) No clear second place solvent. c) Hydrocarbons- easy; Fluorinated greases- difficult. d) Fluorinated component may be needed in replacement solvent. e) Process may need to make up for shortcoming of the solvent. f) Plasma and SCC02 warrant further testing.

  16. Photonic Crystal Based Sensor for Organic Solvents and for Solvent-Water Mixtures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Otto S. Wolfbeis


    Full Text Available Monodisperse polystyrene nanoparticles with a diameter of 173 nm were incorporated into a polydimethylsiloxane matrix where they display an iridescent color that can be attributed to the photonic crystal effect. The film is of violet color if placed in plain water, but turns to red in the presence of the non-polar solvent n-hexane. Several solvents were studied in some detail. We show that such films are capable of monitoring the water content of ethanol/water mixtures, where only 1% (v/v of water leads to a shift of the peak wavelength of reflected light by 5 nm. The method also can be applied to determine, both visually and instrumentally, the fraction of methanol in ethanol/methanol mixtures. Here, a fraction of 1% of methanol (v/v results in a wavelength shift of 2 nm. The reflected wavelength is not influenced by temperature changes nor impeded by photobleaching. The signal changes are fully reversible and response times are <1 s.

  17. Ab initio study of solvent-dependent one-, two- and three-photon absorption properties of PRODAN-based chemo-sensors

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Md Mehboob Alam; Mausumi Chattopadhyaya


    In this work, we study the solvent-dependent one-, two- and three-photon absorption (1PA, 2PA and 3PA) properties of 2-propionyl-6-dimethylamino naphthalene (PRODAN) and three newly synthesized20 cyclopenta[b]naphthalene derivatives, in gas phase and three different solvents, namely cyclohexane, dichloromethane and ethanol. A comparison between the calculated and the available experimental data shows that the results obtained with B3LYP/cc-pVDZ level of theory matches well with the experimental absorption data for all of these compounds. The 2P and 3P transition probabilities, for all of these systems, are found to be maximum in solvents of intermediate polarity (here, dichloromethane), which is in accordance with the experimental observation for various other systems. All the 1P, 2P and 3P transition probabilities are found to be the maximum for PRODAN as compared to other three molecules in both the gas as well as the different solvent phases (except for 3PA in gas and cyclohexane solvents). We have explained these results by meticulously inspecting the components of different transition moment vectors and the tensor elements involved.

  18. Studies of solvent effects on reaction dynamics using ultrafast transient absorption spectroscopy (United States)

    Harris, Don Ahmasi

    Ultrafast transient absorption spectroscopy was used to investigate the solvent dependent reaction dynamics of two prototypical chemical systems: (1) The ring-opening reaction of 1,3-cyclohexadiene, the isolated chromophore in Provitamin D, and (2) The photolysis of various Vitamin B12 cofactors. We investigated the influence of solvent polarity on the ground state conformational relaxation of 1,3,5-cis hexatriene subsequent to the ring opening of 1,3-cyclohexadiene in methanol and 1-propanol solvents. Comparisons to the conformational relaxation in alkane solvents studied earlier demonstrated a surprising influence of solvent polarity on single bond isomerization. Temperature dependent transient absorption measurements were performed on 1,3,5-cis hexatriene in cyclohexane and 1-propanol to determine the effect of solvent polarity on the activation energy barrier for ground state single bond isomerization. These measurements conclude that the polar solvent lowers the energy barrier for single bond isomerization allowing conformational relaxation to proceed faster in alcohol solvents compared to alkane solvents. With no perceived polar transition state for single bond isomerization, this result disagrees with the conventional view of solvation and differentiates the single bond isomerization dynamics of polyenes from alkanes. Transient absorption spectroscopy was also utilized to study the solvent effects in the photolysis of various B12 cofactors in different environments. We investigated the solvent dependent photolysis of adenosylcobalamin, methylcobalamin, and cyanocobalamin in water and ethylene glycol as a function of solvent temperature. In comparing the radical cage escape of adenosylcobalamin and cyanocobalamin, we determined a larger than expected hydrodynamic radii for the diffusing radicals in water compared to ethylene glycol, thus making necessary a revised perspective of solvent interaction with the diffusing radical. In addition, we investigated the

  19. Synthesis and Characterization of Thermally Stable Photocurable Polymer with Cyclohexane Moiety. (United States)

    Kim, Dong Mm; Yu, Seong Hun; Lee, Jun Young


    Photocurable polymers with high transparency and thermal stability were synthesized by reaction between a commercial epoxy resin (NC9110) containing cyclohexane moiety and various kinds of cinnamic acids such as trans-cinnamic acid (CA), 3-hydroxy-trans-cinnamic acid (HCA) and 4-methoxy-trans-cinnamic acid (MCA). The photocurable polymers were synthesized with equal equivalent weight ratio of epoxy and cinnamate group. The chemical structures of the synthesized polymers were confirmed by 1H-NMR and FT-IR spectroscopies. Optical transmittance and thermal stability of the photocured polymers were investigated using UV-Visible spectroscopy and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), respectively. It was confirmed that the polymers could form thin films with very smooth surface and could be efficiently cured by UV irradiation. It was also found that the polymer after curing showed a good thermal stability and optical transmittance. There was no significant transmittance change after heat treatment at 250 degrees C for 1 h and showed no noticeable weight loss up to 360 degrees C.

  20. Geminate recombination kinetics of solute radical ions. Singlet excited state formation in cyclohexane solutions of biphenyl (United States)

    Tagawa, S.; Washio, M.; Tabata, Y.; Kobayashi, H.

    Transient absorption spectra of the solute anion, cation and triplet state and the solute fluorescence in the pulse radiolysis of 0.1 mole 1 -1 biphenyl in cyclohexane were observed on a nanosecond timescale longer than 1 ns after a 20 ps pulse. The formation of the solute excited singlet state is mainly due to the geminate ion recombination reaction even in the high concentrated solutions. The decay of the solute ions obeys the reciprocal square root dependence on time longer than 10 ns from the end of a 10 ps pulse. The slope of this reciprocal square root plots agrees with the literature value on a longer timescale obtained by microwave absorption. The yield of free ions obtained from the intercept of the slope agrees also with the literature values obtained by the field clearing method. Ratio of the formation rate of the solute excited triplet state to the decay rate of the solute anion changes in a time range between 5 and 20 ns. It is very well correlated with a theoretical calculation of spin correlation decay of the germinate ion pairs by Brocklehurst, although the formation of the solute triplet state was observed even on a timescale shorter than 5 ns from the end of a 20 ps pulse, where loss of spin correlation is negligibly small.

  1. Cyclohexyl Ketone Inhibitors of Pin1 Dock in a Trans-Diaxial Cyclohexane Conformation (United States)

    Xu, Guoyan G.; Slebodnick, Carla; Etzkorn, Felicia A.


    Cyclohexyl ketone substrate analogue inhibitors (Ac–pSer-Ψ[C = OCH]-Pip–tryptamine) of Pin1, the cell cycle regulatory peptidyl-prolyl isomerase (PPIase), were designed and synthesized as potential electrophilic acceptors for the Pin1 active site Cys113 nucleophile to test a proposed nucleophilic addition-isomerization mechanism. Because they were weak inhibitors, models of all three stereoisomers were docked into the active site of Pin1. Each isomer consistently minimized to a trans-diaxial cyclohexane conformation. From this, we hypothesize that Pin1 stretches substrates into a trans-pyrrolidine conformation to lower the barrier to isomerization. Our reduced amide inhibitor of Pin1 adopted a similar trans-pyrrolidine conformation in the crystal structure. The molecular model of 1, which mimics the l-Ser-l-Pro stereochemistry, in the Pin1 active site showed a distance of 4.4 Å, and an angle of 31° between Cys113-S and the ketone carbon. The computational models suggest that the mechanism of Pin1 PPIase is not likely to proceed through nucleophilic addition. PMID:23028504

  2. Cyclohexyl ketone inhibitors of Pin1 dock in a trans-diaxial cyclohexane conformation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guoyan G Xu

    Full Text Available Cyclohexyl ketone substrate analogue inhibitors (Ac-pSer-Ψ[C = OCH]-Pip-tryptamine of Pin1, the cell cycle regulatory peptidyl-prolyl isomerase (PPIase, were designed and synthesized as potential electrophilic acceptors for the Pin1 active site Cys113 nucleophile to test a proposed nucleophilic addition-isomerization mechanism. Because they were weak inhibitors, models of all three stereoisomers were docked into the active site of Pin1. Each isomer consistently minimized to a trans-diaxial cyclohexane conformation. From this, we hypothesize that Pin1 stretches substrates into a trans-pyrrolidine conformation to lower the barrier to isomerization. Our reduced amide inhibitor of Pin1 adopted a similar trans-pyrrolidine conformation in the crystal structure. The molecular model of 1, which mimics the l-Ser-l-Pro stereochemistry, in the Pin1 active site showed a distance of 4.4 Å, and an angle of 31° between Cys113-S and the ketone carbon. The computational models suggest that the mechanism of Pin1 PPIase is not likely to proceed through nucleophilic addition.

  3. Aroylhydrazone Cu(II Complexes in keto Form: Structural Characterization and Catalytic Activity towards Cyclohexane Oxidation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manas Sutradhar


    Full Text Available The reaction of the Schiff base (3,5-di-tert-butyl-2-hydroxybenzylidene-2-hydroxybenzohydrazide (H3L with a copper(II salt of a base of a strong acid, i.e., nitrate, chloride or sulphate, yielded the mononuclear complexes [Cu(H2L(NO3(H2O] (1, [Cu(H2LCl]·2MeOH (2 and the binuclear complex [{Cu(H2L}2(µ-SO4]·2MeOH (3, respectively, with H2L− in the keto form. Compounds 1–3 were characterized by elemental analysis, Infrared (IR spectroscopy, Electrospray Ionisation Mass Spectrometry (ESI-MS and single crystal X-ray crystallography. All compounds act as efficient catalysts towards the peroxidative oxidation of cyclohexane to cyclohexyl hydroperoxide, cyclohexanol and cyclohexanone, under mild conditions. In the presence of an acid promoter, overall yields (based on the alkane up to 25% and a turnover number (TON of 250 (TOF of 42 h−1 after 6 h, were achieved.

  4. Inhibition effects in the partial oxidation of cyclohexane on polymer supported Co(II catalysts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Polymer supported catalysts with different contents of metal ions where synthesized by wet impregnation of the degassed support from ethanolic solutions of cobalt(II nitrate. Amacroreticular copolymer of poly-4-vinylpyridine with divinylbenzene was used as the support. The prepared catalysts were tested in the partial oxidation of cyclohexane to cyclohexanol and cyclohexanone. Activity tests were performed in a stainless steel, laboratory scale, stirred autoclave, in the semi batch regime under isothermal and non-isothermal conditions. Isothermal experiments where performed at 170 °C for 120 min. In the non-isothermal conditions. isothermal experiments where performed at 170 °C for 120 min. In the non-isothermal experiments, a constant heating rate of 0.3 degree/min was used in the range between 110 °C and 170 °C. Non-linear, least-squares analysis with the simplex optimization method and numerical simulation of the reaction model in each iterative step was used for the kinetic characterization of the process in a non-stationary, semi-batch regime. Apparent rate constants were obtained as an invariant measure of the catalytic system. Anon-linear effect of the content of metal ions on the reaction rate and on the ratio of the yield of the products was observed, which is attributed to a complex interactions between the reaction medium and the heterogeneous catalyst, including a catalyst-inhibition effect.

  5. Effects of Ultrasonic Waves on Vapor-Liquid Equilibrium of Cyclohexane/Benzene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siti Kholijah Abdul Mudalip


    Full Text Available Separation of azeotropic mixtures is one of the most challenging separation processes in chemical industry. Special separation techniques such as azeotropic and extractive distillation are required to separate these mixtures. In this work, an innovative technique which incorporates ultrasonic waves during separation of Cyclohexane (Chx/ Benzene (Bz via distillation process was explored. The effects of ultrasonic wave at different intensities at 50, 100, 200 and 250 W/A.cm2 and at a fixed frequency of 40 kHz on vapor-liquid equilibrium (VLE of Chx/ Bz were investigated. Studies were also done to examine the effects of ultrasonic frequencies on the VLE data at 25 and 68 kHz. It was found that ultrasonic waves at 100 W/A.cm2 intensity and 25 kHz frequency gave the highest relative volatility, α at 2.505 and completely eliminated the azeotropic point. The results revealed that ultrasonic waves had potential to favourably manipulate α, and hence, the VLE of Chx/ Bz.

  6. Study of kinetics of degradation of cyclohexane carboxylic acid by acclimated activated sludge. (United States)

    Wang, Chunhua; Shi, Shuian; Chen, Hongyan


    Activated sludge contains complex microorganisms, which are highly effective biodegrading agents. In this study, the kinetics of biodegradation of cyclohexane carboxylic acid (CHCA) by an acclimated aerobic activated sludge were investigated. The results showed that after 180 days of acclimation, the activated sludge could steadily degrade >90% of the CHCA in 120 h. The degradation of CHCA by the acclimated activated sludge could be modeled using a first-order kinetics equation. The equations for the degradation kinetics for different initial CHCA concentrations were also obtained. The kinetics constant, kd, decreased with an increase in the CHCA concentration, indicating that, at high concentrations, CHCA had an inhibiting effect on the microorganisms in the activated sludge. The effects of pH on the degradation kinetics of CHCA were also investigated. The results showed that a pH of 10 afforded the highest degradation rate, indicating that basic conditions significantly promoted the degradation of CHCA. Moreover, it was found that the degradation efficiency for CHCA increased with an increase in temperature and concentration of dissolved oxygen under the experimental conditions.

  7. Structural rearrangements in a lamellar diblock copolymer thin film during treatment with saturated solvent vapor (United States)

    Di, Zhenyu; Posselt, Dorthe; Smilgies, Detlef-M.; Papadakis, Christine M.


    We have investigated the structural changes in thin films of lamellar poly(styrene-b-butadiene) diblock copolymers during treatment with saturated cyclohexane vapor, a solvent slightly selective for polybutadiene. Using real-time, in-situ grazing-incidence small-angle X-ray scattering (GISAXS), the swelling and the rearrangement of the lamellae were investigated with a time resolution of a few seconds, and the underlying processes on the molecular level were identified. After a few minutes in vapor, a transient state with a more well-defined and more long-range ordered lamellar orientation was encountered. Additional parallel lamellae formed which we attribute to the increased degree of coiling of the polymers in the swollen state. Eventually, the film became disordered. These changes are attributed to the increased mobility of the swollen polymers and the gradually decreasing segment-segment interaction parameter in the film as solvent is absorbed. PMID:20305742

  8. Measurement and prediction of aromatic solute distribution coefficients for aqueous-organic solvent systems. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campbell, J.R.; Luthy, R.G.


    Experimental and modeling activities were performed to assess techniques for measurement and prediction of distribution coefficients for aromatic solutes between water and immiscible organic solvents. Experiments were performed to measure distribution coefficients in both clean water and wastewater systems, and to assess treatment of a wastewater by solvent extraction. The theoretical portions of this investigation were directed towards development of techniques for prediction of solute-solvent/water distribution coefficients. Experiments were performed to assess treatment of a phenolic-laden coal conversion wastewater by solvent extraction. The results showed that solvent extraction for recovery of phenolic material offered several wastewater processing advantages. Distribution coefficients were measured in clean water and wastewater systems for aromatic solutes of varying functionality with different solvent types. It was found that distribution coefficients for these compounds in clean water systems were not statistically different from distribution coefficients determined in a complex coal conversion process wastewater. These and other aromatic solute distribution coefficient data were employed for evaluation of modeling techniques for prediction of solute-solvent/water distribution coefficients. Eight solvents were selected in order to represent various chemical classes: toluene and benzene (aromatics), hexane and heptane (alkanes), n-octanol (alcohols), n-butyl acetate (esters), diisopropyl ether (ethers), and methylisobutyl ketone (ketones). The aromatic solutes included: nonpolar compounds such as benzene, toluene and naphthalene, phenolic compounds such as phenol, cresol and catechol, nitrogenous aromatics such as aniline, pyridine and aminonaphthalene, and other aromatic solutes such as naphthol, quinolinol and halogenated compounds. 100 references, 20 figures, 34 tables.

  9. Automatic parametrization of implicit solvent models for the blind prediction of solvation free energies

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Bao; Wei, Guowei


    In this work, a systematic protocol is proposed to automatically parametrize implicit solvent models with polar and nonpolar components. The proposed protocol utilizes the classical Poisson model or the Kohn-Sham density functional theory (KSDFT) based polarizable Poisson model for modeling polar solvation free energies. For the nonpolar component, either the standard model of surface area, molecular volume, and van der Waals interactions, or a model with atomic surface areas and molecular volume is employed. Based on the assumption that similar molecules have similar parametrizations, we develop scoring and ranking algorithms to classify solute molecules. Four sets of radius parameters are combined with four sets of charge force fields to arrive at a total of 16 different parametrizations for the Poisson model. A large database with 668 experimental data is utilized to validate the proposed protocol. The lowest leave-one-out root mean square (RMS) error for the database is 1.33k cal/mol. Additionally, five s...

  10. Contribution to the study of molecular movements in cyclohexane by electron spin resonance and electron-nuclear double resonance using a radical probe; Contribution a l'etude des mouvements moleculaires dans le cyclohexane par resonance paramagnetique electronique et double resonance electronique-nucleaire a l'aide d'une sonde radicalaire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Volino, F. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Grenoble (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires


    Solutions of stable free radicals of the nitroxide type have been studied as a function of temperature. In the plastic or globular state, the cyclohexane molecules have rapid rotational and diffusional movements. They transmit this movement to dissolved free radicals. Conversely, measurements by electron spin resonance of the absolute movement of the radicals, and by electron nuclear double resonance of their movement relative to the cyclohexane molecules give very precise methods for local analyses of the movement present in the cyclohexane matrix. The principle of these techniques makes up the 'radical probe method'. (author) [French] Des solutions de radicaux libres stables, du type nitroxyde dans le cyclohexane ont ete etudiees, en fonction de la temperature. Les molecules de cyclohexane, dans l'etat plastique ou globulaire, sont animees de mouvements rapides de rotation sur elles-memes et de diffusion. Elles transmettent leur mobilite aux radicaux libres dissous. Reciproquement, la mesure du mouvement absolu des radicaux, a l'aide de la resonance paramagnetique electronique, et celle du mouvement relatif des radicaux et des molecules de cyclohexane par double resonance electronique-nucleaire, constituent des methodes tres precises pour analyser localement les mouvements presents dans la matrice de cyclohexane. Ce principe et ces techniques constituent la 'methode de la sonde radicalaire'. (auteur)

  11. Isolation, identification and characterization of organic solvent tolerant protease from Bacillus sp. DAF-01

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arastoo Badoei-Dalfard


    Full Text Available Introduction: Organic solvent-tolerant bacteria are relatively novel extermophilic microorganisms, which can produce organic tolerant protease with capacity of being used in industrial biotechnology for producing high-value compounds. Therefore, finding of these bacteria has drawn much researchers attention nowadays. Materials and Methods: In this project, samples were collected from a hot spring, located in Jiroft. Samples were incubated in medium supplemented with cyclohexane and toluene for 3 days. Screening of protease producing bacteria was performed on the specific media, SKM (Skim milk agar, based on clear area diameter. The best bacterium was identified based on 16s rDNA gene. Protease activity was considered in different temperatures, pH and organic solvents.Results: Sequence alignment and phylogenetic tree results showed that this bacteria was closely related to Bacillus niacini, with 97% homology. Enzymatic studies showed that, this enzyme was active at a wide range of temperatures, 20-90 °C and it,s optimal activity was in 60 °C. In addition, maximum protease activity was obtained in the 8-9 range of pH, and optimal stability was also at pH 9.0. Protease activity in the presence of methanol, toluene, isopropanol, cyclohexane and DMF ‏showed that, remaining activity was at least 80% compared to the control (without organic solvent Discussion and Conclusion: Thermopilic capacity, being active in alkaline protease and high protease stability in the presence of organic solvents all herald a remarkable application for using in different industries.

  12. Self-assembly and semiconductivity of an oligothiophene supergelator

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pratihar, P.; Ghosh, S.; Stepanenko, V.; Patwardhan, S.; Grozema, F.C.; Siebbeles, L.D.A.; Würthner, F.


    A bis(trialkoxybenzamide)-functionalized quaterthiophene derivative was synthesized and its self-assembly properties in solution were studied. In non-polar solvents such as cyclohexane, this quaterthiophene π-system formed fibril aggregates with an H-type molecular arrangement due to synergistic eff

  13. Insulin adsorption on crystalline SiO2: Comparison between polar and nonpolar surfaces using accelerated molecular-dynamics simulations (United States)

    Nejad, Marjan A.; Mücksch, Christian; Urbassek, Herbert M.


    Adsorption of insulin on polar and nonpolar surfaces of crystalline SiO2 (cristobalite and α -quartz) is studied using molecular dynamics simulation. Acceleration techniques are used in order to sample adsorption phase space efficiently and to identify realistic adsorption conformations. We find major differences between the polar and nonpolar surfaces. Electrostatic interactions govern the adsorption on polar surfaces and can be described by the alignment of the protein dipole with the surface dipole; hence spreading of the protein on the surface is irrelevant. On nonpolar surfaces, on the other hand, van-der-Waals interaction dominates, inducing surface spreading of the protein.

  14. Supercritical solvent coal extraction (United States)

    Compton, L. E. (Inventor)


    Yields of soluble organic extract are increased up to about 50% by the supercritical extraction of particulate coal at a temperature below the polymerization temperature for coal extract fragments (450 C.) and a pressure from 500 psig to 5,000 psig by the conjoint use of a solvent mixture containing a low volatility, high critical temperature coal dissolution catalyst such as phenanthrene and a high volatility, low critical temperature solvent such as toluene.

  15. Cleaning without chlorinated solvents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thompson, L.M.; Simandl, R.F.


    Because of health and environmental concerns, many regulations have been passed in recent years regarding the use of chlorinated solvents. The Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant has had an active program to find alternatives for these solvents used in cleaning applications for the past 7 years. During this time frame, the quantity of solvents purchased has been reduced by 92%. The program has been a twofold effort. Vapor degreasers used in batch cleaning-operations have been replaced by ultrasonic cleaning with aqueous detergent, and other organic solvents have been identified for use in hand-wiping or specialty operations. In order to qualify these alternatives for use, experimentation was conducted on cleaning ability as well as effects on subsequent operations such as welding, painting and bonding. Cleaning ability was determined using techniques such as X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) which are capable of examining monolayer levels of contamination on a surface. Solvents have been identified for removal of rust preventative oils, lapping oils, machining coolants, lubricants, greases, and mold releases. Solvents have also been evaluated for cleaning urethane foam spray guns, swelling of urethanes and swelling of epoxies.

  16. Light- and Solvent-Controlled Self-Assembly Behavior of Spiropyran-Polyoxometalate-Alkyl Hybrid Molecules. (United States)

    Chu, Yang; Saad, Ali; Yin, Panchao; Wu, Jiayingzi; Oms, Olivier; Dolbecq, Anne; Mialane, Pierre; Liu, Tianbo


    A molecular photochromic spiropyran-polyoxometalate-alkyl organic-inorganic hybrid has been synthesized and fully characterized. The reversible switching of the hydrophobic spiropyran fragment to the hydrophilic merocyanine one can be easily achieved under light irradiation at different wavelengths. This switch changes the amphiphilic feature of the hybrid, leading to a light-controlled self-assembly behavior in solution. It has been shown that the hybrid can reversibly self-assemble into vesicles in polar solvents and irreversibly into reverse vesicles in non-polar solvents. The sizes of the vesicles and the reverse vesicles are both tunable by the polarity of the solvent, with the hydrophobic interactions being the main driving force.

  17. Quantum theory of interfacial tension quantitatively predicts spontaneous charging of nonpolar aqueous interfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernández, Ariel, E-mail: [Argentine Institute of Mathematics (I. A. M.), National Research Council (CONICET), Buenos Aires 1083 (Argentina); Collegium Basilea – Institute for Advanced Study, Basel CH4053 (Switzerland)


    The spontaneous negative charging of aqueous nonpolar interfaces has eluded quantitative first-principle prediction, possibly because it steadfastly challenges the classical Debye dielectric picture. In this work we show that quantitative prediction requires a substantive revision of Debye's linear dielectric ansatz to incorporate an anomalous polarization component yielding electrostatic energy stored as interfacial tension and detailed enough to account for the differences in electronic structure between water and its ionized states. The minimization of this interfacial tension is due to a quantum effect resulting in the reduction in hydrogen-bond frustration that takes place upon hydroxide ion adsorption. The quantitative predictions are validated vis-à-vis measurements of the free energy change associated with hydroxide adsorption obtained using sum-frequency vibrational spectroscopy. - Highlights: • Spontaneous charging of aqueous nonpolar interfaces challenges Debye dielectrics. • A quantum non-Debye theory of interfacial tension is developed. • The minimization of the interfacial tension promotes hydroxide ion adsorption.

  18. A Simple Method for Estimation of Dielectric Constants and Polarizabilities of Nonpolar and Slightly Polar Hydrocarbons (United States)

    Panuganti, Sai R.; Wang, Fei; Chapman, Walter G.; Vargas, Francisco M.


    Many of the liquids that are used as electrical insulators are nonpolar or slightly polar petroleum-derived hydrocarbons, such as the ones used for cable and/or transformer oils. In this work, semi-empirical expressions with no adjustable parameters for the dielectric constant and the polarizability of nonpolar and slightly polar hydrocarbons and their mixtures are proposed and validated. The expressions that were derived using the Vargas-Chapman One-Third rule require the mass density and the molecular weight of the substance of interest. The equations were successfully tested for various hydrocarbons and polymers with dipole moments eliminate the need of extensive experimental data and require less input parameters compared to existing correlations.

  19. Influence of oxygen in architecting large scale nonpolar GaN nanowires

    CERN Document Server

    Patsha, Avinash; Pandian, Ramanathaswamy; Dhara, S


    Manipulation of surface architecture of semiconducting nanowires with a control in surface polarity is one of the important objectives for nanowire based electronic and optoelectronic devices for commercialization. We report the growth of exceptionally high structural and optical quality nonpolar GaN nanowires with controlled and uniform surface morphology and size distribution, for large scale production. The role of O contamination (~1-10^5 ppm) in the surface architecture of these nanowires is investigated with the possible mechanism involved. Nonpolar GaN nanowires grown in O rich condition show the inhomogeneous surface morphologies and sizes (50 - 150 nm) while nanowires are having precise sizes of 40(5) nm and uniform surface morphology, for the samples grown in O reduced condition. Relative O contents are estimated using electron energy loss spectroscopy studies. Size-selective growth of uniform nanowires is also demonstrated, in the O reduced condition, using different catalyst sizes. Photoluminescen...

  20. Vertical nonpolar growth templates for light emitting diodes formed with GaN nanosheets (United States)

    Yeh, Ting-Wei; Lin, Yen-Ting; Ahn, Byungmin; Stewart, Lawrence S.; Daniel Dapkus, P.; Nutt, Steven R.


    We demonstrate that nonpolar m-plane surfaces can be generated on uniform GaN nanosheet arrays grown vertically from the (0001)-GaN bulk material. InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells (MQWs) grown on the facets of these nanosheets are demonstrated by cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy. Owing to the high aspect ratio of the GaN nanosheet structure, the MQWs predominantly grow on nonpolar GaN planes. The results suggest that GaN nanosheets provide a conduction path for device fabrication and also a growth template to reduce the piezoelectric field inside the active region of InGaN-based light emitting diodes.

  1. Electrokinetics of Polar Liquids in Contact with Non-Polar Surfaces

    CERN Document Server

    Lin, Chih-Hsiu; Chaudhury, Manoj K


    Zeta potentials of several polar protic (water, ethylene glycol, formamide) as well as polar aprotic (dimethyl sulfoxide) liquids were measured in contact with three non-polar surfaces using closed-cell electro-osmosis. The test surfaces were chemisorbed monolayers of alkyl siloxanes, fluoroalkyl siloxanes and polydimethylsiloxanes (PDMS) grafted on glass slides. All these liquids exhibited substantial electrokinetics in contact with the non-polar surfaces with these observations: the electrokinetic effect on the fluorocarbon-coated surface is the strongest; and on a PDMS grafted surface, the effect is the weakest. Even though these hygroscopic liquids contain small amounts of water, the current models of charging based on the adsorption of hydroxide ions at the interface or the dissociation of preexisting functionalities (e.g., silanol groups) appear to be insufficient to account for the various facets of the experimental observations. The results illustrate how ubiquitous the phenomenon of electro-kinetics ...

  2. Stable and efficient colour enrichment powders of nonpolar nanocrystals in LiCl (United States)

    Erdem, Talha; Soran-Erdem, Zeliha; Sharma, Vijay Kumar; Kelestemur, Yusuf; Adam, Marcus; Gaponik, Nikolai; Demir, Hilmi Volkan


    In this work, we propose and develop the inorganic salt encapsulation of semiconductor nanocrystal (NC) dispersion in a nonpolar phase to make a highly stable and highly efficient colour converting powder for colour enrichment in light-emitting diode backlighting. Here the wrapping of the as-synthesized green-emitting CdSe/CdZnSeS/ZnS nanocrystals into a salt matrix without ligand exchange is uniquely enabled by using a LiCl ionic host dissolved in tetrahydrofuran (THF), which simultaneously disperses these nonpolar nanocrystals. We studied the emission stability of the solid films prepared using NCs with and without LiCl encapsulation on blue LEDs driven at high current levels. The encapsulated NC powder in epoxy preserved 95.5% of the initial emission intensity and stabilized at this level while the emission intensity of NCs without salt encapsulation continuously decreased to 34.7% of its initial value after 96 h of operation. In addition, we investigated the effect of ionic salt encapsulation on the quantum efficiency of nonpolar NCs and found the quantum efficiency of the NCs-in-LiCl to be 75.1% while that of the NCs in dispersion was 73.0% and that in a film without LiCl encapsulation was 67.9%. We believe that such ionic salt encapsulated powders of nonpolar NCs presented here will find ubiquitous use for colour enrichment in display backlighting.In this work, we propose and develop the inorganic salt encapsulation of semiconductor nanocrystal (NC) dispersion in a nonpolar phase to make a highly stable and highly efficient colour converting powder for colour enrichment in light-emitting diode backlighting. Here the wrapping of the as-synthesized green-emitting CdSe/CdZnSeS/ZnS nanocrystals into a salt matrix without ligand exchange is uniquely enabled by using a LiCl ionic host dissolved in tetrahydrofuran (THF), which simultaneously disperses these nonpolar nanocrystals. We studied the emission stability of the solid films prepared using NCs with and

  3. Broadband non-polarizing terahertz beam splitters with variable split ratio

    KAUST Repository

    Wei, Minggui


    Seeking effective terahertz functional devices has always aroused extensive attention. Of particular interest is the terahertz beam splitter. Here, we have proposed, designed, manufactured, and tested a broadband non-polarizing terahertz beam splitter with a variable split ratio based on an all-dielectric metasurface. The metasurface was created by patterning a dielectric surface of the N-step phase gradient and etching to a few hundred micrometers. The conversion efficiency as high as 81% under the normal incidence at 0.7 THz was achieved. Meanwhile, such a splitter works well over a broad frequency range. The split ratio of the proposed design can be continuously tuned by simply shifting the metasurface, and the angle of emergences can also be easily adjusted by choosing the step of phase gradients. The proposed design is non-polarizing, and its performance is kept under different polarizations.

  4. Solvent- and guest-responsive supramolecular self-assembly of 1,3,5-tris(10-carboxydecyloxy) benzene by scanning tunneling microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cui, Lihua; Miao, Xinrui, E-mail:; Xu, Li; Deng, Wenli, E-mail:


    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • TCDB can entrap solvent molecules or π-electron-conjugated guest molecules. • We calculate hydrogen bonding which is crucial to stabilize the assembly networks. • Structural properties rely on the solvent- and guest-responsive assembly. • Kinetics and thermodynamics explain the morphology character of polarity. - Abstract: Two-dimensional hydrogen-bonded networks formed in the self-assembly of 1,3,5-tris(10-carboxydecyloxy) benzene (TCDB) show regular solvent- and guest-induced supramolecular structural properties, which have been presented by scanning tunneling microscopy at the liquid–solid interface at ambient conditions. TCDB acting as a host template can entrap solvent molecules or π-electron-conjugated guest molecules to fabricate the flexible co-adsorption architectures, which are subject to the balance between the hydrogen bonding of the host lattice and the van der Waals forces between the host and the guest molecules. Hydrogen bonding among TCDB molecules is crucial to stabilize the host networks to settle the system into a global minimum of Gibbs free energy. We also find a strong correlation between the structural parameters and the physical properties of the solvent. Statistical analysis shows that the unit cell volume of TCDB dissolved in nonpolar 1-phenylotane and n-tetradecane shrank significantly compared with that of host–guest system, which fully reflects the coadsorption effect of nonpolar solvent molecules. Our results identify that the kinetic effect of adsorption/desorption as well as the solvent viscosity comes into play in tuning the two-dimensional self-assembled structures. Furthermore, mechanical calculations demonstrate that TCDB incline to adsorb with a larger dipole configuration in nonpolar solvents due to its dissolvability. It is believed that the results are of significance to supramolecular host–guest chemistry and surface science.

  5. Solvent selection methodology for pharmaceutical processes: Solvent swap

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Papadakis, Emmanouil; Kumar Tula, Anjan; Gani, Rafiqul


    A method for the selection of appropriate solvents for the solvent swap task in pharmaceutical processes has been developed. This solvent swap method is based on the solvent selection method of Gani et al. (2006) and considers additional selection criteria such as boiling point difference, volati...

  6. A comparative DFT study of the structural and electronic properties of nonpolar GaN surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    González-Hernández, Rafael, E-mail: [Grupo de Investigación en Física Aplicada, Departamento de Física, Universidad del Norte, Barranquilla (Colombia); González-García, Alvaro [Grupo de Investigación en Física Aplicada, Departamento de Física, Universidad del Norte, Barranquilla (Colombia); Barragán-Yani, Daniel [Fachgebiet Material modellierung, Institut für Materialwissenschaft, Technische Universität Darmstadt, Jovanka-Bontschits-Straße 2, 64287 Darmstadt (Germany); López-Pérez, William [Grupo de Investigación en Física Aplicada, Departamento de Física, Universidad del Norte, Barranquilla (Colombia)


    Highlights: • A comparative analysis of the geometry and the electronic characteristics of nonpolar GaN surfaces was carried out. • Surface energies are too low for LDA, but lower still for GGA and MGGA functionals, except for PBEsol. • PBEsol exhibits good lattice parameters and surface energies. • Surface intra-gap states reduce the band gap of the nonpolar GaN surfaces. • Slight changes in the dispersion of surface states were observed for the LDA, GGA, and MGGA functionals. - Abstract: A comparative analysis of the geometry and the electronic characteristics of nonpolar GaN surfaces was carried out using density-functional theory (DFT) with different approximations for the exchange-correlation energy (LDA, PBE, PBEsol, RPBE, TPSS, revTPSS, and HSE). The obtained data show that the GaN(101{sup ¯}0) (m-plane) is more energetically stable than the GaN(112{sup ¯}0) (a-plane) surface. However, these surfaces have similar surface relaxation geometry, with a Ga-N surface bond-length contraction of around 6–7% and a Ga-N surface rotational angle in the range of 6–9°. Our results show that the use of different exchange-correlation functionals does not significantly change the surface energy and surface geometry. In addition, we found the presence of surface intra-gap states that reduce the band gap of the nonpolar GaN surface with respect to the bulk value, in agreement with recent photoelectron and surface optical spectroscopy experiments.

  7. Modeling diffusion coefficients in binary mixtures of polar and non-polar compounds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Medvedev, Oleg; Shapiro, Alexander


    The theory of transport coefficients in liquids, developed previously, is tested on a description of the diffusion coefficients in binary polar/non-polar mixtures, by applying advanced thermodynamic models. Comparison to a large set of experimental data shows good performance of the model. Only...... components and to only one parameter for mixtures consisting of non-polar components. A possibility of complete prediction of the parameters is discussed....

  8. Hydrophobic monolayered nanoflakes of tungsten oxide: coupled exfoliation and fracture in a nonpolar organic medium. (United States)

    Honda, Masashi; Oaki, Yuya; Imai, Hiroaki


    Coupled exfoliation and fracture induced formation of hydrophobic monolayered nanoflakes in a nonpolar organic medium. The hydrophobic monolayered nanoflakes 5-20 nm in lateral size consisted of a tungstate layer with surface modification by stearylammonium ions (C18H37NH3)0.397 H0.603Cs3W11O35·xH2O (x < 0.625).

  9. Effects of organic solvents and substrate binding on trypsin in acetonitrile and hexane media. (United States)

    Meng, Yanyan; Yuan, Yuan; Zhu, Yanyan; Guo, Yanzhi; Li, Menglong; Wang, Zhimeng; Pu, Xuemei; Jiang, Lin


    In this work, we used molecular dynamic (MD) simulation to study trypsin with and without a six-amino-acid peptide bound in three different solvents (water, acetonitrile and hexane) in order to provide molecular information for well understanding the structure and function of enzymes in non-aqueous media. The results show that the enzyme is more compact and less native-like in hexane than in the other two polar solvents. The substrate could stabilize the native protein structure in the two polar media, but not in the non-polar hexane. There are no significant differences in the conformation of the S1 pocket upon the substrate binding in water and acetonitrile media while a reverse behavior is observed in hexane media, implying a possible induced fit binding mechanism in the non-polar media. The substrate binding enhances the stability of catalytic H-bond network since it could expel the solvent molecules from the active site. The enzyme and the substrate appear to be more appropriate to the reactive conformation in the organic solvents compared with aqueous solution. There is much greater substrate binding strength in hexane media than the water and acetonitrile ones since the polar solvent significantly weakens electrostatic interactions, which are observed to be the main driving force to the binding. In addition, some residues of the S1 pocket could remain favorable contribution to the binding despite the solvent change, but with differences in the contribution extent, the number and the type of residues between the three media.

  10. Electric Charge Accumulation in Polar and Non-Polar Polymers under Electron Beam Irradiation (United States)

    Nagasawa, Kenichiro; Honjoh, Masato; Takada, Tatsuo; Miyake, Hiroaki; Tanaka, Yasuhiro

    The electric charge accumulation under an electron beam irradiation (40 keV and 60 keV) was measured by using the pressure wave propagation (PWP) method in the dielectric insulation materials, such as polar polymeric films (polycarbonate (PC), polyethylene-naphthalate (PEN), polyimide (PI), and polyethylene-terephthalate (PET)) and non-polar polymeric films (polystyrene (PS), polypropylene (PP), polyethylene (PE) and polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE)). The PE and PTFE (non-polar polymers) showed the properties of large amount of electric charge accumulation over 50 C/m3 and long saturation time over 80 minutes. The PP and PS (non-polar polymer) showed the properties of middle amount of charge accumulation about 20 C/m3 and middle saturation time about 1 to 20 minutes. The PC, PEN, PI and PET (polar polymers) showed the properties of small amount of charge accumulation about 5 to 20 C/m3 and within short saturation time about 1.0 minutes. This paper summarizes the relationship between the properties of charge accumulation and chemical structural formula, and compares between the electro static potential distribution with negative charged polymer and its chemical structural formula.

  11. Enhanced UV detection by non-polar epitaxial GaN films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mukundan, Shruti; Chandan, Greeshma; Mohan, Lokesh; Krupanidhi, S. B., E-mail: [Materials Research Centre, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore (India); Roul, Basanta [Materials Research Centre, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore (India); Central Research Laboratory, Bharat Electronics, Bangalore (India); Shetty, Arjun [Department of Electrical Communication Engineering, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore (India)


    Nonpolar a-GaN (11-20) epilayers were grown on r-plane (1-102) sapphire substrates using plasma assisted molecular beam epitaxy. High resolution x-ray diffractometer confirmed the orientation of the grown film. Effect of the Ga/N ratio on the morphology and strain of a-GaN epilayers was compared and the best condition was obtained for the nitrogen flow of 1 sccm. Atomic force microscopy was used to analyze the surface morphology while the strain in the film was quantitatively measured using Raman spectroscopy and qualitatively analyzed by reciprocal space mapping technique. UV photo response of a-GaN film was measured after fabricating a metal-semiconductor-metal structure over the film with gold metal. The external quantum efficiency of the photodetectors fabricated in the (0002) polar and (11-20) nonpolar growth directions were compared in terms of responsivity and nonpolar GaN showed the best sensitivity at the cost of comparatively slow response time.

  12. Chemical etching behaviors of semipolar (11̄22) and nonpolar (11̄20) gallium nitride films. (United States)

    Jung, Younghun; Baik, Kwang Hyeon; Mastro, Michael A; Hite, Jennifer K; Eddy, Charles R; Kim, Jihyun


    Wet chemical etching using hot KOH and H3PO4 solutions was performed on semipolar (11̄22) and nonpolar (11̄20) GaN films grown on sapphire substrates. An alternating KOH/H3PO4/KOH etch process was developed to control the orientation of the facets on the thin-film surface. The initial etch step in KOH produced c- and m-plane facets on the surface of both semipolar (11̄22) and nonpolar (11̄20) GaN thin-films. A second etch step in H3PO4 solution additionally exposed a (̄1̄12̄2) plane, which is chemically stable in H3PO4 solution. By repeating the chemical etch with KOH solution, the m-plane facets as seen in the original KOH etch step were recovered. The etching methods developed in our work can be used to control the surface morphologies of nonpolar and semipolar GaN-based optoelectronic devices such as light-emitting diodes and solar cells.

  13. Enhanced sensing of nonpolar volatile organic compounds by silicon nanowire field effect transistors. (United States)

    Paska, Yair; Stelzner, Thomas; Christiansen, Silke; Haick, Hossam


    Silicon nanowire field effect transistors (Si NW FETs) are emerging as powerful sensors for direct detection of biological and chemical species. However, the low sensitivity of the Si NW FET sensors toward nonpolar volatile organic compounds (VOCs) is problematic for many applications. In this study, we show that modifying Si NW FETs with a silane monolayer having a low fraction of Si-O-Si bonds between the adjacent molecules greatly enhances the sensitivity toward nonpolar VOCs. This can be explained in terms of an indirect sensor-VOC interaction, whereby the nonpolar VOC molecules induce conformational changes in the organic monolayer, affecting (i) the dielectric constant and/or effective dipole moment of the organic monolayer and/or (ii) the density of charged surface states at the SiO(2)/monolayer interface. In contrast, polar VOCs are sensed directly via VOC-induced changes in the Si NW charge carriers, most probably due to electrostatic interaction between the Si NW and polar VOCs. A semiempirical model for the VOC-induced conductivity changes in the Si NW FETs is presented and discussed.

  14. Solvent-induced O-H vibration red-shifts of oxygen-acids in hydrogen-bonded O-H···base complexes. (United States)

    Keinan, Sharon; Pines, Dina; Kiefer, Philip M; Hynes, James T; Pines, Ehud


    Infrared spectroscopy has been used to characterize the solvent effect on the OH stretching vibrations νOH of phenol, 1-naphthol, 2-naphthol, 1-hydroxypyrene, and ethanol. We distinguish the dielectric (nonspecific) effect of the solvent on ΔνOH, the observed red-shifts in νOH, from the much larger red-shift caused by direct hydrogen (H)-bonding interactions with the solvents. To isolate the solvent dielectric constant ε effect on νOH, the OH oscillator was also studied when it is already H-bonded with an invariant oxygen base, dimethyl sulfoxide. We find that ΔνOH depends importantly on ΔPA, the difference between the proton affinities of the conjugate base of the proton donor and the proton acceptor. For a given H-bonded complex, νOH tends to vary inversely with ε, exhibiting different slopes for polar and nonpolar solvents, i.e., solvents comprising molecules with and without a permanent dipole moment, respectively. We use a two-state valence-bond-based theory to analyze our experimental data. This demonstrates that the OH oscillator acquires a more ionic-like character in the vibrational excited state, i.e., charge transfer; this results in a stronger H-bond in a more anharmonic potential for the OH vibration. The theory distinguishes between nonpolar and polar solvents and successfully accounts for the observed 1/ε and ΔPA variations.

  15. The Effect of Sulphate Doping on Nanosized TiO2 and MoOx/TiO2 Catalysts in Cyclohexane Photooxidative Dehydrogenation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Ciambelli


    Full Text Available The effect of sulphate doping of titania in promoting activity and selectivity of MoOx/TiO2 catalysts for the cyclohexane photooxidative dehydrogenation has been investigated in a gas-solid fluidized bed reactor. Sulphate and/or molybdate-modified titania catalysts were prepared by incipient wet impregnation of nanosized (5–10 nm crystallite size samples. At 60% of titania surface coverage by MoOx, sulphate surface density was obtained up to 19 μmol/m2 without formation of MoO3. The catalysts were characterized by N2 adsorption-desorption at −196∘C, micro-Raman and UV-visible reflectance spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis coupled with mass spectroscopy (TG-MS, and mass titration. Unsulphated and sulphated titania are both active in cyclohexane total oxidation, but sulphate doping of titania has a detrimental effect on the reaction rate. On Mo-based catalysts, polymolybdate species enabled sulphated titania to convert cyclohexane to benzene (99% selectivity and cyclohexene, reducing at zero the formation of CO2. Cyclohexane conversion to benzene is almost linearly dependent on sulphate surface density, resulting in enhanced yield to benzene. The enhanced photooxidative dehydrogenation activity and benzene yield by sulphate doping could be attributed to the increase of surface acidity and, as a consequence, of cyclohexane adsorption.

  16. Purex process solvent: literature review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geier, R.G.


    This document summarizes the data on Purex process solvent presently published in a variety of sources. Extracts from these various sources are presented herein and contain the work done, the salient results obtained, and the original, unaltered conclusions of the author of each paper. Three major areas are addressed: solvent stability, solvent quality testing, and solvent treatment processes. 34 references, 44 tables.

  17. (1S*,2S*,4R*,5R*-Cyclohexane-1,2,4,5-tetracarboxylic acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akira Uchida


    Full Text Available The title compound, C10H12O8, a prospective raw material for colourless polyimides which are applied to electronic and microelectronic devices, lies about an inversion centre and the cyclohexane ring adopts a chair conformation. Two crystallographycally independent carboxylic acid groups on adjacent C atoms are in equatorial positions, resulting in a mutually trans conformation. In the crystal, O—H...O hydrogen bonds around an inversion centre and a threefold rotoinversion axis, respectively, form an inversion dimer with an R22(8 motif and a trimer with an R33(12 motif.

  18. 4,4′-Bipyridine–cyclohexane-1,2,4,5-tetracarboxylic acid (1/1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian-Qiang Liu


    Full Text Available In the title 1:1 adduct, C10H8N2·C10H12O8, the dihedral angle between the pyridine rings in the 4,4-bipyridine molecule is 8.33 (13°. In the crystal, the cyclohexane-1,2,4,5-tetracarboxylic acid molecules interact with each other through intermolecular O—H...O hydrogen bonds, forming an infinite chain along the a axis, which is further linked perpendicularly by O—H...N hydrogen bonds involving bipyridine, resulting in a supramolecular corrugated sheet parallel to the (110 plane.

  19. Oxidation Of Cyclohexane To Cyclohexanol And Cyclohexanone Using H4[α-SiW12O40]/Zr As Catalyst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aldes Lesbani


    Full Text Available Synthesis and preparation of polyoxometalate H4[α-SiW12O40].nH2O with Zr as support at various weights of Zr 0.01g; 0.05 g; 0.25 g; 0.5 g; 0.75 g; 1 g and 1.25 g to form H4[α- SiW12O40]/Zr was conducted. The compounds from preparation were characterized using FTIR spectroscopy and crystallinity analysis using X-Ray diffraction. Thus H4[α- SiW12O40]/Zr was applied as catalyst for oxidation of cyclohexane to cyclohexanol and cyclohexanone. Oxidation process was studied through reaction time, hydrogen peroxide amount, temperature, and weight of catalyst. FTIR spectrum of H4[α-SiW12O40]/Zr was appeared at wavenumber 771.53-979.84 cm-1 and Zr at 486.06-1481.33 cm-1. Diffraction pattern of H4[α-SiW12O40]/Zr showed that high crystallinity was identified at 2θ 8o-10o and 28.3o. Based on FTIR spectrum and XRD powder pattern, the optimum preparation of H4[α-SiW12O40]/Zr was obtained using 0.5 g of Zr. The catalytic study of cyclohexane using H4[α-SiW12O40]/Zr at 0.5 g of Zr resulted conversion about 99.73%. Catalyst can convert cyclohexane with the highest conversion then used for further deep catalytic investigation. Optimization of oxidation process resulted optimum reaction time at 2 h, 3 mL of hydrogen peroxide amount, 80 oC of temperature, and 0.038 g of catalyst. The GCMS analysis indicated the oxidation of cyclohexane using H4[α-SiW12O40]/Zr at 0.5 g of Zr formed cyclohexanol and cyclohexanone with selectivity 18.77 and 23.57, respectively.

  20. Evaluation of Excess Thermodynamic Parameters in a Binary Liquid Mixture (Cyclohexane + O-Xylene at Different Temperatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Narendra


    Full Text Available The ultrasonic velocity, density and viscosity in binary liquid mixture cyclohexane with o-xylene have been determined at different temperatures from 303.15 to 318.15 K over the whole composition range. The data have been utilized to estimate the excess adiabatic compressibility (βE, excess volumes (VE, excess intermolecular free length (LfE, excess internal pressure (πE and excess enthalpy (HE at the above temperatures. The excess values have been found to be useful in estimating the strength of the interactions in the liquid mixtures. Analysis of these parameters indicates that there are weak interactions among the components of the binary mixtures.

  1. Chemical Potential of the Solvent: a Crucial Player for Rationalizing Host-Guest Affinities. (United States)

    Piguet, Claude; Baudet, Karine; Guerra, Sebastiano


    An access to reliable values of the thermodynamic constants which controls simple host-guest association, is crucial in medicine, biology, pharmacy and chemistry since the optimum concentration of an effector (i.e. a drug) acting on a receptor is set to the inverse of these constants. Intermolecular association between charged species in polar solvents largely obeys this principle. Any deviation from ideality is mastered by the Debye-Hückel theory of ionic atmosphere. Much less is known for related association reactions involving neutral species in non-polar (lipophilic) media such as membranes, bilayers or organic polymers. Taking the intermolecular association between [La(hfa)3dig] guest and tridentate polyaromatic host receptors L1-L3 in dichloromethane as a proof-of-concept, we show that the progress of the association reactions disrupt the chemical potential of the solvent to such an extent that may seemingly be shifted by two orders of magnitude, thus leading to erroneous dose-response prescriptions. A simple chemical model, which considers a subset of solvent molecules in surface contact with the partners of the association reaction, restores a reliable access to true and interpretable thermodynamic constants. This 'complement' to the law of mass action offers a simple method for safely taking care of the non-predictable variations of the activity coefficients of the various partners when host-guest reactions are conducted in non-polar media. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. Evaluation of various techniques for separation of non-polar modifier concentrates from petroleum waxy by-products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fathi S. Soliman


    Full Text Available Two petroleum waxy by-products (light and middle slack wax crudes were evaluated for separation of non-polar modifiers by using different techniques. The results showed that, the light slack wax is selected as a suitable wax for separation of n-alkanes with even number of carbon atoms ranging from C20 to C26 for their high n-paraffin contents and can be used as non-polar structural modifiers. Different separation techniques; multistage fractional crystallization and liquid–solid chromatography; followed by the urea adduction technique have been used to separate non-polar modifier concentrates from the light slack wax crude. The light slack wax, its saturate components, the hard wax fractions isolated from light slack wax by the multistage fractional crystallization technique and their adducts were analyzed by GC to characterize and compare the produced components. The resulting data reveal that, the adducts of light slack wax and its saturate components; can be used as non-polar modifier concentrates of low carbon atoms (C20 + C22. From an economic point of view, the light slack wax adduct is selected as a non-polar modifier concentrate whereas, the separation step can be neglected to save energy. Meanwhile, the adduct of the hard wax isolated at 30 °C can be used as the preferable non-polar modifier concentrate of the high carbon number atoms (C24 + C26.

  3. Halogenated solvent remediation (United States)

    Sorenson, Kent S.


    Methods for enhancing bioremediation of ground water contaminated with nonaqueous halogenated solvents are disclosed. A preferred method includes adding a composition to the ground water wherein the composition is an electron donor for microbe-mediated reductive dehalogenation of the halogenated solvents and enhances mass transfer of the halogenated solvents from residual source areas into the aqueous phase of the ground water. Illustrative compositions effective in these methods include surfactants such as C.sub.2 -C.sub.4 carboxylic acids and hydroxy acids, salts thereof, esters of C.sub.2 -C.sub.4 carboxylic acids and hydroxy acids, and mixtures thereof. Especially preferred compositions for use in these methods include lactic acid, salts of lactic acid, such as sodium lactate, lactate esters, and mixtures thereof. The microbes are either indigenous to the ground water, or such microbes can be added to the ground water in addition to the composition.

  4. Safe battery solvents (United States)

    Harrup, Mason K.; Delmastro, Joseph R.; Stewart, Frederick F.; Luther, Thomas A.


    An ion transporting solvent maintains very low vapor pressure, contains flame retarding elements, and is nontoxic. The solvent in combination with common battery electrolyte salts can be used to replace the current carbonate electrolyte solution, creating a safer battery. It can also be used in combination with polymer gels or solid polymer electrolytes to produce polymer batteries with enhanced conductivity characteristics. The solvents may comprise a class of cyclic and acyclic low molecular weight phosphazenes compounds, comprising repeating phosphorus and nitrogen units forming a core backbone and ion-carrying pendent groups bound to the phosphorus. In preferred embodiments, the cyclic phosphazene comprises at least 3 phosphorus and nitrogen units, and the pendent groups are polyethers, polythioethers, polyether/polythioethers or any combination thereof, and/or other groups preferably comprising other atoms from Group 6B of the periodic table of elements.

  5. Cyclodextrin Films with Fast Solvent Transport and Shape-Selective Permeability. (United States)

    Villalobos, Luis Francisco; Huang, Tiefan; Peinemann, Klaus-Viktor


    This study describes the molecular-level design of a new type of filtration membrane made of crosslinked cyclodextrins-inexpensive macrocycles of glucose, shaped like hollow truncated cones. The channel-like cavities of cyclodextrins spawn numerous paths of defined aperture in the separation layer that can effectively discriminate between molecules. The transport of molecules through these membranes is highly shape-sensitive. In addition, the presence of hydrophobic (cavity) and hydrophilic (ester-crosslinked outer part) domains in these films results in high permeances for both polar and nonpolar solvents. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. Cyclodextrin Films with Fast Solvent Transport and Shape-Selective Permeability

    KAUST Repository

    Villalobos, Luis Francisco


    This study describes the molecular-level design of a new type of filtration membrane made of crosslinked cyclodextrins-inexpensive macrocycles of glucose, shaped like hollow truncated cones. The channel-like cavities of cyclodextrins spawn numerous paths of defined aperture in the separation layer that can effectively discriminate between molecules. The transport of molecules through these membranes is highly shape-sensitive. In addition, the presence of hydrophobic (cavity) and hydrophilic (ester-crosslinked outer part) domains in these films results in high permeances for both polar and nonpolar solvents.

  7. A combination of solvent extraction and freeze thaw for oil recovery from petroleum refinery wastewater treatment pond sludge. (United States)

    Hu, Guangji; Li, Jianbing; Hou, Haobo


    A combination of solvent extraction and freeze thaw was examined for recovering oil from the high-moisture petroleum refinery wastewater treatment pond sludge. Five solvents including cyclohexane (CHX), dichloromethane (DCM), methyl ethyl ketone (MEK), ethyl acetate (EA), and 2-propanol (2-Pro) were examined. It was found that these solvents except 2-Pro showed a promising oil recovery rate of about 40%, but the recycling of DCM solvent after oil extraction was quite low. Three solvents (CHX, MEK and EA) were then selected for examining the effect of freeze/thaw treatment on improving the quality of recovered oil. This treatment increased the total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) content in recovered oil from about 40% to 60% for both MEK and EA extractions, but little effect was observed for CHX extraction. Although the solid residue after oil recovery had a significantly decreased TPH content, a high concentration of heavy metals was observed, indicating that this residue may require proper management. In general, the combination of solvent extraction with freeze/thaw is effective for high-moisture oily hazardous waste treatment.

  8. Influence of the radio-frequency power on the physical and optical properties of plasma polymerized cyclohexane thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manaa, C., E-mail: [Laboratoire de Physique de la Matière Condensée, Université de Picardie Jules Verne, UFR des Sciences d' Amiens, 33 rue Saint Leu, 80039 Amiens CEDEX 2 (France); Laboratoire des Matériaux Avancés et Phénomènes Quantiques, Université de Tunis El-Manar, Faculté des Sciences de Tunis, Campus universitaire El-Manar, 1068 Tunis (Tunisia); Lejeune, M. [Laboratoire de Physique de la Matière Condensée, Université de Picardie Jules Verne, UFR des Sciences d' Amiens, 33 rue Saint Leu, 80039 Amiens CEDEX 2 (France); Kouki, F. [Laboratoire des Matériaux Avancés et Phénomènes Quantiques, Université de Tunis El-Manar, Faculté des Sciences de Tunis, Campus universitaire El-Manar, 1068 Tunis (Tunisia); Durand-Drouhin, O. [Laboratoire de Physique de la Matière Condensée, Université de Picardie Jules Verne, UFR des Sciences d' Amiens, 33 rue Saint Leu, 80039 Amiens CEDEX 2 (France); Bouchriha, H. [Laboratoire des Matériaux Avancés et Phénomènes Quantiques, Université de Tunis El-Manar, Faculté des Sciences de Tunis, Campus universitaire El-Manar, 1068 Tunis (Tunisia); and others


    We investigate in the present study the effects of the radio-frequency plasma power on the opto-electronical properties of the polymeric amorphous hydrogenated carbon thin films deposited at room temperature and different radio-frequency powers by plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition method using cyclohexane as precursor. A combination of U.V.–Visible and infrared transmission measurements is applied to characterize the bonding and electronic properties of these films. Some film properties namely surface roughness, contact angle, surface energy, and optical properties are found to be significantly influenced by the radio-frequency power. The changes in these properties are analyzed within the microstructural modifications occurring during growth. - Highlights: • Effects of the radio-frequency power on the optoelectronic properties of thin films • Elaboration of plasma polymerized thin films using cyclohexane as precursor gas • The use of U.V.–Visible-infrared transmission, and optical gap • Study of the surface topography of the films by using Atomic Force microscopy • The use of a capacitively coupled plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition method.

  9. Decomposition of cyclohexane ion induced by intense femtosecond laser fields by ion-trap time-of-flight mass spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamazaki, Takao; Watanabe, Yusuke; Kanya, Reika [Department of Chemistry, School of Science, The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Yamanouchi, Kaoru, E-mail: [Department of Chemistry, School of Science, The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); NANOQUINE, The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan)


    Decomposition of cyclohexane cations induced by intense femtosecond laser fields at the wavelength of 800 nm is investigated by ion-trap time-of-flight mass spectrometry in which cyclohexane cations C{sub 6}H{sub 12}{sup +} stored in an ion trap are irradiated with intense femtosecond laser pulses and the generated fragment ions are recorded by time-of-flight mass spectrometry. The various fragment ion species, C{sub 5}H{sub n}{sup +} (n = 7, 9), C{sub 4}H{sub n}{sup +} (n = 5–8), C{sub 3}H{sub n}{sup +} (n = 3–7), C{sub 2}H{sub n}{sup +} (n = 2–6), and CH{sub 3}{sup +}, identified in the mass spectra show that decomposition of C{sub 6}H{sub 12}{sup +} proceeds efficiently by the photo-irradiation. From the laser intensity dependences of the yields of the fragment ion species, the numbers of photons required for producing the respective fragment ions are estimated.

  10. Stepwise swelling of a thin film of lamellae-forming poly(styrene-b- butadiene) in cyclohexane vapor

    KAUST Repository

    Di, Zhenyu


    We investigated the swelling of a thin film of lamellae-forming poly(styrene-b-butadiene) in cyclohexane vapor. The vapor pressure and thus the degree of swelling of the film are increased in a stepwise manner using a custom-built sample cell. The resulting structural changes during and after each step were followed in situ using time-resolved grazing-incidence small-angle X-ray scattering (GISAXS). During the first step, the lamellar thickness increases strongly, before it decreases again. At the same time, the full width at half-maximum (FWHM) of the diffuse Bragg reflection along the film normal has a sharp maximum. These observations point to the formation of new lamellae. During the subsequent swelling steps, the lamellar thickness overshoots only weakly. The behavior thus resembles qualitatively our previous results on a similar thin film during swelling in saturated vapor of cyclohexane; however, it deviates from earlier theoretical predictions. We propose a theory that is quantitatively correct for the description of the dependence of the lamellar thickness on the polymer volume fraction in the late stage of the swelling steps. © 2012 American Chemical Society.

  11. Synthesis, Structural Characterization and Biological Activity of Novel Cyclohexane-1,3-dione Ligands and Their Metal Complexes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nevin Turan


    Full Text Available Some new Zn(II and Cu(II complexes [Cu(L1(OAc2]∙H2O, [Cu(L1(NO3H2O]∙NO3∙3.5H2O, [Zn(L1(NO32]∙4.5H2O, [Zn(L1(OAc2(H2O2]∙3H2O, [Cu2(L2(OAc4]∙2H2O∙2DMF, [Cu(L22]∙2NO3∙1.5DMF∙H2O, [Zn(L22(NO32]∙DMF and [Zn2(L2(OAc4(H2O4]∙5H2O; L1 = 2-[2-(2-methoxyphenylhydrazono]cyclohexane-1,3-dione and L2 = 2-[2-(3-nitrophenylhydrazono]cyclohexane-1,3-dione were synthesized and characterized by IR, 1H-NMR,13C-NMR and ultraviolet (UV-Vis. spectroscopy, elemental analysis, magnetic susceptibility, mass spectrometry and thermogravimetry-differential thermal analysis (TGA-DTA. The synthesized ligands and their complexes were tested for antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli ATCC 25922, Enterococcus faecalis ATCC 29212, Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923, and Salmonella typhimurium CCM 583. Some of complexes showed medium-level antibacterial activity against the test bacteria compared with ampicillin.

  12. Energy requirements for wet solvent extraction of lipids from microalgal biomass. (United States)

    Martin, Gregory J O


    Biofuel production from microalgae requires energy efficient processes for extracting and converting triacylglyceride lipids to fuel, compatible with coproduction of protein feeds and nutraceuticals. Wet solvent extraction involves mechanical cell rupture, lipid extraction via solvent contacting, physical phase separation, thermal solvent recovery, and transesterification. A detailed analysis of the effect of key process parameters on the parasitic energy demand of this process was performed. On a well-to-pump basis, between 16% and 320% of the resultant biodiesel energy was consumed depending solely on the process parameters. Highly positive energy balances can be achieved, but only if a correctly designed process is used. This requires processing concentrated biomass (ca 25%w/w) with a high triacylglyceride content (ca 30%w/w), and an efficient extraction process employing a non-polar solvent, low solvent-to-paste ratio, and efficient energy recovery. These requirements preclude many laboratory scale processes and polar co-solvents as viable options for large-scale biofuel production. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Solvent effects on extraction of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in ambient aerosol samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flasch Mira


    Full Text Available Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs in the ambient particulate matter pose one of the most important issues in the focus of environmental management. The concentration of their representative, Benzo(apyrene (BaP, undergoes limitations according to European Union directive. However, a successful control over the pollution levels and their sources is limited by the high uncertainty of analytical and statistical approaches used for their characterization. Here we compare differences in PAH concentrations related to the use of different solvents in the course of ultrasonic extraction of a certified reference material (PM10-like PAH mixture and filter samples of ambient particulate matter collected in Austria for the CG-MS PAH analysis. Using solvents of increasing polarity: Cyclohexane (0,006, Toluene (0,099, Dichloromethane (0,309, Acetone (0,43 and Acetonitrile (0,460, as well as mixtures of those, filters representing high and low concentrations of particulate matter were investigated. Although some scatter of the obtained concentrations was observed no trend related to the polarity of the solvent became visible. Regarding the reproducibility, which can be expected of PAH analysis no significant difference between the different solvents was determined. This result is valid for all compounds under investigation.

  14. Solvent-dependent activation of intermediate excited states in the energy relaxation pathways of spheroidene. (United States)

    Maiuri, Margherita; Polli, Dario; Brida, Daniele; Lüer, Larry; LaFountain, Amy M; Fuciman, Marcel; Cogdell, Richard J; Frank, Harry A; Cerullo, Giulio


    In carotenoids internal conversion between the allowed (S(2)) and forbidden (S(1)) excited states occurs on a sub-picosecond timescale; the involvement of an intermediate excited state(s) (S(x)) mediating the process is controversial. Here we use high time resolution (sub-20 fs) broadband (1.2-2.5 eV) pump-probe spectroscopy to study the solvent dependence of excited state dynamics of spheroidene, a naturally-occurring carotenoid with ten conjugated double bonds. In the high polarizability solvent, CS(2), we find no evidence of an intermediate state, and the traditional three-level (S(0), S(1), S(2)) model fully accounts for the S(2)→ S(1) process. On the other hand, in the low polarizability solvent, cyclohexane, we find that rapid (~30 fs) relaxation to an intermediate state, S(x), lying between S(1) and S(2) is required to account for the data. We interpret these results as due to a shift of the S(2) energy, which positions the state above or below the energy of S(x) in response to changes in solvent polarizability. This journal is © the Owner Societies 2012

  15. Organic solvent topical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    COWLEY, W.L.


    This report provides the basis for closing the organic solvent safety issue. Sufficient information is presented to conclude that risk posed by an organic solvent fire is within risk evaluation guidelines. This report updates information contained in Analysis of Consequences of Postulated Solvent Fires in Hanford Site Waste Tanks. WHC-SD-WM-CN-032. Rev. 0A (Cowley et al. 1996). However, this document will not replace Cowley et al (1996) as the primary reference for the Basis for Interim Operation (BIO) until the recently submitted BIO amendment (Hanson 1999) is approved by the US Department of Energy. This conclusion depends on the use of controls for preventing vehicle fuel fires and for limiting the use of flame cutting in areas where hot metal can fall on the waste surface.The required controls are given in the Tank Waste Remediation System Technical Safety Requirements (Noorani 1997b). This is a significant change from the conclusions presented in Revision 0 of this report. Revision 0 of this calcnote concluded that some organic solvent fire scenarios exceeded risk evaluation guidelines, even with controls imposed.

  16. Organic solvent topical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cowley, W.L.


    This report is the technical basis for the accident and consequence analyses used in the Hanford Tank Farms Basis for Interim Operation. The report also contains the scientific and engineering information and reference material needed to understand the organic solvent safety issue. This report includes comments received from the Chemical Reactions Subcommittee of the Tank Advisory Panel.

  17. Uniform Treatment of Solute-Solvent Dispersion in the Ground and Excited Electronic States of the Solute Based on a Solvation Model with State-Specific Polarizability. (United States)

    Marenich, Aleksandr V; Cramer, Christopher J; Truhlar, Donald G


    We present a new kind of treatment of the solute-solvent dispersion contribution to the free energy of solvation using a solvation model with state-specific polarizability (SMSSP). To evaluate the solute-solvent dispersion contribution, the SMSSP model utilizes only two descriptors, namely, the spherically averaged dipole polarizability of the solute molecule (either in its ground or excited electronic state) and the refractive index of the solvent. The model was parametrized over 643 ground-state solvation free energy data for 231 solutes in 14 nonpolar, non-hydrogen-bonding solvents. We show that the SMSSP model is applicable to solutes in both the ground and the excited electronic state. For example, in comparison to available experimental data, the model yields qualitatively accurate predictions of the solvatochromic shifts for a number of systems where solute-solvent dispersion is the dominant contributor to the shift.

  18. Permeability of starch gel matrices and select films to solvent vapors. (United States)

    Glenn, Gregory M; Klamczynski, Artur P; Ludvik, Charles; Shey, Justin; Imam, Syed H; Chiou, Bor-Sen; McHugh, Tara; DeGrandi-Hoffman, Gloria; Orts, William; Wood, Delilah; Offeman, Rick


    Volatile agrochemicals such as 2-heptanone have potential in safely and effectively controlling important agricultural pests provided that they are properly delivered. The present study reports the permeability of starch gel matrices and various coatings, some of which are agricultural-based, that could be used in controlled release devices. Low-density, microcellular starch foam was made from wheat, Dent corn, and high amylose corn starches. The foam density ranged from 0.14 to 0.34 g/cm3, the pore volume ranged from 74 to 89%, and the loading capacity ranged from 2.3 to 7.2 times the foam weight. The compressive properties of the foam were not markedly affected by saturating the pore volume with silicone oil. The vapor transmission rate (VTR) and vapor permeability (VP) were measured in dry, porous starch foam and silicone-saturated starch gels. VTR values were highest in foam samples containing solvents with high vapor pressures. Silicone oil-saturated gels had lower VTR and VP values as compared to the dry foam. However, the silicone oil gel did not markedly reduce the VP for 2-heptanone and an additional vapor barrier or coating was needed to adequately reduce the evaporation rate. The VP of films of beeswax, paraffin, ethylene vinyl alcohol, a fruit film, and a laminate comprised of beeswax and fruit film was measured. The fruit film had a relatively high VP for polar solvents and a very low VP for nonpolar solvents. The laminate film provided a low VP for polar and nonpolar solvents. Perforating the fruit film portion of the laminate provided a method of attaining the target flux rate of 2-heptanone. The results demonstrate that the vapor flux rate of biologically active solvents can be controlled using agricultural materials.

  19. Nonpolar and semipolar InGaN/GaN multiple-quantum-well solar cells with improved carrier collection efficiency (United States)

    Huang, Xuanqi; Fu, Houqiang; Chen, Hong; Zhang, Xiaodong; Lu, Zhijian; Montes, Jossue; Iza, Michael; DenBaars, Steven P.; Nakamura, Shuji; Zhao, Yuji


    We demonstrate the nonpolar and semipolar InGaN/GaN multiple-quantum-well (MQW) solar cells grown on the nonpolar m-plane and semipolar ( 20 2 ¯ 1 ) plane bulk GaN substrates. The optical properties and photovoltaic performance of the nonpolar and semipolar InGaN solar cells were systematically studied, and the results were compared to the conventional polar c-plane devices. The absorption spectra, current density-voltage (J-V) characteristics, external quantum efficiency (EQE), and internal quantum efficiency (IQE) were measured for nonpolar m-plane, semipolar ( 20 2 ¯ 1 ) plane, and polar c-plane InGaN/GaN MQW solar cells. Nonpolar m-plane InGaN/GaN MQW solar cells showed the best performance across all devices, with a high open-circuit voltage of 2.32 V, a low bandgap-voltage offset of 0.59 V, and the highest EQE and IQE. In contrast, the polar c-plane device showed the lowest EQE despite the highest absorption spectra. This huge difference is attributed to the better carrier transport and collection on nonpolar m-plane devices due to the reduced polarization effects, which were further confirmed by bias-dependent EQE measurements and energy band diagram simulations. This study demonstrates the high potential of nonpolar and semipolar InGaN solar cells and can serve as guidance for the future design and fabrication of high efficiency III-nitride solar cells.

  20. In Vitro Anticancer Activity of a Nonpolar Fraction from Gynostemma pentaphyllum (Thunb.) Makino (United States)

    Li, Yantao; Huang, Jiajun; Lin, Wanjun; Yuan, Zhongwen; Feng, Senling; Xie, Ying; Ma, Wenzhe


    Gynostemma pentaphyllum (Thunb.) Makino (GpM) has been widely used in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) for the treatment of various diseases including cancer. Most previous studies have focused primarily on polar fractions of GpM for anticancer activities. In this study, a nonpolar fraction EA1.3A from GpM showed potent growth inhibitory activities against four cancer cell lines with IC50 ranging from 31.62 μg/mL to 38.02 μg/mL. Furthermore, EA1.3A also inhibited the growth of breast cancer cell MDA-MB-453 time-dependently, as well as its colony formation ability. EA1.3A induced apoptosis on MDA-MB-453 cells both dose-dependently and time-dependently as analyzed by flow cytometry and verified by western blotting analysis of apoptosis marker cleaved nuclear poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (cPARP). Additionally, EA1.3A induced cell cycle arrest in G0/G1 phase. Chemical components analysis of EA1.3A by GC-MS revealed that this nonpolar fraction from GpM contains 10 compounds including four alkaloids, three organic esters, two terpenes, and one catechol substance, and all these compounds have not been reported in GpM. In summary, the nonpolar fraction EA1.3A from GpM inhibited cancer cell growth through induction of apoptosis and regulation of cell cycle progression. Our study shed light on new chemical bases for the anticancer activities of GpM and feasibilities to develop new anticancer agents from this widely used medicinal plant. PMID:27034692

  1. In Vitro Anticancer Activity of a Nonpolar Fraction from Gynostemma pentaphyllum (Thunb. Makino

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yantao Li


    Full Text Available Gynostemma pentaphyllum (Thunb. Makino (GpM has been widely used in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM for the treatment of various diseases including cancer. Most previous studies have focused primarily on polar fractions of GpM for anticancer activities. In this study, a nonpolar fraction EA1.3A from GpM showed potent growth inhibitory activities against four cancer cell lines with IC50 ranging from 31.62 μg/mL to 38.02 μg/mL. Furthermore, EA1.3A also inhibited the growth of breast cancer cell MDA-MB-453 time-dependently, as well as its colony formation ability. EA1.3A induced apoptosis on MDA-MB-453 cells both dose-dependently and time-dependently as analyzed by flow cytometry and verified by western blotting analysis of apoptosis marker cleaved nuclear poly(ADP-ribose polymerase (cPARP. Additionally, EA1.3A induced cell cycle arrest in G0/G1 phase. Chemical components analysis of EA1.3A by GC-MS revealed that this nonpolar fraction from GpM contains 10 compounds including four alkaloids, three organic esters, two terpenes, and one catechol substance, and all these compounds have not been reported in GpM. In summary, the nonpolar fraction EA1.3A from GpM inhibited cancer cell growth through induction of apoptosis and regulation of cell cycle progression. Our study shed light on new chemical bases for the anticancer activities of GpM and feasibilities to develop new anticancer agents from this widely used medicinal plant.


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Junbai; YIN Rui; MA Rongjiu; Shen Jiacong


    The technique of dynamic light scattering has been used to investigate the translation diffusion behavior of 8-arm star polystyrene (SPS)in a good solvent, tetrahydrofuran (THF) or benzene (BZ)and a theta solvent, cyclohexane (CH), by homodyne photon correlation spectroscopy .The intensityintensity autocorrelation function was analyzed by the method of cumulant. The translation diffusion coefficients have been obtained as a function of temperature and concentration. Under theta condition ,the non-concentration dependence of diffusion coefficient showed the unperturbed Gaussian state of the SPS molecular chain. The different hydrodynamic radii estimated from Stokes-Einstein equation reflected the stretch extent of the arm chain for regular star polymer. The data of diffusion activation energy of SPS in THF, BZ and CH were also obtained respectively.

  3. Solvent Vapour Detection with Cholesteric Liquid Crystals—Optical and Mass-Sensitive Evaluation of the Sensor Mechanism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adnan Mujahid


    Full Text Available Cholesteric liquid crystals (CLCs are used as sensitive coatings for the detection of organic solvent vapours for both polar and non-polar substances. The incorporation of different analyte vapours in the CLC layers disturbs the pitch length which changes the optical properties, i.e., shifting the absorption band. The engulfing of CLCs around non-polar solvent vapours such as tetrahedrofuran (THF, chloroform and tetrachloroethylene is favoured in comparison to polar ones, i.e., methanol and ethanol. Increasing solvent vapour concentrations shift the absorbance maximumto smaller wavelengths, e.g., as observed for THF. Additionally, CLCs have been coated on acoustic devices such as the quartz crystal microbalance (QCM to measure the frequency shift of analyte samples at similar concentration levels. The mass effect for tetrachloroethylene was about six times higher than chloroform. Thus, optical response can be correlated with intercalation in accordance to mass detection. The mechanical stability was gained by combining CLCs with imprinted polymers. Therefore, pre-concentration of solvent vapours was performed leading to an additional selectivity.

  4. Study on Surface Properties for Non-polar Fluids with Density Functional Theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴畏; 陆九芳; 付东; 刘金晨; 李以圭


    The density functional theory, simplified by the local density approximation and mean-field approximation, is applied to study the surface properties of pure non-polar fluids. A reasonable long rang correction is adopted to avoid the truncation of the potential. The perturbation theory is applied to establish the equation for the phase equilibrium, in which the hard-core chain fluid is as the reference fluid and the Yukawa potential is used as the perturbation term. Three parameters, elk, d and ms, are regressed from the vapor-liquid equilibria, and the surface properties, including density profile, surface tension and local surface tension profile are predicted with these parameters.

  5. A semiempirical model for estimating the hydration free energy of neutral nonpolar compounds (United States)

    Ratkova, E. L.


    An improved semiempirical model for determining the hydration free energy of neutral nonpolar compounds is presented. The model is based on a combination of the RISM approach of the integral equation theory and empirical correlations. It is demonstrated that the developed model has high predictive ability for alkanes, alkenes, and dienes (present only in the test set of compounds). It is concluded that this semiempirical model can be applied in estimating the hydration free energy of more complicated structures based on saturated and nonsaturated aliphatic hydrocarbons.

  6. Dynamic solvation shell and solubility of C60 in organic solvents. (United States)

    Wang, Chun I; Hua, Chi C; Chen, Show A


    The notion of (static) solvation shells has recently proved fruitful in revealing key molecular factors that dictate the solubility and aggregation properties of fullerene species in polar or ionic solvent media. Using molecular dynamics schemes with carefully evaluated force fields, we have scrutinized both the static and the dynamic features of the solvation shells of single C60 particle for three nonpolar organic solvents (i.e., chloroform, toluene, and chlorobenzene) and a range of system temperatures (i.e., T = 250-330 K). The central findings have been that, while the static structures of the solvation shell remain, in general, insensitive to the effects of changing solvent type or system temperature, the dynamic behavior of solvent molecules within the shell exhibits prominent dependence on both factors. Detailed analyses led us to propose the notion of dynamically stable solvation shell, effectiveness of which can be characterized by a new physical parameter defined as the ratio of two fundamental time constants representing, respectively, the solvent relaxation (or residence) time within the first solvation shell and the characteristic time required for the fullerene particle to diffuse a distance comparable to the shell thickness. We show that, for the five (two from the literature) different solvent media and the range of system temperatures examined herein, this parameter bears a value around unity and, in particular, correlates intimately with known trends of solubility for C60 solutions. We also provide evidence revealing that, in addition to fullerene-solvent interactions, solvent-solvent interactions play an important role, too, in shaping the dynamic solvation shell, as implied by recent experimental trends.

  7. Impact of solvent for individual steps of phenol hydrodeoxygenation with Pd/C and HZSM-5 as catalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    He, Jiayue; Zhao, Chen; Lercher, Johannes A.


    Impacts of water, methanol, and hexadecane solvents on the individual steps of phenol hydrodeoxygenation are investigated over Pd/C and HZSM-5 catalyst components at 473 Kin presence of H-2. Hydrodeoxygenation of phenol to cyclohexane includes four individual steps of phenol hydrogenation to cyclohexanone on Pd/C, cyclohexanone hydrogenation to cyclohexanol on Pd/C, cyclohexanol dehydration to cyclohexene on HZSM-5, and cyclohexene hydrogenation to cyclohexane on Pd/C. Individual phenol and cyclohexanone hydrogenation rates are much lower in methanol and hexadecane than in water, while rates of cyclohexanol dehydration and cyclohexene hydrogenation are similar in three solvents. The slow rate in methanol is due to the strong solvation of reactants and the adsorption of methanol on Pd, as well as to the reaction between methanol and the cyclohexanone intermediate. The low solubility of phenol and strong interaction of hexadecane with Pd lead to the slow rate in hexadecane. The apparent activation energies for hydrogenation follow the order E-a phenol > E-a cyclonexanone > E-a cyclohexene, and the sequences of individual reaction rates are reverse in three solvents. The dehydration rates (1.1-1.8 x 10(3) mol mol(BAS)(-1) h(-1))and apparent activation energies (115-124 kJ mol(-1)) are comparable in three solvents. In situ liquid-phase IR spectroscopy shows the rates consistent with kinetics derived from chromatographic evidence in the aqueous phase and verifies that hydrogenation of phenol and cyclohexanone follows reaction orders of 1.0 and 0.55 over Pd/C, respectively. Conversion of cyclohexanol with HZSM-5 shows first-order dependence in approaching the dehydration-hydration equilibrium in the aqueous phase.

  8. Structural, molecular orbital and optical characterizations of solvatochromic mixed ligand copper(II) complex of 5,5-Dimethyl cyclohexanate 1,3-dione and N,N,N";,N";N″-pentamethyldiethylenetriamine (United States)

    Taha, A.; Farag, A. A. M.; Ammar, A. H.; Ahmed, H. M.


    In this work, a new solvatochromic mononuclear mixed ligand complex with the formula, Cu(DMCHD)(Me5dien)NO3 (where, DMCHD = 5,5-Dimethyl cyclohexanate 1,3-dione and (Me5dien) = N,N,N";,N";N″-pentamethyldiethylenetriamine was synthesized and characterized by analytical, spectral, magnetic, molar conductance, thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and transmission electron microscope (TEM) measurements. The formation constant-value for copper (II)-DMCHD was found to be much lower than the expected for similar β-diketones, revealing monobasic unidentate nature of this ligand. The d-d absorption bands of the prepared complex exhibit a color changes in various solvent (solvatochromic). Specific and non-specific interactions of solvent molecules with the complex were investigated using Multi Parametric Linear Regression Analysis (MLRA). Structural parameters of the free ligands and their Cu (II) - complex were calculated on the basis of semi-empirical PM3 level and compared with the experimental data. The crystallite size and morphology of Cu(DMCHD)(Me5dien)NO3 were examined using XRD analysis and TEM, revealing that the complex is well crystalline and correspond to the monoclinic crystal structure. The lattice strain and mean crystallite size were estimated by Williamson-Hall (W-H) plot using X-ray diffraction data. The main important absorption parameters such as extinction molar coefficient, oscillator strength and electric dipole strength of the principal optical transitions in the UV-Vis region were calculated. The analysis of absorption coefficient near the fundamental absorption edge reveals that the optical band gaps are direct allowed transitions with values of 2.78 eV and 3.59 eV. The present copper (II) complex was screened for its antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus Aureus and Bacillus Subtilis as Gram-positive bacteria, Escherichia Coli and Salmonella Typhimurium as Gram-negative bacteria and Candida Albicans as fungus

  9. Structural, molecular orbital and optical characterizations of solvatochromic mixed ligand copper(II) complex of 5,5-Dimethyl cyclohexanate 1,3-dione and N,N,N',N'N″-pentamethyldiethylenetriamine. (United States)

    Taha, A; Farag, A A M; Ammar, A H; Ahmed, H M


    In this work, a new solvatochromic mononuclear mixed ligand complex with the formula, Cu(DMCHD)(Me5dien)NO3 (where, DMCHD=5,5-Dimethyl cyclohexanate 1,3-dione and (Me5dien)=N,N,N',N'N″-pentamethyldiethylenetriamine was synthesized and characterized by analytical, spectral, magnetic, molar conductance, thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and transmission electron microscope (TEM) measurements. The formation constant-value for copper (II)-DMCHD was found to be much lower than the expected for similar β-diketones, revealing monobasic unidentate nature of this ligand. The d-d absorption bands of the prepared complex exhibit a color changes in various solvent (solvatochromic). Specific and non-specific interactions of solvent molecules with the complex were investigated using Multi Parametric Linear Regression Analysis (MLRA). Structural parameters of the free ligands and their Cu (II) - complex were calculated on the basis of semi-empirical PM3 level and compared with the experimental data. The crystallite size and morphology of Cu(DMCHD)(Me5dien)NO3 were examined using XRD analysis and TEM, revealing that the complex is well crystalline and correspond to the monoclinic crystal structure. The lattice strain and mean crystallite size were estimated by Williamson-Hall (W-H) plot using X-ray diffraction data. The main important absorption parameters such as extinction molar coefficient, oscillator strength and electric dipole strength of the principal optical transitions in the UV-Vis region were calculated. The analysis of absorption coefficient near the fundamental absorption edge reveals that the optical band gaps are direct allowed transitions with values of 2.78 eV and 3.59 eV. The present copper (II) complex was screened for its antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus Aureus and Bacillus Subtilis as Gram-positive bacteria, Escherichia Coli and Salmonella Typhimurium as Gram-negative bacteria and Candida Albicans as fungus strain.

  10. Storage lipids of yeasts: a survey of nonpolar lipid metabolism in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Pichia pastoris, and Yarrowia lipolytica. (United States)

    Koch, Barbara; Schmidt, Claudia; Daum, Günther


    Biosynthesis and storage of nonpolar lipids, such as triacylglycerols (TG) and steryl esters (SE), have gained much interest during the last decades because defects in these processes are related to severe human diseases. The baker's yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae has become a valuable tool to study eukaryotic lipid metabolism because this single-cell microorganism harbors many enzymes and pathways with counterparts in mammalian cells. In this article, we will review aspects of TG and SE metabolism and turnover in the yeast that have been known for a long time and combine them with new perceptions of nonpolar lipid research. We will provide a detailed insight into the mechanisms of nonpolar lipid synthesis, storage, mobilization, and degradation in the yeast S. cerevisiae. The central role of lipid droplets (LD) in these processes will be addressed with emphasis on the prevailing view that this compartment is more than only a depot for TG and SE. Dynamic and interactive aspects of LD with other organelles will be discussed. Results obtained with S. cerevisiae will be complemented by recent investigations of nonpolar lipid research with Yarrowia lipolytica and Pichia pastoris. Altogether, this review article provides a comprehensive view of nonpolar lipid research in yeast.

  11. Solvent Immersion Imprint Lithography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vasdekis, Andreas E.; Wilkins, Michael J.; Grate, Jay W.; Kelly, Ryan T.; Konopka, Allan; Xantheas, Sotiris S.; Chang, M. T.


    The mechanism of polymer disolution was explored for polymer microsystem prototyping, including microfluidics and optofluidics. Polymer films are immersed in a solvent, imprinted and finally brought into contact with a non-modified surface to permanently bond. The underlying polymer-solvent interactions were experimentally and theoretically investigated, and enabled rapid polymer microsystem prototyping. During imprinting, small molecule integration in the molded surfaces was feasible, a principle applied to oxygen sensing. Polystyrene (PS) was employed for microbiological studies at extreme environmental conditions. The thermophile anaerobe Clostridium Thermocellum was grown in PS pore-scale micromodels, revealing a double mean generation lifetime than under ideal culture conditions. Microsystem prototyping through directed polymer dissolution is simple and accessible, while simultaneous patterning, bonding, and surface/volume functionalization are possible in less than one minute.

  12. Role of solvent/non-solvent ratio on microsphere formation using the solvent removal method. (United States)

    Godbee, J; Scott, E; Pattamunuch, P; Chen, S; Mathiowitz, E


    The importance of good solvent concentration in the non-solvent mixture and the non-solvent viscosity on the ability to form microspheres using solvent removal process was investigated. The higher the viscosity of the polymer solutions, the higher the concentration of good solvent needed in the nonsolvent mixture to produce microspheres. This finding was due to faster precipitation of the polymer phase. Also, the addition of a model drug, fluorescein isothiocyanate conjugated-labelled bovine serum albumin, to the polymer solution (10% poly-L-lactic acid:poly(fumaric-co-sebacic) anhydride in methylene chloride) resulted in an overall lower polymer solution viscosity (15.5 cP with fluorescein isothiocyanate conjugated-labelled bovine serum albumin as compared with 18.25 cP for blank polymer at 25 degrees C). Additionally, the effect of good solvent concentration on non-solvent viscosity was evaluated, and the viscosity decreased as the concentration of good solvent increased. The effect of good solvent concentration on the non-solvent mixture on sphere formation was of great importance. Microspheres would not form when the good polymer solvent (methylene chloride) in the non-solvent phase was too low (below 175 ml for poly-L-lactic acid or 150 ml for poly(D,L-lactidco-glycolid)) or was replaced by another good solvent such as ethyl acetate, even though the same viscosity was achieved. It was shown that the concentration of the good solvent in the non-solvent mixture was more of a controlling factor than the viscosity of the non-solvent mixture in microsphere formation and the findings support the conclusion that diffusion is the main controlling parameter in solvent removal.

  13. Modeling the temperature dependent interfacial tension between organic solvents and water using dissipative particle dynamics. (United States)

    Mayoral, E; Goicochea, A Gama


    The interfacial tension between organic solvents and water at different temperatures is predicted using coarse-grained, mesoscopic Dissipative Particle Dynamics (DPD) simulations. The temperature effect of the DPD repulsive interaction parameters, aij, for the different components is calculated from the dependence of the Flory-Huggins χ parameter on temperature, by means of the solubility parameters. Atomistic simulations were carried out for the calculation of the solubility parameters for different organic compounds at different temperatures in order to estimate χ and then the aij coefficients. We validate this parametrization through the study of the interfacial tension in a mixture of benzene and water, and cyclohexane and water, varying the temperature. The predictions of our simulations are found to be in good agreement with experimental data taken from the literature, and show that the use of the solubility parameter at different temperatures to obtain the repulsive DPD parameters is a good alternative to introduce the effect of temperature in these systems.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet BİLGİN


    Full Text Available In this study, the effect of diluents in different structures on the extraction of malic acid from aqueous solutions with Aliquat-336, named chemically as tricapril metyl ammonium chloride, was investigated. Diluting solvents used in experiments are heptane, toluene, kerosene, cyclohexane and methyl isobuthyl ketone (MIBK. Furthermore, the effect of MIBK+Heptan mixture in 1:1 volume ratio on the extraction was investigated also. The extraction was performed at room temperature by means of a shaker. The distribution coefficients and loading factors were calculated from the experimentally determined results, presented as tables and graphics, and compared with each other. Among the diluents used in this study, the best results were obtained with MIBK.

  15. Diamex solvent regeneration studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nicol, C.; Cames, B.; Margot, L.; Ramain, L. [CEA/VALRHO - site de Marcoule, Dept. de Recherche en Retraitement et en Vitrification, DRRV, 30 - Marcoule (France)


    The CEA has undertaken the development of the DIAMEX process as the first step in the strategy aiming at recovering minor actinides which could then be transmuted or separately conditioned. The scientific feasibility of this process was demonstrated during counter current hot tests operated in 1993. Then experimental works were conducted, on one hand to optimise the extractant formula, on the other hand to improve the flowsheet. Reference extractant and flowsheet were then chosen, respectively in 1995 and 1996. The next step, still in progress, is the demonstration of the DIAMEX technical feasibility (in 2002); this means that the flowsheet should include solvent regeneration treatments. In this aim, degradation studies were performed to quantify main degradation products, and identify those which could be disturbing in the process. This paper deals with experimental studies performed with intend to propose a regeneration treatment, included in the flowsheet, so that the solvent could be recycled. It comprises: - Quantification of the main degradation products issued from radiolysis or hydrolysis, which are methyl octyl amine (MOA) and carboxylic acids; - Effects of these products on extracting and hydrodynamics performances of the process; - Study of methods able to remove mainly disturbing degradation products. Acidic scrubbing, which are performed in the scrubbing and stripping sections of the DIAMEX process, should allow the quantitative removal of methyl octyl amine. Then basic scrubbings, which were more especially studied, should eliminate at least 80% of carboxylic acids, and part of the cations remaining in the solvent. (authors)

  16. Iridium(I) complexes with anionic N-heterocyclic carbene ligands as catalysts for the hydrogenation of alkenes in nonpolar media. (United States)

    Kolychev, Eugene L; Kronig, Sabrina; Brandhorst, Kai; Freytag, Matthias; Jones, Peter G; Tamm, Matthias


    A series of lithium complexes of anionic N-heterocyclic carbenes that contain a weakly coordinating borate moiety (WCA-NHC) was prepared in one step from free N-heterocyclic carbenes by deprotonation with n-butyl lithium followed by borane addition. The reaction of the resulting lithium-carbene adducts with [M(COD)Cl]2 (M = Rh, Ir; COD = 1,5-cyclooctadiene) afforded zwitterionic rhodium(I) and iridium(I) complexes of the type [(WCA-NHC)M(COD)], in which the metal atoms exhibit an intramolecular interaction with the N-aryl groups of the carbene ligands. For M = Rh, the neutral complex [(WCA-NHC)Rh(CO)2] and the ate complex (NEt4)[(WCA-NHC)Rh(CO)2Cl] were prepared, with the latter allowing an assessment of the donor ability of the ligand by IR spectroscopy. The zwitterionic iridium-COD complexes were tested as catalysts for the homogeneous hydrogenation of alkenes, which can be performed in the presence of nonpolar solvents or in the neat alkene substrate. Thereby, the most active complex showed excellent stability and activity in hydrogenation of alkenes at low catalyst loadings (down to 10 ppm).

  17. Determination of vapor pressures for nonpolar and semipolar organic compounds from gas chromatographic retention data (United States)

    Hinckley, D.A.; Bidleman, T.F.; Foreman, W.T.; Tuschall, J.R.


    Vapor pressures for nonpolar and moderately polar organochlorine, pyrethroid, and organophosphate insecticides, phthalate esters, and organophosphate flame retardants were determined by capillary gas chromatography (GC). Organochlorines and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons with known liquid-phase vapor pressures (P??L) (standard compounds) were chromatographed along with two reference compounds n-C20 (elcosane) and p,p???-DDT on a 1.0-m-long poly(dimethylsiloxane) bonded-phase (BP-1) column to determine their vapor pressures by GC (P??GC). A plot of log P??L vs log P??GC for standard compounds was made to establish a correlation between measured and literature values, and this correlation was then used to compute P??L of test compounds from their measured P??GC. P??L of seven major components of technical chlordane, endosulfan and its metabolites, ??-hexachlorocyclohexane, mirex, and two components of technical toxaphene were determined by GC. This method provides vapor pressures within a factor of 2 of average literature values for nonpolar compounds, similar to reported interlaboratory precisions of vapor pressure determinations. GC tends to overestimate vapor pressures of moderately polar compounds. ?? 1990 American Chemical Society.

  18. A polarity-induced defect mechanism for conductivity and magnetism at polar-nonpolar oxide interfaces. (United States)

    Yu, Liping; Zunger, Alex


    The discovery of conductivity and magnetism at the polar-nonpolar interfaces of insulating nonmagnetic oxides such as LaAlO3 and SrTiO3 has raised prospects for attaining interfacial functionalities absent in the component materials. Yet, the microscopic origin of such emergent phenomena remains unclear, posing obstacles to design of improved functionalities. Here we present first principles calculations of electronic and defect properties of LaAlO3/SrTiO3 interfaces and reveal a unifying mechanism for the origins of both conductivity and magnetism. We demonstrate that the polar discontinuity across the interface triggers thermodynamically the spontaneous formation of certain defects that in turn cancel the polar field induced by the polar discontinuity. The ionization of the spontaneously formed surface oxygen vacancy defects leads to interface conductivity, whereas the unionized Ti-on-Al antisite defects lead to interface magnetism. The proposed mechanism suggests practical design principles for inducing and controlling both conductivity and magnetism at general polar-nonpolar interfaces.

  19. Nonpolar III-nitride vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers incorporating an ion implanted aperture

    KAUST Repository

    Leonard, J. T.


    © 2015 AIP Publishing LLC. We report on our recent progress in improving the performance of nonpolar III-nitride vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers (VCSELs) by using an Al ion implanted aperture and employing a multi-layer electron-beam evaporated ITO intracavity contact. The use of an ion implanted aperture improves the lateral confinement over SiNx apertures by enabling a planar ITO design, while the multi-layer ITO contact minimizes scattering losses due to its epitaxially smooth morphology. The reported VCSEL has 10 QWs, with a 3nm quantum well width, 1nm barriers, a 5nm electron-blocking layer, and a 6.95- λ total cavity thickness. These advances yield a single longitudinal mode 406nm nonpolar VCSEL with a low threshold current density (∼16kA/cm2), a peak output power of ∼12μW, and a 100% polarization ratio. The lasing in the current aperture is observed to be spatially non-uniform, which is likely a result of filamentation caused by non-uniform current spreading, lateral optical confinement, contact resistance, and absorption loss.

  20. Nonpolar III-nitride vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers incorporating an ion implanted aperture (United States)

    Leonard, J. T.; Cohen, D. A.; Yonkee, B. P.; Farrell, R. M.; Margalith, T.; Lee, S.; DenBaars, S. P.; Speck, J. S.; Nakamura, S.


    We report on our recent progress in improving the performance of nonpolar III-nitride vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers (VCSELs) by using an Al ion implanted aperture and employing a multi-layer electron-beam evaporated ITO intracavity contact. The use of an ion implanted aperture improves the lateral confinement over SiNx apertures by enabling a planar ITO design, while the multi-layer ITO contact minimizes scattering losses due to its epitaxially smooth morphology. The reported VCSEL has 10 QWs, with a 3 nm quantum well width, 1 nm barriers, a 5 nm electron-blocking layer, and a 6.95- λ total cavity thickness. These advances yield a single longitudinal mode 406 nm nonpolar VCSEL with a low threshold current density (˜16 kA/cm2), a peak output power of ˜12 μW, and a 100% polarization ratio. The lasing in the current aperture is observed to be spatially non-uniform, which is likely a result of filamentation caused by non-uniform current spreading, lateral optical confinement, contact resistance, and absorption loss.

  1. Characterizations of nonlinear optical properties on GaN crystals in polar, nonpolar, and semipolar orientations (United States)

    Chen, Hong; Huang, Xuanqi; Fu, Houqiang; Lu, Zhijian; Zhang, Xiaodong; Montes, Jossue A.; Zhao, Yuji


    We report the basic nonlinear optical properties, namely, two-photon absorption coefficient ( β ), three-photon absorption coefficient ( γ ), and Kerr nonlinear refractive index ( n kerr), of GaN crystals in polar c-plane, nonpolar m-plane, and semipolar ( 20 21 ¯ ) plane orientations. A typical Z-scan technique was used for the measurement with a femtosecond Ti:S laser from wavelengths of 724 nm to 840 nm. For the two-photon absorption coefficient ( β ), similar values were obtained for polar, nonpolar, and semipolar samples, which are characterized to be ˜0.90 cm/GW at 724 nm and ˜0.65 cm/GW at 730 nm for all the three samples. For the Kerr nonlinear refractive index ( n kerr), self-focusing features were observed in this work, which is different from previous reports where self-defocusing features were observed on GaN in the visible and near-UV spectral regions. At 724 nm, n kerr was measured to be ˜2.5 0 × 10 - 14 cm 2 / W for all three samples. Three-photon absorption coefficients ( γ ) were also determined, which were found to be consistent with previous reports. This study provides valuable information on the basic nonlinear optical properties of III-nitride semiconductors, which are vital for a wide range of applications such as integrated photonics and quantum photonics.

  2. Non-Polar Natural Products from Bromelia laciniosa, Neoglaziovia variegata and Encholirium spectabile (Bromeliaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ole Johan Juvik


    Full Text Available Extensive regional droughts are already a major problem on all inhabited continents and severe regional droughts are expected to become an increasing and extended problem in the future. Consequently, extended use of available drought resistant food plants should be encouraged. Bromelia laciniosa, Neoglaziovia variegata and Encholirium spectabile are excellent candidates in that respect because they are established drought resistant edible plants from the semi-arid Caatinga region. From a food safety perspective, increased utilization of these plants would necessitate detailed knowledge about their chemical constituents. However, their chemical compositions have previously not been determined. For the first time, the non-polar constituents of B. laciniosa, N. variegata and E. spectabile have been identified. This is the first thorough report on natural products from N. variegata, E. spectabile, and B. laciniosa. Altogether, 20 non-polar natural products were characterized. The identifications were based on hyphenated gas chromatography-high resolution mass spectrometry (GC-HRMS and supported by 1D and 2D Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR plant metabolomics.

  3. Dermoscopic features of basal cell carcinomas: differences in appearance under non-polarized and polarized light. (United States)

    Liebman, Tracey N; Jaimes-Lopez, Natalia; Balagula, Yevgeniy; Rabinovitz, Harold S; Wang, Steven Q; Dusza, Stephen W; Marghoob, Ashfaq A


    Basal cell carcinomas (BCCs) can be diagnosed using different dermoscopic modalities. To evaluate dermoscopic features of BCCs using nonpolarized and polarized dermoscopy to highlight similarities and differences between dermoscopic modalities. Retrospective study of 149 BCCs under nonpolarized dermoscopy (NPD), polarized contact dermoscopy (PCD), and polarized noncontact dermoscopy (PNCD). Images were evaluated for a range of dermoscopic colors, structures, and vessels. Features were compared according to histopathologic subtype. The most common dermoscopic structures in BCCs across all modalities included globules (50.3-51.0%), dots (49.7-50.3%), white structureless areas (63.1-74.5%), structureless gray-brown areas (24.2-24.8%), and ulcerations (28.2%). The most frequently observed vasculature included arborizing vessels (18.8-38.3%), short fine telangiectasias (SFTs) (73.8-82.6%), and vascular blush (41.6-83.2%). Structures with higher levels of agreement across modalities included pigmented structures and ulcerations. Lower levels of agreement existed between contact and noncontact modalities for certain vascular features. White shiny structures, which include shiny white lines (chrysalis and crystalline structures) (0-69.1%), shiny white areas (0-25.5%), and rosettes (0-11.4%), exhibited no agreement between NPD and polarized modalities. This study highlights differences in dermoscopic features of BCCs under three dermoscopic modalities. Shiny white lines (chrysalis and crystalline structures) and shiny white areas may be used as additional criteria to diagnose BCCs. © 2011 by the American Society for Dermatologic Surgery, Inc. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Relative effectiveness of pretreatments on performance of Rhizomucor miehei lipase in nonpolar reaction media. (United States)

    Garcia, Rafael A; Riley, Mark R


    Enzymes can be used in nonpolar reaction media to modify water-insoluble substrates. A variety of pretreatments, applied to the enzyme prior to introduction to the nonpolar media, can improve enzyme activity. However, the various pretreatments have not been studied using directly comparable conditions, nor have they been applied simultaneously to test for interactive effects. This work evaluates pretreatment of lipase with various classes of additives. The pretreated lipase is used to catalyze esterification between citronellol and acetic acid in a medium of n-hexane. The effectiveness of a particular pretreatment is presented in terms of relative performance (RP), which is equal to the number of times faster the pretreated lipase catalyzes the reaction relative to untreated lipase. The individual and interactive effects of the pretreatment factors were studied and compared. Buffer salts had a much stronger performance-enhancing effect than nonbuffer salts; pretreatment with 90% (w/w) sodium phosphate yielded lipase with an RP of approx 64. A strong interaction was found between the treatments with sodium phosphate and pH adjustment. These treatments may mitigate the inhibitory effect of acetic acid. Activating effects of phase interfaces and active-site protectants are shown to be complementary to other treatments, demonstrating that they likely act by distinct mechanisms.

  5. High indium non-polar InGaN clusters with infrared sensitivity grown by PAMBE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shruti Mukundan


    Full Text Available Studies on the optical properties of InGaN alloy of relatively higher indium content are of potential interest to understand the effect of indium content on the optical band gap of epitaxial InGaN. We report the growth of self assembled non-polar high indium clusters of In0.55Ga0.45N over non-polar (11-20 a-plane In0.17Ga0.83N epilayer grown on a-plane (11-20GaN/(1-102 r-plane sapphire substrate using plasma assisted molecular beam epitaxy (PAMBE. Such structures are potential candidates for high brightness LEDs emitting in longer wavelengths. The high resolution X-ray diffraction studies revealed the formation of two distinct compositions of InxGa1−xN alloys, which were further confirmed by photoluminescence studies. A possible mechanism for the formation of such structure was postulated which was supported with the results obtained by energy dispersive X-ray analysis. The structure hence grown when investigated for photo-detecting properties, showed sensitivity to both infrared and ultraviolet radiations due to the different composition of InGaN region.

  6. Morphological, structural and electrical investigations on non-polar a-plane ZnO epilayers (United States)

    Lautenschlaeger, Stefan; Eisermann, Sebastian; Hofmann, Michael N.; Roemer, Udo; Pinnisch, Melanie; Laufer, Andreas; Meyer, Bruno K.; von Wenckstern, Holger; Lajn, Alexander; Schmidt, Florian; Grundmann, Marius; Blaesing, Juergen; Krost, Alois


    We report on the growth of non-polar a-plane ZnO by CVD on r-plane-sapphire-wafers, a-plane GaN-templates and a-plane ZnO single-crystal substrates. Only the homoepitaxial growth approach leads to a Frank-van-der-Merwe growth mode, as shown by atomic force microscopy. The X-ray-diffraction spectra of the homoepitaxial thin films mirror the excellent crystalline quality of the ZnO substrate. The morphological and the structural quality of the homoepitaxial films is comparable to the best results for the growth on c-plane ZnO-substrates. The impurity incorporation, especially of group III elements, seems to be reduced when growing on the non-polar a-plane surface compared to the c-plane films as demonstrated by secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS). Optical properties have been investigated using low temperature photoluminescence measurements. We employed capacitance-voltage measurements ( C- V) to measure the background carrier density and its profile from substrate/film interface throughout the film to the surface. In thermal admittance spectroscopy (TAS) specific traps could be distinguished, and their thermal activation energies and capture cross sections could be determined.

  7. High indium non-polar InGaN clusters with infrared sensitivity grown by PAMBE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mukundan, Shruti; Mohan, Lokesh; Chandan, Greeshma; Krupanidhi, S. B., E-mail:; Shinde, Satish; Nanda, K. K. [Materials Research Centre, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560012 (India); Roul, Basanta [Materials Research Centre, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560012 (India); Central Research Laboratory, Bharat Electronics, Bangalore 560013 (India); Maiti, R.; Ray, S. K. [Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur (India)


    Studies on the optical properties of InGaN alloy of relatively higher indium content are of potential interest to understand the effect of indium content on the optical band gap of epitaxial InGaN. We report the growth of self assembled non-polar high indium clusters of In{sub 0.55}Ga{sub 0.45}N over non-polar (11-20) a-plane In{sub 0.17}Ga{sub 0.83}N epilayer grown on a-plane (11-20)GaN/(1-102) r-plane sapphire substrate using plasma assisted molecular beam epitaxy (PAMBE). Such structures are potential candidates for high brightness LEDs emitting in longer wavelengths. The high resolution X-ray diffraction studies revealed the formation of two distinct compositions of In{sub x}Ga{sub 1−x}N alloys, which were further confirmed by photoluminescence studies. A possible mechanism for the formation of such structure was postulated which was supported with the results obtained by energy dispersive X-ray analysis. The structure hence grown when investigated for photo-detecting properties, showed sensitivity to both infrared and ultraviolet radiations due to the different composition of InGaN region.

  8. Improved performance of TiO2 in the selective photo-catalytic oxidation of cyclohexane by increasing the rate of desorption through surface silylation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Almeida, Ana Rita; Carneiro, Joana T.; Moulijn, Jacob A.; Mul, Guido


    The effect of silylation on the performance of an anatase TiO2 catalyst in the selective photo-oxidation of cyclohexane was investigated using attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy and an illuminated slurry reactor. The rate of cyclohexanone formation showed

  9. Barrierity of hydrogenated butadiene-acrylonitrile rubber and butyl rubber after exposure to organic solvents. (United States)

    Krzemińska, Sylwia; Rzymski, Władysław M


    Resistance of antichemical clothing primarily depends on the type of material it is made from, in particular on the type of polymer used for coating the fabric carrier. This paper reports on systematic investigations on the influence of the cross-linking density of an elastomer and the composition of a cross-linked elastomer on its resistance to permeation of selected organic solvents. Tests of barrier material samples made from nonpolar butyl rubber (IIR) and polar hydrogenated butadiene-acrylonitrile rubber (HNBR) showed that (a) in rubber-solvent systems with medium thermodynamic affinity, cross-linking density influenced resistance to permeation and (b) the polarity of the system had a significant influence on barrierity.

  10. Conformational analysis of cyclic sulphites. 2-Oxo 1,3,2-dioxathiane-4-spiro-4- tert-butyl-cyclohexanes (United States)

    Cazaux, Louis; Koudsi, Yahia; Maroni, Pierre

    Three series of 4-spirosulphites, a new class of cyclic sulphites, were synthesized and five couples of diastereoisomers isolated. Their structural analysis, using 1H NMR coupling constants and SO stretching vibration as conformational probes, shows a large variety of ananchomeric chair forms and multicomponent equilibria for the cyclic sulphite moiety, the cyclohexane part of the molecule remaining in the chair form. Related to the occurrence of severe interactions involving the 5-methyl or 6- tert. butyl substituent, several twist forms were encountered, with 2,5-axis and isoclinal SO or 1,4-axis and axial or equatorial SO as a consequence of the weak free energy difference between chair and twist conformations in the cyclic sulphite series.

  11. Novel glass-forming organic materials. 2. Structure and fluorescence of pyrene- and carbazole-containing cyclohexane, bicyclooctene, and adamantane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mastrangelo, J.C.; Conger, B.M.; Chen, S.H. [Univ. of Rochester, NY (United States)] [and others


    A series of novel glass-forming organic materials consisting of pyrenyl and carbazolyl groups attached to cyclohexane with a 1-axial-2-equatorial configuration, bicyclo[2.2.2]oct-7-ene with an all-exo configuration, and adamantane were synthesized and characterized. On the basis of proton NMR spectra, it was found that the rotation of pendant pyrenyl and carbazolyl groups is restricted in the bicyclic system presumably because of steric hindrance in the all-exo configuration. In contrast, free rotation was found to prevail in cyclohexane- and adamantane-based systems. Fluorescence spectra gathered in solution at room temperature show evidence exclusively for intramolecular excimer formation in pyrene-containing compounds up to a concentration of 10{sup -4} M. On the contrary, carbazole-containing compounds are not prone to excimer formation in the concentration range 10{sup -6}-10{sup -3} M, presumably because of the more stringent requirements of interchromophoric distance and orientation. Although both pyrene and carbazole are highly crystalline on their own, attachment to cyclic, bicyclic, and tricyclic central cores was found to contribute to an ease of vitrification of the hybrid systems with a T{sub g} ranging from 43 to 132 {degrees}C. Moreover, the quenched glasses of all seven model systems were found to possess morphological stability in view of the absence of recrystallization upon heating from 0 to 200 {degrees}C at a heating rate ranging from 0.2 to 20{degrees}C/min. Morphological stability was further supported by the absence of recrystallization upon prolonged thermal annealing at temperatures above T{sub g}. 24 refs., 6 figs.

  12. A study of the solvent effect on the morphology of RDX crystal by molecular modeling method. (United States)

    Chen, Gang; Xia, Mingzhu; Lei, Wu; Wang, Fengyun; Gong, Xuedong


    Molecular dynamics simulations have been performed to investigate the effect of acetone solvent on the crystal morphology of RDX. The results show that the growth morphology of RDX crystal in vacuum is dominated by the (111), (020), (200), (002), and (210) faces using the BFDH laws, and (111) face is morphologically the most important. The analysis of surface structures of RDX crystal indicates that (020) face is non-polar, while (210), (111), (002), and (200) faces are polar among which (210) face has the strongest polarity. The interaction between acetone solvent and each RDX crystal face is different, and the order of binding energy on these surfaces is (210) > (111) > (002) > (200) > (020). The analysis of interactions among RDX and acetone molecules reveal that the system nonbond interactions are primary strong van der Waals and electrostatic interactions containing π-hole interactions, the weak hydrogen bond interactions are also existent. The effect of acetone on the growth of RDX crystal can be evaluated by comparing the binding energies of RDX crystalline faces. It can be predicted that compared to that in vacuum, in the process of RDX crystallization from acetone, the morphological importance of (210) face is increased more and (111) face is not the most important among RDX polar surfaces, while the non-polar (020) face probably disappears. The experimentally obtained RDX morphology grown from acetone is in agreement with the theoretical prediction.

  13. Catalytic oxidation of cyclohexane over meta-aluminic acid supported iron meso-tetra (4-caboxylpheny1) porphyrin%偏铝酸四(4-羧基)苯基铁卟啉催化氧化环己烷

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗宗昌; 黄冠; 彭艳; 蔡景莉; 宁星星; 蒋月秀; 危素娟


    为考察偏铝酸[MAA]负载四(4-羧基)苯基铁卟啉[Fe TCPP]选择性催化氧化环己烷生成环己酮和环已醇(K/A油)的能力,采用溶胶-凝胶-煅烧法制备了偏铝酸负载四(4-羧基)苯基铁卟啉[Fe TCPP/MAA]催化剂,采用紫外(UV-Vis)、傅立叶红外(FT-IR)、X射线衍射(XRD)、热重分析(TG)以及透射电镜(TEM)等技术手段对该固体催化材料进行结构表征.研究其在无外加溶剂和助催化剂的条件下选择性催化空气氧化环己烷生成K/A油的产率.结果显示:在较优的催化条件下(155℃和0.8 MPa),用仅含1.14×10-6mol四(4-羧基)苯基铁卟啉的负载催化剂,既可回收又可重复有效催化11次,平均的环己烷转化率达到13.6%,K/A油的产率为10.8%,转化数为2.4 ×105,比未负载的四(4-羧基)苯基铁卟啉催化效率高11倍,也比当今工业用钴盐催化空气氧化环己烷生产环己酮和环己醇的收率(3.2%)高.%To investigate the catalytic ability of iron meso-tetra (4-carboxylphenyl) porphyrin ( Fe TCPP) supported on meta aluminic acid (MAA) for selective oxidation of cyclohexane to cyclo-hexanone and cyclohexanol (K/A oil) , Fe TCPP/MAA was prepared via a method of gelation and calcination and characterized by the techniques of UV-Visible spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, Thermogravimetric analysis, Transmission electron microscopy. The catalytic oxidation of cyclohexane with air was carried out in absence of any solvent and co-catalyst. The results show that with a quantity of catalyst containing only 1. 14 × 10-6mol of Fe TCPP, 13. 6 % of average conversion rate, 10. 8 % of yield (K/A oil) and a catalyst turnover number of 2. 4 × 105 were reached under the optimum reaction conditions of 155 ℃ and 0.8 MPa. The catalytic efficiency of the supported catalyst is 11 times higher than that of Fe TCPP and the yield of K/A oil is higher than that obtained from the cyclohexane oxidation (3. 2 % ) by

  14. Conformation stability, halogen and solvent effects on CO stretching of 4-chloro-3-halogenobenzaldehydes. (United States)

    Tursun, Mahir; Parlak, Cemal


    The effects of halogen and solvent on the conformation and carbonyl stretching of 4-chloro-3-halogenobenzaldehydes [C7H4ClXO; X=F (CFB), Cl (CCB) or Br (CBB)] were investigated using the density functional theory (DFT) method. The B3LYP functional was used by the 6-311+G(3df,p) basis set in combination with the polarizable continuum model (PCM). Computations were focused on the cis and trans isomers of the compounds in 18 different polar or non-polar organic solvents. The theoretical frequencies of the solvent-induced CO stretching vibrations were correlated with the empirical solvent parameters such as the Kirkwood-Bauer-Magat (KBM) equation, the solvent acceptor number (AN), Swain parameters and the linear solvation energy relationships (LSER). The present work explores the effect of both the halogen and medium on the conformational preference and CO vibrational frequency. The findings of this work can be useful to those systems involving changes in the conformations analogous to the compounds studied.

  15. Spectroscopic, solvent influence and thermal studies of ternary copper(II) complexes of diester and dinitrogen base ligands. (United States)

    Emara, Adel A A; Abu-Hussein, Azza A A; Taha, Ahmed A; Mahmoud, Nelly H


    New mixed-ligand copper(II) complexes containing the bidentate dinitrogen ligands [N,N,N',N'-tetramethylethylenediamine (tmen), 2,2'-bipyridine (bipy) and 1,10-phenanthroline (phen)] and the bidentate dioxygen ligands [diethylmalonate (DEM), ethylacetoacetate (EAA) and ethylbenzoylacetate (EBA)] were prepared. The complexes were characterized by elemental analysis, infrared, mass and ESR spectral data, magnetic and molar conductance measurements and thermal gravimetric analysis. From the investigation, the geometries of the complexes are square planar for perchlorate complexes and a square pyramid or octahedral for the nitrate complexes. Solvatochromic behavior of the Cu(II) complexes indicates strong solvatochromism of their solutions in polar and non-polar solvents. The observed solvatochromism is due to the solute-solvent interaction between the chelate cation and the solvent molecules.

  16. Chiroptical Properties and the Racemization of Pyrene and Tetrathiafulvalene-Substituted Allene: Substitution and Solvent Effects on Racemization in Tetrathiafulvalenylallene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masashi Hasegawa


    Full Text Available Dissymmetric 1,3-diphenylallene derivative 3 connected with 4,5-bis(methyl-thiotetrathiafulvalenyl and 1-pyrenyl substituents was prepared and characterized. The molecular structure was determined by X-ray crystallographic analysis. Optical resolution was accomplished using a recycling chiral HPLC, and its chiroptical properties were examined with optical rotation and electronic circular dichroism (ECD spectra. The title compound underwent photoracemization under daylight. This behavior was investigated in various solvents and compared with that of 1,3-bis(tetrathiafulvalenylallene (bis-TTF-allene derivative 2. The first-order rate plot of the intensity of the ECD spectra at a given time interval gave the rate of racemization. Mild racemization was observed in polar solvents, whereas a relatively fast rate was obtained in less polar solvents. In addition, the TTF groups of the allene also accelerate the racemization rate. These results suggest that the racemization mechanism occurs via a non-polar diradical structure.

  17. Polar-solvent-free colloidal synthesis of highly luminescent alkylammonium lead halide perovskite nanocrystals (United States)

    Vybornyi, Oleh; Yakunin, Sergii; Kovalenko, Maksym V.


    A novel synthesis of hybrid organic-inorganic lead halide perovskite nanocrystals (CH3NH3PbX3, X = Br or I) that does not involve the use of dimethylformamide or other polar solvents is presented. The reaction between methylamine and PbX2 salts is conducted in a high-boiling nonpolar solvent (1-octadecene) in the presence of oleylamine and oleic acid as coordinating ligands. The resulting nanocrystals are characterized by high photoluminescence quantum efficiencies of 15-50%, outstanding phase purity and tunable shapes (nanocubes, nanowires, and nanoplatelets). Nanoplatelets spontaneously assemble into micrometer-length wires by face-to-face stacking. In addition, we demonstrate amplified spontaneous emission from thin films of green-emitting CH3NH3PbBr3 nanowires with low pumping thresholds of 3 μJ cm-2.A novel synthesis of hybrid organic-inorganic lead halide perovskite nanocrystals (CH3NH3PbX3, X = Br or I) that does not involve the use of dimethylformamide or other polar solvents is presented. The reaction between methylamine and PbX2 salts is conducted in a high-boiling nonpolar solvent (1-octadecene) in the presence of oleylamine and oleic acid as coordinating ligands. The resulting nanocrystals are characterized by high photoluminescence quantum efficiencies of 15-50%, outstanding phase purity and tunable shapes (nanocubes, nanowires, and nanoplatelets). Nanoplatelets spontaneously assemble into micrometer-length wires by face-to-face stacking. In addition, we demonstrate amplified spontaneous emission from thin films of green-emitting CH3NH3PbBr3 nanowires with low pumping thresholds of 3 μJ cm-2. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Materials and methods, additional figures. See DOI: 10.1039/c5nr06890h

  18. Is Water a Universal Solvent for Life? (United States)

    Pohorill, Andrew


    There are strong reasons to believe that the laws, principles and constraints of physics and chemistry are universal. It is much less clear how this universality translates into our understanding of the origins of life. Conventionally, discussions of this topic focus on chemistry that must be sufficiently rich to seed life. Although this is clearly a prerequisite for the emergence of living systems, I propose to focus instead on self-organization of matter into functional structures capable of reproduction, evolution and responding to environmental changes. In biology, most essential functions are largely mediated by noncovalent interactions (interactions that do not involve making or breaking chemical bonds). Forming chemical bonds is only a small part of what living systems do. There are specific implications of this point of view for universality. I will concentrate on one of these implications. Strength of non-covalent interactions must be properly tuned. If they were too weak, the system would exhibit undesired, uncontrolled response to natural fluctuations of physical and chemical parameters. If they were too strong kinetics of biological processes would be slow and energetics costly. This balance, however, is not a natural property of complex chemical systems. Instead, it has to be achieved with the aid of an appropriate solvent for life. In particular, potential solvents for life must be characterized by a high dielectric constant to ensure solubility of polar species and sufficient flexibility of biological structures stabilized by electrostatic interactions. Among these solvents, water exhibits a remarkable trait that it also promotes solvophobic (hydrophobic) interactions between non-polar species, typically manifested by a tendency of these species to aggregate and minimize their contacts with the aqueous solvent. Hydrophobic interactions are responsible, at least in part, for many self-organization phenomena in biological systems, such as the formation

  19. Occupational solvent exposure and cognition (United States)

    Sabbath, E.L.; Glymour, M.M.; Berr, C.; Singh-Manoux, A.; Zins, M.; Goldberg, M.


    Objective: Chronic occupational solvent exposure is associated with long-term cognitive deficits. Cognitive reserve may protect solvent-exposed workers from cognitive impairment. We tested whether the association between chronic solvent exposure and cognition varied by educational attainment, a proxy for cognitive reserve. Methods: Data were drawn from a prospective cohort of French national gas and electricity (GAZEL) employees (n = 4,134). Lifetime exposure to 4 solvent types (chlorinated solvents, petroleum solvents, benzene, and nonbenzene aromatic solvents) was assessed using a validated job-exposure matrix. Education was dichotomized at less than secondary school or below. Cognitive impairment was defined as scoring below the 25th percentile on the Digit Symbol Substitution Test at mean age 59 (SD 2.8; 88% of participants were retired at testing). Log-binomial regression was used to model risk ratios (RRs) for poor cognition as predicted by solvent exposure, stratified by education and adjusted for sociodemographic and behavioral factors. Results: Solvent exposure rates were higher among less-educated patients. Within this group, there was a dose-response relationship between lifetime exposure to each solvent type and RR for poor cognition (e.g., for high exposure to benzene, RR = 1.24, 95% confidence interval 1.09–1.41), with significant linear trends (p < 0.05) in 3 out of 4 solvent types. Recency of solvent exposure also predicted worse cognition among less-educated patients. Among those with secondary education or higher, there was no significant or near-significant relationship between any quantification of solvent exposure and cognition. Conclusions: Solvent exposure is associated with poor cognition only among less-educated individuals. Higher cognitive reserve in the more-educated group may explain this finding. PMID:22641403

  20. Partial solubility parameters and solvatochromic parameters for predicting the solubility of single and multiple drugs in individual solvents. (United States)

    Bustamante, P; Martin, A; Gonzalez-Guisandez, M A


    A modification of the extended Hansen method is used for estimating the solubility of sulfadiazine and other organic drug molecules in a number of individual solvents ranging from nonpolar to highly polar. The equations obtained for each drug involve the partial solubility parameters of the solvents and allow the prediction of solubility of these drugs in a new solvent. Furthermore, a number of drugs (e.g., sulfadiazine, sulfamethoxypyridazine, naphthalene, and some benzoic acid derivatives) are combined in a single expression including the ideal solubility of the drugs and the partial solubility parameters of the solvents. The equation fits the solubilities of these drugs in a wide variety of solvents and may be used to predict the solubility of other sulfonamides and benzoic acid derivatives in semipolar and highly polar solvents. The solvatochromic parameter approach is also used in models for predicting the solubility of single drugs in individual solvents. It was tested with multiple solutes as was the partial solubility parameter approach. However, the latter approach is superior; the parameters of the solubility parameter method are all statistically significant for drugs tested individually or together in a single equation, a condition that is not obtained with the solvatochromic model.

  1. Solvent effects in chemistry

    CERN Document Server

    Buncel, Erwin


    This book introduces the concepts, theory and experimental knowledge concerning solvent effects on the rate and equilibrium of chemical reactions of all kinds.  It begins with basic thermodynamics and kinetics, building on this foundation to demonstrate how a more detailed understanding of these effects may be used to aid in determination of reaction mechanisms, and to aid in planning syntheses. Consideration is given to theoretical calculations (quantum chemistry, molecular dynamics, etc.), to statistical methods (chemometrics), and to modern day concerns such as ""green"" chemistry, where ut

  2. Solvent-dependent excited-state hydrogen transfer and intersystem crossing in 2-(2′-hydroxyphenyl)-benzothiazole

    KAUST Repository

    Aly, Shawkat Mohammede


    The excited-state intramolecular hydrogen transfer (ESIHT) of 2-(2′-hydroxyphenyl) benzothiazole (HBT) has been investigated in a series of nonpolar, polar aprotic, and polar protic solvents. A variety of state-of-the-art experimental methods were employed, including femto- and nanosecond transient absorption and fluorescence upconversion spectroscopy with broadband capabilities. We show that the dynamics and mechanism of ESIHT of the singlet excited HBT are strongly solvent-dependent. In nonpolar solvents, the data demonstrate that HBT molecules adopt a closed form stabilized by O-H⋯N chelated hydrogen bonds with no twisting angle, and the photoinduced H transfer occurs within 120 fs, leading to the formation of a keto tautomer. In polar solvents, owing to dipole-dipole cross talk and hydrogen bonding interactions, the H transfer process is followed by ultrafast nonradiative deactivation channels, including ultrafast internal conversion (IC) and intersystem crossing (ISC). This is likely to be driven by the twisting motion around the C-C bond between the hydroxyphenyl and thiazole moieties, facilitating the IC back to the enol ground state or to the keto triplet state. In addition, our femtosecond time-resolved fluorescence experiments indicate, for the first time, that the lifetime of the enol form in ACN is approximately 280 fs. This observation indicates that the solvent plays a crucial role in breaking the H bond and deactivating the excited state of the HBT. Interestingly, the broadband transient absorption and fluorescence up-conversion data clearly demonstrate that the intermolecular proton transfer from the excited HBT to the DMSO solvent is about 190 fs, forming the HBT anion excited state.

  3. Computational Insight into Solvent Effects on Conformation and Assembly of Structured Ionic Polymer (United States)

    Senanayake, Manjula; Aryal, Dipak; Perahia, Dvora; Grest, Gary

    Structured ionomers are in the core of numerous current and potential new applications including clean energy, water purification membranes and sensors. The ability to facilitate ions and solvents transport is a key to their function and is controlled by their structure. One effective path for structural control is tuning their conformation by solvent interactions. Here, the confirmation and association of an ABCBA co-polymer where C is a randomly sulfonated polystyrene with sulfonation fractions f = 0 to 0.55, B is poly (ethylene-r-propylene), and A is poly (t-butyl styrene), in n-propanol are studied by molecular dynamic simulation. In contrast to the collapsed conformation of the ionizable block in hydrophobic solvents, we find that it remains swollen. Similar to hydrophobic solutions the co-polymers aggregate to form an ionizable core surrounded by extended hydrophobic chains. In contrast to the ``locked-in'' ionizable segments observed in cyclohexane/heptane, here the ionic clusters remain dynamic. Supported in part by DOE Grant No. DE-SC007908.

  4. Phase equilibria study of the binary systems (N-hexylisoquinolinium thiocyanate ionic liquid + organic solvent or water). (United States)

    Królikowska, Marta; Karpińska, Monika; Zawadzki, Maciej


    Liquid-liquid phase equilibria (LLE) of binary mixtures containing a room-temperature ionic liquid N-hexylisoquinolinium thiocyanate, [HiQuin][SCN] with an aliphatic hydrocarbon (n-hexane, n-heptane), aromatic hydrocarbon (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, n-propylbenzene), cyclohexane, thiophene, water, and 1-alcohol (1-ethanol, 1-butanol, 1-hexanol, 1-octanol, 1-decanol) have been determined using a dynamic method from room temperature to the boiling-point of the solvent at ambient pressure. N-hexylisoquinolinium thiocyanate, [HiQuin][SCN] has been synthesized from N-hexyl-isoquinolinium bromide as a substrate. Specific basic characterization of the new compound including NMR spectra, elementary analysis, and water content have been done. The density and viscosity of pure ionic liquid were determined over a wide temperature range from 298.15 to 348.15 K. The mutual immiscibility with an upper critical solution temperature (UCST) for the binary systems {IL + aliphatic hydrocarbon, cyclohexane, or water} was detected. In the systems of {IL + aromatic hydrocarbon or thiophene} an immiscibility gap with a lower critical solution temperature (LCST) was observed. Complete miscibility in the liquid phase, over a whole range of ionic liquid mole fraction, was observed for the binary mixtures containing IL and an 1-alcohol. For the tested binary systems with immiscibility gap {IL + aliphatic hydrocarbon, aromatic hydrocarbon, cyclohexane, thiophene, or water}, the parameters of the LLE correlation have been derived using the NRTL equation. The basic thermal properties of the pure IL, that is, the glass-transition temperature as well as the heat capacity at the glass-transition temperature, have been measured using a differential scanning microcalorimetry technique (DSC). Decomposition of the IL was detected by simultaneous thermogravimetric/differential thermal analysis (TG/DTA) experiments.

  5. Thermodynamics of octane enhancing additives in gasolines: vapor-liquid equilibrium of the ternary system di-isopropyl ether (DIPE) + cyclohexane + benzene at 313.15 K; Thermodynamique d'additifs ameliorant l'index d'octane dans les essences: equilibre liquide-vapeur du systeme ternaire DIPE+cyclohexane+benzene a 313.15 K

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chamorro, C.R.; Segovia, J.J.; Martin, M.C.; Villamanan, M.A. [Valladolid Univ., Lab. de Termodinamica, Dept. Ingenieria Energetica y Fluidomevanica E.T.S. de Ingenieros Industriales (Spain)


    Experimental isothermal P-x data at 313.15 K for the ternary system (di-isopropyl ether (DIPE) + cyclohexane + benzene) and for the two DIPE-binaries, DIPE + cyclohexane and DIPE = benzene, are reported. Data reduction by Barker's method provides correlations for g{sup E} using the Margules equation for the binary systems and the Wohl expansion for the ternary system. Wilson, NRTL and UNIQUAC models have been applied successfully to both the binary and the ternary systems. (authors)

  6. Role of the electronegativity for the interface properties of non-polar heterostructures

    KAUST Repository

    Nazir, Safdar


    Density functional theory is used to investigate the interfaces in the non-polar ATiO 3/SrTiO 3 (A=Pb, Ca, Ba) heterostructures. All TiO 2-terminated interfaces show an insulating behavior. By reduction of the O content in the AO, SrO, and TiO 2 layers, metallic interface states develop, due to the occupation of the Ti 3d orbitals. For PbTiO 3/SrTiO 3, the Pb 6p states cross the Fermi energy. O vacancy formation energies depend strictly on the electronegativity and the effective volume of the A ion, while the main characteristics of the interface electronic states are maintained. © Europhysics Letters Association, 2012.

  7. Homoepitaxial HVPE-GaN growth on non-polar and semi-polar seeds (United States)

    Amilusik, M.; Sochacki, T.; Lucznik, B.; Fijalkowski, M.; Smalc-Koziorowska, J.; Weyher, J. L.; Teisseyre, H.; Sadovyi, B.; Bockowski, M.; Grzegory, I.


    In this work homoepitaxial HVPE-GaN growth on non-polar and semi-polar GaN seeds was described. Two crystallization processes, in the same experimental conditions but using different carrier gases: N2 and H2, were performed. An influence of growth directions and growth conditions on the growth rate and properties (morphology, structural quality and oxygen and silicon contaminations) of obtained crystals were investigated and discussed. It was shown that the growth rate strongly depends on the growth direction and the carrier gas. It was demonstrated that for the semi-polar [20-21] direction it was possible to obtain high quality and highly conductive (without intentional doping) gallium nitride layers.


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei-ming Zhang; Jin-long Chen; Qun Chen; Ming-yang He; Bing-cai Pan; Quan-xing Zhang


    The binary adsorption behavior of 1-naphthol/1-naphthylamine mixtures in water on nonpolar adsorbent Amberlite XAD4 was investigated at 293 K, 303 K and 313 K, respectively. The experimental uptakes of 1-naphthol and 1-naphthylamine in all binary-component systems of different molar ratios were obviously higher than the corresponding uptakes predicted by the extended Langmuir model, assuming no interaction between the adsorbed molecules of the two components. This phenomenon was attributed to the cooperative adsorption effect arising from the hydrogen bonding interaction between 1-naphthol and 1-naphthylamine molecules. A modified extended Langmuir model was proposed to describe the binary adsorption behavior by means of introducing a fitting parameter related with the cooperative adsorption effect of the adsorbates.

  9. Variability of non-polar secondary metabolites in the red alga Portieria. (United States)

    Payo, Dioli Ann; Colo, Joannamel; Calumpong, Hilconida; de Clerck, Olivier


    Possible sources of variation in non-polar secondary metabolites of Portieria hornemannii, sampled from two distinct regions in the Philippines (Batanes and Visayas), resulting from different life-history stages, presence of cryptic species, and/or spatiotemporal factors, were investigated. PCA analyses demonstrated secondary metabolite variation between, as well as within, five cryptic Batanes species. Intraspecific variation was even more pronounced in the three cryptic Visayas species, which included samples from six sites. Neither species groupings, nor spatial or temporal based patterns, were observed in the PCA analysis, however, intraspecific variation in secondary metabolites was detected between life-history stages. Male gametophytes (102 metabolites detected) were strongly discriminated from the two other stages, whilst female gametophyte (202 metabolites detected) and tetrasporophyte (106 metabolites detected) samples were partially discriminated. These results suggest that life-history driven variations, and possibly other microscale factors, may influence the variation within Portieria species.

  10. Variability of Non-Polar Secondary Metabolites in the Red Alga Portieria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olivier de Clerck


    Full Text Available Possible sources of variation in non-polar secondary metabolites of Portieria hornemannii, sampled from two distinct regions in the Philippines (Batanes and Visayas, resulting from different life-history stages, presence of cryptic species, and/or spatiotemporal factors, were investigated. PCA analyses demonstrated secondary metabolite variation between, as well as within, five cryptic Batanes species. Intraspecific variation was even more pronounced in the three cryptic Visayas species, which included samples from six sites. Neither species groupings, nor spatial or temporal based patterns, were observed in the PCA analysis, however, intraspecific variation in secondary metabolites was detected between life-history stages. Male gametophytes (102 metabolites detected were strongly discriminated from the two other stages, whilst female gametophyte (202 metabolites detected and tetrasporophyte (106 metabolites detected samples were partially discriminated. These results suggest that life-history driven variations, and possibly other microscale factors, may influence the variation within Portieria species.

  11. On the rotational energy distributions of reactive, non-polar species in the interstellar medium

    CERN Document Server

    Glinski, Robert J; Downum, Clark R


    A basic model for the formation of non-equilibrium rotational energy distributions is described for reactive, homo-polar diatomic molecules and ions in the interstellar medium. Kinetic models were constructed to calculate the rotational populations of C2+ under the conditions it would experience in the diffuse interstellar medium. As the non-polar ion reacts with molecular hydrogen, but not atomic hydrogen, the thermalization of a hot nascent rotational population will be arrested by chemical reaction when the H2 density begins to be significant. Populations that deviate strongly from the local thermodynamic equilibrium are predicted for C2+ in environments where it may be detectable. Consequences of this are discussed and a new optical spectrum is calculated.

  12. Dynamics of electric field induced particle alignment in nonpolar polymer matrix (United States)

    Tai, Xiangyang; Wu, Guozhang; Yui, Hiroshi; Asai, Shigeo; Sumita, Masao


    The dynamics of electric field induced particle alignment in nonpolar polymer matrix to build one-dimensional conductive materials was investigated. The influence of electric field on particle alignment was real-time traced by dynamic percolation measurement using carbon black (CB) filled polyethylene as a model system. The activation energy of the continuous CB path formation was calculated and found to be unchanged with CB alignment. The critical percolation concentration at thermodynamic equilibrium state φc* was deduced to characterize the anisotropism of network structure, by which the thermodynamic prerequisite electric field E* for the transition from three-dimensional isotropic network to one-dimensional chain could be easily found out.

  13. Application of classical thermodynamics to the conductivity in non-polar media (United States)

    Gourdin-Bertin, S.; Chassagne, C.


    Electrical conductivity in non-polar media is a subject which recently regained interest. If most of experiments and theoretical developments were done more than 50 years ago, new experiments and theories have been recently published. As the electrical conductivity describes, at low field, the equilibrium state of a system, it is natural to apply theories based on equilibrium thermodynamics. In this article, well-established classical thermodynamics and solvations models are applied to recently published data. This enables to get a new insight in intriguing phenomena, such as the linear dependence of the conductivity on the concentration of ionic surfactant and the evaluation of conductivity for the mixture of two miscible fluids, such as alcohol and alcane, which have very different conductivities.

  14. Application of gas chromatography analysis to quality control of residual organic solvents in clopidogrel bisulphate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavlović Aleksandar D.


    Full Text Available A direct-injection, split-mode capillary gas chromatographic procedure with a flame ionization detection is developed for the analysis of eight solvents used in the synthesis and purification of an anti-thrombotic drug clopidogrel bisulphate. The solvents analyzed were methanol, acetone, dichloromethane (DCM, 2-butanol, cyclohexane, toluene, acetic acid and N, N-dimethyl formamide (DMF. In addition, as a result of dehydration of 2-butanol during drying process, in clopidogrel bisulphate samples, significant amounts of 2-butanol dehydration products (1-butene, cis and trans isomers of 2-butene, 2,2'-oxydibutane and 1-(1-methylpropoxybutane may be detected. The content of each of these volatile products can be evaluated using the same gas-chromatographic method, with quantification based on the response factor established for the chromatographic peak of 2-butanol. For each solvent used in the process of clopidogrel bisulphate preparation, the procedure is validated for selectivity, linearity, recovery, precision, robustness, quantitation limit, and detection limit. All eight solvents plus five 2-butanol degradation products are fully separated. System suitability test is validated, and requirements are set. Based on a large number of result sets, retrospectively, from many different batches analyzed, conclusions were made about process variations and reliability and a lack of consistency was identified in the quality of the active substance from a particular producer source. Multivariate analysis was used as statistical technique to classify samples. From the analyzed set of 11 solvents, 6 of them were preselected based upon their occurrence in the samples and both Principal Component Analysis (PCA and Hierarchical Cluster Analysis (HCA were performed.

  15. Chronic toxicity and body residues of the nonpolar narcotic 1,2,3,4-tetrachrlorobenzene in Chironomus riparius

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leslie, H.A.; Kraak, M.H.S.; Hermens, J.L.


    The use of internal concentrations as a dose parameter for baseline toxicity requires an understanding of the relationship between accumulation level and toxic effects, not only for acute but also for chronic exposure. In this study of chronic toxicity of the nonpolar narcotic 1,2,3,4-tetrachloroben

  16. Chronic toxicity and body residues of the nonpolar narcotic 1,2,3,4-tetrachrlorobenzene in Chironomus riparius

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leslie, H.A.; Kraak, M.H.S.; Hermens, J.L.


    The use of internal concentrations as a dose parameter for baseline toxicity requires an understanding of the relationship between accumulation level and toxic effects, not only for acute but also for chronic exposure. In this study of chronic toxicity of the nonpolar narcotic

  17. Evaluation of Extraction Protocols for Simultaneous Polar and Non-Polar Yeast Metabolite Analysis Using Multivariate Projection Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolas P. Tambellini


    Full Text Available Metabolomic and lipidomic approaches aim to measure metabolites or lipids in the cell. Metabolite extraction is a key step in obtaining useful and reliable data for successful metabolite studies. Significant efforts have been made to identify the optimal extraction protocol for various platforms and biological systems, for both polar and non-polar metabolites. Here we report an approach utilizing chemoinformatics for systematic comparison of protocols to extract both from a single sample of the model yeast organism Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Three chloroform/methanol/water partitioning based extraction protocols found in literature were evaluated for their effectiveness at reproducibly extracting both polar and non-polar metabolites. Fatty acid methyl esters and methoxyamine/trimethylsilyl derivatized aqueous compounds were analyzed by gas chromatography mass spectrometry to evaluate non-polar or polar metabolite analysis. The comparative breadth and amount of recovered metabolites was evaluated using multivariate projection methods. This approach identified an optimal protocol consisting of 64 identified polar metabolites from 105 ion hits and 12 fatty acids recovered, and will potentially attenuate the error and variation associated with combining metabolite profiles from different samples for untargeted analysis with both polar and non-polar analytes. It also confirmed the value of using multivariate projection methods to compare established extraction protocols.

  18. Non-polar lipids accumulate during storage of transfusion products and do not contribute to the onset of transfusion-related acute lung injury. (United States)

    Peters, A L; Vervaart, M A T; van Bruggen, R; de Korte, D; Nieuwland, R; Kulik, W; Vlaar, A P J


    The accumulation of non-polar lipids arachidonic acid, 5-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (HETE), 12-HETE and 15-HETE during storage of transfusion products may play a role in the onset of transfusion-related acute lung injury (TRALI), a syndrome of respiratory distress after transfusion. We investigated non-polar lipid accumulation in red blood cells (RBCs) stored for 42 days, plasma stored for 7 days at either 4 or 20°C and platelet (PLT) transfusion products stored for 7 days. Furthermore, we investigated whether transfusion of RBCs with increased levels of non-polar lipids induces TRALI in a 'two-hit' human volunteer model. All products were produced following Dutch Blood Bank protocols and are according to European standards. Non-polar lipids were measured with high-performance liquid chromotography followed by mass spectrometry. All non-polar lipids increased in RBCs after 21 days of storage compared to baseline. The non-polar lipid concentration in plasma increased significantly, and the increase was even more pronounced in products stored at 20°C. In platelets, baseline levels of 5-HETE and 15-HETE were higher than in RBCs or plasma. However, the non-polar lipids did not change significantly during storage of PLT products. Infusion of RBCs with increased levels of non-polar lipids did not induce TRALI in LPS-primed human volunteers. We conclude that non-polar lipids accumulate in RBC and plasma transfusion products and that accumulation is temperature dependent. Accumulation of non-polar lipids does not appear to explain the onset of TRALI (Dutch Trial Register - NTR4455). © 2016 International Society of Blood Transfusion.

  19. Hydrogenation induced deviation of temperature and concentration dependences of polymer-solvent interactions in poly(vinyl chloride) and a new eco-friendly plasticizer (United States)

    Liu, Yang; Zhang, Rongchun; Wang, Xiaoliang; Sun, Pingchuan; Chen, Wei; Shen, Jianyi; Xue, Gi


    As a substitute for di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate (DOP), a new eco-friendly plasticizer, di(2-ethylhexyl) cyclohexane-1,2-dicarboxylate (DEHHP), was systematically studied in this work, mainly focusing on its interaction with poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC). The temperature and concentration dependences of polymer-solvent interactions in PVC/DEHHP were systematically investigated by rheology, low-field NMR and molecular dynamics simulations, and the results were quite different from those in PVC/DOP. With temperature increasing or PVC concentration decreasing, rheology experiments revealed that polymer-solvent interactions in PVC/DEHHP were weaker than that in PVC/DOP. Low-field 1H NMR results showed that the number of polymer-solvent complexes decreased as temperature increased. A faster decreasing rate of this number made the polymer-solvent interactions weaker in PVC/DEHHP than in PVC/DOP. Molecular dynamics simulations were further performed to study the role of polymer-solvent hydrogen bonding interactions in the systems. The radial distribution function showed that heating and dilution both resulted in faster molecular motions, and disassociation of the hydrogen bonds in the simplex hydrogen bonding system. Therefore, heating and dilution had an equivalent effect on the polymer-solvent interactions.


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sheng-rong Guo


    Surface morphology and composition of solution-cast films of poly(methyl methacrylate)-g-poly(ethylene oxide)(PMMA-g-PEO) were investigated by using XPS, DSC, SEM and contact angle measurement. The microphase separated structure of the copolymers was studied by TEM. Generally, for the same graft copolymer, the surface content of PEO or hydrophilicity can be as follows: Surface treated with petroleum ether or cyclohexane > surface untreated with solvent >surface treated with water or ethyl alcohol. Graft copolymer having longer PEO side chains and higher PEO content shows a separated PEO phase with even a certain degree of crystallinity on the surface. PEO crystallinity was destroyed by water or ethyl alcohol treatment; however, surface treatment with petroleum ether or cyclohexane favors the growth of PEO crystal.TEM shows that graft copolymers with longer PEO side chains (Mn of PEO, 3200) may readily undergo micropliase separation and the shape and size of domains depend on the copolymer's composition.

  1. Analysis of Oxidation Product of Cyclohexane by Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry%环己烷氧化产物的气相色谱-质谱分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陆慧宁; 任三香


    The catalyze oxidation products of cyclohexane were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS). An unknown main component had been identified by manual solution and chemical reaction as peroxy-cyclohexanol.

  2. Ultrafiltration of oil-in-water emulsions and cyclohexane microemulsions using a rotating disk system; Ultrafiltration d'emulsions huile-eau et de microemulsions de cyclohexane par un systeme a disque rotatif

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moulai-Mostefa, N. [Centre Universitaire Yahia Fares, Ain D' Heb, Medea (Algeria); Brou, A.; Ding, L.H.; Jaffrin, M.Y. [Universite de Technologie de Compiegne, UMR CNRS 6600, Dept. Genie Bilogique, 60 (France)


    Oil separation from oil-water effluents containing secondary emulsions is very difficult by traditional techniques and requires using ultrafiltration through a membrane. Oil-water emulsions were ultra-filtered using a prototype of a rotating disk dynamic filtration system equipped with a 190 cm{sup 2} 50 kDa circular membrane. The turbidity of initial solution at 4%wt oil concentration (21 900 NTU) dropped to 2 NTU in the permeate after 15 min of filtration, representing an oil rejection coefficient of 99.5%. Permeate fluxes increased with disk rotation speed to reach 90 l.h{sup -1}.m{sup -2} at 2000 rpm and 24 deg. C. The addition of 6 mm vanes on the disk increased the permeate flux by 100% at the same speed. Micro emulsions were composed of 4 to 20% of cyclohexane, 0.5 to 16% of 2-butanol and 0.25 to 8% of dodecyl sodium sulphate (SDS) in pure water. Permeate fluxes, which were very high (200 l.h{sup -1}.m{sup -2}) at 2000 rpm with a smooth disk and the most dilute solution, dropped to 15 l.h{sup -1}.m{sup -2} for the most concentrated one. Addition of vanes permitted to increase these fluxes by 100%. (authors)

  3. Determination of the solid surface critical exponent β1 from contact-angle variation on approach to a wetting transition: Cyclohexane/aniline/quartz (United States)

    Pallas, Norman R.


    The three-phase contact angle (θ) for the system cyclohexane/aniline/quartz has been measured from drop shapes as a function of temperature on approach to the cyclohexane/aniline upper consolute solution temperature Tc. The experiments employed exacting criteria previously established for thermodynamic-quality measurements at fluid interfaces. A first-order wetting transition from partial wetting to complete wetting was observed at a temperature Tw, 2.12 K below Tc. The contact angle vanishes at Tw, scaling as cos θ ˜ |T - Tc|β1-μ for T system. These results are in marked contrast to previous measurements on this system from measurements of capillary rise and meniscus curvature.

  4. Evaluation of (vapor + liquid) equilibria for the binary systems (1-octanol + cyclohexane) and (1-octanol + n-hexane), at low alcohol compositions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ovejero, Gabriel [Grupo de Catalisis y Procesos de Separacion (CyPS), Departamento de Ingenieria Quimica, Facultad de C. Quimicas, Universidsad Complutense de Madrid, Avda. Complutense s/n, 28040 Madrid (Spain)], E-mail:; Dolores Romero, M.; Diez, Eduardo; Lopes, Tania; Diaz, Ismael [Grupo de Catalisis y Procesos de Separacion (CyPS), Departamento de Ingenieria Quimica, Facultad de C. Quimicas, Universidsad Complutense de Madrid, Avda. Complutense s/n, 28040 Madrid (Spain)


    Isobaric (vapor + liquid) equilibrium at p = 101.32 kPa of pressure has been determined for the systems (1-octanol + cyclohexane) and (1-octanol + n-hexane), at low alcohol mole fractions. These data were satisfactorily correlated, using ASPEN PLUS commercial software, with Wilson, NRTL, and UNIQUAC activity coefficient models to obtain the binary interaction parameters of both mixtures. Also, UNIFAC group contribution method was employed to predict the equilibrium of both mixtures. With regression values an accurate knowledge of (vapor + liquid) equilibrium for both mixtures can be reached in a range of 1-octanol mole fractions less than 0.1. UNIFAC method provides acceptable results for (1-octanol + n-hexane) system but not for (1-octanol + cyclohexane) system.

  5. Effect of Solvent Dielectric Constant and Acidity on the OH Vibration Frequency in Hydrogen-Bonded Complexes of Fluorinated Ethanols. (United States)

    Pines, Dina; Keinan, Sharon; Kiefer, Philip M; Hynes, James T; Pines, Ehud


    Infrared spectroscopy measurements were used to characterize the OH stretching vibrations in a series of similarly structured fluoroethanols, RCH2OH (R = CH3, CH2F, CHF2, CF3), a series which exhibits a systematic increase in the molecule acidity with increasing number of F atoms. This study, which expands our earlier efforts, was carried out in non-hydrogen-bonding solvents comprising molecules with and without a permanent dipole moment, with the former solvents being classified as polar solvents and the latter designated as nonpolar. The hydrogen bond interaction in donor-acceptor complexes formed in solution between the fluorinated ethanol H-donors and the H-acceptor base DMSO was investigated in relation to the solvent dielectric and to the differences ΔPA of the gas phase proton affinities (PAs) of the conjugate base of the fluorinated alcohols and DMSO. We have observed that νOH decreases as the acidity of the alcohol increases (ΔPA decreases) and that νOH varies inversely with ε, exhibiting different slopes for nonpolar and polar solvents. These 1/ε slopes tend to vary linearly with ΔPA, increasing with increasing acidity. These experimental findings, including the ΔPA trends, are described with our recently published two-state Valence Bond-based theory for acid-base H-bonded complexes. Lastly, the correlation of the alcohol's conjugate base PAs with Taft σ* values of the fluorinated ethyl groups CH(n)F(3-n)CH2- provides a connection of the inductive effects for these groups with the acidity parameter ΔPA associated with the H-bonded complexes.

  6. Molecular, vibrational and electronic structure of 4-bromo-2-halogenobenzaldehydes: Halogen and solvent effects (United States)

    Fernández, David; Parlak, Cemal; Bilge, Metin; Kaya, Mehmet Fatih; Tursun, Mahir; Keşan, Gürkan; Rhyman, Lydia; Ramasami, Ponnadurai; Şenyel, Mustafa


    The halogen and solvent effects on the structure of 4-bromo-2-halogenobenzaldehydes [C7H4BrXO; X = F (BFB), Cl (BCB) or Br (BBB)] were investigated by the density functional theory (DFT) and time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT) methods. The B3LYP functional and HF and MP2 levels of theory were used with the 6-311+G(3df,p) or aug-cc-pVDZ basis sets. Computations were focused on the cis and trans conformers of the investigated compounds in the gas phase and solutions of 18 different polar or non-polar organic solvents. The computed frequencies of the C=O stretching vibration of the compounds were correlated with some empirical solvent parameters such as the Kirkwood-Bauer-Magat (KBM) equation, solvent acceptor number (AN), Swain parameters and linear solvation energy relationships (LSERs). The electronic properties of the compounds were also examined. The present work explores the effects of the medium and halogen on the conformation, geometrical parameters, dipole moment, ν(C=O) vibration, UV data, frontier orbitals and density-of-states diagram of the compounds. The findings of this research can be useful for studies on benzaldehydes.


    Feder, H.M.; Ader, M.; Ross, L.E.


    A process is presented for extracting uranium salt from aqueous acidic solutions by organic solvent extraction. It consists in contacting the uranium bearing solution with a water immiscible dialkylacetamide having at least 8 carbon atoms in the molecule. Mentioned as a preferred extractant is dibutylacetamide. The organic solvent is usually used with a diluent such as kerosene or CCl/sub 4/.

  8. Supercritical multicomponent solvent coal extraction (United States)

    Corcoran, W. H.; Fong, W. S.; Pichaichanarong, P.; Chan, P. C. F.; Lawson, D. D. (Inventor)


    The yield of organic extract from the supercritical extraction of coal with larger diameter organic solvents such as toluene is increased by use of a minor amount of from 0.1 to 10% by weight of a second solvent such as methanol having a molecular diameter significantly smaller than the average pore diameter of the coal.

  9. Determining the orientation of protegrin-1 in DLPC bilayers using an implicit solvent-membrane model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdallah Sayyed-Ahmad

    Full Text Available Continuum models that describe the effects of solvent and biological membrane molecules on the structure and behavior of antimicrobial peptides, holds a promise to improve our understanding of the mechanisms of antimicrobial action of these peptides. In such methods, a lipid bilayer model membrane is implicitly represented by multiple layers of relatively low dielectric constant embedded in a high dielectric aqueous solvent, while an antimicrobial peptide is accounted for by a dielectric cavity with fixed partial charge at the center of each one of its atoms. In the present work, we investigate the ability of continuum approaches to predict the most probable orientation of the beta-hairpin antimicrobial peptide Protegrin-1 (PG-1 in DLPC lipid bilayers by calculating the difference in the transfer free energy from an aqueous environment to a membrane-water environment for multiple orientations. The transfer free energy is computed as a sum of two terms; polar/electrostatic and non-polar. They both include energetic and entropic contributions to the free energy. We numerically solve the Poisson-Boltzmann equation to calculate the electrostatic contribution to the transfer free energy, while the non-polar contribution to the free energy is approximated using a linear solvent accessible surface area relationships. The most probable orientation of PG-1 is that with the lowest relative transfer free energy. Our simulation results indicate that PG-1 assumes an oblique orientation in DLPC lipid bilayers. The predicted most favorable orientation was with a tilt angle of 19 degrees, which is in qualitative agreement with the experimentally observed orientations derived from solid-state NMR data.

  10. Poly[[μ2-1,2-bis(imidazol-1-ylmethylbenzene](μ2-cyclohexane-1,4-dicarboxylatocobalt(II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Xing


    Full Text Available In the the title compound, [Co(C8H10O4(C14H14N4]n, the CoII atom is four-coordinated by two N atoms from two different 1,2-bis(imidazol-1-ylmethylbenzene ligands and two carboxylate O atoms from two different cyclohexane-1,4-dicarboxylate anions in a tetrahedral coordination geometry. The resulting structure is a two-dimensional polymer with layers in the (100 plane.

  11. Asymmetric synthesis of functionalized cyclohexanes bearing five stereocenters via a one-pot organocatalytic Michael-Michael-1,2-addition sequence. (United States)

    Chauhan, Pankaj; Urbanietz, Gregor; Raabe, Gerhard; Enders, Dieter


    A highly stereoselective one-pot procedure involving an enantioselective Michael addition promoted by low loading of an amino-squaramide catalyst followed by an achiral base catalyzed domino Michael-Knoevenagel-type 1,2-addition sequence provides efficient access to fully substituted cyclohexanes bearing five contiguous stereogenic centers in good yields (68-86%) and excellent stereoselectivities (>30 : 1 dr and 96-99% ee).

  12. A novel, green 1-glycyl-3-methyl imidazolium chloride-copper(Ⅱ)complex catalyzed C-H oxidation of alkyl benzene and cyclohexane

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Parasuraman Karthikeyan; Pundlik Rambhau Bhagat; S. Senthil Kumar


    A variety of alkyl-arenes and cyclohexane were converted to the corresponding ketones with NaClO as the oxidant in the presence of 1-glycyl-3-methyl imidazolium chloride-copper(Ⅱ) complex.This method contains simplified product isolation and catalyst recycling,affording benzylic C-H oxidation of alkyl-arenes imparting high yield of ketones.Furthermore,complex could be reused seven times without a significant loss of its catayfic activity.

  13. Selection and design of solvents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gani, Rafiqul

    . With increasing interest on issues such as waste, sustainability, environmental impact and green chemistry, the selection and design of solvents have become important problems that need to be addressed during chemical product-process design and development. Systematic methods and tools suitable for selection......Solvents are liquid solutions consisting of one or more chemicals. They have a very wide use and their use is not necessarily restricted to the process industries. This lecture will discuss the different roles and uses of solvents in chemical products and processes that manufacture them...... and design of solvents will be presented together with application examples. The selection problem is defined as finding known chemicals that match the desired functions of a solvent for a specified set of applications. The design problem is defined as finding the molecular structure (or mixture of molecules...

  14. Extended reaction scope of thiamine diphosphate dependent cyclohexane-1,2-dione hydrolase: from C-C bond cleavage to C-C bond ligation. (United States)

    Loschonsky, Sabrina; Wacker, Tobias; Waltzer, Simon; Giovannini, Pier Paolo; McLeish, Michael J; Andrade, Susana L A; Müller, Michael


    ThDP-dependent cyclohexane-1,2-dione hydrolase (CDH) catalyzes the CC bond cleavage of cyclohexane-1,2-dione to 6-oxohexanoate, and the asymmetric benzoin condensation between benzaldehyde and pyruvate. One of the two reactivities of CDH was selectively knocked down by mutation experiments. CDH-H28A is much less able to catalyze the CC bond formation, while the ability for CC bond cleavage is still intact. The double variant CDH-H28A/N484A shows the opposite behavior and catalyzes the addition of pyruvate to cyclohexane-1,2-dione, resulting in the formation of a tertiary alcohol. Several acyloins of tertiary alcohols are formed with 54-94 % enantiomeric excess. In addition to pyruvate, methyl pyruvate and butane-2,3-dione are alternative donor substrates for CC bond formation. Thus, the very rare aldehyde-ketone cross-benzoin reaction has been solved by design of an enzyme variant.

  15. Configuration- and conformation-dependent electronic-structure variations in 1,4-disubstituted cyclohexanes enabled by a carbon-to-silicon exchange. (United States)

    Emanuelsson, Rikard; Löfås, Henrik; Wallner, Andreas; Nauroozi, Djawed; Baumgartner, Judith; Marschner, Christoph; Ahuja, Rajeev; Ott, Sascha; Grigoriev, Anton; Ottosson, Henrik


    Cyclohexane, with its well-defined conformers, could be an ideal force-controlled molecular switch if it were to display substantial differences in electronic and optical properties between its conformers. We utilize σ conjugation in heavier analogues of cyclohexanes (i.e. cyclohexasilanes) and show that 1,4-disubstituted cyclohexasilanes display configuration- and conformation-dependent variations in these properties. Cis- and trans-1,4-bis(trimethylsilylethynyl)cyclohexasilanes display a 0.11 V difference in their oxidation potentials (computed 0.11 V) and a 0.34 eV difference in their lowest UV absorption (computed difference between first excitations 0.07 eV). This is in stark contrast to differences in the corresponding properties of analogous all-carbon cyclohexanes (computed 0.02 V and 0.03 eV, respectively). Moreover, the two chair conformers of the cyclohexasilane trans isomer display large differences in electronic-structure-related properties. This enables computational design of a mechanically force-controlled conductance switch with a calculated single-molecule ON/OFF ratio of 213 at zero-bias voltage.

  16. Solvent degradation products in nuclear fuel processing solvents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shook, H.E. Jr.


    The Savannah River Plant uses a modified Purex process to recover enriched uranium and separate fission products. This process uses 7.5% tri-n-butyl phosphate (TBP) dissolved in normal paraffin hydrocarbons for the solvent extraction of a nitric acid solution containing the materials to be separated. Periodic problems in product decontamination result from solvent degradation. A study to improve process efficiency has identified certain solvent degradation products and suggested mitigation measures. Undecanoic acid, lauric acid, and tridecanoic acid were tentatively identified as diluent degradation products in recycle solvent. These long-chain organic acids affect phase separation and lead to low decontamination factors. Solid phase extraction (SPE) was used to concentrate the organic acids in solvent prior to analysis by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). SPE and HPLC methods were optimized in this work for analysis of decanoic acid, undecanoic acid, and lauric acid in solvent. Accelerated solvent degradation studies with 7.5% TBP in normal paraffin hydrocarbons showed that long-chain organic acids and long-chain alkyl butyl phosphoric acids are formed by reactions with nitric acid. Degradation of both tributyl phosphate and hydrocarbon can be minimized with purified normal paraffin replacing the standard grade presently used. 12 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs.

  17. Switchable Polarity Solvents: Are They Green? (United States)

    Plaumann, Heinz


    Solvents play an incredibly important role in large scale chemical reactions. Switchable polarity solvents may prove to be a class of solvent that offers energy and material efficiencies greater than existing solvents. This paper examines such solvents and their potential in a variety of chemical reactions.

  18. Three-Phase Behavior in a Water/C(12)EO(8)/Propanol/Cyclohexane/Heptane System. (United States)



    We studied the three-phase behavior and dissolution behavior of propanol (C(3)OH) in a water/C(12)EO(8)/C(3)OH/cyclohexane (c-C(6))/heptane (C(7)) system at 35 and 45 degrees C. Without C(12)EO(8), a three-phase region (IIIa) consisting of C(3)OH, aqueous (W), and oleic (O) phases exists between R(oil) (c-C(6)/c-C(6) + C(7)) = 0.2 and 0.3 (w/w) above 35 wt% C(3)OH. The C(3)OH phase originates from the W phase and becomes identical to the O phase with increasing R(oil). In the presence of C(12)EO(8), the three-phase region expands below 20 wt% C(3)OH. The surfactant phase behaves in two ways according to the role of C(3)OH. When R(oil) 0.3, a microemulsion (D) phase changes from water-rich to oil-rich in a chiral three-phase body. Most C(3)OH added acts as a lipophilic cosurfactant at R(oil) = 1. The two types of three-phase behavior are transformed into each other via region IIIa. C(3)OH cooperatively acts with C(12)EO(8) and a higher-order phase is formed. Copyright 1999 Academic Press.

  19. Synthesis of a new iron(Ⅲ) porphyrin acrylate-styrene copolymer and its catalysis for hydroxylation of cyclohexane

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU Hancheng; CHEN Xianli; LI Xixian; HUANG Jinwang; JI Liangnian


    A new iron(Ⅲ) porphyrin acrylate-styrene copolymer,P[(PorFe)A-S],was synthesized by the reaction of iron(Ⅲ) porphyrin acrylate with styrene and characterized by UV-Vis,Infrared spectra (IR),inductively coupled plasmaatomic emission spectrometry (ICP) and molecular weight determination.Its catalytic activity in the hydroxylation of cyclohexane for model cytochrome/>450 in the P[(PorFe)A-S]-OE-ascrobate-thiosalicylic acid system has been studied.It was found that the P[(PorFe)A-S] has a higher catalytic activity than non-supported iron(Ⅲ) porphyrin and its high catalytic activity remained in reuse.The catalytic activity of P[(PorFe)A-S] was discussed in the view of the microenvironment of iron(Ⅲ) porphyrin.It is proposed that the catalytic activity of the P[(PorFe)A-S] may be further enhanced by construction of a homophase catalytic system containing the iron(Ⅲ) porphyrin acrylate-styrene copolymer.

  20. A glucose derivative as natural alternative to the cyclohexane-1,2-diamine ligand in the anticancer drug oxaliplatin? (United States)

    Berger, Isabella; Nazarov, Alexey A; Hartinger, Christian G; Groessl, Michael; Valiahdi, Seied-M; Jakupec, Michael A; Keppler, Bernhard K


    Having oxaliplatin as archetype, several platinum complexes with a carbohydrate moiety resembling the cyclohexane-1,2-diamine ligand of oxaliplatin have been prepared. As leaving groups, the anionic ligands iodide, oxalate, and malonate were utilized, and for comparison purposes the chloro complex was employed. All compounds were characterized by elemental analysis, nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, and electrospray mass spectrometry. The crystal structure of (SP-4-3)-diiodo(2,3-diamino-2,3-dideoxy-D-glucose-kappa(2)N,N')platinum(II) was determined by X-ray diffraction. The affinity toward dGMP was assayed by capillary electrophoresis, revealing that the chloro complex shows the highest reactivity, followed by the iodo complex. In contrast, the binding kinetics of the dicarboxylato complexes are slower, with the malonato complex being the least reactive. Reactivity to dGMP in the cell-free system correlates with cytotoxicity in two of four human cancer cell lines as determined by means of the MTT assay. In three of the four cell lines, the chloro and the malonato complex are the most and the least active of the carbohydrate-Pt complexes, respectively, with IC(50) values differing only by factors of up to 3.2. Cytotoxicity of the chloro complex is one to two orders of magnitude lower than that of oxaliplatin, but still comparable to that of carboplatin in two of the four cell lines.

  1. Heme and non-heme iron transporters in non-polarized and polarized cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasui Yumiko


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Heme and non-heme iron from diet, and recycled iron from hemoglobin are important products of the synthesis of iron-containing molecules. In excess, iron is potentially toxic because it can produce reactive oxygen species through the Fenton reaction. Humans can absorb, transport, store, and recycle iron without an excretory system to remove excess iron. Two candidate heme transporters and two iron transporters have been reported thus far. Heme incorporated into cells is degraded by heme oxygenases (HOs, and the iron product is reutilized by the body. To specify the processes of heme uptake and degradation, and the reutilization of iron, we determined the subcellular localizations of these transporters and HOs. Results In this study, we analyzed the subcellular localizations of 2 isoenzymes of HOs, 4 isoforms of divalent metal transporter 1 (DMT1, and 2 candidate heme transporters--heme carrier protein 1 (HCP1 and heme responsive gene-1 (HRG-1--in non-polarized and polarized cells. In non-polarized cells, HCP1, HRG-1, and DMT1A-I are located in the plasma membrane. In polarized cells, they show distinct localizations: HCP1 and DMT1A-I are located in the apical membrane, whereas HRG-1 is located in the basolateral membrane and lysosome. 16Leu at DMT1A-I N-terminal cytosolic domain was found to be crucial for plasma membrane localization. HOs are located in smooth endoplasmic reticulum and colocalize with NADPH-cytochrome P450 reductase. Conclusions HCP1 and DMT1A-I are localized to the apical membrane, and HRG-1 to the basolateral membrane and lysosome. These findings suggest that HCP1 and DMT1A-I have functions in the uptake of dietary heme and non-heme iron. HRG-1 can transport endocytosed heme from the lysosome into the cytosol. These localization studies support a model in which cytosolic heme can be degraded by HOs, and the resulting iron is exported into tissue fluids via the iron transporter ferroportin 1, which is

  2. Remarks on energetic conditions for positronium formation in non-polar solids. Coupled Dipole Method application

    CERN Document Server

    Pietrow, Marek


    A numerical program calculating an energy of a positron or (and) an electron near the free volume in solid n-alkanes has been build. The theory of interaction of e+ or (and) e- with this non-polar media based on polarizability has been introduced. The energy of the e+ -- e- pair in the bulk was compared to that calculated when the pair forms a positronium (Ps) inside the free volume. The calculations are based on the Coupled Dipole Method and the dipole-dipole interaction energy for induced dipoles is taken into account. Furthermore, a correction of a local permittivity for the e+ -- e- interaction is calculated taking into account the non-isotropic medium between them. The method is a step toward more accurate calculations of energetic conditions during the Ps formation in matter. The possibility of emission of the excess energy of the Ps formation as electromagnetic radiation is discussed. It is argued that if this radiation is observed, it can be used as a new spectroscopic tool providing information about...

  3. Nonpolarized signaling reveals two distinct modes of 3D cell migration. (United States)

    Petrie, Ryan J; Gavara, Núria; Chadwick, Richard S; Yamada, Kenneth M


    We search in this paper for context-specific modes of three-dimensional (3D) cell migration using imaging for phosphatidylinositol (3,4,5)-trisphosphate (PIP3) and active Rac1 and Cdc42 in primary fibroblasts migrating within different 3D environments. In 3D collagen, PIP3 and active Rac1 and Cdc42 were targeted to the leading edge, consistent with lamellipodia-based migration. In contrast, elongated cells migrating inside dermal explants and the cell-derived matrix (CDM) formed blunt, cylindrical protrusions, termed lobopodia, and Rac1, Cdc42, and PIP3 signaling was nonpolarized. Reducing RhoA, Rho-associated protein kinase (ROCK), or myosin II activity switched the cells to lamellipodia-based 3D migration. These modes of 3D migration were regulated by matrix physical properties. Specifically, experimentally modifying the elasticity of the CDM or collagen gels established that nonlinear elasticity supported lamellipodia-based migration, whereas linear elasticity switched cells to lobopodia-based migration. Thus, the relative polarization of intracellular signaling identifies two distinct modes of 3D cell migration governed intrinsically by RhoA, ROCK, and myosin II and extrinsically by the elastic behavior of the 3D extracellular matrix.

  4. Optical Kerr Effect Spectroscopy of a Nonpolar Solute in Dicationic versus Monocationic Ionic Liquids (United States)

    Gurung, Eshan; Xue, Lianjie; Tamas, George; Quitevis, Edward


    A comparison of the intermolecular dynamics of small nonpolar solute molecules in monocationic and dicationic ionic liquids (ILs) was performed using optical heterodyne-detected Raman-induced Kerr effect spectroscopy (OHD-RIKES). The optical Kerr effect (OKE) spectrum of CS2 in 1-methyl-3-propylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethane-sulfonyl)amide [C3mim][NTf2] and 1,6-bis(3-methylimidazolium-1-yl) hexane bis(trifluoromethane-sulfonyl)amide [C6(mim)2][NTf2]2 was investigated as a function of concentration at 295 K. An additivity model with components from the subpicosecond dynamics of IL and CS2 was used to interpret the OKE spectra of the mixtures. The spectrum of CS2 in the two ILs is lower in frequency and narrower than that of neat CS2. The spectrum of CS2 in the dicationic IL is higher in frequency than in the monocationic IL. This result shows that CS2 molecule experiences a stiffer potential in dicationic ILs as compared to monocationic ILs. Higher stiffness in C6(mim)2][NTf2]2 might be due to a more ordered arrangement and lower mobility of the alkyl chains linking the imidazolium rings. This work was supported by NSF Grant CHE-1153077.

  5. Effects of polar and nonpolar groups on the solubility of organic compounds in soil organic matter (United States)

    Chiou, C.T.; Kile, D.E.


    Vapor sorption capacities on a high-organic-content peat, a model for soil organic matter (SOM), were determined at room temperature for the following liquids: n-hexane, 1,4-dioxane, nitroethane, acetone, acetonitrile, 1-propanol, ethanol, and methanol. The linear organic vapor sorption is in keeping with the dominance of vapor partition in peat SOM. These data and similar results of carbon tetrachloride (CT), trichloroethylene (TCE), benzene, ethylene glycol monoethyl ether (EGME), and water on the same peat from earlier studies are used to evaluate the effect of polarity on the vapor partition in SOM. The extrapolated liquid solubility from the vapor isotherm increases sharply from 3-6 wt % for low-polarity liquids (hexane, CT, and benzene) to 62 wt % for polar methanol and correlates positively with the liquid's component solubility parameters for polar interaction (??P) and hydrogen bonding (??h). The same polarity effect may be expected to influence the relative solubilities of a variety of contaminants in SOM and, therefore, the relative deviations between the SOM-water partition coefficients (Kom) and corresponding octanol-water partition coefficients (Kow) for different classes of compounds. The large solubility disparity in SOM between polar and nonpolar solutes suggests that the accurate prediction of Kom from Kow or Sw (solute water solubility) would be limited to compounds of similar polarity.

  6. Improving oil recovery in the CO2 flooding process by utilizing nonpolar chemical modifiers☆

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yong Yang; Xiangliang Li; Ping Guo; Yayun Zhuo; Yong Sha


    By means of experiments of CO2 miscibility with crude oil, four nonpolar chemicals were evaluated in order to enhance the miscibility of CO2 with crude oil. Through pre-slug injection and joint injection of toluene in CO2, crude oil displacement experiments in the slim-tube were conducted to investigate effects of the toluene-enhanced CO2 flooding under simulated subterranean reservoir conditions. Experimental results showed that toluene can enhance extraction of oil into CO2 and dissolution of CO2 into oil with the increment of 251%and 64%respectively. Addition of toluene can obviously improve the oil recovery in either pre-slug injection or joint injection, and the crude oil recovery increased with the increase of the toluene concentration. The oil recov-ery can increase by 22.5%in pre-slug injection with the high toluene concentration. Pre-slug injection was recom-mended because it can consume less toluene than joint injection. This work could be useful to development and application of the CO2 flooding in the oil recovery as wel as CO2 emission reduction.

  7. Competitive and cooperative adsorption behaviors of phenol and aniline onto nonpolar macroreticular adsorbents

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Wei-ming; CHEN Jin-long; PAN Bing-cai; ZHANG Quan-xing


    The adsorption behaviors of phenol and aniline on nonpolar macroreticular adsorbents( NDA100 and Amberlite XAD4) were investigated in single or binary batch system at 293K and 313K respectively in this study. The results indicated that the adsorption isotherms of phenol and aniline on both adsorbents in both systems fitted well Langmuir equation, which indicated a favourable and exothermic process. At the lower equilibrium concentrations, the individual amount adsorbed of phenol or aniline or macroreticular adsorbents in single-component systems was higher than those in binary-component systems because of the competition between phenol and aniline towards the adsorption sites. It is noteworthy, on the contrast, that at higher concentrations, the total uptake amounts of phenol and aniline in binary-component systems were obviously larger than that in single-component systems, and a large excess was noted on the adsorbent surface at saturation, which is presumably due to the cooperative effect primarily arisen from the hydrogen bonding or weak acidbase interaction between phenol and aniline.

  8. A silicone column for GC analysis of polar and nonpolar chemicals (United States)

    Shen, T. C.


    The investigation of the Saturnian System is being proposed jointly by NASA and the European Space Agency (ESA). The mission is scheduled for a launch in 1996. The mission provides an opportunity for close observation and exploration of Saturn's atmosphere, the complex Saturnian System of satellites and rings, Titan (Saturn's planet-sized moon), and Saturn's magnetosphere. The mission gives special attention to Titan which is blanketed by a thick, opaque atmosphere. An atmospheric probe will be deposited into the Titan Atmosphere for in situ measurement during a slow, three hour descent to the surface. The results from this analysis may provide the information which is important to the research of chemical evolution, and the origin of life. An analytical system was developed as a part of the Titan Aerosol Gas Experiment (TAGEX), a proposed experiment for the Cassini Mission. This system will use two highly sensitive detectors, the Metastable Ionization Detector (MID) and the Ion Mobility Spectrometer (IMS). Unfortunately, when commercial columns are utilized with these highly sensitive detectors, volatile components continuously bleed from the column and interfere with the detector. In addition, light columns must be able to separate polar and nonpolar organic chemicals within 10-15 minutes under isothermal conditions for the Titan Mission. Therefore, a highly crosslinked silicone polymeric packed column was developed which is able to efficiently separate amines, alcohols, and hydrocarbons with retention times less that 15 minutes at 100 C isothermal condition.

  9. Self-consistent theory of nanodomain formation on nonpolar surfaces of ferroelectrics (United States)

    Morozovska, Anna N.; Ievlev, Anton V.; Obukhovskii, Vyacheslav V.; Fomichov, Yevhen; Varenyk, Oleksandr V.; Shur, Vladimir Ya.; Kalinin, Sergei V.; Eliseev, Eugene A.


    We propose a self-consistent theoretical approach capable of describing the features of the anisotropic nanodomain formation induced by a strongly inhomogeneous electric field of a charged scanning probe microscopy tip on nonpolar cuts of ferroelectrics. We obtained that a threshold field, previously regarded as an isotropic parameter, is an anisotropic function that is specified from the polar properties and lattice pinning anisotropy of a given ferroelectric in a self-consistent way. The proposed method for the calculation of the anisotropic threshold field is not material specific, thus the field should be anisotropic in all ferroelectrics with the spontaneous polarization anisotropy along the main crystallographic directions. The most evident examples are uniaxial ferroelectrics, layered ferroelectric perovskites, and low-symmetry incommensurate ferroelectrics. Obtained results quantitatively describe the differences at several times in the nanodomain length experimentally observed on X and Y cuts of LiNb O3 and can give insight into the anisotropic dynamics of nanoscale polarization reversal in strongly inhomogeneous electric fields.

  10. Adsorption of polar, nonpolar, and substituted aromatics to colloidal graphene oxide nanoparticles. (United States)

    Wang, Fang; Haftka, Joris J-H; Sinnige, Theo L; Hermens, Joop L M; Chen, Wei


    We conducted batch adsorption experiments to understand the adsorptive properties of colloidal graphene oxide nanoparticles (GONPs) for a range of environmentally relevant aromatics and substituted aromatics, including model nonpolar compounds (pyrene, phenanthrene, naphthalene, and 1,3-dichlorobenzene) and model polar compounds (1-naphthol, 1-naphthylamine, 2,4-dichlorophenol, and 2,4-dinitrotoluene). GONPs exhibited strong adsorption affinities for all the test compounds, with distribution coefficients on the order of 10(3)-10(6) L/kg. Adsorption to GONPs is much more linear than to carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and C60, likely because GO nanoflakes are essentially individually dispersed (rendering adsorption sites of similar adsorption energy) whereas CNT/C60 are prone to bundling/aggregation. For a given compound GONPs and CNTs often exhibit different adsorption affinities, which is attributable to the differences in both the morphology and surface chemistry between the two nanomaterials. Particularly, the high surface O-content of GONPs enables strong H-bonding and Lewis acid-base interactions with hydroxyl- and amino-substituted aromatics.

  11. Molecular Dynamics Simulation of Behaviours of Non-Polar Droplets Merging and Interactions with Hydrophobic Surfaces

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Y.Y.Yan; C.Y.Ji


    This paper presents a molecular dynamics simulation of the behaviours of non-polar droplets merging and also the fluid molecules interacting with a hydrophobic surface. Such behaviours and transport phenomena are popular in general micro-channel flow boiling and two-phase flow. The droplets are assumed to be composed of Lennards-Jones type molecules. Periodic boundary conditions are applied in three coordinate directions ofa 3-D system, where there exist two liquid droplets and their vapour. The two droplets merge when they come within the prescribed small distance. The merging of two droplets apart from each other at different initial distances is tested and the possible larger (or critical) non-dimensional distance, in which droplets merging can occur, is discussed. The evolution of the merging process is simulated numerically by employing the Molecular Dynamics (MD) method. For interactions with hydrophobic solid wail, a system with fluid confined between two walls is used to study the wetting phenomena of fluid and solid wail. The results are compared with those of hydrophilic wall to show the unique characteristics of hydrophobic interactions by microscopic methods.

  12. Composition of the non-polar extracts and antimicrobial activity of Chorisia insignis HBK. leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salma Ahmed Mahmoud El Sawi


    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate the chemical constituents of the petroleum ether extract and the ether fraction of the 70% ethanol extract of Chorisia insignis HBK. leaves, as well as screen its antimicrobial activity. Methods: Different chromatographic methods were applied to investigate the non-polar extracts and the diffusion assay method was applied to study the antimicrobial activity. Results: A total of 50 compounds from the unsaponifiable matter and 20 fatty acid methyl esters were identified from the petroleum ether extract by GC/MS analysis. n-Hentriacontane, n-tritriacontane, stigmastanol, 3-methoxy-5, 6-dihydrostigmasterol, 7,8-dihydroergosterol, 4-methylcholesterol, cholestanol, multiflorenol, cholest-5-en-3-one, cholest-6-one, 5,6- dihydroergosterol, stigmasterol, dihydroalbigenin and 11-methyl-Δ5,7,9,15,17,23-triacont-hex-ene were isolated from the petroleum ether extract. Methyl heptacosanoate and quinic acid ester of rhamnose were isolated from the ether fraction of the 70% ethanol extract. Antimicrobial activity of the total alcohol extract and the successive fractions showed that the ether and the ethyl acetate fractions have potent antibacterial activity against Bacillus subtilis and Bacillus cereus. Conclusions: The ether and the ethyl acetate fractions could be used in pharmaceutical formulations as antibacterial agents against Bacillus subtilis and Bacillus cereus, and further clinical trials should be performed in order to support the above investigations.

  13. Piezoelectricity and rotostriction through polar and non-polar coupled instabilities in bismuth-based piezoceramics (United States)

    Acosta, Matias; Schmitt, Ljubomira A.; Cazorla, Claudio; Studer, Andrew; Zintler, Alexander; Glaum, Julia; Kleebe, Hans-Joachim; Donner, Wolfgang; Hoffman, Mark; Rödel, Jürgen; Hinterstein, Manuel


    Coupling of order parameters provides a means to tune functionality in advanced materials including multiferroics, superconductors, and ionic conductors. We demonstrate that the response of a frustrated ferroelectric state leads to coupling between order parameters under electric field depending on grain orientation. The strain of grains oriented along a specific crystallographic direction, , is caused by converse piezoelectricity originating from a ferrodistortive tetragonal phase. For hhh> oriented grains, the strain results from converse piezoelectricity and rotostriction, as indicated by an antiferrodistortive instability that promotes octahedral tilting in a rhombohedral phase. Both strain mechanisms combined lead to a colossal local strain of (2.4 ± 0.1) % and indicate coupling between oxygen octahedral tilting and polarization, here termed “rotopolarization”. These findings were confirmed with electromechanical experiments, in situ neutron diffraction, and in situ transmission electron microscopy in 0.75Bi1/2Na1/2TiO3-0.25SrTiO3. This work demonstrates that polar and non-polar instabilities can cooperate to provide colossal functional responses.

  14. Analysis of current transport properties in nonpolar a-plane ZnO-based Schottky diodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hogyoung [Seoul National University of Science and Technology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Haeri; Kim, Dongwook [Ewha Womans University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)


    Using current-voltage (I - V) measurements, we investigated the temperature-dependent transport properties in Ag/nonpolar a-plane ZnO Schottky diodes. The bias-dependent ideality factors were altered by the different temperatures and showed a hump at lower temperatures. The series resistance of the diode depended on the temperatures, which was related to the number of free carriers contributing to the series resistance. For high forward bias, the slope m obtained from the lnI - lnV curves decreased with increasing temperature, assuring the space-charge-limited-current (SCLC) model controlled by an exponential distribution of traps. The reverse-biased current transport was associated with the Schottky effect, with a thermally-assisted tunneling for lower voltages and the Poole-Frenkel effect for higher voltages. The density of localized states (N{sub t}) was obtained by applying the theory of SCLC transport, which yielded a N{sub t} value of 8.32 x 10{sup 11} eV{sup -1}cm{sup -3}.

  15. Handbook of organic solvent properties

    CERN Document Server

    Smallwood, Ian


    The properties of 72 of the most commonly used solvents are given, tabulated in the most convenient way, making this book a joy for industrial chemists to use as a desk reference. The properties covered are those which answer the basic questions of: Will it do the job? Will it harm the user? Will it pollute the air? Is it easy to handle? Will it pollute the water? Can it be recovered or incinerated? These are all factors that need to be considered at the early stages of choosing a solvent for a new product or process.A collection of the physical properties of most commonly used solvents, their

  16. Spectroscopic Behavior of Some A3B Type Tetrapyrrolic Complexes in Several Organic Solvents and Micellar Media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radu Socoteanu


    Full Text Available The paper presents spectral studies of some unsymmetrical A3B tetrapyrrolic, porphyrin-type complexes with Cu(II and Zn(II in different solvents and micellar media aimed at estimating their properties in connection with the living cell. The results indicate that the position of the absorption and emission peaks is mostly influenced by the central metal ion and less by the environmental polarity or the peripheric substituents of the porphyrinic core. The comparison between the overall absorption and emission spectra of the compounds in methanol or cyclohexane vs. direct and reverse Triton X micellar systems, respectively, suggests for all compounds the localization at the interface between the polyethylene oxide chains and the tert-octyl-phenyl etheric residue of the Triton X-100 molecules. These findings could be important when testing the compounds embedded in liposomes or other delivery systems to the targeted cell.

  17. Nuclear magnetic resonance study of charge transfer complex formation between Silver Nitrate and Benzylcyanide in Solvent Ethylene Glycol

    CERN Document Server

    Modarress, H


    The formation constant for charge transfer complexes between electron acceptor (AgNo sub 3) and electron donor benzylcyanide (C sub 6 H sub 5 -CH sub 2 -C ident to N) in solvent ethyleneglycol [(CH sub 2 OH) sub 2] has been evaluated by using the nuclear magnetic resonance chemical shifts of aromatic group of benzylcyanide measured against external references, tetramethylsilane, hexamethyldisilane and cyclohexane at 20 sup d ig sup C. The external referencing procedure eliminated the interference of internal reference in the course of complexation. The necessary bulk magnetic susceptibility corrections on the measured chemical shifts have been made. The solution nationalised and their effects on the formation constant have been considered and a new equation has been suggested to obtain the main ionic activity coefficient of AgNO sub 3 from nuclear magnetic resonance results. The mean ionic activity coefficient has been taken into account in the formation constant calculations. The results indicated that the a...

  18. The Solvent Selection framework: solvents for organic synthesis, separation processes and ionic-organic synthesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mitrofanov, Igor; Sansonetti, Sascha; Abildskov, Jens


    problems are presented: 1) solvent selection and design for organic synthesis, 2) solvent screening and design of solvent mixtures for pharmaceutical applications and 3) ionic liquids selection and design as solvents. The application of the framework is highlighted successfully through case studies...... focusing on solvent replacement problem in organic synthesis and solvent mixture design for ibuprofen respectively....

  19. Isolation, Production, and Characterization of Thermotolerant Xylanase from Solvent Tolerant Bacillus vallismortis RSPP-15

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajeeva Gaur


    Full Text Available Sixty bacterial strains isolated from the soils sample in the presence of organic solvent were screened for xylanase production. Among them, strain RSPP-15 showed the highest xylanase activity which was identified as Bacillus vallismortis. The isolate showed maximum xylanase production (3768 U/mL in the presence of birch wood xylan and beef extract at 55°C pH 7.0 within 48 h of incubation. The enzyme activity and stability were increased 181.5, 153.7, 147.2, 133.6, and 127.9% and 138.2, 119.3, 113.9, 109, and 104.5% in the presence of Co2+, Ca2+, Mg+2, Zn+2, and Fe+3 ions (10 mM. Xylanase activity and stability were strongly inhibited in the presence of Hg and Cu ions. The enzyme was also stable in the presence of 30% of n-dodecane, isooctane, n-decane, xylene, toluene, n-hexane, n-butanol, and cyclohexane, respectively. The presence of benzene, methanol, and ethanol marginally reduced the xylanase stability, respectively. This isolate may be useful in several industrial applications owing to its thermotolerant and organic solvent resistance characteristics.

  20. Electroluminescence from nonpolar n-ZnO/p-AlGaN heterojunction light-emitting diode on r-sapphire (United States)

    Chen, Jingwen; Zhang, Jun; Dai, Jiangnan; Wu, Feng; Wang, Shuai; Chen, Cheng; Long, Hanling; Liang, Renli; Zhao, Chong; Chen, Changqing; Tang, Zhiwu; Cheng, Hailing; He, Yunbin; Li, Mingkai


    Nonpolar a-plane n-ZnO/p-AlGaN heterojunction light-emitting diodes (LEDs) have been prepared on r-sapphire substrate using metal organic chemical vapor deposition and a pulsed laser deposition method. The dominant electroluminescence emission at 390 nm from the interband transition in n-ZnO layer under a forward bias was observed. Interestingly, electroluminescence with emission at 385 nm based on an avalanche mechanism was also achieved under reverse bias. The mechanisms of both the electroluminescence and I–V characteristics are discussed in detail by considering the avalanche effect. It is demonstrated that the crystalline quality of n-ZnO, not the p-AlGaN, is what affects the performance of the nonpolar ZnO based avalanche LED.

  1. Homoepitaxial nonpolar (10-10) ZnO/ZnMgO monolithic microcavities: Towards reduced photonic disorder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zuniga-Perez, J., E-mail:; Kappei, L.; Deparis, C.; Chenot, S.; Leroux, M. [CRHEA-CNRS, Rue Bernard Gregory, 06560 Valbonne (France); Reveret, F.; Jamadi, O.; Leymarie, J. [Clermont Université, Institut Pascal (IP), BP 10448, F-63000 Clermont-Ferrand (France); CNRS, UMR 6602, IP, F-63171 Aubière (France); Grundmann, M. [CRHEA-CNRS, Rue Bernard Gregory, 06560 Valbonne (France); Institut für Experimentelle Physik II, Fakultät für Physik und Geowissenschaften, Universität Leipzig, Linnestr. 5, 04103 Leipzig (Germany); Prado, E. de [CRHEA-CNRS, Rue Bernard Gregory, 06560 Valbonne (France); Departamento de Física Aplicada y Electromagnetismo, Universitat de Valencia, c/Dr Moliner 50, Burjassot, Valencia 46100 (Spain)


    Nonpolar ZnO/ZnMgO-based optical microcavities have been grown on (10-10) m-plane ZnO substrates by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy. Reflectivity measurements indicate an exponential increase of the cavity quality factor with the number of layers in the distributed Bragg reflectors. Most importantly, microreflectivity spectra recorded with a spot size in the order of 2 μm show a negligible photonic disorder (well below 1 meV), leading to local quality factors equivalent to those obtained by macroreflectivity. The anisotropic character of the nonpolar heterostructures manifests itself both in the surface features, elongated parallel to the in-plane c direction, and in the optical spectra, with two cavity modes being observed at different energies for orthogonal polarizations.

  2. An analytical method of predicting Lee-Kesler-Ploecker binary interaction coefficients: Part 1, For non-polar hydrocarbon mixtures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sand, J.R.


    An analytical method is proposed for finding numerical values of binary interaction coefficients for non-polar hydrocarbon mixtures when the Lee-Kesler (LK) equation of state is applied. The method is based on solving simultaneous equations, which are Ploecker`s mixing rules for pseudocritical parameters of a mixture, and the Lee-Kesler equation for the saturation line. For a hydrocarbon mixture, the method allows prediction of {kappa}{sub ij} interaction coefficients (ICs) which are close to values obtained by processing experimental p-v-t data on the saturation line and subsequent averaging. For mixtures of hydrocarbon molecules containing from 2 to 9 carbon atoms, the divergence between calculated and experimentally based ICs is no more than {plus_minus}0.4%. The possibility of extending application of this method to other non-polar substances is discussed.

  3. Extraction of hydrocarbons from microalga Botryococcus braunii with switchable solvents. (United States)

    Samorì, Chiara; Torri, Cristian; Samorì, Giulia; Fabbri, Daniele; Galletti, Paola; Guerrini, Franca; Pistocchi, Rossella; Tagliavini, Emilio


    Lipid extraction is a critical step in the development of biofuels from microalgae. Here a new procedure was proposed to extract hydrocarbons from dried and water-suspended samples of the microalga Botryococcus braunii by using switchable-polarity solvents (SPS) based on 1,8-diazabicyclo-[5.4.0]-undec-7-ene (DBU) and an alcohol. The high affinity of the non-ionic form of DBU/alcohol SPS towards non-polar compounds was exploited to extract hydrocarbons from algae, while the ionic character of the DBU-alkyl carbonate form, obtained by the addition of CO(2), was used to recover hydrocarbons from the SPS. DBU/octanol and DBU/ethanol SPS were tested for the extraction efficiency of lipids from freeze-dried B. braunii samples and compared with n-hexane and chloroform/methanol. The DBU/octanol system was further evaluated for the extraction of hydrocarbons directly from algal culture samples. DBU/octanol exhibited the highest yields of extracted hydrocarbons from both freeze-dried and liquid algal samples (16% and 8.2% respectively against 7.8% and 5.6% with n-hexane).

  4. The atomic structure of polar and non-polar InGaN quantum wells and the green gap problem. (United States)

    Humphreys, C J; Griffiths, J T; Tang, F; Oehler, F; Findlay, S D; Zheng, C; Etheridge, J; Martin, T L; Bagot, P A J; Moody, M P; Sutherland, D; Dawson, P; Schulz, S; Zhang, S; Fu, W Y; Zhu, T; Kappers, M J; Oliver, R A


    We have used high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), aberration-corrected quantitative scanning transmission electron microscopy (Q-STEM), atom probe tomography (APT) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) to study the atomic structure of (0001) polar and (11-20) non-polar InGaN quantum wells (QWs). This paper provides an overview of the results. Polar (0001) InGaN in QWs is a random alloy, with In replacing Ga randomly. The InGaN QWs have atomic height interface steps, resulting in QW width fluctuations. The electrons are localised at the top QW interface by the built-in electric field and the well-width fluctuations, with a localisation energy of typically 20meV. The holes are localised near the bottom QW interface, by indium fluctuations in the random alloy, with a localisation energy of typically 60meV. On the other hand, the non-polar (11-20) InGaN QWs contain nanometre-scale indium-rich clusters which we suggest localise the carriers and produce longer wavelength (lower energy) emission than from random alloy non-polar InGaN QWs of the same average composition. The reason for the indium-rich clusters in non-polar (11-20) InGaN QWs is not yet clear, but may be connected to the lower QW growth temperature for the (11-20) InGaN QWs compared to the (0001) polar InGaN QWs.

  5. Practical Approaches to Green Solvents

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Joseph M. DeSimone


    Solvents are widely used in commercial manufacturing and service industries. Despite abundant precaution, they inevitably contaminate our air, land, and water because they are difficult to contain and recycle...

  6. Hansen Cleaning Solvent Research Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Environmental regulation will force current baseline  precision cleaning solvent (AK-225) to be phased out starting 2015. We plan to develop  a new...

  7. Synthesis of sol–gel silica particles in reverse micelles with mixed-solvent polar cores: tailoring nanoreactor structure and properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bürglová, Kristýna; Hlaváč, Jan [Institute of Molecular and Translational Medicine, Faculty of Medicine and Dentistry (Czech Republic); Bartlett, John R., E-mail: [University of the Sunshine Coast, Faculty of Science, Health, Education and Engineering (Australia)


    In this paper, we describe a new approach for producing metal oxide nano- and microparticles via sol–gel processing in confined media (sodium bis(2-ethylhexyl)sulfosuccinate reverse micelles), in which the chemical and physical properties of the polar aqueous core of the reverse micelles are modulated by the inclusion of a second polar co-solvent. The co-solvents were selected for their capacity to solubilise compounds with low water solubility and included dimethylsulfoxide, dimethylformamide, ethylene glycol, n-propanol, dimethylacetamide and N-methylpyrrolidone. A broad range of processing conditions across the sodium bis(2-ethylhexyl)sulfosuccinate/cyclohexane/water phase diagram were identified that are suitable for preparing particles with dimensions <50 to >500 nm. In contrast, only a relatively narrow range of processing conditions were suitable for preparing such particles in the absence of the co-solvents, highlighting the role of the co-solvent in modulating the properties of the polar core of the reverse micelles. A mechanism is proposed that links the interactions between the various reactive sites on the polar head group of the surfactant and the co-solvent to the nucleation and growth of the particles.

  8. J-aggregation, its impact on excited state dynamics and unique solvent effects on macroscopic assembly of a core-substituted naphthalenediimide

    KAUST Repository

    Kar, Haridas


    Herein we reveal a straightforward supramolecular design for the H-bonding driven J-aggregation of an amine-substituted cNDI in aliphatic hydrocarbons. Transient absorption spectroscopy reveals sub-ps intramolecular electron transfer in isolated NDI molecules in a THF solution followed by a fast recombination process, while a remarkable extension of the excited state lifetime by more than one order of magnitude occurred in methylcyclohexane likely owing to an increased charge-separation as a result of better delocalization of the charge-separated states in J-aggregates. We also describe unique solvent-effects on the macroscopic structure and morphology. While J-aggregation with similar photophysical characteristics was noticed in all the tested aliphatic hydrocarbons, the morphology strongly depends on the “structure” of the solvents. In linear hydrocarbons (n-hexane, n-octane, n-decane or n-dodecane), formation of an entangled fibrillar network leads to macroscopic gelation while in cyclic hydrocarbons (methylcyclohexane or cyclohexane) although having a similar polarity, the cNDI exhibits nanoscale spherical particles. These unprecedented solvent effects were rationalized by establishing structure-dependent specific interactions of the solvent molecules with the cNDI which may serve as a general guideline for solvent-induced morphology-control of structurally related self-assembled materials.

  9. Predicting Partitioning and Diffusion Properties of Nonpolar Chemicals in Biotic Media and Passive Sampler Phases by GC × GC. (United States)

    Nabi, Deedar; Arey, J Samuel


    The chemical parameters needed to explain and predict bioavailability, biodynamics, and baseline toxicity are not readily available for most nonpolar chemicals detected in the environment. Here, we demonstrate that comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography (GC × GC) retention times can be used to predict 26 relevant properties for nonpolar chemicals, specifically: partition coefficients for diverse biotic media and passive sampler phases; aquatic baseline toxicity; and relevant diffusion coefficients. The considered biotic and passive sampler phases include membrane and storage lipids, serum and muscle proteins, carbohydrates, algae, mussels, polydimethylsiloxane, polyethylene, polyoxymethylene, polyacrylate, polyurethane, and semipermeable membrane devices. GC × GC-based chemical property predictions are validated with a compilation of 1038 experimental property data collected from the literature. As an example application, we overlay a map of baseline toxicity to fathead minnows onto the separated analyte signal of a polychlorinated alkanes (chlorinated paraffins) technical mixture that contains 7820 congeners. In a second application, GC × GC-estimated properties are used to parametrize multiphase partitioning models for mammalian tissues and organs. In a third example, we estimate chemical depuration kinetics for mussels. Finally, we illustrate an approach to screen the GC × GC chromatogram for nonpolar chemicals of potentially high concern, defined based on their GC × GC-estimated biopartitioning properties, diffusion properties, and baseline toxicity.

  10. Tailoring of polar and nonpolar ZnO planes on MgO (001) substrates through molecular beam epitaxy. (United States)

    Zhou, Hua; Wang, Hui-Qiong; Liao, Xia-Xia; Zhang, Yufeng; Zheng, Jin-Cheng; Wang, Jia-Ou; Muhemmed, Emin; Qian, Hai-Jie; Ibrahim, Kurash; Chen, Xiaohang; Zhan, Huahan; Kang, Junyong


    Polar and nonpolar ZnO thin films were deposited on MgO (001) substrates under different deposition parameters using oxygen plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy (MBE). The orientations of ZnO thin films were investigated by in situ reflection high-energy electron diffraction and ex situ X-ray diffraction (XRD). The film roughness measured by atomic force microscopy evolved as a function of substrate temperature and was correlated with the grain sizes determined by XRD. Synchrotron-based X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) was performed to study the conduction band structures of the ZnO films. The fine structures of the XAS spectra, which were consistent with the results of density functional theory calculation, indicated that the polar and nonpolar ZnO films had different electronic structures. Our work suggests that it is possible to vary ZnO film structures from polar to nonpolar using the MBE growth technique and hence tailoring the electronic structures of the ZnO films.PACS: 81; 81.05.Dz; 81.15.Hi.

  11. The nature of carrier localisation in polar and nonpolar InGaN/GaN quantum wells (United States)

    Dawson, P.; Schulz, S.; Oliver, R. A.; Kappers, M. J.; Humphreys, C. J.


    In this paper, we compare and contrast the experimental data and the theoretical predictions of the low temperature optical properties of polar and nonpolar InGaN/GaN quantum well structures. In both types of structure, the optical properties at low temperatures are governed by the effects of carrier localisation. In polar structures, the effect of the in-built electric field leads to electrons being mainly localised at well width fluctuations, whereas holes are localised at regions within the quantum wells, where the random In distribution leads to local minima in potential energy. This leads to a system of independently localised electrons and holes. In nonpolar quantum wells, the nature of the hole localisation is essentially the same as the polar case but the electrons are now coulombically bound to the holes forming localised excitons. These localisation mechanisms are compatible with the large photoluminescence linewidths of the polar and nonpolar quantum wells as well as the different time scales and form of the radiative recombination decay curves.

  12. Interactions of methanol, ethanol, and 1-propanol with polar and nonpolar species in water at cryogenic temperatures. (United States)

    Souda, Ryutaro


    Methanol is known as a strong inhibitor of hydrate formation, but clathrate hydrates of ethanol and 1-propanol can be formed in the presence of help gases. To elucidate the hydrophilic and hydrophobic effects of alcohols, their interactions with simple solute species are investigated in glassy, liquid, and crystalline water using temperature-programmed desorption and time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry. Nonpolar solute species embedded underneath amorphous solid water films are released during crystallization, but they tend to withstand water crystallization under the coexistence of methanol additives. The CO2 additives are released after crystallization along with methanol desorption. These results suggest strongly that nonpolar species that are hydrated (i.e., caged) associatively with methanol can withstand water crystallization. In contrast, ethanol and 1-propanol additives weakly affect the dehydration of nonpolar species during water crystallization, suggesting that the former tend to be caged separately from the latter. The hydrophilic vs. hydrophobic behavior of alcohols, which differs according to the aliphatic group length, also manifests itself in the different abilities of surface segregation of alcohols and their effects on the water crystallization kinetics.

  13. Applied biotransformations in green solvents. (United States)

    Hernáiz, María J; Alcántara, Andrés R; García, José I; Sinisterra, José V


    The definite interest in implementing sustainable industrial technologies has impelled the use of biocatalysts (enzymes or cells), leading to high chemo-, regio- and stereoselectivities under mild conditions. As usual substrates are not soluble in water, the employ of organic solvents is mandatory. We will focus on different attempts to combine the valuable properties of green solvents with the advantages of using biocatalysts for developing cleaner synthetic processes.

  14. The fluorescence of 5-cyano-2-(1-pyrrolyl)-pyridine (CPP) in different solvents and in solid argon: An experimental and theoretical study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abramov, S.; Schweke, D.; Zilberg, S. [Department of Physical Chemistry and the Farkas Center for Light Induced Processes, Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Jerusalem (Israel); Haas, Y. [Department of Physical Chemistry and the Farkas Center for Light Induced Processes, Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Jerusalem (Israel)], E-mail:


    The fluorescence spectrum of 5-cyano-2-(1-pyrrolyl)-pyridine (CPP) was measured in several solvents as well as in an argon matrix. Based on comparison with other compounds and on ab initio calculations it is proposed that the fluorescence in the argon matrix and in non-polar solvents is due to two electronic excited states: one is of locally excited nature, the other a charge transfer (CT) state. In polar solvents the spectrum is dominated by the CT emission. The photo-physical behavior of CPP is discussed by comparison with that of other molecules exhibiting dual fluorescence and in view of a recent model developed for the benzene analog.

  15. Spectrophotometric and spectroscopic studies of charge transfer complexes of p-toluidine as an electron donor with picric acid as an electron acceptor in different solvents. (United States)

    Singh, Neeti; Khan, Ishaat M; Ahmad, Afaq


    The charge transfer complexes of the donor p-toluidine with pi-acceptor picric acid have been studied spectrophotometrically in various solvents such as carbon tetrachloride, chloroform, dichloromethane acetone, ethanol, and methanol at room temperature using absorption spectrophotometer. The results indicate that formation of CTC in non-polar solvent is high. The stoichiometry of the complex was found to be 1:1 ratio by straight-line method between donor and acceptor with maximum absorption bands. The data are discussed in terms of formation constant (K(CT)), molar extinction coefficient (epsilon(CT)), standard free energy (DeltaG(o)), oscillator strength (f), transition dipole moment (mu(EN)), resonance energy (R(N)) and ionization potential (I(D)). The results indicate that the formation constant (K(CT)) for the complex was shown to be dependent upon the nature of electron acceptor, donor and polarity of solvents that were used.

  16. Spectrophotometric studies on the charge-transfer interaction between p-nitroaniline with chloranilic acid as π-acceptor in different polar solvents (United States)

    Singh, Neeti; Ahmad, Afaq


    The charge transfer interaction between the donor p-nitroaniline with the acceptor chloranilic acid has been studied spectrophotometrically in various solvents such as chloroform, ethanol, and methanol at room temperature. The results indicate that formation of CTC in non-polar solvent is high. The stoichiometry of the complex was found to be 1:1 ratio by straight-line method between donor and acceptor with maximum absorption bands. The data are discussed in terms of formation constant (KCT), molar extinction coefficient (εCT), standard free energy (ΔG), oscillator strength (f), transition dipole moment (μN), resonance energy (RN) and ionization potential (ID). The results indicate that the formation constant (KCT) for the complex was shown to be dependent upon the nature of electron acceptor, donor and polarity of solvents that were used. The formation of the complex has been confirmed by UV-visible, FT-IR, and 1H NMR techniques.

  17. Detailed investigation of optoelectronic and microstructural properties of plasma polymerized cyclohexane thin films: Dependence on the radiofrequency power

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manaa, C.; Bouaziz, L. [Laboratoire de Physique de la Matière Condensée, Université de Picardie Jules Verne, UFR des Sciences d' Amiens, 33 rue Saint Leu, 80039 Amiens Cedex 2 (France); Laboratoire de Matériaux Avancés et Phénomènes Quantiques, Université de Tunis El-Manar, Faculté des Sciences de Tunis, Campus universitaire El-Manar, 1068 Tunis (Tunisia); Lejeune, M.; Zellama, K., E-mail:; Benlahsen, M. [Laboratoire de Physique de la Matière Condensée, Université de Picardie Jules Verne, UFR des Sciences d' Amiens, 33 rue Saint Leu, 80039 Amiens Cedex 2 (France); Kouki, F.; Mejatty, M.; Bouchriha, H. [Laboratoire de Matériaux Avancés et Phénomènes Quantiques, Université de Tunis El-Manar, Faculté des Sciences de Tunis, Campus universitaire El-Manar, 1068 Tunis (Tunisia)


    Optical properties of polymerized cyclohexane films deposited by radiofrequency plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition technique at different radiofrequency powers onto glass and silicon substrates, are studied and correlated with the microstructure of the films, using a combination of atomic force microscopy, Raman and Fourier Transformer Infrared spectroscopy and optical measurements. The optical constants such as refractive index n, dielectric permittivity ε and extinction k and absorption α coefficients, are extracted from transmission and reflection spectra through the commercial software CODE. These constants lead, by using common theoretical models as Cauchy, Lorentz, Tauc and single effective oscillator, to the determination of the static refractive index n{sub s} and permittivity ε{sub s}, the plasma frequency ω{sub p}, the carrier density to effective mass ratio N/m{sub e}{sup *}, the optical conductivity σ{sub oc}, the optical band gap E{sub g} and the oscillation and dispersion energies E{sub 0} and E{sub d}, respectively. We find that n, ε{sub s}, ω{sub p}, N/m{sub e}{sup *}, E{sub d}, increase with radiofrequency power, while E{sub g} and E{sub 0} decrease in the same range of power. These results are well correlated with those obtained from atomic force microscopy, Raman and infrared measurements. They also indicate that the increase of the radiofrequency power promotes the fragmentation of the precursor and increases the carbon C-sp{sup 2} hybridization proportion, which results in an improvement of the optoelectronic properties of the films.

  18. Substituent effect on the molecular stability, group interaction, detonation performance, and thermolysis mechanism of nitroamino-substituted cyclopentanes and cyclohexanes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QIU Ling; GONG XueDong; JU XueHai; XIAO HeMing


    Density functional theory (DFT) method has been employed to study the effect of nitroamino group as a substituent in cyclopentane and cyclohexane, which usually construct the polycyclic or caged nitra-mines. Molecular structures were investigated at the B3LYP/6-31G** level, and isodesmic reactions were designed for calculating the group interactions. The results show that the group interactions ac-cord with the group additivity, increasing with the increasing number of nitroamino groups. The distance between substituents influences the interactions. Detonation performances were evaluated by the Kamlet-Jacobs equations based on the predicted densities and heats of formation, while thermal stability and pyrolysis mechanism were studied by the computations of bond dissociation energy (BDE). It is found that the contributions of nitroamino groups to the detonation heat, detonation velocity, detonation pressure, and stability all deviate from the group additivity. Only 3a, 3b, and 9a-9c may be novel potential candidates of high energy density materials (HEDMs) according to the quantitative cri-teria of HEDM (ρ≈1.9 g/cm3, D≈9.0 km/s, P≈40.0 GPa). Stability decreases with the increasing number of N-NO2 groups, and homolysis of N-NO2 bond is the initial step in the thermolysis of the title com-pounds. Coupled with the demand of thermal stability (BDE > 20 kcal/mol), only 1,2,4-trinitrotriazacy-clohexane and 1,2,4,5-tetranitrotetraazacyclohexane are suggested as feasible energetic materials.These results may provide basic information for the molecular design of HEDMs.

  19. Thermal pretreatment of olive mill wastewater for efficient methane production: control of aromatic substances degradation by monitoring cyclohexane carboxylic acid. (United States)

    Pontoni, Ludovico; d'Antonio, Giuseppe; Esposito, Giovanni; Fabbricino, Massimiliano; Frunzo, Luigi; Pirozzi, Francesco


    Anaerobic digestion is investigated as a sustainable depurative strategy of olive oil mill wastewater (OOMW). The effect of thermal pretreatment on the anaerobic biodegradation of aromatic compounds present in (OMWW) was investigated. The anaerobic degradation of phenolic compounds, well known to be the main concern related to this kind of effluents, was monitored in batch anaerobic tests at a laboratory scale on samples pretreated at mild (80±1 °C), intermediate (90±1 °C) and high temperature (120±1 °C). The obtained results showed an increase of 34% in specific methane production (SMP) for OMWW treated at the lowest temperature and a decrease of 18% for treatment at the highest temperature. These results were related to the different decomposition pathways of the lignocellulosic compounds obtained in the tested conditions. The decomposition pathway was determined by measuring the concentrations of volatile organic acids, phenols, and chemical oxygen demand (COD) versus time. Cyclohexane carboxylic acid (CHCA) production was identified in all the tests with a maximum concentration of around 200 µmol L(-1) in accordance with the phenols degradation, suggesting that anaerobic digestion of aromatic compounds follows the benzoyl-CoA pathway. Accurate monitoring of this compound was proposed as the key element to control the process evolution. The total phenols (TP) and total COD removals were, with SMP, the highest (TP 62.7%-COD 63.2%) at 80 °C and lowest (TP 44.9%-COD 32.2%) at 120 °C. In all cases, thermal pretreatment was able to enhance the TP removal ability (up to 42% increase).

  20. a First-Principles Model of Fermi Resonance in the Alkyl CH Stretch Region: Application to Hydronaphthalenes, Indanes, and Cyclohexane (United States)

    Sibert, Edwin; Kidwell, Nathanael; Zwier, Timothy S.


    The infrared (IR) spectroscopy of the alkyl CH stretch region (2750-3000 cm-1) of a series of bicyclic hydrocarbons and free radicals has been studied under supersonic expansion cooling in the gas phase, and compared with a theoretical model that describes the local mode stretch-bend Fermi resonance interactions. The double resonance method of fluorescence-dip infrared (FDIR) spectroscopy was used on the stable molecules 1,2-dihydronaphthalene, 1,4-dihydronaphthalene, tetralin, indene, and indane using the S_0-S_1 origin transition as a monitor of transitions. Resonant ion-dip infrared (RIDIR) spectra were recorded for the trihydronaphthyl (THN) and inden-2-yl methyl (I2M) radicals. The previously developed model Hamiltonian [J. Chem. Phys. 138 064308 (2013)] incorporates cubic stretch-bend coupling with parameters obtained from density functional theory methods. Full dimensional calculations are compared to reduced dimensional Hamiltonian results in which anharmonic CH streches and CH_2 scissor modes are Fermi coupled. Excellent agreement between theoretical results is found. Scale factors of select terms in the reduced dimensional Hamiltonian, obtained by fitting the theoretical Hamiltonian predictions to the experimental spectra, are found to be similar to previous work. The resulting Hamiltonian predicts successfully all the major spectral features considered in this study. A simplified model is introduced in which the CH_2 groups are decoupled. This model enables the assignment of many of the spectral features. The model results are extended to describe the CH stretch spectrum of the chair and twist-boat conformers of cyclohexane. The chair conformer is used to illustrate the shortcomings of the CH_2 coupling model.

  1. Rare earth oxides doped NiO/γ-Al2O3 catalyst for oxidative dehydrogenation of cyclohexane

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hany M AbdelDayem; M Faiz; Hesham S Abdel-Samad; Salah A Hassan


    The effect of rare earth oxides (RE=Ce, La, Gd, and Dy) doping of alumina support in NiO/γ-Al2O3 system was investi-gated on its catalytic performance in oxidative dehydrogenation (ODH) of cyclohexane. The physicochemical properties of various samples were followed up through N2 physisorption, temperature programmed reduction (H2-TPR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and potentiometric acid-base titration techniques. In the parent NiO/γ-Al2O3 catalyst, Ni species were found to be strongly interacted with alumina surface. Addition of rare earth dopants toγ-Al2O3 in the catalyst system affected the nickel-alumina interaction and resulted in significant modifications in the catalytic performances in the ODH reaction. The results re-vealed the beneficial role of both La2O3 and Gd2O3 doping in enhancing the ODH catalytic activity and selectivity to cyclohexene. H2-TPR and XPS results indicated that majority of Ni species in NiO/La2O3 modifiedγ-Al2O3 were more weakly interacted with La2O3 and alumina whereas both NiO like species and nickel aluminate were present on the surface. Doping with cerium or dyspro-sium increased the nickel-support interaction and led to a decrease in surface nickel concentration. In case of doping with Ce, surface concentration of cerium oxide was higher than those of the other RE oxides; the doped catalyst reached its steady state activity faster than the other catalysts. The acid-base results suggested that RE metals were interacted most likely with acidic surface hydroxyl groups. The degree of nickel-alumina interaction decreased in the following order: LaAl>GdAl>CeAl>DyAl.

  2. Comparative Study of the Characteristics of the Basal Plane Stacking Faults of Nonpolar a-Plane and Semipolar (11(2)2) GaN

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Sheng-Rui; HAO Yue; LIN Zhi-Yu; XUE Xiao-Yong; LIU Zi-Yang; MA Jun-Cai; JIANG Teng; MAO Wei; WANG Dang-Hui; ZHANG Jin-Cheng


    Nonpolar (11-20) and semipolar (11222) GaN are grown on r-plane and m-plane sapphire by MOCVD to investigate the characteristics of basal plane stacking faults (BSFs). Transmission electron microscopy reveals that the density of BSFs for the semipolar (11-22) and nonpolar a-plane GaN template is 3×105cm-1 and 8×10 cm'1, respectively. The semipolar (11-22) GaN shows an arrowhead-like structure, and the nonpolar a-plane GaN has a much smoother morphology with a streak along the c-axis. Both nonpolar (11-20) and semipolar (11-22) GaN have very strong BSF luminescence due to the optically active character of the BSFs.%Nonpolar (11(2)0) and semipolar (11(2)2) GaN are grown on r-plane and m-plane sapphire by MOCVD to investigate the characteristics of basal plane stacking faults (BSFs).Transmission electron microscopy reveals that the density of BSFs for the semipolar (11(2)2) and nonpolar a-plane GaN template is 3x105 cm-1 and 8×105 cm-1,respectively.The semipolar (11(2)2) GaN shows an arrowhead-like structure,and the nonpolar a-plane GaN has a much smoother morphology with a streak along the c-axis.Both nonpolar (11(2)0) and semipolar (11(2)2) GaN have very strong BSF luminescence due to the optically active character of the BSFs.

  3. Solvent/Non-Solvent Sintering To Make Microsphere Scaffolds (United States)

    Laurencin, Cato T.; Brown, Justin L.; Nair, Lakshmi


    A solvent/non-solvent sintering technique has been devised for joining polymeric microspheres to make porous matrices for use as drug-delivery devices or scaffolds that could be seeded with cells for growing tissues. Unlike traditional sintering at elevated temperature and pressure, this technique is practiced at room temperature and pressure and, therefore, does not cause thermal degradation of any drug, protein, or other biochemical with which the microspheres might be loaded to impart properties desired in a specific application. Also, properties of scaffolds made by this technique are more reproducible than are properties of comparable scaffolds made by traditional sintering. The technique involves the use of two miscible organic liquids: one that is and one that is not a solvent for the affected polymer. The polymeric microspheres are placed in a mold having the size and shape of the desired scaffold, then the solvent/non-solvent mixture is poured into the mold to fill the void volume between the microspheres, then the liquid mixture is allowed to evaporate. Some of the properties of the resulting scaffold can be tailored through choice of the proportions of the liquids and the diameter of the microspheres.

  4. Recent Advances in Nonpolar and Semipolar InGaN Light-Emitting Diodes (LEDs). (United States)

    Jang, Jongjin; Woo, Seohwi; Min, Daehong; Nam, Okhyun


    The III-nitrides have attracted much attention because of their applicability in optoelectronic devices, whose emission wavelengths range from green to ultraviolet light due to their wide band gap. However, conventional c-plane GaN-based devices are influenced significantly by spontaneous and piezoelectric polarization effects, which could pose a limitation for increased luminous efficiency as a result of the quantum confined stark effect. Since the early 2000s, many groups have tried to solve these problems by examining the growth of GaN on non- or semipolar surface planes. High power non- and semipolar LEDs can be realized by the growth of a thick active layer. In addition, it is expected that it is possible to grow nonpolar InGaN LEDs with high quality p-GaN layers due to lower hole activation energy, and also long-wavelength semipolar InGaN LEDs because of the capacity for high indium incorporation in the quantum wells (QWs). However, non- and semipolar structures grown on sapphire substrate usually contain a high density of basal stacking faults and threading dislocations. For this reason, the growth of non- and semipolar GaN-based LEDs on a sapphire substrate has been attempted through the introduction of defect reduction techniques such as epitaxial lateral overgrowth, patterned sapphire substrate and re-growth techniques on a porous GaN layer, etc. Also, some researchers have grown high quality non- and semipolar GaN-based LEDs using non- and semipolar freestanding GaN substrates. In this review paper, we introduce and discuss recent progress in the development of non- and semipolar GaN-based LEDs and freestanding GaN substrates.

  5. Schottky contact formation on polar and non-polar AlN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reddy, Pramod; Bryan, Isaac; Bryan, Zachary; Tweedie, James; Kirste, Ronny; Collazo, Ramon; Sitar, Zlatko [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, North Carolina 27695-7919 (United States)


    The interfaces of m- and c-plane AlN with metals of different work functions and electro-negativities were characterized and the Schottky barrier heights were measured. The Schottky barrier height was determined by measuring the valence band maximum (VBM) with respect to the Fermi level at the surface (interface) before (after) metallization. VBM determination included accurate modeling and curve fitting of density of states at the valence band edge with the XPS data. The experimental behavior of the barrier heights could not be explained by the Schottky-Mott model and was modeled using InterFace-Induced Gap States (IFIGS). A slope parameter (S{sub X}) was used to incorporate the density of surface states and is a measure of Fermi level pinning. The experimental barriers followed theoretical predictions with a barrier height at the surface Fermi level (Charge neutrality level (CNL)) of ∼2.1 eV (∼2.7 eV) on m-plane (c-plane) and S{sub X} ∼ 0.36 eV/Miedema unit. Slope parameter much lower than 0.86 implied a surface/interface states dominated behavior with significant Fermi level pinning and the measured barrier heights were close to the CNL. Titanium and zirconium provided the lowest barriers (1.6 eV) with gold providing the highest (2.3 eV) among the metals analyzed on m-plane. It was consistently found that barrier heights decreased from metal polar to non-polar surfaces, in general, due to an increasing CNL. The data indicated that charged IFIGS compensate spontaneous polarization charge. These barrier height and slope parameter measurements provided essential information for designing Schottky diodes and other contact-based devices on AlN.

  6. Foaming properties of monoglycerol fatty acid esters in nonpolar oil systems. (United States)

    Shrestha, Lok Kumar; Aramaki, Kenji; Kato, Hiroyuki; Takase, Yoshihiko; Kunieda, Hironobu


    Foaming properties of monoglycerol fatty acid esters that have different alkyl chain lengths were studied in different nonpolar oils, namely liquid paraffin (LP 70), squalane, and squalene. The effect of the hydrocarbon chain length of the surfactant, the concentration, the nature of the oil, and the temperature on the nonaqueous foam stability was mainly studied. Five weight percent of glycerol alpha-monododecanoate (monolaurin) formed highly stable foams in squalane at 25 degrees C, and the foams were stable for more than 14 h. Foam stability of the monolaurin/LP 70 and the monolaurin/squalene systems are almost similar, and the foams were stable for more than 12 h. Foam stability was decreased as the hydrocarbon chain length of the monoglyceride decreased. In the glycerol alpha-monodecanoate (monocaprin)-oil systems, the foams were stable only for 3-4 h, depending on the nature of the oil. However, the foams formed in the glycerol alpha-monooctanoate (monocaprylin)-oil systems coarsened very quickly, leading to the progressive destruction of foam films, and all of the foams collapsed within a few minutes. Foam stability decreased when the oil was changed from squalane to squalene, in both monocaprin and monolaurin systems. It was observed that, in the dilute regions, these monoglycerides form fine solid dispersions in the aforementioned oils at 25 degrees C. At higher temperatures, the solid melts to isotropic single-liquid or two-liquid phases and the foams formed collapsed within 5 min. Judging from the wide-angle X-ray scattering (WAXS) and the foaming test, it is concluded that the stable foams are mainly caused by the dispersion of the surfactant solids (beta-crystal) and foam stability is largely influenced by the shape and size of the dispersed solid particles.

  7. Exploring assembly energetics of the 30S ribosomal subunit using an implicit solvent approach. (United States)

    Trylska, Joanna; McCammon, J Andrew; Brooks Iii, Charles L


    To explore the relationship between the assembly of the 30S ribosomal subunit and interactions among the constituent components, 16S RNA and proteins, relative binding free energies of the T. thermophilus 30S proteins to the 16S RNA were studied based on an implicit solvent model of electrostatic, nonpolar, and entropic contributions. The late binding proteins in our assembly map were found not to bind to the naked 16S RNA. The 5' domain early kinetic class proteins, on average, carry the highest positive charge, get buried the most upon binding to 16S RNA, and show the most favorable binding. Some proteins (S10/S14, S6/S18, S13/S19) have more stabilizing interactions while binding as dimers. Our computed assembly map resembles that of E. coli; however, the central domain path is more similar to that of A. aeolicus, a hyperthermophilic bacteria.

  8. Use of solvent mixtures for total lipid extraction of Chlorella vulgaris and gas chromatography FAME analysis. (United States)

    Moradi-Kheibari, Narges; Ahmadzadeh, Hossein; Hosseini, Majid


    Lipid extraction is the bottleneck step for algae-based biodiesel production. Herein, 12 solvent mixture systems (mixtures of three non-polar and two polar organic solvents) were examined to evaluate their effects on the total lipid yield from Chlorella vulgaris (C. vulgaris). Moreover, the extraction yields of three solvent systems with maximum extraction efficiency of esterifiable lipids were determined by acidic transesterification and GC-FID analysis. Three solvent systems, which resulted in a higher extraction yield, were further subjected to fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) analysis. The total lipid extraction yields (based on dry biomass) were (38.57 ± 1.51), (25.33 ± 0.58), and (25.17 ± 1.14) %, for chloroform-methanol (1:2) (C1M2), hexane-methanol (1:2) (H1M2), and chloroform-methanol (2:1) (C2M1), respectively. The extraction efficiency of C1M2 was approximately 1.5 times higher than H1M2 and C2M1, whereas the FAME profile of extracted lipids by H1M2 and C1M2 were almost identical. Moreover, the esterifiable lipid extraction yields of (18.14 ± 2.60), (16.66 ± 0.35), and (13.22 ± 0.31) % (based on dry biomass) were obtained for C1M2, H1M2, and C2M1 solvent mixture systems, respectively. The biodiesel fuel properties produced from C. vulgaris were empirically predicted and compared to that of the EN 14214 and ASTM 6751 standard specifications.

  9. Handbook of green chemistry, green solvents, supercritical solvents

    CERN Document Server

    Anastas, Paul T; Jessop, Philip G


    Green Chemistry is a vitally important subject area in a world where being as green and environmentally sound as possible is no longer a luxury but a necessity. Its applications include the design of chemical products and processes that help to reduce or eliminate the use and generation of hazardous substances. The Handbook of Green Chemistry comprises 12 volumes, split into subject-specific sets as follows: Set I: Green Catalysis Set II: Green Solvents Volume 4: Supercritical Solvents Volume 5: Reactions in Water Volume 6: Ionic Liquids

  10. Cyclohexane-1,2-dicarboxylic acid diisononyl ester and metabolite effects on rat epididymal stromal vascular fraction differentiation of adipose tissue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campioli, Enrico [Research Institute of the McGill University Health Centre (Canada); Department of Medicine, McGill University, Montréal, Québec (Canada); Duong, Tam B. [Research Institute of the McGill University Health Centre (Canada); Deschamps, François [Synthèse AptoChem Inc., Montréal, Québec (Canada); Papadopoulos, Vassilios, E-mail: [Research Institute of the McGill University Health Centre (Canada); Department of Medicine, McGill University, Montréal, Québec (Canada); Department of Biochemistry, McGill University, Montréal, Québec (Canada); Department of Pharmacology and Therapeutics, McGill University, Montréal, Québec (Canada)


    Plastics are generally mixed with additives like plasticizers to enhance their flexibility, pliability, and elasticity proprieties. Plasticizers are easily released into the environment and are absorbed mainly through ingestion, dermal contact, and inhalation. One of the main classes of plasticizers, phthalates, has been associated with endocrine and reproductive diseases. In 2002, 1,2-cyclohexane dicarboxylic acid diisononyl ester (DINCH) was introduced in the market for use in plastic materials and articles intended to come into contact with food, and it received final approval from the European Food Safety Authority in 2006. At present, there is limited knowledge about the safety and potential metabolic and endocrine-disrupting properties of DINCH and its metabolites. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the biological effects of DINCH and its active metabolites, cyclohexane-1,2-dicarboxylic acid (CHDA) and cyclohexane-1,2-dicarboxylic acid mono isononyl ester (MINCH), on rat primary stromal vascular fraction (SVF) of adipose tissue. DINCH and its metabolite, CHDA, were not able to directly affect SVF differentiation. However, exposure of SVF to 50 μM and 100 μM concentrations of MINCH affected the expression of Cebpa and Fabp4, thus inducing SVF preadipocytes to accumulate lipids and fully differentiate into mature adipocytes. The effect of MINCH was blocked by the specific peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-α antagonist, GW6471. Taken together, these results suggest that MINCH is a potent PPAR-α agonist and a metabolic disruptor, capable of inducing SVF preadipocyte differentiation, that may interfere with the endocrine system in mammals. - Highlights: • DINCH and CHDA did not affect the adipogenesis of the SVF. • MINCH affected the adipogenesis of the SVF. • MINCH effect was blocked by the specific PPAR-α antagonist GW6471. • MINCH exerted a similar effect as MEHP on SVF adipogenesis. • DINCH/MINCH are potential metabolic

  11. Cyclohexane-1,2-dicarboxylic acid diisononyl ester and metabolite effects on rat epididymal stromal vascular fraction differentiation of adipose tissue. (United States)

    Campioli, Enrico; Duong, Tam B; Deschamps, François; Papadopoulos, Vassilios


    Plastics are generally mixed with additives like plasticizers to enhance their flexibility, pliability, and elasticity proprieties. Plasticizers are easily released into the environment and are absorbed mainly through ingestion, dermal contact, and inhalation. One of the main classes of plasticizers, phthalates, has been associated with endocrine and reproductive diseases. In 2002, 1,2-cyclohexane dicarboxylic acid diisononyl ester (DINCH) was introduced in the market for use in plastic materials and articles intended to come into contact with food, and it received final approval from the European Food Safety Authority in 2006. At present, there is limited knowledge about the safety and potential metabolic and endocrine-disrupting properties of DINCH and its metabolites. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the biological effects of DINCH and its active metabolites, cyclohexane-1,2-dicarboxylic acid (CHDA) and cyclohexane-1,2-dicarboxylic acid mono isononyl ester (MINCH), on rat primary stromal vascular fraction (SVF) of adipose tissue. DINCH and its metabolite, CHDA, were not able to directly affect SVF differentiation. However, exposure of SVF to 50 μM and 100 μM concentrations of MINCH affected the expression of Cebpa and Fabp4, thus inducing SVF preadipocytes to accumulate lipids and fully differentiate into mature adipocytes. The effect of MINCH was blocked by the specific peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-α antagonist, GW6471. Taken together, these results suggest that MINCH is a potent PPAR-α agonist and a metabolic disruptor, capable of inducing SVF preadipocyte differentiation, that may interfere with the endocrine system in mammals. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. DOE solvent handbook information sheet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chavez, A.A.


    Solvents and cleaners are used in the Department of Defense (DOD) and the Department of Energy-Defense Program (DOE-DP) maintenance facilities for removing wax, grease, oil, carbon, machining fluids, solder fluxes, mold releases, and other contaminants before repairing or electroplating parts. Private industry also uses cleaners and degreasers for surface preparation of various metals. Growing environmental and worker safety concerns have brought attention to these solvents and cleaners, most of which are classified as toxic. Tightening government regulations have already excluded the use of some chemicals, and restrict the use of various halogenated hydrocarbons because of their atmospheric-ozone depleting effects, as well as their cancer-related risks. As a result, a program was established to develop an efficient, easily accessible, electronic solvent utilization handbook. This is being accomplished by: (1) identifying solvents (alternatives) that are not currently restricted by government regulations for use DOE-DP facilities, and private industry, (2) evaluating their cleaning performance, (3) evaluating their corrosivity, (4) evaluating their air emissions, (5) evaluating the possibility of recycling or recovering all or portions of the alternative degreasers, (6) testing substitute solvents compatibility with non-metallic materials, (7) inputting all of the data gathered (including previous biodegradability information) into a database, and (8) developing a methodology for efficient, widespread access to the data base information system.

  13. DOE solvent handbook information sheet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chavez, A.A.


    Solvents and cleaners are used in the Department of Defense (DOD) and the Department of Energy-Defense Program (DOE-DP) maintenance facilities for removing wax, grease, oil, carbon, machining fluids, solder fluxes, mold releases, and other contaminants before repairing or electroplating parts. Private industry also uses cleaners and degreasers for surface preparation of various metals. Growing environmental and worker safety concerns have brought attention to these solvents and cleaners, most of which are classified as toxic. Tightening government regulations have already excluded the use of some chemicals, and restrict the use of various halogenated hydrocarbons because of their atmospheric-ozone depleting effects, as well as their cancer-related risks. As a result, a program was established to develop an efficient, easily accessible, electronic solvent utilization handbook. This is being accomplished by: (1) identifying solvents (alternatives) that are not currently restricted by government regulations for use DOE-DP facilities, and private industry, (2) evaluating their cleaning performance, (3) evaluating their corrosivity, (4) evaluating their air emissions, (5) evaluating the possibility of recycling or recovering all or portions of the alternative degreasers, (6) testing substitute solvents compatibility with non-metallic materials, (7) inputting all of the data gathered (including previous biodegradability information) into a database, and (8) developing a methodology for efficient, widespread access to the data base information system.

  14. Computer Aided Solvent Selection and Design Framework

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mitrofanov, Igor; Conte, Elisa; Abildskov, Jens

    , millions of tons solvents have to be wasted every year [2]. Therefore, it becomes important to minimize and optimize the use of organic solvents as much as possible, to satisfy the “Green Chemistry Principles” [3]. Another challenge is that currently solvent selection relies very much on previous...... is to develop a systematic framework and implement it as software for selection and design of solvents for many applications including organic synthesis, complex reaction systems and solvent-based separations. The solvent selection framework is based on a combination of knowledge from industrial practice...... identification of solvent candidates using special software ProCAMD and ProPred, which are the implementations of computer-aided molecular techniques. The second consists of assigning the RS-indices following the reaction–solvent and then consulting the known solvent database and identifying the set of solvents...

  15. (±)-trans-6,6'-Dieth-oxy-2,2'-[cyclo-hexane-1,2-diylbis(nitrilo-methanylyl-idene)]diphenol monohydrate. (United States)

    Mohan, Nithya; Sreejith, S S; Sithambaresan, M; Kurup, M R Prathapachandra


    In the title hydrate, C24H30N2O4·H2O, the organic mol-ecule adopts an E conformation with respect to the azomethine double bonds. The cyclo-hexane ring is in a chair conformation. The dihedral angle between benzene rings is 79.6 (2)°. Two intra-molecular O-H⋯N hydrogen bonds are present. In the crystal, the components are linked by O-H⋯O hydrogen bonds and weak C-H⋯π inter-actions, generating a three-dimensional supramolecular architecture.

  16. (±-trans-6,6′-Diethoxy-2,2′-[cyclohexane-1,2-diylbis(nitrilomethanylylidene]diphenol monohydrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nithya Mohan


    Full Text Available In the title hydrate, C24H30N2O4·H2O, the organic molecule adopts an E conformation with respect to the azomethine double bonds. The cyclohexane ring is in a chair conformation. The dihedral angle between benzene rings is 79.6 (2°. Two intramolecular O—H...N hydrogen bonds are present. In the crystal, the components are linked by O–H...O hydrogen bonds and weak C—H...π interactions, generating a three-dimensional supramolecular architecture.

  17. Polymer-modified copper catalysts on carbon-containing support for reactions of H2O2 decomposition and cyclohexane oxidation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Auezkhanova


    Full Text Available Polymer-copper catalysts supported on a carbon-containing sorbent(CS, obtained by rice husk pyrolysis have been studied in the reactions of hydrogen peroxide decomposition and cyclohexane oxidation by hydrogen peroxide at 40°C and atmospheric pressure. The effect of the polymer nature on the activity of the developed catalysts have been shown. Polyhexamethyleneguanidine (PHMG was an optimal modifier for the developed catalysts. The calculated number of catalytic cycles (TON for 7% Cu-PGMG/CS was 450.

  18. Cyclohexane-1,2-dione hydrolase from denitrifying Azoarcus sp. strain 22Lin, a novel member of the thiamine diphosphate enzyme family. (United States)

    Steinbach, Alma K; Fraas, Sonja; Harder, Jens; Tabbert, Anja; Brinkmann, Henner; Meyer, Axel; Ermler, Ulrich; Kroneck, Peter M H


    Alicyclic compounds with hydroxyl groups represent common structures in numerous natural compounds, such as terpenes and steroids. Their degradation by microorganisms in the absence of dioxygen may involve a C-C bond ring cleavage to form an aliphatic intermediate that can be further oxidized. The cyclohexane-1,2-dione hydrolase (CDH) (EC from denitrifying Azoarcus sp. strain 22Lin, grown on cyclohexane-1,2-diol as a sole electron donor and carbon source, is the first thiamine diphosphate (ThDP)-dependent enzyme characterized to date that cleaves a cyclic aliphatic compound. The degradation of cyclohexane-1,2-dione (CDO) to 6-oxohexanoate comprises the cleavage of a C-C bond adjacent to a carbonyl group, a typical feature of reactions catalyzed by ThDP-dependent enzymes. In the subsequent NAD(+)-dependent reaction, 6-oxohexanoate is oxidized to adipate. CDH has been purified to homogeneity by the criteria of gel electrophoresis (a single band at ∼59 kDa; calculated molecular mass, 64.5 kDa); in solution, the enzyme is a homodimer (∼105 kDa; gel filtration). As isolated, CDH contains 0.8 ± 0.05 ThDP, 1.0 ± 0.02 Mg(2+), and 1.0 ± 0.015 flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD) per monomer as a second organic cofactor, the role of which remains unclear. Strong reductants, Ti(III)-citrate, Na(+)-dithionite, and the photochemical 5-deazaflavin/oxalate system, led to a partial reduction of the FAD chromophore. The cleavage product of CDO, 6-oxohexanoate, was also a substrate; the corresponding cyclic 1,3- and 1,4-diones did not react with CDH, nor did the cis- and trans-cyclohexane diols. The enzymes acetohydroxyacid synthase (AHAS) from Saccharomyces cerevisiae, pyruvate oxidase (POX) from Lactobacillus plantarum, benzoylformate decarboxylase from Pseudomonas putida, and pyruvate decarboxylase from Zymomonas mobilis were identified as the closest relatives of CDH by comparative amino acid sequence analysis, and a ThDP binding motif and a 2-fold Rossmann fold

  19. Interconvertions between delta-lactam and delta-lactone derivatives initiated by unique transannular interactions of the rigid cyclohexane boat structure in pentacycloundecane. (United States)

    Kruger, Hendrik G; Martins, Frans J C; Viljoen, Agatha M


    The pentacycloundecane (PCU) cage structure resembles a perfect boat conformation, and for the first time unique lactam/lactone interconversions on the flagpole carbons of a cyclohexane boat structure are reported. The syntheses of a novel dihydroxy-PCU-delta-lactone and two novel N-substituted PCU-delta-lactams are reported. Hydrolysis of some of the PCU-delta-lactam compounds produced delta-lactones, and reaction of the lactones with ammonia or primary amines again produced delta-lactams. Reaction mechanisms to account for the unusual interconversion reactions induced by transannular interactions are proposed.

  20. Glycerol based solvents: synthesis, properties and applications


    García, José I.; García-Marín, Héctor; Pires, Elísabet


    The most recent advances in the use of glycerol and glycerol derivatives as solvents are reviewed. There are an increasing number of examples of the use of glycerol itself as a reaction medium, solvent-reagent or a dispersive medium for a large variety of applications. In the case of glycerol derivatives, new synthetic methods, physico-chemical properties and application examples as solvents are revised. Recent studies in the field of solvent classification, as well as solvent substitution is...

  1. Multiple sclerosis and organic solvents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, J T; Brønnum-Hansen, Henrik; Rasmussen, K


    We investigated a possible causal relation between exposure to organic solvents in Danish workers (housepainters, typographers/printers, carpenters/cabinetmakers) and onset of multiple sclerosis. Data on men included in the Danish Multiple Sclerosis Register (3,241 men) were linked with data from......, and butchers. Over a follow-up period of 20 years, we observed no increase in the incidence of multiple sclerosis among men presumed to be exposed to organic solvents. It was not possible to obtain data on potential confounders, and the study design has some potential for selection bias. Nevertheless......, the study does not support existing hypotheses regarding an association between occupational exposure to organic solvents and multiple sclerosis....

  2. Kinetic and fluid descriptions of charged particle swarms in gases and nonpolar fluids: Theory and applications (United States)

    Dujko, Sasa


    In this work we review the progress achieved over the last few decades in the fundamental kinetic theory of charged particle swarms with the focus on numerical techniques for the solution of Boltzmann's equation for electrons, as well as on the development of fluid models. We present a time-dependent multi term solution of Boltzmann's equation valid for electrons and positrons in varying configurations of electric and magnetic fields. The capacity of a theory and associated computer code will be illustrated by considering the heating mechanisms for electrons in radio-frequency electric and magnetic fields in a collision-dominated regime under conditions when electron transport is greatly affected by non-conservative collisions. The kinetic theory for solving the Boltzmann equation will be followed by a fluid equation description of charged particle swarms in both the hydrodynamic and non-hydrodynamic regimes, highlighting (i) the utility of momentum transfer theory for evaluating collisional terms in the balance equations and (ii) closure assumptions and approximations. The applications of this theory are split into three sections. First, we will present our 1.5D model of Resistive Plate Chambers (RPCs) which are used for timing and triggering purposes in many high energy physics experiments. The model is employed to study the avalanche to streamer transition in RPCs under the influence of space charge effects and photoionization. Second, we will discuss our high-order fluid model for streamer discharges. Particular emphases will be placed on the correct implementation of transport data in streamer models as well as on the evaluation of the mean-energy-dependent collision rates for electrons required as an input in the high-order fluid model. In the last segment of this work, we will present our model to study the avalanche to streamer transition in non-polar fluids. Using a Monte Carlo simulation technique we have calculated transport coefficients for electrons in

  3. White light-emitting diodes based on nonpolar and semipolar gallium nitride orientations (United States)

    Demille, Natalie Fellows

    Gallium nitride has become one of the key components when fabricating white light-emitting diodes. Its use as the blue source in conjunction with a wavelength converter such as the yellow emitting phosphor YAG:Ce 3+ is a technology that is commercially available and usable for solid state lighting applications. Currently available white phosphor-based LEDs (pcLEDs) use the basal plane of wurtzite GaN as their source. Although research over the past couple decades has developed this technology into devices with good photometric performance and high reliability, the introduction of nonbasal plane wurtzite GaN orientations have benefits over basal plane GaN that can be incorporated into the white LED. The focus of this research deals with exploring white illumination on nonpolar and semipolar planes of GaN. Light extraction techniques will be described that allowed for high output powers and efficiencies on the c-plane as well as the (1100), (10 11), and (1122) planes of GaN. With higher performing devices, white pcLEDs were fabricated on c-plane, m-plane, and the (1011) semipolar plane. The novelty in the present research is producing white LEDs with nonbasal plane diodes which exhibit optical polarization anisotropy. This feature, absent on the basal plane, allows for tuning photometric quantities both electrically and optically. This is demonstrated on pcLEDs as well as dichromatic LEDs comprised solely of InGaN diodes. As a consequence of these measurements, an apparent optical polarization was seen to be occurring in the luminescence of the YAG:Ce3+ when the system absorbed linearly polarized light. Polarized emission in YAG:Ce3+ was explored by obtaining single crystals of YAG:Ce3+ with different planar orientations. The experiments led to the conclusion that crystal orientation plays no part in the optical polarization. It is suggested that the cause is a result of electric dipole transitions given by various selection rules between the Ce 3+ ion's 4f and 5d

  4. Effects of {beta}-polynitration on the catalytic efficiency of ruthenium porphyrins in cyclohexane oxidation; Efeitos da {beta}-polinitracao na eficiencia catalitica de rutenioporfirinas em reacoes de oxidacao de cicloexano

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guimaraes, Christian Alexander; Santos, Mirian Cristina dos; Moraes, Margarida de [Sao Carlos Univ., SP (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica]. E-mail:


    Ruthenium porphyrins, especially with several nitro groups in b-positions, were used in the cyclohexane oxidation in the presence of iodosylbenzene, hydrogen peroxide and sodium hypochlorite as oxygen donors, under mild conditions. The b-polynitrated complexes were able to promote the catalytic cyclohexane oxidation. They show an exceptionally high catalytic efficiency and resistance to attack by strong oxidizing agents. The cyclohexane oxidation was monitored by gas chromatography and the results showed that the b-polynitrated ruthenium porphyrins are better catalysts when compared to other complexes not b-polynitrated. In all cases, the 2-phenyl substituted complexes were more efficient than 4-phenyl substituted complexes. The importance of the ortho effect to oxidation was shown. (author)

  5. The flotation of Roşia Poieni copper ore in column machine, with non-polar oils addition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ciocani V.


    Full Text Available The most important natural resource of copper in Romania is the ore deposit of Roşia Poieni. At present, the utilization of Roşia Poieni poorphyry copper ore is possible by extraction in quarry of the mass ore and mineral processing into a technological flux with modest results for the value of metal recovery in concentrate 70-72 % and an average contents of 16,5 % Cu. Our researches were directed to studies regarding test and utilisation of special procedure of flotation – addition of the non-polar oil – applied to advanced grinding ore with column type machines.

  6. Free ion yields for nonpolar liquids exposed to 1.6-3.5 keV X-rays

    CERN Document Server

    Holroyd, R A


    The yields of free ions formed following absorption of 1.6-3.5 keV X-rays were determined for several nonpolar liquids using a conductivity technique. The yields are much less for X-rays than for gamma rays; this effect is largest for branched hydrocarbons. A minimum in yield is observed around 2 keV. The dependence of G sub f sub i sup o on X-ray energy is in good agreement with computer simulations. For tetramethylsilane a sharp dip in ion yield is observed at the Si ls -> sigma sup * resonance, indicating that the free electron yield is even less at this energy.

  7. Solvent effects on the photophysical properties of poly[1,4-dihydroxyanthraquinoneimine-1,3-bis(phenylene-ester-methylene)tetramethyldisiloxane]. (United States)

    Dorneanu, Petronela Pascariu; Homocianu, Mihaela; Tigoianu, Ionut Radu; Airinei, Anton; Zaltariov, Mirela; Cazacu, Maria


    Absorption and fluorescence spectra of a polyquinoneimine, PQI, built on 1,4-dihydroxyanthraquinone and a siloxane diamine, 1,3-bis(amino-phenylene-ester-methylene)tetramethyldisiloxane, have been investigated in solvents of different polarities. The effect of solvents on the spectral properties was investigated using Lippert-Mataga and Bakhshiev polarity functions and Catalán's multiple linear regression approach. Absorption and fluorescence spectra in studied solvents exhibit hypsochromic and bathochromic shifts, respectively. The polarity of the solvent was the main parameter which changes the spectral properties of PQI. Also, the binary mixtures of chloroform with methanol and dimethyl sulfoxide were used to analyze the intermolecular interactions and preferential solvation. The preferential solvation parameters (local mole fraction (X₂(L)), excess function (δs₂) and preferential solvation constant (KPS)) were calculated from spectral data and discussed as a function of cosolvent content. The values of quantum yield, decreased linearly with increasing solvent polarity (for non-polar and polar solvents).

  8. A combined molecular dynamic and quantum mechanic study of the solvent and guest molecule effect on the stability and length of heterocyclic peptide nanotubes. (United States)

    Izadyar, Mohammad; Khavani, Mohammad; Housaindokht, Mohammad Reza


    Molecular dynamic simulations were performed to investigate the stability of heterocyclic peptide nanotubes composed of 1,4-disubstituted-1,2,3-triazol ε-amino acid. 45 ns MD simulations were conducted on the cyclic peptide nanotube (CPNT) and cyclic peptide dimer in methanol, chloroform, and water and revealed that these structures are more stable in nonpolar solvents. MM-PBSA and MM-GBSA calculations were employed to analyze the solvent effect on the stability and length of the CPNT. These calculations showed that CPNT in chloroform was more stable and longer as compared to other solvents. In addition, the effect of the guest molecule (ethanol) inside the dimer and CPNT was investigated. The obtained results confirmed that guest molecule(s) stabilized the dimer and CPNT in all solvents. Quantum chemistry calculations on the cyclic peptide dimer were performed at the M06-2X/6-31G(d) level in the gas phase and three solvents. The obtained results from the quantum chemistry study were in good agreement with the MD simulation results. DFT calculations showed that the guest molecule stabilized the dimer structure and electrostatically interacted with the cyclic peptide dimer. Finally, for investigation of the solvent effects on the hydrogen bonds of the cyclic peptide dimer, NBO and AIM analysis were performed.

  9. Separation and identification of hydrocarbons and other volatile compounds from cultures of Aspergillus niger by GC–MS using two different capillary columns and solvents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shafiquzzaman Siddiquee


    Full Text Available A simple, fast, repeatable, and less laborious sample-preparation protocol based on gas chromatography–mass spectrometry was developed and applied for the analysis of bioactive compounds derived from the filamentous fungus Aspergillus niger strain SS10. The match factors for the spectra of the samples with reference to the mass-spectral library of fungal volatile compounds were determined and used to study the complex hydrocarbons and other volatile compounds that were separated using two different capillary columns and nonpolar and medium-polar stationary phases. More than 295 volatile compounds (spectral match factor of at least 90%, such as normal saturated hydrocarbons (C7–C30, cyclohexane, cyclopentane, fatty acids, alcohols, esters, sulfur- and bromo-containing compounds, simple pyrane, and benzene derivatives, were identified. Most of these compounds have not been reported earlier. The method described in this article is a suitable research tool for the determination of volatile compounds from the cultures of A. niger.

  10. Which solvent for olfactory testing? (United States)

    Philpott, C M; Goodenough, P C; Wolstenholme, C R; Murty, G E


    The physical properties of any carrier can deteriorate over time and thus alter the results in any olfactory test. The aim of this study was to evaluate clinically potential solvents as a clean odourless carrier for olfactory testing. Sweet almond oil, pure coconut oil, pure peach kernel oil, dipropylene glycol, monopropylene glycol, mineral oil and silicone oil were studied. The experimentation was conducted in two parts. First, an olfactory device was used to conduct air through the solvents on a weekly basis using a cohort of six volunteers to assess the perceived odour of each solvent at weekly intervals. Secondly a cross-reference test was performed using small bottled solutions of phenylethyl-alcohol and 1-butanol in 10-fold dilutions to compare any perceived difference in concentrations over a period of 8 weeks. We concluded that mineral oil is the most suitable carrier for the purpose of olfactory testing, possessing many desirable characteristics of an olfactory solvent, and that silicone oil may provide a suitable alternative for odorants with which it is miscible.

  11. Fluorescence and room temperature phosphorescence of 6-bromo-2-naphthol in {beta}-cyclodextrin solution and its selective molecular recognition for cyclohexane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhai Yanqiang; Zhang Shuzhen; Xie Jianwei; Liu Changsong


    The room temperature phosphorescence (RTP) and fluorescence behavior of 6-bromo-2-naphthol (BN) in water and {beta}-cyclodextrin ({beta}-CD) aerated aqueous solution was investigated. The study of fluorescence behavior at different pH values indicated that three kinds of species of BN (protonated, uncharged and anionic species) formed 1:1 inclusion complexes with {beta}-CD, and RTP and fluorescence emission depended on the pH of the solution. The inclusion complex constants were 430{+-}25 l mol{sup -1} (pH 1.80), 840{+-}25 l mol{sup -1} (pH 5.80), 1850{+-}75 l mol{sup -1} (pH 11.50), respectively. Experimental results elucidated that RTP of the BN/{beta}-CD/cyclohexane solution came from the protonated and uncharged species of BN, but not from the anionic species, though the inclusion constant of the anionic species of BN with {beta}-CD was larger than that of the other two species of BN Selective molecular recognition of BN/{beta}-CD as an RTP sensor for 28 small organic molecules was studied, it was shown that BN/{beta}-CD could be develop as a new RTP sensor with high selectivity molecular recognition ability for cyclohexane.

  12. (2Z,2′Z,4E,4′E-4,4′-(Cyclohexane-1,2-diyldinitrilodipent-2-en-2-ol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhi-Rong Qu


    Full Text Available A new tetradentate chiral Schiff base ligand, C16H26N2O2, has been synthesized by the reaction of acetylacetone with (1R,2R-(−-1,2-diaminocyclohexane. Both of the molecules in the asymmetric unit are of the same chirality (R configuration, since the absolute configuration was determined by the starting reagent (1R,2R-(−-1,2-diaminocyclohexane. The six-membered cyclohexane ring is in a chair conformation, and the substituents are equatorial in the most stable conformation (trans-cyclohexyl. At the ring substituents, large conjugated —C=N—CH=C—OH systems exist, resulting from the original ketone converted into the enol form. With H atoms excluded, the atoms of each substituent lie in the same plane. The two molecules in the asymmetric unit have almost the same structure, with slight differences in the torsion angles between the substituents and the cyclohexane ring; the corresponding N1—(C—C—Ccyclohexane torsion angles are −177.2 (3 and 179.3 (4° in one molecule and −176.5 (3 and 178.4 (4° in the other. Two intramolecular O—H...N hydrogen bonds exist in each molecule.

  13. Poly[hexa-aqua-(μ9-cyclo-hexane-1,2,3,4,5,6-hexa-carboxyl-ato)trimanganese(II)]. (United States)

    Sun, Weixuan; Zang, Hu; Quan, Chengshi


    The asymmetric unit of the title compound, [Mn3(C12H6O12)(H2O)6] n , comprises one Mn(II) ion, one third of a cyclo-hexane-1,2,3,4,5,6-hexa-carboxyl-ate anion and two aqua ligands. The anion is completed by application of a -3 axis. The Mn(II) ion is six-coordinated by six O atoms from two aqua ligands and three different cyclo-hexa-carboxyl-ate anions in an octa-hedral geometry. The six carboxyl-ate groups adopt a bridging bidentate mode to ligate the Mn(II) ions. Thus, each cyclo-hexane-1,2,3,4,5,6-hexa-carboxyl-ate anion adopts a μ9-connected mode, ligating nine different Mn(II) ions and forming a three-dimensional framework. In the framework, there are strong O-H⋯O hydrogen-bonding inter-actions, which further stabilize the crystal structure.

  14. trans,cis,cis-bis(benzoato)dichlorido(cyclohexane-1R,2R-diamine)platinum(IV): a prodrug candidate for the treatment of oxaliplatin-refractory colorectal cancer. (United States)

    Gandin, Valentina; Marzano, Cristina; Pelosi, Giorgio; Ravera, Mauro; Gabano, Elisabetta; Osella, Domenico


    The gold standard for the treatment of metastatic colorectal cancer consists of combination chemotherapy. Over time, however, the development of chemoresistant tumor clones leads to relapse. It may be possible to overcome oxaliplatin chemoresistance in colorectal cancer cells by exploiting a complex obtained from the insertion of the cyclohexane-1R,2R-diamine carrier ligand (the same diamine present in oxaliplatin) into an octahedral Pt(IV) scaffold with high lipophilicity conferred by two benzoate axial ligands. Herein we report the synthesis, characterization (including X-ray structure), biological activity, and cellular accumulation of trans,cis,cis-bis(benzoato)dichlorido(cyclohexane-1R,2R-diamine)platinum(IV) complex in a panel of several human cancer cell lines, including a colon carcinoma cell line resistant to oxaliplatin. The compound under investigation shows the best performance in terms of in vitro anti-proliferative activity and ability to overcome chemoresistance, with respect to oxaliplatin and some other Pt(II) reference complexes. This result is likely related to the high lipophilicity shown by the title compound that favors its cellular accumulation by passive diffusion. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. Combining a polarizable force-field and a coarse-grained polarizable solvent model. II. Accounting for hydrophobic effects. (United States)

    Masella, Michel; Borgis, Daniel; Cuniasse, Philippe


    A revised and improved version of our efficient polarizable force-field/coarse grained solvent combined approach (Masella, Borgis, and Cuniasse, J. Comput. Chem. 2008, 29, 1707) is described. The polarizable pseudo-particle solvent model represents the macroscopic solvent polarization by induced dipoles placed on mobile pseudo-particles. In this study, we propose a new formulation of the energy term handling the nonelectrostatic interactions among the pseudo-particles. This term is now able to reproduce the energetic and structural response of liquid water due to the presence of a hydrophobic spherical cavity. Accordingly, the parameters of the energy term handling the nonpolar solute/solvent interactions have been refined to reproduce the free-solvation energy of small solutes, based on a standard thermodynamic integration scheme. The reliability of this new approach has been checked for the properties of solvated methane and of the solvated methane dimer, as well as by performing 10 × 20 ns molecular dynamics (MD) trajectories for three solvated proteins. A long-time stability of the protein structures along the trajectories is observed. Moreover, our method still provides a measure of the protein solvation thermodynamic at the same accuracy as standard Poisson-Boltzman continuum methods. These results show the relevance of our approach and its applicability to massively coupled MD schemes to accurately and intensively explore solvated macromolecule potential energy surfaces.

  16. Method for analyzing solvent extracted sponge core

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ellington, W.E.; Calkin, C.L.


    For use in solvent extracted sponge core measurements of the oil saturation of earth formations, a method is described for quantifying the volume of oil in the fluids resulting from such extraction. The method consists of: (a) separating the solvent/oil mixture from the water in the extracted fluids, (b) distilling at least a portion of the solvent from the solvent/oil mixture substantially without co-distillation or loss of the light hydrocarbons in the mixture, (c) determining the volume contribution of the solvent remaining in the mixture, and (d) determining the volume of oil removed from the sponge by substracting the determined remaining solvent volume.

  17. Synergic solvent extraction and thermal studies of fluorinated beta-diketone-organophosphorus adduct complexes of lanthanide and related elements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitchell, James Winfield [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)


    Solvent extraction and gas chromatography have proven to be very successful techniques for quantitative separation and determination of many types of compounds. While the former has been well established as a universal tool for both organic and inorganic separations, the latter has been primarily used for organic applications. Recent investigations (80) however, have amply demonstrated the utility of gas chromatography for inorganic analysis. Although both techniqes provide excellent analytical capabilities, a greater analytical potential for separation and determination of inorganic materials would be produced by a combination of the two techniques. The combination of the resoltion capabilites of gas chromatography and the specificity of solvent extraction should considerably broaden the scope of practical analysis of cationic mixtures. During a recent study at the Ames Laboratory a mixture of hexafluoracetylacetone (HHFA) and tri-n-butylphosphate (TBP) in cyclohexane was used for the first time as a gas chromatographic reagent for the lanthanide elements (19). This initial work included a broad spectrum of studies designed to assess the potential of mixed-ligand chelates for inorganic gas chromatography. The successful gas chromatography (GC) R.E.(A) 3 -2TBP, where A is the anion of the ligand and R.E. represents the rare earth cation, were extracted into the organic phase. The synergic system, HHFA-TBP, was found to possess extraction properties necessary for a subsequent gas chromatographic determination. Rare earths at micro and macro levels (10-8 to 10-2 _M_) were rapidly and quantitatively converted to the corresponding mixed chelates under pH conditions such that hydrolysis of the cations in the aqueous phase did not occur. The stioichiometry of the complexes extracted into solutions of HHFA-TBP in cyclohexane remained constant for the lanthanide series. Analytical extraction curves were measured for Th(IV), Sc(III), U

  18. Stability studies of colloidal silica dispersions in binary solvent mixtures

    CERN Document Server

    Bean, K H


    A series of monodispersed colloidal silica dispersions, of varying radii, has been prepared. These particles are hydrophilic in nature due to the presence of surface silanol groups. Some of the particles have been rendered hydrophobic by terminally grafting n-alkyl (C sub 1 sub 8) chains to the surface. The stability of dispersions of these various particles has been studied in binary mixtures of liquids, namely (i) ethanol and cyclohexane, and (ii) benzene and n-heptane. The ethanol - cyclohexane systems have been studied using a variety of techniques. Adsorption excess isotherms have been established and electrophoretic mobility measurements have been made. The predicted stability of the dispersions from D.V.L.O. calculations is compared to the observed stability. The hydrophilic silica particles behave as predicted by the calculations, with the zeta potential decreasing and the van der Waals attraction increasing with increasing cyclohexane concentration. The hydrophobic particles behave differently than e...

  19. Vacuum-UV spectroscopy of interstellar ice analogs. II. Absorption cross-sections of nonpolar ice molecules

    CERN Document Server

    Cruz-Diaz, G A; Chen, Y -J; Yih, T -S


    Dust grains in cold circumstellar regions and dark-cloud interiors at 10-20 K are covered by ice mantles. A nonthermal desorption mechanism is invoked to explain the presence of gas-phase molecules in these environments, such as the photodesorption induced by irradiation of ice due to secondary ultraviolet photons. To quantify the effects of ice photoprocessing, an estimate of the photon absorption in ice mantles is required. In a recent work, we reported the vacuum-ultraviolet (VUV) absorption cross sections of nonpolar molecules in the solid phase. The aim was to estimate the VUV-absorption cross sections of nonpolar molecular ice components, including CH4, CO2, N2, and O2. The column densities of the ice samples deposited at 8 K were measured in situ by infrared spectroscopy in transmittance. VUV spectra of the ice samples were collected in the 120-160 nm (10.33-7.74 eV) range using a commercial microwave-discharged hydrogen flow lamp. We found that, as expected, solid N2 has the lowest VUV-absorption cros...

  20. Radiative recombination mechanisms in polar and non-polar InGaN/GaN quantum well LED structures (United States)

    Badcock, T. J.; Ali, M.; Zhu, T.; Pristovsek, M.; Oliver, R. A.; Shields, A. J.


    We study the photoluminescence internal quantum efficiency (IQE) and recombination dynamics in a pair of polar and non-polar InGaN/GaN quantum well (QW) light-emitting diode (LED) structures as a function of excess carrier density and temperature. In the polar LED at 293 K, the variation of radiative and non-radiative lifetimes is well described by a modified ABC type model which accounts for the background carrier concentration in the QWs due to unintentional doping. As the temperature is reduced, the sensitivity of the radiative lifetime to excess carrier density becomes progressively weaker. We attribute this behaviour to the reduced mobility of the localised electrons and holes at low temperatures, resulting in a more monomolecular like radiative process. Thus we propose that in polar QWs, the degree of carrier localisation determines the sensitivity of the radiative lifetime to the excess carrier density. In the non-polar LED, the radiative lifetime is independent of excitation density at room temperature, consistent with a wholly excitonic recombination mechanism. These findings have significance for the interpretation of LED efficiency data within the context of the ABC recombination model.

  1. Effects of growth temperature on nonpolar a-plane InN grown by molecular beam epitaxy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rajpalke, Mohana K.; Bhat, Thirumaleshwara N.; Krupanidhi, S.B. [Materials Research Centre, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore-560012 (India); Roul, Basanta [Materials Research Centre, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore-560012 (India); Central Research Laboratory, Bharat Electronics, Bangalore-560013 (India); Kumar, Mahesh [Materials Research Centre, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore-560012 (India); Centre of Excellence in Information and Communication Technology, Indian Institute of Technology, Jodhpur-342011 (India); Sinha, Neeraj [Office of Principal Scientific Advisor, Government of India, New Delhi 110011 (India); Department of Materials Science, Gulbarga University, Gulbarga 585 106 (India); Jali, V.M. [Department of Physics, Gulbarga University, Gulbarga 585 106 (India)


    Nonpolar a-plane InN films were grown on r-plane sapphire substrate by plasma assisted molecular beam epitaxy with GaN underlayer. Effect of growth temperature on structural, morphological, and optical properties has been studied. The growth of nonpolar a-plane (1 1 -2 0) orientation was confirmed by high resolution X-ray diffraction study. The film grown at 500 C shows better crystallinity with the rocking curve FWHM 0.67 and 0.85 along [0 0 0 1] and [1 -1 0 0] directions, respectively. Scanning electron micrograph shows formation of Indium droplets at higher growth temperature. Room tem-perature absorption spectra show growth temperature dependent band gap variation from 0.74-0.81 eV, consistent with the expected Burstein-Moss effect. The rectifying behaviour of the I-V curve indicates the existence of Schottky barrier at the InN and GaN interface. (copyright 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  2. Chemically assisted ion beam etching of laser diode facets on nonpolar and semipolar orientations of GaN (United States)

    Kuritzky, L. Y.; Becerra, D. L.; Saud Abbas, A.; Nedy, J.; Nakamura, S.; DenBaars, S. P.; Cohen, D. A.


    We demonstrate a vertical (beam etching (CAIBE) in Cl2 chemistry that is suitable for forming laser diode (LD) facets on nonpolar and semipolar oriented III-nitride devices. The etch profiles were achieved with photoresist masks and optimized CAIBE chamber conditions including the platen tilt angle and Cl2 flow rate. Co-loaded studies showed similar etch rates of ˜60 nm min-1 for (20\\bar{2}\\bar{1}),(20\\bar{2}1), and m-plane orientations. The etched surfaces of LD facets on these orientations are chemically dissimilar (Ga-rich versus N-rich), but were visually indistinguishable, thus confirming the negligible orientation dependence of the etch. Continuous-wave blue LDs were fabricated on the semipolar (20\\bar{2}\\bar{1}) plane to compare CAIBE and reactive ion etch (RIE) facet processes. The CAIBE process resulted in LDs with lower threshold current densities due to reduced parasitic mirror loss compared with the RIE process. The LER, degree of verticality, and model of the 1D vertical laser mode were used to calculate a maximum uncoated facet reflection of 17% (94% of the nominal) for the CAIBE facet. The results demonstrate the suitability of CAIBE for forming high quality facets for high performance nonpolar and semipolar III-N LDs.

  3. Effects of n-alkanes on compositions of cellular non-polar lipids in Aspergillus sp. isolated from soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miyazima, M.; Iida, M.; Iizuka, H.


    A strain of hydrocarbon-using filamentous fungi, Aspergillus sp. No. 250-2, was grown on n-alkanes (C/sub 11/ to C/sub 16/) and glucose as the sole carbon and energy sources, and the distribution of cellular non-polar lipids was determined. The non-polar lipids were examined by thin-layer chromatography; they were sterols, sterol esters, diglycerides, triglycerides, and free fatty acids, and the major lipids were free fatty acids and triglycerides on all substrates. Free fatty acids were mainly even-chain saturated acids on all substrates. When grown on n-C/sub 11/ to 15, the unsaturated fatty acids were mainly incorporated into triglyceride, but there were saturated fatty acids with n-C/sub 16/ and glucose. The proportion of C/sub 16/.0 acid was increased markedly in n-C/sub 16/-grown cells, but C18:0 acid was increased in glucose-grown cells. Compositions of odd-chain fatty acids were slightly increased in both free fatty acids and triglycerides from n-C/sub 15/-grown cells. It is suggested that n-alkanes as substrates influenced the incorporation of fatty acids into triglyceride.

  4. Mechanism and energetics of O and O2 adsorption on polar and non-polar ZnO surfaces (United States)

    Gorai, Prashun; Seebauer, Edmund G.; Ertekin, Elif


    Polar surfaces of semiconducting metal oxides can exhibit structures and chemical reactivities that are distinct from their non-polar surfaces. Using first-principles calculations, we examine O adatom and O2 molecule adsorption on 8 different known ZnO reconstructions including Zn-terminated (Zn-ZnO) and O-terminated (O-ZnO) polar surfaces, and non-polar surfaces. We find that adsorption tendencies are largely governed by the thermodynamic environment, but exhibit variations due to the different surface chemistries of various reconstructions. The Zn-ZnO surface reconstructions which appear under O-rich and H-poor environments are found to be most amenable to O and O2 adsorption. We attribute this to the fact that on Zn-ZnO, the O-rich environments that promote O adsorption also simultaneously favor reconstructions that involve adsorbed O species. On these Zn-ZnO surfaces, O2 dissociatively adsorbs to form O adatoms. By contrast, on O-ZnO surfaces, the O-rich conditions required for O or O2 adsorption tend to promote reconstructions involving adsorbed H species, making further O species adsorption more difficult. These insights about O2 adsorption on ZnO surfaces suggest possible design rules to understand the adsorption properties of semiconductor polar surfaces.

  5. Solvent effect on polystyrene surface roughness on top of QCM sensor (United States)

    Sakti, Setyawan P.; Rahmawati, Eka; Robiandi, Fadli


    Quartz Crystal Microbalance (QCM) has been used as a basis for many chemical sensors and biosensor. Its sensitivity to mass change which can detect a mass change on its surface down to sub ng/cm2 is one of its interesting aspects. Another interesting feature is its ability to work in liquid environment. However, there are many aspects which influence QCM sensor properties in contact with liquid. One of the aspects is surface roughness of the matrix layer where on top of it a biological sensitive layer will be immobilized. One of matrix layers in the immobilizing biological sensitive layer was polystyrene. Polystyrene was coated on the QCM sensor by using the spin coating method. During the coating process, polystyrene was solved using non-polar solvent. It is known that the physical and chemical properties of the solvent affect a transition process from soluble polymer becoming rigid polymer layer. In this work, we show that polystyrene solved in chloroform has a higher surface roughness compare to one solved in toluene, xylene, or tetrahydrofuran. Surface roughness of the polystyrene coating were measured using a non-contact profilometer. However, we also found that there is no difference on the electrical impedance of the QCM sensor coated with polystyrene resulted from differing solvent when the sensor was in contact with air and water. Thus, all of the mentioned solvent can be used to solve the polystyrene as a coating material for QCM sensor without affecting the electrical performance of the sensor, but the choice of the solution can be used as a simple method to control the difference roughness of the polystyrene coating.

  6. Conversion of polar and non-polar algae oil lipids to fatty acid methyl esters with solid acid catalysts--A model compound study. (United States)

    Asikainen, Martta; Munter, Tony; Linnekoski, Juha


    Bio-based fuels are becoming more and more important due to the depleting fossil resources. The production of biodiesel from algae oil is challenging compared to terrestrial vegetable oils, as algae oil consists of polar fatty acids, such as phospholipids and glycolipids, as well as non-polar triglycerides and free fatty acids common in vegetable oils. It is shown that a single sulphonated solid acid catalyst can perform the esterification and transesterification reactions of both polar and non-polar lipids. In mild reaction conditions (60-70 °C) Nafion NR50 catalyst produces methyl palmitate (FAME) from the palmitic acid derivatives of di-, and tri-glyceride, free fatty acid, and phospholipid with over 80% yields, with the glycolipid derivative giving nearly 40% yields of FAME. These results demonstrate how the polar and non-polar lipid derivatives of algal oil can be utilised as feedstocks for biodiesel production with a single catalyst in one reaction step.

  7. Structural stability of scandium on nonpolar GaN (112{sup ¯}0) and (101{sup ¯}0) surfaces: A first-principles study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    González-Hernández, Rafael, E-mail: [Grupo de Investigación en Física Aplicada, Departamento de Física, Universidad del Norte, Barranquilla (Colombia); Martínez, Gustavo; López-Perez, William [Grupo de Investigación en Física Aplicada, Departamento de Física, Universidad del Norte, Barranquilla (Colombia); Rodriguez, Jairo Arbey [Grupo de Estudio de Materiales, Departamento de Física, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Bogotá (Colombia)


    First-principles calculations based on density-functional theory have been implemented to study the scandium (Sc) adsorption and incorporation on nonpolar GaN (112{sup ¯}0) and (101{sup ¯}0) surfaces. It is found that Sc adatom prefers to reside at bridge positions, between the hollow and top sites, on both GaN nonpolar surfaces. In addition, calculating the relative surface energy of several Sc configurations, we constructed a phase diagram showing the energetically most stable surfaces as a function of the Ga chemical potentials. Based on these results, we have found that incorporation of Sc adatoms in the Ga-substitutional site is energetically more favorable compared with the adsorption on the top layers. This effect leads to the formation of ScN interlayers on nonpolar GaN (112{sup ¯}0) and (101{sup ¯}0) surfaces, which reduces the dislocation densities between GaN and ScN.

  8. Scalable synthesis of organic-soluble carbon quantum dots: superior optical properties in solvents, solids, and LEDs. (United States)

    Wu, Minghong; Zhan, Jing; Geng, Bijiang; He, Piaopiao; Wu, Kuan; Wang, Liang; Xu, Gang; Li, Zhen; Yin, Luqiao; Pan, Dengyu


    Carbon quantum dots (CQDs) have attracted much attention owing to their unique optical properties and a wide range of applications. The fabrication and control of CQDs with organic solubility and long-wavelength emission are still urgent issues to be addressed for their practical use in LEDs. Here, organic-soluble CQDs were produced at a high yield of ∼90% by a facile solvent engineering treatment of 1,3,6-trinitropyrene, which were simultaneously used as the nitrogen and carbon sources. The optical properties of the organic-soluble CQDs (o-CQDs) were investigated in nonpolar and polar solvents, films, and LED devices. The CQDs have a narrow size distribution around 2.66 nm, and can be dispersed in different organic solvents. Significantly, the as-prepared CQDs present an excitation-independent emission at 607 nm with fluorescence quantum yields (QYs) up to 65.93% in toluene solution. A pronounced solvent effect was observed and their strong absorption bands can be tuned in the whole visible region (400-750 nm) by changing the solvent. The CQDs in various solvents can emit bright, excitation-independent, long-wavelength fluorescence (orange to red). Furthermore, benefiting from the unique oil-solution properties, the as-prepared CQDs can be processed in thin film and device forms to meet the requirements of various applications, such as phosphor-based white-light LEDs. The color coordinate for these CQD modified LEDs is realized at (0.32, 0.31), which is close to pure white light (0.33, 0.33).

  9. Reactions and Separations in Green Solvents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Spronsen, J.


    Most chemical processes involve solvents in the reaction and the separation step. These solvents give rise to a heavy environmental and economical burden. Moreover, these solvents are based on non-sustainable resources like petroleum. The aim of this thesis has been to develop a number of alternativ

  10. Reactions and Separations in Green Solvents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Spronsen, J.


    Most chemical processes involve solvents in the reaction and the separation step. These solvents give rise to a heavy environmental and economical burden. Moreover, these solvents are based on non-sustainable resources like petroleum. The aim of this thesis has been to develop a number of

  11. The solvent component of macromolecular crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weichenberger, Christian X. [European Academy of Bozen/Bolzano (EURAC), Viale Druso 1, Bozen/Bolzano, I-39100 Südtirol/Alto Adige (Italy); Afonine, Pavel V. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), 1 Cyclotron Road, Mail Stop 64R0121, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Kantardjieff, Katherine [California State University, San Marcos, CA 92078 (United States); Rupp, Bernhard, E-mail: [k.-k. Hofkristallamt, 991 Audrey Place, Vista, CA 92084 (United States); Medical University of Innsbruck, Schöpfstrasse 41, A-6020 Innsbruck (Austria)


    On average, the mother liquor or solvent and its constituents occupy about 50% of a macromolecular crystal. Ordered as well as disordered solvent components need to be accurately accounted for in modelling and refinement, often with considerable complexity. The mother liquor from which a biomolecular crystal is grown will contain water, buffer molecules, native ligands and cofactors, crystallization precipitants and additives, various metal ions, and often small-molecule ligands or inhibitors. On average, about half the volume of a biomolecular crystal consists of this mother liquor, whose components form the disordered bulk solvent. Its scattering contributions can be exploited in initial phasing and must be included in crystal structure refinement as a bulk-solvent model. Concomitantly, distinct electron density originating from ordered solvent components must be correctly identified and represented as part of the atomic crystal structure model. Herein, are reviewed (i) probabilistic bulk-solvent content estimates, (ii) the use of bulk-solvent density modification in phase improvement, (iii) bulk-solvent models and refinement of bulk-solvent contributions and (iv) modelling and validation of ordered solvent constituents. A brief summary is provided of current tools for bulk-solvent analysis and refinement, as well as of modelling, refinement and analysis of ordered solvent components, including small-molecule ligands.

  12. The hype with ionic liquids as solvents (United States)

    Kunz, Werner; Häckl, Katharina


    In this mini review, we give our personal opinion about the present state of the art concerning Ionic Liquids, proposed as alternative solvents. In particular, we consider their different drawbacks and disadvantages and discuss the critical aspects of the research of Ionic Liquids as solvents. Finally, we point out some aspects on potentially promising Ionic Liquid solvents.

  13. Effects of Si-doping on structural, electrical, and optical properties of polar and non-polar AlGaN epi-layers (United States)

    Yang, Hongquan; Zhang, Xiong; Wang, Shuchang; Wang, Yi; Luan, Huakai; Dai, Qian; Wu, Zili; Zhao, Jianguo; Cui, Yiping


    The polar (0001)-oriented c-plane and non-polar (11 2 bar 0) -oriented a-plane wurtzite AlGaN epi-layers were successfully grown on polar (0001)-oriented c-plane and semi-polar (1 1 bar 02) -oriented r-plane sapphire substrates, respectively with various Si-doping levels in a low pressure metal organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) system. The morphological, structural, electrical, and optical properties of the polar and non-polar AlGaN epi-layers were studied with scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Hall effect, and Raman spectroscopy. The characterization results show that Si dopants incorporated into the polar and non-polar AlGaN films induced a relaxation of compressive residual strain and a generation of biaxial tensile strain on the surface in consequence of the dislocation climbing. In particular, it was found that the Si-induced compressive strain relaxation in the non-polar AlGaN samples can be promoted by the structural anisotropy as compared with the polar counterparts. The gradually increased relaxation of compressive residual strain in both polar and non-polar AlGaN samples with increasing Si-doping level was attributed to the Si-induced enhancement in the opportunity for the dislocations to interact and annihilate. This implies that the crystal quality for both polar and non-polar AlGaN epi-layers can be remarkably improved by Si-doping.

  14. Purification and characterization of a thermo- and organic solvent-tolerant alkaline protease from Bacillus sp. JER02. (United States)

    Badoei-Dalfard, Arastoo; Karami, Zahra; Ravan, Hadi


    Bacillus sp. JER02 is a bacterial strain that can be grown in a medium containing organic solvents and produce a protease enzyme. JER02 protease was purified with a yield of 31.9% of total protein and 328.83-fold purification. Km and Vmax of this protease were established as 0.826 µM and 7.18 µmol/min, respectively. JER02 protease stability was stimulated about 80% by cyclohexane. It exhibited optimum temperature activity at 70°C. Furthermore, this enzyme was active in a wide range of pH (4-12) and showed maximum activity at pH 9.0. The nonionic detergents Tween-20 and Triton X-100 improved the protease activity by 30 and 20%, respectively. In addition, this enzyme was shown to be very stable in the presence of strong anionic surfactants and oxidizing agents, since it retained 77%, 93%, and 98% of its initial activity, after 1 hr of incubation at room temperature with sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), sodium perborate (1%, v/v) and H2O2 (1%, v/v), respectively. Overall, the unique properties of the Bacillus sp. JER02 protease suggested that this thermo- and detergent-stable, solvent-tolerant protease has great potential for industrial applications.

  15. Solvent cleaning system and method for removing contaminants from solvent used in resin recycling (United States)

    Bohnert, George W.; Hand, Thomas E.; DeLaurentiis, Gary M.


    A two step solvent and carbon dioxide based system that produces essentially contaminant-free synthetic resin material and which further includes a solvent cleaning system for periodically removing the contaminants from the solvent so that the solvent can be reused and the contaminants can be collected and safely discarded in an environmentally safe manner.

  16. Ion Exchange and Solvent Extraction: Supramolecular Aspects of Solvent Exchange Volume 21

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gloe, Karsten [Technischen Universität Dresden; Tasker, Peter A [ORNL; Oshima, Tatsuya [University of Miyazaki; Watarai, Hitoshi [Institute for NanoScience Design at Osaka University; Nilsson, Mikael [University of California, Irvine


    Preface The theme of supramolecular chemistry (SC), entailing the organization of multiple species through noncovalent interactions, has permeated virtually all aspects of chemical endeavor over the past several decades. Given that the observed behavior of discrete molecular species depends upon their weak interactions with one another and with matrix components, one would have to conclude that SC must indeed form part of the fabric of chemistry itself. A vast literature now serves to categorize SC phenomena within a body of consistent terminology. The word supramolecular itself appears in the titles of dozens of books, several journals, and a dedicated encyclopedia. Not surprisingly, the theme of SC also permeates the field of solvent extraction (SX), inspiring the framework for this volume of Ion Exchange and Solvent Extraction. It is attempted in the six chapters of this volume to identify both how supramolecular behavior occurs and is studied in the context of SX and how SC is influencing the current direction of SX. Researchers and practitioners have long dealt with supramolecular interactions in SX. Indeed, the use of polar extractant molecules in nonpolar media virtually assures that aggregative interactions will dominate the solution behavior of SX. Analytical chemists working in the 1930s to the 1950s with simple mono- and bidentate chelating ligands as extractants noted that extraction of metal ions obeyed complicated mass-action equilibria involving complex stoichiometries. As chemists and engineers developed processes for nuclear and hydrometallurgical applications in the 1950s and 1960s, the preference for aliphatic diluents only enhanced the complexity and supramolecular nature of extraction chemistry. Use of physical techniques such as light scattering and vapor-pressure measurements together with various spectroscopic methods revealed organic-phase aggregates from well-defined dimers to small aggregates containing a few extractant molecules to large

  17. An Analytic Equation of State Based on SAFT-CP for Binary Non-Polar Alkane Mixtures Across the Critical Point

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周文来; 密建国; 贺刚; 于燕梅; 陈健


    The description using an analytic equation of state of thermodynamic properties near the critical points of fluids and their mixtures remains a challenging problem in the area of chemical engineering. Based on the statistical associating fluid theory across the critical point (SAFT-CP), an analytic equation of state is established in this work for non-polar mixtures. With two binary parameters, this equation of state can be used to calculate not only vapor-liquid equilibria but also critical properties of binary non-polar alkane mixtures with acceptable deviations.

  18. Effect of Concentration on Isomerization of Rhodanine Derivatives of Merocyanine Dyes in Polar Solvents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. P. Dimitriev


    Full Text Available Rhodanine derivatives of merocyanine dyes with residues of 1,3,3-trimethyl-3H-indole and 3-ethylbenzothiazoline have been found to possess two molecular forms in diluted solutions of polar solvents such as dimethylformamide, dimethyl sulfoxide, and N-methylpyrrolidinone. The first molecular form was observed to prevail at low concentrations of the dyes, normally up to 10−5 M. The second one prevails at higher concentrations and is displayed through a new band in the electronic absorption spectrum, which is red-shifted with respect to the absorption band of the first form. No similar effect was found for these dyes by use of nonpolar solvents or upon alkyl-substitution of the molecules at nitrogen atom in the rhodanine moiety. We assign the above two forms to different molecular isomers and the analogous spectral changes were shown to take place by light or heat influence which correspond to a typical isomerization effect for the related merocyanine dyes. It is discussed that the isomer transformation is facilitated by the increased mobility of the proton bonded to the nitrogen atom of the rhodanine moiety in the polar environment and the increased amount of dye-dye collisions.

  19. Modification of glucose oxidase for the development of biocatalytic solvent inks. (United States)

    Talbert, Joey N; He, Fei; Seto, Kayla; Nugen, Sam R; Goddard, Julie M


    Inkjet printing of enzymes onto hydrophobic polymeric material offers the potential for economical rapid deposition and patterning of biocatalysts for biosensor, microarray, and intelligent packaging applications. Non-polar solvent based inks provide simple vehicles for direct printing on these materials; however, enzymes are not readily soluble in such inks. Glucose oxidase (Aspergillus niger) was made soluble in toluene by hydrophobic ion pairing with didodecyldimethylammonium bromide. Following modification, single enzyme composites with a mean diameter of 12.5 nm were formed. The enzymes showed no significant change in K'(m) and a 46% decrease in k'(cat) compared to the native enzyme. Modification allowed for direct printing and patterning on PET using piezoelectric inkjet printing. Specific activity of the modified enzyme was reduced from 889 × 10³ μmol/min/g to 2×10³ μmol/min/g after printing. These results suggest that direct inkjet printing of enzymes onto hydrophobic polymers may be accomplished using enzyme modification as a means to induce solubility in solvent inks.

  20. Antimalarial activity of the bisquinoline trans-N1,N2-bis (7- chloroquinolin-4-yl)cyclohexane-1,2-diamine: Comparison of two stereoisomers and detailed evaluation of the S,S enantiomer, Ro 47-7737

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ridley, R.G.; Matile, H.; Jaquet, C.; Dorn, A.; Hofheinz, W.; Leupin, W.; Masciadri, R.; Theil, F.P.; Richter, W.F.; Girometta, M.A.; Guenzi, A.; Urwyler, H.; Gocke, E.; Potthast, J.M.; Csato, M.; Thomas, A.; Peters, W.


    The S,S enantiomer of the bisquinoline trans-N1,N2-bis(7- chloroquinolin-4-yl)cyclohexane-1,2-diamine, Ro 47-7737, is significantly more potent against chloroquine-resistant Plasmodium falciparum than the R,R enantiomer and the previously described racemate. Both the enantiomers and the racemate are